<%BANNER%>

Consequences of Childhood Abuse on Violence Perpetration among Hispanic Adolescents: A Partial Test of General Strain Theory

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101119_AAAAAQ INGEST_TIME 2010-11-19T07:31:57Z PACKAGE UFE0014060_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 72438 DFID F20101119_AAAIRI ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH matheny_j_Page_58.jpg GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
7661a91ab0fddc103133275112408e04
SHA-1
5f8314d2284dc649e51dc125b3a44aeda6414c94
73076 F20101119_AAAIRJ matheny_j_Page_59.jpg
1166508e1ed75bbc18cfc75eacfe6b5d
ccdab50415251431faa3f8a0de073dfb3b589206
79174 F20101119_AAAIQU matheny_j_Page_44.jpg
87e8058874db7af8f1745bc0dadb6f3f
e719b4c4b69bbdf9695d1b6ea7306a6991676474
71650 F20101119_AAAIRK matheny_j_Page_60.jpg
cb6fc412204dfbf4af9b6682c3e612df
4b53ac894f0bc42d630dd8f72dcfefdd1aa55995
72225 F20101119_AAAIQV matheny_j_Page_45.jpg
77d860b1a7dc8719f83cb759a0f7d3d6
a5f00b9600d49f3f254b76dbfdb20baceabd9854
71643 F20101119_AAAIRL matheny_j_Page_61.jpg
e06016ba36584f2225f17805f8f25fd0
31fbff0e48b1e7757939cf26ff4a60b2db4d2a50
54798 F20101119_AAAIQW matheny_j_Page_46.jpg
f5f5902d87fa403f66fe85ff5199e812
8ac35b6515c322dd1937d0fd55a4f75ec569e9f9
71543 F20101119_AAAIRM matheny_j_Page_62.jpg
1d367ed48766771690d4007a798a9fc6
1a636f3aa582b92ffa94b48deb99f4688877923a
65249 F20101119_AAAIQX matheny_j_Page_47.jpg
e78d0af072adc13f094fa9e98316158a
897cc140e1d6dbd5e9b5826a3c01f26dc90a5994
46663 F20101119_AAAISA matheny_j_Page_76.jpg
e6e19ae3244b30c0b268934f66af56fc
8984f247ad17af29eed3206744e42420d9b1432f
72771 F20101119_AAAIRN matheny_j_Page_63.jpg
8ec791f99912645ba53105b12d1b9ca6
fca36e11da85384d6d039f227e1426b5a565b9a6
71203 F20101119_AAAIQY matheny_j_Page_48.jpg
81b9490b51287b0a2f2467f517c5b381
99c180e8e3c59e6c48e7293107b39e224637c284
36092 F20101119_AAAISB matheny_j_Page_77.jpg
ad6a9b9ca017bb11fb5f7ddf5bb3cc82
8b56bfc5572130546eb4da61ff2c866dc3d0d221
71787 F20101119_AAAIRO matheny_j_Page_64.jpg
207d29a8e573818ff1ad09e20d2dd5f7
be03a8c0a18460cfb8627ebd8f2748be47d9269e
74522 F20101119_AAAIQZ matheny_j_Page_49.jpg
6ac786cba34da78e50c79629d9c00475
399f279dc9d4eb286b8ce2f60079ad1c4638c3e9
36216 F20101119_AAAISC matheny_j_Page_78.jpg
3229d943728ab244cebb1b2eabf65e2a
db5946da39afa506c230f758c8862be05a3929f9
70072 F20101119_AAAIRP matheny_j_Page_65.jpg
007919e83c758dc555ff77d0012e51ef
1a4709ecea6642cbef1f9999e03ed967cd37d96e
35960 F20101119_AAAISD matheny_j_Page_79.jpg
fec278198a3d17263d55cc441e69c591
07b6413dde48cff3709d4801ac939ce8ed888651
40896 F20101119_AAAISE matheny_j_Page_80.jpg
85e819421abfdf2dd464ec1a310cf0f4
0ec3748538eaac26f5666902c855e30bb156528d
12818 F20101119_AAAIRQ matheny_j_Page_66.jpg
75741d1366eb0f4c7cce5cadd2bf61ad
6d6deea3de030291f86e4339e82dcdcd80932990
40334 F20101119_AAAISF matheny_j_Page_81.jpg
e1d550a0818dec7c40d743ec3d464193
71784b892c8307f755ab4a1b0657c9b131169486
66914 F20101119_AAAIRR matheny_j_Page_67.jpg
dc18c2d91a2abe2b58ac688c21f39703
2c40001f7d298679afa1174e12d135754aef24ba
38872 F20101119_AAAISG matheny_j_Page_82.jpg
c6993bf30aaf46aec633f62e6cbdddc8
7094d0d6f0e8e6fc35a3a6b48fd830bb6e50dc2e
72772 F20101119_AAAIRS matheny_j_Page_68.jpg
490608657e88c7bf4da7794b18db6cbe
20f4e5d57427e691a40ceef8dd82e37b9f6d8aa2
18445 F20101119_AAAISH matheny_j_Page_83.jpg
b4e6d7e51e5ac974a634741abc63fefb
7e581a7add3370609769806319da4c4e93517ddc
72774 F20101119_AAAIRT matheny_j_Page_69.jpg
b4e3fb05420942b6ef3e208c76d9ad43
d443e3cbcefad5b0851dc36dd5089272b9ab1578
18956 F20101119_AAAISI matheny_j_Page_84.jpg
bd96b3ee3f025e2fde2eff24a01859a4
8f76cfca0ce29e046c2a4161cd0facb97a32b103
72128 F20101119_AAAIRU matheny_j_Page_70.jpg
b06c949b82a29743bb06988913cae438
8769cda906455944da088759838e31ab7aba975d
20089 F20101119_AAAISJ matheny_j_Page_85.jpg
4479f484457d3ef72c94cdc2cdff55bf
81e8ed36ee1cca534076823d3eb1b8123fd96dbf
68694 F20101119_AAAISK matheny_j_Page_86.jpg
cb79d8cd697ac6aae70d6cee03f713b3
e139ab49aceaec71a8e25afa6323af1f49cf60d3
73203 F20101119_AAAIRV matheny_j_Page_71.jpg
431198fd46a0ad2b8f5f9e9418bc98d1
2d3109c9b1c4040df23d84e9fe2d5afd2d93c0c9
77239 F20101119_AAAISL matheny_j_Page_87.jpg
c29fe60dc45f4ed3b63ee1b92f8a5bb1
43a5d7a54416799bfe292ca51a3c7a2d1260507f
69707 F20101119_AAAIRW matheny_j_Page_72.jpg
399458e2ad114a0004cd18af182a25fe
e615a683416cd3fac5d27a863ddc9e6cd95ea6d7
725702 F20101119_AAAITA matheny_j_Page_06.jp2
b3620fadb4d53bcca7bf55912f96fa52
94cc3974c6686784a6517ca382ec2d6e5d01accc
101447 F20101119_AAAISM matheny_j_Page_88.jpg
32e15b1b53efddce9faf47775eb46365
3de0e3bc082c179a66fe58875e9a066ed67b0069
72902 F20101119_AAAIRX matheny_j_Page_73.jpg
ceca21849000064b7a8f7f1ef51707d5
c6dbf786204b1f8a5a5ab57b5e210ac5b38be777
85094 F20101119_AAAITB matheny_j_Page_07.jp2
ba81b5cb8d59a2dc7c76baec42a8fe04
de57c1f0a468b2a794adfe5f67e765816a866584
90709 F20101119_AAAISN matheny_j_Page_89.jpg
d77a453d2814432672f0cc06876da00b
9868a5e2e7288393cdc2fddab3fcccc6f5aef344
53460 F20101119_AAAIRY matheny_j_Page_74.jpg
4caa87bcb074be3cee5a7db046632cb7
0e8a98bcbc60690cd9519b96cc518e7130825e11
686064 F20101119_AAAITC matheny_j_Page_08.jp2
3b8fd733194571b6614db95abf773735
28a36c51a8e7873fc788c8cbb6c65e485dd5aa70
88176 F20101119_AAAISO matheny_j_Page_90.jpg
1a85d845fc501514e744c4121bc6f875
c445dd3e4f75686862dd1e070b76fdd65226e4e3
36866 F20101119_AAAIRZ matheny_j_Page_75.jpg
f69070724aa53cd0f84f3cfea0f5854d
4c8f3b0c798bfed83c31f2be043a691c08e13bbe
93761 F20101119_AAAITD matheny_j_Page_09.jp2
2f92c37bee1b1758fc576be5cdb43141
479e0038033cbb458d899a93f464974b303dd949
85698 F20101119_AAAISP matheny_j_Page_91.jpg
2695a6e5ec64235b2fea00149320667a
57973145345f4fdf0aa661cf880cafa22c06faa8
105756 F20101119_AAAITE matheny_j_Page_10.jp2
319f102e6739e491735d08da6d4f9980
fdb7ec9905ad156540161f979d08b3788b465545
91219 F20101119_AAAISQ matheny_j_Page_92.jpg
ac995508c4c7a8b220b7aaee734e3af7
bbae1bf87f3b246137a90642fc754b829dcaf99c
110171 F20101119_AAAITF matheny_j_Page_11.jp2
3f28623bec149f6f8f35ed6b73d556bd
ad54a5e705cbba311629da2d8fc6ea6bb443753a
91003 F20101119_AAAISR matheny_j_Page_93.jpg
437900316b15eac91b51deb1d048cb38
a433ab57a2d40d60501adfbffc0095c0a9c04d57
102240 F20101119_AAAITG matheny_j_Page_12.jp2
2a8eb72b9e2b4c3a2edeff33d5c85a7f
46ee64acdee47aa5bd1d3cd57d5cbb5e07c76703
92848 F20101119_AAAISS matheny_j_Page_94.jpg
f559ab3574a5d8c64c2fa6328fe0ead7
4a7430daf6c70b0dd8757607c04fe13c30220cd6
99316 F20101119_AAAITH matheny_j_Page_13.jp2
55321612c4c3b83c4873f6df660b8dcb
c1b0d1916a2612f824bfb1ce84f18fa1c1718b8c
21359 F20101119_AAAIST matheny_j_Page_95.jpg
1c5ae853006e90376916dbb988b12ef2
f3e424f4dd2ad6d2a26cd90f0b008a5609a3100c
105412 F20101119_AAAITI matheny_j_Page_14.jp2
20c4340e77cdde40994b6e6575670958
b302380c14618123fd5916b0b4af7be6e522ff53
29377 F20101119_AAAISU matheny_j_Page_96.jpg
1c4a7851c7b329b8f238e30ad369b7ce
f964a38d2078c9cd6447fbf9450ed5e5e5bc9256
111038 F20101119_AAAITJ matheny_j_Page_15.jp2
33b81e1acb8bb798a0dfd863d7d0dc20
8e960e6a94b4cd994e195e452adb89ead6e19c39
27266 F20101119_AAAISV matheny_j_Page_01.jp2
0d11a146a5c7663e77327f111545435b
d8b850ee970c06bfa75158cb0d51a1bc3eb12623
1051934 F20101119_AAAITK matheny_j_Page_17.jp2
8f631bd74f0321fd9027b18abe7d4657
cd661cf1a441a51f30ee29e0020ad67fc296729e
1051962 F20101119_AAAITL matheny_j_Page_18.jp2
6d15b26a86f95867eea1bad49f2012b1
86569165af87eea322457aa6b45994200ac2e9ad
6013 F20101119_AAAISW matheny_j_Page_02.jp2
3b0ee1812825fc8c78fe72a4f96cf769
eee492dae938fc8db3aa248ae095beb3508afb14
1035775 F20101119_AAAITM matheny_j_Page_19.jp2
01c759906c263d10e4330f7df8a21000
b9a2b987bc99f0915d4549ec8cfe12e3089a2cc9
89864 F20101119_AAAISX matheny_j_Page_03.jp2
d747d1abf60965ecdd0cd95080725334
46c1cd4981bb72e008451b4169fd8894d4bd9416
102043 F20101119_AAAIUA matheny_j_Page_33.jp2
212e0eda12ed835ffe596ca60db5a6b9
99f2886afedd43de90b46fb44395556972e06880
110411 F20101119_AAAITN matheny_j_Page_20.jp2
7367a8dc507d45086c5763f15bbc0a42
a2abf816a2d08013d7d90a131011629b9fd942ed
1051986 F20101119_AAAISY matheny_j_Page_04.jp2
52c9e2d690dd52a23a5be111b0eead2a
bc76fddfacbc9865952338a5d438b30c407b1ebe
105462 F20101119_AAAIUB matheny_j_Page_34.jp2
4768e3e61455977628cbdbab34581b41
01a21415b86e3aa20596ff6ace125a5f7a6b0ef2
108240 F20101119_AAAITO matheny_j_Page_21.jp2
80dea070827eade2bd0ac54ce2b0c74b
738f65c789d68d7c7a4fb2dff0f45cd87bfeafc4
757345 F20101119_AAAISZ matheny_j_Page_05.jp2
37a8ca2e17771d9474ed80c179357f42
54bdd18cc6d6f53896cda27d2bda86d2df598f99
112414 F20101119_AAAIUC matheny_j_Page_35.jp2
2ea8bcb6ff6ac3a3745c75aa42a35fe8
90eb7224469ce847b8fcd22d513564c1027ae3fa
109206 F20101119_AAAITP matheny_j_Page_22.jp2
ecd55cd08abf4b216f69d1802c6ce1fb
57a15182fa017397da88430435d87f4b205e133d
113126 F20101119_AAAIUD matheny_j_Page_36.jp2
2d6d04f3f05c413967a5c57c3d12d13e
32ff3c35fdae14ccca0edd9066d39ed64d835e99
111968 F20101119_AAAITQ matheny_j_Page_23.jp2
6b213ed7373a81d7f1d7c832e52d8aaf
44711e12a15c5545b4a01f56c800320af7fe2325
109152 F20101119_AAAIUE matheny_j_Page_37.jp2
fa675bbef43e0f3ca540fa07dfb3c763
91593184fcedff0df12a96cd434650263c92df44
95344 F20101119_AAAITR matheny_j_Page_24.jp2
9345cfc422360f2017af64863ae97722
ceeacf3f6eee246a30248d48f22a24863670e675
1053954 F20101119_AAAJAA matheny_j_Page_96.tif
68a8cda19eeba9150f3b727efc6150f3
c06351f48415ca1255cc539d04894348ab32b5ad
110744 F20101119_AAAIUF matheny_j_Page_38.jp2
3b11e52e36e96182c79785a899421e88
c35599ead8b12f8c57e1874fe452ba8930f2fa5b
14009 F20101119_AAAITS matheny_j_Page_25.jp2
4870eb452c4be417a814684ed06472c0
80f67c651702c3c4195a8f86d0dc58e208415d33
9312 F20101119_AAAJAB matheny_j_Page_01.pro
16cfb767bad7bbc2e8e9b3b27b5eb17e
4355716cbfb6ff11c795d43373e141b35f29a08c
53931 F20101119_AAAIUG matheny_j_Page_39.jp2
e313b8af493fd58189c304019cc8fde7
ba27a7861b9f63a721d05d74e59fb0388cd61d54
98893 F20101119_AAAITT matheny_j_Page_26.jp2
33fd1eb2ce8d2081a1dca2ed359db3f1
b1cfa65689bda283bd3b82ea828044708281e9de
1330 F20101119_AAAJAC matheny_j_Page_02.pro
052888f58747bdb69ede15b7c5a5c3fb
aed690db367b8457eac794384df7d662c4d90f51
94646 F20101119_AAAIUH matheny_j_Page_40.jp2
eaba9f350a887b8fcda89b85a277637c
bb7bbd6b3dba4027b76b305e458549b41994b3d2
108793 F20101119_AAAITU matheny_j_Page_27.jp2
780edada2f146df0dca7f3d9743a925c
f094b6474a74c16ba3d675f0078b9d1dc69021d6
110068 F20101119_AAAIUI matheny_j_Page_41.jp2
32a578041614571aee5eefcc6f52b29c
f82ec72332642a1b81a1dbf38c128c497714f773
111829 F20101119_AAAITV matheny_j_Page_28.jp2
339d3b047d5a97b8b3a02260c1288361
53606afe8ec296d9661f9ca1e9c8f946ea89249f
41468 F20101119_AAAJAD matheny_j_Page_03.pro
2eb1aa113c39d29154e54dbc9cadfbf7
cc11cb8391aebdc251a45ce0ada9a08ff1e19ae9
108518 F20101119_AAAIUJ matheny_j_Page_42.jp2
65e698afb4ea626af1ee181fea037fb8
776e298ae02ff48bdd7afc1c191b1e29e52f2ed4
108398 F20101119_AAAITW matheny_j_Page_29.jp2
1518c82b4ae69e4d1f80555b65ca5f8c
c560631f664ad64bce10b00c064f61d4560f0f38
70276 F20101119_AAAJAE matheny_j_Page_04.pro
c154ab6776466a1182f3e1a02e2cba4e
01d1deddf84a4cb38e022f359c316c4634ab6602
114231 F20101119_AAAIUK matheny_j_Page_43.jp2
6af36a69ae1087aa242cb109df586a86
6ecee4fadcb79c3af35f22710235afae710cf726
31508 F20101119_AAAJAF matheny_j_Page_05.pro
6ef7e66c80dadfd66e7a8d614d8d2cf9
ab5a8738d048df4ca166809144a20674b5c8f206
1051930 F20101119_AAAIUL matheny_j_Page_44.jp2
f4f56bac67d84cbf4485b91d648d0773
1032ee035775396840e4f732231d65343497fc4a
105887 F20101119_AAAITX matheny_j_Page_30.jp2
ff3b6ef32ab7631da640592b7db4093e
f46dcdeaaebeb6edbe82076b7db11fe4680926ba
23430 F20101119_AAAJAG matheny_j_Page_06.pro
fe8785cc83c41e391b22fe4cee793936
09a4124161e4df02422392ef1e8637420aac07ed
111928 F20101119_AAAIVA matheny_j_Page_59.jp2
6b9bae335e9198c6d06bd54d94ccccc9
686b3f4d5d14f2405a0263d0a54dad4064ff411d
112328 F20101119_AAAIUM matheny_j_Page_45.jp2
1a102004e438e4cb31546821f1081562
2053bf1a50e77e32943aa3837251aba29c600012
105615 F20101119_AAAITY matheny_j_Page_31.jp2
5bc8a06f6c99192d50b3a77aebd4b4ef
7de657f3807195c8f1007d12e495a4f489241e83
37646 F20101119_AAAJAH matheny_j_Page_07.pro
231d302fe309efebbb45753004257c69
d8a04f1d5991ffc9e686d9c032a0b018971ccd37
110201 F20101119_AAAIVB matheny_j_Page_60.jp2
271ecb35a24eee237b6f4e6886f91d03
d18a5395e5308e3a179f00dae355ac1ed7de94c9
81688 F20101119_AAAIUN matheny_j_Page_46.jp2
1b76e655ee4296d9a57de14f1ee9a9e1
0bbbc5f43d8b7d7f2056ee50ab11cb6dedee3e30
111365 F20101119_AAAITZ matheny_j_Page_32.jp2
fc2a7c378e152274387c6ff504ff8747
75f82fb4c5c561b5423072238a6f05c7f6670827
30200 F20101119_AAAJAI matheny_j_Page_08.pro
b0189c3ee439aa744cb1ff85ecf22cb5
098136bdf3b2768512027b0ee5b968ab1c878f0f
109793 F20101119_AAAIVC matheny_j_Page_61.jp2
1292bafab41192a1b75070f088015ee9
bc88356054056be0a162d4fa85f8b6a5c5d90891
98095 F20101119_AAAIUO matheny_j_Page_47.jp2
d494934bb4ef42069178df39a7f52d25
04e3c4a9df6e85dbc76b20a1793c9eb1069f0745
43219 F20101119_AAAJAJ matheny_j_Page_09.pro
17a3f0bdc7069739be66f03ff8ba6850
6c45bab50c3b6580c324b61f9b468da50fcc0898
109631 F20101119_AAAIVD matheny_j_Page_62.jp2
fad4101fbb0ef85bf16176e49cef5426
5ff67331c96d4babd77f32c740104579cf47dc94
109490 F20101119_AAAIUP matheny_j_Page_48.jp2
39329a067a63e2030be83f4efe347134
8dac351053d6f79b4397468498553f59f212b8e6
47913 F20101119_AAAJAK matheny_j_Page_10.pro
971bd0201b691d5ebb2c39d3decd9d4f
36d3cdba314a821ecc9ecb1559e1f9ab0d148260
111548 F20101119_AAAIVE matheny_j_Page_63.jp2
1faaa866b7c08e30ef57bde7f143d086
a5920650528c6eb3270d1089ac3c12f10c4bd67e
1051967 F20101119_AAAIUQ matheny_j_Page_49.jp2
87cb16df558e855c621f7b618ba4be58
a2e50379ad6f562fcb97443ae591472d978d4335
50720 F20101119_AAAJAL matheny_j_Page_11.pro
0b5b0af2efdeec2334097d0a7c42d3e6
4391f96a61fe840c9ec687e1f0f766eb185e20fa
109352 F20101119_AAAIVF matheny_j_Page_64.jp2
af06aaeafe9e347102f1d47928e7f1e4
3c813feaf118ed0a61b81e8069c0025d218ca169
108641 F20101119_AAAIUR matheny_j_Page_50.jp2
8cbab9e0ca80ac80cf189303d3a90133
33da6b568d65595d3678a20e5aace1a0c77279ee
45286 F20101119_AAAJBA matheny_j_Page_26.pro
6c9010d04e0d11f95b806abfe2cecf5a
9439b7691d8b74470364b718f7d5cc612297d8c7
46916 F20101119_AAAJAM matheny_j_Page_12.pro
188543513c56b75e72e66dfc44f740b2
83fb31519581446e10c4a012d3127668e531870c
F20101119_AAAIVG matheny_j_Page_65.jp2
aa016b860c28cb650cbd110f0ef0b2e5
ef2def5c1783cc8f252d46e8a670850e3ee1f3bc
112595 F20101119_AAAIUS matheny_j_Page_51.jp2
b2a7a18518a03559418d61ec4322130f
f93f3f63eb66e3ae036803ebfff25bd47d5167ab
50944 F20101119_AAAJBB matheny_j_Page_27.pro
636c8919a83c821312e8bc4532564607
bbcd766410df001e094ce750504e1ab4518eb6c1
43567 F20101119_AAAJAN matheny_j_Page_13.pro
b712e3c63966c5756e0e1e91571e1a5e
7fb149e7e2dc574a2014320adbeba2223b22fbc8
10898 F20101119_AAAIVH matheny_j_Page_66.jp2
9187d349baf7dd3d38e073fc28531283
1a05408594c27d8bc4e43e400c3455ca231e41ee
107785 F20101119_AAAIUT matheny_j_Page_52.jp2
8bfcf28cd5b5394c0810659b4f0adc84
86d304ebbcfcb6d14875eead9eac1e6b537bdcee
52363 F20101119_AAAJBC matheny_j_Page_28.pro
3aecb117ccefa4e96a87c73e9d8f3c69
43313d1d91a62acfd4c87c2b12d358cec224df36
47044 F20101119_AAAJAO matheny_j_Page_14.pro
f54df9f92f391b6bf2648cc132da9b3c
91319ab83e0226b2eecea84bc79edb41e2ab1fb9
101190 F20101119_AAAIVI matheny_j_Page_67.jp2
c492979c8047423fa51f2af912b0d24f
7986e367e50ccc1a6fc7ceeac400b5b5b001e97d
104526 F20101119_AAAIUU matheny_j_Page_53.jp2
5296049e53b09c8899aa7c5680514cb7
f71c9667015464005d528826d89692079248e35f
49376 F20101119_AAAJBD matheny_j_Page_29.pro
a17f5fca3f4947109cbaa7594b614085
ab7bb9bdca88025a2aa9ad426052b60bf37029a1
49593 F20101119_AAAJAP matheny_j_Page_15.pro
e1c778768afc25579de5532bae0c359e
e4203ddcdd1d9c78bba9f316a0a85700c5a5bcd2
111267 F20101119_AAAIVJ matheny_j_Page_68.jp2
7d6fc3ee0888ddbad5d0d6fffd6c6950
cf1b454069ba41312bf63be7564bf4e513c5a6ae
110119 F20101119_AAAIUV matheny_j_Page_54.jp2
8e5db4c0fcd49729b6b240fac587e04a
f6403d4c452adba93167932b7fe6595a603bd912
45724 F20101119_AAAJAQ matheny_j_Page_16.pro
f76d8cff4538c1f5dba576d53b87a17c
ba3b0724afd743f1e18b17791bb9c13ef0389ad3
110601 F20101119_AAAIVK matheny_j_Page_69.jp2
ff58f83737a15b5b57ff2b632d9d124b
f211027af5a1dfa70b022cd4bf835d3fac969ab1
108632 F20101119_AAAIUW matheny_j_Page_55.jp2
b3048cd019f0de63ec293186f3db4c77
65849ce7a352ef1bb3cfd882807e3a83811013f5
48290 F20101119_AAAJBE matheny_j_Page_30.pro
48efc7b379baf05fc4833fa23a26182d
d5d740122b5feb1568bf517e41e34da32c42c9d6
48886 F20101119_AAAJAR matheny_j_Page_17.pro
9d4235c1c88ed0282f1adb0712893088
aedf306299fc464600e980601365bd1f77e90a08
109691 F20101119_AAAIVL matheny_j_Page_70.jp2
87cc7e9d009b0611e32df4c659ff1a97
b667ff7c53da9e7e19b11dd31ef00ddea5e3cac8
111410 F20101119_AAAIUX matheny_j_Page_56.jp2
b220dc04433178465f65535921a2921e
4a13200d53a3c47aaca3e11e1db3c8a5e1032efe
F20101119_AAAJBF matheny_j_Page_31.pro
250b4c102c9e4b81f6bca0803e1031db
9b7d7c9f0fec516fe428ed344812d4d399484f52
127466 F20101119_AAAIWA matheny_j_Page_87.jp2
075a7b53dfd7dfdfa4e75470a4322c99
1454ca9384290d499cfda92af1a4241a376ce68a
47291 F20101119_AAAJAS matheny_j_Page_18.pro
ad3721367d304d0be12ad8cfec2b3f57
08e377664cc3bc5adf10f037e54fbd0e365a00f1
110846 F20101119_AAAIVM matheny_j_Page_71.jp2
1ceab9a2d82c9102fe248dd3d1df5079
54fceb95361f07499b230e850197f4cb2391b237
50949 F20101119_AAAJBG matheny_j_Page_32.pro
46b40ef4ca426b42a10a5833bcce4576
97c250e79eea9ee31fb60a09b55b1d1122c1ef0b
1051982 F20101119_AAAIWB matheny_j_Page_88.jp2
a193d835a4bc2e338bbbbbd5db4315c0
af94cd81e8fdb820082d53cf066bbbcd209ee3ad
45680 F20101119_AAAJAT matheny_j_Page_19.pro
46dba22287a2cf68cdb77768fba05c87
1d3dc6ddfd6b3f89698b7a40999e678fe143c060
104805 F20101119_AAAIVN matheny_j_Page_72.jp2
9d987523fa48dde45c0654e6cfd91e66
791755010a6193b631bc7f92ef44e462cf62c120
115153 F20101119_AAAIUY matheny_j_Page_57.jp2
205886b039280a2d1e1f07e8a1172149
5f0efe153b99a3766f5c7fbf0759fabb29fffd4f
46722 F20101119_AAAJBH matheny_j_Page_33.pro
d70b5018caf3ceafa821b84854b5df08
9f6684f1dc18e817bf6c7ab22c0f59510d29c0c8
140304 F20101119_AAAIWC matheny_j_Page_89.jp2
a71eb8e2778c0c8d9940578445fff25f
532e168253f134e1ca0baaac38bf63b4f746062e
49955 F20101119_AAAJAU matheny_j_Page_20.pro
eb680a3e7c37c782944dda46d8bd464a
0629a398bd7681ac7ae78249122fdaa4ac84a086
110231 F20101119_AAAIVO matheny_j_Page_73.jp2
e187e786bde4ff8eb9538fe3982f0de6
ad19af25b64cf8d28ab901bf1c38769d2d231fb5
111533 F20101119_AAAIUZ matheny_j_Page_58.jp2
d6b2f39a5c1867dd4d2e43d4ad12c107
d7bc28cf56d2590d18ecdfafea6eb11931f54923
48307 F20101119_AAAJBI matheny_j_Page_34.pro
bc8d9b3cc351c68126ff187fc6f6bbce
714f7ec11dfbf8b3a6deefa4525474a52b717fe1
133191 F20101119_AAAIWD matheny_j_Page_90.jp2
6de82c924f27100ac1ace1e6badd1a82
edf9446d73cfb4b887635fc37b033f76b18c2daa
49150 F20101119_AAAJAV matheny_j_Page_21.pro
680a837660e8a9dea77f8c30843c4dd7
a2ae1536cf03d391dbc46396f33924c033cddcd5
79498 F20101119_AAAIVP matheny_j_Page_74.jp2
9db2c3d7b4f4ced53e99dbff3eac5f77
ce6600ab081adbea4e0fe4101f7908a9fe9b48a2
51357 F20101119_AAAJBJ matheny_j_Page_35.pro
abdd7eb69872f2fd88419a8f52886593
dbf244d5fab337fe8f3de34e076b01424a904e06
134774 F20101119_AAAIWE matheny_j_Page_91.jp2
738a19f73950da45a1f0f7f79f28646e
b37b06d5e524684ff140d960364fca6a59d3617a
49769 F20101119_AAAJAW matheny_j_Page_22.pro
ec945af81821a248eb3fd759a5785e42
78ff531c27a6b6ed53fd3742682cdb81cdc59ea5
38368 F20101119_AAAIVQ matheny_j_Page_75.jp2
a96a6ddfc4eb2d3b97371379e5b472b4
73f5ce3f6a1a844f6b6c103299e34eac438d2471
52492 F20101119_AAAJBK matheny_j_Page_36.pro
380917807d8c0b6e48e9d72ce22ece95
2ea59a441ee9310c56dde9239f52d18a26ad563c
1051961 F20101119_AAAIWF matheny_j_Page_92.jp2
52ac945286bd4d8b49127b93bf60b132
8b2b23c6fdaf44b338b119eea5cb58a500879762
50492 F20101119_AAAJAX matheny_j_Page_23.pro
351cca990aaae1de56f0f9aba1856cc1
e9ea542401451221274720dd53aa5fcbfe424850
50448 F20101119_AAAIVR matheny_j_Page_76.jp2
c47cb964234ae386f8fd42453fadbe42
8544748a88360fa3438c4d471941ec00702e76a9
48965 F20101119_AAAJCA matheny_j_Page_52.pro
e709c6fb4e481c46923f52ccbb799c1e
135b355ef1824291be5cd2bf17fc0264e53a82bd
50124 F20101119_AAAJBL matheny_j_Page_37.pro
58b31e4afdacce672505eb74b36ac26b
955bfdc85a9f8f5e69d385a7e0ca9698e1bec199
130234 F20101119_AAAIWG matheny_j_Page_93.jp2
d152fa69b0040fad1cd0edfdc94f73d2
5ac423c4ecde134cd7264438c5bdaf7ac5ecaafa
42358 F20101119_AAAJAY matheny_j_Page_24.pro
f6132f36098dc3709d959e826afcb4d9
2c8af5c559facbdb9a80f1841a7c1a521a2224c0
39440 F20101119_AAAIVS matheny_j_Page_77.jp2
29868890fdfb78dcbcf06f3f87c696e4
903cee977c8a4c0c0075700b4e1223fa8f8e1637
47040 F20101119_AAAJCB matheny_j_Page_53.pro
ca96ba35a266cbc0d3b03cd1c945f712
044a21b3c1da1cdf33dc82515b381fc7c57b935f
50421 F20101119_AAAJBM matheny_j_Page_38.pro
2e70e86a10faecf7d9ba7d8913cf8628
cea96236416cc924ba86f945b14535d6d243362a
1051984 F20101119_AAAIWH matheny_j_Page_94.jp2
6626855963b364a6d54b551533c3ed12
102991fa1ffdf9256b53e32d2dd80b04ab30bb65
4977 F20101119_AAAJAZ matheny_j_Page_25.pro
c4e5d024da13407ece0fc83c33b87e70
b3fbdbe76e601bf57248daeb90039f62fa95ff19
39759 F20101119_AAAIVT matheny_j_Page_78.jp2
c31db214fda96121bdf0ee12768464bb
e01b9271d47200c8877525f2f83ed8aa64baf24b
50177 F20101119_AAAJCC matheny_j_Page_54.pro
9e5857ba46e7a9c0cef5fbbfdd55ed0a
6b38b1585f2893657dcd74c2f6176facff002932
23644 F20101119_AAAJBN matheny_j_Page_39.pro
a87f1002d34b5251e0fbe766f0559b16
5e90511b47417648b2346de52695b58fe1e787eb
23733 F20101119_AAAIWI matheny_j_Page_95.jp2
78873555dd56702d2786d6f7d378225e
eac24cefd379c3cd6b30a26bbb9ea898dc34b68d
39632 F20101119_AAAIVU matheny_j_Page_79.jp2
1b14756d8ab6642f93c5505ca8ebe648
51957c5cfd0b4bf64ba064c16c3469251bb80cd6
49706 F20101119_AAAJCD matheny_j_Page_55.pro
9165ae3cb1c5b484a4a83c35fd5035f7
52088a19772327a1a54c220303d2339262d7a675
42410 F20101119_AAAJBO matheny_j_Page_40.pro
18798332c59855e3de4cc2a7dd8386c6
e4792c393443a0c5be9abd74b9a535bbeda60b26
37809 F20101119_AAAIWJ matheny_j_Page_96.jp2
a83da521552a9196b0af609683226f20
8a743f6a1d7cbf99be0f3510fd1bbf687880147d
51001 F20101119_AAAIVV matheny_j_Page_81.jp2
6a0471977a1391cd5e8c51ad799f5420
326d7c24abbd451e36aac07e2c5a47fa286add16
50574 F20101119_AAAJCE matheny_j_Page_56.pro
e99f16b8be1268c9e4d0a95f14204304
e9d967760b6e867d14ad48b6d04ed0f2eb0bcf64
49654 F20101119_AAAJBP matheny_j_Page_41.pro
a8d170b1e269a8627742fbe9f733fcf3
cd6d610841cd91b95387dd3095dd2ff2696a7983
F20101119_AAAIWK matheny_j_Page_01.tif
b6d2d8a291b547489c0e1773c8bb4fee
caea680c35c769fa41754d7f7b4b5632a401aeb6
49959 F20101119_AAAIVW matheny_j_Page_82.jp2
3a62ca5a3850e403f0bb64e774782ed6
7e640832de8916eea848cf524c073133fe1abb0f
49016 F20101119_AAAJBQ matheny_j_Page_42.pro
08c711043767fe980a7d812e825f5ae3
5755d2bbb09b585dd05258995e5eaacf5c0f90a7
F20101119_AAAIWL matheny_j_Page_02.tif
55e0f08cff5143a5b0b5722e552ce82b
b6f1a7e024ea2d6e07486e4373443fc9d18f7b5b
20037 F20101119_AAAIVX matheny_j_Page_83.jp2
45aa85931c791c4ab86ae9b15008dd60
076fc26d96a3fc5f95cec0e46e3c39d4d0d25256
52534 F20101119_AAAJCF matheny_j_Page_57.pro
e75ad0a7bbdd06c7acff7e2d88a7a114
29624f3be135f54d0a2a2483b19006aeb9dfbd53
51968 F20101119_AAAJBR matheny_j_Page_43.pro
74a3b2281bdae89b546306b05c5f920b
41dc8588d37e6b584f7e20fe13a61475b9e2d932
F20101119_AAAIWM matheny_j_Page_03.tif
72ad953cbd4c190103820a586359a764
cb36a8730aa6b5805a6ca68a60f72e335ae2278c
20295 F20101119_AAAIVY matheny_j_Page_84.jp2
81df1c261f05333f6bc266128a780208
fd645c44ea5f0d8ec8edcc2ff6b86a06fb29a945
51166 F20101119_AAAJCG matheny_j_Page_58.pro
0a987432f1fada8284ab0a8046e82baf
4553a37344e0fe6fda71aa4f306826c429ded4f3
25271604 F20101119_AAAIXA matheny_j_Page_18.tif
3ce76aeb89941fea470b14dcd0312230
edc767c0a1cca7c55c7bbae2c78d3431ff9971c4
50389 F20101119_AAAJBS matheny_j_Page_44.pro
1409d4c450555b6051b32ad3b19e1795
2c7791180e24766716665e47e137591d354a9dc9
50993 F20101119_AAAJCH matheny_j_Page_59.pro
8cf629b0bad0ea25d57a93cc418516df
d353892567912ce037c8e4c768132bf621e6a37c
F20101119_AAAIXB matheny_j_Page_19.tif
b887798a5ca1cc87d48c12ce0892eca3
ea7d2656d71ca20394e62f6885c4e2d58e01a049
51884 F20101119_AAAJBT matheny_j_Page_45.pro
67ef74fcc6697f6e7e067e5310d69a99
00297c58ad26c6d3d16befdde16ae4cd92a0886a
F20101119_AAAIWN matheny_j_Page_04.tif
9bdaa55f6e1abe0084df3b7b47f1b678
42b2015fa2fe80abe770c3a25f453157484f0c5d
107295 F20101119_AAAIVZ matheny_j_Page_86.jp2
c7629618b71a15b8e92033612a4c74cf
a4484fcbebb97993c9ff2272b76ff621a12c098a
49949 F20101119_AAAJCI matheny_j_Page_61.pro
1d7f2b80663b9498ed3f31c755a2a2b9
65df9d3f7723b5629e7fc092bbe03cb232446466
F20101119_AAAIXC matheny_j_Page_20.tif
3d54e650cc0117606ce21aad1ecee94e
bd6b86af42b4835a245b2f443f472ceff6d50311
36355 F20101119_AAAJBU matheny_j_Page_46.pro
b0a72e1fa513001f70f320daeca7b096
456aedc1945af259915b61e5e74b151c7097ff81
F20101119_AAAIWO matheny_j_Page_05.tif
ad0a89b11a7decd3fbf10e28a9ee2c31
f9ce0ddb6d5808ade10b4ead25603a5c84785bee
50228 F20101119_AAAJCJ matheny_j_Page_62.pro
74a10cb9d6e34a3d1a4d74c4d1213387
61e16a2704db4648c0f5f01afa03af07ef86c9ce
F20101119_AAAIXD matheny_j_Page_21.tif
669571bae9bd73b844beae28ca528504
4e27cee98d818e0e98f56f447aed75d87b0f38b4
43401 F20101119_AAAJBV matheny_j_Page_47.pro
e566b41500dfb571e4e57e7bcd11e1f2
a50bf3cc12f898d595e751c4a934ee253520b01d
F20101119_AAAIWP matheny_j_Page_06.tif
4d04f77344767e462c5d295c3427a787
90cae96116622f701e3d6285c9ba8dda75b798ce
50498 F20101119_AAAJCK matheny_j_Page_63.pro
892214724feb9f7fe80efe8b1f67b3fb
ae2812ab34f817c34fc4ba3b3567930a26b26ff1
F20101119_AAAIXE matheny_j_Page_22.tif
043ace9c4653a9c5cdb8df724d76767d
63f4eea4bf3170f3736f9ed306022b1ad77a63e1
48936 F20101119_AAAJBW matheny_j_Page_48.pro
9faff6a33abafb1a4e75af387dd6a78b
10d89da56cb9ec707578065d709e89522be70807
F20101119_AAAIWQ matheny_j_Page_08.tif
5b9d96cd9b5900f2b7186c8554a67b8d
2ef798fc731717ab398ee415d35411f9ddcb17ed
25407 F20101119_AAAJDA matheny_j_Page_79.pro
8272a02a93a13ddc0f02977e8f9fe5c2
48be75f93b5563cb7ab4400c6560fd911110e5ac
49693 F20101119_AAAJCL matheny_j_Page_64.pro
a9fd5dce76ae545105101e68797eff98
fdc3f9236a4ad8a7a860de6fe31fcab55f756c3b
F20101119_AAAIXF matheny_j_Page_23.tif
bc22298f79c0dbf7bccd800661d9b226
f284251c24558eedb8c92da367f7642ba3e8d329
52401 F20101119_AAAJBX matheny_j_Page_49.pro
83b5a995b29f8b6648a0b0667e835e6d
8b77c73f02c41a0b16de69e2aa250411e3490947
F20101119_AAAIWR matheny_j_Page_09.tif
65578509de38541d973ad8169389ec44
5c3bb003a0ee7556b8b54967e676889ab43b9ddd
26477 F20101119_AAAJDB matheny_j_Page_80.pro
bf15866158c23f1592fd458947fc551e
1a8b6133c5add53430124bcfbd6b5765473ac02c
47704 F20101119_AAAJCM matheny_j_Page_65.pro
f77454ccccf0ebcfa44d6ab5e32b7ce4
b805b6295ad0932ba49057c29b08bf3ecd63e0d7
F20101119_AAAIXG matheny_j_Page_24.tif
c6cdb3046dcc6a8297207b71af15ba22
0f57e62edc9e81ef5bc639f2b0abb633e52a103b
49614 F20101119_AAAJBY matheny_j_Page_50.pro
136f284561300575d2424a2e80203b35
a42be2d576c905a14c447a1f44530e4b901fe1bc
F20101119_AAAIWS matheny_j_Page_10.tif
75aace2d4665e34bb09b90b45797039b
7fc40598b55ba957fe879344a38317c5706f9976
25300 F20101119_AAAJDC matheny_j_Page_81.pro
fed8573b48e07b1478e7959a9cb883f0
91707fe5c08a626f7546fed0b53627dee9e8449c
3637 F20101119_AAAJCN matheny_j_Page_66.pro
a56a29e477fcec4268f400803c7f4a88
55d83a747422e6b2198d9d12c7faf18f43b6f43f
F20101119_AAAIXH matheny_j_Page_25.tif
5c9fdc4373d44ea4e782a27e8d211335
8ad0c3dbeb5d0b5a70af1e2a13a01e07c4bc060a
50999 F20101119_AAAJBZ matheny_j_Page_51.pro
b958205e4f07d90ac513042dc8157655
4098b79022742539e95f5f70d844d1026cde897e
F20101119_AAAIWT matheny_j_Page_11.tif
3d847215703d57a7f9db12cb2e3083f6
a2d42f0545702f44fcdc169c98299a173031c800
24840 F20101119_AAAJDD matheny_j_Page_82.pro
1ae85d4844255ad6f49ae68b8a142ac5
9e2081ad373ae0d28175a13372547a55557db70a
45075 F20101119_AAAJCO matheny_j_Page_67.pro
b9af1b8182b2665e6a6638ce04fac325
de39dda381efcc3e01ba5d3c5202a96a87ad4237
F20101119_AAAIXI matheny_j_Page_26.tif
b34233912dbbc6541e400ec8cc598086
aca716e1516960aeb5b750756420a0f81c00ff34
F20101119_AAAIWU matheny_j_Page_12.tif
0ea45f46597fc4d5d6a4914dbd06b614
20dcf45d67703266c6b520743c77a8f09f421fff
7726 F20101119_AAAJDE matheny_j_Page_83.pro
35f229f4d8f0f596c12d262de176cb5f
1516fc8eee0492ef1939d730eee15ee6f5ec3e02
51113 F20101119_AAAJCP matheny_j_Page_68.pro
1f8c86e63ab222cc2b9f939bc78c14e9
e4ba52d6dda96bfd99edd881aaa0673768f58ce9
F20101119_AAAIXJ matheny_j_Page_27.tif
ba796d95a6fb300f73554eb0eab0f806
b7ee3bacc0c81dc43e73d2d1d7967fd7263738ff
F20101119_AAAIWV matheny_j_Page_13.tif
37f50bd34fe2cca789f30cc856e6cfbd
87f75523646adede109f4e84dec80a208b391a75
8983 F20101119_AAAJDF matheny_j_Page_84.pro
589e983dd69eeb0c7afae4843a238bc5
3c439a8373ebad4aa167e05792601dc48a05c350
50368 F20101119_AAAJCQ matheny_j_Page_69.pro
6f66702c0835f9adc9d241f1aff409dc
1700239625dfbe8a417243a1498f6ba827a326b8
F20101119_AAAIXK matheny_j_Page_28.tif
d8513f5794bbd3eb9a51c446ac7abd9f
a46e8657d34b607d5ed7bfd5c1d6c47e1352e2c3
F20101119_AAAIWW matheny_j_Page_14.tif
946cd3c092d613185af83373f2e4a6ca
a60c7db2293438c9ce6e922ff7b96430dcaa862c
49964 F20101119_AAAJCR matheny_j_Page_70.pro
304167ef64c2d623e7c3532c7e5d6620
900364f9aa9587bdad77d9d3e72011f660fd015e
F20101119_AAAIXL matheny_j_Page_29.tif
aef592c72b8ffbb9fcd318cfa6ccf3a5
e3686fa005f6e4b9653bf3565692c84c71fdbb0c
F20101119_AAAIWX matheny_j_Page_15.tif
4fb10b863ed360bdffc5eaa7bda7467e
deacfec8e9a85cc3351f6c5d9ed145bbfaebfc97
8266 F20101119_AAAJDG matheny_j_Page_85.pro
c1c21e39802bd7b8ff9a65c132ec8447
b1be1cd9fee9096344168f13adf779cd42607f58
F20101119_AAAIYA matheny_j_Page_44.tif
462301d1ec6d7c19a42437e4a7768184
1b9f011732be846bc07ff21537d24286fbc7b467
51156 F20101119_AAAJCS matheny_j_Page_71.pro
ad91a7dc38ab03822c29bddfdfb3b56a
3e583d3ccbeff81f3267b442aeb3042bc006d4e9
F20101119_AAAIXM matheny_j_Page_30.tif
c360da6e6c6fd12ff431693a03a91e33
f97b54891b5be92285240bd68d0bd04d0b8afc56
F20101119_AAAIWY matheny_j_Page_16.tif
af303a44dfc65f8443af50b7f58850aa
562f3ffeae1b8f1fe856d57e7c709a5f2b0d310d
49853 F20101119_AAAJDH matheny_j_Page_86.pro
3ef344d66bf2843f85d71e76501ef0b4
9d38ae8184205ba131aefb7621799a5c537b7c96
F20101119_AAAIYB matheny_j_Page_45.tif
9f6611201ea2e41d872e864191757d3c
517f559ba751279a8770e92c8582679b5feb7be7
48355 F20101119_AAAJCT matheny_j_Page_72.pro
106ef079a097e268080bd6712e4ee2ba
6f8b2e3ccd4ff1cc3707883fa1138a5aad7f0abd
F20101119_AAAIXN matheny_j_Page_31.tif
347b98f9bb5ff8fcf048605515a7d6be
6bfe80aa5012c1d93f881f6e923c9487496e7d6c
F20101119_AAAIWZ matheny_j_Page_17.tif
eb495c435b8a403b6c2935427a531128
bd364a3fa5cdf5631d6cecba4b05790831d38cf3
58550 F20101119_AAAJDI matheny_j_Page_87.pro
d0093ddacfac3fb6865f4d0bb37cda7c
6b071d1c34718ad05394c9a3e8392f85a5aaf947
F20101119_AAAIYC matheny_j_Page_46.tif
e1e7a7aa7d64cae552e4fc7d1fa4b7cd
dd28479fe2db805a649a8fb46386b65f2486091a
50655 F20101119_AAAJCU matheny_j_Page_73.pro
bbf1884e457d660001c7f44040b25e67
27862a704736b3d8dffe4a739b907ea1fd717137
F20101119_AAAIXO matheny_j_Page_32.tif
de71820fcbb2aed1391968cf8d084a22
8670d4be540ed721fef50e9ece805b6b91744cf7
61733 F20101119_AAAJDJ matheny_j_Page_88.pro
b33a41b618ec31ab24a801a6cb0e14ce
3426082b447ca6f0d535842bf9fdd23fc5b67c28
F20101119_AAAIYD matheny_j_Page_47.tif
77a00f4d3d1f92e097d3e8b73be637ba
e0971b0b8c991316c346d0d88ba5c99a54bf72be
35482 F20101119_AAAJCV matheny_j_Page_74.pro
3855b4cbed4f3bf1a4d2ce729c851318
eac65a875842ea8e4d0d5d40cc34e2e033492f8b
F20101119_AAAIXP matheny_j_Page_33.tif
4855074e6e6efa5d97222cb29e4ae3b5
1be0cd49afb4d22b69e7cfc5591bcd230537c02a
F20101119_AAAIYE matheny_j_Page_48.tif
f6351c01a3db1aa39f93bbcdbee5b2f4
d385a513027162a35938e2836bdb146e3ffec1d5
18016 F20101119_AAAJCW matheny_j_Page_75.pro
0b8fd41cf137b2418a9392dc20e9bfad
7b477f11dda828d3e2aace7cf2d168638651362b
F20101119_AAAIXQ matheny_j_Page_34.tif
20e5a551b37f2972804e60d21870f833
06a62c2afbc12beefaffbf04154d6965524d4e4c
64455 F20101119_AAAJDK matheny_j_Page_89.pro
3ab89bc7ccab0656f8e2476d1a6cbd2f
c8e24aefac80d90063125a4ff55499130bb9aed6
8423998 F20101119_AAAIYF matheny_j_Page_49.tif
8cde8d775038679eccc030bbb9dc21ed
2f0b19c4e894e49b647c3bcdd99fcc85730b3625
26933 F20101119_AAAJCX matheny_j_Page_76.pro
946585a68030fc6bfaa9c43671243819
c7f55cc39a6c0d03a303dee46ce2559af1170b46
F20101119_AAAIXR matheny_j_Page_35.tif
bba6b31df8995e0b9779f29359347cde
a815433f38c9ff28c8aae350156a95af4bd3b79e
1784 F20101119_AAAJEA matheny_j_Page_09.txt
ad51763b49535b2d08efe7e0dc657994
6802abc719773e7acf5a9386c5b929ee1d5b1c43
61683 F20101119_AAAJDL matheny_j_Page_90.pro
291b2083e3b2feaef373c448987e7b78
14a776d203b55d40a903a429c697e4aae1690a56
F20101119_AAAIYG matheny_j_Page_50.tif
cae69ec6093e59082cd612ba171e6ac5
b78dacb682c5bdf2d7459cd6e2111c6b87b63692
25383 F20101119_AAAJCY matheny_j_Page_77.pro
c330297cf3ffa402c3b8db83f949cb42
5c86736f92325caa13a2a89b2c23c5b61013e8ce
F20101119_AAAIXS matheny_j_Page_36.tif
79ee59ec0e2199ea4ad7d658b89bc75b
b2605cd449300aadc442c197965780bb75b32d68
1889 F20101119_AAAJEB matheny_j_Page_10.txt
3908eb5bf152b1f41d5f867edffaf7b7
22468c26105d6a240675415e6d7e291dbcc529f5
62774 F20101119_AAAJDM matheny_j_Page_91.pro
9ffd1aac3246e79a2aa2daa7bc02a090
14ab281e8d24bda3c47518ae26a7876873ef7935
F20101119_AAAIYH matheny_j_Page_51.tif
c91b23756b114b2ff803f81aca97abff
f6ee06305df7f29515f97c0ce4ca5d2ce65bba01
25446 F20101119_AAAJCZ matheny_j_Page_78.pro
d28ca778d8d4d9a9a0ad9410d6793cf5
fa5d00aaf6271a2e01590733c70dd7f7fff34abd
F20101119_AAAIXT matheny_j_Page_37.tif
b94c6b7f5bc4bb021d867ac57462d05b
d85a2a2fc7153aa5202363136f83e2c047fb0406
1990 F20101119_AAAJEC matheny_j_Page_11.txt
863691a642c3e92d86cc60bbb3ea2a6c
1a57108d96e3a2f82130cc7e438478d235de9192
58678 F20101119_AAAJDN matheny_j_Page_92.pro
156f287f5b6056189e6941e5dc0adb60
e5b39d3627803c6e0800fc9b839422fa3a29e6c5
F20101119_AAAIYI matheny_j_Page_52.tif
20db43f06032ad18d8018cd8a35eef19
f8c8f750c4097a0d93a9e5b000e8a34f3775bc2d
F20101119_AAAIXU matheny_j_Page_38.tif
d2f3016a2805a162b623a2166c889dad
89fe6f2b812b54bbb6bf93afbe356ec531b13a0a
1859 F20101119_AAAJED matheny_j_Page_12.txt
2c7b2e870bfdcb955058d5a633939264
75b1fb627d43142d1746ab641c6b6e20bbb5c347
60199 F20101119_AAAJDO matheny_j_Page_93.pro
07119a851c29fa0231ef24da3c237e45
5d401b4f0e4fdb155917c03463185b776c4e0a50
F20101119_AAAIYJ matheny_j_Page_53.tif
a28c234ba5873722fa2014dd3824fa46
62ba5a2bf2cd501d483d14206d1b9db3530ce9f0
F20101119_AAAIXV matheny_j_Page_39.tif
58acf62f6204d7024a437138ec3126dc
f4039fe79fb1e92649782aee303bddb46bedce46
1789 F20101119_AAAJEE matheny_j_Page_13.txt
9d8649f59873ad9d56bd0f18ed3aae05
324baba32739739f4aedff27d0468ea6efb9221c
60687 F20101119_AAAJDP matheny_j_Page_94.pro
26b128c383a20fdf0532ca97fc5d2b27
4cef16dc24a3e79b9f0073f6bea4b2d35feb93ef
F20101119_AAAIYK matheny_j_Page_54.tif
330aa6c5a65cffe3611c9307e1d937eb
205e0a645b7138c9eca01c47f43b8755df83bdab
F20101119_AAAIXW matheny_j_Page_40.tif
bdb73f9d7ee0c619d45562d903969f67
34331134cb9691e88bebb93fac6ef297945fecb4
1887 F20101119_AAAJEF matheny_j_Page_14.txt
e0e79f95931e7003f084a0a24692bbf2
1b6bed23ade6643f5df774d1c9eaf191c34d4a5f
9662 F20101119_AAAJDQ matheny_j_Page_95.pro
e8bffe1781c9b88f060e1e30dd6139b9
0c3eef3f888e1bc6599c35f8b9624ee7cda5c0b3
F20101119_AAAIYL matheny_j_Page_55.tif
d78433fae60e48071654d418c6791e5a
2a49c7503e71140737aabdc31ee5a38e262a0edb
F20101119_AAAIXX matheny_j_Page_41.tif
048a0cddbb3040db33bdf460d3c96d04
a3810ff36a61c6d2908da08db82983381d570f25
1983 F20101119_AAAJEG matheny_j_Page_15.txt
dec15a298aee5cd1da0de751499f1262
bb156e965e82b76853ace2bfcdf7582268217854
15471 F20101119_AAAJDR matheny_j_Page_96.pro
1f5a352f37df9aecebef241aea936b7c
edfa861f673bb93266ed79d2fd7edac3390cce6a
F20101119_AAAIYM matheny_j_Page_56.tif
57dd6b72d73f3da5e110b74ca580bc5f
92636c8259b1dc0f0e7e5db63e763610864ede46
F20101119_AAAIXY matheny_j_Page_42.tif
ed704c411494aac3f9f68e9070ce0c4d
18c6d2ead280a56b8729cac0b4de1afcf714d3da
F20101119_AAAIZA matheny_j_Page_70.tif
ecfa3b123473adc65f5be546cfc97680
174307aed8228aeb9fe599157e54d7f615e214ba
509 F20101119_AAAJDS matheny_j_Page_01.txt
43c800ce6f3874b57dee092d1ca2ee90
7bd04d1a48c829f45d1d8a11d2cfa26cca8d29de
F20101119_AAAIYN matheny_j_Page_57.tif
f0facd6bb300265b1d7010ea3f95bad1
0c62bd23b5870d9fbf441724eb41421331db5b9e
F20101119_AAAIXZ matheny_j_Page_43.tif
be43bc4e758f842f6683bf8dfa0f22d0
c5e68a2a33a204daacf85c8426a0df8c363e15d2
1813 F20101119_AAAJEH matheny_j_Page_16.txt
a44265689c9f6015ab2e669017263811
fba2cd135bba7c9e111774c241f1140a483972d2
F20101119_AAAIZB matheny_j_Page_71.tif
328862a798322cfa4082f56fcf777f5c
4d32e1bd503fdff642e6c2a3bd4e78b43f7d1279
122 F20101119_AAAJDT matheny_j_Page_02.txt
225a971128ff0ceac6c4d5e4837bcdb6
8ea47b0e6c63c2c482588b0d3a9c24892840ddb1
F20101119_AAAIYO matheny_j_Page_58.tif
9ab4e997b6ae6d58f9177d45d75c9b55
4ab2c14f6f01e44fa1e801be7ace93e74c2804ee
1952 F20101119_AAAJEI matheny_j_Page_17.txt
05a60d9a872dc6a8d965ec6d49ab89d6
314d5c8b220806996a6429d0445ba776dd2e05d2
F20101119_AAAIZC matheny_j_Page_72.tif
107cfc70c44f63778bd302602e2a8d43
435513b62bebcfc3d596351e5b2e74e852739552
1679 F20101119_AAAJDU matheny_j_Page_03.txt
da6ffd3cf76caab9d250820ae8d804bc
31db7bb59325b35b664ddadca05b28c82f116957
F20101119_AAAIYP matheny_j_Page_59.tif
77408c8af472c48819329b0308a12d6b
ca75949049dabc7f7b1257c40e76d4e53ea92405
1878 F20101119_AAAJEJ matheny_j_Page_18.txt
235efe992cec7f278e477f5b11c6f170
d950c46cce7e059a2fd7db19100e0afc0a675884
F20101119_AAAIZD matheny_j_Page_73.tif
a317e3bf4aae0fc562d27f21c0368683
6aed9759b5ac6677055f75ea020ef9eb27f4d903
2908 F20101119_AAAJDV matheny_j_Page_04.txt
dbb48dc0fbb725f0ae60bd84557369e5
fd49436682f411ade21230443fb07500c29487a3
F20101119_AAAIYQ matheny_j_Page_60.tif
403b79c88415095dac6a5d1220709f8a
17a54b1496d4c59073c81affb65b409693459550
1812 F20101119_AAAJEK matheny_j_Page_19.txt
0a7724e8b0df8161b5bac8a1b72d5f23
0d5e5213c194e2d3d79f8ca165627367494840a3
F20101119_AAAIZE matheny_j_Page_74.tif
17b19190827f9a5f458be22cd2af352a
f4d83ac51777b0da3c5bf974bb6dfd3287cc1789
1362 F20101119_AAAJDW matheny_j_Page_05.txt
43d1f12bb3e4122136dec29df923b42b
463507e69cdf135e09fe36be642c946e14ad8891
F20101119_AAAIYR matheny_j_Page_61.tif
107515fc9b1c2a8aa44521b631c98204
48017ee5ff6118fd674428487352ad8f46d845f9
2021 F20101119_AAAJFA matheny_j_Page_35.txt
0a1d056dd8dce80394167e751c4a5bae
2bfa3a61a46be0d99b8264651c10dbf6922a96ce
2012 F20101119_AAAJEL matheny_j_Page_20.txt
21658724b0de3fc7b6f6b302e93b1b43
7d05d41bcfcac5c33341b4dab49dcef631b76e61
F20101119_AAAIZF matheny_j_Page_75.tif
d90add07023f16585f85def7d10a328a
32485bbc515be6055b4aeb7972eadaf7b72697a9
991 F20101119_AAAJDX matheny_j_Page_06.txt
d593de36ee573276e50271071c22f22e
28ed8c926909dde2ee5d8f5d12121a973c1d8cf9
F20101119_AAAIYS matheny_j_Page_62.tif
c20ba8558c494951617ec62528cda58c
0742ff6d4e822584eb8e29edb8e047e4ec356a5c
2090 F20101119_AAAJFB matheny_j_Page_36.txt
9c60fed6aa3643090ed6aacb428f4106
feafec9a2e9abd62a473407183af1d36b309086f
1944 F20101119_AAAJEM matheny_j_Page_21.txt
47b5869d7fccbcae8c1cd23137b4b748
e9077cee9ebbb69a49153f3a23147eb2054bd681
F20101119_AAAIZG matheny_j_Page_76.tif
b7e1292d3243f0c976fa4a742336eb29
0ba12ab2bdfbdd3c89f95c706ff9caba34ad434e
1681 F20101119_AAAJDY matheny_j_Page_07.txt
13533c6aee8fe3ad4706d8d0f25bf4a2
3b7fd20c859bf3cbfc524d9515ad8e7ac96e90d1
F20101119_AAAIYT matheny_j_Page_63.tif
58ef753100b960030a96850a8a7adc86
8edf81e28cba608209b3d6147775ab7d6f877f28
F20101119_AAAJFC matheny_j_Page_37.txt
87d6072fef8a13bfe4e7d0bd597c66e6
7b311f8e768a075633871116748a0c3970eb7444
1961 F20101119_AAAJEN matheny_j_Page_22.txt
d62a88368a5b47203bcfe102ea301a79
5dce0bd16aab6028c4671d4756092787546a9a04
F20101119_AAAIZH matheny_j_Page_77.tif
697ec9acd65f5c3106d15e15238a4be4
7c85bcf16e16922ed8b2abad3debfa6f5ecfe696
1199 F20101119_AAAJDZ matheny_j_Page_08.txt
44fcb304c2f61747850f7e38f057bc88
d8f1f6597c950996b1ab08a6cd9c9aea729b29ea
F20101119_AAAIYU matheny_j_Page_64.tif
9ca7895d5b05a332b9f77796609cf178
e076ed8098c9a6d73f302eac27af0a7087990988
1992 F20101119_AAAJFD matheny_j_Page_38.txt
5ced223e97d8b281bd1c097ee29a51cb
a68739d75f54652e7f3b33f7395e9a590e9bb72d
2020 F20101119_AAAJEO matheny_j_Page_23.txt
84b9ed870bafda9644ef1a58f3f3fab5
e5b7ff1327a0fd3e45298ed1e278569058b2b373
F20101119_AAAIZI matheny_j_Page_78.tif
44db3a7f2e55abd386bcfce7d96898a3
516f5648e4c123cf013a7bf7951ee7dfb48d73ff
F20101119_AAAIYV matheny_j_Page_65.tif
f54a003d998009dcb133c285c60ef0ef
2ba943aaa7181188182717d9905462828dea1b73
948 F20101119_AAAJFE matheny_j_Page_39.txt
ab4d4f6594e2786e4e0664af83705648
23f6aa2630ea09153a78f7e50b35f79ab62ea699
1690 F20101119_AAAJEP matheny_j_Page_24.txt
4c3791768febb71ef5cb5255ebe53332
3f8e13e8121d075571f3dc6ea3f2d3335be841dd
F20101119_AAAIZJ matheny_j_Page_79.tif
405058520043b1f0815d18b70b9a230b
c471a733836bf637824a907c080b7cb07f3b5c70
F20101119_AAAIYW matheny_j_Page_66.tif
65194ef51aafa2fde0c833dc4dd036a6
682d2bd787b2c9553aa6795a696dfeb61f14a23a
1751 F20101119_AAAJFF matheny_j_Page_40.txt
7f6b6b3b1bc5ab0c80a1100466a7079d
4870724569bf5c7326907c1cb95767fd3ef96481
250 F20101119_AAAJEQ matheny_j_Page_25.txt
0c16cc0ba463d5a9786e44c9d2f7607a
9c59c63003e0cfcf97a7b40d8905703ca410d631
F20101119_AAAIZK matheny_j_Page_80.tif
9f3a3a07f271d4482b412ea27dcec586
718f7b66a1d7fa8a5bbf199e537caa6abc997e06
F20101119_AAAIYX matheny_j_Page_67.tif
8bfce5e09a7727c79ac0cc9b5b4b24d9
77cf08a9e428a582ee22756d1c526929c4b974f5
1989 F20101119_AAAJFG matheny_j_Page_41.txt
d42212d6d8781e1a1bd66ed8e2dc5cbe
51589411ff36ad4507b088e18173a1a22b35dbb5
1852 F20101119_AAAJER matheny_j_Page_26.txt
8f035ad0e39355705e465cb5c1dc2743
a5ba80b25627c908b9f0d900659063a137b82bca
F20101119_AAAIZL matheny_j_Page_81.tif
0ec7ed3e1f200924aef9c2033757dbbe
86a1e2d343ae4ca1a57764a433c87d1de93a3615
F20101119_AAAIYY matheny_j_Page_68.tif
bf5cb7d29b3eb02b7977b92442e28fa2
6611535850254696138e593838e5d420164c685a
1928 F20101119_AAAJFH matheny_j_Page_42.txt
4458f8f782e26bf1f98dde7df49725f9
a5045ffb5d8897b1ed5b0d15ad856fc09a16c8d0
F20101119_AAAJES matheny_j_Page_27.txt
516ef1f4d5cccc69b298475a4ba5835a
7c59b9b9da6aa2e320886df8dd58f42df7e42bb4
F20101119_AAAIZM matheny_j_Page_82.tif
a39513f196b9e50bef7482646412d2c4
343e17254292f50420d47e82e5cfcb61502aa3a1
F20101119_AAAIYZ matheny_j_Page_69.tif
f493f98d81b0844c3c72517747087503
1a0ccc2e7dce55b246eeb92a43f06dad0134be9f
2060 F20101119_AAAJET matheny_j_Page_28.txt
fdd0c7b2cbb34611938713059f5548c6
7c5e4fa4a3b637c77b5663f7bf0774c186dccdef
F20101119_AAAIZN matheny_j_Page_83.tif
21d55575474d9bdbf92a7ac6be8b01d7
39b9b7008ffd29cb85f3775e982be0d5416afe31
2045 F20101119_AAAJFI matheny_j_Page_43.txt
ae53b9cd59bf77ddecb180a8ad3533b0
748368b8c56085511f32c0cbfd58e65d948180e9
1978 F20101119_AAAJEU matheny_j_Page_29.txt
6ed25c4e54d821c1dfb05a2d85eac3ea
86d84831cef77f7d1ac0dc61bb15cec8038ccbfe
F20101119_AAAIZO matheny_j_Page_84.tif
755e19e259ca4623aa3c989acf5d87b9
fb7aaeac5d3b137912a65d60b122e7f58f2bd7fb
1979 F20101119_AAAJFJ matheny_j_Page_44.txt
efca09675c13a94226698055406622cb
53f2084d9a05656aa91bf8cceb84b979206986fb
1913 F20101119_AAAJEV matheny_j_Page_30.txt
edf75a55bb6f86cb730717444e2fd00c
57d3675abf4980b85ffb17e0c092f3db5433b05a
F20101119_AAAIZP matheny_j_Page_85.tif
7d91bc50547a662a862d59c1e8c11631
cd4ed7007a61a77d9d763ad0dc6ea01620a3b260
2080 F20101119_AAAJFK matheny_j_Page_45.txt
4c525d5f2b26232fb90801bca66bdb88
bba457c2a84982e3c4c0375e36a403fc678c9bf6
1914 F20101119_AAAJEW matheny_j_Page_31.txt
2211dcb2a1f1000d0de663107073d8a2
292d2749aacde2eb0d8f696bd069c3a0591fdddd
F20101119_AAAIZQ matheny_j_Page_86.tif
d51bd4234700374554181ef29465dd1b
c3967016f90f03df1dec86689d47b3a16e6e8d6a
1449 F20101119_AAAJFL matheny_j_Page_46.txt
3d645d09c5ab6ea53fd6583c9b34103d
8febcc81ea20956386b793fc05b44ede702da8f4
2006 F20101119_AAAJEX matheny_j_Page_32.txt
daa993a4331342e56804add4fd69ec12
c87f66837ba19e897c1a893a700d6f8811dc1f33
F20101119_AAAIZR matheny_j_Page_87.tif
a50e5bbdcb9f20057c11801f4acd154b
810fd92f6fa625edf543367d5a65a418d92bc182
1968 F20101119_AAAJGA matheny_j_Page_61.txt
d77ce059bb3fb524af838797c6559819
cd554b1e708c3a589345647e85085df24fb6deaa
1822 F20101119_AAAJFM matheny_j_Page_47.txt
ab9a1437bc5718e134fb869684a4ae16
aa01ee142a52aa3e1b9386a253bfbb4a5802894c
1847 F20101119_AAAJEY matheny_j_Page_33.txt
f8c5ab40b09bef4eceba5c68b47a9e62
bc25d2c078e78614dc33dc78c9c2df7d3ee192c4
F20101119_AAAIZS matheny_j_Page_88.tif
80b23bc5d73ff9ae7fcbc3808eb67972
7691976928a4bead2de763d3c15c07f22fd441a1
1974 F20101119_AAAJGB matheny_j_Page_62.txt
6f6fbb46b2505bf57b24a55ee7ec8086
fc796f5e0343a1b35e929a5161d96f2eb48d5b25
1927 F20101119_AAAJFN matheny_j_Page_48.txt
95962bda35a5a06d75fd36135843460c
9ff7ce6958d8f81de6722f3d19d8fa6c57455400
1936 F20101119_AAAJEZ matheny_j_Page_34.txt
8227736caa82ddeee3e8498f38e43550
f8371f315f22213d76e4857993afa4ede3fd5aec
F20101119_AAAIZT matheny_j_Page_89.tif
9d3858deb7ea1eda374f07e07ff55e71
ae03cd7bf54763aaa007459d38a0f7307c9840e7
F20101119_AAAJGC matheny_j_Page_63.txt
d770987ea1abaf820424e70d6b748cb5
09ea3feff6eb888a004bd524a6c59ab8e7fe60c2
2098 F20101119_AAAJFO matheny_j_Page_49.txt
bfc29d062049bd578745038ee353ca60
6ae2bde629a10673d5f21f1ce628b3a3d1941357
F20101119_AAAIZU matheny_j_Page_90.tif
89448467b698f8a291be0781413a5571
132237b8ad18f6831e0744d38d05bd20d2e572ae
1960 F20101119_AAAJGD matheny_j_Page_64.txt
dd6d43c5b41662217dc710e10c8aaec0
7a31e98e1d7337da143434b1ea3c3786b4163759
1958 F20101119_AAAJFP matheny_j_Page_50.txt
3da12a1e7e0a7e9d80783700e89df5e7
823580c78a20b1442c90a12e6662395527c20d72
F20101119_AAAIZV matheny_j_Page_91.tif
8da782873727f01594d11ab160554f1e
81fc7907c684448420eaab4be48ab9151efb48f8
1879 F20101119_AAAJGE matheny_j_Page_65.txt
bdbd98c38244b38afbfc26ab8d1a6db8
41f81dfbce45443315cc2bbbf6b465a04293d9fb
2008 F20101119_AAAJFQ matheny_j_Page_51.txt
70e21adfadb7d4032272a818fa95b395
7c78b715c2fa93c187e70fb2cc9454758e22a3b3
F20101119_AAAIZW matheny_j_Page_92.tif
15e287ad051e01e5bbda8a7946201f72
73a444ca81765d673a457db4a4c624c4f0e6fbd7
189 F20101119_AAAJGF matheny_j_Page_66.txt
90b7fb65ab253fca3532edb31f984841
ab8e217e3a8322d35dbd349164ce5b04a6e9ad3d
1935 F20101119_AAAJFR matheny_j_Page_52.txt
0ee0aa4e8fc1b14edf39b3ecc6aa15b7
00e87bbfc99e383cb43d85945493793b5f4be0d2
F20101119_AAAIZX matheny_j_Page_93.tif
91de91f7e483fe2f249a5c1eb760f25f
c2c6b38b364d7fa7a21f7b502e62c7e4527b9a20
1840 F20101119_AAAJGG matheny_j_Page_67.txt
5107e85e8eab94a11a8b45c0c81640d3
8172b9620a57efb64e6b3cacd0fb2147df4ba713
F20101119_AAAJFS matheny_j_Page_53.txt
7b6596ad524cadfee9b0169a7f06bf81
4f3fdf4c1434c8f1d5418809a703d31b6db032e6
F20101119_AAAIZY matheny_j_Page_94.tif
161fa3885518a137f457f1b1a28a8a74
b9382f3b0a9992d231e0fce864312b4619437de5
2011 F20101119_AAAJGH matheny_j_Page_68.txt
125c51ab9ec801b8602159b9274eb72d
ecfe0232736e756d98857e8ea0a9821b13d9c7be
F20101119_AAAJFT matheny_j_Page_54.txt
9bcc938dd66f672f52b988045707a1b6
3683d9ce619385c7e0a3a7656d0a68fbc2344329
F20101119_AAAIZZ matheny_j_Page_95.tif
26d9cb999f8f93eddc17e6bd78b08ed5
c08ab1f73ee7c30c1168c5f6a1f0cf34e955a8de
F20101119_AAAJGI matheny_j_Page_69.txt
b9e534a5a0cb54af2e76c733af6e15eb
ce26f7d1868004aa248bde259aed95933990d241
F20101119_AAAJFU matheny_j_Page_55.txt
f59f2ccb9000425ff1f3b3d222724618
64cc929b9ad52d56d7b48ec5c71e67d98157d3c5
F20101119_AAAJFV matheny_j_Page_56.txt
609406650216ff0f46249787347b89d5
e195144b2d80e37f9740ae09e03b00ac37c656cf
F20101119_AAAJGJ matheny_j_Page_70.txt
ec382cd766b9fd3cc1768f794e9c50d6
188c84443dc9b27f334a507f75a21cdf9f65a178
F20101119_AAAJFW matheny_j_Page_57.txt
166e74b20cdab45cbe943c28badb620f
15d576a1a1fc41770de02a70485aa5efb49a61fd
2049 F20101119_AAAJGK matheny_j_Page_71.txt
fcc91abc28b7ad975de634995f123902
9cc70ed4370bd5859d5e7c760210e8b940189403
2009 F20101119_AAAJFX matheny_j_Page_58.txt
9d72fa929621948e07f1ca113462ffda
2d1dd33b436d09df3105e7951b25c851dccecd33
2367 F20101119_AAAJHA matheny_j_Page_87.txt
a25d0a7b39017f99d4053e3ebcbca72a
2f39f92698efcecf3a66184c485c8d67b8246adc
1955 F20101119_AAAJGL matheny_j_Page_72.txt
829a0b5c65b6565e44cb0f7b3332dd0e
b08490253fe808366965bc6af20d8a4813168652
2010 F20101119_AAAJFY matheny_j_Page_59.txt
2e9693a3af78617bfd86ec3bf595776b
d37b30e8a2724b4c309a1082db876d2c4866304b
2510 F20101119_AAAJHB matheny_j_Page_88.txt
da77ce71491a1677bd82e53f11dc92bc
f49462e05bf9b75c0f81f8593fbe44b605823432
1986 F20101119_AAAJGM matheny_j_Page_73.txt
c78d1efd813be751529dcb1b4ea70237
860a042a68e3c30a536d28ce200799385beea48c
1941 F20101119_AAAJFZ matheny_j_Page_60.txt
f210f53cc6b55d9af8cb05158e204bab
49987d38593f69fe370bc01a39c99a2470136139
2608 F20101119_AAAJHC matheny_j_Page_89.txt
05c5e1cc6dece78c465ef043d8629158
cffb558d5556ea621970967f0c7c46f004b8fbf5
1419 F20101119_AAAJGN matheny_j_Page_74.txt
47317f276e3dc2d3f00a715b42ee60f7
79108cc3cee7a1958f78fb87e8bc2c949aa20d9d
2507 F20101119_AAAJHD matheny_j_Page_90.txt
4668b50db5d547d8848525b6d6f4662c
72769aef4322c1adf74af0e416fd9152add04f87
924 F20101119_AAAJGO matheny_j_Page_75.txt
f95a2633b6347ff6b82929b5e8cecfaa
ea8ad0dd129d41cd1584657e56c2bb801e225f99
2544 F20101119_AAAJHE matheny_j_Page_91.txt
4d892e4b9fb6180fac765c390d48f4ce
880c4ce5a5e4c01778c6136252181425bde354c9
1408 F20101119_AAAJGP matheny_j_Page_76.txt
2e41caa2d0e073f705cc9603620a459d
42e98529a9cb813e236658e144656152db2dff32
2395 F20101119_AAAJHF matheny_j_Page_92.txt
eecca406890ea1b39141fcf1179012b7
065fc317196fceb8031023190d21f8123e8ace26
1446 F20101119_AAAJGQ matheny_j_Page_77.txt
bcd9566489007959b4eabd94eb3991bd
2850d0cb54977d7c8ae3a1774163097073cc5f5c
2440 F20101119_AAAJHG matheny_j_Page_93.txt
5672216222280ebc05741b5096c61d45
d9a20c52dc8ef0328ea04ade11ce1d684e8cef58
1492 F20101119_AAAJGR matheny_j_Page_78.txt
bb6f0ecc5ba486733454aacd04cca28e
b392ae12919dd1184c7f70e466ccb5bb190bde55
2448 F20101119_AAAJHH matheny_j_Page_94.txt
5c176feeb70441fce29956deffbdeb55
c86cb47826edfd453b1c4137d8fdc384ce889a48
1488 F20101119_AAAJGS matheny_j_Page_79.txt
bdb89fc164c3018defb07be0d8272344
bed2793bababcdc44ec0ac4d7edbfb0d67ef5592
434 F20101119_AAAJHI matheny_j_Page_95.txt
54a9a31041ac2f882b54f7fdeed46867
3a6ce94b60b8be67e03d54314d92c2183dd1f885
1278 F20101119_AAAJGT matheny_j_Page_80.txt
877a3fbc941e2ca7695f8c7649bfb067
bb4a5599ced74dfa6957866d8b944a7a7762973e
662 F20101119_AAAJHJ matheny_j_Page_96.txt
e7dd74e890a85936ad043dc8f0d431aa
6e9ab3a5df14e61ba6fb6a53527270703dc78896
1220 F20101119_AAAJGU matheny_j_Page_81.txt
57d82003010bc56d58f72806079be58d
a257f7d3031749948598554c7276668af48af9e4
1215 F20101119_AAAJGV matheny_j_Page_82.txt
f6ee2fb2e9e9958297c8987074eaaf8b
8f377379edf1c8f321eee7c5fa6803a646334294
2713 F20101119_AAAJHK matheny_j_Page_01thm.jpg
e8d00c30f0a728320392c95127d0c480
35edf9faa807dfd739b76d1972ded08e79165f5e
391 F20101119_AAAJGW matheny_j_Page_83.txt
4b25432652fc5be5d122c31b7da5ad8a
dfe163c768e03652e439c024ed2902e50b411dd6
6347 F20101119_AAAJIA matheny_j_Page_61thm.jpg
2dba964f40c47cab6a49bcdb16259e86
805ee6c1aa98619a9119aea5321d1b5f7c9e13ae
275714 F20101119_AAAJHL matheny_j.pdf
09b7f184865ab93b3b4a3dbae8ffa128
99201f4a84bbb91bd0ae0b234ef04c7217e46417
449 F20101119_AAAJGX matheny_j_Page_84.txt
6b3878c99f6d061672c821fc38704e1b
054673a34a30ddde23bf8cda1e837c804aa5dcc6
6380 F20101119_AAAJIB matheny_j_Page_37thm.jpg
689a523c44fea963365431482ad13835
dd507cbce0faf2d1d7620e7e28ff2baced8d3847
3770 F20101119_AAAJHM matheny_j_Page_82thm.jpg
9293058bf66965f177a01aa8d785e238
532b806225f82ea94e557caee3c16b017859d597
401 F20101119_AAAJGY matheny_j_Page_85.txt
d4a5a94a3b15b973efa96356e98954bb
e08e324eef5b86bfb2ca7fe18387f047d93f6e57
24024 F20101119_AAAJIC matheny_j_Page_59.QC.jpg
11513522b02c2f1198abb9e23713037f
a1ee850750f9441280af30678de7d3400f44290b
6716 F20101119_AAAJHN matheny_j_Page_91thm.jpg
e10bf443dd00d530a3b59ca32ca12e8c
25514d0c2293a0e0e5a125c5e0d65401a4b20ed7
2029 F20101119_AAAJGZ matheny_j_Page_86.txt
d793986b841d3ef1b96f6bdd98358629
cc820411fff6d244d444fd534c3585c4ca4a0673
22319 F20101119_AAAJID matheny_j_Page_65.QC.jpg
a2430a3f59d2e6f42393805d1a0e30b4
b7cca2a94c3e0757f904023060b2fd41aabf12cd
7246 F20101119_AAAJHO matheny_j_Page_94thm.jpg
9d2271f3cefc26ae224505482c81cb20
9689d9bc73e8cfd3a689b9f54c8f4ccbbe827352
23483 F20101119_AAAJIE matheny_j_Page_37.QC.jpg
f0a92eefb45a803084ad3f88c4a24c9b
4437fea102e2bba8de49c55aa976d2f33352be8f
1777 F20101119_AAAJHP matheny_j_Page_25thm.jpg
8381379a0a93a3c5114d75f816df53d2
3e831767153db1797da21d8a0cbfe14e47a72034
23246 F20101119_AAAJIF matheny_j_Page_55.QC.jpg
32e0ff6ffb80f5911d388d2412d46869
cf0ddef4932cb0e6ba7c848a8dd5ee9111e5c200
6582 F20101119_AAAJHQ matheny_j_Page_23thm.jpg
40db648f9f2d48ab0d7876e42aab47e3
215d367b2d0f7ac6a0e424c5db7c258aa2dd016f
4037 F20101119_AAAJIG matheny_j_Page_81thm.jpg
68d6a6b7957fde4895b6ad9d791d0cf2
b90cf6b686caaefc55e53f86704d9b4a3c517b9e
6356 F20101119_AAAJHR matheny_j_Page_27thm.jpg
784674d85f36f49c7d27bb238d645463
357c9bab352537dad91f864605f249ebe45a5537
F20101119_AAAJIH matheny_j_Page_83thm.jpg
e90d51199b5c44938c2927b44c87feec
38be8052adda419906b78308a27da0e5f6ad02e3
6592 F20101119_AAAJHS matheny_j_Page_35thm.jpg
d4b6505fdb46a7627ad1314a85d03860
ff9450fe616a445a4dabe8300b25b38ca021e6a1
23185 F20101119_AAAJHT matheny_j_Page_28.QC.jpg
beb99f2493925eba49deff5a29989b06
0fa7adb1d8ead16e6e06feff19ac1799843c8b4e
23621 F20101119_AAAJII matheny_j_Page_11.QC.jpg
74221c8cc0a244d2b1e0d4223d6551ea
8df99e33d97606e91aa78a4c3ae9ae510396296c
3405 F20101119_AAAJHU matheny_j_Page_79thm.jpg
d2ab785b152f15e0d39e8102fdfcafd5
b8503d5195e08a2986ba278ae899e8354b7e32f2
6128 F20101119_AAAJIJ matheny_j_Page_16thm.jpg
2a60a5ea7a8dae6a874e49e74c6498e3
f74f9a370aeada9a520d1cce62f81773ff18ea52
17016 F20101119_AAAJHV matheny_j_Page_04.QC.jpg
750c5b55427028b3617e55367d6aad73
014cc37c9792e4b15acaa0eaea176f4464c3d5c0
20726 F20101119_AAAJIK matheny_j_Page_86.QC.jpg
6e41ee14de5163114584f6800bd596f6
93057a4cd6490e581d244eb9bc920d3dff28898d
4401 F20101119_AAAJHW matheny_j_Page_66.QC.jpg
63aa7e02b85793173d1fb252227c259b
3d28790f478735a59329a834e6ae19dc7ca9aa85
5613 F20101119_AAAJHX matheny_j_Page_83.QC.jpg
d78da4542400e15caf3d31b5df1bdaab
8e4683b6d83f4f27c129b571941b9587fa673c37
22565 F20101119_AAAJJA matheny_j_Page_30.QC.jpg
d20c9bc3f20e250471bac383ec1f1c8e
de7b8f92cc167061c80e3f1f1e4be0eb5360063c
24232 F20101119_AAAJIL matheny_j_Page_20.QC.jpg
04d70e64b4bae04f12f2e8ac446dc71b
b8b7a73f2b37c52245cc179baf939b9cd884c126
6846 F20101119_AAAJHY matheny_j_Page_19thm.jpg
1bb3cc1dcb10258a2a60763fd18823ee
12a920a855bb6eeaa6739960189b7559fb96d65e
21939 F20101119_AAAJJB matheny_j_Page_12.QC.jpg
afa630df8bdead9fcded4c7b1c169a18
38cc6364f9ee70b4fbc1e135f4cd4aac465be1a2
6053 F20101119_AAAJIM matheny_j_Page_13thm.jpg
65cc65de26b070532a3691c982209175
789757fca5580c6b389474da72732144b34d5ccf
6091 F20101119_AAAJHZ matheny_j_Page_26thm.jpg
7b0075a2aea014b045d13e83ef195cee
2d3c63e57c8fb6d4361906b77cce72abe367bb40
5859 F20101119_AAAJJC matheny_j_Page_86thm.jpg
d6d03f2d18a02c8b7b19166582718686
8ab64a8d21de9a31e12aecf23848f88b9d3d990d
3210 F20101119_AAAJIN matheny_j_Page_78thm.jpg
22459b83a7c7353fc8ae6dac4d2facce
1cc4e300503f276f909dd8d7d2b56969a431c2a3
5269 F20101119_AAAJJD matheny_j_Page_07thm.jpg
95eefc2899c9e92a984dbbddfdd4a215
3986571e57cd99e08f495e48295ceb8314bb90b5
6552 F20101119_AAAJIO matheny_j_Page_59thm.jpg
5fb33f32e7b13ea3b3876fb16686c20a
93ab80565ef2823ce0c9f8af6f31ee884aced9ef
26122 F20101119_AAAJJE matheny_j_Page_94.QC.jpg
bb7ae40380f667d5286ea493787d3dba
8fb3e86c168cec2d6e5dbf33d24ca65c5e6f614b
6590 F20101119_AAAJIP matheny_j_Page_70thm.jpg
129e921367365f8ba47b02e4523849a3
c1b213d1d9e1a2b2ffa57c38cb6510e989303a0d
17679 F20101119_AAAJJF matheny_j_Page_46.QC.jpg
952950322c11fc4d13cd6cf43d936022
e178e43fa4c44cab1853e9504d8a3666074b1eef
23717 F20101119_AAAJIQ matheny_j_Page_23.QC.jpg
8cb488df0867f5780b7f305d1c86620f
b5dd14a778ceec68ba39c973be36f008d409232b
23810 F20101119_AAAJJG matheny_j_Page_45.QC.jpg
1be935f45513377fd843238fb868e2f7
906f5e4bbbf90ed7768d89b344043f2ed10b3aed
F20101119_AAAJIR matheny_j_Page_22thm.jpg
215b4025e162139f5d1f0fb2225d7b02
a42a8a2b777e8ffe7caa91952076795dd3be6923
F20101119_AAAJJH matheny_j_Page_87thm.jpg
c1b35d03be3c48195c309c1b1b656994
dfbf4013f40e5272b5d9c2a6ab933b5e5a6b4d07
23695 F20101119_AAAJIS matheny_j_Page_58.QC.jpg
073041358c4d2be1181f6c3a65a386db
94ec830c1e32524126d739f76ac4188d38fd4cf8
6462 F20101119_AAAJJI matheny_j_Page_68thm.jpg
91f043f124ee7acccccbfb7f0732e7ca
35af9683788a86dbd4061407857fab38e82e3a74
6683 F20101119_AAAJIT matheny_j_Page_20thm.jpg
1f9f93af53ae25e88e1b66ff22ca23d1
e0e3fcd9d949f9f8b3786854d78ed05784029a74
6487 F20101119_AAAJJJ matheny_j_Page_32thm.jpg
3dad58f2eee2a55379f3728b61c548f7
42c0bb1d9b89d93996bbe80d272fec1c3793a469
6602 F20101119_AAAJIU matheny_j_Page_58thm.jpg
8f6c5c654b85d3e75e89b1fe45e41883
d4797e0ecf140275953fc667b80b3d0dcefe8189
12465 F20101119_AAAJJK matheny_j_Page_82.QC.jpg
e95ba467fd6d3957ced39e2d469c26b1
eeea2ea25dc11e4351d44ebbe39cd74fc0175a52
6516 F20101119_AAAJIV matheny_j_Page_18thm.jpg
b6e99c217a6184ec313bc02aa5a471de
a3a97f63b65f6270899f98cb3065c5090e3b4572
2148 F20101119_AAAJJL matheny_j_Page_95thm.jpg
b8e871d1d201ab4202c98f488afacb1e
359dd8258acebe0c1375708e2b5ea23972b2539c
21796 F20101119_AAAJIW matheny_j_Page_16.QC.jpg
615209401d9733d78b561cdcf9124798
17ef0d33de71cb9673e5539e4ecfe60644bd1e69
13040 F20101119_AAAJKA matheny_j_Page_80.QC.jpg
97b69a540f3c40b05ae1f84c3d40b656
b28341d40e3d42dc6c3691e24749d6a13bbfa961
6335 F20101119_AAAJIX matheny_j_Page_95.QC.jpg
a15efebbf5a47cc64baf58e0db65aa60
10ea516c499bdac25a599036a7ce6be77d6b1f49
6451 F20101119_AAAJKB matheny_j_Page_63thm.jpg
70918d50e0c9cf387ef153243a2e8694
51e381fd6b0af0fcfd6f0aa6e738815d13040f8c
23197 F20101119_AAAJJM matheny_j_Page_14.QC.jpg
bab142f36acd885d4c759bbab10ab5fa
449abac1870b156eaf65ba007b23de2f4fae19da
23600 F20101119_AAAJIY matheny_j_Page_68.QC.jpg
13961a2e47eb72c8a9f53ed10fed5a15
dfab93be0b408a52df524fbc44b8cc843a046e25
6721 F20101119_AAAJKC matheny_j_Page_45thm.jpg
a2c7640914b4f092c8c71ea679b6a10e
3077e3e386363ee66c332f1ce240ac96b753aae8
22542 F20101119_AAAJJN matheny_j_Page_34.QC.jpg
dd78e72ef2c58e21260047f89519b936
77c1824714886b41016da73694812996d9c566ff
20905 F20101119_AAAJIZ matheny_j_Page_47.QC.jpg
1137f9a8c85a413fe8dc30d9fefcb8b1
6b2e8cb786036d0cfe9f6e5314e0d6e792a4dd6e
25294 F20101119_AAAJKD matheny_j_Page_90.QC.jpg
0a4243662611d2627916c0bd6b156da9
ba21aad8a8e5fce69e45364c4c4ab4ab08ce4f82
6521 F20101119_AAAJJO matheny_j_Page_48thm.jpg
5b131f11ab9708bbd35fd7dbdefd560a
29a793c1808cc86a21c8bc20cb24ce02c2c9b6ab
25537 F20101119_AAAJKE matheny_j_Page_89.QC.jpg
6d1622bbe78e5000201fb89309728771
272c8808e58ee23e89306a4c69e590dad09237db
23182 F20101119_AAAJJP matheny_j_Page_29.QC.jpg
64b81e3907b1d29650300ce54311cba5
3159c1e932d9f78ee9973b0c00da523402e6ba14
23748 F20101119_AAAJKF matheny_j_Page_63.QC.jpg
bb16f9309c9faca821ff42c9a5ae664c
719c25de303477c0d4d24d24daf70c9595a1d0cf
23722 F20101119_AAAJJQ matheny_j_Page_32.QC.jpg
1722d4875548864384aa0415d491c07a
54cb131ae0e10d498cf188f083662a06b1b0a9f4
22444 F20101119_AAAJKG matheny_j_Page_52.QC.jpg
f10e32565d764d661a9dc49f3dd5b512
8c0a26ad37de383be86c3a148548da014e88f377
1394 F20101119_AAAJJR matheny_j_Page_02thm.jpg
5a7ca3981328c47fdb0947508aef8f7f
f71c9f4a1685899ea3d376bccff1580a846a67ed
23398 F20101119_AAAJKH matheny_j_Page_54.QC.jpg
b404e34a307926ba6a94dd4a33aff703
5836f1e34ee779a4d15ec5d03409f12479df8824
21828 F20101119_AAAJJS matheny_j_Page_33.QC.jpg
6b062259534c4067bb9ff4e6da9e06be
57a06ef05e288b09d23d3c1f5bb7b136e17184b5
7892 F20101119_AAAJKI matheny_j_Page_01.QC.jpg
dd05dc751a4f6efb7bc57ebd6767f5c0
ec1aba719813013940ec5fef9d645a29637af5fb
6731 F20101119_AAAJJT matheny_j_Page_28thm.jpg
c6b2e356beb43c69b8dd80cf66aa5057
48611e7f2c8fd722c35ca0aa9763bc54bff785c2
22478 F20101119_AAAJKJ matheny_j_Page_10.QC.jpg
795da01237a45cb2a1d8f2a16d1b9f06
50306b6369d270dffa6ecef4768cb6660a1055d8
6300 F20101119_AAAJJU matheny_j_Page_34thm.jpg
a58101dd79926cf2f828cc60a76e907b
04702963470d68e972a3a4ba7ffc65db285e6880
6468 F20101119_AAAJKK matheny_j_Page_64thm.jpg
9f25afec2f39a847d970ea516c519b59
ef888be686e401ae0f8431c68a3668ae6fa5cd83
6497 F20101119_AAAJJV matheny_j_Page_71thm.jpg
9bfdf64451298dd9a5afb25ca06b1464
c383efbc07667ee1e0037e9b900388dc3cf1f7ce
6675 F20101119_AAAJKL matheny_j_Page_41thm.jpg
2a77db7af37c78c04688128696cadeb0
90fd7cf4f88765049ab6b855c6407bc4e060b90f
6838 F20101119_AAAJJW matheny_j_Page_43thm.jpg
28ae27aa4e84ed7ad32576926e515d03
f51013ebbda3f2718f5254d4a068a11106daed81
22758 F20101119_AAAJKM matheny_j_Page_49.QC.jpg
134f8d84e876f0fa081703390c622bca
6850f9d5bc9a0fb18c00b11e2383e7db15fa733b
6448 F20101119_AAAJJX matheny_j_Page_50thm.jpg
3f935c6de9d63ba7a42aafd435778eac
8aad16ddfae0d423927f751c85450a5d06a4a90d
23804 F20101119_AAAJLA matheny_j_Page_35.QC.jpg
700ae2f5fd9ccde8bf3b67f960aa6c0f
fc2946312d57c5557f8e4a0dbdcbdb6f8b92b293
20475 F20101119_AAAJJY matheny_j_Page_40.QC.jpg
face8d7a8cbcea6b77e9722e9dd85691
76943643539b1cc499fda685abf6739e2a6e22cb
23502 F20101119_AAAJLB matheny_j_Page_61.QC.jpg
9777ad68da54166bb11c7b1f3998f1e2
d2b61ec9296945808ea7bdf62b57b109b2a6d0ce
6342 F20101119_AAAJKN matheny_j_Page_31thm.jpg
abc35666eb39e762ff91d297240eab16
7eb56646f1294da213de5322c5d309ff2b6c0cda
23582 F20101119_AAAJJZ matheny_j_Page_73.QC.jpg
284af436a8900b073907e1d5dd0337a3
457710cd41ecb77a825d31b893d36e0ba4560422
11431 F20101119_AAAJLC matheny_j_Page_77.QC.jpg
ed047c925a03ca97ac038d3ad8e2760a
8ad216ab2cb3bef9b6205ec3dadf7b231ef8351f
21975 F20101119_AAAJKO matheny_j_Page_31.QC.jpg
5f1397dddb399835f2bbb370abb21497
ab76a6c8b3831c309243d639b99876e3bff6082d
6799 F20101119_AAAJLD matheny_j_Page_17thm.jpg
add03ac6aec7222da27fe2491a9089ed
856667c57bfbc0edf55eea090cf0e8da83a92165
23090 F20101119_AAAJKP matheny_j_Page_42.QC.jpg
7341e0a8e52295bfd44fbd8e62a170cb
bf94fd72c5dc37e9c98317581ebdbaaf42b869ae
25990 F20101119_AAAJLE matheny_j_Page_92.QC.jpg
da1610af9b52966af4d00a8b40602bac
e0d41b1ec74f02aaa4762115fd4370146570d8f2
6630 F20101119_AAAJKQ matheny_j_Page_73thm.jpg
65dbe901fd8fffcc1eaeaa7602b90c00
c5afa220bbe23030cff84a7a97da7b5de34c64ee
6812 F20101119_AAAJLF matheny_j_Page_93thm.jpg
fa7ba9d77885e3fafe452d8a439e4cfe
f80a3dc6bfdb17292ec97dd9f43d4df35adbe31a
23263 F20101119_AAAJKR matheny_j_Page_41.QC.jpg
09ad474cfea667db5ec0b0555b18ddbb
097fb8e1099326263d7ea56955d0d2a171027072
6485 F20101119_AAAJLG matheny_j_Page_42thm.jpg
ac81af9371aba09aa69fafae26e18aee
7c494ea578e06eefbb07a2746f9f7921df9f598f
23487 F20101119_AAAJKS matheny_j_Page_15.QC.jpg
cca7a7faeaf7a6006e111cd8771bbd3a
62d9fef8bcf52c1fb7cd4071ebc0d87c61a4ba7e
6871 F20101119_AAAJLH matheny_j_Page_92thm.jpg
0956b3abd8ab0b9efa1c7837ee7153b1
e9905eaceca2e967e1d7537dddef1fe7ad3d21a4
3768 F20101119_AAAJKT matheny_j_Page_80thm.jpg
032a560497bd3667f95747e324434f96
b916c4ed157ea2a353513f5f48f6ac0c753054fd
15432 F20101119_AAAJLI matheny_j_Page_76.QC.jpg
f31603d09e16857ba0edd04b5a1ec513
b1d3a61fb7c3ca812f0d24c2e4fa7eebb69b8158
20522 F20101119_AAAJKU matheny_j_Page_24.QC.jpg
b0df523e8b637a18b3192f41c7f9b7d8
3743c0e2eb955efb637c1e64d0a27a1254ec3547
6341 F20101119_AAAJLJ matheny_j_Page_33thm.jpg
f3c234da23a40fce888f8afaafdab981
2650bcfb4f31f27c2411d4a686bc0bd938ed7625
6486 F20101119_AAAJKV matheny_j_Page_60thm.jpg
90b120d862f27c6543b0d97cee037a12
037fb96112f3666dd47fdfb304c28b06bc6559dc
6107 F20101119_AAAJLK matheny_j_Page_84.QC.jpg
5ad0edb09b71908cf460fb751a6da6f5
5cce00b58bd1fefda6b422e7ef7b77940a6ce554
21182 F20101119_AAAJKW matheny_j_Page_26.QC.jpg
876fa8fa6a222436afb30e50f25ffb83
98e6fdec93837185ea5927e3c7be3f2c991df99e
6434 F20101119_AAAJLL matheny_j_Page_21thm.jpg
bdd4ae2a51c8c02134a47909fb139d34
74268fdce74f604237ae9a7be29eb13b9fdb2f92
24368 F20101119_AAAJKX matheny_j_Page_57.QC.jpg
d71da4724bd9f9017b67ecebbbf33cdf
a1c0885df50c38f070d0e33d211fb5dbb712b03a
6413 F20101119_AAAJMA matheny_j_Page_30thm.jpg
33a3723b2f6214cdb3f10d0173f8f993
48e1672281512fdbab0a1df1b278bf024284d335
16328 F20101119_AAAJLM matheny_j_Page_08.QC.jpg
a8d900d552af80df7e3c5b8883e9261a
a797ff37d0cef8ee3a5b079bf2c5f2a99a332366
20291 F20101119_AAAJKY matheny_j_Page_09.QC.jpg
d1389fe781a94f7fe2fc6bbcb0883993
dcfbfc6b56e7c882cd94909f78dd30183ecd3bc3
5111 F20101119_AAAJMB matheny_j_Page_25.QC.jpg
e97bfcd4777568f02a99bcde8e37be14
431fb05d5d3f3583888af648c6efcea35d5576a2
6634 F20101119_AAAJLN matheny_j_Page_38thm.jpg
6261f382058e8079a65fbec20924c43a
3fed9bec072fd5ed163016d65217d413b5f364e4
23022 F20101119_AAAJKZ matheny_j_Page_21.QC.jpg
4ecba75993c0e20df43c099e8c461f31
4d8b2d565ff0f8fb28fe37e430d78354cd522d2a
20593 F20101119_AAAJMC matheny_j_Page_03.QC.jpg
a52ac0b0f465fae275d648103342bb7c
8b8259bd0fb222b27c740c030742dabef83c8104
27079 F20101119_AAAJMD matheny_j_Page_88.QC.jpg
0ab20fb5873ab357f4364158612c8640
4f5447f9725852979c391c06ad393b77e3984e76
24621 F20101119_AAAJLO matheny_j_Page_43.QC.jpg
490a1f987cbc89931b8fd02b8450e664
a6b84996845ad49a58ae0baf6c6e853cf5b9e01f
F20101119_AAAJME matheny_j_Page_84thm.jpg
42d507d3fb12820495d2ce9303453f9e
f91206631b2e5807720ab6b03bb7010894e9927e
7238 F20101119_AAAJLP matheny_j_Page_88thm.jpg
e5ed715ed94dd933a2d5878ea7b0b9b2
7fa21f35e80c17685a9b56cb44f78fedca8b1e56
4399 F20101119_AAAJMF matheny_j_Page_76thm.jpg
2a2a1001cc590084308bf8609e1db03a
e6123eafee92459d5ddcaa3b581725da267a7120
6389 F20101119_AAAJLQ matheny_j_Page_55thm.jpg
c3a0bb77e45ebab9557e6d48d2d8518c
c010cc850efecbe9df7d373f45851bc17308e725
6483 F20101119_AAAJMG matheny_j_Page_51thm.jpg
4ee2a934d996ef3d765d859db86cc460
ee2fb2a30855618dae52d83e42978401937f5ce0
18711 F20101119_AAAJLR matheny_j_Page_07.QC.jpg
1cbe45a5fbfb8e7d5142228522ab8225
55a4c298d466e9609c27437830f1aea77b448952
21714 F20101119_AAAJMH matheny_j_Page_53.QC.jpg
6dc832579329b80b6c73be85860239e2
36aa527f403cdc8b1b9eccabe78371b79de2722e
6308 F20101119_AAAJLS matheny_j_Page_53thm.jpg
d145943e67a08f55652d231d2a0e57b7
06311f87a752bf64c98e4df56e3bbdbb1d532b85
23098 F20101119_AAAJMI matheny_j_Page_19.QC.jpg
b0e6abaf2cdea12bf1ef68044111122a
76e62ff45159a12a5c23954adadd861feeb4accd
23785 F20101119_AAAJLT matheny_j_Page_87.QC.jpg
7be48a1f0624e04f639a9de364efd888
8d1df91d40e00c04eaff3740ba944961aa575bdd
4701 F20101119_AAAJMJ matheny_j_Page_08thm.jpg
ff3113a7a7ca0922e461b2afc04eb73f
11b4c59f9f872bb593275e6d3a0cd8a3dc750920
23780 F20101119_AAAJLU matheny_j_Page_71.QC.jpg
ef4bb6ac26f8eb860c3806f18fc03e9d
8e8f1917040f6c31a4f1d1bf83b2bc69076988cb
11716 F20101119_AAAJMK matheny_j_Page_75.QC.jpg
f9c619a1f70e56f3afe26f6d61c8d8cb
db998388fd029a4138244934e0d641ac1e55bc47
22894 F20101119_AAAJLV matheny_j_Page_72.QC.jpg
d10944413f529bbdb88d651165aeb964
f2db57edc1ba3d3b2df611ea0ca456280c9b6bf2
6097 F20101119_AAAJML matheny_j_Page_49thm.jpg
86c604fcde4266c0563aaeab1deec309
78c2c022f2871fe91c65b7a9bb3cfd4d24eb49da
23553 F20101119_AAAJLW matheny_j_Page_69.QC.jpg
c6045c14525a9b09adcaccd3b9454cd8
4a56fa239b5e4553161a74b8bae145c7afbfbf49
6615 F20101119_AAAJNA matheny_j_Page_11thm.jpg
62d25033f5fa7e9455e3fe6ec0247969
9ed8dbe65d3643cd4d0c870de936dee63396c1cc
2777 F20101119_AAAJMM matheny_j_Page_05thm.jpg
fdec443b4c04a9ec4ce3e2f8338586e5
dd867e3026163a50d6f0dfb458bdfbf8743b2905
13292 F20101119_AAAJLX matheny_j_Page_81.QC.jpg
854cb17efdf7280af1df076e2f2fb197
0d22ed6ce6e433412353ef38ce1ee984eb21b5d0
6149 F20101119_AAAJNB matheny_j_Page_12thm.jpg
e573bf36a5b59405bff3e58f535aff21
894cd929c64f0889d51aa9a590606307f05d9808
11495 F20101119_AAAJMN matheny_j_Page_78.QC.jpg
62466e3c4a435ff0a4f8eda558754a56
27603a6aa91d1fbacaf0f77d2c4e86e896f0fb6c
8831 F20101119_AAAJLY matheny_j_Page_05.QC.jpg
63ed7dd3cfbf2f6cf490a513391c38a6
6847cb589781318c21336d79c4167cdac6745392
21244 F20101119_AAAJNC matheny_j_Page_13.QC.jpg
00c4b3e77d2c9db2e6c7e8fc615733e9
a53fe3472b545725e8ec102e784644ace1e60069
23490 F20101119_AAAJMO matheny_j_Page_51.QC.jpg
fed85cced6e01fc6a763e434a559b486
8ee50c0046c7194ebccfb5495cb9986fc78b14a4
23150 F20101119_AAAJLZ matheny_j_Page_60.QC.jpg
90cb4a6eec704a0471a527ee3603f300
694d24508f50fead56b230fe2d4c4a5be92c3478
F20101119_AAAJND matheny_j_Page_14thm.jpg
34135ecbf16a50a8fb1ac48681fbf8a2
24fec78b27526a444f16cab403ba965ff5d2be1d
6491 F20101119_AAAJNE matheny_j_Page_15thm.jpg
bfa810ceccef7ee463fd6eb7ac7201c8
0477bc8e0c6513616658f8a6d65952889378c209
23641 F20101119_AAAJMP matheny_j_Page_56.QC.jpg
cd5741d9b9c09f7c867b442727fd5d83
d9b1b482b9d6d60151744a0912d34ddcd28d7392
6102 F20101119_AAAJMQ matheny_j_Page_10thm.jpg
e7d127391668fd023e3e2f6cb12eded3
f14665b92b1e35616a788b7ec8b7d8b02e688046
24750 F20101119_AAAJNF matheny_j_Page_17.QC.jpg
81e9d5f22d20d56c0cd2d68024593cdc
bc01619e6f505de50512d8199dac5e0016d0d517
23522 F20101119_AAAJMR matheny_j_Page_64.QC.jpg
e101cac20fc5db0e6bd41e846210e145
7c982558aeb8781dae0be393a66c3a3381622014
24231 F20101119_AAAJNG matheny_j_Page_18.QC.jpg
c94ab9f0fcfc1d38ca12fad61dbef3fe
4c4e44482a460aa8a74e156a641b9d0e9cd7eceb
22839 F20101119_AAAJMS matheny_j_Page_50.QC.jpg
e4da33e1e16c6e494b71495e1884da1e
8f14f5d049d762ea9c5837a2eeb833e88c35d05c
23072 F20101119_AAAJNH matheny_j_Page_22.QC.jpg
b948390b3dbc706a71a0de92ae2a03ca
a7b31b16ff97ae5370f469fcc611704f792cf721
3391 F20101119_AAAJMT matheny_j_Page_02.QC.jpg
3619d129cf722491fbbd4101c5dbf7c7
df972754e36d0beb6dccf52e6c4f9378c731fadc
5707 F20101119_AAAJNI matheny_j_Page_24thm.jpg
fb20144be682b1ae9a76187819d13f0f
c5b273281621cefd146eeb55ae74a39ef2e36e73
144979 F20101119_AAAJMU UFE0014060_00001.xml FULL
93e2b6e010a659d8d4ff76ff94e56c1b
ea1efa1af606e9f275e94984fcfa465ac3c6ae9a
23147 F20101119_AAAJNJ matheny_j_Page_27.QC.jpg
86affcfedcab08fd8b44570704943f28
c27196adb347a26a8f4449e0ad9a9838df66f652
5750 F20101119_AAAJMV matheny_j_Page_03thm.jpg
da1d16388d1d7c25cdc0567df694eb45
422ef55d71be8caa8248548c4127aa847117cc08
6530 F20101119_AAAJNK matheny_j_Page_29thm.jpg
06844e0a10f61f7cae5eeff5f3bf353f
c0e12b00782d74e9b6a4e3d8e01bef03caf0b5de
4598 F20101119_AAAJMW matheny_j_Page_04thm.jpg
d19e1022e9fba1e1d9fecc8d9a6e3d9f
e2ee096bef64fc99435340bbf66b0809262508d1
24431 F20101119_AAAJNL matheny_j_Page_36.QC.jpg
21ef29cc514611e402d54c381b5370f3
db737d711dd676c91f5d72c348deb5526abef944
9907 F20101119_AAAJMX matheny_j_Page_06.QC.jpg
a4ccff04c9943612ece43d05eeda4f30
d60b87feb880dc5ba2fe57c76e72c7388cf9244c
23163 F20101119_AAAJOA matheny_j_Page_62.QC.jpg
9716ef28df6b9fc38fe7fdaf3d59cbf7
2ef820abb39430d9475669453dfaaa43e7b9875b
F20101119_AAAJNM matheny_j_Page_36thm.jpg
546ba2d56c0eea3cad22777128c0ef86
21693c06eea4ae28a65d82654e6a3d12b01ad543
2980 F20101119_AAAJMY matheny_j_Page_06thm.jpg
697b734c633baf4445b3f0af03fcd579
a67e2913b215ed3f14274c07ea8baa38584d0906
6571 F20101119_AAAJOB matheny_j_Page_62thm.jpg
b54c33f0fd43f262e10d004794b9d0ac
c1ee47c942e7dc00a9367a6f893ff35c3e84dd69
23428 F20101119_AAAJNN matheny_j_Page_38.QC.jpg
4d74daf4ae852522a8c0d00f26fc88bf
a6402983140bf244f56b03d7861207a60c1c6223
5907 F20101119_AAAJMZ matheny_j_Page_09thm.jpg
61ff2152a5ba581c006a180873562f0e
850319fa6395b581aad891b04c1499f2e90a2b06
6376 F20101119_AAAJOC matheny_j_Page_65thm.jpg
4501a6eefe902d687e28ca1e6fe8babd
21bf130396677a1c5f0c54f78a5655bf5ce15f86
12953 F20101119_AAAJNO matheny_j_Page_39.QC.jpg
9771f0f7163b5977120b05d5e896f0d0
4f46c78d7eaf17a892857760000a5ee5063d1d43
1611 F20101119_AAAJOD matheny_j_Page_66thm.jpg
8340d2d91a57c5a8a045f22ca2b201b7
b931b2a3ac18eff4f6e2a30be9d55d2884e5fd06
3746 F20101119_AAAJNP matheny_j_Page_39thm.jpg
d3afd33f3d7c88d633488304e170ce98
d3342ca5348df3dcd06d5d4116e511e4a3071cf1
21877 F20101119_AAAJOE matheny_j_Page_67.QC.jpg
129c07c9eebc89d0b89710ddbdd50819
740293c28a5592fd1c0eb387b41d129f21770de9
6020 F20101119_AAAJOF matheny_j_Page_67thm.jpg
5076bab8ac7c8eb85723722cea26a9d6
73291e22a7b956c7160077771a26012536466367
5857 F20101119_AAAJNQ matheny_j_Page_40thm.jpg
2a52dc0a2cc22559c8580516151d4bd9
eacf1898095f9457dbd8c375b9d24af68370eb69
6576 F20101119_AAAJOG matheny_j_Page_69thm.jpg
83d05a090daf557a35a96c4e4dc8c735
b05926118cee31151084ff212e8bb6f5381d6fdd
25204 F20101119_AAAJNR matheny_j_Page_44.QC.jpg
8edd576187d922d5c21898cbabba76b5
5f73291d7b99d3705e75924337adcd0e93c74ea3
23838 F20101119_AAAJOH matheny_j_Page_70.QC.jpg
d3a1a41c780a873dcaa742886607af5f
3e3d8a3f122023bf097f6e2e065ea8d7a72a902b
7120 F20101119_AAAJNS matheny_j_Page_44thm.jpg
1beee5ad64a52cfd58f5084cf89afaed
92c702d0bd7b069b19d25a1721158076764d5e6f
6477 F20101119_AAAJOI matheny_j_Page_72thm.jpg
c0f291b6a33907e4fcff8085058c0fa4
372c48f26b4014ab0f66c0e11ef3fdb8bce4f60f
5018 F20101119_AAAJNT matheny_j_Page_46thm.jpg
e5b423f6416e0a6d018904677abc631c
7bb6615becab275cd39d9f3b13db95f874808602
17618 F20101119_AAAJOJ matheny_j_Page_74.QC.jpg
df93e05de3755686a8d16fa5db22b1f4
7e1be46adff03a57ded7d355b2fb2ac17d05e686
5839 F20101119_AAAJNU matheny_j_Page_47thm.jpg
fbab01a10b96af7270658f6d2625da82
7573a2ac064c573e56869a645a62fd261abe9010
5187 F20101119_AAAJOK matheny_j_Page_74thm.jpg
3728b34074f687193fc3ada2714f2d8c
43037f5963e418426d55b7f7ff983b4a612cee67
23069 F20101119_AAAJNV matheny_j_Page_48.QC.jpg
f5cf0f1571f8aae500a2807d8822656c
1236dc120921ebaed13e5de9424d9e161d07e188
3582 F20101119_AAAJOL matheny_j_Page_75thm.jpg
cccdd2286af5674455d41de5aca00901
06901a3d630e4ad468a7d701ab244de62376df59
6326 F20101119_AAAJNW matheny_j_Page_52thm.jpg
88a6824d6a1a8aabc81729f44f5ea6f5
ba649f6bd79de3f906e11b8ff7467b2d8510202b
3220 F20101119_AAAJOM matheny_j_Page_77thm.jpg
6b38860db0bcbb20fc6787026d5d6771
86c18c65b2310600b34497104e95fd5131d87659
6475 F20101119_AAAJNX matheny_j_Page_54thm.jpg
cbec1675ae25668bb3bd231016ad3633
490d90fd77d73cfddfc8f6cdc03dea9bebc354b6
11701 F20101119_AAAJON matheny_j_Page_79.QC.jpg
a7618ff55fbfd28674fab46b273bab0d
6b234de0836f09e3c23941f7d5745fc98f81ef51
6567 F20101119_AAAJNY matheny_j_Page_56thm.jpg
3322fd1db1250fa9565ed1e7b4ad16c7
2aa4c09295e67b8c300539ce03123dc836aff232
6239 F20101119_AAAJOO matheny_j_Page_85.QC.jpg
28eb78cec854af4a89cdb9a18dd5d8f1
f78aafc315ae49a9030ce85da05db3ed06b3f3b2
6579 F20101119_AAAJNZ matheny_j_Page_57thm.jpg
fe400f4146c51519605a9d1ecbc0b3eb
2904abd0f96a256443d5ed83feccce29ba0e70bb
2128 F20101119_AAAJOP matheny_j_Page_85thm.jpg
7ea240e53257be59bba7e82e8bbd1670
dfec357f65710f141ba46b81de64c64298333637
6852 F20101119_AAAJOQ matheny_j_Page_89thm.jpg
282d9e78b8fb3bd78585e60cb3eb159a
fd8e0cff20c9ee19ac0655e7d05a00cff09c3116
6912 F20101119_AAAJOR matheny_j_Page_90thm.jpg
33095335beaf005198288516268fc29d
a70202240e8039691f41e37fe75914e069d1a0b6
25415 F20101119_AAAJOS matheny_j_Page_91.QC.jpg
d810a07a0f6fe5821d37feb51df81652
3b3fb1f17b7071f458550dd14711a87e4ed7bcf8
25615 F20101119_AAAJOT matheny_j_Page_93.QC.jpg
f7d88f96367aba1352db98e15042c09d
1d629b9a0221b8a7e2e5a5b9ac85217377eb6fdc
9550 F20101119_AAAJOU matheny_j_Page_96.QC.jpg
9bfa6d5ce5f5ab55ba84deb722b16540
02f764e351fdeb1d8b26bdac54ef785c2dc0a5d0
F20101119_AAAJOV matheny_j_Page_96thm.jpg
99ac91e2df4b81f1f0a7ec9d6241675c
fa286e0653fd39f5ce03ec76b850eb858f509ee7
112105 F20101119_AAAIPA UFE0014060_00001.mets
640c5024ba911b915cae2b9d90555ffb
111c34b70f7b513e3a3415b6fb304b271d84fa20
25224 F20101119_AAAIPD matheny_j_Page_01.jpg
2944921a96b827a6768445b8a8481d54
bcdd6c133b0f89ad3085db2a3c9dcb91c81f4fae
10537 F20101119_AAAIPE matheny_j_Page_02.jpg
a476b07de79b0655ef95501ef7049e23
2f7dfa1fce3e6fe83cb6e8ceadcf8979d06a8544
61594 F20101119_AAAIPF matheny_j_Page_03.jpg
b56ebd7bcf593ff912f8b3487b673028
45a15779fe8dd00b7c77d2066a71a4061fc83eab
62191 F20101119_AAAIPG matheny_j_Page_04.jpg
a33beb9a7acede434af58028e236b00d
dbd149c7882bee032d8a2a2718f50e0332a60cd6
32303 F20101119_AAAIPH matheny_j_Page_05.jpg
71d0c396d53de4574a8ec68d055f2cf8
e3810c80d2c00be363ee2e066404cdb0085ccea6
32030 F20101119_AAAIPI matheny_j_Page_06.jpg
b74594d37d463973a80ea580f49e9d70
f2dd131f9fec12eaf53a689398fc9099b0b722d7
60141 F20101119_AAAIPJ matheny_j_Page_07.jpg
3d2e21a802f0fe6ff151cfae6f46ef6f
9452c77432c51ea7b31f878373ff6d93b581fbb4
49268 F20101119_AAAIOV matheny_j_Page_60.pro
70f0ac418ed4a286f5cc781b5485a4b7
3fe79037b6e3050f17cbe414c5824100b3e3ffba
52255 F20101119_AAAIPK matheny_j_Page_08.jpg
b839d8da32789480be7ec046326a5096
1d2a245760be5f2e039d82a851d850b81ca0528c
22027 F20101119_AAAIOW matheny_j_Page_85.jp2
46606f8bd7ebc410cbfc4358f48e6d91
8dabb1ddbbab0b80d162d56749f233837f0797a0
63405 F20101119_AAAIPL matheny_j_Page_09.jpg
6a49b3857f7f1d9177a51aa52e19afaf
0c43e84a299c8d99c632ff0701921dd3944343c5
103368 F20101119_AAAIOX matheny_j_Page_16.jp2
97ca8d5dae67a65b6beba99c7c9f1f0c
a4070613ce9be003113c6c4e7361480eb54296bc
62442 F20101119_AAAIQA matheny_j_Page_24.jpg
c8e62b0db43b883303f4c16c291a85cd
a8a7a38e19309f8b66e0796287ebfb9680ea330e
69372 F20101119_AAAIPM matheny_j_Page_10.jpg
40329d853a4c91c521bcdf054c4138b1
a336d9c0fd7ce15f052c5c9df619b01a6692b332
53970 F20101119_AAAIOY matheny_j_Page_80.jp2
6cff076a7982bfa1f30750603c4097bb
d1c4f0ed14e71e6b8728628a9de739b6a4724d7c
14611 F20101119_AAAIQB matheny_j_Page_25.jpg
d2d04e41faaaefbd7e91787a800d575e
5553e4c3b9d11fdee7b72520b469c1ae617654e8
71729 F20101119_AAAIPN matheny_j_Page_11.jpg
96c5fd817129c0525d269dd7c34a463a
da3b13b7e4adae18845219baef9a85bcabf55f6a
F20101119_AAAIOZ matheny_j_Page_07.tif
9e6daf53ab4d8ea465ff15679347576b
d232766acdac9b953d2730986903131dea13ef10
64596 F20101119_AAAIQC matheny_j_Page_26.jpg
1b5881b26d54ef507eb332142f0b4f9a
56494720fa891c9bb48c7653c463c30c7119cc62
67570 F20101119_AAAIPO matheny_j_Page_12.jpg
f26644ca15f2b87f7d76f0f518082f01
874665c98070cd93070dad58d9140dd55faa7396
71305 F20101119_AAAIQD matheny_j_Page_27.jpg
972b9f9158d25253ff6e8a8b19dd9626
094a82f86ca43f9819b81b548d196f736c1fb2c3
66313 F20101119_AAAIPP matheny_j_Page_13.jpg
ba42f67fad62703ef1d997d4ab1cd1bd
6d07ac27748cc175dfd2a5c1073beca5d4363a56
73281 F20101119_AAAIQE matheny_j_Page_28.jpg
cce64e90a7148830cbac762f2b573dab
019bdeb079c5f85d8046149f05c4a90d31b3d4ff
69816 F20101119_AAAIPQ matheny_j_Page_14.jpg
2a716878666ea83ecb93716114905011
fcfde38b3283da79735f66dd32a3a8bb653a8410
70226 F20101119_AAAIQF matheny_j_Page_29.jpg
227fc7da52fcb62984d87214da1729a4
550e90a6414b282725834ba5fefaf0defc8dcec8
71179 F20101119_AAAIPR matheny_j_Page_15.jpg
45a7ae75fc92b54589e0bcde879d1133
c098d6cad2eacd2b96044b8cacde772b36959741
70090 F20101119_AAAIQG matheny_j_Page_30.jpg
e01cb1e6b2926c7b8ed1bc0464fe9d58
9bbdaf1063938e95a7ffba211516887687859e67
68505 F20101119_AAAIPS matheny_j_Page_16.jpg
54fe9fd2c92718dee4a22c281d07da92
5e7d546b3d05eb7d4c75933c73a9b1b0e884caf9
69122 F20101119_AAAIQH matheny_j_Page_31.jpg
c927dbd300d58fcb1e2baeac3145e3e7
b2be291414d29e663763ef928f39a19c3cd3e20e
72815 F20101119_AAAIQI matheny_j_Page_32.jpg
67db6bbe38844b2420594d353b029de3
7285b52a64bee74012a253e339cfc47b2ec5b7b1
79267 F20101119_AAAIPT matheny_j_Page_17.jpg
735add88139a477b15d79efb14d06646
9f8dd03446b9be8f384e40e1a014456df8678383
67865 F20101119_AAAIQJ matheny_j_Page_33.jpg
53150ff549aea720fd5d962f887c2b96
0a314bbb9faa96ceedf1a490851ece0dbf6cab15
76960 F20101119_AAAIPU matheny_j_Page_18.jpg
49b0d46ada4d1ca7594b57e39ed11fc4
97242175d027e3d9cf559a078484b951ce759032
70496 F20101119_AAAIQK matheny_j_Page_34.jpg
11300df17b34e558b99d0c93882cac56
8fa047a8d61006ead4976f23fe5f11c38f728510
74338 F20101119_AAAIPV matheny_j_Page_19.jpg
082057d30d0be91c06774ae3f22fe2d1
a37bd49489c9ba8c64977af00ef04d48ea4fc378
73176 F20101119_AAAIQL matheny_j_Page_35.jpg
ee48f4b584e81e84cd6d81b6e6e00fc6
b8f653c95914a7f623b9be2b8639e47b1450f295
72962 F20101119_AAAIPW matheny_j_Page_20.jpg
623563f21572bb90c1ae81050e47c0ce
f887b420054a93f2efd0140403ebecee70af0187
70547 F20101119_AAAIRA matheny_j_Page_50.jpg
b3ec77839deb2df53df58b83586804a9
2bb9fdde37fa07e680fb8e1fcbb4d12cf14d0954
74507 F20101119_AAAIQM matheny_j_Page_36.jpg
446cc28fdeb7627530df9d181d44122c
810f78448cb00a3e77f45ee73b1b89fd6c8e5092
70830 F20101119_AAAIPX matheny_j_Page_21.jpg
a3775f2af7d2239e73e3ed9b531293d7
326ed094f122b557d3ddcdf39274fce51fa73629
72969 F20101119_AAAIRB matheny_j_Page_51.jpg
10ca71bce0957e4b25b00dc2973152ae
85e3e0765edf3f54eaa7b47a520e7843763d4571
71535 F20101119_AAAIQN matheny_j_Page_37.jpg
75736d4360b465158084a263d8719b43
23db48bd813a10a8a8ce62c2d5f53439987a7578
70631 F20101119_AAAIPY matheny_j_Page_22.jpg
1dcf5835dee8bd6e1705653031a5be88
809c7421fae88598c62aef1517162400f5220dea
69615 F20101119_AAAIRC matheny_j_Page_52.jpg
049815400623f9a35878e247764986f8
488f3c9d31b205726c807b755a993eb7c0d6d8af
72210 F20101119_AAAIQO matheny_j_Page_38.jpg
8fffb9c976b196b2f4a85ce6886d7df2
4744073ba02722af88f232f8f133ee54aa2557a6
74121 F20101119_AAAIPZ matheny_j_Page_23.jpg
ff5c2993abf13e6822862143d63a46f8
2b8583d2a65f86fc10f9bfa7e18c70846c6f1712
67500 F20101119_AAAIRD matheny_j_Page_53.jpg
a1ef0d7904c8ea1965ac2ead67c00f52
a63886ebd630d41eac06310b59eea9b31f7f142c
38282 F20101119_AAAIQP matheny_j_Page_39.jpg
e6ec600cb1455920889b54c470a83e95
ded919a88dc2e5ee0b3c14dcdd31385053829350
70964 F20101119_AAAIRE matheny_j_Page_54.jpg
d095ca6c981802db8dbd0241fcbbfa35
424308d87811a07a223c2638c16592da51638a87
61668 F20101119_AAAIQQ matheny_j_Page_40.jpg
e5327dd8c258b0745c70c133500b9207
e2ec579f8cf4caab6e3c2cc6eb4826098fcd32e5
71347 F20101119_AAAIRF matheny_j_Page_55.jpg
fcf2d668d77b7c9cd4e4bca0d9f42fc2
58f727d0cfe9f55eaac27e5f12092e04ef0ccb5c
70454 F20101119_AAAIQR matheny_j_Page_41.jpg
a5413577700a754b8312be4f3325c21d
8feec201683ebec11a99f12c24311253d680aac5
72747 F20101119_AAAIRG matheny_j_Page_56.jpg
ed05ffb1abba7c4e479cfd40973dc0b6
6fd595be2cdbd9afde4565374aaf2dd9b3226bd2
70714 F20101119_AAAIQS matheny_j_Page_42.jpg
4165bb2471729fba95af49509055925d
fb9376dab8257423ade98b60ab53dc9d5240e157
75608 F20101119_AAAIRH matheny_j_Page_57.jpg
055271268489d8c31a3a55b02476c5b4
ebd3789d0209b9c4c4b0752a337fd654d64292cf
74653 F20101119_AAAIQT matheny_j_Page_43.jpg
317b3a5d76ec61a0d3e26b33aaf183ab
56fa6d0ff6a118d55bfbdffa061cf44e89f87583



PAGE 1

CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE ON VIOLENCE PERPETRATION AMONG HISPANIC ADOLESCE NTS: A PARTIAL TEST OF GENERAL STRAIN THEORY By JENNIFER LYNN MATHENY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Jennifer Lynn Matheny

PAGE 3

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Angela Gover, Dr. Lonn Lanza-Kaduce, and Dr. Nicky Piquero for their guidance and support during this endeavor. I would al so like to extend my appreciation to the rest of the faculty and staff of the Criminology, Law, and Society Department. I would like to thank my clos e friends that had to endure all of my complaints, anxiety, and stress; I wouldn’t ha ve been able to do it without them. My support system that includes Lorna Alvar ez, Scott Maggard, and Allison Chappell deserve special recognition. I would like to thank Adriana Soltau, Nola BurnettSchleimer, and Jamie Guinn for always listening when I need ed it and always encouraging me to do my best and knowing that it would be enough. My parents deserve extra special rec ognition. I would like to acknowledge my parents, Dannie and Monica Matheny, for their never ending suppor t throughout my life as well as throughout my graduate school ca reer. They have always respected my decisions and never doubted that I would choos e the right path. They always pushed the importance of education and for that I am trul y grateful. They are not only my parents, but my best friends. Last but not least, I truly appreciate the love and suppor t given to me by my fianc, Derek Manzow. I would not be where I am toda y if he had not entered my life. He has been my rock throughout this entire process as well as throughout our entire relationship. He has helped shape me into the woman I am today and I will always be grateful for the love he has given me.

PAGE 4

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................v ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................5 Childhood Abuse..........................................................................................................6 Psychological Consequences........................................................................................7 Behavioral Consequences.............................................................................................9 Gender Differences in Psychological and Behavioral Consequences of Childhood Abuse......................................................................................................................12 Child Abuse and Hispanic Populations......................................................................15 3 GENERAL STRAIN THEORY.................................................................................18 Empirical Tests of GST..............................................................................................21 Gender and General Strain Theory.............................................................................26 Empirical Tests of GST and Gender...........................................................................28 4 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................32 Measures.....................................................................................................................33 Independent Variables.........................................................................................33 Mediating Variables............................................................................................35 Dependent Variable.............................................................................................36 Analysis......................................................................................................................3 7 5 RESULTS...................................................................................................................39 Sample Description.....................................................................................................39 Bivariate Correlations.................................................................................................41 Logistic Regression....................................................................................................46

PAGE 5

v Full Sample Model..............................................................................................46 Female Models....................................................................................................50 Male Models........................................................................................................54 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................59 Limitations..................................................................................................................63 Policy Implications.....................................................................................................64 APPENDIX A DELINQUENCY MEASURE....................................................................................75 B NEGATIVE EMOTIONS..........................................................................................76 C INDEPENDENT VARIABLE SCALES...................................................................77 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................78 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................88

PAGE 6

vi LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Descriptive Statistics of Full Sample.......................................................................67 2 Descriptive Statistics of Sample, by Gender............................................................68 3 Correlation Matrix (Full Sample).............................................................................69 4 Correlation Matrix (Female Sample).......................................................................70 5 Correlation Matrix (Male Sample)...........................................................................71 6 Logistic Regression-Violen ce Perpetration (F ull sample).......................................72 7 Logistic Regression-Viole nce Perpetration (Females).............................................73 8 Logistic Regression-Viole nce Perpetration (Males)................................................74

PAGE 7

vii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE ON VIOLENCE PERPETRATION AMONG HISPANIC ADOLESCE NTS: A PARTIAL TEST OF GENERAL STRAIN THEORY By Jennifer Lynn Matheny May 2006 Chair: Angela Gover Major Department: Criminology, Law, and Society The purpose of this thesis is to dete rmine whether physical and sexual abuse experienced during childhood is significantly related to violent offending among Hispanic adolescents. This study also examin es if male and female adolescents respond differently to early childhood abuse and wh ether anger and depression mediate the relationship between abuse and violence perpet ration according to A gnew’s general strain theory (GST). The data analyzed in this research come from ea rlier studies on MexicanAmerican and White American drug use among at-risk students and school dropouts. Since the current research examines th e impact of childhood abuse on Hispanic adolescents, only a sub-sample of the cross-s ectional data is include d. Findings indicate that childhood physical abuse has a significant influence on violence perpetration among male and female Hispanics. In addition, sexual abuse was found to have a significant impact on violence perpetration in the full samp le as well as the female sample, but not

PAGE 8

viii for the male sample. The results also indicate that anger is significantly associated with violent crime for male and fema le adolescents. The findings i ndicate that the relationship between sexual abuse and violent crime is me diated by anger for both the full sample as well as the female sample. The results also indicate a pa rtial mediating effect by anger and depression between physical abuse and vi olent crime across all three samples. Therefore, the results are somewhat mixed in terms of support for Agnew’s GST. Regardless of mixed support, this thesis signifi cantly contributes to general strain theory research by examining whether GST is ge neralizable across gender and by examining early childhood abuse among an understudied population. Future research should focus on an examination of all aspects of GST, in cluding coping mechanisms that are used to prevent or encourage violent offending, since th e current research was not able to explore all tenets of GST. Policy implications from this study point to the need for the incorporation of culturally defined values into violence prevention and educational programming for youth.

PAGE 9

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Childhood is supposed to be a cheerful, innocent, and care-free time of life. However, some children do not have such a fairytale childhood. Many children experience early years that ar e characterized by fear, appreh ension, and unease. Family violence, and particularly child abuse, can di srupt a child’s life leaving him or her in a constant state of anxiety and fear. This pe rpetual state of chaos can have long lasting effects on the rest of the child’s life. A vast amount of research has examined childhood abuse. Research is so broad, that it is unlikely to name all areas of study on abuse. However, abuse research includes, but is not limited to topics ranging from shor t term to long term effects of abuse, the association between abuse and emotional prob lems, different effects of abuse on males and females, influences of abuse on future re lationships, and the relationship of abuse and subsequent offending, including property, status, non-violent, violent, and substance abuse offending. Although childhood abuse is an important and often studied problem, little research has been done that examines child abuse among a Hispanic population. Of the research that has been done, studies report mixed findings. In a study by Kercher and McShane (1984), Hispanic females reported more sexual vi ctimization compared to White females. However, Sorensen and Siegel (1992) reporte d that sexual assault was more prevalent among Whites than Hispanics. While those two studies reported differences between the two populations, Lindholm and Willey (1986) examined the Los Angeles County

PAGE 10

2 Sheriff’s Department child abuse reports and did not find any differences between Hispanics and Whites. Weller, Kimbal-R omney, and Orr (1987) also reported no differences between parental physical punishments of Hispanics versus Whites. Because of the inconsistencies of the research thus far and the lim ited amount of research on the consequences of childhood abuse in a Hispan ic population, this st udy will specifically focus on Hispanic adolescents to determ ine how childhood abuse affects subsequent violent offending. Previous research has found that physically and sexually abused adolescents were more likely to demonstrate a wide variet y of negative psychological and behavioral problems compared to non-abused adolescents Psychological proble ms included anger, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and aggr ession while behavioral problems included juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, self-inj urious behaviors, and adult criminality. Previous research has also examined gender differences in relation to childhood abuse. Generally, most research indicates that males were more likely to externalize their emotions and take their emotions out on ot hers by becoming more aggressive whereas females were more likely to internalize thei r feelings and take their emotions out on themselves by using drugs or developing other personal problems, such as eating disorders. Agnew’s general strain theory (1992) sugge sts that an individual can experience three types of strain: failure to achieve positively valued goals, removal of positively valued stimuli, and presentation of noxious stimuli. Individuals who are unable to effectively manage strain are more likely to experience negative affective states. Negative affect refers to negative emotions or feelings that often include anger,

PAGE 11

3 depression, guilt, anxiety, and many more em otions. Individuals who are unable to effectively cope with these negative emoti ons using three legitimate coping strategies: cognitive, behavioral, or emotional, are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior. GST is considered a “general” theory and can be used to examine whether males and females respond in a similar manner to various types of strain. The pur pose of this thesis is to partially test Agnew’s GST in regard s to noxious stimuli (abuse) and delinquent outcomes, particularly violent offenses, among a Hispanic population. Agnew proposes that general strain theory can be used to explain criminality among all social classes and races. Therefore, GST should also be gene ralizable across gender and ethnicity. Agnew’s general strain theory (GST) (Agnew, 1992) a sserts that an individual who is unable to effectively cope with negative emotions is more likely to become involved in delinquent or criminal behavior. GST is considered a “general” theory and can be used to examine whether males and females respond in a simila r manner to various types of strain. The purpose of this thesis is to partially test Agnew’s GST in regards to noxious stimuli (abuse) and delinquent outcom es, particularly violent offenses, among a Hispanic population. This thesis will also be examin ing gender differences in response to the strain. The purpose of this study is to determ ine whether physical and sexual abuse is significantly related to viol ence perpetration among Hispanic adolescents. This study also examines gender differences in response to strain (childhood abus e) and if negative emotions, such as anger and depression, me diate the relationship between strain and delinquency. Based on prior research, it is expected that childhood abuse will increase the risk of violence perpetration, especially among males. It is also expected that males

PAGE 12

4 will be more likely to be affected by anger by behaving aggressively with more violent crime compared to females. In addition, it is expected that negative emotions, anger or depression, will intervene in the influence that childhood abuse has on violence perpetration. Specifically, a nger will most likely promote vi olence perpetration for male adolescents and depression will inhibit violent behavior for female adolescents. The data used in this study come fr om earlier studies on Mexican-American and White American drug use among at-risk st udents and school dropouts. Between 1988 and 1992, new cohorts of adolescents were given an identical questionnaire that included questions regarding various social, psychol ogical, and environmenta l factors that may have influenced their academic status. Thes e data were collected from a fairly small community, a medium-sized city, and a large city in the Southwest. The data used in this analysis were collected during the first four years of the study and therefore constitute a sub-sample of the original data. This thesis will begin with a review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral consequences of childhood abuse and the effects of a buse across gender and ethnicity. Chapter 3 will explore GST and its applicability to males and females. It is important to note that this study does not fully explore all tenets of Agnew’s GST because possible coping mechanisms that may influence adolescent responses to strain are not examined. Therefore, the current res earch constitutes a part ial test of Agnew’s general strain theory. Chapter 4 will desc ribe the methodology for this research and chapter 5 presents the results from the anal ysis. Chapter 6 discusses conclusions and limitations of this study.

PAGE 13

5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW An abundant amount of research has ex amined the negative consequences experienced by those who were victims of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. Previous research has suggest ed that childhood physical and sexual abuse is related to a wide variety of negative psychological and behavioral outcomes that include anxiety, depression, anger, aggression, low self esteem, substance abuse, self destructive behavior, and self injurious behavior (Berliner & Elliott, 2002; Briere & Elliott, 2003; Briere & Runtz, 1993; Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Davis & Petretic-Jackson, 2000; Dembo, Williams, Schmeidler, Berry, Wothke, & Getreu, 1992; Dembo, Wothke, Shemwell, Pacheco, Seeberger, & Rollie, 2000; Finke lhor, 1990; Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelhor, 1993; McClellan, Adams, Dougl as, McCurry, & Storck, 1995; Kolko, 2002; Neumann, Houskamp, Pollock, & Briere, 1996; Polusny & Follette, 1995 ). According to earlier research, depression was the most common psycholog ical problem experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse (Briere, 1989; Browne & Finkel hor, 1986; Finkelhor, 1990; Gover, 2004; Koverola, Pound, Hege r, & Lytle, 1993; Peters, 1988; Ratican, 1992). Depression was also common among victims of other types of abuse such as physical abuse and neglect (Allen & Tar nowski, 1989; Kaufman, 1991; Kazdin, Moser, Colbus, & Bell, 1985). Previous research has reported mixed re sults in regards to differences across gender and the psychological effects of child maltreatment. Feiring, Taska, and Lewis (1999) found that females were more likely to develop depressive symptoms than males.

PAGE 14

6 However, other researchers have found no va riation in psychological symptoms across gender (Briere, Evans, Runtz, & Wall, 1988; Feiring et al., 1999; Finkelhor, 1990; Gover, 2004). Childhood Abuse Child abuse and neglect has been one of the most prevalent problems facing society in recent decades. In 2002, over one million children were reported to be victims of abuse and neglect at a rate of 19.5 per 1,000 chil dren (Child Welfare League of America, 2005). Child Protective Services concluded th at nearly 900,000 were considered victims of child abuse or neglect based on data re ported from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) (Child Ma ltreatment, 2004). The NCANDS collected and analyzed data submitted voluntarily by the States and the District of Columbia. The data included case level information on all ch ildren that received an investigation by a child protective service agency (2004). NCA NDS reported 20 percent of victims of child maltreatment were victims of physical abuse and 10 percent were vi ctims of sexual abuse (2004). Over 60 percent were victims of negl ect and less than 10 per cent were victims of emotional abuse (2004). Physical abuse refers to any type of non-accidental physical in jury inflicted on a child such as burning, hitting, punching, shaki ng, kicking, beating, or any other form of harming a child (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005; Allen & Tarnowski, 1989; Gover, 2004; Ka ufman, 1991; Kazdin et al., 1985; Kelly, 1983; Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993). This form of violence may or may not be the result of over zealous punishment or extreme discipline that is inappropriate for the age of the child (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005).

PAGE 15

7 Sexual abuse refers to inappropriate se xual behavior inflicted on a child, such as fondling a child’s genitals, forcing the child to fondle an adult’s genitals, intercourse, rape, sodomy, sexual exploitation, or expos ure to pornography (Na tional Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005; Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Finkelhor, 1990). Numerous studies report that chil dhood sexual abuse is rela ted to a variety of harmful and destructive be haviors including sexualized behavior, aggression, and withdrawal (Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Da vis & Petretic-Jackson, 2000; Dembo et al., 1992; Dembo et al., 2000; Gover, 2004; Kenda ll-Tackett et al., 1993; McClellan et al., 1995). Childhood abuse can come in many forms: neglect, emotional, physical, and sexual. Regardless of the type of abuse a chil d suffers, it can create long lasting effects. The following sections will discuss the negative psychological and behavioral consequences experienced by vi ctims of abuse during childhood. Psychological Consequences Previous research studies have examined the psychological consequences of both physical and sexual abuse and have found th at abuse greatly e ffects psychological functioning (Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Hu ssey & Singer, 1993; Williamson, Bourduin & Howe, 1991). There has been an extensive amount of research examining the effects of childhood sexual abuse on psychological de velopment and adjustment. Briere and Runtz (1993) found that adoles cents with a history of sexual abuse demonstrated an assortment of emotional and behavioral prob lems. Previous research has consistently found that adolescents who had a history of childhood sexual abuse experienced greater levels of depression, general psychological dist ress, aggression, lower self esteem, more conduct problems, and more substance abuse problems (Brown, Cohen, Johnson, &

PAGE 16

8 Smailes, 1999; Fergusson, Horwood & L ynskey, 1996; Garnefski & Arends, 1998; Garnefski & Diekstra, 1997; Harrison, Hoffma n, & Edwall, 1989; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993; Luster & Small, 1997; Meyerson, Long, Miranda, & Marx, 2002). However, Browne and Finkelhor (1986) f ound that victims that report their abuse to the police experience less psychological problems than victims who do not, likely due to support and legitimate coping resources provided by the authorities. Meyerson and colleagues (2002) used a samp le from the US Department of Labor Job Corps to examine the relationship betw een sexual abuse, physical abuse, family conflict and psychological difficulties across gend er. The authors reported that a history of physical and sexual abuse in addition to family conflict and cohesion predicted psychological problems that in cluded depression and distress Further analyses by gender revealed that different types of abuse predicted different types of psychological adjustment for males and females. The varia tion across gender will be discussed further in the gender differences section of this paper. Flisher and colleagues (1997) found that adolescents w ith a history of physical abuse had more adjustment difficulties, such as lower social capabilities, decreased language aptitude, and poorer school perf ormance than non-abused adolescents. Physically abused adolescents were also mo re likely to have numerous psychiatric conditions including major depression, gene ralized anxiety disorder, and conduct disorder, compared to non abused adolescents (Briere & Runtz, 1988; Flisher et al., 1997; Kaplan & Pelcovitz, 1982; Kolko, Mo ser & Weldy, 1988; Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993; Meyerson et al., 2002).

PAGE 17

9 In sum, research has repeatedly show n that victims of childhood physical and sexual abuse report greater levels of psyc hological adjustment problems compared to non-abused adolescents. Not only has rese arch shown that childhood abuse increases psychological problems, but it also increas es the likelihood of social incompetence (Eckenrode, Laird, & Doris, 1993; Herrera & McCloskey, 2001; Salzinger, Feldman, Hammer & Rosario, 1993). Research has al so consistently fo und that victims of childhood abuse report greater levels of beha vioral problems compared to non-abused children which will be discussed furt her in the following section. Behavioral Consequences There has been a vast amount of resear ch on the effects of physical and sexual abuse on subsequent behavioral problems (B rown et al., 1999; Fergusson et al., 1996; Garnefski & Arends, 1988; Garnefski & Diek stra, 1997; Harrison et al., 1989; KendallTackett et al., 1993; Luster & Small, 1997; Me yerson et al., 2002). However, previous literature that has examined the effects of abuse on delinquency has been somewhat mixed. Early research examined the association between childhood abuse and delinquency using clinical, cross-sectional, or retrospective studies (Kratcoski & Kratcoski, 1982; Lewis, Shanok, Pincus, & Glaser, 1979; Mouzakitis, 1981; Silver, Dublin, & Lourie, 1969; Smith, & Thornbe rry, 1995; Steele, 1976; Wick, 1981). This research was unreliable and not generalizab le due to numerous methodological problems that include unrepresentative samples and retr ospective designs. More recent studies examined the relationship between childhood abuse and subsequent delinquency by using prospective designs which include control groups and research designs that followed victims over time to determine the risk of later delinquency (Garbarino & Plantz, 1986;

PAGE 18

10 Howing, Wodarski, Kurtz, Gaudin, and He rbst, 1990; Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a). One of the first studies to use a prospec tive design was by a group of researchers, Bolton, Reich, and Gutierres (1977). Using a sample of 5,392 children with reported abuse in Arizona and a comparison group of non-abused siblings, the authors found that sixteen percent of the abused group had juveni le court records compar ed to eight percent of the non-abused siblings. Alfaro (1981) examined a sample of 4,465 children who were officially identified as abuse victims by New York protective services agencies during 1952 and 1953. By researching juvenile court records through 1967, he discovered that a bout ten percent of the abused children had a criminal history co mpared to only about two percent of the general juvenile population of the state. McCord (1983) used early case records of a sample of 233 males and placed them in four categories ranging from “neglected,” “abused,” “rejected,” and “loved.” After following the subjects for forty years, she reported that the “rej ected” subjects had significantly higher rates of delinquency compared to the “loved” subjects. The “neglected” and “abused” subjects’ delinquency rates fell in between the “rejected” and “loved.” She also found that ne arly half (45%) of the abus ed and neglected males had a history of serious crimes, had alcohol or me ntal health issues, or died very young (1983). Widom (1989a, 1989b, 1989c, 1991) studied the delinquency rates of a sample of 908 abused subjects compared to a matc hed control group of non-abused subjects. Abused subjects were drawn from juvenile court cases in a metropolitan Midwest area during 1967 through 1971. She foun d that rates of official delinquency were greater and

PAGE 19

11 began earlier in the abused gr oup compared to the control group. She also discovered that the abused group had higher rates of ge neral delinquency especi ally in status and property offenses as well as higher rates in violent offenses among abused males. Zingraff, Leiter, Johnson, and Myers (1994) used a random sample of cases reported to the Registry of Ch ild Abuse and Neglect in a county of North Carolina during 1983-1989 and matched two control groups to investigate whethe r abuse was a risk factor for general delinquency. Zingra ff et al., (1994) repor ted that subjects from the abused group had higher rates of general delinquency an d status offense referrals to juvenile court compared to the control group. Howeve r, this was not the case for violent and property offenses. Smith and Thornberry (1995) used a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) along with data from Rochester public schools, police department, and Department of Social Servi ces to determine if abuse was a significant risk factor for delinquent beha vior. Consistent with Wido m (1989a) and Zingraff, Leiter, Myers & Johnson (1993), Smith and Thornberry (1995) concluded th at a history of childhood abuse significantly incr eased involvement in both self-reported and official reports of delinquency. Ireland, Smith, and Thornberry (2002) also used a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study to determine th e relationship between when the abuse occurred, whether in childhood only, adolescenc e only, persistent, or never, and the risk for juvenile delinquency. Ireland and collea gues (2002) reported th at abuse experienced only during childhood increased th e risk for violent crime onl y in early adolescence but

PAGE 20

12 not in late adolescence. The authors went on to report that abus e during adolescence and persistent abuse predicted both subse quent delinquency and drug use. In sum, research has consistently repo rted that childhood abuse has serious longterm consequences that include both juve nile delinquency and adult criminality. Research has consistently shown that abuse in creases the risk of both general delinquency as well as violent delinquency. (Farri ngton, 1991, Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993, Rivera & Widom, 1990, Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a; Zingraff et al., 1993). Malinsoky-Rummell and Hansen (1993) as well as Widom (1989a), reported that abused males were more likely to demonstrate more violent behavior which will be discussed further in the following section. Th is section will furthe r discuss variations across gender in psychological and behavi oral consequences of childhood abuse. Gender Differences in Psychological and Be havioral Consequences of Childhood Abuse Previous research has examined different responses to physical and sexual abuse based on the victim’s gender. Research has found that females were more likely to experience depressive symptoms and intern alize their feelings (Feiring et al., 1999) whereas males were more likely to externaliz e their emotions and be more aggressive against others (Chandy, Blum, & Resnick, 1996). According to research by Chandy and co lleagues (1996), male victims of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to experience more delinquent behavior, marijuana use, difficulties in school, and more involvement in unsafe, high risk sexual behavior. Females, on the other hand, were more likely to have eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and more problematic alcohol related beha vior. Conversely, Garnefski and Arends (1988) reported that emotional and behavioral problems were equivalent across gender.

PAGE 21

13 They did go on, however, to specify that ma les were more likely to exhibit more aggressive and delinquent behavior than females. Meyerson et al., (2002) expl ored the impact of the family environment on nonabused and physically and sexually abused adolescents to determine if family characteristics played a role in psychologi cal adjustment of abused adolescents. The results indicated that physical abuse and family environm ent were predictive of both depression and distress in males, whereas sexual abuse and family environment were predictive of psychological distress in females. They also reported that family conflict was a good predictor of distress for both males and females. Horwitz, Widom, McLaughlin, and White (2001) compared male and female victims of physical and sexual abuse to matc hed control groups to determine the impact of childhood victimizatio n on mental health in adults. Using documented court cases of childhood abuse and neglect from 1970, the aut hors interviewed subj ects 20 years later and found that males with a history of chil dhood abuse and neglect were more likely to experience depression, antisocial personality di sorder, but fewer alc ohol related problems than the control group. Females with a hist ory of childhood abuse a nd neglect were more likely to report more depressive symptoms, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol related problems compared to the matched co ntrol group. However, after the researchers controlled for stressful life events, ch ildhood victimization was found to have an insignificant impact on lifetime mental health problems. Herrera and McCloskey (2001) examined gender differences and the impact of exposure to both marital violence and physic al child abuse on delinquency. Using a sample of 299 adolescents recruited from sh elters and the general community, they found

PAGE 22

14 no variance in the number of referrals to j uvenile court between males and females. Consistent with previous research, Herrera and McCloskey (2001) reported that males committed more violent crimes, felonies, and property offenses than females (Normland & Shover, 1977; Steffensmeier & Steffensme ier, 1980; Widom, 1989a). However, girls were just as likely as boys to be referred to court for status offenses, petty theft, and running away. As for the effects of marital violence and physical violen ce on subsequent delinquency, the authors reported that witn essing marital violence predicted overall offending. Herrera and McCloskey (2001) also reported some variation in how abuse in the home affected males and females. They found that abused gi rls were seven times more likely to commit a violent offense compar ed to non-abused girls. However, girls were more likely to commit violence against a sibling or parent, compared to boys who were more likely to fight with strang ers or friends (Chesney-Lind, 1998). Research on the relationsh ip between gender and delinquency as a consequence of childhood abuse has been fairly consistent. Mo st research has shown that males tend to externalize their anger and emotions and act ou t against others in more aggressive ways by becoming violent, whereas females were mo re likely to internalize their emotions and report more depressive sympto ms (Chandy et al., 1996; Feiri ng et al., 1999; Meyerson et al., 2002). Research has also suggested that othe r factors, like family environment, play a role in gender variation of delinquency rates. Herrera and McCloskey (2001) reported that girls were just as likely as boys to be arrested and refe rred to court particularly in cases where the child witnessed marital viol ence. The following section will discuss the research examining childhood abuse among a Hispanic population.

PAGE 23

15 Child Abuse and Hispanic Populations Although childhood abuse is an often st udied phenomenon, there is limited research on childhood abuse among a Hispanic population. The research that has examined childhood abuse among Hispanics has been inconsistent. Kercher and McShane (1984) studied an a dult population in Texas ex amining characteristics of sexually abused children. Although less than 10% of the sa mple reported sexual victimization, Hispanic females reported the highest level of victimization, followed by black and white females, respectively. However, Kercher and McShane (1984) found that Hispanic males reporte d the lowest victimization. Shaw, Lewis, Loeb, Rosado, and Rodriguez (2001) examined the effects of sexual abuse across Hispanic and AfricanAmerican girls. Shaw et al ., (2001) reported that Hispanic girls reported more sexual abuse in cidents than African-American girls and also waited longer to report the incident. It was also reported that sexua lly abused Hispanic girls also experienced more emotional and behavioral problems including anxiety, depression, and aggressive beha viors compared to African-American abused girls. Mennen (1995) studied psychological res ponses of sexual ab used girls across ethnic groups. No differences across ethni city were found in predicting psychological responses to sexual abuse. However, Hispanic females reported higher levels of anxiety, depression, and lower self-esteem, if vaginal penetration occurred. On the other hand, Sorensen and Siegel ( 1992) examined the risk of experiencing sexual assault based on gender and ethnicity. The researchers found that in a sample of 3,000 community residents, Hispanics and men were less likely to report sexual assault compared to non-Hispanics and women. Ho wever, repeat victimization was not influenced by gender or ethnic ity. It was reported that wo men who were assaulted were

PAGE 24

16 more likely to experience emotional and behavioral problems compared to men regardless of ethnicity. Other researchers have found no differen ce in childhood abuse across ethnicity. Lindholm and Willey (1986) analyzed over 4,000 cases of child abuse as reported to the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department l ooking for variation across ethnic groups as well as differences in family structure and family attitudes. However, no differences were reported between whites and Hispanics. Perez (2001) examined ethnic differences in property, violent, and sex offending in abused and non-abused adoles cents. Using a sample of 2,466 Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white adolescents between the ages of thirteen and nineteen, she found that physical abuse and sexual victimization incr eased delinquency across all three measures. However, the effects of abuse were simila r for both Mexican-American and non-Hispanic whites. Childhood abuse across ethnicity is understu died. Previous research has been inconsistent in regards to th e effects of abuse on a Hispanic population. Some research has reported that Hispanics differ from othe r populations suggesting they report higher levels of abuse as well as stronger emotional and behavior al responses to the abuse compared to other ethnicities (Kercher & McShane, 1984; Shaw et al., 2001). However, other research reports no difference in the level of abuse or response to abuse across ethnicity (Menen, 1995; Lindholm & Willey, 1986; Perez, 2001). Future research needs to continue examining childhood abuse and it s effects across various populations.

PAGE 25

17 The following chapter will discuss Agnew’s general strain theory as well as discuss its ability to be used as a “general” theo ry and explain delinquency across gender and race.

PAGE 26

18 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL STRAIN THEORY Classical strain theory focused on social structural variables to establish the link between strain and delinquency. Accord ing to Merton (1938) Cohen (1955), and Cloward and Ohlin (1960), clas sical strain theory suggested that delinquency was a result of being unable to achieve monetary success or other culturally valued goals through legitimate channels. This disappointment creat ed strain and frustration, which increased the likelihood of a deviant response. Accordi ng to classical strain theory, several factors including the level of social control and the association with criminal others, influence whether the individual responde d to the strain with crime. Agnew expanded traditional strain theory by identifying social-psychologica l aspects of strain that traditional theories did not consider. Agnew (1992) extended classi cal strain theory by sugges ting there were other types of strain that may lead to crime. He iden tifies three major sources of strain. The first major source of strain is the failure to achieve positively valued goals, which are broken down into three additional categories: the disjunction between aspirations and expectations, the disjunction between expectations and act ual achievements, and the disjunction between just/fair outcomes and actual outcomes. The disjunction between aspirations and expectations is often e xperienced by lower-class individuals who are unable to achieve culturally valued success or middle class status through legitimate means. The disjunction between expectations and actual achievements occurs when an individual is unable to achiev e personal goals or relative achievements of others. The

PAGE 27

19 disjunction between just/fair outcomes and actual outcomes occurs when one does not feel he or she has been fully compensated for his or her achievements. The second major type of strain is the re moval of positively valued stimuli and the third type is the presentati on of negative or noxious stimuli (Agnew, 1992). The removal of positively valued stimuli may include a loss of significant relationships or objects. This source of strain may lead to delinquenc y or crime when one tries to retain this valued stimuli. The third type of stra in, presentation of noxious stimuli can be understood as a negative experience or aversi ve situation, including verbal insults or attacks, physical abuse, or negative relations This source of strain may lead to delinquency as the individual tries to escape or avoid the negative stimuli, mitigate the negative stimuli, seek revenge against those presenting the negative stimuli, or manage the negative emotional states (Agnew, 1992). GST projects that all three types of strain are likely to increase the possibility that an individual will suffer from negative emotions in comparison to the magnitude, duration, and recency of stress. The most cr itical negative emotion, according to Agnew, is anger, specifically when one feels he has been treated unfairly a nd increases the desire for retaliation against the sour ce of the strain. According to Agnew (2001), strains that are most likely to result in crime are thos e that are perceived as unjust and high in magnitude, associated with low social cont rol, and create a desire for vengeance. Agnew (1992) asserts that strain induced negative emotions, such as anger or resentment, can be directly associated w ith crime or delinquency if effective coping strategies are not employed. Various tests of GST have produced conflicting results concerning whether strain has a direct re lationship with crime or whether negative

PAGE 28

20 emotions mediate between strain and criminal behavior. Piquero and Sealock (2000) as well as Broidy (2001) found that strain indu ced anger was the primary negative emotion that had a significant effect on deviance. Ho wever, other studies found that the mediating effect of anger is restricted only to situations of viol ence (Aseltine, Gore, & Gordon, 2000; Capowich, Mazerolle, & Piquero, 2001; Mazerolle, 1998; Mazerolle & Piquero, 1998; Piquero & Sealock, 2000). Further, Maze rolle, Burton, Cullen, Evans, and Payne (2000) found that strain rather th an anger had a direct effect on crime with anger having a more indirect effect. GST asserts that an indi vidual will feel strain unless he or she is able to successfully cope with strain by utilizing effective co ping strategies. If legitimate coping strategies are not utilized, other means to rectify the situati on including illegal or delinquent activity may occur. Agnew (1992) suggests that the inability to cope effectively with negative emotions may lead to crime. He identifies three majo r coping strategies that an individual can use to adjust rather than respond to strain: cognitive, behavioral, and emotional strategies. Three general cognitive strategies used to adapt to st rain are to minimize the difficult situation, reduce standards for evaluating outc omes, and admit that one is personally responsible for the situation. An individual may also choose to cope with adversity using behavioral strategies, such as attempting to remedy the situation or react with retaliation. Emotional strategies may also be utilized for d ealing with adversity varying from using drugs1 to exercise to meditation. Agnew postulates that his general strain th eory can be used to explain criminal behavior among all social classes. Since the fo rmulation of this theor y, it has been tested 1 It is important to note that some scholars believe that drug use is not a coping mechanism and is instead a behavioral outcome.

PAGE 29

21 and analyzed with a wide range of sample s to determine the generalizability of the theory. The following section will discuss th e various tests of GST over the years among criminal populations, non-offending populations, adolescents, adults, as well across race and gender. Empirical Tests of GST Since the development of GST, there have been numerous studies analyzing its theoretical aspects as well as its application to individuals of different groups. Agnew and White (1992) conducted one of the first test s of GST. Using a cross-sectional sample of juvenile delinquents, they found that nega tive life events, such as poor relationships with adults, peer hassles, and neighborhood problems were significantly associated with delinquency and drug use after holding measur es of social cont rol and differential association constant. Agnew a nd White (1992) also found that strain would have more of an impact on individuals with delinquent peer s than on those with higher levels of social support and self-efficacy. Paternoster and Mazerolle (1994) conducte d a similar test of GST using the National Youth Survey. Strain was also found to be positively associated with delinquency after holding measures of social control and differe ntial association constant. Their preliminary causal model indicated that strain weakened soci al bonds and increased associations with deviant others, theref ore, indirectly affecting delinquency. Using a sample of high school youth from the Northeast, Aseltine and colleagues (2000) tested the mediating effect of pe rsonal and social resources on strain and delinquent behavior. They found adolescent violent behaviors were significantly and positively associated with negative life events and conflict with family members. However, little support was found for strain ’s impact on marijuana use suggesting that

PAGE 30

22 GST may only be applicable to violent behavi ors. Aseltine et al., (2000) also found little support for the interaction effect of deviant peers, self-effi cacy, and parental support on the association between strain and deviant be havior. However, M azerolle et al., (2000) found risk factors, such as deviant associates and weak social cont rols, interacted with strain to promote nonviolent behavior and a di rect effect of strain on violent behavior. Brezina (1996) used the Youth in Tran sition (YIT) survey to examine GST’s argument that delinquency was an adaptive response used to cope with negative emotional consequences of strain. Brezina’s (1996) findings suggest ed that strain was positively correlated with negative emotions such as anger, resentment, anxiety, and depression. Further, delinquent behavior was also found to mini mize the impact of strain. Consistent with GST, Brezina’s (1996) findings suggested that deviant behavior relieves some of the negative emotions associated with strain. Agnew, Brezina, Wright, and Cullen (2002) studied individual reactions to strain by examining personality traits among childre n ages seven to elev en. A significant association was found between family, school, peer, and neighborhood strains and delinquency. They also conc luded that individuals with negative emotionality and low constraint would be more likely to respond to strain w ith delinquency. Other research has examined GST am ong high school and college students. Mazerolle and Piquero (1997, 1998) examined the role of anger as an intervening variable between strain and delinquency using a sample of high school students from a metropolitan mid-west city. The authors f ound limited support that anger intervenes between strain and deviant behavior. The aut hors also controlled for the effects of moral

PAGE 31

23 beliefs and deviant peers and found some s upport for GST and the assertion that anger mediates between strain and deviant behavior. In 2001, Broidy similarly examined the re lationship among strain, anger, coping, and crime. Using a sample of college stude nts at a northwestern university, Broidy tested three hypotheses: 1) the three types of strain are associated with negative affect (anger and other negative emotions); 2) anger and ot her negative emotional responses to strain are correlated with legitimate coping; and 3) strain induced anger will increase the likelihood of illegitimate outcomes when c ontrolling for legitimate coping. Mixed support was found for GST and the assertion that ange r is positively linked to strain and deviance when controlling for va rious demographic, personalit y, and social influences. Broidy found that all three types of stra in were significantly related to strain induced anger, but that anger had a negative effect on strain when the type of strain was the failure to achieve one’s goals Therefore, it appeared that the type of strain and type of emotional response determined the nature of the relationship between strain and negative emotions. Testing hypothesis tw o, Broidy (2001) found that only non-angry negative emotions were positively correlated with legitimate coping. Further, strain induced anger was not significantly associated with legitimate coping. When controlling for legitimate coping, Broidy found that stra in induced anger was positively related to delinquent outcomes which is consistent with GST. Piquero and Sealock (2000) extended GST re search to include the criminal actions of juvenile offenders. They examined the re lationship between strain, negative emotions, coping, and both interpersonal and propert y offending. The results of their study

PAGE 32

24 revealed expected support for GST, specifica lly, that negative affect, especially anger, intervened between strain and delinquent behavior in interpersonal offenses only. GST has also been examined across race. Jang and Johnson (2003) used the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans to examine the possibility of additional psychological distress due to experiences of racism and economic disadvantage. They also examined innerand outerdirected emo tions in relation to coping with strain and negative emotions in deviant or non-deviant ways. Inner-directed emotions were measured by asking participants about thei r emotional responses during the time they experienced personal problems, including fee ling “lonely” and “depressed” (2003). The authors found a positive associa tion between strain and negative emotions, which also led to a positive association betw een strain and deviant behavior. Furthermore, they found that outer-directed emotions, such as ange r, had a more significant effect on outerdirected deviance and inner-directed emotions had a significant effect on inner-directed deviance. The authors also concluded that white individuals may be affected more by inner-directed emotions comp ared to black individuals. Watt and Sharp (2002) examined race differences in suicidal behavior among socially strained adolescents. The author s used data collected from the Add Health Project, a study of health related behavi ors among adolescents funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Developm ent. Several measures of Agnew’s general strain theory were examined, including status strain and re lational strain. The results indicated that black males were less likely to respond to status strains with suicide attempts than white males. Black males, however, were found to be more likely to be affected and attempt suicide in response to relational strains than white males. White

PAGE 33

25 females, like their white counterparts, were mo re likely to attempt su icide in response to status strains than black fema les. Relational strains were found to be a risk factor for both white and black females although ther e was slight differentiation between the relational strains. Eitle and Turner (2003) furthered Agnew’ s research by examining the relationship between race and the stress-crime associati on based upon the principles of GST. The results revealed support for GST by demonstrating a relationship between race, stress exposure, and criminal behavior. Eitle a nd Turner reported that blacks reported significantly more exposure to stressful ev ents than other racial groups therefore explaining the higher rates of delin quency among that population. Kaufmann (2005) also used Add Health da ta to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity and violent crime while exam ining the mediating factor of neighborhood and community context. Kaufman used variou s theories, including general strain, social learning, and self-control to analyze this relationship. The results indicated that neighborhood context was a strong mediating f actor when combined with individual social psychological processes. This interact ion helped explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and violence. Accord ing to Agnew (1992, 2002), witnessing or experiencing violence was the most severe strain and would most likely lead to delinquency. Attara, Guerra, and Tolan (1994) found that individuals living in disadvantaged communities were more likely to be a victim of violence or witness a violent incident than individuals not living in such communities. Further, black and Hispanic adolescents are more likely to liv e in disadvantage neighborhoods than white

PAGE 34

26 adolescents leading to an incr eased risk in exposure to viol ence and therefore leading to an increase in delinquency rates. Perez (2005) analyzed Agnew’s general stra in theory by including principles of acculturation theory to determine if GST was generalizable across other ethnicities, particularly Hispanics. It wa s believed that being Hispanic would subject individuals to special types of strain, in cluding prejudice and discrimina tion, which would in turn increase the likelihood of de linquency. It was reported th at GST does generalize to Hispanics and that certain ethnic-specific st rains could increase the risk of violence. Further, this evidence supports Agnew’s theory that it can be generalizable across all races and ethnicities. Gender and General Strain Theory Early criminological theories focused pr imarily on explaining male delinquency using traditional strain, differe ntial association, social contro l, and sub cultural factors. However, other theories, such as ChesneyLind’s theory of female delinquency, were specifically applied to female delinquency (Chesney-Lind, 1998). However, Agnew’s general theory applies to both male and female delinquency. Br oidy and Agnew (1997) outlined differences in behavioral outcomes between males and females that experience similar strainful situations. They argued that the differences in th e behavioral outcomes were based on how each gender typically proces sed events and their relationships with others. Broidy and Agnew (1997) offer three primar y explanations of substantially higher crime rates for males compared to females. They argue that males experience different strains compared to females, males respond di fferently in ways that are more conducive to crime than females, and males are likely to react to anger and strain with crime.

PAGE 35

27 Concerning the first explanati on, some studies report that females experience greater levels of strain compared to males (Turner, Wheaton, & Lloyd, 1995). Second, Broidy and Agnew explain that male reactions to st rain may be more conducive to crime because males are more likely to get angry whereas females are more likely to get depressed. Numerous studies reveal that females are mo re likely to internalize their feelings in response to strain with depression whereas males are more likely to blame external factors and act out aggressively on ange r (Broidy, 2001; Cyranowski, Frank, Young, & Shear, 2000; Leadbetter, Blatt, & Quinlan, 1995) Third, Broidy and Agnew suggest that males may be more likely to respond to st rain with anger and delinquent responses because they have less efficient coping resour ces and skills compared to females. Broidy and Agnew (1997) suggest four explan ations to why males are more likely to respond to strain with crime. First, male s are more likely to have higher self esteem and a sense of mastery compared to females. Females may also be less likely to respond to strain with crime because they may not f eel secure enough in themselves to act out against others but may be more likely to inte rnalize their feelings into self destructive behavior, such as drug abus e or eating disorders. Second, Broidy and Agnew (1997) postulate th at females may be more at risk if they respond to strain with crime because they typically have smaller, intimate friendship groups. Females may have more emotional su pport from their close personal groups, but they also have more to lose if their behavior is incongruent with th e basic morals of their friendship network. Cyranowski and colle agues (2000) suggest that females are socialized to focus more on thei r relationships with others as they develop their sense of self whereas males are socialized to focu s on themselves and becoming independent.

PAGE 36

28 Males may also be more likely than female s to respond to strain with crime because males have more opportunities to engage in cr iminal behavior than females. Males often have more freedoms and lower social contro ls and are more likely to socialize with delinquent others than females (Broidy & Agnew, 1997). Fourth, Broidy and Agnew (1997) suggest that stereotypes may play a role in males being more deviant than females in response to strain. Although both males and females feel anger in response to stra in, females are taught that it is inappropriate to act out on their anger which is often accompanied by guilt and depression. Females, then, are more likely to internalize their anger and take it out on themselves. However, it is more socially acceptable for males to respond to st rain with anger and act out against others. Empirical Tests of GST and Gender GST has been empirically tested across gender to explain sex differences in criminality (Broidy & Agnew, 1997; Eitle, 2002; Hay, 2003; Hoffman & Su, 1997; Mazerolle, 1998; Piquero & Sealock, 2004). Many authors have analyzed the different types of strain that men a nd women experience as well as the levels each experience and how it was related to deviance. Broidy and Agnew (1997) focus on two distinct questions regarding gender and crime: why ma les have a higher rate of crime compared to females and what are the causes of female crime. Based on their study, the authors contend that males are more likely to ha ve a higher rate of crime because males experience different types of strain and res pond differently to strain. Males are more likely to experience strain related to financia l strain that contributes to an increase in property crime as well as violent crime. Fe males, on the other hand, are more likely to experience strain involving higher levels of social control and less opportunity for criminal activity. Broidy and Agnew (1997) al so assert that the gender gap in criminality

PAGE 37

29 may also be a function of different emotiona l responses to strain. They suggest that although both males and females re spond to strain with anger, ma les are more likely to be aggressive whereas females are more likely to internalize their anger to include self destructive behaviors, such as eating disorders and drug use. Concerning the causes of female criminality, Broidy and Agnew (1997) report that females are more likely to respond to strain with crime when they are unable to effectively cope with strain by utilizing legitimate means. They also show th at females with low social control, deviant associates, and opportunities for crime are also mo re likely to have a higher rate of crime. Broidy and Agnew (1997), as well as, Eitle (2002) examined the strain of gender oppression and female criminal activity. Eitle (2002) found a positive association between an experience of gender discrimina tion and the likelihood of female criminal activity. However, experiences of everyday discrimination had no si gnificant effect on deviant behavior. In 2003, Hay accounted for the gender gap in criminality by examining the different experiences and responses to family -related strain across gender. He found that males were more likely to receive harsher punishment for misbehavior which exacerbated the strain leading to more behavioral problem s. Females were more likely to experience higher levels of guilt in response to strain compared to males who were more likely to experience anger. Research has shown that guilt was negatively related to delinquency compared to anger that was positively related to delinquency. Hoffman and Su (1997) used the High Risk Youth Study to examine the impact of stressful life events on delinquency and drug use among males and females. The authors found modest differences in response to stressf ul life events. In f act, they found that the

PAGE 38

30 impact on delinquency and drug use were simila r across gender in the short term. They did find, however, that stressful life events were indeed asso ciated with higher rates of delinquency and drug use. Piquero and Sealock (2004) used a sample of juvenile offenders to examine gender differences between strain, ne gative emotions, coping skills and interpersonal violence and property offenses. The authors found no significant difference in the amount of strain experienced by males and females. Fe males, however, reported higher levels of anger and depression than males. They al so found a positive asso ciation between anger and strain for both males and females, and a positive association between depression and strain for males only. Piquero and Sealock (2004) found a positive effect of strain on delinquency which is consistent with GST. Th ey also found a direct effect of anger, but not depression, in predicting pr operty offending for males. These results implied that different emotions could be related to different acts a nd property offending was not a means of dealing with negative emotions. However, the authors found support for the relationship of anger to interper sonal aggression across gender. Piquero and Sealock (2004) also examined the effects of strain on deviant behavior while controlling for negative emotions. Thei r study concluded that strain had no effect on deviant behavior, especially among males. However, it is important to note that this particular sample may have experienced an ex tended period of strain creating a long term effect on deviant behaviors regardless of the negative emotions. The authors found that anger was positively associated with in terpersonal aggression among females. Piquero and Sealock (2004) also went on to determine the effectiveness of coping skills in reducing deviant behavior caused by strain. The authors found that males

PAGE 39

31 utilized social coping re sources, which often provided criminal opportunities or encouraged criminal activity, to relieve st rain. They also found a positive relationship between delinquent peers and criminal activ ity among males, but no relationship was found among females. Overall, the examination of GST as a gene ral theory has been rather successful. The results of several studies using GST to explain both male and female criminality have been positive. GST has been shown to explain criminality across gender, why males were more likely to have a higher rate of crime than females, as well as explain different types of strain experienced by males versus females and the coping skills utilized by both. GST has not only contribute d to gender related explanations of crime, but also to explanation of variations in offending among j uveniles, college students, offenders, and minorities.

PAGE 40

32 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The data used in the current study were co llected for prior res earch that focused on drug use among at-risk student s and dropouts (see Chavez, Edwards, & Otetting, 1989; Chavez, Oetting, & Swaim, 1994; Perez, 2001). Between 1988 and 1992, new cohorts of adolescents were given an identical questi onnaire that included questions regarding various social, psychological, and environmental factors that may have influenced their academic status. These data were collected from a fairly small community, a mediumsized city, and a large city in th e Southwest. The data used in this analysis were collected during the first four years of the study and therefore constitute a sub-sample of the original data (approximately 68 % of the original sample). This analysis focused only on Hispanic adolescents between the ages of 13-19 with the final sample including 1,729 adolescents. Dropout subjects were conceptualized as s ubjects that had st opped attending school and had not made contact with the school in at least one month. The sample was compared to a group of academically at–risk students matched by ethnicity, sex, grade in school, age and grade point average. Once consent was obtained, each participant was given an identical questionna ire by a researcher who was available to clarify any ambiguous questions. Confidentiality wa s maintained by assi gning identification numbers to the questionnaires. Once ques tionnaires were completed subjects placed them in a sealed envelope and then along w ith the researcher, mailed the survey to the research laboratory.

PAGE 41

33 Research has repeatedly found that childhood abuse has serious long-term consequences. Broidy and Agnew (1997) sugge sted that response to strain may be different among males and females and males were more likely to respond to strain with crime. To examine the relationship between childhood abuse and delinquency, the following research questions were examined: a) Does physical and sexual abuse increase the risk of delinquency, part icularly violence perpetra tion? b) Are there gender differences in response to strain? And c) Does negative affect, particularly anger and depression, mediate the relationship betw een strain and violence perpetration? Measures Independent Variables The purpose of this thesis was to determ ine if gender intera cts with negative emotions, such as anger and depressi on, to promote violence perpetration among Hispanic adolescents using Agnew’s gene ral strain theory. The questionnaire administered to the students included numer ous measures regarding various strains on adolescents, but for the purpose of this pape r two types of strain were relevant to the questions at hand, familial physical abuse and se xual assault. The prevalence of familial physical abuse (FAMABUS) was based on th e following question: “How many times have you been beaten by your parents?” Res ponses were none (coded as ‘1’), 1-2 times (coded as ‘2’), 3-9 times (coded as ‘3’), and 10 or more times (coded as ‘4’). Familial physical abuse measures the prevalence of phys ical abuse by parents and was recoded as a dichotomous variable, coded as ‘0’ for ne ver experiencing familial physical abuse and ‘1’ for familial physical abused experienced one or more times. The prevalence of sexual assault (SEXASSLT) was measured by as king respondents “How many times have you been raped or sexually assaulted?” Respons es were never (coded as ‘1’), 1-2 times

PAGE 42

34 (coded as ‘2’), 3-9 times (coded as ‘3’), a nd 10 or more times (coded as ‘4’). Sexual assault was recoded and measured as a dichot omous variable denoti ng if the adolescent never experienced sexual abuse (coded as ‘0’) and experienced sexual abuse one or more times (coded as ‘1’). Other variables known to increase the risk for delinquency were also included in the current analysis: academic status, grade point average, class status, age, gender, family care, and economic dissatisfaction. Th e original study evaluated the differences among school dropouts and non-dro pouts. Therefore, dropout status was included as an independent variable in this study because previous research has found significant differences in offending between adolescents who drop out of school and adolescents who remain in school (Chavez et al., 1994; Perez, 2001). Academic status (ACADSTAT) was coded as ‘0’ for currently enrolled and ‘1’ for dropout. Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992) found that school performance influenced antisocial behavior. Therefore, the st udents’ grade point averag e (GPA) was included as a continuous independent variable In addition, low socio-eco nomic status has been found to be negatively related to delinquency and other antisocial behavior (Peeples & Loeber, 1994; Wilson, 1985). As a result, class status (CLASS) was also used as an independent variable coded as ‘1’ if the participant re ported receiving food stamps or welfare and ‘0’ if not. Therefore, higher values of CLA SS denote lower class status. Age (AGE) was another demographic characteristic used as an independent variable. Age was a continuous variable coded from 13-19 for the respondents age. Gender (SEX) was another demographic characteri stic used as an independent variable, code d ‘1’ if the adolescent was male and ‘0’ if the adolescent was female.

PAGE 43

35 Other variables known to increase the risk of juvenile delinquency were also included as independent variables. Family care (FAMCARE) was a f our point scale that denoted the respondent’s sense of familia l care. The two item scale included the following questions: “Does your family care about you?” and “Does your family care what you do?” Response options for FAMCAR E include a lot (coded as ‘1’), some (coded as ‘2’), not much (coded as ‘3’), and no (coded as ‘4’). Responses to each question were summed and divided by the total number of questions (t wo). Scale scores range from 1 to 4, with high values denoti ng a high level of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of their family. Economic dissatisfaction (ECONDIS) was a three item scale that indicated the adolescents’ dissatisf action with his or her parental financial status. The scale was comprise d of the following three questions. “Do your parents have good jobs?” Response options included very good (coded as ‘1’), good (coded as ‘2’), not too good (coded as ‘3’), and poor/no job (c oded as ‘4’). “What is your parents’ income?” Response options include high/ve ry high (coded as ‘1’), average (coded as ‘2’), low (coded as ‘3’), and very low (code d as ‘4’). “Does your family have enough money to buy the things you want?” Response options included yes, all the time (coded as ‘1’), yes, most of the time (coded as ‘2’) some of the time (coded as ‘3’), and almost never (coded as ‘4’). Responses to each que stion were summed and divided by the total number of questions (three). Scale scores range from 1 to 4, with high values denoting a high level of dissatisfaction with the family’s economic situation. Mediating Variables Agnew (1992) asserts that stra in induced negative emoti ons, particularly anger and depression, can be directly associated with crime and delinquency. According to Broidy (2001) as well as Piquero and Sealock (2000) anger was the primary negative emotion

PAGE 44

36 that had a significant influence on deviance. In order to exam ine the mediating effect of anger on violence and delinquency, anger (ANGER) is measured using a six item scale indicating how often the adolescent repor ted an angry or hostile mood. The scale included the following statements: “I feel like hitting someone; I get mad; I get angry; I fly off the handle; I am hot headed; I am qui ck tempered.” Response options included a lot (coded as ‘1’), some (coded as ‘2’), not much (coded as ‘3’), and no (coded as ‘4’). Items were reverse coded and the scale wa s calculated by summi ng the responses and dividing the total by the number of scale items (six). High scale values denote high levels of anger. Research has also shown that depression ma y be a mediating factor between strain and internalized deviance (Chandy et al ., 1996; Fering et al., 1999; Meyerson et al., 2002). Depression (DEPRESS) is measured usin g a seven item scale that indicates how often the adolescent f eels depressed or sad. The scale included the following statements: “I feel low; I am lonely; I feel sad; I am unhappy; I feel bad; I am depressed; I am lonesome.” Response options included a lot (coded as ‘1’), some (coded as ‘2’), not much (coded as ‘3’), and no (coded as ‘4’). Items were reverse coded and the scale was computed by summing the responses and dividi ng the total by the number of scale items (seven). High scale values denot e high levels of depression. Dependent Variable Each participant was given a self-repor t inventory that inquired about violence perpetration. Specifically, adolescents we re asked how many times he or she had committed a series of seven behaviors. The seven item index (VIOLENT) included the following questions: “How often have you….. “scared someone with a knife; scared someone with a gun; scared someone with a cl ub or chain; cut someone with a knife; shot

PAGE 45

37 someone with a gun; hit someone with a club or chain; and been in a gang fight?” Due to the low variation in responses, items were recoded as a dichotomous measure indicating no incidents of violent offending (coded as ‘0’) or at least one or more reported violent offenses (coded as ‘1’). Analysis Bivariate correlations were conducted in order to test for multicollinearity among conceptually related independent variables. Bivariate correl ations were examined for the full sample as well as the male and female sample separately. Logistic regression models were estimated to answer the research questions asked in this thesis. Logistical regression is the appropriate analysis procedure because the dependent variable, violence perpetration, is measured as a dichotomous variable. Models were first estimated with the full sample to determine whether gender had a significant impact on violence perpetration. The re sults indicated that gender was in fact significant. Therefore, the sample was sp lit by gender and logistic regression models were estimated for males and females separatel y. The results of the analysis for bivariate correlations and logistic regres sion are discussed further in the following results chapter. The first full sample model was a partial test of general strain theory that included physical abuse and sexual abuse as well as all in dependent variables. It was necessary to first estimate the model with the full sample to determine if gender was significantly associated with violence perpetration. Mode l 2 introduced anger to determine if anger was significantly associated with violence perp etration and to test th e mediating effects of anger on the relationship between physical or sexual abuse and violen ce perpetration. If anger was in fact a mediating factor, it was e xpected that the impact of strain on violence perpetration would diminish when the mediati ng variable (anger) was included in model.

PAGE 46

38 The third full sample model introduced depres sion to the model (without anger) to test the relationship between depres sion and violent behavior as well as the mediating effects of depression on the impact of physical or sexual abuse and vi olence perpetration. Similar to the second model, it was expected that depression would weaken the impact of strain on violent behavior when it was incl uded in the model if it was mediating the relationship. Similar to the full sample models, the first female model was a partial test of general strain theory that included physical abuse and se xual abuse as well as all independent variables (without ge nder since this was an all female sample). The second female model included anger, which tested whether the impact of physical abuse or sexual abuse on violence perpetra tion was mediated by anger. If anger was a mediating factor, it was expected that the impact of strain on violence would diminish when the mediating variable (depression) was included in the model. The third female model examined the mediating effect of depression on physical abuse and viol ence. It was also expected that depression would cause the impact of strain on violence to diminish when the mediating variable (depression) was in the model. The male models were identical to the female models to determine whether any differences were presen t across gender.

PAGE 47

39 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Sample Description The sub-sample of data from the Mexi can-American and White American dropout study consisted of a total of 1,729 Hispanic adolescents. Table 1 provides descriptive statistics for the sample. The sample cons ists of slightly more males (58.4%) than females (41.6%). The average age of respondents was 16.48. Approximately 10% (9.9%) of the participants reported experiencing sexual as sault at least once and 18.9% reported experiencing at least one incident of familial physical abuse. The dropout rate of this particular sample was 36.4% in compar ison to the national average of 15% for this age group (Johnston, O’Malley, & Bachman, 1998) The mean grade point average was 1.57, (SD = 1.02), which may be due to the overre presentation of school dropouts in this particular sample. Based on pa rticipants’ responses to the receipt of welfare and food stamps, 17.4% were considered to be lower class status. Approximately 40% (39.8%) of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one type of violent behavior. Once the full sample was broken down by ge nder, there were several similarities between males and females (Table 2). Male s and females reported similar rates of physical abuse. Approximately 18.3% of males experienced physical abuse during childhood at least once and 19.9% of female s experienced physical abuse during childhood at least once. Females reported slight ly more sexual abuse. Twenty-percent of females experienced sexual abuse during ch ildhood at least once compared to 16% of males. Both males and females reported pe rceptions of economic dissatisfaction with

PAGE 48

40 familial income. The average scale score for males was 2.34 and the average scale score for females was 2.36 on a four point scale. Family care dissatisfaction was also similar across males and females. The mean score for females was 1.18 compared to 1.21 as the mean score for males. Approximately 36% of both males and females were school dropouts. However, females had a slightly hi gher GPA (1.70) compared to males (1.48). Slightly more females reported being lowe r class status (20.6%) compared to males (15.0%). The average score for anger was fair ly similar across gender. The mean anger score for females was 2.43 while the mean for males was 2.37. On average, females were more depressed than males. The average scale score for females was 1.98 and the average scale score for males was 1.79. Th e largest difference found between males and females was for violence perpetration. Appr oximately half (50.8%) of male adolescents reported perpetrating at least one violent crime compared to 24.3% of female adolescents. T-tests were conducted to examine mean di fferences across gender for the variables of interest. As can be seen in Table 2, five of the variables demons trate a significant (p < .01) mean difference between males and fema les (sexual abuse, GPA, class status, depression, and violence perpet ration). Females reported ex periencing more incidents of sexual assault compared to males. Female adolescents had higher GPAs compared to male adolescents. Evidence of class status differences emerged with the sample of females being comprised of more underclass adolescents than the sample of males. Females were significantly more likely to experience depression compared to males, which is consistent with Cyranowski et al. ( 2000). It is not surpri sing that males were more likely than females to report perpetrating violence.

PAGE 49

41 Bivariate Correlations Due to a number of conceptually related independent variables, multicollinearity was a concern with these data. Multicollinea rity occurs when there are high correlations among variables. Correlations greater than .60 are concerning. An examination of the absolute values of the Pearson correlations indicates that there are no strong correlations that point to a concern of multicollinearity (see Table 3, 4, and 5). Several significant correla tions, however, should be noted. Regarding the full sample (See Table 3), several significant correla tions were in the expected directions. Physical abuse was significantly and positivel y correlated to violence perpetration. Anger, depression, and family care were positiv ely correlated with violence perpetration. These results indicate that experiencing physical abus e was related to violence perpetration. This explanation also applied to anger, depression, and family care. Higher levels of anger and depression were significan tly related to violence perpetration. Higher levels of family dissatisfaction were also si gnificantly related to violence perpetration. GPA and violent offending were negatively, but significantly correlate d, meaning that a higher GPA reduced violent offending, which was to be expected. Physical abuse was significantly and positively correlated to anger and depression. These results indicated that experiencing childhood physical abuse was related to higher levels of anger and depr ession. Family care was also positively and significantly related to phys ical abuse and sexual abuse. These results indicate that experiencing either physical abuse or sexua l abuse was significantly related to higher disappointment with family care, which wa s to be expected. Physical abuse was positively and significantly correlated to econo mic dissatisfaction. These results indicate that experiencing physical abuse was significan tly related to higher negative perceptions

PAGE 50

42 of economic dissatisfaction. It is also impor tant to note that physical abuse and sexual abuse were positively and significantly correlated. These results indicate that experiencing sexual abuse was significantly re lated to experiencing physical abuse. GPA and age were negatively, but significantly co rrelated to physical a buse. These results indicate that experiencing physical abuse was related to a lower GPA. These results also indicate that physical abus e was significantly relate d to a younger adolescent. Anger and depression were positively and significantly correlated. These results indicate that higher levels of anger were related to higher le vels of depression. Anger and depression were positively and significantly related to percep tions of family care, which was to be expected. These results indicate that higher levels of anger and depression were significantly related to higher levels of dissatisfaction with fa mily care. Depression was significantly and positively related to economic dissatisfaction. These results indicate that higher levels of depression were significantly related to higher levels of economic dissatisfaction. GPA and age were negatively, but significantly correlated to anger. These results indicate that higher GPA was related to lower levels of anger, which was to be expected. These results also i ndicate that higher le vels of anger were significantly related to a younger adolescent. Family care was significantly and positivel y correlated to economic dissatisfaction. These results indicate that higher levels of economic dissatisfac tion were significantly related to higher levels of dissatisfaction w ith family care. Family care and economic dissatisfaction were negativel y, but significantly correlated to GPA. These results indicate that a lower GPA was related to highe r levels of family ca re dissatisfaction and

PAGE 51

43 family economic dissatisfaction. GPA was positively and significantly related to age indicating a higher GPA was correlate d to being an older adolescent. Regarding the female sample (See Tabl e 4), several significant correlations were in the expected directions. Most importan tly, both physical abuse and sexual abuse were significantly and positively co rrelated to violence perpet ration. Anger, depression, economic dissatisfaction, and family care we re positively correlated with violence perpetration. These results i ndicate that experiencing childhoo d abuse, either physical or sexual, was related to violence perpetration. This also applie d to anger and depression. Higher levels of anger and depression were si gnificantly related to vi olence perpetration. Higher levels of economic dissatisfaction a nd disappointment with family caring were significantly related to vi olence perpetration. GPA and violent offending were negatively, but significantly correlated, meaning that a higher GPA reduced violent offending, which was to be expected. Both physical abuse and sexual abuse were significantly and positively correlated to anger and depression. These results i ndicated that experiencing childhood abuse, either physical or sexual, was related to hi gher levels of anger a nd depression. Economic dissatisfaction and family care were also posi tively and significantl y related to physical abuse and sexual abuse. These results indicate that experiencing eith er physical abuse or sexual abuse was significantly related to higher negative perceptions of economic dissatisfaction and disappointment with family car e, which was to be expected. It is also important to note that physical abuse and sexual abuse were positively and significantly correlated. These results indica te that experiencing sexual a buse was significantly related to experiencing physical abuse. Physi cal abuse and GPA we re negatively, but

PAGE 52

44 significantly correlated, indicat ing that experiencing physical abuse was related to a lower GPA. Anger and depression were positively and significantly correlated. These results indicate that higher levels of anger were related to higher le vels of depression. Anger and depression were positively and significantly related to percep tions of economic dissatisfaction and family care, which was to be expected. These results indicate that higher levels of anger and depression were significantly related to higher levels of economic dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction w ith family care. GPA and anger were negatively, but significantly co rrelated, meaning that a higher GPA was related to lower levels of anger, which was to be expected. Family care was significantly and positivel y correlated to economic dissatisfaction. These results indicate that higher levels of economic dissatisfac tion were significantly related to higher levels of dissatisfaction w ith family care. Family care and economic dissatisfaction were negativel y, but significantly correlated to GPA. These results indicate that a lower GPA was related to highe r levels of family ca re dissatisfaction and family economic dissatisfaction. GPA was positively and significantly related to age indicating a higher GPA was correlate d to being an older adolescent. Regarding the male sample, see Table 5, se veral significant correla tions were in the expected directions. Physical abuse was positively and significantly correlated to violence perpetration. Anger, depression, and family care were also all positively and significantly correlated to violence perpetrati on. These results indica te that experiencing physical abuse was related to violence perp etration. This also applies to anger, depression, and family care. Higher levels of anger, depression, and family care

PAGE 53

45 dissatisfaction were significantl y related to violence perpetra tion. Similar to the female sample, GPA and violent offending were negatively, but significantly correlated, meaning that a higher GPA was related to a decrease in violence perpetration, which was to be expected. Physical abuse was significantly and positiv ely correlated to anger and depression. These results indicate that e xperiencing physical abuse was re lated to higher levels of anger and depression. Economic dissatisfacti on and family care were also positively and significantly related to physical abuse. These results indica te that experiencing physical abuse was significantly related to higher degrees of economic dissatisfaction and disappointment with family care, which was to be expected. It is also important to note that physical abuse and sexual abuse were posit ively and significantly correlated to each other. These results indicate that experien cing sexual abuse was signi ficantly related to experiencing physical abuse. As expected, physical abuse and GPA were negatively, but significantly correlated, indicat ing that experiencing physical abuse was related to a lower GPA. Depression was positively and significantly correlated to sexual abuse, economic dissatisfaction, and family care. These resu lts indicate that expe riencing sexual abuse was significantly related to higher levels of depression. This also applied to economic dissatisfaction and family care. Higher levels of depression were significantly related to higher degrees of economic dissatisfaction a nd family care dissatisfaction. Anger was also positively and significantl y related to family care indi cating higher leve ls of anger were significantly related to greater dissa tisfaction with family care. Anger and

PAGE 54

46 depression were positively and si gnificantly correlated. These results indicate that higher levels of anger were significantly rela ted to higher levels of depression. Anger was negatively but significantly rela ted to age and GPA. These results denote a significant relationship between ange r and GPA, meaning th at higher levels of anger were correlated with a lower GPA. This also applies to age. Higher levels of anger were correlated to being a younger adoles cent. GPA was also negatively, but significantly related to family care, meaning that a lower GPA was related to higher levels of family care dissatisfaction. Fa mily care and economic dissatisfaction were positively and significantly correlated. Higher levels of economic dissatisfaction were related to higher levels of family care dissatisfaction. Logistic Regression Full Sample Model In the first stage of the analysis, a full sample model was estimated to determine the relationship between a number of factor s related to Agnew’s GST and violence perpetration. Logistic regression was used b ecause the nature of the dependent variable, violence perpetration, was dichotomous. Mode l 1 (Table 6) estimat ed the impact of a number of factors related to Agnew’s GS T on violence perpetration without negative emotions (anger and depression). Variables that were significantly related to violence perpetration include sexual abuse, familial physical abuse, gender, academic status, family care, and GPA. Adolescents who e xperienced sexual abuse or physical abuse were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did not experience sexual abuse or physical abuse. Table 6 repor ts the relevant statistical measures, such as the parameter estimate ( ), the standard error (SE), and the odds ratio for the interpretation of these data. The odds ratio was used to determine the percentage

PAGE 55

47 of odds for committing violent offenses ba sed on the independent variables. The percentage of odds was calculated by subtra cting one from the odds ratio, therefore determining an increase or decreas e in the percentage of odds. Sexual abuse had a significant and positive impact ( = .497, SE = .210) on violence perpetration (p < .05) and physical abuse had a positive and significant impact ( = .732, SE = .154) on violence perpetrati on (p < .05). Adolescents who reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse duri ng childhood were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did not experience childhood violence. Findings indicated that sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of committing a violent offense by 64% and 107%, respectively. Gender ( = 1.314, SE = .134), academic status ( =.505, SE = .134), and family care ( = .713, SE =.143) were also significantly and positively related to violence perpetration (p < .01). Being male increased the odds of committing a violent offense by 272% and being a dropout increased the odds of violence perpetration by 66%. In addition, being more dissatisfied with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds violence perpet ration by 104%. In contrast, GPA had a negative significant impact ( = -.348, SE = .066) on violence perpetration (p < .01). This finding indicated that having a higher GPA significan tly reduces the likelihood of violence perpetration. Specifically, higher GPA decreases the odds of violent crime perpetration by 29%. In Model 2, negative emoti on, anger, was included in the model to examine the relationship between anger and violent crime while holding the influences of the other variables constant. The fo llowing variables had a signifi cant influence on violence perpetration: familial physical abuse, gender, academic status, family care, GPA, and

PAGE 56

48 anger. Familial physical abuse ha d a significant and positive impact ( = .626, SE = .160) on violence perpetration (p < .01). A dolescents who reported experiences with family physical abuse during ch ildhood were significantly mo re likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did not experience physical abuse during childhood. Specifically, family abuse increas ed the odds of violence perpetration by 87%. Gender ( = 1.438, SE = .140), academic status ( = .444, SE = .138), and family care ( = .610, SE =.146) also had a significant positive impact on violence perpetration (p <.01). Males were significantly more lik ely to perpetrate violence compared to females. Specifically, the re sults indicated that being ma le increased the odds of committing a violent offense by 321%. Respondents who had dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate a violent offense compared to adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 56%. Adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were significan tly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violent crime perpet ration by 84%. Again, GPA had a negative significant impact ( = -.309, SE = .069) on violence perp etration (p < .01), which means that adolescents with higher GPAs were signifi cantly less likely to commit violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 27%. Finally, anger had a positive and signi ficant impact on violence perpetration ( = .738, SE = .094). Respondents who reported high er levels of anger were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Speci fically, being angrier increased the odds of violence perpetration by 109%.

PAGE 57

49 In Model 3 (Table 6) depression was incl uded to examine the relationship between negative emotion and violence perpetration. Vari ables that were significantly related to violence perpetration included sexual abuse, familial physical abuse, gender, academic status, family care, and GPA. Sexual abuse ( = .470, SE = .211) had a significant and positive impact on violence perpetration (p <.05) and physical abuse ( = .693, SE =.155) had a significant and positive impact on violen ce perpetration (p < .01). Adolescents who reported experiences with sexual abuse or physical abuse during childhood were significantly more likely to pe rpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did not experience childhood violence. Specificall y, experiencing sexual abuse and physical abuse during childhood increased the odds of violence perpetration by 60% and 100%, respectively. Depression was also found to have a significant and positive impact ( = .205, SE = .081) on violence perpetration (p < .05). Adolescents who reported higher levels of depression were si gnificantly more likely to perp etrate violence compared to adolescents who reported lower levels of depression. Specifically, increases in adolescent depression increased the odds of violence perpetration by 23%. Finally, gender ( = 1.345, SE = .136), academic status ( = .513, SE =.134), and family care ( = .655, SE = .145) had a significant positive impact on violence perpetration (p < .01). Results also indicated that being male increas ed the odds of perpetration of violent crime by 284% and being a dropout increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 67%. Adolescents who had a high er dissatisfaction with family care were significantly more likely to perp etrate a violent offense. Sp ecifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 92%. Similar to the other models, GPA ( =.347, SE = .067) had a

PAGE 58

50 significant negative impact on violence perpetra tion (p < .05). Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violen t crime perpetration by 30%. The mediating effects of anger and depres sion on the relationsh ip between strain (physical and sexual abuse) and violence pe rpetration were examined (Models 2 and 3 Table 6). When anger was included in the fu ll sample model, the effects of sexual abuse on violence perpetration diminished. This i ndicates that anger mediates the relationship between sexual abuse and violence. Howeve r, after further examination, the odds ratio did not diminish considerab ly indicating the magnitude of the relationship was not extensive. When depression was included in the model as a mediating variable the impact of sexual abuse and physical abuse on violence perpetration did not diminish significantly. However, there was evidence that depression partially mediates the relationships between physical abuse and sexual abuse and violence perpetration. The odds ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating eff ect, but the mediating effect did not produce a significant change. Female Models The results from the full sample models indicated that gender had a significant impact on violence perpetration. Therefore, the full sample was split by gender to examine whether there were differences in factors that impact violence perpetration across gender. Table 7, Model 4 indicates th at sexual abuse, family abuse, academic status, family care, and GPA were significan tly related to violence perpetration. The results indicate that female adolescents who experience sexual abuse ( = .520, SE = .244) or familial physical abuse ( = .619, SE = .251) during childhood are more likely to commit violent crimes compared to adolesce nt females who did not experience childhood abuse (p < .05). Specifically, the findings i ndicate that being sexually abused increased

PAGE 59

51 the odds of violence perpetration by 68% and being physically abused increased the odds of violence perpetration by 86% amo ng females. Academic status ( = .633, SE = .227) and family care ( = .904, SE = .232) were also found to have a significant impact on violence perpetration (p < .01) These findings indicate that being a dropout increased the odds of violence perpetration by 88% and higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased th e odds of violent crim e perpetration by 147% among females. In contrast, GPA had a negative significant impact ( = -.401, SE = .118) on violence perpetration (p < .01). This finding indicates that having a higher GPA significantly reduces the like lihood of violence perpetration. Specifically, higher GPA decreases the odds of violence perp etration by 33% among females. To determine the effects of negative em otions on females, anger and depression were added to the models separately. In Table 7, Model 5 anger was added to the model to examine the relationship between anger a nd violence perpetration among females. The results indicate that familial physical abuse, academic status, family care, GPA, and anger were significantly related to violen ce perpetration. Family abuse ( = .575, SE = .259) and academic status ( = .542, SE = 233) had a significant impact on violence perpetration at the p < .05 significance level while family care (B = .758, SE = .238) and anger ( = .722, SE = .137) had a significant impact on violence perpetration at the p < .01 significance level. GPA had a nega tive and significant impact on violence perpetration among females ( = -.407, SE = .122). Findings indicated that female adolescents who reported experiences with physical abuse during childhood were significantly more lik ely to perpetrate violence compared to female adolescents who did not experi ence childhood physical abuse. Childhood

PAGE 60

52 physical abuse increased the odds of violence perpetration by 78%. Female adolescents who dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate a violent offense compared to female adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 72%. Female adolescents who had a higher dissatisf action with family care were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifica lly, higher levels of di ssatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 113%. Findings indicated that having a higher GPA significantly reduces the likelihood of violence perpetration among females. Speci fically, having a higher GPA decreases the odds of violent crime perpetration by 33%. Finally, female adolescents who reported higher levels of anger were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, being angrier increased the odds of violence perpetration by 105% among females. Depression was included in Table 7, Mode l 6 to examine the relationship between depression and violence perpet ration among females. Variable s that were found to have a significant impact on violence perpetration in cluded: sexual abuse, familial physical abuse, academic status, family care, and GPA. Sexual abuse ( = .493, SE = .246) and familial physical abuse ( = .732, SE = .154) had a significant and positive impact on violence perpetration among females (p < .05). Adolescent females who reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse duri ng childhood were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescent females who did not experience childhood violence. Findings indicated that sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of committing a violent offense by 64% and 81%, respectively, among females.

PAGE 61

53 Academic status ( = .620, SE = .228) and family care ( = .779, SE = .242) had a significant positive relationship on violence perpetration (p < .01) among females. Female adolescents who dropped out of sc hool were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to female adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 86%. Adolescent females who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were signifi cantly more likely to perpetrate a violent offense. Specifically, higher levels of dissa tisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violent crim e perpetration by 118%. Again, GPA had a negative significant impact ( = -.422, SE = .119) on violent crime perpetration (p <.01), which means that adolescent females with hi gher GPAs were signifi cantly less likely to commit violent crime. Specifically, an incr ease in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 34%. The mediating effects of anger and depres sion on the relationsh ip between strain (physical and sexual abuse) and violence for females were examined. When anger was introduced into the female model, the eff ects of sexual abuse on violence perpetration diminished. Similar to the full sample, this indicates that anger mediates the relationship between sexual abuse and violence perpetrati on among females. However, after further examination, the odds ratio did not diminish c onsiderably indicating the magnitude of the relationship was not extensive. When de pression was included in the model as a mediating variable the impact of sexua l abuse and physical abuse on violence perpetration did not diminish si gnificantly. However, there was evidence that depression partially mediates the rela tionships between physical abuse and sexual abuse and

PAGE 62

54 violence perpetration. The odds ratios dimini shed slightly indicating a minor mediating effect, but the mediating effect did not produce a significant change. Male Models The results from the full sample models indicated that gender had a significant impact on violence perpetration. Therefore, the full sample was split by gender to examine whether there were gender differe nces in factors that impact violence perpetration. Table 8 presents the results of the estimated models for the male sample. In Table 8, Model 7, variables that were found to have a sign ificant impact on violence perpetration among males included family a buse, academic status, family care, class status, and GPA. Fami lial physical abuse ( = .815, SE = .199), academic status ( = .468, SE = .166), family care ( =.573, SE = .179), and class status ( = .626, SE =.220) had a positive and significant impact on violence perpetra tion (p < .05) whereas GPA ( = -.320, SE = .081) had a negative and significa nt impact on violence perpetration (p <. 01). The results indicated that male adolescents who experience familial physical abuse during childhood are more likely to commit viol ent crimes compared to adolescent males who do not experience childhood physical abuse. Specifically, the findings indicated that being physically abused during childhood increa ses the odds of violence perpetration by 126% among males. Male adolescents who had dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to ma le adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 60%. Male adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were significantly more lik ely to perpetrate a violent offense. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family

PAGE 63

55 increased the odds of violent crime perpetra tion by 77%. Interesti ngly, class status was significantly related to violen t crime perpetration among males. Being a lower class male increased the odds of violence perpetration by perpetrating violent crime by 87%. Again, GPA had a negative significant impact on vi olent crime perpetration, which means that male adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decr eased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 27% among males. Anger was included in Table 8, Model 8, to examine the relationship between anger and violence perpetration among males. Variables that were found to have a significant impact on violence perpetration include: fam ilial physical abuse, academic status, family care, class status, GPA, and anger. Familial physical abuse ( = .664, SE = .206) had a significant and positive impact on violence perpetration among males (p < .01). Adolescent males who reported experiencing physical abuse during childhood were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescent males who did not experience childhood violence. Findings indicated th at physical abuse in creased the odds of committing a violent offense by 94% among males. Academic status ( = .424, SE= .172), family care ( =.500, SE = .183), class status ( = .657, SE = .226), and anger ( = .752, SE = .107) were positively significantly co rrelated to violent crime perpetration (p < .05). GPA ( = -.257, SE = .084) was negatively and significantly associated with violence perpetration (p < .01) among male adolescents. Male adolescents who had dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to male adolescents who were attending school. Speci fically, academic stat us (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing viol ent crime by approximately 53%. Male

PAGE 64

56 adolescents who reported higher levels of anger were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, bei ng angrier increased the odds of violence perpetration by 112% among males. Male ad olescents who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were significantly more lik ely to perpetrate a violent offense. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violence perpetration by 65%. Interestingly, class status was significantly related to viol ence perpetration among male a dolescents. Being a lower class male increased the odds of violence perpetration by perpetrating violent crime by 93%. Again, GPA had a negative significant impact on violent crime perpetration, which means that male adolescents with higher GP As were significantly less likely to commit violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 23% among males. Depression was included in Table 8, Mode l 9, to examine the relationship between depression and violence perpet ration among males. Variables that were found to have a significant impact on violence perpetration included: familial physical abuse, academic status, family care, class status, a nd GPA. Familial physical abuse ( = .778, SE = .201) had a significant and positive impact on viol ence perpetration among males (p < .01). Adolescent males who reported experiencing physical abuse during childhood were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescent males who did not experience childhood violence. Findings indicated th at physical abuse in creased the odds of committing a violent offense by 118% among males. Academic status ( = .485, SE = .167), family care ( = .551, SE = .180), and class status ( =.621, SE = .220) had a significant posi tive relationship on violence perpetration

PAGE 65

57 (p < .01) among males. Male adolescen ts who had dropped out of school were significantly more likely to perp etrate violence compared to male adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 63%. Adolescent males who were dissatisfied with the caring na ture of their family were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, higher leve ls of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one’s family increased the odds of violent cr ime perpetration by 73%. Again, class status was significantly related to violent crime pe rpetration among male adolescents. Being a lower class male increased the odds of violence perpetration by 86%. GPA had a negative significant impact on violent cr ime perpetration, which means that male adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased th e odds of violent crime perpetration by 27% among males. Depression was not found to ha ve a significant impact of violence perpetration among males. This study examined the mediating e ffects of anger and depression on the relationship between strain (physical and sexual abuse) and violence perpetration among Hispanic adolescents. When anger and depr ession were added to the male models, the effects of childhood physical abuse on violen ce perpetration did not diminish. Sexual abuse was not significantly related to violen ce perpetration with or without anger and depression in the model. Although there we re no significant effects once anger and depression were added to the model, there wa s evidence of a partial mediating effect based on minor changes of the odds ratio. These results and the relevance of prior

PAGE 66

58 literature will be discussed in the following chap ter. Policy implications as well as future research will also be discussed.

PAGE 67

59 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This study examined the relationship be tween childhood physical and sexual abuse and violent offending among Hispanic adolesce nts. Gender differences in response to childhood abuse were also examined as well as the influence of negative emotions, anger and depression, across gender. This study c onducted a partial test of Agnew’s GST by looking at the mediating factor of these negative emotions in response to childhood physical and sexual abuse. However, coping mechanisms were not explored in this particular study, which would be necessary to fu lly evaluate all tenets of GST. It was expected that childhood abuse w ould increase the risk of vi olence perpetration, especially for males. Anger was expected to have a gr eater impact on males compared to females. It was also expected that negative emotions, anger a nd depression, would intervene between strain (chil dhood violence) and viol ence perpetration. Childhood physical abuse was significantly related to self -reported violence perpetration for the whole sample as well as males and females separately, which provides evidence of a strong relationship between physical abuse and violence perpetration. Consistent with previous research, physically abused adolescents reported higher rates of violent offending compared to non-abused adolescents (Herrera & McCloskey, 2001; Ireland, Smith, & Thornbe rry, 2002; Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993; Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a). However, the results did not indicate any gender differences between abused ma les and females in relation to violent offending. These results were fairly consistent with rese arch by Herrera & McCloskey

PAGE 68

60 (2001) that reported no gender differences in over all referral rates to the juvenile justice system although males, in general, were more likely to be referred for property, felony, and violent offenses. They also went on to report that abused females were seven times more likely to commit a violent offense co mpared to non-abused females which was consistent with the findings in the current research. Therefore, childhood physical abuse was shown to increase the risk of violent offending across gender. Childhood sexual abuse was significantly asso ciated with violence perpetration in the full sample and in the female model. Ba sed on these findings, it could be argued that non-sexually abused Hispanic adolescents are less likely to demonstrate violent behavior compared to sexually-abused adolescents, wh ich is consistent w ith previous studies (Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993; Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a). It also could be argued that sexually abused fe males are more likely than sexually abused males to report violent behavior. However, this result may be due to the low frequency of males reporting sexual abuse. Surprisingly, males and females did not differ in their response to anger and depression. It was discovered that anger was significantly re lated to violent behavior for males and females, meaning that the angrie r the adolescent reporte d feeling, the more violent behavior was reported. Consistent with previous researc h, anger had a direct effect on offending (Broidy, 2001; Piquero & Sealock, 2004). Depression, on the other hand, was only significantly related to violence at the significance le vel p < .05 in the full sample. When the sample was broken down by gender, depression was not significantly related to violence perpetration for males or females. Similarly, Mazzerolle and Piquero (1998) as well as Piquero and Sealock (2004) found that depression was not related to

PAGE 69

61 subsequent offending. Therefore, anger appe ared to be the prin ciple negative emotion associated with violence perpetration, which is consistent with previous research by Broidy (2001) and Piquero & Sealock (2000). Agnew’s general strain theory (1992) postu lates that exposure to noxious stimuli, such as childhood physical and sexual abuse will increase the likelihood of negative emotions, anger and depression. He suggests that if these negative emotions are not managed by utilizing effective c oping strategies, it is likely that the individual will use delinquent behavior to minimize these feelings. He suggests that these negative emotions mediate the relationship between strain and delinquency. The current study examined the mediati ng effects of anger and depression on violence perpetration among abused male and fe male Hispanic adolescents. The results were somewhat mixed in terms of the medi ating effect of negative emotions between abuse and violent behavior. The results indi cated that anger mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and viol ent behavior in the full sample as well as the female sample. Consistent with GST, anger was a me diating factor in the relationship between sexual abuse and violence perpetration in fe males indicating an i ndirect relationship between abuse and violent behavior in sexuall y abused females. However, after further examination, the odds ratio did not diminish c onsiderably indicating the magnitude of the relationship was not extensive. The e ffect of childhood physical abuse on violent behavior was not diminished significantly wh en anger was introduced into the model. However, there was evidence that anger partially mediates the relationships between physical abuse and sexual abuse and violence perpetration. The odds ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating effect but the mediating effect did not produce a

PAGE 70

62 significant change. Similarly, Mazzerolle and Piquero (1998) also found limited support for the GST in regard to anger mediating the relationship between stra in and delinquency. Further, GST was not fully supported in depression mediating the relationship between physical abuse or sexual abuse and vi olence perpetration. Neither the effects of physical abuse nor sexual abuse were dimi nished significantly when depression was introduced in the models. These results suggest that childhood physical abuse and depression are independently rela ted to violence perpetration. Similar to anger, the odds ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating effect, but the mediating effect did not produce a significant change. Other factors that were significantly rela ted to violent behavior were academic status and family care. As expected, adoles cents that had dropped out of school reported more incidents of violence perpetration. Al so, adolescents who reported a higher degree of dissatisfaction with family care also se lf–reported more violent behavior. Prior research has also acknowledged the relations hip between violent behavior and family environment (Aseltine et al., 2000; Meyerson et al., 2002). These results could possibly be explained by those adolescents having less to risk and more opportunities for crime. If they do not have a feeling of concern from th eir family, they have less to lose because their perception of family concern is minima l. Also, the adolescent would have more opportunities possibly because he or she is no longer spending time under the supervision of the school. As suspected, GPA was negative ly associated with vi olence indicating the lower the GPA, the more violence reported. Agnew’s GST has been tested over va rious populations and has received considerable support. This study showed mi xed support for GST, however. The results

PAGE 71

63 were supportive of GST in the a ssociation between strain, in th is case the presentation of noxious stimuli, and an increase in the risk of violent offending. GST was also supported as a general theory that was used to pr edict violent offending across gender and a minority population. The results indicated a si milar response to childhood physical abuse across gender. Also, anger was found to be positively associated with violent behavior across gender, but depression was not. However, anger partially mediated the relationship between childhood physical abuse and subsequent violent offending. The mediating effects of anger were supported in the relationship betw een sexual abuse and violent offending among females. However, th e results indicate that the magnitude of the relationship was not extensive. Depression also partially mediated the relationship between physical or sexual a buse and subsequent offending. Limitations There were a few limitations to the current research that should be considered. First, these data were derived from a cro ss-sectional research de sign. Therefore, it was impossible to determine the sequential orde r of the abuse and violence. Although the exact order of abuse versus violence was not known, it was known that at the very least, they were occurring concurrently. In addition, these data were a subset of the original data, classifying only Hispanic adolescents. Therefore this study on the relationship of abuse and violence perpetration and the media ting factors of anger and depression were only generalizable to Hispanic adolescents. Another issue of concern was a one-item m easure that measured adolescent sexual abuse. This measure is questionable sin ce only one item was used. Related to the validity of this measure was also the problem with recall bias. Because the adolescent was requested to recall incidents of abuse, the actual prevalence of abuse could be

PAGE 72

64 underestimated. Similarly, only one res ponse to abuse was examined, violence perpetration. Future resear ch should also examine other behavioral outcomes, including property offending and drug abuse. Another related limitation is that the orig inal study was not designed to test the specific research questions from the current research. A more detailed study on abuse with items of duration, frequency, and severity of abuse would allow for the examination of the relationship between childhood abuse and subsequent violence. Finally, Agnew’s theory suggests three types of coping mechanisms could be utilized in order to manage the effects of strain. This study was not able to consider possible coping mechanisms that adolescents ma y have used in order to manage strain experienced during childhood. Ther efore, this study was only a partial test of GST. Future research should consider possible co ping mechanisms that may or may not have been utilized as a response to childhood abuse. Although the current research had a number of limitati ons, this study does make a number of contributions to th e existing literature. First, this study looked at an often understudied population in regard to childhood abuse and the subsequent effects of the abuse on these particular adolescents. Not only did this study look at abuse among a rapidly growing minority group, bu t it also examined gender di fferences in response to abuse within this group. This study also improved the generali zability of Agnew’s general strain theory by stre ngthening the support for the th eory as a “general” theory across all ethnicities and gender. Policy Implications The following policy implications are not ba sed on the findings of this particular study, but rather the Hispanic population that was examined. Further research needs to

PAGE 73

65 be conducted in examining youth violence across gender before making changes to policy. Considering that Hispanics are quickly becoming the “majority minority,” (Warrix & Bocanegra, 1998) it is important to consider cultural variations in treatment programs to prevent youth violence. In the Hispanic culture, male dominance, often referred to as “machismo,” is a significant f actor in the Hispanic value systems. The male role is often strong and authoritarian, wh ich is a learned and re inforced behavior in Latino society (De la Cancela, 1986). Because the culture encourages male dominance, it is important to be sensitive to their belie fs, but also empower abused adolescents in reporting abuse to authorities. Family, itself, is often an important value within the Hispanic culture. Developing interventions that focus on the whole family unit may be helpful in reducing violent behavior am ong Hispanic youth. Programs that combine parental management training along with problem-solving programs for youth have been successful in preventing youth violence (Kazd in, Siegal, & Bass, 1992) Other parenting programs that seek to improve the parenting sk ills as well as quality of family life can also help in reducing youth violence (Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). This type of program may be very beneficial to families with reported abuse. Programs such as the Nurturing Parenting Programs have also been developed that re-teach parenting philosophy and focus on activities that pr omote communication, replacing abusive behavior with nurturing, and promoting emo tional and physical development. These interventions can also focus on various culture s which would be bene ficial to preventing youth violence in abused Hispanic adolescents. This type of program has been successful in improving attitudes in both the parents and children as well as improving family interaction (Bavolek, 1996).

PAGE 74

66 Other programs designed to reduce youth violence among Hispanics should be implemented in schools, alternative schools, a nd juvenile justice facilities. Improvements such as problem-solving clinics or mediation clinics that provide social skill development and non-aggressive behavioral response tech niques to dealing with conflict may be beneficial in reducing youth violence. Al so, improving education and providing hope for the future has also been shown to reduce violence (Hawkins, Ca talano, & Brewer, 1995). In a study examining education and violence from the Caribbean Health Survey, the authors found a significant incr ease in violence from those adolescents who had difficulty learning in school. Therefore, focusing on im proving educational programs may also be helpful in reducing violent behavior among adolescents. Future research needs to continue focu sing on differences across ethnicities as well as gender in response to family abuse and viol ent behavior. It is necessary to understand the cultural values of each population in orde r to provide the best treatment programs in reducing violence. In this pa rticular study, future research should examine the effect of legitimate as well as illegitimate coping strategi es utilized to minimize the impact of the strain and fully examine all tenets of Agnew’s general strain theory.

PAGE 75

67 Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of Full Sample Variables N Mean (SD) Range Independent Variables Physical Abuse 167718.9% .39 -Sexual Abuse 16719.93% 0.299 -Sex 172958.4% 0.48 -Economic Dissatisfaction 16952.35410.661 1-4 Family Care 17001.198 0.446 1-4 Academic Status 172936.4% 0.481 -GPA 15951.577 1.024 0.0-4.40 Class Status 168817.4% .379 -Age 172916.48 1.22 13-19 Mediating Variables Anger 16981.87 .77 1-4 Depression 16982.40 0.77 1-4 Dependent Variables Violence Perpetration 168139.8% .489

PAGE 76

68 Table 2. Descriptive Statis tics of Sample, by Gender Variables FEMALES (N=719) MALES (N=1010) Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range Independent Variables Physical Abuse 19.9% 3.9 -18.26% 3.86 -Sexual Abuse* 20.0% 4.0 -16% 1.61 -Economic Dissatisfaction 2.36 0.655 1-4 2.34 0.66 1-4 Family Care 1.18 0.431 1-4 1.21 0.45 1-4 Academic Status 36.5% 4.81 -36.0% 4.8 -GPA* 1.70 1.03 0.0-4.4 1.48 1. 0 0.0-4.4 Class Status* 20.6% 4.05 -15.0% 3.57 -Age 16.44 1.21 13 – 19 16.51 1.22 13 – 19 Mediating Variables Anger 2.43 0.79 1-4 2.37 .757 1-4 Depression* 1.98 0.82 1-4 1.79 .722 1-4 Dependent Variable Violence Perpetration* 24.3% 4.29 50.8% 5.00 T-tests indicate significant differences between group mean values at p < .01.

PAGE 77

69 Table 3. Correlation Matrix (Full Sample) VARIABLES Economic Dissatisfaction Family Care Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Abuse Physical Abuse Violence Prevalence Economic Dissatisfaction -Family Care .157** p=.000 -Age .000 p=.993 -.042 p=.086 -GPA -.066** p=.009 -.081** p=.001 .080** p=.001 -Anger .045 p=.068 .173** p=.000 -.060* p=.013 -.149** p=.000 -Depression .151** p-.000 .261** p=.000 -.047 p=.052 -.029 p=.254 .477** p=.000 -Sexual Abuse .045 p=.070 .080** p=.001 -.035 p=.156 -.004 p=.865 .105** p=.000 .166** p=.000 -Physical Abuse .081** p=.001 .255** p=.000 -.083** p=.001 -.090** p=.000 .171** p=.000 .191** p=.000 .177** p=.000 -Violence Prevalence .038 p=.119 .191** p=.000 .000 p=.996 -.249** p=.000 .273** p=.000 .083** p=.001 .014 p=.570 .179** p=.000 -**p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 78

70 Table 4. Correlation Matrix (Female Sample) VARIABLES Economic Dissatisfaction Family Care Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Abuse Physical Abuse Violence Prevalence Economic Dissatisfaction -Family Care .203** p=.000 -Age .014 p=.706 -.040 p=.288 -GPA -.112** p=.005 -.084* p=.033 .112** p=.004 -Anger .102** p=.007 .209** p=.000 -.045 p=.234 -.115** p=.004 -Depression .189** p-.000 .356** p=.000 -.059 p=.114 -.018 p=.648 .524** p=.000 -Sexual Abuse .096* p=.012 .150** p=.000 -.054 p=.151 -.061 p=.126 .154** p=.000 .188** p=.000 -Physical Abuse .095* p=.013 .267** p=.000 -.111** p=.003 -.098* p=.014 .145** p=.000 .165** p=.000 .252** p=.000 -Violence Prevalence .079* p=.039 .233** p=.000 -.037 p=.321 -.237** p=.000 .284** p=.000 .132** p=.000 .162** p=.000 .219** p=.000 -**p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 79

71 Table 5. Correlation Matrix (Male Sample) VARIABLES Economic Dissatisfaction Family Care Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Abuse Physical Abuse Violence Prevalence Economic Dissatisfaction -Family Care .128** p=.000 -Age -.009 p=.776 -.044 p=.164 -GPA -.036 p=.271 -.074* p=.024 .061 p=.060 -Anger .003 p=.937 .151** p=.000 -.070* p=.028 -.184** P=.000 -Depression .122** p=.000 .201** p=.000 -.032 p=.310 -.060 P=.069 .436** p=.000 -Sexual Abuse -.027 p=.401 .028 p=.390 .012 p=.701 .000 P=.993 .018 p=.587 .066* p=.042 -Physical Abuse .071* p=.028 .249** p=.000 -.060 p=.060 -.086** P=.009 .191** p=.000 .211** p=.000 .087** p=.006 -Violence Prevalence .018 p=.575 .163** p=.000 .009 p=.771 -.228** P=.000 .301** p=.000 .111** p=.001 .036 p=.259 .176** p=.000 -**p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 80

72 Table 6. Logistic Regression-Vi olence Perpetration (Full sample) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Variable B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio Sexual Abuse .497* .2101.644.403 .2151.496.470* .2111.600 Family Abuse .732** .1542.079.626** .1601.871.693** .1552.00 Academic Status .505** .1341.657.444** .1381.558.513** .1341.671 Economic Dissatisfaction -.098 .094.907 -.093 .097.911 -.118 .095.888 Family Care .713** .1432.04 .610** .1461.841.655** .1451.924 Age .033 .0511.034.051 .0531.052.038 .0511.039 Class Status .302 .1641.353.321 .1691.379.294 .1651.341 GPA -.348** .066.706 -.309** .069.734 -.347** .067.707 Gender 1.314** .1343.7231.438**.1404.2141.345** .1363.840 Anger .738** .0842.092 Depression .205* .0811.227 Constant -2.342 .887.096 -4.41** .953.012 -2.702 .899.067 **p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 81

73 Table 7. Logistic RegressionViolence Perpetration (Females) Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Variable B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio Sexual Abuse .520* .244 1.681 .418 .246 1.519 .493* .246 1.638 Family Abuse .619* .251 1.858 .575* .259 1.776 .592* .252 1.808 Academic Status .633** .227 1.883 .542* .233 1.719 .620** .228 1.859 Economic Dissatisfaction .068 .165 1.070 .056 .169 1.058 .037 .166 1.038 Family Care .904** .232 2.468 .758** .238 2.135 .779** .242 2.180 Age .006 .094 1.006 .011 .097 1.012 .018 .095 1.019 Class Status -.152 .263 .859 -.153 .271 .858 -.170 .264 .844 GPA -.401** .118 .670 -.407** .122 .666 -.422** .119 .656 Anger .722** .137 2.059 Depression .257 .132 1.293 Constant -2.387 1.60 .092 -4.036 1.68 .18 -2.824 1.62 1 .059 **p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 82

74 Table 8. Logistic RegressionViolence Perpetration (Males) Model 7 Model 8 Model 9 Variable B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio B S.E. Odds ratio Sexual Abuse .287 .440 1.333 .251 .447 1.285 .263 .442 1.30 Family Abuse .815** .199 2.260 .664**.206 1.943 .778** .201 2.178 Academic Status .468** .166 1.597 .424* .172 1.528 .485** .167 1.625 Economic Dissatisfaction -.205 .116 .815 -.193 .120 .825 -.219 .117 .803 Family Care .573** .179 1.773 .500**.183 1.649 .551** .180 1.734 Age .046 .061 1.047 .070 .063 1.073 .049 .061 1.050 Class Status .626** .220 1.869 .657**.226 1.929 .621** .220 1.86 GPA -.32** .081 .726 -.26** .084 .774 -.31** .081 .732 Anger .752**.107 2.121 Depression .157 .105 1.170 Constant -.913 1.06 .401 3.08**1.147.046 -1.197 1.077.302 **p<.01 *p<.05

PAGE 83

75 APPENDIX A DELINQUENCY MEASURE Violent Offenses ( = .90) 1. Scared someone with a knife. 2. Scared someone with a club or chain. 3. Scared someone with a gun. 4. Cut someone with a knife. 5. Hit someone with a club or chain 6. Shot someone with a gun. 7. Been in gang fight.

PAGE 84

76 APPENDIX B NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Anger ( = .60) 1. I feel like hitting someone. 2. I get mad. 3. I get angry. 4. I fly off the handle. 5. I am hot headed. 6. I am quick-tempered. Depression ( = .73) 1. I feel low. 2. I am lonely. 3. I feel sad. 4. I am unhappy. 5. I feel bad. 6. I am depressed. 7. I am lonesome

PAGE 85

77 APPENDIX C INDEPENDENT VARIABLE SCALES Economic Dissatisfaction ( = .76) 1. Do your parents have good jobs? 2. What is your parent’s income? 3. Does your family have enough money to buy the things you want? Family Care ( = .79) 1. Does your family about you? 2. Does your family care what you do?

PAGE 86

78 LIST OF REFERENCES Agnew, R. (1992). “Foundation for a general st rain theory of crime and delinquency.” Criminology 30:47-87. Agnew, R. (2001). “Building on the foundation of general strain th eory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38:319-352. Agnew, R. (2002). “Experienced, vica rious, and anticipated strain.” Justice Quarterly 19 :603-632. Agnew, R., & White, H.R. (1992). “An empiri cal test of general strain theory.” Criminology 30:475-499. Agnew, R., Brezina, T., Wright, J.P., & Culle n, F.T. (2002). “Strain, personality traits, and Delinquency: Extending general strain theory.” Criminology 40:43-72. Alfaro, J.D. (1981). “Report on the relationshi p between child abuse and neglect and later socially deviant behavior.” In Hiram Fitzgerald, Barry Lester, and Michael Yogman (eds.) Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics. Vol.11. New York: Plenum. Allen, D., & Tarnowski, K. (1989). “Depressi ve characteristics of physically abused children.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17:1-11. Aseltine, R. H., Gore, S., & Gordon, J. (2000). “Life stress, anger and anxiety, and delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:256-275. Attara, B.K., Guerra, N.G., & Tolan, P.H. (1994). “Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 23:391-400. Bavolek, S.J. (1996). Research and validation report of the nurturing programs. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources, Inc. Berliner, L., & Elliott, D.M. (2002). “Sexual abuse of children.” In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendr ix, T. Reid, C. Jenny (Eds.) The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (2nd ed., pp-55-78). Newbury Par k, CA: Sage Publications.

PAGE 87

79 Bolton, F.G., Reich, J.W., & Gutierres, S.E. ( 1977). “Delinquency patterns in maltreated children and siblings.” Victimology 2:349-357. Brezina, T. (1996). “Adapting to strain: An examination of delinquent coping responses.” Criminology 34:39-60. Briere, J. (1989). Therapy for adults molested as children New York: Springer. Briere, J., & Elliott, D.M., (2003). “Prevale nce and psychological sequelae of selfreported childhood physical and sexual abus e in a general population sample of men and women.” Child Abuse & Neglect 27: 1205 -1222. Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988). “Multivaria te correlates of childhood psychological and physical maltreatment among university women.” Child Abuse & Neglect 12:331341. Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1993). “Child sexual abuse: Long-term sequelae and implications for psychological assessment.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 8:312-330. Briere, J., Evans, D., Runtz, M., & Wall, T. (1988). “Symptomatology in men who were molested as children: A comparison study.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 58:457-461. Broidy, L. (2001). “A test of general strain theory.” Criminology 39:9-34. Broidy, L., & Agnew, R. (1997). “Gender and crime: A general strain theory perspective.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 34:275-307. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). “Impact of child sexual abuse: a review of the research.” Psychological Bulletin 99:66-77. Brown, J., Cohen, P., Johnson, J.G., & Smailes, E.M. (1999). “Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity of effects on a dolescent and young adult depression and suicidability.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38:1490-1496. Capowich, G. E., Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (2001). “General strain theory, situational anger, and social networks: An assessment of conditioning influences.” Journal of Criminal Justice 29:445-461. Chandy, J.M., Blum, R.W., & Resnick, M.D. (1996). “Gender-specific outcomes for sexually abused adolescents.” Child Abuse & Neglect 20:1219-1231. Chavez, E.L., Edwards, R., & Oetting, E.R. (1989). “Mexican American and White American school dropouts’ drug use, health status, and involvement in violence.” Public Health Reports 104:594-604.

PAGE 88

80 Chavez, E.L., Oetting, E.R., & Swaim, R.C. (1994). “Dropout and delinquency: Mexican-American and Caucasian non-Hispanic youth.” Journal of Clinical Psychology 23:47-55. Chesney-Lind, M. (1998). Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth. Child Maltreatment 2002: Reports from the Sates to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data Systems – National statistics on child abuse and negl ect. (2004). U.S. Department of Health and Human Se rvices. Administration for Children & Families. Child Welfare League of America. (2 005). Advocacy: National Fact Sheet 2005. (Available online: http://www.cwla.org/advocacy /nationalfactsheet05.htm ). June 2005. Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: Free Press. Cohen, A. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: Free Press. Cyranowski, J.M., Frank, E., Young, E., & Sh ear, M.K. (2000). “Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression.” Archives of General Psychiatry 57:21-27. Davis, J., & Petretic-Jackson, P.A. (2000). “T he impact of child sexual abuse on adult interpersonal functioning: A review and synthesis of the em pirical literature.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 5:291-328. De la Cancela, V. (1986). “A critical analysis of Puerto Rican machismo: Implications for clinical practice.” Psychotherapy 23:291-296. Dembo, R., Williams, L., Schmeidler, J., Berr y, E., Wothke, W., & Getreu, A. (1992). “A structural model examining the relations hip between physical child abuse, sexual victimization, and marijuana/hashish us e in delinquent youth: A longitudinal study.” Violence and Victims 7:41-62. Dembo, R., Wothke, W., Shemwell, M., P acheco, K., Seeberger, W., & Rollie, M. (2000). “A structural model of family pr oblems and child abuse factors on serious delinquency among youths processed at a juvenile assessment center.” Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 10:17-31. Eckenrode, J., Laird, M., & Doris, J. ( 1993). “School performance and disciplinary problems among abused and neglected children.” Developmental Psychology 29:53-62. Eitle, D. (2002). “Exploring a source of devi ance-producing strain for females: Perceived discrimination and general strain theory.” Journal of Criminal Justice 30:429-442.

PAGE 89

81 Eitle, D., & Turner, J. (2003). “Stress expos ure, race, and young adult male crime.” Sociological Quarterly 44:243-269. Farrington, D. (1991). “Chil dhood aggression and adult viol ence: Early precursors and later life outcomes.” In D.J. Pepler & K. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp 5-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Feiring, C., Taska, L., & Lewis, M. (1999). “Age and gender differences in children’s and adolescent’ adapta tion to sexual abuse.” Child Abuse & Neglect 23:115-128. Fergusson, D.M., Horwod, L.J., & Lynskey, M.T. (1996). “Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34:1365-1375. Finkelhor, D. (1990). “Early and long-term e ffects of child sexual abuse: An update.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 21:325-330. Flisher, A.J., Kramer, R.A., Hoven, C.W ., & Greenwald, S. (1997). “Psychosocial characteristics of physically ab used children and adolescents.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36:123-131. Garbarino, J., & Plantz, M.C. (1986). “Child abuse and juvenile delinquency: What are the links?” In James Garbarino (ed.) Troubled youth, troubled families. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Garnefski, N., & Arends, E. (1998). “Sexual abuse and adolescents maladjustment: differences between male and female victims.” Journal of Adolescence 21:99-107. Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R.F.W. (1997). “Child sexual abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in adol escence: gender difference.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36:323-329. Gover, A. (2004). “Childhood sexual abuse, gender, and depression among incarcerated youth.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48:683-696. Harrison, P.A., Hoffman, N.G., & Edwall, G.E. (1989). “Sexual abuse correlates: similarities between male and female adolescents in chemical dependency treatment.” Journal of Adolescent Treatment Research 4:385-399. Hawkins, J.F., Catalano, R.F., & Brewer, D.D. (1995). “Preventing se rious, violent, and chronic juvenile offending: Effective stra tegies from conception to age 6.” In Howell JC, Krisberg B, Hawkins JD, Wilson JJ, (Eds.) Serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders: A sourcebook. (pp 47-60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

PAGE 90

82 Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., & Miller, J.Y. (1992). “Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adoles cence and early adult hood: implications for substance abuse prevention.” Psychological Bulletin 112:64-105. Hay, C. (2003). “Family strai n, gender, and delinquency.” Sociological Perspectives 46:107-135. Herrera, V.M., & McCloskey, L.A. (2001). “Gender differences in the risk for delinquency among youth exposed to family violence.” Child Abuse & Neglect 25:1037-1051. Hoffman, J. P., & Su, S. (1997). “The condi tional effects of stress on delinquency and drug use: A strain theory a ssessment of sex differences.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 34:46-79. Horwitz, A., Widom, C.S., McLaughlin, J., & White, H.R. (2001). “The impact of childhood abuse and neglect on adult ment al health: A Prospective study.” Journal of Health & Social Behavior 42:184-201. Howing, P.T., Wodarski, J.S., Kurtz, P.D., Gaudin, Jr., J.M., & Herbst, E.N. (1990). “Child abuse and delinquency: The empirical and theoretical links.” Social Work 35:244-229. Hussey, D.L., & Singer, M. (1993). “Psychol ogical distress, problem behaviors, and family functioning of sexually abused adolescent patients.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32:954-961. Ireland, T.O., Smith, C.A., & Thornberry, T.P. (2002). “Developmental issues in the impact of child maltreatment on later delinquency and drug use.” Criminology 40:359-397. Jang, S.J., & Johnson, B.R. (2003). “Strain, negative emotions, and deviant coping among African Americans: A test of general strain theory.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 19:79-105. Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (1998). National survey results on drug use from monitoring the future study, 1975-1997 vol. 1 Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (Secondary school students). Kaplan, S.J., & Pelcovitz, D. (1982). “Ch ild abuse and neglect and sexual abuse.” Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5:321-332. Kaufman, J. (1991). “Depressive di sorders in maltreated children.” Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 30:257-265. Kaufman, J. (2005). “Explaining the Race/Et hnicity-violence relationship: Neighborhood context and social psychological processes.” Justice Quarterly 22:224-251.

PAGE 91

83 Kazdin, A., Moser, J., Colbus, D., & Bell, R. (1985). “Depressive symptoms among physically abused and psychiat rically disturbed children.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94:298-307. Kazdin, A.E., Siegel, T.C., & Bass, D. (1992). “Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:733-747. Kelly, J.A. (1983). Treating child-abusive families: Intervention based on skills-training principles. New York: Plenum Press. Kendall-Tackett, K.A., Williams, L.M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). “Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesi s of recent empirical studies.” Psychological Bulletin 113:164-180. Kercher, G.A., & McShane, M. (1984). “The prevalence of child sexual abuse victimization in an adult sample of Texas residents.” Child Abuse and Neglect 8:495-501. Kolko, D.J. (2002). “Child physical abuse.” In J. E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (2nd ed., pp. 21-54). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Kolko, D.J., Moser, J.T., & Weldy, S.R. (1988). “Behavioral/emotional indicators of sexual abuse in child psychiatric inpatient s: a controlled comparison with physical abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 12:529-541. Koverola, C., Pound, J., Heger, A., & Lytle, C. (1993). “Relationship of child sexual abuse to depression.” Child Abuse and Neglect 17:393-400. Kratcoski, P.C., & Kratcoski, L.D. (1982). “The relationship of victimization through child abuse to aggressive delinquent behavior.” Victimology 7:199-203. Leadbetter, B.J., Blatt, S.J., & Quinlan, D. M. (1995). “Gender-linke d vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and pr oblem behaviors in adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 5:1-29. Lewis, D.O., Shanok, S.S., Pincus, J.H., & Glaser, G.H. (1979). “Violent juvenile delinquents: Psychiatric, neurological psychological and abuse factors.” Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 18:307-319. Lindholm, K.J., & Willey, R. (1986). “Ethni c differences in child abuse and sexual abuse.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 8:111-125. Luster, T., & Small, S.A. (1997). “Sexual a buse history and problems in adolescence: Exploring the effects of moderating variables.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 59:131-142.

PAGE 92

84 MalinoskyRummell, R., & Hansen, D.J. (1993). “Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse.” Psychological Bulletin 114:68-79. Mazerolle, P. (1998). “Gender, general strai n, and delinquency: Empirical examination.” Justice Quarterly 15:65-91. Mazerolle, P., Burton, V.S., Cullen, F.T., Evans, D., & Payne, G.L. (2000). “Strain, anger, and delinquent adaptations: Sp ecifying general strain theory.” Journal of Criminal Justice 28:89-101. Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1997). “Violent responses to situations of strain: A structural examination of conditioning effects.” Violence and Victims 12:323-344. Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1998). “Linking exposure to strain and anger: An Investigation of de viant adaptations.” Journal of Criminal Justice 26:195-211. McClellan, J., Adams, J., Douglas, D., Mc Curry, C., & Storck, M. (1995). “Clinical characteristics related to severity of sexua l abuse: A study of se riously mentally ill youth.” Child Abuse and Neglect 19:1245-1254. McCord, J. (1983). “A forty year pers pective on child abuse and neglect.” Child Abuse and Neglect 7: 265-270. Mennen, F.E. (1995). “The relationship of race/ethnicity to symptoms in childhood sexual abuse.” Child Abuse and Neglect 19:115-124. Merton, R. (1938). “Social structure and anomie.” American Sociological Review 3:672682. Meyerson, L.A., Long, P.L., Miranda, R., & Marx, B. (2002). “The influence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, fa mily environment, and gender on the psychological adjustment of adolescents.” Child Abuse & Neglect 26:387-405. Mouzakitis, C.M. (1981). “An inquiry into the problem of child abuse and juvenile delinquency.” In Robert J. Hunter and Yvonne Elder Walker (eds.) Exploring the Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency. Montclair, N.J.: Allanheld. Osmun. National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse a nd Neglect Information (NCCANI). 2005. (Available online: http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/ ). June 2005. Neumann, D.A., Houskamp, B.M., Pollock, V. E., & Briere, J. (1996). “The long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse in women: A meta-analytic review. Child Maltreatment 1:6-16. Normland, S., & Shover, N. (1977). “Gender roles and female criminality.” Criminology 15:87-104.

PAGE 93

85 Paternoster, R., & Mazerolle, P. (1994). “G eneral strain theory and delinquency: A replication and extension.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 31:235263. Patterson, G.R., DeBaryshe, B.D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). “A Developmental Perspective on Antisocial Behavior.” American Psychologist 44:329-335. Peeples, F., & Loeber, R. (1994). “Do i ndividual factors a nd neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency?” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 10:141-157. Perez, D. (2005). “Specifying general strain theory: An ethnically relevant approach,” Unpublished manuscript. Perez, D. (2001). “Ethnic differences in prope rty, violent, and sex offending for abused and non-abused adolescents.” Journal of Criminal Justice 29:407-417. Peters, S.D. (1988). “Child sexual abuse and la ter psychological problems.” In G. Wyatt & G.J. Powell (Eds.), Lasting effects of child sexual abuse (pp.101-118). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Piquero, N. L., & Sealock, M. (2000). “Gen eralizing General Strain Theory: An examination of an offending population.” Justice Quarterly 17:449-488. Piquero, N.L., & Sealock, M. (2004). “Gender and General Strain Theory: A preliminary test of Broidy and Agnew’s gender/GST hypotheses.” Justice Quarterly 21:125158. Polusny, M.A., & Follette, V.M. (1995). “Long term correlates of child sexual abuse: Theory and review of the empirical literature.” Applied & Preventive Psychology 4:143-166. Ratican, K.L. (1992). “Sexual abuse surviv ors: Identifying sy mptoms and special treatment considerations.” Journal of Counseling & Development 71:33-38. Rivera, B., & Widom, C.S. (1990). “Chil dhood victimization and violent offending.” Violence and Victims 5:19-35. Salzinger, S., Feldman, R.S., Hammer, M ., & Rosario, M. (1993) “The effects of physical abuse on children’s social relationships.” Child Development 64:169-187. Shaw, J.A., Lewis, J.E., Loeb, A., Rosado, J ., & Rodriguez, R.A. (2001). “A comparison of Hispanic and African American sexually abused girls and their families.” Child Abuse and Neglect 25:1363-1379. Silver, L.B., Dublin, C.C., & Lourie, R. S. (1969). “Does violence breed violence? Contributions from a study of the child abuse syndrome.” American Journal of Psychiatry 126:152-155.

PAGE 94

86 Smith, C., & Thornberry, T.P. (1995). “The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency.” Criminology 33:451-477. Sorensen, S.B., & Siegel, J.M. (1992). “Ge nder, ethnicity, and se xual assault; findings from a Los Angeles study.” Journal of Social Issues 48:93-104. Steele, B. (1976). “Violence in the family.” In Ray E. Helfer and C. Henry Kempe (eds.) Child abuse and neglect: The family and community. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. Steffensmeier, D., & Steffensmeier, R. (1980). “Trends in female delinquency.” Criminology 18:62-85. Turner, R.J., Wheaton, B., & Lloyd, D.A. (1995) “The epidemiology of social stress.” American Sociological Review 60:104-125. Warrix, M.B., & Bocanegra, M. (1998). “Keys to building successful training programs for Hispanic family day care providers.” Journal of Extension 36,6. (Available online: http://www.joe.org /joe/1998december/a4.html ). March 2006. Watt, T.T., & Sharp, S.F. (2002). “Race differences in strains associated with suicidal behavior among adolescents.” Youth & Society 34:232-256. Weller, S.C., Kimbal-Romney, A., & Orr, D.P. (1987). “The myth of a sub-culture of corporal punishment.” Human Organization 46:39-47. Wick, S.C. (1981). “Child abuse as a causation of juvenile delinquency in central Texas.” In Robert J. Hunter and Yvonne Elder Walker (eds.) Exploring the relationship between child abuse and delinquency. Montclair, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun. Widom, C.S. (1989a). “Child abuse, negl ect, and violent criminal behavior.” Criminology 27:251-271. --------. (1989b). “The cycle of violence.” Science 244:160-166. --------. (1989c). “Does violence beget violence? A cr itical examination of the literature.” Psychological bulletin 106:3-38. --------. (1991). “ Child hood victimization: Risk factor for delinquency.” In Mary Ellen Cotton and Susan Gore (eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Williamson, J.M., Bourduin, C.M., and Howe, B. A. (1991). “The ecology of adolescent maltreatment: a multilevel examination of adolescent physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59:449-457. Wilson, W.J. (1985). “Cycles of deprivation and the underclass debate.” Social Service Review 59:541-559.

PAGE 95

87 Zingraff, M.T., Leiter, J., Myers, K.A., & Johnson, M.C. (1993). “Child maltreatment and youthful problem behavior.” Criminology 31:173-202. Zingraff, M.T., Leiter, J., Johnson, M.C., & Me yers, K.A. (1994). “The mediating effect of good school performance on the ma ltreatment-delinquency relationship. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 31:62-91.

PAGE 96

88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jennifer Matheny grew up in the small town of Madisonville, Kentucky. After graduating high school, she moved to Lexingt on, Kentucky, to attend the University of Kentucky and become a Wildcat. Not trul y knowing what career to pursue but knowing she wanted to help people, Jennifer graduate d with a Bachelor of Arts in both psychology and sociology. After working for a couple ye ars, she decided to return to school and attend the University of Florida and become a Gator. She will earn her Master of Arts degree in criminology, law, and society in May of 2006.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014060/00001

Material Information

Title: Consequences of Childhood Abuse on Violence Perpetration among Hispanic Adolescents: A Partial Test of General Strain Theory
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014060:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0014060/00001

Material Information

Title: Consequences of Childhood Abuse on Violence Perpetration among Hispanic Adolescents: A Partial Test of General Strain Theory
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0014060:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE ON VIOLENCE PERPETRATION
AMONG HISPANIC ADOLESCENTS: A PARTIAL TEST OF GENERAL STRAIN
THEORY













By

JENNIFER LYNN MATHENY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Jennifer Lynn Matheny















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. Angela Gover, Dr. Lonn Lanza-Kaduce, and Dr. Nicky

Piquero for their guidance and support during this endeavor. I would also like to extend

my appreciation to the rest of the faculty and staff of the Criminology, Law, and Society

Department. I would like to thank my close friends that had to endure all of my

complaints, anxiety, and stress; I wouldn't have been able to do it without them. My

support system that includes Lorna Alvarez, Scott Maggard, and Allison Chappell

deserve special recognition. I would like to thank Adriana Soltau, Nola Burnett-

Schleimer, and Jamie Guinn for always listening when I needed it and always

encouraging me to do my best and knowing that it would be enough.

My parents deserve extra special recognition. I would like to acknowledge my

parents, Dannie and Monica Matheny, for their never ending support throughout my life

as well as throughout my graduate school career. They have always respected my

decisions and never doubted that I would choose the right path. They always pushed the

importance of education and for that I am truly grateful. They are not only my parents,

but my best friends.

Last but not least, I truly appreciate the love and support given to me by my fiance,

Derek Manzow. I would not be where I am today if he had not entered my life. He has

been my rock throughout this entire process as well as throughout our entire relationship.

He has helped shape me into the woman I am today and I will always be grateful for the

love he has given me.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ........ ........................... .... ....... ......... ........ ........ vi

ABSTRACT .............. ..................... .......... .............. vii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 LITER A TU R E REV IEW ............................................................. ....................... 5

C h ildh o o d A b u se ...................................................... ................ .. 6
P psychological C consequences ............................................................. .....................7
B ehavioral C consequences ....................................................................................... 9
Gender Differences in Psychological and Behavioral Consequences of Childhood
A bu se ................................................................................. 12
Child A buse and H ispanic Populations ........................................... .....................15

3 GENERAL STRAIN THEORY .......................................................... ............... 18

Em pirical Tests of G ST ...................... .................. ................. ... ........21
G ender and G general Strain Theory .................................... .......................... ......... 26
Em pirical Tests of G ST and Gender...................................... ......................... 28

4 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 32

M measures ................... ...................3...................3..........
Independent V ariables ............................................................. .............. 33
M editing V ariables ............................................ .. .. ........ .... ...........35
Dependent Variable ........................................... .. ... .... ............... 36
A n a ly sis ..............................................................................3 7

5 R E S U L T S .............................................................................3 9

Sam ple D escription........... .......................................................... .... .... .. 39
Bivariate Correlations .................. ............................ ........ ................. 41
L ogistic R egression .......................................... .. .. .... ........ ......... 46










Full Sam ple M odel ...................... ..................................... ........ 46
F em ale M models ..............................................................50
M ale M models ................................................................... ............ 54

6 DISCU SSION AND CON CLU SION S ............................................. ....................59

L im itatio n s .......................................................................................6 3
Policy Implications ................................................... ................. 64

APPENDIX

A DELINQUEN CY M EA SURE........................................................... ............... 75

B N E G A TIV E E M O TIO N S ........................................ ...........................................76

C INDEPENDENT VARIABLE SCALES ............................ ................................. 77

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .......................................................................... ....................78

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................88



































v
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

1 D escriptive Statistics of Full Sam ple ............................................ ............... 67

2 Descriptive Statistics of Sample, by Gender........ .... ...... ................68

3 Correlation M atrix (Full Sam ple)....................................... .......................... 69

4 Correlation M atrix (Fem ale Sam ple) ............................................ ............... 70

5 Correlation M atrix (M ale Sample)............................................. .. .............. .71

6 Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (Full sample) ......................................72

7 Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (Females)..............................73

8 Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (M ales) ............................................. 74















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE ON VIOLENCE PERPETRATION
AMONG HISPANIC ADOLESCENTS: A PARTIAL TEST OF GENERAL STRAIN
THEORY


By

Jennifer Lynn Matheny

May 2006

Chair: Angela Gover
Major Department: Criminology, Law, and Society

The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether physical and sexual abuse

experienced during childhood is significantly related to violent offending among

Hispanic adolescents. This study also examines if male and female adolescents respond

differently to early childhood abuse and whether anger and depression mediate the

relationship between abuse and violence perpetration according to Agnew's general strain

theory (GST). The data analyzed in this research come from earlier studies on Mexican-

American and White American drug use among at-risk students and school dropouts.

Since the current research examines the impact of childhood abuse on Hispanic

adolescents, only a sub-sample of the cross-sectional data is included. Findings indicate

that childhood physical abuse has a significant influence on violence perpetration among

male and female Hispanics. In addition, sexual abuse was found to have a significant

impact on violence perpetration in the full sample as well as the female sample, but not









for the male sample. The results also indicate that anger is significantly associated with

violent crime for male and female adolescents. The findings indicate that the relationship

between sexual abuse and violent crime is mediated by anger for both the full sample as

well as the female sample. The results also indicate a partial mediating effect by anger

and depression between physical abuse and violent crime across all three samples.

Therefore, the results are somewhat mixed in terms of support for Agnew's GST.

Regardless of mixed support, this thesis significantly contributes to general strain theory

research by examining whether GST is generalizable across gender and by examining

early childhood abuse among an understudied population. Future research should focus

on an examination of all aspects of GST, including coping mechanisms that are used to

prevent or encourage violent offending, since the current research was not able to explore

all tenets of GST. Policy implications from this study point to the need for the

incorporation of culturally defined values into violence prevention and educational

programming for youth.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Childhood is supposed to be a cheerful, innocent, and care-free time of life.

However, some children do not have such a fairytale childhood. Many children

experience early years that are characterized by fear, apprehension, and unease. Family

violence, and particularly child abuse, can disrupt a child's life leaving him or her in a

constant state of anxiety and fear. This perpetual state of chaos can have long lasting

effects on the rest of the child's life.

A vast amount of research has examined childhood abuse. Research is so broad,

that it is unlikely to name all areas of study on abuse. However, abuse research includes,

but is not limited to topics ranging from short term to long term effects of abuse, the

association between abuse and emotional problems, different effects of abuse on males

and females, influences of abuse on future relationships, and the relationship of abuse and

subsequent offending, including property, status, non-violent, violent, and substance

abuse offending.

Although childhood abuse is an important and often studied problem, little research

has been done that examines child abuse among a Hispanic population. Of the research

that has been done, studies report mixed findings. In a study by Kercher and McShane

(1984), Hispanic females reported more sexual victimization compared to White females.

However, Sorensen and Siegel (1992) reported that sexual assault was more prevalent

among Whites than Hispanics. While those two studies reported differences between the

two populations, Lindholm and Willey (1986) examined the Los Angeles County









Sheriff s Department child abuse reports and did not find any differences between

Hispanics and Whites. Weller, Kimbal-Romney, and Orr (1987) also reported no

differences between parental physical punishments of Hispanics versus Whites. Because

of the inconsistencies of the research thus far and the limited amount of research on the

consequences of childhood abuse in a Hispanic population, this study will specifically

focus on Hispanic adolescents to determine how childhood abuse affects subsequent

violent offending.

Previous research has found that physically and sexually abused adolescents were

more likely to demonstrate a wide variety of negative psychological and behavioral

problems compared to non-abused adolescents. Psychological problems included anger,

anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and aggression while behavioral problems included

juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, self-injurious behaviors, and adult criminality.

Previous research has also examined gender differences in relation to childhood abuse.

Generally, most research indicates that males were more likely to externalize their

emotions and take their emotions out on others by becoming more aggressive whereas

females were more likely to internalize their feelings and take their emotions out on

themselves by using drugs or developing other personal problems, such as eating

disorders.

Agnew's general strain theory (1992) suggests that an individual can experience

three types of strain: failure to achieve positively valued goals, removal of positively

valued stimuli, and presentation of noxious stimuli. Individuals who are unable to

effectively manage strain are more likely to experience negative affective states.

Negative affect refers to negative emotions or feelings that often include anger,









depression, guilt, anxiety, and many more emotions. Individuals who are unable to

effectively cope with these negative emotions using three legitimate coping strategies:

cognitive, behavioral, or emotional, are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior.

GST is considered a "general" theory and can be used to examine whether males and

females respond in a similar manner to various types of strain. The purpose of this thesis

is to partially test Agnew's GST in regards to noxious stimuli (abuse) and delinquent

outcomes, particularly violent offenses, among a Hispanic population. Agnew proposes

that general strain theory can be used to explain criminality among all social classes and

races. Therefore, GST should also be generalizable across gender and ethnicity. Agnew's

general strain theory (GST) (Agnew, 1992) asserts that an individual who is unable to

effectively cope with negative emotions is more likely to become involved in delinquent

or criminal behavior. GST is considered a "general" theory and can be used to examine

whether males and females respond in a similar manner to various types of strain. The

purpose of this thesis is to partially test Agnew's GST in regards to noxious stimuli

(abuse) and delinquent outcomes, particularly violent offenses, among a Hispanic

population. This thesis will also be examining gender differences in response to the

strain.

The purpose of this study is to determine whether physical and sexual abuse is

significantly related to violence perpetration among Hispanic adolescents. This study

also examines gender differences in response to strain (childhood abuse) and if negative

emotions, such as anger and depression, mediate the relationship between strain and

delinquency. Based on prior research, it is expected that childhood abuse will increase

the risk of violence perpetration, especially among males. It is also expected that males









will be more likely to be affected by anger by behaving aggressively with more violent

crime compared to females. In addition, it is expected that negative emotions, anger or

depression, will intervene in the influence that childhood abuse has on violence

perpetration. Specifically, anger will most likely promote violence perpetration for male

adolescents and depression will inhibit violent behavior for female adolescents.

The data used in this study come from earlier studies on Mexican-American and

White American drug use among at-risk students and school dropouts. Between 1988

and 1992, new cohorts of adolescents were given an identical questionnaire that included

questions regarding various social, psychological, and environmental factors that may

have influenced their academic status. These data were collected from a fairly small

community, a medium-sized city, and a large city in the Southwest. The data used in this

analysis were collected during the first four years of the study and therefore constitute a

sub-sample of the original data.

This thesis will begin with a review of the literature on the psychological and

behavioral consequences of childhood abuse and the effects of abuse across gender and

ethnicity. Chapter 3 will explore GST and its applicability to males and females. It is

important to note that this study does not fully explore all tenets of Agnew's GST

because possible coping mechanisms that may influence adolescent responses to strain

are not examined. Therefore, the current research constitutes a partial test of Agnew's

general strain theory. Chapter 4 will describe the methodology for this research and

chapter 5 presents the results from the analysis. Chapter 6 discusses conclusions and

limitations of this study.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

An abundant amount of research has examined the negative consequences

experienced by those who were victims of physical and sexual abuse during childhood.

Previous research has suggested that childhood physical and sexual abuse is related to a

wide variety of negative psychological and behavioral outcomes that include anxiety,

depression, anger, aggression, low self esteem, substance abuse, self destructive behavior,

and self injurious behavior (Berliner & Elliott, 2002; Briere & Elliott, 2003; Briere &

Runtz, 1993; Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Davis & Petretic-Jackson, 2000; Dembo,

Williams, Schmeidler, Berry, Wothke, & Getreu, 1992; Dembo, Wothke, Shemwell,

Pacheco, Seeberger, & Rollie, 2000; Finkelhor, 1990; Kendall-Tackett, Williams, &

Finkelhor, 1993; McClellan, Adams, Douglas, McCurry, & Storck, 1995; Kolko, 2002;

Neumann, Houskamp, Pollock, & Briere, 1996; Polusny & Follette, 1995). According to

earlier research, depression was the most common psychological problem experienced by

victims of childhood sexual abuse (Briere, 1989; Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Finkelhor,

1990; Gover, 2004; Koverola, Pound, Heger, & Lytle, 1993; Peters, 1988; Ratican,

1992). Depression was also common among victims of other types of abuse such as

physical abuse and neglect (Allen & Tamowski, 1989; Kaufman, 1991; Kazdin, Moser,

Colbus, & Bell, 1985).

Previous research has reported mixed results in regards to differences across

gender and the psychological effects of child maltreatment. Feiring, Taska, and Lewis

(1999) found that females were more likely to develop depressive symptoms than males.









However, other researchers have found no variation in psychological symptoms across

gender (Briere, Evans, Runtz, & Wall, 1988; Feiring et al., 1999; Finkelhor, 1990; Gover,

2004).

Childhood Abuse

Child abuse and neglect has been one of the most prevalent problems facing society

in recent decades. In 2002, over one million children were reported to be victims of

abuse and neglect at a rate of 19.5 per 1,000 children (Child Welfare League of America,

2005). Child Protective Services concluded that nearly 900,000 were considered victims

of child abuse or neglect based on data reported from the National Child Abuse and

Neglect Data System (NCANDS) (Child Maltreatment, 2004). The NCANDS collected

and analyzed data submitted voluntarily by the States and the District of Columbia. The

data included case level information on all children that received an investigation by a

child protective service agency (2004). NCANDS reported 20 percent of victims of child

maltreatment were victims of physical abuse and 10 percent were victims of sexual abuse

(2004). Over 60 percent were victims of neglect and less than 10 percent were victims of

emotional abuse (2004).

Physical abuse refers to any type of non-accidental physical injury inflicted on a

child such as burning, hitting, punching, shaking, kicking, beating, or any other form of

harming a child (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005;

Allen & Tarnowski, 1989; Gover, 2004; Kaufman, 1991; Kazdin et al., 1985; Kelly,

1983; Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993). This form of violence may or may not be

the result of over zealous punishment or extreme discipline that is inappropriate for the

age of the child (National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005).









Sexual abuse refers to inappropriate sexual behavior inflicted on a child, such as

fondling a child's genitals, forcing the child to fondle an adult's genitals, intercourse,

rape, sodomy, sexual exploitation, or exposure to pornography (National Clearinghouse

on Child Abuse & Neglect Information, 2005; Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Finkelhor,

1990). Numerous studies report that childhood sexual abuse is related to a variety of

harmful and destructive behaviors including sexualized behavior, aggression, and

withdrawal (Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Davis & Petretic-Jackson, 2000; Dembo et al.,

1992; Dembo et al., 2000; Gover, 2004; Kendall-Tackett et al., 1993; McClellan et al.,

1995).

Childhood abuse can come in many forms: neglect, emotional, physical, and

sexual. Regardless of the type of abuse a child suffers, it can create long lasting effects.

The following sections will discuss the negative psychological and behavioral

consequences experienced by victims of abuse during childhood.

Psychological Consequences

Previous research studies have examined the psychological consequences of both

physical and sexual abuse and have found that abuse greatly effects psychological

functioning (Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Hussey & Singer, 1993; Williamson, Bourduin

& Howe, 1991). There has been an extensive amount of research examining the effects

of childhood sexual abuse on psychological development and adjustment. Briere and

Runtz (1993) found that adolescents with a history of sexual abuse demonstrated an

assortment of emotional and behavioral problems. Previous research has consistently

found that adolescents who had a history of childhood sexual abuse experienced greater

levels of depression, general psychological distress, aggression, lower self esteem, more

conduct problems, and more substance abuse problems (Brown, Cohen, Johnson, &









Smailes, 1999; Fergusson, Horwood & Lynskey, 1996; Garnefski & Arends, 1998;

Garnefski & Diekstra, 1997; Harrison, Hoffman, & Edwall, 1989; Kendall-Tackett et al.,

1993; Luster & Small, 1997; Meyerson, Long, Miranda, & Marx, 2002). However,

Browne and Finkelhor (1986) found that victims that report their abuse to the police

experience less psychological problems than victims who do not, likely due to support

and legitimate coping resources provided by the authorities.

Meyerson and colleagues (2002) used a sample from the US Department of Labor

Job Corps to examine the relationship between sexual abuse, physical abuse, family

conflict and psychological difficulties across gender. The authors reported that a history

of physical and sexual abuse in addition to family conflict and cohesion predicted

psychological problems that included depression and distress. Further analyses by gender

revealed that different types of abuse predicted different types of psychological

adjustment for males and females. The variation across gender will be discussed further

in the gender differences section of this paper.

Flisher and colleagues (1997) found that adolescents with a history of physical

abuse had more adjustment difficulties, such as lower social capabilities, decreased

language aptitude, and poorer school performance than non-abused adolescents.

Physically abused adolescents were also more likely to have numerous psychiatric

conditions including major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and conduct

disorder, compared to non abused adolescents (Briere & Runtz, 1988; Flisher et al., 1997;

Kaplan & Pelcovitz, 1982; Kolko, Moser & Weldy, 1988; Malinosky-Rummell &

Hansen, 1993; Meyerson et al., 2002).









In sum, research has repeatedly shown that victims of childhood physical and

sexual abuse report greater levels of psychological adjustment problems compared to

non-abused adolescents. Not only has research shown that childhood abuse increases

psychological problems, but it also increases the likelihood of social incompetence

(Eckenrode, Laird, & Doris, 1993; Herrera & McCloskey, 2001; Salzinger, Feldman,

Hammer & Rosario, 1993). Research has also consistently found that victims of

childhood abuse report greater levels of behavioral problems compared to non-abused

children which will be discussed further in the following section.

Behavioral Consequences

There has been a vast amount of research on the effects of physical and sexual

abuse on subsequent behavioral problems (Brown et al., 1999; Fergusson et al., 1996;

Garnefski & Arends, 1988; Gamefski & Diekstra, 1997; Harrison et al., 1989; Kendall-

Tackett et al., 1993; Luster & Small, 1997; Meyerson et al., 2002). However, previous

literature that has examined the effects of abuse on delinquency has been somewhat

mixed. Early research examined the association between childhood abuse and

delinquency using clinical, cross-sectional, or retrospective studies (Kratcoski &

Kratcoski, 1982; Lewis, Shanok, Pincus, & Glaser, 1979; Mouzakitis, 1981; Silver,

Dublin, & Lourie, 1969; Smith, & Thornberry, 1995; Steele, 1976; Wick, 1981). This

research was unreliable and not generalizable due to numerous methodological problems

that include unrepresentative samples and retrospective designs. More recent studies

examined the relationship between childhood abuse and subsequent delinquency by using

prospective designs which include control groups and research designs that followed

victims over time to determine the risk of later delinquency (Garbarino & Plantz, 1986;









Howing, Wodarski, Kurtz, Gaudin, and Herbst, 1990; Smith & Thornberry, 1995;

Widom, 1989a).

One of the first studies to use a prospective design was by a group of researchers,

Bolton, Reich, and Gutierres (1977). Using a sample of 5,392 children with reported

abuse in Arizona and a comparison group of non-abused siblings, the authors found that

sixteen percent of the abused group had juvenile court records compared to eight percent

of the non-abused siblings.

Alfaro (1981) examined a sample of 4,465 children who were officially identified

as abuse victims by New York protective services agencies during 1952 and 1953. By

researching juvenile court records through 1967, he discovered that about ten percent of

the abused children had a criminal history compared to only about two percent of the

general juvenile population of the state.

McCord (1983) used early case records of a sample of 233 males and placed them

in four categories ranging from "neglected," "abused," "rejected," and "loved." After

following the subjects for forty years, she reported that the "rejected" subjects had

significantly higher rates of delinquency compared to the "loved" subjects. The

"neglected" and "abused" subjects' delinquency rates fell in between the "rejected" and

"loved." She also found that nearly half (45%) of the abused and neglected males had a

history of serious crimes, had alcohol or mental health issues, or died very young (1983).

Widom (1989a, 1989b, 1989c, 1991) studied the delinquency rates of a sample of

908 abused subjects compared to a matched control group of non-abused subjects.

Abused subjects were drawn from juvenile court cases in a metropolitan Midwest area

during 1967 through 1971. She found that rates of official delinquency were greater and









began earlier in the abused group compared to the control group. She also discovered

that the abused group had higher rates of general delinquency especially in status and

property offenses as well as higher rates in violent offenses among abused males.

Zingraff, Leiter, Johnson, and Myers (1994) used a random sample of cases

reported to the Registry of Child Abuse and Neglect in a county of North Carolina during

1983-1989 and matched two control groups to investigate whether abuse was a risk factor

for general delinquency. Zingraff et al., (1994) reported that subjects from the abused

group had higher rates of general delinquency and status offense referrals to juvenile

court compared to the control group. However, this was not the case for violent and

property offenses.

Smith and Thornberry (1995) used a sample from the Rochester Youth

Development Study (RYDS) along with data from Rochester public schools, police

department, and Department of Social Services to determine if abuse was a significant

risk factor for delinquent behavior. Consistent with Widom (1989a) and Zingraff, Leiter,

Myers & Johnson (1993), Smith and Thornberry (1995) concluded that a history of

childhood abuse significantly increased involvement in both self-reported and official

reports of delinquency.

Ireland, Smith, and Thornberry (2002) also used a sample from the Rochester

Youth Development Study to determine the relationship between when the abuse

occurred, whether in childhood only, adolescence only, persistent, or never, and the risk

for juvenile delinquency. Ireland and colleagues (2002) reported that abuse experienced

only during childhood increased the risk for violent crime only in early adolescence but









not in late adolescence. The authors went on to report that abuse during adolescence and

persistent abuse predicted both subsequent delinquency and drug use.

In sum, research has consistently reported that childhood abuse has serious long-

term consequences that include both juvenile delinquency and adult criminality.

Research has consistently shown that abuse increases the risk of both general delinquency

as well as violent delinquency. (Farrington, 1991, Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993,

Rivera & Widom, 1990, Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a; Zingraff et al.,

1993). Malinsoky-Rummell and Hansen (1993) as well as Widom (1989a), reported that

abused males were more likely to demonstrate more violent behavior which will be

discussed further in the following section. This section will further discuss variations

across gender in psychological and behavioral consequences of childhood abuse.

Gender Differences in Psychological and Behavioral Consequences of Childhood
Abuse

Previous research has examined different responses to physical and sexual abuse

based on the victim's gender. Research has found that females were more likely to

experience depressive symptoms and internalize their feelings (Feiring et al., 1999)

whereas males were more likely to externalize their emotions and be more aggressive

against others (Chandy, Blum, & Resnick, 1996).

According to research by Chandy and colleagues (1996), male victims of childhood

sexual abuse were more likely to experience more delinquent behavior, marijuana use,

difficulties in school, and more involvement in unsafe, high risk sexual behavior.

Females, on the other hand, were more likely to have eating disorders, suicidal ideation,

and more problematic alcohol related behavior. Conversely, Gamefski and Arends

(1988) reported that emotional and behavioral problems were equivalent across gender.









They did go on, however, to specify that males were more likely to exhibit more

aggressive and delinquent behavior than females.

Meyerson et al., (2002) explored the impact of the family environment on non-

abused and physically and sexually abused adolescents to determine if family

characteristics played a role in psychological adjustment of abused adolescents. The

results indicated that physical abuse and family environment were predictive of both

depression and distress in males, whereas sexual abuse and family environment were

predictive of psychological distress in females. They also reported that family conflict

was a good predictor of distress for both males and females.

Horwitz, Widom, McLaughlin, and White (2001) compared male and female

victims of physical and sexual abuse to matched control groups to determine the impact

of childhood victimization on mental health in adults. Using documented court cases of

childhood abuse and neglect from 1970, the authors interviewed subjects 20 years later

and found that males with a history of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to

experience depression, antisocial personality disorder, but fewer alcohol related problems

than the control group. Females with a history of childhood abuse and neglect were more

likely to report more depressive symptoms, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol

related problems compared to the matched control group. However, after the researchers

controlled for stressful life events, childhood victimization was found to have an

insignificant impact on lifetime mental health problems.

Herrera and McCloskey (2001) examined gender differences and the impact of

exposure to both marital violence and physical child abuse on delinquency. Using a

sample of 299 adolescents recruited from shelters and the general community, they found









no variance in the number of referrals to juvenile court between males and females.

Consistent with previous research, Herrera and McCloskey (2001) reported that males

committed more violent crimes, felonies, and property offenses than females (Normland

& Shover, 1977; Steffensmeier & Steffensmeier, 1980; Widom, 1989a). However, girls

were just as likely as boys to be referred to court for status offenses, petty theft, and

running away.

As for the effects of marital violence and physical violence on subsequent

delinquency, the authors reported that witnessing marital violence predicted overall

offending. Herrera and McCloskey (2001) also reported some variation in how abuse in

the home affected males and females. They found that abused girls were seven times

more likely to commit a violent offense compared to non-abused girls. However, girls

were more likely to commit violence against a sibling or parent, compared to boys who

were more likely to fight with strangers or friends (Chesney-Lind, 1998).

Research on the relationship between gender and delinquency as a consequence of

childhood abuse has been fairly consistent. Most research has shown that males tend to

externalize their anger and emotions and act out against others in more aggressive ways

by becoming violent, whereas females were more likely to internalize their emotions and

report more depressive symptoms (Chandy et al., 1996; Feiring et al., 1999; Meyerson et

al., 2002). Research has also suggested that other factors, like family environment, play a

role in gender variation of delinquency rates. Herrera and McCloskey (2001) reported

that girls were just as likely as boys to be arrested and referred to court particularly in

cases where the child witnessed marital violence. The following section will discuss the

research examining childhood abuse among a Hispanic population.









Child Abuse and Hispanic Populations

Although childhood abuse is an often studied phenomenon, there is limited

research on childhood abuse among a Hispanic population. The research that has

examined childhood abuse among Hispanics has been inconsistent. Kercher and

McShane (1984) studied an adult population in Texas examining characteristics of

sexually abused children. Although less than 10% of the sample reported sexual

victimization, Hispanic females reported the highest level of victimization, followed by

black and white females, respectively. However, Kercher and McShane (1984) found

that Hispanic males reported the lowest victimization.

Shaw, Lewis, Loeb, Rosado, and Rodriguez (2001) examined the effects of sexual

abuse across Hispanic and African- American girls. Shaw et al., (2001) reported that

Hispanic girls reported more sexual abuse incidents than African-American girls and also

waited longer to report the incident. It was also reported that sexually abused Hispanic

girls also experienced more emotional and behavioral problems including anxiety,

depression, and aggressive behaviors compared to African-American abused girls.

Mennen (1995) studied psychological responses of sexual abused girls across

ethnic groups. No differences across ethnicity were found in predicting psychological

responses to sexual abuse. However, Hispanic females reported higher levels of anxiety,

depression, and lower self-esteem, if vaginal penetration occurred.

On the other hand, Sorensen and Siegel (1992) examined the risk of experiencing

sexual assault based on gender and ethnicity. The researchers found that in a sample of

3,000 community residents, Hispanics and men were less likely to report sexual assault

compared to non-Hispanics and women. However, repeat victimization was not

influenced by gender or ethnicity. It was reported that women who were assaulted were









more likely to experience emotional and behavioral problems compared to men

regardless of ethnicity.

Other researchers have found no difference in childhood abuse across ethnicity.

Lindholm and Willey (1986) analyzed over 4,000 cases of child abuse as reported to the

Los Angeles County Sheriff s Department looking for variation across ethnic groups as

well as differences in family structure and family attitudes. However, no differences

were reported between whites and Hispanics.

Perez (2001) examined ethnic differences in property, violent, and sex offending in

abused and non-abused adolescents. Using a sample of 2,466 Mexican-American and

non-Hispanic white adolescents between the ages of thirteen and nineteen, she found that

physical abuse and sexual victimization increased delinquency across all three measures.

However, the effects of abuse were similar for both Mexican-American and non-Hispanic

whites.

Childhood abuse across ethnicity is understudied. Previous research has been

inconsistent in regards to the effects of abuse on a Hispanic population. Some research

has reported that Hispanics differ from other populations suggesting they report higher

levels of abuse as well as stronger emotional and behavioral responses to the abuse

compared to other ethnicities (Kercher & McShane, 1984; Shaw et al., 2001). However,

other research reports no difference in the level of abuse or response to abuse across

ethnicity (Menen, 1995; Lindholm & Willey, 1986; Perez, 2001). Future research needs

to continue examining childhood abuse and its effects across various populations.







17


The following chapter will discuss Agnew's general strain theory as well as discuss

its ability to be used as a "general" theory and explain delinquency across gender and

race.














CHAPTER 3
GENERAL STRAIN THEORY

Classical strain theory focused on social structural variables to establish the link

between strain and delinquency. According to Merton (1938), Cohen (1955), and

Cloward and Ohlin (1960), classical strain theory suggested that delinquency was a result

of being unable to achieve monetary success or other culturally valued goals through

legitimate channels. This disappointment created strain and frustration, which increased

the likelihood of a deviant response. According to classical strain theory, several factors

including the level of social control and the association with criminal others, influence

whether the individual responded to the strain with crime. Agnew expanded traditional

strain theory by identifying social-psychological aspects of strain that traditional theories

did not consider.

Agnew (1992) extended classical strain theory by suggesting there were other types

of strain that may lead to crime. He identifies three major sources of strain. The first

major source of strain is the failure to achieve positively valued goals, which are broken

down into three additional categories: the disjunction between aspirations and

expectations, the disjunction between expectations and actual achievements, and the

disjunction between just/fair outcomes and actual outcomes. The disjunction between

aspirations and expectations is often experienced by lower-class individuals who are

unable to achieve culturally valued success or middle class status through legitimate

means. The disjunction between expectations and actual achievements occurs when an

individual is unable to achieve personal goals or relative achievements of others. The









disjunction between just/fair outcomes and actual outcomes occurs when one does not

feel he or she has been fully compensated for his or her achievements.

The second major type of strain is the removal of positively valued stimuli and the

third type is the presentation of negative or noxious stimuli (Agnew, 1992). The removal

of positively valued stimuli may include a loss of significant relationships or objects.

This source of strain may lead to delinquency or crime when one tries to retain this

valued stimuli. The third type of strain, presentation of noxious stimuli can be

understood as a negative experience or aversive situation, including verbal insults or

attacks, physical abuse, or negative relations. This source of strain may lead to

delinquency as the individual tries to escape or avoid the negative stimuli, mitigate the

negative stimuli, seek revenge against those presenting the negative stimuli, or manage

the negative emotional states (Agnew, 1992).

GST projects that all three types of strain are likely to increase the possibility that

an individual will suffer from negative emotions in comparison to the magnitude,

duration, and recency of stress. The most critical negative emotion, according to Agnew,

is anger, specifically when one feels he has been treated unfairly and increases the desire

for retaliation against the source of the strain. According to Agnew (2001), strains that

are most likely to result in crime are those that are perceived as unjust and high in

magnitude, associated with low social control, and create a desire for vengeance.

Agnew (1992) asserts that strain induced negative emotions, such as anger or

resentment, can be directly associated with crime or delinquency if effective coping

strategies are not employed. Various tests of GST have produced conflicting results

concerning whether strain has a direct relationship with crime or whether negative









emotions mediate between strain and criminal behavior. Piquero and Sealock (2000) as

well as Broidy (2001) found that strain induced anger was the primary negative emotion

that had a significant effect on deviance. However, other studies found that the mediating

effect of anger is restricted only to situations of violence (Aseltine, Gore, & Gordon,

2000; Capowich, Mazerolle, & Piquero, 2001; Mazerolle, 1998; Mazerolle & Piquero,

1998; Piquero & Sealock, 2000). Further, Mazerolle, Burton, Cullen, Evans, and Payne

(2000) found that strain rather than anger had a direct effect on crime with anger having a

more indirect effect. GST asserts that an individual will feel strain unless he or she is

able to successfully cope with strain by utilizing effective coping strategies. If legitimate

coping strategies are not utilized, other means to rectify the situation including illegal or

delinquent activity may occur.

Agnew (1992) suggests that the inability to cope effectively with negative emotions

may lead to crime. He identifies three major coping strategies that an individual can use

to adjust rather than respond to strain: cognitive, behavioral, and emotional strategies.

Three general cognitive strategies used to adapt to strain are to minimize the difficult

situation, reduce standards for evaluating outcomes, and admit that one is personally

responsible for the situation. An individual may also choose to cope with adversity using

behavioral strategies, such as attempting to remedy the situation or react with retaliation.

Emotional strategies may also be utilized for dealing with adversity varying from using

drugs1 to exercise to meditation.

Agnew postulates that his general strain theory can be used to explain criminal

behavior among all social classes. Since the formulation of this theory, it has been tested

1 It is important to note that some scholars believe that drug use is not a coping mechanism and is instead a
behavioral outcome.









and analyzed with a wide range of samples to determine the generalizability of the

theory. The following section will discuss the various tests of GST over the years among

criminal populations, non-offending populations, adolescents, adults, as well across race

and gender.

Empirical Tests of GST

Since the development of GST, there have been numerous studies analyzing its

theoretical aspects as well as its application to individuals of different groups. Agnew

and White (1992) conducted one of the first tests of GST. Using a cross-sectional sample

of juvenile delinquents, they found that negative life events, such as poor relationships

with adults, peer hassles, and neighborhood problems were significantly associated with

delinquency and drug use after holding measures of social control and differential

association constant. Agnew and White (1992) also found that strain would have more of

an impact on individuals with delinquent peers than on those with higher levels of social

support and self-efficacy.

Paternoster and Mazerolle (1994) conducted a similar test of GST using the

National Youth Survey. Strain was also found to be positively associated with

delinquency after holding measures of social control and differential association constant.

Their preliminary causal model indicated that strain weakened social bonds and increased

associations with deviant others, therefore, indirectly affecting delinquency.

Using a sample of high school youth from the Northeast, Aseltine and colleagues

(2000) tested the mediating effect of personal and social resources on strain and

delinquent behavior. They found adolescent violent behaviors were significantly and

positively associated with negative life events and conflict with family members.

However, little support was found for strain's impact on marijuana use suggesting that









GST may only be applicable to violent behaviors. Aseltine et al., (2000) also found little

support for the interaction effect of deviant peers, self-efficacy, and parental support on

the association between strain and deviant behavior. However, Mazerolle et al., (2000)

found risk factors, such as deviant associates and weak social controls, interacted with

strain to promote nonviolent behavior and a direct effect of strain on violent behavior.

Brezina (1996) used the Youth in Transition (YIT) survey to examine GST's

argument that delinquency was an adaptive response used to cope with negative

emotional consequences of strain. Brezina's (1996) findings suggested that strain was

positively correlated with negative emotions such as anger, resentment, anxiety, and

depression. Further, delinquent behavior was also found to minimize the impact of strain.

Consistent with GST, Brezina's (1996) findings suggested that deviant behavior relieves

some of the negative emotions associated with strain.

Agnew, Brezina, Wright, and Cullen (2002) studied individual reactions to strain

by examining personality traits among children ages seven to eleven. A significant

association was found between family, school, peer, and neighborhood strains and

delinquency. They also concluded that individuals with negative emotionality and low

constraint would be more likely to respond to strain with delinquency.

Other research has examined GST among high school and college students.

Mazerolle and Piquero (1997, 1998) examined the role of anger as an intervening

variable between strain and delinquency using a sample of high school students from a

metropolitan mid-west city. The authors found limited support that anger intervenes

between strain and deviant behavior. The authors also controlled for the effects of moral









beliefs and deviant peers and found some support for GST and the assertion that anger

mediates between strain and deviant behavior.

In 2001, Broidy similarly examined the relationship among strain, anger, coping,

and crime. Using a sample of college students at a northwestern university, Broidy tested

three hypotheses: 1) the three types of strain are associated with negative affect (anger

and other negative emotions); 2) anger and other negative emotional responses to strain

are correlated with legitimate coping; and 3) strain induced anger will increase the

likelihood of illegitimate outcomes when controlling for legitimate coping. Mixed

support was found for GST and the assertion that anger is positively linked to strain and

deviance when controlling for various demographic, personality, and social influences.

Broidy found that all three types of strain were significantly related to strain

induced anger, but that anger had a negative effect on strain when the type of strain was

the failure to achieve one's goals. Therefore, it appeared that the type of strain and type

of emotional response determined the nature of the relationship between strain and

negative emotions. Testing hypothesis two, Broidy (2001) found that only non-angry

negative emotions were positively correlated with legitimate coping. Further, strain

induced anger was not significantly associated with legitimate coping. When controlling

for legitimate coping, Broidy found that strain induced anger was positively related to

delinquent outcomes which is consistent with GST.

Piquero and Sealock (2000) extended GST research to include the criminal actions

of juvenile offenders. They examined the relationship between strain, negative emotions,

coping, and both interpersonal and property offending. The results of their study









revealed expected support for GST, specifically, that negative affect, especially anger,

intervened between strain and delinquent behavior in interpersonal offenses only.

GST has also been examined across race. Jang and Johnson (2003) used the 1980

National Survey of Black Americans to examine the possibility of additional

psychological distress due to experiences of racism and economic disadvantage. They

also examined inner- and outer- directed emotions in relation to coping with strain and

negative emotions in deviant or non-deviant ways. Inner-directed emotions were

measured by asking participants about their emotional responses during the time they

experienced personal problems, including feeling "lonely" and "depressed" (2003). The

authors found a positive association between strain and negative emotions, which also led

to a positive association between strain and deviant behavior. Furthermore, they found

that outer-directed emotions, such as anger, had a more significant effect on outer-

directed deviance and inner-directed emotions had a significant effect on inner-directed

deviance. The authors also concluded that white individuals may be affected more by

inner-directed emotions compared to black individuals.

Watt and Sharp (2002) examined race differences in suicidal behavior among

socially strained adolescents. The authors used data collected from the Add Health

Project, a study of health related behaviors among adolescents funded by the National

Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Several measures of Agnew's general

strain theory were examined, including status strain and relational strain. The results

indicated that black males were less likely to respond to status strains with suicide

attempts than white males. Black males, however, were found to be more likely to be

affected and attempt suicide in response to relational strains than white males. White









females, like their white counterparts, were more likely to attempt suicide in response to

status strains than black females. Relational strains were found to be a risk factor for

both white and black females although there was slight differentiation between the

relational strains.

Eitle and Turner (2003) furthered Agnew's research by examining the relationship

between race and the stress-crime association based upon the principles of GST. The

results revealed support for GST by demonstrating a relationship between race, stress

exposure, and criminal behavior. Eitle and Turner reported that blacks reported

significantly more exposure to stressful events than other racial groups therefore

explaining the higher rates of delinquency among that population.

Kaufmann (2005) also used Add Health data to examine the relationship between

race/ethnicity and violent crime while examining the mediating factor of neighborhood

and community context. Kaufman used various theories, including general strain, social

learning, and self-control to analyze this relationship. The results indicated that

neighborhood context was a strong mediating factor when combined with individual

social psychological processes. This interaction helped explain the relationship between

race/ethnicity and violence. According to Agnew (1992, 2002), witnessing or

experiencing violence was the most severe strain and would most likely lead to

delinquency. Attara, Guerra, and Tolan (1994) found that individuals living in

disadvantaged communities were more likely to be a victim of violence or witness a

violent incident than individuals not living in such communities. Further, black and

Hispanic adolescents are more likely to live in disadvantage neighborhoods than white









adolescents leading to an increased risk in exposure to violence and therefore leading to

an increase in delinquency rates.

Perez (2005) analyzed Agnew's general strain theory by including principles of

acculturation theory to determine if GST was generalizable across other ethnicities,

particularly Hispanics. It was believed that being Hispanic would subject individuals to

special types of strain, including prejudice and discrimination, which would in turn

increase the likelihood of delinquency. It was reported that GST does generalize to

Hispanics and that certain ethnic-specific strains could increase the risk of violence.

Further, this evidence supports Agnew's theory that it can be generalizable across all

races and ethnicities.

Gender and General Strain Theory

Early criminological theories focused primarily on explaining male delinquency

using traditional strain, differential association, social control, and sub cultural factors.

However, other theories, such as Chesney-Lind's theory of female delinquency, were

specifically applied to female delinquency (Chesney-Lind, 1998). However, Agnew's

general theory applies to both male and female delinquency. Broidy and Agnew (1997)

outlined differences in behavioral outcomes between males and females that experience

similar strainful situations. They argued that the differences in the behavioral outcomes

were based on how each gender typically processed events and their relationships with

others.

Broidy and Agnew (1997) offer three primary explanations of substantially higher

crime rates for males compared to females. They argue that males experience different

strains compared to females, males respond differently in ways that are more conducive

to crime than females, and males are likely to react to anger and strain with crime.









Concerning the first explanation, some studies report that females experience greater

levels of strain compared to males (Turner, Wheaton, & Lloyd, 1995). Second, Broidy

and Agnew explain that male reactions to strain may be more conducive to crime because

males are more likely to get angry whereas females are more likely to get depressed.

Numerous studies reveal that females are more likely to internalize their feelings in

response to strain with depression whereas males are more likely to blame external

factors and act out aggressively on anger (Broidy, 2001; Cyranowski, Frank, Young, &

Shear, 2000; Leadbetter, Blatt, & Quinlan, 1995). Third, Broidy and Agnew suggest that

males may be more likely to respond to strain with anger and delinquent responses

because they have less efficient coping resources and skills compared to females.

Broidy and Agnew (1997) suggest four explanations to why males are more likely

to respond to strain with crime. First, males are more likely to have higher self esteem

and a sense of mastery compared to females. Females may also be less likely to respond

to strain with crime because they may not feel secure enough in themselves to act out

against others but may be more likely to internalize their feelings into self destructive

behavior, such as drug abuse or eating disorders.

Second, Broidy and Agnew (1997) postulate that females may be more at risk if

they respond to strain with crime because they typically have smaller, intimate friendship

groups. Females may have more emotional support from their close personal groups, but

they also have more to lose if their behavior is incongruent with the basic morals of their

friendship network. Cyranowski and colleagues (2000) suggest that females are

socialized to focus more on their relationships with others as they develop their sense of

self whereas males are socialized to focus on themselves and becoming independent.









Males may also be more likely than females to respond to strain with crime because

males have more opportunities to engage in criminal behavior than females. Males often

have more freedoms and lower social controls and are more likely to socialize with

delinquent others than females (Broidy & Agnew, 1997).

Fourth, Broidy and Agnew (1997) suggest that stereotypes may play a role in males

being more deviant than females in response to strain. Although both males and females

feel anger in response to strain, females are taught that it is inappropriate to act out on

their anger which is often accompanied by guilt and depression. Females, then, are more

likely to internalize their anger and take it out on themselves. However, it is more

socially acceptable for males to respond to strain with anger and act out against others.

Empirical Tests of GST and Gender

GST has been empirically tested across gender to explain sex differences in

criminality (Broidy & Agnew, 1997; Eitle, 2002; Hay, 2003; Hoffman & Su, 1997;

Mazerolle, 1998; Piquero & Sealock, 2004). Many authors have analyzed the different

types of strain that men and women experience as well as the levels each experience and

how it was related to deviance. Broidy and Agnew (1997) focus on two distinct

questions regarding gender and crime: why males have a higher rate of crime compared

to females and what are the causes of female crime. Based on their study, the authors

contend that males are more likely to have a higher rate of crime because males

experience different types of strain and respond differently to strain. Males are more

likely to experience strain related to financial strain that contributes to an increase in

property crime as well as violent crime. Females, on the other hand, are more likely to

experience strain involving higher levels of social control and less opportunity for

criminal activity. Broidy and Agnew (1997) also assert that the gender gap in criminality









may also be a function of different emotional responses to strain. They suggest that

although both males and females respond to strain with anger, males are more likely to be

aggressive whereas females are more likely to internalize their anger to include self

destructive behaviors, such as eating disorders and drug use. Concerning the causes of

female criminality, Broidy and Agnew (1997) report that females are more likely to

respond to strain with crime when they are unable to effectively cope with strain by

utilizing legitimate means. They also show that females with low social control, deviant

associates, and opportunities for crime are also more likely to have a higher rate of crime.

Broidy and Agnew (1997), as well as, Eitle (2002) examined the strain of gender

oppression and female criminal activity. Eitle (2002) found a positive association

between an experience of gender discrimination and the likelihood of female criminal

activity. However, experiences of everyday discrimination had no significant effect on

deviant behavior.

In 2003, Hay accounted for the gender gap in criminality by examining the

different experiences and responses to family-related strain across gender. He found that

males were more likely to receive harsher punishment for misbehavior which exacerbated

the strain leading to more behavioral problems. Females were more likely to experience

higher levels of guilt in response to strain compared to males who were more likely to

experience anger. Research has shown that guilt was negatively related to delinquency

compared to anger that was positively related to delinquency.

Hoffman and Su (1997) used the High Risk Youth Study to examine the impact of

stressful life events on delinquency and drug use among males and females. The authors

found modest differences in response to stressful life events. In fact, they found that the









impact on delinquency and drug use were similar across gender in the short term. They

did find, however, that stressful life events were indeed associated with higher rates of

delinquency and drug use.

Piquero and Sealock (2004) used a sample of juvenile offenders to examine gender

differences between strain, negative emotions, coping skills, and interpersonal violence

and property offenses. The authors found no significant difference in the amount of

strain experienced by males and females. Females, however, reported higher levels of

anger and depression than males. They also found a positive association between anger

and strain for both males and females, and a positive association between depression and

strain for males only. Piquero and Sealock (2004) found a positive effect of strain on

delinquency which is consistent with GST. They also found a direct effect of anger, but

not depression, in predicting property offending for males. These results implied that

different emotions could be related to different acts and property offending was not a

means of dealing with negative emotions. However, the authors found support for the

relationship of anger to interpersonal aggression across gender.

Piquero and Sealock (2004) also examined the effects of strain on deviant behavior

while controlling for negative emotions. Their study concluded that strain had no effect

on deviant behavior, especially among males. However, it is important to note that this

particular sample may have experienced an extended period of strain creating a long term

effect on deviant behaviors regardless of the negative emotions. The authors found that

anger was positively associated with interpersonal aggression among females.

Piquero and Sealock (2004) also went on to determine the effectiveness of coping

skills in reducing deviant behavior caused by strain. The authors found that males









utilized social coping resources, which often provided criminal opportunities or

encouraged criminal activity, to relieve strain. They also found a positive relationship

between delinquent peers and criminal activity among males, but no relationship was

found among females.

Overall, the examination of GST as a general theory has been rather successful.

The results of several studies using GST to explain both male and female criminality

have been positive. GST has been shown to explain criminality across gender, why

males were more likely to have a higher rate of crime than females, as well as explain

different types of strain experienced by males versus females and the coping skills

utilized by both. GST has not only contributed to gender related explanations of crime,

but also to explanation of variations in offending among juveniles, college students,

offenders, and minorities.














CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY

The data used in the current study were collected for prior research that focused on

drug use among at-risk students and dropouts (see Chavez, Edwards, & Otetting, 1989;

Chavez, Oetting, & Swaim, 1994; Perez, 2001). Between 1988 and 1992, new cohorts of

adolescents were given an identical questionnaire that included questions regarding

various social, psychological, and environmental factors that may have influenced their

academic status. These data were collected from a fairly small community, a medium-

sized city, and a large city in the Southwest. The data used in this analysis were collected

during the first four years of the study and therefore constitute a sub-sample of the

original data (approximately 68% of the original sample). This analysis focused only on

Hispanic adolescents between the ages of 13-19 with the final sample including 1,729

adolescents.

Dropout subjects were conceptualized as subjects that had stopped attending school

and had not made contact with the school in at least one month. The sample was

compared to a group of academically at-risk students matched by ethnicity, sex, grade in

school, age and grade point average. Once consent was obtained, each participant was

given an identical questionnaire by a researcher who was available to clarify any

ambiguous questions. Confidentiality was maintained by assigning identification

numbers to the questionnaires. Once questionnaires were completed subjects placed

them in a sealed envelope and then along with the researcher, mailed the survey to the

research laboratory.









Research has repeatedly found that childhood abuse has serious long-term

consequences. Broidy and Agnew (1997) suggested that response to strain may be

different among males and females and males were more likely to respond to strain with

crime. To examine the relationship between childhood abuse and delinquency, the

following research questions were examined: a) Does physical and sexual abuse increase

the risk of delinquency, particularly violence perpetration? b) Are there gender

differences in response to strain? And c) Does negative affect, particularly anger and

depression, mediate the relationship between strain and violence perpetration?

Measures

Independent Variables

The purpose of this thesis was to determine if gender interacts with negative

emotions, such as anger and depression, to promote violence perpetration among

Hispanic adolescents using Agnew's general strain theory. The questionnaire

administered to the students included numerous measures regarding various strains on

adolescents, but for the purpose of this paper two types of strain were relevant to the

questions at hand, familial physical abuse and sexual assault. The prevalence of familial

physical abuse (FAMABUS) was based on the following question: "How many times

have you been beaten by your parents?" Responses were none (coded as '1'), 1-2 times

(coded as '2'), 3-9 times (coded as '3'), and 10 or more times (coded as '4'). Familial

physical abuse measures the prevalence of physical abuse by parents and was recorded as

a dichotomous variable, coded as '0' for never experiencing familial physical abuse and

'1' for familial physical abused experienced one or more times. The prevalence of sexual

assault (SEXASSLT) was measured by asking respondents "How many times have you

been raped or sexually assaulted?" Responses were never (coded as '1'), 1-2 times









(coded as '2'), 3-9 times (coded as '3'), and 10 or more times (coded as '4'). Sexual

assault was recorded and measured as a dichotomous variable denoting if the adolescent

never experienced sexual abuse (coded as '0') and experienced sexual abuse one or more

times (coded as '1').

Other variables known to increase the risk for delinquency were also included in

the current analysis: academic status, grade point average, class status, age, gender,

family care, and economic dissatisfaction. The original study evaluated the differences

among school dropouts and non-dropouts. Therefore, dropout status was included as an

independent variable in this study because previous research has found significant

differences in offending between adolescents who drop out of school and adolescents

who remain in school (Chavez et al., 1994; Perez, 2001). Academic status

(ACADSTAT) was coded as '0' for currently enrolled and '1' for dropout. Hawkins,

Catalano, and Miller (1992) found that school performance influenced antisocial

behavior. Therefore, the students' grade point average (GPA) was included as a

continuous independent variable. In addition, low socio-economic status has been found

to be negatively related to delinquency and other antisocial behavior (Peeples & Loeber,

1994; Wilson, 1985). As a result, class status (CLASS) was also used as an independent

variable coded as '1' if the participant reported receiving food stamps or welfare and '0'

if not. Therefore, higher values of CLASS denote lower class status. Age (AGE) was

another demographic characteristic used as an independent variable. Age was a

continuous variable coded from 13-19 for the respondents age. Gender (SEX) was

another demographic characteristic used as an independent variable, coded '1' if the

adolescent was male and '0' if the adolescent was female.









Other variables known to increase the risk of juvenile delinquency were also

included as independent variables. Family care (FAMCARE) was a four point scale that

denoted the respondent's sense of familial care. The two item scale included the

following questions: "Does your family care about you?" and "Does your family care

what you do?" Response options for FAMCARE include a lot (coded as '1'), some

(coded as '2'), not much (coded as '3'), and no (coded as '4'). Responses to each

question were summed and divided by the total number of questions (two). Scale scores

range from 1 to 4, with high values denoting a high level of dissatisfaction with the

caring nature of their family. Economic dissatisfaction (ECONDIS) was a three item

scale that indicated the adolescents' dissatisfaction with his or her parental financial

status. The scale was comprised of the following three questions. "Do your parents have

good jobs?" Response options included very good (coded as '1'), good (coded as '2'),

not too good (coded as '3'), and poor/no job (coded as '4'). "What is your parents'

income?" Response options include high/very high (coded as '1'), average (coded as

'2'), low (coded as '3'), and very low (coded as '4'). "Does your family have enough

money to buy the things you want?" Response options included yes, all the time (coded

as '1'), yes, most of the time (coded as '2'), some of the time (coded as '3'), and almost

never (coded as '4'). Responses to each question were summed and divided by the total

number of questions (three). Scale scores range from 1 to 4, with high values denoting a

high level of dissatisfaction with the family's economic situation.

Mediating Variables

Agnew (1992) asserts that strain induced negative emotions, particularly anger and

depression, can be directly associated with crime and delinquency. According to Broidy

(2001) as well as Piquero and Sealock (2000), anger was the primary negative emotion









that had a significant influence on deviance. In order to examine the mediating effect of

anger on violence and delinquency, anger (ANGER) is measured using a six item scale

indicating how often the adolescent reported an angry or hostile mood. The scale

included the following statements: "I feel like hitting someone; I get mad; I get angry; I

fly off the handle; I am hot headed; I am quick tempered." Response options included a

lot (coded as '1'), some (coded as '2'), not much (coded as '3'), and no (coded as '4').

Items were reverse coded and the scale was calculated by summing the responses and

dividing the total by the number of scale items (six). High scale values denote high

levels of anger.

Research has also shown that depression may be a mediating factor between strain

and internalized deviance (Chandy et al., 1996; Fering et al., 1999; Meyerson et al.,

2002). Depression (DEPRESS) is measured using a seven item scale that indicates how

often the adolescent feels depressed or sad. The scale included the following statements:

"I feel low; I am lonely; I feel sad; I am unhappy; I feel bad; I am depressed; I am

lonesome." Response options included a lot (coded as '1'), some (coded as '2'), not

much (coded as '3'), and no (coded as '4'). Items were reverse coded and the scale was

computed by summing the responses and dividing the total by the number of scale items

(seven). High scale values denote high levels of depression.

Dependent Variable

Each participant was given a self-report inventory that inquired about violence

perpetration. Specifically, adolescents were asked how many times he or she had

committed a series of seven behaviors. The seven item index (VIOLENT) included the

following questions: "How often have you..... "scared someone with a knife; scared

someone with a gun; scared someone with a club or chain; cut someone with a knife; shot









someone with a gun; hit someone with a club or chain; and been in a gang fight?" Due to

the low variation in responses, items were recorded as a dichotomous measure indicating

no incidents of violent offending (coded as '0') or at least one or more reported violent

offenses (coded as '1').

Analysis

Bivariate correlations were conducted in order to test for multicollinearity among

conceptually related independent variables. Bivariate correlations were examined for the

full sample as well as the male and female sample separately.

Logistic regression models were estimated to answer the research questions asked

in this thesis. Logistical regression is the appropriate analysis procedure because the

dependent variable, violence perpetration, is measured as a dichotomous variable.

Models were first estimated with the full sample to determine whether gender had a

significant impact on violence perpetration. The results indicated that gender was in fact

significant. Therefore, the sample was split by gender and logistic regression models

were estimated for males and females separately. The results of the analysis for bivariate

correlations and logistic regression are discussed further in the following results chapter.

The first full sample model was a partial test of general strain theory that included

physical abuse and sexual abuse as well as all independent variables. It was necessary to

first estimate the model with the full sample to determine if gender was significantly

associated with violence perpetration. Model 2 introduced anger to determine if anger

was significantly associated with violence perpetration and to test the mediating effects of

anger on the relationship between physical or sexual abuse and violence perpetration. If

anger was in fact a mediating factor, it was expected that the impact of strain on violence

perpetration would diminish when the mediating variable (anger) was included in model.









The third full sample model introduced depression to the model (without anger) to test

the relationship between depression and violent behavior as well as the mediating effects

of depression on the impact of physical or sexual abuse and violence perpetration.

Similar to the second model, it was expected that depression would weaken the impact of

strain on violent behavior when it was included in the model if it was mediating the

relationship.

Similar to the full sample models, the first female model was a partial test of

general strain theory that included physical abuse and sexual abuse as well as all

independent variables (without gender since this was an all female sample). The second

female model included anger, which tested whether the impact of physical abuse or

sexual abuse on violence perpetration was mediated by anger. If anger was a mediating

factor, it was expected that the impact of strain on violence would diminish when the

mediating variable (depression) was included in the model. The third female model

examined the mediating effect of depression on physical abuse and violence. It was also

expected that depression would cause the impact of strain on violence to diminish when

the mediating variable (depression) was in the model. The male models were identical to

the female models to determine whether any differences were present across gender.














CHAPTER 5
RESULTS

Sample Description

The sub-sample of data from the Mexican-American and White American dropout

study consisted of a total of 1,729 Hispanic adolescents. Table 1 provides descriptive

statistics for the sample. The sample consists of slightly more males (58.4%) than

females (41.6%). The average age of respondents was 16.48. Approximately 10%

(9.9%) of the participants reported experiencing sexual assault at least once and 18.9%

reported experiencing at least one incident of familial physical abuse. The dropout rate

of this particular sample was 36.4% in comparison to the national average of 15% for this

age group (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 1998). The mean grade point average was

1.57, (SD = 1.02), which may be due to the overrepresentation of school dropouts in this

particular sample. Based on participants' responses to the receipt of welfare and food

stamps, 17.4% were considered to be lower class status. Approximately 40% (39.8%) of

the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one type of violent behavior.

Once the full sample was broken down by gender, there were several similarities

between males and females (Table 2). Males and females reported similar rates of

physical abuse. Approximately 18.3% of males experienced physical abuse during

childhood at least once and 19.9% of females experienced physical abuse during

childhood at least once. Females reported slightly more sexual abuse. Twenty-percent of

females experienced sexual abuse during childhood at least once compared to 16% of

males. Both males and females reported perceptions of economic dissatisfaction with









familial income. The average scale score for males was 2.34 and the average scale score

for females was 2.36 on a four point scale. Family care dissatisfaction was also similar

across males and females. The mean score for females was 1.18 compared to 1.21 as the

mean score for males. Approximately 36% of both males and females were school

dropouts. However, females had a slightly higher GPA (1.70) compared to males (1.48).

Slightly more females reported being lower class status (20.6%) compared to males

(15.0%). The average score for anger was fairly similar across gender. The mean anger

score for females was 2.43 while the mean for males was 2.37. On average, females were

more depressed than males. The average scale score for females was 1.98 and the

average scale score for males was 1.79. The largest difference found between males and

females was for violence perpetration. Approximately half (50.8%) of male adolescents

reported perpetrating at least one violent crime compared to 24.3% of female adolescents.

T-tests were conducted to examine mean differences across gender for the variables

of interest. As can be seen in Table 2, five of the variables demonstrate a significant (p <

.01) mean difference between males and females (sexual abuse, GPA, class status,

depression, and violence perpetration). Females reported experiencing more incidents of

sexual assault compared to males. Female adolescents had higher GPAs compared to

male adolescents. Evidence of class status differences emerged with the sample of

females being comprised of more underclass adolescents than the sample of males.

Females were significantly more likely to experience depression compared to males,

which is consistent with Cyranowski et al. (2000). It is not surprising that males were

more likely than females to report perpetrating violence.









Bivariate Correlations

Due to a number of conceptually related independent variables, multicollinearity

was a concern with these data. Multicollinearity occurs when there are high correlations

among variables. Correlations greater than .60 are concerning. An examination of the

absolute values of the Pearson correlations indicates that there are no strong correlations

that point to a concern of multicollinearity (see Table 3, 4, and 5).

Several significant correlations, however, should be noted. Regarding the full

sample (See Table 3), several significant correlations were in the expected directions.

Physical abuse was significantly and positively correlated to violence perpetration.

Anger, depression, and family care were positively correlated with violence perpetration.

These results indicate that experiencing physical abuse was related to violence

perpetration. This explanation also applied to anger, depression, and family care. Higher

levels of anger and depression were significantly related to violence perpetration. Higher

levels of family dissatisfaction were also significantly related to violence perpetration.

GPA and violent offending were negatively, but significantly correlated, meaning that a

higher GPA reduced violent offending, which was to be expected.

Physical abuse was significantly and positively correlated to anger and

depression. These results indicated that experiencing childhood physical abuse was

related to higher levels of anger and depression. Family care was also positively and

significantly related to physical abuse and sexual abuse. These results indicate that

experiencing either physical abuse or sexual abuse was significantly related to higher

disappointment with family care, which was to be expected. Physical abuse was

positively and significantly correlated to economic dissatisfaction. These results indicate

that experiencing physical abuse was significantly related to higher negative perceptions









of economic dissatisfaction. It is also important to note that physical abuse and sexual

abuse were positively and significantly correlated. These results indicate that

experiencing sexual abuse was significantly related to experiencing physical abuse. GPA

and age were negatively, but significantly correlated to physical abuse. These results

indicate that experiencing physical abuse was related to a lower GPA. These results also

indicate that physical abuse was significantly related to a younger adolescent.

Anger and depression were positively and significantly correlated. These results

indicate that higher levels of anger were related to higher levels of depression. Anger and

depression were positively and significantly related to perceptions of family care, which

was to be expected. These results indicate that higher levels of anger and depression

were significantly related to higher levels of dissatisfaction with family care. Depression

was significantly and positively related to economic dissatisfaction. These results

indicate that higher levels of depression were significantly related to higher levels of

economic dissatisfaction. GPA and age were negatively, but significantly correlated to

anger. These results indicate that higher GPA was related to lower levels of anger, which

was to be expected. These results also indicate that higher levels of anger were

significantly related to a younger adolescent.

Family care was significantly and positively correlated to economic dissatisfaction.

These results indicate that higher levels of economic dissatisfaction were significantly

related to higher levels of dissatisfaction with family care. Family care and economic

dissatisfaction were negatively, but significantly correlated to GPA. These results

indicate that a lower GPA was related to higher levels of family care dissatisfaction and









family economic dissatisfaction. GPA was positively and significantly related to age

indicating a higher GPA was correlated to being an older adolescent.

Regarding the female sample (See Table 4), several significant correlations were

in the expected directions. Most importantly, both physical abuse and sexual abuse were

significantly and positively correlated to violence perpetration. Anger, depression,

economic dissatisfaction, and family care were positively correlated with violence

perpetration. These results indicate that experiencing childhood abuse, either physical or

sexual, was related to violence perpetration. This also applied to anger and depression.

Higher levels of anger and depression were significantly related to violence perpetration.

Higher levels of economic dissatisfaction and disappointment with family caring were

significantly related to violence perpetration. GPA and violent offending were

negatively, but significantly correlated, meaning that a higher GPA reduced violent

offending, which was to be expected.

Both physical abuse and sexual abuse were significantly and positively correlated

to anger and depression. These results indicated that experiencing childhood abuse,

either physical or sexual, was related to higher levels of anger and depression. Economic

dissatisfaction and family care were also positively and significantly related to physical

abuse and sexual abuse. These results indicate that experiencing either physical abuse or

sexual abuse was significantly related to higher negative perceptions of economic

dissatisfaction and disappointment with family care, which was to be expected. It is also

important to note that physical abuse and sexual abuse were positively and significantly

correlated. These results indicate that experiencing sexual abuse was significantly related

to experiencing physical abuse. Physical abuse and GPA were negatively, but









significantly correlated, indicating that experiencing physical abuse was related to a

lower GPA.

Anger and depression were positively and significantly correlated. These results

indicate that higher levels of anger were related to higher levels of depression. Anger and

depression were positively and significantly related to perceptions of economic

dissatisfaction and family care, which was to be expected. These results indicate that

higher levels of anger and depression were significantly related to higher levels of

economic dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction with family care. GPA and anger were

negatively, but significantly correlated, meaning that a higher GPA was related to lower

levels of anger, which was to be expected.

Family care was significantly and positively correlated to economic dissatisfaction.

These results indicate that higher levels of economic dissatisfaction were significantly

related to higher levels of dissatisfaction with family care. Family care and economic

dissatisfaction were negatively, but significantly correlated to GPA. These results

indicate that a lower GPA was related to higher levels of family care dissatisfaction and

family economic dissatisfaction. GPA was positively and significantly related to age

indicating a higher GPA was correlated to being an older adolescent.

Regarding the male sample, see Table 5, several significant correlations were in the

expected directions. Physical abuse was positively and significantly correlated to

violence perpetration. Anger, depression, and family care were also all positively and

significantly correlated to violence perpetration. These results indicate that experiencing

physical abuse was related to violence perpetration. This also applies to anger,

depression, and family care. Higher levels of anger, depression, and family care









dissatisfaction were significantly related to violence perpetration. Similar to the female

sample, GPA and violent offending were negatively, but significantly correlated,

meaning that a higher GPA was related to a decrease in violence perpetration, which was

to be expected.

Physical abuse was significantly and positively correlated to anger and depression.

These results indicate that experiencing physical abuse was related to higher levels of

anger and depression. Economic dissatisfaction and family care were also positively and

significantly related to physical abuse. These results indicate that experiencing physical

abuse was significantly related to higher degrees of economic dissatisfaction and

disappointment with family care, which was to be expected. It is also important to note

that physical abuse and sexual abuse were positively and significantly correlated to each

other. These results indicate that experiencing sexual abuse was significantly related to

experiencing physical abuse. As expected, physical abuse and GPA were negatively, but

significantly correlated, indicating that experiencing physical abuse was related to a

lower GPA.

Depression was positively and significantly correlated to sexual abuse, economic

dissatisfaction, and family care. These results indicate that experiencing sexual abuse

was significantly related to higher levels of depression. This also applied to economic

dissatisfaction and family care. Higher levels of depression were significantly related to

higher degrees of economic dissatisfaction and family care dissatisfaction. Anger was

also positively and significantly related to family care indicating higher levels of anger

were significantly related to greater dissatisfaction with family care. Anger and









depression were positively and significantly correlated. These results indicate that higher

levels of anger were significantly related to higher levels of depression.

Anger was negatively but significantly related to age and GPA. These results

denote a significant relationship between anger and GPA, meaning that higher levels of

anger were correlated with a lower GPA. This also applies to age. Higher levels of anger

were correlated to being a younger adolescent. GPA was also negatively, but

significantly related to family care, meaning that a lower GPA was related to higher

levels of family care dissatisfaction. Family care and economic dissatisfaction were

positively and significantly correlated. Higher levels of economic dissatisfaction were

related to higher levels of family care dissatisfaction.

Logistic Regression

Full Sample Model

In the first stage of the analysis, a full sample model was estimated to determine the

relationship between a number of factors related to Agnew's GST and violence

perpetration. Logistic regression was used because the nature of the dependent variable,

violence perpetration, was dichotomous. Model 1 (Table 6) estimated the impact of a

number of factors related to Agnew's GST on violence perpetration without negative

emotions (anger and depression). Variables that were significantly related to violence

perpetration include sexual abuse, familial physical abuse, gender, academic status,

family care, and GPA. Adolescents who experienced sexual abuse or physical abuse

were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did

not experience sexual abuse or physical abuse. Table 6 reports the relevant statistical

measures, such as the parameter estimate (0), the standard error (SE), and the odds ratio

for the interpretation of these data. The odds ratio was used to determine the percentage









of odds for committing violent offenses based on the independent variables. The

percentage of odds was calculated by subtracting one from the odds ratio, therefore

determining an increase or decrease in the percentage of odds.

Sexual abuse had a significant and positive impact (P = .497, SE = .210) on

violence perpetration (p < .05) and physical abuse had a positive and significant impact

(P = .732, SE = .154) on violence perpetration (p < .05). Adolescents who reported

experiencing physical or sexual abuse during childhood were more likely to perpetrate

violence compared to adolescents who did not experience childhood violence. Findings

indicated that sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of committing a violent

offense by 64% and 107%, respectively. Gender (p = 1.314, SE = .134), academic status

(P =.505, SE = .134), and family care (P = .713, SE =.143) were also significantly and

positively related to violence perpetration (p < .01). Being male increased the odds of

committing a violent offense by 272% and being a dropout increased the odds of violence

perpetration by 66%. In addition, being more dissatisfied with the caring nature of one's

family increased the odds violence perpetration by 104%. In contrast, GPA had a

negative significant impact (P = -.348, SE = .066) on violence perpetration (p < .01).

This finding indicated that having a higher GPA significantly reduces the likelihood of

violence perpetration. Specifically, higher GPA decreases the odds of violent crime

perpetration by 29%.

In Model 2, negative emotion, anger, was included in the model to examine the

relationship between anger and violent crime while holding the influences of the other

variables constant. The following variables had a significant influence on violence

perpetration: familial physical abuse, gender, academic status, family care, GPA, and









anger. Familial physical abuse had a significant and positive impact (3 = .626, SE =

.160) on violence perpetration (p < .01). Adolescents who reported experiences with

family physical abuse during childhood were significantly more likely to perpetrate

violence compared to adolescents who did not experience physical abuse during

childhood. Specifically, family abuse increased the odds of violence perpetration by

87%. Gender (3 = 1.438, SE = .140), academic status (P = .444, SE = .138), and family

care (P = .610, SE =.146) also had a significant positive impact on violence perpetration

(p <.01). Males were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to

females. Specifically, the results indicated that being male increased the odds of

committing a violent offense by 321%. Respondents who had dropped out of school

were more likely to perpetrate a violent offense compared to adolescents who were

attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds

of committing violent crime by approximately 56%. Adolescents who had a higher

dissatisfaction with family care were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence.

Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one's family

increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 84%. Again, GPA had a negative

significant impact (P = -.309, SE = .069) on violence perpetration (p < .01), which means

that adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit violent crime.

Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by

27%. Finally, anger had a positive and significant impact on violence perpetration (P =

.738, SE = .094). Respondents who reported higher levels of anger were significantly

more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, being angrier increased the odds of

violence perpetration by 109%.









In Model 3 (Table 6) depression was included to examine the relationship between

negative emotion and violence perpetration. Variables that were significantly related to

violence perpetration included sexual abuse, familial physical abuse, gender, academic

status, family care, and GPA. Sexual abuse (P = .470, SE = .211) had a significant and

positive impact on violence perpetration (p <.05) and physical abuse (P = .693, SE =.155)

had a significant and positive impact on violence perpetration (p < .01). Adolescents who

reported experiences with sexual abuse or physical abuse during childhood were

significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescents who did not

experience childhood violence. Specifically, experiencing sexual abuse and physical

abuse during childhood increased the odds of violence perpetration by 60% and 100%,

respectively. Depression was also found to have a significant and positive impact (P =

.205, SE = .081) on violence perpetration (p < .05). Adolescents who reported higher

levels of depression were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to

adolescents who reported lower levels of depression. Specifically, increases in

adolescent depression increased the odds of violence perpetration by 23%. Finally,

gender (P = 1.345, SE = .136), academic status (P = .513, SE =.134), and family care (P =

.655, SE = .145) had a significant positive impact on violence perpetration (p < .01).

Results also indicated that being male increased the odds of perpetration of violent crime

by 284% and being a dropout increased the odds of committing violent crime by

approximately 67%. Adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were

significantly more likely to perpetrate a violent offense. Specifically, higher levels of

dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one's family increased the odds of violent crime

perpetration by 92%. Similar to the other models, GPA (P =.347, SE = .067) had a









significant negative impact on violence perpetration (p < .05). Specifically, an increase

in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 30%.

The mediating effects of anger and depression on the relationship between strain

(physical and sexual abuse) and violence perpetration were examined (Models 2 and 3

Table 6). When anger was included in the full sample model, the effects of sexual abuse

on violence perpetration diminished. This indicates that anger mediates the relationship

between sexual abuse and violence. However, after further examination, the odds ratio

did not diminish considerably indicating the magnitude of the relationship was not

extensive. When depression was included in the model as a mediating variable the

impact of sexual abuse and physical abuse on violence perpetration did not diminish

significantly. However, there was evidence that depression partially mediates the

relationships between physical abuse and sexual abuse and violence perpetration. The

odds ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating effect, but the mediating

effect did not produce a significant change.

Female Models

The results from the full sample models indicated that gender had a significant

impact on violence perpetration. Therefore, the full sample was split by gender to

examine whether there were differences in factors that impact violence perpetration

across gender. Table 7, Model 4 indicates that sexual abuse, family abuse, academic

status, family care, and GPA were significantly related to violence perpetration. The

results indicate that female adolescents who experience sexual abuse (P = .520, SE =

.244) or familial physical abuse (P = .619, SE = .251) during childhood are more likely to

commit violent crimes compared to adolescent females who did not experience childhood

abuse (p < .05). Specifically, the findings indicate that being sexually abused increased









the odds of violence perpetration by 68% and being physically abused increased the odds

of violence perpetration by 86% among females. Academic status (P = .633, SE = .227)

and family care (P = .904, SE = .232) were also found to have a significant impact on

violence perpetration (p < .01). These findings indicate that being a dropout increased

the odds of violence perpetration by 88% and higher levels of dissatisfaction with the

caring nature of one's family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 147%

among females. In contrast, GPA had a negative significant impact (P = -.401, SE =

.118) on violence perpetration (p < .01). This finding indicates that having a higher GPA

significantly reduces the likelihood of violence perpetration. Specifically, higher GPA

decreases the odds of violence perpetration by 33% among females.

To determine the effects of negative emotions on females, anger and depression

were added to the models separately. In Table 7, Model 5 anger was added to the model

to examine the relationship between anger and violence perpetration among females. The

results indicate that familial physical abuse, academic status, family care, GPA, and anger

were significantly related to violence perpetration. Family abuse (P = .575, SE = .259)

and academic status (P = .542, SE = 233) had a significant impact on violence

perpetration at the p < .05 significance level while family care (B = .758, SE = .238) and

anger (P = .722, SE = .137) had a significant impact on violence perpetration at the p <

.01 significance level. GPA had a negative and significant impact on violence

perpetration among females (P = -.407, SE = .122).

Findings indicated that female adolescents who reported experiences with physical

abuse during childhood were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to

female adolescents who did not experience childhood physical abuse. Childhood









physical abuse increased the odds of violence perpetration by 78%. Female adolescents

who dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate a violent offense compared to

female adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being

a dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 72%.

Female adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction with family care were significantly

more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the

caring nature of one's family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 113%.

Findings indicated that having a higher GPA significantly reduces the likelihood of

violence perpetration among females. Specifically, having a higher GPA decreases the

odds of violent crime perpetration by 33%. Finally, female adolescents who reported

higher levels of anger were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence. Specifically,

being angrier increased the odds of violence perpetration by 105% among females.

Depression was included in Table 7, Model 6 to examine the relationship between

depression and violence perpetration among females. Variables that were found to have a

significant impact on violence perpetration included: sexual abuse, familial physical

abuse, academic status, family care, and GPA. Sexual abuse (P = .493, SE = .246) and

familial physical abuse (P = .732, SE = .154) had a significant and positive impact on

violence perpetration among females (p < .05). Adolescent females who reported

experiencing physical or sexual abuse during childhood were more likely to perpetrate

violence compared to adolescent females who did not experience childhood violence.

Findings indicated that sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of committing a

violent offense by 64% and 81%, respectively, among females.









Academic status (P = .620, SE = .228) and family care (P = .779, SE = .242) had a

significant positive relationship on violence perpetration (p < .01) among females.

Female adolescents who dropped out of school were significantly more likely to

perpetrate violence compared to female adolescents who were attending school.

Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing

violent crime by approximately 86%. Adolescent females who had a higher

dissatisfaction with family care were significantly more likely to perpetrate a violent

offense. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one's

family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 118%. Again, GPA had a

negative significant impact (P = -.422, SE = .119) on violent crime perpetration (p <.01),

which means that adolescent females with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to

commit violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent

crime perpetration by 34%.

The mediating effects of anger and depression on the relationship between strain

(physical and sexual abuse) and violence for females were examined. When anger was

introduced into the female model, the effects of sexual abuse on violence perpetration

diminished. Similar to the full sample, this indicates that anger mediates the relationship

between sexual abuse and violence perpetration among females. However, after further

examination, the odds ratio did not diminish considerably indicating the magnitude of the

relationship was not extensive. When depression was included in the model as a

mediating variable the impact of sexual abuse and physical abuse on violence

perpetration did not diminish significantly. However, there was evidence that depression

partially mediates the relationships between physical abuse and sexual abuse and









violence perpetration. The odds ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating

effect, but the mediating effect did not produce a significant change.

Male Models

The results from the full sample models indicated that gender had a significant

impact on violence perpetration. Therefore, the full sample was split by gender to

examine whether there were gender differences in factors that impact violence

perpetration. Table 8 presents the results of the estimated models for the male sample. In

Table 8, Model 7, variables that were found to have a significant impact on violence

perpetration among males included family abuse, academic status, family care, class

status, and GPA. Familial physical abuse (P = .815, SE = .199), academic status (P =

.468, SE = .166), family care (P =.573, SE = .179), and class status (P = .626, SE =.220)

had a positive and significant impact on violence perpetration (p < .05) whereas GPA (P

= -.320, SE = .081) had a negative and significant impact on violence perpetration (p <

01).

The results indicated that male adolescents who experience familial physical abuse

during childhood are more likely to commit violent crimes compared to adolescent males

who do not experience childhood physical abuse. Specifically, the findings indicated that

being physically abused during childhood increases the odds of violence perpetration by

126% among males. Male adolescents who had dropped out of school were more likely

to perpetrate violence compared to male adolescents who were attending school.

Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds of committing

violent crime by approximately 60%. Male adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction

with family care were significantly more likely to perpetrate a violent offense.

Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one's family









increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 77%. Interestingly, class status was

significantly related to violent crime perpetration among males. Being a lower class male

increased the odds of violence perpetration by perpetrating violent crime by 87%. Again,

GPA had a negative significant impact on violent crime perpetration, which means that

male adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit violent

crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration

by 27% among males.

Anger was included in Table 8, Model 8, to examine the relationship between anger

and violence perpetration among males. Variables that were found to have a significant

impact on violence perpetration include: familial physical abuse, academic status, family

care, class status, GPA, and anger. Familial physical abuse (P = .664, SE = .206) had a

significant and positive impact on violence perpetration among males (p < .01).

Adolescent males who reported experiencing physical abuse during childhood were more

likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescent males who did not experience

childhood violence. Findings indicated that physical abuse increased the odds of

committing a violent offense by 94% among males. Academic status (P = .424, SE=

.172), family care (P =.500, SE = .183), class status (P = .657, SE = .226), and anger (P =

.752, SE = .107) were positively significantly correlated to violent crime perpetration (p

< .05). GPA (P = -.257, SE = .084) was negatively and significantly associated with

violence perpetration (p < .01) among male adolescents. Male adolescents who had

dropped out of school were more likely to perpetrate violence compared to male

adolescents who were attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a

dropout) increased the odds of committing violent crime by approximately 53%. Male









adolescents who reported higher levels of anger were significantly more likely to

perpetrate violence. Specifically, being angrier increased the odds of violence

perpetration by 112% among males. Male adolescents who had a higher dissatisfaction

with family care were significantly more likely to perpetrate a violent offense.

Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of one's family

increased the odds of violence perpetration by 65%. Interestingly, class status was

significantly related to violence perpetration among male adolescents. Being a lower

class male increased the odds of violence perpetration by perpetrating violent crime by

93%. Again, GPA had a negative significant impact on violent crime perpetration, which

means that male adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit

violent crime. Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime

perpetration by 23% among males.

Depression was included in Table 8, Model 9, to examine the relationship between

depression and violence perpetration among males. Variables that were found to have a

significant impact on violence perpetration included: familial physical abuse, academic

status, family care, class status, and GPA. Familial physical abuse (P = .778, SE = .201)

had a significant and positive impact on violence perpetration among males (p < .01).

Adolescent males who reported experiencing physical abuse during childhood were more

likely to perpetrate violence compared to adolescent males who did not experience

childhood violence. Findings indicated that physical abuse increased the odds of

committing a violent offense by 118% among males.

Academic status (P = .485, SE = .167), family care (P = .551, SE = .180), and class

status (P =.621, SE = .220) had a significant positive relationship on violence perpetration









(p < .01) among males. Male adolescents who had dropped out of school were

significantly more likely to perpetrate violence compared to male adolescents who were

attending school. Specifically, academic status (i.e., being a dropout) increased the odds

of committing violent crime by approximately 63%. Adolescent males who were

dissatisfied with the caring nature of their family were significantly more likely to

perpetrate violence. Specifically, higher levels of dissatisfaction with the caring nature of

one's family increased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 73%. Again, class status

was significantly related to violent crime perpetration among male adolescents. Being a

lower class male increased the odds of violence perpetration by 86%. GPA had a

negative significant impact on violent crime perpetration, which means that male

adolescents with higher GPAs were significantly less likely to commit violent crime.

Specifically, an increase in GPA decreased the odds of violent crime perpetration by 27%

among males. Depression was not found to have a significant impact of violence

perpetration among males.

This study examined the mediating effects of anger and depression on the

relationship between strain (physical and sexual abuse) and violence perpetration among

Hispanic adolescents. When anger and depression were added to the male models, the

effects of childhood physical abuse on violence perpetration did not diminish. Sexual

abuse was not significantly related to violence perpetration with or without anger and

depression in the model. Although there were no significant effects once anger and

depression were added to the model, there was evidence of a partial mediating effect

based on minor changes of the odds ratio. These results and the relevance of prior






58


literature will be discussed in the following chapter. Policy implications as well as future

research will also be discussed.














CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

This study examined the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse

and violent offending among Hispanic adolescents. Gender differences in response to

childhood abuse were also examined as well as the influence of negative emotions, anger

and depression, across gender. This study conducted a partial test of Agnew's GST by

looking at the mediating factor of these negative emotions in response to childhood

physical and sexual abuse. However, coping mechanisms were not explored in this

particular study, which would be necessary to fully evaluate all tenets of GST. It was

expected that childhood abuse would increase the risk of violence perpetration, especially

for males. Anger was expected to have a greater impact on males compared to females.

It was also expected that negative emotions, anger and depression, would intervene

between strain (childhood violence) and violence perpetration.

Childhood physical abuse was significantly related to self-reported violence

perpetration for the whole sample as well as males and females separately, which

provides evidence of a strong relationship between physical abuse and violence

perpetration. Consistent with previous research, physically abused adolescents reported

higher rates of violent offending compared to non-abused adolescents (Herrera &

McCloskey, 2001; Ireland, Smith, & Thornberry, 2002; Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen,

1993; Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a). However, the results did not indicate

any gender differences between abused males and females in relation to violent

offending. These results were fairly consistent with research by Herrera & McCloskey









(2001) that reported no gender differences in overall referral rates to the juvenile justice

system although males, in general, were more likely to be referred for property, felony,

and violent offenses. They also went on to report that abused females were seven times

more likely to commit a violent offense compared to non-abused females which was

consistent with the findings in the current research. Therefore, childhood physical abuse

was shown to increase the risk of violent offending across gender.

Childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with violence perpetration in

the full sample and in the female model. Based on these findings, it could be argued that

non-sexually abused Hispanic adolescents are less likely to demonstrate violent behavior

compared to sexually-abused adolescents, which is consistent with previous studies

(Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993; Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Widom, 1989a). It

also could be argued that sexually abused females are more likely than sexually abused

males to report violent behavior. However, this result may be due to the low frequency

of males reporting sexual abuse.

Surprisingly, males and females did not differ in their response to anger and

depression. It was discovered that anger was significantly related to violent behavior for

males and females, meaning that the angrier the adolescent reported feeling, the more

violent behavior was reported. Consistent with previous research, anger had a direct

effect on offending (Broidy, 2001; Piquero & Sealock, 2004). Depression, on the other

hand, was only significantly related to violence at the significance level p < .05 in the full

sample. When the sample was broken down by gender, depression was not significantly

related to violence perpetration for males or females. Similarly, Mazzerolle and Piquero

(1998) as well as Piquero and Sealock (2004) found that depression was not related to









subsequent offending. Therefore, anger appeared to be the principle negative emotion

associated with violence perpetration, which is consistent with previous research by

Broidy (2001) and Piquero & Sealock (2000).

Agnew's general strain theory (1992) postulates that exposure to noxious stimuli,

such as childhood physical and sexual abuse will increase the likelihood of negative

emotions, anger and depression. He suggests that if these negative emotions are not

managed by utilizing effective coping strategies, it is likely that the individual will use

delinquent behavior to minimize these feelings. He suggests that these negative emotions

mediate the relationship between strain and delinquency.

The current study examined the mediating effects of anger and depression on

violence perpetration among abused male and female Hispanic adolescents. The results

were somewhat mixed in terms of the mediating effect of negative emotions between

abuse and violent behavior. The results indicated that anger mediated the relationship

between sexual abuse and violent behavior in the full sample as well as the female

sample. Consistent with GST, anger was a mediating factor in the relationship between

sexual abuse and violence perpetration in females indicating an indirect relationship

between abuse and violent behavior in sexually abused females. However, after further

examination, the odds ratio did not diminish considerably indicating the magnitude of the

relationship was not extensive. The effect of childhood physical abuse on violent

behavior was not diminished significantly when anger was introduced into the model.

However, there was evidence that anger partially mediates the relationships between

physical abuse and sexual abuse and violence perpetration. The odds ratios diminished

slightly indicating a minor mediating effect, but the mediating effect did not produce a









significant change. Similarly, Mazzerolle and Piquero (1998) also found limited support

for the GST in regard to anger mediating the relationship between strain and delinquency.

Further, GST was not fully supported in depression mediating the relationship

between physical abuse or sexual abuse and violence perpetration. Neither the effects of

physical abuse nor sexual abuse were diminished significantly when depression was

introduced in the models. These results suggest that childhood physical abuse and

depression are independently related to violence perpetration. Similar to anger, the odds

ratios diminished slightly indicating a minor mediating effect, but the mediating effect

did not produce a significant change.

Other factors that were significantly related to violent behavior were academic

status and family care. As expected, adolescents that had dropped out of school reported

more incidents of violence perpetration. Also, adolescents who reported a higher degree

of dissatisfaction with family care also self-reported more violent behavior. Prior

research has also acknowledged the relationship between violent behavior and family

environment (Aseltine et al., 2000; Meyerson et al., 2002). These results could possibly

be explained by those adolescents having less to risk and more opportunities for crime. If

they do not have a feeling of concern from their family, they have less to lose because

their perception of family concern is minimal. Also, the adolescent would have more

opportunities possibly because he or she is no longer spending time under the supervision

of the school. As suspected, GPA was negatively associated with violence indicating the

lower the GPA, the more violence reported.

Agnew's GST has been tested over various populations and has received

considerable support. This study showed mixed support for GST, however. The results









were supportive of GST in the association between strain, in this case the presentation of

noxious stimuli, and an increase in the risk of violent offending. GST was also supported

as a general theory that was used to predict violent offending across gender and a

minority population. The results indicated a similar response to childhood physical abuse

across gender. Also, anger was found to be positively associated with violent behavior

across gender, but depression was not. However, anger partially mediated the

relationship between childhood physical abuse and subsequent violent offending. The

mediating effects of anger were supported in the relationship between sexual abuse and

violent offending among females. However, the results indicate that the magnitude of the

relationship was not extensive. Depression also partially mediated the relationship

between physical or sexual abuse and subsequent offending.

Limitations

There were a few limitations to the current research that should be considered.

First, these data were derived from a cross-sectional research design. Therefore, it was

impossible to determine the sequential order of the abuse and violence. Although the

exact order of abuse versus violence was not known, it was known that at the very least,

they were occurring concurrently. In addition, these data were a subset of the original

data, classifying only Hispanic adolescents. Therefore this study on the relationship of

abuse and violence perpetration and the mediating factors of anger and depression were

only generalizable to Hispanic adolescents.

Another issue of concern was a one-item measure that measured adolescent sexual

abuse. This measure is questionable since only one item was used. Related to the

validity of this measure was also the problem with recall bias. Because the adolescent

was requested to recall incidents of abuse, the actual prevalence of abuse could be









underestimated. Similarly, only one response to abuse was examined, violence

perpetration. Future research should also examine other behavioral outcomes, including

property offending and drug abuse.

Another related limitation is that the original study was not designed to test the

specific research questions from the current research. A more detailed study on abuse

with items of duration, frequency, and severity of abuse would allow for the examination

of the relationship between childhood abuse and subsequent violence.

Finally, Agnew's theory suggests three types of coping mechanisms could be

utilized in order to manage the effects of strain. This study was not able to consider

possible coping mechanisms that adolescents may have used in order to manage strain

experienced during childhood. Therefore, this study was only a partial test of GST.

Future research should consider possible coping mechanisms that may or may not have

been utilized as a response to childhood abuse.

Although the current research had a number of limitations, this study does make a

number of contributions to the existing literature. First, this study looked at an often

understudied population in regard to childhood abuse and the subsequent effects of the

abuse on these particular adolescents. Not only did this study look at abuse among a

rapidly growing minority group, but it also examined gender differences in response to

abuse within this group. This study also improved the generalizability of Agnew's

general strain theory by strengthening the support for the theory as a "general" theory

across all ethnicities and gender.

Policy Implications

The following policy implications are not based on the findings of this particular

study, but rather the Hispanic population that was examined. Further research needs to









be conducted in examining youth violence across gender before making changes to

policy. Considering that Hispanics are quickly becoming the "majority minority,"

(Warrix & Bocanegra, 1998) it is important to consider cultural variations in treatment

programs to prevent youth violence. In the Hispanic culture, male dominance, often

referred to as "machismo," is a significant factor in the Hispanic value systems. The

male role is often strong and authoritarian, which is a learned and reinforced behavior in

Latino society (De la Cancela, 1986). Because the culture encourages male dominance, it

is important to be sensitive to their beliefs, but also empower abused adolescents in

reporting abuse to authorities. Family, itself, is often an important value within the

Hispanic culture. Developing interventions that focus on the whole family unit may be

helpful in reducing violent behavior among Hispanic youth. Programs that combine

parental management training along with problem-solving programs for youth have been

successful in preventing youth violence (Kazdin, Siegal, & Bass, 1992). Other parenting

programs that seek to improve the parenting skills as well as quality of family life can

also help in reducing youth violence (Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). This type

of program may be very beneficial to families with reported abuse. Programs such as the

Nurturing Parenting Programs have also been developed that re-teach parenting

philosophy and focus on activities that promote communication, replacing abusive

behavior with nurturing, and promoting emotional and physical development. These

interventions can also focus on various cultures which would be beneficial to preventing

youth violence in abused Hispanic adolescents. This type of program has been successful

in improving attitudes in both the parents and children as well as improving family

interaction (Bavolek, 1996).









Other programs designed to reduce youth violence among Hispanics should be

implemented in schools, alternative schools, and juvenile justice facilities. Improvements

such as problem-solving clinics or mediation clinics that provide social skill development

and non-aggressive behavioral response techniques to dealing with conflict may be

beneficial in reducing youth violence. Also, improving education and providing hope for

the future has also been shown to reduce violence (Hawkins, Catalano, & Brewer, 1995).

In a study examining education and violence from the Caribbean Health Survey, the

authors found a significant increase in violence from those adolescents who had difficulty

learning in school. Therefore, focusing on improving educational programs may also be

helpful in reducing violent behavior among adolescents.

Future research needs to continue focusing on differences across ethnicities as well

as gender in response to family abuse and violent behavior. It is necessary to understand

the cultural values of each population in order to provide the best treatment programs in

reducing violence. In this particular study, future research should examine the effect of

legitimate as well as illegitimate coping strategies utilized to minimize the impact of the

strain and fully examine all tenets of Agnew's general strain theory.










Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of Full Sample
Variables
N Mean (SD) Range
Independent Variables
Physical Abuse 1677 18.9% .39 --

Sexual Abuse 1671 9.93% 0.299 --

Sex 1729 58.4% 0.48 --

Economic Dissatisfaction 1695 2.3541 0.661 1-4

Family Care 1700 1.198 0.446 1-4

Academic Status 1729 36.4% 0.481 --

GPA 1595 1.577 1.024 0.0-4.40

Class Status 1688 17.4% .379 --

Age 1729 16.48 1.22 13-19

Mediating Variables
Anger 1698 1.87 .77 1-4

Depression 1698 2.40 0.77 1-4

Dependent Variables
Violence Perpetration 1681 39.8% .489










Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of Sample, by Gender
Variables FEMALES MALES
(N=719) (N=1010)
Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range

Independent Variables
Physical Abuse 19.9% 3.9 -- 18.26% 3.86 --

Sexual Abuse* 20.0% 4.0 -- 16% 1.61 --

Economic Dissatisfaction 2.36 0.655 1-4 2.34 0.66 1-4

Family Care 1.18 0.431 1-4 1.21 0.45 1-4

Academic Status 36.5% 4.81 -- 36.0% 4.8 --

GPA* 1.70 1.03 0.0-4.4 1.48 1.0 0.0-4.4

Class Status* 20.6% 4.05 -- 15.0% 3.57 --

Age 16.44 1.21 13- 19 16.51 1.22 13- 19

Mediating Variables
Anger 2.43 0.79 1-4 2.37 .757 1-4

Depression* 1.98 0.82 1-4 1.79 .722 1-4

Dependent Variable
Violence Perpetration* 24.3% 4.29 50.8% 5.00
* T-tests indicate significant differences between group mean values at p < .01.













Table 3. Correlation Matrix (Full Sample)
VARIABLES Economic Family Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Physical Violence
Dissatisfaction Care Abuse Abuse Prevalence
Economic
Dissatisfaction
Family Care .157**
p=.000

Age .000 -.042
p=.993 p=.086

GPA -.066** -.081** .080**
p=.009 p.001 p.001 --

Anger .045 .173** -.060* -.149**
p=.068 p=.000 p=.013 p .000

Depression .151** .261** -.047 -.029 .477**
p-.000 p .000 p .052 p .254 p .000

SexualAbuse .045 .080** -.035 -.004 .105** .166**
p=.070 p=.001 p .156 p .865 p .000 p=.000

P ..,,- l.. .081** .255** -.083** -.090** .171** .191** .177**
p=.001 p .000 p=.001 p=.000 p=.000 p=.000 p=.000

Violence .038 .191** .000 -.249** .273** .083** .014 .179**
Prevalence p=.119 p=.000 p .996 p .000 p .000 p=.001 p=.570 p=.000

**p<.01 *p<.05








70



Table 4. Correlation Matrix (Female Sample
VARIABLES Economic Family Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Physical Violence
Dissatisfaction Care Abuse Abuse Prevalence
Economic
Dissatisfaction
Family Care .203**
p=.000

Age .014 -.040
p=.706 p=.288

GPA -.112** -.084* .112**
p=.005 p=.033 p=.004

Anger .102** .209** -.045 -.115**
p=.007 p=.000 p=.234 p=.004

Depression .189** .356** -.059 -.018 .524**
p-.000 p .000 p=.114 p=.648 p .000

SexualAbuse .096* .150** -.054 -.061 .154** .188**
p=.012 p=.000 p=.151 p=.126 p .000 p=.000

P. A., r .. .095* .267** -.111** -.098* .145** .165** .252**
p=.013 p=.000 p .003 p .014 p .000 p=.000 p=.000

Violence .079* .233** -.037 -.237** .284** .132** .162** .219**
Prevalence p=.039 p=.000 p=.321 p .000 p .000 p=.000 p=.000 p=.000

**p<.01 *p<.05








71



Table 5. Correlation Matrix (Male Sample
VARIABLES Economic Family Age GPA Anger Depression Sexual Physical Violence
Dissatisfaction Care Abuse Abuse Prevalence
Economic
Dissatisfaction

Family Care .128**
p=.000

Age -.009 -.044
p=.776 p=.164

GPA -.036 -.074* .061
p=.271 p=.024 p=.060

Anger .003 .151** -.070* -.184**
p=.937 p=.000 p .028 P .000

Depression .122** .201** -.032 -.060 .436**
p .000 p .000 p .310 P .069 p=.000

SexualAbuse -.027 .028 .012 .000 .018 .066*
p=.401 p .390 p .701 P .993 p .587 p .042

Pu: ., A. '.. .071* .249** -.060 -.086** .191** .211** .087**
p=.028 p=.000 p .060 P .009 p=.000 p=.000 p .006

Violence .018 .163** .009 -.228** .301** .111** .036 .176**
Prevalence p=.575 p=.000 p .771 P .000 p=.000 p=.001 p=.259 p=.000


**p<.01 *p<.05









Table 6. Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (Full sample)
Model Model Model
1 2 3
Variable B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds
ratio ratio ratio
Sexual Abuse .497* .210 1.644 .403 .215 1.496 .470* .211 1.600
Family Abuse .732** .154 2.079 .626** .160 1.871 .693** .155 2.00
Academic .505** .134 1.657 .444** .138 1.558 .513** .134 1.671
Status
Economic -.098 .094 .907 -.093 .097 .911 -.118 .095 .888
Dissatisfaction
Family Care .713** .143 2.04 .610** .146 1.841 .655** .145 1.924
Age .033 .051 1.034 .051 .053 1.052 .038 .051 1.039
Class Status .302 .164 1.353 .321 .169 1.379 .294 .165 1.341
GPA -.348** .066 .706 -.309** .069 .734 -.347** .067 .707
Gender 1.314** .134 3.723 1.438** .140 4.214 1.345** .136 3.840
Anger .738** .084 2.092
Depression .205* .081 1.227
Constant -2.342 .887 .096 -4.41** .953 .012 -2.702 .899 .067
**p<.01 *p<.05










Table 7. Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (Females)
Model Model Model
4 5 6
Variable B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds
ratio ratio ratio


Sexual Abuse
Family Abuse
Academic
Status

Economic
Dissatisfaction

Family Care
Age
Class Status
GPA
Anger
Depression
Constant


**p<.01 *p<.05


1.681
1.858
1.883


.165 1.070


2.468
1.006
.859
.670


-2.387 1.60 .092


.418
.575*
.542*


.056


.758**
.011
-.153
-.407**
.722**


.246
.259
.233


1.519
1.776
1.719


.169 1.058


.238
.097
.271
.122
.137


2.135
1.012
.858
.666
2.059


-4.036 1.68 .18


.493*
.592*
.620**


.037


.779**
.018
-.170
-.422**


.246 1.638
.252 1.808
.228 1.859


.166 1.038


.242 2.180
.095 1.019
.264 .844
.119 .656


.257 .132 1.293
-2.824 1.62 .059
1


.244
.251
.227


.520*
.619*
.633**


.068


.904**
.006
-.152
-.401**


.232
.094
.263
.118









Table 8. Logistic Regression-Violence Perpetration (Males)
Model Model Model
7 8 9
Variable B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds B S.E. Odds
ratio ratio ratio
Sexual Abuse .287 .440 1.333 .251 .447 1.285 .263 .442 1.30
Family Abuse .815** .199 2.260 .664** .206 1.943 .778** .201 2.178
Academic .468** .166 1.597 .424* .172 1.528 .485** .167 1.625
Status

Economic -.205 .116 .815 -.193 .120 .825 -.219 .117 .803
Dissatisfaction

Family Care .573** .179 1.773 .500** .183 1.649 .551** .180 1.734
Age .046 .061 1.047 .070 .063 1.073 .049 .061 1.050
Class Status .626** .220 1.869 .657** .226 1.929 .621** .220 1.86
GPA -.32** .081 .726 -.26** .084 .774 -.31** .081 .732
Anger .752** .107 2.121
Depression .157 .105 1.170
Constant -.913 1.06 .401 3.08** 1.147 .046 -1.197 1.077 .302
**p<.01 *p<.05

















APPENDIX A
DELINQUENCY MEASURE

Violent Offenses (a = .90)

1. Scared someone with a knife.
2. Scared someone with a club or chain.
3. Scared someone with a gun.
4. Cut someone with a knife.
5. Hit someone with a club or chain
6. Shot someone with a gun.
7. Been in gang fight.















APPENDIX B
NEGATIVE EMOTIONS

Anger (a = .60)

1. I feel like hitting someone.
2. I get mad.
3. I get angry.
4. I fly off the handle.
5. I am hot headed.
6. I am quick-tempered.

Depression (a = .73)

1. I feel low.
2. I am lonely.
3. I feel sad.
4. I am unhappy.
5. I feel bad.
6. I am depressed.
7. I am lonesome.














APPENDIX C
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE SCALES

Economic Dissatisfaction (a = .76)

1. Do your parents have good jobs?
2. What is your parent's income?
3. Does your family have enough money to buy the things you want?

Family Care (a = .79)

1. Does your family about you?
2. Does your family care what you do?















LIST OF REFERENCES


Agnew, R. (1992). "Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency."
Criminology 30:47-87.

Agnew, R. (2001). "Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the
types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency." Journal ofResearch
in Crime and Delinquency 38:319-352.

Agnew, R. (2002). "Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain." Justice Quarterly
19:603-632.

Agnew, R., & White, H.R. (1992). "An empirical test of general strain theory."
Criminology 30:475-499.

Agnew, R., Brezina, T., Wright, J.P., & Cullen, F.T. (2002). "Strain, personality traits,
and Delinquency: Extending general strain theory." Criminology 40:43-72.

Alfaro, J.D. (1981). "Report on the relationship between child abuse and neglect and later
socially deviant behavior." In Hiram Fitzgerald, Barry Lester, and Michael
Yogman (eds.) Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics. Vol. 11. New York:
Plenum.

Allen, D., & Tamowski, K. (1989). "Depressive characteristics of physically abused
children." Journal ofAbnormal Child Psychology 17: 1-11.

Aseltine, R. H., Gore, S., & Gordon, J. (2000). "Life stress, anger and anxiety, and
delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory." Journal of Health and
Social Behavior 41:256-275.

Attara, B.K., Guerra, N.G., & Tolan, P.H. (1994). "Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful
life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children." Journal of
Clinical Child Psychology 23:391-400.

Bavolek, S.J. (1996). Research and validation report of the nurturing programs. Park
City, UT: Family Development Resources, Inc.

Berliner, L., & Elliott, D.M. (2002). "Sexual abuse of children." In J.E.B. Myers, L.
Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, C. Jenny (Eds.) The APSAC handbook on
child maltreatment (2nd ed., pp-55-78). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.









Bolton, F.G., Reich, J.W., & Gutierres, S.E. (1977). "Delinquency patterns in maltreated
children and siblings." Victimology 2:349-357.

Brezina, T. (1996). "Adapting to strain: An examination of delinquent coping responses."
Criminology 34:39-60.

Briere, J. (1989). Therapyfor adults molested as children. New York: Springer.

Briere, J., & Elliott, D.M., (2003). "Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-
reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of
men and women." ChildAbuse & Neglect 27:1205-1222.

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988). "Multivariate correlates of childhood psychological and
physical maltreatment among university women." ChildAbuse & Neglect 12:331-
341.

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1993). "Child sexual abuse: Long-term sequelae and implications
for psychological assessment." Journal ofInterpersonal Violence 8:312-330.

Briere, J., Evans, D., Runtz, M., & Wall, T. (1988). "Symptomatology in men who were
molested as children: A comparison study." American Journal of 01i ithpqy hi an y
58:457-461.

Broidy, L. (2001). "A test of general strain theory." Criminology 39:9-34.

Broidy, L., & Agnew, R. (1997). "Gender and crime: A general strain theory
perspective." Journal ofResearch in Crime and Delinquency 34:275-307.

Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). "Impact of child sexual abuse: a review of the
research." Psychological Bulletin 99:66-77.

Brown, J., Cohen, P., Johnson, J.G., & Smailes, E.M. (1999). "Childhood abuse and
neglect: Specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and
suicidability." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry 38:1490-1496.

Capowich, G. E., Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (2001). "General strain theory, situational
anger, and social networks: An assessment of conditioning influences." Journal of
Criminal Justice 29:445-461.

Chandy, J.M., Blum, R.W., & Resnick, M.D. (1996). "Gender-specific outcomes for
sexually abused adolescents." ChildAbuse & Neglect 20:1219-1231.

Chavez, E.L., Edwards, R., & Getting, E.R. (1989). "Mexican American and White
American school dropouts' drug use, health status, and involvement in violence."
Public Health Reports 104:594-604.









Chavez, E.L., Getting, E.R., & Swaim, R.C. (1994). "Dropout and delinquency:
Mexican-American and Caucasian non-Hispanic youth." Journal of Clinical
Psychology 23:47-55.

Chesney-Lind, M. (1998). Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Belmont, CA:
West/Wadsworth.

Child Maltreatment 2002: Reports from the Sates to the National Child Abuse and
Neglect Data Systems National statistics on child abuse and neglect. (2004). U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children &
Families.

Child Welfare League of America. (2005). Advocacy: National Fact Sheet 2005.
(Available online: http://www.cwla.org/advocacy/nationalfactsheet05.htm). June
2005.

Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent
gangs. New York: Free Press.

Cohen, A. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: Free Press.

Cyranowski, J.M., Frank, E., Young, E., & Shear, M.K. (2000). "Adolescent onset of the
gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression." Archives of General
Psychiatry 57:21-27.

Davis, J., & Petretic-Jackson, P.A. (2000). "The impact of child sexual abuse on adult
interpersonal functioning: A review and synthesis of the empirical literature."
Aggression and Violent Behavior 5:291-328.

De la Cancela, V. (1986). "A critical analysis of Puerto Rican machismo: Implications for
clinical practice." P.yJ hi theli py 23:291-296.

Dembo, R., Williams, L., Schmeidler, J., Berry, E., Wothke, W., & Getreu, A. (1992). "A
structural model examining the relationship between physical child abuse, sexual
victimization, and marijuana/hashish use in delinquent youth: A longitudinal
study." Violence and Victims 7:41-62.

Dembo, R., Wothke, W., Shemwell, M., Pacheco, K., Seeberger, W., & Rollie, M.
(2000). "A structural model of family problems and child abuse factors on serious
delinquency among youths processed at a juvenile assessment center." Journal of
Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 10:17-31.

Eckenrode, J., Laird, M., & Doris, J. (1993). "School performance and disciplinary
problems among abused and neglected children." Developmental Psychology
29:53-62.

Eitle, D. (2002). "Exploring a source of deviance-producing strain for females: Perceived
discrimination and general strain theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 30:429-442.









Eitle, D., & Turner, J. (2003). "Stress exposure, race, and young adult male crime."
Sociological Quarterly 44:243-269.

Farrington, D. (1991). "Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and
later life outcomes." In D.J. Pepler & K. Rubin (Eds.), The development and
treatment of childhood aggression (pp 5-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Feiring, C., Taska, L., & Lewis, M. (1999). "Age and gender differences in children's
and adolescent' adaptation to sexual abuse." ChildAbuse & Neglect 23:115-128.

Fergusson, D.M., Horwod, L.J., & Lynskey, M.T. (1996). "Childhood sexual abuse and
psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual
abuse." Journal of the American Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry
34:1365-1375.

Finkelhor, D. (1990). "Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update."
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 21:325-330.

Flisher, A.J., Kramer, R.A., Hoven, C.W., & Greenwald, S. (1997). "Psychosocial
characteristics of physically abused children and adolescents." Journal of the
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36:123-131.

Garbarino, J., & Plantz, M.C. (1986). "Child abuse and juvenile delinquency: What are
the links?" In James Garbarino (ed.) Troubled youth, troubledfamilies. New York:
Aldine de Gruyter.

Garnefski, N., & Arends, E. (1998). "Sexual abuse and adolescents maladjustment:
differences between male and female victims." Journal ofAdolescence 21:99-107.

Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R.F.W. (1997). "Child sexual abuse and emotional and
behavioral problems in adolescence: gender difference." Journal of the American
Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry 36:323-329.

Gover, A. (2004). "Childhood sexual abuse, gender, and depression among incarcerated
youth." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
48:683-696.

Harrison, P.A., Hoffman, N.G., & Edwall, G.E. (1989). "Sexual abuse correlates:
similarities between male and female adolescents in chemical dependency
treatment." Journal of Adolescent Treatment Research 4:385-399.

Hawkins, J.F., Catalano, R.F., & Brewer, D.D. (1995). "Preventing serious, violent, and
chronic juvenile offending: Effective strategies from conception to age 6." In
Howell JC, Krisberg B, Hawkins JD, Wilson JJ, (Eds.) Serious, violent and chronic
juvenile offenders: A sourcebook. (pp. 47-60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications.









Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., & Miller, J.Y. (1992). "Risk and protective factors for
alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications
for substance abuse prevention." Psychological Bulletin 112:64-105.

Hay, C. (2003). "Family strain, gender, and delinquency." Sociological Perspectives
46:107-135.

Herrera, V.M., & McCloskey, L.A. (2001). "Gender differences in the risk for
delinquency among youth exposed to family violence." ChildAbuse & Neglect
25:1037-1051.

Hoffman, J. P., & Su, S. (1997). "The conditional effects of stress on delinquency and
drug use: A strain theory assessment of sex differences." Journal of Research in
Crime andDelinquency 34:46-79.

Horwitz, A., Widom, C.S., McLaughlin, J., & White, H.R. (2001). "The impact of
childhood abuse and neglect on adult mental health: A Prospective study." Journal
of Health & Social Behavior 42:184-201.

Howing, P.T., Wodarski, J.S., Kurtz, P.D., Gaudin, Jr., J.M., & Herbst, E.N. (1990).
"Child abuse and delinquency: The empirical and theoretical links." Social Work
35:244-229.

Hussey, D.L., & Singer, M. (1993). "Psychological distress, problem behaviors, and
family functioning of sexually abused adolescent patients." Journal of the
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32:954-961.

Ireland, T.O., Smith, C.A., & Thornberry, T.P. (2002). "Developmental issues in the
impact of child maltreatment on later delinquency and drug use." Criminology
40:359-397.

Jang, S.J., & Johnson, B.R. (2003). "Strain, negative emotions, and deviant coping
among African Americans: A test of general strain theory." Journal of Quantitative
Criminology 19:79-105.

Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (1998). National survey results on
drug use from monitoring the future study, 1975-1997 vol. 1 Rockville, MD:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (Secondary school students).

Kaplan, S.J., & Pelcovitz, D. (1982). "Child abuse and neglect and sexual abuse."
Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5:321-332.

Kaufman, J. (1991). "Depressive disorders in maltreated children." Journal of the
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 30:257-265.

Kaufman, J. (2005). "Explaining the Race/Ethnicity-violence relationship: Neighborhood
context and social psychological processes." Justice Quarterly 22:224-251.









Kazdin, A., Moser, J., Colbus, D., & Bell, R. (1985). "Depressive symptoms among
physically abused and psychiatrically disturbed children." Journal ofAbnormal
Psychology 94:298-307.

Kazdin, A.E., Siegel, T.C., & Bass, D. (1992). "Cognitive problem-solving skills training
and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior." Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:733-747.

Kelly, J.A. (1983). Treating child-abusive families: Intervention based on skills-training
principles. New York: Plenum Press.

Kendall-Tackett, K.A., Williams, L.M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). "Impact of sexual abuse
on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies." Psychological
Bulletin 113:164-180.

Kercher, G.A., & McShane, M. (1984). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse
victimization in an adult sample of Texas residents." ChildAbuse andNeglect
8:495-501.

Kolko, D.J. (2002). "Child physical abuse." In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T.
Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment
(2nd ed., pp. 21-54). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Kolko, D.J., Moser, J.T., & Weldy, S.R. (1988). "Behavioral/emotional indicators of
sexual abuse in child psychiatric inpatients: a controlled comparison with physical
abuse." ChildAbuse andNeglect 12:529-541.

Koverola, C., Pound, J., Heger, A., & Lytle, C. (1993). "Relationship of child sexual
abuse to depression." ChildAbuse and Neglect 17:393-400.

Kratcoski, P.C., & Kratcoski, L.D. (1982). "The relationship of victimization through
child abuse to aggressive delinquent behavior." Victimology 7:199-203.

Leadbetter, B.J., Blatt, S.J., & Quinlan, D.M. (1995). "Gender-linked vulnerabilities to
depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents." Journal of
Research on Adolescence 5:1-29.

Lewis, D.O., Shanok, S.S., Pincus, J.H., & Glaser, G.H. (1979). "Violent juvenile
delinquents: Psychiatric, neurological, psychological and abuse factors." Journal of
the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 18:307-319.

Lindholm, K.J., & Willey, R. (1986). "Ethnic differences in child abuse and sexual
abuse." Hispanic Journal ofBehavioral Sciences 8:111-125.

Luster, T., & Small, S.A. (1997). "Sexual abuse history and problems in adolescence:
Exploring the effects of moderating variables." Journal ofMarriage and the
Family 59:131-142.









Malinosky- Rummell, R., & Hansen, D.J. (1993). "Long-term consequences of
childhood physical abuse." Psychological Bulletin 114:68-79.

Mazerolle, P. (1998). "Gender, general strain, and delinquency: Empirical examination."
Justice Quarterly 15:65-91.

Mazerolle, P., Burton, V.S., Cullen, F.T., Evans, D., & Payne, G.L. (2000). "Strain,
anger, and delinquent adaptations: Specifying general strain theory." Journal of
Criminal Justice 28:89-101.

Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1997). "Violent responses to situations of strain: A
structural examination of conditioning effects." Violence and Victims 12:323-344.

Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1998). "Linking exposure to strain and anger: An
Investigation of deviant adaptations." Journal of Criminal Justice 26:195-211.

McClellan, J., Adams, J., Douglas, D., McCurry, C., & Storck, M. (1995). "Clinical
characteristics related to severity of sexual abuse: A study of seriously mentally ill
youth." ChildAbuse and Neglect 19:1245-1254.

McCord, J. (1983). "A forty year perspective on child abuse and neglect." ChildAbuse
and Neglect 7: 265-270.

Mennen, F.E. (1995). "The relationship of race/ethnicity to symptoms in childhood
sexual abuse." ChildAbuse andNeglect 19:115-124.

Merton, R. (1938). "Social structure and anomie." American Sociological Review 3:672-
682.

Meyerson, L.A., Long, P.L., Miranda, R., & Marx, B. (2002). "The influence of
childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, family environment, and gender on the
psychological adjustment of adolescents." ChildAbuse & Neglect 26:387-405.

Mouzakitis, C.M. (1981). "An inquiry into the problem of child abuse and juvenile
delinquency." In Robert J. Hunter and Yvonne Elder Walker (eds.) Exploring the
Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency. Montclair, N.J.: Allanheld.
Osmun.

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (NCCANI). 2005.
(Available online: http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/). June 2005.

Neumann, D.A., Houskamp, B.M., Pollock, V.E., & Briere, J. (1996). "The long-term
sequelae of childhood sexual abuse in women: A meta-analytic review. Child
Maltreatment 1:6-16.

Normland, S., & Shover, N. (1977). "Gender roles and female criminality." Criminology
15:87-104.









Paternoster, R., & Mazerolle, P. (1994). "General strain theory and delinquency: A
replication and extension." Journal ofResearch in Crime andDelinquency 31:235-
263.

Patterson, G.R., DeBaryshe, B.D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). "A Developmental Perspective
on Antisocial Behavior." American Psychologist 44:329-335.

Peeples, F., & Loeber, R. (1994). "Do individual factors and neighborhood context
explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency?" Journal of Quantitative
Criminology 10:141-157.

Perez, D. (2005). "Specifying general strain theory: An ethnically relevant approach,"
Unpublished manuscript.

Perez, D. (2001). "Ethnic differences in property, violent, and sex offending for abused
and non-abused adolescents." Journal of Criminal Justice 29:407-417.

Peters, S.D. (1988). "Child sexual abuse and later psychological problems." In G. Wyatt
& G.J. Powell (Eds.), Lasting effects of child sexual abuse (pp. 101-118). Newbury
Park, CA: Sage.

Piquero, N. L., & Sealock, M. (2000). "Generalizing General Strain Theory: An
examination of an offending population." Justice Quarterly 17:449-488.

Piquero, N.L., & Sealock, M. (2004). "Gender and General Strain Theory: A preliminary
test of Broidy and Agnew's gender/GST hypotheses." Justice Quarterly 21:125-
158.

Polusny, M.A., & Follette, V.M. (1995). "Long term correlates of child sexual abuse:
Theory and review of the empirical literature." Applied & Preventive Psychology
4:143-166.

Ratican, K.L. (1992). "Sexual abuse survivors: Identifying symptoms and special
treatment considerations." Journal of Counseling & Development 71:33-38.

Rivera, B., & Widom, C.S. (1990). "Childhood victimization and violent offending."
Violence and Victims 5:19-35.

Salzinger, S., Feldman, R.S., Hammer, M., & Rosario, M. (1993). "The effects of
physical abuse on children's social relationships." Child Development 64:169-187.

Shaw, J.A., Lewis, J.E., Loeb, A., Rosado, J., & Rodriguez, R.A. (2001). "A comparison
of Hispanic and African American sexually abused girls and their families." Child
Abuse andNeglect 25:1363-1379.

Silver, L.B., Dublin, C.C., & Lourie, R.S. (1969). "Does violence breed violence?
Contributions from a study of the child abuse syndrome." American Journal of
Psychiatry 126:152-155.









Smith, C., & Thornberry, T.P. (1995). "The relationship between childhood maltreatment
and adolescent involvement in delinquency." Criminology 33:451-477.

Sorensen, S.B., & Siegel, J.M. (1992). "Gender, ethnicity, and sexual assault; findings
from a Los Angeles study." Journal of Social Issues 48:93-104.

Steele, B. (1976). "Violence in the family." In Ray E. Helfer and C. Henry Kempe (eds.)
Child abuse and neglect: The family and community. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.

Steffensmeier, D., & Steffensmeier, R. (1980). "Trends in female delinquency."
Criminology 18:62-85.

Turner, R.J., Wheaton, B., & Lloyd, D.A. (1995). "The epidemiology of social stress."
American Sociological Review 60:104-125.

Warrix, M.B., & Bocanegra, M. (1998). "Keys to building successful training programs
for Hispanic family day care providers." Journal of Extension 36,6. (Available
online: http://www.joe.org/joe/1998december/a4.html). March 2006.

Watt, T.T., & Sharp, S.F. (2002). "Race differences in strains associated with suicidal
behavior among adolescents." Youth & Society 34:232-256.

Weller, S.C., Kimbal-Romney, A., & Orr, D.P. (1987). "The myth of a sub-culture of
corporal punishment." Human Organization 46:39-47.

Wick, S.C. (1981). "Child abuse as a causation of juvenile delinquency in central Texas."
In Robert J. Hunter and Yvonne Elder Walker (eds.) Exploring the relationship
between child abuse and delinquency. Montclair, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun.

Widom, C.S. (1989a). "Child abuse, neglect, and violent criminal behavior." Criminology
27:251-271.

--------. (1989b). "The cycle of violence." Science 244:160-166.

--------. (1989c). "Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature."
Psychological bulletin 106:3-38.

--------. (1991). Childhood victimization: Risk factor for delinquency." In Mary Ellen
Cotton and Susan Gore (eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences. New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Williamson, J.M., Bourduin, C.M., and Howe, B.A. (1991). "The ecology of adolescent
maltreatment: a multilevel examination of adolescent physical abuse, sexual abuse,
and neglect." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59:449-457.

Wilson, W.J. (1985). "Cycles of deprivation and the underclass debate." Social Service
Review 59:541-559.






87


Zingraff, M.T., Leiter, J., Myers, K.A., & Johnson, M.C. (1993). "Child maltreatment
and youthful problem behavior." Criminology 31:173-202.

Zingraff, M.T., Leiter, J., Johnson, M.C., & Meyers, K.A. (1994). "The mediating effect
of good school performance on the maltreatment-delinquency relationship. Journal
ofResearch in Crime and Delinquency 31:62-91.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jennifer Matheny grew up in the small town of Madisonville, Kentucky. After

graduating high school, she moved to Lexington, Kentucky, to attend the University of

Kentucky and become a Wildcat. Not truly knowing what career to pursue but knowing

she wanted to help people, Jennifer graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in both psychology

and sociology. After working for a couple years, she decided to return to school and

attend the University of Florida and become a Gator. She will earn her Master of Arts

degree in criminology, law, and society in May of 2006.