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Leadership in Colleges of Agricultural and Life Sciences: An Examination of Leadership Skills, Leadership Styles, and Pr...


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LEADERSHIP IN COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES: AN EXAMINATION OF LEADERSHIP SK ILLS, LEADERSHI P STYLES, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING STYLES OF ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADERS BY DAVID WILLIAM WARD JONES A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by David William Ward Jones

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This is dedicated to my family: My incredible wife, Jennifer, and my two wonderful daughters, Kelsey May and Abbey Rose.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the me mbers of my advisory committee: Drs. Rick Rudd, Ed Osborne, Tracy Irani, Katie Sieving, and Kirby Barrick. Without their remarkable talents, knowledge, and indivi dual expertise, this dissert ation would not have been possible. Each of their words of wisdom, challenge for excellence, and encouragement provided the continual support needed to accomp lish this task. I am grateful for the advice and support of my advisor, Dr. Rick Rudd. He not only made me question my assumptions, he provided an endless supply of questions for the future. I am extremely grateful for the love and s upport of my family. I am truly indebted to my wife, Jennifer, for helping and enc ouraging me to accomplish this great feat. Abbey and Kelsey have constantly been a sour ce of encouragement and comic relief just when needed. My success at the University of Florida, in a large part, can be attributed to the MacJonesinghams. Their never-ending la ughter, love, and support kept me going. Thank you. It goes without saying that the crew in Rolfs 310 helped me reach this point. The incredible friends I have made not only s upplied endless hours of laughter, but some great intellectual discussions. During times of frustration and disappointment, they were always there to tell me I could do it and to le nd support. I will be fo rever grateful to all of them.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................x LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................xiii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY...............................................1 Introduction to the Study..............................................................................................1 Background of the Study..............................................................................................2 Problem Statement........................................................................................................6 Purpose and Objectives of the Study............................................................................7 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................8 Definition of Terms....................................................................................................10 Limitations of the Study.............................................................................................11 Summary.....................................................................................................................11 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.....................................................................................13 Leadership Defined.....................................................................................................14 Types of Leaders.................................................................................................18 Traits of Leaders..................................................................................................19 Leadership Styles.................................................................................................21 Transformational and Transact ional Leadership Styles......................................22 Leadership Theories............................................................................................24 Trait Theories......................................................................................................25 The Great Man Theory.................................................................................25 Leadership Traits Theory.............................................................................25 Behavioral Theories.............................................................................................27 Expectancy Theory.......................................................................................29 Humanistic Theories....................................................................................30 Exchange Theory..........................................................................................31 Authoritarian Leadership..............................................................................31 Charismatic Leadership................................................................................31

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vi Situational Theories.............................................................................................32 Transformational Leadership Theory..................................................................36 Measuring Leadership Styles......................................................................................39 Leadership Skills........................................................................................................41 Leadership Skills Can Be Learned.............................................................................51 Land-grant Universities..............................................................................................53 Colleges of Agricultural and Life Sc ience at Land-grant Universities...............54 The Role of the Dean...........................................................................................60 The Changing Role of the Academic Program Dean..........................................60 A Leaders Role in Change.................................................................................63 The Deans Role in Change.................................................................................67 Kirton Adaption-Innovati on Inventory (KAI)............................................................72 Differences between Adapters and Innovators....................................................73 Innovation and Adaptability in Organizational Change......................................77 Innovative vs. Adaptive Leaders................................................................................81 Influence of Demographics on Leadership Skills.......................................................82 Gender Differences in Leadership.......................................................................82 Ethnicity and Leadership.....................................................................................85 Age and Educational Level.................................................................................87 Type of Degree....................................................................................................88 Tenure in Position................................................................................................89 Theoretical Framework...............................................................................................89 Summary.....................................................................................................................97 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................99 Research Design.......................................................................................................100 Population.................................................................................................................102 Instrumentation.........................................................................................................102 Leadership Skills Instrument.............................................................................103 Demographic Instrument...................................................................................106 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire...............................................................107 Problem-solving Style Instrument.....................................................................110 Data Collection Time Frame.............................................................................112 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 1.....................................................114 Method and Data Analysis Us ed for Objective 2 and 3...........................................114 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 4.....................................................115 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objectives 5 and 6..........................................115 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 7.....................................................116 Non-response............................................................................................................117 Summary...................................................................................................................118 4 RESULTS.................................................................................................................121 Objective 1................................................................................................................122 Determine Selected Demographic Char acteristics of Land-grant Academic Program Leaders............................................................................................122

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vii Participant Age..................................................................................................123 Educational Degree Held...................................................................................123 Previous Leadership Experience.......................................................................123 Objective 2................................................................................................................124 Assess Level of Importance of Lead ership Skills, as Determined by Academic Program Leaders...........................................................................124 Perceived Importance of Leadership Skill Areas..............................................124 Objective 3................................................................................................................129 Assess Self-perceived Proficiency of Leadership Skills of Academic Program Leaders...........................................................................................................129 Self-perceived Proficiency in Leadership Skill Areas.......................................129 Objective 4................................................................................................................133 Identify Gaps in Leadership Skills and Proficiency Level of Academic Program Leaders............................................................................................133 Difference Between Perceived Importance and Self-Perceived Proficiency of Leadership Skills............................................................................................133 Objective 5................................................................................................................133 Determine Leadership Behaviors of Academic Program Leaders as Being Transformational, Transactio nal and/or Laissez-faire...................................133 Leadership Style and Gender.............................................................................134 Leadership Style and Ethnicity..........................................................................135 Leadership Style and Age..................................................................................137 Leadership Style and Tenure in Formal Leadership Position...........................139 Leadership Style and Previous College Leadership Courses............................140 Leadership Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training.......................140 Leadership Style and Any Other Additional Leadership Training....................141 Objective 6................................................................................................................142 Identify Academic Program Leaders Problem-solving Style...........................142 Problem-solving Style and Gender....................................................................142 Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity.................................................................143 Problem-solving Style a nd Type of Degree......................................................145 Problem-solving Style and Tenure at a College or University..........................146 Problem-solving Style and Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position................146 Problem-solving Style and Previous College Leadership Training..................146 Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training..............147 Problem-solving Style Previous Leadership Training.......................................147 Objective 7................................................................................................................148 Explain Leadership Styles of Academic Program Leaders...............................148 Transformational Leadership Style...................................................................153 Transactional Leadership Style.........................................................................154 Laissez-faire Leadership Style..........................................................................155 Summary...................................................................................................................155 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION...........................................................................158 Study Summation......................................................................................................159 Statement of the Problem..................................................................................159

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viii Methodology......................................................................................................160 Findings and Conclusions.........................................................................................162 Objective 1: To determine selected de mographic characteristics of land-grant academic program leaders..............................................................................162 Objective 2: To assess level of importan ce of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders.........................................................................164 Objective 3: To assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders..............................................................................165 Objective 4: To identify gaps in lead ership skills and pr oficiency level of academic program leaders..............................................................................166 Objective 5: To determine leadership st yles of academic program leaders, as being transformational, transac tional, and/or laissez-faire............................167 Objective 6: To identify an academic program leaders problem-solving style170 Objective 7: Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders..............172 Implications and Recommendations.........................................................................175 Objective 1: To determine selected de mographic characteristics of land-grant academic program leaders..............................................................................175 Objective 2: To assess level of importan ce of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders.........................................................................176 Objective 3: To assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills, of academic program leaders..............................................................................176 Objective 4: To identify gaps in lead ership skills and pr oficiency level of academic program leaders..............................................................................179 Objective 5: To determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational, transa ctional or laissez-faire....................................181 Objective 6: To identify academic program leaders problem-solving style...182 Objective 7: To explain leadership styles of academic program leaders.........183 Future Research Recommendations.........................................................................187 APPENDIX A PRELETTER............................................................................................................189 B LETTER TO ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADER.................................................190 C POSTCARD REMINDER........................................................................................191 D INFORMED CONSENT LETTER..........................................................................192 E MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONAIRE (MLQ)..................................193 F KAI.......................................................................................................................... .194 G LEADERSHIP SKILLS INSTRUMENT.................................................................195 H CORRELATION TABLE........................................................................................198

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ix LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................208 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................223

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x LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Cronbachs Alpha for Importance and Proficiency for Leadership Skills (N=16) ..........................................................................................................106 3-2 Comparison of Early and Late Respondents (N=26) .............................................117 3-3 Independent t-Test Comparing Early and Late Respondents (N=26) ....................118 4-1 Age and Tenure of Academic Program Leaders (N=56) .......................................123 4-2 Previous Leadership Training Scores (N=56) .......................................................124 4-3 Human Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ...............................124 4-4 Conceptual Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ........................125 4-5 Technical Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ...........................126 4-6 Communication Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) .................126 4-7 Emotional Intelligence Skill It em Response Scores (Importance) .........................127 4-8 Industry Knowledge Skill Item Response Scores (Importance) .............................127 4-9 Perceived Leadership Skill Importance (N=56) ....................................................128 4-10 Human Skill Self-perceived Proficien cy Item Response Scores (Proficiency) .......129 4-11 Conceptual Skill Self-perceived Proficie ncy Item Response Scores (Proficiency) 130 4-12 Technical Skill Self-perceived Proficie ncy Item Response Scores (Proficiency) ...130 4-13 Communication Skill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores ...............131 4-14 Emotional Intelligence Self-perceiv ed Proficiency Item Response Scores ............131 4-15 Industry Knowledge Self-perceived Pr oficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) ...........................................................................................................132 4-16 Leadership Skill Self-perceived Proficiency (N=56) .............................................132

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xi 4-17 Difference Between Mean for Importance and Proficiency ...................................133 4-18 Leadership Scale Scores and Leadership Style Scores ..........................................134 4-19 Leadership Style Scores by Gender ........................................................................135 4-20 Leadership Scale Scores by Gender .......................................................................135 4-21 Leadership Style Scores by Ethnicity .....................................................................136 4-22 Leadership Style of Whit es and non-Whites (N=26) ..............................................137 4-23 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores, and Age (N=56) ............................................................138 4-24 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Years of Tenure at a College or University ............139 4-25 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Years of Formal Leadership Position Tenure (N=56) ....................................................................................................................139 4-26 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and the Numb er of College Leadership Courses (N=56) ....................................................................................................................140 4-27 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Leadership Workshops (N=56) .............141 4-28 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Previous Leadership Training Courses (N=56) ....................................................................................................................141 4-29 Problem-solving Style (N=56) ...............................................................................142 4-30 Problem-solving Style and Gender (N=56) ...........................................................143 4-31 Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity (N=56) .........................................................144 4-32 Problem-solving Style of Wh ites and non-Whites (N=56) .....................................144 4-33 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Be tween Problem-solving Style and Age (N=56) ....................................................................................................................144 4-34 Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree (N=56) ...............................................145 4-35 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree (N=56) ..........................................................................................145

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xii 4-36 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Tenure at a College or University (N=56) .............................................................146 4-37 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position (N=56) ..................................................146 4-38 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Previous College Leadership Training (N=56) .....................................................147 4-39 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training (N=56) .................................................147 4-40 Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Training (N=56) ...................................................................147 4-41 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables and Transformational Leadership Style .................................................................149 4-42 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables and Transactional Leadership Style .......................................................................152 4-43 Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables and Laissez-faire Leadership Style ........................................................................153 4-44 Backward Regression Explaining Transfo rmational Leadership Style (N=56) ....154 4-45 Backward Regression Explaining Trans actional Leadership Style (N=56) ..........154 4-46 Backward Regression Explaining Laissez-faire Leadership Style (N=56) ............155

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xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Cognitive Function...................................................................................................91 2-2 Cognitive Function Schema (Kirton, 2003).............................................................93 2-3 Leadership Style Behavior Indica tor Model (adapted from Kirton, 2003)..............96

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xiv Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy LEADERSHIP IN COLLEGES OF AGRIC ULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES: AN EXAMINATION OF LEADERSHIP SK ILLS, LEADERSHI P STYLES, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING STYLES OF ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADERS By David William Ward Jones May 2006 Chair: Rick Rudd Major Department: Agricultural Edu cation and Communicat ion The purpose of this study was to identif y and define the leadership skills and styles of academic program leaders of co lleges of agricultural and life sciences. Quantitative research methods were used to describe academic program leaders in terms of their demographics and leadership skills and styles, and also to assess their selfperceived proficiency level in each of the lead ership skill areas. Determining where gaps existed between academic program leaders pe rception of leadership skills importance and self-perceived leadership skills level wa s a goal of this re search. This study examined how demographic variables are predic tors of leadership styles and skills of academic program leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders as being transformati onal, transactional and/or laissez-faire. Additionally this study examined academic pr ogram leaders problem-solving style.

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xv Finally, this study sought to explain academic program leaders leadership styles by specific variables.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Introduction to the Study This study utilized quantitativ e research methodologies to identify and define the leadership skills and styles of academic progr am leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. Quantitative re search methods were used to describe academic program leaders in terms of their demographics and leadership skills, leadership behaviors and leadership styles. This study sought to asse ss academic program leaders self-perceived proficiency level in specific leadership sk ill areas. Determining where gaps existed between an academic program leaders perceptio n of leadership skil l importance and selfperceived leadership skill level was a goal of this research. This study examined how demographic variables are predic tors of leadership styles and skills of academic program leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders as being transformational, tran sactional and/or laissez-faire. This study examined the problem-solving style of academic program l eaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. Finally, this study sought to expl ain leadership styles of academic program leaders by specific variables. The National Association of State Univ ersities and Land-Grant Institutions designates 110 individuals to oversee academ ic programs. These 110 individuals were contacted to participate in this study. Th ese academic program leaders were asked to complete four leadership measurement in struments. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), developed by Bass and A volio (2000), was used to assess each

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2 academic program leaders leadership style as transactional, transformational and/or laissez-faire. Kirtons (1 999) Adaption-Innovation instrument (KAI) was used to measure the academic program leaders problem-solving ability. Each college of agricultural and life sciences academic program leader was given a leadership skills instrument, which measured the academic progr am leaders perception of leadership skill importance and self-perceived proficiency level in the leadership skill area. Finally, a demographic instrument was given to each academic program leader to determine gender, ethnicity, age, highest educational degree, type of degree, tenure in position, tenure in a formal leadership position, as well as previous leadership training. Independent variables identified in the li terature were gender, ethnicity, age, highest educational degree earne d, type of degree earned, te nure in position, tenure in formal leadership position, and previous lead ership training. These independent variables were used to determine how demographics influence an academic program leaders leadership style and leadership skills. Background of the Study On July 2, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law what is generally referred to as the Land-Grant Act. This piece of legislation introduced by U.S. Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Ve rmont granted to each state 30,000 acres of public land, which could be used to finance th e purchase of land needed for a state-run college. The Land-Grant Act was to assist the universities to support, and maintain at least one colleg e in each state where the leading object shall be, without excluding ot her scientific or other cla ssical studies, to teach such branches of learning as are related to ag riculture and the mechanic arts, as the legislatures of the states may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industria l classes in the several pursuits and professions of life. (Morri ll Land-Grant Act, 1862)

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3 The Morrill Act of 1862 estab lished 51 land-grant univers ities. In the second Morrill Act of 1890, 18 more la nd-grant universities were created. Between 1890 and 1994, 34 land-grant institutions were added. The Morrill Land-Grant College acts of 1862 and 1890 provided higher education to the gene ral public rather than just the elite. The purpose of the two Morrill acts was to provide for at least one college in each state. Colleges established under the Morrill acts were to teach agriculture and mechanical arts. There are currently 105 land-grant institu tions; 74 traditional land-grant colleges have been established by the Morrill acts of 1862 and 1890. Twenty-nine tribal colleges were established in 1994, which are represen ted by a single membership designated by the American Indian Higher Education Consortiu m in Virginia. Four institutions are not in the United States: the Community College of Micronesia; Northern Marianas College; University of Guam; and the University of Puerto Rico. Land-grant universities were established to teach foundational sk ills ranging from military sciences to practical agriculture application. They were also created to bring education to the general public and make this education releva nt to the daily lives of any student attending a land -grant university. Senator Morrill, speaking at the Massachusetts Agricultu re College in 1887, stated: The land-grant colleges were founded on the idea that a higher and broader education should be placed in every State within the reach of those whose destiny assigns them to, or who may have the cour age to choose industrial locations where the wealth of nations is produced; where a dvanced civilization unf olds its comforts, and where a much larger number of the people need wider educational advantages, and impatiently await thei r possession. (Morrill, 1887) Land-grant universities were designed to allow for the collection and dissemination of research and the teaching to the general public. As land-grant universities grew in size, so did the need for more academic progr am support. Historically, the administration

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4 for higher education has had an important im pact on facilities and operations of these land-grant universities. The academic program leader, who over time has come to be known as the dean, has served in roles dea ling with educational instruction to teacher support services, as well as community educ ation and raising funds for the college. Seventy-five years ago, the role of the acad emic dean was not standardized (Hawkes, 1930). Today, there is still no consensus on the roles of the dean (Wolverton, Gmelch, Montez, & Nies, 2001). Deans of colleges and un iversities serve to oversee not only the daily operations of the facility, but they must also have the ability to generate, foster, and help implement future goals and expectations of the facility. Th e responsibilities and tasks of todays deans include but are not limited to, ma intaining the budget, keeping records, managing the staff, a nd representing the university. Deans today are responsible for pe rsonnel, budgetary, policy, governance, development and fundraising, and other overs ight functions (Tucker & Bryan, 1988). Because of their often-undefined role, the dean is oftentimes expected to take on duties commonly associated with corporate busine ss managers: figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor, disseminator, spokesperson, en trepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator (M iller, 1989; Mintzberg, 1973). The duties of an academic dean involve leadership activities that include supporting, motivating, and developing the faculty (Wilson, 1999). The roles and responsibilities of todays academic dean are a much broader position than what was originally established for an educational admini strator when the Morrill acts were written. Living and working by the founding premise of Senator Morrill s vision for landgrant universities, the need to transcend the old and ne w roles and responsibilities of

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5 land-grant universities has resulted in the n eed for effective leadership. The need for strong leaders is now more important than ever Effective leadership is required to take colleges and universities through the next era of change. These leaders must exhibit leadership traits, such as vision, integrity, and perceptiven ess. They must possess the ability to encourage communication and comp romise as they work on behalf of the faculty and the college (Wisniewski, 1998). The role of the college and the unive rsity dean is continually changing. Universities and colleges in the United States are encount ering a turbulent climate. The quality of their future in many ways de pends on how well they respond to evolving realities in the larger worl d beyond their walls (Abelson, 1997). How proficient college of agricultural and life sciences academic pr ogram leaders are at leading their colleges and faculty through the change and their style of leadership could ensu re that the change will be positive for higher education institutions. Moore (2003) and Stedman (2004) reporte d a relationship between demographic variables, including age, gender, ethnici ty, educational background, and leadership training, and these variables th at influence on leadership styles. However, an assessment of those leadership skills current academic pr ogram leaders need and have is much harder to find. Furthermore, an academic program leaders problem-solving ability has not been researched. By aligning leader ship style, leadership skills demographics, as well as an academic program leaders problem-solving ab ilities, side by side and determining the gaps between them, it will draw a clearer picture as to what academic program leaders need in order to lead thei r institution effectively through the next period of change.

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6 Problem Statement Leadership ability determines effectivene ss and the potential impact of the leaders organization (Maxwell, 2002). Until now, the most difficult questi on has always been: How can one learn to be an effective leader not just a manager (Bennis & Nanus, 1985)? This study worked to define leadership styles and skills that college of agricultural and life science academic program leaders possess. In modern organizations, leadership and management roles are seldom separate, and the leaders of organizations set the atmosphere of the work environment. At times, a leader/manager may need to charge up followers, creating commitment, inspiration, gr owth, and adaptation. Here the individual is clearly exerting leadership (Howell & Costley, 2006). Academic leaders typically come to thei r positions without leadership training, without prior experience, a nd without a clear understan ding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles (Gmelch, 1999). Ther efore, a strong need for preparation is required. The Kellogg Commission, in its report on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities (2000), reported that todays uni versity setting is changing. It stated universities needed to reform public higher education in five ar eas: (1) student experiences; (2) student access; (3) engagement with society; (4) a learning society; and (5) campus culture. The commissions findings conclude that unive rsities need to pay more attention to promoting lifelong lear ning. The commission also noted universities need to pay more attention to student experiences and to campus culture. The commission found several key obstacle s that would slow down university or institutional reform. These obstacles incl ude: lack of resources, money and time; inadequate facilities; the or ganization of universities into decentralized, disciplinary

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7 departments and colleges; the lack of co mmunication between academic units; personal attitudes; and a general resistance to cha nge. One of the key aspects the commission alluded to throughout its report was the lack of leadership at every level. The commission found that mid-level administrators stressed the need fo r: clarification of core values; improvement in the integrati on of university missions; greater support for non-traditional students ; and re-emphasizing and valuing ex cellence in all aspects of the university missions teachi ng, research, and outreach. In todays colleges of agricultural and life sc iences the role of an academic leader is dealing with extramural funding, making person nel decisions, and relating to alumni, as well as focusing on curriculum issues. More specifically, administrative roles include maintaining the budget, keeping records, managing the staff, and representing the department in other aspects of the univers ity. What skills are required for academic program leadership positions in a college of agricultural and life sciences. Do current staff members in these leadership positions possess these skills? If they do not possess these skills, where are they expected to obt ain the training to acquire these leadership skills? Purpose and Objectives of the Study Due to the changing environment of the hi gher education system specifically for this study colleges of agricu ltural and life sc iences, the leadership of an organization will determine if the organization will be ab le to successfully manage the change or succumb to it. The academic program leaders of colleges of agricultu ral and life sciences have been designated as the individuals re sponsible for guiding their organization during this time of change. With this responsibi lity in mind, this study seeks to answer the following questions in regard to academic program leaders:

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8 Who are they? What leadership skills are important to successfully complete their tasks? What is the self-perceived proficiency of these leadership skills? Where are the leadership skill gaps between what academic program leaders feel are important and their proficiency leve l in these leadership skill areas? What leadership styles do current academic program leaders possess? Which problem-solving style do academic pr ogram leaders prefer to use? The purpose of this study was to identify a nd define the leadership skills needed by academic program leaders in colleges of ag ricultural and life sciences. The selfperceived level of proficienc y of current academic program leaders was assessed in each leadership skill area. The study described cu rrent academic program leaders in terms of their leadership style by being transactional, transformationa l and/or laissez-faire. This research addressed the following specific objectives: 1. Determine selected demographic characte ristics of land-grant academic program leaders. 2. Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders. 3. Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders. 4. Identify gaps in leadership skills a nd proficiency level of academic program leaders. 5. Determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire. 6. Identify academic program lead ers problem-solving style. 7. Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders. Significance of the Study This study determined the specific leadersh ip skills that academic program leaders believe are important in order to be eff ective and promote positive change in their positions. By determining the specific skil ls that academic program leaders need to perform their jobs, standards and criterion can be set for hiring colleges of agricultural

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9 and life science academic program leaders. In addition, determining the specific skills deemed important by these leaders will assist in the preparation and successful delivery of future leadership development programs. Developing leadership programs, which focus on preparing professional academic progr am leaders, will help to ensure more competent leaders from more diverse populatio ns, including women and other minorities. This information will assist individuals w ho are interested in pursuing leadership positions in colleges of agricultural and lif e sciences, but they may not know how to pursue this career choice by defining the leadership skills required. Understanding the role of academic program leaders and how th ey fulfill this role will benefit future individuals who aspire to real ize this role. Hiring committees can use the information obtained from this research during the interview process to find new academic program leaders by asking questions releva nt to leadership roles, resp onsibilities, and proficiency levels. This study can be used to develop pr ofessional development activities and leadership training courses as well as other opportunities for personal and professional growth for academic program leaders. Help ing aspiring educational leaders gain an understanding of the qualities, ch aracteristics, and leadership skills, as well as leadership behaviors that will be necessary for them to be effective leaders, is a major impact of this study. This study described the specific demogr aphic information, and self-perceived leadership skills, as well as leadership styles of academic program leaders, within colleges of agricultural and life sciences at land-grant universities. Few studies have been conducted on agricultural leaders within co lleges of land-grant universities. Even

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10 fewer studies have been done at land-grant un iversities that include leaders holding senior leadership positions. By defining leadership skills needed in leadership positions, as well as offering explanations of factors that influence these leadership skills, better recruitment and attainment and retention of educational/academic leaders will result. Definition of Terms Land-grant university : A university directed to educate the people and solve problems through academics, research, and extension programs. It is the land-grant university that has the majo r responsibility for agricultu ral research and teaching responsibility, as well as a major "outreac h" or extension education mission to the public (NDSU Extension Service website). College of agricultural and life sciences academic program leader (dean): For this study the term College of agricultural and life sciences academic program leader will be those individuals listed by the Nati onal Association of State University and Land-Grant Colleges as the Dean of A cademic Programs in Schools and Colleges of Agricultural and Life Sciences or Agriculture and Natural Resources. These individuals are the chief academic and administrative officers in most Colleges of Agriculture. The dean is typi cally expected to pr ovide leadership in strategic and program planning, faculty a nd staff development, fundraising, and setting a vision of the future of the university and college They serve as academic facilitators between presid ential initiatives, faculty governance, and student needs (Astin & Scherrei, 1980). These individuals usually have the primary responsibility for participation/corresponden ce in academic programs (Directory of Deans and Directors of Academic Programs in Schools and Colleges of Agriculture, Agricultural and Life Sciences, or Ag riculture and Natural Resources, 2005). Also known as dean, associate dean, assi stant dean, chief academic officer (CAO), or academic program leader. Leadership : The process of influencing one or more individuals in an attempt to affect their choices of goals and to inspire, organize or direct their efforts to achieve the goals. The ability to see a problem or opportunity and do something about it with other people (Pisapia & Coukos-Semel, 2002). Leadership styles : The characteristic manner in which an individual leads other people; patterns of leadership behavior (Moore, 2003). Leadership skills : The abilities and acquired tasks related to leadership developed by an individual (Moore, 2003).

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11 Transformational leadership style : A process whereby an individual engages with others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the fo llower (Northouse, 2004). Transactional leadership style : A leadership process which has a focus on the exchanges that occur betw een leaders and their follo wers (Northouse, 2004). Laissez-faire leadership style : The leadership process th at abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs. A hands-off let-th ings-ride approach (Northouse, 2004). Limitations of the Study The first limitation of this study that must be considered is the institutions being studied. This study was conducted within colleges of agriculture at land-grant universities; the findings shoul d therefore only be applied to those institutions. The conclusions drawn from this study should be limited to the professional academic program leaders included in this study. The second limitation is that information may or may not be accurate because it is self-reporte d data. The data gained might have been more accurate if it was gained from the dean s coworkers, staff, or superiors and the researcher assumes the information to be true and accurate. The thir d limitation is that environmental, personal, and s ituational variables might influence leadership skills and styles that were not reported in this study. This study will contribute to the general body of knowledge in regard to leadership skills, and leadership styles, as well as pr oblem-solving approaches of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. Summary This chapter provided the background and significance of the problem, as well as the purpose of the study. The academic pr ogram leader position has become a very important position in colleges and universi ties. Higher education is undergoing a

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12 significant time of change, and academic progr am leaders are responsible for ensuring success for the higher education community. These changes include a more diverse student population, advances in technology, an d budget deficits. This study sought to examine academic program leaders leadership skills, and styles, as well as their problem-solving styles. This study investigated the influe nce of demographics on the leadership skills, styles, and problem-solvi ng approaches of professional academic program leaders in colleges of agricultural and life sciences. This research addressed the following specific objectives: Determine selected demographic characteristic s of land-grant academic program leaders. Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders. Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders. Identify gaps in leadership skills and pr oficiency level of academic program leaders. Determine leadership behaviors of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional, and/or laissez-faire. Identify academic program leaders problem solving style. Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders. This chapter defined significant terms us ed in the study. Limitations to the study were discussed. Chapter 2 will address the theoretical and the conceptual framework for the study. Chapter 2 will also discuss the research on l eadership skills and styles and how people respond and influence change in organizations as well as information in regard to demographics and their influences on leadersh ip styles. Chapter 2 will also take into account the research in regard to the influe nce of demographics on leadership styles, skills, and problem-solving approaches.

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13 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to identify a nd define the leadership skills and styles of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. Quantitative research methods were used to describe academic program leaders in terms of their demographics and leadership skills and styles and also to assess their self-perceived proficiency level in each of th e leadership skill areas. A goal of this research was to determine where gaps existed between an academic program leaders perception of leadership skill importance a nd self-perceived leadership skill level. This study examined how demographic variables are predic tors of leadership styles and skills of academic program leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders as being transformati onal, transactional and/or laissez-faire. Additionally, this study examined the problem -solving style of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. The purpose of this chapter is to present the literature in leadership theory and leadership styles, as well as leadership skills that contributed to th is study. This chapter will focus on the literature that describes leadership variables and their effect on leadership styles. This chapter will set the theoretical framework for the study. Included in this chapter is a brief history of the land-grant universities and the development and role of the professional academic program leader in colleges of agriculture.

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14 Leadership Defined The term leadership has been much researched, discussed, and debated. Each author or expert who uses the term leadership uses it in a manner that best encompasses the focus of his or her work. No consensu s exists on a definite/specific definition among the experts. One of the problems with the c oncept of leadership is the ambiguity of its definition and measurement (Pfeffer, 1977). Leadership is an important topic of discussion in all disciplines and fields of studi es. In and of itself, leadership is among the most studied and least understood subjects (Bennis & Nanus, 1985). Researchers have worked to define leadership and effective leadership British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery defined le adership by stating, Leadership is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which inspires confidence. President Harry Truman stated, A leader is a man who has the ability to get other people to do what they dont want to do and like it. In examining these definitions, it is easy to see that lead ership has a very broad definition, depending on who is being asked and the setting to which one is referring. In this review of literature, the researcher eval uated definitions of leadersh ip from different theoretical perspectives. According to Burns (1978), leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth. Researchers have investigated aspects of leadership in order to try and determine what makes a lead er, how he or she came about being a leader, and what traits a leader possesses. Chemers (1993) defined leadership as a process of social influence, and effective leadership as the successful application of th e influence to mission accomplishment. When a leader is able to get others to attain goals of the organization, in Chemerss view,

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15 he or she is effective. Chemers suggested th at the effective leader is able to get the followers to perform desired j ob tasks or outcomes. Chemers s leader is able to do this while being consistent with policies, pro cedures, and conditions of the organizational policy. An approach to establishing the characteristi cs of the effective leader can take on a sociological perspective (Fiedler & Garcia, 1987). Fiedler and Garcias main concern was with the success of the group and the ta sk that has been a ssigned. While many scholars assume there is one best style of leadership, Fiedler and Garcias contingency model proposed that the leaders success is based on the situ ation where he or she must demonstrate his or her leadership skills. Fiedler and Garcias work believes that leadership is a system of in teractions that takes place be tween a leader and work group. According to Fiedler and Garcia, this system of interaction is de monstrated through the actions of the leader. They measured the le aders skills and characteristics by what they call the least preferred co-worke r (LPC) scale, which is an instrument used for measuring an individuals leadership orientation. The LPC scale takes what a leader thinks of all the persons with whom he or she has ever worke d, and then asks the leader to describe the one person with whom he or she has worked th e least well. The instrument then asks the leader to rate this person on a scale of 1 th rough 8. The leader is asked to describe this person through a series questions and then is scored by their responses. Fiedler and Garcias research led to building a case for showing a strong re lationship between the leader and the followers interaction. Krech and Crutchfield (1948) maintained that by virtue of his [the leader] special position in the group, [the leader] serves as a primary agent for the determination of

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16 group structure, group atmosphere, group goals group ideology, and gr oup activities. Mendl (1990) suggested that gr oups display measures of eff ect leadership and that the more productive a group is, the more effective th e leadership is. The value of the leader is then measured by the productivity and satisfaction of the members of the group. Mendl differentiated between process measures of leadership, which are behaviors that leaders show or display. These outcomes do not have any true value within themselves; however, the result of the behavior to the gr oup is the important part. Alternatively, the group performance is the true m easure of the effective leader. Other researchers have defined leadership as having influence over others (Northouse, 2004). Some theorists believe that leadership is getting others to comply with the leaders desires. Still other theorists believe that leadership is an exercise or use of power (Schenk, 1928). As leadership becomes more refined over time, the term goal achievement has entered leadership discussions (Cowley, 1928; Bellows, 1959; Davis, 1962; Northouse, 2004). With these different concepts, the role of leaders and the definition of leadership have evolved ove r time. Even today, not a single, allencompassing definition of leadership can be agreed upon. As many definitions of leadership exist as there are researcher s and authors studyin g and writing about leadership. Researchers of leadership, as with all researchers, define the term to suit their need and purpose at that particular time. It is important to realize that leadership has essential elements. These elements include (Rost, 1991): A relationship based on influence; Leaders and followers are the pe ople in this relationship; Leaders and followers intend real changes; and Leaders and followers develop mutual purposes.

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17 An influencing relationship can take several forms. Bell (1975) defined influence as the process of using persuasion to have an impact on other people in a relationship. In order to persuade, a leader must use his or her reputation, personality, purpose, status, goals and aims, interpersonal and group sk ills, symbolic interaction, perception, motivation, gender, race, religion, al ong with many other talents. Leaders and followers are the second esse ntial elements in this definition of leadership. Followers in simple terms are those who are being led. The term followers has often been used synonymously with peopl e who are subordinate and not as intelligent as their leader. Followers have given up control and are unproduc tive unless directed by others. Recently, the opinion of th e followers has changed. The term followers has taken on a larger, more encompassing definition, and has been expanded to include all types of people from different groups a nd organizations, and at different times. In todays world, followers are not passive or submissive. It is easy to understand how a person in one situation might be a follower and in another situation that same person may be a leader. The third essential element in understanding leadership is that leaders and followers intend real change. Burns (1978) wrote, The leadership process must be define d, in short, as carrying through from decision-making stages to the point of conc rete changes in peoples lives, attitudes, behaviors, institutions. Leadership brings about real change that leaders intend. The test of leadership is purpose and intent, drawn fr om values and goals, of leaders, high and low, resulting in pol icy decisions and real, intended change. Within this element, the word intend expresses the notion that changes are intentional and purposeful. Leaders promote a change purposefully. The term real means the change that will occur is of some value to the leader or followers. It is important to realize that the ch ange may or may not occur, but the intent must have value.

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18 The final essential element of the definition of leadership is that leaders and followers must develop a mutual purpose. The idea of a purpose is different than the concept of a goal. Purposes are typically not specific. Purposes are broad and more encompassing. Purposes could be categori zed more as a future vision or a mission statement. The idea of a goal is typically considered as being very specific and measurable. Goals are not excluded from ones purpose, but in a leader-follower relationship, mutual goals are not requ ired where a mutual purpose exists. Types of Leaders In the late 19th century, leadership research focused on the mob or crowd leader. LeBon (1897) described the crowd l eader as: (1) the crow d-compeller inflames the followers with his or her point of view ; (2) the crowd-expone nt senses what the crowd desires and gives expression to it; and (3) the crowd-representative merely voices the already formed opinions of the crowd. As the turn of the century occurred B ogardus (1918) suggested four types of leaders: (1) the autocratic type who rises to office in a powerful organization; (2) the democratic type who represents the in terests of a group; (3 ) the executive type who is granted leadership because he is able to get things done; and (4) the reflective-intellectual type who may find it difficult to recruit a large following. Within these types of leaders, certain type s of leaders have arisen in our society. These leaders were designated as: (1) educational leaders; (2 ) student leaders; (3) public leaders; (4) legislative leaders; (5) transactional leaders; (6 ) transformational leaders; (7) opinion leaders; (8) small group leaders (Bass, 1981). But what do all these types of leaders have in common?

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19 Traits of Leaders Based on 15 different studies (Stogdilll, 1981), early research tried to attach specific leadership traits to highly effective leaders. These early 20th century studies had the following conclusions: The average person who occupies a positi on of leadership exceeds the average member of his group in the following respec ts: (1) intelligence; (2) scholarship; (3) dependability in exercising re sponsibilities; (4) activity and social participation; and (5) socioeconomic status. Factors that have been found which are sp ecific to well-defined groups, such as gangs and play groups, include athletic ability and prowess while intellectual fortitude and integrity emer ge as groups mature. The traits that showed th e highest overall correlation with leadership are originality, popularity, sociab ility, judgment, aggressive ness, desire to excel, humor, cooperativeness, livelin ess, and athletic ability. Researchers have tried to correlate leader ship with IQ, grades, age, height, and physical weight all with mixed results and c onclusions. No findings were conclusive. As leadership research continued through th e 1940s, the research tried to contradict the notion that suggested leaders, due to i nheritance or social advantage, possess the qualities and abilities that make them better leaders than the re st of their peers. Stogdill (1948) reviewed 124 trait studies and found l eaders could be characterized by several clusters of items. These traits repres ented or classified capacity, achievement, responsibility, participation and status. Stogdill also concluded that lead ers traits tend to differ with each situation in which they are required to make decisions. In a comparison of 52 studies between the 1950s and 1970s, the results concluded that leaders had the following driving motivations: A strong drive for responsibi lity and task completion; Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals; Venturesomeness and originality in problem-solving; Drive to exercise initiative in social situations;

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20 Self-confidence and sense of personal identity; Willingness to accept consequences of decision and actions; Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress; Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay; Ability to influence another persons behavior; and Capacity to structure social intera ction systems to the purpose at hand. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) reviewed the literature and identified and summarized the following list of traits of an effective leader: Drive (achievement, ambition, en ergy, tenacity, initiative); Leadership motivation (the desire to lead); Honesty and integrity; Self-confidence; Cognitive ability; and Knowledge of the business. Early studies, as well as current leadership studies, seem to agree that qualities, characteristics, and skills required in a lead er are determined to a large extent by the demands of the situation in which the leader is needed to function (Stogdill, 1981). The research suggests leadership is not a matter of status or mere possession or a combination of specific traits. Research suggests that e ffective leadership is the relationship between the members of the group and the leader. Th e leader acquires his or her status through active participation and demonstr ates his or her capacity for completion of tasks through ability and demonstration of abilities. During the 1980s, leadership studies devel oped a list of traits believed to enhance effective leadership. These traits include high energy, trustworthiness, charismatic persona, visionary purpose, honest communicati on, and obsession with goals which assist the leader in using the corre ct behavior that the situat ion demands. Depending on the situation, leadership would allow the correct behavior, such as chal lenging the process,

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21 modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, en abling others to act, and encouraging the heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Leadership Styles Leadership styles are based on personality styles, personal traits, and effectiveness, as well as other behaviors, traits, and char acteristics. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) outlined six styles of leadership in their book, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. The authors offer the following six styles of leadership: The Visionary Leader. This person works to move people toward a shared vision, but allows them to find their own path to th at goal. This type of leader is good for moving a company forward in a particular direction, and makes a strong impact on the environment of the company. The Coaching Leader. This leader works closely with people to find their strengths and weaknesses and tie these traits into thei r plans and actions. He or she delegates assignments, achievements or goals ar e accomplished because of loyalty. The Affiliative Leader. The affiliative leader connects with people and keeps peace within the team. This collaborative style pa ys attention to emotional needs, not just work needs, and usually has a positive at titude, helping people through stressful situations. The Democratic Leader. This type of leader wants input from others and participation from them hoping to get ever yone on board with id eas and to garner support for actions. The Pace-setting Leader. This person likes challenges and goals; putting pressure on others is a way of keeping up with the task at hand. This hands-off style works best for the short term. The Commanding Leader. This type of person is often seen as cold and distant, but works by giving good directions and exp ecting and receivi ng cooperation from others. He or she is committed and confident and is rarely questioned. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee believed that these six different leadership styles influence the working climate and can a ffect results of the organization. There are many styles of leadership. Depending on the leadership style, the followers will relate to the leader differently in regard to the legitimacy and expectations

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22 of the leader. As the study of leadership ha s evolved, two distinctly different but related leadership concepts of leadership styles have become popular. These two concepts of leadership styles founded on Burnss (1978) wo rk are transactional and transformational leadership. Transformational and Transa ctional Leadership Styles Burnss (1978) work drew from earlier re search in which leadership scholars deemed leadership as a relationship of mu tual stimulation built on the characteristics, attitudes, and needs of both l eaders and followers. These scho lars felt that the purpose and structure of the organization, the nature of the work, and the social, economic and political nature of the organization were al l important (Hare, Bo rgatta, & Bales, 1955; McGregor, 1960). Later scholars (Avolio & Bass, 1988; Bass, 1985; Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Rost, 1991) refine d the definitions of transformational and transactional leadership styles. A transactional leader views the leader-fo llower relationship as a process of giveand-take. The transactional leader makes an exchange with the followers, and her or she gets compliance by rewarding performan ce and threatening punishment for nonperformance. Transactional le aders tend to use compliance mandates in an attempt to get an intrinsic motivation factor. The transactional leadership is seen as a trading of benefits between leaders and followers (Wolverton et al., 2001). In direct contrast, the transformational le ader is more vision ary and inspirational toward his or her followers. Transforming l eadership is seen as the mobilization of others to act in a manner that is morally s uperior to what might otherwise be the case (Wolverton et al., 2001). The transformationa l leader communicates a clear vision and goal his or her followers can relate to and identify with. The transformational leader

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23 usually tends to create intens e emotions among his or her followers. The transformational leader is able to tap into the self-concept and goal identification in order to motivate the followers. Instead of using rewards and punishments for performance or lack of performance, the transformational leader work s to instill ownership into the group. This group ownership is often accomplished by invol ving the followers in the decision-making process. The goal of the transformational leader is to get the followers to perform due to internal control and self-motivation factors, instead of external motivators. One of the benefits of having followers intrinsically motivated is that the need to monitor a followers actions is greatly reduced. Scho ll (2002) explained that transformational leaders are capable of promoting the change from external motivation to internal motivation by: Linking desired outcomes to values held by followers; Creating employee ownership in outcomes so that positive outcomes validate the self-concept of followers; and Building strong follower identification with/within the group or organization. Burns (1978) referred to transformationa l leadership as being the ability for leaders and followers to raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. Transformational leadership is considered to promote extreme devotion and increase effort among the followers. An examination of transformational le aders found that they were highly charismatic excellent communicator s. Additionally, transformational leaders showed caring personalities, considerati on of followers, and a genuine sense of sensitivity to the followers wishes and desires (Howell & Costley, 2006). The success of transactional leadership is based on the willingness of the followers to be directed by the leader. The success of transformational leadership is based on the

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24 groups collective belief that wh at is better for the group will be better for the individual (Mintzberg, 1998). Current studies on transactional and transf ormational leadership suggest effective and successful leaders combine and use both transactional and transformational leadership to some degree (Bass, 1998). Bass stated the best leaders are both transformational and transactional, but they are likely to be more transformational and less transactional than poorer leaders. Leadership Theories As with the issue of defining leadership, researchers have deba ted on the different approaches of leadership theory. Some schol ars believe leaders are born with leadership traits and leadership traits ar e difficult to learn. Stogdill (1974), Yukl (1989), and Bass (1990) described leadership in terms of behavi ors. The theory of leadership offered by Fiedler (1967) Hershey and Blanchard, (1988) vi ewed leadership as more of a situation and how the leader responds to that particul ar situation. In its simplest of terms, situational leaders are ones w ho adopt a particular leadership style based on the situation they are facing. Blake and Mouton (1989) approached leader ship as believing ther e is a one best way of leading. Early sociolog ical theorists posited that th e use of power, authority, and control gave the leader his or her ability to lead the group (Burns, 1978). However, other researchers suggested leadership and effectiv e leaders are on a continuum of transactional leadership and transformational leader ship (Burns, 1978; Bennis & Nannus, 1985; Kouzes & Posner, 1990; Deal & Peterson, 1990). The research in leadership theory suggests most theories can be separated into four major categories: (1) Trait Theories; (2) Behavioral Theories; (3) Contingency Theories;

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25 and (4) Transformational Theories. Rost ( 1991) quickly pointed out that none of these theories should be used in isolation. Rost explained how all leadership theories have some common elements. He stated that the va rious leadership theories are not discrete and distinct conceptual frameworks, but are grounded on similar assumptions. Trait Theories The Great Man Theory Great Man theorists believe leadership and the capability to lead ar e inherited traits. Great Man theorists state prominent leaders fr om the past have included men and women who had inborn talents to become leaders. Th ese theorists believe great leaders are born; they are not made. Leaders such as Wi nston Churchill, Vladimir Lenin, John F. Kennedy, Joseph Stalin, Lee Iacocca, and Friedr ich Nietzsche have be en greatly studied. Many theorists believe these men were born to be leaders. Leadership Traits Theory Leaders who have particular qualities, wh ich separate them from other individuals, are the premise of the Trait Theory of leadership. Trait leaders have specific characteristics of their personality and charac ter distinguishing them as leaders (Stogdill, 1948). Studies attempting to iden tify traits of leaders have come to no consensus as to the mandatory traits that leaders must have in order to be successful Variables included in these trait studies have included: IQ; gr ades; age; height; weight; gender; physique; energy; health; appearance; fluency of speech; scholarship; knowledge; judgment and decision-making ability; insight; originality ; adaptability; introversion-extroversion; dominance; initiative; persiste nce; ambition; responsibility; in tegrity and conviction; selfconfidence; mood control or mood optimism; emotional control; social and economic

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26 status; social activity and mobility; biosocial ac tivity; social skills; popularity or prestige; and cooperation (Stogdill, 1948). The average person who occupies a position of leadership exceeds in the leadership traits of: intelligence; schol arship; dependability in exercisi ng responsibilities; activity and social participation; and socioeconomic status. It was also determined that the average person who has or plays a leadership role exceeds the average member of his group to a certain degree in: so ciability; initia tive; persistence; knowi ng how to get things done; self-confidence; alertne ss to and insight into s ituations; cooperativeness; popularity; adaptability and ve rbal ability (Mann, 1959). Traits with the highest correlation with l eadership included: originality; popularity; sociability; judgmen t; aggressiveness; desire to excel; humor; cooperativeness and liveliness. Age, height, weight, physique energy, appearance, dominance, and mood control were found to have little corre lation with leadership (Bass, 1981). During a study of North American organi zations and leaders, John Gardner (1989) identified common attributes generally possesse d by leaders that allowed a leader in one situation to be successful in an other. These traits included: Physical vitality and stamina; Intelligence and action-oriented judgment; Eagerness to accept responsibility; Task competence; Understanding of followers and their needs; Skill in dealing with people; Need for achievement; Capacity to motivate people; Courage and resolution; Trustworthiness; Decisiveness; Self-confidence; Assertiveness; and Adaptability/flexibility.

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27 Early researchers of trait leadership c oncluded there were specific traits or characteristics making a leader successful i ndependent of the situ ation. These early theorists asked the question: What happened if a leader exhibited some traits and not others? While trait theorists tried to answer th is question, other leadership scholars examined leaders behaviors. During the 1950s and 1960s, a shift took place in how the study of leadership was approached. Studies focused more on leaders behaviors instead of leaders traits. This led to Behavioral Leadership theories. Behavioral Theories Using specific patterns and decision-making characteristics in all situations is the premise of Behavioral Leadership theories One of the most well-known studies of leadership behavior is a st udy conducted at Ohio State Un iversity in the 1950s. The study measured 12 subscales of a leaders beha vior and determined how often the leader exhibited each leadership behavior. This resear ch was not meant to be evaluative or to be used for assessment purposes. This study was m eant to describe a leaders behavior. The 12 subscales measured: 1. Representation speaks or acts for the group; 2. Demand Reconciliation reconciles conflic ting demands and reduces disorder to the system; 3. Tolerance of Uncertainty is able to tolerate uncertai nty and postponement without anxiety or upset; 4. Persuasiveness uses persuasion and ar gument effectively; strong convictions; 5. Initiation of Structure clearly defines ow n role, and lets followers know what is expected; 6. Tolerance of Freedom allows followe rs scope for initiation and action; 7. Role Assumption actively exercises the l eadership role rather than surrendering leadership to others; 8. Consideration regards the comfort, we ll-being, status and contributions of followers; 9. Production Emphasis applies pres sure for productive output; 10. Predictive Accuracy exhibits foresight a nd ability to predict outcome accurately;

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28 11. Integration maintains a closely knit orga nization; resolves member conflicts; and 12. Superior Orientation maintains cordial relations with superiors; has influence with them; is striving for higher status. The Ohio State University study, as well as a similar study conducted at Michigan State University, found leaders to be employee-(follo wer) centered or job-(task) centered. The Managerial Grid (Blake & Mouton, 1964) denotes five behavior types or styles that leaders possess. These five styles in clude: (1) the impoverishe d style; (2) country club style; (3) produce or perish style; (4) middle of the road style; and (5) team style. The impoverished-style of leadership shows a low concern for both people and production or accomplishment of the task. Leader s use this style to avoid getting into trouble. The main concern for the leader is no t to be held responsible for any errors or mistakes. The country club-style leader shows a hi gh concern for people and a low concern for accomplishment of the task. Leaders using th is style of leadership pay attention to the security and comfort of the employees. The country club-style leader hopes his or her followers will increase performance and task accomplishment while still maintaining a friendly atmosphere. Productivity is often not as high as the leader might hope. Leaders who exhibit more concern for pr oduction and less concern for people are exhibiting the produce or perish -style of leadership. L eaders using this style of leadership find followers needs of little impor tance. Leaders exchange a reward for an expected performance. Leaders using this style also regulate their followers through rewards and punishments to achieve goals. The middle-of-the-road style of leadership is evident in leaders who try to balance goals and followers needs. These leaders s how concern for the people they are leading

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29 and appreciation for task accomplishment. Leaders using this style hope to achieve acceptable performance from their followers, as well as taking care of their followers. The team-style leader is concerned a bout the follower and production or task accomplishment. This type of leader encourages teamwork and commitment among followers. This method of leadership relies heavily on making followers feel as though they are a constructive part of the organization or team. The Ohio State University and Michigan State University studies, as well as Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid, have four ideas in common. These four styles of leadership include: 1. Concern for the task The leader em phasizes the achievement of concrete objectives. The leader looks for high levels of productivity, and ways to organize people and activities in order to meet those objectives. 2. Concern for people The leader looks upon hi s or her followers as people their needs, interests, problems, development, etc. Followers are not simply units of production or means to an end. 3. Directive leadership This style of lead ership is characterized by leaders taking decisions for others and expecti ng followers to follow instructions. 4. Participative leadership These leaders tr y to share decision-making with others. (Wright, 1996) Many behavioral studies faile d to take into account the situation in which the leadership style was being used. These studies failed to examine how leaders adapt to the workers and the environment in which they are working. Expectancy Theory A leader who uses action, in teraction, and sentiments dur ing his or her dealings with his or her followers is displaying charac teristics of expectancy theory. Expectancy theory states leaders take action and increase the interaction between themselves and their followers. This increase in interaction leads to higher sentiments of mutual liking and the

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30 clearer definition of group goa ls and norms. It is this interaction that defines the expectancy theory. According to Stogdill (1959 ), different aspects of expectancy theory should be closely examined. Stogdill maintain ed that as the leader interacts with the group and is encouraged by the group, he or she will be more likely to continue to function as the leader. With this increased expectation of group in teraction, the leader will continue to perform the function of the leader. Bass (1960) discussed the reinforced change theory: the effort of one member to change the motivation and understanding of ot her members or to change the group or followers behavior. This theory is a cons truct of the expectancy theory. Bass argued that the emergence of leader ship and what would promote effectiveness as a leader depended on the interaction poten tial of the situation and th e physical, psychological, and social distance among individuals. Humanistic Theories The notion that people are lazy and resi stant to organizational needs is the foundation of Theory X. Theory Y is based on the assumption that people are motivated, desire responsibility, and look to fulfill or ganizational goals and objectives (McGregor, 1966). Likert (1967) believed l eadership is the process where a leader needs to take into account the expectations, values, and interpersona l skills of those with whom he or she is interacting. Likert explained that leaders need to exhibi t behaviors of organizational processes that followers believe are supportive of their efforts and their sense of personal worth. Followers want and need to be i nvolved in making decisions affecting their welfare and their work. Huma nistic leaders will use thei r abilities to further task performance and their followers personal welfare. Leaders work to build group cohesiveness and motivate followers to incr ease productivity. If leaders allow their

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31 followers to exhibit their own freedom in ma king decisions that affect their welfare and working conditions, then task accomplishm ent and productivity are increased. Exchange Theory Leader Member Exchange Theory posits a strong relationship between superiors and their subordinates. This relationships influence and ob ligation lead to how tasks are implemented and completed. By building these relationships, the exchange theory suggests resulting positive outcomes. These pos itive outcomes are in the form of low follower turnover, high production, high self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. Authoritarian Leadership In many instances, leadership is confused with having authority. Heifetz (1994) explained that individuals are assumed to be leaders because they have been placed in a position of authority or have been given pow er in a formal role. These leaders are followed because the followers often fear consequences if they do not follow orders. Authoritarian leaders can often fall into the ex change category of leadership. The leader needs to perform well and meet the followers expectations or he or she risks the possibility of being removed as the leader. Charismatic Leadership Charisma is often viewed as a person s skills, personality, and presence. Personality characteristics of a charismatic leader include being dominant, having a strong desire to influence others, being confid ent with his or her sk ills, and having strong values. Behaviors that are in dicative of such a leader incl ude being a strong role model, continually showing competence, having the abili ty to articulate goals, having continual communication of high expectations of fo llowers, and having the ability to arouse individuals motives (Northouse, 2004). Follo wers of a charismatic leader will respond

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32 by trusting the leaders ideology, unquestioni ngly accepting what the leader is promoting, and showing affection to the leader. Followe rs have a high level of confidence in the leader and are able to identify with the leader. At the same time, followers become emotionally involved with the project or tas k. This relationship between the leader and followers leads to heightened goal setting. Situational Theories Situational leadership is the ability of th e leader to bring his or her expertise and pertinent information to promote a positive out come when making a leadership decision. Leaders draw conclusions and implications in order to generate solutions based on information gathered in each situation. As the study of leadership evolved, researchers began to look at the situation, environment, and/or context in which the leader was performing. The premise of situ ational leadership is that particular forms or certain forms of leadership will be prevalent in par ticular situations. Situational leaders are capable of using different l eadership behaviors in diffe rent ways, dependent upon the situation. Some persons become leaders because of their formal position within an organization (Northouse, 2004). French a nd Raven (1959) conceptualized that the relationship between the leader and the fo llowers was manipulated by the degree and amount of power and influence the leader had over the followers. French and Raven identified five different type s of power exhibited by the lead er: (1) reward; (2) coercive; (3) legitimate; (4) referent; and (5) expert. 1. Reward power the ability of one individual to facilitate the attainment of desired outcomes by others. The more valuable th e rewards a leader could provide, the more closely this ability was related to leadership.

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33 2. Coercive power The ability to impose penalties for noncompliance. Typically, coercive power uses threats and punishment to obtain results. 3. Legitimate power Legitimate power is given to the leader based on the norms and expectations held by group members rega rding behaviors appr opriate in a given role or position. The legitimate leader is selected by the group. 4. Referent power Followers comply because they admire or identify with the leader and want to gain the leaders approval. 5. Expert power Followers believe the leader has special knowledge in regard to the best way to achieve the task or goal. Stogdill (1948) determined leaders not only have certain traits, but when analyzing leaders and leadership, the situations in which leaders are performing must also be examined. Stogdills findings led to a c ontingency approach to leadership. Contingency theorists conclude there is no one single approach to leadership that works best all the time or that all leadership theori es are equal in effectiveness (Bensimon et al., 1989). Fiedler and Garcia (1987) formulated thr ee important aspects as to how leaders and the situation interact with one anot her. These three factors include: 1. The relationship between the leaders a nd followers: If leaders are liked and respected, they are more likely to have the support of others. 2. The structure of the task: If the task is clearly spelled out as to goals, methods, and standards of performance, then it is more likely that leaders will be able to exert influence. 3. Position power: If an organization or gr oup confers powers on the leader for the purpose of getting the job done, then this will increase th e influence of the leader. After considering Stogdills theory of Situational leadership, Gerth and Mills (1952) developed the following four criteria to consider when determining a leaders capabilities: 1. The traits and motives of the leader as a person; 2. The image the public holds of his or he r and their motives for following them;

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34 3. The features of the role that he or she plays as a leader; and 4. The institutional context in which he or she and his or her followers may be involved. Bass (1960) explained the Great Man theory was lacking the situation in which the leader was performing. Bass believed the outco me of leadership is due not only to the leaders certain characteristics, but also the s ituation in which the le ader is responding. Hersey and Blanchard (1977) developed a l eadership theory that falls into the category of situational leader ship. Their leadership theo ry involves four different leadership styles used by leaders, dependi ng on the situation the l eader was presented. Hersey and Blanchards theory included lead ers who were telling, se lling, participating, or delegating in their leadership style. The telling leader is one who concentrates more specifically on the task needed to be accomplished and less on building relationships with his or her followers. This leader typically gives a lot of direction and specific in formation to his or her subordinates. This type of leader is concerned with defining ro les of each team member and the goals of the team. Extremely repetitive work or under-pre ssure work completion works well with this type of leadership. Followers are deemed by the telling leader as unable or unwilling to do a good job without being told specifically what to do. The selling leader works to achieve hi gh-task accomplishment and a high/strong relationship between himself and his followers This leader works to get the team members to buy into the groups tasks and goa ls. People often consider this type of leader to be a coaching leader. Participating leadership is having the leader and his or her followers work together to make decisions and share in the decision-making process. This form of leadership

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35 entails more relationship building and less c oncern for making decisions from the top. This type of leadership allows the followers to make decisions about the immediate task. Leaders with a delegating style of le adership do not worry about building relationships with followers. The leader iden tifies followers and then assigns or issues them tasks to be completed. This form of l eadership requires the leader to understand the capabilities of the followers. The leader has faith that the followers will be capable of completing the task, and he or she allows the followers to go for it without interference. Path-goal Theory House and Dessler (1974) developed th eir Path-goal Theory which focused on follower motivation. Their theory examined factors that motivate people to accomplish a given task. House and Dessler used expectan cy theory research to examine how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Their Path-goal Theory focused on three motivating factors: 1. Offering rewards for achieving goals; 2. Clarifying paths toward the goal; and 3. Removing obstacles standing in the way of achieving the goal. House and Desslers Path-goal Theory also generalized four leadership behaviors that effective leaders exhibited. The effective leader is: 1. Directive gives specific guida nce of performance desired; 2. Achievement-oriented sets high goals and expectations; 3. Supportive friendly and shows concern; and 4. Participative consults followers and considers their perspective. House and Dessler suggested these lead ership behaviors are exhibited under different situations and could be influenced by situational va riables, including personal characteristics and environmental characteristics. The Path-goal Theory believes these four leadership behaviors lead to higher qua lity results, better worker attitudes, and

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36 acceptance of the leader. The Path-goal Theory suggests a leaders behavior motivates or satisfies followers if the behavior increases the attractiveness of goals and increases followers confidence in achieving them. The Path-goal Theory continues on the premise that the effective leader helps followers achieve goals by coaching, guiding, encouraging, motivating, and rewarding followers for thei r efforts and achievements (House, 1996). Transformational Leadership Theory The Transformational Leadership Theory is often associated with charismatic leadership, which is a reflection of the leade rs personal skills, personality, and presence. Some of the personality characteristics of a charismatic leader include being dominant, having a strong desire to infl uence others, being confident with his or her skills, and having strong values. Behaviors that are i ndicative of such a leader include being a strong role model, continually showing competen ce, having the ability to articulate goals, having continual communication of high expect ations of followers, and having the ability to arouse individuals motives (Northouse, 2004). Using these characteristics, the leader influences followers to adopt the goals, vision, mission, or sense of purpose of the organization for the good of the group (Howell & Costley, 2006). Transformational leadership involves four components: (1) idealized influence; (attributed and behavioral); (2 ) inspirational motivation; (3) individualized consideration; and (4) intellectual stimulat ion (Howell & Costley, 2006; Bass, 1997; Avolio et al., 1991). 1. Idealized influence Attributed: the soci al charisma of the leader, focusing on whether or not the leader is perceived as competent, self-confident, and committed to higher-order ideals and ethics. Behavior al: the actions of the leader related to values, beliefs, and mission.

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37 2. Inspirational motivation leaders behaviors, incl uding articulating appealing visions, focusing followers efforts, and m odeling appropriate beha viors to energize followers. 3. Intellectual stimulation behaviors exhibited by the leader that assist the followers to view problems and issues they face from a new perspective. 4. Individualized consideration the ability of the leader to be supportive and to show concern for his or her followers needs and well-being. Giving encouragement and compliments to improve the followers se lf-confidence falls into this component. 5. Transformational leadership is concer ned with followers and group results. Emotions by the leader and followers cl early influence results and performance (Howell & Costley, 2006). Transformational leadership will get followers to identify with the values and beliefs of the leader, group, and organization. Followers of transactional leadership have increased self-efficacy and have developed better critical thinking skills ; they exert extra effort for task performance. Additionally, these individuals typically work more cohesively in a group (Howell & Costley, 2006). The four characteristics that Avolio a nd Bass identified as stimulating and engaging followers, known as the four Is, were further defined by Avolio, Waldman, and Yammarino (1991). The four I's of Avolio and Basss (1997) model of transformational leadership include: Individualized Consideration gives personal attention to others, making each individual feel uniquely valued. 1. Intellectual Stimulation actively encourages a new look at old methods, stimulates creativity, encour ages others to look at pr oblems and issues in a new way. 2. Inspirational Motivation increases op timism and enthusiasm, communicates high expectations, and points out possibi lities not previously considered. 3. Idealized Influence provides vision and a sense of purpose; elicits respect, trust, and confidence from followers. Transformational leaders engage followers by usi ng one or more of the four "I's" in their leadership techniques. A leader who shows idealized influence characteristics is the one who can be trusted, admired, and respected. The needs and desires of the fo llowers are at the

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38 forefront of the leaders cons ideration. Idealized attributes include: setting the example; going beyond self interests for the good of the common goal; building and maintaining respect; sharing highly id ealized standards, instilling prid e in others and sharing a sense of confidence and power with the followers. The idealized leader wi ll talk about his or her beliefs and value system. The idealized le ader is very concerned with the ethical and moral consequences of his or her actions. Inspirational motivation is the ability to bring meaning and challenge to the work process. The inspirational motivator is able to get his or her followe rs to think about the future and its possibilities. Vision, enthus iasm, foresight about goals and mission, and the ability to express these with the followers are all behaviors char acteristically shown by an inspirational motivator. This leader will work to motivate and inspire his or her followers to obtain superior results. Thinking, problem-sol ving, and looking at problems from different angles are encouraged (Avolio & Bass, 2002). A leader may use intellectual stimulation to en courage creativity and innovative thinking. The leader who tries to create a safe and pleasant environm ent in which followers feel comfortable in sharing new ideas is high in the intellectual st imulation leadership technique. This type of leader will often surround himself with ot hers who work well toge ther as a team. Leaders who act as mentors, teachers, and coaches, and who pay attention to the needs of each person in order to be self-ful filled in a safe, supportive climate, use the technique termed individualized consideration Individualized consideration means understanding and sharing in other persons concerns and developmental needs and treating each individual uni quely (Avolio & Bass, 2004). This technique matches the abilities of the followers with the task needed completed.

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39 Measuring Leadership Styles The Multifactor Leadership Questionna ire (MLQ) is based on the Full Range Leadership Model developed by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio (1997). The questionnaire is a short and comprehensive su rvey of 45 items that measures a full range of leadership styles. The leader/manager and his or her followers complete the questionnaire. Completing the questionnaire t ypically takes about 15 minutes. It is strongly predictive of leader performance acr oss a broad range of organizations (Bass, 1997). The MLQ measures leadership styl es, and designates be haviors ranging from transactional leadership to transformational leadership, including lais sez-faire leadership. The MLQ measures individual leadership styles as being transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire as well as sc ales of leadership. The MLQ was utilized to measure elements or scales of transforma tional and transactional leadership of the academic program leader. The MLQ measures char acteristics of the behaviors of leaders. These characteristics include: Individualized Consideration; Intellectual Stimulation; Inspirational Motivation; Idealized Influe nce (attributed); and Idealized Influence (behavior) associated with Transformational Leadership; Contingent Reward; and Management by Exception (active); associ ated with Transactional Leadership; Management-by-Exception (passive); which is a method of leadersh ip associated with either solving or preventing pr oblems; and laissez-faire; an inactive form of leadership characterized by a reluctance to become actively involved and a view that the best leadership is to disassociate from the acti on known as laissez-faire leadership. The MLQ also measures leadership outcomes. L eadership outcomes include: Extra Effort, Effectiveness, and Satisfaction.

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40 Contingent Reward and Management-by-Ex ception (active) make up transactional leadership style. Contingent Reward is how the leader and followers exchange specific rewards for outcomes or results. Goals and objectives are agreed upon by both the leader and followers and the achievement is reward ed or punished. Management-by-Exception (active) is when a leader makes corrective cr iticisms or uses negative reinforcement. This leadership behavior monitors followers closely so they can point out mistakes and errors. Laissez-faire leadership has the scales of Management-by-Exception (passive) and laissez-faire leadership. In this leadersh ip style, the leader uses Management-byException (passive), which is only interven ing when goals have not been met or a problem arises. Laissez-faire behaviors ar e ones that delay de cisions and give up responsibility. Laissez-faire leaders offer no feedback or support to the follower. Laissez-faire leadership is a hands-off approach to leadership (Northouse, 2001). The following seven leadership scale scores measured by the MLQ represent transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire leadership: 1. Individualized Consideration associat ed with transformational leadership 2. Intellectual Stimulation associated with transformational leadership 3. Inspirational Motivation associated with transformational leadership 4. Idealized Influence associated with transformational leadership 5. Contingent Reward associated with transactional leadership 6. Management-by-Exception associated with transactional leadership, a method of leadership associated with eith er solving or preventing problems 7. Laissez-faire an inactive form of leadership characterized by a reluctance to become actively involved and a view that th e best leadership is to disassociate from the action

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41 The MLQ measures a leaders degree of possessing Contingent Reward leadership attributes: Leaders engage in a constructi ve path to goal transaction and exchange rewards for performance. These leaders cl arify expectations, ex change promises and resources, arrange mutually satisfactory agre ements, negotiate for resources, exchange assistance for effort, and provide commendati ons for successful follower performance. Leaders with Management-by-Exception with active behaviors have characteristics of monitoring followers' performances and taking co rrective action if devi ations from the set standards occur. These leaders enforce ru les to avoid mistakes. The Management-byException leader with a passi ve behavior would not interv ene until problems become serious. The Management-by-Exception lead er (passive) waits to take action until mistakes are brought to his or her attention. Laissez-faire leadership is also measured by the MLQ. Laissez-faire leadership is also termed a non-leadership style. Th e laissez-faire leader avoids accepting responsibilities, is absent wh en needed, fails to follow up on requests for assistance, and resists expressing his or her vi ews on important issues. The laissez-faire leader gives the majority of control in the decision-making pro cess to the followers. With laissez-faire leadership, the leader assumes that followers are intrinsically motivated and should be left alone to accomplish tasks and goals. With laissez-faire leadership, the leader does not provide direc tion or guidance. Leadership Skills A skill is a trait that has been developed by way of training or experience (Gregory, 1987). The U.S. Army (1973) developed 10 leader ship skills to teach in order to become a more proficient and effective leader:

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42 1. Be technically proficient as a leader you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. 2. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your acti ons search for ways to guide your organization to ne w heights; and when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later do not blame others; anal yze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 3. Make sound and timely decisions us e good problem-solving, decision-making, and planning tools. 4. Set the example be a good role model for your employees; they must not only hear what they are expected to do, but al so see; we must become the change we want to see. Mahatma Gandhi 5. Know your people and look out for their well-being know human nature and the importance of sincerely car ing for your workers. 6. Keep your workers informed know how to communicate not only with them, but also seniors and other key people. 7. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 8. Ensure that tasks are understood, superv ised, and accomplished communication is the key to this responsibility. 9. Train as a team although many so-cal led leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team, they are not really teams they are just a group of people doing their jobs. 10. Use the full capabilities of your organization by developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, de partment, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities. Abilities, competencies, or skills are general human capacities related to the performance of tasks. They develop over ti me through the interaction of heredity and experience, and they are long la sting (Desimone et al., 2002). Clark (1999) categorized leadership skills and competencies into three groups. Clark suggested that these th ree groups formed the basic requirements for becoming a leader. The three groups consisted of Core or Essential Competencies, Leadership Competencies, and Professional Competencies.

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43 The Core or Essential Competencies gr oup consists of communication, teamwork, creative problem-solving, interpersonal, abil ity to manage client relationships, selfdirection, flexibility, the abil ity to build appropriate rela tionships, professionalism, and financial skills. These Core or Essential Compet encies are further defined as: Communication Skills the abil ity to express oneself eff ectively in both individual and group settings. The ability to comm unicate plans and activities in a manner that supports strategies for followers invol vement. The ability to actively listen to others. The ability to ex press written ideals clearly, using good grammatical form, and finally being able to comprehend wr itten material with little or no help. Teamwork Uses appropriate interpersonal style to steer team members toward the goal. Has the ability to allocate decisi on-making and other responsibilities to the appropriate individuals. Is able to or ganize resources to accomplish tasks with maximum efficiency. Has the ability to influence events to achieve goals beyond what was called for. Creative Problem-solving Identifies and collects information relevant to the problem or task. Uses brainstorming techniqu es to create a variety of choices. Has the ability to select the best course of action by identifying all the alternatives and then making a logical assumption. Interpersonal Skills Treats others with respect, trust, and dignity. Works well with others by being considerate of the n eeds and feelings of each individual. Has the ability to promote a productive cu lture by valuing individuals and their contributions. Manage Client Relationships Works eff ectively with both internal and external stakeholders. Gathers and analyzes f eedback to assist in decision-making. Self-Direction Establishes goals, deliverable s, timelines, and budgets with little or no motivation from superiors (self-motiva tion rather than passive acceptance). Assembles and leads teams to achieve established goals with deadlines. Flexibility Willingness to change to m eet organizational needs. Challenges established norms and makes hard, but correct decisions. Has the ability to adapt to stressful situations. Build appropriate relationships Networks with peers and associates to build a support base. Builds constructiv e and supportive relationships.

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44 Professionalism Sets the example. Stays current in terms of professional development. Contributes to and prom otes the development of the profession through active participat ion in the community. Financial Does not waste resources and looks for methods to improve processes that have a positive impact on the bottom line. These Core or Essential competencies are the foundation for leaders. Clarks (1999) next set of leadership sk ills consist of skills possessed by leaders that will take the organization to a higher, more successful level. Leadership Abilities Displays attributes that make people glad to follow. Provides a feeling of trust. Rallies th e troops and builds morale when the going gets tough. Visioning Process Applies effort to incr ease productiveness in areas needing the most improvement. Creates and set goal s and visions. Senses the environment by using personal sway to in fluence subordinates and peers. Gains commitment by influencing the team to set objectives and buy into the process. Reinforces change by embracing it. Create and Lead Teams Develops high pe rformance teams by establishing a spirit of cooperation and cohesion for achieving goa ls. Quickly takes teams out of the storming and norming phases and into the performing phase. Assess Situations Quickly and Accurately Takes charge when the situation demands it. Foster Conflict Resolutions (Win-Win) Effectively handles disagreements and conflicts. Settles disputes by focusing on solving the problems, without offending egos. Provides support and expertise to ot her leaders with re spect to managing people. Evaluates the feasibility of a lternative dispute resolution mechanisms. Project Management Tracks critical steps in projects to ensure they are completed on time. Identifies and reacts to the outside forces that might influence or alter the organization's goals. Establishes a course of action to accomplish a specific goal. Identifies, evaluates, and implements m easurement systems for current and future projects. Implement Employee Involvement Strategi es Develops owne rship by bringing employees in on the decision-making and planning process. Provides the means to enable employee success while maintaini ng the well-being of the organization. Develops processes to engage employees in achieving the objectives of the organization. Empowers employees by givi ng them the authority to get things accomplished in the most efficient and timely manner.

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45 Coach and Train Peers and Subordinates Recognizes that learning happens at every opportunity (treats mistakes as a lear ning event). Develops future leaders by being involved in the company-mentor ing program. Provides performance feedback, coaching, and caree r development to teams and individuals to maximize their probability of success. Ensure s leadership at every level by coaching employees to ensure the right things happe n. Ensures performance feedback is an integral part of the daily activities. The skills Clark (1999) suggested that are required to make the leader successful are termed Professional or Individual Skills These skills include a working knowledge of technical skills needed by the leader. Clar k explained these skills are different from one organization to the next a nd from one leadership position to the next. The leader must have a basic understanding of the system he or she is wo rking with in order to have control over it. Clark suggested the following sk ills that leaders need to be effective and successful: Business Acumen Reacts positively to key developments in area of expertise that may affect his or her business. Leads process improvement programs in all major systems falling under area of control. Technical Competency Completes tasks according to established standards. Understands and adheres to rules, regulations, and code of ethics. The Boy Scouts of America, which is th e largest youth organization in the United States, has been regarded as a premier lead ership organization. The Boy Scout program encourages boys to learn and pr actice leadership skills. U nderstanding the concepts of leadership helps a boy accept the leadership ro le from others and guides him toward the citizenship aim of Scouting (Boy Scouts of America National Council website). The 1981 edition of the Scoutmaster Handbook offers a list of leadership skills that the youth, as well as the leaders of the Boy Scouts organization, should develop. These leadership skills include: communication; knowi ng and using the resources of the group; understanding characteristics and needs of th e group; representing th e group; setting the

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46 example; planning; controlling group perf ormance; evaluating; effective teaching; sharing leadership; and counseling. The leadership skills promoted in the Scoutmaster Handbook are similar in content to those which Clark (1999) prescribed: Communicating As a leader, one must get and gi ve information. The leader must be able to do both of these well. Learn to take notes when there is a lot of detail. Ask questions after giving or receiving inst ructions. Get feedback to make sure the message gets through. Don't give orders; discuss things that are going to happen. Measure success in terms of the job getting done and the degree to which instructions are followed. Good co mmunication fosters good morale; poor communication can bring mumbling and dissent. Knowing and Using the Resources of the Group A leader has to depend on what the members of the group can do, as well as what the leader can do. In order to use these available resources, a leader must know what they are. Fi nd out what they are by observing, asking the members, as well as other leaders. When you are using the resources of the group, others will lead, and the program will not be the result of your ideas alone. Understanding Characteristics and Needs of the Group When this skill is used properly, a leader will give ot hers what they need to grow--not what the leader thinks they need. Each person has certain strengths and weaknesses. When a leader understands individual needs, everyone benefits. The lead er who applies this skill will meet the needs and desires of the followers. Representing the Group This skill is leadership in action. Success can be measured by each Scout feeling he has a pa rt in the decision-making process. Setting the Example What you are speak s louder than what you say. The old saying "Do as I say, not as I do" will not work. You will lose valuable influence if you do not live up to the standards that you recommend or the ideals that you teach. People need a model to follow; their l eaders may be the only good examples they know. Planning The core of a successful program is planning. A successful program comes from planning. You cannot achieve Scouting's aims of building character, fostering citizenship, and devel oping fitness without good plans. Controlling Group Performance The purpos e of this skill is to control the performance of a group so that it will be successful in doing its job. Sometimes controlling group performance means you will have to stop behavior that negatively impacts the group, but everyone is happier if the group helps to control itself rather than depend on the le ader to do all the controlling.

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47 Evaluating Evaluating should be done both during and after every activity. Effective Teaching This is not a new method of teaching, Scouting has used it since 1910. The difference today is we do not assume that just because we have taught that Scouts have learne d. The proof lies in what th ey can DO. If they can do something, then you have successfully taught. The key is to actively involve the Scouts in the learning process by giving them choices as to what they can learn and by checking constantly to see what they have learned. Find out what they know, put them into a situation wher e they recognize the need to know, and then offer them the opportunity to learn. Place the emphasi s on the learner, not on the teacher. Sharing Leadership or Styles of Leadership With the responsibility of leadership goes trust. The effective leader must adjust his leadership style to fit the situation without giving up the responsibility for the welfare of the troop. The secret is to share the leadership. Allow everyone to jo in and share in the responsibility without giving up the role as a leader. Counseling A leader must be able to counsel Scouts in order to help them. Listening is the most important key to couns eling. Be careful not to give advice. Instead, use questions to help the indivi dual arrive at his own solution to the problem. Feel free to give factual inform ation but cautious about giving advice. A person grows if he is able to think problems through for himself. Be a facilitator, not a manipulator. Yates (2005) comprised a study of women in leadership positions in public educational facilities. Yates found through he r qualitative study the leadership skills leaders deemed most important. These leadership skills were: Communication skills The ability to liste n as well as to communicate verbally and in writing. A caring attitude The ability to get everyone to work t ogether for the benefit of the student (follower). The ability to car e about those who will be affected should drive the decision-making process. Honesty, Integrity, Truthfulne ss, and Respect Trust and respect must be earned through honesty and fairness--t he character of a person. Visionary A sense of purpose and vision. Having integrity, commitment, and the ability to recognize, appreciate, and develop skills of others to further the goals of the organization. People Skills The ability to successfully interact with others. Intelligence Being able to solve problems.

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48 Courage, Flexibility, and Experience Th e ability to think through a situation. Taking time to listen, gather information, and make an effective decision in order to solve problems. Organizational Skills Being able to handl e a multitude of tasks on a daily basis. Being organized and havi ng organizational skills. Sense of Humor Being able to put everyt hing into perspective and being able to deal with how others handle and react to different situations. Creating a Safe Environment The ability to make followers feel like they have the opportunity to take risks. Fourteen qualities or skills were name d by the Anderson Consulting Institute for Strategic Change (2000). The leadersh ip qualities or named skills include: 1. Creating a shared vision; 2. Ensuring customer satisfaction; 3. Living the values; 4. Building teamwork; 5. Being able to think globally; 6. Appreciating cultural diversity; 7. Empowering people; 8. Anticipating opportunity; 9. Achieving a competitive advantage; 10. Being able to embrace change; 11. Sharing leadership; 12. Demonstrating personal mastery; 13. Showing technical savvy; and 14. Encouraging constructive challenges. Maxwell (1999) listed 21 qualities that can be learned to encourage better leadership and leadership practices. Maxwell posited that leaders are effective because of

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49 whom they are on the inside, that is, their qualities. To go to the highest level of leadership, people have to develop these trai ts (skills) from the inside out. Maxwell examined best leaders and analyzed the characteristics of thes e leaders. Maxwell looked for common themes among his best leaders and leaders who have had a significant impact or left an impression on our history. Maxwell determined there were 21 qualities possessed by all great leaders and that these qualities can be learned and developed: 1. Character the essential nature of a pe rson: integrity, fortitude, or reputation. 2. Charisma the ability to draw people to you; 3. Commitment having convict ion; belief in a cause; 4. Communication the ability to share knowledge and ideas; the ability to simplify a message, understand people, show the truth, seek a response; 5. Competence qualifications to fulfill a task; 6. Courage the willingness to take risks; 7. Discernment the ability to discover the true issue or task, the ability to solve problems, and to evaluate opt ions and maximize opportunities; 8. Focus being able to set priorities an d then concentrate on those priorities; 9. Generosity giving to others; 10. Initiative looking for opportunities and being ready to take action; 11. Listening the ability to conn ect with people and to learn; 12. Passion desires, a fire for some thing; wanting something badly; 13. Positive Attitude having a positive outl ook on life; expecting the best of oneself and others; 14. Problem-solving being able to anticipate problems, finding out what others in the same situation have done, create possibl e solutions, and implement the best possible solution;

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50 15. Relationships the ability to work with people, relate with people, and have good interpersonal skills; 16. Responsibility reliable or accountable; th e ability to get the job done and willing to go the extra mile; driven by excellen ce and produce results regardless of the situation; 17. Security the ability to provide a secure environment for followers. The ability to believe in others; the building up of followers; 18. Self-discipline the ability to develop and follow priorities; 19. Servanthood an attitude toward servi ng others, not oneself; putting others ahead of oneself; initiating service to other. Do es not focus on rank or position; service motivated by love and concern for others; 20. Teachability the desire to continually learn; 21. Vision the ability to see and develop pl ans to meet other persons needs; the ability to gather resources that will assi st in meeting goals and task completion. Maxwell (1999) believed the de velopment of these traits, qua lities, skills, abilities, or competencies will maximize personal leadership potential and effectiveness. Kouzes and Posner (2002) developed five qualities or skills that should be continually developed fo r optimum leadership: 1. Modeling the Way find your voice by clar ifying your personal values; set the example by aligning actions with shared values; 2. Inspiring a Shared Vision envision the future by imagining exciting possibilities; enlist others in a common vision; 3. Challenging the Process search for oppor tunities by seeking ways to change and grow; experiment and take risks; 4. Enabling Others to Act foster collabor ation by promoting goals and building trust; strengthen others by sharing power; 5. Encouraging the Heart the ability to r ecognize contributions made by others; the ability to celebrate the values and vi ctories by creating a spirit of community.

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51 Followers desire these traits, qualities, or skills of their leaders (Kouzes and Posner, 2002). It is imperative that leaders work to increase their proficienc y in these areas if they truly desire to be more effective, successful leaders. Katz (1955) categorized leadership skills into three categories. These categories include: (1) technical skills; (2) human skills; and (3) conc eptual skills. From this researchers review of literature, it is easy to place the leadership tr aits, qualities, skills, abilities, or competencies mentioned in to one of these three categories. Leadership traits, qualities, skills, abilities, or competencies of effective, successful leaders show several commonalities. Effective, successful leaders exhibit planning skills. Leaders who have the ability to identify causes, restrictions, and cons equences of actions and who tend to show higher performance and task accomplishment rates are deemed successful. The literature reveals that leader ship qualities, traits, skills, abilities, or competencies can be classified into one of the following categories: Communication skills; Human skills; Technical skills; Conceptual skills; Emotional Intelligence skills; and Industry Knowledge skills. Leadership Skills Can Be Learned Katz (1955) and Nahavandi ( 2000) supported the premise th at leadership skills can be learned. Goleman (1998) supported the idea that leadership skills can be developed over time. His research reported emoti onal intelligence increases with age and experience. Schreiber and Shannon (2001) believed it is imperative to recognize individuals with certain leadership traits and in fuse their career with specifically designed

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52 training experiences. They believed that leadership development is a life-long endeavor. Educational institutions believe leadership skills can be taugh t. More than 800 (leadership) programs are lo cated across American campuses today (DiPaolo, 2002). Some leadership theorists have concluded that leadership skills ar e developed throughout ones career (Mumford et al., 2002). A lead ers skills develop with education, training, and work experience (Howell & Costley, 2006). Howell and Costly has stated that improving your leadership skills takes persis tence and self-discipline to put forth the long-term effort needed for lasting change. Kouzes and Posner (2002) concluded that leadership is not a place, its no t a gene, and its not a secret code that cant be deciphered by ordinary people. Kouzes and Posner stated that leadership is an observable set of skills and abilities, and any skill can be strengthened, honed, and enhanced, given the motivation and desire, the pr actice and feedback, and the role models and coaching. Bennis and Nanus (1985) agreed that leader ship capacity and competencies can be learned. They asserted that all people have some natural leadership abilities and that these abilities can be enhanced. These fi ndings would appear to be supported by the number of books, magazines, journals, and ot her material dedicated to the promotion of leadership and leadership skill acquisition. For example, a quick Google search listed about 490,000,000 results, indicating there were more results that could be listed. Yahoo listed about 6,200, 000 results of only journal articles on leadership. In addition, Yahoo listed, about 38,400,000 books relate d to leadership. Leadership is a popular subject. It appears that many individuals are interest ed in leadership and how to become a better leader.

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53 Land-grant Universities Land-grant universities were establishe d by Congress or a pa rticular states legislature to provide res ources and funding set forth by the Morrill acts of 1862 and 1890. The original mission of the land-grant institutions was to teach agriculture, military tactics, and mechanical arts, as well as classical studies, so that members of the working classes could obtain a liberal practical education (NASULGC, 2006). The Morrill Act of 1862 established land-gr ant institutions due to the increased demand for agricultural and technical educa tion in the United States. Since higher education was unavailable to many agriculture and industrial worker s, the Morrill Act of 1862 was intended to provide a broad segm ent of the population with a practical education that had direct releva nce to daily lives (NASULGC, 2006). Currently, land-grant institutions are located in every state and territory of the United States, including the Dist rict of Columbia. Several states have more than one land-grant institution. Additional institutions were established in some states as a product of the second Morrill Act of 1890, which manda ted African-Americans access to higher education facilities. Additionally, four la nd-grant universities are located outside the United States: in Micronesia, Northern Mari anas, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Twenty-nine tribal colleges were founded in 1994 and are also part of the land-gran t university system. The Hatch Act of 1887 and the Smith-Lev er Act of 1914 worked together to establish the land-grant three-part mission. Th is three-part mission of teaching, research, and extension is the founda tion for the current land-gra nt university mission. The extension aspect of the land-grant mission wa s intended to bridge the colleges teaching and research programming to the needs of the community.

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54 Colleges of Agricultural and Life Science at Land-grant Universities With the original intent of the land-grant colleges to be for education in the realm of agriculture, the land-grant universi ty grew and expanded around colleges of agriculture. Still today, the ma in focus of colleges of agricu ltural and life sciences is to support science and education re lated to agriculture, agriculture research, and agriculture technology transfer (National Academic Press, Colleges of Agricultu re at the Land Grant Universities). The commitment of land-grant colleges of agricult ure to higher education was in sharp contrast to the orientation of most of the nations academic institutions of the time (Meyer, 1995). Most higher education institutions emphasized philosophy, theology, law, medicine, and the classics. Each land-grant college deals with scienc es basic to agriculture and agriculture technology in three ways: teaching, research, and extension. First, colleges offer educational curriculum for undergraduates and graduate programs. Second, through scientific research, agricultural problems are solved. Third, each college of agriculture maintains extension personnel to disseminate in formation to the public. Most faculty in colleges of agriculture have some combina tion of responsibilities to include teaching, research, and/or extension. Today, less than 2% of all U.S. residents live on farms. The U.S. farm labor force is comprised of only 3% of U.S. citizens. Nearly 75% of U.S. citizens live in urban and suburban environments. The American pub lic is concerned with how agriculture production and processing activities interact w ith natural resources and the environment, rural communities, consumer health, safet y, and ethics (National Research Council, 1995).

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55 Changes in the business of farming have forced colleges of agriculture to continually modify their role in the educa tional system. Todays farming industry is based on science and technology (National Acad emic Press, Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities). Small-scale sp ecialty farms have been replaced by largescale commercial operations. Additionally, changes in how the gl obal marketplace and economy have forced land-grant colleges of agri culture to re-examine their strategies of instruction. Topics related to health, food safety, water and air quality, soil, water and energy conservation, wildlife habitat, and open space are all associated with the curriculum of current land-grant colleges of agriculture. Colleges of agriculture from their foundations have accep ted the responsibility to serve the community by solving its pe rplexing problems (Bowden, 1962). The Committee on the Future of the Colleges of Agriculture in the Land Grant University System, established in 1993, had a mission to a ssess the land-grant colleges of agriculture in regard to how they were positioned for th e publics changing needs and priorities. The committee saw that the colleges needed to change in order to enhance their role in serving the national interest s. The conclusions and r ecommendations included an assessment of the three components of the la nd-grant colleges of ag riculture; teaching, research, and extension. The committ ee identified four areas for change: 1. The need for greater relevance and acce ssibility through programs that embody an expanded view of the modern food and ag ricultural system and through inclusion of a wider array of students, faculty, and clientele of di verse backgrounds and perspectives. 2. The need to remove historic barriers and encourage research, teaching, and extension collaborations that cross discipli nes, institutions, and states; to encourage faculty and student exchanges; and to make all programs in the system accessible to as wide a variety of stakehol ders as possible--there is a firm need to create a new geography that cannot be confined to a locality.

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56 3. The need for stronger linkages among the equally important functions of teaching, research, and extension, as we ll as the need to reinvigor ate the colleges role as models of the land-gran t concept and philosophy. 4. The need for heightened accountability and quality through competitive processes for funding, guiding principles for the use of public resources, and more regular and critical evaluations of publicly funded programs. The committee also gave 20 recommendations to enhance the ability of the land-grant colleges of agriculture to respond to these challenges. The land-grant system has worked well bu t is currently undergoing a major era of change. The changes the land-grant system mu st face deal with the modern realities, challenges, and opportunities that impact societ y. Only those who look at agriculture in a broad sense realize how vital it is to our society. Many Am ericans see only the negative side of agriculture. These individuals fail to see the vital contribut ions that agriculture makes to our society (Kellogg & Knapp, 1966) Kellogg and Knapp believed that as agriculture becomes more technical, as its problems become more intricate, and as agriculture and our society become more urbanized, the demands for more advanced education increase. Kellogg and Knapp (1966) outlined five br oad missions or major responsibilities and tasks for advancing and transmitting knowle dge that fall within the province of a college of agriculture. Kellogg and Knapp ar gued that as agriculture has broadened, so has the role of college of agriculture, and ther efore so should its mission. The five missions or responsibilitie s that colleges of agricu lture should pursue include: The use of science and tec hnology of modern agriculture; Dealing with rural people and their institution; Dealing with environmental issues; Dealing with urban and non-farm use; and International agriculture.

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57 A major area of change that land-grant institutions must face is the demographic profile of its leadership. Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) are beginning to retire, and without proper preparation of future leaders to take thei r leadership positions, land-grant universities could be severely hamp ered in their ability to effectively manage the forthcoming changes. Economic restrain ts, flattened organiza tional structures, a national trend to reduce administ ration and a lack of resources of adequate training have helped contribute to a shortage of qualified professionals wi th the necessary leadership knowledge and skills to manage land-gran t administrative roles (Austin, 1984; Green,1981; Jackson, 2000; Lamborn, 1991). Th e future challenges that academic program deans will face will be comprised of more than changing demographics and filling teacher vacancies. The Kellogg Co mmission (2000), in its report titled Future of State and Land-Grant Universities reported higher education would be faced with a more diverse pool of traditionally aged appli cants, and financial inequality, which will lead to concerns about access to i ndividual educational opportunities. Two concerns arise about the future of higher education: the distinction between secondary and undergraduate education is na rrowing, and the new technology is growing and expanding at an amazing rate. The bounda ries between the uni versity, nation, and world have all but been erased due to technolog ical advances. The Kellogg Commission continues with the challenge facing higher education facilities: the urge to privatize public inst itutions. The commission found that research is valued more for its commercial promise than for its ability to advance knowledge. The commission also states that gender and ethnic diversity issues will continue to be issues that higher education must face.

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58 Kellogg and Knapp (1962) referenced challe nges that colleges must face. These challenges were aimed at students and the curriculum. Colleges, Kellogg and Knapp contended, are going to need to provide a high quality, updated curriculum to their students. Student diversity and changing demographics are going to have to be acknowledged and addressed. Meredith et al. (2002) showed that different age groups ha ve different work ethics, career aspirations, and goals. For example, the Generation X worker (those born between 1965 and 1980) has different career goals than the traditionalist, or the Baby Boomer. Many of the Generation X faculty do not aspire to take administrative positions, wanting a more balanced, flexible lifestyle from what they perceive as a demanding leadership role. The findings of the research found, howev er, that Generation X was inclined to be more entrepreneurial, and it valued lifelong learning. Thos e who belong to Generation X were found to be more independent and vi ewed skill and competence as higher values than positional power or authorit y. It is evident from these findings that deans who are to lead higher education through these times of change are going to need communication skills and the ability to develop rela tionships with diverse populations. With todays leaders facing a rapidly cha nging world of uncertainty in regard to globalization and technology, futu re leaders are going to need the knowledge and skills to solve problems in new and creative manners Leaders can no longer rely on past routines. Leaders will focus more on environmental trends and opportunities for collaboration than for past policies, practices or institutional history (Bennis, Spreitzer, & Cummings, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002).

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59 A holistic approach to personal development of leadership is a process--not a quick fix (Doh, 2003). To benefit from leadership development projects, Doh contended that the leader must have the motivation, th e capacity for strategic thinking, basic communications skills, emotional in telligence, and a desire to l earn, as well as a desire to be a leader (Doh, 2003). The leadership literature suggests that sa tisfactory leadership enhances the success of the organization in meeting its goals. Si nce traditional public higher education was to provide access to a wide range of curriculum and practical research for the people and communities, how or will future leaders of hi gher education fulfill the traditional role, as well as meet the new challenges they will face? The Kellogg Commission believes todays uni versity will be a new kind of public institution transformed in several ways by need ing to be a first-rate student university, as well as a research university. The univers ity will work to reach the diverse student population from the global community. The new changing university will promote active life-long lear ning. In order for the university of tomorrow to meet the inevitable change successfully, the commission believes higher education must publicly renew its commitment to its founding principles. Thes e principles include providing access to as much education as possible for as many stude nts as possible, rega rdless of ethnicity, economics, or age. Higher education needs to apply research to communities, states, national and international problem s. Education of the highest quality must be the utmost priority. The commission states that it is impe rative to get highly qualified persons into leadership positions in order to facilitate these changes.

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60 The Role of the Dean Trying to summarize the role of an academic program leader (dean) is difficult at best (Walker, 2000). The role of the academic program dean is continually changing and is often ambiguous. Present-day deans are requi red to possess skills and abilities that their predecessors never imagined. Todays dean may work in different areas or types of higher education. The dean may work at vari ous levels and in different capacities. Defining a single role that a dean plays ma y be difficult. Dean Herbert Hawkes of Columbia College stated, There is no such th ing as a standardized dean. There is a dean of this and that college, but I have never seen any two deans who could exchange places and retain the same duties. The role of the dean continues to change. As higher education changes, so does the role of the dean. As a curriculum changes, so does the role of the dean. The higher education environment or culture demands th at change occur, and therefore the deans must change with the times. However, even with all the change that occurs in higher education, most people see a universal role of a dean--and th at is one of a leader. Within this leadership role the dean needs to perform service, be account able, fulfill a moral role, act as a steward, build diverse communities with trust a nd collaboration, and promote excellence (www.aacte.org). The Changing Role of the Academic Program Dean The position of the dean saw its greates t growth immediately after the Civil War (Rudolph, 1990). As enrollment in higher educa tion increased, so did the need for more administrative staff. Prior to the Civil War, most schools had administrative staff consisting of a president, treasurer, and librari an. Positions such as secretary of faculty,

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61 registrar, vice-president, d ean, dean of women, chief busin ess officer, assistant dean, dean of men, director of admissions, and ad ministrative assistants were created as enrollment grew. Rudolphs (1990) research found that with the ex ception of the dean, all new administrators worked with colleagues at other institutions in similar positions to develop standards and procedures for their positions. It was generally left up to the dean to develop his or her own job description. These descriptions typically developed into relieving the president of tasks he did not want to do. However, students viewed the dean as the first response to the inevitable tendencies of the organization institution; he was the human touch (Rudolph, 1990). Gould (1964) noted that in a 30-year span, the role of the dean had changed from an almost sole concern with students, through a phase when students and curriculum were his largest responsibilities, to a pe riod when curriculum and faculty demanded the greatest part of his energies, and finally to a place where his major concern is the faculty alone. Today, however, the deans duties ha ve changed once again from being almost entirely student-focused to including a multif aceted array of roles, such as budgeting and fundraising, personnel and work environmen t management, program oversight, and external public relations (Wolve rton, Gmelch, Montez & Nies (2001). Robillard (2000) conducted a review of The Chronicle of Higher Education job announcements and reported one descrip tion that stated: A ssume leadership responsibility, curriculum pla nning and development, staffi ng, evaluation, and budgetary administration. Another job description li sted these duties: Assessment, development of partnerships among internal and external constituents, and conflict management

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62 skills. The role of the dean is depend ent upon the institution a nd the needs of the institution. Bragg (2002) found effective deans possesse d high levels of competency in six core knowledge areas: 1. Knowledge of the mission, philosophy, and history of the institution; 2. Learner-centered orientation; 3. Instructional leadership; 4. Information and educational technologies; 5. Assessment and accountability; and 6. Administrative preparation. Deans should possess democratic leadershi p, creative management and finely tuned human relationship skills (Bragg, 2002). The leadership linchpin that holds an organization toge ther lies midway between those perceived as leaders a nd those upon whose work the re putation of the organization rests. In universities today, academic deans fi ll this role (Wolverton et al., 2001). The dean must always be considerate and conscien tious of the future. The dean needs to be considerate of the standard s of the university. Dean s need to be caring and compassionate to student needs and concerns. Colleges of agriculture have worked to st rengthen the role of the dean (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). Todays college of agricultu re dean is usually the chief academic administrator. Kellogg and Knapp found in thei r research of college of agriculture deans that most deans who were successful in molding college-wide programs came to their positions with a good general education and learned about administration on the job. Kellogg & Knapp summed up the dean as bein g a vigorous leader dedicated to achieving excellence in the college and in the agricu lture of the state (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). A major facet of a dean is working with faculty in order to develop college-wide programs

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63 (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). The belief is that th e dean needs to work with faculty and staff to develop ideas on which future plans for the college can be based. A Leaders Role in Change Today, leaders can no longer solve problems alone. In today's much more complex world, problems call for the combined expertise of multiple resources and assistants. For these reasons, strong emphasis is placed on pr omoting teamwork and strong leadership. Today, due to the complex challenges cr eated by globalization and technological advances, it is imperative for organizations to solve problems and make the most of available resources. Leaders must recognize the creativeness of all the organization's members across multiple disciplines. Suggestio ns and ideas need to be implemented quickly and efficiently. Leaders must promot e collaboration and teamwork. In order to facilitate change, leaders must respect each other's expertise and find ways to identify and solve complex problems and challenges. The effective leader will be able to see obstacles sooner than later. To lead people through this process in an orderly manner, leaders will also have to learn to become process leaders rather than relying solely on thei r content expertise. Effective leaders recognize that th ey will not be able to solve all their critical challenges alone and that assistance will lie within the faculty, and they will also have to involve other people in taking responsibility for ma ny of these key challe nges. These leaders may include their subordinates and employees their peers, and perhaps even their superiors. In order to use the thinking skill s of other people, leaders will have to engage them in the process of thinking innovatively a nd creatively, rather than telling them what to do. When leaders concentrate on the pr ocess of continuously finding and solving important problems, they concentrate on the process.

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64 The successful leaders of the 21st centur y will be the ones who can lead their organization and teams to make adaptability a routine way of business. This leadership skill requires leading others to think innova tively and promoting the continual discovery of new solutions. Getting people to work to ward a common goal is not easy. The leader must know when and how to synchronize the th inking of others. This ability includes building skills in being a process leader--not only a content expert. People tend to lack skills in problem-solving and divergent thi nking, as well as the ability to create innovative solutions to complex problems. Leaders can use thei r skills to help others to work together to reach a common goal. Re search shows that involving people in using their creativity is itself motivating. By en couraging people to thi nk for themselves, the leader creates intrinsic motivation in their followers. Good leadership fosters change that is bot h transformative and sustainable. It can be concerned with moral or organizational ma tters. It can define the colleges role in the world beyond its walls, or it can determine their internal dynamics of the institution. Most importantly, it requires a worthy goal-vision, if you will--but it also requires persiste nce. (Ekman, 2003) While the deans role may be multifaceted from college to college or university to university, there is one role that all deans must face: de aling with change. While undergoing change, researchers have found that followers have to be empowered so that they are willing to work for new change. Re search suggests that leaders need to have qualities that facilitate followers to transfor m from one situation to another, that is transformational leadership (Shamir et al., 1993; Yukl, 1999). Transformational leadership may motivate people to go beyond th eir own self-interest and to pursue goals and values of the collective group. Effective leadership is central to change and, in particular, to the ability to produce construc tive or adaptive change as leaders risk disorder and instability as they seek out opportunities for change (Bedeian & Hunt,

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65 2005). Leadership requires the development of a vision, communication of that vision, and the ability to set purpose or di rection (Bedeian & Hunt, 2005). Transformational leadership also involv es the ability to inspire and motivate followers. Research findings support the pr ocess-based approach to leadership. This approach posits that a person is influenced by activating internal motivators. A processbased view of leadership invol ves the ability to motivate fo llowers to act, recognizing that the ability to successfully influence ot hers is the essence of leadership (Yukl, 1999). The successful, effective leader has the ability to have his or her vision accepted, as well as to motivate followers to work toward a common end (Chemers, 2001). Effective leadership is enhanced when leaders can inspire their followers to accept change by communicating a compelling vision of the future and motivating willingness to work in the new manner. Leaders do not gain accep tance simply by dispensing resources to employees. Giving people resources may have positive effects on their motivation in the short term, but it will not be l ong lasting (Bess & Goldman, 2001). Leaders must be sensitive to the fairness of their decision-making procedures. It is also important that people receive decent and respectful treatment, that is experiencing politeness and dignity from leaders. This inte rpersonal aspect of treatment is clearly distinct from how decisions are made. Follo wers interactions with their leader are distinct, and, they have a distinct influence on their acceptance of change. Polite and respectful treatment is important because th ey communicate that followers have standing or worth within the group, and they ar e respected and valued members of the organization (De Cremer & Tyler, 2005a; De Cremer & Tyler, 2005b).

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66 If followers believe their leaders are inte rested in their well -being, or care about their needs and concerns, and are taking account of those issues when making decisions, they are more accepting and willing to cha nge. If, on the other hand, these inferred qualities are missing, the follo wers will resist change. Finally, it is important to provide follow ers opportunities to pa rticipate by having the chance to present their arguments. Those arguments can then be considered and incorporated into management decisions. Followers are more willing to accept change when they have input in the change process. Along similar lines, House's (1971) Path-goal Theory sees the successful leader as someone who engages followers by reconcili ng their personal goals with those of the group. Also, other leadership theorists have increasingly ack nowledged that expectations about leaders vary according to context. There may be value in examining how the categorization process relates to the ongoi ng dynamics of the group and its interests (Lord et al., 1999). Leadership is not simply a matter of leaders or of leaders and followers. Leadership is the relationship betw een leaders and followers within a social group (Haslam, 2001). Effective leadership is about supplying a vi sion, creating social power, and directing that power so an individual can rea lize that vision. An overarching theme of the leadership lite rature is the concept of change. Through times of major change, effective leadership has been attributed to successful outcomes (Hackman & Johnson, 1996; Yukl, 2002). The con cept of change within the leadership literature adds a dimension to leadership and supports the notion that leadership can be regarded as a process.

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67 Goal attainment is another issue that the study of leadership addresses. Within the group, the leader influences or l eads in the setting of directio n or the attainment of goals. Therefore, leadership involves directing a group toward some end point or accomplishing some task. This direction includes defining and articulating a direction according to external and environmental contingencies fo r the leaders followers (Zaccaro & Banks, 2001). Transformational leadership theory in cludes the idea of in spirational motivation as one way of encouraging followers to e nvision attractive future states (Bass, 1998). The leader who expects to advance change must first have job know-how. He must also be able to gain the respect of his colleagues a nd superiors. If a person has embarked on a course of action for change, he will require the general capacity, for example, leadership and management qualities to carry out such a task (Kirton, 1999). A persons ability to recognize and understand cognitive behavior will give him or her an advantage by being able to anticipate events. The Deans Role in Change Leaders who can get followers to adhere to ambitious goals a nd high standards are valuable. With the changing of times, trus t becomes an issue between followers and leaders. Faculty members may not believe th at rewards for dedication to goals will be forthcoming (Wolverton et al., 2001). The ch anging priorities of higher education also reduce the potential for transformational leader ship. The apparent transition of higher education from a collegial to a managerial orientation is probab ly going to render the possibilities for transformationa l leadership even less likely (Cameron & Ulrich, 1986). Most business organizations with concrete goals and bottom-line mentalities engender a "calculative" exchange norm (Etzioni, 1961). Universities are now also moving in that direction, as chairf aculty relationships are increasingly based on quid pro quo rather

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68 than collegial expectations. Faculty may be un willing to take risks or even to be "good citizens" unless there is a clear-cut reward in prospect (Organ, 1988). Bess (2001) found "pockets" of transformati onal leadership. Smaller subcultures generally reflect the prevailing values of the larger universit y culture in which they are immersed, but there are occasional deviant gr oups. Some departments have long-lasting cultures that have survived changes in institutional culture and climate. In these instances, the culture allows common goals a nd objectives to move to the forefront, and it allows for transformational leadership to induce creativ ity, productivity, and organizational change. Effective leadership in universities need s to be achieved by identifying leaders who are able to understand the social, political, and moral changes that are intimately implicated in the dynamic changes processes that their institutions are undergoing (Chaffee & Tierney, 1988). Very few, if any, of the daily activities of a dean directly relate to the educational pr ograms of the school (Machen, 19 95). The deans attitude, however, has an enormous impact on what ha ppens to an educational institution and its programs (Chapman, 1998). Traditionally, public schools in the United States are slow to change. As a system, (Cohen, 1995) stated that it is almost impervious to change. University faculty are concerned with personal, social, career survival, and also with achievement that addresses deep-seated, human psychological ne eds for meaning and growth (Day, 1998). A leader, who has the characteristics of charismatic or transformational leadership, will be successful in leading his or her personnel. Leaders who are able to interpret, prepare, and meet the external and internal pressures for change will be able to make workers

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69 comfortable. These leaders will be successf ul in assisting their followers in working toward achieving their organizations goals. Smircich and Morgan (1986) argued that effective leadership results when the leader 's definition and framing of a situation for others serves as a basis for their actions. Academic program leaders who are able to deal with the challe nges and changes of the university setting and are able to clarify meaning for their followers will be seen as successful. A deans primary responsibility is to keep relationships balanced within his or her college. The relationship between faculty, students, ce ntral administration, external entities, and support agencies must be maintained by the dean (Wolverton et al., 2001). Deans often must engage in innovative practices in order to promote higher education viability and improvement of the institution (Huffman-Joley, 1992). Innovative practices require deans to become experts in how to change institutional culture (Huffman-Joley, 1992). According to Fullan (1993), three different types of change must be addressed within an organization. The th ree types of change that dean s face are changes in attitude, change of structure, a nd change of process. A dean must address a change in attit ude when the organi zational culture is changed. With the continual reform of higher education without an at titude change, most followers will be satisfied with the status quo (Wolverton et al., 2001). Change leaders realize that organizations--and they themselv es--must learn as they go (Bennis, 1999). Deans must communicate and convince others th at change is required and necessary, as well as generating support for ideas and possi bilities (Wisniewski, 1998). Deans must

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70 encourage new ways of thi nking and learning and help m odify organization norms and structures that impede change (Arends, 1998). Some colleges of agriculture have lost thei r sense of urgency because they have not looked far enough ahead (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962) Kellogg and Knapp contended that good programs, which the colleges seek, can come best from self-study and positive leadership. The National Research Councils Committee on the Future of the Colleges of Agriculture in the Land Grant University Syst em recommended four changes that require significant institutional leadership: 1. Integrate teaching and learning opportuni ties more fully with research and extension, for example, through involv ing undergraduates in research and enhancing the role and status of extension in academic programs. 2. Reduce barriers to multidisciplinary and in terdepartmental approaches to teaching and learning, for example, through rewards for and recognition of team scholarship. 3. Develop long-term, comprehensive re gional consortia to reduce duplication, differentiate course offerings, create inte r-institutional faculty teams, capitalize on distance learning technologi es, and broaden experien tial learning opportunities. 4. Strengthen relationships with and build brid ges to other units of the university, for example, by developing courses that fill general education requirements in the sciences and humanities and that place food and agricultural issues squarely in the scientific context. These recommendations were developed to enhance accessibility and relevance, organizational efficiency, instit utional strengths, and accountabili ty of land-grant colleges of agriculture (National Research Council, 1996). Deans have taken on a leadership role. This role places the dean in the position to facilitate and manage change. As change agents, deans must possess the emotional strength to support the orga nization as it undergoes change. The grounding for such strength lies in a true und erstanding of the cultural dynamics and properties of the organizational culture (Bennis, 1999). Dean s who anticipate and directly confront

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71 change may be more effective at what they do than deans who simply sit and hope that the storm will pass (Wolverton et al., 2001). Wolverton et al. (2001) propos ed that deans need certai n, specific strategies to address the challenges they face. These strategies include: Creating a diverse culture; Knowing the legal environment; Becoming technologically connected; Strategically managing and s ecuring financial resources; Seeking and maintaining professi onal and personal balance; Nurturing the integrity of the college. The complicated role of the dean underscor es the importance of each of the issues mentioned. If the dean is to be successful he or she must deal with the critical issues that the strategies present. For deans to implement change, they mu st educate themselves about how to become a change agent. In order for deans to implement change, they must show that change is valued, create an environment conducive to change, and understand how people respond to change (Wolverton et al., 2001). Wolverton et al. (2001) contended that the first step toward rebuilding institutional integr ity rests entirely with deans. They must determine where their goals lie and then let their actions reflect that belief. The second step for deans to promote change is to promote a climate in which change can occur. Deans must supply adequa te resources and encour age faculty and staff to become involved in the change (Singlet on, Burack, & Hirsch, 1997). Deans can offer support by providing office space, student assi stants, release time, seed money, and clerical support (Singleton, Burack, & Hirsch, 1997). Finally, deans must recognize that different people respond to change in different manners. Ramely (2000) suggested that people approach change in different manners:

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72 Committed change personnel want and look forward to change; Cautious change personnel hesitant about change, want answers before committing to change; Skeptical change personnel see no reason to change; Resistant change personnel fear the risk that change might bring, they know the current system and are comfortable with it. Deans need to recognize these different characteristics in the people who are assisting them in the change process. To e nhance the colleges inte grity requires change. Deans who understand change stand a better chance of bringing it about (Katzenbach, 1998). Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) People understand and process information in different ways. Some people best process information experientia lly and concretely and othe rs more theoretically and abstractly (Fedler & S ilverman, 1988). People also use what they learn and understand in different ways. Using their knowledge, some people prefer creati ng new options while others prefer adapting options. Leaders who ar e unaware of such differences in learning preferences will lack the tools or skills to communicate to their followers. The basic tenant of Kirtons Adaption -Innovation Theory is that a persons problem-solving style operates as a personal ity dimension. Kirton s research indicated that problem-solving orientation is considered a part of an in dividuals personality. It is hard to argue that the best organizations need able and creative members. Theoretically, both adaptors and innovators are capable of providing quality solutions to complex problems. An adaptor is a person who typica lly solves problems by making the situation better. The innovator is one who solves pr oblems by making the situation different. Kirtons research has shown that problem-solving is independent of ones level of creativity, as well as cognitive ability. Ki rtons Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) is

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73 a self-reported instrument that yields sc ores ranging between High Adaption to High Innovation. The range of scores is 32 to 160, with a theoretical mean of 96. Differences between Ad apters and Innovators The difference between an adapter and i nnovator is important for a leader to understand. A person who is prone to solv ing problems in a more adaptive manner prefers to address prob lems in a more structured format The more innovative person is less concerned about the structure of the problem-solving process. Those individuals scoring as more adap tive, as measured by the KAI, approach problems within the given boundaries, theories, ru les, policies, structures, and strive to provide "better" solutions. The adaptor is tr ying to build a better mousetrap. By contrast, the more innovative problem-solver tries to separate the problem from the way it is typically approached and begin solving the pr oblem from there. The innovator builds a new or different mousetrap. Leaders today who are aware of the Adap tion Innovation Theory realize the value of having followers who approach solving prob lems in different manners. These leaders are more tolerant and accept divergent id eas and solutions, as well as coming to appreciate a diverse set of ideas. Kirton's theory posits that the cognitive st yle exerts a strong in fluence on behavior. Kirton believed that forcing people to work out side of their prefe rred behavioral style will cause additional cognitive or mental work as well as stress. Differences in an individuals cognitiv e style, including a problem-solving method, can result in problems of communication and understanding, which in turn can affect productivity and teamwork.

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74 Kirton believed that both ad aptors and innovators are ne eded for solving the wide diversity of problems that face individuals and groups over a long time. Kirton saw the value of the KAI in that it allows one to see others in a new way. Kirton valued the diversity of other persons knowledge, and stressed that organizations should capitalize on the strengths of others. Kirton extended the belief that individua ls tend to like their own learning and thinking styles; therefore they see faults in others persons lear ning styles, but they neglect to see their own faults. This thinking leads an individual into the trap of thinking people who dont think like th em are inferior to them. The following chart shows different characteristics between adaptors and innovators according to Kirton. Adaptors Innovators Sound, conforming, safe, predictable, inflexible, wedded to the system, intolerant of ambiguity (as viewed by Innovators). Glamorous, exciting, unsound, impractical, risky abrasive, threat ening the established system and causing dissonance (as viewed by Adaptors). Adaptors tend to accept the problems as defined with any generally agreed constraints. Early resolution of problems, limiting disruption, and immediate increased efficiency are important to them. Innovators tend to reject the generally accepted perception of problems, and they redefine them. Their view of the problem may be hard to get across. They seem less concerned with immediate efficiency, looking to possible long-term goals. Adaptors prefer to generate a few novel, creative, relevant, and acceptable solutions aimed at doing things better. These solutions are relatively easier to implement. Innovators generally produce numerous ideas, some of which may not appear relevant or be acceptable to others. Such ideas often contain so lutions which result in doing things differently. Adaptors prefer well-established, structured situations. They are best at incorporating new data or events in to existing structures or policies to make them more efficient. Innovators prefer less structured situations. They use new data as opportunities to set new structures or policies. They are less protective of the current paradigm. Adaptors are essential for ongoing functions, but in times of unexpected changes, they may have some difficulty Innovators are essential in times of change or crisis, but may have trouble applying themselves to ongoing organizational

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75 moving out of their established role. demands. Characterized by precision, reliability, efficiency; seen as methodical, prudent, disciplined. Seen as thinking tangentially, approaching tasks from unsuspected angles; undisciplined, unpredictable. Concerned with resolving problems rather than finding them. Could be said to discover problems and discover less consensually expected avenues of solution. Seeks solutions to problems in tried and understood ways. Tend to query a problems concomitant assumptions; manipulates problems. Reduces problems by improvement and greater efficiency with maximum of continuity and stability. Is catalyst to settled groups, irreverent of their consensual views; seen as abrasive, creating dissonance. Seen as sound, conforming, safe, dependable. Seen as ingenious; unsound, impractical. Does things better Does things differently. Liable to make goals of means. Pursues goals challenging accepted means. Seems impervious to boredom, seems able to maintain high accuracy in long spells of detailed work. Capable of detailed routine (system maintenance) work for usually only short bursts. Quick to delegate routine tasks Is an authority within given structure. Take control in unstructured situations. Challenges rules rarely, cautiously, when assured of strong support and problemsolving within consensus. Often challenges rules. May have little respect for past custom. Tends to high self-doubt when system is challenged, reacts to criticism by closer outward conformity; vulnerable to social pressure and authority; compliant. Appears to have low self-doubt when generating ideas, not needing consensus to maintain certitude in face of opposition; less certain when placed in core of system. Is essential to th e functioning of the institution all the time, but occasionally needs to be dug out of the current systems. Is ideal in unscheduled crises; better still to help to avoid them, if can be trusted by Adaptors. When collaborating with Innovators: supplies stability, order and continuity to the partnership. When collaborating with Adaptors: supplies the task orientations, the break with the past and accepted theory. Sensitive to people, maintains group cohesion and cooperation; can be slow to overhaul a rule. Appears insensitive to people when in pursuit of solutions, so often threatens group cohesion and cooperation. Provides a safe base for the Innovators riskier operations. Provides the dynamics to bring about periodic radical change, without which institutions tend to ossify. (Kirton, 1999) If a leader is aware of how individuals process information and solve problems, he or she will be more efficient and successful as a leader. The more knowledge a leader has about the people he or she is working wit h, it will make the leader more successful.

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76 Knowledge and use of information related to the KAI allow the leader to: enhance individual awareness; facil itate problem-solving in teams; and help resolve conflict (Kirton, 1999). In addition, effective, su ccessful leaders with KAI knowledge will be more adept at bridging the gap between adaptors and innovators in the work place. This knowledge in turn reduces power struggles and promotes teamwork (Kirton, 1999). Kirtons Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) not only measures thinking style, which is the process or means in which each individual solves problems, but it also measures the creativity in which problems ar e solved. The KAI total score breaks down into three sections: (1) Sufficiency of Origin ality (KAI-SO); (2) Efficiency (KAI-E), and (3) Rule/Group Conformity (KAI-R). Thes e three sub scores make up the total KAI score. The KAI-Sufficiency of Originality subs core distinguishes differences between individuals and their preferred handling of original ideas. A more adaptive individual tends to produce a fewer number of novel ideas, but these ideas are t ypically agreed to be relevant, safe, and well thought, and/or usef ul. The innovative individual generates a large number of ideas. These ideas are often out of the box and seem risky to others. The innovative individual produces ideas seen by others as crossing boundaries and breaking new ground. Many of these ideas are seen as likely to fail, even by the innovative individual who conceived the idea. The KAI-Efficiency subscore helps in expl aining the differences of the preferred method of solving a problem. The more adap tive individual will look at a problem more closely than an innovative person. The ad aptive persons KAI-E score explains an individuals structure in probl em-solving as being more meth odical in the way he or she

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77 analyzes a problem. A high KAI-E score indivi dual works within the current system and is more likely to get the system to work fo r him or her. The mo re innovative person will trade the benefits of immediate efficiency a nd lower the risk of his or her decision by paying less attention to the imme diate structure of the problem and less attention to detail and thoroughness. These individuals will get a broader picture of the problem and create new ideas of handling the situ ation. Innovative individuals want to achieve their goals often and not worry about details. The KAI-Rules/Group Conformity subscore is responsible for the differences in how an individual deals with the management structure where problem-solving occurs. The more adaptive individual works within the rules of the or ganization. Adaptive individuals accept the group norms and respons ibilities and work for group cohesion. The more innovative individuals have less respect for structure and organizational rules. They work to solve problems regardless of group consensus and cohesion. The innovative individual charges forward to br ing about change. Th e innovative individual often brings about rapid change at the expense of others. Innovation and Adaptability in Organizational Change In part, organizational change consists of innovations to improve the organization's adaptation to the environment (Kraatz & Za jac, 2001, p. 634). Innovation is important for preserving competitiveness and ensuring the organization's viability (Mumford et al., 2002; Wolfe, 1994). Leadership behavior pr omotes the coordination of the activities undertaken by members of the orga nization within its division of labor to attain certain objectives of its own (Bass, 1990), such as promoting organizatio nal innovativeness. Leadership achieves this coor dination by influencing the att itudes of the organizational members, their behaviors, or both (Bass, 1990; Mumford et al., 2002; Northhouse, 2004;

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78 Yukl, 2002). Most scholars of leadership acknowledge a link between leadership and influence, as well as leadership and change. Effective organizations, or those that en joy sustained competitive edge, display two specific characteristics simultaneously: effi ciency and adaptab ility (Mott, 1972). Efficiency allows an organization to im plement and follow well-structured, stable routines for delivering its produc t (goods and services). The e fficient organization is able to react quickly to unexpected turns of events that allow it to continue with minimal disruptions in its daily rou tine (Mott, 1972). In todays changing world, being able to deal with daily routine is not enough. Successf ul organizations must be able to adapt to the challenges and changes of each day. Adapta bility allows an effective organization to face changes deliberately and continually with minimal damaging consequences. Adaptability requires looking outside the organization and anticip ating new opportunities and problems, trends, technologi es, ideas, and methods to impr ove or change its routines (Mott, 1972). In today's ever-changing orga nizations, leaders must promote not only efficiency but also adaptability if they wish to remain effective. Having the knowledge and ability to gain understanding of a situation determines a leaders innovation process pr ofile. Understanding differences allows leaders to change their own view to complement the innovati on process preferences of others and to include other persons ideas to reduce frustr ation within the orga nization. Understanding these differences can also help with the intera ction of the group in or der to make best use of all people and resources available. E ffective leaders can he lp strong innovators discover new problems and facts or present new problems and facts to them. They can help strong adaptors better de fine challenges or present we ll-defined challenges to them.

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79 Leaders can help adaptors ev aluate and select from among solutions and make plans or present evaluated solutions a nd ready-made plans. Alterna tively, they can help strong innovators to convince others of the value of their ideas and push them to act on them or push their ideas through to acceptance and implementation for them. Burns (1978) introduced the c oncept of transfor mational leadership, suggesting that certain leaders can elevate their followe rs frames of reference, ideological underpinnings, and attitudes toward self, peers, the organization, and so ciety in ways that go well beyond extracting performance commitme nt. The transformational leader appeals to a higher order universal set of human need s that can be activated by virtue of the natural proclivities of human nature to beco me self-actualized and self-organized. As Yukl (1994) noted, transforming leadership can be viewed both as a micro-level influence process between individuals and as a macro-level proce ss of mobilizing power to change social systems and reform institutions. At the macro-level of analysis, transformational leadership involves shap ing, expressing, and mediating conflict among groups of people in addition to motivating individuals. Bass (1998) contended that transformational leadership has four key components reflecting four types of beha vior that leaders need in order to facil itate change: 1. Charismatic leadership or idealized influence; 2. Inspirational motivation; 3. Intellectual stimulation which encourag es problem-reframing and creativity; 4. Individual consideration. Bass (1998) believed transformational lead ers may not show or exhibit these behaviors at the same time. The transformational leader make s choices about how to take advantage of his or her own and his or her fo llowers abilities. Situational factors also

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80 play a role in leadership decisions. Bass (1985) suggested that changing environments encourage transformational leadership. Bass noted that transformational leadership must overcome opposition to change. Some organizations lend themselves to tr ansactional leadersh ip, partly because transactional leaders are both recruited for this type of organization. Transformational leadership requires a climate of trust. Followe rs must believe that the leader has their interests at heart. Followers must feel that the leader's vision about the possible future, promise, and fulfillment of the institutional mission is worthy of the followers attention, commitment, and dedication. The term transformational leadership implies that leaders "transform" either organizations and/or their follo wers. Change is a typical pr ecursor in most discussions regarding transformational le adership. Conger (1999) sugge sted that the approach emerged as corporations faced global compe tition, requiring them to radically reinvent themselves. Public schools and univers ities face similar pressures to change. Bass (1985) argued that transformational leader ship is not likely to be found in the American university, especially public universities, primarily because they are rulebound. Because transformational leadership depends on peer support for significant organizational change, the divers ity of faculty interests and or ientations in typical higher education institutions usually presents probl ems for leaders. Even though most higher educational institutions group similar academic subject matters together in colleges, the diversity of faculties, diversity of research interests, resource allocations, and personal and professional goals tend to pu ll at the leaders ability to be truly transformational. Bass (1985) noted the "arousal" process in tran sformational leadership requires the use of

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81 appealing, symbols, images, and vision of a bett er state of affairs." It would take an extraordinarily broadly educated and informed person to communicate effectively to each faculty member (Bass, 1985). Proponents of organizational change claim that charismatic and transformational leadership are ways to achieve change in organizations (House & Aditya, 1997). Some researchers of leadership argue that leadership is the abil ity to produce change (Conger & Kanungo, 1998). Innovative vs. Adaptive Leaders Trice and Beyer (1990, 1993) theorized that leaders who mainta in cultures (work environments) are similar in some ways and differ in other ways from leaders whose leadership produces cultural i nnovations (change). They contended that the two types of leaders are similar in many of their behavior s, but differ in term s of some of their personal qualities, their visi on and mission, the type of pe rformance they produce, and their administrative actions. For example, they suggested innovative leaders are selfconfident and dominant, and adaptive leader s have confidence in their followers and possess facilitative skills. Trice and Beyer (1990, 1993) stated that innovative leaders see themselves as evangelists in preaching new ideas, while adap tive leaders serve as catalysts for other persons ideas. Trice and Beye r also thought that the reaction to the leadership situation was different for the two types of leaders. They believed that innovative leadership is a response to crisis and advances a radical ideo logy. More adaptive leadership occurs in situations where there is no perc eived crisis or the crisis or problems that are present are seen as manageable. Followers beliefs a bout leaders differ for these two types of leadership. Innovative leaders are seen by followers as possessing extraordinary qualities

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82 needed to deal with the crisis or challenge Adaptive leaders are seen as representing existing values that were successful in the past. Tichy and Devanna (1990) reported transf ormational leaders recognize the need for change. These leaders would be able to cr eate a new vision and br ing about the required change. They stated the characteristics of transformational leadership as: Being a change agent; Having courage; Believing in people; Being value-driven; Being a life-long learner; Having the ability to deal with comp lexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty; Being visionary. Influence of Demographics on Leadership Skills When discussing leaders and the study of l eadership, it is important to evaluate the variables influencing the study. The independent variables in volved in this study include gender, ethnicity, age, highest college degr ee earned, type of degree earned, tenure in position, and leadership training. Gender Differences in Leadership Studies have noted that the traits asso ciated with traditional leadership are masculine. Men or women can display them, but the traits themselves, such as individualism, control, assertiveness, and sk ills of advocacy and domination, are typically masculine traits (Acker, 1990). In contrast, the traits associated with new leadership tend to be more feminine. These traits ch aracterized as being more feminine include empathy, community, vulnerability, and skills of inquiry and collaboration (Acker, 1990). Eagly et al. (2003), in their meta-analysi s of 45 studies, found that women tend to use transformational leadership styles more often than men, that is, women use a more

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83 participative and inclusive styl e of leadership behaviors. In their analysis, they found men used a more directive and controlling styl e, that is, a more transactional style of leadership. Eagly et al.s fi ndings are supported by other res earch that concludes men in general, are more likely to use a transactio nal leadership style, and women are more likely to use a transformational le adership style (Rosener, 1990). In a study of leadership among county extens ion faculty, middle, managers, district directors, county extension dire ctors, and program leaders, Holder (1990) concluded that gender was not significantly related to lead ership style. Moore (2003) found gender did not significantly influence transactional or transformational leadership style in her research of state directors and administrators in the cooperative exte nsion system. These findings were also supported by Stedman ( 2004), who made similar conclusions in her study of volunteer administrators, volunt eer specialists, and county faculty. Characteristics typically thought of as being more feminine include ones that primarily are concerned with the welfare a nd relationship building with other people. These characteristics include the ability to show affection, being helpful, kind, sympathetic, interpersonally sensitive, nurturing, and gentle In contrast, the characteristics most closely associated w ith men describe them as being primarily assertive, controlli ng, and confident. Typically, more masculine traits include a tendency toward being aggressive, ambitious, dominant, forceful, independent, sel f-sufficient, self-confident, and prone to act as a leader. But other types of attributes are also differe ntially credited to women and men (Deaux & Lewis, 1983).

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84 Boatwright and Forrest (2000) suggested women prefer mo re relationally oriented, worker-centered leadership behaviors than their male counterparts. Their findings support other research that found women value the more re lational (transformational) aspects of their work environment than men do (Elizur, 1994; Pryor 1983). Boatwright and Forrest suggested that their findings in the difference between men and womens preferences in leadership behaviors were statistically significant but not necessarily meaningful. Boatwright and Forrest suggested men may be becoming more interested in more transformational leadership behaviors a nd their ability to us e them successfully. Helgesen examined how female leaders made decisions, gathered and dispensed information, delegated tasks, and structured their organizations, as well as how they motivated their followers. Sh e concluded that women were more interested in building relationships, and sharing information, wh ile their male counterparts were more interested in task comple tion, achieving goals, getting and keeping information, and winning (Chliwniak, 1997). In a study of Tennessee school directors, Yates (2005) found that women scored high in the five transfor mational leadership factors, as reported by their completion of th e Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The ideal leader is one who is andr ogynous (Rosen, 1996), having both a masculine and a feminine side. Rosen asserted that traditional, masculine characteristics of decisiveness and accountability should be blended with collaboration and open communication, which have typically been a ssociated with feminine characteristics. Research conducted by Wylie (1996) named physiological differences in females allowing for gender specific strengths: Womens brains may allow women to think more nonlinearly allowing for women to consider more possibilities when problem-solving;

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85 Womens brains have more connective ti ssue between the two brain hemispheres which may allow women more interacti on between the two si des of the brain during the thought process; Women may also tend to have a more innate ability to receive sensory data. Reviewing the literature allows several conc lusions to be made in regard to gender and leadership. First, men and women appr oach and react to their leadership roles differently. Second, men and women have certa in characteristics th at best fit their respective leadership style. Some men and some women ar e able to interchange genderspecific leadership characteristics, depending on the situation and need. Ethnicity and Leadership We know that prototypes of ideal leader s differ among individuals from different nations (Brodbeck et al., 2000; Dorfman & Hang es, 2000). For instance, team orientation plays a more important role in ideal leader prototypes in Latin American countries than it does in English-speaking countries (House et al., 2002). Chliwniak (1997) stated, Until recently, scholarship on leadership continued to use the white male as the exemplar of leader ship style and characte ristics. Fortunately, times are changing and more research has been conducted to determine leadership characteristics of diverse populations. Res earch has shown that gender and ethnicity influence organizational processes, such as leadership and work attitudes (Bartol, Evans, & Stith,1978; Eagly & Johnson, 1990). The effectiveness of charismatic and c ontingent reward l eader behaviors has generally been supported across cultures although there are so me differences (Bass, 1997; Den Hartog et al., 1999; Dorfman, 1996). Charismatic behaviors, which include providing followers with a favor able vision or mission, having confidence in followers and making inspirational speeches are particul arly effective in some cultures. The

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86 contingent reward leader behaviors that involve providing favorable rewards for followers when they perform well work well in other cultures. Studies have not shown that ethnicity a nd the ability to lead successfully are related. Research has recently shown more minorities entering leadership positions than ever before, possibly be attributed to la ws to advance diversity in the workplace. Leadership studies, which support a relations hip between leadership skill and style and ethnicity, are difficult to find. In this re view of literature, it was determined that ethnicity and race played a role in the oppor tunity to possess leadership positions, but failed to provide empirical evidence towa rd success or ability based on ethnicity. Studies by Bass, Burger et al. (1979), which related the five most and least important leadership traits required by lead ers in management positions from 12 different countries, found significant differences in the 3,401 leaders in many of the traits attributed to leadership styles. The resear chers found being systematic was judged to be of high importance in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and certain countries in South America. Leaders in the United States and Britain be lieved being resourceful was an important leadership trait. Holland, Belgium, Ital y, Spain, Portugal, Latin America and India all thought the abilities to be so cial and build relationships should be high priorities for leaders. Kouzes and Posner (2002) found that most followers rate trust in the leader as a very important leadership trait. Early studies by Williams, Whyte, and Green (1966) found that many nationalities have different vi ews on trust and their ab ility to trust their leaders. This trust was founded on historical events of past leaders. Italians, for

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87 example, were found to have difficulty trusti ng their political leader s. This study also found Peruvians overall tr ust level in their leader s to be generally low. Sadler and Hofstedes (1972) research of IBM leaders found that Australians, Britains, Brazilians, and Japanese preferred a more consultative type of leadership. However, Brazilians were found to have a much higher preferen ce for participative leadership. Bass (1975) found similar results when he gathered data from the United States, Spain, Sweden, Finland, and Italy. Ba ss (1975) found participative leadership is preferred across the board by all nationalities. In conclusion national bounda ries (ethnicity) make a di fference in the speed of promotion of leaders, as well as in their goals, risk preferen ces, pragmatism, interpersonal competence, effective intelligence, emotional st ability, and leadership style (Bass, 1981). Stedman (2004) found that race predicted the transformational leadership style of 4-H county faculty. These findings were similar to what Davis (1982) reported: Black leaders were cited as using more transformati onal behaviors than White leaders. Bass (1997) and House et al. (1998) asserted th at some of the vari ance in leadership theory and behavior is universal and some is contingent on the cultu re of the country and organization. In other words, certain leader ship practices are universally independent of culture, and some leadership practices are dependent on culture (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1998). Age and Educational Level Several studies have shown that age and e ducational levels influence the preference of leadership behaviors (Ne il & Kirby, 1985; Stinson & Robertson, 1973). These studies found that younger workers preferred a more transformational or worker-centered relationship with their leaders. Boatwright and Forrest (2000) reported similar findings

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88 in younger and less educated workers who were more likely to prefer worker-centered or transformational leadership behaviors. The more education one has, the research s uggests, the less likely they are to prefer structured, task-oriented lead ership styles (Boatwright & Forrest, 2000). Bass (1981) reported leaders surpass followers in the areas of grade point average and overall intelligence. A leaders abil ity or willingness to accept innovation or change, which is a transformational behavior, is related to hi s or her educational level (Hambrick and Mason, 1984). Type of Degree No literature has shown how the type of scholarly degree (bench science vs. social science) might affect leadership skills and st yles. However, from re viewing the literature on leadership behaviors and general characte ristics of professionals in each of the respective sciences, it is possible to make some general statements. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines natural (bench) sc ience as: (1) any of the sciences (as physics, chemistry, or biology) that deal with matte r, energy, and their interrelations and transforma tions or with objectively measurable phenomena. MerriamWebster defines a social science as: (1) a branch of science that deals with the institutions and functioning of human society and with the interpersonal relations hips of individuals as members of society; and (2 ) a science dealing with a par ticular phase or aspect of human society. Often social science is called a behavioral science that studies human interactions and why humans act the way they do. Natural sciences, on the other hand, study mostly plants and an imals or the non-living. Using these two broad and general descri ptions of natural (bench) and social sciences, some generalizations might be made as to how they relate to leadership and

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89 leadership skills. Transactional leadership characteristics tend to emphasize the transaction or exchange of wh at the leader requires or expe cts for certain rewards if the followers fulfill their commitment. Transformational leaders tend to motivate othe rs in four ways to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible (Avolio & Bass, 2002). First the transformational leader must build a relationship with his or her followers in order for the followers to be ab le to identify with th eir leader. Second, the transformational leader is able to inspire fo llowers with meaningful pleas and persuasion. Third, the transformational leader creates an atmosphere with his or her followers that is intellectually stimulating. Fourth, the transf ormational leader is c onsiderate, providing the followers with support, mentoring, and coaching (Avolio & Bass, 2002). Tenure in Position Hambrick and Mason (1984) reported that leaders in organizations for extended periods are less likely to in itiate or follow change. These findings were supported by Krishnan and Park (1998). Theoretical Framework The literature identifies the variables of gender, ethnicity, age, and tenure in the profession, as well as previous leadership experience and training, as having influences on the leadership style of leaders. The litera ture also suggests that certain characteristic demographic variables, such as age and indi viduals experiences, can affect leadership skills. For example, background, education, te nure with an organization, tenure in a leadership position, and past leadership tr aining may influence a persons leadership skills.

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90 The cognitive style, which is the manner in which a problem is solved or approached, is different from the idea of cognitive capacity. Cognitive capacity deals with the ability or the lack of ability that an individual has. The IQ has been a standard measure of cognitive capacity. The cognitive style refers to the method or preferred way in which an individual approaches solving a problem or creating a change. Kirton (2003) believed that the cognitive style can be learned and developed, which will lead to more effective cognitive performance. Kirton stated that all individuals are intelligent and creative at different levels and with different styles. As long as there is motive and opportunit y, each individual is capable of contributing to problem-solving efforts. The cognitive function is the process of knowing and, more precisely, the process of being aware, thinking, learning, judging, and making deci sions. This process is instrumental in understanding the cognitive f unction theory. Kirton (2003) described cognitive function as being similar to a compa ny and its organization st ructure. Each part of the cognitive function process has a ro le and impacts the overall outcome of the individual. Kirtons cognitive function sche ma details the elements of the problemsolving or decision-making process. Kirtons Cognitive Function model involves several critical elements to the process. The elements of cognitive effect, cognitive affect, and cognitive resource all relate directly to the area of cognition or comprise the area of cognitive functioning that relates to the knowledge and skills needed to solve problems. Each element has a different function in problem-so lving and decision-making.

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91 Cognitive functioning yields characteristic pa tterns of behavior (Kirton, 2003). As each individual attempts to make a decision or solve a problem, he or she goes through a cognitive process. This process uses th e previously mentioned elements to make decisions and solve problems. Each element ha s characteristics that facilitate this process (see Figure 2-1). Figure 2-1. Cognitive Function A key part of the cognitive affect is mo tivation. Kirton defi ned cognitive affect as the needs, values, attitudes, and beliefs that are learned. He suggested that the cognitive affect selects the problems and d ecisions to be made as well as promotes possible solutions. Motivation plays a ro le in cognitive affect because without motivation an individual would have no desire or need to so lve the problem or make the decision. Product Idea Co g nitive Function Cognitive Effect Preferred Style & Potential Level Cognitive Resource Knowledge, Skills, Experiences, Know-how Cognitive Affect Needs, Values, Attitudes, Beliefs Environment Scope, Climate, Culture, Opportunity Behavior Preferred Behavior & Coping Behavior

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92 The cognitive effect is made up of the c ognitive style, cogni tive potential, and the problem-solving process. The cognitive styl e is the preferred or most often chosen method of solving a problem or making decisi ons. Cognitive potential is the level to which an individual is capable of solving pr oblems or making decisi ons. Style and level are independent constructs. Cognitive resources are the knowledge, skil ls, and other experiences that an individual possesses in order to make decisions and solve problems. Cognitive resources include past knowledge, experiences, and skills Cognitive resources are very influential in cognitive functioning. Cognitive resources have a direct impact on cognitive affect and cognitive effect. The results of making decisions or solving problems are behaviors. Behaviors are not only influenced by cognitive affect, cognitiv e effect, and cognitive resources, but they are subjected to influences of environmental factors as well. Environmental factors include culture and climate, as well as the world as the individual sees it. External events play significant moderati ng roles in an individuals behavior. Primarily, these events relate to interaction with other people, so others behavior is each persons environment and each person s behavior is part of the others environment. (Kirton, 2003) Using cognitive function theory to explai n how individuals solve problems or make decisions is the theoretical frame of this study. All elements of cognitive function work together to influence behavior Figure 2 shows a conceptu al model of how Kirton (2003) depicts the Cognitive Function Schema.

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93 Figure 2-2. Cognitive Function Schema (Kirton, 2003) Guided by Kirtons Cognitive Function Schema as the theoretical frame, this study proposed that leadership beha vior, as evidenced by pract iced leadership style (as measured by the MLQ), of academic program l eaders is a function of leadership skills, leadership training, problem-solving style, va lue attributed to leadership skills, and selected demographic variables. Variables included in this study to explain an academic program leaders leadership style include: gender, ethnicit y, age, tenure working at a colle ge or university, tenure in a formal leadership role, and leadership traini ng. Additionally, this study used the variable of proficiency of leadership skills, percei ved beliefs of the importance of specific Environment Scope, Climate, Culture, Opportunity Behavior Preferred & Coping Behavior Cognitive Affect Needs, Values, Attitudes, Beliefs Cognitive Effect Preferred Style & Potential Level Product Idea, Artifact Motive Learning and Memory Cognitive Process Cognitive Resource Knowledge, Skills, Experiences, Know-how Co g nitive Function

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94 leadership skills, and problem-solving ability to explain an academic program leaders leadership style as being transformational, tran sactional and/or laisse z-faire. Explaining the cognitive function of an academic program l eaders leadership style in terms of the variables can be expressed by cognitive reso urces. These resources were measured by self-perceived proficiency levels, and cogniti ve effect, which were measured using the KAI and environmental variables. The variab les are demographic in nature and cognitive affect, which includes values, attitudes, and beliefs. Cognitive resources are knowledge, skills, experiences, and know-how of the academic program leaders. For this study, th e cognitive resources include the academic program leaders self-perceived proficiency in the leadership skills, his or her college courses in leadership, workshop training in leadership, and any other previous leadership training. Cognitive effects are an indi viduals preferred style of problem-solving. For this study, the KAI was used to measure problem-solving ability, as well as the academic program leaders sufficiency of originalit y (KAI-SO), effectiveness (KAI-E), and the academic program leaders response to following rules (KAI-R). For this study, environmental factors include variables of scope, climate, culture, and opportunity. Environmental variables, wh ich this study included as predictors of leadership style, were age, gender, ethnici ty, tenure at the coll ege or university, and tenure in a formal leadership position. The Leadership Style Behavior Indicato r Model was adapted from Kirtons (2003) Cognitive Function Schema model. The purpose of the Leadership Style Behavior Indicator Model is to assemble the com ponents of Kirtons model in a more linear

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95 fashion. All the components of Kirtons m odel are included in the Leadership Style Behavior Indicator model. The Leadership Style Behavior mode l also denotes the method in which the researcher measur ed each variable in this study. A Leadership Trigger is at the top of the m odel. It is this trigger that starts the leadership behavior of the leader. A need aris es for leadership at th is point. This trigger could include a task to be accomplished or a goal or objective to be met. At this point, the leader uses cognitive resources, cognitive effect, cognitive affect and environmental variables to reach a leadership decision. Cognitive resources include knowledge, training, skills, and past experi ences. Cognitive resources are measured through the use of the leadership skills i nventory. Cognitive resources are a selfperceived measure. The next leadership variable is the cognitive effect, which includes the preferred style of problem-solving. In this study, the cognitive effect is measured using Kirtons Adaption-Innovation Inventory. The cognitive affect includes attitudes, values, and beliefs of the leader and is measured in th is study using the lead ership skills inventory self-perceived proficiency score.

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96 Leadership Style Behavior Indicator Model Leadership Trigger original idea in need of leadership Leadership Variables Kirtons Terms Cognitive Resources knowledge training, skills, experience = leadership skills proficiency Cognitive Effect Preferred style, potential level = preferred problem-solving style Cognitive Affect values, attitudes, and beliefs = leadership skill importance Environment scope climate, culture, opportunity, training = demographic information Researchers Terms self-perceived leadership skill proficiency measured by skills instrument preferred problem-solving style measured by KAI Inventory self-perceived leadership skill importance measured by skills instrument age, gender, ethnicity, tenure etc. measured by demographic instrument Figure 2-3: Leadership St yle Behavior Indicator Mode l (adapted from Kirton, 2003) Leadership Style as attributed to leadership behavior and influencing original idea in need of leadership Leadership Behavior leadership traits displayed by academic program leader

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97 Environmental variables are measured using the demographic instrument. Environmental variables include working cl imate, culture, opportunity, and training availability. Environmental va riables for this study include age, gender, ethnicity, tenure at college or university, tenure in a formal lead ership position, and leadership training, as well as past leadership training and experiences. These variables come together to influen ce a leaders preferred leadership style, these styles being transformationa l, transactional, and/or lai ssez-faire. Each leadership style has a certain set of characteristics that can be attributed to it. These behaviors are manifested from the leadership style. Needs, values, attitudes, and beliefs are a ll cognitive affects for cognitive function. For this study, cognitive affects include the academic program leaders perceived importance of specific leadership skills. This study sought to explain the leadership style of an academic program leader-whether it be transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire--and if that leadership style could be determined by examining his or her leadership behavior s. These behaviors are influenced by his or her self-perceived le vel of importance of his or her leadership skills (cognitive affect), his or her self-perceived le vel of proficiency of their leadership skill (cognitive resources), preferred probl em-solving style (cognitive effect), and environmental variables--as strong predictors of his or her leadership style (see Figure 23). Summary Chapter 2 reviewed the litera ture as it pertains to di fferent leadership theories developed during the last 100 years. The leadership literature shows many definitions of leadership and many different theories supporti ng leadership and leadership related to

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98 change. A review of the literature also i ndicates little consensus on the definition of leadership or the theories that describe l eadership. The literature illuminates a growing interest in transactional and transformational leadership theory. Land-grant universities and co lleges of agriculture were also reviewed in this chapter. A historical perspective, as well as the current status of land-grant institutions and colleges of agriculture, was discussed. Challenges facing both la nd-grant universities and colleges of agriculture were deemed significant and eminent. The role of the academic program leader, as well as how present-day deans are the catalyst and controller of change was also presented. Deans play a crucial role in not only managing change, but they are often th e catalyst and faci litator of change. Cognitive function theory was used as the theoretical framework for this study. Cognitive function theory uses cognitive re sources, cognitive effect, environmental variables, and cognitive affect to explain an academic program leaders leadership style. The leadership styles explained by this st udy include transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire leadership. Chapter 3 discusses the methods and procedur es used to conduct this study. Data collection procedures and data analysis are also discussed.

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99 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Chapter 1 introduced this study and desc ribed the background of the studys purpose. The purpose and objectives were outli ned in Chapter 1. Providing reasons for the significance of this study were also discussed. Chapter 1 described why th e land-grant university system and colleges of agriculture were founded and what roles they play today. Definitions of key terms were provided and limitations of this study were iden tified. Seven specific research objectives were identified: 1. To determine selected demographic charac teristics of land-grant academic program leaders. 2. To assess level of importance of leader ship skills, as determined by academic program leaders. 3. To assess self-perceived pr oficiency of leadership sk ills of academic program leaders. 4. To identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of academic program leaders. 5. To determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire. 6. To identify an academic program leaders problem-solving style. 7. To explain leadership styles of academic program leaders. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the leadership skills and styles of colleges of agriculture academ ic program leaders (deans). Demographic variables of the colleges of agriculture academic program leaders were included to draw a clearer picture of who are currently holding academic program leadership positions, what

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100 previous leadership training th ey have had, and where gaps exist between their perception of leadership skill importance and leadership skill training, and whether or not variables influence academic program leaders leadersh ip style. Additionally, this study sought to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or la issez-faire. This study sought to determine the academic program leaders problem-solving style, and the in fluence of specific va riables on his or her leadership style and behavior. Chapter 2 examined previous research related to this study. The theoretical framework used for this study was discussed. Ch apter 2 reviewed the l iterature related to the following 11 key areas: (1) the nature of leadership; (2) definitions of leadership; (3) major leadership theories; (4) leadership st yles; (5) the influence of demographics on leadership styles; (6) leadership skills; (7) the influence of demographics on leadership skills; (8) leadership and ch ange; (9) land-grant universities; (10) academic program leaders (deans); and (11) academic program leaders as change agents. The research design, conceptual model, target populations, instrumentation, and method of data collection and an alysis, along with statistical procedures for analysis, are addressed in Chapter 3. Research Design This study used quantitative research me thods to accomplish the specific research objectives. This study used four different qu estionnaires to collect the data needed to meet the objectives of the study. A questionn aire, which targeted specific demographic information of the academic program leaders, was used to address Objective 1. In order to address Objectives 2, 3, and 4, a leadership skills instrument was given to each academic program leader. The lead ership skills instrument measured self-

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101 perceived level of importance of individual leadership skills and the self-perceived proficiency of each indivi dual leadership skill. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnair e (MLQ), designed by Bass and Avolio (1995), determined the degree to which each acad emic program leader uses transactional, transformational and/or laissez-faire leadership styles in performing his or her leadership behaviors as the academic program leader. The MLQ was used to address Objective 5. The KAI problem-solving instrument was used to address Objective 6. Objective 6 was used to measure and identify the academic pr ogram leaders problem-solving style. Descriptive research methods were used for Objectives 1, 2, and 3. Correlational and causal-comparative, or ex-post facto design, was used to analyze the data for Objectives 5, and 6. Backward regression was used for Objective 7 to predict leadership styles of academic program leaders with specifically selected demographics. Independent variables in this study were ag e, gender, ethnicity, highest educational degree, type of degree, tenure in profession, tenure in leader ship position(s), and previous leadership courses and/or tr aining. Gender, ethnicity, and highest educational degree classifications were nominal i ndependent variables. Each participant was classified as having either a bench science degree or a so cial science degree. Age, tenure in profession, tenure in leadership position(s), and/or leadership training courses were continuous independent variables. Participants experiences in leadership courses and/or training were computed by taking the tota l number of experiences listed by the participants on the demographic instrument described later in this chapter. The leadership styles scores, along with the leadership skills and competencies scores, were dependent variables in this study.

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102 Population The population for this study included academ ic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences of land-grant universities. Academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences were determined by using the National Association of State Universities and LandGrant Colleges (NASULGC ) 2005 directory. Participant Selection: College of Agricult ural and Life Sciences Academic Program Leaders The colleges of agricultural and life scie nce academic program leaders included in this study represented both 1862 and 1890 la nd-grant universities, along with the 1994 tribal land-grant universities. The college s of agricultural and life science academic program leaders were id entified by accessing the NASULGC 2005 directory of Deans and Directors of Academic Programs in Schools of Colleges of Agriculture, Agriculture and Life Sciences, or Agriculture and Natural Resources. The National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges publishe d the directory in September 2005. Each participant was contacted because he or sh e held the title of Professional Academic Program Leader, Dean, or a similar title. The directory identifie d 106 individuals as having the title or fulfilling the role of the academic program leader. Instrumentation A total of four questionnaires were used to collect data for this study. A leadership skills questionnaire was used to measure th e importance of leadership skills each academic program leader perceives as important for the success of his or her position. This leadership skills questionnaire also measured each academic program leaders selfperceived proficiency in that particular le adership skill area. The leadership skills instrument was adopted from a previous le adership study (Moore, 2003). In Moores

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103 study, the leadership instrument was develope d from content analysis of long interviews with administrative heads on what specific leader ship skills they believed were needed to be successful in their position. The second instrument was the Multif actor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) designed by Bass and Avolio (1995). The ML Q was used to determine the degree to which each academic program leader uses tran sactional, transformational and/or laissezfaire leadership styles in performing his or he r role as the academic program leader. The KAI problem-solving instrument was the third instrument used in this study. The KAI was used to measure and identify the academic program leaders problem-solving style. The fourth instrument used in this study was a demographic questionnaire to gather demographic information of the participants Both the MLQ and KAI have had their reliability and validity establishe d through previous research. All instruments used in this study were te sted for reliability and validity prior to conducting the study. Reliability an d validity of instrumentation need to be considered in all research studies utilizing questionnaires or surveys. Validity is a term used to describe an instruments accuracy in measuring what it is supposed to measur e. Validity is the extent to which the data gathered is appr opriate for answering th e research question. Reliability is the consistency or stabil ity of a test or measure. Reliability is the degree of freedom of measurement error. Leadership Skills Instrument The leadership skills instrument consiste d of 44 questions. This instrument was designed to measure how important colleges of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders believe each skill to be in his or her overall success in performing his or her job. The instrument also measured his or her self-perceived level of leadership ability

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104 (proficiency) in each of these leadership skil l areas. The reliability of the leadership skills instrument (importance) was ( =.87). The reliability for the leadership skills instrument (proficiency) was ( =.89). To measure the perceived importance of each leadership skill, each academic program leader was asked to rate the leader ship skill on a Likert scale ranging from 1 ( Not Important ) to 5 ( Very Important ). The raw scores were calculated for the perceived importance of each of the six skill areas by summing the res ponses within each area. The raw scores were then convert ed to a 100-point scale by divi ding the sum of the responses by the total possible response score for each skill area. These scores were converted to a 100-point score for calculation ease with ev aluation and interpretation. The Human Skills, Conceptual Skills, Technical Skills, Communication Skills, and Industry Knowledge Skills areas each had a total of se ven questions for a total possible range of scores from 7 to 35 in each skill area. The Emotional Intelligence Skills area had eight questions for a possible range of scores from 8 to 40. Participants were asked to measure their se lf-perceived proficie ncy in each of the six leadership skill areas. The academic progr am leaders responses were recorded on a Likert scale ranging from 1 ( Not Proficient ) to 5 ( Very Proficient ). The raw scores were calculated for the self-perceived proficiency of each of the six skill areas by summing the responses within each skill area. The raw scor es were then converted to a 100-point scale by dividing the sum of the responses by the to tal possible response score for each skill area. These scores were converted to a 100-point score for ease of evaluation and interpretation.

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105 Before conducting this study, the leadership skills instrument was reviewed and evaluated by a panel of expert s for content and face validit y. This panel consisted of individuals having knowledge in the field of leadership and/or research design and instrumentation. The leadership skills in strument was pilot-tested with a group of academic program leaders not included in this study to establish reliability and face validity. The pilot group consisted of academic program leaders who were members of the American Association of State College s of Agriculture and Renewable Resources (AASCARR). Reliability was established during the pilot study. The pilot study consisted of 40 academic program leaders from AASCARR sc hools. Sixteen of the 40 individuals participated in the pilot study for a response rate of 40%. Internal consistency of the leadership skills instrument was measured using Cronbachs alpha and factor an alysis to make certain th e questionnaire was in fact measuring what it claimed to measure. Cronba chs alpha is the a ppropriate measure of internal consistency or reliability with ite ms on an instrument or index (Vogt, 2005). Cronbachs alpha is a measure of the interc orrelation of the items, and estimates the proportion of the variance in all the it ems accounted for by a common factor (Vogt, 2005). Cronbachs alpha was calculated to determine the reliability in each leadership skill area (see Table 3-1). Alpha levels for each leadership skill area were: Human Skills =.90; Conceptual Skills =.92; Technical Skills =.74; Communication Skills =.90; Emotional Intelligence Skills =.86; and Industry Knowledge Skills =.92. For the reliability in the proficienc y skills area, Cronbachs alpha for each skill area were:

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106 Human Skills =.93; Conceptual Skills =.94; Technical Skills =.80; Communication Skills =.90; Emotional Intelligence Skills =.90; and for Industry Knowledge Skills =.88. Table 3-1: Cronbachs Alpha for Importance and Pr oficiency for Leadership Skills (N=16) Leadership Skill Area Importance Proficiency Human Skills .90 .93 Conceptual Skills .92 .94 Technical Skills .74 .80 Communication Skills .90 .90 Emotional Intelligence Skills .86 .90 Industry Knowledge Skills .91 .88 A reliability greater than .90 is consid ered high (Penfield, 2002). Reliabilities greater than .80 are considered moderate to high, and those greater than .70 are considered low. Technical Skills reliabi lity was the only scale on the instrument that showed low reliability. Since all other scales on the instrument showed moderate to high reliability the instrument was deemed reliable and was unchanged. Demographic Instrument A demographic questionnaire was used to gather personal data from the participants. The demographic information obtained from the academic program leaders included: gender; ethnicity; age; highest college degree; type of degr ee earned; tenure in position; and previous leadership training. The demographic questionnaire included quest ions pertaining to the participants major area of study. Another question asked th e participant to state other positions held within the university or college system. Participants were asked to list previous leadership training, detail the name of the experience, the length of the experience, and a brief description of th e leadership training

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107 experience. Previous leadership experience responses were recorded in three different areas: (1) college course s in leadership; (2) le adership workshops; and (3) other previous leadership experiences. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire The Multifactor Leadership Questionna ire (MLQ) is based on the Full Range Leadership Model developed by Bass and A volio (2000). The survey is short and comprehensive with 45 items that measure a full range of leadership behaviors. Completing the questionnaire takes approxi mately 15 minutes. The MLQ has been shown to be a strong predictor of leader ship performance across a broad range of organizations (Bass, 1997). The MLQ measures leadership behaviors used to determine leadership styles, ranging from transactio nal leadership, transformational leadership, and/or laissez-faire leadership. The MLQ was used to gather informa tion on the leadership behaviors of participants. It determined if each acad emic program leader had a transactional, transformational, and/or laissez-faire leadersh ip style. The MLQ has 45 statements items in which the participant circles a number rati ng for his or her self-p erceived leadership behavior by responding on a Likert scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently, if not always). The MLQ determines individual leadersh ip style as being transformational, transactional, and/or laissezfaire, based on scales of lead ership behavior. The MLQ was utilized to measure elements or scales of transformational a nd transactional leadership of the academic program leader. The MLQ measur es characteristics of the behaviors of leaders: Individualized Consid eration; Intellectual Stimulati on; Inspirational Motivation; Idealized Influence (attributed) and Ideali zed Influence (behavior) associated with

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108 Transformational Leadership; Contingent Reward and Mana gement by Exception (active) associated with Transactional Leadership; Management by Exception (passive) a method of leadership associated with either solvi ng or preventing problems; and Laissez-Faire. Laissez-faire is an inactive form of leadersh ip characterized by a reluctance to become actively involved, that is to become disassociated from the action. Contingent Reward, and Managementby-Exception (active) make up the transactional leadership style. Contingent Reward is how the leader and followers exchange specific rewards for outcomes or re sults. Goals and object ives are agreed upon by both the leader and followers and the achievement is rewarded or punished. Management-by-Exception (active) is when a leader makes corrective criticisms or uses negative reinforcement. This leadership beha vior monitors followers closely so they can point out mistakes and errors. Laissez-faire leadership has the scales of Management-by-Exception (passive) and laissez-faire leadership. La issez-faire leadership style uses Management-by-Exception (passive) by intervening only when goals have not been met or a problem arises. Laissezfaire behaviors are ones that delay decisions and give up responsibility. Laissez-faire leaders offer little feedback or support to the follower; it is a hands-off approach to leadership (Northouse, 2001). There were four items per leadership scal e. Leadership styles were derived by taking the average of the leadership scale sc ores. For the transformational leadership style, there was a possible tota l score of 20. Transactional leadership style and laissezfaire leadership scores both had a maximum score of 8.

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109 The MLQ also contains eight leadership scales: (1) Contingent Reward; (2) Intellectual Stimulation; (3) Managementby-Exception (passive); (4) Management-byException (active); (5) Idealized Influen ce (behavior); (6) Idealized Influence (attributed); (7) Inspirati onal Motivation; and (8) Indi vidualized Consideration. Contingent Reward refers to the engage ment of leaders and followers in an exchange process in which effort by followers is exchanged for specific rewards. Objectives are agreed upon by both leader s and followers, and achievement of the objectives is positively reinforced (Northouse, 2001). Intellectual Stimulation includes leadership that stimulates followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own belie fs and values, as well as those of the leader and the organization. This type of leader encourages followers to try new approaches and develop innovati ve ways of dealing with challenges (Northouse, 2001). The two forms of Management-by-Excepti on, are passive and active. A leader using the active form watches the followers for mistakes or errors. Once the follower has made the mistake, the leader then takes corrective action. The leader using Managementby-Exception (passive) interrupts the follower only after the standards have not been met or a problem has already ar isen (Northouse, 2001). Idealized Influence leaders are often calle d charismatic leaders, and they act as strong role models for the followers. The Id ealized Influence leader sets high standards of moral and ethical conduct, and The can be counted on to do the right thing. The Idealized Influence leader is one whom follo wers want to follow because the leader has been able to establish a vision (Northouse, 2001).

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110 Inspirational Motivation is the leadership behavior of being able to communicate high expectations to the followers. This leader is able to inspire the followers to share in the vision of the organi zation (Northouse, 2001). The Individualized Consideration leader provides support and consideration for his or her followers. These leaders treat thei r followers in a kind and caring way. The Individualized Consideration l eaders behaviors include bein g interested in his or her followers and has the ability to help follo wers through times of challenges (Northouse, 2001). Bass and Avolios (2000) technical report di scussed the validati on of the different constructs measured by the MLQ. Bass and A volio went into great detail explaining how early versions of the MLQ were evaluated by leadership scholars. Leadership experts have validated the MLQ more than 10 times si nce its initial use. The reliability of the MLQ, as reported by Bass and Avolio for each leadership factor, ranges from .74 to .91. Problem-solving Style Instrument The fourth instrument used in this study was the Kirton Adaption Innovator Inventory (KAI). The KAI is a 32-item questionnaire measuring an individuals preferred problem-solving style. The premis e of Kirtons Adaption -Innovation Theory is that all individuals solve problems and are creative in some manner. The KAI distinguishes how adaptive or innovative an individual is in solving problems. Adaptive individuals prefer more stru cture in their problem-solvi ng methods whereas innovative individuals prefer to solve problems with less structure a nd more consensus method of problem-solving. The KAI asks participants to respond by marking an X on a continuum scale. The scale ranged from Very Hard to Very Easy for each statement item. Each response

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111 was then given a score between 1 and 5. Res ponses were then totaled to give an overall KAI score. Scores are ranged on a Total Sc ore continuum from 32 to 160. The overall population average is 96. Those individuals sc oring less than 96 are c onsidered adaptors. Those individuals scoring above 96 are termed innovators. The KAI also measures three subfactors. These subfactors include KAI-S ufficiency of Originality (KAI-SO), KAIEfficiency (KAI-E), and KAI-Rules /Group Conformity (KAI-R). Subfactor KAI-SO is the measure of an i ndividuals degree of generating ideas. This sub-factor entails the diffe rence individuals have in their preferred handling of ideas. Adaptors tend to produce fewer ideas; however the ideas that are produced tend to be sound and useful. Innovators prefer to pr oduce a multitude of ideas, which are often considered to be more risky and abstract. The KAI-SO scores range from 13 to 65, with the general population mean being 41. Subfactor KAI-E is the term used for the degree of thoroughness and attention to detail. Adaptors tend to be more organi zed and search in patterns for relevant information. Innovators tend to pay less atte ntion to detail and thoroughness and prefer to start a new project rather than finish curre nt projects. The KAI-E factor scale ranges from 7 to 35, with the population mean of 19. Subfactor KAI-R defines an individuals preference for operating within the group norms, conforming to the rules and structur e of the organization and arriving at a consensus. Adaptors use and accept rules as an asset, and these rules aid them in problem-solving. Innovators see rules and gr oup consensus as a limitation to problemsolving. Innovators will often break or ignore rules to acco mplish their goals. The KAIR factor has a range of 12 to 69, with a gene ral population mean of 35. Reliabilities, as

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112 reported in the literature for the KAI, ra nge from .83 to .91 across multiple studies (Kirton, 1999). Data Collection Time Frame In accordance with University of Florida po licy, prior to any collection of data, a proposal to conduct research for non-medical projects was submitted to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. In November 2005, the University of Flor ida Institutional Review Board granted approval for data collection: Approved Protocol # 2005-U-0870. Once approval was granted by the University of Florida IRB, the research project began. Data collection for this research project began in January 2006 and continued through March 2006. Data were processed and analyzed in Januar y, February, and March 2006, with concluding statements and findings re ported in March 2006. In order to accomplish the research obj ectives, Dillmans (2000) Internet and Interactive Voice Response Surveys De sign Methodology was followed to enhance participants response rate. The first step wa s to send a brief letter of introduction to the colleges of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders notifying them of forthcoming materials regarding study and enco uraging their participation in the study. The NASULGC Directory of Deans generated the list of deans. Next, the researcher mailed a packet cont aining directions for completing the study, the informed consent notice, the leadersh ip skills questionnaire, the demographic instrument, the Multifactor Leadership Questi onnaire (MLQ), and the KAI to each of the academic program leaders. Included in the packet were directions for completing the MLQ and KAI, as well as information on how to return the completed questionnaires in the pre-addressed stamped envelope provided.

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113 One week after the in itial mailing, a post card reminder was sent to a ll participants of the study. Two weeks after the initial mailing was sent requ esting their participation in the study--and their packet had not yet been received by the researcher, an electronic mail reminder was sent requesting their completion of the ques tionnaires. Using a number corresponding with each participants name, th e researcher tracked the participants who completed and returned the questionnaires. Three weeks after beginning the research study, an additional participation request was sent electronically to those individuals who had not yet responde d. Three days after this request was sent, indivi duals were contacted by telephon e to determine if they had received the questionnaire, as we ll as a request for participation. Dillman (2000) suggested as the fourth c ontact to send a replacement packet which includes a letter requesting participation in the study, as well as replacement questionnaires. This contact was omitted from this study and replaced with the e-mail, fax, and phone call follow-ups. Due to the cost of the instrumentation and mailing, it was not practical to send replacement packages to non-responders. As requests were made for replacement packages, they were mailed immediately. Dillman (2000) provided for alternative methods of cont acts: telephone calls and certif ied mailings, as well as any other form of specialized contact. The researcher recorded el ectronic mail that was return ed due to wrong electronic mail addresses or some other reason. For thes e participants, the researcher attempted to get the correct address through the use of the Internet or by making a personal call to the institution where the participant worked re questing the current electronic mail address.

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114 Data collection of demographic informa tion, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and KAI, as well as the leadership skills instrument, were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package for Windows. The specific instruments used to gather the data can be found in the appendix. Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 1 Descriptive statistics, includi ng frequencies and measures of central tendency, were used to describe the academic program leader s in terms of their gender, age, ethnicity, highest college degree, type of degree, tenure in positi on, and previous leadership training. Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 2 and 3 Objective 2 included defining skills that co llege of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders (deans) need in orde r to perform their leadership duties. The study population consisted of the academic progr am leaders. Their names were obtained from the Directory of National Association of Colleges and Land-Grant Universities This directory provided the names of the dean s of each institution associated with the National Association of Colleges and Land-Gran t Universities. Each academic program leader was contacted to determine if he or sh e would be involved in the research project. The leadership skills instrument was divide d into six leadership categories. These categories called Leadership Skill Areas included: 1. Human skills; 2. Conceptual skills; 3. Technical skills 4. Communication skills; 5. Emotional Intelligence skills; and 6. Industry knowledge skills.

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115 These categories were developed after reviewing the relevant literature on leadership, leadership skills, and leadership behaviors. Each leadership skill area had seven questions with the exception of the Em otional Intelligence area, which had eight questions. The leadership skills questionn aire had a total of 44 response questions. Perceived leadership skill level importance a nd self-perceived profic iency in each of the leadership skill areas were analyzed using SPSS, the statistical package for Windows. Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 4 To identify the gaps in leadership skill s and proficiency levels for college of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders, the difference between rated importance of leadership sk ills and self-perceived profic iency was analyzed. Significance was determined by finding the larg est variations in rated importance of leadership skills and self-perceived profic iency in the same leadership skill area. Method and Data Analysis Used for Objectives 5 and 6 Colleges of agricultural and life sciences academic progr am leaders completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and KAI. The MLQ was used to determine leadership style while the KAI was used to determine preferred problem-solving and creativeness in problem-solving style. Independent and dependent variables were analyzed for correlations to examine the relationship of the independent variables on the dependent vari ables per individual variable basis. Correlational statistics were used to determine if a relationship exists between specific personal (gender, ethnicit y, age, highest college degree, and type of degree) and situational (tenure in position and previous leader ship training) demographics with leadership skills, leadership be haviors, and leadership styles.

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116 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 7 For Objective 7, multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship of the independent variables on the dependent variab les. Multiple linear regression statistics is the method used for evaluating the relatio nship of more than one independent or predictor variables on a dependent or outcome variable (Vogt, 2005). Multiple linear regression answers two main questions: (1) What is the relationship on a dependent variable of a one-unit change in an independent variable, wh ile controlling for the effects of all the other independent variables?; a nd (2) What is the total relationship on the dependent variable of all the independen t variables taken together? (Vogt, 2005) Multiple linear regression is a form of regression analysis using more than one predictor variable (independent variable) to predict a single criterion variable (dependent variable). The coefficient for any particular predictor variable is an estimate of the relationship of that variable while holding constant the effects of the other predictor variables (Vogt, 2005). Regression analysis is used to explain or predict the variability of a dependent variable using information about one or more independent variables. Regression analysis attempts to answer the question: What values in the dependent vari able can we expect, given certain values of the independent vari able? Regression analysis indicates the closeness of the relationship be tween two or more variables. It indicates the extent to which you can predict one variab le by knowing another (Vogt, 2005). Linear regression is a met hod of describing the relations hip between two or more variables by calculating a bes t-fitting straight line on a graph (Vogt, 2005). The line averages or summarizes the relationship between variables. Typically a linear regression equation is formulated by means of linear regression. A regression equation is an

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117 equation expressing the relationship between tw o or more variables (Vogt, 2005). This is sometimes termed a prediction equation Non-response To combat non-response error, a compar ison of early to late respondents was conducted. Studies and research have shown that non-respon dents are often similar to late respondents (Ary et al., 2002; Goldhor 1974). A comparison of early respondents and late respondents was conducted. If no significant difference in early and late respondents is found--and late respondents are believed typi cal of non-respondents, it can be assumed that non-respondents would respond in typically the same way as the sample of respondents. Non-respondents would theref ore, be able to ge neralize to the total population (Ary et al., 2002). This study examined the first 25% of the par ticipants and compared them to the last 25% of the respondents (see Table 3-2). Table 3-2: Comparison of Early and Late Respondents (N=26) Early Respondents Late Respondents Gender Male 11 9 Female 2 4 Ethnicity White 11 11 Non-White 2 2 Age M=54.85 M=56.38 Tenure at College or University 26.38 25.08 Human Leadership Skills Importance M=26.38 M=25.08 KAI-total Score 97.15 101.08 Transformational Leadership Style 3.23 3.39 Transactional Leadership Style 2.21 2.39 Laissez-faire Leadership Style .90 .85 An independent t -test was run to compare early a nd late respondents of this study to determine if there was a difference. A ttest is a test of sta tistical significance between

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118 two averages. Comparisons of early responde nts to late responde nts found no significant differences in the areas of gender, ethnicity, age, tenure at a college or university, human leadership skills perceived importance, problem-solving style, transformational leadership style, transactional leadership st yle and/or laissez-faire leadership style (see Table 3-3). Table 3-3: Independent t-Test Comparing Early and Late Respondents (N=26) t df Sig. (2-tailed) Age -.55 24 .59 Tenure at College or University .40 24 .69 Human Skills .12 24 .91 Tenure in Leadership Position .14 24 .89 KAI -.73 24 .48 MLQ Transformational -1.30 24 .21 MLQ Transactional -.98 24 .34 MLQ Laissez-faire .35 24 .73 An additional non-respondent bias check was performed to compensate for nonresponse error. Respondents can be co mpared to non-respondents on certain demographic variables (Smith & Glass, 1987). Gender was selected as a variable to compare respondents and non-respondents. Of the 50 nonrespondents, 37 were male and 14 were female. No significant difference was found between the va riable of gender and respondents and non-respondents of this study. Summary This chapter discussed the various instruments used to assess leadership skills, leadership behaviors, and lead ership styles of college of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders. The population for this study included the academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences as denoted in the directory of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges The population consisted of individuals

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119 having the primary responsibility for part icipation and correspondence in academic programming for their college, as denoted by the directory of the Nati onal Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges This quantitative study included a descrip tion of college of agricultural and life science academic program leaders and their perceived level of importance of specific leadership skills. Self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills was described as well. This study sought to explain the influence of specific demographics on academic program leaders leadership skills, as well as their individual leader ship style. This study also described current academic program leaders in regard to their problem-solving style. Four questionnaires were used to collect data for this study. The first instrument was a questionnaire to collect the perceived im portance of leadership skills needed by colleges of agricultural and life science acad emic program leaders to successfully perform their job. This instrument also m easured the academic program leaders selfperceived proficiency in the leadership sk ill area. This instrument was designed for academic program leaders to rate their perceive d level of importance of certain leadership skills, as well as measuring their own self-perceived level of proficiency within each leadership skill area. The second instrument used in this re search was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 2000). The MLQ measured the leadership style of each of the academic program leaders, and it measured each leaders transactional, transformational and/or laisse z-faire leadership style. The KAI was used to assess the academic program leaders preferred problemsolving style. The KAI measures an individu als thinking/problem-s olving style as either

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120 more adaptive or more innovative in how he or she solves problems and his or her creativeness in solving those problems. Fi nally, a questionnaire was used to gather demographic information about th e participants of the study. The process of analyzing the data of this study was also discussed in this chapter. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and multiple regression statistics were used to analyze the data collected by the instruments.

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121 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 1 introduced this study and de scribed its background, purpose, and objectives. The significance of this study was also discussed. The reasons the land-grant university system and colleges of agriculture were founded and what roles they play today were also presented. Definitions of ke y terms used in this study were provided in Chapter 1, as well as lim itations of this study. Significant impacts to the educational prof ession in recruitment and professional leadership development of academic program leaders (deans) are reasons this study was conducted. The purpose was to identify, define and describe the leadership skills, as well as leadership behaviors and leadership styles of colleges of agriculture academic program leaders. Demographic variables of colleges of agriculture academic program leaders were included and examined to draw a clearer picture of those who currently hold these positions and their previ ous training and future traini ng that they feel would be beneficial for their job performance. Chapter 2 discussed previous research re lated to this study and the theoretical framework used for this study. Chapter 2 revi ewed the literature related to the following 11 key areas: (1) the nature of leadership ; (2) definitions of leadership; (3) major leadership theories; (4) leadership styles; (5) influence of demographics on leadership styles; (6) leadership skills; (7) influen ce of demographics on leadership skills and behaviors; (8) leadership and change; (9) land -grant universities; (10) academic program leaders; and (11) academic progr am leaders as change agents.

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122 The methodology used to complete this study was explained in Chapter 3. The seven research objectives identified were: 1. Determine selected demographic characte ristics of land-grant academic program leaders. 2. Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders. 3. Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders. 4. Identify gaps in leadership skills a nd proficiency level of academic program leaders. 5. Determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional, and/or laissez-faire. 6. Identify an academic program leaders problem-solving style. 7. Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders. The research design, target populations, instrumentation, and method of data collection and analysis, along with statistical procedures for analysis, were addressed in Chapter 3. Methodologies used to reach the obj ectives of the study were also discussed. The findings of this study are pr esented in this chapter. Objective 1 Determine Selected Demographic Charact eristics of Land-grant Academic Program Leaders The National Association of State Univer sities and Land Grant Colleges designates 106 individuals as being academic program leader s or persons with those responsibilities. Fifty-six individuals responded to the resear ch for a response rate of 53%. Of the 56 academic program leaders (deans) who participated in the study, 76.8% ( n =43) were male and 23.3% ( n =13) were female. In terms of ethnicity, this study found 76.8% ( n =43)

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123 were white; 10.7% ( n =6) were African American; 7.1% ( n =4) were American Indian or Alaska native; 3.6% ( n =2) were Asian; and 1.8% ( n =1) were Hispanic or Latino. Participant Age The oldest participant in the study was 68, and the youngest was 40 years old. The mean age of the participants was 55.11 year s old. The mean number of years the participants had been working with the uni versity or college system was 24.86 years. The most years by a participant was 40, and th e participant with th e fewest years was 6 years. The fewest years an academic program leader had in his or her formal leadership position was 1 year while the most was 30. The mean for the number of years in a formal leadership position was 10.82 years. Age and tenure are presented in Table 4-1. Table 4-1: Age and Tenure of Academic Program Leaders (N=56) N M SD Min Max Age 56 55.11 6.36 40 68 Tenure in University or College System 56 24.86 7.66 6 40 Tenure in Formal Leadership Position 56 10.82 6.83 1 30 Educational Degree Held Participants of the study held a bench scienc e degree or a social science degree. Of the 56 participants, 89.2% ( n =50) held the doctor of philosophy degree, 7.1% ( n =4) held a doctor of education degree, 1.7% ( n =1) held a masters degree in marine affairs, and 1.7% ( n =1) held a masters degree in edu cation. The academic major of each participants highest degree was classified as either a social scien ce degree or a bench science degree. This study found 57.2% (n= 32) of the respondents received their highest degree in a bench science, and 42.8% ( n =24) held a social science degree. Previous Leadership Experience Previous leadership traini ng scores ranged from 0 to 3. Previous leadership training scores and subscores are presented in Table 4-2. The mean score for previous

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124 leadership training was M = .55, SD =.91. The mean score for leadership workshops was M=.73, SD =1.00, while the mean for other leadership training was M=1.23, SD =1.36. Table 4-2: Previous Leadership Training Scores (N=56) N M SD Minimum Maximum College Leadership Courses 56 .55 .91 0 3 Leadership Workshops 56 .73 1.00 0 3 Other Leadership Training 56 1.23 1.36 0 3 Objective 2 Assess Level of Importance of Leadership Skills, as Determined by Academic Program Leaders Perceived Importance of Leadership Skill Areas Before collecting data for this study, six ma jor leadership skill areas were deemed important through a review of the literature. These leadership skill areas included: Human Skills; Conceptual Skills; Technical Skills; Communication Skills; Emotional Intelligence Skills; and Industry Knowledge Skills. Based on Moores (2003) study, participants rated individual item responses in each leadership skill area from 1 ( Not Important ) to 5 ( Very Important ). In the Human Skills area, there were a total of seven questions. Each participant was asked to respond to how important they believed each leadership question was to being a leader. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each human skill importa nce item response, is listed in Table 4-3. Table 4-3: Human Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q1: Identify personal strengt hs and weaknesses 4.61 .49 Q2: Evaluate the impact of personnel 4.39 .59 Q3: Respect others 4.87 .38 Q4: Create an environment in which you, as the leader, are approachable and open to new ideas 4.87 .33 Q5: Be an effective team member 4.66 .48 Q6: Environment that values th e diversity of others 4.73 .58 Q7: Create an environment in which team members are willing to share ideas 4.82 .39

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125 In the Conceptual Skills area, there were a total of seven questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviati on for each question, is listed in Table 4-4. The participants responses indicate they believ e conceptual leadership skills to be in the Important to Very Important category of leadership skills. Conceptual leadership skills deal with vision. This is an important skill to have if you are responsible for growth and change in an organization. C onceptual skills not only allows one to create a vision, but an individual that realizes the importance of c onceptual skills will al so be able to lead their organization to the point where they can accomplish their goal or objective. Table 4-4: Conceptual Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q8: Create a long-term vision fo r the organization 4.63 .52 Q9: Think strategically 4.57 .74 Q10: Set goals 4.68 .51 Q11: Help others support organizational change 4.34 .67 Q12: Be decisive 4.54 .60 Q13: Attitude that supports and welc omes organizational change 4.52 .66 Q14: Achieve goals 4.52 .54 The Technical Skills area had seven que stions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each question, is listed in Table 4-5. The participants of this study varied in their per ception of importance of the tech nical skills area. Scores ranged from 3.80 to 4.43. This leadership skill area had one of the largest variances in responses. One Academic program leaders stat ed he had administrative staff to complete the necessary technical require ments of their job. Table 4-5 shows that participants of this study did agree that be ing able to develop, interpret, and explain budgets was an important skill for the academic program leader.

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126 Table 4-5: Technical Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q15: Develop budgets for all levels within the organization 4.14 .98 Q16: Effectively use computer soft ware for word processing 3.87 1.01 Q17: Interpret and explain organizational budgets 4.43 .66 Q18: Effectively use and search the Internet 3.80 .99 Q19: Effectively use computer so ftware for spreadsheets 3.82 .99 Q20: Effectively use computer software for databases 3.55 1.03 Q21: Effectively integrate computer software program applications (i.e., merge files) 3.30 1.06 The Communication Skills area had seve n questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each que stion, is listed in Table 4-6. Land-grant institutions have the responsib ility of teaching, research, and extension. Each aspect of this responsibility has some fo rm of communication requirement, either verbal or written. The academic program leaders involved in th is study showed little variance in their answers, rating all areas of comm unication skills importance in the Very Important category. Academic program leaders seem to believe that having or al skills, listening skills, and interpretation skill s as being very important. Table 4-6: Communication Skill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q 22: Interact and communicate with people who have divergent 4.70 .46 points of view Q 23: Identify barriers to listening 4.34 .75 Q 24: Write for various organizatio nal purposes (i.e., technical 4.02 .88 writing, professional publications, etc.) Q 25: Read and comprehend a wide range of publications 4.00 .85 Q 26: Reduce barriers to listening 4.38 .73 Q 27: Recognize and effectively use nonverbal cues or behaviors 4.21 .76 Q 28: Write for various audiences 4.13 .83 The Emotional Intelligence Skills area ha d eight questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each question, is listed in Table 4-7. The emotional skills area was deemed Very Important by the academic program leaders involved in this study. The ability to take and use constructive criticism was deemed

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127 very important by the academic program lead ers. Being able to control oneself in emotional situations as well as using time effectively were deemed as being very important by academic program leaders. Table 4-7: Emotional Intelligence Skill It em Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q 29: Set priorities to effectively manage personal time 4.63 .52 Q 30: Resolve conflict 4.70 .50 Q31: Make use of constructive crit icism without becoming critical 4.68 .47 and angry Q 32: Separate personalities from behaviors 4.45 .66 Q 33: Negotiate agreement 4.52 .60 Q 34: High level of motivation 4.75 .44 Q 35: Control emotions in emotional situations 4.68 .47 Q 36: Set priorities to effectively manage organizational time 4.68 .51 Q 37: Respect for the time comm itments of others 4.61 .49 The Industry Knowledge Skills area had seven questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation fo r each question, is listed in Table 4-8. Academic program leaders seem to believe th at industry knowledge skills are important to the fulfillment of their job. Scores in th e industry knowledge skil ls area were not as high as in other areas, but academic program lead ers still believe in their importance. It is interesting to note that academic program leaders rated depth of knowledge in a content area as having the least importance in the indus try knowledge skill area. This would lead an individual to believe that academic program leaders dont need to be experts in one particular field. Table 4-8: Industry Knowledge Skill Item Response Scores (Importance) M SD Q 38: Create linkages with both traditional and non-traditional audiences 4.36 .77 Q 39: Depth of knowledge in a content area 3.80 .82 Q 40: Identify the needs of various cl ient groups within the state 4.38 .78 Q 41: Explain the political environmen t of the state and the 4.20 .90 implications for the land-grant university system Q 42: Relationship between statew ide programs (i.e., role of various agencies in the deliv ery of programs ) 4.02 .98

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128 Table 4-8: Continued Q 43: Evaluate the impact of programs for each client group 4.11 .80 Q 44: Be able to explain the foundi ng principles of the 4.29 .91 land-grant system with constituents Scores for each leadership skill area are pr esented in Table 4-9. Each construct was converted to a 100-point scale by dividing the sum of the responses by the total possible response score for each skill area. Scores for the importance of Human Skills ranged from a low of 77.14 to a high of 100.00. Conceptu al Skill scores ranged from a low of 74.29 to a high of 100.00. Technical Skill scores ranged from a low of 31.43 to a high of 100.00. Communication Skills ranged from a low of 54.29 to a high of 100.00. The lowest score in the Emotional Intellige nce Skill area was 73.33 with 100.00 being the highest score. Finally, Industry Skill scor es ranged from a low of 57.14 to a high of 100.00. Table 4-9: Perceived Leadership Skill Importance (N=56) n M SD Min Max Human Skills 56 94.18 5.39 77.14 100.00 Conceptual Skills 56 90.77 7.33 74.29 100.00 Technical Skills 56 76.94 14.31 31.43 100.00 Communication Skills 56 85.26 10.28 54.29 100.00 Emotional Intelligence Skills 56 92.18 7.15 73.33 100.00 Industry Skills 56 83.11 11.29 57.14 100.00 Total Importance Score 56 87.07 9.29 As shown in Table 4-9, the highest mean score was Human Skills (M=94.18, SD=5.39), and the lowest mean score was Technical Skills (M=76.94, SD=14.31). The overall mean for the perceived importance of leadership skills was an 87.07, with a standard deviation of 9.29. In all areas of perceived importance of leadership skills academic program leaders seem to indicate that they hold these six leadership skills as being important. This supports the l iterature and other research findings.

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129 Objective 3 Assess Self-perceived Proficiency of Lead ership Skills of Academic Program Leaders Self-perceived Proficiency in Leadership Skill Areas Study participants were assessed their se lf-perceived proficiency within each leadership skill area construct. Participants rated individual item responses in each leadership skill area from 1 ( Not Proficient ) to 5 ( Very Proficient ). In the Human Skills area, there were a total of seven questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each Human Skill profic iency item response, is listed in Table 410. Academic program leaders believe their proficiency in the human skills area is somewhat proficient. It is interesting to note that respecting others and promoting an environment that values the diversity of others scored the highest in this area. This indicates that academic program leaders are aware of the need for respect and diversification in their workplace. Huma n skills leadership abilities, which include knowing about human behavior and group activity processes, along with the understanding of beliefs, attitudes, and f eelings of others, are possessed by academic program leaders, as indicated by their respons es of their self-perce ived proficiency. Table 4-10: Human Skill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) M SD Q1: Identify personal strengt hs and weaknesses 3.95 .72 Q2: Evaluate the impact of personnel 3.88 .76 Q3: Respect others 4.73 .56 Q4: Create an environment in whic h you, as the leader, are 4.50 .57 approachable and open to new ideas Q5: Be an effective team member 4.30 .63 Q6: Environment that values the diversity of others 4.46 .74 Q7: Create an environment in which team members are willing to share ideas 4.36 .82

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130 The Conceptual Skills area had seven que stions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each question, is listed in Table 4-11. Academic program leaders believe they are Somewhat Proficient in the conceptual sk ills area. Academic program leaders believe they have the ability to effectively plan, organize, and problem solve. Academic program leaders believe they can coordinate and comprehend changes in their work environment. Table 4-11: Conceptual Skill Self-perceived Pr oficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) M SD Q8: Create a long-term vision fo r the organization 3.91 .72 Q9: Think strategically 3.93 .85 Q10: Set goals 4.04 .69 Q11: Help others support organizational change 3.84 .71 Q12: Be decisive 4.20 .72 Q13: Attitude that supports and welcomes 4.27 .73 organizational change Q14: Achieve goals 4.13 .69 The Technical Skills area had seven que stions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each question, is listed in Table 4-12. The leadership skills area of technical skills showed academic program leaders feeling they had moderate proficiency. Academic program lead ers believe they have medium proficiency in their ability to process, and conduct spec ialized activities require d to complete their jobs. Table 4-12: Technical Skill Self-perceived Pr oficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) M SD Q15: Develop budgets for all levels within the organization 3.82 .97 Q16: Effectively use computer soft ware for word processing 4.16 .93 Q17: Interpret and explain organizational budgets 4.00 .87 Q18: Effectively use and search the Internet 4.00 .87 Q19: Effectively use computer so ftware for spreadsheets 3.61 1.10 Q20: Effectively use computer software for databases 3.11 1.16 Q21: Effectively integrate computer software program 2.98 1.15 applications (i.e., merge files)

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131 The Communication Skills area had seve n questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviat ion for each question, is listed in Table 4-13. Academic program leaders perceive themselves as being proficient in the leadership skills area of communication. Table 4-13: Communication Skill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores M SD Q 22: Interact and communicate with people who have divergent 4.21 .76 points of view Q 23: Identify barriers to listening 3.75 .86 Q 24: Write for various organizatio nal purposes (i.e., technical 3.84 .95 writing, professional publications, etc.) Q 25: Read and comprehend a wide range of publications 3.70 .85 Q 26: Reduce barriers to listening 3.75 .72 Q 27: Recognize and effectively use nonverbal cues or behaviors 3.80 .84 Q 28: Write for various audiences 3.89 .80 The Emotional Intelligence Skills area ha d eight questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation for each question, is listed in Table 4-14. Table 4-14: Emotional Intelligence Self-perceiv ed Proficiency Item Response Scores M SD Q 29: Set priorities to effectively manage personal time 3.55 .85 Q 30: Resolve conflict 3.87 .76 Q31: Make use of constructive crit icism without becoming critical 4.07 .68 and angry Q 32: Separate personalities from behaviors 3.77 .76 Q 33: Negotiate agreement 3.88 .76 Q 34: High level of motivation 4.46 .71 Q 35: Control emotions in emotional situations 3.95 .80 Q 36: Set priorities to effectively manage organizational time 3.86 .72 Q 37: Respect for the time comm itments of others 4.20 .67 The Industry Knowledge Skills area had seven questions. The response mean score, along with the standard deviation fo r each question, is listed in Table 4-15. Academic program leaders self-perceived prof iciency in the industry skills area is lower then other leadership skill areas.

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132 Table 4-15: Industry Knowledge Self-perceived Pr oficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) M SD Q 38: Create linkages with both trad itional and non-traditional 3.86 .84 audiences Q 39: Depth of knowledge in a content area 3.75 .75 Q 40: Identify the needs of various cl ient groups within the state 3.80 .80 Q 41: Explain the political environmen t of the state and the 3.61 .93 implications for the land-grant university system Q 42: Relationship between statewide programs (i.e., role of 3.52 .91 various agencies in th e delivery of programs) Q 43: Evaluate the impact of programs for each client group 3.43 .87 Q 44: Be able to explain the f ounding principles of the 4.11 .99 land-grant system with constituents The mean score for self-perceived proficie ncy in the six leadership skill areas was 78.42 (M=78.42, SD=11.12). The self-perceived pr oficiency scores in the Human Skills area ranged from a low of 62.86 to a high of 100.00. In the Conceptual Skills area, the low was 57.14 and a high of 100.00. The Techni cal Skills area had the overall lowest score of 37.14 and a high of 100.00. In th e Communication Skills area, the low was 51.43 and the high was 100.00. Participants scor ed the Emotional Inte lligence Skills area with a low of 55.56 and a high of 100.00. Industr y Skills scores ranged from a low of 48.57 to a high of 100.00. See Table 4-16 for mean scores, standard deviations, and minimum and maximum scores for Se lf-perceived Proficiency scores. Table 4-16: Leadership Skill Self-perceived Proficiency (N=56) n M SD Min Max Human Skills 56 86.02 9.31 62.86 100.00 Conceptual Skills 56 80.82 9.71 57.14 100.00 Technical Skills 56 73.27 14.43 37.14 100.00 Communication Skills 56 77.19 11.41 51.43 100.00 Emotional Intelligence Skills 56 78.93 9.37 55.56 100.00 Industry Skills 56 74.29 12.50 48.57 100.00 Total Importance Score 56 78.42 11.12

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133 Objective 4 Identify Gaps in Leadership Skills and Proficiency Level of Academic Program Leaders Difference Between Perceived Importance and Self-Perceived Proficiency of Leadership Skills The difference between mean scores for th e importance of each leadership skill area and the self-perceived prof iciency level of the studys pa rticipants are reported in Table 4-17. Means for the perceived importan ce of leadership skill s were higher in all areas than the means for the self-perceived pr oficiency of leadership skills. The largest gap between mean scores was in the lead ership area of Emotional Intelligence (M Importance=92.18, M Proficiency=78.93) for a difference of 13.25. The scale with the smallest amount of difference occurred in the Technical Skills area (M Importance=76.94, M Proficiency=73.27), which resulted in a difference of 3.67. Table 4-17: Difference Between Mean for Importance and Proficiency M (Importance) M (Proficiency) Gap Human Skills 94.18 86.02 8.16 Conceptual Skills 90.77 80.82 9.95 Technical Skills 76.94 73.27 3.67 Communication Skills 85.26 77.19 8.07 Emotional Intelligence Skills 92.18 78.93 13.25 Industry Skills 83.11 74.29 8.82 Total Score 87.07 78.42 8.65 Objective 5 Determine Leadership Behaviors of Ac ademic Program Leaders as Being Transformational, Transactional and/or Laissez-faire Leadership styles of the studys participants were de termined by scoring each participants response to the MLQ Scoring Ke y. Each of the nine leadership scales measured by the MLQ as well as the transforma tional, transactional, and/or laissez-faire leadership style scores are presented in Table 4-18. Leadership scale scores have a range

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134 possibility of 0 to 4. Of th e nine scale scores, Inspira tional Motivation received the highest mean score (M=3.44, SD =.43), and laissez-faire scale scores received the lowest mean score (M=.59, SD =.44). Leadership style scores had a range of 0 to 4. The range of scale scores for the respondents for transformational leadersh ip style was 2.40 to 3.95. Transactional leadership style scores ranged from 1.38 to 3.13. The laissez-faire leadership style had a range of .125 to 1.625. Transformational leader ship scores reported by the participants were the highest of the leadership style scores (M=3.28, SD =.36), while laissez-faire leadership style was reported as having the lowest score (M=.88, SD =.37). Participants reported a score for transactiona l leadership style of (M=2.24, SD =.46). Table 4-18 presents the scores for the nine leadership scales and the three leadership style scores; transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Table 4-18: Leadership Scale Scores and Leadership Style Scores n M SD Min Max Leadership Scale Scores: Contingent Reward 56 3.13 .51 2.0 4.0 Intellectual Stimulation 56 3.26 .52 1.0 4.0 Management-by-Exception (Passive) 56 1.17 .58 0.0 4.0 Management-by-Exception (Active) 56 1.37 .65 0.0 4.0 Laissez-faire Leadership Scale 56 .59 .44 0.0 4.0 Idealized Influence (Behavior) 56 3.24 .45 2.0 4.0 Idealized Influence (Attributed) 56 3.18 .46 2.0 4.0 Individualized Consideration 56 3.32 .44 2.0 4.0 Inspirational Motivation 56 3.44 .43 2.0 4.0 Leadership Style Scores Transformational Leadership Style 56 3.28 .36 2.4 3.95 Transactional Leadership Style 56 2.24 .46 1.38 3.13 Laissez-faire Leadership Style 56 .88 .37 .12 1.62 Leadership Style and Gender There were fewer female respondents (n=13) than there were male (n=43). Table 4-19 shows the leadership style scores by gende r. No significant co rrelations were found

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135 between leadership style and gender. Leadersh ip style scores had a possible range of 0 to 4. Females scored lower in all leadership st yle areas including laissez-faire leadership. Table 4-20 presents the mean leader ship scale scores by gender. Table 4-19: Leadership Style Scores by Gender Construct Gender n M SD MLQ Transformational Female 13 3.20 .38 Male 43 3.31 .36 MLQ Transactional Female 13 2.20 .43 Male 43 2.26 .48 MLQ Laissez-faire Female 13 .84 .30 Male 43 .90 .38 There were no significant differences between men and women in any of the leadership scale scores. Table 4-20: Leadership Scale Scores by Gender Construct Gender n M SD. Contingent Reward Female 13 3.06 .42 Male 43 3.15 .55 Intellectual Stimulation Female 13 3.15 .70 Male 43 3.29 .46 Management-by-Exception (Passive) Female 13 1.06 .52 Male 43 1.20 .60 Management-by-Exception (Active) Female 13 1.34 .56 Male 43 1.37 .69 Laissez-faire Leadership Scale Female 13 .62 .45 Male 43 .59 .44 Idealized Influence (Behavior) Female 13 3.12 .50 Male 43 3.27 .44 Idealized Influence (Attributed) Female 13 3.12 .42 Male 43 3.20 .48 Individualized Consideration Female 13 3.23 .41 Male 43 3.34 .45 Inspirational Motivation Female 13 3.38 .47 Male 43 3.45 .42 Leadership Style and Ethnicity Most of the participants re ported their ethnicity as White (n=43). There were four American Indians or Alaska Natives (n=4). Two participants responded in the Asian

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136 category (n=2), while six i ndividuals responded in the Bl ack or African American category (n=6). One participant responded in the Hispanic or Latino category (n=1). There were no respondents in the Hawaiian or Pacific Islander cate gory. The mean of transformational leadership styles in the Whites category was 3.27 (n=43), the transactional leadership style had a mean of 2.22, while the laissez-faire leadership style had a mean of .90. Blacks or African Ameri cans had a transformational leadership style mean of 3.45, a transactional leadership styl e mean of 2.68, and a laissez-faire leadership style mean score of .89. American Indians or Alaska Natives (n=4) had a mean score for transformational leadership style of 3.2, while the transactional leader ship style mean was 1.84, and the laissez-faire mean was .65. Hispanic or Latinos mean score for transformational leadership style was a 3.7, wh ile the mean for tran sactional leadership was 2.87, and the mean for laissez-faire l eadership was 1.0. Asians had a mean transformational leadership style score of 2.97, and a transactional leadership style mean of 1.87, while the mean laissez-fair leadersh ip style score was .81 (see Table 4-21). When examining the leadership style scores by ethnicity, no significa nt differences were found. Table 4-21: Leadership Style Scores by Ethnicity Construct Ethnicity n M SD MLQ Transformational American Indian or Alaska Native 4 3.20 .21 Asian 2 2.97 .67 Black or African American 6 3.45 .16 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0 Hispanic or Latino 1 3.70 White 43 3.27 .37 MLQ Transactional American Indian or Alaska Native 4 1.84 .25 Asian 2 1.87 .35 Black or African American 6 2.68 .30 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0

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137 Table 4-21: Continued Hispanic or Latino 1 2.87 White 43 2.22 .44 MLQ Laissez-faire American Indian or Alaska Native 4 .65 .27 Asian 2 .81 .26 Black or African American 6 .89 .34 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0 Hispanic or Latino 1 1.00 White 43 .90 .38 A comparison of leadership style scores to Whites and non-Whites was conducted. The data are presented in Table 4-22. Th e difference between Whites and non-Whites in regard to leadership style scores was minimal. The data presented no significant differences between Whites and non-White s in terms of leadership style. Table 4-22: Leadership Style of Whit es and non-Whites (N=26) n M SD MLQ Transformational Whites 43 3.27 .37 Non-Whites 13 3.33 .34 MLQ Transactional Whites 43 2.22 .30 Non-Whites 13 2.32 .44 MLQ Laissez-faire Whites 43 .90 .38 Non-Whites 13 .84 .29 Leadership Style and Age Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and the leadership styles along with age are presented in Table 423. Correlations and correlational research are used to show how one variable or vari ables are related to another variable. Correlational research comp ares two or more variables from the same set of subjects or particip ants. Pearsons Product Moment correlations are the most widely used descriptive stat istic of correlation (Ary et al., 2002). Using Pearsons Product Moment correlations, the product will be +1.00 if there is a perfect positive

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138 correlation between two variab les, and .00 if there is a perfect negative correlation between two variables. If ther e is little to no relationshi p between two variables, the correlation will be near 0. When interpreting correlations, an r value of .10 to .29 shows a small relationship, an r of .30 to .50 describes a medium effect size, while an r of .50 or greater indicates a large eff ect size (Ary et al., 2002). The data show a medium or moderately significant correlation between ag e and transformational leadership style, r = .32, p >.05, Idealized Influence, r = .31, p >.05, and Individualized Consideration, r = .28, p >.05. No other significant correlations were found between leadership style, leadership scale scores, and age. The alpha level for all correlations was set apriori at .05. Table 4-23: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores, and Age (N=56) r Significance (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style .32* .02 Transactional Leadership Style .17 .20 Laissez-faire Leadership Style .07 .59 Contingent Reward .26 .05 Intellectual Stimulation .21 .12 Management-by-Exception (passive) .05 .71 Management-by-Exception (active) .04 .78 Idealized Influence (behavior) .31* .02 Idealized Influence (attributed) .23 .09 Inspirational Motivation .24 .07 Individualized Consideration .28* .04 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed). Leadership Style and Tenure at a College or University Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and the leadership styles along with tenure at a college or university ar e presented in Table 424. There is no significant correlation between transfor mational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles or any of the leadership sc ale scores with tenure at a college or university.

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139 Table 4-24: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Years of Tenure at a College or University r Significance. (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style .20 .14 Transactional Leadership Style .14 .31 Laissez-faire Leadership Style .03 .82 Contingent Reward .17 .20 Intellectual Stimulation .08 .55 Management-by-Exception (passive) .02 .91 Management-by-Exception (active) .06 .67 Idealized Influence (behavior) .17 .22 Idealized Influence (attributed) .13 .34 Inspirational Motivation .19 .17 Individualized Consideration .24 .08 Leadership Style and Tenure in Formal Leadership Position Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and the leadership styles with tenure in a formal leadership position ar e presented in Table 425. The table shows a significant correlati on between tenure in a formal leadership position and transformational leadership style, r = .31, p >.05, transactiona l leadership style, r = .31, p >.05, Contingent Reward, r = .44, p >.05, and Individualized Consideration, r = .31, p >.05. No other significant co rrelations were found between leadership style and tenure in a formal leadership position. Table 4-25: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Years of Formal Leadership Position Tenure (N=56) r Significance. (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style .31* .02 Transactional Leadership Style .31* .02 Laissez-faire Leadership Style .02 .91 Contingent Reward .44* .01 Intellectual Stimulation .26 .05 Management-by-Exception (passive) .01 .98 Management-by-Exception (active) .10 .47 Idealized Influence (behavior) .25 .06 Idealized Influence (attributed) .16 .25 Inspirational Motivation .23 .10 Individualized Consideration .31* .02 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed).

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140 Leadership Style and Previous College Leadership Courses Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and leadership styles with college leadership courses taken are presented in Table 4-26. There was a significant negative correlation be tween laissez-faire Leadership style and college leadership courses taken, r = -.32, p >.05. This negative corr elation indicates that the fewer number of leadership courses taken in college, the more laissez-faire leadership behaviors are exhibited by the academic program leader. No other significant correlations were found between leadership st yle or leadership scale scores and the number of college leadership courses taken. Table 4-26: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and the Number of College Leadership Courses (N=56) r Significance. (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style -.01 .93 Transactional Leadership Style -.21 .13 Laissez-faire Leadership Style -.32* .02 Contingent Reward -.11 .42 Intellectual Stimulation -.04 .80 Management-by-Exception (passive) -.16 .25 Management-by-Exception (active) -.20 .13 Idealized Influence (behavior) .09 .54 Idealized Influence (attributed) .04 .76 Inspirational Motivation -.07 .62 Individualized Consideration -.07 .60 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed). Leadership Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and the leadership styles with l eadership workshops taken are pr esented in Table 4-27. There were no significant correlations between lead ership workshop training, leadership style scores, and leadership scale scores.

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141 Table 4-27: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Leadership Workshops (N=56) r Significance. (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style .01 .99 Transactional Leadership Style .14 .30 Laissez-faire Leadership Style -.09 .49 Contingent Reward .13 .35 Intellectual Stimulation -.05 .69 Management-by-Exception (passive) -.12 .39 Management-by-Exception (active) .10 .47 Idealized Influence (behavior) .14 .29 Idealized Influence (attributed) -.11 .42 Inspirational Motivation .01 .97 Individualized Consideration .03 .82 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed). Leadership Style and Any Other A dditional Leadership Training Pearsons Product Moment correlations betw een each of the leadership scales and leadership styles and the number of leadersh ip training courses are presented in Table 428. Table 4-28: Pearsons Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Previous Leadership Training Courses (N=56) r Significance. (2-tailed) Transformational Leadership Style 22 .10 Transactional Leadership Style .03 .85 Laissez-faire Leadership Style -.12 .37 Contingent Reward .27* .05 Intellectual Stimulation .01 .95 Management-by-Exception (passive) -.09 .51 Management-by-Exception (active) -.17 .20 Idealized Influence (behavior) .27* .04 Idealized Influence (attributed) .14 .32 Inspirational Motivation .30* .02 Individualized Consideration .19 .17 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed). The data revealed a significant correl ation between Previous Training and Contingent Reward, r = .27, p >.05, Idealized Influence (behavior), r = .27, p >.05, and Inspirational Motivation, r = .30, p >.05. No other significan t correlations were found

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142 between other previous leadership training and leadership style and leadership scale scores. Objective 6 Identify Academic Program Leaders Problem-solving Style The mean score for participants problem-solving style was 100.18 ( n =56). Scores for the participants problem-solving styles could have a possible range of 32 to 160. The range of scores of the particip ants in this study was 69 to 137. The range of scores for the Sufficiency of Originality is 13 to 65. The mean of the respondents was 46.46 ( n =56), with a range from 37 at the adaptive side and 61 on the innovative side. The range of scores possibl e for the Efficiency scale is 7 to 35. The mean of the respondents was 18.96 ( n =56), with a range of 9 to 32. In the Rules scale, the range of scores is 12 to 60. Th e participants had a mean of 35.46 ( n =56), with a range of 20 to 51. Scores above 96 for total KAI represent a more innovative problem-solving style, while a score under 96 indicates a mo re adaptive problem-solving style. A KAI-SO score above 45 represents the more innovative style. Having a KAI-E score above 15 indicates a more innovative approach, while a KAI-R above 15 also indicates a more innovative nature, (see Table 4-29). Table 4-29: Problem-solving Style (N=56) n M SD Min Max KAI Total Score 56 100.18 13.24 69 137 KAI SO 56 46.46 6.25 37 61 KAI E 56 18.96 4.91 9 32 KAI R 56 35.46 6.80 20 51 Problem-solving Style and Gender There were more males (n=43) in the study than females (n=13). For total problem-solving scores females had a sligh tly more innovative mean score at 100.85,

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143 compared to the male mean of 99.98. In th e Sufficiency of Originality category, the males had the slightly more innovative mean with 46.98, in comparison to the female mean of 44.77. Females had a more innovative Efficiency mean with a 19.23, compared to the males 18.88 mean score. For the final KAI mean (KAI-R), the females had the more innovative mean score with a 36.85, while the males scores mean was 35.05 in the Rules category. These scores would generally indicate females tended to be slightly more innovative in their problem-solving st yles, (see Table 4-30). No significant differences were found between men and women in problem-solving preferences. Table 4-30: Problem-solving Style and Gender (N=56) n M SD KAI Total Score 56 100.18 13.24 Female 13 100.85 11.99 Male 43 99.98 13.72 KAI Total SO 56 46.46 6.25 Female 13 44.77 4.97 Male 43 46.98 6.55 KAI Total E 56 18.96 4.91 Female 13 19.23 6.13 Male 43 18.88 4.56 KAI Total R 56 35.46 6.80 Female 13 36.85 4.96 Male 43 35.05 7.26 Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity When comparing problem-solving style a nd ethnicity, the data revealed that American Indians or Alaska Natives (n=4 ) have a more innovative mean at 103.25. Blacks or African Americans (n=6) have the second most innovative mean of the respondents at 101.67. Whites had a mean of 100.14, followed by Hispanics or Latinos with a mean of 95.00. Asians (n=2) had a mean Problem-solving Style score of 93.00, being the most adaptive in their prob lem-solving style, (see Table 4-31).

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144 Table 4-31: Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity (N=56) n M SD American Indian or Alaska Native 4 103.25 5.50 Asian 2 93.00 1.414 Black or African American 6 101.67 7.633 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0 Hispanic or Latino 1 95.00 White 43 100.14 14.700 Total 56 100.18 13.239 A comparison of problem-solving style to Whites and non-whites was conducted. The data are presented in Table 4-32. Both Whites and non-Whites tended to be more innovative in their problem-solving styles however Whites tended to have a more innovative problem-solving style, as compared to non-Whites. No significant differences were found between Whites and non-Whites. Table 4-32: Problem-solving Style of Wh ites and non-Whites (N=56) n M SD KAI Whites 43 100.14 14.70 non-Whites 13 98.23 4.85 Problem-solving Style and Age Pearsons Product Moment correlations be tween problem-solving style and age are presented in Table 4-33. There was not a significant relations hip between problemsolving style and age. Table 4-33: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Age (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 .03 .80 KAI SO 56 .12 .38 KAI E 56 -.06 .64 KAI R 56 .03 .85

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145 Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree The participants of the study responded as to their highest college degree, which then was classified as a bench science degree or a social science degree. There were more bench science degrees (n=32) than so cial science degrees (n=24). The problemsolving style mean for all degree types wa s 100.08 (n=56). The mean for participants who held a bench science degree was 100.18 (n= 32), and the mean for those with a social science degree was 100.04 (n=24). See Table 4-34. Table 4-34: Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree (N=56) n M SD Bench Science Degree KAI Total Score 32 100.18 13.23 KAI SO 32 45.81 6.10 KAI E 32 19.31 4.88 KAI R 32 35.78 6.31 Social Science Degree KAI Total Score 24 100.04 14.19 KAI SO 24 47.33 6.47 KAI E 24 18.50 5.01 KAI R 24 35.04 7.51 Pearsons Product Moment correlations be tween problem-solving style and type of degree are presented in Tabl e 4-35. There were no signifi cant differences between academic program leaders problem-solving st yle and the type of degree held--either a bench science degree or a social science degree. Table 4-35: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 -.01 .95 KAI SO 56 .12 .37 KAI E 56 -.08 .55 KAI R 56 -.05 .69

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146 Problem-solving Style and Tenure at a College or University Pearsons Product Moment correlations between problem-solving style and tenure at a college or university are presented in Table 4-36. There was no significant relationship found between ove rall total KAI score, KAI-S O, KAI-E, or KAI-R and tenure at a college or university. Table 4-36: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Tenure at a College or University (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 -.01 .97 KAI SO 56 .22 .10 KAI E 56 -.12 .39 KAI R 56 -.04 .75 Problem-solving Style and Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position Pearsons Product Moment correlations between problem-solving style and tenure in a formal leadership positi on are presented in Table 4-37. No significant relationship was found between the KAI score and tenure in a formal leadership position. No significant correlations were found between KAI-SO, KAI-E, or KAI-R problem-solving style and tenure in a formal leadership position. Table 4-37: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 .11 .41 KAI SO 56 .25 .06 KAI E 56 -.02 .90 KAI R 56 .08 .54 Problem-solving Style and Previo us College Leadership Training Pearsons Product Moment correlations between problem-solving style and previous college leadership training ar e presented in Table 4-38. A significant relationship between KAI-SO and previous college leadership training was found, r = -

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147 .28, p >.05. This relationship was found to be a low significant negative relationship, that is the less leadership training an individual ha s, the fewer ideas the individual generates. Table 4-38: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Previous College Leadership Training (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 -.10 .47 KAI SO 56 -.28* .04 KAI E 56 -.07 .60 KAI R 56 .05 .72 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Problem-solving Style and Previo us Leadership Workshop Training Pearsons Product Moment correlations between problem-solving style and previous leadership workshop training are presented in Table 4-39. No significant relationship was found between problem-solving style and pr evious leadership workshop training. Table 4-39: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 -.09 .52 KAI SO 56 .01 .92 KAI E 56 -.19 .17 KAI R 56 -.01 .89 Problem-solving Style Prev ious Leadership Training Pearsons Product Moment correlations between problem-solving style and previous leadership training are presented in Table 4-40. No significant relationship between problem-solving style and a ny other leadership training was found. Table 4-40: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati on Between Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Training (N=56) n r Significance (2-tailed) KAI 56 .06 .68 KAI SO 56 .18 .18 KAI E 56 .02 .91 KAI R 56 .07 .62

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148 Objective 7 Explain Leadership Styles of Academic Program Leaders The previous sections discussed the rela tionships between in dividual demographic variables and Leadership scale scores and leadership styles. Stepwise, backward multiple regression was performed between the demogr aphic variables (gender, ethnicity, age, years employed with the university or college, and years in formal leadership position), problem-solving score (KAI) and subscore s (KAI-SO, KAI-E, and KAI-R), college leadership courses, leadership workshops, a nd other previous lead ership training with each of the leadership skills perceived importa nce and the leadership skill proficiency, with the three leadership styles (transfo rmational leadership style, transactional leadership style, and laissez-faire leadersh ip) in order to expl ain the influence of demographic variables on leadership style. Regression equations are used to explain the dependent variable by using two or more i ndependent variables. Each independent variable is weighted in propor tion to its contribution to expl anatory accuracy (Ary et al., 2002). Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) stated that when conducting multiple regression analysis, there should be at least 10 subjects fo r every variable included in the model in order to avoid model over-specification. Since there were 56 participan ts in this study, a maximum of 5 variables will be used to de termine the best model for explaining the leadership styles of academic program leaders. Correlations were conducted with the 24 variables of the study and the three leadership styles. The correlations for the 24 variables are shown in Appendix H. The correlations between the variables and transfor mational leadership style are presented in Table 4-41. This study found thirteen independent or explanatory variables that produced significant correlations with the dependent va riable. Significant correlations were found

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149 between transformational leadership style and age, r = .32, p >.05, tenure in a formal leadership position, r = .31, p >.05, human skills, r = .38, p >.05, human skills proficiency, r = .74, p >.05, conceptual skills, r = .50, p >.05, conceptual skills proficiency, r = .56, p >.05, communication skills, r = .27, p >.05, communication skills proficiency, r = .42, p >.05, emotional intelligence, r = .45, p >.05, emotional intelligence proficiency, r = .61, p >.05, industry skills, r = .37, p >.05, industry skills proficiency, r = .61, p >.05, and KAISO, r = .40, p >.05. Nine independent variables were found to have a .00 significance level with transformational leadership. Using stepwise backward multiple regression analysis, the two independent variables that contributed the most to the model of transformational leadership were Human Skills Proficiency, and Emotional Intelligence. This does not exclude the remaining seven variables, age, tenure in a formal leadership position, conceptual skills, conceptual skills prof iciency, communication skills, communication skills proficiency, emotional intelligence proficiency, indus try skills, industry skills proficiency and KAI-SO, as being not signifi cant; it just explains that they were not chosen as the best explanatory variab les for this particular model. Table 4-41: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati ons Between Cognitive Function Variables and Transformational Leadership Style r Sig. Gender .13 .33 Ethnicity .03 .84 Age .32* .02 Yrs. Employed at College or University .20 .14 Yrs. in Formal Leadership Position .31* .02 Human Skills .38* .00 Human Skills Proficiency .74* .00 Conceptual Skills .50* .00 Conceptual Skills Proficiency .56* .00 Technical Skills -.04 .76 Technical Skills Proficiency .24 .08

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150 Table 4-41: Continued Communication Skills .27* .05 Communication Skills Proficiency .42* .00 Emotional Intelligence Skills .45* .00 Emotional Intelligence Skills Proficiency .61* .00 Industry Skills .37* .01 Industry Skills Proficiency .47* .00 KAI .09 .51 KAI-SO .40* .00 KAI-E -.06 .69 KAI-R -.03 .83 College Leadership Courses -.01 .93 Leadership Workshops .00 .99 Other Leadership Training .22 .10 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Regression analysis uses the correlation between independent va riables to explain the dependent variable. Regre ssion analysis uses statistica l methods to produce the best set of variables to explain an individual model. Regression analysis weights each independent variable, so that the independent variables combin e together to formulate an explanatory equation which minimizes residual error or error of estimate. Regression equations take into account th e regression weights for the ot her independent variables in the equation. It is important to note that regression anal ysis is not as straig htforward as one might hope. Often the selection of which variables turn out to contribute significantly to explanation of the dependent variable and wh ich does not does not always make sense from a theoretical standpoint. The phe nomenon known as, multiple collinearity or multicollinearity, among variables is the extent to which independent variables are highly correlated with one another. Collinearity cr eates problems in regression analysis because it makes it difficult to study the individual effects of the independent variables.

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151 Sometimes in regression equations correla tions are found that do not significantly influence the overall model. Suppressor va riables are predictor variables that add significance to the model, however, due to be ing combined with other variables do not show up in the final model. Giving meaning to regression weights when multicollinearity exists, particularly in small sample sizes is likely to be misleading (Cohen & Cohen, 1983). One would be taking an unreasonable risk in concludi ng that specific, significant predictor variables, which were not include d in the model, were of no importance. Regression equations use statistic al procedures to tell whethe r the variable entered adds significantly to the predictable variance of th e dependent variable. Regression analysis merely enhances the overall predictability of the dependent variable and does not reflect the theoretical significance of the individual predictor vari ables (Smith & Glass, 1987). With regression analysis, predictor variables are selected statistically based on the amount of predictabl e variance they add. It has been pointed out that often time s misleading interpretations of regression coefficients are made. A problem know n a capitalization on chance is when a regression procedure selects and combines i ndependent variables to conclude the best explanation for a specific model (Smith & Glass, 1987). Regression equations assume that the correlations between i ndependent variables are determined with minimal error. There are several occurrences that enlarge th e capitalization on chance. The first being a small sample size. As the ratio of the number of independent variables to the size of the sample rises, the results can become misleadi ng. In this study there were 24 independent variables with a sample size of 56. This cr eates the opportunity for misinterpretation. A method used to combat capitalization on ch ance is to pick a limited number of

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152 independent variables that ha ve a high correlation with the dependent variable and moderate to low correlation to each other. Th ese independent variables are then used in the regression analysis (Smith & Glass, 1987). The correlations between the variables a nd transactional leadership style are presented in Table 4-42. Si gnificant correlations were found between transactional leadership style and years in a formal l eadership position, human skills proficiency, conceptual skills, and industry skills. Table 4-42: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati ons Between Cognitive Function Variables and Transactional Leadership Style r Sig. Gender .06 .67 Ethnicity .06 .66 Age .17 .20 Yrs. Employed at College or University .14 .31 Yrs. in Formal Leadership Position .31* .02 Human Skills .19 .15 Human Skills Proficiency .43* .00 Conceptual Skills .28* .04 Conceptual Skills Proficiency .26 .05 Technical Skills .16 .24 Technical Skills Proficiency -.03 .85 Communication Skills .20 .14 Communication Skills Proficiency .18 .18 Emotional Intelligence Skills .25 .06 Emotional Intelligence Skills Proficiency .13 .35 Industry Skills .30* .02 Industry Skills Proficiency .11 .43 KAI -.18 .19 KAI-SO -.01 .95 KAI-E -.17 .22 KAI-R -.13 .33 College Leadership Courses -.21 .13 Leadership Workshops .14 .30 Other Leadership Training .03 .85 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). The correlations between the cognitive function variables and laissez-faire leadership style are presented in Table 443. Emotional Intelligence skills and the

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153 number of college leadership courses taken sh owed significant correlations with laissezfaire leadership style. Both these correla tions were negative correlations, indicating that the lower the emotional intelligence skill and the fewer number of college leadership courses would indicate more laisse z-faire leadership behaviors. Table 4-43: Pearsons Product Moment Correlati ons Between Cognitive Function Variables and Laissez-faire Leadership Style r Sig. Gender .07 .62 Ethnicity .14 .30 Age .07 .59 Yrs. Employed at College or University .03 .82 Yrs. in Formal Leadership Position .02 .91 Human Skills -.18 .19 Human Skills Proficiency -.09 .54 Conceptual Skills -.16 .24 Conceptual Skills Proficiency -.20 .14 Technical Skills .11 .41 Technical Skills Proficiency -.02 .87 Communication Skills -.01 .99 Communication Skills Proficiency .12 .39 Emotional Intelligence Skills -.28* .04 Emotional Intelligence Skills Proficiency -.12 .37 Industry Skills .20 .14 Industry Skills Proficiency .04 .79 KAI .01 .92 KAI-SO -.19 .17 KAI-E .11 .41 KAI-R -.03 .82 College Leadership Courses -.32* .02 Leadership Workshops -.09 .49 Other Leadership Training -.12 .37 Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Transformational Leadership Style Human Skills Proficiency, and Emotional In telligence Skills Importance yield the best model for explaining an academic progr am leaders transformational leadership style, (see table 4-44). Using these variables the following data revealed:

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154 R = .77 R2 = .59 R2 adjusted = .58 Standard Error of the Estimate = .24 Sum of Squares = 4.33 Degrees of Freedom = 2 Mean Square = 2.165 F = 39.16 Significance = .00 Table 4-44: Backward Regression Explaining Tr ansformational Leadership Style (N=56) B SE Beta t Sig. (Constant) -.05 .44 -.12 .91 Human Skills Proficiency .02 .00 .58 5.0 .00 EI Skills .01 .01 .20 2.10 .41 Transactional Leadership Style Years in a Formal Leadership Position and Conceptual Skills are the variables that yielded the best model for explaining transact ional leadership style, (see Table 4-45). Using these variables the following data were revealed: R = .39 R2 = .15 R2 adjusted = .12 Standard Error of the Estimate = .43 Sum of Squares = 1.77 Degrees of Freedom = 2 Mean Square = .89 F = 4.70 Significance = .01 Table 4-45: Backward Regression Explaining Trans actional Leadership Style (N=56) B SE Beta t Sig. (Constant) .72 .73 .99 .33 Yrs. in Leadership Position .02 .01 .27 2.11 .04 Conceptual Skills .02 .01 .23 1.80 .08

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155 Laissez-faire Leadership Style Conceptual Skills Proficiency, Emotional Intelligence Skills, Industry Skills, and Leadership Training best expl ained laissez-faire leadership style in academic program leaders, (see Table 4-46). Using these va riables the following data were revealed: R = .55 R2 = .30 R2 adjusted = .24 Standard Error of the Estimate = .32 Sum of Squares = 2.18 Degrees of Freedom = 4 Mean Square = .55 F = 5.38 Significance = .00 Table 4-46: Backward Regression Explaining Lai ssez-faire Leadership Style (N=56) B SE Beta t Sig. (Constant) 2.10 .60 3.48 .00 Conceptual Skills Prof. -.01 .01 -.18 -1.45 .15 Emotional Intelligence Skills -.02 .01 -.32 -2.50 .02 Industry Skills .01 .00 .34 2.70 .01 Leadership Training -.13 .05 -.32 -2.71 .01 Summary The purpose of Chapter 4 was to present the findings of the study. Findings were organized by objective. Objective 1 wa s to determine selected demographic characteristics of land-grant academic program leaders. This study found, in general, Land-grant academic program leaders are White males, approximately 55 years old. The average academic program leader had been work ing with the university or college system an average of 25 years and had been in a form al leadership position of almost 11 years. Most academic program leaders held a doctor of philosophy degree (89%). The majority of land-grant academic program leaders held a bench science degree (57.2%). Academic program leaders of land-grant universities recei ve little training from leadership courses,

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156 leadership workshops. Most leadership tr aining for academic program leaders comes through other leadership training including the FFA, 4-H and military organizations. Objective 2 assessed the importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders. Academic program leaders answered questions related to leadership skill areas including: 1) human skills, 2) conceptual skills, 3) technical skills, 4) communication skills, 5) emotional intell igence skills, and 6) industry knowledge skills. Academic program lead ers rated all leadership skill areas as important in the fulfillment of their jobs. Objective 3 was the self-perceived proficiency level of leadership skills by academic program leaders. Academic progr am leaders indicated that they were somewhat proficient in all leadership areas Academic program leaders felt the least proficient in the technical skills area while in dicating they felt the most proficient in the human skills area. Objective 4 was to identify gaps in lead ership skills and prof iciency levels of academic program leaders. Academic program leaders indicated there were gaps in all leadership skill areas. The largest gap between perceived level of importance and proficiency level was in the area of emotiona l intelligence. The smallest gap between perceived importance and proficiency level wa s in the technical skills area. Findings would indicate that academ ic program leaders value emotional intelligence while believing they are not as proficie nt as they would like to be. Objective 5 was to determine leadership behaviors of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional, and/or laissez-faire. Academic program leaders leadership style was determined using th e Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

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157 Participants of this study i ndicated using a transformational leadership style more often then a transactional or laissez-faire style. This was the trend for both males and female participants of this study It was found that Whites and non-Whites shared similar leadership styles. Objective 6 was to identify academic program leaders problem-solving style. The KIA was used to measure each academic program leaders preferred problem-solving style. Academic program leaders had an overall mean score of 100.18, which indicates a preferred problem-solving style, which is s lightly innovative. Women academic program leaders tended to have a slightly more i nnovative problem-solving style then the male participants. White academic program l eaders tended to have a more innovative problem-solving style then non-White academic program leaders. This study found that age showed no significant relationshi p in problem-solving preference. Objective 7 was to explain l eadership styles of academic program leaders. Using stepwise backward multiple regression th is study found that the best independent variables to explain transformational leadersh ip in academic program leaders were human skills and emotional intelligence. Years in a formal leadership position and conceptual skills were the variables that yielded th e best model for explaining transactional leadership style. Conceptual skills proficiency, emotional intelligence skills, industry skills, and leadership training best explained laissez-faire leadership style in academic program leaders. Chapter 5 will present a more detailed discussion of these findings. Conclusions and recommendations will be presented, as well as recommendations for future research.

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158 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Chapter 1 introduced this study and de scribed the background, purpose, and objectives of the study. The significan ce of this study was also discussed. The founding principles of the land-grant university syst em and colleges of agriculture and the roles these systems play today were also presented. Definitions of key term s used in this study were provided in Chapter 1, as we ll as limitations of this study. This study was conducted to provide insi ght for academic program leaders and administrators to assist with recruitment a nd professional leadership development. The purpose was to identify, define, and describe the leadership skills and leadership styles of colleges of agriculture academic program lead ers. Demographic variables of the colleges of agriculture academic program leaders were included and examined to draw a clearer picture of those individuals who currently ho ld these positions, plus their training and future training they feel w ould be most beneficial. Chapter 2 discussed previous research related to this study. The theoretical framework was evaluated and discussed. Chapte r 2 reviewed the literature related to the following 11 areas: (1) the nature of leadership ; (2) definitions of leadership; (3) major leadership theories; (4) leadership styles; (5) influence of demographics on leadership styles; (6) leadership skills; (7) influence of demographics on leadership skills; (8) leadership and change; (9) land-grant univers ities; (10) academic program leaders; and (11) academic program leaders as change agents.

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159 Methodology used to complete this study was explained in Chapter 3. The seven research objectives identified were: 1. Determine selected demographic characte ristics of land-grant academic program leaders. 2. Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders. 3. Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders. 4. Identify gaps in leadership skills a nd proficiency level of academic program leaders. 5. Determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire. 6. Identify an academic program leaders problem-solving style. 7. Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders. The research design, target populations, instrumentation, and method of data collection and analysis, along with statistical procedures for analysis, were addressed in Chapter 3. Methodologies used to reach the ob jectives of the study were also discussed. The results and findings of this study were presented in Chapter 4. This chapter summarizes the study and pr esents recommendations based on the findings. In the final section of this chapte r, specific conclusions drawn from the findings are discussed. Implications of this study are detailed in this chapte r. Future research recommendations are also included in this chapter. Study Summation Statement of the Problem Most individuals involved in higher education would agree that effective leadership skills are important and desirabl e in academic leaders. Leader ship studies and leadership data are in abundant supply. However, l ittle research has been conducted on specific

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160 aspects of academic program leaders skill s and problem-solving te ndencies and also to determine academic program leaders professional development needs. A limited amount of research had been done to determine if age, gender, ethnicity, tenure at a college or university, tenure in leadership position, or leadership training plays a significant role in the leadership skills, l eadership style and/or problem-solving style of academic program leaders. Fewer studies ex ist that attempt to explain an academic program leaders behavior. This research attempted to answer se veral questions regarding an academic program leaders leadership skills, leadership behaviors, and leadersh ip styles, as well as preferred problem-solving styles. In addition, this research sought to answer the question of where academic program leaders believe gaps exist in their own knowledge of leadership skill (proficiency) and those skills which they believe to be important for the successful completion of their work. Methodology In order to accomplish the objectives of this study, the res earchers conducted a survey of academic program l eaders, as identified in the NASULGC directory of Deans and Directors of Academic Programs in Schools and Colleges of Agriculture, Agriculture and Life Sciences, or Agriculture and Natural Resources A total of 56 academic program leaders or deans participated in this study for a response rate of 53%. Data were collected by way of a mailed surv ey. Four leadership instruments were used to collect data. The leadership skills instrument measured the academic program leaders perception of the importance of specific leadership skills, as well as their selfperceived proficiency in each of these leadership skill areas.

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161 The second instrument, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), measured the academic program leaders lead ership style as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire. This in strument also measured subscales of each of these leadership styles, which included: Id ealized Influence (attributed); Idealized Influence (behavior); Inspira tional Motivation; Intellectua l Stimulation; Individualized Consideration; Contingent Reward; Management-by-Exception (active); and Management-by-Exception (passive). The third instrument, Kirtons Adaption-I nnovation Inventory (KAI), measured the preferred problem-solving style of the academic program leaders. This instrument also measured problem-solving subcategories: Su fficiency of Originality, Efficiency, and Rules/Group Conformity. Finally, demographic information was coll ected in this study. Gender, ethnicity, age, highest educational degree, tenure in the college or uni versity system, and tenure in a leadership position, as well as leadership tr aining, were variables collected using the demographic instrument. The collection of data took place Ja nuary 2006 through March 2006. Dillmans (2000) methodology of conducting survey research was followed. The population for this study consisted of in dividuals listed in the NASULGC Directory of Deans and Directors of Academic Program s in Schools and Colleges of Ag riculture, Agriculture and Life Sciences, or Agriculture and Natural Resources The NASULGC Directory identified 106 individuals as being academic program leaders, deans, or individuals who held a similar position. Responses were obt ained from 56 of the 106 individuals for a response rate of 53%.

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162 Data analysis consisted of descriptive st atistics, frequencies, independent sample ttests, Pearsons Product Moment correlati ons, one-way analysis of variance, and backward-stepwise multiple regression. Th e SPSS statistical program was used for analysis of the data. Findings and Conclusions The findings of this study are summarized for each of the seven objectives, as outlined in Chapter 1. Objective 1: To determine selected de mographic characteri stics of land-grant academic program leaders Objective 1 sought to determ ine selected demographic ch aracteristics of land-grant academic program leaders. The demographic variables this study examined included gender, age, ethnicity, tenure at a college or university, tenu re in leadership position, and previous leadership training. Findings of Objective 1 showed the majority of academic program leaders were male, 76.8%, while 23.2% were female. Whites contributed to 76.8% of academic program leaders, 10.7% were Black or African American, 7.1% were American Indian or Alaska Natives, 3.6% were Asian, and 1.8% were Hispanic or Latino. These findings are supported by the literature (Chliwniak, 1997; Bartol, Evans, & Stith, 1978; Eagly & Johnson, 1990; M oore, 2003; Stedman, 2004). Academic program leaders had a range of 28 years in terms of their age. The youngest academic program leader was 40 year s old and the oldest was 68. The mean age of the current academic program leader was 55.11 years old. Length of time working in the college or university system had a m ean of 24.86 years. The most number of years that an academic program leader worked or ta ught somewhere in the college or university system was 40 years, while 6 years was the sh ortest number of years in the college or

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163 university system, with a total range of 34 y ears. Academic program leaders holding a formal leadership position, such as dean, assi stant dean, associate dean, dean of academic programs, or vice-president of academic program s, ranged in years from one year in their position to a maximum of 30 years in that form al leadership position. This study concurs with the findings of Wolverton et al. (2001) where deans are predominantly White males in their mid-50s, holding a position of leadership for five to six years. Currently, 89.2% of academic program deans who participated in this study held a doctorate of philosophy degree, and 7.1% held a doctorate of education degree. The remaining 3.4% of academic program leaders held a masters degree. Bench science degrees were held by 57.2% of the particip ants responding to this study. The remaining 42.8% of the respondents held a social science degree. Previous research suggests academic program leaders receive little formal leadership training (Gould, 1964). The litera ture suggests academic program leaders were appointed with little or no input from faculty (Wolverton et al., 2001). Academic program leaders received training from past l eadership experiences, on-the-job training, and institutional knowledge. College leadersh ip courses and leadership workshops did not have a significant impact on an academic program leaders leadership style. The findings of this research indicated near ly 50% of an academic program leaders leadership training came from a non-formal leadership experience or setting. Gould (1964) reported similar findings when he st udied administrative deans in liberal arts colleges. Leadership training for academic program leaders appeared to be conducted through previous leadership training. Near ly 49% of academic program leaders received

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164 training since high school to the present, not including college courses in leadership or leadership workshops. Only 29% of an acad emic program leaders training came from leadership workshops, while the remaining 22% of leadership tr aining was attained through college lead ership courses. The literature reported the typical dean is a White, male between the ages of 50 and 60. The literature stated academic program lead ers have little formal leadership training, and they have typically risen to their position by working for a long period of time at the college or university (Wolverton et al., 2001). The current study confirms these findings. Objective 2: To assess level of importan ce of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders Academic program leaders were asked to assess the level of importance of specific leadership skills from Not Important to Very Important The possible scores for perceived importance range from 20 to 100. Based on Moores (2003) study of extension directors and administrators, scor es falling between 80 and 100 are Important and Very important Scores falling between 60 and 80 are Somewhat Important Scores falling below 60 are of Little Importance to Not Important Five of the six leadership skill areas had means for perceived importance falling between 80 and 100 ( Important and Very Important ) and the remaining leadership skill area fell in the Somewhat Important category. The leadership skills were divided into six leadership skill areas: (1) Human Skills; (2) Conceptual Skills; (3) Technical Sk ills; (4) Communication Skills; (5) Emotional Intelligence Skills; (6) and Indus try Knowledge Skills. Academic program leaders rated Human Skills as the most important leadership skills (M=94.18) followed by Emotional

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165 Intelligence (M=92.18), Conceptual Skills (M=90.77), Communication Skills (M=85.26), and Industry Knowledge Skills (M=83.11); Techni cal Skills was rated as least important (M=76.94). These findings are similar to those that Moore (2003) found when studying leaders in the extension system. Five of the six leadership skill areas are Important or Very Important while only one of the five skill areas was rated Somewhat Important Objective 3: To assess self -perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders Academic program leaders were asked to rate their self-perceived level of proficiency for each of the skills in each leadership skills ar eas. The possible scores for self-perceived proficiency range from 20 to 100. Scores that fall between 80 and 100 are Above Average Proficiency and Very Proficient Scores falling between 60 and 80 are Average Proficiency Scores falling below 60 are Below Average Proficiency (Moore, 2003). Two of the six leadership skill areas had means for self-perceived proficiency that fell between 80 and 100, and the remaining leader ship skill proficienc y areas fell in the Average Proficiency category. Academic program leader s rated their proficiency in the Human Skills and Conceptual Skills areas as Above Average Proficiency The Human Skills proficiency area of leadership ranked the highest with a mean score (M=86.02) followed by Conceptual Skills (M=80.82), Emotional Intelligence Skills (M=78.93), Communication Skills (M=77.19), and Industry Skills (M=74.29). Technical Skills had the lowest mean (M=73.27). These data express academic program leaders believe they have the least amount of profic iency in Technical Skills, but they believe they have a great deal of proficiency in the leadership area of Human Skills. These findings indicate academic program leaders re alize human skills are important and place

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166 little importance on tasks that can be performed for them, su ch as typing, data entry, and so forth. It is encouraging, if accurate, that aca demic program leaders believe they are Above Average in the Human Skills area of leadersh ip skills. Since Human Skills include identifying personal strengths and wea knesses, respecting others, creating an environment in which others believe you are approachable and open to new ideas, being an effective team member, valuing the diversity of others, and creating an environment in which team members are willing to share id eas, it is reassuring to know that academic program leaders believe they are doing an Above Average job in this area. Objective 4: To identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of academic program leaders The purpose of Objective 4 was to iden tify the gaps between what academic program leaders felt to be important leadersh ip skills and how proficient they perceived themselves to be at those leadership skills. The largest and most significant difference between perceived leadership skill importance and profic iency level occurred in the leadership skill area of Emotional Intelligen ce, where the level of importance for the skills were rated higher, and the level of proficiency for the skills was rated lower. The difference in the Emotional Intelligence L eadership skill area was 13.25. The second largest leadership skill area gap which dem onstrated the difference between importance and proficiency, was the Conceptual Skills area (difference=9.95), followed by Industry Skills (difference=8.82), Human Skills (di fference=8.16), and Co mmunication Skills (difference=8.07). The leadership skills ar ea with the smallest gap between selfperceived level of importance and self-perceived level of proficiency was the area of Technical Skills, having the lowest difference (difference=3.67). These findings

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167 therefore supported those found in Objective 2 and Objectiv e 3 where academic program leaders rated Technical Skills as Least Important of the six skill areas and rated themselves as Least Proficient at Technical Skills. The gap in Emotional Intelligence Profic iency and Emotional Intelligence Skills Importance is an important finding. This st udy revealed that academic program leaders believe Emotional Intelligence Skills are very important, but these skills are the least proficient leadership skills area. Goleman (2002) stated Emotional Inte lligence is one of the strongest predictors of success for a lead er. The findings of this study conclude academic program leaders need professional development and training in the leadership skills area of Emotional Intelligence in order to narrow or close the gap between proficiency and perceived importance of Emotional Intelligence. Professional development and training need to be conducte d in this area for current academic program leaders, as well as individuals who aspi re to become academic program leaders. Academic program leaders believe they have adequate technical leadership skills to fulfill the job duties. Academic program lead ers responding to this study noted they have administrative assistants to perform many of the Technical Skills for them. Objective 5: To determine leadership styl es of academic program leaders, as being transformational, transactio nal, and/or laissez-faire The purpose of Objective 5 was to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders as being transformational, tr ansactional and/or laissez-faire. Current academic program leaders appear to have a mo re transformational leadership style, as demonstrated by a mean score in transforma tional leadership (M=3.28), while exhibiting some characteristics of trans actional leadership (M=2.24). Laissez-faire leadership (nonleadership) was minimally exhibited (M=.88), showing it is not a preferred leadership

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168 style. These findings are a positive sign fo r colleges and universities. The literature suggests the most effective and successful l eaders use transformational leadership most of the time followed by some transactional leadership with a minimum use of laissezfaire leadership (Tichny & Devanna, 1990). The findings of this study concur with Moore (2003), and it appears from this study that academic program leaders appear to be using a proper mix of leadership styles for efficiency and success. The findings of the research show males using specific leadership styles and behaviors more often than their female c ounterparts. Males had a mean of 3.31, and females had a mean of 3.20 in transformati onal leadership. Males had a mean of 2.26, and females had a mean of 2.20 in transactiona l leadership. In lais sez-faire leadership style males had mean of .90, and females had a mean of .84. These research findings for transformational leadership behavior oppose ear lier research sugges ting transformational leadership is a more feminine behavior demonstrated more often by females. Transactional leadership is characteristically a male leadership style. The findings of this study imply academic program leaders, both ma le and female, are using transformational leadership styles more often than transactional or laissez-faire leadership behaviors. This is a positive reflection of th e current academic program leaders because the literature states transformational leadership behavi ors are more successful for attaining and fulfilling goals (Tichny & Devanna, 1990). The findings of the leadership scale sc ores followed the same pattern as the leadership style scores. Males scored slight ly above females in all leadership scales, which included Contingent Reward, Intellect ual Stimulation, Management-by-Exception (passive), Management-by-Exception (active) Idealized Influence (behavior), Idealized

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169 Influence (attributed), Indivi dualized Consideration, and In spirational Mo tivation. The research showed gender had no significant eff ect on transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire leadership styles or behaviors of academic program leaders. These findings are similar to Moores (2003) research. In terms of leadership style and ethn icity, it was found the Black or African American population exhibited the highest tr ansformational leadersh ip style behaviors (M=3.45), followed by Whites (M=3.27), American Indian or Alaska natives (M=3.20), and concluding with Asians (M=2.97). Similar to transformational leadership style, Black or African American populations exhibited the highe st transactional leadership style behaviors (M=2.68), followed by Whites (M=2.22), and Asians (M=1.87) American Indian or Alaska natives had the lowest transformational le adership style mean (M=1.84). Laissez-faire leadership was the least demons trated leadership style, but most often by Whites (M=.901), followed by Black or African Americans (M=.895), Asians (M=.812), and American Indian or Alaska natives (M=.656). When relationships between gender, ethnic ity, and leadership style were examined, no significant relationships could be found. This finding concurs with other studies examining demographic variables on similar populations (Gould, 1964; Wolverton et al., 2001; Moore, 2003; Stedman, 2004). Transformational leadership style had a si gnificant low positive correlation with age. This finding may indicate that as individuals mature, they use a more transformational leadership style. Looking at the behaviors of a tr ansformational leader, these conclusions are not surprising. Transf ormational leaders use influence, motivation,

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170 intellectual stimulation, and i ndividualized consideration to successfully perform their leadership roles. These behaviors are learne d behaviors that may be enhanced over time with practice and from life experiences and maturity. No significant correlations were found betw een leadership style, leadership scale scores, and tenure at a college or university. Significant co rrelations were found in the number of years in a formal leadership posit ion and leadership style and scale scores. Tenure in a formal leadership position showed a significant effect toward both transformational and transactional leadership styles. Contingent Reward, as well as Individualized Consideration behaviors, were seen as being signi ficant when correlated with tenure in a formal le adership position. These findi ngs suggest academic program leaders having established themselves in their ro le as leaders, and are more willing to use transformational behaviors with their followers. The only significant correlation found in th e data was between leadership style or scale score and college leadership courses in regard to laissez-faire leadership where a negative correlation was found. This finding is important because it shows that the fewer leadership courses an academic program lead er has taken, the more hands-off leadership behaviors he or she exhibits. Objective 6: To identify an academic program leaders problem-solving style Objective 6 was to identify the academic program leaders problem-solving style. The findings showed academic program leader s have a preferred problem-solving style that is slightly innovative. Academic program leaders showed a problem-solving mean of 100.18, where the lowest possible score is 32 and the highest possible score is 160. The general population mean is 96. Those individuals scoring below 96 are more adaptive in their preferred problem-solving st yle and those individua ls scoring above 96

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171 prefer a more innovative problem-solving style (Kirton, 1999). The problem-solving style scores range from a low of 69 to a high of 137 for the academic program leaders participating in this study. Females e xhibited a slightly more innovative problemsolving style (M=100.85), as compared to males (M=99.98). In the Sufficiency of Originality subscore, the male mean was 46.98, compared to the female mean of 44.77, where the Sufficiency of Originality scores range from 13 to 65. The female mean in the Efficiency subscore was 19.23, just a bit mo re innovative than the male mean of 18.88, where the Efficiency scores range from 7 to 35. A 1.8 point difference was found between the mean score of males (M=35.05) and females (M=36.85) in the Rules/Group Conformity subscore category of problem -solving style, where the Rules/Group Conformity scores range from 12 to 60. The fi ndings of this research are in line with the findings of Kirton (1999), where in the KA I-SO subscore, the gene ral population mean was 41, the Efficiency subscore was 19, and the Rule/Group Conformity subscore was 35. The findings suggest academic program lead ers have a slightly innovative problemsolving style. With the ever-changing natu re of colleges and universities, the academic program leader needs to be ready to adjust a nd handle changing situations as they arise. With changing situations, academic program lead ers need to be able to generate several options or ideas (higher KAI-SO), need to be decisive, and need to choose appropriate options. New and fresh ideas to old problems are traits of an innovative individual. When comparing ethnicity and problem-so lving style, the data showed that American Indians or Alaska natives had th e highest mean problem-solving style at

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172 103.25, followed by Black or African Amer icans (M=101.67), Whites (M=100.14), and Asians (M=93.00). When comparing the demographic variable s of age, gender, ethnicity, type of degree, tenure at a college or university, tenure in a form al leadership position, and problem-solving style, no significant correla tions were found. The importance of this finding is an academic program leaders preferred problem-solving style is not significantly dependent on standard demogra phics, contrary to Kirtons environmental elements of the Cognitive Function Schema m odel. The demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, and tenure, which do not play a role in problem-solving style, allow for different hiring practices and procedures to be utilized. A significant negative correlation was f ound in Sufficiency of Originality and previous college leadership training. Th is means academic program leaders with less college leadership training had a lower Suffi ciency of Originality score. Academic program leaders with a low KAI-SO score have fewer ideas, but they could be more relevant, sound, safe, and well chosen. Fo r innovators, the handling of ideas and the preference to generate more ideas that are considered to be outside the box are risky, but preferred. These two findings are interesti ng because they show that academic program leaders use a slightly more innovative styl e, but their ideas could be useful, well conceived, and chosen carefully. Objective 7: Explain leadership st yles of academic program leaders This study sought to explain academic pr ogram leaders leadership style and behaviors as being transformational, transacti onal, and/or laissez-faire. Cognitive effect, cognitive resources, cognitive affect, and environmental variables were used to explain the academic program leaders leadership behaviors.

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173 This research found the best model to expl ain transformational le adership behavior in academic program leaders included the variables of Human Skills Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence Skills. It is not surpri sing these variables are the best variables in explaining transformational leadership. Tran sformational leaders engage the followers by using the leadership skills mentioned previously. Human subskills include relationship building, being open and approach able, being a team member or player, being able to evaluate people, being a team l eader, being culturally aware, being able to identify talent, mentoring others, and bei ng a coach. Emotional Intelligence skills include time management, having empathy and respect, maturity, energy and enthusiasm, honesty and integrity, being able to resolv e conflict, negotiation and motivation, and having a sense of humor. It is easy to understand how having these leadership skills would engage followers to comply with the leader. An effective transformational leader asks followers to go beyond their own self-i nterest for the good of the group or cause. These skills make the transformational leader more effective and his or her followers more empowered. The variables most commonly associated with differences in leadership style, such as age, gender, and ethnicity did not exhi bit themselves as primary variables in explaining transformational leadership of acad emic program leaders. These findings are encouraging because it shows there are mo re significant explanatory variables of transformational leadership than age, gende r and ethnicity. But the researcher would caution the reader that these were self-reported findings. Future research should be conducted to determine if the leaders self -perception was accurate by examining what followers say about their leaders.

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174 Transactional leadership was best explai ned by the number of years in a formal leadership position and by Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills include having vision, being able to strategically plan, being able to make good decisions, being able to think critically and creatively, and setting and achieving goals. Be cause these characteristics or behaviors are more task-oriented, it is not surprising they are included to explain transactional leadership. The tr ansactional leader is more c oncerned with getting the task accomplished and less concerned with building relationships with followers (Northouse, 2004). Laissez-faire leadership is best explained by a lack, or the negative relationship, of Human Skills, Conceptual Skills Proficienc y, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Training. Laissez-faire leadership, or hands off leadership, is best exhibited by leaders who do nothing. Leaders taking little or no responsibility for decision-making and leaders who are inactive, non-directive, or nonconsultative are laisse z-faire leaders (Bass & Avolio, 1997). Leaders exhibiting laissezfaire leadership behaviors bury themselves in paperwork, stay away from subordinates, set no clear goals, a nd do not help their group make decisions (Bass, 1990). Findings of this research show no si gnificant relationships between problemsolving styles in explaining leadership style. It has been argued that problem-solving style and leadership style are related (Kir ton, 1999). With the exception of the KAI-SO and transformational leadership style, this study found no significant relationships. This relationship is interesting to note because KAI-SO is how an individual deals with differences in original ideas, and how an individual produces ideas. The adaptive individual tends to produce fewer novel ideas, which are typically seen as being more

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175 sound and reasonable. The innovative indivi dual tends to create many ideas that are more likely to be seen as ri sky or that break new ground. This being the case, having a higher KAI-SO score shows academic program leaders prefer to generate many ideas. Having more ideas and more options allows the academic program leader to choose from several different ideas and make deci sions or choices from these options. Because the nature of this study was a census study of academic program leaders (deans or individuals holding a similar leader ship position within the land-grant system), the ability to generalize the conclusions and recommendations of this study beyond the population described should be considered. Keeping this limit ation in mind, the following conclusions resulted from the research. Implications and Recommendations Objective 1: To determine selected de mographic characteri stics of land-grant academic program leaders The demographics of land-grant colleges and university academic program leaders have changed little during the last few decad es (Wolverton et al., 2001). The academic program leaders continue to be White, 50 to 60-year-old males, as supported by this research. However, the literature (Moore, 2003) and research findings suggest that age, gender, and ethnicity do not play a significant role in the lead ership style or behavior of academic program leaders. With this finding, universities and colleges need to work toward bringing in the best leaders, regardle ss of age, gender, ethni city, or tenure in the profession. The study found that females and minoritie s are under-represent ed in academic program leadership positions, compared to Wh ite males in this study. This finding leads the researcher to ask the following ques tions: (1) Are minorities under-represented

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176 compared to other academic program leaders in other university departments? (2) Are minorities under-represented compared to minorities in other similar leadership positions in industry, or better yet, compared to the pe rcentage of minorities living and working in the cross-section of America? (3) Are there less minorities than Whites to begin with? There is some good news to the findings of this study. Clark (1992) found in his study of Cooperative Extension Service directors from 1862 and 1890 land-grant institutions that 91.4% were male. In the current study, ma les accounted for 76.8%, which is similar to what Moore (2003) found with her study in which males comprised 70.2% of the leadership roles. Findings of this study suggest females are in leadership roles more now than they were 14 years ago. These findings suggest universities are slowly becoming more diverse, these institutions are b ecoming more gender dive rse in the area of academic program leaders. The researcher recommends continued university effort in recruiting and hiring diverse populations regarding gender an d ethnicity by encouraging non-male, non-White individuals to apply for academic program leadership positions. Objective 2: To assess level of importan ce of leadership skills, as determined by academic program leaders and Objective 3: To assess self -perceived proficiency of lead ership skills, of academic program leaders Academic program leaders responding to this study believe Human Skills, Conceptual Skills, Technical Skills, Communica tion Skills, Emotional Intelligence Skills and Industry Knowledge Skills are necessary. All leadership skills areas fell in the Important to Very Important range with the only excepti on being the Technical Skills area, which fell in the Somewhat Important category. It is en couraging to note that academic program leaders place value in th ese leadership areas. Human skills are

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177 relating to personnel, identifyi ng personal strengths, evaluatin g the impact of personnel, respecting others, creating an environment in which the leader is approachable and open to new ideas, being an effective team memb er, valuing the diversity of others, and creating an environment in which team memb ers are willing to sh are ideas are known as people skills. These skills deal with how people get along with each other. Kouzes and Posner (2002) rated human skills as be ing extremely important for the effective leader. Conceptual skills are those sk ills a leader possesses wh ich allows him or her to create a long-term vision for the organization, think strategi cally, set goals, help others support organizational change be decisive, and achieve goals. Expressing the importance of this set of leadership skills demonstrates the academic program leaders ability to see how critical his or her vision is to the success of the organization. Conceptual skills are the big picture skills that express the leaders dreams and desires. It is evident from this research that acade mic program leaders wish to see the success of their institution and believe conceptual skills are instrumental in that task. Developing budgets, using computers and so ftware, and using the Internet are technical leadership skills. This is the only leadership skill area that fell into the somewhat important area by the academic program leaders. Based on narrative statements from participants of this study, these skills are often delegated to administrative staff. Therefore, these tech nical skills are perceived by academic program leaders as not being necessary for the fulfillment of their job and, consequently, not as important as other leadership skills.

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178 Academic program leaders rated Communication Skills as Important to Very Important The ability to interact with people, identify barriers to listening, write effectively, reduce barriers to effective communication, and recognize nonverbal cues and/or behaviors are all deemed important by the academic program leaders. The high score of Communication skills ma y be a direct result of the need for academic program leaders to be able to work with others in whom they are in contact on a daily basis, and they find it necessary to expre ss their point to those indivi duals clearly and efficiently. Academic program leaders deemed Emotional Intelligence skills Very Important Being able to set priorities both personally and professionally, resolve conflict, use constructive criticism, negotiate agreement, mo tivate individuals to perform their best, be able to control emotions in emotional situa tions, and respect time co mmitments of others are all Emotional Intelligence skills. Goleman, Boyatzis et al. (2002), believed that Emotional Intelligence is the best predictor of a leaders success. By valuing these skills, academic program leaders are showing their sup port for the importance of these skills in fulfilling their duties. Industry Knowledge skills also fell into the Important to Very Important category. Creating links within traditional and non-trad itional audiences, having knowledge in a content area, identifying needs of various client groups, and being able to build relationships between programs are leadership skills that fall into the Industry Knowledge skills category. Academic program leaders beli eve it is important to be able to talk the talk in their profession. Being able to talk the talk is impor tant if the academic program leader is to build rapport with his or he r constituents and perform his or her job effectively.

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179 With the exception of Human Skills and C onceptual Skills (barely), academic program leaders self-percei ved proficiency fell in the Average Proficiency category. Academic program leaders rated leadership skills as being Very Important in almost all areas, but believe they are not as proficient as they could be. It is important to remember this is self-reported data, and self-repor ted data may suffer from bias because the respondents report what they "want" the answers to be. These findings have serious impacts for Objective 4. Objective 4: To identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of academic program leaders This research identified gaps between lead ership skill areas and proficiency level of academic program leaders. The findings imply academic program leaders can use professional development in all areas of l eadership. However, findings of this study point to the categories of Technical Skills and Emotional Intelligence for closer examination. In the Technical Skills area, the rese arch found the smallest gap between importance and proficiency. The findings indicate academic leaders rate Technical Skills being Somewhat Important and being of Average Proficiency in this skill area. Several academic program leaders in this study commented they had administrative staff to fulfill the technical skills needed for their position. This research implies le ss need for technical skills development at the academic program leaders level. On further analysis of the technical skills, the researcher questions th e small gap between perceived importance and perceived proficiency in the Technical Skills area. For Technical Skills area responses, the gap difference can be accounted for in two different ways. The academic program leaders are not proficient, therefore, the sk ills are not as importa nt; or they are not

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180 important, therefore, they are not as proficient in this technica l area. For example, if an academic program leader is not proficient in the technical skill of web design, it must not be important or the academic program leader would become proficient in it. However, it could be said if the academic program leader thought it was important, he or she would place a higher value and set goals (conceptual) to become more proficient in the area. The next area of research should examine whether knowing technical skills makes for a more successful or efficient academic program leader. The gap between Emotional Intelligence skills and self-perceived proficiency in the Emotional Intelligence skills area was the greatest. This is an important finding. Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2002) proposed that great leader s ignite passion and inspire the best in people with their use of emo tional intelligence. It can be reasoned that emotional intelligence skills are very important to academic program leaders if they wish to be successful, effective leaders. Academic program leaders have determined Emotional Intelligence skills are important fo r fulfillment of their job responsibilities. However, academic program leaders feel their prof iciency in this skill area to be average. This study determined professional developmen t curriculum is needed to address the gap between the proficiency level a nd perceived importance of Emo tional Intelligence. It has been found that Emotional Intelligen ce is among the areas in most need of professional development, which implies that ac ademic program leaders feel they need to become more proficient in this area. Emotional intelligence deals with emo tions--ones own emotions and others persons emotions--and seeks to raise others to a higher sense of personal best. It is ironic that academic program leaders feel they need the most amount of professional

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181 development in this area because emotional intelligence behaviors ar e also behaviors of transformational leaders--and this research found most academic pr ogram leaders to be transformational. It is interesting that if they are displaying tr aits and behaviors of emotional intelligence by being transformationa l leaders, there must be other reasons and factors for this area to be the area of great est need for professional development. The four remaining leadership skill areas should al so be taught. In fact, it would be in the best interest of academic program leaders to also consider Conceptu al Skills training. Academic program leaders rated the im portance of Conceptual Skills as Very Important and their proficiency as on ly slightly higher than Somewhat Important for a difference of (9.95). Considering that conceptual skills are the big picture skills, these skills also appear to be very dependent on human skil ls relying on their followers to close the conceptual skills gap. The implication for acad emic program leaders is that they must develop professional conceptual skills because ev en conceptual skills appear to be leaderdriven, leader-centered, and less affected in origin by the foll owers. Having these skills is dependent on the followers to make the vision a reality. Objective 5: To determine leadership styl es of academic progr am leaders as being transformational, transact ional or laissez-faire The findings of the current study found that academic program leaders in colleges of agricultural and life sciences tend to us e transformational leadership more often than transactional or laissez-fair e leadership. This is an important finding for academic program leaders. Eagly et al., 2003) re ported effective-successful leaders use transformational leadership behaviors more often than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Bass (1990) stated that transformational leader ship is the prototype of leadership that people have in mind when they describe their ideal leader. He also stated

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182 transformational leaders are mo re effective and successful. This is good news for landgrant institutions. If these institutio ns academic program leaders are using transformational leadership more often than tr ansactional or laissez-faire leadership, the chances for success are high. Objective 6: To identify academic program leaders problem-solving style The KAI, which was used to measure the academic program leaders problemsolving style, yielded interesting data. A cademic program leaders are slightly more innovative than the general population. This research also found a small but significant relationship between the quantity of ideas ( KAI-SO) and the transformational leadership style of academic program deans. It is rema rkable to note that preferred problem-solving style and leadership style showed no othe r significant relationships. This finding contradicts Kirton (1999) and his theory of Cognitive Function Schema where he believed they have significant relationships to each other. This research suggests the relationship to be minimal at best. In this population of academic program leaders, the mean KAI score, (M=100.18) is representa tive of the academic program leader, which also happens to fall in the same range of the general population mean (M=96). One of the possible implications of these two populat ions having close KAI scores is similar problem-solving styles. Relatability to each other, similar approaches to solving problems, similar values about generating and contributing ideas, taki ng similar risks, and displaying similar problem-solving tendencie s when faced with new ideas and/or problems. These common threads may yi eld high efficiency, more frequent group consensus, and achievement of goals between the academic program leader and his or her academic team, assuming that the members of the academic team represent the general population.

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183 Kirton (1999) termed individuals having an intermediate KAI score as being a bridger. Kirton believed thes e individuals who happen to ha ve this intermediate score within the group could be very helpful in ac ting as a go-between fo r the innovator and the adaptor. Coping behaviors allow people to succ essfully play the role to which they have been assigned. The role of the academic pr ogram leaders necessitates them to become successful at creating an atmosphere of co llegiality and compromise. The academic program leader must be able to get all ty pes of people with different backgrounds and experiences to work together. The ability to bridge the i nnovators and adaptors and the subsequent problem-solving (KAI) scores of the academic program leaders of this study would seem to indicate these academic program leaders are bridgers and have possibly developed coping behaviors to enhance their success. Kirton (1999) stated a difference of 20 points between individuals can lead to communication problems and respect issues. An academic program leader who has the skills and coping behaviors to minimize these is sues will be more successful in his or her position. A bridger is typi cally an individual who ha s these types of skills. Objective 7: To explain leadership styles of academic program leaders This research sought to explain the lead ership styles and behaviors of academic program leaders. The findings of this study conclude that academic program leaders use transformational leadership more often than tran sactional or laissez-faire leadership. This research found through backward regressi on the best model for transformational leadership, given the 24 sele cted variables of the study, which included the three leadership skills: (1) human skill proficiency; (2) emotional intelligence skills; and (3) emotional intelligence proficiency. The re search revealed that nearly 60% of the variance of the transformational leadership st yles and behaviors of the academic program

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184 leader can be explained with these five variable s. The review of literature determined that Transformational leadership is the most desired form of leadership by followers. Transformational leadership was determined to be the most effective and successful leadership style for the completion of performance goals and objectives of an organization. It is important to realize that these findings suggest nearly 60% of an academic program leaders leadership style a nd behavior can be predicted by these three leadership skills. Bass (1990) suggested a need for transactiona l leadership behaviors in the effective leader. Academic program leaders showed transactional leadership behaviors in the current research. The best explanatory m odel of transactional leadership included number of years in a formal leadership posit ion and the leaders pe rceived importance of conceptual skills. This is a positive note for academic program leaders. The research suggests academic program leaders have the ability to use transactional leadership behaviors if needed in the fulfillment of their tasks. If current land-grant institutions desire fewe r laissez-faire leaders, then professional development for current academic program l eaders should enhance the conceptual skills proficiency, emotional intelligence skills, industry skills, and leadership training. It is important to realize that none of the 24 variables used in this study explain leadership style and behaviors, were dem ographic variables. This group of academic program leaders exhibited no diffe rences in leadership style re gardless of age, gender, or ethnicity. Generalizations about leadership capacities based on de mographic differences should be dismissed.

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185 Since the variables contributing to tran sformational leadership behaviors are nondemographic, another important implication is the possibility to create the best leader. This research suggests that professiona l development to en hance human skills, conceptual skills, emotional intelligen ce skills, and proficiency, as well as communication skills, will lead to a more tr ansformational leader and transformational leadership style behaviors. It is important to note that academic program leaders deemed five of the six leadership areas as Important to Very Important This suggests academic program leaders believe these skill areas are important and valuable. The research suggests a gap between all leadership skill ar eas and the proficiency of academic program leaders in these areas. Professional development is needed in all six leadership skill areas in order to minimize the gap between the perceived importance of the leadership skills and the proficiency level of the leadership skills. A final implication from this study sugge sts the need for a national professional development program for academic program leaders and others in similar academic leadership roles. This study found that l ittle training occurs for academic program leaders while they attended coll ege or leadership workshops af ter they have attained their leadership position. Currently, there are no national organizations in colleges of agricultural and life sciences committed spec ifically to the professional leadership development of academic program leaders or deans to offer assistance and/or guidance in fulfilling their crucial role. The Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy (ESCOP) has worked with lim ited success on developing and delivering leadership programs for leaders at land-grant colleges and universities. Recently ESCOP

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186 has developed LEAD21. The primary purpose of LEAD21 is to develop leaders in landgrant institutions and others that others th at conduct research, work in academics, and extension services The goal of LEAD21 is to get individuals in leadership positions to lead more effectively and successful ly. This is encouraging news. Implications and Recommendations Summary Based upon the findings and conclusions of this study, the following summary of recommendations was made: These findings suggest minorities are unde r-represented compared to other academic program leaders in other university departments, or are under-represented compared to minorities in other similar leadership positions in industry, or better yet, compared to the percentage of minorities living and working in the crosssection of America. Are there fewer minorities than Whites to begin with? Based on the findings of this study, leader ship professional development programs for academic program leaders in colleges of agricultural and life sciences should focus on developing all leadership sk ill areas, which include human skills, conceptual skills, technical skills, comm unication skills, emotional intelligence skills, and industr y knowledge skills. Academic program leaders rated the impor tance of conceptual skills as very important and their proficiency as only s lightly higher than somewhat important for a difference of (9.95). Considering that conceptual skills ar e the big picture skills, these skills appear to also be very dependent on human skills, relying on their followers to close the conceptual skills gap. The implication for academic program leaders is they must develop pr ofessional conceptu al skills. Although conceptual skills appear to be leader-dri ven, leader-centered, and less affected in origin by the followers, having these skills is dependent on the followers to make the vision a reality. The demographic variable of age did not contribute any significant effect to an academic program leaders leadership styl e. Generalizations about leadership capacities based on age differences should be dismissed. The demographic variable of gender did not contribute any significant effect to an academic program leaders leadership styl e. Generalizations about leadership capacities based on gender differences should be dismissed. The demographic variable of ethnicity c ontributed no significa nt effect to an academic program leaders leadership styl e. Generalizations about leadership capacities based on ethnic or cultural differences should be dismissed.

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187 Academic program leaders believe human skills and emotional intelligence skills are very important skills to fulfill their job responsibilities and should therefore be an integral part of professional development planning. Emotional Intelligence is among the areas in most need of professional development, which implies that academi c program leaders feel they need to become more proficient in this area. However, emotional intelligence deals with emotions, ones own emotions and others persons emotions, and seeks to raise others to a higher sense of personal best. It is ironic that academic program leaders feel they need the most amount of profe ssional development in this area because emotional intelligence behaviors are also behaviors of transformational leaders of which this research found most academic progr am leaders to be. It is interesting that if these leaders are di splaying traits and behaviors of emotional intelligence by being transformational leaders, there must be other reasons and factors for this area to be the area of greatest need for professional development. Tenure at the college or unive rsity showed little significan t effect on the leadership style of academic program leaders. This being the case, generalizations about leadership capacities based on tenure at the college or university should be dismissed. Tenure in a formal leadership position showed little significant effect on the leadership style of academic program leader s. This being the case, generalizations about leadership capacities based in a formal leadership position should be dismissed. The average age of the academic program leader was 55.11 years old. This is nearing the age of retireme nt. A leadership void c ould be on the horizon for academic program leaders. Professional leadership traini ng should be developed and encouraged in college of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders. Since there are minimal programs designed specifically for th is group, national programs should be developed specifically for academic program leaders and deans with topics key to the effectiveness as leaders. Since the problem-solving ability was not found to be a significant indicator of leadership style, therefore, generalizati ons about leadership capacities based on problem-solving ability should be dismissed. Future Research Recommendations Based upon the findings and conclusions of this study, the following suggestions for additional research are made:

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188 The researcher believes participants were honest and accurate in their selfassessment of their leadership skills. But because this study was conducted only with the academic program leaders responding to their own self-perceived leadership skills, further research should be conducted to confidentially survey those individuals to find out how others perceive the academic program leaders leadership skills. Because Emotional Intelligence skills ra nked the highest for need in terms of professional development and training, furt her studies should examine where and how leadership training should occur in or der to facilitate Em otional Intelligence leadership characteristics. The next st ep is to prepare individuals to become academic program leaders who are proficient in Emotional Intelligence. If it were a skill developing or future academic program leaders need, it would serve the profession to take a hard look at ho w we are going to fill this need. Because participants noted many of their leadership training experiences occurred in high school clubs, such as FFA, Boy Scouts, and the military, a study should be conducted to find out what par ticular leadership aspects of these organizations were key in developing their leadership style a nd behaviors. Additionally, how can these aspects be incorporated in future profe ssional development and formal leadership training? Is the current level of trai ning enough to be a successful academic program leader? In this study, American Indians or Alas ka natives had the highest mean problemsolving style. A future study should exam ine cultural characte ristics that might answer questions determining what this im plies and what are some of the possible reasons that American Indians or Alaska natives are more innovative than other ethnic groups. If the literature is correct and land-gra nt universities are e xperiencing a time of change, it is crucial that they have effective, successful leadership. Future research of academic program leaders should look at institutions that have had positive, effective change to determine what characteristics those academic program leaders have that have made the change positive and effective. Academic program leaders perceive Human Skills as being important. It would be beneficial if a study were conducted on the leaders team to determine if a teams style and attitude are influenced by the acad emic program leaders human skills. In this study, the 1994 Tribal Institutions had a very low response rate (.03%). Research needs to be conducted to determine why the response rate was so low. The research needs to include questions in regard to the acknowledgment of the land-grant mission of teaching, research, a nd extension and the tribal institutions perception of importance of this mission.

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189 APPENDIX A PRELETTER Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 310 Rolfs Hall/P.O. Box 110540 Agricultural Education and Communication Department Gainesville, FL 32611-0540 Telephone: (352) 392-0502 Fax: (352) 392-9585 January 13, 2006 Dr. James Shuford Alabama A&M School of Agricultural & Environmental Science PO Box 1087 Normal, AL 35762 A few days from now you will receive in the mail a request to fill out a questionn aire for an important research project being conducted by the University of Florida. It concerns the leadership skills and styl es of academic program leaders like you. I am writing in advance because we have found many people like to know ahead of time that they w ill be contacted. The study is an important one th at will help colleges and universities to better understand the role of academic program leaders, the leadership skills needed to perform this role as well as offer suggestions on how to better prepare future academic program leaders. Thank you for your time and consideration. Its only with the generous help of people like you that our research can be successful. Sincerely, David Jones Dr. Kirby Barrick Doctoral Candidate Dean Agricultural Education and Communication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida University of Florida Dr. Rick Rudd Associate Professor Agricultural Education and Communication Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida

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190 APPENDIX B LETTER TO ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADER Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 310 Rolfs Hall/P.O. Box 110540 Agricultural Education and Communication Depa rtment Gainesville, FL 32611-0540 Telephone: (352) 392-0502 Fax: (352) 392-9585 January 14, 2006 Dear I am writing to ask your help in a study being conducted as part of my dissertation to determin e requisite leadership skills ne eded by academic program leaders like you. Throughout the nation higher education institu tions are experiencing a time of change. Student populations are becoming more diverse, technology is advancing rapidly, and the urge to privatize public instituti ons and commercialize research is facilitat ing this movement. Academic program leaders, like you, play an integral role in these changes. With this in mind, the following questi ons arise: (1) What leadership skills do university leaders need to be successful in their position toda y? (2) What leadership sty le is most prevalent in these leader ship roles? (3) What professional development programming would be most beneficial for people in academic leadership roles? In an attempt to answer these important questions, I am requesting your assistance. Enclosed are an informed consent letter, and a set of leadership skills/proficiency questionnaires. Your responses to the ques tionnaires will be kept strictly confidential. Your participation in this research is complete ly voluntary, but it is our hope that you w ill take the time to complete the questionnaires and share information th at will help us prepare future academic leaders like you. Please email me if you do not wish to be included in this rese arch study. I will remove you from the study and all future correspondence. dwwjones@ufl.edu If you have any questions or comments about this study, we would be happy to talk with you. Thank you again for you time and assistance. We appreciate your help with this important study. Sincerely, David Jones Dr. Kirby Barrick Doctoral Candidate Dean Agricultural Education and Communication College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida University of Florida Dr. Rick Rudd Associate Professor Agricultural Education and Communication Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida

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191 APPENDIX C POSTCARD REMINDER January 20, 2006 Last week a questionnaire was mailed to you seeking your knowledge about leadership skills needed by academic program leaders. If you have already completed and return ed the questionnaire to us, please accept our sincere appreciation. If not, thank you for taking the time to do that today. We are especially grateful for your help because it is only by your participation that we can understand the requisite leadership skills of academic program leaders. If you did not receive a questionnaire, or if it was misplaced, please call us at 1-352-392-0502 ext. 238 or email me at dwwjones@ufl.edu and we will get another one in the mail to you today. Thank you, David Jones Doctoral Candidate Agricultural Education and Communication University of Florida

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192 APPENDIX D INFORMED CONSENT LETTER Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 310 Rolfs Hall/P.O. Box 110540 Agricultural Education a nd Communication Departme nt Gainesville, FL 32611-0540 Telephone: (352) 392-0502 Leadership Skills and Styles of College of Agriculture Academic Program Leaders Thank you for responding to this questionnaire. It is our hope that this information will help institutions assess and develop lead ership training programs for College of Agriculture academic program leaders. You do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law and your identity will not be revealed in any manuscript. There are no anticipated risk s, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this survey. You are free to withdraw your consent to participate and may discontinue your participation in the surv ey at any time without consequence. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contac t David Jones at 3920502 ext.238 or my faculty advisor, Dr. Rick Rudd, at 392-0502 ext. 239. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant rights ma y be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 11 2250, Gainesville, FL 32611; phone (352) 3920433. By completing this survey, you give perm ission to report your responses anonymously. Printed Name: ________________________________ Signature: ___________________________________ Date: _____________________

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193 APPENDIX E MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONAIRE (MLQ) The Multifactor Leadership Questionna ire (MLQ) was developed, tested, and copyrighted by Bass & Avolio (2000). The MLQ is published by Mind Garden, Inc. The following instructions and questi ons have been extracted from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and reproduced with permission. This questionnaire is to descri be your leadership st yle as you perceive it Please answer all items on this answer sheet. Using the following rating scale: Not at all 0 Once in a while 1 Sometimes 2 Fairly often 3 Frequently, if not always 4 1. I provide others with assistance in exchange for their efforts 0 1 2 3 4 2. I talk about my most important values and beliefs 0 1 2 3 4 3. I articulate a compelling vision for the future 0 1 2 3 4 4. I help others develop their strengths 0 1 2 3 4 5. I delay responding to urge nt questions 0 1 2 3 4

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194 APPENDIX F KAI Kirtons Adaption-Innovation Inventor y (KAI) was developed, tested, and copyrighted by M. J. Kirton (1999). For additional info rmation about the AdaptionInnovation Inventory contact: Occupational Research Centre Highlands Gravel Path Berkhamsted, Herts, HP4 2PQ United Kingdom The following instructions and questions have been extracted from the KAI and reproduced with permission. Please indicate the degree of difficulty (o r ease) that would be required for you to maintain the image, consistently for a long time, that is asked of you by each item below. Very Very Hard Hard Easy Hard 1. A person who is patient 2. A person who conforms 3. A person who is thorough 4. A person who is stimulating 5. A person who is predictable

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195 APPENDIX G LEADERSHIP SKILLS INSTRUMENT Colleges of Agriculture Academic Program Leaders Leadership Skills Inventory Thank you for agreeing to participate in th is study. The intent of th is study is to determine sp ecific leadership skills Colle ge of Agriculture academic program leaders believe are important to their su ccess. Additionally the research hopes to assess self-pe rceived proficiency levels in each of the leadersh ip skill areas so that future professiona l development programs can be developed. Leadership Skills: Importance and Self-Perceived Proficiency For each competency below, please rate the level of importance in the left-hand column and your current proficiency level in th e righthand column. Level of Importance: NI = Not Important (1) LI = Little Importance (2) SI = Somewhat Important (3) I = Important (4) VI = Very Important (5) Level of Proficiency: NP = No Proficiency (1) BA = Below Average Proficiency (2) AV = Average Proficiency (3) AA = Above Average Proficiency (4) VP = Very Proficient (5) Section 1. Human Skills For each human skill competency below, please rate the level of im portance in the left-hand column and your current proficiency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Human Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1. Identify personal strengths and weaknesses 2. Evaluate the impact of personnel 3. Respect others 4. Create an environment in which you, as the leader are approachable and open to new ideas 5. Be an effective team member 6. Environment that values the diversity of others 7. Create an environment in which team members are willing to share ideas NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Section 2. Conceptual Skills For each conceptual skill comp etency below, please rate the level of importan ce in the left-hand column and your current profic iency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Conceptual Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 8. Create a long term vision for the organization 9. Think strategically 10. Set goals 11. Help others support organizational change 12. Be decisive 13. Attitude that supports and th at welcomes organizational change 14. Achieve goals NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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196 Section 3. Technical Skills For each technical skill competency below, please rate the level of importance in the left-hand column and your current profici ency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Technical Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 15. Develop budgets for all le vels within the organization 16. Effectively use computer software for word processing 17. Interpret and expl ain organizational budgets 18. Effectively use and search the internet 19. Effectively use computer software for spreadsheets 20. Effectively use computer software for databases 21. Effectively integrate computer software program applications (i.e. merge files) NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Section 4. Communication Skills For each communication skill competency below, please rate the level of importance in the left-hand column and your current proficiency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Communication Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 22. Interact and communi cate with people who have divergent points of view 23. Identify barriers to listening 24. Write for various organizational purposes (i.e. technical writing, professional publications, etc.) 25. Read and comprehend a wide range of publications 26. Reduce barriers to listening 27. Recognize and effectively use nonverbal cues or behaviors 28. Write for various audiences NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Section 5. Emotional Intelligence Skills For each emotional intelligen ce skill competency below, please rate the level of importance in the left-hand column and your cu rrent proficiency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Emotional Intelli gence Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 29. Set priorities to effectively manage personal time 30. Resolve conflict 31. Make use of constructive criticism without becoming critical and angry 32. Separate personalities from behaviors 33. Negotiate agreement 34. High level of motivation 35. Control emotions in emotional situations 36. Set priorities to effectively manage organizational time 37. Respect for the time commitments of others NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Section 6. Industry Knowledge Skills For each industry knowledge skill competency be low, please rate the level of importance in the left-hand column and your curren t proficiency level in the right-hand column. Level of Importance Industry Knowledge Skills Level of Proficiency NI LI SI I VI 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 38. Create linkages within both traditional a nd non-traditional audiences 39. Depth of knowledge in a content area 40. Identify the needs of various client groups within the state 41. Explain the political environment of the state and the implications for the land-grant university system 42. Relationship between stat ewide programs (i.e. role of various agencies in the delivery of programs) 43. Evaluate the impact of programs for each client group 44. Being able to explain the foundi ng principles of the land-grant system with constituents NP BA AV AA VP 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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197 Section 7. Demographic Information Please complete the following information. 1. What is your gender? Female Male 2. What is your ethnicity? American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Hispanic or Latino White Other (please indicate) _________________________ 3. What is your age (in years)? _____________________ 4. Please indicate your current job title and position: _____________________________________________________________ 5. In the spaces below, please indicate all academic degrees held, major and minor if applicable. Degree Major Minor 6. How long have you been employed with the university or college system? __________________ 7. How long have you been in a formal leadership positio n within the university or college? _________________ 8. Please list the positions that you have held within the university or college system. 9. Please list any leadership training that you have had in the past five years: College Courses in Leadership: Please provide the cour se name, length and a brief description of the course: Name Length Description Leadership workshop: Please provide the name of the wo rkshop, length and a brief description of the workshop. Name Length Description Other Leadership training: Please provide any information about leadership training that you have receive d from high school to present that you believe assisted you in your present position. Name Length Description Please use the back of these pages to address anything that you believe has not been addressed in regards to leadership skills. Thank you for your participation!!!

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198 APPENDIX H CORRELATION TABLE Correlations Gender Ethnicity Age Yrs Empl Ldrshp Yrs Pearson Correlation 1 0.054 0.070 0.201 0.192 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.690 0.610 0.137 0.157 Gender N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.054 1 -0.061 0.286 -0.097 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.690 0.655 0.033 0.476 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.070 -0.061 1 0.621 0.542 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.610 0.655 0.000 0.000 Age N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.201 0.286 0.621 1 0.478 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.137 0.033 0.000 0.000 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.192 -0.097 0.542 0.478 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.157 0.476 0.000 0.000 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.033 0.025 0. 165 0.103 0.085 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.809 0.852 0. 223 0.451 0.531 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.162 0.079 0. 225 0.204 0.263 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.232 0.565 0. 096 0.132 0.051 Hmn Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.150 -0.060 0.154 0.286 0.183 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.270 0.659 0. 257 0.033 0.178 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.009 0.240 0. 204 0.149 0.263 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.948 0.075 0. 131 0.273 0.050 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.008 -0.114 -0.222 -0.042 -0.110 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.954 0.404 0. 101 0.759 0.421 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.081 -0.039 -0.003 -0.063 -0.120 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.550 0.775 0. 984 0.645 0.379 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.084 -0.113 0.127 0.314 0.237 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.538 0.408 0. 351 0.018 0.078 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.077 0.214 0. 263 0.350 0.313 Comm. Skills Prof. % Sig. (2-tailed) 0.571 0.114 0. 050 0.008 0.019

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199 N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.129 0.078 0. 155 0.273 0.199 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.343 0.567 0. 253 0.041 0.142 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.088 0.090 0. 255 0.257 0.221 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.517 0.508 0. 058 0.056 0.102 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.041 0.194 -0.139 -0.104 -0.003 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.762 0.151 0. 306 0.445 0.982 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 56 56 Industry Skills Prof% Pearson Correlation 0.098 0.203 0. 093 0.054 0.217 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.474 0.133 0.493 0.694 0 N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.028 -0.021 0.034 -0.005 0.113 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.838 0.875 0. 804 0.968 0.407 KAI N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.150 -0.011 0. 120 0.221 0.250 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.268 0.936 0. 379 0.101 0.063 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.030 0.091 -0.064 -0.118 -0.018 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.826 0.504 0. 640 0.388 0.895 KAI-E N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.113 -0.043 0.025 -0.043 0.084 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.408 0.754 0. 853 0.751 0.537 KAI-R N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.038 -0.158 0.008 -0.118 0.050 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.783 0.245 0. 951 0.384 0.716 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.106 0.160 -0.107 0.123 -0.043 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.437 0.239 0. 433 0.366 0.753 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.063 0.309 0. 060 0.122 0.249 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.643 0.020 0. 660 0.371 0.065 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 56 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Hmn Skills % Hmn Skills Prof. % Conc. Skills % Conc. Skills Prof. % Pearson Correlation -0.033 0.162 -0.150 0.009 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.809 0.232 0.270 0.948 Gender N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.025 0.079 -0.060 0.240 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.852 0.565 0.659 0.075 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.165 0.225 0.154 0.204 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.223 0.096 0.257 0.131 Age N 56 56 56 56

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200 Pearson Correlation 0.103 0.204 0.286 0.149 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.451 0.132 0.033 0.273 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.085 0.263 0.183 0.263 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.531 0.051 0.178 0.050 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 1 0.492 0.516 0.384 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.003 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.492 1 0.523 0.634 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.000 Hmn Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.516 0.523 1 0.452 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.000 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.384 0.634 0.452 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.003 0.000 0.000 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.117 -0.037 0.201 -0.088 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.390 0.784 0.137 0.517 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.096 0.221 0.264 0.222 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.482 0.101 0.049 0.100 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.449 0.272 0.613 0.175 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.001 0.043 0.000 0.197 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.205 0.502 0.318 0.526 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.129 0.000 0.017 0.000 Comm. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.458 0.321 0.549 0.311 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.016 0.000 0.020 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.375 0.647 0.359 0.614 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.004 0.000 0.007 0.000 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.222 0.213 0.323 0.244 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.100 0.116 0.015 0.069 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Industry Skills Prof% Pearson Correlation 0 .391** 0 .557** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.093 0.003 0.095 0.000 N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.162 -0.044 0.021 0.025 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.233 0.746 0.881 0.857 KAI N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.132 0.250 0.213 0.262 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.330 0.063 0.115 0.051 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 56

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201 Pearson Correlation -0.247 -0.133 -0.045 -0.017 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.066 0.329 0.740 0.902 KAI-E N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.143 -0.158 -0.030 -0.064 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.292 0.244 0.825 0.639 KAI-R N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.086 -0.008 0.025 0.007 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.531 0.953 0.856 0.961 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.053 -0.041 0.160 0.071 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.700 0.763 0.240 0.603 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.075 0.068 -0.099 0.245 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.585 0.618 0.469 0.069 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 Tech Skills % Tech. Skills Prof. % Comm Skills % Comm. Skills Prof. % Pearson Correlation -0.008 -0.081 -0.084 0.077 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.954 0.550 0.538 0.571 Gender N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.114 -0.039 -0.113 0.214 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.404 0.775 0.408 0.114 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.222 -0.003 0.127 0.263 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.101 0.984 0.351 0.050 Age N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.042 -0.063 0.314 0.350 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.759 0.645 0.018 0.008 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.110 -0.120 0.237 0.313 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.421 0.379 0.078 0.019 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.117 0.096 0.449 0.205 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.390 0.482 0.001 0.129 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.037 0.221 0.272 0.502 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.784 0.101 0.043 0.000 Hmn Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.201 0.264 0.613 0.318 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.137 0.049 0.000 0.017 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.088 0.222 0.175 0.526 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.517 0.100 0.197 0.000 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56

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202 Pearson Correlation 1 0.161 0.314 -0.010 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.235 0.018 0.942 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.161 1 0.131 0.250 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.235 0.336 0.063 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.314 0.131 1 0.505 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.018 0.336 0.000 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.010 0.250 0.505 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.942 0.063 0.000 Comm. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.011 0.120 0.564 0.214 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.935 0.377 0.000 0.113 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.178 0.379 0.212 0.538 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.189 0.004 0.117 0.000 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.280 0.299 0.476 0.378 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.037 0.025 0.000 0.004 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Industry Skills Prof% Pearson Correlation 0 .430** 0 .504** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.361 0.001 0.230 0.000 N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.143 0.021 -0.038 0.146 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.291 0.876 0.783 0.283 KAI N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.030 -0.177 0.100 0.248 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.825 0.191 0.461 0.065 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.216 0.076 -0.165 -0.017 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.110 0.575 0.224 0.903 KAI-E N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.137 0.051 -0.071 0.068 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.315 0.709 0.602 0.618 KAI-R N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.039 0.233 -0.111 -0.132 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.776 0.084 0.416 0.331 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.152 -0.008 0.134 -0.190 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.263 0.950 0.323 0.161 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.264 -0.086 -0.141 0.029 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.049 0.531 0.301 0.830 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56

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203 EI Skills % EI Skills Prof % Industry Skills % Industry Skills Prof % Pearson Correlation -0.129 0.088 -0.041 0.098 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.343 0.517 0.762 0.474 Gender N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.078 0.090 0.194 0.203 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.567 0.508 0.151 0.133 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.155 0.255 -0.139 0.093 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.253 0.058 0.306 0.493 Age N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.273 0.257 -0.104 0.054 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.041 0.056 0.445 0.694 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.199 0.221 -0.003 0.217 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.142 0.102 0.982 0.107 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.458 0.375 0.222 0 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.004 0.100 0 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.321 0.647 0.213 .391** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.016 0.000 0.116 0.003 Hmn Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.549 0.359 0.323 0.225 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.007 0.015 0.095 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.311 0.614 0.244 .557** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.020 0.000 0.069 0.000 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.011 -0.178 0.280 -0.125 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.935 0.189 0.037 0.361 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.120 0.379 0.299 .430** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.377 0.004 0.025 0.001 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.564 0.212 0.476 0.163 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.117 0.000 0.230 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.214 0.538 0.378 .504** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.113 0.000 0.004 0 Comm. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 1 0.429 0.291 .307* Sig. (2-tailed) 0.001 0.030 0.021 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.429 1 0.182 .633** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.001 0.180 0.000 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56 56

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204 Pearson Correlation 0.291 0.182 1 .442** Sig. (2-tailed) 0.030 0.180 0.001 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Industry Skills Prof% Pearson Correlation .307** .633** .442** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.021 0.000 0.001 N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.025 0.131 0.043 0.262 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.853 0.338 0.750 0.051 KAI N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.184 0.341 0.034 0.247 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.175 0.010 0.801 0.066 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.097 -0.047 0.026 0.242 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.478 0.734 0.847 0.072 KAI-E N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.000 0.063 0.086 0.182 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.998 0.647 0.530 0.180 KAI-R N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.007 0.009 -0.009 0.077 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.962 0.946 0.948 0.571 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.267 0.038 -0.017 0.008 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.047 0.782 0.902 0.951 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.132 0.314 -0.011 0.253 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.334 0.018 0.938 0.060 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 KAI KAI-SO KAI-E KAI-R Pearson Correlation -0.028 0.150 -0.030 -0.113 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.838 0.268 0.826 0.408 Gender N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.021 -0.011 0.091 -0.043 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.875 0.936 0.504 0.754 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.034 0.120 -0.064 0.025 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.804 0.379 0.640 0.853 Age N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.005 0.221 -0.118 -0.043 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.968 0.101 0.388 0.751 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.113 0.250 -0.018 0.084 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.407 0.063 0.895 0.537 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.162 0.132 -0.247 -0.143 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.233 0.330 0.066 0.292 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Hmn Skills Prof. % Pearson Correlation -0.044 0.250 -0.133 -0.158

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205 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.746 0.063 0.329 0.244 N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.021 0.213 -0.045 -0.030 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.881 0.115 0.740 0.825 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.025 0.262 -0.017 -0.064 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.857 0.051 0.902 0.639 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.143 -0.030 -0.216 -0.137 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.291 0.825 0.110 0.315 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.021 -0.177 0.076 0.051 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.876 0.191 0.575 0.709 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.038 0.100 -0.165 -0.071 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.783 0.461 0.224 0.602 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.146 0.248 -0.017 0.068 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.283 0.065 0.903 0.618 Comm. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.025 0.184 -0.097 0.000 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.853 0.175 0.478 0.998 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.131 0.341 -0.047 0.063 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.338 0.010 0.734 0.647 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.043 0.034 0.026 0.086 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.750 0.801 0.847 0.530 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 1 0.674 0.790 0.820 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000 0.000 KAI N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.674 1 0.291 0.433 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.030 0.001 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.790 0.291 1 0.550 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.030 0.000 KAI-E N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.820 0.433 0.550 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.001 0.000 KAI-R N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.099 -0.275 -0.073 0.049 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.470 0.040 0.595 0.722 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.087 0.014 -0.187 -0.019 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.524 0.916 0.167 0.890 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.056 0.184 0.015 0.069 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.681 0.175 0.913 0.615 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56 56

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206 Leadership Training Leadership Workshops Other Leadership Training Pearson Correlation -0.038 -0.106 0.063 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.783 0.437 0.643 Gender N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.158 0.160 0.309 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.245 0.239 0.020 Ethnicity N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.008 -0.107 0.060 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.951 0.433 0.660 Age N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.118 0.123 0.122 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.384 0.366 0.371 Yrs Empl N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.050 -0.043 0.249 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.716 0.753 0.065 Ldrshp Yrs N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.086 0.053 -0.075 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.531 0.700 0.585 Hmn Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.008 -0.041 0.068 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.953 0.763 0.618 Hmn Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.025 0.160 -0.099 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.856 0.240 0.469 Conc. Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.007 0.071 0.245 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.961 0.603 0.069 Conc. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.039 0.152 -0.264 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.776 0.263 0.049 Tech Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.233 -0.008 -0.086 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.084 0.950 0.531 Tech. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.111 0.134 -0.141 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.416 0.323 0.301 Comm Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.132 -0.190 0.029 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.331 0.161 0.830 Comm. Skills Prof. % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.007 0.267 0.132 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.962 0.047 0.334 EI Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.009 0.038 0.314 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.946 0.782 0.018 EI Skills Prof % N 56 56 56

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207 Pearson Correlation -0.009 -0.017 -0.011 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.948 0.902 0.938 Industry Skills % N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.099 -0.087 0.056 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.470 0.524 0.681 KAI N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.275 0.014 0.184 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.040 0.916 0.175 KAI-SO N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.073 -0.187 0.015 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.595 0.167 0.913 KAI-E N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.049 -0.019 0.069 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.722 0.890 0.615 KAI-R N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 1 0.006 -0.149 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.965 0.273 Leadership Training N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation 0.006 1 0.287 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.965 0.032 Leadership Workshops N 56 56 56 Pearson Correlation -0.149 0.287 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.273 0.032 Other Leadership Training N 56 56 56

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PAGE 238

223 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH David Jones earned a Bachelors of Scie nce degree and secondary agriculture teaching credential in agricultural edu cation and communication from California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly, Sa n Luis Obispo) in 1994. He received his masters degree in agricultural education from Cal Poly in 1995. Jones taught agriculture at Atascadero High School in Atascadero, Ca lifornia, for seven years where he focused on developing the schools orna mental horticulture program. Jones was hired as a lecturer in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at Cal Poly in the spring of 2002. While at Cal Poly, Jones taught courses on teaching methods and strategies, as well as program planning. He pursued a doctorate degree at the University of Florida starting in the fall of 2004. Jones studied leadership and teacher education while attending the Univ ersity of Florida. While enrolled in graduate classes, he worked principally with the Agricultural Education and Communication Oral Communicatio n courses and the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Honors Program. Jones married his college sweetheart and be st friend, Jennifer, and they have two daughters, Abbey and Kelsey.


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Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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LEADERSHIP IN COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES:
AN EXAMINATION OF LEADERSHIP SKILLS, LEADERSHIP STYLES, AND
PROBLEM-SOLVING STYLES OF ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADERS
















BY
DAVID WILLIAM WARD JONES

















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

David William Ward Jones




























This is dedicated to my family:

My incredible wife, Jennifer, and my two wonderful daughters, Kelsey May and

Abbey Rose.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the members of my advisory committee: Drs. Rick Rudd, Ed

Osborne, Tracy Irani, Katie Sieving, and Kirby Barrick. Without their remarkable

talents, knowledge, and individual expertise, this dissertation would not have been

possible. Each of their words of wisdom, challenge for excellence, and encouragement

provided the continual support needed to accomplish this task. I am grateful for the

advice and support of my advisor, Dr. Rick Rudd. He not only made me question my

assumptions, he provided an endless supply of questions for the future.

I am extremely grateful for the love and support of my family. I am truly indebted

to my wife, Jennifer, for helping and encouraging me to accomplish this great feat.

Abbey and Kelsey have constantly been a source of encouragement and comic relief just

when needed.

My success at the University of Florida, in a large part, can be attributed to the

MacJonesingham's. Their never-ending laughter, love, and support kept me going.

Thank you. It goes without saying that the crew in Rolfs 310 helped me reach this point.

The incredible friends I have made not only supplied endless hours of laughter, but some

great intellectual discussions. During times of frustration and disappointment, they were

always there to tell me I could do it and to lend support. I will be forever grateful to all

of them.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................. x

LIST OF FIGURES .................. ............ .......... .. .................... xiii

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... xiv

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.............................................. 1

Intro du action to th e Stu dy ................................................................... ..................... 1
B background of the Study ........................................... ................................. 2
Problem Statem ent ....................... ...... ...... ............. ........ ......... ........... ..
Purpose and Objectives of the Study ................. ...................................7
Significance of the Study ......... ..... .......................................... .. ........ 8
D definition of Term s ..... ...................... ....................... .... .... .. ............ 10
Lim stations of the Study .............................. ........... ............ .............. 11
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................1 1

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..................................................... ..............13

L leadership D efin ed .............. .................................................... ........ ...... 14
T y p es of L leaders ... ...................................................................... ...... 18
Traits of Leaders ......... ...................... ......... ........ 19
L leadership Styles.............. ...... ............ ... ............................ ..... .......... 21
Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles ....................................22
L leadership T heories ........................ .. ...................... .. ...... .... ..... ...... 24
T rait T h eo ries ...............................................................2 5
T he G great M an T theory ............................ .......................... .....................25
L leadership Traits Theory ........................................ ......... ............... 25
B ehavioral T heories............ ... ...................................................... .... .... ... ....27
E xpectancy T heory ............. ................................ ........ ...... ..... .......29
H um anistic Theories ............................................................................. 30
E change T heory ............ .......................................... .......... . ..........
Authoritarian Leadership............................ ......... ................... 31
C harism atic L leadership ......... ............................................. ...... ......... 31


v









S itu atio n al T h eo rie s.................................................................. .....................3 2
Transformational Leadership Theory .............. .............................................36
M easuring L leadership Styles........................................................... ............... 39
L leadership Skills .......................................................................4 1
Leadership Skills Can B e Learned ........................................ ........................ 51
L and-grant U universities .............................. .......... ...... ................. ............... 53
Colleges of Agricultural and Life Science at Land-grant Universities ..............54
The R ole of the D ean ................ ................ ............................... ... .......... 60
The Changing Role of the Academic Program Dean ........................................60
A Leader's Role in Change ............................ .................... ......... ............ 63
The Dean's Role in Change...................... ......... .... ............... 67
Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) ....................................................72
Differences between Adapters and Innovators................ ...............73
Innovation and Adaptability in Organizational Change................................77
Innovative vs. Adaptive Leaders ..................... ............................. 81
Influence of Demographics on Leadership Skills.....................................................82
Gender Differences in Leadership .............................................. ...............82
Ethnicity and Leadership ......................................................... ............. 85
A ge and Educational Level ........................................ ........................... 87
Type of Degree .................................... ......................................88
T enure in P position ........... .......................................................... ...... .... .... 89
T heoretical F ram ew ork ...................................................................... ...................89
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................... 9 7

3 M E T H O D S ........................................................................................................... 9 9

R research D design ................................... ... .......... .............. .. 100
P population .............................................................................................................102
Instrum entation ............................................. .. ........................ 102
Leadership Skills Instrum ent............................................... ... ........... .... .. 103
Demographic Instrument ............................ ..... ............106
M ultifactor Leadership Questionnaire.................................... ....................107
Problem-solving Style Instrument .............. ............................................. 110
D ata C collection Tim e Fram e .................................... ............................ ....... 112
M ethod and Data Analysis Used for Objective 1 ..................................................... 114
Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 2 and 3 ............... .....................114
M ethod and Data Analysis Used for Objective 4..................................................... 115
Method and Data Analysis Used for Objectives 5 and 6............... .....................115
M ethod and Data Analysis Used for Objective 7..................................................... 116
N on-response ..................................... ................................ .......... 117
S u m m a ry .......................................................................................1 1 8

4 R E S U L T S .......................................................................................12 1

Objective 1................................................. 122
Determine Selected Demographic Characteristics of Land-grant Academic
Program Leaders .................. .............................. ...... .. ........ .... 122









Participant A ge ........................................................ .............. ... 123
E educational D egree H eld........................................................ ............... 123
Previous Leadership Experience ............................................ ............... 123
O bj ectiv e 2 .............................. ................................. ...... .... ................124
Assess Level of Importance of Leadership Skills, as Determined by
A cadem ic Program Leaders........................................................................ 124
Perceived Importance of Leadership Skill Areas ........................ ...............124
O objective 3 ......................... .......... ....... ...... .............. ................129
Assess Self-perceived Proficiency of Leadership Skills of Academic Program
L ead ers ............................ .. ................... ............................................... ... 12 9
Self-perceived Proficiency in Leadership Skill Areas...................................129
Obj active 4 ................... ...... ..... .... ..... ........... .... ................133
Identify Gaps in Leadership Skills and Proficiency Level of Academic
Program L leaders ......... .... ....... ............ .. ...... ....... ............. 133
Difference Between Perceived Importance and Self-Perceived Proficiency of
L leadership Skills............ .... .......................................... .... .... ........... 133
Objective 5............................................................ .. .. ... .. .. ........ 133
Determine Leadership Behaviors of Academic Program Leaders as Being
Transformational, Transactional and/or Laissez-faire ................................133
Leadership Style and Gender........................................................... ....... 134
Leadership Style and Ethnicity...................................... ........................ 135
L leadership Style and A ge............................................................. .................. 137
Leadership Style and Tenure in Formal Leadership Position .........................139
Leadership Style and Previous College Leadership Courses ..........................140
Leadership Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training .......................140
Leadership Style and Any Other Additional Leadership Training....................141
O bjectiv e 6 .................. .... .............. .... ........ ....... ............. ............... 14 2
Identify Academic Program Leader's Problem-solving Style .........................142
Problem -solving Style and Gender......................................... ............... 142
Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity...................... ...... ...............143
Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree ............................................... 145
Problem-solving Style and Tenure at a College or University..........................146
Problem-solving Style and Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position..............146
Problem-solving Style and Previous College Leadership Training ................146
Problem-solving Style and Previous Leadership Workshop Training .............147
Problem-solving Style Previous Leadership Training.............................. 147
O b je ctiv e 7 ........................... ...... .. .. ................................... 14 8
Explain Leadership Styles of Academic Program Leaders .............................148
Transform national Leadership Style ....................................... ............... 153
Transactional Leadership Style ........................................ ...... ............... 154
Laissez-faire Leadership Style ........................................ ....... ............... 155
Sum m ary ................................ .. .................................. ........... 155

5 SUM M ARY AND DISCUSSION ........................................ ........ ............... 158

Study Sum m action ................................. .. ...................................... ...... .. .... 159
Statem ent of the Problem ...................................................................... 159









M methodology ...............................................................................................160
F finding s and C onclu sion s ........................................................... ........................ 162
Objective 1: To determine selected demographic characteristics of land-grant
academic program leaders................... .. .... .... ....................... 162
Objective 2: To assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined
by academic program leaders.................. .. .. ..... ........................... 164
Objective 3: To assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of
academy ic program leaders.................. .... .... .. ..... ............... ... 165
Objective 4: To identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of
academy ic program leaders.................... .. ............... ............... ... 166
Objective 5: To determine leadership styles of academic program leaders, as
being transformational, transactional, and/or laissez-faire ..........................167
Objective 6: To identify an academic program leader's problem-solving stylel70
Objective 7: Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders ............172
Implications and Recom m endations..................................................................... 175
Objective 1: To determine selected demographic characteristics of land-grant
academic program leaders................... .. .... .... ....................... 175
Objective 2: To assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined
by academic program leaders.................. .. .. ..... ........................... 176
Objective 3: To assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills, of
academy ic program leaders.................. .... .... .. ..... ............... ... 176
Objective 4: To identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of
academy ic program leaders.................... .. ............... ............... ... 179
Objective 5: To determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as
being transformational, transactional or laissez-faire ..................................181
Objective 6: To identify academic program leader's problem-solving style... 182
Objective 7: To explain leadership styles of academic program leaders .........183
Future Research Recom m endations .............................................. ............... 187

APPENDIX

A P R E L E T T E R ....... .... .......... .................................. .............. ..... 189

B LETTER TO ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADER .............. ............... 190

C PO STC A R D R E M IN D ER ............................................................. .....................191

D INFORM ED CONSENT LETTER .............................. .....................192

E MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (MLQ)...............................193

F K A I ............................................................................. 1 9 4

G LEADERSHIP SKILLS INSTRUMENT....................... ...................... 195

H CORRELATION TABLE ............ .... ................................. 198









L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................... ........ .......... 208

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................... ...........................................223
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

3-1 Cronbach 's Alpha for Importance and Proficiencyfor Leadership
ll (N 1 6) ..................................................... ............................................... 10 6

3-2 Comparison ofEarly andLate Respondents (N 26)..........................................117

3-3 Independent t-Test Comparing Early and Late Respondents (N 26) ....................118

4-1 Age and Tenure ofAcademic Program Leaders (N 56) ...............................123

4-2 Previous Leadership Training Scores (N 56) ............................................... 124

4-3 Human .kill Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ............. ............124

4-4 Conceptual ,il// Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ..................125

4-5 Technical ,kil/ Importance Item Response Scores (Importance).......................126

4-6 Communication \ki//I Importance Item Response Scores (Importance) ............... 126

4-7 Emotional Intelligence .\kil Item Response Scores (Importance) .....................127

4-8 Industry Knowledge \kill Item Response Scores (Importance) .......................127

4-9 Perceived Leadership .\kill Importance (N=56) .................................................128

4-10 Human .kill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) .......129

4-11 Conceptual .\,ill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) 130

4-12 Technical .\kll Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores (Proficiency) ... 130

4-13 Communication .kill Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores .............131

4-14 Emotional Intelligence Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores............131

4-15 Industry Knowledge Self-perceived Proficiency Item Response Scores
(Proficiency) ............. ..... .............. ................ ............ ... ...... 132

4-16 Leadership .\kill Self-perceived Proficiency (N 56) .......................................132









4-17 Difference Between Mean for Importance and Proficiency................................133

4-18 Leadership Scale Scores and Leadership Style Scores....................................... 134

4-19 Leadership Style Scores by Gender........................ ........ ................ 135

4-20 Leadership Scale Scores by Gender................................................... 135

4-21 Leadership Style Scores by Ethnicity ................................. .................. 136

4-22 Leadership Style of Tllhie and non-Whites (N 26) ................... ................137

4-23 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores, andAge (N=56) .................................... ..................... 138

4-24 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores and Years of Tenure at a College or University ............139

4-25 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores and Years ofFormal Leadership Position Tenure
(N 5 6) .............. 1.................................. .................... ................ 1 3 9

4-26 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores and the Number of College Leadership Courses
(N 5 6) .............. 1.................................. .................... ................ 14 0

4-27 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Leadership Workshops (N 56) .............141

4-28 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Leadership Style Scores and
Leadership Scale Scores and Number of Previous Leadership Training Courses
(N 5 6) .............. 1.................................. .................... ................ 1 4 1

4-29 Problem-solving Style (N 56) ........................................ .......................... 142

4-30 Problem-solving Style and Gender (N=56) ................................ ................143

4-31 Problem-solving Style and Ethnicity (N 56) .................................................144

4-32 Problem-solving Style of Whites and n,l,- TT7lhite (N 56) ................................ 144

4-33 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and Age
(N 56) ............. .................... .. .. ......................................................144

4-34 Problem-solving Style and Type of Degree (N 56) .........................................145

4-35 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Type of D egree (N 56) ................................................ .............................. 145









4-36 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Tenure at a College or University (N 56) ..........................................................146

4-37 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Tenure in a Formal Leadership Position (N=56) ...........................146

4-38 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Previous College Leadership Training (N=56) ................................ ...............147

4-39 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Previous Leadership Workshop Training (N 56) ..............................................147

4-40 Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Between Problem-solving Style and
Previous Leadership Training (N=56)....................... ...... ..............147

4-41 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables
and Transformational Leadership Style..........................................................149

4-42 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables
and Transactional Leadership Style......................... ........................... 152

4-43 Pearson's Product Moment Correlations Between Cognitive Function Variables
and Laissez-faire Leadership Style ................................................... ............... 153

4-44 Backward Regression Explaining Transformational Leadership Style (N=56) .... 154

4-45 Backward Regression Explaining Transactional Leadership Style (N 56) ..........154

4-46 Backward Regression Explaining Laissez-faire Leadership Style (N 56) ............155
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 C cognitive Function .. .................................................................... ............... 91

2-2 Cognitive Function Schema (Kirton, 2003) .................................. ............... 93

2-3 Leadership Style Behavior Indicator Model (adapted from Kirton, 2003) .............96















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

LEADERSHIP IN COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES:
AN EXAMINATION OF LEADERSHIP SKILLS, LEADERSHIP STYLES, AND
PROBLEM-SOLVING STYLES OF ACADEMIC PROGRAM LEADERS


By

David William Ward Jones

May 2006

Chair: Rick Rudd
Major Department: Agricultural Education and Communication

The purpose of this study was to identify and define the leadership skills and

styles of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences.

Quantitative research methods were used to describe academic program leaders in terms

of their demographics and leadership skills and styles, and also to assess their self-

perceived proficiency level in each of the leadership skill areas. Determining where gaps

existed between academic program leaders' perception of leadership skills importance

and self-perceived leadership skills level was a goal of this research. This study

examined how demographic variables are predictors of leadership styles and skills of

academic program leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of

academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire.

Additionally this study examined academic program leaders' problem-solving style.









Finally, this study sought to explain academic program leaders' leadership styles by

specific variables.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Introduction to the Study

This study utilized quantitative research methodologies to identify and define the

leadership skills and styles of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and

life sciences. Quantitative research methods were used to describe academic program

leaders in terms of their demographics and leadership skills, leadership behaviors and

leadership styles. This study sought to assess academic program leaders' self-perceived

proficiency level in specific leadership skill areas. Determining where gaps existed

between an academic program leader's perception of leadership skill importance and self-

perceived leadership skill level was a goal of this research. This study examined how

demographic variables are predictors of leadership styles and skills of academic program

leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of academic program leaders

as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire. This study examined the

problem-solving style of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life

sciences. Finally, this study sought to explain leadership styles of academic program

leaders by specific variables.

The National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Institutions

designates 110 individuals to oversee academic programs. These 110 individuals were

contacted to participate in this study. These academic program leaders were asked to

complete four leadership measurement instruments. The Multi-factor Leadership

Questionnaire (MLQ), developed by Bass and Avolio (2000), was used to assess each









academic program leader's leadership style as transactional, transformational and/or

laissez-faire. Kirton's (1999) Adaption-Innovation instrument (KAI) was used to

measure the academic program leader's problem-solving ability. Each college of

agricultural and life sciences academic program leader was given a leadership skills

instrument, which measured the academic program leader's perception of leadership skill

importance and self-perceived proficiency level in the leadership skill area. Finally, a

demographic instrument was given to each academic program leader to determine gender,

ethnicity, age, highest educational degree, type of degree, tenure in position, tenure in a

formal leadership position, as well as previous leadership training.

Independent variables identified in the literature were gender, ethnicity, age,

highest educational degree earned, type of degree earned, tenure in position, tenure in

formal leadership position, and previous leadership training. These independent variables

were used to determine how demographics influence an academic program leader's

leadership style and leadership skills.

Background of the Study

On July 2, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law what is generally

referred to as the Land-Grant Act. This piece of legislation introduced by U.S.

Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont granted to each state 30,000 acres of

public land, which could be used to finance the purchase of land needed for a state-run

college. The Land-Grant Act was to assist the universities to

support, and maintain at least one college in each state where the leading object
shall be, without excluding other scientific or other classical studies, to teach such
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, as the
legislatures of the states may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal
and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and
professions of life. (Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862)









The Morrill Act of 1862 established 51 land-grant universities. In the second

Morrill Act of 1890, 18 more land-grant universities were created. Between 1890 and

1994, 34 land-grant institutions were added. The Morrill Land-Grant College acts of

1862 and 1890 provided higher education to the general public rather than just the elite.

The purpose of the two Morrill acts was to provide for at least one college in each state.

Colleges established under the Morrill acts were to teach agriculture and mechanical arts.

There are currently 105 land-grant institutions; 74 traditional land-grant colleges

have been established by the Morrill acts of 1862 and 1890. Twenty-nine tribal colleges

were established in 1994, which are represented by a single membership designated by

the American Indian Higher Education Consortium in Virginia. Four institutions are not

in the United States: the Community College of Micronesia; Northern Marianas College;

University of Guam; and the University of Puerto Rico.

Land-grant universities were established to teach foundational skills ranging from

military sciences to practical agriculture application. They were also created to bring

education to the general public and make this education relevant to the daily lives of any

student attending a land-grant university.

Senator Morrill, speaking at the Massachusetts Agriculture College in 1887, stated:

The land-grant colleges were founded on the idea that a higher and broader
education should be placed in every State within the reach of those whose destiny
assigns them to, or who may have the courage to choose industrial locations where
the wealth of nations is produced; where advanced civilization unfolds its comforts,
and where a much larger number of the people need wider educational advantages,
and impatiently await their possession. (Morrill, 1887)

Land-grant universities were designed to allow for the collection and dissemination

of research and the teaching to the general public. As land-grant universities grew in

size, so did the need for more academic program support. Historically, the administration









for higher education has had an important impact on facilities and operations of these

land-grant universities. The academic program leader, who over time has come to be

known as the "dean," has served in roles dealing with educational instruction to teacher

support services, as well as community education and raising funds for the college.

Seventy-five years ago, the role of the academic dean was not standardized (Hawkes,

1930). Today, there is still no consensus on the roles of the dean (Wolverton, Gmelch,

Montez, & Nies, 2001). Deans of colleges and universities serve to oversee not only the

daily operations of the facility, but they must also have the ability to generate, foster, and

help implement future goals and expectations of the facility. The responsibilities and

tasks of today's deans include, but are not limited to, maintaining the budget, keeping

records, managing the staff, and representing the university.

Deans today are responsible for personnel, budgetary, policy, governance,

development and fundraising, and other oversight functions (Tucker & Bryan, 1988).

Because of their often-undefined role, the dean is oftentimes expected to take on duties

commonly associated with corporate business managers: figurehead, leader, liaison,

monitor, disseminator, spokesperson, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource

allocator, and negotiator (Miller, 1989; Mintzberg, 1973).

The duties of an academic dean involve leadership activities that include

supporting, motivating, and developing the faculty (Wilson, 1999). The roles and

responsibilities of today's academic dean are a much broader position than what was

originally established for an educational administrator when the Morrill acts were written.

Living and working by the founding premise of Senator Morrill's vision for land-

grant universities, the need to transcend the old and new roles and responsibilities of









land-grant universities has resulted in the need for effective leadership. The need for

strong leaders is now more important than ever. Effective leadership is required to take

colleges and universities through the next era of change. These leaders must exhibit

leadership traits, such as vision, integrity, and perceptiveness. They must possess the

ability to encourage communication and compromise as they work on behalf of the

faculty and the college (Wisniewski, 1998).

The role of the college and the university dean is continually changing.

Universities and colleges in the United States are encountering a turbulent climate. The

quality of their future in many ways depends on how well they respond to evolving

realities in the larger world beyond their walls (Abelson, 1997). How proficient college

of agricultural and life sciences academic program leaders are at leading their colleges

and faculty through the change and their style of leadership could ensure that the change

will be positive for higher education institutions.

Moore (2003) and Stedman (2004) reported a relationship between demographic

variables', including age, gender, ethnicity, educational background, and leadership

training, and these variables' that influence on leadership styles. However, an assessment

of those leadership skills current academic program leaders need and have is much harder

to find. Furthermore, an academic program leader's problem-solving ability has not been

researched. By aligning leadership style, leadership skills, demographics, as well as an

academic program leader's problem-solving abilities, side by side and determining the

gaps between them, it will draw a clearer picture as to what academic program leaders

need in order to lead their institution effectively through the next period of change.









Problem Statement

Leadership ability determines effectiveness and the potential impact of the leader's

organization (Maxwell, 2002). Until now, the most difficult question has always been:

How can one learn to be an effective leader, not just a manager (Bennis & Nanus, 1985)?

This study worked to define leadership styles and skills that college of agricultural and

life science academic program leaders possess. In modem organizations, leadership and

management roles are seldom separate, and the leaders of organizations set the

atmosphere of the work environment. At times, a leader/manager may need to charge up

followers, creating commitment, inspiration, growth, and adaptation. Here the individual

is clearly exerting leadership (Howell & Costley, 2006).

Academic leaders typically come to their positions without leadership training,

without prior experience, and without a clear understanding of the ambiguity and

complexity of their roles (Gmelch, 1999). Therefore, a strong need for preparation is

required.

The Kellogg Commission, in its report on the Future of State and Land-Grant

Universities (2000), reported that today's university setting is changing. It stated

universities needed to reform public higher education in five areas: (1) student

experiences; (2) student access; (3) engagement with society; (4) a learning society; and

(5) campus culture. The commission's findings conclude that universities need to pay

more attention to promoting lifelong learning. The commission also noted universities

need to pay more attention to student experiences and to campus culture.

The commission found several key obstacles that would slow down university or

institutional reform. These obstacles include: lack of resources, money and time;

inadequate facilities; the organization of universities into decentralized, disciplinary









departments and colleges; the lack of communication between academic units; personal

attitudes; and a general resistance to change. One of the key aspects the commission

alluded to throughout its report was the lack of leadership at every level. The

commission found that mid-level administrators stressed the need for: clarification of

core values; improvement in the integration of university missions; greater support for

non-traditional students; and re-emphasizing and valuing excellence in all aspects of the

university missions teaching, research, and outreach.

In today's colleges of agricultural and life sciences the role of an academic leader is

dealing with extramural funding, making personnel decisions, and relating to alumni, as

well as focusing on curriculum issues. More specifically, administrative roles include

maintaining the budget, keeping records, managing the staff, and representing the

department in other aspects of the university. What skills are required for academic

program leadership positions in a college of agricultural and life sciences. Do current

staff members in these leadership positions possess these skills? If they do not possess

these skills, where are they expected to obtain the training to acquire these leadership

skills?

Purpose and Objectives of the Study

Due to the changing environment of the higher education system specifically for

this study colleges of agricultural and life sciences, the leadership of an organization

will determine if the organization will be able to successfully manage the change or

succumb to it. The academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences

have been designated as the individuals responsible for guiding their organization during

this time of change. With this responsibility in mind, this study seeks to answer the

following questions in regard to academic program leaders:









* Who are they?
* What leadership skills are important to successfully complete their tasks?
* What is the self-perceived proficiency of these leadership skills?
* Where are the leadership skill "gaps" between what academic program leaders feel
are important and their proficiency level in these leadership skill areas?
* What leadership styles do current academic program leaders possess?
* Which problem-solving style do academic program leaders prefer to use?

The purpose of this study was to identify and define the leadership skills needed by

academic program leaders in colleges of agricultural and life sciences. The self-

perceived level of proficiency of current academic program leaders was assessed in each

leadership skill area. The study described current academic program leaders in terms of

their leadership style by being transactional, transformational and/or laissez-faire.

This research addressed the following specific objectives:

1. Determine selected demographic characteristics of land-grant academic program
leaders.

2. Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program
leaders.

3. Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders.

4. Identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of academic program
leaders.

5. Determine leadership styles of academic program leaders as being transformational,
transactional and/or laissez-faire.

6. Identify academic program leader's problem-solving style.

7. Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders.

Significance of the Study

This study determined the specific leadership skills that academic program leaders

believe are important in order to be effective and promote positive change in their

positions. By determining the specific skills that academic program leaders need to

perform their jobs, standards and criterion can be set for hiring colleges of agricultural









and life science academic program leaders. In addition, determining the specific skills

deemed important by these leaders will assist in the preparation and successful delivery

of future leadership development programs. Developing leadership programs, which

focus on preparing professional academic program leaders, will help to ensure more

competent leaders from more diverse populations, including women and other minorities.

This information will assist individuals who are interested in pursuing leadership

positions in colleges of agricultural and life sciences, but they may not know how to

pursue this career choice by defining the leadership skills required. Understanding the

role of academic program leaders and how they fulfill this role will benefit future

individuals who aspire to realize this role. Hiring committees can use the information

obtained from this research during the interview process to find new academic program

leaders by asking questions relevant to leadership roles, responsibilities, and proficiency

levels.

This study can be used to develop professional development activities and

leadership training courses as well as other opportunities for personal and professional

growth for academic program leaders. Helping aspiring educational leaders gain an

understanding of the qualities, characteristics, and leadership skills, as well as leadership

behaviors that will be necessary for them to be effective leaders, is a major impact of this

study.

This study described the specific demographic information, and self-perceived

leadership skills, as well as leadership styles of academic program leaders, within

colleges of agricultural and life sciences at land-grant universities. Few studies have

been conducted on agricultural leaders within colleges of land-grant universities. Even









fewer studies have been done at land-grant universities that include leaders holding senior

leadership positions. By defining leadership skills needed in leadership positions, as well

as offering explanations of factors that influence these leadership skills, better

recruitment and attainment and retention of educational/academic leaders will result.

Definition of Terms

* Land-grant university: A university directed to educate the people and solve
problems through academics, research, and extension programs. It is the land-grant
university that has the major responsibility for agricultural research and teaching
responsibility, as well as a major "outreach" or extension education mission to the
public (NDSU Extension Service website).

* College of agricultural and life sciences academic program leader (dean): For this
study the term College of agricultural and life sciences academic program leader
will be those individuals listed by the National Association of State University and
Land-Grant Colleges as the Dean of Academic Programs in Schools and Colleges
of Agricultural and Life Sciences or Agriculture and Natural Resources.

These individuals are the chief academic and administrative officers in most
Colleges of Agriculture. The dean is typically expected to provide leadership in
strategic and program planning, faculty and staff development, fundraising, and
setting a vision of the future of the university and college. They serve as academic
facilitators between presidential initiatives, faculty governance, and student needs
(Astin & Scherrei, 1980).

These individuals usually have the primary responsibility for
participation/correspondence in academic programs (Directory of Deans and
Directors of Academic Programs in Schools and Colleges of Agriculture,
Agricultural and Life Sciences, or Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2005).

Also known as dean, associate dean, assistant dean, chief academic officer (CAO),
or academic program leader.

* Leadership: The process of influencing one or more individuals in an attempt to
affect their choices of goals, and to inspire, organize or direct their efforts to
achieve the goals. The ability to see a problem or opportunity and do something
about it with other people (Pisapia & Coukos-Semel, 2002).

* Leadership styles: The characteristic manner in which an individual leads other
people; patterns of leadership behavior (Moore, 2003).

* Leadership skills: The abilities and acquired tasks related to leadership developed
by an individual (Moore, 2003).









* Transformational leadership style: A "process whereby an individual engages with
others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in
both the leader and the follower" (Northouse, 2004).

* Transactional leadership style: A leadership process which has a focus on the
exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers (Northouse, 2004).

* Laissez-faire leadership style: The leadership process that abdicates responsibility,
delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy
their needs. A "hands-off let-things-ride" approach (Northouse, 2004).

Limitations of the Study

The first limitation of this study that must be considered is the institutions being

studied. This study was conducted within colleges of agriculture at land-grant

universities; the findings should therefore only be applied to those institutions. The

conclusions drawn from this study should be limited to the professional academic

program leaders included in this study. The second limitation is that information may or

may not be accurate because it is self-reported data. The data gained might have been

more accurate if it was gained from the dean's coworkers, staff, or superiors and the

researcher assumes the information to be true and accurate. The third limitation is that

environmental, personal, and situational variables might influence leadership skills and

styles that were not reported in this study.

This study will contribute to the general body of knowledge in regard to leadership

skills, and leadership styles, as well as problem-solving approaches of academic program

leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences.

Summary

This chapter provided the background and significance of the problem, as well as

the purpose of the study. The academic program leader position has become a very

important position in colleges and universities. Higher education is undergoing a









significant time of change, and academic program leaders are responsible for ensuring

success for the higher education community. These changes include a more diverse

student population, advances in technology, and budget deficits. This study sought to

examine academic program leaders' leadership skills, and styles, as well as their

problem-solving styles. This study investigated the influence of demographics on the

leadership skills, styles, and problem-solving approaches of professional academic

program leaders in colleges of agricultural and life sciences.

This research addressed the following specific objectives:

Determine selected demographic characteristics of land-grant academic program leaders.

Assess level of importance of leadership skills, as determined by academic program
leaders.

Assess self-perceived proficiency of leadership skills of academic program leaders.

Identify gaps in leadership skills and proficiency level of academic program leaders.

Determine leadership behaviors of academic program leaders as being transformational,
transactional, and/or laissez-faire.

Identify academic program leader's problem solving style.

Explain leadership styles of academic program leaders.

This chapter defined significant terms used in the study. Limitations to the study

were discussed.

Chapter 2 will address the theoretical and the conceptual framework for the study.

Chapter 2 will also discuss the research on leadership skills and styles and how people

respond and influence change in organizations, as well as information in regard to

demographics and their influences on leadership styles. Chapter 2 will also take into

account the research in regard to the influence of demographics on leadership styles,

skills, and problem-solving approaches.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The purpose of this study was to identify and define the leadership skills and styles

of academic program leaders of colleges of agricultural and life sciences. Quantitative

research methods were used to describe academic program leaders in terms of their

demographics and leadership skills and styles, and also to assess their self-perceived

proficiency level in each of the leadership skill areas. A goal of this research was to

determine where gaps existed between an academic program leader's perception of

leadership skill importance and self-perceived leadership skill level. This study

examined how demographic variables are predictors of leadership styles and skills of

academic program leaders. This study sought to determine the leadership style of

academic program leaders as being transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire.

Additionally, this study examined the problem-solving style of academic program leaders

of colleges of agricultural and life sciences.

The purpose of this chapter is to present the literature in leadership theory and

leadership styles, as well as leadership skills that contributed to this study. This chapter

will focus on the literature that describes leadership variables and their effect on

leadership styles. This chapter will set the theoretical framework for the study. Included

in this chapter is a brief history of the land-grant universities and the development and

role of the professional academic program leader in colleges of agriculture.









Leadership Defined

The term leadership has been much researched, discussed, and debated. Each

author or expert who uses the term leadership uses it in a manner that best encompasses

the focus of his or her work. No consensus exists on a definite/specific definition among

the experts. One of the problems with the concept of leadership is the ambiguity of its

definition and measurement (Pfeffer, 1977). Leadership is an important topic of

discussion in all disciplines and fields of studies. In and of itself, leadership is among the

most studied and least understood subjects (Bennis & Nanus, 1985).

Researchers have worked to define leadership and effective leadership. British

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery defined leadership by stating, "Leadership is the

capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which

inspires confidence." President Harry Truman stated, "A leader is a man who has the

ability to get other people to do what they don't want to do and like it." In examining

these definitions, it is easy to see that leadership has a very broad definition, depending

on who is being asked and the setting to which one is referring. In this review of

literature, the researcher evaluated definitions of leadership from different theoretical

perspectives.

According to Burns (1978), leadership is one of the most observed and least

understood phenomena on earth. Researchers have investigated aspects of leadership in

order to try and determine what makes a leader, how he or she came about being a leader,

and what traits a leader possesses.

Chemers (1993) defined leadership as a process of social influence, and effective

leadership as the successful application of the influence to mission accomplishment.

When a leader is able to get others to attain goals of the organization, in Chemers's view,









he or she is effective. Chemers suggested that the effective leader is able to get the

followers to perform desired job tasks or outcomes. Chemers's leader is able to do this

while being consistent with policies, procedures, and conditions of the organizational

policy.

An approach to establishing the characteristics of the effective leader can take on a

sociological perspective (Fiedler & Garcia, 1987). Fiedler and Garcia's main concern

was with the success of the group and the task that has been assigned. While many

scholars assume there is one best style of leadership, Fiedler and Garcia's contingency

model proposed that the leader's success is based on the situation where he or she must

demonstrate his or her leadership skills. Fiedler and Garcia's work believes that

leadership is a system of interactions that takes place between a leader and work group.

According to Fiedler and Garcia, this system of interaction is demonstrated through the

actions of the leader. They measured the leader's skills and characteristics by what they

call the least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale, which is an instrument used for measuring

an individual's leadership orientation. The LPC scale takes what a leader thinks of all the

persons with whom he or she has ever worked, and then asks the leader to describe the

one person with whom he or she has worked the least well. The instrument then asks the

leader to rate this person on a scale of 1 through 8. The leader is asked to describe this

person through a series questions and then is scored by their responses. Fiedler and

Garcia's research led to building a case for showing a strong relationship between the

leader and the followers' interaction.

Krech and Crutchfield (1948) maintained that "by virtue of his [the leader] special

position in the group, [the leader] serves as a primary agent for the determination of









group structure, group atmosphere, group goals, group ideology, and group activities."

Mendl (1990) suggested that groups display measures of effect leadership and that the

more productive a group is, the more effective the leadership is. The value of the leader

is then measured by the productivity and satisfaction of the members of the group.

Mendl differentiated between "process" measures of leadership, which are behaviors that

leaders show or display. These outcomes do not have any true value within themselves;

however, the result of the behavior to the group is the important part. Alternatively, the

group performance is the true measure of the effective leader.

Other researchers have defined leadership as having influence over others

(Northouse, 2004). Some theorists believe that leadership is getting others to comply

with the leader's desires. Still other theorists believe that leadership is an exercise or use

of power (Schenk, 1928). As leadership becomes more refined over time, the term goal

achievement has entered leadership discussions (Cowley, 1928; Bellows, 1959; Davis,

1962; Northouse, 2004). With these different concepts, the role of leaders and the

definition of leadership have evolved over time. Even today, not a single, all-

encompassing definition of leadership can be agreed upon. As many definitions of

leadership exist as there are researchers and authors studying and writing about

leadership. Researchers of leadership, as with all researchers, define the term to suit their

need and purpose at that particular time.

It is important to realize that leadership has essential elements. These elements

include (Rost, 1991):

* A relationship based on influence;
* Leaders and followers are the people in this relationship;
* Leaders and followers intend real changes; and
* Leaders and followers develop mutual purposes.









An influencing relationship can take several forms. Bell (1975) defined influence

as the process of using persuasion to have an impact on other people in a relationship. In

order to persuade, a leader must use his or her reputation, personality, purpose, status,

goals and aims, interpersonal and group skills, symbolic interaction, perception,

motivation, gender, race, religion, along with many other talents.

Leaders and followers are the second essential elements in this definition of

leadership. Followers in simple terms are those who are being led. The term followers

has often been used synonymously with people who are subordinate and not as intelligent

as their leader. Followers have given up control and are unproductive unless directed by

others. Recently, the opinion of the followers has changed. The term followers has taken

on a larger, more encompassing definition, and has been expanded to include all types of

people from different groups and organizations, and at different times. In today's world,

followers are not passive or submissive. It is easy to understand how a person in one

situation might be a follower and in another situation that same person may be a leader.

The third essential element in understanding leadership is that leaders and followers

intend real change. Burns (1978) wrote,

The leadership process must be defined, in short, as carrying through from
decision-making stages to the point of concrete changes in people's lives, attitudes,
behaviors, institutions. Leadership brings about real change that leaders intend.
The test of leadership is purpose and intent, drawn from values and goals, of
leaders, high and low, resulting in policy decisions and real, intended change.

Within this element, the word intend expresses the notion that changes are

intentional and purposeful. Leaders promote a change purposefully. The term real

means the change that will occur is of some value to the leader or followers. It is

important to realize that the change may or may not occur, but the intent must have value.









The final essential element of the definition of leadership is that leaders and

followers must develop a mutual purpose. The idea of a purpose is different than the

concept of a goal. Purposes are typically not specific. Purposes are broad and more

encompassing. Purposes could be categorized more as a future vision or a mission

statement. The idea of a goal is typically considered as being very specific and

measurable. Goals are not excluded from one's purpose, but in a leader-follower

relationship, mutual goals are not required where a mutual purpose exists.

Types of Leaders

In the late 19th century, leadership research focused on the "mob" or "crowd"

leader. LeBon (1897) described the crowd leader as: (1) the crowd-compeller inflames

the followers with his or her point of view; (2) the crowd-exponent senses what the

crowd desires and gives expression to it; and (3) the crowd-representative merely voices

the already formed opinions of the crowd.

As the turn of the century occurred Bogardus (1918) suggested four types of
leaders: (1) the autocratic type who rises to office in a powerful organization; (2)
the democratic type who represents the interests of a group; (3) the executive type
who is granted leadership because he is able to get things done; and (4) the
reflective-intellectual type who may find it difficult to recruit a large following.

Within these types of leaders, certain types of leaders have arisen in our society.

These leaders were designated as: (1) educational leaders; (2) student leaders; (3) public

leaders; (4) legislative leaders; (5) transactional leaders; (6) transformational leaders; (7)

opinion leaders; (8) small group leaders (Bass, 1981). But what do all these types of

leaders have in common?









Traits of Leaders

Based on 15 different studies (Stogdilll, 1981), early research tried to attach

specific leadership traits to highly effective leaders. These early 20th century studies had

the following conclusions:

* The average person who occupies a position of leadership exceeds the average
member of his group in the following respects: (1) intelligence; (2) scholarship; (3)
dependability in exercising responsibilities; (4) activity and social participation;
and (5) socioeconomic status.

* Factors that have been found which are specific to well-defined groups, such as
gangs and play groups, include athletic ability and prowess while intellectual
fortitude and integrity emerge as groups mature.

* The traits that showed the highest overall correlation with leadership are
originality, popularity, sociability, judgment, aggressiveness, desire to excel,
humor, cooperativeness, liveliness, and athletic ability.

Researchers have tried to correlate leadership with IQ, grades, age, height, and

physical weight all with mixed results and conclusions. No findings were conclusive.

As leadership research continued through the 1940s, the research tried to contradict

the notion that suggested leaders, due to inheritance or social advantage, possess the

qualities and abilities that make them better leaders than the rest of their peers. Stogdill

(1948) reviewed 124 trait studies and found leaders could be characterized by several

clusters of items. These traits represented or classified capacity, achievement,

responsibility, participation and status. Stogdill also concluded that leaders' traits tend to

differ with each situation in which they are required to make decisions.

In a comparison of 52 studies between the 1950s and 1970s, the results concluded

that leaders had the following driving motivations:

* A strong drive for responsibility and task completion;
* Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals;
* Venturesomeness and originality in problem-solving;
* Drive to exercise initiative in social situations;









* Self-confidence and sense of personal identity;
* Willingness to accept consequences of decision and actions;
* Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress;
* Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay;
* Ability to influence another person's behavior; and
* Capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand.

Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) reviewed the literature and identified and

summarized the following list of traits of an effective leader:

* Drive (achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative);
* Leadership motivation (the desire to lead);
* Honesty and integrity;
* Self-confidence;
* Cognitive ability; and
* Knowledge of the business.

Early studies, as well as current leadership studies, seem to agree that qualities,

characteristics, and skills required in a leader are determined to a large extent by the

demands of the situation in which the leader is needed to function (Stogdill, 1981). The

research suggests leadership is not a matter of status or mere possession or a combination

of specific traits. Research suggests that effective leadership is the relationship between

the members of the group and the leader. The leader acquires his or her status through

active participation and demonstrates his or her capacity for completion of tasks through

ability and demonstration of abilities.

During the 1980s, leadership studies developed a list of traits believed to enhance

effective leadership. These traits include high energy, trustworthiness, charismatic

persona, visionary purpose, honest communication, and obsession with goals which assist

the leader in using the correct behavior that the situation demands. Depending on the

situation, leadership would allow the correct behavior, such as challenging the process,









modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, and encouraging the

heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2002).

Leadership Styles

Leadership styles are based on personality styles, personal traits, and effectiveness,

as well as other behaviors, traits, and characteristics. Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee

(2002) outlined six styles of leadership in their book, Primal Leadership: Realizing the

Power of Emotional Intelligence. The authors offer the following six styles of leadership:

The Visionary Leader. This person works to move people toward a shared vision,
but allows them to find their own path to that goal. This type of leader is good for
moving a company forward in a particular direction, and makes a strong impact on
the environment of the company.

The Coaching Leader. This leader works closely with people to find their strengths
and weaknesses and tie these traits into their plans and actions. He or she delegates
assignments, achievements or goals are accomplished because of loyalty.

The Affiliative Leader. The affiliative leader connects with people and keeps peace
within the team. This collaborative style pays attention to emotional needs, not just
work needs, and usually has a positive attitude, helping people through stressful
situations.

The Democratic Leader. This type of leader wants input from others and
participation from them hoping to get everyone on board with ideas and to garner
support for actions.

The Pace-setting Leader. This person likes challenges and goals; putting pressure
on others is a way of keeping up with the task at hand. This hands-off style works
best for the short term.

The Commanding Leader. This type of person is often seen as cold and distant, but
works by giving good directions and expecting and receiving cooperation from
others. He or she is committed and confident and is rarely questioned.

Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee believed that these six different leadership styles

influence the working climate and can affect results of the organization.

There are many styles of leadership. Depending on the leadership style, the

followers will relate to the leader differently in regard to the legitimacy and expectations









of the leader. As the study of leadership has evolved, two distinctly different but related

leadership concepts of leadership styles have become popular. These two concepts of

leadership styles founded on Burns's (1978) work are transactional and transformational

leadership.

Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles

Burns's (1978) work drew from earlier research in which leadership scholars

deemed leadership as a relationship of mutual stimulation built on the characteristics,

attitudes, and needs of both leaders and followers. These scholars felt that the purpose

and structure of the organization, the nature of the work, and the social, economic and

political nature of the organization were all important (Hare, Borgatta, & Bales, 1955;

McGregor, 1960). Later scholars (Avolio & Bass, 1988; Bass, 1985; Bennis & Nanus,

1985; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Rost, 1991) refined the definitions of transformational

and transactional leadership styles.

A transactional leader views the leader-follower relationship as a process of give-

and-take. The transactional leader makes an exchange with the followers, and her or she

gets compliance by rewarding performance and threatening punishment for non-

performance. Transactional leaders tend to use compliance mandates in an attempt to get

an intrinsic motivation factor. The transactional leadership is seen as a trading of benefits

between leaders and followers (Wolverton et al., 2001).

In direct contrast, the transformational leader is more visionary and inspirational

toward his or her followers. Transforming leadership is seen as the mobilization of

others to act in a manner that is morally superior to what might otherwise be the case

(Wolverton et al., 2001). The transformational leader communicates a clear vision and

goal his or her followers can relate to and identify with. The transformational leader









usually tends to create intense emotions among his or her followers. The transformational

leader is able to tap into the self-concept and goal identification in order to motivate the

followers. Instead of using rewards and punishments for performance or lack of

performance, the transformational leader works to instill ownership into the group. This

group ownership is often accomplished by involving the followers in the decision-making

process. The goal of the transformational leader is to get the followers to perform due to

internal control and self-motivation factors, instead of external motivators. One of the

benefits of having followers intrinsically motivated is that the need to monitor a

follower's actions is greatly reduced. Scholl (2002) explained that transformational

leaders are capable of promoting the change from external motivation to internal

motivation by:

* Linking desired outcomes to values held by followers;
* Creating employee ownership in outcomes so that positive outcomes validate the
self-concept of followers; and
* Building strong follower identification with/within the group or organization.

Burns (1978) referred to transformational leadership as being the ability for

"leaders and followers to raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality."

Transformational leadership is considered to promote extreme devotion and increase

effort among the followers. An examination of transformational leaders found that they

were highly charismatic excellent communicators. Additionally, transformational leaders

showed caring personalities, consideration of followers, and a genuine sense of

sensitivity to the followers' wishes and desires (Howell & Costley, 2006).

The success of transactional leadership is based on the willingness of the followers

to be directed by the leader. The success of transformational leadership is based on the









group's collective belief that what is better for the group will be better for the individual

(Mintzberg, 1998).

Current studies on transactional and transformational leadership suggest effective

and successful leaders combine and use both transactional and transformational

leadership to some degree (Bass, 1998). Bass stated the best leaders are both

transformational and transactional, but they are likely to be more transformational and

less transactional than poorer leaders.

Leadership Theories

As with the issue of defining leadership, researchers have debated on the different

approaches of leadership theory. Some scholars believe leaders are born with leadership

traits and leadership traits are difficult to learn. Stogdill (1974), Yukl (1989), and Bass

(1990) described leadership in terms of behaviors. The theory of leadership offered by

Fiedler (1967) Hershey and Blanchard, (1988) viewed leadership as more of a situation

and how the leader responds to that particular situation. In its simplest of terms,

situational leaders are ones who adopt a particular leadership style based on the situation

they are facing.

Blake and Mouton (1989) approached leadership as believing there is a "one best"

way of leading. Early sociological theorists posited that the use of power, authority, and

control gave the leader his or her ability to lead the group (Burs, 1978). However, other

researchers suggested leadership and effective leaders are on a continuum of transactional

leadership and transformational leadership (Burns, 1978; Bennis & Nannus, 1985;

Kouzes & Posner, 1990; Deal & Peterson, 1990).

The research in leadership theory suggests most theories can be separated into four

major categories: (1) Trait Theories; (2) Behavioral Theories; (3) Contingency Theories;









and (4) Transformational Theories. Rost (1991) quickly pointed out that none of these

theories should be used in isolation. Rost explained how all leadership theories have

some common elements. He stated that the various leadership theories are not discrete

and distinct conceptual frameworks, but are grounded on similar assumptions.

Trait Theories

The Great Man Theory

Great Man theorists believe leadership and the capability to lead are inherited traits.

Great Man theorists state prominent leaders from the past have included men and women

who had inborn talents to become leaders. These theorists believe great leaders are born;

they are not made. Leaders such as Winston Churchill, Vladimir Lenin, John F.

Kennedy, Joseph Stalin, Lee Iacocca, and Friedrich Nietzsche have been greatly studied.

Many theorists believe these men were "born" to be leaders.

Leadership Traits Theory

Leaders who have particular qualities, which separate them from other individuals,

are the premise of the Trait Theory of leadership. Trait leaders have specific

characteristics of their personality and character distinguishing them as leaders (Stogdill,

1948). Studies attempting to identify traits of leaders have come to no consensus as to

the mandatory traits that leaders must have in order to be successful. Variables included

in these trait studies have included: IQ; grades; age; height; weight; gender; physique;

energy; health; appearance; fluency of speech; scholarship; knowledge; judgment and

decision-making ability; insight; originality; adaptability; introversion-extroversion;

dominance; initiative; persistence; ambition; responsibility; integrity and conviction; self-

confidence; mood control or mood optimism; emotional control; social and economic









status; social activity and mobility; biosocial activity; social skills; popularity or prestige;

and cooperation (Stogdill, 1948).

The average person who occupies a position of leadership exceeds in the leadership

traits of: intelligence; scholarship; dependability in exercising responsibilities; activity

and social participation; and socioeconomic status. It was also determined that the

average person who has or plays a leadership role exceeds the average member of his

group to a certain degree in: sociability; initiative; persistence; knowing how to get things

done; self-confidence; alertness to and insight into situations; cooperativeness;

popularity; adaptability and verbal ability (Mann, 1959).

Traits with the highest correlation with leadership included: originality; popularity;

sociability; judgment; aggressiveness; desire to excel; humor; cooperativeness and

liveliness. Age, height, weight, physique, energy, appearance, dominance, and mood

control were found to have little correlation with leadership (Bass, 1981).

During a study of North American organizations and leaders, John Gardner (1989)

identified common attributes generally possessed by leaders that allowed a leader in one

situation to be successful in another. These traits included:

* Physical vitality and stamina;
* Intelligence and action-oriented judgment;
* Eagerness to accept responsibility;
* Task competence;
* Understanding of followers and their needs;
* Skill in dealing with people;
* Need for achievement;
* Capacity to motivate people;
* Courage and resolution;
* Trustworthiness;
* Decisiveness;
* Self-confidence;
* Assertiveness; and
* Adaptability/flexibility.









Early researchers of trait leadership concluded there were specific traits or

characteristics making a leader successful independent of the situation. These early

theorists asked the question: What happened if a leader exhibited some traits and not

others?

While trait theorists tried to answer this question, other leadership scholars

examined leaders' behaviors. During the 1950s and 1960s, a shift took place in how the

study of leadership was approached. Studies focused more on leaders' behaviors instead

of leaders' traits. This led to Behavioral Leadership theories.

Behavioral Theories

Using specific patterns and decision-making characteristics in all situations is the

premise of Behavioral Leadership theories. One of the most well-known studies of

leadership behavior is a study conducted at Ohio State University in the 1950s. The

study measured 12 subscales of a leader's behavior and determined how often the leader

exhibited each leadership behavior. This research was not meant to be evaluative or to be

used for assessment purposes. This study was meant to describe a leader's behavior. The

12 subscales measured:

1. Representation speaks or acts for the group;
2. Demand Reconciliation reconciles conflicting demands and reduces disorder to
the system;
3. Tolerance of Uncertainty is able to tolerate uncertainty and postponement without
anxiety or upset;
4. Persuasiveness uses persuasion and argument effectively; strong convictions;
5. Initiation of Structure clearly defines own role, and lets followers know what is
expected;
6. Tolerance of Freedom allows followers scope for initiation and action;
7. Role Assumption actively exercises the leadership role rather than surrendering
leadership to others;
8. Consideration regards the comfort, well-being, status and contributions of
followers;
9. Production Emphasis applies pressure for productive output;
10. Predictive Accuracy exhibits foresight and ability to predict outcome accurately;









11. Integration maintains a closely knit organization; resolves member conflicts; and
12. Superior Orientation maintains cordial relations with superiors; has influence
with them; is striving for higher status.

The Ohio State University study, as well as a similar study conducted at Michigan State

University, found leaders to be employee-(follower) centered orjob-(task) centered.

The Managerial Grid (Blake & Mouton, 1964) denotes five behavior types or styles

that leaders possess. These five styles include: (1) the impoverished style; (2) country

club style; (3) produce or perish style; (4) middle of the road style; and (5) team style.

The impoverished-style of leadership shows a low concern for both people and

production or accomplishment of the task. Leaders use this style to avoid getting into

trouble. The main concern for the leader is not to be held responsible for any errors or

mistakes.

The country club-style leader shows a high concern for people and a low concern

for accomplishment of the task. Leaders using this style of leadership pay attention to the

security and comfort of the employees. The country club-style leader hopes his or her

followers will increase performance and task accomplishment while still maintaining a

friendly atmosphere. Productivity is often not as high as the leader might hope.

Leaders who exhibit more concern for production and less concern for people are

exhibiting the produce or perish-style of leadership. Leaders using this style of

leadership find followers' needs of little importance. Leaders exchange a reward for an

expected performance. Leaders using this style also regulate their followers through

rewards and punishments to achieve goals.

The middle-of-the-road style of leadership is evident in leaders who try to balance

goals and followers' needs. These leaders show concern for the people they are leading









and appreciation for task accomplishment. Leaders using this style hope to achieve

acceptable performance from their followers, as well as taking care of their followers.

The team-style leader is concerned about the follower and production or task

accomplishment. This type of leader encourages teamwork and commitment among

followers. This method of leadership relies heavily on making followers feel as though

they are a constructive part of the organization or team.

The Ohio State University and Michigan State University studies, as well as Blake

and Mouton's Managerial Grid, have four ideas in common. These four styles of

leadership include:

1. Concern for the task The leader emphasizes the achievement of concrete
objectives. The leader looks for high levels of productivity, and ways to organize
people and activities in order to meet those objectives.

2. Concern for people The leader looks upon his or her followers as people their
needs, interests, problems, development, etc. Followers are not simply units of
production or means to an end.

3. Directive leadership This style of leadership is characterized by leaders taking
decisions for others and expecting followers to follow instructions.

4. Participative leadership These leaders try to share decision-making with others.
(Wright, 1996)

Many behavioral studies failed to take into account the situation in which the

leadership style was being used. These studies failed to examine how leaders adapt to the

workers and the environment in which they are working.

Expectancy Theory

A leader who uses action, interaction, and sentiments during his or her dealings

with his or her followers is displaying characteristics of expectancy theory. Expectancy

theory states leaders take action and increase the interaction between themselves and their

followers. This increase in interaction leads to higher sentiments of mutual liking and the









clearer definition of group goals and norms. It is this interaction that defines the

expectancy theory. According to Stogdill (1959), different aspects of expectancy theory

should be closely examined. Stogdill maintained that as the leader interacts with the

group and is encouraged by the group, he or she will be more likely to continue to

function as the leader. With this increased expectation of group interaction, the leader

will continue to perform the function of the leader.

Bass (1960) discussed the reinforced change theory: the effort of one member to

change the motivation and understanding of other members or to change the group or

followers' behavior. This theory is a construct of the expectancy theory. Bass argued

that the emergence of leadership and what would promote effectiveness as a leader

depended on the interaction potential of the situation and the physical, psychological, and

social distance among individuals.

Humanistic Theories

The notion that people are lazy and resistant to organizational needs is the

foundation of Theory X. Theory Y is based on the assumption that people are motivated,

desire responsibility, and look to fulfill organizational goals and objectives (McGregor,

1966). Likert (1967) believed leadership is the process where a leader needs to take into

account the expectations, values, and interpersonal skills of those with whom he or she is

interacting. Likert explained that leaders need to exhibit behaviors of organizational

processes that followers believe are supportive of their efforts and their sense of personal

worth. Followers want and need to be involved in making decisions affecting their

welfare and their work. Humanistic leaders will use their abilities to further task

performance and their followers' personal welfare. Leaders work to build group

cohesiveness and motivate followers to increase productivity. If leaders allow their









followers to exhibit their own freedom in making decisions that affect their welfare and

working conditions, then task accomplishment and productivity are increased.

Exchange Theory

Leader Member Exchange Theory posits a strong relationship between superiors

and their subordinates. This relationship's influence and obligation lead to how tasks are

implemented and completed. By building these relationships, the exchange theory

suggests resulting positive outcomes. These positive outcomes are in the form of low

follower turnover, high production, high self-efficacy, and job satisfaction.

Authoritarian Leadership

In many instances, leadership is confused with having authority. Heifetz (1994)

explained that individuals are assumed to be leaders because they have been placed in a

position of authority or have been given power in a formal role. These leaders are

followed because the followers often fear consequences if they do not follow orders.

Authoritarian leaders can often fall into the exchange category of leadership. The leader

needs to perform well and meet the followers' expectations or he or she risks the

possibility of being removed as the leader.

Charismatic Leadership

Charisma is often viewed as a person's skills, personality, and presence.

Personality characteristics of a charismatic leader include being dominant, having a

strong desire to influence others, being confident with his or her skills, and having strong

values. Behaviors that are indicative of such a leader include being a strong role model,

continually showing competence, having the ability to articulate goals, having continual

communication of high expectations of followers, and having the ability to arouse

individuals' motives (Northouse, 2004). Followers of a charismatic leader will respond









by trusting the leader's ideology, unquestioningly accepting what the leader is promoting,

and showing affection to the leader. Followers have a high level of confidence in the

leader and are able to identify with the leader. At the same time, followers become

emotionally involved with the project or task. This relationship between the leader and

followers leads to heightened goal setting.

Situational Theories

Situational leadership is the ability of the leader to bring his or her expertise and

pertinent information to promote a positive outcome when making a leadership decision.

Leaders draw conclusions and implications in order to generate solutions based on

information gathered in each situation. As the study of leadership evolved, researchers

began to look at the situation, environment, and/or context in which the leader was

performing. The premise of situational leadership is that particular forms or certain

forms of leadership will be prevalent in particular situations. Situational leaders are

capable of using different leadership behaviors in different ways, dependent upon the

situation.

Some persons become leaders because of their formal position within an

organization (Northouse, 2004). French and Raven (1959) conceptualized that the

relationship between the leader and the followers was manipulated by the degree and

amount of power and influence the leader had over the followers. French and Raven

identified five different types of power exhibited by the leader: (1) reward; (2) coercive;

(3) legitimate; (4) referent; and (5) expert.

1. Reward power the ability of one individual to facilitate the attainment of desired
outcomes by others. The more valuable the rewards a leader could provide, the
more closely this ability was related to leadership.









2. Coercive power The ability to impose penalties for noncompliance. Typically,
coercive power uses threats and punishment to obtain results.

3. Legitimate power Legitimate power is given to the leader based on the norms and
expectations held by group members regarding behaviors appropriate in a given
role or position. The legitimate leader is selected by the group.

4. Referent power Followers comply because they admire or identify with the leader
and want to gain the leader's approval.

5. Expert power Followers believe the leader has special knowledge in regard to the
best way to achieve the task or goal.

Stogdill (1948) determined leaders not only have certain traits, but when analyzing

leaders and leadership, the situations in which leaders are performing must also be

examined. Stogdill's findings led to a "contingency" approach to leadership.

Contingency theorists conclude there is no one single approach to leadership that works

best all the time or that all leadership theories are equal in effectiveness (Bensimon et al.,

1989).

Fiedler and Garcia (1987) formulated three important aspects as to how leaders and

the situation interact with one another. These three factors include:

1. The relationship between the leaders and followers: If leaders are liked and
respected, they are more likely to have the support of others.

2. The structure of the task: If the task is clearly spelled out as to goals, methods, and
standards of performance, then it is more likely that leaders will be able to exert
influence.

3. Position power: If an organization or group confers powers on the leader for the
purpose of getting the job done, then this will increase the influence of the leader.

After considering Stogdill's theory of Situational leadership, Gerth and Mills

(1952) developed the following four criteria to consider when determining a leader's

capabilities:

1. The traits and motives of the leader as a person;

2. The image the public holds of his or her and their motives for following them;









3. The features of the role that he or she plays as a leader; and

4. The institutional context in which he or she and his or her followers may be
involved.

Bass (1960) explained the Great Man theory was lacking the situation in which the

leader was performing. Bass believed the outcome of leadership is due not only to the

leader's certain characteristics, but also the situation in which the leader is responding.

Hersey and Blanchard (1977) developed a leadership theory that falls into the

category of situational leadership. Their leadership theory involves four different

leadership styles used by leaders, depending on the situation the leader was presented.

Hersey and Blanchard's theory included leaders who were telling, selling, participating,

or delegating in their leadership style.

The telling leader is one who concentrates more specifically on the task needed to

be accomplished and less on building relationships with his or her followers. This leader

typically gives a lot of direction and specific information to his or her subordinates. This

type of leader is concerned with defining roles of each team member and the goals of the

team. Extremely repetitive work or under-pressure work completion works well with this

type of leadership. Followers are deemed by the telling leader as unable or unwilling to

do a good job without being told specifically what to do.

The selling leader works to achieve high-task accomplishment and a high/strong

relationship between himself and his followers. This leader works to get the team

members to "buy into" the group's tasks and goals. People often consider this type of

leader to be a "coaching" leader.

Participating leadership is having the leader and his or her followers work together

to make decisions and share in the decision-making process. This form of leadership









entails more relationship building and less concern for making decisions from the top.

This type of leadership allows the followers to make decisions about the immediate task.

Leaders with a delegating style of leadership do not worry about building

relationships with followers. The leader identifies followers and then assigns or issues

them tasks to be completed. This form of leadership requires the leader to understand the

capabilities of the followers. The leader has faith that the followers will be capable of

completing the task, and he or she allows the followers to "go for it" without interference.

Path-goal Theory

House and Dessler (1974) developed their Path-goal Theory which focused on

follower motivation. Their theory examined factors that motivate people to accomplish a

given task. House and Dessler used expectancy theory research to examine how leaders

motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Their Path-goal Theory focused

on three motivating factors:

1. Offering rewards for achieving goals;
2. Clarifying paths toward the goal; and
3. Removing obstacles standing in the way of achieving the goal.

House and Dessler's Path-goal Theory also generalized four leadership behaviors

that effective leaders exhibited. The effective leader is:

1. Directive gives specific guidance of performance desired;
2. Achievement-oriented sets high goals and expectations;
3. Supportive friendly and shows concern; and
4. Participative consults followers and considers their perspective.

House and Dessler suggested these leadership behaviors are exhibited under

different situations and could be influenced by situational variables, including personal

characteristics and environmental characteristics. The Path-goal Theory believes these

four leadership behaviors lead to higher quality results, better worker attitudes, and









acceptance of the leader. The Path-goal Theory suggests a leader's behavior motivates or

satisfies followers if the behavior increases the attractiveness of goals and increases

followers' confidence in achieving them. The Path-goal Theory continues on the premise

that the effective leader helps followers achieve goals by coaching, guiding, encouraging,

motivating, and rewarding followers for their efforts and achievements (House, 1996).

Transformational Leadership Theory

The Transformational Leadership Theory is often associated with charismatic

leadership, which is a reflection of the leader's personal skills, personality, and presence.

Some of the personality characteristics of a charismatic leader include being dominant,

having a strong desire to influence others, being confident with his or her skills, and

having strong values. Behaviors that are indicative of such a leader include being a

strong role model, continually showing competence, having the ability to articulate goals,

having continual communication of high expectations of followers, and having the ability

to arouse individuals' motives (Northouse, 2004). Using these characteristics, the leader

influences followers to adopt the goals, vision, mission, or sense of purpose of the

organization for the good of the group (Howell & Costley, 2006).

Transformational leadership involves four components: (1) idealized influence;

(attributed and behavioral); (2) inspirational motivation; (3) individualized consideration;

and (4) intellectual stimulation (Howell & Costley, 2006; Bass, 1997; Avolio et al.,

1991).

1. Idealized influence Attributed: the social charisma of the leader, focusing on
whether or not the leader is perceived as competent, self-confident, and committed
to higher-order ideals and ethics. Behavioral: the actions of the leader related to
values, beliefs, and mission.









2. Inspirational motivation leader's behaviors, including articulating appealing
visions, focusing followers' efforts, and modeling appropriate behaviors to energize
followers.

3. Intellectual stimulation behaviors exhibited by the leader that assist the followers
to view problems and issues they face from a new perspective.

4. Individualized consideration the ability of the leader to be supportive and to show
concern for his or her followers' needs and well-being. Giving encouragement and
compliments to improve the followers' self-confidence falls into this component.

5. Transformational leadership is concerned with followers and group results.
Emotions by the leader and followers clearly influence results and performance
(Howell & Costley, 2006). Transformational leadership will get followers to
identify with the values and beliefs of the leader, group, and organization.
Followers of transactional leadership have increased self-efficacy and have
developed better critical thinking skills; they exert extra effort for task
performance. Additionally, these individuals typically work more cohesively in a
group (Howell & Costley, 2006).

The four characteristics that Avolio and Bass identified as stimulating and engaging

followers, known as the four "I's," were further defined by Avolio, Waldman, and

Yammarino (1991). The four "I's" of Avolio and Bass's (1997) model of

transformational leadership include:

Individualized Consideration gives personal attention to others, making each individual
feel uniquely valued.

1. Intellectual Stimulation actively encourages a new look at old methods,
stimulates creativity, encourages others to look at problems and issues in a new
way.

2. Inspirational Motivation increases optimism and enthusiasm, communicates high
expectations, and points out possibilities not previously considered.

3. Idealized Influence provides vision and a sense of purpose; elicits respect, trust,
and confidence from followers.

Transformational leaders engage followers by using one or more of the four "I's" in their

leadership techniques.

A leader who shows idealized influence characteristics is the one who can be

trusted, admired, and respected. The needs and desires of the followers are at the









forefront of the leader's consideration. Idealized attributes include: setting the example;

going beyond self interests for the good of the common goal; building and maintaining

respect; sharing highly idealized standards, instilling pride in others and sharing a sense

of confidence and power with the followers. The idealized leader will talk about his or

her beliefs and value system. The idealized leader is very concerned with the ethical and

moral consequences of his or her actions.

Inspirational motivation is the ability to bring meaning and challenge to the work

process. The inspirational motivator is able to get his or her followers to think about the

future and its possibilities. Vision, enthusiasm, foresight about goals and mission, and

the ability to express these with the followers are all behaviors characteristically shown

by an inspirational motivator. This leader will work to motivate and inspire his or her

followers to obtain superior results. Thinking, problem-solving, and looking at problems

from different angles are encouraged (Avolio & Bass, 2002). A leader may use

intellectual stimulation to encourage creativity and innovative thinking. The leader who

tries to create a safe and pleasant environment in which followers feel comfortable in

sharing new ideas is high in the intellectual stimulation leadership technique. This type

of leader will often surround himself with others who work well together as a team.

Leaders who act as mentors, teachers, and coaches, and who pay attention to the

needs of each person in order to be self-fulfilled in a safe, supportive climate, use the

technique termed individualized consideration. Individualized consideration means

understanding and sharing in other persons' concerns and developmental needs and

treating each individual uniquely (Avolio & Bass, 2004). This technique matches the

abilities of the followers with the task needed completed.









Measuring Leadership Styles

The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is based on the Full Range

Leadership Model developed by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio (1997). The

questionnaire is a short and comprehensive survey of 45 items that measures a full range

of leadership styles. The leader/manager and his or her followers complete the

questionnaire. Completing the questionnaire typically takes about 15 minutes. It is

strongly predictive of leader performance across a broad range of organizations (Bass,

1997). The MLQ measures leadership styles, and designates behaviors ranging from

transactional leadership to transformational leadership, including laissez-faire leadership.

The MLQ measures individual leadership styles as being transformational,

transactional, and laissez-faire as well as scales of leadership. The MLQ was utilized to

measure elements or scales of transformational and transactional leadership of the

academic program leader. The MLQ measures characteristics of the behaviors of leaders.

These characteristics include: Individualized Consideration; Intellectual Stimulation;

Inspirational Motivation; Idealized Influence (attributed); and Idealized Influence

(behavior) associated with Transformational Leadership; Contingent Reward; and

Management by Exception (active); associated with Transactional Leadership;

Management-by-Exception (passive); which is a method of leadership associated with

either solving or preventing problems; and laissez-faire; an inactive form of leadership

characterized by a reluctance to become actively involved and a view that the best

leadership is to disassociate from the action known as laissez-faire leadership. The MLQ

also measures leadership outcomes. Leadership outcomes include: Extra Effort,

Effectiveness, and Satisfaction.









Contingent Reward and Management-by-Exception (active) make up transactional

leadership style. Contingent Reward is how the leader and followers exchange specific

rewards for outcomes or results. Goals and objectives are agreed upon by both the leader

and followers and the achievement is rewarded or punished. Management-by-Exception

(active) is when a leader makes corrective criticisms or uses negative reinforcement.

This leadership behavior monitors followers closely so they can point out mistakes and

errors.

Laissez-faire leadership has the scales of Management-by-Exception (passive) and

laissez-faire leadership. In this leadership style, the leader uses Management-by-

Exception (passive), which is only intervening when goals have not been met or a

problem arises. Laissez-faire behaviors are ones that delay decisions and give up

responsibility. Laissez-faire leaders offer no feedback or support to the follower.

Laissez-faire leadership is a "hands-off' approach to leadership (Northouse, 2001).

The following seven leadership scale scores measured by the MLQ represent

transformational, transactional and/or laissez-faire leadership:

1. Individualized Consideration associated with transformational leadership

2. Intellectual Stimulation associated with transformational leadership

3. Inspirational Motivation associated with transformational leadership

4. Idealized Influence associated with transformational leadership

5. Contingent Reward associated with transactional leadership

6. Management-by-Exception associated with transactional leadership, a method of
leadership associated with either solving or preventing problems

7. Laissez-faire an inactive form of leadership characterized by a reluctance to
become actively involved and a view that the best leadership is to disassociate from
the action









The MLQ measures a leader's degree of possessing Contingent Reward leadership

attributes: Leaders engage in a constructive path to goal transaction and exchange

rewards for performance. These leaders clarify expectations, exchange promises and

resources, arrange mutually satisfactory agreements, negotiate for resources, exchange

assistance for effort, and provide commendations for successful follower performance.

Leaders with Management-by-Exception with "active" behaviors have characteristics of

monitoring followers' performances and taking corrective action if deviations from the set

standards occur. These leaders enforce rules to avoid mistakes. The Management-by-

Exception leader with a "passive" behavior would not intervene until problems become

serious. The Management-by-Exception leader (passive) waits to take action until

mistakes are brought to his or her attention.

Laissez-faire leadership is also measured by the MLQ. Laissez-faire leadership is

also termed a non-leadership style. The laissez-faire leader avoids accepting

responsibilities, is absent when needed, fails to follow up on requests for assistance, and

resists expressing his or her views on important issues. The laissez-faire leader gives the

majority of control in the decision-making process to the followers. With laissez-faire

leadership, the leader assumes that followers are intrinsically motivated and should be

left alone to accomplish tasks and goals. With laissez-faire leadership, the leader does

not provide direction or guidance.

Leadership Skills

A skill is a trait that has been developed by way of training or experience (Gregory,

1987). The U.S. Army (1973) developed 10 leadership skills to teach in order to become

a more proficient and effective leader:









1. Be technically proficient as a leader, you must know your job and have a solid
familiarity with your employees' tasks.

2. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions search for ways to
guide your organization to new heights; and when things go wrong, they always do
sooner or later do not blame others; analyze the situation, take corrective action,
and move on to the next challenge.

3. Make sound and timely decisions use good problem-solving, decision-making,
and planning tools.

4. Set the example be a good role model for your employees; they must not only
hear what they are expected to do, but also see; "we must become the change we
want to see." Mahatma Gandhi

5. Know your people and look out for their well-being know human nature and the
importance of sincerely caring for your workers.

6. Keep your workers informed know how to communicate not only with them, but
also seniors and other key people.

7. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers help to develop good character
traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.

8. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished communication is
the key to this responsibility.

9. Train as a team although many so-called leaders call their organization,
department, section, etc. a team, they are not really teams they are just a group
of people doing their jobs.

10. Use the full capabilities of your organization by developing a team spirit, you will
be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest
capabilities.

Abilities, competencies, or skills are general human capacities related to the

performance of tasks. They develop over time through the interaction of heredity and

experience, and they are long lasting (Desimone et al., 2002).

Clark (1999) categorized leadership skills and competencies into three groups.

Clark suggested that these three groups formed the basic requirements for becoming a

leader. The three groups consisted of Core or Essential Competencies, Leadership


Competencies, and Professional Competencies.









The Core or Essential Competencies group consists of communication, teamwork,

creative problem-solving, interpersonal, ability to manage client relationships, self-

direction, flexibility, the ability to build appropriate relationships, professionalism, and

financial skills.

These Core or Essential Competencies are further defined as:

* Communication Skills the ability to express oneself effectively in both individual
and group settings. The ability to communicate plans and activities in a manner
that supports strategies for followers' involvement. The ability to actively listen to
others. The ability to express written ideals clearly, using good grammatical form,
and finally being able to comprehend written material with little or no help.

* Teamwork Uses appropriate interpersonal style to steer team members toward the
goal. Has the ability to allocate decision-making and other responsibilities to the
appropriate individuals. Is able to organize resources to accomplish tasks with
maximum efficiency. Has the ability to influence events to achieve goals beyond
what was called for.

* Creative Problem-solving Identifies and collects information relevant to the
problem or task. Uses brainstorming techniques to create a variety of choices. Has
the ability to select the best course of action by identifying all the alternatives and
then making a logical assumption.

* Interpersonal Skills Treats others with respect, trust, and dignity. Works well
with others by being considerate of the needs and feelings of each individual. Has
the ability to promote a productive culture by valuing individuals and their
contributions.

* Manage Client Relationships Works effectively with both internal and external
stakeholders. Gathers and analyzes feedback to assist in decision-making.

* Self-Direction Establishes goals, deliverables, timelines, and budgets with little or
no motivation from superiors (self-motivation rather than passive acceptance).
Assembles and leads teams to achieve established goals with deadlines.

* Flexibility Willingness to change to meet organizational needs. Challenges
established norms and makes hard, but correct decisions. Has the ability to adapt to
stressful situations.

* Build appropriate relationships Networks with peers and associates to build a
support base. Builds constructive and supportive relationships.









* Professionalism Sets the example. Stays current in terms of professional
development. Contributes to and promotes the development of the profession
through active participation in the community.

* Financial Does not waste resources and looks for methods to improve processes
that have a positive impact on the bottom line.

These Core or Essential competencies are the foundation for leaders. Clark's

(1999) next set of leadership skills consist of skills possessed by leaders that will take the

organization to a higher, more successful level.

* Leadership Abilities Displays attributes that make people glad to follow.
Provides a feeling of trust. Rallies the troops and builds morale when the going
gets tough.

* Visioning Process Applies effort to increase productiveness in areas needing the
most improvement. Creates and set goals and visions. Senses the environment by
using personal sway to influence subordinates and peers. Gains commitment by
influencing the team to set objectives and buy into the process. Reinforces change
by embracing it.

* Create and Lead Teams Develops high performance teams by establishing a spirit
of cooperation and cohesion for achieving goals. Quickly takes teams out of the
storming and norming phases and into the performing phase.

* Assess Situations Quickly and Accurately Takes charge when the situation
demands it.

* Foster Conflict Resolutions (Win-Win) Effectively handles disagreements and
conflicts. Settles disputes by focusing on solving the problems, without offending
egos. Provides support and expertise to other leaders with respect to managing
people. Evaluates the feasibility of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.

* Project Management Tracks critical steps in projects to ensure they are completed
on time. Identifies and reacts to the outside forces that might influence or alter the
organization's goals. Establishes a course of action to accomplish a specific goal.
Identifies, evaluates, and implements measurement systems for current and future
projects.

* Implement Employee Involvement Strategies Develops ownership by bringing
employees in on the decision-making and planning process. Provides the means to
enable employee success while maintaining the well-being of the organization.
Develops processes to engage employees in achieving the objectives of the
organization. Empowers employees by giving them the authority to get things
accomplished in the most efficient and timely manner.









* Coach and Train Peers and Subordinates Recognizes that learning happens at
every opportunity (treats mistakes as a learning event). Develops future leaders by
being involved in the company-mentoring program. Provides performance
feedback, coaching, and career development to teams and individuals to maximize
their probability of success. Ensures leadership at every level by coaching
employees to ensure the right things happen. Ensures performance feedback is an
integral part of the daily activities.

The skills Clark (1999) suggested that are required to make the leader successful

are termed Professional or Individual Skills. These skills include a working knowledge

of technical skills needed by the leader. Clark explained these skills are different from

one organization to the next and from one leadership position to the next. The leader

must have a basic understanding of the system he or she is working with in order to have

control over it. Clark suggested the following skills that leaders need to be effective and

successful:

* Business Acumen Reacts positively to key developments in area of expertise that
may affect his or her business. Leads process improvement programs in all major
systems falling under area of control.

* Technical Competency Completes tasks according to established standards.
Understands and adheres to rules, regulations, and code of ethics.

The Boy Scouts of America, which is the largest youth organization in the United

States, has been regarded as a premier leadership organization. The Boy Scout program

encourages boys to learn and practice leadership skills. Understanding the concepts of

leadership helps a boy accept the leadership role from others and guides him toward the

citizenship aim of Scouting (Boy Scouts of America National Council website).

The 1981 edition of the Scoutmaster Handbook offers a list of leadership skills that

the youth, as well as the leaders of the Boy Scouts organization, should develop. These

leadership skills include: communication; knowing and using the resources of the group;

understanding characteristics and needs of the group; representing the group; setting the









example; planning; controlling group performance; evaluating; effective teaching;

sharing leadership; and counseling.

The leadership skills promoted in the Scoutmaster Handbook are similar in content

to those which Clark (1999) prescribed:

* Communicating As a leader, one must get and give information. The leader must
be able to do both of these well. Learn to take notes when there is a lot of detail.
Ask questions after giving or receiving instructions. Get feedback to make sure the
message gets through. Don't give orders; discuss things that are going to happen.
Measure success in terms of the job getting done and the degree to which
instructions are followed. Good communication fosters good morale; poor
communication can bring mumbling and dissent.

* Knowing and Using the Resources of the Group A leader has to depend on what
the members of the group can do, as well as what the leader can do. In order to use
these available resources, a leader must know what they are. Find out what they are
by observing, asking the members, as well as other leaders. When you are using the
resources of the group, others will lead, and the program will not be the result of
your ideas alone.

* Understanding Characteristics and Needs of the Group When this skill is used
properly, a leader will give others what they need to grow--not what the leader
thinks they need. Each person has certain strengths and weaknesses. When a leader
understands individual needs, everyone benefits. The leader who applies this skill
will meet the needs and desires of the followers.

* Representing the Group This skill is leadership in action. Success can be
measured by each Scout feeling he has a part in the decision-making process.

* Setting the Example What you are speaks louder than what you say. The old
saying "Do as I say, not as I do" will not work. You will lose valuable influence if
you do not live up to the standards that you recommend or the ideals that you teach.
People need a model to follow; their leaders may be the only good examples they
know.

* Planning The core of a successful program is planning. A successful program
comes from planning. You cannot achieve Scouting's aims of building character,
fostering citizenship, and developing fitness without good plans.

* Controlling Group Performance The purpose of this skill is to control the
performance of a group so that it will be successful in doing its job. Sometimes
controlling group performance means you will have to stop behavior that
negatively impacts the group, but everyone is happier if the group helps to control
itself rather than depend on the leader to do all the controlling.









* Evaluating Evaluating should be done both during and after every activity.

* Effective Teaching This is not a new method of teaching, Scouting has used it
since 1910. The difference today is we do not assume that just because we have
taught that Scouts have learned. The proof lies in what they can DO. If they can do
something, then you have successfully taught. The key is to actively involve the
Scouts in the learning process by giving them choices as to what they can learn and
by checking constantly to see what they have learned. Find out what they know, put
them into a situation where they recognize the need to know, and then offer them
the opportunity to learn. Place the emphasis on the learner, not on the teacher.

* Sharing Leadership or Styles of Leadership With the responsibility of leadership
goes trust. The effective leader must adjust his leadership style to fit the situation
without giving up the responsibility for the welfare of the troop. The secret is to
share the leadership. Allow everyone to join and share in the responsibility without
giving up the role as a leader.

* Counseling A leader must be able to counsel Scouts in order to help them.
Listening is the most important key to counseling. Be careful not to give advice.
Instead, use questions to help the individual arrive at his own solution to the
problem. Feel free to give factual information but cautious about giving advice. A
person grows if he is able to think problems through for himself. Be a facilitator,
not a manipulator.

Yates (2005) comprised a study of women in leadership positions in public

educational facilities. Yates found through her qualitative study the leadership skills

leaders deemed most important. These leadership skills were:

* Communication skills The ability to listen as well as to communicate verbally
and in writing.

* A caring attitude The ability to get everyone to work together for the benefit of
the student (follower). The ability to care about those who will be affected should
drive the decision-making process.

* Honesty, Integrity, Truthfulness, and Respect Trust and respect must be earned
through honesty and fairness--the character of a person.

* Visionary A sense of purpose and vision. Having integrity, commitment, and the
ability to recognize, appreciate, and develop skills of others to further the goals of
the organization.

* People Skills The ability to successfully interact with others.


* Intelligence Being able to solve problems.









* Courage, Flexibility, and Experience The ability to think through a situation.
Taking time to listen, gather information, and make an effective decision in order to
solve problems.

* Organizational Skills Being able to handle a multitude of tasks on a daily basis.
Being organized and having organizational skills.

* Sense of Humor Being able to put everything into perspective and being able to
deal with how others handle and react to different situations.

* Creating a Safe Environment The ability to make followers feel like they have the
opportunity to take risks.

Fourteen qualities or skills were named by the Anderson Consulting Institute for

Strategic Change (2000). The leadership qualities or named skills include:

1. Creating a shared vision;

2. Ensuring customer satisfaction;

3. Living the values;

4. Building teamwork;

5. Being able to think globally;

6. Appreciating cultural diversity;

7. Empowering people;

8. Anticipating opportunity;

9. Achieving a competitive advantage;

10. Being able to embrace change;

11. Sharing leadership;

12. Demonstrating personal mastery;

13. Showing technical savvy; and

14. Encouraging constructive challenges.

Maxwell (1999) listed 21 qualities that can be learned to encourage better

leadership and leadership practices. Maxwell posited that leaders are effective because of









whom they are on the inside, that is, their qualities. To go to the highest level of

leadership, people have to develop these traits (skills) from the inside out. Maxwell

examined "best" leaders and analyzed the characteristics of these leaders. Maxwell

looked for common themes among his "best" leaders and leaders who have had a

significant impact or left an impression on our history. Maxwell determined there were

21 qualities possessed by all great leaders and that these qualities can be learned and

developed:

1. Character the essential nature of a person: integrity, fortitude, or reputation.

2. Charisma the ability to draw people to you;

3. Commitment having conviction; belief in a cause;

4. Communication the ability to share knowledge and ideas; the ability to simplify a
message, understand people, show the truth, seek a response;

5. Competence qualifications to fulfill a task;

6. Courage the willingness to take risks;

7. Discernment the ability to discover the true issue or task, the ability to solve
problems, and to evaluate options and maximize opportunities;

8. Focus being able to set priorities and then concentrate on those priorities;

9. Generosity giving to others;

10. Initiative looking for opportunities and being ready to take action;

11. Listening the ability to connect with people and to learn;

12. Passion desires, a fire for something; wanting something badly;

13. Positive Attitude having a positive outlook on life; expecting the best of oneself
and others;

14. Problem-solving being able to anticipate problems, finding out what others in the
same situation have done, create possible solutions, and implement the best
possible solution;









15. Relationships the ability to work with people, relate with people, and have good
interpersonal skills;

16. Responsibility reliable or accountable; the ability to get the job done and willing
to go the extra mile; driven by excellence and produce results regardless of the
situation;

17. Security the ability to provide a secure environment for followers. The ability to
believe in others; the building up of followers;

18. Self-discipline the ability to develop and follow priorities;

19. Servanthood an attitude toward serving others, not oneself; putting others ahead
of oneself; initiating service to other. Does not focus on rank or position; service
motivated by love and concern for others;

20. Teachability the desire to continually learn;

21. Vision the ability to see and develop plans to meet other persons' needs; the
ability to gather resources that will assist in meeting goals and task completion.

Maxwell (1999) believed the development of these traits, qualities, skills, abilities, or

competencies will maximize personal leadership potential and effectiveness.

Kouzes and Posner (2002) developed five qualities or skills that should be

continually developed for optimum leadership:

1. Modeling the Way find your voice by clarifying your personal values; set the
example by aligning actions with shared values;

2. Inspiring a Shared Vision envision the future by imagining exciting possibilities;
enlist others in a common vision;

3. Challenging the Process search for opportunities by seeking ways to change and
grow; experiment and take risks;

4. Enabling Others to Act foster collaboration by promoting goals and building
trust; strengthen others by sharing power;

5. Encouraging the Heart the ability to recognize contributions made by others; the
ability to celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community.









Followers desire these traits, qualities, or skills of their leaders (Kouzes and Posner,

2002). It is imperative that leaders work to increase their proficiency in these areas if

they truly desire to be more effective, successful leaders.

Katz (1955) categorized leadership skills into three categories. These categories

include: (1) technical skills; (2) human skills; and (3) conceptual skills. From this

researcher's review of literature, it is easy to place the leadership traits, qualities, skills,

abilities, or competencies mentioned into one of these three categories.

Leadership traits, qualities, skills, abilities, or competencies of effective, successful

leaders show several commonalities. Effective, successful leaders exhibit planning skills.

Leaders who have the ability to identify causes, restrictions, and consequences of actions

and who tend to show higher performance and task accomplishment rates are deemed

successful. The literature reveals that leadership qualities, traits, skills, abilities, or

competencies can be classified into one of the following categories:

* Communication skills;
* Human skills;
* Technical skills;
* Conceptual skills;
* Emotional Intelligence skills; and
* Industry Knowledge skills.

Leadership Skills Can Be Learned

Katz (1955) and Nahavandi (2000) supported the premise that leadership skills can

be learned. Goleman (1998) supported the idea that leadership skills can be developed

over time. His research reported emotional intelligence increases with age and

experience. Schreiber and Shannon (2001) believed it is imperative to recognize

individuals with certain leadership traits and infuse their career with specifically designed









training experiences. They believed that leadership development is a "life-long

endeavor."

Educational institutions believe leadership skills can be taught. More than 800

(leadership) programs are located across American campuses today (DiPaolo, 2002).

Some leadership theorists have concluded that leadership skills are developed throughout

one's career (Mumford et al., 2002). A leader's skills develop with education, training,

and work experience (Howell & Costley, 2006). Howell and Costly has stated that

"improving your leadership skills takes persistence and self-discipline to put forth the

long-term effort needed for lasting change." Kouzes and Posner (2002) concluded that

leadership is not a place, it's not a gene, and it's not a secret code that can't be deciphered

by ordinary people. Kouzes and Posner stated that leadership is an observable set of

skills and abilities, and any skill can be strengthened, honed, and enhanced, given the

motivation and desire, the practice and feedback, and the role models and coaching.

Bennis and Nanus (1985) agreed that leadership capacity and competencies can be

learned. They asserted that all people have some natural leadership abilities and that

these abilities can be enhanced. These findings would appear to be supported by the

number of books, magazines, journals, and other material dedicated to the promotion of

leadership and leadership skill acquisition. For example, a quick Google search listed

"about 490,000,000" results, indicating there were more results that could be listed.

Yahoo listed "about 6,200, 000" results of only journal articles on leadership. In

addition, Yahoo listed, "about 38,400,000" books related to leadership. Leadership is a

popular subject. It appears that many individuals are interested in leadership and how to

become a better leader.









Land-grant Universities

Land-grant universities were established by Congress or a particular state's

legislature to provide resources and funding set forth by the Morrill acts of 1862 and

1890. The original mission of the land-grant institutions was to teach agriculture,

military tactics, and mechanical arts, as well as classical studies, so that members of the

working classes could obtain a liberal, practical education (NASULGC, 2006).

The Morrill Act of 1862 established land-grant institutions due to the increased

demand for agricultural and technical education in the United States. Since higher

education was unavailable to many agriculture and industrial workers, the Morrill Act of

1862 was intended to provide a broad segment of the population with a practical

education that had direct relevance to daily lives (NASULGC, 2006).

Currently, land-grant institutions are located in every state and territory of the

United States, including the District of Columbia. Several states have more than one

land-grant institution. Additional institutions were established in some states as a product

of the second Morrill Act of 1890, which mandated African-Americans access to higher

education facilities. Additionally, four land-grant universities are located outside the

United States: in Micronesia, Northern Marianas, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Twenty-nine

tribal colleges were founded in 1994 and are also part of the land-grant university system.

The Hatch Act of 1887 and the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 worked together to

establish the land-grant three-part mission. This three-part mission of teaching, research,

and extension is the foundation for the current land-grant university mission. The

extension aspect of the land-grant mission was intended to bridge the college's teaching

and research programming to the needs of the community.









Colleges of Agricultural and Life Science at Land-grant Universities

With the original intent of the land-grant colleges to be for education in the realm

of agriculture, the land-grant university grew and expanded around colleges of

agriculture. Still today, the main focus of colleges of agricultural and life sciences is to

support science and education related to agriculture, agriculture research, and agriculture

technology transfer (National Academic Press, Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant

Universities). The commitment of land-grant colleges of agriculture to higher education

was in sharp contrast to the orientation of most of the nation's academic institutions of

the time (Meyer, 1995). Most higher education institutions emphasized philosophy,

theology, law, medicine, and the classics.

Each land-grant college deals with sciences basic to agriculture and agriculture

technology in three ways: teaching, research, and extension. First, colleges offer

educational curriculum for undergraduates and graduate programs. Second, through

scientific research, agricultural problems are solved. Third, each college of agriculture

maintains extension personnel to disseminate information to the public. Most faculty in

colleges of agriculture have some combination of responsibilities to include teaching,

research, and/or extension.

Today, less than 2% of all U.S. residents live on farms. The U.S. farm labor force

is comprised of only 3% of U.S. citizens. Nearly 75% of U.S. citizens live in urban and

suburban environments. The American public is concerned with how agriculture

production and processing activities interact with natural resources and the environment,

rural communities, consumer health, safety, and ethics (National Research Council,

1995).









Changes in the business of farming have forced colleges of agriculture to

continually modify their role in the educational system. Today's farming industry is

based on science and technology (National Academic Press, Colleges of Agriculture at

the Land Grant Universities). Small-scale specialty farms have been replaced by large-

scale commercial operations. Additionally, changes in how the global marketplace and

economy have forced land-grant colleges of agriculture to re-examine their strategies of

instruction. Topics related to health, food safety, water and air quality, soil, water and

energy conservation, wildlife habitat, and open space are all associated with the

curriculum of current land-grant colleges of agriculture.

Colleges of agriculture from their foundations have accepted the responsibility to

serve the community by solving its perplexing problems (Bowden, 1962). The

Committee on the Future of the Colleges of Agriculture in the Land Grant University

System, established in 1993, had a mission to assess the land-grant colleges of agriculture

in regard to how they were positioned for the public's changing needs and priorities. The

committee saw that the colleges needed to change in order to enhance their role in

serving the national interests. The conclusions and recommendations included an

assessment of the three components of the land-grant colleges of agriculture; teaching,

research, and extension. The committee identified four areas for change:

1. The need for greater relevance and accessibility through programs that embody an
expanded view of the modern food and agricultural system and through inclusion
of a wider array of students, faculty, and clientele of diverse backgrounds and
perspectives.

2. The need to remove historic barriers and encourage research, teaching, and
extension collaborations that cross disciplines, institutions, and states; to encourage
faculty and student exchanges; and to make all programs in the system accessible to
as wide a variety of stakeholders as possible--there is a firm need to create a "new
geography" that cannot be confined to a locality.









3. The need for stronger linkages among the equally important functions of teaching,
research, and extension, as well as the need to reinvigorate the college's role as
models of the land-grant concept and philosophy.

4. The need for heightened accountability and quality through competitive processes
for funding, guiding principles for the use of public resources, and more regular
and critical evaluations of publicly funded programs.

The committee also gave 20 recommendations to enhance the ability of the land-grant

colleges of agriculture to respond to these challenges.

The land-grant system has worked well but is currently undergoing a major era of

change. The changes the land-grant system must face deal with the modern realities,

challenges, and opportunities that impact society. Only those who look at agriculture in a

broad sense realize how vital it is to our society. Many Americans see only the negative

side of agriculture. These individuals fail to see the vital contributions that agriculture

makes to our society (Kellogg & Knapp, 1966). Kellogg and Knapp believed that as

agriculture becomes more technical, as its problems become more intricate, and as

agriculture and our society become more urbanized, the demands for more advanced

education increase.

Kellogg and Knapp (1966) outlined five broad missions or major responsibilities

and tasks for advancing and transmitting knowledge that fall within the province of a

college of agriculture. Kellogg and Knapp argued that as agriculture has broadened, so

has the role of college of agriculture, and therefore so should its mission. The five

missions or responsibilities that colleges of agriculture should pursue include:

* The use of science and technology of modern agriculture;
* Dealing with rural people and their institution;
* Dealing with environmental issues;
* Dealing with urban and non-farm use; and
* International agriculture.









A major area of change that land-grant institutions must face is the demographic

profile of its leadership. Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) are beginning to

retire, and without proper preparation of future leaders to take their leadership positions,

land-grant universities could be severely hampered in their ability to effectively manage

the forthcoming changes. Economic restraints, flattened organizational structures, a

national trend to reduce administration and a lack of resources of adequate training have

helped contribute to a shortage of qualified professionals with the necessary leadership

knowledge and skills to manage land-grant administrative roles (Austin, 1984;

Green,1981; Jackson, 2000; Lamborn, 1991). The future challenges that academic

program deans will face will be comprised of more than changing demographics and

filling teacher vacancies. The Kellogg Commission (2000), in its report titled Future of

State andLand-Grant Universities, reported higher education would be faced with a

more diverse pool of traditionally aged applicants, and financial inequality, which will

lead to concerns about access to individual educational opportunities.

Two concerns arise about the future of higher education: the distinction between

secondary and undergraduate education is narrowing, and the new technology is growing

and expanding at an amazing rate. The boundaries between the university, nation, and

world have all but been erased due to technological advances.

The Kellogg Commission continues with the challenge facing higher education

facilities: the urge to "privatize" public institutions. The commission found that research

is valued more for its commercial promise than for its ability to advance knowledge. The

commission also states that gender and ethnic diversity issues will continue to be issues

that higher education must face.









Kellogg and Knapp (1962) referenced challenges that colleges must face. These

challenges were aimed at students and the curriculum. Colleges, Kellogg and Knapp

contended, are going to need to provide a high quality, updated curriculum to their

students. Student diversity and changing demographics are going to have to be

acknowledged and addressed.

Meredith et al. (2002) showed that different age groups have different work ethics,

career aspirations, and goals. For example, the Generation X worker (those born between

1965 and 1980) has different career goals than the traditionalist, or the Baby Boomer.

Many of the Generation X faculty do not aspire to take administrative positions, wanting

a more balanced, flexible lifestyle from what they perceive as a demanding leadership

role. The findings of the research found, however, that Generation X was inclined to be

more entrepreneurial, and it valued lifelong learning. Those who belong to Generation X

were found to be more independent and viewed skill and competence as higher values

than positional power or authority. It is evident from these findings that deans who are to

lead higher education through these times of change are going to need communication

skills and the ability to develop relationships with diverse populations.

With today's leaders facing a rapidly changing world of uncertainty in regard to

globalization and technology, future leaders are going to need the knowledge and skills to

solve problems in new and creative manners. Leaders can no longer rely on past

routines. Leaders will focus more on environmental trends and opportunities for

collaboration than for past policies, practices, or institutional history (Bennis, Spreitzer,

& Cummings, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002).









A holistic approach to personal development of leadership is a process--not a quick

fix (Doh, 2003). To benefit from leadership development projects, Doh contended that

the leader must have the motivation, the capacity for strategic thinking, basic

communications skills, emotional intelligence, and a desire to learn, as well as a desire to

be a leader (Doh, 2003).

The leadership literature suggests that satisfactory leadership enhances the success

of the organization in meeting its goals. Since traditional public higher education was to

provide access to a wide range of curriculum and practical research for the people and

communities, how or will future leaders of higher education fulfill the traditional role, as

well as meet the new challenges they will face?

The Kellogg Commission believes today's university will be a new kind of public

institution transformed in several ways by needing to be a first-rate student university, as

well as a research university. The university will work to reach the diverse student

population from the "global" community. The new changing university will promote

active life-long learning. In order for the university of tomorrow to meet the inevitable

change successfully, the commission believes higher education must publicly renew its

commitment to its founding principles. These principles include providing access to as

much education as possible for as many students as possible, regardless of ethnicity,

economics, or age. Higher education needs to apply research to communities, states,

national and international problems. Education of the highest quality must be the utmost

priority. The commission states that it is imperative to get highly qualified persons into

leadership positions in order to facilitate these changes.









The Role of the Dean

Trying to summarize the role of an academic program leader (dean) is difficult at

best (Walker, 2000). The role of the academic program dean is continually changing and

is often ambiguous. Present-day deans are required to possess skills and abilities that

their predecessors never imagined. Today's dean may work in different areas or types of

higher education. The dean may work at various levels and in different capacities.

Defining a single role that a dean plays may be difficult. Dean Herbert Hawkes of

Columbia College stated, "There is no such thing as a standardized dean. There is a dean

of this and that college, but I have never seen any two deans who could exchange places

and retain the same duties."

The role of the dean continues to change. As higher education changes, so does the

role of the dean. As a curriculum changes, so does the role of the dean. The higher

education environment or culture demands that change occur, and therefore the deans

must change with the times.

However, even with all the change that occurs in higher education, most people see

a universal role of a dean--and that is one of a leader. Within this leadership role the

dean needs to "perform service, be accountable, fulfill a moral role, act as a steward,

build diverse communities with trust and collaboration, and promote excellence"

(www.aacte.org).

The Changing Role of the Academic Program Dean

The position of the dean saw its greatest growth immediately after the Civil War

(Rudolph, 1990). As enrollment in higher education increased, so did the need for more

administrative staff. Prior to the Civil War, most schools had administrative staff

consisting of a president, treasurer, and librarian. Positions such as secretary of faculty,









registrar, vice-president, dean, dean of women, chief business officer, assistant dean,

dean of men, director of admissions, and administrative assistants were created as

enrollment grew. Rudolph's (1990) research found that with the exception of the dean,

all new administrators worked with colleagues at other institutions in similar positions to

develop standards and procedures for their positions.

It was generally left up to the dean to develop his or her own job description.

These descriptions typically developed into relieving the president of tasks he did not

want to do. However, students viewed the dean as the "first response to the inevitable

tendencies of the organization institution; he was the human touch" (Rudolph, 1990).

Gould (1964) noted that in a 30-year span, the role of the dean had changed from

an "almost sole concern with students, through a phase when students and curriculum

were his largest responsibilities, to a period when curriculum and faculty demanded the

greatest part of his energies, and finally to a place where his major concern is the faculty

alone." Today, however, the dean's duties have changed once again from being almost

entirely student-focused to including a multifaceted array of roles, such as budgeting and

fundraising, personnel and work environment management, program oversight, and

external public relations (Wolverton, Gmelch, Montez & Nies (2001).

Robillard (2000) conducted a review of The Chronicle of Higher Education job

announcements and reported one description that stated: "Assume leadership

responsibility, curriculum planning and development, staffing, evaluation, and budgetary

administration." Another job description listed these duties: "Assessment, development

of partnerships among internal and external constituents, and conflict management









skills." The role of the dean is dependent upon the institution and the needs of the

institution.

Bragg (2002) found effective deans possessed high levels of competency in six

core knowledge areas:

1. Knowledge of the mission, philosophy, and history of the institution;
2. Learner-centered orientation;
3. Instructional leadership;
4. Information and educational technologies;
5. Assessment and accountability; and
6. Administrative preparation.

Deans should possess democratic leadership, creative management and finely tuned

human relationship skills (Bragg, 2002).

The leadership linchpin that holds an organization together lies midway between

those perceived as leaders and those upon whose work the reputation of the organization

rests. In universities today, academic deans fill this role (Wolverton et al., 2001). The

dean must always be considerate and conscientious of the future. The dean needs to be

considerate of the standards of the university. Deans need to be caring and

compassionate to student needs and concerns.

Colleges of agriculture have worked to strengthen the role of the dean (Kellogg &

Knapp, 1962). Today's college of agriculture dean is usually the chief academic

administrator. Kellogg and Knapp found in their research of college of agriculture deans

that most deans who were successful in molding college-wide programs came to their

positions with a good general education and learned about administration on the job.

Kellogg & Knapp summed up the dean as being a vigorous leader dedicated to achieving

excellence in the college and in the agriculture of the state (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). A

major facet of a dean is working with faculty in order to develop college-wide programs









(Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). The belief is that the dean needs to work with faculty and

staff to develop ideas on which future plans for the college can be based.

A Leader's Role in Change

Today, leaders can no longer solve problems alone. In today's much more complex

world, problems call for the combined expertise of multiple resources and assistants. For

these reasons, strong emphasis is placed on promoting teamwork and strong leadership.

Today, due to the complex challenges created by globalization and technological

advances, it is imperative for organizations to solve problems and make the most of

available resources. Leaders must recognize the creativeness of all the organization's

members across multiple disciplines. Suggestions and ideas need to be implemented

quickly and efficiently. Leaders must promote collaboration and teamwork. In order to

facilitate change, leaders must respect each other's expertise and find ways to identify and

solve complex problems and challenges. The effective leader will be able to see

obstacles sooner than later.

To lead people through this process in an orderly manner, leaders will also have to

learn to become process leaders rather than relying solely on their content expertise.

Effective leaders recognize that they will not be able to solve all their critical challenges

alone and that assistance will lie within the faculty, and they will also have to involve

other people in taking responsibility for many of these key challenges. These leaders

may include their subordinates and employees, their peers, and perhaps even their

superiors. In order to use the thinking skills of other people, leaders will have to engage

them in the process of thinking innovatively and creatively, rather than telling them what

to do. When leaders concentrate on the process of continuously finding and solving

important problems, they concentrate on the process.









The successful leaders of the 21st century will be the ones who can lead their

organization and teams to make adaptability a routine way of business. This leadership

skill requires leading others to think innovatively and promoting the continual discovery

of new solutions. Getting people to work toward a common goal is not easy. The leader

must know when and how to synchronize the thinking of others. This ability includes

building skills in being a process leader--not only a content expert. People tend to lack

skills in problem-solving and divergent thinking, as well as the ability to create

innovative solutions to complex problems. Leaders can use their skills to help others to

work together to reach a common goal. Research shows that involving people in using

their creativity is itself motivating. By encouraging people to think for themselves, the

leader creates intrinsic motivation in their followers.

Good leadership fosters change that is both transformative and sustainable. It can
be concerned with moral or organizational matters. It can define the college's role
in the world beyond its walls, or it can determine their internal dynamics of the
institution. Most importantly, it requires a worthy goal-vision, if you will--but it
also requires persistence. (Ekman, 2003)

While the dean's role may be multifaceted from college to college or university to

university, there is one role that all deans must face: dealing with "change." While

undergoing change, researchers have found that followers have to be empowered so that

they are willing to work for new change. Research suggests that leaders need to have

qualities that facilitate followers to transform from one situation to another, that is

transformational leadership (Shamir et al., 1993; Yukl, 1999). Transformational

leadership may motivate people to go beyond their own self-interest and to pursue goals

and values of the collective group. Effective leadership is central to change and, in

particular, to the ability to produce "constructive or adaptive change" as leaders "risk

disorder and instability as they seek out opportunities for change" (Bedeian & Hunt,









2005). Leadership requires the development of a vision, communication of that vision,

and the ability to set purpose or direction (Bedeian & Hunt, 2005).

Transformational leadership also involves the ability to inspire and motivate

followers. Research findings support the process-based approach to leadership. This

approach posits that a person is influenced by activating internal motivators. A process-

based view of leadership involves the ability to motivate followers to act, recognizing

that the ability to successfully influence others is the essence of leadership (Yukl, 1999).

The successful, effective leader has the ability to have his or her vision accepted, as well

as to motivate followers to work toward a common end (Chemers, 2001). Effective

leadership is enhanced when leaders can inspire their followers to accept change by

communicating a compelling vision of the future and motivating willingness to work in

the new manner. Leaders do not gain acceptance simply by dispensing resources to

employees. Giving people resources may have positive effects on their motivation in the

short term, but it will not be long lasting (Bess & Goldman, 2001).

Leaders must be sensitive to the fairness of their decision-making procedures. It is

also important that people receive decent and respectful treatment, that is experiencing

politeness and dignity from leaders. This interpersonal aspect of treatment is clearly

distinct from how decisions are made. Followers' interactions with their leader are

distinct, and, they have a distinct influence on their acceptance of change. Polite and

respectful treatment is important because they communicate that followers have standing

or worth within the group, and they are respected and valued members of the

organization (De Cremer & Tyler, 2005a; De Cremer & Tyler, 2005b).









If followers believe their leaders are interested in their well-being, or care about

their needs and concerns, and are taking account of those issues when making decisions,

they are more accepting and willing to change. If, on the other hand, these inferred

qualities are missing, the followers will resist change.

Finally, it is important to provide followers opportunities to participate by having

the chance to present their arguments. Those arguments can then be considered and

incorporated into management decisions. Followers are more willing to accept change

when they have input in the change process.

Along similar lines, House's (1971) Path-goal Theory sees the successful leader as

someone who engages followers by reconciling their personal goals with those of the

group. Also, other leadership theorists have increasingly acknowledged that expectations

about leaders vary according to context. There may be value in examining how the

categorization process relates to the ongoing dynamics of the group and its interests

(Lord et al., 1999). Leadership is not simply a matter of leaders or of leaders and

followers. Leadership is the relationship between leaders and followers within a social

group (Haslam, 2001). Effective leadership is about supplying a vision, creating social

power, and directing that power so an individual can realize that vision.

An overarching theme of the leadership literature is the concept of change. Through

times of major change, effective leadership has been attributed to successful outcomes

(Hackman & Johnson, 1996; Yukl, 2002). The concept of change within the leadership

literature adds a dimension to leadership and supports the notion that leadership can be

regarded as a process.









Goal attainment is another issue that the study of leadership addresses. Within the

group, the leader influences or leads in the setting of direction or the attainment of goals.

Therefore, leadership involves directing a group toward some end point or accomplishing

some task. This direction includes defining and articulating a direction according to

external and environmental contingencies for the leader's followers (Zaccaro & Banks,

2001). Transformational leadership theory includes the idea of inspirational motivation

as one way of encouraging followers to envision attractive future states (Bass, 1998).

The leader who expects to advance change must first have job "know-how." He

must also be able to gain the respect of his colleagues and superiors. If a person has

embarked on a course of action for change, he will require the general capacity, for

example, leadership and management qualities to carry out such a task (Kirton, 1999). A

person's ability to recognize and understand cognitive behavior will give him or her an

advantage by being able to anticipate events.

The Dean's Role in Change

Leaders who can get followers to adhere to ambitious goals and high standards are

valuable. With the changing of times, trust becomes an issue between followers and

leaders. Faculty members may not believe that rewards for dedication to goals will be

forthcoming (Wolverton et al., 2001). The changing priorities of higher education also

reduce the potential for transformational leadership. The apparent transition of higher

education from a collegial to a managerial orientation is probably going to render the

possibilities for transformational leadership even less likely (Cameron & Ulrich, 1986).

Most business organizations with concrete goals and bottom-line mentalities engender a

calculativee" exchange norm (Etzioni, 1961). Universities are now also moving in that

direction, as chair-faculty relationships are increasingly based on quidpro quo rather









than collegial expectations. Faculty may be unwilling to take risks or even to be "good

citizens" unless there is a clear-cut reward in prospect (Organ, 1988).

Bess (2001) found "pockets" of transformational leadership. Smaller subcultures

generally reflect the prevailing values of the larger university culture in which they are

immersed, but there are occasional deviant groups. Some departments have long-lasting

cultures that have survived changes in institutional culture and climate. In these

instances, the culture allows common goals and objectives to move to the forefront, and it

allows for transformational leadership to induce creativity, productivity, and

organizational change.

Effective leadership in universities needs to be achieved by identifying leaders who

are able to understand the social, political, and moral changes that are intimately

implicated in the dynamic changes processes that their institutions are undergoing

(Chaffee & Tiemey, 1988). Very few, if any, of the daily activities of a dean directly

relate to the educational programs of the school (Machen, 1995). The dean's attitude,

however, has an enormous impact on what happens to an educational institution and its

programs (Chapman, 1998).

Traditionally, public schools in the United States are slow to change. As a

"system," (Cohen, 1995) stated that it is almost impervious to change. University faculty

are concerned with personal, social, career survival, and also with achievement that

addresses deep-seated, human psychological needs for meaning and growth (Day, 1998).

A leader, who has the characteristics of charismatic or transformational leadership, will

be successful in leading his or her personnel. Leaders who are able to interpret, prepare,

and meet the external and internal pressures for change will be able to make workers









comfortable. These leaders will be successful in assisting their followers in working

toward achieving their organizations goals. Smircich and Morgan (1986) argued that

effective leadership results when the leader's definition and framing of a situation for

others serves as a basis for their actions.

Academic program leaders who are able to deal with the challenges and changes of

the university setting and are able to clarify meaning for their followers will be seen as

successful. A dean's primary responsibility is to keep relationships balanced within his

or her college. The relationship between faculty, students, central administration,

external entities, and support agencies must be maintained by the dean (Wolverton et al.,

2001).

Deans often must engage in "innovative practices" in order to promote higher

education viability and improvement of the institution (Huffman-Joley, 1992).

Innovative practices require deans to become experts in how to change institutional

culture (Huffman-Joley, 1992).

According to Fullan (1993), three different types of change must be addressed

within an organization. The three types of change that deans face are changes in attitude,

change of structure, and change of process.

A dean must address a change in attitude when the organizational culture is

changed. With the continual reform of higher education without an attitude change, most

followers will be satisfied with the status quo (Wolverton et al., 2001). Change leaders

realize that organizations--and they themselves--must learn as they go (Bennis, 1999).

Deans must communicate and convince others that change is required and necessary, as

well as generating support for ideas and possibilities (Wisniewski, 1998). Deans must









encourage new ways of thinking and learning and help modify organization norms and

structures that impede change (Arends, 1998).

Some colleges of agriculture have lost their sense of urgency because they have not

looked far enough ahead (Kellogg & Knapp, 1962). Kellogg and Knapp contended that

good programs, which the colleges seek, can come best from self-study and positive

leadership. The National Research Council's Committee on the Future of the Colleges of

Agriculture in the Land Grant University System recommended four changes that require

significant institutional leadership:

1. Integrate teaching and learning opportunities more fully with research and
extension, for example, through involving undergraduates in research and
enhancing the role and status of extension in academic programs.

2. Reduce barriers to multidisciplinary and interdepartmental approaches to teaching
and learning, for example, through rewards for and recognition of team scholarship.

3. Develop long-term, comprehensive regional consortia to reduce duplication,
differentiate course offerings, create inter-institutional faculty teams, capitalize on
distance learning technologies, and broaden experiential learning opportunities.

4. Strengthen relationships with and build bridges to other units of the university, for
example, by developing courses that fill general education requirements in the
sciences and humanities and that place food and agricultural issues squarely in the
scientific context.

These recommendations were developed to enhance accessibility and relevance,

organizational efficiency, institutional strengths, and accountability of land-grant colleges

of agriculture (National Research Council, 1996).

Deans have taken on a leadership role. This role places the dean in the position to

facilitate and manage change. As change agents, deans must possess the emotional

strength to support the organization as it undergoes change. The grounding for such

strength lies in a true understanding of the cultural dynamics and properties of the

organizational culture (Bennis, 1999). Deans who anticipate and directly confront









change may be more effective at what they do than deans who simply sit and hope that

the storm will pass (Wolverton et al., 2001).

Wolverton et al. (2001) proposed that deans need certain, specific strategies to

address the challenges they face. These strategies include:

* Creating a diverse culture;
* Knowing the legal environment;
* Becoming technologically connected;
* Strategically managing and securing financial resources;
* Seeking and maintaining professional and personal balance;
* Nurturing the integrity of the college.

The complicated role of the dean underscores the importance of each of the issues

mentioned. If the dean is to be successful he or she must deal with the critical issues that

the strategies present.

For deans to implement change, they must educate themselves about how to

become a change agent. In order for deans to implement change, they must show that

change is valued, create an environment conducive to change, and understand how people

respond to change (Wolverton et al., 2001). Wolverton et al. (2001) contended that the

first step toward rebuilding institutional integrity rests entirely with deans. They must

determine where their goals lie and then let their actions reflect that belief.

The second step for deans to promote change is to promote a climate in which

change can occur. Deans must supply adequate resources and encourage faculty and staff

to become involved in the change (Singleton, Burack, & Hirsch, 1997). Deans can offer

support by providing office space, student assistants, release time, seed money, and

clerical support (Singleton, Burack, & Hirsch, 1997).

Finally, deans must recognize that different people respond to change in different

manners. Ramely (2000) suggested that people approach change in different manners:









* Committed change personnel want and look forward to change;
* Cautious change personnel hesitant about change, want answers before
committing to change;
* Skeptical change personnel see no reason to change;
* Resistant change personnel fear the risk that change might bring, they know the
current system and are comfortable with it.

Deans need to recognize these different characteristics in the people who are

assisting them in the change process. To enhance the college's integrity requires change.

Deans who understand change stand a better chance of bringing it about (Katzenbach,

1998).

Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI)

People understand and process information in different ways. Some people best

process information experientially and concretely and others more theoretically and

abstractly (Fedler & Silverman, 1988). People also use what they learn and understand in

different ways. Using their knowledge, some people prefer creating new options while

others prefer adapting options. Leaders who are unaware of such differences in learning

preferences will lack the tools or skills to communicate to their followers.

The basic tenant of Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Theory is that a person's

problem-solving style operates as a personality dimension. Kirton's research indicated

that problem-solving orientation is considered a part of an individual's personality. It is

hard to argue that the best organizations need able and creative members. Theoretically,

both adaptors and innovators are capable of providing quality solutions to complex

problems. An adaptor is a person who typically solves problems by making the situation

better. The innovator is one who solves problems by making the situation different.

Kirton's research has shown that problem-solving is independent of one's level of

creativity, as well as cognitive ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) is









a self-reported instrument that yields scores ranging between High Adaption to High

Innovation. The range of scores is 32 to 160, with a theoretical mean of 96.

Differences between Adapters and Innovators

The difference between an adapter and innovator is important for a leader to

understand. A person who is prone to solving problems in a more adaptive manner

prefers to address problems in a more structured format. The more innovative person is

less concerned about the structure of the problem-solving process.

Those individuals scoring as more adaptive, as measured by the KAI, approach

problems within the given boundaries, theories, rules, policies, structures, and strive to

provide "better" solutions. The adaptor is trying to build a better mousetrap. By contrast,

the more innovative problem-solver tries to separate the problem from the way it is

typically approached and begin solving the problem from there. The innovator builds a

new or different mousetrap.

Leaders today who are aware of the Adaption Innovation Theory realize the value

of having followers who approach solving problems in different manners. These leaders

are more tolerant and accept divergent ideas and solutions, as well as coming to

appreciate a diverse set of ideas.

Kirton's theory posits that the cognitive style exerts a strong influence on behavior.

Kirton believed that forcing people to work outside of their preferred behavioral style

will cause additional cognitive or mental work as well as stress.

Differences in an individual's cognitive style, including a problem-solving method,

can result in problems of communication and understanding, which in turn can affect

productivity and teamwork.









Kirton believed that both adaptors and innovators are needed for solving the "wide

diversity" of problems that face individuals and groups over a long time. Kirton saw the

value of the KAI in that it allows one to see others in a new way. Kirton valued the

diversity of other persons' knowledge, and stressed that organizations should capitalize

on the strengths of others.

Kirton extended the belief that individuals tend to like their own learning and

thinking styles; therefore they see faults in others persons' learning styles, but they

neglect to see their own faults. This thinking leads an individual into the trap of thinking

people who don't think like them are inferior to them.

The following chart shows different characteristics between adaptors and

innovators according to Kirton.


Adaptors


Innovators


Sound, conforming, safe, predictable,
inflexible, wedded to the system, intolerant
of ambiguity (as viewed by Innovators).


Adaptors tend to accept the problems as
defined with any generally agreed
constraints. Early resolution of problems,
limiting disruption, and immediate
increased efficiency are important to them.

Adaptors prefer to generate a few novel,
creative, relevant, and acceptable solutions
aimed at "doing things better." These
solutions are relatively easier to implement.

Adaptors prefer well-established, structured
situations. They are best at incorporating
new data or events into existing structures
or policies to make them more efficient.
Adaptors are essential for ongoing
functions, but in times of unexpected
changes, they may have some difficulty


Glamorous, exciting, unsound, impractical,
risky abrasive, threatening the established
system and causing dissonance (as viewed
by Adaptors).


Innovators tend to reject the generally
accepted perception of problems, and they
redefine them. Their view of the problem
may be hard to get across. They seem less
concerned with immediate efficiency,
looking to possible long-term goals.
Innovators generally produce numerous
ideas, some of which may not appear
relevant or be acceptable to others. Such
ideas often contain solutions which result
in doing things differently.
Innovators prefer less structured situations.
They use new data as opportunities to set
new structures or policies. They are less
protective of the current paradigm.
Innovators are essential in times of change
or crisis, but may have trouble applying
themselves to ongoing organizational


I


I









moving out of their established role. demands.
Characterized by precision, reliability, Seen as thinking tangentially, approaching
efficiency; seen as methodical, prudent, tasks from unsuspected angles;
disciplined. undisciplined, unpredictable.
Concerned with resolving problems rather Could be said to discover problems and
than finding them. discover less consensually expected
avenues of solution.
Seeks solutions to problems in tried and Tend to query a problem's concomitant
understood ways. assumptions; manipulates problems.
Reduces problems by improvement and Is catalyst to settled groups, irreverent of
greater efficiency with maximum of their consensual views; seen as abrasive,
continuity and stability. creating dissonance.
Seen as sound, conforming, safe, Seen as ingenious; unsound, impractical.
dependable.
Does things better Does things differently.
Liable to make goals of means. Pursues goals challenging accepted means.
Seems impervious to boredom, seems able Capable of detailed routine (system
to maintain high accuracy in long spells of maintenance) work for usually only short
detailed work. bursts. Quick to delegate routine tasks
Is an authority within given structure. Take control in unstructured situations.
Challenges rules rarely, cautiously, when Often challenges rules. May have little
assured of strong support and problem- respect for past custom.
solving within consensus.
Tends to high self-doubt when system is Appears to have low self-doubt when
challenged, reacts to criticism by closer generating ideas, not needing consensus to
outward conformity; vulnerable to social maintain certitude in face of opposition;
pressure and authority; compliant. less certain when placed in core of system.
Is essential to the functioning of the Is ideal in unscheduled crises; better still to
institution all the time, but occasionally help to avoid them, if can be trusted by
needs to be dug out of the current systems. Adaptors.
When collaborating with Innovators: When collaborating with Adaptors:
supplies stability, order and continuity to supplies the task orientations, the break
the partnership. with the past and accepted theory.
Sensitive to people, maintains group Appears insensitive to people when in
cohesion and cooperation; can be slow to pursuit of solutions, so often threatens
overhaul a rule. group cohesion and cooperation.
Provides a safe base for the Innovator's Provides the dynamics to bring about
riskier operations. periodic radical change, without which
institutions tend to ossify.
(Kirton, 1999)

If a leader is aware of how individuals process information and solve problems, he

or she will be more efficient and successful as a leader. The more knowledge a leader

has about the people he or she is working with, it will make the leader more successful.









Knowledge and use of information related to the KAI allow the leader to: enhance

individual awareness; facilitate problem-solving in teams; and help resolve conflict

(Kirton, 1999). In addition, effective, successful leaders with KAI knowledge will be

more adept at bridging the gap between adaptors and innovators in the work place. This

knowledge in turn reduces power struggles and promotes teamwork (Kirton, 1999).

Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) not only measures thinking style,

which is the process or means in which each individual solves problems, but it also

measures the creativity in which problems are solved. The KAI total score breaks down

into three sections: (1) Sufficiency of Originality (KAI-SO); (2) Efficiency (KAI-E), and

(3) Rule/Group Conformity (KAI-R). These three sub scores make up the total KAI

score.

The KAI-Sufficiency of Originality subscore distinguishes differences between

individuals and their preferred handling of original ideas. A more adaptive individual

tends to produce a fewer number of novel ideas, but these ideas are typically agreed to be

relevant, safe, and well thought, and/or useful. The innovative individual generates a

large number of ideas. These ideas are often "out of the box" and seem risky to others.

The innovative individual produces ideas seen by others as crossing boundaries and

breaking new ground. Many of these ideas are seen as likely to fail, even by the

innovative individual who conceived the idea.

The KAI-Efficiency subscore helps in explaining the differences of the preferred

method of solving a problem. The more adaptive individual will look at a problem more

closely than an innovative person. The adaptive person's KAI-E score explains an

individual's structure in problem-solving as being more methodical in the way he or she









analyzes a problem. A high KAI-E score individual works within the current system and

is more likely to get the system to work for him or her. The more innovative person will

trade the benefits of immediate efficiency and lower the risk of his or her decision by

paying less attention to the immediate structure of the problem and less attention to detail

and thoroughness. These individuals will get a broader picture of the problem and create

new ideas of handling the situation. Innovative individuals want to achieve their goals

often and not worry about details.

The KAI-Rules/Group Conformity subscore is responsible for the differences in

how an individual deals with the management structure where problem-solving occurs.

The more adaptive individual works within the rules of the organization. Adaptive

individuals accept the group norms and responsibilities and work for group cohesion.

The more innovative individuals have less respect for structure and organizational rules.

They work to solve problems regardless of group consensus and cohesion. The

innovative individual charges forward to bring about change. The innovative individual

often brings about rapid change at the expense of others.

Innovation and Adaptability in Organizational Change

In part, organizational change consists of innovations to improve the organization's

adaptation to the environment (Kraatz & Zajac, 2001, p. 634). Innovation is important for

preserving competitiveness and ensuring the organization's viability (Mumford et al.,

2002; Wolfe, 1994). Leadership behavior promotes the coordination of the activities

undertaken by members of the organization within its division of labor to attain certain

objectives of its own (Bass, 1990), such as promoting organizational innovativeness.

Leadership achieves this coordination by influencing the attitudes of the organizational

members, their behaviors, or both (Bass, 1990; Mumford et al., 2002; Northhouse, 2004;









Yukl, 2002). Most scholars of leadership acknowledge a link between leadership and

influence, as well as leadership and change.

Effective organizations, or those that enjoy sustained competitive edge, display two

specific characteristics simultaneously: efficiency and adaptability (Mott, 1972).

Efficiency allows an organization to implement and follow well-structured, stable

routines for delivering its product (goods and services). The efficient organization is able

to react quickly to unexpected turns of events that allow it to continue with minimal

disruptions in its daily routine (Mott, 1972). In today's changing world, being able to

deal with daily routine is not enough. Successful organizations must be able to adapt to

the challenges and changes of each day. Adaptability allows an effective organization to

face changes deliberately and continually with minimal damaging consequences.

Adaptability requires looking outside the organization and anticipating new opportunities

and problems, trends, technologies, ideas, and methods to improve or change its routines

(Mott, 1972). In today's ever-changing organizations, leaders must promote not only

efficiency but also adaptability if they wish to remain effective.

Having the knowledge and ability to gain understanding of a situation determines a

leader's innovation process profile. Understanding differences allows leaders to change

their own view to complement the innovation process preferences of others and to

include other persons' ideas to reduce frustration within the organization. Understanding

these differences can also help with the interaction of the group in order to make best use

of all people and resources available. Effective leaders can help strong innovators

discover new problems and facts or present new problems and facts to them. They can

help strong adaptors better define challenges or present well-defined challenges to them.









Leaders can help adaptors evaluate and select from among solutions and make plans or

present evaluated solutions and ready-made plans. Alternatively, they can help strong

innovators to convince others of the value of their ideas and push them to act on them or

push their ideas through to acceptance and implementation for them.

Burns (1978) introduced the concept of transformational leadership, suggesting that

certain leaders can elevate their followers' frames of reference, ideological

underpinnings, and attitudes toward self, peers, the organization, and society in ways that

go well beyond extracting performance commitment. The transformational leader appeals

to a higher order universal set of human needs that can be activated by virtue of the

natural proclivities of human nature to become self-actualized and self-organized. As

Yukl (1994) noted, transforming leadership can be viewed both as a micro-level

influence process between individuals and as a macro-level process of mobilizing power

to change social systems and reform institutions. At the macro-level of analysis,

transformational leadership involves shaping, expressing, and mediating conflict among

groups of people in addition to motivating individuals.

Bass (1998) contended that transformational leadership has four key components

reflecting four types of behavior that leaders need in order to facilitate change:

1. Charismatic leadership or idealized influence;
2. Inspirational motivation;
3. Intellectual stimulation which encourages problem-reframing and creativity;
4. Individual consideration.

Bass (1998) believed transformational leaders may not show or exhibit these

behaviors at the same time. The transformational leader makes choices about how to take

advantage of his or her own and his or her followers' abilities. Situational factors also









play a role in leadership decisions. Bass (1985) suggested that changing environments

encourage transformational leadership.

Bass noted that transformational leadership must overcome opposition to change.

Some organizations lend themselves to transactional leadership, partly because

transactional leaders are both recruited for this type of organization. Transformational

leadership requires a climate of trust. Followers must believe that the leader has their

interests at heart. Followers must feel that the leader's vision about the possible future,

promise, and fulfillment of the institutional mission is worthy of the followers' attention,

commitment, and dedication.

The term transformational leadership implies that leaders "transform" either

organizations and/or their followers. Change is a typical precursor in most discussions

regarding transformational leadership. Conger (1999) suggested that the approach

emerged as corporations faced global competition, requiring them to radically reinvent

themselves. Public schools and universities face similar pressures to change.

Bass (1985) argued that transformational leadership is not likely to be found in the

American university, especially public universities, primarily because they are rule-

bound. Because transformational leadership depends on peer support for significant

organizational change, the diversity of faculty interests and orientations in typical higher

education institutions usually presents problems for leaders. Even though most higher

educational institutions group similar academic subject matters together in colleges, the

diversity of faculties, diversity of research interests, resource allocations, and personal

and professional goals tend to pull at the leader's ability to be truly transformational.

Bass (1985) noted the "arousal" process in transformational leadership requires the use of









appealing, "symbols, images, and vision of a better state of affairs." It would take an

extraordinarily broadly educated and informed person to communicate effectively to each

faculty member (Bass, 1985).

Proponents of organizational change claim that charismatic and transformational

leadership are ways to achieve change in organizations (House & Aditya, 1997). Some

researchers of leadership argue that leadership is the ability to produce change (Conger &

Kanungo, 1998).

Innovative vs. Adaptive Leaders

Trice and Beyer (1990, 1993) theorized that leaders who maintain cultures (work

environments) are similar in some ways and differ in other ways from leaders whose

leadership produces cultural innovations (change). They contended that the two types of

leaders are similar in many of their behaviors, but differ in terms of some of their

personal qualities, their vision and mission, the type of performance they produce, and

their administrative actions. For example, they suggested innovative leaders are self-

confident and dominant, and adaptive leaders have confidence in their followers and

possess facilitative skills.

Trice and Beyer (1990, 1993) stated that innovative leaders see themselves as

evangelists in preaching new ideas, while adaptive leaders serve as catalysts for other

persons' ideas. Trice and Beyer also thought that the reaction to the leadership situation

was different for the two types of leaders. They believed that innovative leadership is a

response to crisis and advances a radical ideology. More adaptive leadership occurs in

situations where there is no perceived crisis or the crisis or problems that are present are

seen as manageable. Followers' beliefs about leaders differ for these two types of

leadership. Innovative leaders are seen by followers as possessing extraordinary qualities









needed to deal with the crisis or challenge. Adaptive leaders are seen as representing

existing values that were successful in the past.

Tichy and Devanna (1990) reported transformational leaders recognize the need for

change. These leaders would be able to create a new vision and bring about the required

change. They stated the characteristics of transformational leadership as:

* Being a change agent;
* Having courage;
* Believing in people;
* Being value-driven;
* Being a life-long learner;
* Having the ability to deal with "complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty";
* Being visionary.

Influence of Demographics on Leadership Skills

When discussing leaders and the study of leadership, it is important to evaluate the

variables influencing the study. The independent variables involved in this study include

gender, ethnicity, age, highest college degree earned, type of degree earned, tenure in

position, and leadership training.

Gender Differences in Leadership

Studies have noted that the traits associated with traditional leadership are

masculine. Men or women can display them, but the traits themselves, such as

individualism, control, assertiveness, and skills of advocacy and domination, are typically

masculine traits (Acker, 1990). In contrast, the traits associated with new leadership

tend to be more feminine. These traits characterized as being more feminine include

empathy, community, vulnerability, and skills of inquiry and collaboration (Acker, 1990).

Eagly et al. (2003), in their meta-analysis of 45 studies, found that women tend to

use transformational leadership styles more often than men, that is, women use a more









participative and inclusive style of leadership behaviors. In their analysis, they found

men used a more directive and controlling style, that is, a more transactional style of

leadership. Eagly et al.'s findings are supported by other research that concludes men in

general, are more likely to use a transactional leadership style, and women are more

likely to use a transformational leadership style (Rosener, 1990).

In a study of leadership among county extension faculty, middle, managers, district

directors, county extension directors, and program leaders, Holder (1990) concluded that

gender was not significantly related to leadership style. Moore (2003) found gender did

not significantly influence transactional or transformational leadership style in her

research of state directors and administrators in the cooperative extension system. These

findings were also supported by Stedman (2004), who made similar conclusions in her

study of volunteer administrators, volunteer specialists, and county faculty.

Characteristics typically thought of as being more feminine include ones that

primarily are concerned with the welfare and relationship building with other people.

These characteristics include the ability to show affection, being helpful, kind,

sympathetic, interpersonally sensitive, nurturing, and gentle. In contrast, the

characteristics most closely associated with men describe them as being primarily

assertive, controlling, and confident.

Typically, more masculine traits include a tendency toward being aggressive,

ambitious, dominant, forceful, independent, self-sufficient, self-confident, and prone to

act as a leader. But other types of attributes are also differentially credited to women and

men (Deaux & Lewis, 1983).









Boatwright and Forrest (2000) suggested women prefer more relationally oriented,

worker-centered leadership behaviors than their male counterparts. Their findings

support other research that found women value the more relational (transformational)

aspects of their work environment than men do (Elizur, 1994; Pryor 1983). Boatwright

and Forrest suggested that their findings in the difference between men and women's

preferences in leadership behaviors were statistically significant but not necessarily

meaningful. Boatwright and Forrest suggested men may be becoming more interested in

more transformational leadership behaviors and their ability to use them successfully.

Helgesen examined how female leaders made decisions, gathered and dispensed

information, delegated tasks, and structured their organizations, as well as how they

motivated their followers. She concluded that women were more interested in building

relationships, and sharing information, while their male counterparts were more

interested in task completion, achieving goals, getting and keeping information, and

winning (Chliwniak, 1997). In a study of Tennessee school directors, Yates (2005) found

that women scored high in the five transformational leadership factors, as reported by

their completion of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ).

The ideal leader is one who is androgynous (Rosen, 1996), having both a masculine

and a feminine side. Rosen asserted that traditional, masculine characteristics of

decisiveness and accountability should be blended with collaboration and open

communication, which have typically been associated with feminine characteristics.

Research conducted by Wylie (1996) named physiological differences in females

allowing for gender specific strengths:

* Women's brains may allow women to think more nonlinearly allowing for
women to consider more possibilities when problem-solving;









* Women's brains have more connective tissue between the two brain hemispheres
which may allow women more interaction between the two sides of the brain
during the thought process;

* Women may also tend to have a more innate ability to receive sensory data.

Reviewing the literature allows several conclusions to be made in regard to gender

and leadership. First, men and women approach and react to their leadership roles

differently. Second, men and women have certain characteristics that best fit their

respective leadership style. Some men and some women are able to interchange gender-

specific leadership characteristics, depending on the situation and need.

Ethnicity and Leadership

We know that prototypes of ideal leaders differ among individuals from different

nations (Brodbeck et al., 2000; Dorfman & Hanges, 2000). For instance, team orientation

plays a more important role in ideal leader prototypes in Latin American countries than it

does in English-speaking countries (House et al., 2002).

Chliwniak (1997) stated, "Until recently, scholarship on leadership continued to

use the white male as the exemplar of leadership style and characteristics." Fortunately,

times are changing and more research has been conducted to determine leadership

characteristics of diverse populations. Research has shown that gender and ethnicity

influence organizational processes, such as leadership and work attitudes (Bartol, Evans,

& Stith,1978; Eagly & Johnson, 1990).

The effectiveness of charismatic and contingent reward leader behaviors has

generally been supported across cultures although there are some differences (Bass, 1997;

Den Hartog et al., 1999; Dorfman, 1996). Charismatic behaviors, which include

providing followers with a favorable vision or mission, having confidence in followers

and making inspirational speeches are particularly effective in some cultures. The