<%BANNER%>

Spanish-English Bilinguals in Gainesville, Florida: A Cross-Generational Study of the Use of Calques


PAGE 1

SPANISH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS IN GAI NESVILLE, FLORIDA: A CROSSGENERATIONAL STUDY OF THE USE OF CALQUES By DORIAN DORADO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Dorian Dorado

PAGE 3

This document is dedicated to my parents.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I like to thank Dr.Gillian Lord for her patience, dedication, support, encouragement, inspiration, and compassion. She has truly been my graduate school angel and I will always strive to follow her professionalism and passion for life.

PAGE 5

v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................vi ii CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 Lexical Borrowing........................................................................................................4 Calques and Loan Words..............................................................................................5 Previous Research.......................................................................................................11 3 THE PRESENT STUDY............................................................................................20 Research Questions.....................................................................................................20 Participants.................................................................................................................21 Tasks.......................................................................................................................... .22 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................25 Group I........................................................................................................................ 25 Demographics......................................................................................................25 Calques................................................................................................................26 Group II......................................................................................................................2 7 Demographics......................................................................................................27 Calques................................................................................................................29 Group III.....................................................................................................................3 0 Demographics......................................................................................................30 Calques................................................................................................................31 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................33 6 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................39 Limitations and Fu ture Direction................................................................................39

PAGE 6

vi APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT............................................................................................42 B DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE....................................................................43 C WRITTEN TRANSLATION EXERCISE.................................................................44 D QUESTION AND ANSWER ORAL EXERICSE.....................................................46 E QUESTIONS FOR OPEN INTERVIEW...................................................................48 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................49 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................51

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Demographic background for Group I.....................................................................25 2 Number and relative percentage of all calque occurrences for Group I...................26 3 Demographic background for Group II....................................................................28 4 Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group II......................29 5 Demographic background for Group III..................................................................30 6 Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group III.....................31 7 Group results for gender...........................................................................................36 8 Results for nationality..............................................................................................37

PAGE 8

viii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts SPANISH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS IN GAI NESVILLE, FLORIDA: A CROSSGENERATIONAL STUDY OF THE USE OF CALQUES By Dorian Dorado May 2006 Chair: Gillian Lord Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures The first purpose of the present study was to explore the use of calques among three age groups of individuals in Gainesville, Florida. The age groups were divided into three groups. Group I contains six participants who came to the United States as adults in their twenties and have resided in the United States for more than six years. Group II also contains six participants who came to the Un ited States between the ages of eleven and eighteen. Group III contains eight participants, all of whom came to the United States before the age of eleven or were born in the United States. Consequently these participants have lived most if not all, of their lives in the United States. The second purpose, equally as important as the first purpose, was to investigate whether extraliguistic fact ors such as education, economic status, gender, language proficiency (in Spanish and English) and natio nality are correlated with the number of calques produced by Spanish-English bilinguals.

PAGE 9

ix This study analyzed data from a tota l of 20 English-Spanish bilinguals. Participants were between eight een and fifty-five years of ag e, but most were in their early to mid-twenties. All the participants were born in Cuba, Mexico or Puerto Rico or had parents who had been born in those countries All participants resi ded in Gainesville, at the time of the study. To gather the data each participant co mpleted a demographics questionnaire, a 21item written translation exercise, a 16-item oral question/answer exercise and an openended interview. The results showed that age group, profic iency level in Spanish and English, and gender can be correlated with calque produc tion. But, it also showed that education, economic status, and nationality do not appear to have a substantial correlation with the production of calques among the participants.

PAGE 10

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION “Mi padre es seis pies de alto”. “Hoy voy a pedir una aplicacin en Macy’s”. “Recibo grados excelentes en el colegio”. The phrases above are examples containing calques of the type that are commonly heard among Spanish-English bilinguals in regi ons of the United States that have dense populations of Hispanics. In this study we consider Spanish-English bilinguals to be those who have acquired a level of automa tic bilingual proficiency and can communicate in Spanish or English with similar effectiveness. Automatic bilingual proficiency refers to the production of Spanish and/ or English w ithout a preconceived an alysis of either language. Although these bilinguals seem to control the syntactic, semantic or pragmatic structures of Spanish, their language can still be h eavily influenced by lexical interferences such as calques and loan words. This study focuses solely on one-word and phrasal calques. Calquing is usually triggered when the speaker does not know a pa rticular word in th e target language and therefore will refer to anot her language to semi-borrow the unknown term. Once this takes place the speaker effects a literal translation into the target language. The definition of a calque can vary from author to author therefore several dictionary definitions are offered in the present study. The American Heritage College Dictionary states that a calque is “a form of borrowing from one la nguage to another whereby the semantic components of a given term literally are transl ated into their equivalents in the borrowing

PAGE 11

2 language” (795). Another basic de finition is provided in the Student’s Dictionary of Language and Linguistics a calque is defined as a word or phrase c onstructed by using a word or phrase in another language as a model and translat ing it piece by piece. For example, the ancient Greek word 'sympathy' or 'compassion' was sympathia formed from syn 'with' and pathia 'suffering'. The Romans calqued this Greek word into Latin as 'compassion', from con 'with' and passio 'suffering', (Trask, 1997:35). In addition a calque is defined in the Glossary of lingui stic terminology (Pei 1978) as a translation loan word; the translated imitation of a special meaning ('foot' as a unit of measure is a calque, or loan translation, of Latin pes used in that sense)” (37). Another definition is provided by Arlo tto (1972) who indicates th at a calque is based on translating the component parts of a forei gn word into roots native to the borrowing language (189). Two categories of calques are studied in the present study, the phrasal calque and the one-word calque. Silva-Corvaln (1994) de fines a one-word calque as the transferring of the meaning of one word into an alrea dy existing lexical item (171). As the name indicates, one-word calques consist of only a single word, for instance, the word aplicacin takes the meaning of English 'application', when used by bilinguals in place of the standard Spanish solicitud. A second example is grado used as English 'grade' which should be nota in standard Spanish (Silva-Corvaln, 1994). Phrasal calques or multipleword calques also share the same basic de finition offered for the one-word calque, but phrasal calques are composed of more than one word, for example te llamo para atrs used for 'I will call you back', wh ere the standard form should be te llamo despus Another example is escuela alta used for 'high school' instead of escuela superior (Smead 1998).

PAGE 12

3 Although the term “borrowing” is used to re fer to such linguistic processes as loan words and calques, a distinction must be drawn between a loan word and a calque. According to Trask (1997) a better term for borrowing may be “copying” (19). Loan words are words borrowed from another langu age. For example the loan word for the English term “high school” is jaiscul, (Smead, 1998: 113). On the other hand, calques are semi-borrowed; in other words, calques may be considered borrowed words because they are constructed from other languages and th en incorporated into the target language. Calques are not direct borrowings like loan words, because a lite ral translation takes place and is then incorporated. Trask (1997) concurs that calques are constructed from other languages without quite bo rrowing any words directly ( 21). Consequently a calque is constructed by taking a foreign word or phrase as model and translating it. The present study analyzes the use of calque s in the speech of three age groups of Spanish speakers residing in Gainesville, Flor ida. The primary purpose of this research is to explore the impact that extralinguistic factors such as gender, income, education, proficiency level in Spanish, proficiency level in English and nationality have on the production of calques.

PAGE 13

4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The following section provides a brief overv iew of lexical borrowing as well as an explanation of the difference between calque s and loan words. In addition, previous studies are reviewed and their finding s on calque production among bilinguals are discussed in light of the present study. Lexical Borrowing Lexical borrowing is a term used to refer to linguistic processes su ch as loan words, lexical switches and calques. Borrowing is important because it is a way of adding new vocabulary items to a language. Borrowing often occurs when speakers of a language have contact with speakers of other languages. Although definitions differ from author to author, they still share similarities. According to Hoffman (1991), borrowing refers “to borrowed items that can be adapted either phonetically only or both phonetically and morphologi cally” (101). This statement is also supported by Clarkson (1977), who stat ed that with respect to Spanish “phonology and morphology are both influenced by the pr oximity of English, but the area most influenced by English is vocabulary” (C larkson 1977: 965), although obviously lexical borrowing is a common occurrence among bilingu als of any two languages. According to Otheguy and Garca (1993), Whitney (1881) Bloomfield (1933), Haugen (1938) and Hockett (1973), lexical borrowing does not occur because of the speaker’s ethnic pride, educational background or lack of education. Nor does it occur because speakers are expressing their bilingualism or social symbo lism. Instead, researchers claim that lexical

PAGE 14

5 borrowing is employed because it is the onl y way the speakers know how to express themselves. The speakers have been linguistically trained within their culture to speak in that manner. Simply put, lexical borrowing is an indication that th e culture of SpanishEnglish bilinguals has become “Americani zed” (Otheguy 1993: 21). Otheguy and Garca (1993) point out that some scholars, incl uding Casagrande (1954), Turano (1974) and Weinreich (1953) have said that lexical borrowing allows bilinguals to express themselves precisely by adapting their vocabular y to the novel content of a foreign milieu (Otheguy and Garca, 1993: 135). Otheguy and Ga rca explain that “no two societies are the same; there is no absolute way in which they can express the same things or situations in the same manner unless lexical borrowing takes place” (136). Calques and Loan Words In the following pages, a brief description of calques and loan words is presented. Although the present study onl y deals with the use of calques among Spanish-English bilinguals, loan words are discussed as well due to their similarities and due to the fact that many researchers do not di stinguish between the two in th eir works. Authors such as Smead (1998) and Silva-Corvaln (1994) also provide their own definitions of calques and loan words. Smead describes a calque as a transfer of meaning and not form, and a loan word as a transfer of form as well as meaning. In agreement with Smead, SilvaCorvaln (1994, 2002) describes a calque as the transfer of meanings into an already existing lexical item. She describes loan words as the transfer of forms together with their meanings. According to Otheguy and Garca (1993), it is impossible to effectively distinguish between loan words and calques. As a result, these researchers opt for categorizing loan words and calques together as contact neologisms Consequently, their data include loan

PAGE 15

6 words, calques and word-switches1. In analyzing their data, Otheguy and Garca note that “in many cases it was impossible to tell if the speakers were referring to a calque or loan word” (Otheguy and Garca 1993: 139). For example, it was difficult to distinguish whether speakers were using the English “application” as a loanword phonologically adapted into Spanish aplicacin, or whether the Spanish word aplicacin had acquired the meaning of English “application”, thus b ecoming a calque. In such cases, the context of the utterance is fundamental in differen tiating between a loan wo rd and a calque. Montes Giraldo (1985) notes that in order for a calque to take place; there must be a partial similarity in semantics, lexemes and grammatical patterns between the two languages (20). For example, the traditional Eng lish word “collect'” (to gather together objects, results in the calque in Spanish colectar (to gather funds) because of the similarity that exists betw een the English and Spanish forms, (Otheguy, Garca and Fernndez, 1989: 45). It is diffi cult to differentiate between a calque and a word in its traditional form because a similar word may be found in both languages but with different meanings. A typical example would be the word asistencia in Spanish, which means “attendance” in English, but when used in its calque form the meaning changes to “assistance”. Special attention must be paid to the context of the utterance in order to distinguish whether a word is in its calque form or traditiona l form. We can illustrate this with the following example, le escribo letras a mi familia ('I write letters to my family') because of its context we know that the term letras is in its calqued form, the traditional form should be cartas On the other hand, if the term letras is shown in the 1 According to Hammink (2000) word-switches refer to when morphophonological adaptation does not occur, for example Juan tiene los movie tickets' instead of 'Juan has the movie tickets' (Hammink 2000).

PAGE 16

7 following context, hay muchas letras en el alfabeto then we know that letras is presented in its traditional form. Calques can also be further classified, as Smead and Clegg (1996) propose. Their initial typology of calques, like that of Otheguy and Garca (1988), distinguishes between “word calques”, consisting of a single lexical item, and “phrasal calques”, consisting of multiple lexemes (123). Calques can be furthe r divided into “merged” or “independent” categories, according to Othe guy, Garca and Fernndez (1989), who define the former as those in which phonological form s migrate from the influenc ing language. An example is the calque carta (standard form is tarjeta ), as in greeting car d, which is phonologically similar to English “card”. Independent cal ques are different in phonological form from the influencing language, for example the calque estoy quebrada (standard form is estoy en bancarrota ) which is derived from the English id iom “I am broke”. Later, Smead and Clegg (1996) revised their typology in order to separate word calques into “formally convergent” or “formally divergent” subdi visions, based on substitution and importation. “Importation replicates in the host language a particular linguis tic level of the model, and substitution is the accommodation of a specifi c linguistic level of the model to the patterns of the host language which results in the perceptible alteration of that level” (Smead and Clegg 1996: 124). Importation only o ccurs semantically; an example is the calqued expression soy de mente diferente which is derived from the English expression “I am of a different mind” The standard expression in Spanish should be yo tengo ideas / opiniones diferentes Substitution, on the other hand, occurs morphologically and phonologically. An example would be the word actualmente in Spanish, which means

PAGE 17

8 “presently” in English, but when used in its calque form the meaning changes to “actually” or “in reality” Silva-Corvaln (1995), Otheguy, Garca a nd Fernndez (1989) and Giraldo (1985) also saw the need to classify types of calques. First, Silva-Corvaln (1995) delimits four specific types. The first type is single-word cal ques; these include cases in which a meaning is transferred into an alread y existing lexical item. For example, grados “degrees” extends its meaning to incorporate one of the meanings of English “grades” (254). The second type is multiple-word calques that do not alter semantic or grammatical features (255). For instance, the multiple-word mquina de contestar is derived from the English multiple-word “answ ering machine” but in standard Spanish would be contestador automtico Another example is das de semana which is derived from the multiple-word “weekdays” but in standard Spanish would be das de trabajo The third type of calque is multiple-wor d calques of bound collocations, idioms and proverbs, which “are reproduced exactly wi th lexical units from the replica language” (255). To illustrate, cambiar de mente “to change one’s mind” is used instead of cambiar de ideas / opiniones. Lexico-syntactic calques are the last type; these are calques that alter semantic or grammatical features of the replica language (257). For instance, the following expression, mi padre es 6 pies (de altura) “my father is 6 feet tall” is used instead of the standard expression, mi padre mide 6 pies (de altura) (257) This is a lexico-syntactic calque because the verb medir “to measure” is replaced by ser “to be”. Then there is Otheguy, Garca and Ferna ndez’ (1989) distinc tion between three types of calques: similar-sense versus diffe rent-sense, merged-form versus independentform, and duplicating versus innovating-message Similar-sense calques are similar to an

PAGE 18

9 already existing sense of the host word, for example colectar “to gather funds” versus the English word “to collect” which means “to gather together objects” (45). The English meaning has transferred to the Spanish wor d. Different-sense calque s are derived from host words with senses that are different. As an example, in quiero jugar la guitarra jugar reflects the English word “play”. While it is standard to say in English, “I play the guitar” when “play” is literally translated into Spanish using jugar rather than tocar this is considered a different-sense calque Merged-form calques are those in which phonological forms migrate from the influencing language. For instance, ruta versus “root” (of a tree) instead of the standard form raz. Independent-form calques are different in phonological form from th e influencing language, for example jugar versus “to play” (45). The third type distinctio n is between duplicating ve rsus innovating-message calques. Duplicating calques are “strictly based on cognitive-referential grounds, for example colectar cartas where the newly introduced sense of colectar contributes to conveying a message that is almost identical to the existing message by coleccionar postales (46). On the other hand, an innovating cal que introduces a new sense or term motivated by the need to communicate in Sp anish notions that ar e nonexistent in that language (46). An example of an innovating calque word is el Da de dar las Gracias ; because this holiday is not present in Latin America or Spain, immigrants have had to introduce a new expression to express “Tha nksgiving Day” in Spanish. Although these distinctions are necessary in order to understand the main basis of Otheguy, Garca and Fernndez’ study, for the presen t study this distinction will not be further discussed.

PAGE 19

10 Finally Giraldo (1985) furt her categorizes calques as grammatical calques, translation calques, semantic calques, and idiomatic calques (Montes Giraldo 1985: 48). Grammatical calques can either be s yntactic or morphological, for example esperar por is used instead of the standard expression esperar a “to wait for” or disturbar instead of the standard form molestar “to bother” On the other hand, translation calques are those that maintain the same meaning from the host language, for example, mercado negro “black market” and prensa amarilla “yellow press” Although the above are in their calqued form, they are still widely accepted as the standard form. An example of semantic calques would be the word casual for the English word “casual” instead of the appropriate traditional forms, espontneo, informal or no planeado Finally, the last division comprises calques that are referred to as idiomatic, for example, olvdalo instead of the expected expression no te preocupes or despreocpate “do not worry” It appears that some calqued expressions in Latin America have become so popularized that their standard form is ra pidly disappearing. The present study does not categorize loan words and calque words into any particular group because the purpose here is to identify the extrali nguistic factors that impact the production of calques alone. Ther efore, the focus is on the presence and quantity of overall calque production among th e participants, regard less of the specific linguistic elements of each. The current res earch follows Silva-Corvaln’s (1995) general definition of a calque because of its relative cl arity: a calque as th e transfer of meaning into an already existing lexical item.

PAGE 20

11 Previous Research In this section, previous work investiga ting the production of ca lques is reviewed. Although these studies vary in methodology and fo cus, they are of interest here because they can inform the design and findings in the present study. The first study is Silva-Co rvaln (1994), which analyzes three generational groups of Mexicans or Mexican desce ndants residing in Los Angeles, California. She divided each group according to the length of time that the speakers’ families had lived in the United States, as follows: Group I particip ants (N=4) were born in Mexico, but immigrated to the United States after age el even; Group II participants (N=2) were born in the United States or who had moved to th is country before the age of six; and Group III participants (N=13) were born in the Un ited States, and also had a parent who had moved to the United States before the age of six or who was born in the United States. She wanted to ensure that each participant had a certain level of bilingualism, so she included only individuals who had resided in the United States for at least five years. According to Silva-Corvaln the minimal time required for the development of some degree of bilingualism is five years (13). Illustration I Group I Group II Group III Born in Mexico but immigrated to the U.S. after the age of eleven. Born in the U.S. or moved to U.S. before the age of six. Born in the U.S. and also had a parent who moved to U.S. before age six or was born here Silva-Corvaln’s data included one-hour samples of oral speech from each of the participants. Her main focus was on calque s of bound collocations (idioms), which are reproduced exactly with lexi cal units from the replica language. For example, the standard expression estoy en bancarrota “I’m broke” is replaced by estoy quebrado/a which literally means “I am broke” (256). She also studied le xico-syntactic calques,

PAGE 21

12 which are multiple-word calques that alter semantic and /or grammatical features of the replica language, such as te llamo para atrs “I will call you back”, instead of the traditional form, te llamo despus or al rato (257) Her results revealed that Mexicans in Los Angele s do not commonly incorporate calques into their speech. For example, only one participant in Group I used calques, providing only two in total. On the other ha nd, group II incorporated cal ques at a rate of 0.0 to 2.9 cases per ten minutes of conversat ion. The number of calques increases in group III, which produced 0.6 to 2.1 calques pe r ten minutes of conversation. Her results show that calques (both bound-collocations a nd lexico-syntactic ca lques) are not common in the speech of the pa rticipants, regardless of generational groups. Given that Silva-Corvaln only considered the division of generations in her study, I opted to further her analysis by looking at a rang e of variables such as gender, income, education, proficiency level in English and Spanish, and nationa lity in the pr esent study. The purpose of such an analysis is to determin e the impact that such variables have in the occurrence rate of calques across each generation. Silva-Corvaln’s calque study is informa tive; however, a possible weakness seems to be the number of partic ipants in each group. The di fference in the numbers of participants from group to group may have resu lted in an imbalance in the data. Perhaps the results would have been mo re reliable if her experiment had had an equal number of participants in each group. This weakness has been corrected in the present study. Another study of importance is Otheguy, Ga rca & Fernndez’ (1989), attempt to determine the rate of loan words, calques and switching among two generational groups. Their study is based on a corpus of 13,000 words, derived from twelve interviews with 12

PAGE 22

13 participants belonging to two generations of Cuban Ameri cans. All participants who took part in their study resided in the New York /New Jersey area. The first generation group included six participants that we re born in Cuba and were al l well into their adult years. The second generation group included six par ticipants that were born in the United States, and between the ages of fifteen and twenty. The results of the Otheguy, Garca and Fe rnndez study verify that the Cuban-born participants used fewer calques, loanword s and switching in their speech than the participants who were born in the United States. Although occurrences of lexical interference did occur in both groups, thei r numbers were not significant. Both generations together produced less than 1% in loan words and calques, while the percentage for switching was s lightly higher, at 2.5%. Noneth eless, these percentages are still quite small. The researchers also show th e increase that occurs from the first to the second generation, expressed in percentage po ints, (Otheguy, Garca, Fernndez, 1989: 49). They found significantly higher rates for those born in the United States than those born in Cuba. Loanwords had a 0.2 percentage point increase between generations and switching had a 3.4 percentage point increase between generations. On the other hand, calques had a 1.5 percentage point increase between generations. “This suggests that what most distinguishes the sp eech of the second generation from that of the first is calques and what distinguishes it the least is loanwords”, (Otheguy, Garca, Fernndez, 1989: 49), It has been stated in previous studie s that calquing can only occur when the individual is considered equally proficie nt in both languages (e.g., Sewell 2001 & SilvaCorvaln 1994), but seems to contradict th e conclusions in this study. Otheguy, Garca

PAGE 23

14 and Fernndez agree that the use of calquing indicates proficiency in both languages, and that calquing marks stable bilingualism among bilinguals, but only in certain situations. Consequently, they consider their results to be inconclusive because some types of calques that were produced indi cate that there is bilingual stability while other types represent language shift. For example, only 5% of the calques were innovative and all of those were all produced by the participants that were born in Cuba. For the most part, the second generation used duplicating calques more often, indicating that they use calques that displace existing, traditional Spanish message formulas (49). In other words, the type of calquing that second generation participants include in their speech indicates that they may be losing knowledge of the Spanish lexica l system. On the other hand, some types of calques indicate that bilingualism in the United States is stable. Similar-sense calquing occurred 90% of the time, while different -sense calquing took place only 10% of the time. Because similar-sense calques are less ra dical, they indicate stability in bilingualism among Spanish-English bilinguals in the United States. A later study by Otheguy and Garca (1993) is also relevant to the present discussion. In this study, no distinction is made between loan words, switches or calques. Instead, the researchers place the three types of lexical borrowing in one category called contact neologisms Otheguy and Garca investigate if the production of neologisms increases or decreases according to cultura l context, and base their findings on two rounds of interviews. In the first interview, th e participants answered questions as if they were in Latin America. When the same subj ects returned two months later for a second interview, they answered questions as if th ey were in the United States. One of the drawbacks in this methodology is that the partic ipants had to pretend that they were in

PAGE 24

15 Latin America during the interview, although th ey never left New York City, where both of the interviews were conducted. Nevertheless the results of the study showed that the rate of contact neologisms increased in the s econd set of interviews, when the participants imagined that they were in New York Cit y. The two variables analyzed are the total number of words produced and the number of contact neologisms found (within those words). The outcome of Otheguy and Garcia's analys is indicates that cultural context does have an impact on the use of lexical borrowing, but the variety of topics discussed in the interview did not. The researchers also examin ed extralinguistic fact ors such as gender, level of education, nationality and age, and determined that these were not good predictors in the produc tion of neologisms. As they conc lude, “the only good predictor is whether the topic is being placed in one cu ltural context or the other” (Otheguy and Garca 1993: 150). The present study also analy zes extralinguistic factors such as gender, level of education, and ethnic ity, but in contrast to Othe guy and Garca’s study, context will not be examined. Exploring the same fact ors as the above researchers will allow us to support or disprove their claim that thes e factors have no impact on the production of calques. In summary, their study provides im portant data on lexical interferences among bilinguals. The results prove that contact neologisms are in fact a phenomenon that occurs among Spanish-English bilinguals. The re sults obtained by Othe guy and Garca were partially contradicted by M ontes Giraldo (1985). For hi s study, he uses a calque definition similar to that of Silva-Corvaln (1994, 2002),

PAGE 25

16 Montes Giraldo’s data were culled fro m Colombian newspapers, magazines and novels. He presents specific excerpts from text s that contain words in their calque form instead of their traditional form. To illustrate, he found the word asumir in all 27 excerpts but used in its calque sense “to assume” instead of its traditional sense “to receive” or “to assimilate”. He concluded th at calques in these written texts occurred more frequently than Otheguy and Garca (1993) had reported when participants imagined themselves to be in a Latin-Ameri can country. A plausible explanation for this difference is the difference in methodology be tween the studies. Montes Giraldo’s data was elicited in a single country and did not incorporate hypothetical data. Garca, Fishman, Gertner and Burunat’s (1985) work also provides a calque analysis of written Spanish. Their study analyzes newspapers from three major parts of the United States as well as three Latin Amer ican countries. Their sample consisted of five 1980 issues each of La opinin (Los Angeles), Diario Las Americas (Miami), Diario La Prensa (New York), Excelsior (Mexico), Gramma (Cuba), and El Mundo (Puerto Rico). Only columns signed by local individu als and classified ads were analyzed in each newspaper. Although they analyzed a variet y of variables, their interest in English influence (ie. calques and loan words) is rele vant here. Although the results showed that calques are present in written documents in the United States as well as in Spanish speaking countries, the presence of loan word s is more prevalent th an the presence of calques in the United States as well as in Spanish speaking count ries. In the United States, .99% of the samples consisted of loan words, while .37% were calques; in the written texts from Spanish-speaking countries, .69% of the text consisted of loan words, and only .12% were calques. The authors c onclude that “although th ere are more loan

PAGE 26

17 words than calques in both the United States and Spanish speaking countries, calques are more diffused in the United States context than in the Spanish speaking context” (Garca, Fishman, Gertner & Burunat 1985: 90). Noneth eless, it is necessary to point out the infrequency of these borrowings in their data Neither loan words nor calques accounted for even 1% of the texts. Another significant study of calques was car ried out by Sewell (2001), in which she suggests that the frequency of calques might de pend on whether one is translating from or into his/ her dominant language. She include d 26 participants who spoke both English and French, divided into five groups accord ing to their language background. The first group consisted of 19 speakers whose native language was E nglish but had resided in France for a considerable time. The second gr oup consisted of 3 speakers whose first language was French and had resided in th e UK for many years. The third group had 2 Anglophone African individuals who were educ ated in English, although English was not their native language. Finally, the fourth and fifth groups consisted of 1 individual each, one, whose native language was German, (who al so spoke French) and the other who was of Mauritian of Cantonese origin, who wa s mainly educated in French. Each group provided a written translation of two texts, wi thout benefit of a dictionary. The English text consisted of a short excerpt from an article that appear ed in an English newspaper, and the French text was a passage from Albert Camus’ 1957 short story, La Femme adultre Sewell analyzed calque production in Fren ch and in English as they related to the participants’ test. She found that the number of calques was greater when the translation was from French into English (tot al of 132 calques) than English into French (total of 26 calques) for all pa rticipants. Sewell’s results also demonstrated that the

PAGE 27

18 subjects who were proficient in both languages as shown on the test produced a higher number of calques than those who were not equally proficient in both French and English. To summarize, Sewell proved that calque production is higher when one is translating from his/ her dominant language into a second language. Lastly, a small scale study car ried out by Dorado (2002) is also relevant to this review, as its main goal was to investigate whether generational background impacts the number of calques produced by Spanish-Englis h bilinguals. This study also served as a pilot study for the project described here. Th e data was obtained from three generational groups of bilinguals in North Central Florida: Group I incl uded participants who came to the United States as adults, approximately in their early twenties; Group II included participants who came to the United States be tween the ages eleven to nineteen and who had lived in this country between one and ten years; and Group III was composed of people who came to the United States before th eir eleventh birthday and had lived in the United States most of their lives. Dorado’s (2002) data consis ted of responses to a tw enty-one question written translation exercise, as well as a sixteen-quest ion oral interview, each of which contained phrases that were expected to prompt partic ipants to use calques in their replies. The results indicate that calquing does occur am ong bilinguals in this region although written and oral modes resulted in diffe rent calquing rates. Overall, th e written exercise showed a higher percentage of calques than the oral exercise for all groups. Group I produced a rate of 30% of calques in the written exercise a nd a rate of 12% in the oral exercise, while Group II, produced 47% of calques in the wri tten exercise versus 2.3% in the oral exercise. Group III had a 38% calque rate in th e written exercise a nd a 15% in the oral

PAGE 28

19 exercise. These results are important because they support various studies that have also indicated that individuals who immigrated to the U.S. after the age of 11 tend to produce more calques than other generations. Additiona lly, this study went further, by comparing oral and written communication and determining that there is in fact a difference in terms of effect on calque production. One problem with the studies presented above is that they do not target calques alone but rather examine all kinds of borrowi ng. Therefore, in or der to understand the nature of calques specifically, th e present only looks at calque s, in terms of the variables such as level of proficiency in Spanish a nd English, nationality, gender, education and economic status that may have an impact on th e production. This study is an extension of Dorado (2002) in terms of focus and met hodology. The findings discussed above sparked the current interest in furthering this line of research, although several changes were needed to obtain more conclusive findings, as will be described below.

PAGE 29

20 CHAPTER 3 THE PRESENT STUDY The primary purpose of this study, as has been stated above, is to explore the use of calques among three age groups of individuals in Gainesville, Florida, and to investigate whether extralinguistic factor s such as education, econom ic status, gender, language proficiency (in Spanish and English), and natio nality are correlated with the number of calques produced by Spanish-English bilinguals. It is hoped that the narrow focus of this study will shed light on just how common calqui ng is, as well as on the factors that condition it. Research Questions In light of the above information on bilingual calquing, the following research questions motivated the present study: 1. Are there significant differences in the frequency of calques among the three age groups? 2. What is the relationship between an indivi dual’s proficiency levels in Spanish and English and his/ he r rate of calquing? 3. How do the independent variables of edu cational background, income, nationality and gender impact the number of calques individuals produced? According to the studies discussed pr eviously, (Garca, Fishman, Gertner, & Burunat 1985; Montes 1985; Otheguy & Ga rca 1993; Otheguy, Garca, & Fernndez 1989; and Silva-Corvaln 1994) calquing is not as prevalent as other types of lexical interferences. By isolating this relatively in frequent lexical interference, it is hoped that we can gain greater insight into the importan ce of the factors mentioned in the research

PAGE 30

21 questions. It is hypothesized that most of the calquing will occur among those individuals who were born in or came to the United States before the age of eleven; since this is the group that has had the most simultaneous c ontact with both Spanish and English, they have had the opportunity develop both profic iencies equally and to function in both. Conversely, we may hypothesize that less cal quing will occur among the older generation that came to the United States as adults, due to the fact that they most likely will lack proficiency in English. Participants This study analyzes data from a total of 20 English-Spanish bilinguals. Participants were between eighteen and fifty-five years of age, but most were in their early to midtwenties. All the participants were either bor n in Cuba, Mexico or Puerto Rico or had parents who had been born in those countries, an d all participants currently live in Gainesville, Florida. These three countries of origin were chose because their populations represent the greatest Hispanic populations in the Un ited States. In Florida, Cuban immigrants are the most prevalent particular ly in the Miami area. The Puerto Ricans population is the second highest among Hispanic s in Florida, especially in cities like Tampa and Orlando. Mexicans, on the other ha nd, are relatively scarce in Florida, although many Mexicans travel to Gainesville to work in construction and many decide to stay. The categorization of participants into three groups was carried out following Silva-Corvaln’s (1994) criter ia. Group I contains six participants who came to the United States from Puerto Rico, Mexico or Cuba as adults in th eir twenties and have resided in the United States for more than six years. This six year cut-off was chosen in accordance with Silva-Corvaln’s proposal that it takes five years for a person to develop

PAGE 31

22 a level of bilingualism. Group II also contains six participants, although these came to the United States between the ages of eleven and ei ghteen. In this case, eleven was chosen as the cut-off age because it is considered by many to be the critical age by which the structures of one’s native language are fi rmly acquired (Silva-Corvaln, 1994: 15). The members of this group have lived in this country between one and ten years. Finally, Group III contains eight participants, all of whom came to the United States before the age of eleven or were born in the United States. Consequently these participants have lived most, if not all, of thei r lives in the United States. Some of the participants belonged to Hisp anic organizations on the University of Florida campus and were recruited to part icipate through those organizations. This method of finding participants, however, had a drawback, because only college students, were found in these meetings. The rest of the participants, representing a more diverse group, were found at shopping centers, gyms, restaurants and grocery stores in Gainesville, Florida. Participants who agreed to participate in the study were asked to sign a consent form, complete a demographics questionnaire and take part in a written translation exercise, a question/answer sess ion with the researcher, and an open-ended interview. These tasks are discussed in greater detail in the following section. Tasks Each participant completed a demogra phics questionnaire that included 17 questions about their background such as ge nder, age, place of birth, educational background, economic status, proficiency level in Spanish and English, etc. The complete survey is provided in Appendix B. Independe nt evaluations of pr oficiency levels in Spanish and English were not made. While se lf-reporting has been shown to have some

PAGE 32

23 discrepancies, the information provided by part icipants is valuable because it offers an insight into how the participant views his/her own language skills. The participants then completed a 21-item written translation exercise, a 16item oral question/answer exercise, and an open-e nded interview. The exercises and questions for the open interview are included in Appe ndices C, D and E respectively. The items included in the written transl ation and question/answer exercises were specifically intended to prompt participants to use calques, in that all the items contained words that are commonly calqued among Spanish-English bilinguals. For example, the written translation exercise contained such phrases, as “I get excellent grades” The participants were expected to provide either the standard answer Yo tengo buenas notas or the hypothesized calqued answer Yo tengo buenos grados The calque triggers included in the written translation exerci se and question/answer oral exercise were modeled after those used by Silva-Corvaln (1994). In al l tasks, participants were asked to use only Spanish. Participants were given 30 minutes to complete the written translation exercise. Participants were not allowed to discuss their answers with the researcher during administration. In the oral question/answer exercise, pa rticipants were required to be more spontaneous in their replies. The questions were asked in English by the researcher, and participants were told to answer in comp lete sentences in Spanish. An example of a question in this exercise, also intended to trigger a calque, is: “Do you love your car?” The expected calqued answer would be, S, amo mi carro “Yes, I love my car”, while the standard answer would be S me encanta mi carro “Yes, I love my car”

PAGE 33

24 Lastly, a 2-3 minute open interview was c onducted with each pa rticipant, dealing with a variety of topics such as the partic ipant’s high school experi ence or dreams and goals for the future, etc. Only the results of the written and oral question/answer exercise are presented in the following sections. Th e open ended interview did not result in any calque production in any of the groups, and theref ore it will not be further discussed here. The results presented the number of calque s produced by each participant. A calque percentage rate was then computed by dividing the number of calques by the total number of words produced and then multiplying by 100.

PAGE 34

25 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS For clarity, results are presented by group. In the discussion section all data are analyzed as a whole. Group I Demographics As stated above, this group consists of those who came to the United States as adults, in their twen ties. Table 1 provides a summary of the group characteristics. Table 1: Demographic background for Group I Nationality Gender A g e Education Income Arrival age in the U.S. Proficiency Level in Spanish Proficiency Level in English Participant I-1 Cuba F 3 9 BA $25$30,000 27 Excellent Good Participant I-2 Cuba M 6 4 MA $60,000more 20 Excellent Excellent Participant I-3 Mexico F 3 8 High School $25$30,000 25 Good Good Participant I-4 Mexico M 3 3 High School $25$30,000 27 Excellent Poor Participant I-5 Puerto Rico F 4 4 MA $40$55,000 28 Excellent Good Participant I-6 Puerto Rico F 5 3 PhD $40$55,000 35 Excellent Excellent This table shows information regarding eight variables that were taken into consideration in the analysis. As can be seen, the ages am ong these participants varied from 33-64. There were 4 females and 2 males. Their place of birth varied, with 2 participants from Puerto Rico, 2 from Cuba and 2 from Mexico. The number of years that the participants have lived in this coun try range from 6 to 44. Two out of the six

PAGE 35

26 participants have completed or are in the process of completing a Master’s degree, and one of the six participants has a Doctorate degr ee. All participants consider Spanish to be their dominant language. In addition, all the pa rticipants reported in their demographics questionnaire that they had Spanish-speaking friends and almost always spoke Spanish to them. All but one of the partic ipants reported that they ha ve excellent proficiency in Spanish, and three of the six claimed to have a good proficiency le vel in English. Only one of them believed that his proficiency le vel in English was poor. Also, worth noting is the considerable variatio n in annual income: three participants earned $25,000-$30,000, two participants earned $40,000-$55,000 and one of them earned more than $60,000. Calques Table 2 shows the percentages of cal ques produced by each individual in the written and oral exercises. Recall that only prompted data is discussed here; in other words, the data included were obtained only from the oral question/answer exercise and the written translati on exercise only. Table 2 Number and relative percentage of all calque occurrences for Group I Written calques Oral calques Number Percentages Number Percentages Participant I-1/ Cuban 5/11 45% 5/15 33% Participant I-2/ Cuban 2/11 18% 0/13 0% Participant I-3/ Mexican 6/13 46% 8/16 50% Participant I-4/ Mexican 1/10 1% 0/11 0% Participant I-5/ Puerto Rican 3/11 27% 2/15 13% Participant I-6/ Puerto Rican 4/10 40% 3/15 20% Total 21/66 32% 18/85 21% Most of the participants did not fully complete either exercise due to time constraints. Many were only able to sacrifice 20-30 mi nutes for the process. Although this

PAGE 36

27 resulted in somewhat inconsistent participati on, all data were considered valuable and are considered in the analysis. The second column in Table 2 presents th e number of calques that each participant employed in their writing, taken from the total number of translations that participants completed. It is clear here that most particip ants finished only about half of 21 items. As a result, the number of possible calques was reduced from 126 (21 items X 6 participants) to 66. In order to compare these raw nu mbers, the next column converts each participant’s production to a percentage (num ber of items containing calques divided by the number of items completed, then multiplied by 100). The resulting percentage can be considered the participants’ rate of calque production in the experimental tasks. Group I as a whole produced a total of 21 calques out of 66 possibilities in the written exercise, a rate of 32% calquing. The results for the oral question/answer exercise were also impacted by the number of exercises each participant was able to complete. These numbers are presented in the fourth and fifth columns of Table 2, as raw numbers and percentages, respectively. In this exercise, Group I produced a total of 18 calques out of 85 possible chances, for a rate of 21%. We will see below that this was the sm allest percentage of calque use of all three groups. Group II Demographics Participants in Group II include those who came to the United States after the age of eleven but before the ag e of eighteen. Table 3 presents the relevant demographic information for the participants in

PAGE 37

28 Table 3: Demographic background for Group II Nationality Gender Age Education Income Arrival age in the U.S. Proficiency Level in Spanish Proficiency Level in English Participant II-1 Cuba F 22 BA $1020,000 14 Excellent Good Participant II-2 Cuba M 22 BA $150200,000 13 Excellent Excellent Participant II-3 Mexico M 19 BA $1020,000 17 Excellent Poor Participant II-4 Mexico M 21 BA $4055,000 12 Excellent Good Participant II-5 Puerto Rico F 19 High school $1020,000 11 Good Good Participant II-6 Puerto Rico M 35 BA $1020,000 18 Good Good There were two females and four males in Group II. Five of the participants were younger than twenty-two years old, while the sixth was in his 30s. The ethnic breakdown was the same as Group I, with 2 Cubans, 2 Mexicans and 2 Puerto Ricans. All but one participant were in the process of obtaini ng their Bachelor’s degr ee at the time of the experiment. All but one participant cons idered Spanish to be their dominant language. This is interesting because according Silva-Corval n (2001), these age groups usually adopt linguistic elements around them rapidly in order to seek the acceptance of the homogenous predominant group (102). In th is case, though the young participants have kept close contact with their first language, despite having resided in the United States for several years. Four of the six participants rated their proficiency level in Spanish as excellent, while the other two evaluated thei r Spanish as good. On the other hand, only one person thought that his proficiency level in English was excellent, one rated it as poor and the rest of the participants said that they had a good leve l of proficiency in English.

PAGE 38

29 Most of the people in Group II earned between $10,000 to $20,000 per year, and one was in the $40,000-$55,000 range. This relatively low income bracket may be at least partially explained by the fact th at five of the six participan ts were still students. The other participant earned a year ly salary between $150,000 and $200,000. Calques Table 4 presents the occurrences of calques in the written and oral responses of the participants in Group II. Table 4: Number and relative percenta ge of calque occurrences for Group II Written calques Oral calques Number Percentage Number Percentage Participant II-1/ Cuban 14/21 67% 3/14 21% Participant II2/ Cuban 5/11 45% 4/15 27% Participant II-3/ Mexican 5/11 45% 3/13 23% Participant II-4/ Mexican 6/11 55% 5/14 36% Participant II-5/ Puerto Rican 7/12 58% 5/15 33% Participant II-6/ Puerto Rican 4/10 40% 4/15 27% Total 41/76 54% 24/86 28% As with the first group’s findings, the second column illustrates the number of calques that each participant used in his/ her writing, out of the total number of translations that each participant completed. Th e total percentage of calques in the written exercise was a rate of 54%. The fourth column of table 4 presents the results for the oral question/answer exercise. The group as a whol e only produced a rate of 28% calques in the question/answer exercise

PAGE 39

30 Group III Demographics This group includes people who were born in the United States or moved here before the age of 11. Table 5 presents the relevant demographic information for the participants in this group. Table 5: Demographic background for Group III Ethnicity Gender Age Education Income Arrival age in the USA Proficiency Level in Spanish Proficiency Level in English Participant III-1 Cuba M 19 BA $1020,000 1 Excellent Excellent Participant III-2 Cuba F 21 BA $1020,000 Born Good Excellent Participant III-3 Cuba F 19 BA No income Born Good Excellent Participant III-4 Mexico F 19 BA $2530,000 Born Excellent Excellent Participant III-5 Mexico F 19 BA No income 4 Good Excellent Participant III-6 Mexico M 21 High School $1020,000 8 Excellent Excellent Participant III-7 Puerto Rico M 21 BA $1020,000 Born Good Excellent Participant III-8 Puerto Rico M 21 BA No income 10 Good Good This group had a relatively young average ag e, ranging from 19 to 21. There were 3 Cubans, 3 Mexicans and 2 Puerto Ricans. In co ntrast to Groups I and II, which only had participants that were born in other countri es, Group III had four participants born in the United States. There were 4 females and 4 males. The level of education for this group was as high as in Group II. All participants except one were in the process of finishing their bachelor’s degree. Their overall income was rather low, ranging between $10,000 a nd $20,000 per year although again this may be explained by their student status. One person had a yearly salary of $25,000 to $30,000, while two had no yearly income.

PAGE 40

31 The participants in this group differed from those of the first and second groups in that all but 2 considered their dominant language to be English. Of the other 2 participants, one said Spanish was his domin ant language, and the other said that he considered himself equally dominant in both English and Spanish. Most of the participants in this group said that their le vel of proficiency in English was excellent, while one subject indicated th at his proficiency level in English was good. On the other hand, three stated that their pr oficiency level in Spanish was excellent and five classified it as good. All of them commented that Spanish was as important to them as English because they use both languages to comm unicate with their family members. Calques Table 6 presents the number of occurrences in both the written and oral exercises among Group III. The final percentage was cal culated from a total number of 152 calques possible (all the possible occurren ces of calques within the written exercise). Note that in this group most participants were able to complete both tasks. Table 6. Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group III Written calques Oral calques Number Percentage Number Percentage Participant III-1/ Cuban 5/21 24% 4/15 27% Participant III-2/ Cuban 11/21 52% 7/15 47% Participant III-3/ Cuban 8/21 38% 2/15 13% Participant III-4/ Mexican 7/ 21 33% 1/16 .08% Participant III-5/ Mexican 4/13 31% 3/14 21% Participant III-6/ Mexican 5/13 38% 4/15 27% Participant III-7/ Puerto Rican 10/21 48% 7/16 44% Participant III-8/ Puerto Rican 3/21 14% 2/16 12% Total 58/152 38% 33/118 28%

PAGE 41

32 Group III produced calques in 38% of the written exercise and in 28% of the oral exercise. This pattern is similar to that of Group I. There was a slight difference between the oral results and the written results for Gr oup III. The percentage of oral calques that the participants produced was only 28%, compared to 38% for the written exercise.

PAGE 42

33 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The following section reviews these findings as a whole in an attempt to answer the research questions that motivated the study. The first issue discu ssed is if there are significant differences in the frequenc y of calques among the three age groups. According to the results, Gr oup II calqued the most, while Group I calqued the least. The high incidence of calquing in Group II might be explained by the fact that it was composed of individuals that came to the United States between the ages of eleven and eighteen. Because they came after the age of el even, it is possible that they have not fully acquired the structures of English. Note that this does not mean that Group II’s proficiency level in English is poor, only that it is lower than their level of Spanish. These results contradict Silva-Corvaln’s (1994) study, in which she found that participants that came to the U.S. after the age of eleven cal qued the least. It might be argued that the difference between results in the two studies could be due to the methodology employed by each researcher. For instance, Silva-Corv aln (1994) only analyzed data from openended interviews, while the present study analyzed prompted data in a written and an oral exercise, which could lead to greater calqui ng than natural or s pontaneous conversation. In contrast to Group II, Group I produced th e least calques in both exercises. Their low numbers may be due to their late acqui sition of English, an outcome which is supported by Silva-Corvaln’s (1994). The cu rrent results also agree with those of Otheguy, Garca and Fernndez (1989), who sp ecified that the first generation (people born in Cuba) calqued less than those of the second generation (people of Cuban descent

PAGE 43

34 born in the United States). Therefore, thes e results show that generational background does have an impact on the use of calques. The second question that will be discussed is the nature of the relationship between an individual’s proficiency level in Spanis h and English and his/ her rate of calquing. Recall that Otheguy & Garca (1993) affirmed that calquing has no correlation with any linguistic factors, ascribing it rather to the fact that no two culture s are identical, making calquing necessary for effective communication to take place between speakers (136). In the present study, level of proficiency in ei ther language was shown to be a possible explanation for the level of calque production only in certain individuals. For instance, participant I-4 regarded himself as having a poor level of proficiency in English and an excellent level of proficiency in Spanish. He produced the least cal quing: only 1% of his written answers contained calques, and he produced none in the question/answer exercise. This may confirm previous affirmations that in order for calquing to take place, the proficiency level in both English and Span ish has to be consider ed good to excellent. For example, participant I-3 produced the mo st calquing in Group I, a rate of 46% of calques in the written translation exercise a nd 50% in the question/an swer exercise. This participant reported good prof iciency in both English and Spanish. Another participant who showed a high percentage of calquing in comparison to the other participants was III-7, who had a calquing rate of 48% in the written transla tion exercise and 44% in the question/answer exercise. He considered hims elf to have good proficiency in Spanish and excellent level in English. These results are supported by Silva-Corvaln (1994), where she indicates that more proficient speakers are able to display li nguistic creativity and thus are able to incorporate calques into their speech (183). This evidence would lead us

PAGE 44

35 to conclude that a person who is prof icient in both languages will have a higher production of calques than an individual who is not proficient in one of the languages, although in the current data we can only ba se this conclusion on the data of some individuals. The third research questi on asked how dependent vari ables such as education, economic status, nationality and gender might impact the number of calques individuals produced. Each group had individuals who calqu ed more than others and it is these differences we can examine to determine if cer tain factors correlate to calque use. We turn first to education. Education does not seem to influence the production of calques among the participants. The rates were similar across a ll levels of education. For example, those participants that only had a high school diploma produced a ra te of 40% of calques, those with a Bachelor of Arts’ degree had a rate of 41%, and those with a Doctorate degree had a rate of 40% in calque produc tion. The only participants that showed a slight difference from the numbers above are those with a Mast er’s degree, with a rate of 23%. The only plausible explanation may be one that has nothing to do with e ducation: although both participants work and live in the U.S, thes e two reported that they go back to their countries for 3 to 4 months at a time. This means that because they get the opportunity to spend a considerable amount of time in their native country, they ar e able to maintain direct contact with Spanish and therefore maintain their native-like language skills. Another variable that was examined is econom ic status. Recall that this variable has not been treated extensively in previous work, so it is of especial interest here. However, the results for economic status appear to be inconclusive because there are contradictions

PAGE 45

36 among the data. For example, participan t II-2, whose yearly income of $150,000$200,000 was among the highest produced one of the highest rates of calques among all participants, while participant III-8, who had no income, produced one of the lowest rates of calques among all three groups. Many other participants who had high incomes also produced high numbers of calques, while a numbe r of low-income participants produced small numbers of calques and vice versa. Thes e rates may lead us to believe high income correlates to high calque use, but the data are not uniformly c onclusive. Participants such as I-2 belong in the high income bracket ( $60,000 or more) but produced the smallest rate of calquing among all three groups, while partic ipant II-1 belongs in the low income bracket, ($10,000-20,000) but produced the highes t rate of calques in all the groups. Based on these results, we can not determin e conclusively the correlation between economic status and the production of calques among Spanish-English bilinguals, although this area indeed merits further attention. The third variable analyzed is gender. Th ere were slight differences between males and females in the number of calques produced in all groups. Women produced a slightly higher number of calques than their male coun terparts, generally speaking. For example, in Group II males produced a rate of 47% calqu es, while the females produced a rate of 64%. In Group I, the women were also the higher producers of cal ques, with an even higher differential: the females had a rate of 40% of calques while the males had a rate of 14%. In Group III the women produced a rate of 40% calques, with males at 30%. Table 7 Group results for gender Gender Group I Group II Group III Males 14% 47% 30% Females 40% 64% 40%

PAGE 46

37 Although these differences are larg e, it can still be theorized that gender may have some impact on the production of calques. It is important to note that according to SilvaCorvaln (2001), women are not usually init iators of new linguistic variables (98). Women are often categorized as speaking conservatively and maintaining standard grammatical, semantic and lexical variable s. Women have been known to embrace new linguistic variables only when they have no negative connotations within the community (Silva-Corvaln 2001: 98). This is interesting in the light of these results since a certain amount of stigma is associated with lexical interferences such as calques (Clarkson 1977: 965), and yet we still see the fema les are producing more calques. Table 8 Results for nationality Cubans 43% Mexicans 39% Puerto Ricans 36% The last variable discussed is how th e participants from different ethnic nationalities (Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and Mexi cans) evidence different rates of calquing. According to these results, nationality doe s not appear to imp act the production of calques, as the rates were similar across each nationality. For example, Cubans had a rate of 43% written calques, Mexicans had a rate of 39% and Puerto Ricans produced a rate of 36% in the written translation exercise. The results of the oral question/answer exercise contain a similar rate among all three nationa lities Cubans produce a calquing rate of 25%; Mexicans a rate of 24% and Puerto Ricans had a total rate of 28%. To summarize the above, the results show th at gender is the only variable that can be correlated with the production of calquing and education can not. This is supported by Otheguy & Garca (1993), but disputed by Silva-Corvaln (1994). According to Silva-

PAGE 47

38 Corvaln (1994) educational background may be correlated with the production of calques among Spanish-English bilinguals. The results for economic status are inconclusive, but according to Silva-Corvaln economic status does impact the use of calques. Lastly, nationality does not impact the production of calques.

PAGE 48

39 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION This study has been able to provide tentat ive answers for all the research questions posed. It has been shown that education, ec onomic status, and nati onality do not appear to have substantial correlati on with the production of calque s in this participant group, while generational group, pr oficiency level in Spanish and English and gender do correlate with calque production. It could be argued that, si nce this study treats education, economic status and gender individually, and do es not correlate them with other factors, such as their attitudes toward the maintenan ce of Spanish and/or how frequently they use Spanish in their daily lives, this could be the cause for the results. Perhaps in future works, each of these factors can further be asso ciated with other factors, such as in SilvaCorvaln (2002), for the outcome to prove otherwise. Limitations and Future Direction These results are of interest to the growing bilingual community, especially in Florida. Nonetheless, there were several limita tions to this study. The main drawback was the number of exercises that the participants completed. Recall that the written translation exercise contained twenty-one items, of which most par ticipants answered only about half. The same was true for the oral questio n/answer exercise, which was composed of 16 items total, of which participants again only answered a portion. Although percentages were used to help normalize the results, this disparity may have altered the overall findings. In future studies, it is important to insist on consistency in order to obtain strong and more reliable results. Another limitati on of the present study is the number of

PAGE 49

40 females and males in each group. Group II and III had an equal distribution of males and females but Group I did not. Futu re work should ensure an equal number of females and males in each group in order for any analysis regarding the role of gender to be reliable and accurate. An additional limitation with the results is that participants self-reported their proficiency levels in English and Spanish. Th is method is, of course, wholly subjective, and is not corroborated by other data. For exam ple, several participants in this study said that they were equally profic ient in both English and Span ish, but informal conversation with them before and after data collection reveal ed to the researcher that they in fact had difficulty expressing themselves in one of th e languages. To avoid this drawback in future work, proficiency levels should be determined in a more objective manner, for example, as Sewell (2001) had her participan ts take a language test that tested their proficiency levels in bot h French and English. Another drawback of this study is th at casual conversation was not analyzed. Recall that the 2-3 minute open-ended inte rview with the participants yielded no instances of calques. The lack of calques in the results may be related to three main factors: time, the researcher and the tape r ecorder. Since participants were only provided with 2-3 minutes for this portion, they had a te ndency to provide very concise and simple answers. Also, the presence of the research er and the tape recorder caused several participants to be uncomfortable, so that they either spoke English or asked the researcher a lot of questions. For future studies it might be preferable to r ecord long conversations between individuals without th e presence of the researcher.

PAGE 50

41 A further limitation of my study is that th e participants who were categorized as poor or as belonging in the lower economic le vel were students. This possibly may be a discrepancy because it is obvious that most students will not have a full time job and therefore depend on their parents for financial support. In future work, researchers should take into consideration the parent’s economic st atus if students are i nvolved, or attempt to control for difference in lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to find out which extralinguisti c factors have an impact on calque production and which do not. A nd, in spite of the potential drawbacks, this study has been successful in supporting the findings of pr evious studies that showed that extralinguistic factors such as education, economic st atus, and nationality do not impact the production of calques, while profic iency level in both English and Spanish, gender and generational background seem to influence the production of calques.

PAGE 51

42 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT Protocol Title: Spanish-English bilinguals in Gainesville, Florida: A cross-generational study of the use of calques. Please read this consent document carefully befo re you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: To measure different linguistic features such as calques. A calque is the meaning of a word that is transferred from one language to another, for example, application (English) and aplicacin (Spanish). The word aplicacin is not a word in Spanish but because of the English influence the speaker may turn it into a word in Spanish. What you will be asked to do in the study: First, you will complete a short questionnaire with your demographic information and about your language use. Second, we will continue with a 10 minute interview. Followed by a short oral and written translation exercise. Finally, you will allow the researcher to use the ques tionnaires that you complete for linguistic analysis. Time required: A total of approximately 30 minutes will be needed. Risks: There are no anticipated risks to you by participating in this study. Compensation: Participants will recei ve no compensation for their participation. Benefits: Your participation in this study will allow us to understand better certain language choices that bilinguals such as yourself make in your everyd ay lives. Consequently, we as researchers and teachers will better understand the nature of lang uage and how it can be taught and learned. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to th e extent provided by law. The questionnaires you fill out will not have any form of codificati on, and your name will not be asked for nor used. Only the researcher’s advisor and the researcher will have access to the questionnaires you filled out in this project and the data that is audio recorded. Your name will not be used in any report and all audio files will be destroyed when data analysis is complete. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Dorian Dorado, M.A. student in Spanish Linguistics, Department of Romances Languages and Literatures, 170 Dauer Hall, PO Box 117405, 392 2016, Dr. Gillian Lord, Assistant Professor, Department of Romances Languages and Literatures, 170 Dauer Hall, PO Box 117405, 392 2016, Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florid a, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant (Name & Signature): _______________________________Date:__________________

PAGE 52

43 APPENDIX B DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Male ______ Female_______ 2. Age __________ 3. Place of birth ____________________ 4. Places where you grew up____________________ 5. How long have you lived in the U.S.A _____________ 6. Nationality (i.e. Cuban, Me xican, Puerto Rican) ____________________ 7. Where does your family live? ____________________ 8. Have you visited a Spanish-speaki ng country? Which one? __________ For how long? ________________ 9. What is the highest level of education you have received? Primary school High School Bachelors degree Masters degree Doctorate Degree 10. Did you study Spanish in school? How many years? 11. What is your profession? 12. Estimated income (circle only one) $10,000-$20,000 $25,000-$30,000 $40,000-$55,000 $60,000+ 13. Do you have friends that speak Spanish? __________ 14. With what frequency do you speak Spanish to them? Never 25% 50% 75% almost always 15. What do you consider to be your dominant language? Circle one Spanish English 16. What is your proficiency level in Spanish? Excellent Good Poor 17. What is your proficiency level in English? Excellent Good Poor

PAGE 53

44 APPENDIX C WRITTEN TRANSLATION EXERCISE Note: Spanish translations and possible calques are given here, although neither was provided tothe participants. 1 Yesterday I went to the playground with my friend and her daughter because it was Saturday. Spanish: patio (de escuela) Calque: patio de juegos 2 On weekdays I usually go to work and go out for dinner. Spanish: das de trabajo Calque: das de semana 3 My answering machine is broken! Spanish: contestador automtico Calque: mquina de contestar 4. I get excellent grades at school. Spanish: notas Calque: grados 5. Today I am going to ask for an application at Macy’s. Spanish: solicitud Calque: aplicacin 6. I get the newspaper everyday except on Saturdays. Spanish: diario/ peridico Calque: papel 7. How do you like the soup? Spanish: Te gusta la sopa? Calque: Cmo te gusta la sopa? 8. Going to the movies is one way to have a good time Spanish: pasar un buen momento/ pasarlo bien Calque: tener un buen tiempo 9 How did you like the movie? Spanish: Te gust la pelcula? Calque: Cmo te gust la pelcula? 10. My dad is 6 ft tall? Spanish: Mi padre mide 6’. Calque: Mi padre es 6”. 11. Ana doesn’t know how to read. Spanish: Ana no sabe leer. Calque: Ana no sabe cmo leer. 12. I am waiting for her. Spanish: La estoy esperando. Calque: Estoy esperando por ella. 13. We had respect for them. Spanish: Nosotros les tenamos respeto. Calque: Nosotros les tenamos respeto para ellos. 14. Now the house is 150,000 dollars. Spanish: la casa cuesta Calque: la casa es 15. The carpet in your house is brown. Spanish: la alfombra Calque: la carpeta 16. My sister has three credit cards Spanish: tarjeta/ tarjeta de crdito Calque: tarjeta de plstico 17. I have two more months of classes at the university. Spanish: tengo dos meses ms Calque: tengo dos ms meses 18. I was working under several people.

PAGE 54

45 Spanish: Estaba trabajando con varias personas. Calque: Estaba trabajando debajo varias personas 19. I was born 10 miles from Mexico City. Spanish: Nac a 10 millas de la ciudad de Mxico. Calque: Nac 10 millas afuera de la ciudad de Mxico. 20. My parents are from a different generation Spanish: una generacin diferente Calque: una diferente generacin

PAGE 55

46 APPENDIX D QUESTION AND ANSWER ORAL EXERICSE Note: Spanish translations and possible calques are given here, although neither was provided tothe participants. 1. Do you love your car? Spanish: Me encanta mi carro. Calque: Amo mi carro. 2. What do you do for fun? Spanish: pasar un buen momento Calque: tener un buen tiempo 3. How tall is your mother? Spanish: mide Calque: es 4. Do you like to bat at baseball games? Spanish: golpear/ darle Calque: batear 5. Do you like to catch the ball at baseball games? Spanish: agarrar/ coger Calque: cachar 6. What disturbs your serenity? Spanish: molestar Calque: disturber 7. Do you write letters to your mother Spanish: cartas Calque: letras 8. Do you often assume that ever ything will be okay in the future? Spanish: suponer Calque: asumir 9. Do you change your mind a lot? Spanish: cambiar de opinin Calque: cambiar de mente 10. Did you & your friends like to work? (Nosotros) Spanish: s/ nos gustaba Calque: s/ no nos gustbamos 11. Who is the most important person in your life? Spanish: la persona mas important e Calque: la mas importante persona 12. In order to pray, do you get on your knees? Spanish: estar de rodillas Calque: estar en rodillas 13. Do you prefer to mop or sweep?

PAGE 56

47 Spanish: trapear Calque: mopea 14. Do you get to work on time? Spanish: tiempo Calque: en tiemp 15. Did you like high school? Spanish: secundaria Calque: escuela alta 16. Do you like to attend school events? Spanish: asistir Calque: atender

PAGE 57

48 APPENDIX E QUESTIONS FOR OPEN INTERVIEW 1. Tell me about your family. Describe them. Include details. 2. Give me driving directions to the Mall. 3. Tell me about a dream that you have had. 4. What do you like best about th e United States? The least? 5. Tell me about a trip that you have taken in the past. 6. What makes you happy? 7. Tell me about your high school. 8. What are you dreams and goals for the future? 9. What do you like best about th e University of Florida? 10. What do you like to do on the weekends?

PAGE 58

49 LIST OF REFERENCES American Heritage College Dictionary (1997). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Arlotto, A. (1972). Introduction to historical linguistics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt. Casagrande, J. (1954). Comanche linguistic acculturation. International Journal of American Linguistics, 20, 140-151. Clarkson, W. (1977). The Vernacular vs. Standa rd Spanish in the bilingual classroom: Implications for teacher training programs for Chicanos. Hispania, 60, 965-967. Dorado, D. (2002). A cross-generational study of the use of calques Unpublished pilot study, University of Florida, Gainesville. Garca, O., Fishman, J. A., Gertner, M. & Burunat, S. (1985). Written Spanish in the United States: an analysis of the Spanish of the ethnic press. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 56, 85-98. Hammink, J. E. (2000). A comparison of the code switching behavi or and knowledge of adults and children. Retrieved July 7, 2005, from http://www.web.ask.com Haugen, E. (1938). Language and immigration. Norwegian-American Studies and Records, 10, 1-43. Hockett, C. (1973). Man’s place in nature. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hoffmann, C. (1991). Introduction to bilingualism. New York: Longman Singapore Publishers. Lozano, G. A. (1974). Grammatical notes on Chicano Spanish. The Bilingual Review, 1, 147151. Montes Giraldo, J. (1985). Calcos recientes del ingls en espaol. Thesaurus, 40, 17-50. Montes Giraldo, J. (2000). Algo ms sobre pos ibles calcos semnticos procedentes del ingls. Boletn de la Academia Colombiana, 51, 97-99. Otheguy, R. (1993). A reconsideration of the noti on of loan translation in the analysis of U.S. Spanish. In Roca, A. & Lipski, J. (Eds.), Spanish in the United States: Linguistic contact and diversity (pp. 21-45). New York: Mouton de Gruyter

PAGE 59

50 Otheguy, R. & Garca, O. (1988). Diffusion of lexical innovations in the Spanish of Cuban-Americans. In Orstein, J. & Bixler-Mrquez, D. (Eds.), Research issues and problems in United States Spanish (pp. 203-241). Brownsville, Texas: Pan American University. Otheguy, R. & Garca, O. (1993). Convergent con ceptualizations as predictors of degree of contact in U.S Spanish. In Roca, A. & Lipski, J. (Eds.), Spanish in the United States: Linguistic contact and diversity (pp.135-154). New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Otheguy, R., Garca, O., & Fernndez, M. ( 1989). Transferring, switching, and modeling in West New York Spanish: An intergenerational study. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 79 41-52. Pei, M. (1978). Glossary of linguistic terminology New York: Ancher books. Sewell, M. (2001). The occurren ce of calques in translation. Meta, 46, 607-615. Silva-Corvaln, C. (1994). Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. New York: Clarendon Press. (Reprinted [2002]) Silva-Corvaln, C. (1995). Lexico-syntactic modeling across the bilingual continuum. In Fisiak, J. (Ed.), Trends in linguistics, studi es and monographs 81: Linguistic change under contact conditions (pp.253-270). Berlin: Wa lter de Gruyter & Co. Silva-Corvaln, C. (2001). Sociolingstica y pr agmtica del espaol. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Smead, R. (1998). English loanwords in Ch icano Spanish: Characterization and rationale. The Bilingual Review, 23, 113-123. Smead, R. & Clegg H. (1996). English calques in Chicano Spanish. In Roca, A. & Jensen, J. (Eds.), Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism (pp. 123-129). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Trask, R L. (1997). A student’s dictionary of language and linguistics New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc. Turano, A. (1974). The speech of little Italy. In Moquim, W. & Van Doren, C. (Eds.), A documentary history of Italian Americans. New York: Praeger. Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. New York: Publications of the Linguistic society of New York. Whitney, W. D (1881). On mixture of language. Transactions of the American Philological Association, 12, 5-26.

PAGE 60

51 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dorian Dorado was born in Mexico Cit y, Mexico, and has lived in the United States most of her life. Consequently, she grew up speaking both Spanish and English. Because of her bilingual background, she has al ways been interested in the linguistic processes that are found in the speech of bilinguals. Due to her interest in this field, in May 2006, she will be completing her Master of Arts degree in Spanish linguistics. She also will further her education by completi ng her doctorate in Spanish linguistics, specializing in Spanish-English bi linguals in the United States.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101119_AAAAAI INGEST_TIME 2010-11-19T06:17:39Z PACKAGE UFE0014263_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 1053954 DFID F20101119_AAAECA ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH dorado_d_Page_29.tif GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
ef01a7dd4a5748716211d442dd362692
SHA-1
a98d16e8d5e2aa59725c643aa650949f4997c8ab
1987 F20101119_AAAEEY dorado_d_Page_31.txt
ae99d58c3858da87c290c6715750cf33
f44ce29ee8dbbff7be74886c94f6b8943121be95
2017 F20101119_AAADVC dorado_d_Page_56thm.jpg
3f877595831317311f9cc9b8030c411d
35d65b21f3c6692cb013ea4cffb50446594c6100
F20101119_AAAECB dorado_d_Page_30.tif
b7edf0681686ede788c848eacfa1ff1d
9d8d27911aa96ddc803e6e667c145ab67b7f700a
2432 F20101119_AAAEEZ dorado_d_Page_34.txt
1510da809fd795a0b8caa1f2aad5a4a8
91952c6a8f68d1ca3157f3d73693b6e5049a1353
6581 F20101119_AAADVD dorado_d_Page_58thm.jpg
82820889d0722020ec98c213d99c016e
9dc2cc78ec7cba598510b360c5b1e4eb53e662c1
F20101119_AAAECC dorado_d_Page_31.tif
2375cd308ab404d0db0257761bd4a017
9229d35943692879f6ce2f3b89dff943882e4a49
22632 F20101119_AAADVE dorado_d_Page_35.QC.jpg
d9e2b0e23cadc0dde595dbf88283c6da
7b8c5782a65b4384d0ab30762a552fbb3aa26995
F20101119_AAAECD dorado_d_Page_32.tif
a2da354af0a925ac6c46a7798118cc87
fc24344009ee38c5fa9b990fd0bb41bff53ea911
23302 F20101119_AAADVF dorado_d_Page_22.QC.jpg
3fbd31252be4586280893d068014c30b
8e31dcff0142f4fd1d0021aa61c995370d1191fd
5648 F20101119_AAAEHA dorado_d_Page_34thm.jpg
de5c8520b23e092c1e3c2304f21cf8a8
6d6bec3c948b1e502b5d2bec49840f6da6c7e322
F20101119_AAAECE dorado_d_Page_33.tif
662fe1a7e4e303f5a21a04acc5518e74
4aef05b254ac8b9ed2f9ecf9bed9194afcced9e8
23323 F20101119_AAADVG dorado_d_Page_31.QC.jpg
dc3abd5565017fccd99a2367206718cc
e7993fda9317c9fa17e5e55351b71c172affaf4d
6378 F20101119_AAAEHB dorado_d_Page_35thm.jpg
7480fbae3dde43c3a55ec550673210e1
deab4661c1205b4e2e8925894ba9a28831b2f6af
F20101119_AAAECF dorado_d_Page_34.tif
e412ed40fbd3d9ddc4645adb7badabc4
4127f2e2383dd3c419dd74a5f8aee3393b079b0b
1051986 F20101119_AAADVH dorado_d_Page_58.jp2
1ec0ca5674612466f8acee3dded45d11
4af7b708527fcc9f2e2620a6edea60cfd163f9f4
20226 F20101119_AAAEHC dorado_d_Page_36.QC.jpg
e21bfbf050a46385417ab7432a29d4c3
b772f07353a1f87b1c7c6b7b68965671414aa6c9
F20101119_AAAECG dorado_d_Page_35.tif
25feec4f25b1a6e08608528d8dba7c5b
3093859c0805d6b5307807ad88248c9d2b35f628
93791 F20101119_AAADVI dorado_d_Page_51.jpg
b4a8500fdf3ce3f9d9117693279bc29a
498b8110aedc89e730a17db7d4eb17a525b7e26f
6468 F20101119_AAAEHD dorado_d_Page_37thm.jpg
1dbce23dbbbc12541dcd0f242a41224e
df65a0ec15d778afcd592dc0d04d2690c61c34f7
F20101119_AAAECH dorado_d_Page_36.tif
b181f77de2df8b367988f1cc4d6b256b
0ae287c4c10111f6c7e21e389b6075aea0fd5f31
22758 F20101119_AAADVJ dorado_d_Page_39.QC.jpg
7d78952e9586263b0d2e41054be1aa17
d3dc1c67314fd78f6a865ca50654856378a739c3
19466 F20101119_AAAEHE dorado_d_Page_38.QC.jpg
9e6e13231a70b0d50483ce67cde71534
a88e11601066e592c4163b485fd6c3c4ddc77161
F20101119_AAAECI dorado_d_Page_37.tif
7f404b1aff38118c461aca3becbada0e
fd0cc0545def56573bca49a6b2d6fa7b3c2d939a
1918 F20101119_AAADVK dorado_d_Page_38.txt
627bef59a28a7026b6bee98b65e6fe55
7b02e31e7b3b3df76ad6271e28392e164b7b169d
5600 F20101119_AAAEHF dorado_d_Page_38thm.jpg
56b13cb4fee3ad91ae62539c58798c34
44f6eddd3e29139b381cfc602d0116bd333dbe70
F20101119_AAAECJ dorado_d_Page_39.tif
6df0a1a88b5df0cac5a098cdbf85267e
25b4f25824a3c7b995f638d8f08ccfd9367f6df9
6258 F20101119_AAADVL dorado_d_Page_31thm.jpg
498da6b65dfb481260aa4a9aad4d4202
c1500df6ae4ae3b9f8a30a454589a4b0b66d2839
6285 F20101119_AAAEHG dorado_d_Page_39thm.jpg
4d3a491b07908dedc568de8c997c1a3b
f1e9f7930aef2d2b85388d8f8ff6ecf768ce0380
22488 F20101119_AAAEHH dorado_d_Page_40.QC.jpg
2cd42b953d8120c8823a48141844bb5e
0750b34eb471be757af6c42ccd1e6c740f5e8f87
74460 F20101119_AAADVM dorado_d_Page_15.jpg
0d427c48e7f46b3f0cdb93f711502181
455ebb09ea65fa510d23c511d15df230273f06f2
6407 F20101119_AAAEHI dorado_d_Page_40thm.jpg
4cfeb67e745b1ccc93f21a00c96a710e
c8b3537c7868b0e8488627d899402d00151d7fb3
F20101119_AAAECK dorado_d_Page_42.tif
c55da3abdb3d5691dc1176cbb9e288f8
1535e735ff3827765d91243517cddf842cf8d39c
1373 F20101119_AAADVN dorado_d_Page_03thm.jpg
786698662340902961833acef2ddd324
c921bfec6b7c44101eb082eb746c570204dcf846
2307 F20101119_AAAEHJ dorado_d_Page_41thm.jpg
93b23dceb400927a45a4b5e71c7b4d2d
e078b7fe8de097aec12097dfe1656a18df2e3210
F20101119_AAAECL dorado_d_Page_43.tif
d3b21b4cfc3faba232b9b13405402f25
207e9d604114ddcb2c4f44ee85afda1e819b23bb
66944 F20101119_AAADVO dorado_d_Page_42.jpg
979e5ef644587141c35902dfcd15bc8f
ae5330311cdbf355935d78766afd6524fc60c687
22986 F20101119_AAAEHK dorado_d_Page_44.QC.jpg
1f5527638e39d93b1d8f02e7d223f584
9f3c627f338a80a9cde09515f9e300cad6d4d3ff
F20101119_AAAECM dorado_d_Page_44.tif
3b3bed7907b079f5f2874d1a4246de2a
8bb6aac732320f62baa1819f1045d6a492d620cb
21914 F20101119_AAADVP dorado_d_Page_32.QC.jpg
779f6dcad0381d55ac883808320e158a
c646a1aa69471e4615af871237b6b90357795246
6455 F20101119_AAAEHL dorado_d_Page_44thm.jpg
a0ec394aeedc1c6682b8ddce74e2bdeb
0deec7bbe060bdd5498e512e44ba7da0d44306d3
F20101119_AAAECN dorado_d_Page_47.tif
499ec8dfce2086a3c86579f2b40d633f
0a8404b3f2e64836424603560a6af009a671012e
F20101119_AAADVQ dorado_d_Page_26.tif
1d08c9be97f7c75772f4d4bd065fe77a
90ff79255c00d71071e2fecbb822184f1a2dcf6f
6360 F20101119_AAAEHM dorado_d_Page_45thm.jpg
9548adad16ac68d5721f9ec029fb7912
ba1cd663173ab00dd5dabb2902eaca9b2388ed24
F20101119_AAAECO dorado_d_Page_50.tif
04e0de3ce74affcafb183f276bd5aeee
c138bb742365cf3e8f68069c047a27aa31510203
108150 F20101119_AAADVR dorado_d_Page_22.jp2
d119a5b33ddaba69eb25618e791ca300
37082be0fe9f5e74937adcd73f3d5b5e94ef521f
21894 F20101119_AAAEHN dorado_d_Page_46.QC.jpg
eeb934761fd90eb1f709ec87fa5963fd
27060cc95efba6a09682ec79386b0f0df8368ff5
F20101119_AAAECP dorado_d_Page_52.tif
8344f89b36477f4c13426d4ed1399d19
a246813197602567332980c2433b9328eeb04691
70617 F20101119_AAADVS dorado_d_Page_05.pro
b524f1a6739da363425a3eac9806ef80
2f83a149635caaafef60bcb5182382733556ddea
6235 F20101119_AAAEHO dorado_d_Page_46thm.jpg
15580e598bdee8f1ce7182ae246d9d20
8af5f2fc2072203d679addf1b49d04212722e7eb
F20101119_AAAECQ dorado_d_Page_54.tif
86b2faf20d6ab1587e0ff3798b660e4c
ee6f0e9dcdf64270afffb0dbd69b9b3242a8f65e
24566 F20101119_AAADVT dorado_d_Page_01.jp2
e678f6ebfb3e1c288facdabfc2e5b4c7
2409ab957e4db0b8a0dfa73ab16df86829298507
2014 F20101119_AAADVU dorado_d_Page_27.txt
45f435d5f20a8eb0c7393c84807da7e3
08e264cf3f002f7fd81874536c7cba0a0b17df4c
F20101119_AAAECR dorado_d_Page_55.tif
2008552c10be8c3c3f03353a302b3766
9b8396e652f83472f39820bb6db00847883404d6
6352 F20101119_AAAEHP dorado_d_Page_47.QC.jpg
ae2ceb3352512cd0933fabb09929b0bf
732e983c8cfc6c1bbd7acbcb22a9d9f7885c2cfa
2564 F20101119_AAADVV dorado_d_Page_06thm.jpg
140e2f9a059fcf3b2aa9778181aa8a8a
010f9bd79e031957f6d6649ed38a1a41e6efbc56
F20101119_AAAECS dorado_d_Page_56.tif
a393114ea0b7a179dd9bb242f47c20b5
9e6e40ababf8b13af7a15a6bb648518b0afe03d9
21182 F20101119_AAAEHQ dorado_d_Page_48.QC.jpg
29d0ed2d5a6c86cea1073dbd3a8047ca
34eed99449b6604d345c8cbcabbe27940b3740fe
F20101119_AAADVW dorado_d_Page_40.tif
79ec5fd12b169bcfaebd3ee52feff21f
232b48fd7d7d470f1451ca93651d03391149a778
25271604 F20101119_AAAECT dorado_d_Page_58.tif
6c390c7ead738d786aca20ff5f4da48e
e265547104b1d8fc393c8b1e10013400a0de6cab
22090 F20101119_AAAEHR dorado_d_Page_49.QC.jpg
60f8861ee9013f1015ce05bb6c75b4ee
d783ab3a00070e823f8b8abccb03a55e214a68c9
21882 F20101119_AAADVX dorado_d_Page_42.QC.jpg
19f72878dd1fa4adf95dfd4ad384f2bf
f79e0757869f18b95a984dfa7979ad332db62200
F20101119_AAAECU dorado_d_Page_59.tif
a34905afe5c7e7083469e0e507f8a7c3
fd4c44356d2aac1fe30426682f172ce4b1200898
6289 F20101119_AAAEHS dorado_d_Page_49thm.jpg
109af79774fc1f4ee7b7b5b44f1da63b
019080bbabe31b229ce9ac1020ba4142f0a5bbb6
4282 F20101119_AAADVY dorado_d_Page_52thm.jpg
0dd8aeb0b6a7bf5c4d423c82b7761298
aab797f3ad693dc5083fa39f71944d48d72e2f45
1122 F20101119_AAAECV dorado_d_Page_02.pro
b46f7b55bdcbdb200e34973c97ba279d
3fb9995e7a1923c8b8f145ed5a3ba753fba33570
13482 F20101119_AAAEHT dorado_d_Page_50.QC.jpg
9a9a9e3a76c34b2afad49dbb4d7c8c6e
d79e55b2b38e15006b260c0754a522936bd1c8c4
2043 F20101119_AAADVZ dorado_d_Page_14.txt
6fb1624816b4eb407cfc4e396bce20f3
5f6c8a72a0e31ffbe62804b5a0328ac864f17f60
1352 F20101119_AAAECW dorado_d_Page_03.pro
0532058cde50e163cdf796f110bdcf15
07e5adcc4de21ad4496793def0254d351c28b21c
466 F20101119_AAADTA dorado_d_Page_01.txt
2b6a8d6cb039de977eedb193ef87ab48
9d82e5e24b6552f6e2e5e67088e97fe1af986063
3932 F20101119_AAAEHU dorado_d_Page_50thm.jpg
53424e751178af068623698ffed9b454
2a4b9e68beaca5078bfa4d602fac22a35185a9aa
6857 F20101119_AAAECX dorado_d_Page_04.pro
77068ec38a567ee071f0b1d749f74891
fe015f91fae768cecb7eb5b3679447155ed7cb60
225892 F20101119_AAADTB dorado_d.pdf
7e95e5105b18ff388cce25757b2ff2b2
d418a2830e1af1b82433576b91804b58c7d0071c
6548 F20101119_AAAEHV dorado_d_Page_51thm.jpg
0ad558cbbc23c8cb52ad207428c66a49
5572b9d7f193ae83b42ba648f25a8c0f0cef56f4
19326 F20101119_AAADYA dorado_d_Page_29.QC.jpg
ab2ad7d7444d813367f3729cd546a357
81ee95ec05d1392f803dcd5a0e9c747924be8ce0
936109 F20101119_AAAEAA dorado_d_Page_10.jp2
8a48a0d5b771b2a9b2ddf1630f4a5be5
8b131f7fcee37f7db8d69e937954c1a4a43e2647
19849 F20101119_AAAECY dorado_d_Page_06.pro
da37a9316656966a4d7525d7a2e3012c
2dc8ab37954768dd1191395e58e6695c9cef6119
F20101119_AAADTC dorado_d_Page_48.tif
0fcbb8d4dd2525e3bf93b23152deb42c
a69fa2914317b2a33acd54f4c01f890f39fbccef
14999 F20101119_AAAEHW dorado_d_Page_52.QC.jpg
cd1246505b287aedb38fe8069c4e8d31
7475de2e95693a9718d392c28ccf9d538ccee975
110558 F20101119_AAAEAB dorado_d_Page_11.jp2
1826678877aa9b17f8bbacaa7dedb712
6a4817a63ee13f7c4ebc877c60642e600833fa6e
23216 F20101119_AAAECZ dorado_d_Page_07.pro
f564bbb286e2cc245a0af023ea5f29c2
924a6e81360d381c4251e61a2399a37efdca63cc
5941 F20101119_AAADTD dorado_d_Page_48thm.jpg
a1c4d6618c3a5913e4d0ac7d8911c8c4
769be5046e295d33789ab363e5956de3290aaf33
5827 F20101119_AAAEHX dorado_d_Page_53thm.jpg
cd7e0cd76c44371c2bb987ba4eccd99b
d10d96802206759cf7c66312e5bd0d4da0e22e2f
1619 F20101119_AAADYB dorado_d_Page_08.txt
a761f09c7a69723129243f9815abbb52
c947bd1360d35f4ae5eebaabd2450d6428b0850a
77004 F20101119_AAAEAC dorado_d_Page_12.jp2
67c3bbfcb22f7ea31d5be9e020e0c64f
adfa1f6cc2d7f357b51911b534da3d9d11a477d1
1051977 F20101119_AAADTE dorado_d_Page_51.jp2
b5f72765c974f94b966096095bfe59f1
75f7b42cf4b9b8208ca995d19b0d4e69b6560ea6
9108 F20101119_AAAEHY dorado_d_Page_57.QC.jpg
1f7b0d4b27435596b8c94c5ada47cb4e
83add4252e1b0d22535bf0a4888f97a0d7834110
2221 F20101119_AAAEFA dorado_d_Page_35.txt
7b3dfa2d16ecfa51eddf80d46e4bdf1f
0b7706cca1dba729702ce6e93e5fb5d5f8b525b1
24959 F20101119_AAADYC dorado_d_Page_51.QC.jpg
bc4d38ea617542118595d593f7118d4e
2ef3254bbb9dc4199b89224a823ebecc7246b67b
94393 F20101119_AAAEAD dorado_d_Page_13.jp2
66597919be13243bc5787bde100123bc
9dd68015d9957d94dd90fc60029a650add379fba
49159 F20101119_AAADTF dorado_d_Page_40.pro
e104bd897747b3789b067e26846204ae
776e43fc11166245e7b29b4f52c6d368869ad82c
2874 F20101119_AAAEHZ dorado_d_Page_57thm.jpg
30dcf390ab28780f7a40c3c6f2867bf0
2b5a2b4407d0607fba1cf692ab0088d36b92fdb6
1739 F20101119_AAAEFB dorado_d_Page_36.txt
dd1684891e59474b878770107c30d044
6e6b5d518cf64ca1d7850c45d2e8ee70ef367c85
F20101119_AAADYD dorado_d_Page_07.tif
38e9e707e3f6591cead98964745a2595
e7ab6326c0f529544b5a30522474cd1a04ec8aff
112176 F20101119_AAAEAE dorado_d_Page_14.jp2
ddfb0dd1c53116b6c0bb78f9f428e539
2abdd4df27435c1b32b23b00ca1a61f17d043c70
57144 F20101119_AAADTG dorado_d_Page_59.pro
32d83b3de1b68743bf448463fb0bc43a
8388e0a1fe3bb6c03ff6bdc59c9a1e1d7895182f
2578 F20101119_AAAEFC dorado_d_Page_37.txt
ca6c85317231365a886532ea9aa93f54
4016d0d405cf2d2e6849ae455a353ec218bb162d
1132 F20101119_AAADYE dorado_d_Page_28.txt
e4260d2c8a43319378181945a94fd051
6713940e8c3b7ee1714204d04848ed02878e41b7
112785 F20101119_AAAEAF dorado_d_Page_15.jp2
c15880f1cdb8347a16554b5c94990ecc
88e798cc779a05d92893f9bdc94d8a2f680eaee6
59814 F20101119_AAADTH dorado_d_Page_34.jpg
e1eb3169e3a93f74d8f1575e0bab29ed
97ae7ccc96041b5da8bda3d0c332f8d62cb3c088
2665 F20101119_AAAEFD dorado_d_Page_39.txt
d86d0cd9b65f872f3759e5d9966fe5ef
6d8de80bbbaf761cfeb52a89e6f379b2c478b264
7424 F20101119_AAADYF dorado_d_Page_01.QC.jpg
0561e35777f00297eebbaa26d1a5761c
319404867399599f57e54a8ed2982eae5704c9ec
111188 F20101119_AAAEAG dorado_d_Page_17.jp2
635d8131927205a5c831080b3c36857b
2fb66fb18494aa638709901358fe448a69966568
59816 F20101119_AAADTI dorado_d_Page_29.jpg
149294f3737c6bb8b23ab03142a6c9ce
c40d3fdf87da0103d2a12b6f7a88fc51bc935d0a
2206 F20101119_AAAEFE dorado_d_Page_40.txt
2246809ac820eef0e7a71f9d9c747431
6056dbd49c1d4098abc29cab07de51d58a11c709
20900 F20101119_AAADYG dorado_d_Page_53.QC.jpg
b9fd580d81562281d71e0549f69463a6
ba913eebf2525d6c01b28c41167d1e9dd044e423
105629 F20101119_AAAEAH dorado_d_Page_18.jp2
271273fe04932426a9fdc231f3b74a5e
56732e6f8cc278e738e58b58f6b09777a93cc95f
2919 F20101119_AAADTJ dorado_d_Page_05.txt
07c4a1bf90a587a10e3212a48f63e860
edb460904e3b334d1b1c908d47088b6c4f72bff8
421 F20101119_AAAEFF dorado_d_Page_41.txt
4aaae626c4cb313fea7e82d308e491ab
8d755ffc5d4b467471d2182c5f1c997ab2ef8a6b
23349 F20101119_AAADYH dorado_d_Page_37.QC.jpg
16b9cff5d1fd7ad8cc25722179fdbdc2
5aaa68109a45e8c993e9f53bbc6c2c7776011417
2320 F20101119_AAADTK dorado_d_Page_59.txt
5a88c682d5a8e5f59994568cae09a402
f8565a2ae597332cd30e04197cc52a94c11ed629
1925 F20101119_AAAEFG dorado_d_Page_42.txt
0638e7f94f8e4dc43f1817b9c13e3a69
c45998bf38f01b64ea1262a7e1fc3d91d4b67ba0
65885 F20101119_AAADYI dorado_d_Page_24.jpg
ad5cb2b7a7b4c43c3d7234097ee9e485
3d5616cb01ef13338e6b0855ce8b4762dba06c01
100397 F20101119_AAAEAI dorado_d_Page_19.jp2
933dc1926714f4b4e335abab7aeea990
e4f0ec4da70936b6f3fa70d07253c99dd4d3d925
322 F20101119_AAADTL dorado_d_Page_04.txt
1dae2c3cf31cd06d3ac50dfbbf7e162f
38232d8ec91b7dfbad8f9cd8becd42829c834fb6
2067 F20101119_AAAEFH dorado_d_Page_43.txt
713c21b6142526fd100aa9d3689c91be
a21550047ab185e2739503b97cf2dc04dfe30e14
92196 F20101119_AAADYJ UFE0014263_00001.xml FULL
bd6df845838610b0fa27b1aaa7fce0b1
72ffb70ac339ad588bba58b5a84fc90e473bffe5
108532 F20101119_AAAEAJ dorado_d_Page_20.jp2
a273a4d5b1928f2ad4fd4a07c3be7eae
7fef773b9b0f15f6410faf643438a8b59f5d7d74
37357 F20101119_AAADTM dorado_d_Page_09.jpg
49cce94399df195ae2c414fdaac60673
b1e31efd7aced24928bf32a3c86babb5a2af9ffe
1876 F20101119_AAAEFI dorado_d_Page_46.txt
65cbbd9de00201d2ef883f25496b5778
c2666b6f61b2a74f033c044363654a5b72dd2848
108758 F20101119_AAAEAK dorado_d_Page_21.jp2
8fadc3962b54b6d70cb448c0fcbedbde
48bcc95f8fde470fb3871102c5e6bcb46115d00b
103278 F20101119_AAADTN dorado_d_Page_32.jp2
1ccd8d87282d67359ce8d39cedb3d4a0
3eca4aabd39b433dccb923fd4c6a7ddcb814bc9e
1889 F20101119_AAAEFJ dorado_d_Page_48.txt
762803bdf5c2ae853eed89c4143ce065
420488888fa8136e1d2eb4b86e0ea2ce542e5951
100143 F20101119_AAAEAL dorado_d_Page_24.jp2
34cfaea3e6ed8146fe535eb04eb657ab
610ae66fadd549651627006c5ce884fdafe93872
F20101119_AAADTO dorado_d_Page_23.tif
243cc3924fea93abb69b69ed79df855c
55c2693e0e057f14deae6d43b7711dafb04305d4
1868 F20101119_AAAEFK dorado_d_Page_49.txt
02091a778fa02c8165ae017baa052601
19724dcbe9cedb6b2a93faa15d42fd404be8b485
10266 F20101119_AAADYM dorado_d_Page_02.jpg
7a6a7d4fe823997f8b607c95aecc5d94
4160053f94efe0b066db36ceb1935e1820be2a02
112207 F20101119_AAAEAM dorado_d_Page_25.jp2
b03b78ebf1d83e98c002d5f2c55acf8a
e84df66f5a97e026db2bc31afe93ed630ef4c499
71108 F20101119_AAADTP dorado_d_Page_16.jpg
fba3f30e44699c605029f58a30657924
a088382befd5d7812403c1197a4f2e3210d9e33e
1053 F20101119_AAAEFL dorado_d_Page_50.txt
1ce8390e8a2e8f4085ef76854a342bc0
6b93e209c2db61ed95f6838275c58a93f4fdfd72
10466 F20101119_AAADYN dorado_d_Page_03.jpg
0647bbdba747a524a88ed4c171284612
93d7a4376cb8c4b574efc810e3d45257a3ea8fd5
111635 F20101119_AAAEAN dorado_d_Page_26.jp2
445be5d0d8b25eacadfc8e76f172446c
00715fb23672053a40aa17649e6864d508db6fa0
22049 F20101119_AAADTQ dorado_d_Page_18.QC.jpg
351b98c3d9d3a2b87cfad0eef09b1fce
a8897f654979b0a24bc02c418ac9e944b821b6eb
3370 F20101119_AAAEFM dorado_d_Page_51.txt
254755bc820647575fbdb311bb6ec5b7
3f86b05c0d13dcde84b5c8bba47553d6e48f0376
17823 F20101119_AAADYO dorado_d_Page_04.jpg
016e8e4fe52fa6ace7c57b272507e6e4
31a286977792728b403fc169b82bca68f63c708a
88520 F20101119_AAAEAO dorado_d_Page_29.jp2
2056d09833e8a959cb39471a18048b1b
1f7855688de02e88fa0341660d6e14548ae109e4
62474 F20101119_AAADTR dorado_d_Page_52.jp2
fb01f40e7bfbf5f68f09f5d65763f075
eb95574c90e2c10f6803fe0c31198285a6653ef6
58204 F20101119_AAADYP dorado_d_Page_05.jpg
4bd25beda1682860f5ae22fdc4b27949
d2d7e1ef96eb46bebfed7be0233aaca55fcbbd30
107449 F20101119_AAAEAP dorado_d_Page_31.jp2
1960a4d474843b7a522d647ec6befc33
778180f5b9f042ad121d0ff86f39885767654fe4
6090 F20101119_AAADTS dorado_d_Page_42thm.jpg
3934aebb8c6cdcff90e1474bc3a4f821
d3a36a5caeb89b59e3a59228edd77d44b7b690ee
26226 F20101119_AAADYQ dorado_d_Page_06.jpg
caa541bcb396370c89f73362c55a7511
dd11148838943dfff3e582f18f8fe4207b9f66fa
40911 F20101119_AAAEAQ dorado_d_Page_33.jp2
867ee68187194026ff1fb82bf2d34371
523f67e235e428329c1d315d52606bdca6cc6127
5634 F20101119_AAADTT dorado_d_Page_36thm.jpg
9c082ab06741d899aa1b359b7864ee46
bb9edb43fd1cd176de8ae1f72d8a95a070aeae78
1131 F20101119_AAAEFN dorado_d_Page_52.txt
fef7a16eb6f74f43cfde880853c5456c
4f6f10fb309f169832586d6d044eaa0b18a3224a
32276 F20101119_AAADYR dorado_d_Page_07.jpg
806dba1a83e569e7321a6312efd34997
e50ccb25596972d384be0991fc33dc358649447a
99904 F20101119_AAAEAR dorado_d_Page_35.jp2
53c51f1063d2e0b89194d92a0f3a922f
e5b23986ac11fc6329c8ad987f7234cc37ff88aa
F20101119_AAADTU dorado_d_Page_28.tif
8489a20d48351a90eaf164c6d8aec435
a2d1f60ccc42a06388613f6c7b783fb472967aeb
2315 F20101119_AAAEFO dorado_d_Page_53.txt
e59745565c24924a85c290074aaf0281
7ddedd2ffb2a425b242d804e2d17dce9f4fff2c3
56162 F20101119_AAADYS dorado_d_Page_08.jpg
3e48349dd31b0c02545e4feb6ab8771a
7f432076215f258d16019763617fd7db58af865f
92956 F20101119_AAAEAS dorado_d_Page_36.jp2
6ae3363f52bee69d0ce068d5629f4be4
993e2c88df0710f28c1de07c121342d3b953c66c
7066 F20101119_AAADTV dorado_d_Page_56.pro
818cb49573a02ec2805a0a9dda41b4dd
f7a2b2a6947f7ba70da1469e2d55cdc3b1cb8d8f
F20101119_AAAEFP dorado_d_Page_54.txt
50f3042d10cd1a57eb86533626dd86c0
0ca3ad0a682fb6ace3332af0d88d1a9d7654d71e
71926 F20101119_AAADYT dorado_d_Page_11.jpg
ced74f4aa91281e5040df4fd4d45b6b2
7897f77330e4c269d4d8177f110c94867959a58f
98195 F20101119_AAAEAT dorado_d_Page_37.jp2
6ac9678db897a26da4b0591678f1911f
843ccc94fcd275336312a50a5e4c2963fdab6daf
106 F20101119_AAADTW dorado_d_Page_03.txt
b12a9b937d21a651cf6b2b4dcd3d52cf
5d17a78ef45b56c5f0f62d41ed0a9e2b9d795a5b
1539 F20101119_AAAEFQ dorado_d_Page_55.txt
85d472d243a917541ed5b6818b111bd7
3e539ce6a8261f4a896b6debb087523b59eae9a3
52232 F20101119_AAADYU dorado_d_Page_12.jpg
f419110640c9e9f02a1826ee47a7cf73
dafa0193e78934f7f902d80b411d15c6def1b1ef
92630 F20101119_AAAEAU dorado_d_Page_39.jp2
6add3d2be16a39c8be60dc5dafd343b6
39c4c6c7d9b91846fc8aeac6728b3880828c1917
67505 F20101119_AAADTX dorado_d_Page_49.jpg
3580fe514472095b534224a0c6eed905
c0d9d359dc72138058c36a0ffa74a868d29d2a41
326 F20101119_AAAEFR dorado_d_Page_56.txt
2b36816d3bc1a9eadb6c443eaaba9cd2
a0c78c91c4df6b0ba19231e8381d6eb6389c68e7
63183 F20101119_AAADYV dorado_d_Page_13.jpg
bbdff367cbaaa3d9c5426d83a038fa14
b32d74f7e8bc34c12c52e25a2579fcbded5632b3
95479 F20101119_AAAEAV dorado_d_Page_40.jp2
2f9595f095de58ceaec8565bbc8fc943
3d59b99e9d42b1660624d13e5044ab91c9e51100
F20101119_AAADTY dorado_d_Page_46.tif
a24830c9987e1e1d6e3c061cf80d5928
08e10483b754773e0152b22e086811e33f8338e1
678 F20101119_AAAEFS dorado_d_Page_60.txt
9cc1aca87fc296e15b761798c7a1b919
ce1c32a6cad713942735aef02cedfc62732a9b08
73953 F20101119_AAADYW dorado_d_Page_14.jpg
bdc43a54addcae4808bb93206dee5e43
75d615cee01671e4b5397c59f1a9d6b62be218db
23168 F20101119_AAAEAW dorado_d_Page_41.jp2
dea873cad0f57712d3fd178f03a61c0d
79480b921d0f590c985cf6828a0d19f26f078170
1909 F20101119_AAADTZ dorado_d_Page_18.txt
bb060605fd8c0730a4fdffeedbfd39bf
f84a6610bf10652a4d0cfe4271b23f9e0f7b8240
2441 F20101119_AAAEFT dorado_d_Page_01thm.jpg
db1d8fa862e193598f9fd3aee6e261cd
9e28baa59278041935cb3fb3731c7a6f4a847bd6
65898 F20101119_AAADYX dorado_d_Page_19.jpg
d226443fcb95903c03f8b8a7eb048712
e03d1499159a683cddbdb8bbd76f614993d436b6
100340 F20101119_AAAEAX dorado_d_Page_42.jp2
5fd8dbba0d3389700e858420d400ec9d
3f3022f9e0eb61df3bc2e05a4b1e658951fed878
5604 F20101119_AAAEFU dorado_d_Page_04.QC.jpg
59e580730899b4ab0d99322cb742f625
80947eea4956bd0ad998ccc197fb26041b27b9d1
71624 F20101119_AAADYY dorado_d_Page_21.jpg
fbde7a8a1432936d7d5e165651473b90
a08d5d90a98ddcaac18aa3ed571bc4c43a2f590f
113010 F20101119_AAAEAY dorado_d_Page_43.jp2
a99c89c9e0f3f14b1a2c9b75a00793ff
e8b6e3adfa76d71ddd616f10ade777a881611189
15828 F20101119_AAAEFV dorado_d_Page_05.QC.jpg
3e733d12e72d39b4cf3ca69df3cea116
1ecbc4180197df3b390481d4b54a27b167d97e4f
70780 F20101119_AAADYZ dorado_d_Page_22.jpg
d77b806f46f2ebb0da7fb9536354c493
6208ef55b46aee2a5885c150b1d058fdaca8e138
105138 F20101119_AAAEAZ dorado_d_Page_44.jp2
0c44aa2de07f478e5611dba14692a82a
5416292a6d111f719d3ee0846e408b999bd12e3a
9834 F20101119_AAAEFW dorado_d_Page_07.QC.jpg
b36cb563afe65dd9d5f7c7d70b74ccc8
ed6d14874323ad52d1708c932b296e69be5b8532
382 F20101119_AAADWA dorado_d_Page_47.txt
cffd480669ec81040a33f016ddc41597
83c05a0ed63b75880aabde2597afa4e9422da8da
2945 F20101119_AAAEFX dorado_d_Page_07thm.jpg
13d0c3c3f2daf119ecf47dc6c6773fb1
8c598e470d912443f3bc794b41cf750937ad5395
81238 F20101119_AAADWB dorado_d_Page_38.jp2
ff8513f2e811e8b26989281b03034b3b
09c9c78e345fd2727503018cc60546f378f1e732
35907 F20101119_AAAEDA dorado_d_Page_08.pro
25f48b3356993a409403d4e80530adfb
7f0475d588a25c14b7960f6bc0ebe880cefe52c8
17222 F20101119_AAAEFY dorado_d_Page_08.QC.jpg
cbec605cf2f444548d10e544eaecf606
bad96efecbcfe27b5981ec86980162bd71bfc9ff
2193 F20101119_AAADWC dorado_d_Page_47thm.jpg
dd8845f41835952d822b170be6b1f8a7
9b09151cddd8728bc95ebb4ab0295f36d910a878
41794 F20101119_AAAEDB dorado_d_Page_10.pro
27d766da6216e09b5d72d176f519a3f9
217a020cdb0125f57d619dbe79d9b90fedefe698
4942 F20101119_AAAEFZ dorado_d_Page_08thm.jpg
be956643ba90a90e5500c644398c142a
a5d7bdfb6ebec775ab2376905361f91b5157146d
18978 F20101119_AAADWD dorado_d_Page_56.jp2
a2d4c09c4d07b19b605772391d4114ae
5b52e3226562675a70d64661d8eec6a43c6192b6
50819 F20101119_AAAEDC dorado_d_Page_11.pro
2bbb6df735e2c1ab334410f404f8478e
e3925c7dddddaa1cb32246fb3dd5561402bf604f
8449 F20101119_AAADWE dorado_d_Page_01.pro
33b9e887dd40a24266b4b2a95309feff
8b1133a0f5def94821344e4854ff5572488063ac
22757 F20101119_AAAEIA dorado_d_Page_58.QC.jpg
58ac572bf8e1ca5cc9f55f55a338ef32
8a0fe90a8f3b361249f89302c9f81f387c27e02c
34234 F20101119_AAAEDD dorado_d_Page_12.pro
323f199b73eeacd0bed902f244e2153e
73764652735ba10e5d5b7aa35bf98bc7439e582c
6645 F20101119_AAADWF dorado_d_Page_41.QC.jpg
103ec2114fdc7dcd2025ee96430fa6e9
b6f1c946097246cf5c87d03d728737538d2099df
24361 F20101119_AAAEIB dorado_d_Page_59.QC.jpg
9e24006ac1a1450629990769eff34910
424d3cdae50838ec5fb9568de4638f422c8d4b90
51144 F20101119_AAAEDE dorado_d_Page_14.pro
544511e74333b031ce4be4a31228f5c8
563fb1a42dc93b19cc708dc9d71c06894f35a7ca
1361 F20101119_AAADWG dorado_d_Page_02thm.jpg
3bcc3271771091f8cb40d10c0f12d78a
7049fd387a86b479f1e068f8cb325b76aa57b6e6
6588 F20101119_AAAEIC dorado_d_Page_59thm.jpg
0580eab0b9e154be0c0637cffabac1fb
92b27b220f69158e22f09e55fc2cd212d205e79b
53800 F20101119_AAAEDF dorado_d_Page_15.pro
a5b28d0c93fdfdbadc0248efebcc1b47
c570d21a1241b89023b615bdb70f2b0739d28932
3181 F20101119_AAADWH dorado_d_Page_03.QC.jpg
14e03be999b0dd83f12dce5bd20ed2c5
421ccfb66894a890231f9f718cb0ff195f6aadeb
71575 F20101119_AAAEID UFE0014263_00001.mets
ab94e3a6afee4838d69bc39fa6b005f5
26ccb0008af584a98425b3dc3a9876a72d24324a
48239 F20101119_AAAEDG dorado_d_Page_18.pro
aadf434d200df25af9f97183fd5759a4
ce7221c9292e95a57efe356939f9789b6cfb90ac
F20101119_AAADWI dorado_d_Page_49.tif
41f2cb7a76c18811aea3603e5ff168bc
c78e2df464beb39f23b2a26336d3f0574ca96f25
45236 F20101119_AAAEDH dorado_d_Page_19.pro
46e636671c71de0237fcd4865dc54c2d
b4f6a8aefded47114fe97d1958508486517798f3
F20101119_AAADWJ dorado_d_Page_45.tif
31ef4574c3a1a826f312dd4137ea9b89
e635a6db5f7db4fd7655b5b909ea336a2466eafb
53090 F20101119_AAAEDI dorado_d_Page_20.pro
9fde267cd3f864b933014b27ee89739d
31e165af99b947c04e77db614658309b5b17c709
F20101119_AAADWK dorado_d_Page_57.tif
6f097abd6affc86b33cac144549bbeb5
36c6068f05cb9e43f0f5a8bed0109f4e183c3aa3
50522 F20101119_AAAEDJ dorado_d_Page_21.pro
e7c10c0ab1cf336c01444cc27f7fb3c2
fe61b477fbd8cecd1d44a7355a78df57e678309a
53068 F20101119_AAADWL dorado_d_Page_37.pro
04b5c2262447e81af94427024ca07d97
804da4948871a96fa7cae49f287cd25a43684859
52985 F20101119_AAAEDK dorado_d_Page_23.pro
c0ad7d6bee6742e3527ab02efd10cb6c
69a8cbd937e97b52a07d41643f7052d28a6b57c3
12362 F20101119_AAADWM dorado_d_Page_09.QC.jpg
2be09528a14805f3cfae011360a7b637
1a6d45b8d565c5a683851a3e0c4071ebd4118d2c
37595 F20101119_AAADWN dorado_d_Page_60.jp2
3e2eba9aa2dcb70d6cc0eb669bb80f45
8acc1fbc643b3619cdccb28193ce413d860372b6
45662 F20101119_AAAEDL dorado_d_Page_24.pro
b3f7c9842b5786974a00b26471d32398
44c86f9538061142d9b0e7e0c023775eeee69007
23171 F20101119_AAADWO dorado_d_Page_45.QC.jpg
00ab7bfe552a748f322e6dc059c64071
3d6abe7d8508a050de03e021a85b0965850daef9
51191 F20101119_AAAEDM dorado_d_Page_27.pro
4aff61e20865a4903b1cf5b523266304
79ac7ef08b206e393c51259a1d00a0b33e9daf22
6575 F20101119_AAADWP dorado_d_Page_25thm.jpg
72b37e13de049c43ae7697510589b14a
62534c3f738c12cff970043ebcce4e6abe3ebf9f
28365 F20101119_AAAEDN dorado_d_Page_28.pro
3510a77c02f979ba17aee9b2b22e5c32
667b1b8bda553368ed2d23c5b12d1adff34aa562
23703 F20101119_AAADWQ dorado_d_Page_27.QC.jpg
ea4ca18f7e26f6cdcb14eb174d5726a2
5c257024d567cd864485bde53a70db0d42f95062
49795 F20101119_AAAEDO dorado_d_Page_30.pro
3a2a15e7bf1e5a24aa502b37a7b4b153
4b20d0f357fe953f5d6fbe3c157590e7618004c2
74747 F20101119_AAADWR dorado_d_Page_51.pro
ccbe37117338ad24bac58709bed3ae74
614ed442eaa4463d091854bb0909c305ea23afaa
51720 F20101119_AAADRV dorado_d_Page_25.pro
a99178a3a7c4455a5ecc5385fb765e10
6d82d35bd0f4d4935e8ca2a03fa73800edd7278c
49445 F20101119_AAAEDP dorado_d_Page_31.pro
42358466888ca5158f6c86f795d342ce
8ffe59a1c1c4302f4e6177514d3d69ff26fef47a
F20101119_AAADWS dorado_d_Page_22.tif
a09338222ce97eaeee0e966dfa31e6d4
73f8da3c19bb0909080f91b283f6d30070999017
47361 F20101119_AAAEDQ dorado_d_Page_32.pro
942e273ef7ff06c32aa69ead810d5985
2ff811cf942012c227fa21f0269e3291ae79d54c
6350 F20101119_AAADWT dorado_d_Page_30thm.jpg
fb8858871b0112bb485928ed20a413dc
f935c0c5007a49f2714ad0ffb98283cd17b7d6e8
24009 F20101119_AAADRW dorado_d_Page_15.QC.jpg
677e044c90d78281933e5e375a759854
e05e7fd95f5e2e31656e2fca3cf85446dbb3dac2
46367 F20101119_AAAEDR dorado_d_Page_34.pro
73ac62ff76d67d499a2037f1fec5f7fa
bca9125b3593692d769deadcc7dd8f6095cff372
6490 F20101119_AAADWU dorado_d_Page_21thm.jpg
54e1916e35e0bdecfeaba60da27e06b8
76eab88526bf9b460790599e5a44ac39b72d553a
2932 F20101119_AAADRX dorado_d_Page_60thm.jpg
a34e265b18ece00331daa60594e31467
c44a8e1481990271276e9d969a584c162f17d3bb
48433 F20101119_AAAEDS dorado_d_Page_35.pro
3fc28437699bbaca308325fae0315031
e1bb735dcb8b86136b2516d687b4dc5f06d9aaed
6765 F20101119_AAADWV dorado_d_Page_14thm.jpg
373e85fc9d79ee29c8e6299942ceb4f9
be74fb71f633371c3acc4331ed899cf3332f1e62
2035 F20101119_AAADRY dorado_d_Page_25.txt
a349745dd62607c4e3d3feafb978872c
3dc72231619b41443c0c3d30e349dd6609842566
42673 F20101119_AAAEDT dorado_d_Page_36.pro
ef1f8d160392e91def2f0b3e1e812334
4fdcdf3414d75b462861f22887a07ed0a10837be
108760 F20101119_AAADWW dorado_d_Page_16.jp2
2e42fe0b3b74c5bbe7e1da4d81a837ea
c58a77b83fb495d0c268fc51bf62f5e3ceda41cf
68039 F20101119_AAADRZ dorado_d_Page_10.jpg
10271ecfa86b981934ef7fecda401b78
95f34571cf291e8cb36c0ff82a0b2ac61112c4d5
52670 F20101119_AAAEDU dorado_d_Page_39.pro
795a10cc9035f84988ca38d3540286ce
fa835355c1176fddeb3698cf89ce2525637ad679
17149 F20101119_AAADWX dorado_d_Page_56.jpg
d5b098e24462eef53ce3898fd470f362
392fd3a9dd0434b8a727a8e186260be6fb3e7676
9413 F20101119_AAAEDV dorado_d_Page_41.pro
eb177758d31902a8d634f8f17b7241aa
ad33ebee8cbe0f28edec70ae31602f1f20256aff
3286 F20101119_AAADWY dorado_d_Page_02.QC.jpg
06d696a511f0d433ffa1b0efa6db7606
f1946f97049901f31ff9045b2d0f83cf1763bbef
46947 F20101119_AAAEDW dorado_d_Page_42.pro
35a678543177a9ca020f122917d2265c
3ae9b77e8594f96e9bb60dd982c105bb5d174eb4
71980 F20101119_AAADUA dorado_d_Page_17.jpg
892dedc39939f240ade761f486414389
ab92f206e6742166c071d5436c5c79469618da01
5475 F20101119_AAADWZ dorado_d_Page_56.QC.jpg
b351c3ded1a946392425e57f88a5cad7
b18817dcd468a5a09a76ff092f7b059431897675
52734 F20101119_AAAEDX dorado_d_Page_43.pro
4192aa14be9172f111cd3cab817f62dc
c85e8236add285cd7e08f2ab1b8b21908101d649
F20101119_AAADUB dorado_d_Page_53.tif
44cd6a545407716512422236a90eb777
0be6a82d50e0f5b2674d4ba99c40cbe009d9cfe1
49140 F20101119_AAAEDY dorado_d_Page_44.pro
b468228e81b19253d092d5840f5eaf36
bc5366f6a876c269904512f67fb5660a2921d2c5
2040 F20101119_AAADUC dorado_d_Page_04thm.jpg
e102c02ea31f2f7c8fc078ac8f7619d6
1e0ca5b92be71d03267a0f9abf90026827acddb2
74463 F20101119_AAADZA dorado_d_Page_23.jpg
fe5297eee7a7b36e8240f8eebf2d225a
ced1f189d59889f5ae20973c2d46c32c3b3bd2fa
105334 F20101119_AAAEBA dorado_d_Page_45.jp2
349be82146d4e522f4eb8e998f30d22e
40db84eedd170368b74d154cbede879613ed7246
47365 F20101119_AAAEDZ dorado_d_Page_46.pro
8f1b8fdb88481db575666e378344dbcc
c8333893eca8cefc20efdf626645ba491706e5b2
2108 F20101119_AAADUD dorado_d_Page_54thm.jpg
31cd6047eea1bed90f46f5090d952c63
a965615e6eaf2297d6fe5f3f9586977306014a31
74163 F20101119_AAADZB dorado_d_Page_26.jpg
855194ca46aed6a07675ec3920fbdc92
42e56f9641d89120c02f263dfce6ae1c0860e7df
104934 F20101119_AAAEBB dorado_d_Page_46.jp2
4f8b86acc3e6f92833894d8035a4a1ea
2ccd6dec84d18005bc85fe121ee0eafa1409fbc6
9466 F20101119_AAADUE dorado_d_Page_60.QC.jpg
14d1796374b74b6a41d097613d3e278e
d003fac9ecb9b9afe93fe832fc7c3ec999c4a209
22095 F20101119_AAAEBC dorado_d_Page_47.jp2
23576c25c823107b925211cf0ff0fa59
bc41542e2b29f98d074bbc594c62a640724c4fec
51308 F20101119_AAADUF dorado_d_Page_26.pro
8986b5ab72a350682eb7c52f589a85eb
4bca8ef8e27af23bae624e44a6cb7926576820ee
5883 F20101119_AAAEGA dorado_d_Page_10thm.jpg
78965e05a766d741330b70ea148f59f8
3392d11b4cb5a4462a307a9300906728e4dbc92e
73050 F20101119_AAADZC dorado_d_Page_27.jpg
e6e78957c1a31b2a8ea2da46f4be50d3
d50fd20d5ef6b2b7005a3318f386f5d97257011d
96746 F20101119_AAAEBD dorado_d_Page_48.jp2
9793b0c37220544257de1f20c6b485bc
0064be402463980e24adbee6a860310fd6e29c3d
50423 F20101119_AAADUG dorado_d_Page_17.pro
a7b057c9d1f59e957d58fe37e98431cd
4fce1c17af1b407a1726529f811051caed9e975d
22851 F20101119_AAAEGB dorado_d_Page_11.QC.jpg
8473ea6e549124f3745135545002cb24
74df006ab1a613ada28d3d4dd761fe2755a3ec4f
44348 F20101119_AAADZD dorado_d_Page_28.jpg
ca48e4a58a017fa8c4cd23201832f72c
1856bfc127155287f8470a23db8c9b1249e0daab
101036 F20101119_AAAEBE dorado_d_Page_49.jp2
725691a94ba6ed00378a86fdd07b8e5a
c7b94fef555e7798375ec7e093162927d2066554
1993 F20101119_AAADUH dorado_d_Page_30.txt
2d27358cbb09e731a187cae505f7bd5d
8ab0ba5206687962e7c92fa35ec8071c4776966c
17335 F20101119_AAAEGC dorado_d_Page_12.QC.jpg
fe097907d73034885637905f94b54a39
ccdbfd1522a8d2912c5a770de99cdbb11de73bce
69876 F20101119_AAADZE dorado_d_Page_30.jpg
859dcfc024d2a97724e3de730927fcb2
20da762e98813ee6d42f38b5249f018105a47068
58717 F20101119_AAAEBF dorado_d_Page_50.jp2
2d23f227d860d38e912dabdb33b66292
397ee6d9795152a2e136e0ec823d25647f367934
35224 F20101119_AAADUI dorado_d_Page_55.pro
e79d5a3da9dbe7a12b8acf8d7dca5ade
c721e86084b77192332bb3f0ed55262af1257864
4960 F20101119_AAAEGD dorado_d_Page_12thm.jpg
88e2794c701d90ffcc06f10a8736597a
1b0ed3f0b4d4520989835ffd6a48244b2cafdfae
70247 F20101119_AAADZF dorado_d_Page_31.jpg
383eb930b8a6b70e43d224c29dceeecb
5fb67d9ee9ee40919e6e1efe91fe87d265a65940
112076 F20101119_AAAEBG dorado_d_Page_53.jp2
d62cd471739554709f5c0942c8f94c0d
923dd3728be6c979152a08f101e4f9c62b6304f9
710 F20101119_AAADUJ dorado_d_Page_33.txt
60770500379f79b7e53d5de991918655
ac21d8066fb01314e5af2513390998f42611fce4
19795 F20101119_AAAEGE dorado_d_Page_13.QC.jpg
02229259d52e05f4441631538765d4de
4186600a7026fdff9fe3e5be1f5ee4208e6a5184
68099 F20101119_AAADZG dorado_d_Page_32.jpg
62b02b6e4cc221cb779adb7a68048832
2442c2246190309af77ce0a91ee681272fd4ce53
78729 F20101119_AAAEBH dorado_d_Page_55.jp2
2cd658968de42d89853dbc50f61f1fb0
21927d786093760e30aab39df8c1156b2b5c9645
16790 F20101119_AAADUK dorado_d_Page_55.QC.jpg
56920e247cc0b0668aa392d53b07e363
b8276ea45258a1e6acfb351c0a98a2081c2bccf8
5839 F20101119_AAAEGF dorado_d_Page_13thm.jpg
b7ce67c18430784f357559696812f34b
5c8204899134cd227fb56017cc4f9e02cf7c52a8
30246 F20101119_AAADZH dorado_d_Page_33.jpg
189db7e47423da34383f19425835c6cd
69523e69889dcc0428ba7dc600a040c01b3e53a0
33071 F20101119_AAAEBI dorado_d_Page_57.jp2
c5b3b054fcb1b4d02c84e7b09727d2f9
a5915a5a8d92826eb4de9c0d483699ae05068d11
2007 F20101119_AAADUL dorado_d_Page_58.txt
7a0bfa12923c1e82c99a72d27951378a
1fe61c230a6956a74d26da4e3c8dc6236f3b1ecb
23940 F20101119_AAAEGG dorado_d_Page_14.QC.jpg
6c90b49b7bd3b6238fce07654fd4f92d
273f0965d8eb8ed290490e92fe6f17f4442331f8
71919 F20101119_AAADZI dorado_d_Page_37.jpg
a803d00da3ff472a2f5a610476f20434
b80f99368d4308f41add62fe3d8a47a3836ca197
628 F20101119_AAADUM dorado_d_Page_57.txt
1880d1db33fec65862464ebe0409b905
991c33a92d4fbbd213e3f612dba851ed4d2f07a4
6695 F20101119_AAAEGH dorado_d_Page_15thm.jpg
2b7079a19bda5c921444f3407fc9b80e
c747d77dbc8dcbc408f611bb44b0a3d9b0ede0d9
70890 F20101119_AAADZJ dorado_d_Page_40.jpg
161b52fc2cda9e4beaa0eb959e329f43
5e06a74f71900eff1f11461ace0c4d6c4760a20f
126416 F20101119_AAAEBJ dorado_d_Page_59.jp2
9c89518e71f6b817cf80f5302cb80fc4
f8b9d2c79ad7e2c7124afe0114e81be247498e96
F20101119_AAADUN dorado_d_Page_41.tif
a935d7b8e106c76fc4894981235b19f4
c970c9a3eb0a36665238f9051ce7cec5f2e5fb34
22575 F20101119_AAAEGI dorado_d_Page_16.QC.jpg
ebe800602a7168457450a3b96ce952a5
8ec3149ff751bfbe0f0abe04521fe4e72ab294c4
20251 F20101119_AAADZK dorado_d_Page_41.jpg
f236bab8c4b63c9647aa941c91baa7c7
721cdd47618060fdfb3bf664c5941d24096499b7
F20101119_AAAEBK dorado_d_Page_01.tif
7a3c839654e378ccdbf32e959642e632
4142287ee318c99737b2fbafb72401259158c6e9
73931 F20101119_AAADUO dorado_d_Page_25.jpg
2a29bb1df6e20dd897e492e0d057e2c8
37515703aa6d954c46fbac0bb50c34207db5e534
23278 F20101119_AAAEGJ dorado_d_Page_17.QC.jpg
7dae0a19998b491cabb9774eada38954
9009abf4d2fb296cc6ed77f0519f1172272955ad
74169 F20101119_AAADZL dorado_d_Page_43.jpg
f8e1fc94298d30c4b1b1caafe17588a4
62f8771c55fede2dd645f802eeab5be44c550e76
F20101119_AAAEBL dorado_d_Page_02.tif
50093ff3390451a15c9fbf25b170b4f0
eeccf01d30b579ef116d21741ae69c741b889008
42364 F20101119_AAADUP dorado_d_Page_13.pro
bbcbfedb1462811eb31335e1bb9f0258
66efd8d01d656e3f4cb2055c74459f5eadff9124
6367 F20101119_AAAEGK dorado_d_Page_17thm.jpg
31368d85e03755a04906825d15ff72ec
cb9e5ae52fffa0c4fb41f88bd04a7eab9a27fb7f
69153 F20101119_AAADZM dorado_d_Page_44.jpg
92c1d2942e00b6207b7cf1bc4b12e77c
c2e3a081f8a0c8abfcd656cb1f03f7111305b0f3
F20101119_AAAEBM dorado_d_Page_03.tif
5c639120afe61706e19964a14b5400c6
d005a3f8f5d2f6ed7b276b9fadc472341cd89d8f
5327 F20101119_AAADUQ dorado_d_Page_29thm.jpg
288b9023ffc5459aa0e42323e8ef2eb7
239614cf3bcf17c7aaced595ef4ad818cb98f693
21521 F20101119_AAAEGL dorado_d_Page_19.QC.jpg
cce07805e1fe039a62100986a08ca8ab
957ab09cba3ac629f659eeeb6e5fcbe688576b66
71097 F20101119_AAADZN dorado_d_Page_45.jpg
3267c706dd9cb02c9fc1f5c393c2a5db
19322c8e6dc76e9bfb7f6921245e785abcf7ec6f
F20101119_AAAEBN dorado_d_Page_04.tif
fd95d77984568de77f8f09256e846e87
4ed91349ad7ce249c4a8c92eb65868ea5ef298aa
4236 F20101119_AAADUR dorado_d_Page_05thm.jpg
812a3d3df37b52f7ccd339257bbe42a0
1dce07d22c8478671555af3d973f992d65a64bf9
5947 F20101119_AAAEGM dorado_d_Page_19thm.jpg
601917b11ce1ccb703a6f13210bb3c11
e121664505ce65aa707946a72eb6d8051b525625
19321 F20101119_AAADZO dorado_d_Page_47.jpg
d2a9986174cc970997175a69188d4d10
767f9933e5d51c2d3362f76275d580f5d89e4399
F20101119_AAAEBO dorado_d_Page_05.tif
59d929fb2a60b9a89b6ce6747dbda7a1
fb26d7dadbadae766b974eb1fd8687d2b57a3ee3
23470 F20101119_AAAEGN dorado_d_Page_20.QC.jpg
00cfd5af9976973b433668fa413d7660
0a5b5857408ca5ce4f3b9f0311f5e789f5453b6c
40756 F20101119_AAADZP dorado_d_Page_50.jpg
3d3dcf035e4113775ad5e374ed419d9e
830109864d1c4518c07af629db2914d1e6e3e353
F20101119_AAAEBP dorado_d_Page_12.tif
e14860d0dedf28fe3317d5ed8c030085
449dd661a0da8f7d87b3f51579e4a68070d40913
1941 F20101119_AAADUS dorado_d_Page_44.txt
c7f5e2a42fec0538aeba84af5d099022
4fb71442271bd0852f7e68253435de49f2cbab9f
70969 F20101119_AAADZQ dorado_d_Page_53.jpg
9db3c7c1b8d308a1c448f194b01f530b
ed1a2128a2d4149c10ac0df31d19503ccae8f8d1
F20101119_AAAEBQ dorado_d_Page_15.tif
8142dc083f37fd993af894cc2592a0a4
aee99bd5f2a114d7913495c033eee7049d0467f5
21125 F20101119_AAADUT dorado_d_Page_24.QC.jpg
047ab1ce301d3fe467c30fa380edef9a
6cca3d222f7ad49dfeac1aa34c3dd92ff408b2d5
6465 F20101119_AAAEGO dorado_d_Page_20thm.jpg
ad654fe00cb778a419e6def92eaa3d60
bcc8a090cc741659b14ead202be192918ee6cfaa
21058 F20101119_AAADZR dorado_d_Page_54.jpg
7816ff7127ad1bb9f867681c51a37e6e
704de5f75bea0e775704fdf936ecdcf86c56150b
F20101119_AAAEBR dorado_d_Page_16.tif
0019938959f6bdc00e361317040fff29
4bc3048ac50de4e32c994fd093ef652c76af44bb
6365 F20101119_AAADUU dorado_d_Page_11thm.jpg
2b1cb40bef9ff570243e500fe1fe21be
fa7893211f7e0aea467e149986f9fc7ffb12cfb3
6635 F20101119_AAAEGP dorado_d_Page_23thm.jpg
421036538e55cab579b349fa4300544a
841d904e8cf23ca7d951b5339615c3cb24c03296
84532 F20101119_AAADZS dorado_d_Page_59.jpg
ca50ec18052ed0aae36ceba4cdd4acef
ced21ad9192c80fc36d88601b73de5475d98fc3b
F20101119_AAAEBS dorado_d_Page_17.tif
d92f1b6e40180aaf6c4043710ed27c4f
0c359930e6ba24b89f810140aaf3f4af1d90cd15
7847 F20101119_AAADUV dorado_d_Page_06.QC.jpg
67e7474a3d769af0705b10c311c5064e
5df751f699525463c6a10e42f7092d26ee4ec928
6033 F20101119_AAAEGQ dorado_d_Page_24thm.jpg
851bdca265a6f96cc07f9afefc649e17
ab1d7efbe5ad9e30be7f0f6b4ae84f0c3dea8d5d
29353 F20101119_AAADZT dorado_d_Page_60.jpg
c4e0aa71d0cfef8e1e7fb02e56b911c2
4b3fa9e7115d1f8b81b2628c19f936b3e919df08
F20101119_AAAEBT dorado_d_Page_18.tif
eaf0e419a95497073567865130f9c554
9353c71db0f6e1876b3a99bf1ca250ab3dab5028
40125 F20101119_AAADUW dorado_d_Page_29.pro
91b530670974ca067245e30484e738b9
08134e6169d6147bb587957d8c7e6632797de933
24026 F20101119_AAAEGR dorado_d_Page_26.QC.jpg
a2f2b83501177eafd198ee488cf20021
6b0774c1eb6a81d1a214ac5a1bfaf8b8d600b530
5512 F20101119_AAADZU dorado_d_Page_02.jp2
406d677778c44e5f3de8e2b41299f8ab
433f6e19a4631efcd3013e60ca9a8a95c3c3a6b0
F20101119_AAAEBU dorado_d_Page_19.tif
49bfe68864d2f2222bcccbaa6fac5def
3ad3a4e70d98932f9d9f667bfa909b8ce546bf39
79382 F20101119_AAADUX dorado_d_Page_34.jp2
932d27c3e50984117d98813d2bac90c9
69d64e20b0c715447ddb279af8dcd0033b7c7b47
6743 F20101119_AAAEGS dorado_d_Page_26thm.jpg
3869099f8606c810f9a6a96ab4f8623b
d5734adc7f146e4d1df84e98238a7f34288b5031
1051978 F20101119_AAADZV dorado_d_Page_05.jp2
91ede66405e354843bc6c959bf163e53
dab20eddd5b9c964029f921acecfa5d65efad5b0
F20101119_AAAEBV dorado_d_Page_20.tif
e4ced575dd99190e8cb6542317d9b0a4
cd2e8e95822111772640d804bec1f5499808705d
F20101119_AAADUY dorado_d_Page_08.tif
db83ce2d98f0a3b9a481e0ae5765e168
c5eefc1b12d2b45ce30869c13ff93d99f18da48c
F20101119_AAAEGT dorado_d_Page_27thm.jpg
963553ecd38c51bca814d85b281d735f
79729753a49a96ce3990bf03b9a5398fd490befb
591266 F20101119_AAADZW dorado_d_Page_06.jp2
07515080ffb5501fab8b896f340bb941
7e0d1f96e10c3ffc1ead79c4df52f6f27984684f
F20101119_AAAEBW dorado_d_Page_21.tif
289c7e8df6a94aed188b6c45a6f25591
2687d79e4b2dd0980c22096e4342678f08e3e7be
5923 F20101119_AAADSA dorado_d_Page_03.jp2
b4c4cb453f988d2f6dd6af4ed1698453
2678bc88d6065597c340aa5f53472f6eb244bce1
110213 F20101119_AAADUZ dorado_d_Page_27.jp2
ccac35685a76d6738980ba7b76df9d62
758977beab761c0140251e519e30dc256d3c4442
14499 F20101119_AAAEGU dorado_d_Page_28.QC.jpg
35e8e16cd71e444d746ffefcdeaa819b
bdf64ef9463ad92342ad396504c9547cd6f3243d
730904 F20101119_AAADZX dorado_d_Page_07.jp2
40903c70e179d6602c9860d37e950eb6
3ec3d537abf8039a2f6fb64359de77e7b66912ec
F20101119_AAAEBX dorado_d_Page_24.tif
f0b2ed7bdd0a1c4659bbe78c42f9acbd
d9c5d808e7d97b61ecc5e8afe4edfced17797ed9
45801 F20101119_AAADSB dorado_d_Page_52.jpg
9d5bf4771d7a7a30c94ba99c4496629e
e85eb555293d62ca2ad1d6f1ee764f86c54a8911
4292 F20101119_AAAEGV dorado_d_Page_28thm.jpg
27311b23b7fed49536c0d11c42563312
4f1ec17078e028ea7e4826b2da4144ada4c0634a
80220 F20101119_AAADZY dorado_d_Page_08.jp2
97388ea7d4171162be7c35d4cdea258b
ec05afe920c76800d777f01fd6b0f3483c6f0eec
F20101119_AAAEBY dorado_d_Page_25.tif
84324a6e1f81c7c030f2fc1b819202cb
03db27cc6ba43b811ac5bc12e53904ec02d94356
5864 F20101119_AAADSC dorado_d_Page_54.QC.jpg
3aa57063dc27bd73290f30e42349d25b
e12c469318c3f1361fabd8a90f71164e03775db3
23048 F20101119_AAAEGW dorado_d_Page_30.QC.jpg
5a1a6935db0b78f3ff6223b614b20f05
df411c24e603582b10a96efe602dbd3a4348584d
21210 F20101119_AAADXA dorado_d_Page_10.QC.jpg
6b8d7d35ccbda2ae7e09d772b6a38ec1
38837619a27c52ec7fddef1d4fdea332aa5a0d0d
51852 F20101119_AAADZZ dorado_d_Page_09.jp2
17afb8ca42cea8753af71b24f7c1035a
712c024d6da933ad619969c71ee802c6fa8c8025
F20101119_AAAEBZ dorado_d_Page_27.tif
82e97e3161a7f55ee3547cc846e49024
777a64df0af7d8553adf17bdc062b9b8ca938cc7
24251 F20101119_AAADSD dorado_d_Page_23.QC.jpg
30c45f5933bfb2161dee47ae1547e7c2
54de3f12a1d545e575624a0c7ba2bcbed40ef3fa
10004 F20101119_AAAEGX dorado_d_Page_33.QC.jpg
8b54c5d73ae1bf7f6abb90ea1b009b89
13a7084a5692160f24c13d007dc5a577a898244a
77676 F20101119_AAADXB dorado_d_Page_58.jpg
97ade22b74ebc34cba511edaf338827a
331d4e02fac0e7dce73aa818ee82fbe71cef9789
24192 F20101119_AAADSE dorado_d_Page_43.QC.jpg
14f0494b98e1d8e6d8e6252cbe377574
2d35f9aaf579ada5b8152803da0c39919f6c0d64
3091 F20101119_AAAEGY dorado_d_Page_33thm.jpg
cd00a2433d4f089757388fdae6bb6e77
da5d5d53f2537b79fb4a178ee14d4d91ad47141d
63420 F20101119_AAADXC dorado_d_Page_28.jp2
4968f48c456f130e83c754372483ed4f
a5172f4c6366b0234ce07210ea28e49510b324bf
15835 F20101119_AAADSF dorado_d_Page_60.pro
1660d3637e61414c1c61b770c82b1aef
0dd07173bc68953308016e1a0613f7cfe5b5cd97
8581 F20101119_AAAEEA dorado_d_Page_47.pro
ec9b37f4eb3618303c2ede7bf5351368
4db9967ceb456f6e26600fd22ef93f799915e9aa
19375 F20101119_AAAEGZ dorado_d_Page_34.QC.jpg
da2bfaad83b21e0d549e1ad1326d38e7
37be46ae8ec127d7ae1b2f6c1a2080fc57ef90d3
17551 F20101119_AAADXD dorado_d_Page_33.pro
fc7918d370b3ef8cdf8ec5744a6c847b
d605f8acdf36629ffac25158354bb72a9d5b9b1b
F20101119_AAADSG dorado_d_Page_38.tif
e5185c4cae073c17a70d607e25d977fd
c7a2faf6a98c193ffe5dbc41c017ec5c669508e4
45277 F20101119_AAAEEB dorado_d_Page_48.pro
53410d5ce8054aaded3be5fcc974e4e7
8a118a02a0fe6cc596ff9b34c1755bed66a0296f
6459 F20101119_AAADXE dorado_d_Page_18thm.jpg
5331ac2016100a372cb208cc9d0f72c4
ddbddc441f00fbe76a7beae3b56ee7ae92649ca9
114203 F20101119_AAADSH dorado_d_Page_23.jp2
29c4d3bfa56d0ebcc402751d41bdcd79
6161a9f6f700a7b43bc68945b3ba756d4c9049ec
47244 F20101119_AAAEEC dorado_d_Page_49.pro
3fad1c7658638d98b5a5e7b38b7df956
1be9ff03d98b3928c6cfe7172c44740ed99ba2f1
23872 F20101119_AAADXF dorado_d_Page_01.jpg
f93b75de26e0322f0192276e3d588d8c
20949b5e488bb56beab41160707ed6ea4712784c
24124 F20101119_AAADSI dorado_d_Page_25.QC.jpg
2ad053654da30e254c68dd0f1f9e7ce4
d145307c3302e8e51ac1196ea54f651e348cd45f
26973 F20101119_AAAEED dorado_d_Page_52.pro
a72b8cbc111f73032e3b631a7d74580c
67ae844ac4a6a851125c1204bdb650c32dab9e11
18124 F20101119_AAADXG dorado_d_Page_04.jp2
3342e251b06a29c7a690b4ce8790793c
8ff3815a5c3e6392a1482fd53c651ba613ce498b
F20101119_AAADSJ dorado_d_Page_51.tif
ceb0144a010e66eaf12fb5015c9d5527
3b8aa8eb26c5feadbf4ab78fd6597dc4ee6986e3
52682 F20101119_AAAEEE dorado_d_Page_53.pro
1db4159a298d3a522ab93f44e1b5e7c5
fadcc3f9678537cf36de160e32437bc87f338a09
49254 F20101119_AAADXH dorado_d_Page_16.pro
352c2101cbe50aa78779e7540ba094c1
dde0cbc4502b66fe0fa2cd92bd4e8fae890f2c15
49453 F20101119_AAADSK dorado_d_Page_22.pro
3879f8bbb3232dc16abd70e016e8a3b0
6c3d057e9f092b1fd3d3bacf64871cebad1ea0d6
9828 F20101119_AAAEEF dorado_d_Page_54.pro
a0018d32adddae5a1305b270eeae6294
f452330b1cd02177ccd289c419bf5dd8aa77585b
68613 F20101119_AAADXI dorado_d_Page_46.jpg
fa7214973d5f3a1b8c098be5607c05a3
442e157317b14795c4a4fffb4826c37081cbab4f
6371 F20101119_AAADSL dorado_d_Page_22thm.jpg
aea5f54573bdeb7c56830c30707d15a5
2464bf11abd666979cc020a11ef10083680e51a4
13894 F20101119_AAAEEG dorado_d_Page_57.pro
50284cfc58c2343e517fd45ba19382df
b7b4feff14bbcc050bc17301dcae2b39bb8196d2
25654 F20101119_AAADXJ dorado_d_Page_54.jp2
e968a28024e0fef8b64bf336db59bf1e
2705f27526ef04aa53c7dc5e6b1e758b56635374
68911 F20101119_AAADSM dorado_d_Page_18.jpg
235b08e9c46655bcfbd5523fa8b33ee8
9e15c0f1122382e84c79d644ab1c0828e8ae0e65
49213 F20101119_AAAEEH dorado_d_Page_58.pro
fe96714f90ae0ce810bdc1a7bf7e801c
653c69f973c7b1233eed6feaf66382307e1055d2
1797 F20101119_AAADXK dorado_d_Page_19.txt
c17bf7e3292013e6b27dd6c491b34b1e
cbfc691f49d9d9ba66130b5990369732dd640abe
923 F20101119_AAADSN dorado_d_Page_09.txt
68316ed3c8690a41a20e7c4fd96fcc9d
480f1b021114903833ec3892d56ccd757c5cef46
107 F20101119_AAAEEI dorado_d_Page_02.txt
622fab65b537b4f5c646d1fb3c4c0c20
1ecbc3cd74fd12ecf35698f2760dad529dbcbcc5
F20101119_AAADXL dorado_d_Page_14.tif
9d600f2ef2daa28262b1054186e3477a
9b06748d18bc51bcc1a5f204f01d6e79b7c3055e
70786 F20101119_AAADSO dorado_d_Page_39.jpg
5b62c2eb45d2afd895c3d16134691730
f36d8e80c2f443e61467f01e3c75ba288c8d0fbd
756 F20101119_AAAEEJ dorado_d_Page_06.txt
446010b0c73e4f25356410281cd5d857
e18029dfc06f8322cd9adeac57eb8b0bc6adf96c
6551 F20101119_AAADXM dorado_d_Page_43thm.jpg
a3520d97b6ef187b143a9f9e44a3c252
e56276f3481c86cdb714b2c12f2c87358e2fb214
F20101119_AAADSP dorado_d_Page_11.tif
7401c579274ae2d82d196437174f4038
987f5b036e340be2afccc8c20c5f5307185cb2ad
997 F20101119_AAAEEK dorado_d_Page_07.txt
4933efa2c323e873b489d46890d5f47c
933c016f20baa2a810541a0c34866e9be896eb05
61598 F20101119_AAADXN dorado_d_Page_36.jpg
be9952bef241cf5e87f5810b51a5d696
600a2b82370331b59a8d2d16cde0c4259851651a
106282 F20101119_AAADSQ dorado_d_Page_30.jp2
7663a786eb98cb70f175f7223bb9c527
0028acd758841e8def7afc5145e4e1ae49ddab41
1849 F20101119_AAAEEL dorado_d_Page_10.txt
0f29b0d6b8180487035cc9f8b6e1915b
dc19441a24a811993a97239a09e9c75e1aafc0f5
27022 F20101119_AAADSR dorado_d_Page_57.jpg
b87a373841d264dd0a33b9a68e1bcea0
8c9bd0c862d56d6a9bee6d1f2be8a6a599ea3d9c
3633 F20101119_AAADXO dorado_d_Page_09thm.jpg
03ea82e580068ab6aa93a30c4e2aaed6
92197f2d18e0dff36bfcf60843f83f294b516f98
6432 F20101119_AAADSS dorado_d_Page_16thm.jpg
f656ad2048d07d23c89894d6f4ad4564
974384078b1f6ed100c6ce210701df5c6ae722a5
1371 F20101119_AAAEEM dorado_d_Page_12.txt
edc9672c53ea2060966af23942422c7f
09db2d55bdef563be02da57e36c5570f9380c7e7
22604 F20101119_AAADXP dorado_d_Page_09.pro
045a79182ac945286330dae6a1e885e6
54086edbfc64271797cbe347b5c19a59ee082afb
65091 F20101119_AAADST dorado_d_Page_48.jpg
2ddc172af8a93b35cccf111acbb1b35d
9ee3a04cf4e5808cc25148c00633fa3f02148bc6
1781 F20101119_AAAEEN dorado_d_Page_13.txt
c68aee2eb5633919b8726bb1ae5b5594
67c1c13365e334962df239fa92fdbc107b6bb4c7
60368 F20101119_AAADXQ dorado_d_Page_38.jpg
18254fdb03b7f2933c05b47151cfbcc0
179e29d030e1e1268c207f79928a272aa41484c0
40868 F20101119_AAADSU dorado_d_Page_38.pro
c44af92d48bf37151d065cad2601d84e
4e419ab3896dc039923120b523d6dad846446fa5
F20101119_AAAEEO dorado_d_Page_15.txt
1a1d3099f9a9559c83200604e7ea2dab
799a774e7f232962d8f815b4d5f575b0033e2498
6228 F20101119_AAADXR dorado_d_Page_32thm.jpg
6451e9cfd34eb7bbec5a68328a6f233c
55fb393b7c123e687c60b978e7d825c38ba1ff1a
2033 F20101119_AAADSV dorado_d_Page_11.txt
8f818b50744320dfb02eeaf267677df0
e27383ca1f3d13a9b0db615488fde7e78b06f2eb
1939 F20101119_AAAEEP dorado_d_Page_16.txt
875d91b3bebc0395bee35009f06e2e15
010229d4064a4a46c311bc5b14c663f5698972ff
F20101119_AAADXS dorado_d_Page_10.tif
e601c0518994527509335079e5dae862
4eaa23291c1d73e60117a6552d77cbef32d1040c
1913 F20101119_AAADSW dorado_d_Page_45.txt
b549c968d7f3462ea549c020a2ec0d89
512278fa1402ba63be5f1104f7469556bbce08bc
1985 F20101119_AAAEEQ dorado_d_Page_17.txt
b496e886a2ac0571f5e1f9dc3d3d1217
d8c3550976f9f91ed055990eded68f6b13b60cab
4781 F20101119_AAADXT dorado_d_Page_55thm.jpg
a03695dc310480bea9655ad9c8e75092
5dbd098e0fcd808532cec727c21ac943b18d1ca4
26218 F20101119_AAADSX dorado_d_Page_50.pro
cc4557c929de2f3badc079cd2ab4b2eb
8847101a7878e3758d785462f4ce887a6cdde3d6
2291 F20101119_AAAEER dorado_d_Page_20.txt
0ec06d7c70831f540ce3d79f990a3680
fb8df0a87a2ebf67599c8a602554a0becf95e2a2
71496 F20101119_AAADXU dorado_d_Page_35.jpg
d78c346425830ef8f0944257a07ff99a
229a5d338488c5f9b2a54faeae07e94878fe7206
23225 F20101119_AAADSY dorado_d_Page_21.QC.jpg
cb0c54b25edd6bdde827c5c8a430ae8e
3d376cb36832ec4fbdb7720ca8c7b760bad509ef
2001 F20101119_AAAEES dorado_d_Page_21.txt
b1b8478328d908448c1fd3c373a792f3
ace49560f6d5036714913e1b741e5844d783d2d8
1872 F20101119_AAADXV dorado_d_Page_32.txt
0638f59642b36d06dd23ff8d336d30d1
dd2bb69c3f5fa8f55ddbc73f22588ce15b57f6c5
F20101119_AAADSZ dorado_d_Page_60.tif
bb7de13864355756efaa60eeca3fddb4
377f7c800ef35b03d2b868904ac95fa6fcfc8246
1953 F20101119_AAAEET dorado_d_Page_22.txt
5bf45d384ba2a8f819cebccdaf29bc87
c4bc6808037d09f2c35b24d3521a6dc421843984
F20101119_AAADXW dorado_d_Page_09.tif
58985a8aa8029393fd3afd368870d940
175cfbeb61adc086fcc1fdffc75604d09c33d6a2
2077 F20101119_AAAEEU dorado_d_Page_23.txt
c2f7244ffd8fd6c1a806e0a4110cee83
0d3fe8207185a0c5f18ed72fa70521cacafaf48f
47875 F20101119_AAADXX dorado_d_Page_45.pro
622beefe3abca05afa56d78989149352
482b7429e34da5172d39ea2f49f09be910c2be78
1809 F20101119_AAAEEV dorado_d_Page_24.txt
fe4f4be0d4bc0692a3ea77b92a861110
0f814d63878abb6af5e96ed87a87087052f9231a
F20101119_AAADXY dorado_d_Page_06.tif
0fe525cac431d9144be90ff80bb9d774
7fcd853a14688711cdf1ecec92fa692b8f7c6e7c
2013 F20101119_AAAEEW dorado_d_Page_26.txt
3e00b267f0d4db75ceab66a5cc4ecc9f
1333721a6a22965a55677db8f41cd28c42633d82
F20101119_AAADVA dorado_d_Page_13.tif
b48b0eed6f424f6634072d775cf6392a
779dea62f332039797f1a850eb2fce0b7562118a
51274 F20101119_AAADXZ dorado_d_Page_55.jpg
92853506b38e1a1b8fb6dec742946d10
82492404652db72c580f411e92ba9a814da9dee0
1717 F20101119_AAAEEX dorado_d_Page_29.txt
4ccc4f00388c8cbbd35b1a5ac0e94c25
f04f31a9880a1b348c64fc526febfe3dcdabc5de
73728 F20101119_AAADVB dorado_d_Page_20.jpg
586060d83259dac38ba20dc9fc088f1b
55e2618440f4232f5ad36f9dcd940a1085325ca5


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014263/00001

Material Information

Title: Spanish-English Bilinguals in Gainesville, Florida: A Cross-Generational Study of the Use of Calques
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014263:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014263/00001

Material Information

Title: Spanish-English Bilinguals in Gainesville, Florida: A Cross-Generational Study of the Use of Calques
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014263:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












SPANISH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA: A CROSS-
GENERATIONAL STUDY OF THE USE OF CALQUES















By

DORIAN DORADO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Dorian Dorado

































This document is dedicated to my parents.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I like to thank Dr.Gillian Lord for her patience, dedication, support,

encouragement, inspiration, and compassion. She has truly been my graduate school

angel and I will always strive to follow her professionalism and passion for life.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ........................ ......... ......... ......... ..............vii

A B STR A C T ................................................................................ ..................... viii

CHAPTERS

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 LITER A TU R E R EV IEW ............................................................... ...................... 4

L exical B orrow ing ............................................................. ............. ..... ........ 4
Caiques and Loan W ords............................................................ ............5
P reviou s R research ............................................................ .............. .. ..... ... 11

3 THE PRESENT STUDY ......................................................................... 20

R research Q u estion s........... .... .............................................................. ........ .......... .. 2 0
P a rtic ip a n ts ............................................................................................................ 2 1
T a sk s ...................................................................................................................... 2 2

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................2 5

G ro u p I .................................................................................2 5
D em graphics ............................................ 25
C a lq u e s ................................................................2 6
G ro u p II ....................................................................2 7
D em graphics ............................................ 27
C a lq u e s ................................................................2 9
G ro u p III ........................................................................................................ 3 0
D em graphics ............................................ 30
C a lq u e s ..................................................................................................... 3 1

5 D IS C U S SIO N ............................................................................... 33

6 CONCLUSION..................... ..................39

Lim stations and Future D irection............................... ................... 39


v









APPENDIX

A IN F O R M E D C O N SE N T ................................................................. .....................42

B DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE........................ ........................ 43

C WRITTEN TRANSLATION EXERCISE ...................................... ............... 44

D QUESTION AND ANSWER ORAL EXERICSE................ ... ............... 46

E QUESTIONS FOR OPEN INTERVIEW........................................ ............... 48

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................................ .....................49

BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ..............................................................................51
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

1 Demographic background for Group I.......................................... ............... 25

2 Number and relative percentage of all calque occurrences for Group I...................26

3 Demographic background for Group II......................................... ............... 28

4 Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group II....................29

5 Demographic background for Group III ...................................... ............... 30

6 Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group III.................31

7 G roup results for gender................................................. .............................. 36

8 R results for nationality ....................... .. ...................... .... ....... .... ............. 37















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

SPANISH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA: A CROSS-
GENERATIONAL STUDY OF THE USE OF CALQUES

By

Dorian Dorado

May 2006

Chair: Gillian Lord
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures

The first purpose of the present study was to explore the use of calques among

three age groups of individuals in Gainesville, Florida. The age groups were divided into

three groups. Group I contains six participants who came to the United States as adults in

their twenties and have resided in the United States for more than six years. Group II also

contains six participants who came to the United States between the ages of eleven and

eighteen. Group III contains eight participants, all of whom came to the United States

before the age of eleven or were born in the United States. Consequently these

participants have lived most, if not all, of their lives in the United States.

The second purpose, equally as important as the first purpose, was to investigate

whether extraliguistic factors such as education, economic status, gender, language

proficiency (in Spanish and English) and nationality are correlated with the number of

calques produced by Spanish-English bilinguals.









This study analyzed data from a total of 20 English-Spanish bilinguals.

Participants were between eighteen and fifty-five years of age, but most were in their

early to mid-twenties. All the participants were born in Cuba, Mexico or Puerto Rico or

had parents who had been born in those countries. All participants resided in Gainesville,

at the time of the study.

To gather the data each participant completed a demographics questionnaire, a 21-

item written translation exercise, a 16-item oral question/answer exercise and an open-

ended interview.

The results showed that age group, proficiency level in Spanish and English, and

gender can be correlated with calque production. But, it also showed that education,

economic status, and nationality do not appear to have a substantial correlation with the

production of calques among the participants.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

"Mi padre es seis pies de alto".
"Hoy voy a pedir una aplicaci6n en Macy's".
"Recibo grados excelentes en el colegio".

The phrases above are examples containing calques of the type that are commonly

heard among Spanish-English bilinguals in regions of the United States that have dense

populations of Hispanics. In this study we consider Spanish-English bilinguals to be

those who have acquired a level of automatic bilingual proficiency and can communicate

in Spanish or English with similar effectiveness. Automatic bilingual proficiency refers to

the production of Spanish and/ or English without a preconceived analysis of either

language. Although these bilinguals seem to control the syntactic, semantic or pragmatic

structures of Spanish, their language can still be heavily influenced by lexical

interference such as calques and loan words.

This study focuses solely on one-word and phrasal calques. Calquing is usually

triggered when the speaker does not know a particular word in the target language and

therefore will refer to another language to semi-borrow the unknown term. Once this

takes place the speaker effects a literal translation into the target language. The definition

of a calque can vary from author to author therefore several dictionary definitions are

offered in the present study. The American Heritage College Dictionary states that a

calque is "a form of borrowing from one language to another whereby the semantic

components of a given term literally are translated into their equivalents in the borrowing









language" (795). Another basic definition is provided in the Student's Dictionary of

Language and Linguistics,

a calque is defined as a word or phrase constructed by using a word or phrase in
another language as a model and translating it piece by piece. For example, the
ancient Greek word 'sympathy' or 'compassion' was %yI//lhia, formed from syn
'with' and pathia 'suffering'. The Romans calqued this Greek word into Latin as
'compassion', from con 'with' and passio 'suffering', (Trask, 1997:35).

In addition a calque is defined in the Glossary of linguistic terminology (Pei 1978)

as a translation loan word; the translated imitation of a special meaning ('foot' as a unit of

measure is a calque, or loan translation, of Latinpes used in that sense)" (37). Another

definition is provided by Arlotto (1972) who indicates that a calque is based on

translating the component parts of a foreign word into roots native to the borrowing

language (189).

Two categories of calques are studied in the present study, the phrasal calque and

the one-word calque. Silva-Corvalan (1994) defines a one-word calque as the transferring

of the meaning of one word into an already existing lexical item (171). As the name

indicates, one-word calques consist of only a single word, for instance, the word

aplicaci6n takes the meaning of English 'application', when used by bilinguals in place of

the standard Spanish solicitud. A second example is grado, used as English 'grade', which

should be nota in standard Spanish (Silva-Corvalan, 1994). Phrasal calques or multiple-

word calques also share the same basic definition offered for the one-word calque, but

phrasal calques are composed of more than one word, for example te Hlamopara atrds

used for 'I will call you back', where the standard form should be te llamo despuds.

Another example is escuela alta used for 'high school' instead of escuela superior (Smead

1998).









Although the term "borrowing" is used to refer to such linguistic processes as loan

words and calques, a distinction must be drawn between a loan word and a calque.

According to Trask (1997) a better term for borrowing may be "copying" (19). Loan

words are words borrowed from another language. For example the loan word for the

English term "high school" isjaiscul, (Smead, 1998: 113). On the other hand, calques are

semi-borrowed; in other words, calques may be considered borrowed words because they

are constructed from other languages and then incorporated into the target language.

Calques are not direct borrowings like loan words, because a literal translation takes

place and is then incorporated. Trask (1997) concurs that calques are constructed from

other languages without quite borrowing any words directly (21). Consequently a calque

is constructed by taking a foreign word or phrase as model and translating it.

The present study analyzes the use of calques in the speech of three age groups of

Spanish speakers residing in Gainesville, Florida. The primary purpose of this research is

to explore the impact that extralinguistic factors such as gender, income, education,

proficiency level in Spanish, proficiency level in English and nationality have on the

production of calques.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The following section provides a brief overview of lexical borrowing as well as an

explanation of the difference between calques and loan words. In addition, previous

studies are reviewed and their findings on calque production among bilinguals are

discussed in light of the present study.

Lexical Borrowing

Lexical borrowing is a term used to refer to linguistic processes such as loan words,

lexical switches and calques. Borrowing is important because it is a way of adding new

vocabulary items to a language. Borrowing often occurs when speakers of a language

have contact with speakers of other languages.

Although definitions differ from author to author, they still share similarities.

According to Hoffman (1991), borrowing refers "to borrowed items that can be adapted

either phonetically only or both phonetically and morphologically" (101). This statement

is also supported by Clarkson (1977), who stated that with respect to Spanish "phonology

and morphology are both influenced by the proximity of English, but the area most

influenced by English is vocabulary" (Clarkson 1977: 965), although obviously lexical

borrowing is a common occurrence among bilinguals of any two languages. According to

Otheguy and Garcia (1993), Whitney (1881), Bloomfield (1933), Haugen (1938) and

Hockett (1973), lexical borrowing does not occur because of the speaker's ethnic pride,

educational background or lack of education. Nor does it occur because speakers are

expressing their bilingualism or social symbolism. Instead, researchers claim that lexical









borrowing is employed because it is the only way the speakers know how to express

themselves. The speakers have been linguistically trained within their culture to speak in

that manner. Simply put, lexical borrowing is an indication that the culture of Spanish-

English bilinguals has become "Americanized" (Otheguy 1993: 21). Otheguy and Garcia

(1993) point out that some scholars, including Casagrande (1954), Turano (1974) and

Weinreich (1953) have said that lexical borrowing allows bilinguals to express

themselves precisely by adapting their vocabulary to the novel content of a foreign milieu

(Otheguy and Garcia, 1993: 135). Otheguy and Garcia explain that "no two societies are

the same; there is no absolute way in which they can express the same things or situations

in the same manner unless lexical borrowing takes place" (136).

Caiques and Loan Words

In the following pages, a brief description of calques and loan words is presented.

Although the present study only deals with the use of calques among Spanish-English

bilinguals, loan words are discussed as well due to their similarities and due to the fact

that many researchers do not distinguish between the two in their works. Authors such as

Smead (1998) and Silva-Corvalan (1994) also provide their own definitions of calques

and loan words. Smead describes a calque as a transfer of meaning and not form, and a

loan word as a transfer of form as well as meaning. In agreement with Smead, Silva-

Corvalan (1994, 2002) describes a calque as the transfer of meanings into an already

existing lexical item. She describes loan words as the transfer of forms together with their

meanings.

According to Otheguy and Garcia (1993), it is impossible to effectively distinguish

between loan words and calques. As a result, these researchers opt for categorizing loan

words and calques together as contact neologisms. Consequently, their data include loan









words, calques and word-switches1. In analyzing their data, Otheguy and Garcia note that

"in many cases it was impossible to tell if the speakers were referring to a calque or loan

word" (Otheguy and Garcia 1993: 139). For example, it was difficult to distinguish

whether speakers were using the English "application" as a loanword, phonologically

adapted into Spanish aplicaci6n, or whether the Spanish word aplicaci6n had acquired

the meaning of English "application", thus becoming a calque. In such cases, the context

of the utterance is fundamental in differentiating between a loan word and a calque.

Montes Giraldo (1985) notes that in order for a calque to take place; there must be a

partial similarity in semantics, lexemes and grammatical patterns between the two

languages (20). For example, the traditional English word "collect"' (to gather together

objects, results in the calque in Spanish colectar (to gather funds) because of the

similarity that exists between the English and Spanish forms, (Otheguy, Garcia and

Fernandez, 1989: 45). It is difficult to differentiate between a calque and a word in its

traditional form because a similar word may be found in both languages but with

different meanings. A typical example would be the word asistencia in Spanish, which

means "attendance" in English, but when used in its calque form the meaning changes to

"assistance". Special attention must be paid to the context of the utterance in order to

distinguish whether a word is in its calque form or traditional form. We can illustrate

this with the following example, le escribo letras a mifamilia ('I write letters to my

family') because of its context we know that the term letras is in its calqued form, the

traditional form should be cartas. On the other hand, if the term letras is shown in the



1 According to Hammink (2000) word-switches refer to when morphophonological adaptation does not
occur, for example Juan tiene los 'movie tickets' instead of 'Juan has the movie tickets' (Hammink 2000).









following context, hay muchas letras en el alfabeto, then we know that letras is presented

in its traditional form.

Calques can also be further classified, as Smead and Clegg (1996) propose. Their

initial typology of calques, like that of Otheguy and Garcia (1988), distinguishes between

"word calques", consisting of a single lexical item, and phrasall calques", consisting of

multiple lexemes (123). Calques can be further divided into "merged" or "independent"

categories, according to Otheguy, Garcia and Fernandez (1989), who define the former as

those in which phonological forms migrate from the influencing language. An example is

the calque carta (standard form is tarjeta), as in greeting card, which is phonologically

similar to English "card". Independent calques are different in phonological form from

the influencing language, for example the calque estoy quebrada (standard form is estoy

en bancarrota) which is derived from the English idiom "I am broke". Later, Smead and

Clegg (1996) revised their typology in order to separate word calques into "formally

convergent" or "formally divergent" subdivisions, based on substitution and importation.

"Importation replicates in the host language a particular linguistic level of the model, and

substitution is the accommodation of a specific linguistic level of the model to the

patterns of the host language which results in the perceptible alteration of that level"

(Smead and Clegg 1996: 124). Importation only occurs semantically; an example is the

calqued expression soy de mente diferente which is derived from the English expression

"I am of a different mind". The standard expression in Spanish should be yo tengo ideas/

opinions diferentes. Substitution, on the other hand, occurs morphologically and

phonologically. An example would be the word actualmente in Spanish, which means









"presently" in English, but when used in its calque form the meaning changes to

"actually" or "in reality".

Silva-Corvalan (1995), Otheguy, Garcia and Fernandez (1989) and Giraldo (1985)

also saw the need to classify types of calques. First, Silva-Corvalan (1995) delimits four

specific types. The first type is single-word calques; these include cases in which a

meaning is transferred into an already existing lexical item. For example, grades

"degrees" extends its meaning to incorporate one of the meanings of English "grades"

(254). The second type is multiple-word calques that do not alter semantic or

grammatical features (255). For instance, the multiple-word mdquina de contestar is

derived from the English multiple-word "answering machine" but in standard Spanish

would be contestador automctico. Another example is dias de semana which is derived

from the multiple-word "weekdays" but in standard Spanish would be dias de trabajo.

The third type of calque is multiple-word calques of bound collocations, idioms and

proverbs, which "are reproduced exactly with lexical units from the replica language"

(255). To illustrate, cambiar de mente "to change one's mind" is used instead of cambiar

de ideas/opiniones. Lexico-syntactic calques are the last type; these are calques that alter

semantic or grammatical features of the replica language (257). For instance, the

following expression, mipadre es 6pies (de altura) "my father is 6 feet tall" is used

instead of the standard expression, mipadre mide 6pies (de altura) (257). This is a

lexico-syntactic calque because the verb medir "to measure" is replaced by ser "to be".

Then there is Otheguy, Garcia and Fernandez' (1989) distinction between three

types of calques: similar-sense versus different-sense, merged-form versus independent-

form, and duplicating versus innovating-message. Similar-sense calques are similar to an









already existing sense of the host word, for example colectar "to gather funds" versus the

English word "to collect", which means "to gather together objects" (45). The English

meaning has transferred to the Spanish word. Different-sense calques are derived from

host words with senses that are different. As an example, in quierojugar la guitarra,

jugar reflects the English word "play". While it is standard to say in English, "I play the

guitar", when "play" is literally translated into Spanish usingjugar rather than tocar this

is considered a different-sense calque. Merged-form calques are those in which

phonological forms migrate from the influencing language. For instance, ruta versus

"root" (of a tree) instead of the standard form raiz. Independent-form calques are

different in phonological form from the influencing language, for examplejugar versus

"to play" (45).

The third type distinction is between duplicating versus innovating-message

calques. Duplicating calques are "strictly based on cognitive-referential grounds, for

example colectar cartas where the newly introduced sense of colectar contributes to

conveying a message that is almost identical to the existing message by coleccionar

postales (46). On the other hand, an innovating calque introduces a new sense or term

motivated by the need to communicate in Spanish notions that are nonexistent in that

language (46). An example of an innovating calque word is el Dia de dar las Gracias;

because this holiday is not present in Latin America or Spain, immigrants have had to

introduce a new expression to express "Thanksgiving Day" in Spanish. Although these

distinctions are necessary in order to understand the main basis of Otheguy, Garcia and

Fernandez' study, for the present study this distinction will not be further discussed.









Finally Giraldo (1985) further categorizes calques as grammatical calques,

translation calques, semantic calques, and idiomatic calques (Montes Giraldo 1985: 48).

Grammatical calques can either be syntactic or morphological, for example esperarpor is

used instead of the standard expression esperar a "to wait for" or disturbar instead of the

standard form molestar "to bother". On the other hand, translation calques are those that

maintain the same meaning from the host language, for example, mercado negro "black

market" andprensa amarilla "yellow press". Although the above are in their calqued

form, they are still widely accepted as the standard form. An example of semantic calques

would be the word casual for the English word "casual" instead of the appropriate

traditional forms, espontdneo, informal, or noplaneado. Finally, the last division

comprises calques that are referred to as idiomatic, for example, olvidalo instead of the

expected expression no te preocupes or despreocfupate "do not worry". It appears that

some calqued expressions in Latin America have become so popularized that their

standard form is rapidly disappearing.

The present study does not categorize loan words and calque words into any

particular group because the purpose here is to identify the extralinguistic factors that

impact the production of calques alone. Therefore, the focus is on the presence and

quantity of overall calque production among the participants, regardless of the specific

linguistic elements of each. The current research follows Silva-Corvalan's (1995) general

definition of a calque because of its relative clarity: a calque as the transfer of meaning

into an already existing lexical item.









Previous Research

In this section, previous work investigating the production of calques is reviewed.

Although these studies vary in methodology and focus, they are of interest here because

they can inform the design and findings in the present study.

The first study is Silva-Corvalan (1994), which analyzes three generational groups

of Mexicans or Mexican descendants residing in Los Angeles, California. She divided

each group according to the length of time that the speakers' families had lived in the

United States, as follows: Group I participants (N=4) were born in Mexico, but

immigrated to the United States after age eleven; Group II participants (N=2) were born

in the United States or who had moved to this country before the age of six; and Group

III participants (N=13) were born in the United States, and also had a parent who had

moved to the United States before the age of six or who was born in the United States.

She wanted to ensure that each participant had a certain level of bilingualism, so she

included only individuals who had resided in the United States for at least five years.

According to Silva-Corvalan the minimal time required for the development of some

degree ofbilingualism is five years (13).

Illustration I
Group I Group II Group III
Born in Mexico but immigrated Born in the U.S. or moved to Born in the U.S. and also had a
Born in the U.S. or moved to
to the U.S. after the age of parent who moved to U.S. before
U.S. before the age of six.
eleven. U. b e t age six or was born here

Silva-Corvalan's data included one-hour samples of oral speech from each of the

participants. Her main focus was on calques of bound collocations (idioms), which are

reproduced exactly with lexical units from the replica language. For example, the

standard expression estoy en bancarrota "I'm broke" is replaced by estoy quebrado/a

which literally means "I am broke" (256). She also studied lexico-syntactic calques,









which are multiple-word calques that alter semantic and /or grammatical features of the

replica language, such as te lamopara atrds "I will call you back", instead of the

traditional form, te llamo despuds or al rato (257).

Her results revealed that Mexicans in Los Angeles do not commonly incorporate

calques into their speech. For example, only one participant in Group I used calques,

providing only two in total. On the other hand, group II incorporated calques at a rate of

0.0 to 2.9 cases per ten minutes of conversation. The number of calques increases in

group III, which produced 0.6 to 2.1 calques per ten minutes of conversation. Her results

show that calques (both bound-collocations and lexico-syntactic calques) are not common

in the speech of the participants, regardless of generational groups.

Given that Silva-Corvalan only considered the division of generations in her study,

I opted to further her analysis by looking at a range of variables such as gender, income,

education, proficiency level in English and Spanish, and nationality in the present study.

The purpose of such an analysis is to determine the impact that such variables have in the

occurrence rate of calques across each generation.

Silva-Corvalan's calque study is informative; however, a possible weakness seems

to be the number of participants in each group. The difference in the numbers of

participants from group to group may have resulted in an imbalance in the data. Perhaps

the results would have been more reliable if her experiment had had an equal number of

participants in each group. This weakness has been corrected in the present study.

Another study of importance is Otheguy, Garcia & Fernandez' (1989), attempt to

determine the rate of loan words, calques and switching among two generational groups.

Their study is based on a corpus of 13,000 words, derived from twelve interviews with 12









participants belonging to two generations of Cuban Americans. All participants who took

part in their study resided in the New York/New Jersey area. The first generation group

included six participants that were born in Cuba and were all well into their adult years.

The second generation group included six participants that were born in the United

States, and between the ages of fifteen and twenty.

The results of the Otheguy, Garcia and Femandez study verify that the Cuban-born

participants used fewer calques, loanwords and switching in their speech than the

participants who were born in the United States. Although occurrences of lexical

interference did occur in both groups, their numbers were not significant. Both

generations together produced less than 1% in loan words and calques, while the

percentage for switching was slightly higher, at 2.5%. Nonetheless, these percentages are

still quite small. The researchers also show the increase that occurs from the first to the

second generation, expressed in percentage points, (Otheguy, Garcia, Femandez, 1989:

49). They found significantly higher rates for those born in the United States than those

born in Cuba. Loanwords had a 0.2 percentage point increase between generations and

switching had a 3.4 percentage point increase between generations. On the other hand,

calques had a 1.5 percentage point increase between generations. "This suggests that

what most distinguishes the speech of the second generation from that of the first is

calques and what distinguishes it the least is loanwords", (Otheguy, Garcia, Fernandez,

1989: 49), .

It has been stated in previous studies that calquing can only occur when the

individual is considered equally proficient in both languages (e.g., Sewell 2001 & Silva-

Corvalan 1994), but seems to contradict the conclusions in this study. Otheguy, Garcia









and Fernandez agree that the use of calquing indicates proficiency in both languages, and

that calquing marks stable bilingualism among bilinguals, but only in certain situations.

Consequently, they consider their results to be inconclusive because some types of

calques that were produced indicate that there is bilingual stability while other types

represent language shift. For example, only 5% of the calques were innovative and all of

those were all produced by the participants that were born in Cuba. For the most part, the

second generation used duplicating calques more often, indicating that they use calques

that displace existing, traditional Spanish message formulas (49). In other words, the type

of calquing that second generation participants include in their speech indicates that they

may be losing knowledge of the Spanish lexical system. On the other hand, some types

of calques indicate that bilingualism in the United States is stable. Similar-sense calquing

occurred 90% of the time, while different-sense calquing took place only 10% of the

time. Because similar-sense calques are less radical, they indicate stability in bilingualism

among Spanish-English bilinguals in the United States.

A later study by Otheguy and Garcia (1993) is also relevant to the present

discussion. In this study, no distinction is made between loan words, switches or calques.

Instead, the researchers place the three types of lexical borrowing in one category called

contact neologisms. Otheguy and Garcia investigate if the production of neologisms

increases or decreases according to cultural context, and base their findings on two

rounds of interviews. In the first interview, the participants answered questions as if they

were in Latin America. When the same subjects returned two months later for a second

interview, they answered questions as if they were in the United States. One of the

drawbacks in this methodology is that the participants had to pretend that they were in









Latin America during the interview, although they never left New York City, where both

of the interviews were conducted. Nevertheless, the results of the study showed that the

rate of contact neologisms increased in the second set of interviews, when the participants

imagined that they were in New York City. The two variables analyzed are the total

number of words produced and the number of contact neologisms found (within those

words).

The outcome of Otheguy and Garcia's analysis indicates that cultural context does

have an impact on the use of lexical borrowing, but the variety of topics discussed in the

interview did not. The researchers also examined extralinguistic factors such as gender,

level of education, nationality and age, and determined that these were not good

predictors in the production of neologisms. As they conclude, "the only good predictor is

whether the topic is being placed in one cultural context or the other" (Otheguy and

Garcia 1993: 150). The present study also analyzes extralinguistic factors such as gender,

level of education, and ethnicity, but in contrast to Otheguy and Garcia's study, context

will not be examined. Exploring the same factors as the above researchers will allow us

to support or disprove their claim that these factors have no impact on the production of

calques. In summary, their study provides important data on lexical interference among

bilinguals.

The results prove that contact neologisms are in fact a phenomenon that occurs

among Spanish-English bilinguals. The results obtained by Otheguy and Garcia were

partially contradicted by Montes Giraldo (1985). For his study, he uses a calque

definition similar to that of Silva-Corvalan (1994, 2002),









Montes Giraldo's data were culled from Colombian newspapers, magazines and

novels. He presents specific excerpts from texts that contain words in their calque form

instead of their traditional form. To illustrate, he found the word asumir in all 27

excerpts, but used in its calque sense "to assume" instead of its traditional sense "to

receive" or "to assimilate". He concluded that calques in these written texts occurred

more frequently than Otheguy and Garcia (1993) had reported when participants

imagined themselves to be in a Latin-American country. A plausible explanation for this

difference is the difference in methodology between the studies. Montes Giraldo's data

was elicited in a single country and did not incorporate hypothetical data.

Garcia, Fishman, Gertner and Burunat's (1985) work also provides a calque

analysis of written Spanish. Their study analyzes newspapers from three major parts of

the United States as well as three Latin American countries. Their sample consisted of

five 1980 issues each of La opinion (Los Angeles), Diario Las Americas (Miami), Diario

La Prensa (New York), Excelsior (Mexico), Gramma (Cuba), and ElMundo (Puerto

Rico). Only columns signed by local individuals and classified ads were analyzed in

each newspaper. Although they analyzed a variety of variables, their interest in English

influence (ie. calques and loan words) is relevant here. Although the results showed that

calques are present in written documents in the United States as well as in Spanish

speaking countries, the presence of loan words is more prevalent than the presence of

calques in the United States as well as in Spanish speaking countries. In the United

States, .99% of the samples consisted of loan words, while .37% were calques; in the

written texts from Spanish-speaking countries, .69% of the text consisted of loan words,

and only .12% were calques. The authors conclude that "although there are more loan









words than calques in both the United States and Spanish speaking countries, calques are

more diffused in the United States context than in the Spanish speaking context" (Garcia,

Fishman, Gertner & Burunat 1985: 90). Nonetheless, it is necessary to point out the

infrequency of these borrowings in their data. Neither loan words nor calques accounted

for even 1% of the texts.

Another significant study of calques was carried out by Sewell (2001), in which she

suggests that the frequency of calques might depend on whether one is translating from or

into his/ her dominant language. She included 26 participants who spoke both English

and French, divided into five groups according to their language background. The first

group consisted of 19 speakers whose native language was English but had resided in

France for a considerable time. The second group consisted of 3 speakers whose first

language was French and had resided in the UK for many years. The third group had 2

Anglophone African individuals who were educated in English, although English was not

their native language. Finally, the fourth and fifth groups consisted of 1 individual each,

one, whose native language was German, (who also spoke French) and the other who was

of Mauritian of Cantonese origin, who was mainly educated in French. Each group

provided a written translation of two texts, without benefit of a dictionary. The English

text consisted of a short excerpt from an article that appeared in an English newspaper,

and the French text was a passage from Albert Camus' 1957 short story, La Femme

adultere. Sewell analyzed calque production in French and in English as they related to

the participants' test. She found that the number of calques was greater when the

translation was from French into English (total of 132 calques) than English into French

(total of 26 calques) for all participants. Sewell's results also demonstrated that the









subjects who were proficient in both languages as shown on the test produced a higher

number of calques than those who were not equally proficient in both French and

English. To summarize, Sewell proved that calque production is higher when one is

translating from his/ her dominant language into a second language.

Lastly, a small scale study carried out by Dorado (2002) is also relevant to this

review, as its main goal was to investigate whether generational background impacts the

number of calques produced by Spanish-English bilinguals. This study also served as a

pilot study for the project described here. The data was obtained from three generational

groups of bilinguals in North Central Florida: Group I included participants who came to

the United States as adults, approximately in their early twenties; Group II included

participants who came to the United States between the ages eleven to nineteen and who

had lived in this country between one and ten years; and Group III was composed of

people who came to the United States before their eleventh birthday and had lived in the

United States most of their lives.

Dorado's (2002) data consisted of responses to a twenty-one question written

translation exercise, as well as a sixteen-question oral interview, each of which contained

phrases that were expected to prompt participants to use calques in their replies. The

results indicate that calquing does occur among bilinguals in this region although written

and oral modes resulted in different calquing rates. Overall, the written exercise showed a

higher percentage of calques than the oral exercise for all groups. Group I produced a rate

of 30% of calques in the written exercise and a rate of 12% in the oral exercise, while

Group II, produced 47% of calques in the written exercise versus 2.3% in the oral

exercise. Group III had a 38% calque rate in the written exercise and a 15% in the oral









exercise. These results are important because they support various studies that have also

indicated that individuals who immigrated to the U.S. after the age of 11 tend to produce

more calques than other generations. Additionally, this study went further, by comparing

oral and written communication and determining that there is in fact a difference in terms

of effect on calque production.

One problem with the studies presented above is that they do not target calques

alone but rather examine all kinds of borrowing. Therefore, in order to understand the

nature of calques specifically, the present only looks at calques, in terms of the variables

such as level of proficiency in Spanish and English, nationality, gender, education and

economic status that may have an impact on the production. This study is an extension of

Dorado (2002) in terms of focus and methodology. The findings discussed above sparked

the current interest in furthering this line of research, although several changes were

needed to obtain more conclusive findings, as will be described below.














CHAPTER 3
THE PRESENT STUDY

The primary purpose of this study, as has been stated above, is to explore the use of

calques among three age groups of individuals in Gainesville, Florida, and to investigate

whether extralinguistic factors such as education, economic status, gender, language

proficiency (in Spanish and English), and nationality are correlated with the number of

calques produced by Spanish-English bilinguals. It is hoped that the narrow focus of this

study will shed light on just how common calquing is, as well as on the factors that

condition it.

Research Questions

In light of the above information on bilingual calquing, the following research

questions motivated the present study:

1. Are there significant differences in the frequency of calques among the three age
groups?

2. What is the relationship between an individual's proficiency levels in Spanish and
English and his/ her rate of calquing?

3. How do the independent variables of educational background, income, nationality
and gender impact the number of calques individuals produced?

According to the studies discussed previously, (Garcia, Fishman, Gertner, &

Burunat 1985; Montes 1985; Otheguy & Garcia 1993; Otheguy, Garcia, & Fernmandez

1989; and Silva-Corvalan 1994) calquing is not as prevalent as other types of lexical

interference. By isolating this relatively infrequent lexical interference, it is hoped that

we can gain greater insight into the importance of the factors mentioned in the research









questions. It is hypothesized that most of the calquing will occur among those individuals

who were born in or came to the United States before the age of eleven; since this is the

group that has had the most simultaneous contact with both Spanish and English, they

have had the opportunity develop both proficiencies equally and to function in both.

Conversely, we may hypothesize that less calquing will occur among the older generation

that came to the United States as adults, due to the fact that they most likely will lack

proficiency in English.

Participants

This study analyzes data from a total of 20 English-Spanish bilinguals. Participants

were between eighteen and fifty-five years of age, but most were in their early to mid-

twenties. All the participants were either born in Cuba, Mexico or Puerto Rico or had

parents who had been born in those countries, and all participants currently live in

Gainesville, Florida. These three countries of origin were chose because their populations

represent the greatest Hispanic populations in the United States. In Florida, Cuban

immigrants are the most prevalent particularly in the Miami area. The Puerto Ricans

population is the second highest among Hispanics in Florida, especially in cities like

Tampa and Orlando. Mexicans, on the other hand, are relatively scarce in Florida,

although many Mexicans travel to Gainesville to work in construction and many decide

to stay.

The categorization of participants into three groups was carried out following

Silva-Corvalan's (1994) criteria. Group I contains six participants who came to the

United States from Puerto Rico, Mexico or Cuba as adults in their twenties and have

resided in the United States for more than six years. This six year cut-off was chosen in

accordance with Silva-Corvalan's proposal that it takes five years for a person to develop









a level of bilingualism. Group II also contains six participants, although these came to the

United States between the ages of eleven and eighteen. In this case, eleven was chosen as

the cut-off age because it is considered by many to be the critical age by which the

structures of one's native language are firmly acquired (Silva-Corvalan, 1994: 15). The

members of this group have lived in this country between one and ten years. Finally,

Group III contains eight participants, all of whom came to the United States before the

age of eleven or were born in the United States. Consequently these participants have

lived most, if not all, of their lives in the United States.

Some of the participants belonged to Hispanic organizations on the University of

Florida campus and were recruited to participate through those organizations. This

method of finding participants, however, had a drawback, because only college students,

were found in these meetings. The rest of the participants, representing a more diverse

group, were found at shopping centers, gyms, restaurants and grocery stores in

Gainesville, Florida. Participants who agreed to participate in the study were asked to

sign a consent form, complete a demographics questionnaire and take part in a written

translation exercise, a question/answer session with the researcher, and an open-ended

interview. These tasks are discussed in greater detail in the following section.

Tasks

Each participant completed a demographics questionnaire that included 17

questions about their background such as gender, age, place of birth, educational

background, economic status, proficiency level in Spanish and English, etc. The complete

survey is provided in Appendix B. Independent evaluations of proficiency levels in

Spanish and English were not made. While self-reporting has been shown to have some









discrepancies, the information provided by participants is valuable because it offers an

insight into how the participant views his/her own language skills.

The participants then completed a 21-item written translation exercise, a 16- item

oral question/answer exercise, and an open-ended interview. The exercises and questions

for the open interview are included in Appendices C, D and E respectively. The items

included in the written translation and question/answer exercises were specifically

intended to prompt participants to use calques, in that all the items contained words that

are commonly calqued among Spanish-English bilinguals. For example, the written

translation exercise contained such phrases, as "I get excellent grades". The participants

were expected to provide either the standard answer Yo tengo buenas notas or the

hypothesized calqued answer Yo tengo buenos grados. The calque triggers included in

the written translation exercise and question/answer oral exercise were modeled after

those used by Silva-Corvalan (1994). In all tasks, participants were asked to use only

Spanish. Participants were given 30 minutes to complete the written translation exercise.

Participants were not allowed to discuss their answers with the researcher during

administration.

In the oral question/answer exercise, participants were required to be more

spontaneous in their replies. The questions were asked in English by the researcher, and

participants were told to answer in complete sentences in Spanish. An example of a

question in this exercise, also intended to trigger a calque, is: "Do you love your car?"

The expected calqued answer would be, Si, amo mi carro "Yes, I love my car", while the

standard answer would be, Si me encanta mi carro "Yes, I love my car".









Lastly, a 2-3 minute open interview was conducted with each participant, dealing

with a variety of topics such as the participant's high school experience or dreams and

goals for the future, etc. Only the results of the written and oral question/answer exercise

are presented in the following sections. The open ended interview did not result in any

calque production in any of the groups, and therefore it will not be further discussed here.

The results presented the number of calques produced by each participant. A calque

percentage rate was then computed by dividing the number of calques by the total

number of words produced and then multiplying by 100.
















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

For clarity, results are presented by group. In the discussion section all data are

analyzed as a whole.

Group I

Demographics

As stated above, this group consists of those who came to the United States as

adults, in their twenties. Table 1 provides a summary of the group characteristics.

Table 1: Demographic background for Group I

A Arrival Proficiency Proficiency
Nationality Gender g Education Income age in the Level in Level in
e U.S. Spanish English

Participant 3 $25-
Participant Cuba F BA $25- 27 Excellent Good
I-1 9 $30,000
Par t 6 $60,000-
P t Cuba M 6 MA more 20 Excellent Excellent
I-2 4
Participant o F 3 High $25- 25 Good Good
Mexico F 25 Good Good
I-3 8 School $30,000
Participant 3 High $25-
P t Mexico M3 High $25- 27 Excellent Poor
I-4 3 School $30,000
Participant Puerto Rico F 4 MA$40- 28 Excellent Good
I-5 4 $55,000
Participant 5 $40-
Participant Puerto Rico F 5 PhD$40- 35 Excellent Excellent
I-6 3 $55,000

This table shows information regarding eight variables that were taken into

consideration in the analysis. As can be seen, the ages among these participants varied

from 33-64. There were 4 females and 2 males. Their place of birth varied, with 2

participants from Puerto Rico, 2 from Cuba and 2 from Mexico. The number of years that

the participants have lived in this country range from 6 to 44. Two out of the six










participants have completed or are in the process of completing a Master's degree, and

one of the six participants has a Doctorate degree. All participants consider Spanish to be

their dominant language. In addition, all the participants reported in their demographics

questionnaire that they had Spanish-speaking friends and almost always spoke Spanish to

them. All but one of the participants reported that they have excellent proficiency in

Spanish, and three of the six claimed to have a good proficiency level in English. Only

one of them believed that his proficiency level in English was poor. Also, worth noting is

the considerable variation in annual income: three participants earned $25,000-$30,000,

two participants earned $40,000-$55,000 and one of them earned more than $60,000.

Caiques

Table 2 shows the percentages of calques produced by each individual in the

written and oral exercises. Recall that only prompted data is discussed here; in other

words, the data included were obtained only from the oral question/answer exercise and

the written translation exercise only.

Table 2 Number and relative percentage of all calque occurrences for Group I
Written calques Oral calques
Number Percentages Number Percentages
Participant I- 1/
5/11 45% 5/15 33%
Cuban
Participant I-2/
2/11 18% 0/13 0%
Cuban
Participant I-3/
6/13 46% 8/16 50%
Mexican
Participant I-4/
1/10 1% 0/11 0%
Mexican
Participant I-5/
3/11 27% 2/15 13%
Puerto Rican
Participant I-6/
4/10 40% 3/15 20%
Puerto Rican
Total 21/66 32% 18/85 21%

Most of the participants did not fully complete either exercise due to time

constraints. Many were only able to sacrifice 20-30 minutes for the process. Although this









resulted in somewhat inconsistent participation, all data were considered valuable and are

considered in the analysis.

The second column in Table 2 presents the number of calques that each participant

employed in their writing, taken from the total number of translations that participants

completed. It is clear here that most participants finished only about half of 21 items. As

a result, the number of possible calques was reduced from 126 (21 items X 6 participants)

to 66. In order to compare these raw numbers, the next column converts each

participant's production to a percentage (number of items containing calques divided by

the number of items completed, then multiplied by 100). The resulting percentage can be

considered the participants' rate of calque production in the experimental tasks. Group I

as a whole produced a total of 21 calques out of 66 possibilities in the written exercise, a

rate of 32% calquing.

The results for the oral question/answer exercise were also impacted by the number

of exercises each participant was able to complete. These numbers are presented in the

fourth and fifth columns of Table 2, as raw numbers and percentages, respectively. In

this exercise, Group I produced a total of 18 calques out of 85 possible chances, for a rate

of 21%. We will see below that this was the smallest percentage of calque use of all three

groups.

Group II

Demographics

Participants in Group II include those who came to the United States after the age

of eleven but before the age of eighteen. Table 3 presents the relevant demographic

information for the participants in










Table 3: Demographic background for Group II

Arrival Proficiency Proficiency
Nationality Gender Age Education Income age in Level in Level in
the U.S. Spanish English

Participant Cuba F 22 BA$10- 14 Excellent Good
II-1 20,000
Participant Cuba M 22 BA $150- 13 Excellent Excellent
II-2 200,000
Participant Mexico M 19 BA $10- 17 Excellent Poor
II-3 20,000
Participant Mexico M 21 BA$40- 12 Excellent Good
II-4 55,000
Participant Puerto F 19 High $10- Good Good
F 19 11 Good Good
11-5 Rico school 20,000
Participant Puerto A $10- 18
M 35 BA 18 Good Good
II-6 Rico 20,000

There were two females and four males in Group II. Five of the participants were

younger than twenty-two years old, while the sixth was in his 30s. The ethnic breakdown

was the same as Group I, with 2 Cubans, 2 Mexicans and 2 Puerto Ricans. All but one

participant were in the process of obtaining their Bachelor's degree at the time of the

experiment.

All but one participant considered Spanish to be their dominant language. This is

interesting because according Silva-Corvalan (2001), these age groups usually adopt

linguistic elements around them rapidly in order to seek the acceptance of the

homogenous predominant group (102). In this case, though the young participants have

kept close contact with their first language, despite having resided in the United States for

several years. Four of the six participants rated their proficiency level in Spanish as

excellent, while the other two evaluated their Spanish as good. On the other hand, only

one person thought that his proficiency level in English was excellent, one rated it as poor

and the rest of the participants said that they had a good level of proficiency in English.










Most of the people in Group II earned between $10,000 to $20,000 per year, and

one was in the $40,000-$55,000 range. This relatively low income bracket may be at least

partially explained by the fact that five of the six participants were still students. The

other participant earned a yearly salary between $150,000 and $200,000.

Caiques

Table 4 presents the occurrences of calques in the written and oral responses of the

participants in Group II.

Table 4: Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group II
Written calques Oral calques
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Participant II-1/
Participant 111/ 14/21 67% 3/14 21%
Cuban
Participant II- 2/ 45
5/11 45% 4/15 27%
Cuban
Participant II-3/ 11 45 3/13 23
Mexican
Participant II-4/ 6/11 55 5/14 36
Mexican
Participant II-5/ 7
7/12 58% 5/15 33%
Puerto Rican
Participant II-6/
4/10 40% 4/15 27%
Puerto Rican
Total 41/76 54% 24/86 28%

As with the first group's findings, the second column illustrates the number of

calques that each participant used in his/her writing, out of the total number of

translations that each participant completed. The total percentage of calques in the written

exercise was a rate of 54%. The fourth column of table 4 presents the results for the oral

question/answer exercise. The group as a whole only produced a rate of 28% calques in

the question/answer exercise










Group III

Demographics

This group includes people who were born in the United States or moved here

before the age of 11. Table 5 presents the relevant demographic information for the

participants in this group.

Table 5: Demographic background for Group III
Arrival Proficiency Proficiency
Ethnicity Gender Age Education Income age in Level in Level in
the USA Spanish English
ParticipantCuba M 19 BA$10- 1 Excellent Excellent
III-1 20,000
Participant F 21 BA$10 Born Good Excellent
III-2 20,000
Participant Cuba F 19 BA No Born Good Excellent
III-3 income
Participant $25-
Participant Mexico F 19 BA$25- Born Excellent Excellent
III-4 30,000
Participant Mexico F 19 BA No 4 Good Excellent
III-5 income
Participant Mexico M 21 High $10- 8 Excellent Excellent
III-6 School 20,000
Participant Puerto $10-
M 21 BA Born Good Excellent
III-7 Rico 20,000
Participant Puerto No
M 21 BA 10 Good Good
III-8 Rico income

This group had a relatively young average age, ranging from 19 to 21. There were 3

Cubans, 3 Mexicans and 2 Puerto Ricans. In contrast to Groups I and II, which only had

participants that were born in other countries, Group III had four participants born in the

United States. There were 4 females and 4 males.

The level of education for this group was as high as in Group II. All participants

except one were in the process of finishing their bachelor's degree. Their overall income

was rather low, ranging between $10,000 and $20,000 per year although again this may

be explained by their student status. One person had a yearly salary of $25,000 to

$30,000, while two had no yearly income.










The participants in this group differed from those of the first and second groups in

that all but 2 considered their dominant language to be English. Of the other 2

participants, one said Spanish was his dominant language, and the other said that he

considered himself equally dominant in both English and Spanish. Most of the

participants in this group said that their level of proficiency in English was excellent,

while one subject indicated that his proficiency level in English was good. On the other

hand, three stated that their proficiency level in Spanish was excellent and five classified

it as good. All of them commented that Spanish was as important to them as English

because they use both languages to communicate with their family members.

Caiques

Table 6 presents the number of occurrences in both the written and oral exercises

among Group III. The final percentage was calculated from a total number of 152 calques

possible (all the possible occurrences of calques within the written exercise). Note that in

this group most participants were able to complete both tasks.

Table 6. Number and relative percentage of calque occurrences for Group III
Written caiques Oral caiques
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Participant III-1/
Participant 111-1/ 5/21 24% 4/15 27%
Cuban
Participant 111-2/ 11/21 52% 7/15 47
Cuban
Participant 111-3/ 8/21 38 2/15 13
Cuban
Participant 111-4/ 7/21 33 1/16 .08
Mexican
Participant III-5/
Participant 111-5/ 4/13 31% 3/14 21%
Mexican
Participant 111-6/ 5/13 38 4/15 27
Mexican
Participant 111-7/ 10/21 48 7/16 44
Puerto Rican
Participant 111-8/ 3/21 14 2/16 12
Puerto Rican
Total 58/152 38% 33/118 28%






32


Group III produced calques in 38% of the written exercise and in 28% of the oral

exercise. This pattern is similar to that of Group I. There was a slight difference between

the oral results and the written results for Group III. The percentage of oral calques that

the participants produced was only 28%, compared to 38% for the written exercise.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The following section reviews these findings as a whole in an attempt to answer the

research questions that motivated the study. The first issue discussed is if there are

significant differences in the frequency of calques among the three age groups.

According to the results, Group II calqued the most, while Group I calqued the least. The

high incidence of calquing in Group II might be explained by the fact that it was

composed of individuals that came to the United States between the ages of eleven and

eighteen. Because they came after the age of eleven, it is possible that they have not fully

acquired the structures of English. Note that this does not mean that Group II's

proficiency level in English is poor, only that it is lower than their level of Spanish. These

results contradict Silva-Corvalan's (1994) study, in which she found that participants that

came to the U.S. after the age of eleven calqued the least. It might be argued that the

difference between results in the two studies could be due to the methodology employed

by each researcher. For instance, Silva-Corvalan (1994) only analyzed data from open-

ended interviews, while the present study analyzed prompted data in a written and an oral

exercise, which could lead to greater calquing than natural or spontaneous conversation.

In contrast to Group II, Group I produced the least calques in both exercises. Their

low numbers may be due to their late acquisition of English, an outcome which is

supported by Silva-Corvalan's (1994). The current results also agree with those of

Otheguy, Garcia and Fernandez (1989), who specified that the first generation (people

born in Cuba) calqued less than those of the second generation (people of Cuban descent









born in the United States). Therefore, these results show that generational background

does have an impact on the use of calques.

The second question that will be discussed is the nature of the relationship between

an individual's proficiency level in Spanish and English and his/her rate of calquing.

Recall that Otheguy & Garcia (1993) affirmed that calquing has no correlation with any

linguistic factors, ascribing it rather to the fact that no two cultures are identical, making

calquing necessary for effective communication to take place between speakers (136). In

the present study, level of proficiency in either language was shown to be a possible

explanation for the level of calque production only in certain individuals. For instance,

participant I-4 regarded himself as having a poor level of proficiency in English and an

excellent level of proficiency in Spanish. He produced the least calquing: only 1% of his

written answers contained calques, and he produced none in the question/answer

exercise. This may confirm previous affirmations that in order for calquing to take place,

the proficiency level in both English and Spanish has to be considered good to excellent.

For example, participant I-3 produced the most calquing in Group I, a rate of 46% of

calques in the written translation exercise and 50% in the question/answer exercise. This

participant reported good proficiency in both English and Spanish. Another participant

who showed a high percentage of calquing in comparison to the other participants was

III-7, who had a calquing rate of 48% in the written translation exercise and 44% in the

question/answer exercise. He considered himself to have good proficiency in Spanish and

excellent level in English. These results are supported by Silva-Corvalan (1994), where

she indicates that more proficient speakers are able to display linguistic creativity and

thus are able to incorporate calques into their speech (183). This evidence would lead us









to conclude that a person who is proficient in both languages will have a higher

production of calques than an individual who is not proficient in one of the languages,

although in the current data we can only base this conclusion on the data of some

individuals.

The third research question asked how dependent variables such as education,

economic status, nationality and gender might impact the number of calques individuals

produced. Each group had individuals who calqued more than others and it is these

differences we can examine to determine if certain factors correlate to calque use. We

turn first to education.

Education does not seem to influence the production of calques among the

participants. The rates were similar across all levels of education. For example, those

participants that only had a high school diploma produced a rate of 40% of calques, those

with a Bachelor of Arts' degree had a rate of 41%, and those with a Doctorate degree had

a rate of 40% in calque production. The only participants that showed a slight difference

from the numbers above are those with a Master's degree, with a rate of 23%. The only

plausible explanation may be one that has nothing to do with education: although both

participants work and live in the U.S, these two reported that they go back to their

countries for 3 to 4 months at a time. This means that because they get the opportunity to

spend a considerable amount of time in their native country, they are able to maintain

direct contact with Spanish and therefore maintain their native-like language skills.

Another variable that was examined is economic status. Recall that this variable has

not been treated extensively in previous work, so it is of especial interest here. However,

the results for economic status appear to be inconclusive because there are contradictions









among the data. For example, participant 11-2, whose yearly income of $150,000-

$200,000 was among the highest produced one of the highest rates of calques among all

participants, while participant III-8, who had no income, produced one of the lowest rates

of calques among all three groups. Many other participants who had high incomes also

produced high numbers of calques, while a number of low-income participants produced

small numbers of calques and vice versa. These rates may lead us to believe high income

correlates to high calque use, but the data are not uniformly conclusive. Participants such

as I-2 belong in the high income bracket ($60,000 or more) but produced the smallest rate

of calquing among all three groups, while participant II-1 belongs in the low income

bracket, ($10,000-20,000) but produced the highest rate of calques in all the groups.

Based on these results, we can not determine conclusively the correlation between

economic status and the production of calques among Spanish-English bilinguals,

although this area indeed merits further attention.

The third variable analyzed is gender. There were slight differences between males

and females in the number of calques produced in all groups. Women produced a slightly

higher number of calques than their male counterparts, generally speaking. For example,

in Group II males produced a rate of 47% calques, while the females produced a rate of

64%. In Group I, the women were also the higher producers of calques, with an even

higher differential: the females had a rate of 40% of calques while the males had a rate of

14%. In Group III the women produced a rate of 40% calques, with males at 30%.

Table 7 Group results for gender
Gender Group I Group II Group III
Males 14% 47% 30%
Females 40% 64% 40%









Although these differences are large, it can still be theorized that gender may have some

impact on the production of calques. It is important to note that according to Silva-

Corvalan (2001), women are not usually initiators of new linguistic variables (98).

Women are often categorized as speaking conservatively and maintaining standard

grammatical, semantic and lexical variables. Women have been known to embrace new

linguistic variables only when they have no negative connotations within the community

(Silva-Corvalan 2001: 98). This is interesting in the light of these results since a certain

amount of stigma is associated with lexical interference such as calques (Clarkson 1977:

965), and yet we still see the females are producing more calques.

Table 8 Results for nationality
Cubans 43%
Mexicans 39%
Puerto Ricans 36%

The last variable discussed is how the participants from different ethnic

nationalities (Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and Mexicans) evidence different rates of calquing.

According to these results, nationality does not appear to impact the production of

calques, as the rates were similar across each nationality. For example, Cubans had a rate

of 43% written calques, Mexicans had a rate of 39% and Puerto Ricans produced a rate of

36% in the written translation exercise. The results of the oral question/answer exercise

contain a similar rate among all three nationalities Cubans produce a calquing rate of

25%; Mexicans a rate of 24% and Puerto Ricans had a total rate of 28%.

To summarize the above, the results show that gender is the only variable that can

be correlated with the production of calquing and education can not. This is supported by

Otheguy & Garcia (1993), but disputed by Silva-Corvalan (1994). According to Silva-






38


Corvalan (1994) educational background may be correlated with the production of

calques among Spanish-English bilinguals. The results for economic status are

inconclusive, but according to Silva-Corvalan economic status does impact the use of

calques. Lastly, nationality does not impact the production of calques.














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

This study has been able to provide tentative answers for all the research questions

posed. It has been shown that education, economic status, and nationality do not appear

to have substantial correlation with the production of calques in this participant group,

while generational group, proficiency level in Spanish and English and gender do

correlate with calque production. It could be argued that, since this study treats education,

economic status and gender individually, and does not correlate them with other factors,

such as their attitudes toward the maintenance of Spanish and/or how frequently they use

Spanish in their daily lives, this could be the cause for the results. Perhaps in future

works, each of these factors can further be associated with other factors, such as in Silva-

Corvalan (2002), for the outcome to prove otherwise.

Limitations and Future Direction

These results are of interest to the growing bilingual community, especially in

Florida. Nonetheless, there were several limitations to this study. The main drawback was

the number of exercises that the participants completed. Recall that the written translation

exercise contained twenty-one items, of which most participants answered only about

half. The same was true for the oral question/answer exercise, which was composed of 16

items total, of which participants again only answered a portion. Although percentages

were used to help normalize the results, this disparity may have altered the overall

findings. In future studies, it is important to insist on consistency in order to obtain strong

and more reliable results. Another limitation of the present study is the number of









females and males in each group. Group II and III had an equal distribution of males and

females but Group I did not. Future work should ensure an equal number of females and

males in each group in order for any analysis regarding the role of gender to be reliable

and accurate.

An additional limitation with the results is that participants self-reported their

proficiency levels in English and Spanish. This method is, of course, wholly subjective,

and is not corroborated by other data. For example, several participants in this study said

that they were equally proficient in both English and Spanish, but informal conversation

with them before and after data collection revealed to the researcher that they in fact had

difficulty expressing themselves in one of the languages. To avoid this drawback in

future work, proficiency levels should be determined in a more objective manner, for

example, as Sewell (2001) had her participants take a language test that tested their

proficiency levels in both French and English.

Another drawback of this study is that casual conversation was not analyzed.

Recall that the 2-3 minute open-ended interview with the participants yielded no

instances of calques. The lack of calques in the results may be related to three main

factors: time, the researcher and the tape recorder. Since participants were only provided

with 2-3 minutes for this portion, they had a tendency to provide very concise and simple

answers. Also, the presence of the researcher and the tape recorder caused several

participants to be uncomfortable, so that they either spoke English or asked the researcher

a lot of questions. For future studies it might be preferable to record long conversations

between individuals without the presence of the researcher.









A further limitation of my study is that the participants who were categorized as

poor or as belonging in the lower economic level were students. This possibly may be a

discrepancy because it is obvious that most students will not have a full time job and

therefore depend on their parents for financial support. In future work, researchers should

take into consideration the parent's economic status if students are involved, or attempt to

control for difference in lifestyles.

The purpose of this study was to find out which extralinguistic factors have an

impact on calque production and which do not. And, in spite of the potential drawbacks,

this study has been successful in supporting the findings of previous studies that showed

that extralinguistic factors such as education, economic status, and nationality do not

impact the production of calques, while proficiency level in both English and Spanish,

gender and generational background seem to influence the production of calques.
















APPENDIX A
INFORMED CONSENT

Protocol Title: Spanish-English bilinguals in Gainesville, Florida: A cross-generational study of the use of
calques.
Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.
Purpose of the research study: To measure different linguistic features such as calques. A calque
is the meaning of a word that is transferred from one language to another, for example, application
(English) and aplicaci6n (Spanish). The word aplicacidn is not a word in Spanish but because of
the English influence the speaker may turn it into a word in Spanish.
What you will be asked to do in the study: First, you will complete a short questionnaire with your
demographic information and about your language use. Second, we will continue with a 10 minute
interview. Followed by a short oral and written translation exercise. Finally, you will allow the
researcher to use the questionnaires that you complete for linguistic analysis.
Time required: A total of approximately 30 minutes will be needed.
Risks: There are no anticipated risks to you by participating in this study.
Compensation: Participants will receive no compensation for their participation.
Benefits: Your participation in this study will allow us to understand better certain language choices that
bilinguals such as yourself make in your everyday lives. Consequently, we as researchers and
teachers will better understand the nature of language and how it can be taught and learned.
Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. The questionnaires
you fill out will not have any form of codification, and your name will not be asked for nor used.
Only the researcher's advisor and the researcher will have access to the questionnaires you filled
out in this project and the data that is audio recorded. Your name will not be used in any report
and all audio files will be destroyed when data analysis is complete.
Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for
not participating.
Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without
consequence.
Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Dorian Dorado, M.A. student in Spanish Linguistics, Department of Romances Languages and
Literatures, 170 Dauer Hall, PO Box 117405, 392 2016, ddorado@ufl.edu
Dr. Gillian Lord, Assistant Professor, Department of Romances Languages and Literatures, 170
Dauer Hall, PO Box 117405, 392 2016, glord@rll.ufl.edu

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433.
Agreement:
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I
have received a copy of this description.
Participant (Name & Signature):
Date:














APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHICS QUESTIONNAIRE


1. Male Female
2. Age
3. Place of birth
4. Places where you grew up
5. How long have you lived in the U.S.A
6. Nationality (i.e. Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican)
7. Where does your family live?
8. Have you visited a Spanish-speaking country? Which one?
For how long?
9. What is the highest level of education you have received?
Primary school High School Bachelors degree
Masters degree Doctorate Degree
10. Did you study Spanish in school? How many years?
11. What is your profession?
12. Estimated income (circle only one) $10,000-$20,000 $25,000-$30,000
$40,000-$55,000 $60,000+
13. Do you have friends that speak Spanish?
14. With what frequency do you speak Spanish to them?
Never 25% 50% 75% almost always
15. What do you consider to be your dominant language? Circle one
Spanish English
16. What is your proficiency level in Spanish?
Excellent Good Poor
17. What is your proficiency level in English?
Excellent Good Poor














APPENDIX C
WRITTEN TRANSLATION EXERCISE


Note: Spanish translations and possible calques are given here, although neither
was provided tothe participants.
1 Yesterday I went to the playground with my friend and her daughter because it
was Saturday.
Spanish: patio (de escuela) Calque: patio dejuegos
2 On weekdays I usually go to work and go out for dinner.
Spanish: dias de trabajo Calque: dias de semana
3 My answering machine is broken!
Spanish: contestador automdtico Calque: mdquina de contestar
4. I get excellent grades at school.
Spanish: notas Calque: grados
5. Today I am going to ask for an application at Macy's.
Spanish: solicitud Calque: aplicaci6n
6. I get the newspaper everyday except on Saturdays.
Spanish: diario/peri6dico Calque: papel
7. How do you like the soup?
Spanish: Te gusta la sopa? Calque: C6mo te gusta la sopa?
8. Going to the movies is one way to have a good time.
Spanish: pasar un buen momento/pasarlo bien Calque: tener un buen tiempo
9. How did you like the movie?
Spanish: Te gust6 lapelicula? Calque: C6mo te gust6 lapelicula?
10. My dad is 6 ft tall?
Spanish: Mi padre mide 6'. Calque: Mi padre es 6".
11. Ana doesn't know how to read.
Spanish: Ana no sabe leer. Calque: Ana no sabe c6mo leer.
12. I am waiting for her.
Spanish: La estoy esperando. Calque: Estoy esperandopor ella.
13. We had respect for them.
Spanish: Nosotros les teniamos respeto.
Calque: Nosotros les teniamos respeto para ellos.
14. Now the house is 150,000 dollars.
Spanish: la casa cuesta Calque: la casa es
15. The carpet in your house is brown.
Spanish: la alfombra Calque: la carpeta
16. My sister has three credit cards.
Spanish: tarjeta/ tarjeta de cr&dito Calque: tarjeta de plastico
17. I have two more months of classes at the university.
Spanish: tengo dos meses mds Calque: tengo dos mds meses
18. I was working under several people.






45


Spanish: Estaba trabajando con varias personas.
Calque: Estaba trabajando debajo varias personas
19. I was born 10 miles from Mexico City.
Spanish: Naci a 10 millas de la ciudad de Mexico.
Calque: Naci 10 millas afuera de la ciudad de Mexico.
20. My parents are from a different generation.
Spanish: una generaci6n diferente Calque: una diferente generaci6n














APPENDIX D
QUESTION AND ANSWER ORAL EXERICSE

Note: Spanish translations and possible calques are given here, although neither
was provided tothe participants.
1. Do you love your car?
Spanish: Me encanta mi carro. Calque: Amo mi carro.
2. What do you do for fun?
Spanish: pasar un buen moment Calque: tener un buen tiempo
3. How tall is your mother?
Spanish: mide Calque: es
4. Do you like to bat at baseball games?
Spanish: golpear/ darle Calque: batear
5. Do you like to catch the ball at baseball games?
Spanish: agarrar/ coger Calque: cachar
6. What disturbs your serenity?
Spanish: molester Calque: disturber
7. Do you write letters to your mother
Spanish: cartas Calque: letras
8. Do you often assume that everything will be okay in the future?
Spanish: suponer Calque: asumir
9. Do you change your mind a lot?
Spanish: cambiar de opinion Calque: cambiar de mente
10. Did you & your friends like to work? (Nosotros)
Spanish: si/ nos gustaba Calque: si/ no nos gustdbamos
11. Who is the most important person in your life?
Spanish: la persona mas important Calque: la mas important persona
12. In order to pray, do you get on your knees?
Spanish: estar de rodillas Calque: estar en rodillas
13. Do you prefer to mop or sweep?









Spanish: trapear Calque: mopea
14. Do you get to work on time?
Spanish: tiempo Calque: en tiemp
15. Did you like high school?
Spanish: secundaria Calque: escuela alta
16. Do you like to attend school events?
Spanish: asistir Calque: tender














APPENDIX E
QUESTIONS FOR OPEN INTERVIEW

1. Tell me about your family. Describe them. Include details.

2. Give me driving directions to the Mall.

3. Tell me about a dream that you have had.

4. What do you like best about the United States? The least?

5. Tell me about a trip that you have taken in the past.

6. What makes you happy?

7. Tell me about your high school.

8. What are you dreams and goals for the future?

9. What do you like best about the University of Florida?

10. What do you like to do on the weekends?















LIST OF REFERENCES

American Heritage College Dictionary (1997). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Arlotto, A. (1972). Introduction to historical linguistics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt.

Casagrande, J. (1954). Comanche linguistic acculturation. International Journal of
American Linguistics, 20, 140-151.

Clarkson, W. (1977). The Vernacular vs. Standard Spanish in the bilingual classroom:
Implications for teacher training programs for Chicanos. Hispania, 60, 965-967.

Dorado, D. (2002). A cross-generational study of the use of calques. Unpublished pilot
study, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Garcia, O., Fishman, J. A., Gertner, M. & Burunat, S. (1985). Written Spanish in the
United States: an analysis of the Spanish of the ethnic press. International Journal
of the Sociology of Language, 56, 85-98.

Hammink, J. E. (2000). A comparison of the code switching behavior and knowledge of
adults and children. Retrieved July 7, 2005, from http://www.web.ask.com.

Haugen, E. (1938). Language and immigration. Norwegian-American Studies and
Records, 10, 1-43.

Hockett, C. (1973). Man placee in nature. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hoffmann, C. (1991). Introduction to bilingualism. New York: Longman Singapore
Publishers.

Lozano, G. A. (1974). Grammatical notes on Chicano Spanish. The Bilingual Review, 1,
147- 151.

Montes Giraldo, J. (1985). Calcos recientes del ingles en espahol. Thesaurus, 40, 17-50.

Montes Giraldo, J. (2000). Algo mas sobre posibles calcos semanticos procedentes del
ingles. Boletin de la Academia Colombiana, 51, 97-99.

Otheguy, R. (1993). A reconsideration of the notion of loan translation in the analysis of
U.S. Spanish. In Roca, A. & Lipski, J. (Eds.), Spanish in the United States:
Linguistic contact and diversity (pp. 21-45). New York: Mouton de Gruyter









Otheguy, R. & Garcia, O. (1988). Diffusion of lexical innovations in the Spanish of
Cuban-Americans. In Orstein, J. & Bixler-Mirquez, D. (Eds.), Research issues and
problems in United States Spanish (pp. 203-241). Brownsville, Texas: Pan
American University.

Otheguy, R. & Garcia, O. (1993). Convergent conceptualizations as predictors of degree
of contact in U.S Spanish. In Roca, A. & Lipski, J. (Eds.), Spanish in the United
States: Linguistic contact and diversity (pp. 135-154). New York: Mouton de
Gruyter.

Otheguy, R., Garcia, O., & Fernandez, M. (1989). Transferring, switching, and modeling
in West New York Spanish: An intergenerational study. International Journal of
the Sociology of Language, 79, 41-52.

Pei, M. (1978). Glossary of linguistic terminology. New York: Ancher books.

Sewell, M. (2001). The occurrence of calques in translation. Meta, 46, 607-615.

Silva-Corvalan, C. (1994). Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. New
York: Clarendon Press. (Reprinted [2002])

Silva-Corvalin, C. (1995). Lexico-syntactic modeling across the bilingual continuum. In
Fisiak, J. (Ed.), Trends in linguistics, studies and monographs 81: Linguistic
change under contact conditions (pp.253-270). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.

Silva-Corvalin, C. (2001). Si,, i ,lillgu i\i' i y pragmdatica del espaiol. Washington, D.C.:
Georgetown University Press.

Smead, R. (1998). English loanwords in Chicano Spanish: Characterization and
rationale. The Bilingual Review, 23, 113-123.

Smead, R. & Clegg H. (1996). English calques in Chicano Spanish. In Roca, A. &
Jensen, J. (Eds.), Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism (pp. 123-129).
Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Trask, R L. (1997). A student's dictionary of language and linguistics. New York: St.
Martin's Press Inc.

Turano, A. (1974). The speech of little Italy. In Moquim, W. & Van Doren, C. (Eds.),
A documentary history ofItalian Americans. New York: Praeger.

Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. New York: Publications of the Linguistic
society of New York.

Whitney, W. D (1881). On mixture of language. Transactions of the American
Philological Association, 12, 5-26.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dorian Dorado was born in Mexico City, Mexico, and has lived in the United

States most of her life. Consequently, she grew up speaking both Spanish and English.

Because of her bilingual background, she has always been interested in the linguistic

processes that are found in the speech of bilinguals. Due to her interest in this field, in

May 2006, she will be completing her Master of Arts degree in Spanish linguistics. She

also will further her education by completing her doctorate in Spanish linguistics,

specializing in Spanish-English bilinguals in the United States.