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Current Status of String Teacher Education at University Music Teacher Training Schools in Turkey

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013902/00001

Material Information

Title: Current Status of String Teacher Education at University Music Teacher Training Schools in Turkey
Physical Description: 1 online resource (250 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: education, music, string, teacher, turkey, university
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of undergraduate string teacher education curriculum in Turkish universities in both eastern and western regions. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Turkish string teacher education were investigated through an intensive literature review and a survey. Seventy-one string professors at nineteen university music teacher training schools in Turkey were sent a questionnaire for the purpose of this investigation. The questionnaire was based on the following subjects: (1) the types of courses in the string teacher training area; (2) the nature of the teaching methodologies used in the string education courses; (3) the existing problems in the string teacher education curriculum; (4) the strengths in the area; and (5) the necessary changes and reforms that should be implemented to improve the level of Turkish string teacher education. Sixty-one of the professors (85.92%) responded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in the application of the centralized string teacher education curriculum in universities in eastern and western Turkey. Some of these differences are: (1) the number and the quality of string faculty; (2) the conditions of teaching facilities; (3) the use of Turkish music in instructional level; and (4) the number and weekly hours of string education courses. According to the respondents in both regions, the string teacher education curriculum should be restructured and new courses in string teacher training (such as String Skills/Techniques, String Methods, String Laboratory, Public School Orchestra Conducting and Public School Orchestra Literature) should be added to the curriculum. Based on these findings, a model undergraduate curriculum for string teacher education was developed and included at the end of the study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Brophy, Timothy S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0013902:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013902/00001

Material Information

Title: Current Status of String Teacher Education at University Music Teacher Training Schools in Turkey
Physical Description: 1 online resource (250 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: education, music, string, teacher, turkey, university
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of undergraduate string teacher education curriculum in Turkish universities in both eastern and western regions. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Turkish string teacher education were investigated through an intensive literature review and a survey. Seventy-one string professors at nineteen university music teacher training schools in Turkey were sent a questionnaire for the purpose of this investigation. The questionnaire was based on the following subjects: (1) the types of courses in the string teacher training area; (2) the nature of the teaching methodologies used in the string education courses; (3) the existing problems in the string teacher education curriculum; (4) the strengths in the area; and (5) the necessary changes and reforms that should be implemented to improve the level of Turkish string teacher education. Sixty-one of the professors (85.92%) responded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in the application of the centralized string teacher education curriculum in universities in eastern and western Turkey. Some of these differences are: (1) the number and the quality of string faculty; (2) the conditions of teaching facilities; (3) the use of Turkish music in instructional level; and (4) the number and weekly hours of string education courses. According to the respondents in both regions, the string teacher education curriculum should be restructured and new courses in string teacher training (such as String Skills/Techniques, String Methods, String Laboratory, Public School Orchestra Conducting and Public School Orchestra Literature) should be added to the curriculum. Based on these findings, a model undergraduate curriculum for string teacher education was developed and included at the end of the study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Brophy, Timothy S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0013902:00001


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1 CURRENT STATUS OF STRING TEACHER EDUCATION AT UNIVERSITY MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN TURKEY By D LEK GKTRK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Dilek Gktrk

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3 To my parents Kadir and Gl en Gktrk and the sunlight of my life, Christopher Wiley Cary

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are several persons whom I thank for their generous help and support in the preparation of this dissertati on: my committee members Dr. Timo thy S. Brophy as my chair, and Dr. Camille M. Smith, Dr. Arthur Newman and Dr. Jennifer Thomas as my members, and all my professors at the School of Musi c and the School of Education who helped me to come to this point. I would also like to thank to my profe ssors in Turkey who encouraged me to pursue graduate studies in the United States to become an academician. Furthermore, the string professors at university music teacher training schools in Turkey have my gratitude for their participation and assist ance with this study. I have always been grateful to have wonderful friends both in Turkey and the United States but one of them is the most special for me. Edwa rd James Gresham deserves more than gratitude. I acknowledge him for his faith in me and moral support. Eddie is one of the people who made this project real. I also want to thank my friend Dr. Carl Jeff Boon, who read my document thoroughly and helped me to improve it. At last, I send my thanks to my parents in Turkey, Kadir and Gl en Gktrk, who have given me love and support throughout my life, a nd I thank Christopher Wiley Cary, for being the sunlight of my life and for his endless help with all aspects of this project, for his encouragement, patience,and love. He is the reason this study was completed.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ........12ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................13CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................15Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .18Need for the Study..................................................................................................................19Purpose and Significance of the Study...................................................................................20Definitions of Terms........................................................................................................... ....21Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........22Benefits of the Study..............................................................................................................22Summary.................................................................................................................................232 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................24Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........24General Music Teach er Education.......................................................................................... 24Historical Development of the Genera l Music Teacher Education Curriculum............. 24Curriculum Development................................................................................................ 27Summary of Research Findings Related to General Music Teacher Education............. 32String Teacher Education.......................................................................................................33Historical Development of the String Teacher Education Curriculum........................... 33Anatolian High Schools of Fine Arts.............................................................................. 34Curriculum Development................................................................................................ 35Regional Differences in String Teacher Education......................................................... 37Studies Related to the Inclusion of Turk ish Music in the String Teacher Training Curriculum...................................................................................................................38Research Related to Violin Instru ction at the University Level......................................41Research Related to Cello Instru ction at the University Level.......................................43Summary of Research Findings Rela ted to String Teacher Education........................... 453 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES............................................................................. 47Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........47Participants.............................................................................................................................47Preliminary Study.............................................................................................................. .....48Questionnaire Development...................................................................................................49Data Collection.......................................................................................................................50Summary.................................................................................................................................51

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6 4 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................52Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........52Demographics on Universities and Regional Differences...................................................... 52Quantitative Results................................................................................................................53Section 1: String Skills/Techniques Courses................................................................... 53Question #1..............................................................................................................53Findings for Question #1..........................................................................................53Question #2..............................................................................................................54Findings for Question #2..........................................................................................54Question #3..............................................................................................................54Findings for Question #3..........................................................................................54Question #4..............................................................................................................55Findings for Question #4..........................................................................................55Question #5..............................................................................................................55Findings for Question #5..........................................................................................55Section 2: String Met hods/Pedagogy Courses................................................................ 57Question #6..............................................................................................................57Findings for Question #6..........................................................................................57Question #7..............................................................................................................57Findings for Question #7..........................................................................................57Question #8..............................................................................................................58Findings for Question #8..........................................................................................58Question #9..............................................................................................................58Findings for Question #9..........................................................................................58Question #10............................................................................................................59Findings for Question #10........................................................................................ 59Section 3: Private Lesson Instruction.............................................................................. 60Question #11............................................................................................................60Findings for Question #11........................................................................................ 60Question #12............................................................................................................60Findings for Question #12........................................................................................ 60Question #13............................................................................................................60Findings for Question #13........................................................................................ 61Question #14............................................................................................................61Findings for Question #14........................................................................................ 61Question #15............................................................................................................62Findings for Question #15........................................................................................ 62Section 4: String Laboratory Courses..............................................................................66Question #16............................................................................................................66Findings for Question #16........................................................................................ 66Question #17............................................................................................................66Findings for Question #17........................................................................................ 67Question #18............................................................................................................67Findings for Question #18........................................................................................ 67Summary of the Findings for the Closed-Format Questions.................................................. 67Qualitative Results............................................................................................................ ......68

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7 Section 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of the Current Undergraduate String Education D egree Program.......................................................................................... 68Question #19....................................................................................................................69Findings for Question #19........................................................................................ 69Question #20............................................................................................................71Findings for Question #20........................................................................................ 71Section 6: Suggestions for Improving th e Undergraduate String Education Degree Program........................................................................................................................72Question #21............................................................................................................72Findings for Question #21........................................................................................ 73Question #22............................................................................................................73Findings for Question #22........................................................................................ 73Question #23............................................................................................................73Findings for Question #23........................................................................................ 74Question #24............................................................................................................74Findings for Question #24........................................................................................ 74Question #25............................................................................................................75Findings for Question #25........................................................................................ 75Question #26............................................................................................................75Findings for Question #26........................................................................................ 75Summary of the Findings for the Open-Ended Questions...................................................... 785 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSI ONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................... 86Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........86Data Collection.......................................................................................................................86Findings..................................................................................................................................86Discussion of Research Question #1...............................................................................87Discussion of Research Question #2...............................................................................88Discussion of Research Question #3...............................................................................89Discussion of Research Question #4...............................................................................92Discussion of Research Question #5...............................................................................96Issues.....................................................................................................................................101Implications for Music Education and Recommendations................................................... 102Future Research....................................................................................................................103Conclusions...........................................................................................................................104APPENDIX A LIST OF PARTICIPANTS...................................................................................................108B SAMPLE RESPONSE FROM THE PRELI MINARY SURVEY (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH)....................................................................................................................... .....114C SAMPLE RESPONSE FROM THE PRELI MINARY S URVEY IN ORIGINAL TURKISH.............................................................................................................................116

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8 D RIDVAN SERS QUESTIONNAIRE (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH) .......................... 118E RIDVAN SERS QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL TURKISH................................... 134F QUESTIONNAIRE IN ENGLISH....................................................................................... 152G QUESTIONNAIRE IN TURKISH....................................................................................... 161H COVER LETTER #1 FOR STRING PROFESSORS.......................................................... 170Cover Letter #1 in English....................................................................................................170Cover Letter #1 in Turkish...................................................................................................172I REMINDER LETTER #1 FOR STRING PROFESSORS ................................................... 174Reminder Letter #1 in English.............................................................................................. 174Reminder Letter #1 in Turkish............................................................................................. 175J REMINDER LETTER #2 FOR STRING PROFESSORS ................................................... 176Reminder Letter #2 in English.............................................................................................. 176Reminder Letter #2 in Turkish............................................................................................. 177K FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS....................................................................................... 178L RESPONSES FROM STRING PROFESSO RS T O OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH).......................................................................................... 180SECTION 1: String Skills /Techniques Courses...................................................................180Question #4....................................................................................................................180Question #5....................................................................................................................180SECTION 2: String Met hod/Pedagogy Courses..................................................................181Question #9....................................................................................................................181Question #10..................................................................................................................181SECTION 3: Private Lesson Instruction..............................................................................181Question #14..................................................................................................................181Question #15..................................................................................................................183Violin method books.............................................................................................. 183Viola method books............................................................................................... 184Cello method books................................................................................................ 184Double bass method books..................................................................................... 185SECTION 4: String Laboratory Courses..............................................................................185Question #18..................................................................................................................185SECTION 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of th e Current Undergraduate String Education Degree Program................................................................................................................185Question #19..................................................................................................................185a.Changes in the curricular structure such as the following:................................. 185b.The use of more contemporary instructi onal materials such as the following:.. 186

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9 c.The increased use of string teaching me thods from other countries such as the Rolland and Suzuki methods........................................................................ 187d.Other strengths:...................................................................................................187Question #20..................................................................................................................188SECTION 6: Suggestions for Improving th e Undergraduate String Education Degree Program.............................................................................................................................190Question #21..................................................................................................................190Question #22..................................................................................................................191Question #23..................................................................................................................191Question #24..................................................................................................................192Question #25..................................................................................................................193Question #26..................................................................................................................194M ORIGINAL TURKISH RESPONSES FROM ST RING PROFESSORS TO OPENENDED QUESTIONS.......................................................................................................... 201BLM 1: Yayl alg Becerisi/Teknikleri Dersi............................................................... 201Soru 4.............................................................................................................................201Soru 5.............................................................................................................................201BLM 2: Yayl alg Metotlar /Pedagojisi Dersi.............................................................202Soru 9.............................................................................................................................202Soru 10...........................................................................................................................202BLM 3: Bireysel alg Dersi E itimi.............................................................................202Soru 14...........................................................................................................................202Soru 15...........................................................................................................................204Keman Metotlar ....................................................................................................204Viyola Metotlar .....................................................................................................205Viyolonsel Metotlar ..............................................................................................205Kontrabas Metotlar ................................................................................................206BLM 4: Yayl alg Laboratuar Dersi........................................................................... 206Soru 18...........................................................................................................................206BLM 5: Gnmzde niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E itiminin Gl ve Zay f Taraflar .............................................................................................................................206Soru 19...........................................................................................................................206a. retim program ndaki a a da belirtilen de i iklikler:.................................... 206b.Daha fazla gncel yayl alg retim materyallerinin a a da belirtilen ekillerdeki kullan m :........................................................................................207c.Rolland ve Suzuki gibi yabanc kkenli yayl alg retim metotlar n n artan kullan m ....................................................................................................208d.Di er gl yanlar:............................................................................................. 208Soru 20...........................................................................................................................209BLM 6: niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E itiminin Geli tirilmesi iin neriler......211Soru 21...........................................................................................................................211Soru 22...........................................................................................................................212Soru 23...........................................................................................................................213Soru 24...........................................................................................................................213Soru 25...........................................................................................................................214

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10 Soru 26...........................................................................................................................215N UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM OF MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN ENGLISH..................................................................................................... 222Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs (2006)........................... 223Definitions of the String Courses in Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs.............................................................................................................225First Semester................................................................................................................ 225Violin I...................................................................................................................225Viola I.....................................................................................................................225Violoncello I........................................................................................................... 225Double bass I..........................................................................................................225Second Semester............................................................................................................225Violin II..................................................................................................................225Viola II................................................................................................................... 225Violoncello............................................................................................................. 226Double bass............................................................................................................226Third Semester............................................................................................................... 226Violin III, Viola III, Violon cello III, Double bass III............................................ 226Fourth Semester............................................................................................................. 226Violin IV, Viola IV, Violon cello IV, Double bass IV........................................... 226Fifth Semester................................................................................................................226Violin V, Viola V, Violoncello V, Double bass V................................................. 226Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble I............................................................................. 226Sixth Semester............................................................................................................... 227Violin VI, Viola VI, Violon cello VI, Double bass VI........................................... 227Orchestra/Chambe r Ensemble III:..........................................................................227Seventh Semester...........................................................................................................228Violin VII, Viola VII, Violoncello VII, Double bass VII...................................... 228Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble III........................................................................... 228Eighth Semester............................................................................................................. 228Violin VIII, Viola VIII, Viol oncello VIII, Double bass VIII................................. 228Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble IV........................................................................... 228Conducting Musical Ensembles:............................................................................ 229O UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM OF MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN TURKISH ..................................................................................................... 230Mzik retmenli i Lisans Program (2006).......................................................................231Mzik retmenli i Lisans Program Yayl alg Derslerinin Tan mlar ...........................233I. Yar y l........................................................................................................................233Keman I..................................................................................................................233Viyola I...................................................................................................................233Viyolonsel I............................................................................................................ 233Kontrabas I............................................................................................................. 233II. Yar y l.......................................................................................................................233

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11 Keman II.................................................................................................................233Viyola II................................................................................................................. 234Viyolonsel II........................................................................................................... 234Kontrabas II............................................................................................................234III. Yar y l......................................................................................................................234Keman III, Viyola III, Viyol onsel III, Kontrabas III.............................................. 234IV. Yar y l......................................................................................................................235Keman IV, Viyola IV, Viyol onsel IV, Kontrabas IV............................................. 235V. Yar y l.......................................................................................................................235Keman V, Viyola V, Viyolonsel V, Kontrabas V.................................................. 235Orkestra/Oda Mzi i I...........................................................................................235VI. Yar y l......................................................................................................................236Keman VI, Viyola VI, Viyol onsel VI, Kontrabas VI............................................. 236Orkestra/Oda Mzi i II.......................................................................................... 236VII. Yar y l....................................................................................................................236Keman VII, Viyola VII, Viyol onsel VII, Kontrabas VII....................................... 236Orkestra/Oda Mzi i III.........................................................................................237VIII. Yar y l...................................................................................................................237Keman VIII, Viyola VIII, Viyolonsel VIII, Kontrabas VIII.................................. 237Orkestra/Oda Mzi i IV......................................................................................... 237Mzik Topluluklar E itimi ve Ynetimi...............................................................238P MODEL UNDERGRADUATE STRING TE ACHER TRAINING CURRICUL UM FOR MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS.............................................................. 239Model Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs........................... 240Definitions of the String Pedagogy and Stri ng Teaching Methods Courses in the Model Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs................................... 242Fifth and Sixth Semesters.............................................................................................. 242String Skills and Techniques..................................................................................242Seventh Semester...........................................................................................................243String Methods and Pedagogy................................................................................243Public School Orchestra Literature........................................................................244Eighth Semester............................................................................................................. 244String Laboratory...................................................................................................244Public School Orchestra Conducting.....................................................................245LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................247BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................252

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12 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Demographic data for string professors (N = 71) an d survey respondents ( N = 61) by university ( N = 22) and region.......................................................................................... 804-2 Number of string skills /techniques courses by region....................................................... 804-3 Number of hours per we ek that string skills/techni ques courses meet by region.............. 814-4 Skills taught in string skills/techniques courses by region................................................ 814-5 Number of string methods/pedagogy course s required for string education majors by region.................................................................................................................................824-6 Number of hours per we ek that string methods/peda gogy courses meet by region..........824-7 Topics discussed in string methods/pedagogy courses by region......................................834-8 Number of private lessons by region................................................................................. 834-9 Skills taught in private lessons by region..........................................................................844-10 Number of string labor atory courses by region................................................................. 844-11 Number of hours per week that st ring laboratory courses meet by region........................ 85

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CURRENT STATUS OF STRING TEACHER EDUCATION AT UNIVERSITY MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN TURKEY By Dilek Gktrk May 2008 Chair: Timothy S. Brophy Major: Music Education The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of undergraduate string teacher education curriculum in Turkish universities in both eastern a nd western regions. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesse s of Turkish string teacher education were investigated through an intensive literature review and a survey. Seventy-one string professors at nineteen university music teacher training schools in Turkey were sent a questionnaire for the purpose of this investigation. Th e questionnaire was based on the following subjects: (1) the types of courses in the string t eacher training area; (2) the natu re of the teaching methodologies used in the string education courses; (3) the existing problems in the string teacher education curriculum; (4) the strengths in the area; and (5) the necessary changes and reforms that should be implemented to improve the level of Turk ish string teacher education. Sixty-one of the professors (85.92%) responded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in the application of the centralized string teacher education curricul um in universities in eastern and western Turkey. Some of these differences are: (1) the number a nd the quality of string faculty; (2) the conditions of teach ing facilities; (3) the use of Turkish music in instructional level; and (4) the number and weekly hours of string education courses. According to the respondents in both regions, the string teacher ed ucation curriculum should be restructured and

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14 new courses in string teacher tr aining (such as String Skills/Techniques, String Methods, String Laboratory, Public School Orchestra Conducting and Public School Orchestra Literature) should be added to the curriculum. Based on these findi ngs, a model undergraduate curriculum for string teacher education was developed and included at the end of the study.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Republic of Turkey was established on October 29, 1923, by Mustafa Ke mal Atatrk (1881-1938). Following the foundation of a new government based upon secular democratic principles, Atatrk initiated ag gressive programs of social a nd cultural changes. Educational reform was one of the first areas he addre ssed (Karal, 1966). Although hi s educational proposals were based upon European models, Atatrks po licies stressed the importance of a strong national identity as the primary foundation fo r his new educational system (Williamson, 1987). The need to balance Turkish identity with western modernism is arguabl y the most challenging aspect of Turkish educational policies in modern days (Ba gz & Wilson, 1968; zeke, 2003). Nowhere is this challenge more evident than in the evolving curricula of Turkish public schools, colleges and universities. Music teacher education at the collegiate level in Turkey wa s first offered in 1924 at the Mus k Muallim Mektebi [Music Teacher Training School] in Ankara, the newly established capital of Turkey. The purpose of this educational institution wa s to prepare students to become general music instructors in the secondary schools (Yayla, 2004). The programs success inspired the Ministry of Edu cation to establish collegiate music teacher training schools in various regions throughout Turk ey. Consequently, the number of independent higher-education music institutions gradually increased to the present number of twenty-two (zeke, 2003). In 1982, these schools became known as E itim Fakltesi Mzik Blm [Music Teacher Education Schools]. In 1997, they were again renamed as E itim Faklteleri Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal [Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments] (Yayla, 2004; Akp nar, 2002; entrk, 2001; zeke, 2003). Approximately 1,100 music education students ar e currently enrolled at these schools.

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16 One of the founders of the Music Teacher Training School in Ankara was Eduard Zuckmayer (1890-1972), a German composer pianist and music educator (Tebi 2002). He was invited to organize the foundation of the instit ution along with the famous German composer Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) (Tebi 2002). Although Zuckmayer stayed in Turkey to teach at the Music Teacher Training School in Ankara until his death in 1972, Hindemith only lived in Turkey for five months between 1935 and 1937. In 1938, the schools name was changed to the Gazi Terbiye/E itim Enstits ve Mzik ubesi [Gazi Education Institute and Music Branch], which provided music teacher training until 1978 (Tebi 2002; Bulut, 2004). The curriculum at the school consisted primarily of music theory and instrumental training. Violin, piano, flute and cello were offered and all students were requi red to learn to play at least one of these instruments. Other courses were gradually added as follows (Yayla, 2004): Music Courses: Music Theory, Harmony, Composition, Counterpoint, Music History, Solfege, Ear Training, Choir, Instrumental Ensembles, Musical Forms, Vocal Studio, Musical Interpretation, Piano Accompaniment, and Instrument Care General Culture Courses: Turkish Litera ture, History, Geography, Psychology, Chemistry, Mathematics, German, French, Art, and Rhythmic Gymnastics Education Courses: History of Educati on, Psychology of Education, Sociology of Education, and Teaching Methods The six-year program of study wa s divided into four years of preparation for secondary school teaching and two years of preparation for vo cational school teaching. All students had to complete this six-year program to become music teachers. After 1978, all music teacher training took place at the Gazi Yksekretmen Okulu Mzik ubesi [Gazi Higher Teacher Education School Musi c Branch] (Yayla, 2004). Additional courses were added to the curriculum at that time, including Conducting, Musi cal Analysis, Turkish Classical Music, Traditional Folk Music, Art History, History of Atat rks Principles, and Measurement and Evaluation.

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17 In 1979, the Ministry of Education further ma ndated that the followi ng electives also be added to the curriculum (Yayla 2004): Philosophy of Educati on, Educational Administration, History of Turkish Education, Comparative Educ ation, Educational Tech nology, Statistics, and Special Education. In 1982, Gazi Higher Teacher Education School Music Branch merged with the Gazi E itim Fakltesi Mzik E itimi Blm [Gazi Faculty of Education Music Department] and became a four-year teacher trai ning program. The currriculum at Gazi University Music Education Department was similar to that of the Gazi Higher Teacher Education School Music Branch. The music curriculum was revised again in 1997, and the courses were grouped according to the following specialization areas (Yayla, 2004; http://www.yok.gov.tr /egitim /ogretmen/muzik.doc ): (1) instrumental music education; (2) vocal music education; and (3) music theory. Some new courses were also offered such as Turkish Folk Dances, Vocal Instruction Methodologies, and Vocal Health. There are currently twenty-two university mu sic teacher training schools in Turkey that prepare students to teach at the secondary school le vel. Some of these schools also offer Masters and Doctoral degrees in music. Most of these gr aduate programs are offe red in universities found in the western regions of Turkey. The eastern region of Turkey differs from th e western region in terms of culture, economy and lifestyle. Eastern Turkey is mo re rural and more traditional, whereas western Turkey is more industrialized. Turkish folk music is widely he ard and performed in the eastern region while European music and ideas are more accepted in the western region (ztosun & Akgl-Bar 2004; Sker, 2006). Moreover, as a part of the cultur e, clothing is less co nservative in the west than the east. These characteristics also influence the educational approaches at university music

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18 teacher training schools. For example, Turkish mu sic and folk instruments are more popular in eastern institutions, but in western universities students perform more European art music (Treyin, 2004; ztosun & Akgl-Bar 2004; Yceland, 2007). Although Turkish music is widely accepted and respected in both regions, the music students and professors in the east favor Turkish folk and art music more than Western classical musi c (Yceland, 2007). This approach shapes the orchestral/choral repertoire at these schools as well as the intrumental repertoire (Sa er, 2006). A major educational challenge in the eastern pa rt of the country is that an insufficient number ( N = 2) of universities existed in this re gion until the mid-1990s (zeke, 2003). Since the largest number of univers ities existed in the western part of Turkey before the mid-1990s (N = 6 in the western region, N = 2 in the eastern region), many easte rn students who desired to pursue a college degree had to leave their home towns to achieve their goals. The government, however, has been establishing new universities in the eas tern region to educate more eastern Turkish students in their home towns (Yayla, 2004; entrk, 2001). This initiative has allowed the government to close the educati onal gap between the eastern and the western regions of Turkey. Music teacher training schools have also been fo unded in the eastern region for similar reasons. Training students in eastern Turkey and assigni ng them to serve as music teachers in their geographical regions were the primary objectiv es of these new music institutions (Tebi 2002). However, the low number of qualified music faculty members (more specifically, string faculty members) and the limited facilities of these schools created new challenges (Tebi 2002; ilden, 2003; ilden & Ercan, 2004). Statement of the Problem In the present study, the curren t status of st ring teacher education in Turkey (in both eastern and western regions) was investigated and evaluated from a cu rricular perspective.

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19 Contemporary scholars have identified severa l weaknesses in undergra duate string teacher education at the collegiate level. These problems and references are discussed in the Need for the Study section of this chapter. The structure of th e curriculum was cited by several researchers as the main reason for the deficiencies in this area of education (Ser, 1980; Uan, 1982; Yayla, 2003; zeke, 2003; Uslu, 2000; Tebi 2004; zen, 2005; Kasap, 2005; Sker, 2006). Other problems include insufficient facilities and the lack of well-trained instructor s, particularly in the eastern universities. These deficiencies have had an adverse effect on the overall quality of string teacher education at the co llegiate level in Turkey. Need for the Study The quality of string teacher education in Tu rkey has become an im portant concern for teachers and researchers, who have responded by writing numerous studies on the subject (ilden, 2003; ilden & Ercan, 2004; Tebi 2001; Tebi 2002; zen, 2005). These studies isolated several problems in string teacher edu cation (These problems will be discussed in Chapter 2 in great detail). However, few offered so lutions to strengthen string instruction at the university level. Although the number of studies investigatin g string teacher education has increased, current research has been insufficient to stimulate creative measures to address these issues. Moreover, most researchers have focused on only one instrument in the string family, as teaching all string instruments in one class is not a practice in Turkey. Researchers mainly discussed only the instrument that they learne d, and they demonstrated little familiarity with other string instruments (Tebi 2001; Tebi 2002; Tebi 2002a; Torlular, 2005; endurur, 2001; endurur, 2001a; Burubatur, 2006; Gler, 2006). Cons equently, the current status of string teacher education has not been adequately investigated. Based on research studies (Albuz, 2004; zen, 2004), the most compelling challenges facing string educators at the collegiate level are inadequate training facilities and outdated

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20 teaching methods used in the string teacher educ ation programs. Researchers contended that the current curriculum was comprised of a series of separate courses that were unrelated and lacked specific goals (Tebi 2001). The overall level of violin instruction at the universities is also problematic, and there is a notable lack of quality tools that are available to measure student success in reaching curriculum goals (Tebi 2004). The desire of college string players to become performers rather than pedagogues is another challenge. Students in the teaching programs are trained in the same manner as perfor mers and often lack the pedagogical skills that they need to become effective music teach ers. The emphasis on training music education students in the same manner as performers may be attributed to the fact that many string professors at the university le vel encourage their students to be performers rather than pedagogues (Ser, 1980; zeke, 2003). These problems alone indicate that th ere is a great need for string education reform. Most importantly, the clear differen ces between eastern and western music teacher training schools such as insuffici ent facilities and the small number of string faculty are also significant (Yceland, 2007; ztosun & Bar 2004; Sker, 2006). Purpose and Significance of the Study New and effective strategies m ust be proposed to address issues raised by contemporary scholars. The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of the undergraduate string teacher education curriculum and to prepare a mode l curriculum at the collegiate level in Turkey. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Turkish music educational system were investigated. The data collected from the study was used to develop a model curriculum and compile a series of recommendati ons for educational reform regarding string teacher education at the undergraduate level. Po tential reforms include the adoption of current string teaching methods from other countries (such as the Suzuki and Rolland methods),

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21 modernizing Music Education Divisions in the Fine Arts Education Departme nts, particularly in the eastern part of Turkey, and developing teache r training collaborations with other countries. The following question guided this study: What are the differences in string teacher education in the eastern and western regions in Turkey? The fo llowing sub-questions also guided the study: 1. What types of courses are offered in the string teaching area at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Educati on Departments at the Turkish universities? 2. What is the nature of the teaching methodologi es that are used in the string education courses at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments in Turkish universities? 3. What are the existing problems in Turkish string teacher trai ning curriculum? 4. What are the strengths of the existing string teacher training curriculum at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments in Turkish universities? 5. What changes and reforms should be implemented to improve level of Turkish string teacher education? Since changes and developments should be offered as solutions to problems, the current status of string teacher educati on in Turkey was investigated in the first four sub-questions. Based on these answers, the fifth research quest ion addressed the necess ary changes and reforms in the string teacher education curriculum. The primary question was then answered based on the findings for the sub-questions. This study is significant because it repres ents the most recent and comprehensive examination of string teacher education in Turkey. This book-length study also proposes concrete suggestions in terms of curriculum de velopment as to how such education could be improved. Definitions of Terms The f ollowing definitions were relevant to the present study:

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22 The Republic of Turkey: modern-day Turkey that wa s established on October 29, 1923 after the War of Independence String Techniques course: a course that is primarily desi gned to develop basic performance skills on the four orchestral string instruments, violin, viola, cello, and double bass String Methods course: a course that is primarily designe d to acquaint students with string class teaching materials and methods Private lesson instruction: individual instruction on a one to one basis with an applied music teacher String laboratory courses: a course that focuses primarily on the performance of public school orchestral literature Music Education Divisions of Univers ity Fine Arts Education Departments: four-year higher education institutions wher e undergraduate students are tr ained to be music teachers String faculty: the instructors and professors who t each string instruments at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments at the twenty-two universities in Turkey String methods and materials: the books and techniques that are being used by the string faculty at the Music Education Divisions of Un iversity Fine Arts Education Departments at the twenty-two universities in Turkey Limitations The param eters of the study include the following limitations: The study is limited to an examination of the string teacher education curriculum at the collegiate level. The study is limited to the string faculty at th e Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments at the universities in Turkey. Benefits of the Study This study is beneficial for several reasons. First, the results provi ded inform ation about the types of courses that are currently offere d in string education and the types of teaching methods that are used in the courses. Second, th e results identified re cent problems in string teacher training and analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the existing string teacher training curriculum at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments at

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23 Turkish universities. Most importantly, the results proposed cha nges to improve the quality of string teacher education in Turkey through the de velopment a model curriculum. This curriculum contains more pedagogy courses that u tilize new string class teaching methods. Summary This study com pared the differen ces in string teacher educati on in the eastern and western regions of Turkey. It also identified the streng ths and weaknesses of the string teacher education curriculum at the Music Education Divisions in th e University Fine Arts Education Departments. Recommendations were made as to how these weaknesses could be elim inated and the overall quality of string teacher education improved. Finally, a model curriculum was developed that could be used at all the music teacher training schools in Turkey.

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24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This chapter presents res earch that is related to music teacher education and string teacher education in Turkey at the unive rsity level. The studies provid ed valuable information about curriculum development as it affects the overall quality of teacher education. Studies related to string teach er education are grouped together as follows: (1) the historical development of string teacher educa tion; (2) general music teacher education as it relates to string teacher educatio n; (3) regional differences in string teacher education in the eastern and western regions of Turkey; (4) the types of teachi ng pedagogy that are used in the string education courses; (5) vio lin and cello instruction at th e university level; and (6) the inclusion of Turkish music in the st ring teacher education curriculum. General Music Teacher Education Studies th at examined the historical devel opment of general music teacher education in Turkey as well as those that are related to curriculum development are discussed in this section of the literature review. Historical Development of the Genera l Music Teacher Education Curriculum Studies related to the h istorical developm ent of the general mu sic teacher education curriculum include those by entrk (2001), Yayla (2004), K knc (2004), Bulut (2004) and Sa er (2006). entrk (2001) provides an overview of th e historical development of general music teacher education in Turkey in her article She describes the first music teacher training school established in Ankara in 1924 and the type of curriculum used at that school to train general music teachers. Initiall y, music teachers were trained to teach at the elementary and secondary levels. However, after the 1970s, only secondary school music teachers were trained

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25 at these schools. This change was a result of the music workshops that were offered for the elementary classroom teachers in 1989, 1990, 1992, 1994 and 1997 that made it possible for them to teach music (nal, 1988). This change affected the music teacher curriculum because elementary music courses were no longer needed. entrk (2001) concludes her article by pointing out the critical role that music teachers play in the education of children. According to her, music teachers shape students through teaching national and humanistic values with music. Yayla (2004) discusses the development of ge neral music teacher education curriculum developed from the establishment of the Repub lic in 1923 to the pres ent in his symposium report. He describes the goals of the university music teacher training sc hools that differed in various time periods. The primary goal of these institutions has always been the training of music teachers for secondary level public schools. Over time, other goals were added such as the training of inspectors and principals for prim ary and secondary schools. Yayla (2004) also examined the structure of the general music teach er education curriculum and found that some of the same courses, such as ear training, solfege, theory, choir, choral conducting, vocal training, and music history, had been part of the curr iculum since the schools were established. Yayla (2004) believes that the general mu sic teacher educatio n curriculum does not adequately prepare students to t each music in the public schools and feels that it needs to be restructured. He suggests ways th at this can be done such as increasing the number of music teacher training schools and professors. He further recommends that the teaching facilities need to be upgraded and changes need to be made in the curriculum structure. Kknc (2004) presents a brief historical overview on the modern ization movements in Turkey that led to the inclusion of western music in the general music teacher education curriculum in his symposium report. He describe s that such music was also included in the

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26 public school curriculum and makes several recommendations on improving the quality of general music teacher educati on, including increasing the number of university music teacher training schools, adapting different teaching me thods from other countries, and using technology in music classes. Bulut (2004) provides an excellent historical overview of music teacher training at the Gazi E itim Enstits (Gazi Education Institute) betw een 1937 and 1980 in his symposium report. The reason that Bulut (2004) selected this specific time period was because of the important changes that took place during these years. Muski Muallim Mektebi [Music Teacher School] was opened in 1924 as the first music teache r training institution in Turkey, but after the separation of the State Conservatory in 1936 th e name of this school was changed to the Gazi Education Institute Bulut (2004) divides his discussion into th e following time periods: (1) the years from 1937 to 1951, when the training was mediocre due to the lack of qualifie d professors; (2) the years from 1952 to 1975, when teacher seminars and workshops were added to the curriculum; and (3) the years from 1975 to 1980 that were charact erized by political chaos. During this time period, the seminars and workshops were removed from the curriculum. Because of the musical content and the information, these seminars and wo rkshops were helpful for music teachers to be more competent in their area, and the elimination of them had an adverse effect on the quality of music teacher education. Sa er (2006) describes the political and social changes that a ffected general music teacher education in Turkey from 1923 to the present in his article. He discu sses how these changes transformed the music education curriculum at all educational levels during the Republic Era. Among the changes he cites are the following: (1) music teacher training schools and

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27 conservatories were establishe d; (2) European musicians were brought to Turkey to provide more contact with western music; (3) young Turkis h musicians were sent to European countries for musical training and after they returned to Turkey they created a polyphonic/symphonic style of Turkish music that influenced music teach er education curriculum development; and (4) professional symphony orchestras we re founded. In adder ition, Sa er (2006) discusses how Turkish art music was banned from the school curriculum because it was considered primitive and outdated. During the 1950s, this music was broa dcast on the radio, but it was more than two decades before it was again included in the school curriculum. Sa er (2006) recommends that a combination of Turkish and western art music be included in the music education curriculum because it exposes students to a wide variety of musical styles. All four of these studies were important fo r the purposes of this study because they provided valuable information about the historical development of the general music teacher education curriculum in Turkey. In addition, they further provided suggestions as to how music teacher education could be improved at the co llege level. The histor ical knowledge and the suggestions they provide are helpful in eval uating the current situation of music teacher education in the present study. These recommen dations are also important for the model curriculum that is presented at the end of this research. Curriculum Development Studies related to general m usic teacher curr iculum development are these by Ser (1980), Uan (1982), Yayla (2003), zeke (2003), Tre yin (2004), and Albuz (2005). Ser (1980) examined the general music teacher education curriculum at university music teacher training schools in his dissertation. He developed a questionnaire that contained fifty closed-format questions to gather information about the goa ls, curriculum content and teaching methodologies and sent it to 966 respondents that included pub lic school general music teachers, university

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28 music professors and senior students at music teacher training schools. At the time he conducted his study, only four universities offered music teacher training in cities of Ankara, stanbul, zmir, and Ayd n. A total of 702 respondents (73%) returned the questionnaire. The findings identified several weaknesses in these curricula such as: (1) the lack of connection between the existing curriculum and c ourse content; (2) the emphasis that was placed on training performers rather than music teacher s; (3) inadequate facilities; and (4) pedagogy courses that did not use public school teaching materials. Ser (1980) used these findings to prepare a m odel curriculum that included more Turkish folk music to better acquaint students with their national culture. He also recommended separating music area courses, such as major instrument, piano and ear training from other courses, such as educational ps ychology, history and literature. A ccording to him, during the first two years the curriculum should include more gene ral courses but in last two years more music area courses should be offered. He further suggested that more workshops should be offered for both university music professors and public scho ol music teachers. He believed that music students at the college level should be given mo re opportunities to study abroad so they could become better acquainted with new teaching methods. Ser (1980) further recommended that high schools should be established that offer professional musica l training. This recommendation paved the way for the establishment of the Anatolian high schools of fine arts. Uan (1982) examined the relationships betwee n first-year music educ ation students test scores on university entrance examinations, their audition ratings and their final grades in the music courses. He chose the students at the Gazi Secondary Music Te acher Training School as subjects. He developed two separate tests, the first to measure the students success at the end of each semester, and the other to measure their overa ll success level at the end of the year. Uan

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29 (1982) found that no relationships existed between the pedagogy courses and the other music courses. His findings also indicated that the music teacher training curriculum was outdated and should be revised. Uan (1982) concluded that seve ral steps needed to be taken to improve the overall quality of the curriculum. Among these, he recommende d that a committee of experts in curriculum development be organized to revise the genera l music teacher training curriculum. Like Ser (1980), Uan (1982) also believed that the educ ational facilities needed to be improved. He further suggested that more emphasis should be placed on the practical application of course material to actual teaching situations, and that future public school music teachers should serve internships in the schools. Yayla (2003) developed a questi onnaire to study the structural changes in music teacher education in his resear ch and sent it to the following universities: Gazi in Ankara, Marmara in stanbul, Dokuz Eyll in zmir, Uluda in Bursa, Seluk in Konya and Abant zzet Baysal in Bolu. A total of 81 music education professors pa rticipated in the study w ith a return rate of 95%. The results indicated that the general musi c teacher education curriculum lacked clearly stated goals and was poorly structured and out dated. Respondents also pointed out that new measurement tools needed to be developed, more re search studies needed to be conducted in this area of education, more adequately trained instructors needed to be hired, and the performance dominated curriculum needed to be cha nged to include more pedagogy courses. Based on his findings, Yayla ( 2003) recommends that the curriculum at university music teacher training schools be divided into separate subdivisions such as kindergarten music teacher training, elementary music teacher training, and secondary music teacher training because it makes it possible for students to focus on their ow n teaching specialties. He also suggests that

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30 the pedagogical aspects of the music teacher ed ucation curriculum need to be strengthened. According to Yayla (2003), more research assistan ts should be hired and be tter teaching facilities also need to be provided. Fi nally, Yayla (2003) suggests that more collaboration should be established with univers ities in other countries so there can be a continual exchange of pedagogical ideas. zeke (2003) examined the weaknesses of th e music teacher training curriculum in her doctoral dissertation by conducting in terviews with music education professors at four of the oldest music teacher training schools in Turkey: Gazi University /Ankara, Marmara University / stanbul, Dokuz Eyll University / zmir, and Uluda University /Bursa. She pointed out that the 1980-1981 academic year was critically im portant in music teacher education curriculum development because of structural changes th at occurred at the music teacher training institutions. Prior to 1981, these schools were independent three-year institutions. During the 1981-1982 academic year, they beca me four-year music instituti ons that were tied to the universities. zeke (2003) finds the follo wing curricular weaknesses in the general music teacher training curriculum: the lack of pedagogy courses, the lack of pr actical teaching experiences, the lack of research in music education, the lack of clearly stated educationa l goals, and the use of a centralized curriculum that did no t take regional differences in to account. zeke (2003) makes several recommendations to remedy these proble ms. First, she suggest s that a professional general music teacher as sociation be established that woul d provide information about current teaching methods and materials. Second, she recommends that more teaching pedagogy workshops and seminars be offered for undergradua te music students. Third, she supports more field-based teaching experiences for music educati on students. Finally, she believes that more

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31 collaboration should be developed with music educa tion professors in other countries so that the curricula can be continually infused with new ideas. Treyin (2004), in her symposium report, states that several changes need to be made in the general music teacher educ ation curriculum. She recommends that the music education divisions in Fine Arts Education Departments be placed in seperate departments that are called Music Teacher Education Departments. She also advocates that conservatories and Music Teacher Education Departments should be housed together under the name of Music Academies so students can transfer between the two areas of study. In addition, Music Teacher Education Departments should offer the following majo rs: Early Childhood/Preshool Music Teacher Education, Elementary School Music Teacher E ducation, and Secondary School Music Teacher Education. These curricula should differ from one another. Also, Secondary School Music Teaching majors should be assigned to teach at th e Anatolian high schols of fine arts after they graduate from the teacher training programs. Fi nally, more emphasis should be placed on the practical rather than theoretical aspects of music teacher training. Based on these recommendations, Treyin (2004) prepared a model curiculum that stimulated music teachers to be more creative and helped the students expre ss themselves musically. This crurriculum also prepared them to think analytically and intr oduced them to different teaching materials. Albuz (2005) identifies problems in general musi c teacher education at the university level in his article. Among these weaknesses are inade quate training facilities, the use of outdated teaching methods and the fragmented structure of the curriculum that consists of a series of unrelated courses such as music theory, musi c history, performance, and pedagogy courses. According to Albuz (2005), all the unrelated co urses should be combined into a cohesive whole and teaching laboratories shou ld be included as an integr al part of all music teacher

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32 education curricula. He recommends that colla borations be developed with music education professors from other countries so new teaching methods and materials could be adapted for use in Turkey. Albuz (2005) further suggests th at the music teacher education programs be reevaluated more frequently to insure th at the overall quality is maintained. The research literature stated above is im portant for the purposes of the present study because it provides information about the curre nt weaknesses in the general music teacher education curriculum. It also provides specific information as to how these weaknesses might be remedied. Summary of Research Findings Related to General Music Teacher Education The previou sly cited studies related to gene ral music teacher edu cation point out four major weaknesses in the current curriculum. The firs t of these is the lack of clearly defined goals to guide curriculum development. This situation leads to a curriculum that is comprised of a series of unrelated courses. Yayla (2004) and Albuz (2005) both discuss this problem in depth in their studies. The second weakness centers on th e effects structural changes in music teacher education have had on curriculum development. Yayla (2 004) points out that as new music teacher specialties were added, the new curriculum was not developed to reflect these changes. Ser (1980), Uan (1982) and Albuz (2005) discuss this problem at great length in their studies. The third main problem is the use of out dated teaching methodologies in the pedagogy courses. zeke (2003), Treyin (2004) and Albu z (2005) all discuss this problem in their findings. zeke (2003), in partic ular, points out that more pedagogy workshops need to be offered that can be used to introduce future music teachers to contemporary music teaching methods.

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33 Finally, the fourth weakness is related to the emphasis that is placed on training performers rather than music teachers (Ser, 1980; zek e, 2003; Treyin, 2004). This situation has done little to prepare students to teach general music in the public schools. Other weaknesses that are iden tified as problems are inadequa te facilities, the lack of research in this area of music teacher educatio n, the lack of measurement tools to evaluate student progress, and the need to develop new curri cula for the teacher education specialties that reflect the regional differences (eastern and west ern) in the music teach er training schools in Turkey. The next section of this chapter presents the research that is specifically related to string teacher education and points out how many of these same weaknesses affect curriculum development in this area of Turkish music teacher education. String Teacher Education This section of the chapter deals with the l iterature that is related to string teacher education in Turkey including (1 ) the historical development of the string teacher education curriculum; (2) the Anatolian high schools of fine arts; (3) curriculum de velopment; (4) regional differences in string teacher educ ation; (5) the inclusi on of Turkish music in the curriculum; (6) violin instruction at the university level; and (7 ) cello instruction at the university level. Historical Development of the Stri ng Teacher Education Curriculum Literature related to the historical developm ent of the stri ng teacher education curriculum includes the research by Akp nar (2002). He discusses how the string workshops that were held in stanbul in 1951 and Ankara in 1963 affected string teacher education. According to Akp nar (2002), these workshops had a positive impact on th e quality of string teac her programs at the university level because famous Turkish performe rs who had studied in Europe conducted them and demonstrated the teaching techniques they ha d learned there. Many of the string professors

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34 who taught in Turkish music teacher training sc hools attended these workshops and integrated what they had learned into their teaching pedagog y. These changes in turn, led to the revision of the string teacher edu cation curriculum. Akp nars (2002) article provide s valuable information about the early history of string teacher education in Turkey. Anatolian High Schools of Fine Arts ilden (2003), and ilden and Ercan (2004) de scribe how the weakne sses in string teacher training at the university level affected the quality of string in struction at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts in their re port. These public schools were es tablished in Turkey in 1989 to prepare string students to study at the university level. The curriculum was developed by merging those of the science high schools and the conservatories. ilden (2003) points out that the quality of the string instruction at these schools is not very high because the teachers lack the necessary skills. According to her, the quality of string teacher training is the most important reason for this problem. She also points out another reason why she believes the quality of the instrumental instruction is questionable at these schools. Since the teaching demands at these schools are very high, few string education graduates choose careers as string educators, creating a severe sh ortage of string teachers at these schools. She recommends that the curricula at both these educational levels be revised to eliminate this weakness. ilden (2003) further suggests that summer string teaching education workshops be offered so that string teachers and college string students from Turkeys different regions can share information about different string teaching methods. In their symposium report, ilden and Ercan (2004) also question the quality of the university string teacher training curriculum. They state that the emphasis placed on the performance requirements at the expense of th e pedagogy courses produces public school string teachers who are ill-prepared to teach at the lower educational le vels. The weak preparation of

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35 these teachers creates a spiral effect. Poor quality instruction at the university level leads to poor quality instruction at the high school level. The so lution to this problem is directly related to string teacher curriculum developm ent at the university level. They further suggest that more workshops need to be offered for stri ng teachers and college string students. Both these symposium reports point out the connection between the quality of the instruction at the music teacher training schools and at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts, and the role the teacher training curriculum at the university level play in both. Curriculum Development Studies related to string teacher curriculum development at the university level include those by Uslu (2000), Tebi (2004), zen (2005), Kasap (2005), and Sker (2006). In his article, Uslu (2000) advocates the inclusi on of media courses in the stri ng teacher education curriculum. He thinks that instructional videos, sound record ings, Internet, and television and radio programs can be used to teach string instruments and that string teachers should be trained to use these important tools in classroom settings. According to Uslu (2000), since every child in Turkey does not have the opportunity to learn to play a string instrument, media tools can be used to remedy this problem. He believes that professi onal musicians should be invited to present programs on television to musically educate you ng children. In addition, he recommends that music festivals, contests and live discu ssions about music be broadcast frequently. Tebi (2004) conducted the only study that examined the measurement tools that were used to assess student progress in meeting the stated goals of the string curriculum in her symposium report. She discusses the measurement and evaluati on tools that have been used since the first music teacher training school was established. According to Tebi (2004), many of the problems in Turkish string teacher education can be traced to the lack of quality measurement t ools to measure student success. Since the main

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36 method of string instruction in Turkish university music teacher training schools is private lesson instruction, she feels it is diffi cult to objectively assess student pr ogress and to keep instructor bias out of the assessment process. Tebi (2004) found that many of these tests were outdated and did not accurately measure student learning. She believes that these weaknesses affect the overall quality of string teacher training and recommends that every music teacher training school immediately form a committee of string faculty members to develop new measurement tools. zen (2005) examined how the use of out dated teaching methodologies affected the quality of string instruction at al l educational levels in her article. She believes that this is a major weakness in the string teacher training cu rriculum and recommended that more pedagogy courses should be required that introduce di fferent string pedagogy such as the Suzuki and Rolland methods. According to zen (2005), this can make it possible for string teachers to provide more efficient instruction. Although the Suzuki Method has been used in Japan since 1946 and in the United States since 1964 Kasap (2005) states that it is a new teaching method in Turkey. She discusses the main points of this method in her article such as the basic philosophy, its goals, the types of instructional materials that are used, the purpose of the group classes, and the importance of the teacher-parent-student triangle. Kasap (2005) recommends the use of Suzuki Method in Turkey because she believes in the effectiv eness of this teaching approach. Sker (2006) discusses the violin methods that are currently used at Abant zzet Baysal University in her masters thesis. She sent a questionnaire to violin teachers who taught at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts and at university music teacher training schools ( N = 25) in this region of Turkey. In her questionnaire, sh e asked the participants to rate the existing

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37 curriculum. Sker (2006) used these findings to develop a model st ring teacher education curriculum and tested it with first-year violin students at Abant zzet Baysal University Based on the findings, Skers (2006) model curriculum included topics that the Anatolian high schools of fine arts curriculum lack such as basic right and left hand techniques, violin tuning, and basic bow techniques. She found that the model curr iculum she developed based on the ratings by string professors was more effective in teaching ba sic performance skills th an the one used at the university. The previously cited studies dealt with spec ific weaknesses in string teacher education such the inadequate use of media sources in the classroom, the lack of contemporary measurement tools to assess student progress, and the use of outdated string teaching methodologies in the curriculum. Regional Differences in String Teacher Education Although regional differences exist in string te acher education in Turkey, only two studies ztosun and Akgl-Bar (2004), and Yceland (2007) deal with this issue. ztosun and AkglBar (2004) conducted a study that exam ined the ach ievement level of the current first-year violin curricula goals at Abant zzet Baysal University, located in the western region of Turkey. Its curriculum stressed the acquisition of bot h performance skills and knowledge about the stylistic characteristics of composers. They asked seven first-year violin students to demonstrate their mastery of the stated curriculum goals a nd found that they all me t the basic performance goals, but needed more time to solidify these skills. Based on these results, the researchers recommended that the development of basic techni cal skills should be stre ssed more in the firstyear of study. Yceland (2007) examined the goals of the firstyear violin cu rriculum in three universities that are located in the eastern region of Turkey: Atatrk University in Erzurum, Harran

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38 University in anl urfa and Yznc Y l University in Van. He asked firstyear violin (education) students to play scales and etudes to demonstrate their mast ery of the basic performance requirements. Yceland (2007) f ound that while they had mastered these requirements, most were unable to answer questions about the stylistic characteri stics of various composers. These studies illustrate how string teacher education differs in the eastern and western regions of Turkey. Although the same string teacher education curriculu m is used at music teacher training schools in both regions, the application differs primarily in its focus. Both performance and musicological knowledge are ta ught in the schools in the western region; however, those in the eastern re gion focus primarily on the acquisi tion of performance skills. Studies Related to the Inclusion of Turkish Music in the String Teacher Trainin g Curriculum In this section of the chapter, the reviewed sources relate specifically to the inclusion of Turkish music in the university string teacher education curriculum. They include studies by Albuz (2000), Akp nar (2001), Bulut (2001), Ece (2002), Nacakl (2004), and Ko (2007). One of the earliest studies in this area of research was conducted by Albuz (2000) for his doctoral dissertation. The purpose of this study was to create a viola repertoire that included Turkish folk music. First, he developed a questionn aire that contained questions about the addition of modal exercises in viola method books and admini stered it to the viola professors at Gazi University He found that they all favored th e inclusion of such music in th e viola curriculum. Albuz (2000) also composed modal melodies and asked viola students at Gazi University to perform them. He used the following criteria to evaluate th eir performances: rhythmic accuracy, intonation, technical skills, shifti ng, modal interpreta tion and musical unity. Base d on his observations, he found that they had no difficulty performing thes e melodies and that their performances of western art music were not adversely affected Albuz (2000) supports the inclusion of traditional

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39 Turkish music and Turkish modal etudes in the vi ola curriculum at the collegiate level. His research indicates that Turkish music can be used effectively in string instruction. Akp nar (2001) conducted a similar study for hi s dissertation. He surveyed violin professors at Turkish music teacher training schools (N = 39) and select violin students ( N = 50) to determine how they felt about the inclusion of such music in the vi olin curriculum. Akp nar (2001) found that both groups favored the addition of Turkish folk music in the violin curriculum and concluded that this music should be incl uded in violin method books because violin instructors could easily implement these simple pieces in classroom settings. Akp nar (2001) recommends developing new Turkish violin met hod books that include Turkish folk music. Bulut (2001) also examined the inclusion of Turkish folk musi c in the violin curriculum. He surveyed violin professors and students at Cumhuriyet University to find out how they felt about the inclusion of halay dance music in the string teacher training curriculum. Bulut (2001) found that they favored the inclusion of this music in the curriculum and that there was a connection between the modal exercises and beginning violin method books. Based on these findings, Bulut (2001) concludes that Turkish folk music could be successfully included in the university violin curriculum He recommends that Turkish folk music be arranged for string orchestra and chamber music ensembles so it coul d be used as educatio nal tools to acquaint students with the music of their own country. Ece (2002) investigated the use of contemporar y Turkish music in the viola curriculum at university music teacher training schools. He developed a questionnaire that contained the following questions: Were they familiar with the viola music by contemporary Turkish composers? Did they teach such music to their students? Why did they think that this music was not included in the viola curriculum?

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40 He sent this questionnaire to viola professors (N = 50) at university music teacher training schools, conservatories, Anatolian high schools of fine arts and music de partments at private universities. Eces (2002) results indicated that very few of these professors knew much about this music and did not teach it to their students. They cited three main reasons why they did not think that this music should be included in viol a curriculum. First, it was not easy to find the scores. Second, it was too difficult to play. Third, few of the pieces had piano accompaniments. He recommends that recordings be made of th is music and distributed to university viola professors so they can become more familiar with this music and teach it to their students. Nacakl (2004) also advocates the inclusion of Turkish music in the string curriculum in his study. He arranged seventy Turkish folk songs from different regions of Turkey and asked university viola students to perform them. Nacakl (2004) found that they had no difficulty in playing these pieces and recommended that they be included in the viol a curriculum because of their irregular rhythmic patterns th at are characteristic of Turkish folk music. He suggests that such music can be integrated into the stri ng education curriculum through the use of his arrangements of this music. Kos (2007) masters thesis provides the most recent source of information about the inclusion of Turkish folk musi c in the string teacher educatio n curriculum. He focused on the folk music from the Van region of Turkey and collected and arranged seventy-seven of these songs for violin. He, then, wrote a method book th at explained that how this music should be performed. According to Ko, Turkish folk music should be included in the violin curriculum at the university level. He believes that these ar rangements would be an asset to string teacher education and recommends that further research is needed to determine how Turkish folk music can be included in the string t eacher education curriculum.

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41 The string researchers previously cited f ound that Turkish folk music and music by contemporary Turkish composers could be succes sfully incorporated into the string teacher education curriculum and proposed specific suggestions as to how this could be accomplished. Research Related to Violin Inst ruc tion at the University Level Tebi (2001, 2002, 2002a), Torlular (2005), and endurur (2001, 2001a) all examined the quality of violin instruction at the university level. Tebi (2001) is concerned with raising the overall level of violin instruction at the univers ity level and wants to identify factors that are critically important to such in struction in her study. She conducted interviews with university violin professors ( N = 49) to obtain this information and f ound that they considered the following to be crucial to quality instruction: determining instructional goals, discussing these goals with the students, performing etudes and pieces for st udents, modeling technical skills, evaluating each students technical development, and di scussing their strengths and weaknesses. She recommends that violin professors follow a well-sequenced curriculum that teaches technical skills one at a time and students should not be re quired to play pieces and etudes that are too difficult for them to master. In another article, Tebi (2002) discusses the balance between the num ber of string faculty and students at the college level. She prepared a ta ble that listed the numbe r of violin professors and and students at each university to obtain this information. Based on the data in this table, Tebi (2002) found that each string professor was required to teach eightee n students and other out-of field courses. According to her, this situation results in an extremely heavy teaching load and lowers the overall quality of the string instruction. She also found that some universities did not have any string faculty while others had seve ral. She cites several other weaknesses in the violin instruction program such as the use of a limited repertoire that was not suitable for use in the public schools, the limited studio instruction hours, and th e use of an outdated string

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42 education curriculum that did not include methods and exercise s that could be used with beginning level students. Based on this information, Tebi (2002) makes the following recommendations to upgrade the quality of the instruction. More violin profes sors need to be hired to correct the overload problem and more teaching assistants should be em ployed to assist the violin professors. Also, she suggested that string professors should be sent abroad to study di fferent string teaching methods and the violin literatur e that is used at the univers ity level should contain both professional level pieces and music that can be used with beginning level students. Finally, she recommended that studio hours should be extended so that string educatio n students are able to take two lessons a week. Tebi (2002a) also examined the use of the violin in general music classrooms in her another study. She randomly selected one hundred public school general music teachers from the Ankara region and asked them to indicate whethe r they used the violin in their classroom instruction. The findings showed th at they rarely used it in their classrooms because not enough easy folk songs were included in the method boo ks. She concludes that college string students who plan to teach general music in the public sc hools should be trained to perform folk songs. According to her, more Turkish folk songs should be included in the univ ersity violin curriculum and method books. In her masters thesis, Torlular (2005) discus ses the quality of violin instruction at the university music teacher training schools. She deve loped a questionnaire that contained questions about the various teaching methods and approaches that were used by the violin professors. She administered it to the violin professors at fifteen university music teacher training schools ( N = 36) and six conservatories ( N = 10). Her results indicated that al l forty-six participants believed

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43 that new method books and teaching materials need ed to be developed. The professors at the music teacher training schools thought that the in formation on technical skill development in the violin method books was not explic it enough; however, those at th e conservatories felt that the explanations were sufficient. Most of the participants also indi cated that there was a lack of Turkish music in the method books. Based on thes e findings, Torlular (2005) recommends that the string teacher training curri culum should be changed to incl ude more pedagogy courses that deal with these topics and that more Turkish music should be included in the method books. endurur (2001) examined the efficiency of various violin teaching methods with students of varying ability levels in hi s article. He believes that physic al, psychological and personality differences affected the students ov erall progress. Therefore, he stat es that it is not realistic to expect all students to reach the same level of success. He categorized the following learning differences: the rate at which they mastered basi c technical skills, the various plateau levels, and sudden leaps in learning. According to endurur (2001), different teach ing approaches should be used to solve these problems and university st ring students should be introduced to these approaches in pedagogy courses. endurur (2001a) also discusses effective prac tice techniques. He provides useful practice tips such as setting practice goals, working on speci fic passages, and listening to recordings of the pieces they were learning. He further r ecommended that modeling what the teacher had demonstrated during their lessons would be an effective practice technique. Research Related to Cello Instruction at the University Level Two studies rela ted to cello instruction at th e college level are thos e by Burubatur (2006), and Gler (2006). Burubatur (2006) examined the me thods, exercises and etude s that are used in first-year cello instruction at university music teacher training sc hools in his masters thesis. He developed a questionnaire for this purpose and sent it to all th e cello instructors (N = 16) at

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44 fourteen of the university musi c teacher training schools. The que stionnaire contained questions about the most preferred cello methods, the num ber of etudes in different method books, and the type of accompaniments that were included in each method book. Based on the results, Burubatur (2006) f ound that the following books were used most often for first year-cello instru ction at the university level: Dotzauer-113 Violoncello Etuden /Books I-II Feuillard 60 Etudes Du Jeune Violoncelliste Praktische Violoncello Schule by Joseph Werner DotzauerVioloncello Schule /Books I-II Sebastian Lee -Melodische und Progressive Etden Fr Violoncello Sebastian Lee-12 Melodische Etden Fr Violoncello According to Burubatur (2006), the tw o main method books among these were Praktische Violoncello Schule by Joseph Werner and Dotzauers Violoncello Schule/Books I-II because they both presented new bow techniques and shifting in similar ways, both stressed the importance of shifting from first to fourth position, and they bo th presented useful scale and arpeggio exercises. He feels that a cello method book is needed that includes Turkish folk melodies because few methods exist that contain such music. In her masters thesis, Gler (2006) examined the types of ce llo methods that are used at the university music teacher training schools. Li ke Burubaturs (2006), Glers (2006) goal was to identify the most commonly used cello books at these institutions. For this purpose, she interviewed the cello professors at eighteen of these schools dur ing the 2004-2005 academic year and found that the Dotzauer-113 Violoncello Etuden and Sebastian Lee-Melodische und Progressive Etden Fr Violoncello were the two most often used method books. Gler (2006) then classified the etudes and exercises in thes e two books according to the development of left

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45 and right hand techniques and difficulty levels. The author states that her study can be used as a data base for cello teachers and further suggests that this type of examination should be completed for other cello method books. The previous discussion of violin and cello instruction at the unive rsity level provides excellent information about the status of applied music instruction at the university music teacher training schools. In addition, it also makes recommendations as to how the quality of such instruction can be improved. Specific suggest ions are given that indicate how these improvements can be implemented. Summary of Research Findings Rela ted to String Teacher Education Five m ajor weaknesses in the string teacher e ducation curriculum were identified in the previously cited literature. Th e first of these was the use of outdated teaching methods and pedagogy courses. As zen (2005) points out, more pedagogy courses that introduce future string teachers to new teaching me thodologies need to be included in the curriculum. ilden and Ercan (2004) also discuss how this weakness affects the quality of string instruction at the lower educational levels. This situation is similar to that which exists in general music teacher education. The second weakness centers on th e poorly sequenced curriculum that is comprised of a series of unrelated courses. As Tebi (2004) points out, this situati on was due largely to the lack of measurement tools that can be used to as sess student learning. Sh e recommends that new measurement tools be developed to remedy this weakness. This problem is also common to general music teacher education. The third weakness is related to the emphasis th at is placed on perf ormance at the expense of pedagogy courses. As ilden and Ercan (2004) point out, this situation produced string teachers who are ill-prepared to teach at the lower educational levels. They recommend that

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46 more pedagogy courses be added to the curriculum to remedy th is problem. Kasap (2005) also suggests that new teaching methods need to be added to the curriculum such as the Suzuki and Rolland methods. The general music teacher edu cation curriculum also lacks courses that introduce students to contemporary teaching methods. The fourth weakness is related to the lack of Turkish music in the string teacher training curriculum. Bulut (2001) points out that such music can be successfully included in the curriculum. Ece (2002) also states that Turkis h music should be includ ed because it introduces string students to the irregular r hythmic patterns that are found in Turkish folk music. According to Nacakl (2004) and Ko (2007), there is a need for new violin method books that include Turkish folk songs. Finally, the curricular differences in the music teacher training schools which are located in the eastern and western regions of Turkey affect the overall quality of string teacher training. No curriculum currently exists that reflect s these differences. ztosun and Akgl-Bar (2004) and Yceland (2007) make this point in their studies. It was therefore the goal of the present study to develop a model string teacher training curriculum that would take these differences into account.

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47 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES Introduction This chapter describ es the research approach that was used to collect and analyze the obtained data. A preliminary questionnaire was fi rst developed and administered to eighteen string professors who taught in the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments that are located in the eastern and western regions of Turkey. These findings were then used to prepare th e final questionnaire. Participants All the string professors who taught in the Mu sic Education D ivisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments during the spring of 2007 took part in the study ( N = 71). Although there are twenty-two universities in Turkey that have department s of music teache r training, only nineteen of them offer string teacher education. Two of the sc hools where such instruction does not exist are located in the eastern region of Turk ey and one in the western region. They all lack full-time string professors because they are new schools where departments of music teacher education have only been established recently. These institutions are Erzincan University in Erzincan and Ni de University in Ni de in the eastern region, and Mehmet Akif Ersoy University in Burdur in the western regi on. At the present time, they s till do not have full-time string professors. The participants included applie d violin professors and music education string specialists. Most of these had less than fi fteen years of teaching experien ce. In addition, most of the professors were male with 68.85% ( N = 42) while females were only 31.15% ( N = 19) of the faculty. The names of the participants and their affiliations are listed in Appendix A.

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48 Preliminary Study The content of the prelim inary study was deve loped through an extensive review of the literature related to music edu cation and string teacher educati on in Turkey. The preliminary questionnaire contained the following open-ended format questions: 1. How would you describe the current status of string teacher e ducation in Turkey? 2. What do you think are the main weaknesses in the current string teacher education curriculum? 3. What recent developments in string teacher education have taken place at the university level? 4. Do you think the string teacher education curriculum needs to be revised to include more pedagogy courses? 5. If you were a policy maker, how would you change the string teacher education curriculum? The researcher sent the preliminary ques tionnaire to eighteen randomly selected participants during the su mmer of 2006 via e-mail ( N = 4 in the eastern region, and N = 14 in the western region). This disparity was due largely to the fact that there ar e more universities and more string faculty members in th e western region that offer string teacher training. The data was collected over a four-week period of time. The participants respons es were used to develop the final questionnaire. Sample re sponses are found in Appendix B in English and Appendix C in Turkish. The researcher documented their concerns in a narrative form. Among these were the need for more string pedagogy and string methods cour ses in the curriculum, the need for more Turkish folk music in the curriculum, the need for more graduate assist ants, and the need for better teaching facili ties, particularly in the schools that are located in the eastern region of Turkey. Respondents further indicated the need for new teaching methods, the need for more string faculty, especially in the schools in th e eastern region of Turkey, the need for more

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49 teaching materials in the eastern universities, and the need for a new string education curriculum as other concerns. Finally, they pointed out the need for a nati onal school of string instruction that is based on Turkish string methods. Questionnaire Development The questionnaire was modeled af ter the one Ser (1980) used in his doctoral dissertation. Exam ple of Sers (1980) questions and the researchers adaptati ons are given below. Ser (1980), Should the curriculum at the mu sic teacher training schools be revised to provide better training for future music teachers? The researcher, Do you think the string educa tion curriculum at the music teacher training schools needs to be revised to improve the overall quality of string teacher preparation? Ser (1980), Should more Turkish music be in cluded in the teacher training curriculum? The researcher, Do you think that more Turk ish music should be included in the string methods books? Ser (1980), Should more pedagogy works hops be offered for music teachers? The researcher, Do you think that more string pedagogy courses should be included in the string teacher education curriculum? Ser (1980), Do you think the music the te acher education curriculum should focus primarily on the development of practical teaching skills? The researcher, Do you think that more pract ical field-based teaching experiences should be included in the string teacher education curriculum? Copies of the final questionnaire are included in Appendix D in English and Appendix E in Turkish. It contained eighteen closed-format a nd eight open-format questions. The closed-format questions dealt with the following topics: 1. questions that dealt with the skills that were taught in string skills/techniques courses as well as the teaching materials that were used 2. questions that dealt with the content that was covere d in the string methods/pedagogy courses as well as the method books that were used 3. questions that dealt with private string instruction

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50 4. questions that dealt with the content that was covered in the string laboratory courses The six open-format questions were c oncerned with the following topics: 1. questions that dealt with the strengths and weakne sses of the undergraduate string education degree program 2. questions that solicited suggestions for ways the undergraduate string education degree program could be improved The open-format questions were needed to obtain in-depth information about regional differences in string teacher educ ation. These differences included su ch things as the number and type of courses that were offered, the condition of the teaching facilities, and the number of string faculty members who taught at the eastern and western mu sic teacher training schools. The questionnaire was divided into six sections Each section covered a different topic as follows: Section 1 (String Skills/Techniques Courses) Section 2 (String Methods/ Pedagogy Courses) Section 3 (Private Lesson Instruction) Section 4 (String Laboratory Courses) Section 5 (Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cu rrent Undergraduate String Education Degree Program) Section 6 (Suggestions for Improving the Unde rgraduate String Education Degree Program). Respondents were instructed to skip a section if their school did not offer such courses. Copies of this questionnaire are found in Appendix F in English and Appendix G in Turkish. Data Collection Each participants e-m ail address was first id entified via the Internet. An e-mail copy of the questionnaire was then sent to each participant in March, 2007. A cover letter (Appendix H) was also attached to the ques tionnaire. The participants were given three weeks to respond. A

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51 reminder letter (Appendix I) and an additional copy of the questionnaire were e-mailed to all the participants who had failed to respond. A thir d e-mailing was also necessary to obtain an acceptable response rate. Participants who had not responded received another reminder letter (Appendix J) together with a thir d copy of the questionnaire. Word format was used to e-mail the questionnaire and cover letters to all the participants. Data collection was successfully completed at the end of June, 2007. The frequency distributions are found in Appendix K. The obtained data was presented in two cate gories. The closed-format questions were presented as quantitative data, and the open-ended questions were presented as qualitative data. Based on this information, a model string teacher education curriculum that contains different string pedagogy courses such as String Skills, String Pedagogy and String Laboratory, was prepared. String education courses from several schools that offer string teacher training in the United States ( University of Florida Ohio State University and the University of Texas at Austin) were examined to develop the methods courses that were included in the model curriculum. These schools were selected for the study because of their string string teacher education programs and the resear chers affiliation with the University of Florida Summary This chapter provides a detailed description of the procedures th at were used to develop the questionnaire, select the sam ple, collect the data, and analyze the obtained data. A description of the participants and specific research questions ar e stated, and a discussion of the presentation of the obtained data is also incl uded. The findings of this data are presented in Chapter 4.

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52 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction This chapter presents a discussion of the quantitative and qualitative research findings of the study. T he purpose of the study was to examin e the current structure of the undergraduate string teacher education curriculum at the collegiate level and to develop a model curriculum that could be used at all the university music teacher training schools in Turkey. A questionnaire was sent to seventy-one string faculty members at the nineteen university music teacher training schools that offer such instruction in Turkey. A total of sixty-one participants responded (85.92%). Data collection took place between the months of March and June of 2007. Because the questionnaire contained two diffe rent types of questions (closed and openended formats), findings are discussed in two se ctions. Section one pres ents the quantitative findings of the regional differences in eastern and western Turkish universities. These findings are presented in the tables that are included at the end of this ch apter. Section two presents the qualitative findings for the open-ended questions in a verbatim-narrative form. These responses are found in Appendix L in Eng lish and Appendix M in Turkish. Demographics on Universitie s and Regional Differences This section includes the dem ogra phic data for string professors ( N = 71) and survey respondents ( N = 61) by university ( N = 22) and regions (eastern and western) (Table 1). There are currently twenty-two university music teacher training schools in Turkey. Ten of them are located in the eastern part of Turkey while twelve of them are in the western region. Among these, three universities did not have full-time string faculty at the time the study was conducted. Two of these universities are located in the eastern part of Turkey ( Erzincan University in

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53 Erzincan and Ni de University in Ni de). In the western region, only Mehmet Akif Ersoy University in Burdur did not have full-time string faculty. Seventy-one string professors were teachi ng at the university music teacher training schools at the time the study was conducted ( N = 24 in the eastern region; N = 47 in the western region). In total, sixty-one of them responded to the survey ( N = 19 in the eastern region; N = 42 in the western region). Quantitative Results This section of the chapter includes the fi ndings for the closed-form at questions which asked the participants to clarify the types of courses that are include d in the string teacher education curriculum at university music teacher training schools in Turkey (questions #1 through #18 in the questionnaire). Section 1: String Skills/Techniques Courses The first five questions of the survey aske d for infor mation about string skills/techniques courses. If these courses were not offered in their schools, the respondent s were instructed to skip to Section 3. According to the results, four eastern and four west ern schools offered such instruction. Ten of the sixty-one respondents answered this section of the questionnaire. Five of the respondents were from eastern universities and five were from western universities. Question #1 Please indicate how m any string skills/techniques courses are require d for string education majors. Findings for Question #1 Participants were given respons e choices ranging from 1 to 5 courses. As shown in Table 2, three eastern professors and two western profe ssors responded that th eir universities offered only one course. Therefore, only one course wa s required. The other five respondents indicated

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54 that more courses were required as follows: On e eastern professor indicated that two courses were required at his school; two western professo rs indicated that three courses were required at their universities; and one professor in each region indicated that four courses were required at their schools. Based on these findings, it was concluded that more string skills/techniques courses were required at the west ern universities. These findings ar e presented in Table 2 at the end of this chapter. Question #2 Please indicate how m any class hours per week each of the above courses meet. Findings for Question #2 String professors were given response choices ranging from 1 to 5. Three professors in the eastern region and two in the western region indi cated that these course s met one hour per week at their schools. The other five respondents in dicated that these courses met more often as follows: (1) three western professors indicated that the courses met for two hours at their universities; (2) one eastern prof essor responded that the courses me t for four hours a week at his school; and (3) one other eastern pr ofessor indicated that these cour ses met for five hours at his school. The most common response was that students received one -hour of instruction in the string skills/techniques c ourses in both regions of Turkey. Th ese findings are presented in Table 3 at the end of this chapter. Question #3 Please indic ate if the instruct ors of the string skills/technique s courses are applied studio teachers or string education specialists. Findings for Question #3 Four of the eastern prof essors indicated th at string education specialists taught string skills/techniques courses at their schools and one stated such course s were taught by studio

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55 teachers. In contrast to this, it was found that these courses were al l taught by applied studio teachers in the western region. Th ese results showed that more of these courses were taught by string education specialists at the eastern universities. Question #4 Please indicate which of the following skill s are taught in the st ring skills/techniques courses. Findings for Question #4 Respondents were provided a list of seven te chnical skills and were given the opportunity to discus s other topics offered in these cour ses. The seven skills are found in Appendix F in English and Appendix G in Turkish. These finding s are presented in Table 4. It was found that the professors in both regions covered all the skills included in the string skills/techniques courses. In addition, one respondent from a we stern university indicate d that sight-reading, interpretation and orchestral performance skills were covered in string skills/techniques classes in his school, and one respondent from another western school stated that performance skills for orchestral and chamber ensembles were taught in such course s at his university. Question #5 Please indicate which of the following st ring technique books are used in the string skills/techniques courses. Findings for Question #5 A list of twelve books was com piled (see Appe ndices F and G). The participants were asked to select one or more from this list. Re spondents were also provi ded the opportunity to add other sources that they used in these course s. The results indicated that four violin method books were used most often in the eastern universities as follows: Kreutzer ( N = 5), Sevcik ( N = 5), Keman E itimi by mer Can ( N = 4), and Hans Sitt ( N = 4). The most commonly used cello

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56 book in this region was the Sebastian Lee ( N = 4) method book. Respondents from eastern universities further indicated that the following violin method books were used in string skills/techniques courses at their schools: Rodionov Fortunatovs Young Violinist Mazas Kreutzer Dont Rode Wohlfahrt Professors in the western region indicated that they used the following five books for string skills/techniques courses: Crickboom ( N = 4), Hans Sitt ( N = 4), Mazas ( N = 4), Kreutzer ( N = 4), and (5) Sevcik ( N = 4). They further added that these me thod books (for violin, viola and cello) were used in skills/techniques courses at their schools: Fiorillo Yayl alg lar (Keman) I, II, III [String Inst ruments (Violin) I, II, III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Violin] by Ali Uan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Instruction Books for Anatolian Fine Arts Hi gh Schools 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan for violin Viyola Meto du I-II-III [Viola Method I-II-III] by Ayfer Tanr verdi J. Werner Violoncello School Dotzauer Exercises (for cello)

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57 Section 2: String Methods/Pedagogy Courses Questions #6 through #10 in the questionna ire requested inform ation about string methods/pedagogy courses offered at the respondents universities. If their schools did not offer such courses, they were instructed to skip to Section 3. The results indica ted that two eastern and two western universities offered such instruction ( N = 2 from eastern universities; N = 2 from western universities). Question #6 Please indicate how m any string methods/p edagogy courses are required for string education majors. Findings for Question #6 Participants were asked to identify the num ber of string m ethods/pedagogy courses that were offered in their schools. Response choice s ranged from 1 to 5 courses. The two respondents from two different eastern uni versities indicated that no me thods/pedagogy courses were required for string education majo rs at their schools. One of the respondents from a western university indicated that a stri ng methods/pedagogy course was offered at his school. The other respondent from the western region stated th at four string methods/pedagogy courses had recently been added to string education curriculum at his school. These results are presented in Table 5 at the end of this chapter. Question #7 Please indicate how m any class hours per week each of the above courses meet. Findings for Question #7 Respondents were given choices ranging from 1 to 5. The results indicated that these courses met for one hour a week in most univers ities in both the eastern and western regions.

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58 One respondent in the western regi on indicated that these courses met twice a week at his school. The findings are presented in Table 6 at the end of this chapter. Question #8 Please indicate if the instructors of the st ring m ethods/pedagogy courses are applied studio teachers or string education specialists. Findings for Question #8 One respondent from a western school spec ified that string methods/pedagogy courses were taught by both applied studio teachers and string education specialists. Two professors (N = 1 in the eastern region; N = 1 in the western region) indicated that these courses were taught by applied studio teachers at thei r universities. One professor from the eastern region stated that string education specialists we re responsible for teaching st ring methods courses at his university. Question #9 Please indicate which of the following topics are discussed in the string methods/pedagogy courses. Findings for Question #9 Respondents were provided a list of seven pe dagogical topics, and the opportunity to discuss other topics th at were offered in these courses. These seven topics are found in Appendix F in English and Appendix G in Turkis h. It was found that the respondents from the eastern region indicated that the following topi cs were discussed in string methods/pedagogy courses: (1) identifying fingerings in all posit ions for each of the four orchestral string instruments; (2) selecting appropr iate bowings; and (3) selecting re pertoire for solo instruments. In addition, respondents also stated that the following topics were discussed in methods courses at their schools: (1) care and maintenance of string instruments; (2) identifying intonation

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59 problems and prescribing correc tive procedures; and (3) principals and methods in string teaching. These findings are presented in Table 7 at the end of this chapter. Question #10 Please indicate which of the following method books are used in the string methods/pedagogy courses. Findings for Question #10 The participants were asked to select one or both of the books that were given as choices (see Appendices F and G ). Respondents were also provided the opportunity to discuss other sources that they used in these courses. Pr ofessors from both eastern and western regions indicated that they used Keman E itimi by mer Can and evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci Konum/Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay in their schools In addition to these sources, respondents from the eastern region stated that they used the following cello books for their methods courses: Sebastian Lee Fevillard Dotzauer Popper Grutzmacher Duport Respondents from the western re gion indicated that they used following violin books in the string methods courses at their schools: Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Violin] by Ali Uan, Yayl alg lar (Keman) S n f I, II, III [Strings (Violin) Gr ade I, II, III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan, and Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f

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60 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Teaching Books for the Anatolian Fine Arts High Schools Grades 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan. Section 3: Private Lesson Instruction Questions #11 through #15 dealt with private le sson instruction. All the participants were required to answer the questions in this section, because private lesson instruction is the prim ary teaching method used in string teacher education programs. Question #11 Please indicate how m any years of private lessons are required for string education majors. Findings for Question #11 Participants were given respons e choices ranging from 1 to 5 courses. All the respondents in both regions (N = 61) indicated that four years were re quired for private lesson instruction at their universities. Question #12 Please indicate how m any times a week these lessons are held. Findings for Question #12 String professors were given response choices ranging from 1 to 5. Sixteen professors from the eastern region and thirty-one from the western region indicated that these lessons were held for one hour each week. Three respondents in the eastern region and eleven in the western region stated that two-hour weekly instruction was the norm at their schools, and they indicated that the regions did not differ signi ficantly in this aspect of string teacher education. These findings are presented in Table 8 at th e end of this chapter. Question #13 Please indicate if string educat ion majors a re required to le arn to play all four of the orchestral string instruments.

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61 Findings for Question #13 This was a yes/no question. All the respondents ( N = 61) indicated that string education students at T urkish university music teacher traini ng schools did not have to learn how to play all four of the string instruments. Question #14 Please indicate which of the following skills are taught in private lessons. Findings for Question #14 Respondents were provided a list of six ski lls, and they were give n the opportunity to discuss other topics of fered in these courses. The six skills are found in Appendix F in English and Appendix G in Turkish. The respondents from the eastern region indicated that the following skills were taught in private less on instruction at their schools: correct playing posture correct instrument hold correct bow hold basic bowing patterns and articulations correct tuning procedures fingering patterns for all the positions the right use of both hands vibrato speed and strength of left hand fingers shifting performing traditional Turk ish music (with scales) phrasing, musicality, nuance, articulation, th e ability to sight-read, and intonation

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62 The respondents from the wester n region indicated that the follo wing skills were taught in private lesson instruction at their schools: correct playing posture correct instrument hold correct bow hold basic bowing patterns and articulations correct tuning procedures fingering patterns for all the positions performing music in different forms and different stylistic periods vibrato shifting musicality producing good sound with nuances and good intonation advanced bow techniques trill, spiccato and harmonics These findings are presented in Table 9 at the end of this chapter. Question #15 Please indicate which of the following teachi ng materials are used in the private lessons. Findings for Question #15 A list of twelve books was com piled (see Appe ndices F and G). The participants were asked to select one or more of this list. Re spondents were also given the opportunity to add other sources that they used in these courses. The results indicated that the following materials for violin were used most often for privat e lesson instruction in the eastern region: Sevcik ( N = 18), Kreutzer ( N = 16), Keman E itimi by mer Can ( N = 15), and Mazas ( N = 14). Respondents

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63 from the eastern region also indi cated that the following methods were used in private lesson instruction in their schools: Fiorillo Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Instruction for Anatolian High Schools of Fine Arts 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan Suzuki Violin School Hanry Schradiek Keman E itimi 2. Blm [Violin Instruction Chap ter 2] by Sonat Seyhan Komarovsky Violin Meets Piano Internet sources Respondents from western universities stated that Kreutzer ( N = 35), Mazas ( N = 33) and Sevcik ( N = 32) were the most commonly used sources for private violin lesson instruction at their schools. They further indicated that the fo llowing violin method books were also used in such instruction at their universities: Yayl alg lar (Keman) S n f I, II, III [String Instrument s (Violin) I-II-III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Instruction for Anatolian High Schools of Fine Arts 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan Fiorillo Kayser Keman E itimi iin zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Vio lin Instruction] by Ali Uan Hanry Schradiek zai Caprice Suzuki Violin School Books 5-9

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64 Gavinnies Etudes Pracht Dancla Pleyel Carl Flesch scales & arpeggios Russian methods for violin Hoffmaister Compagnoly Palashko Leopold Auer Ivan Galamian Louis Schubert Keman Metodu [Louis Schubert Violin Method] A. Markov Based on these results, it was found that string pr ofessors from the western region used a wider range and number of violin method books in private lesson instruction. The following viola methods were specified by a respondent from the eastern region for use in private lesson instruction: Viyola Metodu [Viola Method] by Sefai Acay, and Viyola Metodu I-II-III [Viola Method I-II-III] by Ayfer Tanr verdi. Respondents from the western region indicated that they used the following viola methods in private lesson instruction at their universities: Viyola Metodu I-II-III [Viola Method I-II-III] by Ayfer Tanr verdi, Fiorillo, Carl Flesh and Viyola in Dizi ve Yay e itleri [Scales and Bow Techniques for Viola] by Oktay Dalaysel & Fatih Yayla. Respondents from the eastern region indicated th at the following cello books were used in private lesson instruction at their universities:

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65 Dotzauer Feuillard Werner Dupport Suzuki Cello School Grutzmacher Popper Respondents from western universities specified that they used the following cello method books in private lesson instruction at their schools: Maderovsky Schroder Technique Exercises Werner Dotzauer I-II-III Popper Grutzmacher J. Stutuchewsky H. Becker Feuillard Mainardi J. Merkb-Cossmann Dotzauer 113 Cello Exercises Schroder Technique Exercises Sebastian Lee Melodische Etudes

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66 One respondent from the western region indicated E. Nanny as the double bass method that she used in private lesson instruction. Section 4: String Laboratory Courses Questions #16 through #18 in the questionn aire requested inform ation about string laboratory courses that were offere d at the respondents universities. If their schools did not offer such courses, they were instructed to skip to Section 5. Only two professors in the western region responded to this question. Because there was no respondent from the eastern region for this section of the questionnaire, it is concluded that only the school s in the western region offered this type of training. Question #16 Please indicate how m any string laboratory courses are required for string education majors. Findings for Question #16 Participants were asked to identify the num ber of string laboratory courses that were offered in their schools. Response choices ranged from 1 to 5 courses. One respondent stated that a single string laboratory course was offered at his school and the other indicated that two such courses were offered at his uni versity. Orchestra rehearsals in both schools functioned in a manner that was similar to string laboratory courses because they performed educational orchestral music that could be used for pedagogical purposes at Anatolia n high schools of fine arts. These findings are presented in Ta ble 10 at the end of this chapter. Question #17 Please indicate how m any class hours per week each of the above courses meet.

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67 Findings for Question #17 String professors were given choices ranging fr o m 1 to 5. The results indicated that these courses met for three hours once a week. These fi ndings are presented in Table 11 at the end of this chapter. Question #18 Please indicate what typ es of instructional materials ar e used in these courses. Findings for Question #18 A list of two books was com piled. The participan ts were asked to se lect one or both of them (see Appendices F and G). Respondents were also given the opportunity to discuss other sources that they used in these courses. Prof essors indicated that they used the following materials in string laboratory courses at their schools: standard or chestral literature, public school arrangements of orchestral literature, and arrangements and original pieces by Turkish composers. Summary of the Findings for the Closed-Format Questions Six findings were drawn from th e previously cited data. First, the schools in the eastern region offered more string skills/techniques courses than those that were located in the western region. This finding was drawn from the following re sponses: Five of the nine teen participants in the eastern region indicated that such instruction was offered at their schools while only five of the forty-two respondents in the western region i ndicated that these courses were offered at theirs. Second, the string skills/techniqu es courses met for more clas s hours in the eastern region. This finding was drawn from the following resp onses: The respondents in the eastern region stated that such courses met four and five hours a week. In contrast, resp ondents in the western region indicated that most of these courses only met for one hour each week at their schools.

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68 Third, more string education specialists ta ught the string skills/techniques and string methods/pedagogy courses in the eastern region th an in the western region. This finding was drawn from the following responses: Four of the fi ve respondents in the ea stern region indicated that string education specialists taught the skills courses while all of the teachers of these courses in the western region were applied studio instructors. Fourth, the schools in the wester n region provided the most in-d epth instruction in both the string skills/techniques and string methods/pedagogy courses. This finding was drawn from the data that is presented in Tabl es 4 and 7. Fifth, the schools in th e western region required more private lesson instruction than those in the eastern region. This finding was drawn from the following results: 26.19% of the sc hools in the western region re quired two private lessons a week while only 5.79% did in th e eastern region. Finally, the schools in the western region offered string laboratory course s while those in the eastern re gion did not. This finding was drawn from the data that is presented in Table 10. Qualitative Results This section of the chapter includes the fi ndings of the open-ended questions. Questions #19 and #20 dealt specifically with the strengths and w eaknesses in the current string teacher education degree program. Questi ons #21 to #26 asked the respondents to offer suggestions as to how the string teacher education curricu lum could be improved. Section 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cu rrent Undergraduate String Education Degree Program Participants were asked in questions #19 and #20 about the strengths and weaknesses in string teacher education in Turkey (see Appendi x L in English and Appendix M in Turkish). All participants were required to answer these quest ions. All nineteen participants from the eastern and thirty-eight from the western region (90.48%) responded to the questions in this section.

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69 Question #19 Please indic ate which of the followings in the undergraduate st ring education degree program you consider to be strengths. Findings for Question #19 Participan ts were asked to identify the stre ngths of the string edu cation degree program in Turkish universities with an emphasis on the fo llowing topics: (1) how recent changes in the curriculum has strengthen the degree program; (2 ) how the inclusion of current instructional methods and materials has strengthen the degr ee program; (3) how the increased use of string teaching methods from other countries such as the Rolland and Suzuki methods has strengthen the degree program; and (4) othe r strengths of the program. Changes in the curricular structure: The participants from the eastern region did not identify any strength in the current undergradu ate string teacher educatio n curriculum. Those in the western region cited the following strengths: an increased use of new teaching methods, an increase in the number of string education speci alists, a rejuvenated interest in curriculum development, a marked improvement in evalua tion tools, and an incr eased number of highquality string faculty at the uni versity level. They further indicated the development of a new double bass curriculum, the inclusion of the Studio St ring Instruction course in the last semester of the undergraduate curriculum, and the develo pment of string method books that fulfill the needs of the university string educ ation majors as other strengths. Finally, respondents stated that the opportunity to revise the cu rriculum should meet the needs of the future string teachers. The use of more contemporary instructional materials: The respondents in the western region indicated that more tradi tional Turkish music should be in cluded in the curriculum, the Internet should be used to remain current wi th new teaching methods, and new teaching methods should be developed by string edu cation specialists. One respondent from the eastern region also

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70 indicated that the Intern et should be used to upgrade teaching methods that were used in the string education courses. The increased use of string teachi ng methods from other countries: The respondents in the western region stated that the increased use of string teaching methods fr om other countries has strengthened the string teacher education curric ulum. They supported adapting different string teaching methods for use in string teacher education in Turkey. One respondent from the western region did not support the inclusion of the Suzuki Method in the cu rriculum because she believed that it was better suited for use with young child ren. The only respondent from the eastern region stated that he did not support the inclusion of st ring teaching methods from other countries in the curriculum. He thought that Turkish string spec ialists and educators s hould develop new string teaching methods. Other strengths: The respondents in the eastern regi on identified increased motivation of string students to become better performers, and improved teaching facilities as the strengths in string teacher education in Turkey. Those in the western region cited the following strengths: improved quality in string instruction at the un iversity level, increased motivation of string education students to become better performers and increased use of new cello method books such as Popper and Grutzmacher According to them, increased opportunities for students to perform in recitals, and the establishment of Anatolian high schools of fine arts are other strengths. In addition, they indicated that improved university teaching facili ties, the inclusion of more Turkish music in string method books, and the addition of new violin teaching methods and chamber music courses in the string education curriculum such as Violin Teaching Method and Techniques and Chamber Music are the strength s in string teacher education in Turkey.

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71 Question #20 Please indicate which of the following aspects of the undergraduate st ring education degree program you consider to be weaknesses. Findings for Question #20 Participan ts were asked to identify the wea knesses of the string education degree program in Turkeys universities with an emphasis on the following topics: (1) the general level of the applied string instruction; (2) the quality of the teaching materials; (3) the quality of the teaching methods; (4) the balance between the performan ce and pedagogy course requirements; and (5) the length of the degree program. Respondents from both eastern a nd western regions indicated th at the general level of the applied string instruction (N = 15; 78.95% in the eastern region; N = 24; 57.14% in the western region), and the length of the degree program ( N = 8; 42.11% in the eastern region; N = 20; 47.62% in the western region) were the major pr oblems in undergraduate string teacher training programs. The minor weaknesses in string teache r education degree programs in Turkey were identified as the quality of the teaching materials ( N = 5; 26.32% in th e eastern region; N = 8; 19.05% in the western region), and the quality of the teaching methods ( N = 2; 10.53% in the eastern region; N = 4; 9.52% in the western region). Th e balance between the performance and pedagogy course requirements was not considered a main weakness by the respondents from the eastern region while those from the western region indicated this as a major problem ( N = 6; 31.58% in the eastern region; N = 23; 54.76% in the western region). In addition, respondents from the eastern region also indicated the following weaknesses in string teacher education degree pr ograms in Turkish universities: (1) the lack of class time for private studio instruction; (2) th e late beginning age of string inst ruction that does not adequately prepare students students for co llege level study; (3) technical problems and poor playing habits

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72 of students; (4) the lack of vari ety in the string repertoire; (5) the lack of the number of string professors; and (6) the heavy course load of instructors and professors. Respondents from the western regi on stated that the late beginn ing age of string instruction that leads to weak musical prep aration for college st udents, the lack of class time for private studio instruction, th e need for more inclusion of Turkish music such as etudes and large scale pieces were problems in string teac her education in Turkey. They further stated the need for the use of different contemporary string methods from other countries, the questionable quality of the string faculty at some schools, and the lack of support of string e ducation by the government and private organizations as other weaknesses in the area. In addition, they pointed out the following problems as problems in Turkish string teacher education degree programs: (1) the lack of a musical environment to demonstrate musical abilities (f or students) and the lack of inclusion of musical knowledge into their dail y lives; (2) poor physical conditions at some schools; (3) the heavy course load of instruct ors and professors; (4) the lack of quality in standardization in measurement-evaluation tools for auditions; and (5) motivational problems of college music students. Section 6: Suggestions for Improving the Undergraduate String Education Degree Program Participants were asked in questions #21 th rough #26 of the questionn aire whether they had suggestions to im prove the string teacher education degree program in Turkey. Questions #21 through #25 were yes/no questions while Qu estion #26 was open-ended. Respondents were also given the opportunity to provide additional co mments for the questions #21 through #25. Question #21 Please indicate if you think m ore stri ng pedagogy courses should be required.

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73 Findings for Question #21 Fifty-six respondents ( N = 19; 100% in eastern region; N = 37; 88.10% in western region) supported the idea that more string pedagogy co urses be required. One respondent from the western region indicated that the length of th e program at university music teacher training schools were limited, which made it difficult for students to be competent players on their instruments. Although he indicated that more st ring pedagogy courses should be required in the string teacher education curriculum, he also stated that these c ourses would make students busier and take time away from pract icing their instruments. Question #22 Please indicate if you think newer teaching m aterials and methods need to be developed. Findings for Question #22 Fifty-eight of the participants responded to this question ( N = 17; 89.47% in the eastern region; N = 41; 97.62% in the western region). S ixteen eastern professors ( 84.21%) and thirty-one western professors (73.81%) indicated that developing newer teaching materials and methods were needed. Respondents from the eastern region further stated that their sources were limited and not only new method books but compilation albums for string inst ruments were also needed. According to the respondents from the western region, developing national string teaching methods in Turkey was important. They indica ted that using Turkis h music and developing national methods would be easier and more benefi cial for the area than adopting string teaching methods from other countries. The reason was b ecause they thought that their familiarity with Turkish music would make it easier for Turkish string education students to be more competent on their instruments. Question #23 Please indicate if you th ink more string teacher workshops need to be offered.

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74 Findings for Question #23 Fifty-seven respondents ( N = 19; 100% in the eastern region; N = 38; 90.48% in the western region) agreed that m ore string teacher workshops needed to be offered for string professors and high school string teachers. They indicated that sharing inform ation through string workshops would be an important factor in the improveme nt of string teacher training. Respondents from both regions also stated that there had been work shops for string professors and string teachers in Turkey, but the number of them was insuffici ent and the quality of these workshops was questionable. Question #24 Please indicate if you think m ore Turkish mu sic should be included in the string methods books. Findings for Question #24 Fifty-eight of sixty-one partic ipants (95.08%) stated their id eas on the inclusion of m ore Turkish music in the string methods books ( N = 18; 94.73% in the eastern region; N = 40; 95.23% in the western region). The findings showed that more string professors in the eastern region supported this idea ( N = 15; 78.95%) than those in the western region ( N = 28; 66.67%). Those who supported the idea of including more Turkish music in the string method books (in both eastern and western regions ) believed that Turkish string specialists should develop new string teaching method books. According to them creating methods and materials with the inclusion of Turkish music was very important because they believed that the use of Turkish music would be more effective in teaching st ring instruments. Respondents felt that the familiarity of folk and art music would contribut e to the development of a comfortable learning environment for Turkish college string students. Cello professors furthe r stated that Turkish method books for cello instru ction were also needed.

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75 Question #25 Please indicate if you think m ore research studies need to be conducted in this area of Turkish teacher education. Findings for Question #25 Fifty-five string professors re sponded to the question about the need for more research studies to be conducted in stri ng teacher training in Turkey ( N = 18; 94.74% in the eastern region; N = 37; 88.10% in the western region). All eight een respondents from the eastern region and thirty-five from the western region agreed that more research studies should be conducted in this area in Turkey. These findings showed that string professo rs from eastern universities were more supportive of increased research in string teacher education than those from western universities. The reason for this difference may be attributed to th e lack of research in this area in the eastern region when compared to the university music te acher training schools in the western region. In addition, these respondents indicated that many re searchers could identify problems in the area but they did not offer solutions. Question #26 Please indicate if you have further reco mmendations for im proving undergraduate string teacher education. Findings for Question #26 Based on the responses, several ideas em erge d to improve undergraduate string teacher education. Respondents from the eastern region in dicated the following suggestions to raise the quality of undergraduate string teacher education: (1) increa se weekly hours for string area courses; (2) lower the string instruction ag e to elementary school level; (3) upgrade the music/string curricula and devel oping new methods based on new developments in the area; (4) give academicians more opportunity to go abroad and develop themselves by learning different

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76 methods in string teaching; and (5) organize a String Instruments Committee for each university music teacher training school. They further reco mmended that providing better facilities for university music teacher training schools, includi ng more western music in repertoire (because Turkish music is more popular than western mu sic in the eastern region), and conducting more research in the area would stre ngthen string teacher education in Turkey. In addition, arranging Turkish folk melodies for string instruments and ensembles, requi ring a yearly recital for every college string education student instead of having the requirement for final juries, and developing string teaching methods using Turkish modal scales were recommended by respondents. Participants also suggested requiring more performance opportunities for college string education students, improving the quality and the nu mber of string professo rs at the university level, and founding more professional orchestras and youth/college orchestras in different cities in the region (because Turkish folk music is more popular than European classical music in the eastern region, they believed that string instruments and western music would be more popular in this part of the country with these orchestras). Finally, offering more string workshops for the string professors and colleg e string education students was advised by the respondents. In the western region, responde nts indicated the following recommendations to improve the overall level of string teacher education in Turkey: (1) provide college music/string education students with the opportunity to specialize in re lated areas such as instrumental education, theory, music history, orchestral conducti ng, choral conducting, and early childhood music education; (2) offer more workshops for string teachers at Anatolian hi gh schools of fine arts, string professors at university music teacher training schools, and co llege string education students; (3) revise string t eacher training curriculum and met hods based on new developments in the area; (4) create and adopt new stri ng teaching methods, mate rials and pedagogical

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77 approaches from other countries; and (5) offer more performing opportunities to college string education students. In addition, respondents sugg ested that adding more string teaching/string pedagogy courses to the string teacher educa tion curriculum, upgrading measurement and evaluation tools, increasing the number of weekly hours for string teacher education courses, and offering string teacher education area as a s ub-division in university music teacher training schools would be helpful to improve the quality of Turkish string teacher education. Participants also thought selecting better qualifi ed students for the university music teacher training schools, hire more string faculty and research assistants to prepare more ad equately trained string teachers at the university music teacher training schools, training string educators as efficient orchestra conductors, and developing new Turkish string me thods would be recomme ndations to raise the overall level of undergra duate string instruction. Other than the recommendations stated above, participants also pointed out the following suggestion: (1) perform more music by Turkish composers; (2) add more Turkish music and simple folk songs in string teaching methods and string teacher education curriculum; (3) consider orchestra classes as a practice area for the material that is le arned in private lesson instruction; (4) add different courses such as string met hods, string pedagogy and string laboratory in string teacher education curriculum; (5) lower the string instruction age to elementary school level; (6) organize a String Instruments Committee for each university music teacher training school; (7) establish a rese arch institute for string instruments and national/international seminars for stri ng teachers and college string students; (8) create new associations and organizations fo r string teachers and college stri ng students at the national level; (9) conduct more research in the string teacher e ducation area; and (10) raise the quality and the number of Anatolian high schools of fine arts.

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78 Summary of the Findings for the Open-Ended Questions Seven findings were drawn from th e previously cited data. First, the string professors from the eastern region indicated more weaknesses an d fewer strengths in string teacher education area than those in the western region. The strengths that were stated by the respondents from the eastern region included an increase in the motiv ation of string students to become better performers and an improvement in teaching faci lities. The respondents from the western region indicated more strengths in the area such as the use of more current instructional materials, an improvement in evaluation tools, an increase in the number of high-quality string faculty at the university level, and the additi on of new violin teaching methods and chamber music courses in the string education curriculum (Violin Teach ing Method and Techniques and Chamber Music). These findings demonstrate that string teacher trai ning in the western region is in better condition than in the eastern region. Thes e findings were drawn from the following data: Only four of the nineteen respondents in the easte rn region indicated strengths in string teacher education while twenty-five of the forty-two re spondents in the western region st ated strengths in the area. Second, respondents from the eastern region i ndicated more performance-based problems while those from the western region stated mo re weaknesses related to the string teacher education curriculum. Third, more respondents in the eastern region suppo rted the idea of the requirement of more string pedagogy courses in the string teacher educat ion curriculum than those in the western region. This finding was drawn from the following data: All nineteen respondents from the eastern regi on indicated the importance of th is requirement while thirtyseven of forty-two (88.10%) supported this idea. Fourth, newer teaching materials and methods need to be developed in string teacher training area. This finding was drawn from th e following data: Seventeen of the nineteen respondents from the eastern region (89.47%) and fo rty-one of forty-two (97.62%) of those from

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79 the western region supported this idea. Fifth, more string teache r workshops are needed for the string professors and string teachers in the eas tern region of Turkey. This finding was drawn from the following data: All ninet een respondents from the eastern region but only th irty-eight of the forty-two in the western region (90.48%) indicated the need for such workshops. Sixth, more respondents from the eastern regi on of Turkey indicated that more Turkish music should be included in the string methods books than those in th e western region. This finding was drawn from the following data: Fiftee n of the nineteen respondents from the eastern region (78.95%) supported this idea while twenty-e ight of those in the western region (66.67%) thought that more Turkish music should be included in the string method books. Finally, respondents indicated that more research studies need ed to be conducted in the string teacher training area, partic ularly at the universities in the eastern region of Turkey. This finding was drawn from the following data: Eight een of the nineteen respondents from the eastern region (94.74%) indicated the need for more research in the area, while thirty-five of forty-two from the western region (83.33%) pointed out the importance of addressing this need.

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80 Table 4-1. Demographic data for string professors (N = 71) and survey respondents ( N = 61) by university ( N = 22) and region. Region University music teacher training schools [n (%)] Universities with full time string f aculty [n (%)] String professors in university music teacher training schools [n (%)] Respondents [n (%)] Eastern Turkey 10 (45.45) 8 (37.37) 24 (33.80) 19 (31.14) Western Turkey 12 (54.55) 11 (50.00) 47 (66.20) 42 (68.86) Total 22 (100.00) 19 (86.37) 71 (100.00) 61 (100.00) Table 4-2. Number of string sk ills/techniques courses by region. Number of Courses Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 course 14 (73.69) 37 (88.10) 1 course 3 (15.79) 2 (4.76) 2 courses 1 (5.26) 0 (0.00) 3 courses 0 (0.00) 2 (4.76) 4 courses 1 (5.26) 1 (2.38) 5 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00)

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81 Table 4-3. Number of hours per week that string skills/t echniques courses meet by region. Number of hours per week Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 hour 14 (73.69) 37 (88.10) 1 hour 3 (15.79) 2 (4.76) 2 hours 0 (0.00) 3 (7.14) 3 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 hours 1 (5.26) 0 (0.00) 5 hours 1 (5.26) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00) Table 4-4. Skills taught in string skills/techniques courses by region. Skills Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] Non respondents 14 (73.68) 37 (88.10) Total respondents 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (a) Correct playing posture 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (b) Correct instrument hold 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (c) Correct bow hold 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (d) Correct method of tone production 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (e) Basic bowing patterns and articulations 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (f) Fingering patterns in first position 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90) (g) Correct tuning procedures 5 (26.32) 5 (11.90)

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82 Table 4-5. Number of string me thods/pedagogy courses required for string education majors by region. Number of courses Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 course 19 (100.00) 40 (95.24) 1 course 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) 2 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 3 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 courses 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) 5 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00) Table 4-6. Number of hours per week that string methods/p edagogy courses meet by region. Number of hours per week Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 hour 17 (89.47) 40 (95.24) 1 hour 2 (10.53) 1 (2.38) 2 hours 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) 3 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 5 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00)

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83 Table 4-7. Topics discussed in stri ng methods/pedagogy courses by region. Topics Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] Non respondents 17 (89.47) 40 (95.24) Total respondents 2 (10.53) 2 (4.76) (a) Identifying fingers in all positions 1 (5.26) 1 (2.38) (b) Selecting appropriate bowings 1 (5.26) 2 (4.76) (c) Care and maintenance of string instruments 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) (d) How to make minor adjustments and repairs of string instruments 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) (e) Identifying intonation problems and prescribing corrective procedures 0 (10.52) 2 (4.76) (f) Selecting instructional method books 0 (10.52) 2 (4.76) (g) Selecting repertoire for solo instruments 1 (5.26) 2 (4.76) Table 4-8. Number of pr ivate lessons by region. Number of hours per week Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 hour 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 1 hour 16 (84.21) 31 (73.81) 2 hours 3 (15.79) 11 (26.19) 3 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 5 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00)

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84 Table 4-9. Skills taught in private lessons by region. Skills Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] (a) Correct playing posture 19 (100.00) 41 (97.62) (b) Correct instrument hold 19 (100.00) 41 (97.62) (c) Correct bow hold 19 (100.00) 41 (97.62) (d) Basic bowing patterns and articulations 19 (100.00) 41 (97.62) (e) Fingering patterns for all the positions 16 (84.21) 40 (95.24) (f) Correct tuning procedures 18 (94.74) 38 (90.48) Table 4-10. Number of string laboratory courses by region. Number of courses Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 course 19 (100.00) 40 (95.24) 1 course 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) 2 courses 0 (0.00) 1 (2.38) 3 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 5 courses 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00)

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85 Table 4-11. Number of hours per week that string laborat ory courses meet by region. Number of hours per week Eastern universities [n (%)] Western universities [n (%)] 0 hour 19 (100.00) 40 (95.24) 1 hour 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 2 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 3 hours 0 (0.00) 2 (4.76) 4 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 5 hours 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Total 19 (100.00) 42 (100.00)

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86 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSI ONS AND REC OMMENDATIONS Introduction This chapter includes a discussion of the findings of the present study with recomm endations for raising the quality of stri ng teacher education in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of undergraduate string teache r education in Turkey and to prepare a model curriculum. The relative strengths and wea knesses and regional differences in Turkish string teacher education were also investigated. Data Collection During the summ er of 2006, a preliminary que stionnaire was sent to eighteen randomly selected string professors at Turkish universities. Based on th e results of the preliminary questionnaire, a survey instrument was develope d in the fall of 2006 and sent to all Turkish string professors ( N = 71) in March 2007 via e-mail. The su rvey instrument was modeled after Sers (1980) questionnaire (s ee appendices D and E). However, the wording and the content of the questions were modified because his study dealt with general music teacher education curriculum while the concern in the present study was string teacher education curriculum. Electronic delivery of the survey was efficien t and cost-effective, especially since the respondents were all based in Turkey. The return rate of the survey was 85.92% ( N = 61). The collection of the data was completed by June 2007. Findings This section presents an exam ination of the research questions. The following main question guided this study: What are the differenc es in string teacher educ ation in the eastern and western regions in Turkey? The five sub-questio ns were analyzed and reexamined on basis of this primary question. The sub-questions and discussions are stated below.

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87 1. What types of courses are offered in the string teaching area at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Educa tion Departments in Turkish universities? 2. What is the nature of the teaching methodologi es that are used in the string education courses at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments in Turkish universities? 3. What are the existing problems in Tu rkish string teacher training curricula? 4. What are the strengths of the existing string teacher training curriculum at the Music Education Divisions of University Fine Arts Education Departments in Turkish universities? 5. What changes and reforms should be implemented to improve the level of the Turkish string teacher education? The discussion and findings of these resear ch questions provided a framework for the preparation of a model string teach er education curriculum that can be used in both eastern and western regions in Turkey (see Appendix P). Discussion of Research Question #1 Private ins truction is the main teaching approach in string teaching at university music teacher training schools in Turkey. Courses such as String Skills/Techniques, String Methods/Pedagogy and String Laboratory are not offe red in majority of Turkish university music teacher training schools. Few of the respondents stat ed that these courses were offered at their schools, while others pointed out that they were e ither offered only at the graduate level or studio teachers taught the content of these courses in private lessons. Based on the findings, String Skills/Techniques and String Methods/Pedagogy course s are only offered at a small number of eastern and western universities, and string laboratory courses are not offered at any eastern schools. The participants also reported that the majority of th e string professors at Turkish universities in both regions supported the idea of including String Skills/Techniques, String Methods/Pedagogy and String Laboratory courses in the curriculum.

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88 Discussion of Research Question #2 According to the respon dents, the majority of the teaching methods and method books used at Turkish university musi c teacher training schools were pub lished in Europe. Professors from both regions pointed out that although there had been an increa se in efforts to develop and publish Turkish method books, these attempts were inadequate. They also indicated that string specialists in Turkey should create a national sch ool of string teaching. Cello professors stated that no Turkish cello met hod books currently existed. Western classical music is dominant in unive rsity string teacher tr aining in the western region of Turkey. Although they use the central ized curriculum, the practices in eastern universities are different from the western univ ersities. Because of the traditional environment and an interest in folk music among college musi c education students, west ern classical music is not very popular in the easter n universities. Respondents indicat ed that students in eastern universities use more folk material than students in western schools. In addition, traditional folk instruments are more readily ac cepted than string instruments in eastern universities. These results showed that there were differences in th e string teacher education curriculum in different regions. The findings also demonstrated that more Turkish string method books were used at universities in the eastern region, but more string professors in th e western region preferred using standard European repertoire and method books. The idea of including Turkish music in string method books was supported by the majority of string professors in the eastern region of Turkey. Although some western professors also supported this idea, a compelling percentage of eastern professors favored more Turkish music be included in string method books and in the string curriculum.

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89 Discussion of Research Question #3 Respondents indicated several existing problem s in string te acher training at university music teacher training schools in Turkey. Based on these findings, string professors in both eastern and western regions revealed similar prob lems in their schools. According to them, the length of the degree program was one of the wea knesses for string teacher education in Turkey. These professors stated that a four-year degr ee program was not adequate to thoroughly prepare string teachers for Anatolian high schools of fine arts. Responde nts further indicated that the balance between the performance and the pedagogy course requirements was a weakness in the string teacher education curriculu m in both eastern and western regions. They thought that the insufficient number of pedagogy courses in st ring teacher education curriculum was a contributing cause of this problem. They also st ated that more string pedagogy courses should be added to the curriculum to prepare string teacher s for the Anatolian high schools of fine arts. String professors further indica ted that the class time for private studio instruction was not satisfactory. Most college string st udents at these schools meet with their professors one hour per week, and respondents believed that one hour was insufficient to prepare musicians for teaching positions at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts. String professors in both easte rn and western regions revealed that the late beginning age of string instruction was a primary reason for th e lack of a strong musi cal background for college string education students. They stat ed that an earlier beginning age (for example at an elementary school level) for string instructi on would better equip string players for success at the university level. Respondents indicated that a heavy teac hing load was another common problem in both eastern and western regions. They stated that the reason for this problem was the insufficient number of string professors at universities and the lack of balance between the number of string education students and string professors.

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90 According to the respondents in both easte rn and western regions, more Turkish music should be included in string method books. They i ndicated that the use of Turkish music would facilitate more comfortable learning in string ed ucation because of the familiarity and simplicity of these tunes. They pointed out that the numbe r and quality of workshops for string teachers was a notable weakness. According to them, mo re workshops for string teachers and college string education students need to be offered. They believe that workshops are valuable tools for elevating the overall level of st ring teacher education in the eas tern region. Respondents in both regions indicated that the lack of research in string teacher edu cation was another problem in the area. They stated that more res earch studies should be conducted so that researchers can identify weaknesses and propose remedies for the existing problems in Turkish string teacher education. String professors in the easte rn region identified several weaknesses in string teacher training degree programs in their schools. Thes e problems include the te chnical challenges and poor playing habits of students as a result of poor teaching. Respondents indicated that several students from Anatolian high schools of fine arts had poor playing habits. They also stated that it took a long time to correct the playing habits of those students, and that the students might be discouraged by this process. Respon dents in the eastern region of Tu rkey also identified the lack of variety in the string repertoire as another weakness. They indicated that it was difficult to access new string teaching methods. These professors also stated that the schools in the eastern region did not have adequate resources for string teaching. The professors in the western region iden tified several weakne sses in string teacher education in their schools. They indicated that there was a need to use current string methods from other countries. According to them, new string teaching methods were not adequately implemented in the area. The respondents in the western region also stated that the quality of

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91 string faculty at some schools in this region was questionable. They indicated that string professors should be trained more effectively so that the overall qua lity in string teacher education would be elevated. Stri ng professors also thought that there was lack of support for string education by the government and private organizations. They indicated the need for more support (financial in par ticular) in the area. According to respondents in the western re gion, the lack of an adequate musical environment to showcase musical abilities (for students) was a nother weakness. They indicated that due to the poor condition of rehearsal a nd performance halls, many students desire to perform diminishes in time. In addition, they poi nted out that the physical conditions of practice rooms, classrooms, offices of professors, perf ormance halls and instruments at some schools were poor. These professors stated that an insufficient amount of technological tools such as computers, software programs, audio-visual cap abilities, stereo equipment and projectors in classrooms produced negative effects upon students motivation, scholastic achievement and the overall quality of string teacher education. In the western region of Turkey, the responde nts thought that the qua lity of measurementevaluation tools for auditions was outdated, and they were not standardized in every university music teacher training school. They indicated that every university has its own tools to evaluate students in auditions and these tools needed to be standardized. They further pointed out that measurement tools (tests) in the teacher educa tion curriculum were outdated and needed to be upgraded or new tools should be developed. They felt that it wa s difficult to objectively assess student progress and to keep inst ructor bias out of the assessme nt process. They believe that these weaknesses affect the overall quality of stri ng teacher training. As another need in the area, several respondents in the western region stated that more Turkish teaching method books in the

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92 string teaching area were needed. They revealed the lack of Turkish string teaching methods, and, in particular, cello professors indicat ed the need for Turkish cello methods. According to these findings, there are problems in string teacher education in both eastern and western regions in Turkey, and these respon ses by string professors in both regions showed the need for an urgent revision in the string teacher education area. The first step towards this goal is the development of a new string teacher education curriculum (see Appendix P). This new curriculum should be introduced to the Ministry of National Education and Higher Education Council to put it in use at unive rsity music teacher training schools. Discussion of Research Question #4 The strengths of the existing string teacher trainin g curricu lum at the university music teacher training schools are divided into four sections: (1) the main changes in the curricular structure, (2) the use of more c ontemporary instructional materials, (3) the increased use of string teaching methods from other countries, and (4) other strengths. Changes in the curricular structure: Respondents from the easte rn region of Turkey did not specify any changes in the curricular structure as strengths in string te acher education at their universities. However, western professors pointed out several strengths in the string teacher education area in Turkish unive rsity music teacher training schools. According to these respondents, increased use of new approaches, me thods and techniques in the development of the string teaching curriculum are stre ngths. They believe that Turk ish string teacher education can take its place in the western world by incorporating current developments in the curriculum. String professors in the western region further pointed out that improvements in evaluation tools and an increased number of well-equipped string professors were encouraging advances in string teacher education. One of the respondents stat ed that the inclusion of the Studio String Instruction course in the last semester of the undergraduate music teacher education curriculum

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93 was a positive development for his school. Othe r improvements include the use of method books that fulfill the needs of the string teacher education curriculum, opport unities for adapting the curriculum to the needs of the students, and the development of an accredited double bass curriculum. These results show that changes in the curric ular structure positively affected the practice and the quality at western unive rsity music teacher training school s. However, string professors from eastern universities could not specify any positive effects because they believed that these recent developments in the string teacher educat ion curriculum did not change outdated practices at their schools. This clearly demonstrates a compelling difference between university music teacher training schools in the eastern and th e western regions. While western university professors are able to adapt new approaches, th ose teaching in the eastern region need more time to implement these changes. The reason for this situation might be due to the insufficient number of string faculty members. Western schools have twice as many string professors and this provides the opportunity to offer new courses or contemporary practices in the curriculum without overloading the faculty. In the eastern region, changes occur more slowly than in the western region of Turkey. A more traditional appr oach to education in ea stern universities is another reason that new developments are usua lly accepted later and slower than in western schools. The use of more contemporary instructional materials: String professors from eastern universities indicated that the Inte rnet has generated access to more teaching sources in the string teaching area. They also supported a mixed me thod of pedagogical approaches in the string teaching area. Respondents from the western region acknowledged that the use of more traditional Turkish music, the use of the Internet and the development of new approaches via the

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94 combination of various traditional methods we re strengths in the st ring teacher training curriculum. String professors from both regi ons advocated the use of more contemporary instructional materials in string teacher educatio n area. However, they did not specify whether these methods were Turkish or from other countries. The increased use of string teachi ng methods from other countries: The only respondent from the eastern region indicated that there wa s no need to adapt new string teaching methods from other countries. This statement is evidence of the lack of support for the use of foreign teaching materials in eastern universities. Du e to the popularity of Turkish folk music and traditional approaches in education in the easte rn region, the practice of adapting methods from other countries for use in string teacher instructi on is not widely supported. In order to influence their ideas, professors and stude nts in this region should be e ducated about the benefits of adapting most recent methods from other c ountries through the exposure to contemporary teaching approaches and developments in the st ring teaching area. To achieve this goal, more string workshops emphasizing improvements in the string teaching area should be offered, organizations and associations (with annual meeti ngs and journals) for string teachers should be founded, and more collaborations sh ould be established between the string professors in the eastern and the western regions. The use of string teaching methods from other countries is widely accepted in the western region. In their responses, they s upported the adaptation of differe nt string teaching methods and new approaches in string teaching from other coun tries, and they stated that the Suzuki Method in particular would be effec tive for private instruction for younger children. However, these professors did not believe that the Suzuki or Rolland methods would be effective at the university level.

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95 Other strengths: The respondents from the eastern region stated that the increasing motivational level of students and slowly-improving conditions of the te aching facilities are the primary strengths of the string teacher educa tion programs in Turkey. Respondents from the western region indicated several strengths in the string teacher training cu rriculum. They stated that Turkish string specialists are becoming more effective and productive and the quality of the string faculty is increasing (in some western schools). According to the string professors in the western region the motivation for high levels of achievement among students is high. Cello professors indicated that the use of new method books (such as Popper and Grutzmacher ) was a positive development in cello instruction. Some of the respondents in the western region believed that students were provided with more opportunities to perform and this is a positive effect on them. According to these professors, performing of ten gives more confidence to string education students to be more competent pl ayers and prepares them to learn more literature in their area. Respondents in the western region believe that Anatolian high schools of fine arts are thriving sources of musical development for prospective university students. Because the purpose of these prestigious high sc hools is to train competent performers and musicians, they also elevate the level of university music teacher training schools because most graduates from Anatolian high schools of fine arts attend uni versity music teacher training schools. The string professors in western universities stated that the ma jority of the schools in this region have good facilities. They also indicated that the addition of Vi olin Teaching Methods and Techniques, and Chamber Music classes at the gr aduate (Masters) level as electives at some western universities was an improvement in st ring teacher training area. Respondents in the western region further stated the increased use of Turkish music in string pedagogy and teaching methods was another strength.

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96 The statements above indicate that many improv ements have been made in string teacher education in the western region of Turkey. Howeve r, results show that eastern universities have not made similar progress as those in the western region. More respondents from the western region of Turkey indicated greater strengths in the string teacher training area than those in the eastern region. These findings show that the st ring teacher education in western schools is stronger than that in eastern universities. The r eason for this development may be attributed to curricular practices. The n eed for developing the centralized-cu rriculum, which is currently used in all university music teacher training schools, was to minimize the regional differences in Turkish string teacher education. However, the differences between the two regions (as it was stated in Chapter 1) make it more challenging to achieve this goal. Possible solutions to this problem include offering more workshops for prof essors and hiring more string faculty to teach at eastern universities. In addition, cooperation between professors in both regions might be another remedy for this problem. Changes in the curricular struct ure (based on the suggestions by the respondents of this study) also need to be implemented in order to accomplish the task of reducing the regional differences in string teacher education area. (The researchers suggestions in curricular changes will be discussed in depth in the Implications for Music Education and Recommendations section of this chapter). Discussion of Research Question #5 Respondents from both eastern and western re gions stated several recommendations to improve the level of the Turkish string teacher education. According to them, more workshops for string teachers should be o ffered at both Anatolian high sch ools of fine arts and at the university music teacher training schools. They al so believe that these workshops should provide current information about the developments in string teaching to inform and educate string teachers at every educational level.

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97 String professors from both eastern and western regions believe that more performance opportunities should be provided fo r college string education students. They think that these performance opportunities allow string educatio n students to be more competent players. According to these respondents new string teachi ng methods and materials should be developed. String professors also supported the adaptation of string teaching methods from other countries. Another recommendation by respondents from both eastern and western regions was the increase of weekly course hours in string teacher training area (private lesson instruction and other string education courses for example). In ad dition, these professors further indicated that the performance of music by Turkish composers should be encouraged to reverse a perceived lack of interest in these works (due to unfam iliarity and limited availability) in private lesson instruction. Respondents suggested that technical skills should be taught effectively in string teacher education area. According to them, stri ng education students with effective technical skills are able to teach efficiently String professors from both eastern and western regions recommended that access to string education should be available in elementary school s so that the overall leve l of string instruction might become elevated. They thought that early string instruction was also the key to success at the university level. At last, respondents from both regions (east and west) supported conducting more research in the string teacher education ar ea. According to them, these research studies should address current problems in the area and provide solutions. Respondents in the eastern regi on indicated several suggestions to improve the level of Turkish string teacher education. According to them, academicians and researchers in the string teacher training area should be given more opportuni ties to go abroad and develop their skills by learning most recent methods in string teaching, and more cooperation should be established

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98 among string professors in both regions in Tu rkey. They further recommended that better facilities should be provided for students so that their motivation and overall achievement levels are increased. Some string professors from eastern universities thought th at western music should be prioritized over Turkish music in the practice of string teacher training, and different teaching methods and books in the string teaching area need to be developed. However, other respondents from the same region supported the idea of including more Turkish music in string teaching materials. In addition, these professors recomm ended more Turkish string methods be created. According to respondents in the eastern region, a recital should be requ ired at the end of every year for string education st udents (instead of having a final jury). They thought that this change might be helpful for string education st udents to be accomplished performers. They further suggested that more professional symp hony orchestras and youth orchestras should be established in the eastern region so that string educa tion students are able to attend concerts by these orchestras and become more familiar with western music. String professors from western Turkish univers ity music teacher training schools indicated several points as changes that need to be made in undergraduate string teacher training. According to them, the curriculum should offer different areas for sp ecialization such as instrumental education, theory, music history, orchestral conducting, choral conducting, and early childhood music education. Th ese respondents indicated that this change would help music teacher education students to be better traine d with in-depth knowledge. Professors in the western region also stated that string teacher education curric ulum and string teaching methods need to be upgraded based on new developmen ts in the area to avoid the use of outdated methods.

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99 Another recommendation by the respondents fr om western schools was training college string students as both pedagogues and accomplis hed performers. According to them, the absence of one of these factors in string teacher training would cause a negative impact in the area. These professors further s uggested the inclusion of more string teaching methods and string pedagogy courses in the curriculum. These respo ndents in the western region believed that pedagogy courses in the string teacher training area would better prep are string teachers for public schools settings. Respondents in the western regi on thought that the tools of m easurement and evaluation in string teacher education curriculu m should be reevaluated, upgraded and standardized to prevent the bias of string professors. They also supporte d the standardization of the goals in the string teacher education curriculum. According to them, differences among schools (in different regions) may diminish if th ese goals are standardized. The imbalance between the numbers of stri ng education students and professors was another concern among the responden ts in the western region. They suggested hiring more string faculty at the university musi c teacher training schools to prevent this issue. The string professors in this region also supported the development of a Turkis h national school in the string teaching area so that co llege string education students implement these methods in performance and in their future teaching. According to professors in western university music teacher training schools, college string education students should also be trained as orchestra conductors. A ccording to them, this skill is important because school orchestras always need well-traine d conductors. Related to this recommendation, they also suggested that orches tra classes should be co nsidered as a practice area where the material that is ta ught in the studio classes is used.

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100 The respondents from the western region believ ed that string teacher education should be financially supported by the government and pr ivate organizations and this support would improve the overall level of string teacher training in Turkey. They further supported the establishment of a String Instruments Committee in every university music teacher training school to standardize the repertoire for string ed ucation students. Accordi ng to string professors new associations for string teachers at the national level (with thei r journals and annual meetings) need to be formed. These respondent s in the western region indicated that these associations would provide the opportunity for st ring education professors and string teachers to gather and share their knowledge. They thought that these professional gatherings would help to raise the overall level of string teacher education. Furthermore, de veloping a research institute for string instruments and organizing national/in ternational seminars for string teachers were intriguing suggestions made by the respondents in the western region. They indicated that a research institute would inspir e national and international colla borations among scholars in the string teaching area. The respondents from both eastern and west ern regions stated se veral recommendations above. These suggestions show that string profes sors in both regions are open to improve the level of string teacher education in Turkish uni versity music teacher training schools. They have several common thoughts on how to elevate string teacher education. However, recommendations by eastern professors are perfor mance-related while western string professors focus mostly on the string curriculum and curriculu m practices. Furthermore, respondents in the western region provided more general solutions fo r the existing problems that may be used statewise than those in the eastern region.

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101 Issues Several problem s were identified in this study that university string professors and researchers in the string teacher education area in both regions of Turkey should address. These issues are: 1. the lack of pedagogical courses in the string curricula at the co llegiate level, such as String Skills/Techniques, String Methods/Pedagogy and String Laboratory Courses 2. technical problems and poor playing habits of students 3. the late beginning age of string instruction 4. the lack of research in th e string teacher education area 5. the need for more string teacher workshops 6. the need for the inclusion of more Turkish music in string methods and the curriculum 7. the need for the adaptation of contemporary string method books and approaches from other countries 8. insufficient class time for pr ivate studio instruction 9. the questionable quality of string teachers at university music teacher training schools in the eastern region (particularly, string professors who do not know about recent developments in the area and pedagogical approaches to teac h strings; string professors who are attached to their outdate d approaches in string teaching) 10. substandard facilities in eastern university music teacher training schools 11. an insufficient number of string professors at eastern universities 12. the need for an organization for string teachers at the national level (to exchange ideas and knowledge) 13. the need for more Turkish string method books (particularly for lower string instruments) In response to the issues stated above, the string teacher education curriculum should be immediately re-evaluated and new approaches in the area should be adopted. There are notable differences between the two regions (eastern a nd western) as respondent s from both areas have indicated. String professors from the eastern region are concerned more about the quality of the

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102 string faculty than western professors. Acco rding to them, more workshops and travel opportunities are viable solutions fo r the problems in their school s. Based on their responses, the instruction in eastern universities is primarily based on performance skills. However, string professors in the west believe that the curric ulum structure and met hodologies are the real problems in the string teacher education area. They believe that adapting and developing new teaching methods and reassessing the string te acher education curriculum are the primary solutions for the problems in undergraduate string teacher training. The concerns and suggestions of string prof essors from the east and the west should be combined and a new curriculum with different c ourses in string teacher education area (as the goal of the present study) should be developed. The needs indicated by the respondents in both eastern and western regions shoul d be addressed in the curriculum. Also, the government and private organizations should be informed about th ese issues in string teacher education area and asked to contribute financial support to remedy these problems. In addition, researchers in the string teaching area should be encouraged to cond uct more research studies and endeavor to find solutions for the existing problems. Implications for Music Education and Recommendations The results of this study revealed several issu es in Turkish string teacher education area as discussed before. It is believed that the suggest ed changes will assist in raising the quality of string teacher education in Turkey. Based on the issues raised and suggestions made by the respondents, there is an urgent need for reform in this area. The recommendations to remedy these problems are as follows: 1. The performance-based string teacher edu cation curriculum needs to be upgraded immediately and several string pedagogy and methods courses should be included because college string students need to be trained as educators as much as accomplished performers. They should strive to become effective string pedagogues and advanced-level string players.

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103 2. More string faculty should be hi red at the universities in eastern Turkey to address the lack of balance in numbers in both regions (N = 24 string professors at eight universities in eastern region, N = 47 string professors at eleven universities in western region). 3. More Turkish music should be included in method books, and new sources for string teaching should be developed by experts in the area. 4. More string workshops need to be offered (parti cularly) in eastern uni versities to raise the quality level of string faculty and experts in string teaching are should be invited to these workshops to share their knowledge and experience with their Turkish colleagues. 5. A national organization needs to be organized for string professo rs and teachers in Turkey. This organization should hold annual meetings and should have a journal. 6. New measurement tools should be immediately developed in the string teacher education area. 7. More research studies need to be conducted in the stri ng teacher education area and researchers in the area should offer solutions for the existing problems. 8. The Turkish National Ministry of Education and private organizations should be contacted for financial support for the improvement of string teacher education. Grants by the government and different organizations need to be pursued by researchers in the area to upgrade the facilities of unive rsity music teacher training schools in both regions. 9. Professional symphony orchestras and youth orchestras should give more concerts at eastern universities so that st ring education students in this region have the opportunity to hear more western music. Few governmental officials and laypersons will acknowledge the importance of string education until professors and re searchers in the area conduct mo re research studies to expose existing problems. String pedagogues must vigorous ly pursue additional financial support to raise the level of string teacher e ducation in Turkey. It is critical for experts and researchers in string teaching to understand and address the current issues in string teacher education so that necessary reforms become possible. Future Research Researchers and string professors should conduc t more studies that ex am ine the status of Anatolian high schools of fine arts in both eastern and western regions. Be cause there is a close relationship between university music teacher trai ning schools and Anatolian high schools of fine

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104 arts, studies on the examination of the status a nd regional differences of these high schools will provide a broader perspective on string education in Turkey. It is believed that this study will also be be neficial as a model for researchers in similar areas who reside in other countri es. Particularly, it is hoped that the method of the investigation and the recommended string teacher education curri culum inspire different prospects for music educators and researchers in the academy. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions can be stated: 1. There are several common problem s in string te acher education in university music teacher training schools in both eastern and western regions in Turkey. 2. There is shortage of adequa tely-trained string professors at the university level (in particular, in the eastern region). 3. There is a need for Turkish string method books (particularly for cello). 4. The string curriculum should be restructured. Based on the conclusions above, the string teacher education curriculum should be immediately restructured. A model curriculum for undergraduate string teacher education is included in the current study to achieve this goal (see Appendix P). This proposed model curriculum offers courses that are included in the currently-used undergra duate curriculum of music teacher training programs (since 2006) with the addition of string pedagogy and teaching methods courses. These additional string teach er education area courses in the proposed curriculum are String Skills/Techniques, String Methods/Pedagogy, String Laboratory, Public School Orchestra Literature, P ublic School Orchestra Conducti ng, and School Experience (at Anatolian high schools of fine ar ts). Relevant courses from se veral schools that offer string teacher training in the United States ( University of Florida Ohio State University and the University of Texas at Austin) were examined to devel op the proposed curriculum, and none of

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105 the added courses are currently offered at th e university music teacher training schools in Turkey. The reason that these courses are added to the model curriculum is because it is believed that they contain valuable pe dagogical information to train better-equipped string teachers. The model curriculum does not include stri ng teacher education area courses during the first four semesters. The reason not to include these courses in the model string teacher education curriculum for the first two years was because stude nts need to reach a certain level of playing on their instruments initially. After they accomplis h being effective players at a certain level through private studio instruction they become technically prepar ed to learn pedagogical aspects of string teaching. During the fifth and sixth semesters, String Skills/Techniques-I and String Skills/Techniques-II courses were offered in the model curriculum. Because String Skills/Techniques is a course to learn fundamentals of all four string instru ments, the researcher believed that this course (divided into two semesters) would be the foundation of the basic pedagogical training during the thir d year of string teacher edu cation (for more information about this course, see Appendix P). String Methods/Pedagogy, Public School Orchestra Literature and School Experience courses were included in the model curriculum in the seventh semester. Because it is their last year, students are assumed to have essential tech nical skills to learn more specifics about the pedagogical aspects of string t eaching. In the String Methods/Ped agogy course, the students are prepared to be familiar with the current string methods and materi als that are used at Anatolian high schools of fine arts. During th is semester, string education students review the literature for string ensembles at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts in the othe r pedagogy course (Public School Orchestra Literature). As an in-service course, string education students are allowed to observe string teachers at Anatolia n high schools of fine arts in the School Experience course.

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106 Students have the opportunity to also teach at these schools under the supervision of the high school string teachers (for more informa tion about these courses, see Appendix P). The model curriculum includes three more c ourses for string education students during their eighth and last semester at the college: String Labor atory, Public School Orchestra Conducting, and School Experience. The first two courses (String Laborato ry and Public School Orchestra Conducting) were designed for college students to learn how to conduct school (string) ensembles. String education studen ts learn to read, analyze, reh earse and perform selected string ensemble music for settings at Anatolian high schools of fine arts in the String Laboratory course. The second course (Public School Orch estra Conducting) includes the information for string education students to le arn basic string ensemble conducti ng and rehearsal techniques for the use at Anatolian high schools of fine arts. As an in-service course, School Experience allows students to continue developing their teaching skills at Anatolian high schools of fine arts through observation and supervised-teaching (for more information about these courses, see Appendix P). The future of string teacher education in Tu rkey is predicated upon continual reforms in the area, and this study demonstrates numerous weaknesses that should be addressed in string teacher education. By presenting the findings of the present study to the National Ministry of Education, regional concerns and differences may be recognized by officials who are able to influence educational policies. These differences between eastern and we stern regions may be diminished through the collaborations between researchers in the ar ea and the governmental officials by creating and offering ne w solutions in music education. Turkey has strong musical traditions and a dis tinctive national identit y. One of the ways to strengthen and preserve Turkeys unique artistic identity is to develop effective practices in the

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107 educational system with the s upport of sources and teaching met hods from other countries. A combination of both national and in ternational sources will be the most effective path to achieve excellence in music education.

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108 APPENDIX A LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 1. Abant zzet Baysal niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Ana bilim Dal ( Abant zzet Baysal University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Bolu) Assistant Professor Dr. A. Serkan Ece (Violin) Assistant Professor Dr. U ur Alpagut (Violin) Instructor Sava nciro lu (Violin) Assistant Professor Dr. Dolunay Akgl Bar (Violin) Instructor zlem ztrk (Cello) Instructor Gkhan ztrk (Violin) 2. Atatrk niversitesi Kz m Karabekir Eitim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Atatrk University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in Erzurum) Instructor Rafael Memedaliyev (Violin) Instructor Muhsin Sar kaya (Cello) 3. Adnan Menderes niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar Eitimi Blm Mzik Anabilim Dal ( Adnan Menderes Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Ayd n) Instructor Serkan eker (Violin-Viola) Instructor Onur Topolu (Cello) 4. Bal kesir niversitesi Necatibey E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar Eitimi Blm Mzik Anabilim Dal ( Bal kesir University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Bal kesi r) Instructor Kenan Karaman (Violin) Instructor Halil A k (Viola) Instructor Demet Ergen (Violin) Assistant Professor Dr. Cansevil Tebi (Violin)

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109 5. Cumhuriyet niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik Anabilim Dal ( Cumhuriyet University Music Educati on Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Sivas) Associate Professor Dr. Mustafa Hilmi Bulut (Violin) Instructor Esra Dalk ran (Violin) 6. Dokuz Eyll niversitesi Buca E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik Anabilim Dal ( Dokuz Eyll University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in zmir) Instructor Kemal Y ld r m (Violin) Instructor M. Hakan Sakar (Cello) 7. Erzincan niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik Anabilim Dal ( Erzincan University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in Erzincan) No fulltime string teacher. 8. Gazi niversitesi Gazi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Gazi University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Ankara) Professor Dr. Ali Uan (Violin) Professor Ayfer Tanr verdi (Viola) Professor eyda ilden (Violin) Professor Y lmaz endurur (Violin) Professor Nuray zen (Violin) Assistant Professor Me hlika Dndar (Violin) Associate Professor Dr. Aytekin Albuz (Viola) Assistant Professor Dr. Mehmet Akp nar (Violin)

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110 9. Gazi Osman Pa a niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar Eitimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Gazi Osman Pa a University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Tokat) Instructor Serpil Umuzda (Violin) Instructor Asl zbilir (Violin) Instructor Salih men (Violin) Instructor Gksel etin (Viola) Instructor Lale Hseyinova (Violin) Instructor Elvan Ergn (Violin) Instructor Gkhan Zor (Violin) 10. Harran niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Harran University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in anl urfa) Assistant Professor Dr. Glgn Ycesan (Violin) Instructor Taner Topalo lu (Cello) 11. nn niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar Eitimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( nn University Music Educ ation Division of Fi ne Arts Education Department in Malatya) Instructor Ba ar Yurdakul (Violin) Instructor Ozan Haner (Violin) Assistant Professor Adil Vural (Violin) Assistant Professor Server Acim (Double Bass) 12. Karadeniz Teknik niversitesi Fatih E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Karadeniz Technical University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Trabzon) Instructor smail Erarslan (Cello) Instructor Sonat Seyhan (Violin) Instructor ener Demir (Violin)

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111 13. Marmara niversitesi Atatrk E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Marmara University Music Educ ation Division of Fine Arts Education Department in stanbul) Professor Cemalettin Gbelez (Violin) Associate Professor Dr. Sibel oban (Violin) Assistant Dr. Mustafa Uslu (Violin) Instructor Mert Bilginer (Viola) 14. Mehmet Akif Ersoy niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Mu sic Education Di vision of Fine Arts Education Department in Burdur) No fulltime string teacher. 15. Mu la niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Mu la University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in Mula) Assistant Professor Dr. A. Grsan Sara (Cello) Instructor Lilia Calincova (Violin) Instructor Samir Glahmedov (Violin) 16. Ni de niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar Eitimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Ni de University Music Education Di vision of Fine Arts Education Department in Ni de) No string teacher. 17. Ondokuz May s niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi B lm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Ondokuz May s University Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Samsun) Instructor Erdem a lar (Violin) Instructor Devrim ztrk (Cello)

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112 18. Onsekiz Mart niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Onsekiz Mart University Music E ducation Division of Fine Arts Education Department in anakkale) Instructor Tamer Bekta (Viola) Instructor i dem Ergun (Violin) 19. Pamukkale niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Pamukkale University Music Educati on Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Denizli) Associate Professor Dr. Efe Akbulut (Violin) Associate Professor Dr. Fatih Yayla (Viola) Instructor Ufuk Ya c (Viola) 20. Seluk niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Seluk University Music Education Divi sion of Fine Arts Education Department in Konya) Associate Professor Dr. Nihan Ya an (Violin) Instructor Emin Erdem Kaya (Cello) Instructor Zafer Kurtaslan (Violin) 21. Uluda niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Uluda University Music Education Di vision of Fine Arts Education Department in Bursa) Instructor zgr E ilmez (Violin) Assistant Professor Zeki ubuk (Violin) Assistant Professor Nesr in Biber z (Violin) Assistant Professor Necdet Kalender (Violin) Instructor Beyaz t Ahundov (Violin) Instructor Sevda Neymanzade (Violin) Instructor Yusuf Hasanov (Viola) Assistant Professor Dr. Erol Demirbat r (Cello)

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113 Instructor Elhan Necef (Cello) Instructor Nilfer Y lmaz (Double Bass) 22. Yznc Y l niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik E itimi Anabilim Dal ( Music Education Division of Fine Arts Education Department in Van) Instructor Ali Alizade (Violin) Instructor Tuna Ko (Violin)

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114 APPENDIX B SAMPLE RESPONSE FROM THE PRELIMI NARY S URVEY (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH) Question 1. How would you describe the current stat us of string teac her education in Turkey? Cevap 1. Different problems currently exist in string teacher education in our country. Among these problems can be named as the edu cators (at universities) teaching materials (especially the problem of finding musi c by contemporary Turkish composers), and the curriculum. There is a severe shortage of teachers particular ly in string education at both university and high school levels. The curricula at both colle ge and high school levels do not have parallels (particularly c ourses in string teaching area). Question 2. What do you think are the main weak nesses in the current string teacher education curriculum? Cevap 2. I ask the students this question in thei r auditions. Their answers are similar. For example, students indicate that they never had any violin, viola or gui tar teachers at their schools (Anatolian high schools of fine arts) during their four years. The main problem in this area is the severe shortage of string teachers at both high school and university levels. Also, problems in curriculum etc. are other basic problems at these schools. Question 3. What recent developments in string teacher education have taken place at the university level? Cevap 3. I cannot mention about positive changes in string education at Anatolian high schools of fine arts but I believe that better qualified string instructors will be prepared at the university level with the ne wly developed curriculum. Question 4. Do you think the string teacher educat ion curriculum needs to be revised to include more pedagogy courses? Cevap 4. Changes were made in the university [music teacher education] curriculum this year (2006). Music students will take courses based on this new curriculum. Two courses (Piano Pedagogy and Major Instrument Pedagog y) were included in the new curriculum (second semester of the senior year). There are also new additions of other teaching pedagogy courses. Question 5. If you were a policy maker, how would you change the string teacher education curriculum? Cevap 5. I would be involved in a process to orga nize a committee to develop curricula both at high school and university levels. This committ ee would consist of curriculum specialists and string professors. The curricula that this committee prepares would include string teaching courses which have parallels with ear training courses. Also, I would encourage the best string education students at the univers ities to be string teachers at Anatolian high

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115 schools of fine arts and univer sities without being auditioned so that it would take care of the shortage of string-teachers.

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116 APPENDIX C SAMPLE RESPONSE FROM THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY IN ORIGINAL TURKISH Soru 1. Tr kiye'deki yayl alg lar e itiminin gnmzdeki durumu hakk nda neler d nyorsunuz? Cevap 1. lkemizde yayl alg lar e itimi birbirinden farkl ama bir o kadar da i ie sorunlar ya amaktad r. Bunlar e itimci ( retim eleman ), materyal (zellikle Trk bestecilerine ait eserlere ula lamamas v.b ), program ( retim programlar ) say labilir. lkemizde zellikle mzik e itimi ABD ve Anadolu gzel sanatlar lisel erindeki yayl alg lar e itimi retim eleman s k nt s ile srmektedir. Bu okullardaki retim programlar da (zellikle yayl alg lar) birbiri ile paralellik gstermemektedir. Soru 2. Size gre eitim fakltelerine bal gzel sanatlar blm mzik e itimi ana bilim dallar ndaki yayl alg lar e itimi ile ilgili temel problemler nelerdir? Cevap 2. Bu soruyu ben de giri yetenek s nav na giren tm rencilere soruyorum .Onlar n yan tlar da ayn (Mesela rencilerin hi keman, viyola veya gitar retmenleri olmam 4 y l sresinde AGSLler iin temel problem retmen s k nt s .. Bu problem niversitelerde de mevcut.. sonra retim programlar vb. s k nt lar da okullar n temel problemlerinden.) Soru 3. Size gre Trkiye'deki yayl alg lar e itimi alan ndaki nemli geli meler ve olumlu taraflar nelerdir? Cevap 3. AGSL de yayl alg lar e itimi ad na olumlu geli melerden sz edemeyece im ama niversitelerde yeni retim programlar ile yayl alg lar alan nda daha nitelikli retmenlerin yeti ece ine inan yorum. Soru 4. Si zce eitim fakltelerine ba l gzel sanatlar blm mzik e itimi ana bilim dallar nda halen kullan lmakta olan eitim program na yayl alg lar e itimi alan nda pedagoji dersleri eklenmeli midir? Cevap 4. Bu y l tekrar retim programlar nda de i iklik oldu. Bu y l mzik e itimi blmlerinde okuyacak renciler mevcut programa gr e ders alacaklar. Bu yeni programda zellikle alg e itiminin son y l nda (4. s n f n 2. yar s nda ) Piyano ve retimi ve Bireysel alg ve retimi isimleri ile ye ni bir uygulamaya geilmi oldu. Ayr ca yeni programda retmenlik mesle i iin yeni formasyon dersleri de bulunmaktad r. Soru 5. Eger siz yetkili bir makamda olsan z, AGSL ve e itim fakltelerine ba l gzel sanatlar blm mzik e itimi ana bilim dallar ndaki yayl alg lar e itim i alan nda neleri de i tirmek istersiniz? Cevap 5. AGSL de tm yayl alg lar n retim program n alan nda uzman ki iler ve yayl alg retim elemanlar n n ortakla a olu turduklar bir komisyon taraf ndan yapmalar n ve bu programlar ile yine liselerin mziksel i itme ve yazma derslerindeki bilgileri ile paralellik gsterecek bir program haz rlat rd m. retmen al mlar s ras nda zellikle yayl alg lar

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117 alan ndan mezun rencileri (derece ile mezun olanlar ) AGSL lerinin mzik blmlerine s navs z al rd m. ok acil bu kurumlar n retmen a klar n kapat rd m.

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118 APPENDIX D RIDVAN SERS QUESTIONNAIRE (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH) Personal In formation 1. The music teacher training institutio n you are attending/have attended): ( ) 1. Ankara Gazi Education Institute ( ) 2. stanbul Atatrk Education Institute ( ) 3. zmir-Buca Education Institute 2. Your gender: ( ) 1. Male ( ) 2. Female 3. Your age: ( ) 1. 18 and under ( ) 2. 19-22 ( ) 3. 23-26 ( ) 4. 26-29 ( ) 5. 30 and above 4. Your instructi onal section: ( ) 1. Day classes ( ) 2. Night classes 5. The institution you finished before entering the music department: ( ) 1. High School ( ) 2. Teacher High School ( ) 3. Other (please explain) I. The Current Status of the Education at the Music Teacher Training Institutions Goal: 1. What is the relationship between the educat ional level at the music teacher training institutions and the level of public school music teachers?

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119 ( ) 1. Absolutely related ( ) 2. Partially related ( ) 3. No relationship ( ) 4. It is difficult to make a relation ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 2. Which one of the following statements expr esses your thoughts towa rds the training at the music teacher training institutions? ( ) 1. The focus is training music teac hers mainly as artists/performers ( ) 2. The focus is training music teachers mainly as pedagogues ( ) 3. The focus is training music teac hers both as artists and pedagogues ( ) 4. There is no clear directi on in music teacher training ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 3. Which one of the following relations explai ns your thoughts towards the instruction of different courses? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Relation with the music as art ( ) 2. Relation with the music as an educational tool ( ) 3. Relation with the music inst ruction at the public schools ( ) 4. Only relating among the courses ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 4. Do you think the level of instruction at the music teacher training institutions make the goals of the national educationa l standards real for individua ls and the society regarding current social changes in Turkey? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Absolutely corroborates ( ) 2. Corroborates to some degree ( ) 3. Does not corroborate in the way desired

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120 ( ) 4. It is difficult to judge ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 5. Which one of the following approaches on the national culture/identity should have the most substance in music teacher training? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Introducing and spreading the national culture ( ) 2. Making it real life experiences ( ) 3. Improving ( ) 4. It is difficult to determine the approach on the national culture/identity ( ) 5. Other (please explain) Content: 6. Which content category below do you think has the most influence on the training music teachers? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. The content related to music area ( ) 2. The content rela ted to pedagogy ( ) 3. The content related to general culture ( ) 4. The content balances the all three areas stated above ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 7. How can you grade the content sources listed below regarding the education at the music teacher education institutions? (Please put 1 fo r the most important source, and for others, use 2, 3, 4 ) ( ) 1. The content that includes the school music that has been taught in mu sic classes at public schools ( ) 2. The content on the western art music ( ) 3. The content on Turkish folk and art music ( ) 4. The content on the information on music theory and music history

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121 ( ) 5. The content on ge neral culture ( ) 6. The content on pedagogy ( ) 7. Other (please explain) 8. Which one of the following choices do you think is the most visible quality of the Repertory of Instrumental Music course in music teacher training institutions? ( ) 1. Beside fundamental instrument al techniques, the course basi cally takes the affective side of education. ( ) 2. The course basically contains the weekly music course in the curriculum and instrumental instruction as an extracurricul ar activity in public schools. ( ) 3. The course contains the skills for students to be masters in instrumental techniques. ( ) 4. The course contains musical pieces for th e use of music classes in public schools ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 9. Which one of the following choices do you think the most visible quality of the Repertory of Vocal Music course in th e music teacher training institutions? ( ) 1. Beside fundamental instrumental techniques, the course basica lly takes the affective side of education. ( ) 2. The course basically contains solo and choral repertoire for the use at pulic school music classes. ( ) 3. The course basically contains practical musical pieces th at help reading music. ( ) 4. The course basically contains easy pieces for the use of rote-learning. ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 10. Which one of the following statements do you th ink describes the most notable quality of the music theory courses? ( ) 1. Generally, Turkish folk music, Turkish ar t music and western art music are taken as examples and related with the school music. ( ) 2. Generally, Turkish folk music, Turkish art music and western art music are taken as examples and related to composing. ( ) 3. Generally, there is enough theoretical in formation for a professional musician.

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122 ( ) 4. Generally, there is theoretical in formation on defining music area. ( ) 5. Other (please explain) Method: 11. Which one of the following teaching methods ha s been used most often for the music are courses other than instru mental and vocal areas? ( ) 1. The basic teaching technique is lecturing. ( ) 2. Students prepare new course topics in advance and course s are managed in a discussion environment. ( ) 3. The basic teaching method incl udes creativity of students. ( ) 4. The basic teaching method is discussi ng homework assignments in class. ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 12. Which of the following methods used in pia no classes in music departments do you think has the most important part in instruction? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Beside teaching basic playing techniques, givi ng the ability to students to perform piano repertoire ( ) 2. Beside teaching basic playing techniques, giving the ability to students to sight-read and to accompany to easy school pieces. ( ) 3. Teaching basic techniques with limited amount of piano methods ( ) 4. Beside teaching basic playing techniqu es, giving the ability to accompany. ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 13. Which of the teaching approach listed below do you think has the most important part in instrumental instruction? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Beside teaching basic playing techniques, gi ving the ability to sight-read and perform school music. ( ) 2. Beside teaching basic playing techniques, givi ng the ability to play the repertoire of the instrument.

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123 ( ) 3. Beside teaching basic playing techniques, us ing school music to de velop the ability of sight-reading, and using school inst ruments for in-class activities and extracurricular activities. ( ) 4. Giving basic playing techniques with limited amount of instrumental methods. ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 14. Regarding the course entitled Educational Methods and Practice at music teacher training schools, which one of the following methods do you think is the most significant in in-service practices at the secondary leve l public schools? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. The educational techniques and met hods on teachers main instrument ( ) 2. The educational techniques and methods on differe nt visual and auditory instructional tools ( ) 3. The educational techniques and methods on teacher and student instruments (class instruments) ( ) 4. The educational techniques and methods of teaching songs on teacher and student instruments (class instruments) ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 15. Which of the following teaching techni ques and methods on conducting vocal and instrumental ensembles are used most ofte n in music departments? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Regarding the efforts on vocal and instrume ntal ensembles in the music department, offering conducting skills with limited repertoire ( ) 2. Regarding the efforts on vocal and instrument al ensembles in the secondary level public schools, offering conducting skills with school music repertoire ( ) 3. Generally, participating these ensemble s in music departments as a member ( ) 4. Teaching fundamental conducting skills an d techniques for vocal and instrumental ensembles ( ) 5. Other (please explain) Tools: 16. Which of the following tools are used for edu cational reasons at music teacher training schools? (You can choose more than one) ( ) 1. Auditory tools (LP, tape cassette, radio etc.)

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124 ( ) 2. Printed tools (score, pa rtition, method books etc.) ( ) 3. Visual tools (projector, slide machine, film machines etc.) ( ) 4. Music library ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 17. What is your opinion on the use of these to ols by music students ? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Absolutely enough ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 18. If you answered Partially enough or Not enough in the previous question, which one of the following choices can be th e most important reason for that? ( ) 1. I do not have an instrument ( ) 2. There is not enoug h educational tools ( ) 3. The tools are not in good condition ( ) 4. The chance to use these tools is limited ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 19. Which of the following conditions of cl assrooms and practice rooms do you think explains your opinion the be st? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. There are enough numbers of classrooms and practice rooms ( ) 2. There are enough numbers of classrooms but not enough numbers of practice rooms ( ) 3. There are not enough number s of classrooms but enough numbers of practice rooms ( ) 4. There are not enough numbers of classrooms and practice rooms. ( ) 5. Other (please explain)

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125 20. Which of the following statements explains th e best on the use of secondary level public school music books as teaching tools in pedagog y courses in music departments? (Please choose one) ( ) 1. Very often used ( ) 2. Used to some degree ( ) 3. Not enough use ( ) 4. No use at all ( ) 5. Other (please explain) Timing: 21. Do you think three-year education in music schools is enough to train music teachers? ( ) 1. Absolutely enough ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 22. Do you think course hours (weekly) are e nough for the music area courses in music schools? ( ) 1. Absolutely enough ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 23. Do you think course hours (weekly) are enough for the pedagogy courses in music schools? ( ) 1. Absolutely enough

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126 ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 24. Do you think course hours (weekly) are e nough for the courses other than music and pedagogy courses in music schools? ( ) 1. Absolutely enough ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 25. Do you think scheduled practicing hours (daily) are enough? ( ) 1. Absolutely enough ( ) 2. Enough ( ) 3. Partially enough ( ) 4. Not enough ( ) 5. Other (please explain) Evaluation: 26. Do you think that students are ready for the pr e-instructional period right after they are accepted to music schools? ( ) 1. Absolutely ready ( ) 2. Ready ( ) 3. Partially ready ( ) 4. Not ready

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127 ( ) 5. Other (please explain).. 27. How would you rate the following statemen ts on the evaluation process in music schools? (Please put 1 for the most important statement, and for others, use 2, 3, 4 ) ( ) 1. Evaluation of the curriculum ( ) 2. Evaluation of instruction timing ( ) 3. Evaluation of student success ( ) 4. Evaluation of teacher success ( ) 5. Other (please explain) 28. How would you grade the following statements on the positive impacts of student success in music schools? (Please put 1 for the most important statement, and for others, use 2, 3, 4 ) ( ) 1. Past musical knowledge of the student ( ) 2. The musical talent of the student ( ) 3. Habits, interests and be haviors of the student ( ) 4. Teacher behavior ( ) 5. The opportunity of using teaching/learning tools ( ) 6. Teaching methods ( ) 7. Practice ( ) 8. Other (please explain) 29. How would you grade the following statements on the negative impacts of student success in music schools? (Please put 1 for the most important statement, and for others use 2, 3, 4 ) ( ) 1. Financial problems of the student ( ) 2. Past musical knowledge of the student ( ) 3. Teacher behavior ( ) 4. The curriculum

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128 ( ) 5. Lack of teaching/learning tools ( ) 6. Teaching methods ( ) 7. Lack of time and oppor tunities to practice ( ) 8. Other (please explain) 30. What do you think the common characteristic of comprehensive exams for all courses? ( ) 1. The fundamental knowledge of the area ( ) 2. The knowledge that makes the relationship between the area and the teaching proficiency ( ) 3. All of the above ( ) 4. Other (please explain) II. General Tendencies 31. The curriculum that is currently used at mu sic schools to train music teachers should be improved in the way to train better music teachers. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 32. Artistry should be the main concern of training music teachers in Turkey. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree

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129 33. The main concern in training music teacher s in Turkey should be the knowledge of school music, general culture, and pedagogical training. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 34. There curriculum content of music teacher tr aining should be a comb ination of different musics, which have cultural values. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 35. Music teacher training should be related to music-teaching skills. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 36. Music education methods should be developed. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree

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130 ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 37. More instructional tools should be provided for music departments. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 38. High-quality examples of popular music should be used in music schools and public schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 39. Beside folk music, Turkish art music should al so be given more place in the curriculum in music schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 40. Music course should be a requirement at high school level. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree

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131 ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 41. Music course should be elec tive at high school level. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 42. Music course should be mandatory-elective at high school level. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 43. Music course should be a part of the curriculum at vocational schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 44. There should be one-book approach in public school music instruction.

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132 ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 45. Private studio classes for ma in and secondary instruments should be group lessons in music schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 46. Workshops on teaching techniques and methods should be offered for professors and instructors at music schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 47. Music departments should hire teaching assist ants who have one or two-year teaching experience at public schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree

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133 ( ) 5. Strongly agree 48. Teaching techniques and methods should be give n more place in the curriculum in music schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 49. Technique and methods on folkloric studies s hould be given place in the curriculum in music schools. ( ) 1. Strongly disagree ( ) 2. Disagree ( ) 3. Partially agree ( ) 4. Agree ( ) 5. Strongly agree 50. If you have further recommendations on a better music teacher education, please explain. From the timing perspective .. .. From the training of music teacher perspective .. ..

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134 APPENDIX E RIDVAN SERS QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL TURKISH

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152 APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRE IN ENGLISH

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153 String Teacher Education Survey Name of Institution ___________________________________________________________________ Name of Person Supplying Information ___________________________________________________ Years of Teaching Experience: ______________________ Date ____________________________ Telephone: __________________________ Email: ______________________________________ Definitions: 1. String skills/techniques course: A course which is primarily designed to de velop basic performance skills on the four orchestral string instruments 2. String methods/pedagogy course: A course which is primarily designed to acquaint students with various public school string teaching methods 3. Private lesson instruction: Indi vidual performance instruction w ith an applied studio teacher 4. String laboratory course: A course which focuses primarily on the performance of orchestral literature designed for use in the public schools SECTION 1: String Skills/Techniques Courses Please Note: If your school does not offer such courses, please skip to Section 3. 1. Please indicate how many string skills/techniques courses are required for string education majors. 1 2 3 4 5 other 2. Please indicate how many class hours per week each of the above courses meet. 1 2 3 4 5 other 3. Please indicate if the instructors of the string sk ills/techniques courses are applied studio teachers or string education specialists. a. applied studio teacher b. string education specialist 4. Please indicate which of the follo wing skills are taught in the string skills/techniques courses. a. correct playing posture for each of the four string instruments b. correct instrument hold for each of the four string instruments c. correct bow holds for each of the four string instruments

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154 d. correct method of tone production for each of the four string instruments e. basic bowing patterns and articulations f. fingering patterns in first position for each of the four string instruments g. correct tuning procedures for each of the four string instruments h. other topics: __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Please indicate which of the following string technique books are used in the string skills/techniques courses. a. Keman E itimi by mer Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci K onum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. Mathiu Crickboom Method d. Arthur Seybold Method e. Hans Sitt Method f. Mazas Etudes g. Kreutzer Etudes h. Dont Etudes i. Rode Caprices j. Wohlfahrt Etudes k. Sevcik Etudes l. Sebastian Lee Method m. other technique books: __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 2: String Methods/Pedagogy Courses Please Note : If your school does not offer such courses, please skip to Section 3.

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155 6. Please indicate how many string methods/p edagogy courses are required for string education majors. 1 2 3 4 5 other 7. Please indicate how many class hours per week each of the above courses meet. 1 2 3 4 5 other 8. Please indicate if the instructors of the st ring methods/pedagogy courses are applied studio teachers or string education specialists. a. applied studio teacher b. string education specialist 9. Please indicate which of the following topics are discussed in the string methods/pedagogy courses. a. identifying fingerings in all positions for each of the four orchestral string instruments b. selecting appropriate bowings c. care and maintenance of string instruments and accessories d. how to make minor adjustment s and repairs of string instruments e. identifying intonation problems a nd prescribing corrective procedures f. selecting instructional method books g. selecting repertoire for solo instruments h. other topics: ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. Please indicate which of the following method books are used in the string methods/pedagogy courses. a. Keman E itimi by mer Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci Konum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. other method books: _____________________________________________________

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156 SECTION 3: Private Lesson Instruction 11. Please indicate how many years of private lessons are required for string education majors. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Please indicate how many times a week these lessons are held. 1 2 3 4 5 other 13. Please indicate if string educat ion majors are required to lear n to play all four of the orchestral string instruments. yes no 14. Please indicate which of the following skills are taught in private lessons. a. correct playing posture b. correct instrument hold c. correct bow hold d. basic bowing patterns and articulations e. fingering patterns for all the positions f. correct tuning procedures g. other skills: ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 15. Please indicate which of the following teaching materials are used in the private lessons. a. Keman E itimi by mer Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci Konum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. Mathiu Crickboom Method d. Arthur Seybold Method e. Hans Sitt Method f. Mazas Etudes

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157 g. Kreutzer Etudes h. Dont Etudes i. Rode Caprices j. Wohlfahrt Etudes k. Sevcik Etudes l. Sebastian Lee Method m. other technique books: __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 4: String Laboratory Courses Please Note : If your school does not offer such courses, please skip to section 5. 16. Please indicate how many string laboratory courses are required fo r string education majors. 1 2 3 4 5 other 17. Please indicate how many class hours per week each of the above courses meet. 1 2 3 4 5 other 18. Please indicate what types of instructiona l materials are used in these courses. a. standard orchestral literature b. public school arrangements of orchestral literature c. other materials: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of th e Current Undergraduate String Education Degree Program 19. Please indicate which of the following cha nges in the undergradu ate string education degree program you consider to be strengths.

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158 a. changes in the curricular structure such as the following: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ b. the use of more contemporary instruct ional materials such as the following: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ c. the increased use of string teaching met hods from other countries such as the Rolland and Suzuki methods. d. other strengths: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 20. Please indicate which of the following asp ects of the undergraduate string education degree program you consider to be weaknesses. a. the general level of the applied string instruction b. the quality of the teaching materials c. the quality of the teaching methods d. the balance between the performa nce and pedagogy course requirements e. the length of the degree program f. other weaknesses: _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SECTION 6: Suggestions for Improving th e Undergraduate String Education Degree Program 21. Please indicate if you think more string pedagogy courses should be required. yes

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159 no aditional comments: _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 22. Please indicate if you think newer teaching ma terials and methods need to be developed. yes no additional comments: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 23. Please indicate if you think more string teacher workshops need to be offered. yes no additional comments: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 24. Please indicate if you think more Turkish mu sic should be included in the string methods books. yes no additional comments: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 25. Please indicate if you think more research stud ies need to be conducted in this area of Turkish teacher education. yes no

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160 additional comments: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 26. Please indicate if you have further recomm endations for improving undergraduate string teacher education. a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ d. ______________________________________________________________________ e. ______________________________________________________________________ f. ______________________________________________________________________ Please return to: Dilek Gktrk Email: dilekgokturk@yahoo.com

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161 APPENDIX G QUESTIONNAIRE IN TURKISH

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162 Yayl alg retmeni E itimi ile ilgili Anket Okulun smi_________________________________________________________________________ Bilgi Edinilen Ki inin smi _____________________________________________________________ retmenlik Deneyimi Sresi________________________ Tarih ______________________________ Telefon: __________________________ E-posta: _______________________________________ Tan mlar: 1. Yayl alg becerisi/teknikleri dersi: zellikle orkestrada kullan lan drt ana yayl alg zerinde temel alma becerilerini geli tirmek zere planlanm ders 2. Yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersi: zellikle niversitelerin mzik anabilim dal nda okuyan yayl alg rencilerini ilk ve orta dereceli okullarda kullan lan de i ik yayl alg metotlar hakk nda bilgilendirmek zere planlanm ders 3. Bireysel alg dersi e itimi: Bir alg retmeni taraf ndan verilen bireysel alg e itimi 4. Yayl alg laboratuar dersi: zellikle ilk ve orta dereceli okullar n yayl alg derslerinde kullan lan orkestra repertuar zerine planlanm ders BLM 1: Yayl alg Beceris i/Teknikleri Dersi Ltfen Dikkat: E er okulunuzda byle bir ders yoks a ltfen Blm 3e geiniz. 1. Ltfen yayl alg rencileri iin ka tane yayl alg becerisi/teknikl eri dersi bulundu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 2. Ltfen yukar da ismi verilen dersin haftada ka saat oldu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 3. Ltfen yayl alg becerisi/teknikleri de rsinin bireysel alg retmenleri ya da yayl alg e itimi uzmanlar n n hangisi/hangileri taraf ndan verildi ini belirtiniz. a. bireysel alg retmenleri b. yayl alg e itimi uzmanlar 4. Ltfen a a dakilerden hangisinin/hangilerinin yayl al g becerisi/teknikleri dersinde retildi ini belirtiniz. a. doru alma pozisyonu (tm yayl alg lar iin) b. alg y do ru tutabilme (tm yayl alg lar iin)

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163 c. yay do ru tutabilme (tm yayl alg lar iin) d. doru ve gzel bir ton elde etme (tm yayl alg lar iin) e. temel yay ekilleri ve kullan mlar f. birinci konumda parmak al malar (tm yayl alg lar iin) g. alg y do ru akort edebilme becerisi (tm yayl alg lar iin) h. di er konular: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ltfen a a daki metot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/hangilerinin yayl alg becerisi/teknikleri dersinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. a. Keman E itimi by mer Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci K onum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. Mathiu Crickboom Method d. Arthur Seybold Method e. Hans Sitt Method f. Mazas Etudes g. Kreutzer Etudes h. Dont Etudes i. Rode Caprices j. Wohlfahrt Etudes k. Sevcik Etudes l. Sebastian Lee Method m. di er metot kitaplar : ____________________________________________________ BLM 2: Yayl alg Metotlar /Pedagojisi Dersi Ltfen Dikkat: E er okulunuzda byle bir ders yoks a ltfen Blm 3e geiniz.

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164 6. Ltfen okulunuzda ka tane yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersinin oldu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 7. Ltfen yukar da ismi verilen dersin haftada ka saat oldu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 8. Ltfen yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersinin bireysel alg retmenleri ya da yayl alg e itimi uzmanlar n n hangisi/hangileri taraf ndan verildi ini belirtiniz. a. bireysel alg retmenleri b. yayl alg e itimi uzmanlar 9. Ltfen a a daki konulardan hangisinin/hangilerinin yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersinde i lendi ini b elirtiniz. a. btn konumlardaki parmak al malar n n tm orkestrada bulunan yayl alg lar iin tan mlanmas b. paralar iin uygun yay kullan m seimi c. alg bak m ve onar m d. alg da olabilecek kk sorunlar giderme ve tamir etme becerisi e. entonasyon sorunlar n tan mlama ve bu sorunlar gidermek iin uygun areler arama f. yayl alg metot kitaplar n n seimi g. solo alg lar iin uygun repertuar seimi h. di er konular: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ltfen a a daki metot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/hangilerinin yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. a. Keman E itimi by m er Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci Konum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. di er metot kitaplar : ____________________________________________________

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165 BLM 3: Bireysel alg Dersi E itimi 11. Ltfen yayl alg alan nda e itim gren rencilerin ka y l renim yapt klar n belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Ltfen bireysel yayl alg derslerinin haftada ka saat verildi ini belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 i er 13. Ltfen yayl alg alan nda e itim gren rencilerin tm yayl alg lar almay renip renmediklerini belirtiniz. evet hay r 14. Ltfen a a dakilerden hangisinin/hangilerinin bireysel yayl alg derslerinde retildi ini belirtiniz. a. doru alm a vcut pozisyonu b. alg y do ru tutu c. doru yay tutu u d. temel yay teknikleri e. tm konumlarda temel parmak al malar f. alg y do ru akort etme al malar g. di er beceriler: _________________________________________________________ 15. Ltfen a a daki metot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/hangile rinin bireysel yayl alg derslerinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. a. Keman E itimi by mer Can b. evreden Evrene Keman E itimi I: Birinci Konum / Birinci Kitap by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan c. Mathiu Crickboom Method d. Arthur Seybold Method e. Hans Sitt Method

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166 f. Mazas Etudes g. Kreutzer Etudes h. Dont Etudes i. Rode Caprices j. Wohlfahrt Etudes k. Sevcik Etudes l. Sebastian Lee Method m. di er metot kitaplar :____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ BLM 4: Yayl alg Laboratuar Dersi Ltfen Dikkat: E er okulunuzda byle bir ders yoks a ltfen Blm 5e geiniz. 16. Ltfen okulunuzda ka tane yayl alg laboratuar dersinin yayl alg rencileri taraf ndan al nmas n n zorunlu oldu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 17. Ltfen yukar da ismi verilen dersin haftada ka saat oldu unu belirtiniz. 1 2 3 4 5 di er 18. Ltfen yayl alg laboratuar dersin iin ne tr retim materyallerinin kullan ld n belirtiniz. a. standart orkestra repertuar b. okul orkestralar iin dzenlemeler c. di er malzemeler: _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ BLM 5: Gnmzde niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E itiminin Gl ve Zay f Taraflar

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167 19. Ltfen a a da belirtilen de i ikliklerin hangisinin/hangilerinin niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itiminin gl yan /yanlar oldu unu belirtiniz. a. retim program ndaki a a da belirtilen de i iklikler: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ b. daha fazla gncel yayl alg retim materyallerinin a a da belirtilen ekillerdeki kullan m : ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ c. Rolland ve Suzuki gibi yabanc kkenli yayl alg retim metotlar n n artan kullan m d. di er gl yanlar: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 20. Ltfen a a da belirtilen de i ikliklerin hangisinin/hangilerinin niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itiminin zay f yan /yanlar oldu unu belirtiniz. a. yayl alg e itiminin genel durumu ve dzeyi b. renim materyallerinin kalite dzeyi c. yayl alg e itim metotlar n n kalite dzeyi d. alg performans ve pedagoji dersleri aras ndaki denge (nitelik ve nicelik olarak) e. renim sresi (y l olarak) f. di er zay f yanlar: _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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168 BLM 6: niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E itiminin Geli tirilmesi iin neriler 21. Ltfen daha fazla yayl alg pedagojisi derslerinin renim program na dahil edilip edilmemesi konusundaki d ncenizi belirtiniz. evet hay r ba ka d nceler: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 22. Ltfen yeni yayl alg materyallerinin ve metotlar n n gerekip gerekmedi ini belirtiniz. evet hay r ba ka d nceler: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 23. Ltfen yayl alg retmenleri iin daha fazla workshop gerekip gerekmedi ini belirtiniz. evet hay r ba ka d nceler: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 24. Ltfen Trk yayl alg metot kitaplar na daha fazla Trk mzi i eklenip eklenmemesi konusundaki fikrinizi belirtiniz. evet hay r ba ka d nceler: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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169 25. Ltfen Trkiyedeki yayl alg e itimi alan nda daha fazla ara t rma yap l p yap lmamas konusndaki konsundaki fikr inizi belirtiniz. evet hay r ba ka d nceler: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 26. Ltfen Trkiyedeki yayl alg e itimini geli tirme alan nda ba ka d nceleriniz varsa a a ya belirtiniz. a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ d. ______________________________________________________________________ e. ______________________________________________________________________ f. ______________________________________________________________________ Ltfen cevaplar n z Dilek Gktrke gnderiniz. E-posta: dilekgokturk@yahoo.com

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170 APPENDIX H COVER LETTER #1 FOR STRING PROFESSORS Cover Letter #1 in English My nam e is Dilek Gktrk. I am currently a Ph.D. candidate in music educa tion at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida in the United States working on my disse rtation. I would like to ask you to complete a questionnaire that is rela ted to my study. I am examining the string teacher education curriculum in the music teacher training schools in Turkey to determine what changes need to be made to upgrade the quality of such training. I graduated from Gazi Univer sity in 1993 with an undergradu ate degree in music education. While I was having my undergraduate degree, I st udied violin with Prof essor Sadettin nal. I began working on a Master of Music Educati on degree immediately after my graduation and continued to study violin with Professor Sadettin nal. I completed my Masters degree in 1996. I worked as a music teacher at the following sc hools from 1993 to 1999: taught general music at T naztepe High School in Ankara and at Ahmet Yesevi Middle School in Bursa/Orhangazi; taught violin and piano at Ankara Anatol ian High School of Fine Arts and ank r Anatolian High School of Fine Arts. I rece ived a scholarship from the Turkish Ministry of National Education to have graduate study in the United States in 1999. I enroll ed in the Master of Education degree program at the University of Missouri-Columbia in January 2001 and graduated in 2002. Since the fall of 2002, I have been working on doctorate in music education with an emphasis in string educati on at the University of Florida. Last summer, I conducted a preliminary study to de termine what topic needed to be included in the final questionnaire. I would like to ask you to complete the attached questionnaire. This should take approximately twenty minutes of your time. I am sending this questionnaire to all string professors who currently teach at univers ity music teacher training schools in Turkey. The

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171 information you provide will help me to devel op a model curriculum that can be used at university level in Turkey. Thank you for your help. Sincerely, Dilek Gktrk Ph.D. Candidate University of Florida

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172 Cover Letter #1 in Turkish Merhaba __________ Han m /Bey, Benim ismim Dilek Gktrk. u anda Amerika Birle ik Devletlerinin Florida eyaletinde bulunan University of Floridada mzik e itimi zerine (yayl alg lar e itimi alan nda uzmanla mak zere) doktora e itimimi srdryorum ve halen tez al malar m devam etmektedir. Sizden tezimle ilgili bir anket doldurman z iin ricada bulunaca m ancak ncelikle kendimi k saca tan tmak istiyorum. 1993 y l nda Gazi niversitesinden mezun oldum. Bu sre iinde Prof. Sadettin nal ile keman al t m. Ayn y l Gazi niversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitsne bal olan Mzik Anabilim Dal nda Yksek Lisans e itimime ba lad m ve 1996 y l nda Yksek Lisans derecemi ald m. Bu sre boyunca da Prof. Sadettin nal ile keman al malar ma devam ettim. 1993-99 y llar aras nda e itli okullarda (AnkaraT naztepe Lisesi, Bursa/Orhangazi-Ahmet Yesevi lk retim Okulu, Ankara Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Lisesi ve ank r Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Lisesi) mzik/keman retm enli i yapt m. Bu sre zarf nda Amerika Birle ik Devletlerinde lisans st eitim grmek zere Milli E itim Bakanl ndan burs kazand m. 2001 y l n n Ocak ay nda University of Missouri-Columbiaya geldim ve ikinci Master m e itim zerine (mzik e itimi odakl olarak) ald m. 2002 y l n n Gz dneminden itibaren de University of Floridada mzik e itimi zerine (yayl alg lar e itimi alan nda uzmanla mak zere) doktora eitimimi srdryorum. Tezim Trkiyedeki yayl alg lar e itimi ve metotlar zerine. Geti imiz yaz bir pilot al ma yapt m tezimle ilgili olarak. te o sorular n cevaplar ndan yola karak esas anketimi haz rlad m. Size sormak istediim konu udur: E er bu anketi (toplam 26 soru ve en fazla 20 dakikan z al r) bana cevaplay p 1ay iinde gnderebilirseniz ok m emnun olurum. Bu anketi Trkiyede bulunan tm mzik okullar nda grev yapan tm yayl alg retim elemanlar na gnderiyorum. Ankette

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173 bulunan oktan semeli sorular cevaplaman z iin kutucuklar yok ama siz istedi iniz cevab koyula t rabilirsiniz setiginiz seenek olarak. Bu ankete kat l m n z ve ay rd n z zaman ve abalar n z iin ok te ekkrler. Sayg lar mla. Dilek Gktrk Doktora rencisi University of Florida

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174 174 APPENDIX I REMINDER LETTER #1 FOR STRING PROFESSORS Reminder Letter #1 in English I am sending this letter to remind you that I have not yet received your responses to the questionnaire that I e-mailed you a few weeks a go. I have attached another copy of the same questionnaire to this reminder letter. Would you please comple te and return it no later than May 15th ? I greatly appreciate your assi stance in this matter and w ould like to thank you for your help. Sincerely, Dilek Gktrk Ph.D. Candidate University of Florida

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175 175 Reminder Letter #1 in Turkish Merhaba __________ Han m/Bey, Bu mesaj size daha nce cevaplaman z iin gndermi olduum bir anket ve bu ankete e lik eden bir mektupla ilgili olarak gnderiyorum Bugne kadar sizden herhangi bir cevap alamad mdan dolay bu mesaji size anketimle birlik te tekrar gnderiyorum. Bu yollam olduum tezimle ilgili anketi doldurman z rica ediyorum. Ltfen anketi 15 May sa kadar cevaplay p bana yollay n z. Yard mlar n z iin imdiden te ekkr ediyorum. Sayg lar mla. Dilek Gktrk Doktora rencisi University of Florida

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176 176 APPENDIX J REMINDER LETTER #2 FOR STRING PROFESSORS Reminder Letter #2 in English I am writing to let you know that I have not yet received your responses to the questionnaire that I have e-mailed you. Would you please complete and return it no later than June 15th ? Thank you very much. Sincerely, Dilek Gktrk Ph.D. Candidate University of Florida

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177 177 Reminder Letter #2 in Turkish Merhaba __________ Han m/Bey, Bu mesaj size daha nce cevaplaman z iin iki kez gndermi olduum bir anket ve bu ankete e lik eden mektuplarla ilgili olarak gnderiyor um. Bugne kadar sizden herhangi bir cevap alamad mdan dolay bu ikinci mesaj size anketimle birlikte tekrar gnderiyorum. Bu yollam olduum tezimle ilgili anketi doldurman z rica ediyorum. Ltfen anketi 15 Hazirana kadar cevaplay p bana yollay n z. Yard mlar n z iin imdiden te ekkr ediyorum. Sayg lar mla. Dilek Gktrk Doktora rencisi University of Florida

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178 APPENDIX K FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS Questions Responses ( f) a ( f) b (f) c (f) d (f) e (f) f (f) g (f) h (f) i (f) j (f) k (f) l 1 5 1 2 2 0 --------------2 5 3 0 1 1 --------------3 8 5 --------------------4 10 10 10 11 11 10 10 ----------5 7 4 6 6 8 7 9 6 6 5 10 6 6 1 0 0 1 0 --------------7 3 1 0 0 0 -------------8 3 2 -------------------9 2 3 1 0 4 4 3 ----------10 2 1 --------------------11 0 0 0 61 0 --------------12 47 14 0 0 0 --------------13 0 61 --------------------14 60 60 60 60 56 56 ------------15 41 17 27 30 40 47 51 33 33 35 50 15 16 1 2 0 0 0 --------------17 0 0 2 0 0 --------------18 2 2 --------------------19 16 7 6 13 ----------------20 39 13 6 29 28 --------------21 52 4 --------------------22 47 11 --------------------23 57 1 --------------------24 43 15 --------------------25 53 2 --------------------26 Total respondents for this question: 28

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180 APPENDIX L RESPONSES FROM STRING PROFESSO RS T O OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH) SECTION 1: String Skills/Techniques Courses Question #4 Please indicate which of the following skill s are taught in the st ring skills/techniques courses. sight-reading and inte rpretation skills teaching orchestra and chamber ensemble performance skills Question #5 Please indicate which of the following st ring technique books are used in the string skills/techniques courses. Rodionov violin method Fortunatovs Young Violinist Mazas Kreutzer Dont Rode Wohlfahrt Fiorillo Yayl alg lar (Keman) I, II, III [String Instruments (Violin) I, II, III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Violin] by Ali Uan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Instruction Books for Anatolian Fine Ar ts High Schools 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan Viyola Metodu I-II-III [Viola Method I-II-III] by Ayfer Tanr verdi

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181 J. Werner Violoncello School Dotzauer Exercises for Violoncello Scales and arpeggios SECTION 2: String Method/Pedagogy Courses Question #9 Please indicate which of the following topics are discussed in the string methods/pedagogy courses. methods of string teaching Question #10 Please indicate which of the following method books are used in the string methods/pedagogy courses. Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Violin] by Ali Uan Yayl alg lar (Keman) S n f I, II, III [Strings (Violin) Grade I, II, III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Teaching Books for the Anatolian Fine Arts High Schools Grades 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan Sebastian Lee Fevillard Dotzauer Popper Grutzmacher Duport SECTION 3: Private Lesson Instruction Question #14 Please indicate which of the following skills are taught in private lessons.

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182 playing and interpreting the characteristics of sonatinas, sonatas, concerti, duos, and trios from different periods in music history instruction on the use of right wrist, right elbow, right shoulder and left wrist knowledge of the repertoire for the instrument vibrato, working on the speed and strength of the left hand fingers, shifting, advanced bow techniques, coordination between both hands, and musical dynamics becoming familiar with the string repertoire finger exercises in all positions, shifting exercises, and performance repertoire phrasing, musicality, nuances, articulati on, acceleration, sight reading, scales intonation, musicality the technical characteristics of the instrument, the use of the instrument in history, and the historical development of the instrument Other than the ones stated above, I try to give a list of practicing hints to my students. Parallel to this, my other goals in teaching are harmonic analys is and phrasing that help my students to learn how to deal with practicing problems and how to perform and interpret a piece effectively. vibrato exercises repertoire consists of traditional Turkish musical scales and pieces (sirto, longa, oyun havas and halay), phrasing, musicality, nuances, articulation, acceleration exercises, sightreading exercises, and other scales vibrato exercises, musical interpretati on, and nuances of bowing techniques sound production, sound quali ty, nuances, intonation different bowing techniques, diffe rent finger patterns in firs t position during freshman year working on all positions starting from the firs t to the advanced ones, basic and advanced bow techniques articulation, interpretation, nuances, and musical dynamics basic finger exercises and common etudes (dep ending on the level of each student) that string instructors/professors determine interpretation, stage experience

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183 trill, spiccato, harmonics Question #15 Please indicate which of the following teachi ng materials are used in the private lessons. Violin method books Keman E itimi iin zgn Paralar [Original Pieces for Violin Instruction] by Ali Uan Yayl alg lar (Keman ) S n f I, II, III [String Instrument s (Violin) I-II-III] by Edip Gnay and Ali Uan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 [Violin Instruction for Anatolian Fine Arts High Schools 1, 2, 3, 4] by Ali Uan Fiorillo Suzuki Violin School 1-9 Kayser Louis Schubert Keman Metodu [Louis Schubert Violin Method] Carl Flesch scales & arpeggios Hanry Schradiek zai Caprice Gavinnies Etudes Pracht Dancla Pleyel Keman E itimi 2. Blm [Violin Instruction Chapter 2] by Sonat Seyhan Komarovsky Violin meets piano Russian methods for violin Hofmaister

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184 Compagnoily Palashko L. Auer I. Galamian A. Markov Last method books by Ali Uan Internet sources (for violin) Viola method books Viyola Meto du I-II-III [Viola Method I-II-III] by Ayfer Tanr verdi Viyola Metodu [Viola Method] by Sefai Acay Viyola in Dizi ve Yay e itleri [Scales and Bow Techniques for Viola] by Oktay Dalaysel & Fatih Yayla Cello method books Dotzauer 1-4 Dotzauer 113 Cello Exercises L. R. Feuilla rd J. Werner Violoncello Schule J. L. Duport Maderovsky D. Popper Greutzmacher Daily Studies Schrder Technique Exercises Sebastian Lee Melodische Etudes J. Stutuchewsky H. Becker

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185 E. Mainardi J. Merkb-Cossmann different method books for scale and sight-reading exercises for cello Double bass method books E. Nanny SECTION 4: String Laboratory Courses Question #18 Please indicate what typ es of instructional materials ar e used in these courses. standard repertoire that is chosen fo r string orchestra and some arrangements arrangements and pieces by Turkish composers SECTION 5: Strengths and Weaknesses of th e Current Undergraduate String Education Degree Pro gram Question #19 Please indicate which of the following cha nges in the undergraduate string education degree program you consider to be strengths. a. Changes in the curricular struct ure such as th e following: Private studio instruction should be two hours a week and called MAIN INSTRUMENT, not individual instrument. Universities should place more emphasis on training artists, not music teachers. (1) the increasing application a nd inclusion of new approaches in curriculum development, and (2) the development of string teaching curriculum by knowledgeab le experts based on current needs Our school curriculum has been evaluated a nd changed based on the Higher Education Counsels agenda and the idea of adaptation to the European Union for the last ten years. These efforts make it a better form. We are able to locate music excerpts and score archives through the use of electronic files.

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186 None of the changes in the string education curriculum have had a positive effect on the quality of string teacher education. The lack of weekly meeting time for course s is one of the basic problems of string instruction at universities. Th ere is also a lack of followup on students (one-hour meeting per week). Because of the lim ited credit hours and the concern of the most students who are focused only on their grades, th ey do not place enough importance on their instrumental training. the quality and the quantity of the string faculty members, and musical activities by students and teachers affect the quality of the school the existence of an accredited double bass curriculum the Studio String Instruction course that has be en added to the curric ulum (in the eighth semester of the undergraduate degree program) Generally, no significant changes have been made in the string education curriculum. There is no problem determining the goals of the curriculum, and the use of the method books. the existence of string courses at the collegiate level, the studio classes that provide one-toone instruction, and the opportunity to indivi dualize the curriculum for each student, and (for Gazi University) excellent conditions of the practice rooms The reduction of the studio classes from two to one-hour per week makes it difficult to schedule lessons for students (sometimes three students have to have a lesson together in this one-hour period). Although the curriculum looks fine, the lack of string faculty members is the main problem. efforts to development new curriculum The main problem is the lack of a curriculum th at has been field-tested. Every teacher uses his/her own method/curriculum. Our students are able to play sonatas a nd concerti, but they are unable to play educational/school music and folk music correctly and efficiently. b. The use of more contemporary instructio nal mater ials such as the following: other than western music, the vast of use of our traditional music as etudes and pieces in a harmonized way Particularly in music teacher education inst itutions, if new string teaching methods are created that have a perspectiv e from traditional to internat ional use and more pieces are

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187 written that serve the need fo r educational purposes in string teaching, the adaptation to the international platform would be easier. Since we do not have any method books other th an the stated above, we may not have the information and knowledge about other approaches in string teaching. University music teacher training schools may be helpful in locating these sources to reach. the transfer of knowledge and documen ts became easier via the Internet We can reach many music scores and r ecordings via computer technology. I think it would be better if experienced teachers combine all methods and add their experience so that they can get better results. c. The increased use of string teaching methods from other countries such as the Rolland and Suzuki methods. Our goal is having a system that meets world standards. Because of the lack of string teaching methods in Turkey, these methods ar e being used. (They are not that good. I, personally, use very little.) It would be very functional to use teaching methods as Kodal y, Dalcroze and Suzuki if the string instruction begins at an earlier age. However, it is necessary to use teaching techniques and methods that contain different approach es if the beginning string instruction is at later ages. The early beginning age of playing string inst ruments would make the college-level string instruction stronger. Particularly, Suzuki is a very good method to teach and to make enjoyable string instruments for young children. I dont use Suzuki in formal education (at the collegiate level) but I use it very often for my private students. d. Other strengths: Turkish string specialists who are increasingly having m ore e ffective and productive status strong string faculty Strings are the basic instruments in our school and they have a very important role in orchestras and ensembles. From the perspe ctive of doing cooperative work and making music together, the instruction of th ese instruments is very important. motivation of students, different applicati ons of the curriculum depending on students needs, performing different types of music for better skills

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188 the use of new method books such as Popper and Grutzmaher knowledge of instrument, producing quality sound with the inst rument, knowledge of music literature, ability to accompany other inst ruments, playing in chamber orchestras and student orchestras, playing and interpre ting traditional music with contemporary arrangements because of the fact that Anatolian high school s of fine arts provide student source for Music Education Divisions at the Fine Arts Ed ucation Departments at the universities, the strong background of string studen ts at the collegiate level physical conditions (better conditio ns regarding practice rooms) (For Gazi University) Regarding string t eaching classes, Violin Teaching Method and Techniques and Chamber Music courses are o ffered in graduate (Masters) level as elective. Although the curriculum is strong, it is not e nough by itself in the hands of inexperienced teachers. I think that western schools train performing machines with turning its back to the east. efforts of including Turkish folk music into violin instruction Question #20 Please indicate which of the following aspects of the undergraduate st ring education degree program you consider to be weaknesses. lack of class time/one-hour weekly meeting for the class general problems (watching the use of right wrist and right arm, teachers should be more alert on these problems) Teachers should pay attention on the use of first and second fingers on the bow and the position of the left thumb. More scales and arpeggios!!! late beginning age of the string instruction, a nd lack of quality instru ction of students who attend music schools; therefore, th e lack of well-trained students regarding type and variety, the lack of variety in small, medium and big scale etudes and pieces in contemporary Turkish violin music To be more efficient, it is necessary to us e various types of music in string education. Being stuck with a particular form of music will bring the lack of insufficiency and lack of variety in string instruction. With a similar appr oach, the attitude of being flexible on this issue for the string faculty will be beneficial to have new horizons on the subject.

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189 There is more variety of string teaching met hod books in other countries. But, how are we going to use them? It would be better if th ese method books are transl ated into Turkish. Students who begin playing a string instrument late can learn only basic techniques at university music teacher training schools. Even Anatolian high schools of fine arts graduates, most of whom later attend unive rsity music teacher training schools, cannot master on their instruments easily. It is very important to star t at an early age with a good instruction. late beginning age for many of college string students level of upcoming students being ready fo r the program, and the quality of string professors lack of support for string education weekly hours of instruction, late beginning age of string education quality of string professors, level of classes, selection of students lack of time to practice, lack of musical environment to show musical abilities (for students), lack of transformation of musical knowledge into their daily lives (for students), interest in popular music, lack of practice efficiently There is no standardization among graduates from Anatolian high schools of fine arts in Turkey. Also, there is still a problem to fi nd adequately trained st ring teachers for these schools. Therefore, there is a lack of standard ized approach in stri ng teaching/education in Turkey. lack of course hours, lack of use of Turkish music in violin instruction Lack of variety in string repe rtoire is a problem. For example, it is a weakness to me because traditional folk music from other countries (their scale system should be considered) is not included in the curriculum beside Bar oque, Classical, Romantic and contemporary western music. Including folk music would make the string curriculum richer. Also, beginning age of string instruction is another weakness. physical problems (because of the size and th e cost of the double bass for the student) the low scores of music students in the unive rsity entrance exam, irresponsible students lack of the weekly teaching hours, heavy c ourse load of instructors and professors difficult living conditions of co llege students because of fina ncial problems (for example, they cannot afford to buy good instruments, books etc.), physical conditions of music teacher training schools, differences in talent background, interest and playing levels of

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190 students, the relationship between students success at auditions and standardized university entrance exam Quality of string teacher educati on is directly related to the qu ality of professors. The main problem is the system that does not control professors, who do not usually question about their performing skills, who do not have concer ns about improving these skills, who teach whatever they know, and who do not perform e nough or do not participate in workshops to develop themselves as musicians and teachers. lack of number of instructors/professors, the course load of string instructors/professors lack of quality in standardization of measur ement tools, lack of micro-teaching, increasing problems in finding a job, lack of motiva tion of students, (the problems of a youth generation who likes easy, ready, and who has no ideals) (1) string instructors/professo rs who cannot play and do not practice, therefore who cannot teach but believe that strings can be taught without playing and practicing; (2) same situation at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts; (3) lack of practicing environment at schools SECTION 6: Suggestions for Improving th e Undergraduate String Education Degree Program Question #21 Please indicate if you think m ore stri ng pedagogy courses should be required. String pedagogy courses do not ex ist in the current curriculum Yet, some university music teacher training schools offer this cour se in their graduate program. We do not have a string pedagogy course in our curriculum. If there is any need, necessary information is given in pr ivate studio instruction. We do not have such course in our school curriculum but I believe it would be very beneficial if it is added into graduate level curriculum. This course can be offered as elective because it is important for students who want to be academicians. Since most of music teacher tr aining school graduates teach general music at public schools they may not be able to teach their instruments. Yet, this situation is different for Anatolian high schools of fine arts. There is not such course in th e curriculum but can be added. (more support for string education beside musi c education at univers ities) Accepting the fact that music education is not only a branch of fine ar ts education but also science because of its research element, it would cause Turkey to be able to compete with other countries in the area.

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191 String instruction shou ld be supported with ear traini ng because ear training is very important. Non-practical courses would be harmful. Th eoretical knowledge should be combined with practice. Because the limited time [four years] at the un iversity music teacher training schools does not allow students to improve their level of pl aying their instruments, it is not meaningful to have a class like this in the curriculum. Question #22 Please indicate if you think newer teaching m aterials and methods need to be developed. Different method books and materials are need ed for string instruments. Because music education/instruction is expens ive in our country (instrumen t, material, methods etc.), publishers and music stores intend to make high benef it from these materials. Most importantly, these methods and mate rials should fit into world standards. String educators should produ ce new materials and methods. The biggest problem is the lack of quality of th e instruments at state un iversities. If I want to play a good quality instrument, my student should be able to afford a similar instrument as well. But, because of their financial probl ems students cannot afford it. I think there are enough good quality string method books. The problem is lack of opportunities to find compilation album books that have different pieces and arrangements in different levels for string instruments. This is important to develop modern Turkis h school. Turkish music educators have the biggest responsibility to achieve this. We have problems in finding enough sources in beginning level pieces with piano accompaniment. Our sources are limited. Materials that belongs us [Turkish identity ] are important. There are enough sources from other countries. Therefore, in stead of copying or adapting foreign sources we should create our methods. Because there are enough methods and method books, and if we can get benefit of these materials, that would be enough. Question #23 Please indicate if you th ink more string teacher workshops need to be offered. Workshops would be helpful and beneficial for new teachers.

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192 There are workshops in Turkey but it is not enough. These workshops should not be offered only in big cities or only in the western part of Turkey. I think this is a problem in string teacher education in our country. Sharing information would allow t eachers to be better educators. It is not reasonable to expect improving the quality of music teacher training schools with teachers who have been trained in a system w ith deficiencies. As a teacher who graduated from conservatory but teaching at a music teach er training school in Turkey (a very rare situation), this is my perspective. For this reason, any type of constructive support coming from outside is needed. This is a need. The workshops in Turkey have not been high quality. Question #24 Please indicate if you think m ore Turkish mu sic should be included in the string methods books. This music should definitely be added and should become a cultural trend. pieces that can be played easily and with high quality In my own method books, I have tried to give examples selected from traditional Turkish folk music and traditional Turkish art music in a big scale. Besides these, I see the particularly need to make Turkish violin music more variable and richer with more contemporary examples. We should never forget our music and prevent new generations to fo rget it. Every Turk should do his/her best to do this. We should put our music in the educational system in a westernized way. This is a difficult job that needs a lot of effort. Works of traditional folk music have been ar ound for thousands of years. Therefore, a synthesis of western and traditional Turkish folk music would live longer and be more effective in education. There is no Turkish method book for cello. Turkish music should definitely be added to the curriculum. This has been a deficiency for years. If we look at violin methods and method books in othe r countries, it is obvious that they include their folk music very much, partic ularly at the beginning level. This practice is productive, more fun and effective for violin instruction and would make learning process easier for students. Not only Turkish music but also other types of music from other count ries should be added to the curriculum. String educators should not only arrange pieces from Turkey but also

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193 from other countries. My answer yes for your question #24 should not only be considered as Turkish music to be added in method books but also other musics from other countries that should be included. There are no such method books for cell o. It is a big need in the area. During my 28-year teaching experience I have ob served that if college students learn how to play violin without playing Turkish mu sic but only with western methods, it is not enough. They usually forget how to play violin after they graduate. They should definitely be given Turkish style violin instruction as well. There would not be benefit for music or students if this situation becomes a mandate. I dont think it is necessary [to inclue more Tu rkish music in the curriculum] but these types of pieces can be written for solo performances. Turkish music is a broad term. It can create difficulties in string instruction if other countries use it (because of th e quarter-tone system in Turkish music). But, using it effectively to teach easy school songs and wr iting method books in this area is needed. After basic training in western way, Turkish music can be added. I believe that the selection of the highly qualified works with a large participation in the area will be beneficial. Yes for stylized or arranged high quality pieces To create a national violin school there is a need for works in all forms in educational area. Question #25 Please indicate if you think m ore research studies need to be conducted in this area of Turkish teacher education. Doing more research is of course good. Most im portant thing is elevating the level of the education. I think there is enough research in the area. This is a must. The sociological, psychologica l and cultural echo of mu sic, which is from the smallest sound to the biggest work s, should be filled with richness. I agree on conducting more re search on Turkish string e ducation. But, there is a misconception in doing research on a single string instrument itself. This approach should be left behind, because the academic quality and validity of this type of research is questionable.

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194 It is important to have variet y in string repertoire when st udies are conducted in string education. I believe that playing different types of music for strings can be very effective and beneficial. Quality is more important than quantity of re search. Research should have an answer for the existing problem. To do this, the problem s hould be openly stated in the research. Studies in Turkey stay on shelves, as articl es and theses. These studi es should be tested regarding their practicality, and then they should be put in practice. On the practicality and the use of Turkish music on string instruc tion/education, doing more research and writing modal etudes and pieces are musts. Similar studies do not make any benefit to th e area. Instead of doing research on the needs in the area, reseacrchers pr efer th easy way by conducting studies on subjects that they would have the opportunity to access sources without having difficulty. The number of these studies is not enough. We need practical and experimental studies. Question #26 Please indicate if you have further reco mmendations for im proving undergraduate string teacher education. Choice of being a string education major shou ld be given to stude nts at the university level. Different areas and choices, such as instrumental education, theory, music history, orchestral conducting, choral conducting, ea rly childhood music education, public school music teacher education for first through elev enth grade, and teacher preparation for Anatolian high school of fine arts should be provided at music teacher training schools. (a) scales and arpeggios; (b) right wrist technique If I were a decision maker, I would do th e following changes in string instruction at Anatolian high schools of fine arts and uni versity music teacher training schools: (a) change the basis and criteria for hiring stri ng teachers for Anatolia n high schools of fine arts and for hiring string faculty for th e university music t eacher training schools depending on new realities/changes in our count ry, new conditions in the area and needs of the new century; (b) organize a new system of workshops for string teachers working at Anatolian high schools of fine ar ts; (c) organize a system for string teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts and st ring professors at university music teacher training schools to meet every year so that they can meet a nd exchange their ideas on issues about string education; (d) organize a system to a rrange solo, chamber and orchestra music performances for string teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts and string professors at university music teacher training schools to work together; (e) establish new orchestras with string teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts and university string professors in national level to meet every year regularly to rehearse and perf orm; (f) functionalize

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195 these orchestras by making them permanent organizations with the support of the authorities [government, private foundations etc. ]; (g) benefit from Turkish folk and art music more; (h) allow every Anat olian high school of fine arts to be in close contact with the university music teacher training school in the same area; (i) develop a system for string teachers at Anatolian hi gh schools of fine arts and string professors at university music teacher training schools to be in contact with other string teachers and professors in different countries; (j) encourag e all string teachers at Anatol ian high schools of fine arts and string professors at university music teacher training schools to meet in a national level organization and be members of other international organizations in the area; (k) train teachers/professors in conducting area for all Anatolian high schools of fine arts and all university music teacher training schools; (l) encourage teachers/professors to adopt new approaches and developments in string teaching. (a) More workshops for string teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts by string professors (from university music teacher tr aining schools and conservatories) will result in a higher quality in string education; (b ) In ever-changing world, of course, music education will not stop but will take its part in this transformation. What we should do is to follow these changes as much as possible a nd to be informed about what is going on. (a) The string curriculum should be improve d regularly to include current needs and trends; (b) The use of string instruments s hould become more functional at university music schools with the approach of educational purposes other than performing core repertoire; (c) String professors should be ope n-minded to use different kinds of music in their teaching so that their students would be multi-dimensional educators; (d) As an element of string instruction, all efforts should be demons trated in performances, and students should be motivated for success; (e) There is a need for new methods and materials that should be developed with traditional-to-internationalapproach; (f) Particularly at university music teacher tr aining schools, string teaching/string pedagogy courses should be offered (even though partiall y offered in graduate level), and the method to teach these instruments should be more than master-appren tice approach. This knowledge should be transferred to new genera tions with scientific methods and ways. (a) unity in the application of the curric ulum; (b) develope standardized tools of measurement and evaluation; (c) in crease of the weekly course hours (a) String studio teaching hours should be tw o hours instead one hour a week; (b) It is better for students, who want to be string educ ators, to begin having string instruction at the elementary school level. Therefore, th ey can master on the instrument, work on developing different materials and teaching techniques instead of struggling to learn basic performance skills at the univers ity music teacher training schools (at first, being a master on the instrument, then being and educator); (c) My answers are for university music teacher training schools. The string instruction at conservatories is very good. They train very good players. The current string education system s hould be reassessed. The Music Education Subdivision at Fine Arts Edu cation Departments in universit ies should be an independent

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196 department and string education should be a subdivision of this independent music education department. To bring string education to a more professional and better level, Music Academies or Music and Stage Performance Departments should be opened, and all music institutions (fine arts departments in universities, conser vatories and university music teacher training schools) should be gathered under the same roof with different bran ches in the area. (a) There is lack of adequate ly trained string teachers at the collegiate level; (b) It is difficult to be a successful string player at th e university music teacher training schools; (c) Selection of students for university music t eacher training schools is a problem. The existence of Anatolian high schools of fine arts have not solvedthis problem; (d) Orchestra classes are conducted by teachers who are not sp ecialists in the area; (e) It is almost impossible to perform chamber music/orchestral music at university music teacher training schools where the string instruments are dominan t; (f) I do not think th e level of approach you think for string education exists in Turkey. (a) Educators in different areas should be categorized; (b) Pedagogical approaches should be adapted to the needs of the country; (c) Ed ucational methods/styles should be local to universal; (d) String teaching methods should be modified for different children who have different intelligence/IQ levels; (e) Teachi ng approaches should be modernized and developed regularly so that they would not ge t outdated; (f) Academicians in this area should conduct more studies and produce more materials, and they should be supported better financially. There should be a national style to teach stri ngs in Turkey. To do this, the basic approach should be from local to universal. (a) String education should not begin at the undergraduate le vel. There must be earlier string instruction before the collegiate level. For the auditions to choose string education majors for the universities, all graduates from Anatolian high school of fine arts should be accepted; (b) Weekly hours for private studio inst ruction should not be less than four hours per week in the curriculum; (c) One of the ma in problems is the sources. Academicians in the area should be given more opportunities to go abroad to search for more/different sources; (d) String instru ctors and professors at the univers ity level should get together at least two times a year and produce a comm on repertoire for their students; (e) Classrooms/offices that are us ed for private studio inst ruction should be renovated. Generally, classical western musi c is not given enough importance at the universities in the eastern part of Turkey. Traditional Turk ish Art Music is given more importance. (a) In string education, different teaching methods and techni ques should be developed; (b) String players and students in Turkey should kn ow and search for new/different literature for their instrument, and they should listen to original recordin gs of these works by professional players; (c) Turkish string e ducation students should perform traditional Turkish folk music with thei r instruments, and string edu cators should arrange and put more of such music in repertoire and the cu rriculum ; (d) Turkish string education students

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197 should listen to original recordings of traditional music and these pieces should be arranged for string instruments so that student s can perform such music; (e) Different types of traditional music from other countries should be used in string education. Instead of finals, a concert by each student at the end of every year would be more effective. (a) performing more works by Turkish composer s; (b) more string teaching methods and method books by Turkish educators and composers (a) At the university music teacher training schools, the w eekly hours for meeting studio classes should be two hours inst ead of one; (b) the need for th e string teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts should be taken care of as soon as possible. (a) There must be an end to the fear of us ing Turkish music in educational settings, (b) more Turkish modal etudes and pieces shoul d be written, (c) Diffe rent bow techniques should be adapted to the Turkish music, (d) As Atatrk always wanted, we should make Turkish music to the level that whole world can listen, (e) To make students more active, more solo concerts should be encouraged. Goals should be determined well. Music t eacher/string teacher candidates would have (naturally) different goals. In this case, these students paths should be different. (a) The curriculum at Anatolian high schools of fine arts is load ed too much. Without teaching basic technical skills, students are given too much assignment to practice because of the curriculum. Before mastering on a particular technique, another one is given to students. Without working on technical pract ices, big etudes and pieces are given to students. These etudes and pieces usually do no t build on each other. This situation should be considered as a problem in string teaching; (b) String teachers working at these schools must and need to have the ability to play their instruments well. Not all students at Anatolian high school of fine arts have the chance of having competent teachers. String teachers teaching at many of these schools are not qualified enough. There are string teachers who even cannot play the pieces that they assign for their students. In this situation, teacher cannot control his/her stude nt effectively. Therefore, string teacher candidates for Anatolian high school of fine arts should be evaluated in the area that they will teach; then, they should show improvement s with their performances periodically. This should be for every string teacher. Also, workshops can be beneficial for high school string teachers; (c) The problems I stated above are similar to th e problems at the collegiate level. Same problems are even more important for college teachers; (d) String education students at the university music teacher training schools should gi ve concerts to show what they have learned so far. To do this, accomp animent classes should be offered mandatorily and string players should be able to play th eir pieces with an accompaniment. This is a must. At both Anatolian high sc hools of fine arts and univers ity music teacher training schools, accompaniment is not offered as a c ourse and it is a probl em. There should be a solution for this situation; (e) Orchestra should definitely support studio classes. Teachers should not be allowed to use the curriculum with in their way. However, the current

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198 practice at both institutions show s that this is the situation. Orchestra should be considered as a practice area of the material th at is taught at the studio classes. Dear Dilek, Only one of the courses you included in the surv ey (Private Lesson Instruction) is offered at the university music teacher training school s in Turkey. This is an incomplete and a wrong practice because this course focuses only on the performance level of students players (who will be teachers), and they are tr ained with lack of knowledge in pedagogical approaches. I have observed the importance of this in Poland. I understood one more time that I was right about my observations in this issue in Turkey, and I got very upset for Turkish college students. Not only string in struments, but for other areas in music education unfortunately lack of pedagogical training in Turkey. We, as Marmara University, proposed a string pedagogy class (Studi o Class Teaching and Training) to the Higher Educati on Council to put in the new curri culum. This course is in the new curriculum now, but it has not been in practice yet because it is offered only for the last semester of the undergraduate program. For other courses in your study, I wish they would be offered in Turkish universities. These courses are needed for students. Instead of learning the skills th at they should learn in these courses, music teacher candidates lear n how to teach after they start teaching. The lack of these courses is a big deficiency in our programs. If I continue writing my opinions on the question #26, there should be classes that include pedagogical approaches or other courses should include and be taught more in this way. From this perspective, I think that, we, university professors and instructors still do not understand th at we train music teachers and we have imperfections in our approaches. Good luck in your study (a) We should develop methods and method books using our music; (b) The exercises in these method books should be tonal, not modal. (a) String education should de finitely start as early as possible; (b) As importantly, elementary and middle school students who are talented and interested in playing string instruments should be selected by music t eachers and should be directed to string instruction; (c) String teachers at Anatolian high schools of fine arts should be selected more meticulously. If their students go to college with poor playing habits they would lose time to correct these habits at the college; (d) More string specialists should work at the college level. Because of the course load, string professors are very busy and cannot be effective enough; (e) Every uni versity music teacher trai ning school should have an orchestra so that students can have an environment to practice th e skills that they learn in private studio instruction; (f) There should be concerts by studen ts at the end of every year. These concerts play a big and important role in musical development and motivation of students.

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199 (a) Especially, professors at the eastern uni versities should be we ll-equipped to teach strings; (b) I believe that the experience of string instructor s and the quality of students performances are correlated; (c) String instruments would be more popular [in eastern universities] through th e foundation of more professional or chestras and youth orchestras by the support of bigger organizations/sponsors. (a) The number of visual sources in string in struction [e.g. videos, slide shows] can be increased and students would be given the oppor tunity to take advantage of them; (b) Foreign sources in string education can be tran slated into Turkish and be used at Turkish universities. (a) String Instruments Committee should be orga nized; (b) A research institute for string instruments should be founded; (c) National/ international seminars for string teachers should be organized; (d) Only one type of music should not dominate in workshops. Different works that belong to us should be take n more places; (e) Mate rial that represents us [Turkish music] should be developed; (f ) Recording-publication-distribution web should be created. Organizations for string teachers like in other countries (with journals and annual meetings) should be founded. (a) For the hiring procedure of professors, experienced faculty members should be in search committees; (b) String teachers should de velop themselves. No teacher can help and be effective after only four-year college educatio n; (c) There must be more research in the area of string teaching methods. I think we should determine the qualities of being a good music teacher rather than teaching methods. Currently, these qualities ha ve not been determined and put into the curriculum. This problem can be resolved by the efforts of people who have worked in public schools for 15 to 20 years. I think teach ers who do not have teaching experience in public schools are asked to pr epare the curriculum. I am ve ry dissapointed about this situation. I think you should send th is survey not to us but to public school music teachers. How many of them use string inst ruments in their classes? You will see none of them do. It will be seen that the reason for this situation is the use of poor and outdated teaching methods. I think our methods should contain ex ercises including simple folk songs. In addition, they should include both tonal and moda l etudes/pieces that are thematically and rhythmically rich. The first-year string stude nt should not be taught how to read music, instead the student should be taught the places of the fingers on the fingerboard and basic bow techniques without reading score.

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201 APPENDIX M ORIGINAL TURKISH RESPONSES FROM ST RING PROFESSORS TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS BLM 1: Yayl alg Beceris i/Teknikleri Dersi Soru 4 Ltfen a a dakilerden hangisinin/hangilerinin yayl alg becerisi/teknikleri dersinde retildi ini belirtin iz. de ifre alma, h zl d nebilme, yorum becerisi orkestra ve e lik alg lar yla toplu alma becerisi Soru 5 Ltfen a a daki m etot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/ha ngilerinin yayl alg becerisi/teknikleri dersinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. Rodionov keman metodu Fortunatovun Young Violinist Mazas Kreutzer Dont Rode Wohlfahrt Fiorillo Edip Gnay ve Ali Uan n Yayl alg lar (Keman) I, II, III Ali Uan n Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar Ali Uan n Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 Ayfer Tanr verdinin Viyola Metodu I-II III J. Werner Violoncello School

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202 Dotzauer Exercises for Violoncello gamlar ve arpejler BLM 2: Yayl alg Metotlar /P edagojisi Dersi Soru 9 Ltfen a a daki konulardan hangisi nin/hangilerinin yayl alg m etotlar /pedagojisi dersinde i lendi ini belirtiniz. Yayl alg retim ilkeleri ve yntemleri Soru 10 Ltfen a a daki m etot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/ha ngilerinin yayl alg metotlar /pedagojisi dersinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. Ali Uan Keman E itimi in zgn Paralar Edip Gnay ve Ali Uan n Yayl alg lar (Keman) S n f I, II, III Ali Uan n Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 S. Lee Fevillard Dotzauer Popper Grutzmacher Duport BLM 3: Bireysel alg Ders i E itimi Soru 14 Ltfen a a dakilerden hangisinin/hangilerinin bireysel yayl alg derslerinde re tildi ini belirtiniz. mzik tarihindeki dnemleri ierisine alan sonat k, sonat, konerto, do, trio vb. eserleri seslendirme ve dnem zelliklerini sergileyebilme

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203 sa bilek, sa dirsek ve sa omuz e itimi, sol bilek e itimi alg yla ilgili dzeye uygun literatr tan ma (Tabi ki bunun iin alg da belli bir teknik dzeye ula mak gerekir) vibrato, sol el parmaklar n h zland rma ve glendirme, konum de i tirme al malar ileri yay teknikleri, mziksel dinamiklerin uygulanmas nda sa ve sol el uyumu al malar yayl alg lara ait eserleri tan ma btn konumlarda parmak egzersizleri ve konum gei egzersiz ve etdleri ile seviyeye uygun eser seslendirme cmleleme, mzikal izgiyi yakalama, nans, artiklasyon al malar acelite al malar de ifre al malar dizi al malar temiz alma, mzikalite k smen alg n n teknik zellikleri, ev rensel mzikteki kullan m ve k sa geli im tarihesi vb. Yukar da belirtilenlerin yan nda rencilerime belli bir s ralama gerektiren al ma disiplinini oturtmaya al maktay m. Buna paralel olarak bir eserin armonik yap s na, cmleleme ve motiflemelerine gre rencinin al ma ve alma s ras ndaki glklerle kendi ba na nas l ba a kabilece ini retmek ba l ca hedeflerim aras ndad r. vibrato al malar geleneksel Trk Mzi i makam dizileri ve bu makaml ara ait sirto, longa, oyun havas ve halay ezgilerinden olu an repertuar, cmleleme, mzikal izgiyi yakalama, nans, artiklasyon al malar acelite al malar de ifre al malar dizi al malar vibrato, mzikal ifade (nans-ar e ili kisi) ses kalitesi, nanslar, entonasyon farkl yay teknikleri, 1. s n fta 1. pozisyonda farkl parmak konumlar (a k-kapal parmak konumlar ) birinci pozisyondan ba layarak ileri poziyonlara dek tm pozisyon al malar (Temel yay teknikleri ve ileri yay teknik leri bu derslerde verilmeye al l yor.) artiklasyon, eser yorumlama, na ns vb., mzikal dinamiklerin al lmas temel parmak al malar renci seviyelerine gre yayl alg retmenlerinin repertuarlar ndan ortakla a seilen ettlerden uygulat lmaktad r yorumlama, sahne deneyimi

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204 tril, spiccato, flojele Soru 15 Ltfen a a daki m etot kitaplar ndan hangisinin/hangile rinin bireysel yayl alg derslerinde kullan ld n belirtiniz. Keman Metotlar Ali Uan n Keman E itimi iin zgn Paralar Edip Gnay and Ali Uan n Yayl alg lar (Keman) S n f I, II, III Ali Uan n Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri in Keman Ders Kitaplar S n f 1, 2, 3, 4 Fiorillo Suzuki Violin School kitaplar 1-9 Kayser Louis Schubert Keman Metodu Carl Flesch scales & arpeggios Hanry Schradiek zai Caprice Gavinnies Etudes Pracht Dancla Pleyel Sonat Seyhan n Keman E itimi 2. Blm Komarovsky Violin meets piano Rus kem an metotlar Hofmaister

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205 Compagnoily Palashko L. Auer I. Galamian A. Markov Ali Uan n son kitaplar nternet kaynaklar (keman iin) Viyola Metotlar Ayfer Tanr verdinin Viyola Me todu I-II-III Sefai Acay n Viyola Metodu Oktay Dalaysel ve Fatih Yaylan n Viyola in Dizi ve Yay e itleri Viyolonsel Metotlar Dotzauer 1-4 Dotzauer 113 Cello Exercises L. R. Feuilla rd J. Werner Violoncello Schule J. L. Duport Maderovsky D. Popper Greutzmacher Daily Studies Schrder Technique Exercises Sebastian Lee Melodische Etudes J. Stutuchewsky H. Becker

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206 E. Mainardi J. Merkb-Cossmann gam ve de ifre iin de i ik metot kitaplar ve egzersizler (viyolonsel iin) Kontrabas Metotlar E. Nanny BLM 4: Yayl alg Laboratuar Dersi Soru 18 Ltfen yayl alg laboratuar dersin iin ne tr retim materyallerinin kullan ld n belirtiniz. standart yayl alg lar orkestras iin seilen repertuar ve e itli dzenlemeler Trk bestecilerin denemeleri (eser & dzenleme) BLM 5: Gnmzde niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E it iminin Gl ve Zay f Taraflar Soru 19 Ltfen a a da belirtilen dei ikliklerin hangisinin/hangile rinin niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itim inin gl yan /yanlar oldu unu belirtiniz. a. retim program ndaki a a da belirtilen de i ik likler: retim program ndaki a a da belirtilen de i iklikler: Bireysel alg dersi haftada 2 saate geirilmelidir ve bireysel alg de il ANA ALGI olarak adland r lmal d r. niversiteler mzik retmeni de il sanat yeti tirilmelerini d necekler. (1) a da program geli tirme ilke, yntem ve tekniklerinin yayl alg retim programlar n geli tirme al malar nda giderek daha yo un biimde uygulanmas ; (2) yayl alg retim programlar n n bu alanda daha bilgili ve bilinli uzmanlar taraf ndan ele al n p a n gereklerine gre gncellenerek geli tirilm ekte olmas Ana bilim dal m zda son 10 y ll k srete ve ABye uyum erevesinde YKn koordinatrl nde belli zaman aral klar ile program de erlendirme ve dzeltme al malar srekli olarak gndeme gelmekte ve retim progamlar (yayl lar da dahil) dzenli olarak iyile tirilmeye al lmaktad r. elimizde tm kaynak kitaplar n bulunmas elektronik ortamlar n varl nedeniyle al nm rneklere ve nota ar ivine ula abilme

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207 Bana gre programda yayl alg lar e itimini olumlu ynde etkileyecek bir de i iklik olmad Mzik E itimi blmlerinde 4 y l 8 yar dnem okutulmakta olan alg e itimi dersinde kar la lan en temel problemlerin ba nda dnem ierisinde bireysel dersin saatinin ok az olmas d r. Haftada bir saatlik alg dersinde pek fazla renci takibi yap lam yor. rencilerin byk bir o unlu u ise alg dersinin kredisinin d kl nedeniyle gereken nemi vermemekle birlikte, geebilece i notu hedeflemekte. Ben benim niversitemdeki yayl alg e itiminin gl yanlar n bilebilirim. retim kadrosunun niceli i ve niteli i, yap lan renci ve retim elemanlar etkinlikleri gl yanlar n belirler. akreditasyon kapsam nda yap lan kontrabas e im i program n n varl 8 yar y ll k programa yeni konulan ve son (sekiz inci) dnemde uygulanan Bireysel alg retimi dersi Yayl alg retim program nda genellikle de i iklik olmuyor. Hedefler belirlenenerek uyumlu albm ve metotlarla al l r. Bu durumda sorunla kar la lm yor. niversitelerde alg derslerinin programda srekli olmas her renciyle birebir ders yap labiliniyor olmas ve program n renciye gore dzenlenebiliyor olmas (Gazi niversitesi iin geerli) al ma odalar n n donan m n n ok iyi olmas s navlar n yayl alg zm releriyle yap l yor olmas gl yanlar say labilir. Daha nce haftada 2 saat olan ders 1 saate d rlm ve bireysellikten km maddiyat hesaplar yap larak 3 ki i 1 saate s k t r lm t r. retim program her ne kadar uygun grnse de retim eleman azl retim program yap lanmas n n en temel zaaf durumuna gelmektedir. retim programlar n n geli imi ve irdelenmesi Ne yaz k ki genel olarak zerinde d nlp pilot olarak uygulan p de erlendirilmi bir retim program yok. Her hoca kendi retim program n kullanmakta. rencilerimiz sonat, concerto v.b. yap tlar ok gzel seslendiriyor. Ama e itim mzi i paralar n ve halk oyunlar paralar n asla do ru alam yorlar. b. Daha fazla gncel yayl alg r etim materyallerinin a a da belirtilen ekillerdeki kullan m : ok sesli bat mzi i yan nda, ok seslili e uygun kendi geleneksel mziklerimize de gerek etd gerekse eser olarak bol r neklerle yer vermemizdir.

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208 zellikle Mzik retmenli i A.B.D.nda yerelden evrensele a l m sergileyebilecek daha farkl alg metodlar olu turulur ve e itim mzi ine ynelik daha ok eser da arc olu turulursa; uluslararas platforma ok daha kolay adapte olunabilir. Yukar da bahsedilen metodlar n d nda elimizde ba ka kaynak olmad iin ba ka yntemlerle ilgili bilgimiz olamayabiliyor. E itim kurumlar n n yeni kan kaynaklara ula lmas nda nemli katk lar olabilir. Internet sayesinde bilgi ve belge tran sferinin daha kolay hale gelmesi Bigisayar yard m yla birok eserin notas na ula abiliyoruz, konser kay tlar na ula abiliyoruz. Deneyimli retmenlerin standart metodlar uygulamas yerine bilinen tm metodlardan yararlanarak, kendi deneyimlerini de katarak, farkl renci profillerine olabilen en yak n ve h zl biimde hedeflenen sonulara ula labilir diye d nyorum. c. Rolland ve Suzuki gibi yabanc kkenli yayl al g retim metotlar n n artan kullan m Amac m z dnya standartlar na uygun eitim vermek. Trkiyedeki renim metotlar n n fazla olmamas ndan ve o standartlara uymamas ndan bu metodlar geni ekilde kullan yorlar. (O kadar iyi de de illerben ok az kullan yorum) alg retimine kk ya larda ba land nda Kodaly, Dalcroze, Suzuki gibi retim yntemlerinden yararlanmak ok i levsel olabilmektedir ancak ileri ya larda alg e itimine ba land nda daha farkl yakla m ve anlay lar ieren retim yntem ve teknikleri kullanmak gerekli olacakt r. alg e itimine kk ya ta ba lanmas niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itimini gl hale getirmektedir. zellikle Suzuki kk ya ta ocuklara yayl alg lar zendirmek ve sevdirmek ad na kullanilabilir bir metot. Formal e itimde kullanm yorum. Ancak amatr e itiminde s kl kla ba vuruyorum. d. Di er gl yanlar: Trk yayl alg e itimcilerinin giderek daha ok etkin ve verimli olabilecekleri konumlara (statlere) gelmekte olmalar gl retim kadrosunun olmas Ana bilim dal m zda yayl alg lar, temel alt yap y olu turmak da olup; bireysel etkinliklerin yan s ra orkestra al malar nda da pilot grevi stlen mektedirler. Birlikte

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209 mzik yapma anlam nda i birliki e itim a s ndan bu alg lar n retiminin son derece yerinde ve i levsel oldu u d nlebilir. derslerin alg yla yap l p rencilerin al maya zendirilmesi, herkese ayr ve ihtiyac na uygun program yap lmas alg becerisinin farkl mzik trleriyle verilmesi Popper, Grutzmaher gibi yeni metodlar n kullan m alg y tan ma, doru ses retme, nas l ve nerede kullan laca n bilme, dnya mzik literatrn tan yabilme, e lik edebilme, oda mzi i topluluklar ve renci orkestralar nda alabilme, geleneksel mziklerimizi a da bir anlay la seslendirebilm e ve yorumlama Gzel Sanatlar Liselerinin E itim Faklteleri mzik blmlerine renci kayna sa l yor olmas nedeniyle keman alma konusunda rencilerin haz rbulunu luk dzeylerinin gl olmas fiziki artlar (al ma odas say s ynnden iyile me) Yukar da bahsedilen metodlar n d nda elimizde ba ka kaynak olmad iin ba ka yntemlerle ilgili bilgimiz olamayabiliyor. E itim kurumlar n n yeni kan kaynaklara ula lmas nda nemli katk lar olabilir. Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liselerinin a lm olmas belli bir altyap olu turmas a s ndan niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itim ini gl hale getirmektedir. (Gazi niversitesi iin) Yksek lisans program nda alg e itimiyle ilgili olarak Keman E itimi Yntem ve Teknikleri ve Oda Mzi i dersleri semeli olarak a lmaktad r. Gl ama eksik yan n da gstermektedir. ok ba ar l haz rlanm sistemler olmas na kar n, deneyimsiz rencinin kendi ba na hedefine ula aca inanc nda deilim. Bat dnyas n n Do u ekollerine s rt n dnerek sadece makine alan mzisyenler retme sevdas nda oldu unu d nyorum. Trk Halk ezgilerinin keman e itimine yans yabilirli i Soru 20 Ltfen a a da belirtilen dei ikliklerin hangisinin/hangile rinin niversitelerdeki yayl alg e itim inin zay f yan /yanlar oldu unu belirtiniz. ders saatinin yetersizli i/1 saatlik haftal k ders saati genel problem sa bilek ve sa kol e itimi ( retmenlerin bu problemlere daha fazla dikkat etmeleri laz m.) Yayda birinci ve ikinci parmaklar n yerlerine dikkat etmek, sol elde ba barma n durumuna dikkat etmek. Gamlara ve arpejlere daha fazla zaman ay rmak!

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210 alg renimine ge ya ta ba lanmas ve niversiteye gelen rencilerin ald klar e itimin yetersiz olmas dolay s ile eksik donan ml olmalar d r. ada oksesli Trk keman mzi i kapsam nda d nlen kk, orta ve byk lekli ett ve eserlerin tr ve e it olarak henz istenilen dzeyde yeterli olamay alg retiminin i levsel olabilmesi iin hem ulusal hem de evrensel nitelikte bir ok kaliteli mzik tr bnyesinde kullan labilir durumda olmas gerekir. Belli baz trlere saplan p kalmak, alg da yetersizli i ve tek ynll de gndeme getirecektir. Ayn biimde hocalar n da bu hususta olabildi ince esnek ve yol gsterici olmalar yeni ufuklara a l mda faydal olacakt r. alg m etotlar n e itlili i bulundurmak gerekir. Daha nemlisi, nas l onlar kullanacaks n? Metotlar Trkeye evi rilirse daha iyi olur. Yayl alg ya ge ya ta ba layan renci sadece temel davran lar renip mezun oluyor. Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Lisesi mezunlar bile usta al c konumuna kolay kolay gelemiyor. Erken ya ta ve do ru bir e itim almas nemli. rencilerin byk bir o unlu unun yayl alg e itimine ge ya larda ba l yor olmas gelen rencilerin haz r bulunu luk dzeyleri, reticilerin niteli i sistemin alg e itimine yeterli zeni gstermemesi haftal k ders saati sresi, rencilerin eitim e ba lang ya retim elaman derslerin gerekle me dzeyi, renci kayna ve seimi alg al ma zamanlar n n azl rendiklerini uygulayabilece i sanatsal ortamlar n yeterli olmamas rendiklerini ya ama geirme felsefesinden yoksun kalma, popular ortamlar n, cazibesi ve dzenli programl al mama vb. Trkiyede Gzel Sanatlar Lisesi mezunlar nda nitelik bak m ndan standartla ma mmkn olmamaktad r. Ayr ca bu kurumlara nitelikli retmen bulma sorunu halen gndemdedir. Bu nedenle yayl alg e itiminde ulusal bir okulun eksikli i kendini hissettirmektedir. ders saatinin yetersizli i, Trk Mzi inin keman e itiminde kullan lmamas (yayl alg e itimi repertuar n n ok fazla e itlilik gstermemesi) rne in Dnya mziinden rnekler verilirken Ba rok, Klasik, Romantik ve a da dnemlerin yan s ra di er lkelerin geleneksel m ziklerinin de yer alabilecei (bu mziklerin ses dizileri gz nne al narak) daha zengin bir repertuar n yatarli dzeyde geli tirilememesi zay fl k olarak de erlendirilmelidir. Ayr ca rencilerin yayl alg e itimine ba lama ya lar da zay f yanlardan birisi olarak de erlendirilebilir. kontrabas alg s n n pahal ve byk olmas ndan kaynakl fiziksel zorluklar

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211 d k niversite puan dolay s yla sorumluluk bilinci zay f renci o unlu u haftal k ders saatinin yetersiz olmas retim elemanlar n n ders saati yo unlu u rencilerin kt maddi ya am ko ullar (alg metot kitaplar vs. alamamak), okullar n fizk ko ullar rencilerdeki dzey ve yetenek fark renci al mlar ndaki yetenek puan n n niversite s nav ve ortaretim ba ar puanlar yla kar la t r ld nda oran olarak d k olmas Trkiyede niversitelerde yap lan alg e itimi, retmen yeterlili i ile do rudan ilgilidir. retim elemanlar n kontrol edecek bir sistemin olmay reticilerin alg alma donan mlar yla ilgili olarak yeterl iliklerini sorgulamamlar kendilerini yeti tirme, geli tirme ve ilerletme kayg lar n n olmamas ne biliyorlarsa onu retmeye al malar mziksel geli imleriyle iligili olarak konser izleme, konser verme, al taylara kat lma vb. gibi al ma kayg lar n n olmamas gibi durumlar, zay f ynlerimiz olarak say labilir. retim eleman yetersizli i, yayl alg retmenlerinin hem ba ka ders yklerinin hem de keman rencisi say s n n fazlal lme de erlendirme standardizasyonunda eksikler, mikro retim eksikli i, giderek artan i bulma sorunlar motivasyon d kl (kolayc haz rc ve idealleri olmayan genli in genel sorunlar ) (1) almadan retilebilece ine inanan keman almay dolay s yla retmeyi hi bilmeyen retim elemanlar n n her taraf sarm olmas (2) Gzel Sanatlar Li selerinde de ayn durum, (3) okullarda uygun al ma ortam n n olmamas BLM 6: niversitelerdeki Yayl alg E itiminin Ge li tirilmesi iin neriler Soru 21 Ltfen daha fazla yayl al g pedagojisi derslerinin renim program na dahil edilip edilmemesi konusundaki d ncenizi belirtiniz. Yayl alg lar pedagojisi dersi retim programlar nda henz mevcut de il. Baz niversitelerin lisansst programlar nda ise yer almaktad r. (Bu eitimretim y l ndan itibaren tm e itim fakltelerinin retim programlar nda yenilikler oldu.)..... Ama byle bir ders yine yeni programda bile mevcut de il. Program m zda alg pedagojisi ad alt nda bir ders bulunmamaktad r, yeri geldi inde alg dersi ierisinde verilmeye al lmaktad r. Bizim blmlerimizde byle bir ders yok ama n celikle lisans st programlara dahil edilirse ok yararl olaca inanc nday m.

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212 Byle bir ders semeli olarak nerilebilir. nk akademik al may tercih edecekler iin geerlidir. Mezunlar m z genel e itim basama nda mzik retmeni olaca iin alg lar n okul ortamlar nda retemeyebilirler. AGSL iin tabii ki bu geerli de il Byle bir ders yok ama konulabilir. Mzik e itimi ile birlikte yayl alg e itimine niversite ynetimleri taraf ndan gereken ilgi ve deste in verilmesi, mzik eitiminin bir sanat dal olmas n n yan nda bir bilim dal olduu gr nn benimsenmesi, yayl alg e itimi konusunda dier lkelerle yar r bir hale gelmesinde nemli bir etken olacakt r. itmeyle desteklemek gerekiyor. Kulak e itimi nemli. grs olmayan dersler zara r verebilir. Teorik yap pratikle birle tirilmeli ve k aliteli retmen sa lanmal Yk sistemi ve 35. madde ile ara t rma grevlisi yeti tirilmesi kaliteyi bu anlamda d rd. Trkiyedeki E itim Faklteleri Mzik Blmlerinde uygulanan e itimin sresinin k sal alg dzeyini yeteri kadar yukar kartamad iin byle bir dersin programda yer almas anlaml de ildir. Soru 22 Ltfen yeni yayl al g materyallerinin ve metotlar n n gerekip gerekmedi ini belirtiniz. zellikle baz enstrmanlarda metot ihtiyac olduka fazla, materyaller iinde ayn durum sz konusu. lkemizde mzik e itiminin pahal bir e itim olmas ndan dolay (alg materyal, metot. v.b) yay nevleri ve mzikevleri de yksek oranda kar d nerek sat yapma yolunu kullanmaktad r. nemli olan bu metotlar n doru ve dnya standartlar na uygun olmalar alg e itimcilerinin materyal ve metot retmesi gerekir. Devlet okullar ndaki alg lar n kalite bak m ndan yetersizli i byk bir etken. Ben nas l ki kaliteli bir alg almak istiyorsam bu rencilerin de hakk olmal fakat maddi etkenlerden dolay renci de bu dzeye gelemiyor. Metodlar n yeterli oldu una inan yorum. S k nt renci seviyelerine uygun, kadem e ka deme ilerleten eser albmleri bulma konusunda tan nan imkanlar n yetersizli i. a da Trk okul mzi ini olu turmak iin bu geerlidir. Bu anlamda lkemiz mzik e itimcilerine ok grevler d mektedir. E likli ba lang dzeyi eserlerinde s k nt ya yoruz. Say olarak kaynaklar m z k s tl

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213 Bize zg materyaller nemli. Di er kltrlerden yeterince kaynak mevcut. O nedenle yknmeci veya aktarmac kaynaklar yerine i levsel iyi planlanm zgn kaynaklara gidilmeli. nk dnya zerinde yeteri kadar metot var ve yararlan labilrse bunlar yeterli olur. Soru 23 Ltfen yayl alg retm enleri iin daha fazla workshop gerekip gerekmedi ini belirtiniz. retmenli e yeni ba layanlar iin al tay yararl olabilir. Bu al malar yap l yor fakat yeteri kadar oldu unu d nmyorum. Sadece byk ehirler ya da Trkiyenin bat s ndan ibaret olmamal bu al malar. lkemizde bu payla m n eksik oldu unu d nyorum. Yeniliklerin payla lmas retimin daha zevkli olmas n sa layacakt r. Sorunlu ve eksikli yap dan yeti mi elemanlardan bu yap y nitelik ynnden geli tirmesi beklentisi pek mant kl bir beklenti de ildir. Trkiyedeki konservatuar mezunu fakat e itim fakltesinde grev yapmakta ol an (ok ender rastlanan bir durum) ki ilerden biri olarak gr m budur. Bu yzden d ar dan gelecek her tr iyile tirici destek gereklidir. Gerekli. Yap lanlar nitelikli de il. Soru 24 Ltfen Trk yayl al g metot kitaplar na daha fazla Trk mzi i eklenip eklenmemesi konusundaki fikrinizi belirtiniz. Kesinlikle eklenmeli ve bu bir kltr politikas eklinde uygulanmal d r. daha kolay al nan ve kaliteli i lenmi mzik Kendi metot kitaplar mda geleneksel Trk halk mzi inden ve geleneksel Trk sanat mziinden seilmi rneklere geni lde yer vermeye al t m. Bunlar n yan s ra zellikle a da oksesli zgn Trk keman mzi inin yeni rneklerle daha ok e itlendirilip zenginle tirilmesini gerekli grmekteyim. Kendi mzi imizi kesinlikle unutmamal ve unutturmamal y z. Her bir Trk evlad bunun iin elinden geleni yapmal Kendi mzi imizi evrensel mzik formlar nda uygulayarak e itimimize yerle tirmeliyiz. Bu zor ve emek isteyen bir i tir. zn halk mzi inden alan al malar biny llard r szlegelmi tir. Dolay s yla a da mzik anlay ile rt en bir yakla m ok daha kal c izli olacakt r.

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214 ello iin zaten Trk metodu bulunmamaktad r. Kesinlikle Trk Mzi i eklenmeli. Bu y llardan beri sregelen bir eksikliktir. Di er lkelerin keman metodlar incelendi inde zellikle ba lang dzeyinde kendi lkelerinin halk mziklerine geni bir ekilde yer verdikleri a ka grlmektedir. Bu durum hem keman eitimini daha verimli, zevkli ve etkili hale getirecek hem de renme daha kolay gerekle ecektir. Sadece Trk mzi i deil btn dnya mziklerinden rnekler eklenmelidir. Bu nedenle yayl alg e itimcilerinin sadece Trkiyeye ba l kalmay p yurt d ndan da eserler derlemeleri gereklidir. 24. sorunuza vermi olduum evet yan t sadece yayl alg metot kitaplar na daha fazla Trk mzi i eklenmesi konusu iin de il, btn dnya lkelerinin mziklerinden rneklerin eklenmesin e ynelik bir evet olarak dikkate al nmal d r. Viyolonselde bu tr metodlar yok. Olmas byk bir ihtiya. 28 y ll k mesleki deneyimim bir rencinin kendi mzi ini yani Trk mzi ini almadan (bat ) keman e itimi al yorsa, keman tam renmi oluyor. Mezun olunca keman unutuyor. Mutlaka rencilere Trk mzi i keman e itimi verilmelidir. Bu konuda zorlama eserler mzi e veya renciye fayda sa lamaz. Bence ok gerekli de il. Ama solist iin yaz labilir. Trk mzi i genel bir kavram. Yayl alg e itiminde di er lke metotlar n n da birlikte kullan laca d nlrse renciler a s ndan zorluklar yaratabilir. (Trk mzi indeki koma sistemi yznden) Ancak Trk okul ark lar n n kk ocuklara yayl alg retilirken etkin olarak kullan lmas ve bu kapsamda metotlar yaz lmas ok gerekli bir ihtiy at r, diye d nyorum. Ana sesleri ve teknikleri ald ktan sonra Trk mziine gei taraftar y m. Bu alanda verilecek rnlerin seimi, belirlenmesi gibi konular n geni kat l ml bir yap lanmayla sonuca ula aca n umuyorum. Stilize edilmi veya alg ya uyarlanm incelikli al malar yoluyla evet. Ulusal bir keman ekol yaratmak iin e itsel anlamda btn formlarda yap tlara ihtiya vard r. Soru 25 Ltfen Trkiyedeki yayl alg e itim i alan nda daha fazla ara t rma yap l p yap lmamas konusndaki konsundaki fikrinizi belirtiniz. Ara t rmalar n yap lmas tabi ki iyi. nemli olan e itim kalitesini ykseltmektir.

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215 Trkiyede oturmu niversiteler d ndaki e itim fakltelerinde ve MEBe bal AGSLlerde yeterli ve nitelikli retim kadrosunun olmamas (zellikle viyola alan nda) yayl alg e itimini olduka olumsuz etkilemektedir. Gerekli ara t rmalar n yeterince yap ld n d nyorum. Yap lmal Mzi in sosyolojik, psikol ojik ve kltrel yans malar retece iniz sesten yorumlayaca n z yap ta kadar say s z zenginliklerle doludur. Yayl alg e itimi alan nda ara t rma yap lmas gereklili ine kat l yorum. Ancak Trkiyedeki yanl bir e ilim olarak yayl alg n n kendisi zerine ara t rmalar yap ld n da gryorum. Bu e ilim terk edilmeli, nk alg n n kendisi zerine yap lan ara t rmalar n bilimselli i tart l r. Yayl alg e itimiyle ilgili ara t rmalar yap l rken yayl alg da al nabilecek mziklerde e itlili e zen gsterilmesi gerekir. Yayl alg larda kullan lacak olan de i ik trlerdeki mziklerin alg n n kullan m na ve alg y kullanana byk yararlar sa layaca inanc n ta maktay m. Ara t rman n niceli i de il niteli i nemlidir. Ara t rman n sonucunda var olan probleme zm nerisi getirilmeli. Bunun iin problemin ne oldu u a k anla l r bir ekilde ortaya konmas gerekir. Trkiyede yap lan ara t rmalar sadece ka t zerinde bir tez al mas olarak kalmaktad r. Bunun uygulanabilirli inin test edilmesi ve uygulamaya geirilmesi gerekmektedir. Trk mzi inin keman e itiminde daha ok kullan labilirlii zerinde makamsal etd ve eserler ara t rmalar yap lmas zorunludur. Ayn konular n olu turdu u al m alar literatre fayda sa lamaz. htiyaca cevap verecek nitelikte al malar yapmak yerine kaynaklara kolay ula labilir nitelikte konular semek kolay yolu semek olur. Henz ok yetersiz. e dnk, deneysel zellikli al malar gerekli. Ucuz yntemlere gerek yok. Soru 26 Ltfen Trkiyedeki yayl alg e itim ini geli tirme alan nda ba ka d nceleriniz varsa a a ya belirtiniz. lkemizde yayl alg lara da l m, faklte baz nda olmal d r. renci alg e itimi, armoni e itimi, mzik tarihi, orkestra efli i, koro efli i, anaokulu mzik retmenli i, ilk retim 1. ve 2. kademe mzik retmenli i, Anadolu gzel sanatlar lisesi retmenli i diye farkl anasanat ya da anabilim dallar nda blnmeler/tercihler olmal ....

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216 (a) gamlar, arpejler, (b) sa bilek tekni i Yetkili bir makamda ol s am AGSLdeki ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar ndaki yayl alg e itimi alan nda (a) AGSLye yayl alg retmeni ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar na yayl alg retim eleman al m nda uygulanmakta olan ilke, lt ve i lemleri lkemizin yeni gerekleri, alan n yeni ko ullar ve a n yeni gerekleri do rultusunda dei tirmeyi; (b) AGSL yayl alg retmenlerinin tmn dzenli bir hizmet ii e itimden geirmeyi salayan bir dzenek olu turmay ve derhal uygulamaya koymay ; (c) AGSLlerdeki tm yayl alg retm enlerinin ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar ndaki yayl alg retim elemanlar n n her y l dzenli olarak bulu up yz yze mesleksel ileti im, etkile im ve ortak al malarda bulunmalar n sa layacak bir dzenek olu turmay ve derhal uygulamaya koymay ; (d) tm AGSLlerde ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar ndaki yayl alg retmen ve rencilerinin solo, oda mzii ve orkestra al malar n her retmeni ve renciyi kapsay c biimde belli bir dzene ba lamay ; (e) her y l dzenli bulu mak, al mak ve etkinliklerde bulunmak zere blgesel ve ulusal dzeylerde Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri Aras retmenler Orkestras ile yine blgesel ve ulusal dzeylerde EF GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar Aras retim Elemanlar Orkestras olu turup kurumsal bir yap ya ve i lerli e kavu turmay ; (f) nerimin ilgililer ce benimsenmesiyle olu turulmu olan Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liseleri Aras renci Orkestras ile EF GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar Aras renci Orkestras n her y l dzenli bulu mak, al mak ve etkinliklerde bulunmak zere b lgesel ve ulusal dzeylerde tam kat l ml dzenleyerek kal c bir kurumsal bir yap ya ve i lerli e kavu turmay ; (g) yayl alg lar e itiminde geleneksel Trk halk ve sanat mziklerinden, imdikinden ok daha etkin ve verimli biimde yararlanmay ; (h) her AGSLnin evresindeki mzik yksek retim kurumlar yla daha sa l kl bir ileti im ve etkile im iinde olm as n sa lamay ; (i) AGSLlerdeki tm yayl alg retmenlerinin ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar ndaki yayl alg retim elemanlar n n yurt d ndaki muadilleriyle mesleksel ileti im, etkile im ve ortak al malarda bulunmalar n sa layacak kal c bir dzenek olu turmay ve derhal uygulamaya koymay ; (j) AGSLlerdeki tm yayl alg retmenlerinin ve EFlere ba l GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dallar ndaki tm yayl alg retim elemanlar n n ulusal dzeyde r gtle nmelerini ve kendi dallar ndaki uluslararas mesleksel rgtlere ye olmalar n sa lamay ; (k) her AGSL ve her EF GSEB Mzik E itimi Anabilim/Anasanat Dal iin Orkestra E itimi ve Ynetimi alan nda birer retmen ve retim eleman yeti tirmeyi ve sz konusu kurumlara atamay ; (l) yayl alg e itiminde yeni anlay yakla m ve aray lar zendirici bir dzenek olu turmay isterim. (a) MEBe ba l AGSL lerde grevli retim kadrosunun, niversiteler ve konservatuvarlarda grev yapan yayl alg e itimi hocalar taraf ndan s k s k hizmet ii e itime tabi tutulmas temel yayl alg e itiminin daha nitelikli olmas n salayacakt r; (b) Srekli geli en dnyada elbette sanat e itimi de (mzik e itimi) yerinde saymayacak, geli meden pay n alacakt r. Bize d en grev de bu geli meleri olabildi ince yak ndan takip edip, yenilikler den haberdar olamam zd r.

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217 (a) alg programlar srekli gncellenip a a uyum sa lanmas hususu takip edilmelidir; (b) Mzik retmenli i A.B.D.nda bu alg lar n kullan m evrensel literatrn yan s ra e itim mzi ine de dnk olarak daha i levsel hale getirilmelidir; (c) Yayl alg retmenleri nitelikli olan mzi in her trne a k olmal ki rencileri de ok ynl yeti tirebilsin; (d) alg e itimin gere i olarak yap lan tm al malar belli aral klarla sergilenmeli ve e itim de motivasyon ilkesi i levselle tirilmelidir; (e) Yeni ve orjinal ulusaldan uluslararas na a l m sergileyen alg metodlar na ihtiya vard r; (f) zellikle mzik retmenli i A.B.D.da alg e itimi ya da pedagojisi dersleri a lmal (Lisans stnde k smen olmakla birlikte) ve bu alg lar n retim yntemleri sadece usta rak ili kisi ile de il; bilimsel yol ve yntemlerle aktar lmal d r. (a) program birlikteli ine var lmas ; (b) s nama-lme-de erlendirme ortamlar n n standarda kavu mas ; (c) haftal k ders saatlerinin artt r lmas (a) alg e itimi dersleri haftada 2 saate kar lmal ; (b) alg e itimine ynelecek retmen adaylar n n alg e itimine ilk retimde ba lamalar daha iyi olur. Bylece retmen aday e itim fakltesinde alg yla bo u mak yerine alg da ustala mak, retim teknikleri ve materyal geli tirme gibi konularda al abilir. (nce usta al c l k daha sonra da e itimcilik); (c) Verdi im cevaplar e itim faklteleri iindir. Konservatuvarlar n alg e itimi iyidir. Olduka iyi al c lar yeti tirebiliyorlar. Bugnk mevcut sistem yeniden ele al nmal d r. Anabilim Dal stats blm olarak dzeltilmelidir. alg E itimi Anabilim Dal blmn bir anabilim dal olarak d nlmelidir. mzik retmenli inde bu i in daha profesyonel bir biimde yap lmas iin Mzik Akademileri veya Mzik ve Sahne Sanatlar Fakltelerinin a l p btn mzikle ilgili kurumlar n (Gzel Sanatlar Fakltesi, Konservatuar ve Mzik retmenli i Anabilim Dallar ) tek bir at alt nda toplanmas ve bran la malara burda gidilmesi (a) retim eleman az ve nitelik so runu var; (b) Yayl alg e itiminin mzik e itimi blmlerinde ba ar ya ula mas zor; (c) enci kayna problemli. AGSL Sorunu zmedi; (d) Orkestra dersleri uzman olmayan ki iler taraf ndan yrtlyor; (e) Sadece yayl alg lar n hakim oldu u bu okullarda evrensel oda orkestras repertuar al nmas imkans z; (f) Yayl alg e itiminde sizin d nd nz bilimsel ve sanatsal yakla m n henz Trkiyede yerle medi i kan s nday m. (a) Alan e itimcisi ara e itimcisi derecelendirilmeli; (b) Pedagojik yakla mlar lkenin insane malzemesi ile rt meli; (c) alg retim yntemlerinin genelden zele uygulamalar evreden evrene a lm al .Yani ocuk anababa-yeti kin vb.; (d) ocuk ya da gencin zeka mode line gre alg retim programlar dzenlenmeli; (e) a da yakla mla olu turulmal eskimemeli; (f) Bu konuda bilim nvan alan ki iler al mal ve maddi destekler sa lanmal d r. evreden evrene, di er bir deyi le yak ndan uza a ilkesinin temel al narak ulusal bir okul olu turulmal

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218 (a) Yayl alg e itimine lisans dzeyinde ba lanmamal Bunun bir ncesi olmal Blmlerdeki yayl alg kontenjanlar AGSLden gelen rencilerin devam eklinde ilerlemeli; (b) alg dersleri haftada 4 saatten az olmayacak ekilde programa al nmal ; (c) Kaynak s k nt s olduka ekilmekte. Akademisyenlere yurt d ara t rma izni verilmeli; (d) Mzik retmenli i anabilim dallar nda grev yapan yayl alg e itimcileri y lda en az 2 defa toplanarak ortak bir alg repertuar olu turmal ; (e) alg derslerinde kullan lan bireysel dersliklerin tekr ar gzden geirilmesi kan mca yararl olacakt r. Genellikle do u niversitelerinde klasik bat mzi i e itimine gereken nem gsterilmemektedir. Geleneksel tek sesli halk ve sanat mzi i n plandad r. (a) alg retiminde klasik retim yntemlerinin yan s ra farkl retme yntemleride geli tirilmeli ve kullan lmal d r; (b) Trkiyede yayl alg e itimi alan rencilerin alg lar na ait literature iyi taramalar ve al t klar eserlerin original seslendirimini dinlemeleri gerekmektedir; (c) Trkiyede yayl alg e itimi alan renciler yresel mzikleri keman tekni ine uygun seslendirebilmeli ve bunun iin de keman e itimcileri taraf ndan bu mzik trlerinden rnek paralar repertuara konulmal d r; (d) Trkiyede yayl alg e itimi alan rencilere yresel mziklerin original seslendirili i dinletilmeli ve yay teknikleri ile sol el parmak teknikler i bu eserlerin seslendirilme biimine gre dzenlenmelidir; (e) Di er lkelerden al nacak geleneksel mzik rnekleri de keman e itiminde kullan lmal d r. zorunlu sene sonu dinletisi (final s nav yerine) (a) daha fazla Trk bestecilerinin eserlerini n seslendirilm esi; (b) Trk bestecilerine ait metodlar n artmas (a) niversite mzik anabilim dallar ndaki alg dersi haftada 1 saatten 2 saate kar labilir; (b) Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Liselerinde alg dersi retmeni ihtiyac en k sa zamanda kapat lmal d r. (a) Trkiyede e itim mzi indeki Trk mzi i d manl na son verilmesi; (b) makamsal etd v.s al malar yap lmas ; (c) keman yay tekniklerini Trk mzi ine uygulamak; (d) Atatrkn istedi i gibi Trk mzi ini dnyaya dinletebilir duruma getirmek; (e) renciyi aktif duruma getirmek iin solo konserler vermek Hedefler iyi belirlenmeli. Mzik retmeni ya da alg retmeni olacak rencinin hedefleri do al olarak farkl olacakt r. Bu durumda izlenen yol burada ayr lmal d r. (a) Gzel sanatlar liselerinde yap lan yayl al g e itimi gerekenden fazla ykl grnyor. Temel teknik ve beceriler yerle meden, retim program gereke gsterilerek rencilere devler ykleniyor. Bir teknik beceri renilmeden ba ka bir teknie geiliyor. Teknik al malar yap lmadan seviyeli (byk lekli) ett ve eserler al t r l yor. al t r lan ettler ve eserler birb irini genellikle destek lemiyor. Bu durum gznnde bulundurulmal d r; (b) Bu liselerde al an alg retmenlerinin, alg almayla ilgili yeterli dzeyde donan m sahibi olmalar bir gerekliliktir, zorunluluktur. Her lisede bu durum sa lanm de il. Birok gzel sanatlar lisesinde retmenler alg lar nda yetersiz

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219 durumdalar. renciye verdikleri eserleri bile alamayan retmenler mevcut. Bu durumdaki retmen rencisini sa l kl bir ekilde kontrol edemiyecektir. Bunun iin gzel sanatlar liselerine atanacak retmenlerin alanlar yla ilgili dzeyli bir s navdan gemeleri ve belli periyodlarla geli imlerini gsterecek performans gstermeleri istenmelidir. Bu durum her alan iin de geerli olmal d r. Ayr ca bu retmenler iin hizmet ii e itim d nlebilir; (c) Yukar da belirlemeye al t m sorunlar n tm niversiteler iin de geerlidir. Ayn problemler niversitelerde al an retim elemanlar iin daha da nem kazanmaktad r; (d) retmen yeti tiren kurumlarda renciler, alg lar nda rendiklerini konserlerle sergilemelidirler. Bunun iin yayl alg e liklerinin (Korrepetisyon) mutlaka ders haline gelmesi, rencilerin al t klar eserleri mutlaka e likle al abilmeleri gereklidir, zorunluluktu r. Mzik liselerinde ve mzik retmeni yeti tiren kurumlarda alg dersi e li i retim program nda olmad iin, sorun olarak devam etmektedir. Bunun zlmesi gerekmektedi r; (e) Orkestra ders leri bireysel alg derslerini mutlaka desteklemelidir. Programlar retmen insiyatifine b rak lmamal d r. Ancak uygulama hem liselerde hem niversitelerde retmen insiyatifine b rak ld n gstermektedir. Orkestra dersi, bireysel alg dersinde renilenlerin bir uygulama alan olarak d nlmelidir. Sevgili Dilek, Senin al mandaki tan mlar blmnde yer verdi in derslerin sadece bir tanesi (Bireysel alg dersi e itimi: Bir alg retmeni taraf ndan verilen bireysel alg e itimi.) Trkiyedeki Mzik retmenli i Anabilim Dallar nda ders olarak yer almaktad r. Bu ok eksik ve yanl bir uygulamad r. nk bu ders tam am yla retmen aday n n performans becerisine dayal olarak i lenmekte ve retmen adaylar di er pedagojik yakla mlar ve bilgilerden ok eksik olarak yeti mektedirler. Bunun ne kadar gerekli ve olmazsa olmaz olduu yolundaki inanc mda Polonyadaki gzlem ve izlenimlerim sonucunda bir kez daha hakl kt m grerek a kas Trkiyedeki renciler ad na znt duydum. Sadece yayl alg lar de il di er alg lar ve dersler iin de pedagojik yakla m ve mzik retmenli inin retilmesi maalesef eksik. Biz M.. Mzik retmenli i anabilim dal olarak yeni programda yer almas iin alg pedagojisi ierikli bir dersi (Bireysel alg E itimi ve retimi) YKe nerdik ve bu y ldan itibaren uygulamaya konan ders program nda yer ald ama henz uygulanamad nk bir dnemlik son s n f dersi. Senin al m anda yer alan di er derslere gelince, ke ke bu dersler de Trkiyedeki mzik retmenli i anabilim dallar n n programlar nda yer alsa. Bu dersler de tamamen okul rencilerinin ihtiyalar na ynelik dersler. retmen adaylar m z bu gibi derslerde uygulayarak renmeleri gereken bilgi ve becerileri maalesef retmen olduktan sonra zellikle stanbuldaki zel okullarda mesleklerini yapmaya ba lay nca i ba nda renmek zorunda kal yorlar. Bu derslerin olmay n n bizim anabilim dallar m z iin nemli bir eksiklik oldu unu d nyorum. 26. sorunun cevab olarak d ncelerimi belirtmeye devam edersem, mzik retmenli i programlar nda pedagojik yakla mlar n ok daha fazla oldu u derslerin yer almas ya da ders ieriklerinin bu anlay la yorumlanmas ve uygulanmas gerekir. Bu anlay la bizlerin ( retim elemanlar n n) hala

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220 mzik eitimcileri yeti tirdiimizin tam olarak fark na varamad m z ve bu alanda noksanlar m z n oldu unu d nyorum. al manda kolayl klar dilerim. (a) Kendi mziimizde metodlar olu turmal y z; (b) Bu metodlar n tonal yap da olmas na dikkat etmeliyiz; (c) Yozla an mzi imize modal yap da yap lan veya yapt r lan etd ve ezgilerden in a etmemeliyiz. (a) Yayl alg e itimi kesinlikle daha kk ya larda ba lamal d r; (b) Resmi olmasa da acil olarak ilk retimdeki yetenekli renciler mzik retmenleri taraf ndan tespit edilerek yayl alg e itimine ynlendirilmelidirler; (c) Gzel sanatlar liseleri yayl alg retm enleri daha titiz bir al mayla seilmelidirler. Yanl teknikle niversiteye gelen renciler zaman kaybetmektedirler; (d) niversitelerde yayl alg uzmanlar n n say s daha fazla olmal d r. ok fazla ders saati olan hocalar n verimi d mektedir; (e) Her blmde ciddi al an bir orkestra olmal d r ki renciler uygulama ortam bulsunlar; (f) Y l sonu bireysel alg konseri olmal d r; rencilerin mzikal geli iminde ve motivasyonunda byk rol oynamaktad r. (a) zellikle ta ra niversiteleri diye de tabir edilen blgelerde grev yapan alg e itimcilerinin, o blge insan n n kendi zel ko ullar na uygun ZEL E T M YAPILANMALARI olanaklar n de erlendirebilecek yeterlilikte olmalar gerekmektedir; (b) alg e itimcisinin mesleki deneyiminin ileri y llarda rencinin performans na nemli lde olumlu katk lar getirdi ini d nmekteyim; (c) lkesel bazda yayl alg orkestralar n n daha fazla say lara ula mas renci orkestralar n n daha byk organizasyonlarla seslerini duyurmas yayl alg lar daha cazip bir duruma getirecektir; (d) Yayl alg rencisi seme i lemlerinin bir srece yay larak kontroll bir al mayla alg tespitlerinin yap lmas n uygun grmekteyim. (a) Grsel kaynaklar n artt r l p rencilerin bu kaynaklardan yararland r lmas salanabilir; (b) Yayl alg e itimi ile ilgili yabanc kaynaklar n Trkeye evrilerek onlardan yararlan lm as sa lanabilir. (a) Yayl alg lar Kurulu olu turulmal ; (b) yayl alg lar ara t rma enstits veya birimi kurulmal ; (c) retmenlere ulusal uluslararas seminerler dzenlenmeli; (d) workshoplarda tek mzik tr bask n yap lmamal bize zg deneysel al malara yer verilmeli; (e) bize zg material olu turulmal ; (f) kay t, yay n, da t m a olu turulmal dergisi ve y ll k toplant lar yla yurt d benzerleri gibi kurulu lar gerekle tirilmeli (a) retim eleman al m nda bu i ten anlayanlar n s nav yapmas yani bir keman hocas na nvan var diye piyano reten b ir ki i karar vermemesi; (b) retim elemenlar kendini geli tirmeli. Drt y ll k yar m yamalak keman eitimi ile rencisine hi bir ekilde faydal olamaz; (c) Yayl alg retim yntemleri zerine daha fazla al ma yap lmal Bence zelikle metod v.b. eyler de il, ncelikle mzik retmeni nas l olmal d r, formunu doruca belirlemelidir. Bu konu halihaz rda belirlenmedi. Bunu da (zr dileyerek sylyorum) benim gibi orta retim kurumlar nda en az 15-20 y l grev yapm olanlar

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221 belirleyebilir. Bu i leri ne yaz k ki orta retimde hi grev yapmayanlar belirliyor kan s nday m. Bu durumdan ok byk znt duyuyorum. Bence bu anketleri bizlere de il, halihaz rda mzik eitimi yapan retmenlere yneltin. Ka tanesi yayl alg kullan yorlar? Hibiri oldu unu greceksiniz. Sebebinin de yanl metod, yanl program olduu grlecektir. Bence metodlar m z; ba lang ta ezbere dayal tekerleme, halk mzi i ve halk oyunlar mziklerini ieren ezgilerden olu mal Devam tonal, modal ve makamsal mziklerden olu an, tematik ve tart msal ynleri a r basan etd ve yap tlardan olu mal ncelikle, yayl alg retilecek renciye ilk birinci y l notayla alg retilmemeli tu edeki notalar n yerleri ve belirli yay teknikleri ba lang ta notas z re tilir.

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222 APPENDIX N UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM OF MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN ENGLISH

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223 Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs (2006) First Semester Second Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training I 2 2 3 A Ear Training II 2 23 A Piano I 1 0 1 A Piano II 1 01 A Main Instrument I 1 0 1 A Main Instrument II 1 01 A Studio Singing I 1 0 1 A Studio Singing II 1 01 A School Instruments I (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) 0 2 1 A School Instruments II (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) 0 21 MB Introduction to Music Education 3 0 3 A Choir I 0 21 GK Music Culture 2 0 2 GKGeneral Music History I 2 02 GK Introduction to Philosophy 2 0 2 GKTurkish II: Speaking 2 02 GK Turkish I: Writing 2 0 2 GKAtatrks Reforms and History of Revolution II 2 02 GK Atatrks Reforms and History of Revolution I 2 0 2 GKForeign Language II 3 03 GK Foreign Language I 3 0 3 MBPsychology of Education 3 03 Total 19 4 21 Total 17620 Third Semester Fourth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training III 2 2 3 A Ear Training IV 2 2 3 A Piano III 1 0 1 A Piano IV 1 0 1 A Main Instrument III 1 0 1 A Main Instrument IV 1 0 1 A Studio Singing III 1 0 1 A Studio Singing IV 1 0 1 A Choir II 2 2 3 A Choir III 2 2 3 A Harmony Counterpoint Accompaniment I 2 0 2 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment II 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Folk Music I 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Folk Music II 0 2 1 A School Instruments (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) III 0 2 1 A History of Turkish Music 2 0 2 MB Instructional Methods and Approaches 3 0 3 A Electronic Keyboard 0 2 1 GK General Music History II 2 0 2 MBGuidance Counseling 3 0 3 GK Computer Skills I 2 2 3 GKComputer Skills II 2 2 3 Total 188 22 Total 161021

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224 Fifth Semester Sixth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training V 2 0 2 A Ear Training VI 2 0 2 A Piano V 1 0 1 A Piano VI 1 0 1 A Main Instrument V 1 0 1 A Main Instrument VI 1 0 1 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment III 2 0 2 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment IV 2 0 2 A Choir IV 1 2 2 A Choir V 1 2 2 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble I 1 2 2 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble II 1 2 2 A Traditional Turkish Art Music I 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Art Music II 0 2 1 A Instrument Care and Repair Skills I 0 2 1 A Instrument Care and Repair Skills II 0 2 1 A Accompaniment Skills 0 2 1 A Musical Forms 2 0 2 A Repertoire of Educational Music 2 0 2 MBEducational Methods I 2 2 3 MB Instructional Technologies and Production of Materials 2 2 3 MBAdministrativer Skills 2 0 2 GK Contemporary and Popular Musics 2 0 2 GKAesthetics 0 2 1 Total 161021 Total 141220 Seventh Semester Eighth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Piano VII* 1 0 1 A Choir VII 0 2 1 A Main Instrument VII 1 0 1 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble IV 1 2 2 A Choir VI 2 2 3 A Project-Thesis 0 2 0 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble III 1 2 2 A Approaches in Early Childhood Music Education* 0 2 1 A Turkish Music Arrangement 0 2 1 MBCompositional Skills in Educational Music 2 2 3 MB School Experience 1 4 3 MBConducting Musical Ensembles 1 2 2 MB Educational Methods II 2 2 3 MBTeaching Experience and Practice 2 6 5 MB Measurement and Evaluation 3 0 3 MBTeaching Piano 1 0 1 MB Scientific Research Techniques 2 0 2 MBTeaching Main Instrument 1 0 1 GK Practice in Serving for Society** 1 2 2 GKTurkish History of Education 2 0 2 GK Games, Dance and Music 0 2 1 Total 14 1622 Total 101818 Theoric Practice CreditHours Total 124 84 165 208 A: Major (required) musical courses, MB: Courses on music teacher education, GK: Cultural courses

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225 Definitions of the String Courses in Underg raduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs First Semester Violin I introdu cing the instrument; basic playing skills and techniques; correct posture; correct hold of the instrument; basic bow techniques; corr ect use of left hand; use of both hands with coordination; playing simple pieces (Turkish and western art music) Viola I introdu cing the instrument; basic playing skills and techniques Violoncello I introducing cello; basic playing skills and techniques; basi c bow techniques (including speed; pressure on the bow; and the control of the pressure) Double bass I introducing double bass; basic playing skill s and techniques; basic bow techniques (including speed, pressure on the bow, and the control of the pressure) Second Semester Violin II lef t/right-hand techniques and skills in the first position; use of fingers and the bow on different strings; correct use of detach and le gato bow techniques; ba sic double-chord practices; playing scales on all four strings; playing relate d repertoire (Turkish and western art music) Viola II lef t/right-hand techniques and skills in the first position; use of fingers and the bow on different strings; correct use of detach and le gato bow techniques; ba sic double-chord practices; playing scales on all four strings; playing relate d repertoire (Turkish and western art music)

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226 Violoncello basic techniques and knowledge on the use of all four strings in the first position Double bass basic techniques and knowledge on the use of all four strings in the first position Third Semester Violin III, Viola III, Violoncello III, Double bass III learning higher positions (second and third); learning basic shifting in these positions; playing short pieces in string l ite rature (such as sonatinas a nd concertinos); playing simple Turkish folk song arrangements Fourth Semester Violin IV, Viola IV, Violoncello IV, Double bass IV learning higher positions (second and third); learning basic shifting in these positions; playing with grace notes, mordan, trill a nd harmonics; using martele and staccato bow techniques; learning the basics of pizzicato and similar techniques; and interpreting pieces that include these techniques Fifth Semester Violin V, Viola V, Violoncello V, Double bass V playing in th e third position (with exercises/staying in third position); shifting; developing previously learned bow techniqu es; learning new bow techniques; playing pieces in first three positions Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble I developing musical skills through understand ing the m usic, interpreting, listening and creating; understanding the di fferences and similarities betw een western music and Turkish music in terms of their classical and folkloric forms; understanding the perception of Turkish

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227 music among other music types in the world; developing musical se nsitivity, cognition, interpretation and creativity ; understanding music as the un iversal language; recognizing the basics of music; developing an orchestral repe rtoire that includes both contemporary Turkish music and western classical music; being a resp onsible musician in a group as well as an individual; learning musical disc ipline; representing Turkey in international musical arenas; developing national identity through music; improvi ng the habit of following musical activities; understanding and practicing Atatrks ideas on contemporary Turkish music Sixth Semester Violin VI, Viola VI, Violoncello VI, Double bass VI playing in fourth position; playing in si xth position; shifting in previously-played position s; developing vibrato technique (left hand); learning spiccato bow technique; performing intermediate level pieces Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble III: developing musical skills through understand ing the m usic, interpreting, listening and creating; understanding the di fferences and similarities betw een western music and Turkish music in terms of their classical and folkloric forms; understanding the perception of Turkish music among other music types in the world; developing musical se nsitivity, cognition, interpretation and creativity ; understanding music as the un iversal language; recognizing the basics of music; developing an orchestral repe rtoire that includes both contemporary Turkish music and western classical music; being a resp onsible musician in a group as well as an individual; learning musical disc ipline; representing Turkey in international musical arenas; developing national identity through music; improvi ng the habit of following musical activities; understanding and practicing Atatrks ideas on contemporary Turkish music

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228 Seventh Semester Violin VII, Viola VII, Viol oncello VII, Double bass VII playing in fifth position ; playing previously-l earned positions; learning spiccato and soti bow techniques; performing piec es with these bow techniques Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble III developing musical skills through understand ing the m usic, interpreting, listening and creating; understanding the di fferences and similarities betw een western music and Turkish music in terms of their classical and folkloric forms; understanding the perception of Turkish music among other music types in the world; developing musical se nsitivity, cognition, interpretation and creativity ; understanding music as the un iversal language; recognizing the basics of music; developing an orchestral repe rtoire that includes both contemporary Turkish music and western classical music; being a resp onsible musician in a group as well as an individual; learning musical disc ipline; representing Turkey in international musical arenas; developing national identity through music; improvi ng the habit of following musical activities; understanding and practicing Atatrks ideas on contemporary Turkish music Eighth Semester Violin VIII, Viola VIII, Violoncello VIII, Double bass VIII playing etudes, exercises and pieces in high posit ions (sixth, seventh, ei ghth positions etc.); developing previously-learned bow tec hniques; performing big-scale works Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble IV developing musical skills through understand ing the m usic, interpreting, listening and creating; understanding the di fferences and similarities betw een western music and Turkish music in terms of their classical and folkloric forms; understanding the perception of Turkish music among other music types in the world; developing musical se nsitivity, cognition,

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229 interpretation and creativity ; understanding music as the un iversal language; recognizing the basics of music; developing an orchestral repe rtoire that includes both contemporary Turkish music and western classical music; being a resp onsible musician in a group as well as an individual; learning musical disc ipline; representing Turkey in international musical arenas; developing national identity through music; improvi ng the habit of following musical activities; understanding and practicing Atatrks ideas on contemporary Turkish music Conducting Musical Ensembles: developing musical skills through understand ing the music, interpreting, listening and creating; understanding the di fferences and similarities betw een western music and Turkish music in terms of their classical and folkloric forms; understanding the perception of Turkish music among other music types in the world; developing musical se nsitivity, cognition, interpretation and creativity ; understanding music as the un iversal language; recognizing the basics of music; developing an orchestral repe rtoire that includes both contemporary Turkish music and western classical music; being a resp onsible musician in a group as well as an individual; learning musical disc ipline; representing Turkey in international musical arenas; developing national identity through music; improvi ng the habit of following musical activities; understanding and practicing Atatrks ideas on contemporary Turkish music; developing school orchestra conducting skills in educational settings

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230 APPENDIX O UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM OF MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS IN TURKISH

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231 Mzik retmenli i Lisans Program (2006) I. Yar y l II. Yar y l Dersin Ad T UK Dersin Ad TUK A Mziksel itme Okuma Yazma I 2 2 3 A Mziksel itme Okuma Yazma II 2 23 A Piyano I 1 0 1 A Piyano II 1 01 A Bireysel alg I 1 0 1 A Bireysel alg II 1 01 A Bireysel Ses E itimi I 1 0 1 A Bireysel Ses E itimi II 1 01 A Okul alg lar I (Gitar-Ba lamaBlokflt) 0 2 1 A Okul alg lar II(Gitar-Ba lamaBlokflt) 0 21 MB E itim Bilimine Giri 3 0 3 A Koro I 0 21 GK Mzik Kltr 2 0 2 GKGenel Mzik Tarihi I 2 02 GK Felsefeye Giri 2 0 2 GKTrke II: Szl Anlat m 2 02 GK Trke I: Yaz l Anlat m 2 0 2 GKAtatrk lkeleri ve nkilp Tarihi II 2 02 GK Atatrk lkeleri ve nkilp Tarihi I 2 0 2 GKYabanc Dil II 3 03 GK Yabanc Dil I 3 0 3 MBE itim Psikolojisi 3 03 Toplam 19 4 21 Toplam 17620 III. Yar y l IV. Yar y l Dersin Ad T UK Dersin Ad TUK A Mziksel itme Okuma Yazma III 2 2 3 A Mziksel itme Okuma Yazma IV 2 2 3 A Piyano III 1 0 1 A Piyano IV 1 0 1 A Bireysel alg III 1 0 1 A Bireysel alg IV 1 0 1 A Bireysel Ses E itimi III 1 0 1 A Bireysel Ses E itimi IV 1 0 1 A Koro II 2 2 3 A Koro III 2 2 3 A Armoni Kontrpuan-E lik I 2 0 2 A Armoni Kontrpuan-E lik II 2 0 2 A Geleneksel Trk Halk Mzi i 2 0 2 A Geleneksel Trk Halk Mzi i Uygulamas 0 2 1 A Okul alg lar (Gitar-Ba lamaBlokflt) III 0 2 1 A Trk Mzik Tarihi 2 0 2 MB retim lke ve Yntemleri 3 0 3 A Elektronik Org E itimi 0 2 1 GK Genel Mzik Tarihi II 2 0 2 MBRehberlik 3 0 3 GK Bilgisayar I 2 2 3 GKBilgisayar II 2 2 3 Toplam 188 22 Toplam 161021

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232 V. Yar y l VI. Yar y l Dersin Ad T UK Dersin Ad TUK A Mzik itme Okuma Yazma V 2 0 2 A Mziksel itme Okuma Yazma VI 2 0 2 A Piyano V 1 0 1 A Piyano VI 1 0 1 A Bireysel alg V 1 0 1 A Bireysel alg VI 1 0 1 A Armoni Kontrpuan-E lik III 2 0 2 A Armoni Kontrpuan-E lik IV 2 0 2 A Koro IV 1 2 2 A Koro V 1 2 2 A Orkestra/Oda Mzi i I 1 2 2 A Orkestra/Oda Mzi i II 1 2 2 A Geleneksel Trk Sanat Mzi i 2 0 2 A Geleneksel Trk Sanat Mzi i Uygulamas 0 2 1 A alg Bak m Onar m Bilgisi I 0 2 1 A alg Bak m Onar m Bilgisi II 0 2 1 A E lik alma 0 2 1 A Mzik Biimleri 2 0 2 A E itim Mzi i Da ar 2 0 2 MBzel retim Yntemleri I 2 2 3 MB retim Teknolojileri ve Materyal Tasar m 2 2 3 MBS n f Ynetimi 2 0 2 GK Gncel ve Popler Mzikler 2 0 2 GKEstetik 0 2 1 Toplam 161021 Toplam 141220 VII. Yar y l VIII. Yar y l Dersin Ad T UK Dersin Ad T UK A Piyano VII* 1 0 1 A Koro VII 0 2 1 A Bireysel alg VII 1 0 1 A Orkestra/Oda Mzi i IV 1 2 2 A Koro VI 2 2 3 A Proje-Tez 0 2 0 A Orkestra/Oda Mzi i III 1 2 2 A Okul ncesi Mzik E itiminde Genel Yakla mlar* 0 2 1 A Trk Mzi i okseslendirme* 0 2 1 MBE itim Mzi i Besteleme 2 2 3 M B Okul Deneyimi 1 4 3 MBMzik Topluluklar E itimi ve Ynetimi 1 2 2 M B zel retim Yntemleri II 2 2 3 MB retmenlik Uygulamas 2 6 5 M B lme ve De erlendirme 3 0 3 MBPiyano ve retimi 1 0 1 M B Bilimsel Ara t rma Teknikleri 2 0 2 MBBireysel alg ve retimi 1 0 1 GK Topluma Hizmet Uygulamalar ** 1 2 2 GKTrk E itim Tarihi* 2 0 2 GK Oyun, Dans ve Mzik 0 2 1 Toplam 141622 Toplam 101818 Teorik Uygulama KrediSaat Genel Toplam 124 84 165 208 A: Alan ve alan e itimi dersleri, MB: retmenlik meslek bilgisi dersleri, GK: Genel kltr dersleri

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233 Mzik retmenli i Lisans Program Yayl alg Derslerinin Tan mlar I. Yar y l Keman I alg lar n ve elerinin tan nm as ; alg almaya ili kin temel bilgi ve becerilerin renilmesi ve uygulanmas ; alg almaya uygun duru alabilme; alg y doru tutabilme; temel yay tekniklerini kavrayabilme ve uygulayabilme; sol el parmaklar n ilgili seslere do ru olarak d rebilme; iki eli e gdml olarak kullanabilme; kk l ekli ulusal ve evrensel boyuttaki eserleri seslendirebilme Viyola I viyolan n ve elerinin tan t lm as ; viyola almaya ili kin temel bilgi ve becerilerin renilmesi ve uygulanmas Viyolonsel I Viyolonselin ve ele rinin tan nmas n viyolonsel almaya ili kin temel bilgi ve becerilerin renilmesini ve uygulanmas n sa elde yay kullan lmas nda h z n (doal bas nc n) ayarlanmas na ili kin temel bilgilerin verilmesini kapsar. Kontrabas I Kontrabas n ve ele rinin tan nmas n kontrabas almaya ili kin temel bilgi ve becerilerin renilmesini ve uygulanmas n sa elde yay kullan lmas nda h z n (do al bas nc n) ayarlanmas na ili kin temel bilgilerin verilmesini kapsar. II. Yar y l Keman II I. konum da drt telin kullan m na ili kin sa ve sol eldeki gerekli teknik, bilgi ve becerilerin kazan lmas ; ayn ve farkl teller zerinde parmak-yay gei lerini yapabilme; deta e ve legato yay tekniklerini do ru olarak uygulayabilme; basit ift ses al malar n

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234 uygulayabilme; drt teli kapsayan dizi al malar n yapabilme; dzeye uygun ulusal ve evrensel boyuttaki kk lekli eserleri icra edebilme Viyola II I. konum da drt telin kullan m na ili kin sa ve sol eldeki gerekli te knik, bilgi ve beceriler; ayn ve farkl teller zerinde parmak-yay gei leri; deta e ve legato yay tekniklerini doru olarak uygulama, basit ift ses al malar ; drt teli kapsayan dizi al malar ; dzeye uygun ulusal ve evrensel boyuttaki kk lekli eserlerin icras Viyolonsel II Viyolonselde I. pozisyonda 4 telin kullan lm as na ili kin temel bilgi ve becerileri kazan lmas n kapsar. Kontrabas II Kontrabasta I. pozisyonda 4 telin kullan lm as na ili kin temel bilgi ve becerileri kazan lmas n kapsar. III. Yar y l Keman III, Viyola III, Viyolonsel III, Kontrabas III renilen btn te llerde parm ak d rme ve yay srme becerilerinin geli tirilmesine, abukla t r lmas na ili kin ett ve yap tlar n al lmas ; yay srmede; deta e ve legato tekniklerinin geli tirilmesi; birinci konumda karma k yay srme ve parmak d rmelerinin geli tirilmesi; yeni bir konuma (pozisyon) gemek (II ya da III), bu konumda n becerileri kazanmak; yayl alg lar literatrnde tan nm kk yap tlar (sonatin, konertino) almak, tan mak; basit trk ve oyun havalar n alabilmek

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235 IV. Yar y l Keman IV, Viyola IV, Viyolonsel IV, Kontrabas IV iki konum da kalarak ve de i tirerek almaya ili kin becerileri kazanmak, geli tirmek; sslemeli almaya ili kin al malara ba lamak; arpma, mordan, tril, fljle trnden sesler retmeye ili kin beceriler kazanmak; martele ve staccato yay tekniklerini geli tirmeye ynelik al malar ilerletmek; pizzicato ve benzeri parmakla almaya ynelik beceriler kazanmak ve bu teknikleri ieren ark trk ve evrensel yap tlar seslendirmek V. Yar y l Keman V, Viyola V, Viyolonsel V, Kontrabas V nc konum u renmek, bu konumda kalarak ve daha sonra di er konumla gei al malar yapmak; kazan lm yay tekniklerini geli tirmek; karma k yay sr lerindeki becerileri ilerletmek; konumu ieren ett ve yap tlarda da arc o altmak, tan mak Orkestra/Oda Mzi i I mzik yoluyla anlam a, anlatma, dinleme, yaratma gcn geli tirebilme; klasik ve folklorik trleriyle Trk mzi i ve Bat mzi i aras ndaki fark ve benzerlikleri ay rt edebilme; Trk mzi inin Dnya mzii iindeki yeri hakk nda fikir ve yorum sahibi olabilme; mziksel duyarl l d nmeyi, yorumlama ve yaratmay geli tirebilme; mzi in tm dnyadaki tek ortak dil oldu unu kavrayabilme; mzi in temel kavramlar n ve dilini kavrayabilme; orkestra ile ilgili adas Trk Mzi i ve Evrensel mzik eserlerinden bir da arc k olu turabilme; zaman n verimli kullanabilme; tek ba na ve grup iinde soruml uluk alabilme; disiplinli al ma al kanl klar n kazanabilme; lkemizi ulusal ve uluslararas mzik etkinliklerinde temsil edebilme; mzik yoluyla milli birlik ve beraberlik bilincini geli tirebilme; yak n evresindeki mzik etkinliklerini izleme al kanl edinebilme; Atatrkn a da Trk mziine ili kin gr ve d ncelerini kavrayabilme

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236 VI. Yar y l Keman VI, Viyola VI, Viyol onsel VI, Kontrabas VI yeni bir konum daha ekleyerek, IV. konumda kal c ve di er konumlarla de i meli al ma becerisini kazanmak; sol elde vibrato al malar n geli tirmek, z platmal yay sr lerine ba lamak (spiccato); orta glkte yap tlar seslendirebilmek Orkestra/Oda Mzi i II mzik yoluyla anlam a, anlatma, dinleme, yaratma gcn geli tirebilme; klasik ve folklorik trleriyle Trk mzi i ve Bat mzi i aras ndaki fark ve benzerlikleri ay rt edebilme; Trk mzi inin Dnya mzii iindeki yeri hakk nda fikir ve yorum sahibi olabilme; mziksel duyarl l d nmeyi, yorumlama ve yaratmay geli tirebilme; mzi in tm dnyadaki tek ortak dil oldu unu kavrayabilme; mzi in temel kavramlar n ve dilini kavrayabilme; orkestra ile ilgili adas Trk Mzi i ve Evrensel mzik eserlerinden bir da arc k olu turabilme; zaman n verimli kullanabilme; tek ba na ve grup iinde soruml uluk alabilme; disiplinli al ma al kanl klar n kazanabilme; lkemizi ulusal ve uluslararas mzik etkinliklerinde temsil edebilme; mzik yoluyla milli birlik ve beraberlik bilincini geli tirebilme; yak n evresindeki mzik etkinliklerini izleme al kanl edinebilme; Atatrkn a da Trk mziine ili kin gr ve d ncelerini kavrayabilme VII. Yar y l Keman VII, Viyola VII, Viyolonsel VII, Kontrabas VII V. konum da kal c ve de i meli al maya ili kin becerileri kazanmak; yay tele d rerek kullanmaya dayal teknik becerileri geli tirmek (spiccato, sotie, rikose); bu teknikleri ieren yap tlar seslendirmek ve tan mak

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237 Orkestra/Oda Mzi i III mzik yoluyla anlam a, anlatma, dinleme, yaratma gcn geli tirebilme; klasik ve folklorik trleriyle Trk mzi i ve Bat mzi i aras ndaki fark ve benzerlikleri ay rt edebilme; Trk mzi inin Dnya mzii iindeki yeri hakk nda fikir ve yorum sahibi olabilme; mziksel duyarl l d nmeyi, yorumlama ve yaratmay geli tirebilme; mzi in tm dnyadaki tek ortak dil oldu unu kavrayabilme; mzi in temel kavramlar n ve dilini kavrayabilme; orkestra ile ilgili adas Trk Mzi i ve Evrensel mzik eserlerinden bir da arc k olu turabilme; zaman n verimli kullanabilme; tek ba na ve grup iinde soruml uluk alabilme; disiplinli al ma al kanl klar n kazanabilme; lkemizi ulusal ve uluslararas mzik etkinliklerinde temsil edebilme; mzik yoluyla milli birlik ve beraberlik bilincini geli tirebilme; yak n evresindeki mzik etkinliklerini izleme al kanl edinebilme; Atatrkn a da Trk mziine ili kin gr ve d ncelerini kavrayabilme VIII. Yar y l Keman VIII, Viyola VIII, Viyolonsel VIII, Kontrabas VIII yksek konum larla (VI, VII, VIII, vb.) al ma becerisi kazanmak, rnek, ett ve yap tlar tan mak; renilen yay tekniklerini geli tirmek; byk boyutlu evrensel yap tlar tan mak ve seslendirmek Orkestra/Oda Mzi i IV mzik yoluyla anlam a, anlatma, dinleme, yaratma gcn geli tirebilme; klasik ve folklorik trleriyle Trk mzi i ve Bat mzi i aras ndaki fark ve benzerlikleri ay rt edebilme; Trk mzi inin Dnya mzii iindeki yeri hakk nda fikir ve yorum sahibi olabilme; mziksel duyarl l d nmeyi, yorumlama ve yaratmay geli tirebilme; mzi in tm dnyadaki tek ortak dil oldu unu kavrayabilme; mzi in temel kavramlar n ve dilini kavrayabilme; orkestra ile ilgili adas Trk Mzi i ve Evrensel mzik eserlerinden bir da arc k olu turabilme; zaman n

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238 verimli kullanabilme; tek ba na ve grup iinde soruml uluk alabilme; disiplinli al ma al kanl klar n kazanabilme; lkemizi ulusal ve uluslararas mzik etkinliklerinde temsil edebilme; mzik yoluyla milli birlik ve beraberlik bilincini geli tirebilme; yak n evresindeki mzik etkinliklerini izleme al kanl edinebilme; Atatrkn a da Trk mziine ili kin gr ve d ncelerini kavrayabilme Mzik Topluluklar E itimi ve Ynetimi mzik yoluyla anlama, anlatma, dinleme, yaratma gcn geli tirebilme; klasik ve folklorik trleriyle Trk mzi i ve Bat mzi i aras ndaki fark ve benzerlikleri ay rt edebilme; Trk mzi inin Dnya mzii iindeki yeri hakk nda fikir ve yorum sahibi olabilme; mziksel duyarl l d nmeyi, yorumlama ve yaratmay geli tirebilme; mzi in tm dnyadaki tek ortak dil oldu unu kavrayabilme; mzi in temel kavramlar n ve dilini kavrayabilme; orkestra ile ilgili adas Trk Mzi i ve Evrensel mzik eserlerinden bir da arc k olu turabilme; zaman n verimli kullanabilme; tek ba na ve grup iinde soruml uluk alabilme; disiplinli al ma al kanl klar n kazanabilme; lkemizi ulusal ve uluslararas mzik etkinliklerinde temsil edebilme; mzik yoluyla milli birlik ve beraberlik bilincini geli tirebilme; yak n evresindeki mzik etkinliklerini izleme al kanl edinebilme; Atatrkn a da Trk mziine ili kin gr ve d ncelerini kavrayabilme; btn bu bilgiler er evesinde okul mzi i daarc na ynelik okul orkestras ynetim bilgileri

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239 APPENDIX P MODEL UNDERGRADUATE STRING TEACHER TRAINING CURRICUL UM FOR MUSIC TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLS

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240 Model Undergraduate Curriculum of Music Teacher Training Programs First Semester Second Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training I 2 2 3 A Ear Training II 2 23 A Piano I 1 0 1 A Piano II 1 01 A Main Instrument I 1 0 1 A Main Instrument II 1 01 A Studio Singing I 1 0 1 A Studio Singing II 1 01 A School Instruments I (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) 0 2 1 A School Instruments II (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) 0 21 MB Introduction to Music Education 3 0 3 A Choir I 0 21 GK Music Culture 2 0 2 GKGeneral Music History I 2 02 GK Introduction to Philosophy 2 0 2 GKTurkish II: Speaking 2 02 GK Turkish I: Writing 2 0 2 GKAtatrks Reforms and History of Revolution II 2 02 GK Atatrks Reforms and History of Revolution I 2 0 2 GKForeign Language II 3 03 GK Foreign Language I 3 0 3 MBPsychology of Education 3 03 Total 19 4 21 Total 17620 Third Semester Fourth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training III 2 2 3 A Ear Training IV 2 2 3 A Piano III 1 0 1 A Piano IV 1 0 1 A Main Instrument III 1 0 1 A Main Instrument IV 1 0 1 A Studio Singing III 1 0 1 A Studio Singing IV 1 0 1 A Choir II 2 2 3 A Choir III 2 2 3 A Harmony Counterpoint Accompaniment I 2 0 2 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment II 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Folk Music I 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Folk Music II 0 2 1 A School Instruments (GuitarBa lama-Recorder) III 0 2 1 A History of Turkish Music 2 0 2 MB Instructional Methods and Approaches 3 0 3 A Electronic Keyboard 0 2 1 GK General Music History II 2 0 2 MBGuidance Counseling 3 0 3 GK Computer Skills I 2 2 3 GKComputer Skills II 2 2 3 Total 188 22 Total 161021

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241 Fifth Semester Sixth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Ear Training V 2 0 2 A Ear Training VI 2 0 2 A Piano V 1 0 1 A Piano VI 1 0 1 A Main Instrument V 1 0 1 A Main Instrument VI 1 0 1 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment III 2 0 2 A Harmony CounterpointAccompaniment IV 2 0 2 A Choir IV 1 2 2 A Choir V 1 2 2 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble I 1 2 2 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble II 1 2 2 A Traditional Turkish Art Music I 2 0 2 A Traditional Turkish Art Music II 0 2 1 A Instrument Care and Repair Skills I 0 2 1 A Instrument Care and Repair Skills II 0 2 1 A Accompaniment Skills 0 2 1 A Musical Forms 2 0 2 A String Skills and Techniques I 1 2 2 A String Skills and Techniques II 1 2 2 A Repertoire of Educational Music 2 0 2 MBEducational Methods I 2 2 3 MB Instructional Technologies and Production of Materials 2 2 3 MBAdministrativer Skills 2 0 2 GK Contemporary and Popular Musics 2 0 2 GKAesthetics 0 2 1 Total 171222 Total 151422 Seventh Semester Eighth Semester Name of the Course ThPrCr Name of the Course ThPrCr A Piano VII* 1 0 1 A Choir VII 0 2 1 A Main Instrument VII 1 0 1 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble IV 1 2 2 A Choir VI 2 2 3 A Project-Thesis 0 2 0 A Orchestra/Chamber Ensemble III 1 2 2 A Approaches in Early Childhood Music Education* 0 2 1 A Turkish Music Arrangement 0 2 1 MBCompositional Skills in Educational Music 2 2 3 A String Methods and Pedagogy 2 0 2 A String Laboratory 0 1 1 A Public School Orchestra Literature 1 2 2 A Public school Orchestra Conducting 0 2 2 MB School Experience 1 4 3 MBConducting Musical Ensembles 1 2 2 MB Educational Methods II 2 2 3 MBTeaching Experience and Practice 2 6 5 MB Measurement and Evaluation 3 0 3 MBTeaching Piano 1 0 1 MB Scientific Research Techniques 2 0 2 MBTeaching Main Instrument 1 0 1 GK Practice in Serving for Society** 1 2 2 MBSchool Experience 1 2 2 GK Games, Dance and Music 0 2 1 GKTurkish History of Education 2 0 2 Total 17 1726 Total 12 2524 Theoric Practice Credit Total 131 99 181 A: Major (required) musical courses, MB: Courses on music teacher education, GK: Cultural courses

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242 Definitions of the String Pedagogy and String Teaching Methods Courses in th e Model Undergraduate Curriculum of Mu sic Teacher Training Programs Fifth and Sixth Semesters String Skills and Techniques Course Description: Str ing Skills/Techniques I and II are designed to familiarize students with the basic principles of string instruments. After completion of this course, students will be equipped to teach the fundamentals of string in struments at a basic level. During the class periods, the primary performance techniques of the four string instruments (violin, viola, cello and double bass) will be taught via the Suzuki Method (with the support of the Essential Elements for Strings method book). Information will be disseminated through demonstration and in-class practice. Practice outside of the class periods is required. Four proficiency exams (equal weight) will be held throughout the semester and st udents will be asked to play assigned pieces for each exam. In addition to exams, an arranging project and a semester portfolio is required. This portfolio will be beneficial for students when they teach. String Skills/Techniques courses will also include a small performing ensemble wher e students play their secondary instruments. Additional assignments may be give n at the instructors discretion. Objectives of the Course: Students will be required to develop the following skills for successful completion of this course: 1. An understanding of the basic sk ills required to play string instruments (one upper one lower string instrument). 2. Knowledge of basic teaching prac tices of string instruments. 3. An understanding of the maintenance a nd protection of string instruments. 4. An understanding of teaching basic performan ce skills including bow distribution, tone production, vibrato, shifting, di fferent bowing styles, a nd good playing posture.

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243 Seventh Semester String Methods and Pedagogy Course Description: The String Methods/Pedagogy course is designed to equip string students with inform ation about the current string methods and materials that are used at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts and at the univ ersity level. These methods and materials, from beginning to advanced levels, will be introduced in the classroom. Topics will include the development of instructional techniques for vi olin, viola, cello, and double bass and a critical examination of current pedagogical materials su ch as Suzuki, Rolland and other contemporary methods. During the class periods, information will be distributed by lectures and discussions on current problems and issues, and discussions on sources written on the philosophy of string teaching. Advanced proficiency on a string instru ment is required. Three written exams (two midterms/equal weight and a final exam) will be he ld throughout the semester. In addition to the exams, a term paper is required. Term papers can be prepared on the fundamentals and development of any string teaching method or students can create a hybrid curriculum. Additional assignments may be given at the instructors discretion. Objectives of the Course: Students will be required to develop the following skills for successful completion of this course: 1. knowledge of basic and current string teaching methods and approaches 2. an understanding of the instructional methods that can be used with instrumental ensembles at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts 3. selecting or creating appropriate materials for string teaching 4. improvement of teaching skills 5. knowledge on starting a string program at public school level 6. an understanding of the techniques of teaching the string instruments in class situations and the development of skills on each string instrument

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244 Public School Orchestra Literature Course Description: Pu blic School Orchestra Literature is designed to review the literature for string ensembles at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts settings. Students will attain skills through score study and analysis of selected works to be used in public school orchestras, examining the concert repertoire for school stri ng orchestra, and studyi ng the evaluation and selection of music suitable for public school ensemble. Advanced proficiency on a string instrument is required. Three written exams (two midterms/equal weight and a final exam) will be given during the semester. In addition to th ese exams, a resource not ebook is required. The resource notebook will include the complete literatu re learned in the classr oom. Students will be responsible for including comprehensive examin ation pieces including the information on the composer, historical perspective, technical c onsiderations, stylistic considerations, musical elements, form and structure, suggested listening, and additional references and sources for each piece. The resource notebook will be beneficial for students when they teach. Additional assignments may be given at the instructors discretion. Objectives of the Course: Students will be required to develop the following skills for successful completion of this course: 1. knowledge of the orchestra repertoire that is appropriate for use at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts 2. an understanding of public school orchestra music 3. knowledge on classification and evaluation of the pieces in the repertoire according to their difficulty level Eighth Semester String Laboratory Course Description: The String Laboratory is course de signed to read, analyze, rehearse and perform selected string ensem ble music for settings at the Anato lian high schools of fine

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245 arts. Sections will be offered in violin, viol a, cello and double bass. Through rehearsals and performances, students will explore string orches tra, ensemble, and chamber music literature appropriate to the settings at the fine arts hi gh schools. During the classroom periods, students will examine the literature with the instructor in reading and discussion sessions and classify them according to their difficulty levels. Advanced proficiency on a string instrument is required. Two written exams (equal weight) will be held thr oughout the semester and a concert of selected pieces will be performed at the end of the se mester. In addition to the exams, a resource notebook is also required. This not ebook will contain the complete lite rature that can be used in public school string classroom settings. Students will be responsible for including a comprehensive analysis of each piece. The resource notebook will be beneficial for students when they teach. Additional assignments may be given at the instructors discretion. Objectives of the Course: Students will be required to develop the following skills for successful completion of this course: 1. an understanding of the string re pertoire that is used at th e Anatolian high schools of fine arts settings 2. knowledge of the public school string literature 3. skills to analyze the public school string literature 4. an understanding of the fundamentals of public school orchestra settings Public School Orchestra Conducting Course Description: Public School Orchestra Conducting is designed for string students to learn basic string ensemble conduc ting and rehearsal techniques for use at the Anatolian high schools of fine arts. S tudents will learn how to conduct public school string orchestras utilizing basic conducting patterns and gestures and also how to read an or chestral score. These skills will include the use of both hands with and without baton, and th e use of the body when conducting.

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246 During the second half of the semester, students will apply these skills in String Laboratory courses. Recordings will also be used when String Laboratory ensemble is not available. The materials used in this course will include works which are suitable for use in fine arts high school settings. Advanced proficiency on a string inst rument is required. Two written exams (equal weight) will be held throughout the semester and a small concert of selected pieces from the public school repertoire will be performed at the end of the semester. In addition to the exams, a resource notebook will also be required. This notebook will contain selected school string orchestra literature that has been discussed in the classroom. Students will be given the opportunity to choose three pieces and be responsi ble for including a comprehensive analysis of each piece as they will have done in the classr oom. The resource notebook will be beneficial for students when they teach. Additional assignments may be given at the instructors discretion. Objectives of the Course: Students will be required to develop the following skills for successful completion of this course: 1. knowledge of how to conduct school string orch estras at the Anat olian high schools of fine arts settings 2. an understanding of basic skills that are needed to conduct a school string ensemble 3. knowledge of the repertoire for school string orch estras that can be us ed at the fine arts high schools

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247 LIST OF REFERENCES Akp nar, M. (2001). Tr kiyedeki niversitelerin eitim faklteleri gzel sanatlar e itimi blmleri mzik retmenli i anabilim dallar ndaki keman retiminde makamsal ezgilerin kullan lma durumlar [The use of modal melodies in violin instruction at the university music teacher training schools in Turkey]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi niversitesi, Ankara, Turkey. Akp nar, M. (2002). Cumhuriyet dneminden gnmze mzik retmeni yeti tiren kurumlarda keman eitiminin tarihsel geli imi. [The historical developm ent of violin instruction in music teacher education programs from the Republic era to the present time]. Seluk niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Albuz, A. (2000). Viyola retiminde geleneksel Trk mzi i ses sistemine ili kin dizilerin kullan m ve bu sistem kaynakl okseslilik yakla mlar [The use of traditional Turkish scale system in viola instruction and th e influences of We stern polyphonic/homophonic music]. Unpublished doctoral dissertati on, Gazi niversitesi, Ankara, Turkey. Albuz, A. (2004). Mzik retmenli i e itiminde ok boyutluluk. [Variations in music teacher education]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 24, 105-110. Retrieved May 14 from http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/242/9.pdf. Ba gz, & W ilson, H. E. (1968). Educational problems in Turkey: 1920-1940. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications. Bulut, M. H. (2001). Sivas ve yresi halaylar n n kltrel e itlilik a s ndan incelenerek keman e itiminde kullan lmas [The use of local dance musi c of Sivas region in violin instruction]. Unpublished doctoral disserta tion, Gazi niversitesi, Ankara, Turkey. Bulut, M. H. (2004, April). 1937den 1980e Gazi E itim [Gazi Education Institute from 1937 to 1980]. Paper presented at the meeting of 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turk ey. Retrieved May 10, 2006 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net Burubatur, M. (2006). E itim fak lteleri mzik e itimi anabilim dallar nda birinci s n f 1. ve 2. yar y l viyolonsel e itiminde en ok kullan lan metot, ett ve egzersizlerin incelenmesi [An examination on the most-used methods, etudes and exercises used during the first-year cello instruction at the university music t eacher training schools]. Unpublished masters thesis, Seluk niversitesi, Konya, Turkey. Retrieved January 4, from http://www.yok.gov.tr/te z/tez_taram a.htm ilden, (2003, October). alg e itiminde nitelik sorunlar [Problems in instrumental music teacher education]. Paper presented at the Cumhuriyetimizin 80. Y l nda Mzik Sempozyumu, nn niversitesi, Malatya, Turke y. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net.

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248 ilden, & Ercan, N. (2004, April). E itim faklteleri gzel sanatlar e itimi blm mzik retmenli i anabilim dallar nda AGS Liseleri mzik blmlerinde yap lmakta olan alg e itiminde nitelik sorunlar [Quality problems in instrumental instruction at the university music teacher training schools and Anatolian Fi ne Arts High Schools]. Paper presented at 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niv ersitesi, Isparta, Turkey. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Ece, S. (2002). a da Trk bestecilerinin viyola eserle ri ve bu eserlerin m esleki mzik e itimi veren kurumlardaki viyola e itimcileri taraf ndan tan nma, e itim amal kullan lma ve kullan lmama durumlar [The works for viola by contem porary Turkish composers and the use of these pieces in univers ity-level viola instruction]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 22, 93-107. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/223/8.pdf. Gler, B. (2006, April). lkem iz mzik eitimi anabilim dallar nda kullanlan viyolonsel etdleri zerine bir inceleme. [Examination of the cello etudes used at the university music teacher training schools]. Paper presen ted at the Ulusal Mzik E itimi Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Pamukkale niversitesi E itim Fakltesi, Denizli, Turkey. Rerieved May 26, 2007 from www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Ko, T. (2007). Bir yntem olarak blgesel mziklerin keman e itiminde k ullan m [The use of folk music from different regions of Turkey in violin instruction]. Unpublished masters thesis, Yznc Y l niversitesi, Van, Turkey. Kknc, Y. (2004, April). Trkiyede genel mzik kltrne etkileri bak m ndan Cumhuriyet dneminde mzik e itimi ve mzik retmenleri [Music education and music teachers during the Republic era and their influence on the musical culture in Turkey]. Paper presented at 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turkey. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Mzik retmenli i Lisans Program [Undergraduate Curricu lum of Music Teacher Training Programs]. Retrieved December 15, 2006 from http://www.yok.gov.tr/egitim/ogretmen/muzik.doc. Nacakl Z. (2004). Trk halk m zi i eserlerinin viyola e itiminde kullan labilirli i zerine bir ara t rma. [A study as to how Turkish folk mu sic can be used in viola instruction]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 24, 157-171. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/242/12.pdf. zeke, S. (2003). A history of music teacher edu cati on in the Republic of Turkey, 1982-1998 Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ar izona State University, Tempe. zen, N. (2005). alg e itiminde yararlan lan mzik eitimi yntemleri. [Methods of instrumental music education]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 24, 57-63. Retrieved November 6, 2005 from http://www.gazi.edu.tr

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249 ztosun, & Akgl-Bar D. (2004, April). Bireysel alg e itimi I (keman) dersi hedeflerinin gerekle me dzeylerinin belirlenmesi (A. .B.. rne i). [Examination of the goals of the first-year violin curricula at the Abant zzet Baysal University]. Paper presented at 19242004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turle y. Retrieved Janury 10, 2006 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Sa er, T. (2006). Cum huriyet dnemi mzik politikalar [Policies in music during the Republic era]. Seluk niversitesi Atatrk lkeleri ve nk lp Tarihi Ara t rma ve Uygulama Merkezi-Ata Dergisi 11, 45-55. Retrieved May 12, 2006 from http://www.atam.selcuk.edu.tr/ya yinler/ata%20dergisi.htm Sker, (2006). Abant zzet Baysal niversitesi Gzel Sanatlar E itimi Blm Mzik retmenli i Anabilim Dal nda, Anadolu Gzel Sanatlar Lisesi k l 1. s n f keman rencilerine temel davran lar kapsay c bir retim program model nerisinin uygulanmas [A model curriculum for the first-year violin students coming from the Anatolian Fine Arts High Schools to the Abant zzet Baysal University]. Unpublished maters thesis, Abant zzet Baysal niversitesi, Bol u, Turkey. Retrieved January 3, 2007from http://www.yok.gov.tr/tez/tez_tarama.htm Ser, R. (1980). Mzik retmeni y eti tiren kurumlarda retim [University music teacher education]. Unpublished doctoral diss ertation, Ankara niversitesi E itim Fakltesi, Ankara, Turkey. endurur, Y. (2001). Keman e itiminde etkili renme retme yntemleri. [The effective learning teaching techniques for violin instruction]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 21, 145-155. Retrieved November 6, 2005 from www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/213/13.pdf. endurur, Y. (2001). Keman e itimi dersine etkili haz rlanma sreci. [The processes of preparing for violin instruction effectively]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi, 21, 161-168. Retrieved November 6, 2005 from www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/213/13.pdf entrk, N. (2001). Musik Muallim den gnmze mzik retmeni yeti tiren kurumlar. [Music teacher schools from Musiki Muallim to the present time]. Gazi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 21, 135-142. Retrieved November 6, 2005 from http://www.gazi.edu.tr. Tebi C. (2001, July). Ke man retiminde retmen yakla mlar [Approaches by teachers in teaching violin]. Sleyman Demirel niversitesi Burdur E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 2, 170176. Retrieved November 6, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Tebi C. (2002). Mzik retmeni y eti tiren kurumlardaki keman retiminin mzik retmenlerinin gr lerine dayal olarak mzik retmenli i formasyonu a s ndan de erlendirilmesi [An examination of violin instru ction at university music teacher training schools based on the ideas of music teachers]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gazi niversitesi, Ankara, Turkey.

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250 Tebi C. (2002, October). Mzik retmeni yeti tiren kurumlardaki alg e itiminin bir kolu olan keman retimininin tarihsel sre iindeki geli imi ve gnmzdeki durumunun de erlendirilmesi [The historical development of vi olin instruction in music teacher training institutions and its status today]. Papr persented at the XI. E itim Bilimleri Kongresi, Yak n Do u niversitesi, Lefko a, KKTC. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net Tebi C. (2004, April). Musiki Muallim Mektebinden gnmze mzik retmeni y eti tirme programlar ndaki yayl alg retimine ili kin s nama lme deerlendirme durumlar n n incelenmesi. [An examination of measuremen t and evaluation part of the string education curricula in university music teacher trai ning schools from past to present]. Paper presented at 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleym an Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turkey. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Tecim er-Kasap, B. (2005, Spring). Suzuki Okulu Metodu. [The Suzuki Method]. nn niversitesi E itim Fakltesi Dergisi 6, 115-128. Retrieved June 21, 2006.from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Torlular, A. (2005). Keman e itimcilerimizin yn tem-teknik ve da ar ile ilgili kaynaklar a s ndan keman eitimine katk lar n n de erlendirilmesi [Evaluation of the input and effectiveness of violin inst ructors regarding their use of methods, techniques and repertoire].: Unpublished masters thesis, Uluda niversitesi, Bursa, Turkey. Retrieved January 3, 2007 from http://www.yok.gov.tr/tez/tez_tarama.htm Treyin, M. (2004, April). Trkiyede XXI. Yzy l Ko ullar n a Gre Mzik retmenli i E itiminde Yap lmas Gereken De i iklikler ve Bir Model nerisi. [A proposed model for the twenty first century Turkish music t eacher education]. Paper presented at 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turke y. Retrieved April 11, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Uan, A. (1982). Gazi Yksek retmen Okulu Mzik Blm mzik alan birinci y l program n n de erlend irilmesi. [The examination of the curriculum at the Gazi Secondary Music Teacher Training School]. Ankara: Mzik E itimi Yay nlar Uslu, M. (2000). Trkiyede alg e itiminin yayg nla t r lmas nda ve geli tirilmesinde medya birimlerinin nemi ve gereklili i. [The importance and necessity of the media in developing and spreading instrumental inst ruction in Turkey]. Paper presented at Mzikte 2000 Sempozyumu stanbul, Turkey Retrieved March 21, 2007 from http://www.kultur.gov.tr/TR/BelgeGos ter.aspx? F6E10F8892433CFFB6B8DA541AA02A 11CA05F2B761. Williamson, B. (1987). Educational Change in Egypt and Turkey: A Study in Historical Sociology London: Macmillan Press.

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251 Yayla, F. (2003). Mzik eitimi anabilim dal retim elemanlar n n mzik retmeni yeti tirme sistemine ili kin gr leri. [The ideas of the music educ ation professors on the music teacher education]. Paper presented at Cumhuriyetimizin 80. Y l nda Mzik Sempozyumu, 30-31 Ekim 2003, nn niversitesi, Malatya, Bildirile r, p. 82-92, Retrieved April 11, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Yayla, F. (2004, April). Musiki Muallim Mektebinden gnmze mzik retmeni y eti tiren kurumlar ve mzik retmeni yeti tirme yakla mlar nda genel durum [Music teacher training institutions from their foundations to the present]. Pape r presented at 1924-2004 Musiki Muallim Mektebinden Gnmze Mzik retmeni Yeti tirme Sempozyumu Bildirisi, Sleyman Demirel niversitesi, Isparta, Turke y. Retrieved April 12, 2005 from http://www.muzikegitimcileri.net. Yceland, E (2007). Keman e itiminde lisans I. s n fta hedeflere ula ma durumlar [The status of the goals of the first-year university violin curricula]. Unpublished masters thesis, Yznc Y l niversitesi, Van, Turkey.

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252 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born and raised in Ankara-Turkey, D ilek Gktrk earned undergraduate and masters degrees in music education from the Gazi University in Ankara. In Turkey, she worked as a general music teacher at middl e school level in Ankara and Bursa between 1993 and 1994 and as a violin and an orchestra teacher at Anatolian high schools of fine arts in Ankara and ank r between 1994 and 1999. Ms. Gktrk was awarded a governmental scholarship to pursue graduate study in music education in the Unite d States in 1999 and came to Missouri-Columbia in January, 2001 after attending an intensive English program for nine months in Turkey. She received her M.Ed. with music emphasis as her second masters degree from the University of Missouri-Columbia in May, 2002 and pursued her Ph.D. in music education with string education emphasis at the University of Florida in the fall of 2002. The main professors with whom Ms. Gktrk worked include Professor Sadettin nal, Dr. M. Cihat Can, Professor Ertu rul Bayraktar, Dr. Salih Akka Dr. Ali Uan, and Professor Ali Sevgi at Gazi University ; Dr. Wendy Sims and Dr. Martin Bergee at the University of Missouri-Columbia ; and Dr. Camille M. Smith and Dr. Timothy S. Brophy at the University of Florida While pursuing her Ph.D. studies, she taught undergraduate-level courses including String Skills and Beginning Turkish In Gainesville, Florida, Ms. Gkt rk also taught strings at tw o local elementary schools and established a large private violin studio. Academ ically, she presented several papers and posters at various national and interna tional conferences in musicology and music education areas. Upon her return to Turkey, Ms. Gktrk will start her new teaching job at Uluda University in Bursa.