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Jennings Hall

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JENNINGS HALL: ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE AND VIABILITY OF A 1961 RESIDENCE HALL ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS By PAULA M. WAGNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Paula M. Wagner

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To Ryan and my soon-to-be-born daughter.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee members for assisting and guiding me with this process of writing a thesis. Their insights provided support and challenged me to become a better investigator and write r throughout the process. The University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education was a huge part of the success of th is thesis. They provided info rmation through site visits, meetings, and emails, greatly helping my re search and giving an overall feeling of support. The University of Florida Physic al Plant Division, mo re specifically the Architecture/Engineering Department, was inst rumental with supplyi ng access to archival construction documents and specifica tions for the residence hall. Finally, I need to thank my husband for his support and encouragement throughout the time I have known him, especially in the pa st few years. In a ddition, I appreciate the support that our families have provided in this experience.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv TABLE.......................................................................................................................... ....vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of Problem...................................................................................................4 Significance..................................................................................................................4 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................5 Introduction................................................................................................................... 5 Primary Resources........................................................................................................5 Secondary Sources........................................................................................................8 University of Florida Information.........................................................................8 Campus Planning and Residence Hall History....................................................10 Current Residence Hall Trends...........................................................................12 Summary.....................................................................................................................14 3 RESEARCH METHODS...........................................................................................16 4 EVOLUTION OF RESIDENCE HALLS..................................................................19 Residence Hall History...............................................................................................19 Current Residence Hall Trends...................................................................................21 University of Florida Campus Re sidential Facilities through 1961...........................24 Summary.....................................................................................................................27 5 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF JENNINGS HALL..................................................29 The University of Florid a Residence Halls, 1950–1961............................................29 Comparative Analysis.........................................................................................30 Summary..............................................................................................................34

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vi Jennings Hall..............................................................................................................35 Site Analysis........................................................................................................35 Exterior Description of the Facility.....................................................................37 Interior Description of the Facility......................................................................40 Architect’s Vision................................................................................................44 Character Defining Features................................................................................45 Areas Subject to Alteration.................................................................................47 Summary..............................................................................................................48 6 PROPOSED REHABILI TATION DESIGN PLAN..................................................49 Introduction.................................................................................................................49 Program Overview......................................................................................................49 The User..............................................................................................................50 Aesthetic Considerations.....................................................................................53 Description of Rehabilitation Plan..............................................................................53 Lobby Space........................................................................................................58 Convenience Store...............................................................................................61 Control or Reception Desk..................................................................................62 Library.................................................................................................................64 Lounge.................................................................................................................67 Meeting Rooms...................................................................................................68 Recreation Room.................................................................................................71 Studio Work Space..............................................................................................71 Paint Room..........................................................................................................72 Public Restrooms.................................................................................................73 Supportive Spaces...............................................................................................73 Residential Wings................................................................................................73 Exterior Spaces....................................................................................................80 Summary.....................................................................................................................82 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................83 Recommendations.......................................................................................................86 Summary.....................................................................................................................87 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................89 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................93

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vii TABLE Table page 6.1 Program Overview...................................................................................................50

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map ..................................................................2 1.2 East Side of Jennings Hall..........................................................................................3 4.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map ................................................................27 5.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map, Dormitory Areas ..................................29 5.2 Broward Hall Hipped Roof......................................................................................31 5.3 Examples of the Entryways at (A) Weav er Hall with Enclosures, and (B) Yulee Hall with Open Porches............................................................................................31 5.4 Porticos on (A) Broward Ha ll, and (B) Rawlings Hall............................................32 5.5 Glass Block at (A) Broward Hall, (B) Riker Hall, and (C) Yulee Hall....................33 5.6 Other Types of Glazing (A) Rawli ngs Hall, and (B) Jennings Hall........................33 5.7 Breezeways at (A) Mallory, Yulee, and Re id Halls, and (B) Riker and Weaver Halls.........................................................................................................................3 4 5.8 Original Construction Document, Site ....................................................................35 5.9 The Approach to Jennings Hall................................................................................36 5.10 A Detail of the Japanese-inspi red Garden at Jennings Hall.....................................36 5.11 Horizontal Concrete Awnings..................................................................................37 5.12 Saw-tooth Roofline..................................................................................................38 5.13 Two-story Lobby Space...........................................................................................39 5.14 Original Construction Document, Terrazzo Pattern ................................................39 5.15 Control or Desk of Jennings Hall.............................................................................40 5.16 Library Bookcase Wall and Patio Doors..................................................................41

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ix 6.1 Original Construction Document, First Floor Public Spaces ..................................54 6.2 New Layout of First Floor Public Spaces................................................................55 6.3 Original Construction Document, Basement Public Spaces ...................................56 6.4 Copy of Original Construction Document, Basement Support Spaces ...................56 6.5 New Layout of the Basement Public Spaces............................................................57 6.6 Examples of Molded Wood Chairs .........................................................................59 6.7 Original Construction Document, First Floor Lobby Space ...................................59 6.8 Original Construction Document, Basement Lobby Space.....................................59 6.9 Lobby Space Showing Terrazzo Pattern..................................................................60 6.10 Proposed Lobby Space Functions (A) Study Space, (B) Presentation or Speaker Space, and (C) Gallery Space...................................................................................60 6.11 Original Construction Document, Bookstore ..........................................................61 6.12 Original Construction Document, Control Area .....................................................62 6.13 Original Construction Document, Desk Section Cut Detail ...................................63 6.14 Original Construction Document, El evation of Desk and Mail Area .....................63 6.15 New Layout of Control Area....................................................................................63 6.16 New Details of Control Desk (A ) Sections, and (B) Elevation................................64 6.17 Examples of Seating for the Library .......................................................................65 6.18 Example of Tables for the Library ..........................................................................65 6.19 Original Construction Document, Library ..............................................................66 6.20 Original Construction Docu ment, Bookcase Elevation ..........................................66 6.21 New Layout for Media Room..................................................................................66 6.22 Example of Lounge Furniture .................................................................................67 6.23 Original Construction Document, Lounge Area .....................................................67 6.24 New Layout of Lounge Area....................................................................................68 6.25 Original Construction Document, M eeting Rooms and Recreation Room .............69

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x 6.26 New Layout of Meeting Rooms, Fitness Room, Laundry Facility, and Recreation Room......................................................................................................70 6.27 New Layout of the Studio Space..............................................................................72 6.28 New Layout of the Paint Room................................................................................72 6.29 Example of the Moveable and Stackable Furniture ................................................74 6.30 Detail of Furnished Residence Hall Rooms.............................................................75 6.31 Original Construction Document, North Residential Wing ....................................76 6.32 Original Construction Docume nt, South Residential Wing ....................................77 6.33 New Residential Floor Layout without Furniture....................................................78 6.34 New Residential Floor Layout with Furniture.........................................................79 6.35 Original Construction Document West Side Planted Area ....................................81 6.36 Jennings Hall Patio Spaces on East Side..................................................................81

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xi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design JENNINGS HALL: ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE AND VIABILITY OF A 1961 RESIDENCE HALL ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS By Paula M. Wagner May 2006 Chair: Susan Tate Major Department: Interior Design The University of Florida experien ced a housing boom on campus between the years 1950 and 1961. During this time, fift een permanent residence halls were constructed, accounting for more than fifty percent of living accommodations in 2006. Completed in 1961, Jennings Hall was the sixth and final all-female residence. Though other dormitories of this period have similar architectural features, Jennings Hall is the only one to have a unique saw-toothed roof line defining the placem ent of public spaces from private spaces; integration of the buildi ng design with the natural landscapes; and an entry garden surrounded by a saw-tooth covere d walkway leading i ndividuals up to the formal, atrium-like entry space. Jennings Hall is still serving its ma in objective, to house students pursuing a college education, a nd has seen only minimal renovations. Upon the opening of this resi dence hall in 1961, it was clas sified as a state-of-theart residence facility with supportive spaces for the college student. In 2006, students have different expectations from their livi ng environments. Can rehabilitation of this

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xii residence hall accommodate the needs of students in 2006 and beyond, while preserving its defining features? This thesis will analyze these characteristics and propose a rehabilitation design plan, incl uding current state-of-the-art features designed within the framework of the Secretary of Inte rior’s Standards for Rehabilitation.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION By 1960, it was clear that the battle betw een the architectural traditionalists and modernists, which had been waged on the American campus for at least three decades, had been won firmly by the moderns. [1: 294] -Paul V. Turner. Campus: An American Planning Tradition 1984 In the book Campus: An American Planning Tradition Paul Turner asserts that American colleges and universities accepted “m odern architecture” later than the general population and society as a whole [1]. Turner defines modern architecture as “rejection of historical tradition and its frequent emphasis on f unctionalism and flexibility” [1: 251]. Modern architecture may be characterized as “bold, clean, simplifie d, and efficient” and affordable [2: 572]. The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture describes “the aims of Modernism” as “radical, concerned with th e suppression of all ornament, historical allusions, and styles, counterbalanced by the el evation of objectivity and the evolution of industrialized methods of building” [3: 428]. Throughout this thesis, modern architecture will be defined as a style of architecture that emphasizes minimal ornamentation and capitalizes on function. Modernist residence halls flourished acro ss the country after World War II, when veterans and baby boomers began going to co llege [1]. During the 1950s and ‘60s residence hall facilitie s were rapidly being built across the country to accommodate the influx of all types of students [1, 4]. Not only was there a high need for dorms, but the government was providing low-interest loans for schools to build housing because of the 1950 Title IV of the Housing Act [4]. Sc hools across the country wanted to take

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2 advantage of these loans, so ornate decora tive buildings gave way to a functional and affordable approach to modern architecture. Figure 1.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map [5] The University of Florida built fifteen pe rmanent residence halls between the years 1950 and 1961, which accounted for more than fifty percent of the residence halls on campus in the year 2006. These residence bui ldings are Mallory, Yulee, Reid, Tolbert, Weaver, North, Riker, Broward, Rawlings, Grah am, East, Simpson, Trusler, and Jennings Halls [6]. The residence hall building boom on the University of Florida campus was in response to the large number of World War II veterans who enrolled in college under the GI Bill and the first enrollment of women in 1948, after passage of the Coeducation Bill [1, 7-8].

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3 Figure 1.2 East Side of Jennings Hall Jennings Hall opened in 1961, along with five other residence halls that were completed that year [6]. This hall was the last dedicated to women students on the University of Florida campus, and later was the first female hall to host both men and women under the same roof. The original re sidence hall design boasted such spaces as laundry rooms, kitchenettes, multiple public lounges, a library, and a room that functioned as either a classroom or meeting r oom [9]. Public spaces were enclosed and positioned between the two residential wings of the building, allowing students to easily pass from one wing to another without going outside the building. This state-of-the-art facility was we ll designed and well thought out by the architect, but many years of advancements ha ve left Jennings Hall lacking its competitive edge among newer and renovated residential faci lities. There is an increasing awareness that residence halls built acr oss the country during the pos t-World War II building boom, including those on the Univers ity of Florida campus, need to be continuously updated

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4 with new technology and spatial renovations, wh ile maintaining their historical features [10-12]. Statement of Problem This thesis will analyze the state-of-the -art of Jennings Hall at the time of construction so that the original vision of the facility can stay intact when devising a rehabilitation plan. This research will also analyze current design trends of residential facilities in order to propose a state-of-the-art re habilitation. Since th is building will soon be eligible for historic designation, it is cruc ial to understand the historic context of the building in order to achie ve both of these goals. Significance Modernist campus housing buildings from the post-World War II era are in the early stages of being identified as historic among historic preservationists. Additional buildings of the late 1950s and early 1960s will soon reach the benchmark of historic designation. Jennings Hall will be used in th is thesis as a case study to distinguish historic characteristics of the early 1960s, when it was erecte d. An understanding of this hall historically, together with a rehabilitati on plan that not only celebrates the building’s unique style but also brings the vision of the architect back into th e building, will position the University of Florida as a leader in pr eservation and sustainability issues. Preserving and rehabilitating this residence hall will help to maintain a community that is knowledgeable about the past of the institut ion and provide a new link in the campus history of compatible growth, while allowing st udents to experience history in a facility updated to new standards of accomm odation, security, and technology.

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5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Residence halls or dormitories have been a part of American college tradition since Harvard was founded in 1636 [1]. Though th ese buildings serve a vital purpose on college campuses, relatively little research has been published about them. While published works and professional journals were searched for related research and case studies, the primary material utilized in this thesis came from original construction documents and specifications, university ar chival records, and on-site analysis. Primary Resources The University Archives in Smathers Libr ary East and the Univ ersity of Florida Department of Housing and Residence E ducation were sources for photographic and documentary records. The original construc tion documents, along with specifications for Jennings Hall, were found through the Arch itecture/Engineering Department of the Physical Plant Division located on Radio Road in the northwest section of the University of Florida. The department stores all original constructi on documents and specifications wrapped in a temperature-contro lled room. The wrappings are labeled so that individuals can find bundles of drawings and informati on for a specific building. Most buildings have more than one bundle of original material. The original construction documents indi cated that Jennings Hall was built in 1961 with an annex or dining hall on-site [9]. This facility was connected by a covered walkway contained by a designa ted planted area to be desi gned and implemented a few

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6 years after the opening date. The dining hall no longer serves the original purpose and has been turned into office space, primarily for the University Police Department. The original dining facility is not being considered as part of Jennings Hall for the purpose of this thesis. The original construction documents subdi vide Jennings Hall into three parts—A, B, and C [9]. Section B is the public spaces of the residence hall while sections A and C are the private wings that comprise the resident ial spaces or private spaces of the facility. The public spaces sit in between the two private wings. The original construction documents contai ned floor plans, elevations, and details [9]. There were also electrical plans, beam schedules, and a site plan, to name a few other drawings [9]. The floor plans, elevati ons, and details indicated the original function of spaces and some of those spaces have change d functions prior to th e initiation of this research. These differences were evalua ted during site visits of Jennings Hall. The original construction doc uments often contained notations of specific materials to be used for a particular detail [9]. Fo r example, on the drawing details for the front desk, or “control,” notations indicated the us e of walnut paneling [9]. Besides these notations, specifications for fixtures, windows, and floori ng were found. For example, each residential room contains a built-in closet and storage un it. The specifications found indicate that this unit was bu ilt locally in Gainesville, Flor ida by Wood Products, Inc [9]. These original units have a 1/16” red birch veneer [9]. Since these documents and specifications ar e archival, notes were taken on-site for reference at a later date. The original c onstruction documents have been previously

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7 scanned, and the Architectural/Engineering Depart ment provided a disc of these drawings in TIFF format. The archival library at the University of Florida provided origin al letters, memos, and papers from various sources that he lped with understanding the change in architecture from Collegiate Gothic to mode rnism and the acceptance of women into the University. Presidential papers and memos from the eras overseen by Tigert and Miller provided information about the transition of th e campus architecture after World War II. More specifically, these papers called fo r architecture to be “modern” and “without decoration” [13]. The Miller papers requested that No rthwestern University, the University of Vermont, and the University of Connecticut be toured in order to examine their new buildings [14]. This enabled the Un iversity of Florida to acquire ideas of high quality from other areas of the country. Looking into the Dean of Women’s records in the archival libr ary provided insights into women’s issues at the University after women were accepted as full-time students in 1948 [8]. Reports regarding the temporary living conditions women endured were found within the records. The dedication speeches given by Dean Marna V. Brady and Mrs. Harris at the opening of the first female residence halls, Mallory and Yulee, were insightful into their perspectives of the arch itecture used for the buildings and the spaces created within the residential facilities [8]. The Department of Housing and Reside nce Education hosts its own archival information on every residence hall on cam pus. The Jennings Hall folder contains written information for the building, such as handbooks given to residents that contain rules of the facility [15]. It also contains articles from newspapers.

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8 Secondary Sources University of Florida Information Sharon Blansett’s book, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities, provided historic background info rmation on all reside ntial facilities on the University of Florida campus [6]. The book is written in chro nological order, from the oldest residence hall facility still being used today to the most recen t facilities built. Blansett’s book includes photographs of all the buildings, which, when coupled with the accompanying information, provide a noticeable link between some of the residence halls and their architecture styles. Primarily, this resource se rved as a starting poi nt into the historic context of Jennings Hall. Anne Catinna’s thesis from 1993, Years of Transition: Architecture on the University of Florida Campus 1944 – 1956, was another important source. Catinna targeted these years because of contemporary architectural changes on the campus. From the first campus plan in 1905, the University adopted a collegiate go thic style, but 1944 marked a transition [16]. The post-World War II era reflected the modernism expanding across the United States. The thesis discusse d the first three build ings completed during this time period—Tigert Hall, the administ ration building, and Mallo ry and Yulee, two female dormitories [16]. During these specific years, Guy Fulton wa s the named architect on the State Board of Control (BOC), which governed all state sc hools in Florida, incl uding the construction of facilities [16]. Guy Fulton was a named contributing influence into the change of styles by Catinna’s thesis. Evidence also shows that President Tigert called for the architectural style change by requesting a decr ease in decorative features. According to an interview between Catinna and Forrest Kelly, who succeeded Fulton as the BOC

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9 architect, lack of money was also an underl ying factor for the change in architecture styles [16]. According to Catinna, there were many factor s that influenced architectural change; however, Fulton was the one who ultimately deci ded to keep the architecture compatible through the use of materials [16]. Red bricks terra cotta roof tiles, and simplified stone accents were utilized in the new buildings to show compatibility with all the buildings on campus [16]. By using the materials in this fashion, Fulton kept the campus unified. In fact, Kelley said in his interview with Catinna that it was an expectation that he continue to work with these materials when designing buildings on campus [16]. Jennifer Garrett’s thesis, Finally Home: The University of Florida Campus as a Microcosm of American Post Wo rld War II Residential Desig,n was completed in 2005. Garrett’s research looked at all housing on the University of Florida campus from 1945– 1956. Garrett looks generally at the housing situation over the count ry in suburbia as well as college campuses, finally narrowing the scope down to the University of Florida campus [7]. The Garrett thesis begins by looking at the University as a whole during 1945, taking into consideration the return of Florida veterans and the acceptance of women students [7]. Due to the influx of students, the housing demand was gr eat at that time. This caused the University to look to some temporary buildings, known as the Flavet Villages, to provide shelter for veterans and their families [7]. Single student facilities were being constr ucted in various part s of the University for both men and women students [7]. These structures, Tolbert, Riker, Weaver, North, Mallory, Yulee, and Reid Halls, opened in 1950. Garrett discusses their architectural

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10 significance and reaction to the local climate a nd compares their features to the trends found in residential design throughout the country [7]. Garrett gives suggestions of further study within the recommendation area of her thesis. She points to a need to discuss ways of bringi ng post-World War II residence halls, especially those significant on the Un iversity of Florida campus, back to the original concept created by architect Guy Fulton [7]. William Arnett’s thesis, A Study of the Campus Planning Problem at the University of Florida, written in 1932, gave insight into plan ning at the University through the year 1931. The status of the campus plan and bu ildings is a focus of the thesis. During the 1930–1931 academic year, the Educational Survey Commission directed that the University of Florida house halve its st udent population [17]. That academic year, the school was housing 21.5% of the student population [17]. Arnett hypothesized a few solutions to the campus pl anning, going a step further and included women’s dormitories within his suggested campus plan. Though women were not yet being accepted into the University, Arnett saw a need to plan ahead for that time when women would be allowed to attend the University on a full-time basis [17]. Arnett’s thesis suggested where new housi ng could be provided for both male and female residents [17]. Each solution was di scussed and all but one was discarded. The solution chosen was then disc ussed in more detail, givi ng locations for buildings. Estimations on acreage and how ma ny individuals could be hous ed on this land were also provided [17]. Campus Planning and Residence Hall History Paul Turner’s book Campus: An American Planning Tradition was a valuable resource that gives an overvi ew of campus planning, includ ing its history at American

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11 colleges [1]. The discussion of residence ha lls provided insights into the connection of American universities to English and Eur opean universities, specifically how their traditions have been utilized or reworked in America [1]. For instance, early schools created courtyards by bounding the sides with connected buildings [1]. Though most American universities do not continue this practice of keeping the town or community out of the campus, it is clear th at courtyards are still an important concept, reinterpreted. Residence halls are often placed in such a way to create these courtyards without keeping the rest of campus outside of the space [1]. Due to the general nature of the topic, each era is addressed in limited detail, especially most recent eras. Turner points out that there was a transition in architecture and planning on campuses, although campuses accepted modernism more slowly than elsewhere [1]. Insight into residence hall history and the planning of facilities during this era was also found through many independen tly written chapters in the book Student Housing and Residential Life, edited by Roger Winston, Jr. The ch apter titled “A Brief History of Collegiate Housing,” by Charles Frederiksen, di scussed the Title IV or Housing Act. This act, which was passed by Congress in 1950, gave institutions low rates on loans to build or repair residential facilities on co llege campuses [4]. Colleges and universities everywhere took advantage of these loans a nd built high-rise facilities that focused on getting the most students possibl e into a unit without much concern for their needs [4]. This act did not cover furnishings of r ooms, and schools skirted around this issue by applying fixed furniture in the rooms so th e furniture would fall under the construction cost or what the loan covered [4].

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12 These buildings took away the fundamental purpose of a residence hall, which is to provide a social education and bridge the gap between academics and the living environment [4]. Now that these buildings are getting older, campuses are currently involved in another building boom or renova tion period where colleges are trying to rectify the negative effects of the Housing Ac t. In fact, Harold Riker makes a call to action to avoid emulating thes e facilities when plans for ne w construction or renovations are being created [12]. Current Residence Hall Trends Residence hall construction and renovation projects share common features, which help to define what state-of-the-art means a nd what current design trends are. Over the last few years, with the support of the Un ited States Green Building Council (USGBC), sustainable buildings are being erected at a steady pace [18]. Colleges and universities are beginning to see benefits to utilizing sustainable construction methods within new construction and renovation projects. Ther e are a couple of certified, sustainable renovated and new construction residence ha lls listed on the USGBC website, one of which is located on the Carnegie Mell on University campus [18]. In 2004, The Chronicle of Higher Education reported on this sustainable dorm itory. The article, written by Will Potter, provides a brief overview of the project. Though there are not too many dormitories classified as sustainable, the gr owing concern for the environment and rising construction costs will catapult sustainable design deeper into the residential facilities [19]. Besides The Chronicle of Higher Education other journals such as Planning for Higher Education American School & University and School Planning and Management were sources that publish informa tion about current residence hall

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13 construction and renovation projects. Planning for Higher Education provided two articles summarizing projects that have been recently completed. In the first article, written in 2003, Charles Dagit discusses Corn ell University’s expe rience with freshman housing. This project at Cornell University started in 1998, and the facilities were completed for the fall of 2001 [20]. The concern was that freshmen coming onto the campus were not being housed together and th at their “class identity” was not cohesive; thus, the institution decided to create accommoda tions just for the freshman class [20]. Glass walls and open multi-stori ed public spaces help to keep the plan open and allow students to see one another even while inte racting in different spaces. The residence wings are comprised of suite -style rooms—two double rooms and one single room share one bathroom. Hallways are varied in width to create entryways into the student rooms and reject the traditional strai ght-run corridor seen in past re sidence halls. Dagit states that halls geared for certain populations need to be designed to promote cohesion while decreasing seclusion [20]. In the second article, from 2004, Christ opher Hill highlights different trends found in current residence hall designs at Colby Co llege, Pennsylvania State University, and the College of the Holy Cross [21]. Suite-s tyle rooms are highlig hted, along with the interaction spaces created throughout the bu ilding. Integrating academics into the residence hall is another featur e pointed out within the artic le. In the end, Hill remarks that “successful residence halls should not lean on the past, but they should improve on the history and vitality of a school” [21: 35]. The articles found in American School & University and School Planning and Management discuss renovation projects. First, at Princeton Univer sity, Blair/Buyers

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14 Hall was constructed in 1896, and by 1996 had not seen major renova tions; needless to say, the building was worn and needed an ove rhaul [22]. This residential facility originally housed restroom facilities only in the basement. The renovation changed this by adding facilities to other floors. The at tic and basement spaces were reclaimed for residential rooms as well as social and acad emic spaces. Historic characteristics were restored while allowing technologies to be updated, which was the goal of the project [22]. The second renovation project took place on the Middlebury College campus [23]. Four residence halls built towards the end of the 1960s were the center of the project. The residence halls were reorganized to create multiple types of rooms such as singles, doubles, and suites that included bathrooms. Along with the reorganization of the residence hall rooms, additions were cons tructed to allow free passage between the buildings [23]. At the University of Florida, Reid Hall, one of the three original residence halls for females, is currently under renovation to integrate academic spaces geared specifically towards the College of Fine Arts into the re sidence hall. These spaces will eventually provide an art studio, a multi-purpose galler y space, and sound-proof practice rooms. Summary The information gathered from various sources was instrumental in providing a solid framework for this thesis. Original construction documents and specifications provided invaluable insights into the innovativ e design and functionality of the building. This, coupled with on-site investigations, led to conclusions on the stat us of the facility. Other archival information found at the Univ ersity of Florida e ffectively communicated the influences that were making an impact dur ing this era. Unders tanding the history of

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15 campus planning and residence halls only provi ded a stronger basis when researching the trends currently found in new construction a nd rehabilitations of these facilities on college and university campuses. Overall, al l this information was immeasurable when determining the defining characteristics a nd new functions to be executed within Jennings Hall.

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16 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODS The research on Jennings Hall is meant to serve two purposes. The first purpose is to understand the residence hall historically and architecturally, and the second is to understand the new trends in residence hall design and test these ideas and thoughts through a rehabilitation design fo r Jennings Hall. To achieve the second goal, archival and on-site analysis were the two main met hods utilized within this thesis project. Archival analysis was conducted primarily through the University of Florida’s library system, the Physical Plant Divi sion, and the Department of Housing and Residence Education Office. The archive li brary served as a resource mostly for background information for the project such as presidential papers. Architecture trade publications from the late 1950s and early 1960s were consulted to find the trends of residence hall design from that time period. The Architectural/Engi neering Department within the Physical Plant Division, located on Radio Road, provided access to all the original drawings and specifi cations of Jennings Hall [9]. These drawings have been scanned in order to provide digital images, which have also been a valuable working platform. The Department of Housing and Residence Education Office shared an archive file kept on the residence hall. This file c ontained all handbooks and rules for Jennings Hall since the opening of the facili ty [15]. Sharon Blansett, Assi stant Director of Housing for Marketing, Public Relations, and Research, c ontinuously updates this file and has also published a book, A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities which contains

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17 many facts and historical information about all the residence halls including Jennings Hall [6]. The Department of Housing and Residen ce Education Office has been supportive by providing information during on-site analysis In addition, photos were taken of the residence hall during the site visit in order to have reference to spaces while working on the design plans away from the facility. These site visits and photos provided a comparison to the original construction documen ts and specifications of Jennings Hall. The Secretary of the Interior Standards for Rehabilitation guided the process of identifying historic features [24]. In formation received from the United States Department of the Interior through the website and printed materials were instrumental in determining the historic status evaluation process of the bu ilding. Practical experience gained while documenting and studying a histor ic building on Nantucket Island assisted with the evaluation process. The material s and practical experience served as a framework while Jennings Hall was being eval uated and helped identify the historic significance of the building. According to the material from the Departme nt of the Interior, in order to assess the building properly, original construction documents, original specifications, and alterations to the building are to be located and studied [24]. Original documents and archival information are coordi nated with on-site investigatio n. During this investigation, the interior and exterior environments are su rveyed for the original materials and design solutions, and alterations made to the buildi ng through the years are id entified [24]. This process assists with determining the defini ng characteristics of the building. These

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18 characteristics or features are then listed and referred to regularly in the proposed rehabilitation design solution for the building. Other useful information was gathered wh ile meeting with different individuals within the Department of Housing and Resi dence Education Office. Understanding their philosophy and financial situation was helpful when decisions were being made about the direction of the renovation pl an. Maintenance and other st aff members of the building who have seen Jennings Hall change through th e decades were also a valuable resource especially when clarification was needed. A survey of current information on resi dence hall design was done through current publications and journals. Peer-reviewed j ournals and trade publications were a main source for current projects and case st udies about new cons truction and renovation projects for other residence halls around th e United States. These articles provided a basis for competitive and comparable facilities at other institutions to be evaluated. This basis helped define what st ate-of-the-art means at this time and guided the proposed rehabilitation design solution for Jennings Hall.

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19 CHAPTER 4 EVOLUTION OF RESIDENCE HALLS Residence Hall History In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Eu ropean colleges and universities laid the groundwork for the residence facilities student s would live in while working toward an education [1, 4, 25]. These facilities were not provided by the school—instead, students would seek out housing within the community in which the school was located [25]. Sometimes students could afford to live alone with servants while attending the institution, and other times st udents would live with townspe ople. In addition, students would often group together to rent a hous e and create their own community, asking a leader within the town or institution to help oversee finances and act ivities. In Paris, France, these places were referr ed to as hospicium, while in Oxford, England, they were referred to as halls or hostels [1, 25]. By approximately the middle of the thirteenth century, colleges and universities took ove r governing these houses or halls [25]. Undergraduate housing on college s and universities was secure d shortly after the first known halls were created strictly for graduate students [1]. Colleges then began taking on the role of what is commonly referred to as in loco parentis, or being a parent to the students living on campus; many students travel ed great distances to go to school and parents wanted proper guidance fo r their children [4]. This act of the college serving as the parents originated in Germany [4]. American colleges and universities took th ese influences from France, Germany, and England to create the re sidence hall or dormitory [1, 4, 25]. Since history suggests

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20 that men started living in houses together while going to school, the early men’s residence halls took on char acteristics that reflected these houses [26]. These characteristics included smaller sections with separate entrances, and each section, if multi-storied, had its own stairwell [1, 26]. The rooms were then created on each floor around the stairwells. Individual rooms were usually equipped with a bed, mattress, dresser, desk, and chair—the same furniture offered to students during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which re mains the standard today [27]. By 1870, the number of schools open to women started to increase [28]. However, a survey done in 1875 showed that of th e 209 schools offering women a “superior education,” only six met the standards set for men’s colleges [28: 56]. When designing residence halls for women, different standa rds were followed. The biggest difference was in the spatial layout, which did not uti lize sections, but rather a long corridor with rooms on either side [1, 27]. These floors then had bathrooms in a central location for all the residents of the floor to share. In addition, the long bu ilding layout was utilized for security reasons so that all college functions were under one roof, and there was only one point of entry [1]. This strategy was first ut ilized in Vassar College to provide security and more of a family-oriented environment among residents. This female dormitory design eventually became an American style [1]. Since women’s dormitories strived to create a family environment, spaces were planned on both intimate and gr and scales to accommodate a ll needs of female students [1]. These spaces, in some cases, included rooms such as a laundry room, a sewing room, a shampooing room, a kitchenette, a tr unk room, common or entertaining rooms (both formal and informal), and a room that could serve refreshments [1, 29-30]. These

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21 spaces helped contribute to the realization of the idea that female dormitories were to serve as a home away from home where students could learn social graces such as dinner party or afternoon tea etiquette [30]. Books, magazines, artwor k, flowers, and plants were just a few items that were supposed to be on display around the residence hall to illustrate the beauty and homelike nature of the residence facility [29-30]. After World War II, veterans were beginning to return to institutions for degrees [1]. This phenomenon created a housing shortage over many college campuses, so schools began to buy up barracks from the govern ment that were no longer being used at the close of the war [1, 4]. The enrollment boost increased the universities’ need for permanent residential faciliti es, creating a housing building boom in the 1950s and 1960s [4]. During this boom, the housing staff living within dormitories started to become more of a professional class. This meant that the role of the “housemother” began shifting— the beginning of the end of in loco parentis [4]. The federal government’s response to th is building boom was to provide lowinterest loans for construction of facilities, a result of the Title IV, or the Housing Act, of 1950 [4]. In order to get the most for their money, institutions st arted creating “built-in” furniture so that furnishings would qualify as part of the constructi on costs, since the lowinterest loans could not be used on free-standing furn ishings [4]. Current Residence Hall Trends Two residence hall design trends bega n recently emerging during the construction of new residence halls. First, suite-st yle residence halls became popular. Students perceive less crowding in a facility that is composed of suite-style rooms rather than rooms in a double-loaded corridor [31]. These sa me residents feel that they develop their social skills more than those in a double-loaded corridor [31].

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22 Hill reports projects in which three school s all created some form of suite-style living, consisting of a series of single or double rooms sharing a common lounge, a kitchen, and bathroom facilities in some vari ation [21]. Cornell University in Ithaca, New York created a new freshman residen ce hall complex that coupled a double and a single room together, sharing a bathroom [2 0]. Birdsey reports on Middlebury College’s rehabilitation of four residen ce halls built in the 1960s [23]. Because students leave their homes with high expectations of their new liv ing arrangements, some students opt out of living in residence halls because of the doubl e-loaded corridor and shared restroom facilities, choosing instead to live off-campus [23]. Middlebury took their residence halls and created a variety of livi ng accommodations such as sing les, doubles, and suites with various combinations of these room types sharing living room space and bathrooms [23]. Academic endeavors included within the residence hall spaces also surfaced as an emerging trend. Bringing academics into the dormitory setting has taken on various formats such as special interest halls and likemajor floors or halls [ 31-32]. Pike’s study shows that students involved in a learning community have positive experiences outside the classroom, which lead to a high level of involvement and interaction within the university community as a whole [31, 33]. Edwards’ study shows an increase in GPAs among the male participants, and an increase in persistence within minority students [34]. Persistence was measured between year one and two by factors such as staying at the university, staying within the same college a nd major, and staying within the learning community [31, 34]. Bringing academics into the residence hall was not a new thought; Rowe pointed out that this idea came from th e original residence halls of Europe [32].

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23 An trend currently gaining momentum is the creation of sust ainable residential buildings. The first dormitory to encompass fe atures representative of sustainable design is found at Carnegie Mellon University [19]. This facility was built with small private rooms and many social spaces, in order to draw students out of their rooms. For the 260 residents living in the facil ity, there are 230 inte raction spaces [19]. Additionally, each resident room has operable windows and contro ls for the temperature [19]. Not only is this a characteristic of sustainable design, but also gives students control over their environment. Kennedy outlines a few key concepts to remember when dealing with residence facilities, whether in new construction or a renovation plan [11]. They include creating communities with academic focus; giving students amenities such as cable and computer jacks; creating a variety of living spaces; pr oviding enough electricity for all appliances needed; and providing flexible furniture in or der for students to be able to creatively move their rooms around [11]. Birdsey concur s but adds the need to promote social interaction by spatial layout and to reflect private housing with respect to the look of furnishings [23]. Colleges and universities also need to upgrade facilities once new amenities surface, in order to keep students’ in terest and keep the facilities most up-todate [23]. Pocorobba further affirms th ese needs by defining a living and learning community as “halls having dining, computer interactive services, collaborative student areas, faculty living spaces and retail options” [22: 332]. Based on observation and analysis of recent st udies, state-of-the-art facilities in 2006 and later should encompass sustainabl e design whether the building is new construction or a renovation. Since technol ogy is always changing, it is important to

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24 continue to upgrade living spaces to accommoda te these changing needs while providing enough power to run the technologies. Anot her concept to consider is academics; students go to school to become educated. Interaction of aca demics and the social living environment only strengthens that fact, and br ings together individuals who have similar interests or goals in life. Residents should not feel cr owded and should feel that they have their own space. Living arrangements should give students more control over their environment, such as flexible or moveable furniture. Small groups of residents sharing common study, social, and restroom facilities should create an environment that is less crowded than spaces accommodating thirty or forty students. University of Florida Campus Re sidential Facilities through 1961 The University of Florida opened in Ga inesville in 1906 with only two buildings, Thomas and Buckman Halls [6, 17]. The pair of buildings were designed as residence halls, but initially se rved all the living, learning, and administrative functions of the university. The facilities were organized with the individual entrances characteristic of an England dormitory and followed the 1905 plan for the new campus, with collegiate gothic detail of red brick and cl ay tile [17]. Both halls becam e strictly residence facilities by World War II [6, 17]. The housing demand continued to increase for the University. The rooms in Thomas and Buckman Halls were intended fo r two people; however, they began housing three and four people per room [35]. In 1915, the first boarding facility was opened by Mrs. G. S. Ramsey, and between 1915 and 1920, houses taking in boarders off-campus increased [35]. In 1919, the University bought the first set of barra cks to be used as housing for students starting in the fall of 1920, but these were condemned by 1928 [35].

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25 Though there was an obvious need for housing, the next residence facility, Sledd Hall, was not completed until 1929 [6]. This f acility was built in sections and utilized construction methods that fireproofed the st ructure [17]. Rudolph Weaver, State Board of Control Architect for the period 1925–1944, c ontinued the collegiate gothic plan of William Edwards [6, 17]. The dormitories of the Weaver era increased detail in ornaments on the building such as seals of Europ ean universities, animals, and plants [6]. The use of European university seals solidifie d the direct ties the American university housing system sought with earlier schools. A survey of the student living situation during the 1930–31 academic year showed that only 21.5% of the atte nding student body lived in University of Florida dormitories [17]. The rest of the student population liv ed in either fraternity houses (23.1%) or private homes (55.4%) [17]. At this time, the Educational Survey Commission hoped that the university could house half the student population [ 17]. This goal could not be met with the current living facilities, so ne w construction was inevitable. Fletcher and Murphree Halls were completed in 1939, enclos ing courtyards with the adjacent Sledd, Thomas, and Buckman Halls [6]. During World War II, campus and residence hall enrollment decreased significantly [6]. With the ending of the war in 1945, ve terans began returning to school. Since residence halls were not full, veterans who had wives and fa milies were able to rent rooms in Muphree Hall [6]. The number of students enrolling in school soon surpassed pre-war numbers [36]. Due to the increase in demand for housing, the University began purchasing temporary structures, which ope ned in 1946 [6]. By 1947, these temporary structures allowed 9,000 students to live in University build ings [37]. In a published

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26 building program by the University, these tempor ary structures could also allow coeds to live on campus, if and when women were allo wed to enroll [37]. This program also planned the next ten years of building on campus, and evidently residence facilities, though already in dire need, were not a high priority. Constructing housing for students fell to third priority during the second part of the ten-year plan [37]. The next fall after this building plan was published, women were allowed to enroll at the University, and in that first academic year, approximately 500 women enrolled [8]. That first fall, the women were not given any housing options on the University of Florida campus. In 1948, construction began on the first women’s residence hall, and some women took residence in sorority houses, Lonilair and Michael Halls, or Pierce and Patrick Courts [6, 36]. Grove Hall, a tempor ary facility located where the School of Architecture now stands, was also used to house women during the early 1950s and again in the late 1950s [6]. In 1950, the first female residence halls —Mallory, Yulee, and Reid—opened to freshman students [8]. These halls were designed and built unde r new State Board of Control Architect Guy Fulton [6, 38]. The sp atial arrangement of these residence halls was characterized by long corrido rs with central public restro oms, reflecting the typical female-designed dormitory, which came to be known as the typical American dormitory [1]. There were also extra rooms within these halls to support th e social, hygienic, and storage needs of female residents [1, 2930]. The architecture moved away from collegiate gothic, but the buildings used th e traditional campus red brick and clay tile, concrete awnings, and glass block as the pr ominent material selection [16, 39]. Other residence halls built wi th this same architecture styl e under Fulton included Tolbert,

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27 North, Weaver, and Riker Halls (all 1950); Br oward Hall (1954); Ra wlings Hall (1958); and Graham, East, Simpson, Trusler, and Jenni ngs Halls (all 1961) [6]. Hume Hall was built in 1958, but by 2000, it had been razed to construct a brand new Hume Hall for honors students [6]. In addition, Fulton overs aw the construction of Corry and Schucht Villages, permanent apartments located on-campus [6]. Figure 4.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map [5] Summary Understanding the history of the residence halls is valuable when considering the residence halls of today. Tre nds seen in new construction and renovations have a direct link to the history of dormitories. For exampl e, academic spaces within the living facility are not new concepts; however, history shows th at there was a diversion from this notion.

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28 But the idea of providing academic support spaces within the living environment is making a presence in today’s residential facilities. Now that there is a genera l understanding of the histor y and current trends of residence halls, the scope can be narrowed down and information can be interpreted specifically for the University of Florida ca mpus. Not only can changes in the facility design at the University of Florida be seen as history has evolved, but also the rejection of some design influences in the creation of dormitories. For example, a move towards long corridors from the original clusters of rooms around a stairwel l is seen through the history of the residential f acilities on campus. However, Fu lton noticeably rejected the notion of giving up support spaces for student s to increase the bed count within the residence halls, which was popular at othe r colleges and univers ities. Fulton’s dormitories continued to have necessary a nd ample amounts of social spaces with multiuse rooms that contributed to the residence hall environment. These designs helped to continuously classify Fulton’s dorms as state-of-the-art facilities.

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29 CHAPTER 5 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF JENNINGS HALL The University of Florida Residence Halls, 1950–1961 On the southeast side of campus, Jennings Hall opened in 1961 as the last female residence hall to be built during the post-W orld War II building boom [6]. Fourteen University of Florida residence hall facili ties built during 1950–1961 were operational in 2006, accounting for more than half the housing facilities on campus. These dormitories were built in response to the influx of enro llment caused by the ending of the war, the enrollment of women, and the coming of age baby boomer generation [1, 7-8]. Figure 5.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map, Dormitory Areas [5] The first dormitories to be built during this time period were Mallory and Yulee Halls built for the first women residents [ 6, 16]. A third residence hall for female residents, Reid, was finished shortly afte r, in 1950, and completed this group, linked by breezeways [6, 16]. Tolbert, Weaver, North, and Riker Halls were all built in 1950 for male residents and were located on the west side of campus [6, 7]. Broward Hall, opened

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30 in 1954, and Rawlings Hall, opened in 1958, were the next two residential facilities built, and they were constructed for women on the eas t side of campus close to Mallory, Yulee, and Reid Halls [6]. In 1961, Graham, East Simpson, and Trusler Halls were opened on the west side of campus to house male residents [6]. All fourteen residence halls named above were built under the State University System Architect to the Board of Control (BOC) Guy Fulton [6 ]. Fulton had received his Architecture degree from the University of Il linois [16]. Prior to working for the State University System Architect, Fulton work ed at a firm and for Washington State University, under the State Architect Rudol ph Weaver [16]. In 1926, Fulton came to Florida to once again work under the State University System Architect, who was once more Rudolph Weaver [16]. Fulton took ove r Weaver’s position in 1944 [16, 38]. In 1958, Fulton resigned as head architect due to health problems, which promoted Forrest M. Kelly, Jr. as the BOC head architect [38]. However, Fulton continued to work as the architect in Gainesville until hi s full retirement in 1962 [38]. Fulton passed away in 1974 [38]. Comparative Analysis Since all fourteen residence halls were designed under the same architect, many similarities can be noted. The residen ce halls built during 1950–1961 moved away from the traditional Collegiate Gothic architecture of the campus, but maintained compatibility of materials and scale [16]. All of these four-story facilities utilize horizontal lines created by concrete awnings to emphasize thei r length and keep the hot Florida sun from baking the rooms [7, 16].

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31 Figure 5.2 Broward Hall Hipped Roof Only the female residence halls bui lt between 1950 and 1954 share common themes of hipped roofs with clay tile raised above a flat frieze. All the male dormitories built between 1950 and 1954 have flat roofs above a flat frieze, like the dorms constructed after 1954. A B Figure 5.3 Examples of the Entryways at (A ) Weaver Hall with Enclosures, and (B) Yulee Hall with Open Porches

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32 A B Figure 5.4 Porticos on (A) Browar d Hall, and (B) Rawlings Hall. Another common architecture theme is the use of a formal entryway that features a modernist interpretation of classical engaged portico1 and a fronton2 surrounding the actual door to the residence hall. Concrete supports project from the ground up four stories to the roof, framing either porches or windows. Mallory, Yulee, Reid, and Broward Halls feature porches, while Weaver North, Tolbert, and Riker Halls feature window bays. On the ground floor, there is a wood fronton surrounding the entry door that has the name of the ha ll on the top portion. Glass door s are used, and glazing is found on both sides and above the fronton. Though Broward Hall does not incorporate a portico around the fronton, an in terpretation of this portico can be seen encasing the public lounge spaces found on each residential fl oor, and can also be seen in Rawlings Hall, built in 1958. Broward introduced a public entrance space to bridge two wings of residents’ rooms; this concept would be in corporated in the design of Jennings Hall. Glass block is a common material used in the construction and design of the early residence halls—Mallor y, Yulee, Reid, North, Riker, Weaver, Tolbert, and Broward 1 Engaged portico-columns placed at regular intervals supporting a roof, normally attached as a porch to a building all embedded into the wall [3: 513] 2 Fronton-small pediment or similar element over a doorway [3: 257]

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33 Halls. The glass block is curved, creating a wa ve pattern versus flat glass block. This material is used heavily within stairwells of these residential facilitie s, in order to allow sunlight to penetrate a usually dark space [7]. The other residential facilities, Rawlings, Jennings, East, Graham, Simpson, and Trusler Halls, utilize ot her types of glazing within the stairwells to serve the same purpose. A B C Figure 5.5 Glass Block at (A) Broward Hall, (B) Riker Hall, and (C) Yulee Hall A B Figure 5.6 Other Types of Glazing (A) Ra wlings Hall, and (B) Jennings Hall Breezeways are another common feature shar ed by Mallory, Yulee, Reid, Tolbert, North, Riker, Weaver, East, Trusler, and Si mpson Halls. These covered, open walkways connect buildings on the ground level and some times on the upper levels of residential

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34 facilities, allowing residents to move between facilities without ha ving the sun and rain beat down upon them [7]. Broward and Jenning s Halls were designed this way; however, the breezeways were completely enclosed, creating public spaces shared by each of the residential wings. A B Figure 5.7 Breezeways at (A) Mallory, Yulee, a nd Reid Halls, and (B) Riker and Weaver Halls Summary Guy Fulton’s architecture style is note worthy on campus for the scale, concrete awnings, brick, and glass block th at create continuity. At th e same time, even halls that use the same materials may use it differentl y. Figure 5.5 shows three examples of glass block encasement in three different residen ce halls. Fulton seemed to draw inspiration from the variations of each project. This is also seen in the usage of a massive public space connecting two resident ial wings. This simple element could have drawn inspiration from the open covered walkway s een in earlier buildings but enclosed and made more functional. Such changes allo wed each building to be connected while making each residence hall distinctive in its own way.

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35 Jennings Hall Site Analysis Figure 5.8 Original Constr uction Document, Site [9] Jennings Hall is located in the southeas t quadrant of the main campus. The residential facility is positioned south of Museum Road, west of 13th Street and east of Newell Drive. Most of the building is estab lished on a northeast and southwest axis. The land is not completely flat on this site; a part of the ground floor is nestled into the site or against the earth creating spaces without window s. Along the east side of the building is a wooded area containing a creek. This natu ral landscape runs on th e same axis of the building—a northeast and southwest axis; th is landscape setting more than likely determined the way the building was placed on the site. Between the natural landscape area and the building is a serv ice road, which houses dumpste rs and a loading dock area for the facility. A small parking lot is lo cated on the south side of the building and continues west past the edge of Jennings Hall.

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36 Figure 5.9 The Approach to Jennings Hall Figure 5.10 A Detail of the Japanese-i nspired Garden at Jennings Hall As visitors and residents approach Je nnings Hall along its western side, walking south from Museum Road, a Japanese-inspired garden greets them. Though this type of garden was not specified in the original co nstruction documents, University of Florida Landscape Architect Noel Lake designed and imp lemented this garden a few years after the completion of the facility. This pa tio space is bounded on the east side by Jennings Hall and the west side by the annex building. The southern edge has decorative concrete blocks lined with plant life such as bana na trees. The northern edge has a rail and landscaping beds that hold plants such as ba mboo. The stairs up to the garden or the

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37 patio space are also located on the northern e dge. There is a concrete sidewalk taking one around the garden, and above part of the side walks is a saw-toothed roof for cover, or a breezeway. The garden, located in the middle of the space, is full of plant life. There is a walking path through the middle that le ads to a bridge over a stocked Koi pond. The Jennings Annex building is located on th e west side of the residence hall. Originally this structure served as a dining f acility for the residence hall. Architecturally, the facility has matching characteristics to Jennings Hall, such as the saw-toothed roofline. It has been renovated to house offices and helps serve the University Police Department. Further west of this annex building are a parking lot and the historic University Police Department building. Along the east side of the bu ilding, a patio extends off of Jennings Hall. This space has a few picnic tables and a built-in grill, installed in the early 1990s. Tall shrubbery and decorative concrete block he lp to create the boundaries of this patio space. There are stairs down to the service road the runs be tween the natural wooded landscape area and the residence hall. Exterior Description of the Facility Figure 5.11 Horizontal Concrete Awnings

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38 Jennings Hall utilizes red br ick and concrete as major material elements in the faade. Concrete awnings run horizontally a bove the windows of the residential wings, helping to emphasize the buildi ng’s length, while keeping the hot Florida sun out of the residents’ rooms. Decorative concrete blocks are used to help create some privacy on concrete porches and patios. Figure 5.12 Saw-tooth Roofline The roof of Jennings Hall is flat. In orde r to help distinguish the public space from the private residential wings on the exterior of the buildi ng, a unique and decorative sawtoothed roofline was created. This pattern is repeated in other elements of the faade. The porches and railings off the public spaces on the east side of the facility reflect the distinctive element. The landscape beds on the west side of the build ing and the edge of the patio are also saw-toothed.

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39 Figure 5.13 Two-story Lobby Space Figure 5.14 Original Construction Document, Terrazzo Pattern [9] Windows are another major element, creati ng a rhythm formed by the single-pane, steel casement fenestrations found within each room. The public spaces also take advantage of the glazing, especially in the atrium-like lobby space. This space is one story on the west side of the building and two stories on the east side, and the walls are made of continuous glazing. These walls are also saw-toothed in plan, creating a diamond pattern with the saw-toothed roofline above. The walls are composed of 1/4” polished plate glass with aluminum and steel mullions [9]. Glazing can also be found in

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40 all stairwells (see figure 5.6B). These window s are stacked one on top the other, creating a vertical feature within the faade. There are a total of four st airwells in Jennings Hall. Each pair encapsulates the private wings that contain the residents’ rooms. However, the two that touch the public spaces are taller than the rest of the building. This, combined with the vertical window element, disrupts the horizontality of the bui lding, signifing a design change, which is emphasized in the saw-toothed roofline. Interior Description of the Facility The main or formal entryway is into a lobby space that has an atrium impression, resulting from the continuous glazing found in th is space. The west side of the space is one story, while the east side is two stories (see figure 5.13). The walls of glass help to maintain a connection between the landscapes—t he Japanese-inspired garden to the west and the natural wooded area to the east—and the inside of th e building. There are stairs within the lobby, allowing travel down to the ground floor; otherwise, the lobby space allows traffic to flow into one of the two private wings or more public spaces. Figure 5.15 Control or Desk of Jennings Hall

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41 Figure 5.16 Library Bookcase Wall and Patio Doors The recreational room off of the lobby also hosts the control area or the reception desk and the student mailboxes. The recreati onal room has points of entry created by glass doors that allows for exit on and off th e saw-toothed patio. Past the control area, there is a library on the left or east side of the building. This room is completely enclosed and has a built-in bookcase wall. Along the easte rn edge, there are glass doors that exit onto the saw-toothed shaped patio overlooking the natural wooded area to the east. Past the library, there are offices and public rest rooms. The other residential wing starts thereafter. Downstairs, off the lobby space, there is an other point of entry into the private wing and another recreational room. This recreational room has game tables, vending machines, and a TV. Double glass doors, lik e the ones on the first floor, are along the eastern edge of this space and lead out onto a saw-tooth edged patio and rail. Offices for various student organizations are linked to this recreational space on the western edge and do not have windows. The original o ffice spaces had closets and a small buffet kitchen; however, renovations in some of the spaces have made each office different, depending on the needs of the organization. One office was converted into a laundry room with a fenestration into the recreation room so students can see washers and dryers

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42 without walking into the enclosed space. Off the southern edge of the recreation room is a large meeting space capable of being divided into two rooms. There are two points of entry for this space and glass doors allow o ccupants to exit onto the saw-toothed patio. Past all the offices and the meeting room there is the other private wing entry point. However, past the entry of this wing, there are other spaces currently utilized by the Department of Housing and Residence Education. These spaces include various storage rooms and a key shop. Some of these spaces are no longer needed by the department, and can be utilized for other purposes. Every residential floor has the same co mmon spaces. The first space is a lounge with a small kitchenette. Each kitche n includes a stove, an oven, a sink, vending machines, and a microwave. Tables and chairs occupy the space and a TV is mounted on the wall. Trash rooms are located adjacent to each lounge area. The shared restrooms are also adjacent to the lounge space. Each restroom is equipped with showers, sinks, and toilets. Originally there were some baths in addition to the shower stalls; however, most of the restrooms have been re novated and the baths have been taken out to make room for more shower stalls [9]. Each residential floor is lined on both sides of the hallway with double occupancy rooms. The rooms have one window and come with moveable beds, desks, and dressers. Built-in closet and storage units surround the door. Originally these closets and storage shelves had sliding doors to en close the space, but over the years, most have been taken off. Most floors have one triple and one single occupancy room. There are a few apartments scattered throughout the buildi ng that contain a living space with a kitchenette, a bathroom, and a bedroom.

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43 The original terrazzo flooring is still seen in Jennings Hall. The National Terrazzo and Mosaic Association, Inc. supplied the gray terrazzo [9]. The light-colored mortar is balanced with dark chips polished at the surface. This flooring material was used throughout the atrium-like lobby space and in both the first floor and ground floor recreational rooms. Carpet was used in th e office and meeting spaces found adjacent to the recreation rooms. Vinyl ti le was used throughout the re mainder of the building [9]. The control desk and library included built-in units. Thes e were made with walnut veneers on plywood or solid walnut wood [9]. The reception desk area was altered from the original plan in the early 1990s. It was reconstructed to be similar to the original, but now meets codes for accessibility. The major al teration is located in the front faade of the desk. The original desk front facade was at a slight angle so th at it did not create a ninety degree angle to the floor or counter [9]. The new desk front is perpendicular to the floor and countertop. The lib rary built-in bookcase is orig inal in design and has had minor repairs, which resulted in the replacem ent of some walnut wood located in the doors. Each residence hall room comes with a built-in closet and storage area surrounding the entry door. Originally, this was a produc t made with red birch veneer, but over the years, this built-in has been painted and the doors have b een removed [9]. The product was made locally in Gainesville, Florida at Wood Products, Inc. [9]. This company also did work on the cabinetry found in the original linen rooms, which no longer exist [9]. Wood Products, Inc. also crea ted the bookstore counter [9]. The bookstore was originally found in Jennings Hall just off of the first fl oor lobby, and is currently being used as an office.

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44 The restrooms on each floor originally had Crane brand baths [9]. These baths were equipped with showerheads, though there were also shower st alls. The original shower stalls had two small enclosed spaces —one was the actual shower, and the other was designed as a dressing area with a seat [9]. The original shower partitions and toilet partitions were composed of marble [9]. The toilet partitions are st ill there; however, the shower area has been renovated over the year s, and those marble partitions are gone. Architect’s Vision Through the site planning analysis, it became evident that the building was arranged on this piece of land to purposefully take advantage of the views. Spaces were designed and glazing was utilized to take advantage of the natural landscapes. Additionally, porches and patios were created to overlook this area. Providing residents with the ability to experience this natura l landscape was a goal of the architect. Guy Fulton and the University of Florida wanted to make the women’s residence halls top quality and state-of-the-art. Tours of other women’s facilities at three other institutions were taken to gath er ideas, to see building standards, and to examine spaces provided for the residents [16]. The feedb ack provided gave an idea of spaces to be considered and possibly incorporated into the design plan of the fac ility. This research also suggested the possibility of using pre-cast concrete as a method of construction [16]. Because of Fulton’s high expectations, he wr ote a letter discussing the issues found with this method, including the lower-than-standard spaces it could provide for the University [16]. Fulton received support for this position, and the tilt -up wall construction of the first female residence halls, Yulee, Mallory, and Reid, began [16]. These actions show how dedicated Fulton was to creat e designs and spaces that were better than those seen at other institutions.

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45 Though Jennings Hall was built and completed eleven years later, this dormitory still showed the newest ideas, in order to br ing this residence hall above the norm. This facility had kitchenettes a nd laundry facilities on each floor giving the residents more convenient amenities. Roof decks were created in order for the students to sunbathe [9]. These decks have some privacy, due to the use of the decorative concrete block used on other porch areas of the building. Anot her convenience was the bookstore located adjacent to the main entry doors. Though th e trend of the times was to minimize amenities and to maximize the number of student s living in a space, Fulton incorporated and raised the standards in his design s, as exemplified in Jennings Hall. Character Defining Features To proceed with rehabilitation, it is nece ssary to identify significant character defining features, according to the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation [24]. The determination of these features is based on research of the building through archival documentation and the study of original constructio n documents, combined with on-site survey to evaluate origin al features and changes [24]. A major exterior feature of the building that defines the era in which it was built is the saw-toothed roofline. This roofline is not seen on any other building on campus besides the Jennings Hall Annex, and is used in the covered porch ar ea in front of the main entrance to the building. This element is reflected in landscape beds and porches. Curtain walls that define the lobby space are saw-toothed in plan, creating a diamond pattern with the saw-toothed roofline above. Additionally, th e concrete awnings used to create a horizontal feel and keep the Flor ida sun from baking the student rooms also provide a link to the other re sidence halls of the era.

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46 The relation of the building to the site is a significant feature that defines Jennings Hall. The natural wooded and creek landscap e area, as well as the Japanese-inspired garden, provide a picturesque se tting for the residence hall. No other residential facility has as distinctive or extensive landscapes as Jennings Hall. The woods, the Japaneseinspired garden, and various plant life help de fine the site, as well as the character of the interior spaces with which they interact Inside Jennings Hall, the atrium-like lobby space is a distinguishing feature of the building. Since the exterior walls of this space reflect the roofline in a saw-toothed manner, the experience of this space is different than any other within the facility. The curtain walls allow the Florida sunlight to penetrate the space and the natural views outside to be observed. The terrazzo flooring found in this space and the other public spaces is original and in good condition. This flooring material should not be disturbed and should continue to be used. The other public spaces have ma ny double doors made of glass that overlook the natural wooded area. These should not be disturbed because the glazing allows people within these spaces to enjoy the scenery. The built-in bookcases found in the library are another distingu ishing characteristic of this building. The bookcases are made of walnut-faced plywood and paneling that surrounds glass [9]. These built-in bookcas es are in good condition and have had some repairs over the years. The repairs did not al ter the design but some of the tones of wood are different. The restroom facilities found on each floor have some defini ng characteristics— both unchanged and changed. The one feature th at has not been change d or altered in the

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47 restrooms is the marble stall partitions found between the toilets. These seem to be in fairly good condition and are the original polis hed sterling gray sheets that came from the Candoro Marble Co. in Knoxville, Tennessee [9]. Areas Subject to Alteration Other features in the restr ooms have been altered, incl uding showers, baths, and sinks. The shower stalls have all been change d from the original forms that also utilized marble partitions. Now tiled walls separate th e shower areas. Most of the bathtubs have been taken out and only a few remain throughou t the building. The si nks were originally attached directly to the wall but are curren tly in the process of being encased by a long countertop. Each room has a built-in closet and st orage unit that surrounds the door. These units still remain, but the original doors have been removed. These once red birch veneer units are now painted white to match the wall color [9]. Additionally, the kitchenettes on each floor have been renovated, and the laundry rooms have been taken off each floor. Now the laundry facility is found on the ground floor adjacent to the recreational lounge space. Another defining space within the building would have been the control area and mailbox slots. However, in the early 1990s, these spaces were altered, creating differences from the original design. The ma ilroom and some mail slots were changed in order to provide more secure mailboxes for re sidents. The desk area kept most of the storage features, upgrading onl y in certain areas for tec hnology or for the American Disabilities Act standards. However, two major changes di d occur with th e renovation of the desk. First, the walnut veneer was not reused. Secondly, the design of the front of the desk was changed. The original desk’s fr ont was at a slight angle while the new desk

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48 front is straight meeting the counter and the floor at a ninety-degree angle [9]. Though the change to the desk is subtle, it is noticeable. Summary Jennings Hall is distinguishe d by the saw-toothed rooflin e and curtain walls that link the interior atrium space with the la ndscape setting. It is the only building on campus to have such a recognizable roof e dge, a feature that li nks the building with prevailing trends. Fulton desi gned the building to take advantage of the landscape on the east side, and included a place for a planted ar ea before the formal entrance on the west side. Though the Japanese-inspired garden located in this space was not planned by Fulton but Noel Lake, it cont rasts with the natural lands cape to provide a different experience. Some of Jennings Hall’s defining characteristics have been altered, but the major elements that distinguish this hall fr om other buildings on campus still remain. These factors make Jennings Hall a piece of irreplaceable architecture on the University of Florida campus and should be taken in to consideration when the structure is undergoing maintenance or rehabil itation plans are being created.

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49 CHAPTER 6 PROPOSED REHABILITATION DESIGN PLAN Introduction The proposed rehabilitation design for Jennings Hall followed the framework set forth by the Secretary of the Interior’s St andards [24]. Through this framework, key defining features of the building were iden tified and preserved in the rehabilitation design. The saw-tooth roofline wa s a significant feature to the exterior of the building. The concrete awnings added functional and vi sual value while creating a link to other buildings on campus. The two-story glass en closed atrium, the terrazzo flooring, and the built-in furniture were determined to be significant interior attributes. These character defining features preserve a visual record of this architectural er a on the University of Florida campus. Other factors taken into c onsideration in the creation of a rehabilitation design came from concepts and ideas found within th e history of residence halls and current trends in dormitory construction. Understand ing of past and present trends allowed new and reinterpreted concepts to be brought into the rehabili tation design effectively. Program Overview The program detailed spaces that would c ontribute to the goal of providing an academic environment within Jennings Hall. The user of the residence hall was defined to identify specialized spaces th at would relate to the specif ic academic field incorporated in this project. Aesthetic considerations were considered that would benefit the overall goals of the facility.

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50 Below is the table that illustrates the program. The table lists both new and old spaces along with the required square foot ages needed in order to accommodate the spaces within a design [9]. Table 6.1 Program Overview Original square feet Current square feet New square feet Lobby space 1897.251897.25 1897.25 Bookstore/ Convenience store 4080 408 Control/ Desk and Mail area 711.875711.875 711.875 Library 14381438 1438 Lounge 16831683 1683 Meeting Rooms 1997.11664.2 1305.1 Laundry Room 0326.2 326.2 Fitness Room 00 322.4 Recreation Room 25602560 2560 Studio Space 00 847.8 Paint Room 00 184.3 Public Restrooms (basement) 260.40 260.4 Supportive Spaces 6133.356801.75 5101.25 Residential Wings Single Rooms 0116 156.75 Double Rooms (average) 193.875193.875 228.875 Triple Rooms 276276 331.75 ADA Room 0149.5 136.5 average per student 94105 129.6 Bathroom Space (average) 417.56417.56 500.5 average per student 12.312.3 20 Kitchenette/Lounge 346.5346.5 453.75 Guest Restroom 00 39 The User The Department of Housing and Reside nce Education began planning academic initiatives in the residence halls in 2000, but the first implemented program was in 2002 [40]. Currently there are residence halls that foster s upport for specific colleges such as the College of Engineering, the College of Fine Arts, and the H onors Program [40].

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51 There are also floors and halls focusing on in ternational students, student leaders, and students devoted to wellness [40]. Each pr ogram implements thes e initiatives through planned events, and in some cases, specific ac ademic spaces are created within the living environment [40]. Jennings Hall is currently one of two resi dential facilities dedicated to wellness through a program entitled GatorWell [40]. Th is program involves a partnership with the Student Health Care Center and the Depart ment of Housing and Residence Education [40]. Events within the facility focus on h ealth screenings, sex education, and massage therapy to name a few [40]. However, for th e purpose of this thesis, the Department of Housing and Residence Education allowed complete freedom in the creation of a rehabilitation plan which included the ability to change the focus of the facility. For this thesis, the new primary user was identified as students in the College of Design, Construction and Planning. More specifically, this user was to be enrolled in the beginning design studios through the School of Architecture. These studios educate and introduce students to the design fields of architecture, interior design, and landscape design. The beginning studio, Architect ural Design 1, does not have dedicated studio space for the students registered in this course. These students depend on shared studio space, and personal space found within their residences, to complete their projects. Lockers are available on a first-come, first-serve basis fo r these individuals. Usually the lockers fill up during the first week of school, and ther e are not enough lockers available for every student enrolled in the first design studio.

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52 In identifying a new user group for this residential facility, an important consideration was the proximity of the college to the residence hall. The actual college and all the facilities associated with that college are located within the same area as on campus Jennings Hall. A second considera tion was the ability to create a community around a specific academic goal. The student s enrolled in the beginning design studios experience a unique transition into college by way of these classes, prior to being accepted into the program of their design prof ession of choice. This unique situation bonds students differently than other firs t year students on campus. The third consideration was the need for more academic spaces that could enhance the community. This facility would provide more support sp aces as a remedy to the limited studio design space for these individuals. There are other secondary users to be considered for the proposed design of Jennings Hall. Other students in the Colle ge of Design, Construction and Planning not enrolled in the beginning design studio liv e in this residence hall. Because some beginning students complete Design 1 during summer school, some may be enrolled in the Architectural Design 2 course in the fall when the majority of the students are registered in the Architectural Design 1 course Faculty and graduate assistants that help teach this beginning design course will be cons idered secondary users if they decide to take advantage of the academic spaces provided within the residence hall. Meeting space could be utilized to hold office hours or meet with students outside the classroom setting. Additionally, the current shortage of galle ry, reception, and presentation space would suggest that the faculty and upper division or graduate stude nts might take advantage of

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53 these spaces in Jennings Hall. Participati on in these events would help orient the beginning students. Aesthetic Considerations When considering a color pale tte and general aesthetic appe al of the interior spaces of Jennings Hall, it is important to take in to account the era of construction, significant features of this building, a nd influences of the exterior environment. This building was completed in 1961; hence, the 1950s and ’60s eras are inspirational time periods when aesthetics are being considered for the rehabili tation plan. Since the building falls within the modern architecture movement on the Univ ersity of Florida campus, it is important to consider furniture and materials that are compat ible with this time period. Furniture that features wood and utilizes clean, simple lines will be chosen for the facility. Ray Eames furniture from the 1950s served as an influe nce when selecting fixtures for the public spaces. Sustainability is a growing concern and trend in dormitory design and choosing furniture and materials from companies who use recycled co ntent or have environmental policies assists the goal of cr eating an updated state-of-the-art facility. Additionally, the exterior landscapes prominently displayed around the building seep into the facility through the large amounts of glazing and need to be coordinated with the interior. Description of Rehabilitation Plan This section will describe the spaces in the proposed rehabilitation plan. Figures illustrating the original construction documen ts and the newly proposed design plan will follow each description. The overall layouts wi ll be first followed by the details of some spaces.

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54 Figure 6.1 Original Construction Docume nt, First Floor Public Spaces [9]

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55 Figure 6.2 New Layout of First Floor Public Spaces

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56 Figure 6.3 Original Construction Docu ment, Basement Public Spaces [9] Figure 6.4 Copy of Original Construction Document, Basement Support Spaces [9]

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57 Figure 6.5 New Layout of the Basement Public Spaces

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58 Lobby Space The lobby space has been identified as a ch aracter defining feature and will remain intact. The first floor functions of the lobby space will remain, while the ground floor of the lobby will be assigned a few new functi ons, such as study, presentation, reception, and gallery spaces. Moveable furniture and pa rtitions will make it possible to transform the ground floor lobby space for these purposes The ground floor of the lobby opens up onto a patio space, which will assist w ith carrying out these new functions. Unless the ground floor lobby space is to be utilized as a gallery, reception, or presentation space, the main function will be study space. This space will have high top tables with stackable bar stools. This furniture can be uti lized during receptions either with or without the bar stools. Since the stoo ls stack, the space can easily transform into a presentation or gallery space. The presenta tion space will need chairs of normal height to be set up, while a gallery will need moveable partitions or screens to be properly placed. Storage for the extra furniture could be in the adjacent stor age room off of the basement lobby space. The chairs found within this space will be composed of molded wood, similar to chairs from the 1950s. Tables will be made of the same or similar materials. The moveable partitions or screens that will be utilized in the space will take on the same saw-tooth design found on the roof line of the faci lity, as well as the walls in the plan of the lobby space. This feature will enhance the importance of the saw-tooth roof line found only on Jennings Hall.

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59 Figure 6.6 Examples of Molded Wood Chairs [41] Figure 6.7 Original Construction Do cument, First Floor Lobby Space [9] Figure 6.8 Original Construction Do cument, Basement Lobby Space [9]

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60 Figure 6.9 Lobby Space Showing Terrazzo Pattern A B C Figure 6.10 Proposed Lobby Space Functions (A) Study Space, (B) Presentation or Speaker Space, and (C) Gallery Space

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61 Convenience Store There is an office off Jennings Hall’s first-floor lobby entrance, which was a bookstore when the building opened in 1961 [9]. In order to recapture the original use of this space, a convenience store is proposed. This store will have s upplies for architecture students such as foam core, balsa wood, cu tting blades, rewritable CDs, and other supplies that are common and often necessary while working on a project. Additionally, there could be a place for cold drinks such as soda and iced coffee and some food items such as energy bars, snack packs of cookies or chips, and possibly pre-made items, such as sandwiches. Cold drinks and minor food items will keep the students energetic while working on projects. This proposal suggests the store be open during late after noon through evening hours or just evening hours, from Sunday th rough Thursday, because other popular stores in the area that carry these supplie s are closed in the evening. Figure 6.11 Original Construc tion Document, Bookstore [9]

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62 Control or Reception Desk Though the front desk and mail area were renovated in the early 1990s, their locations have not changed. The design of the desk was altered at this time, but the builtin cabinetry work behind the desk is simila r. For example, the built-in storage cabinets found on the west wall are identical; however, a peninsula desk area was added to the original desk for more work space [9]. The rehabilitation plan will redesign the desk area in the original location with an interpretation of the original design characte ristics. The added storage that was built behind the desk will be considered when redesigning the control area. Materials reflective of the original de sk will be used in the new construction, creating a closer match in wood color between the desk and the built-ins found in the library across the hall. Another change to be made to the desk is to use a wooden ro lling door instead of the metal rolling door presently found in the fac ility. This material change will be more aesthetically pleasing when the desk is closed. Figure 6.12 Original Constructi on Document, Control Area [9]

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63 Figure 6.13 Original Construction Docu ment, Desk Section Cut Detail [9] Figure 6.14 Original Construction Document Elevation of Desk and Mail Area [9] Figure 6.15 New Layout of Control Area

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64 A B Figure 6.16 New Details of Control De sk (A) Sections, and (B) Elevation Library The library is located down the hall from th e front desk area. This space provides a quiet study place for residents. There is an original built-in bookcase located along one wall. This bookcase is made of wal nut wood and glass and has had only minor maintenance [9]. In the rehabilitation plan, th is library will take on a broader sense of its name and become a media room. This room will continue to use the bookcases with books and periodicals that serv e as sources to all the de sign fields. Having some computers and a printer in this space will also be benefit students who want to check their email or complete school assignments. These computers will be found on the opposite

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65 wall of the built-in bookcases. Internet access will be provided in the space with tables that have Internet connecti ons and electrical outlets. The tables and chairs chosen for the space will be composed of wood materials. The style of the chair is influenced by the 1950s, while the table legs are influenced by the angle found on the original desk faade. Since the tables and chairs are more conducive for group study, a few seating choi ces will be availabl e for individuals studying alone. Study carrels and lounge seat s with built-in desks will be found within the media room. All wood used within this space will be monitored to closely match the original walnut coloring of the built-in bookcases. The lounge seating will be upholstered with a pattern reflect ive of the era, while using the color scheme influenced by nature. The carpeting will be replaced by new carpet to relate to the new material selections of the room. The carpet chosen should be from a company that has recycling programs for their products. Figure 6.17 Examples of Sea ting for the Library [43] Figure 6.18 Example of Tabl es for the Library [41]

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66 Figure 6.19 Original Construc tion Document, Library [9] Figure 6.20 Original Construction Document, Bookcase Elevation [9] Figure 6.21 New Layout for Media Room

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67 Lounge The first floor lounge will continue to se rve the purpose of a general lounge area for the residential facility. This space is locat ed across from the desk. It currently has a small TV and general lounge seating in small clusters that are defi ned by area rugs over the original terrazzo flooring. The new plan will allow residents to move the furniture around to meet their needs, removing the need for area rugs and allowing the terrazzo to be exposed. Lounge furniture will be infl uenced by the clean lines of the modern architecture movement and furniture from th e 1950s and ‘60s. Patterns influenced from that time period and color natural color scheme will be chosen as the material for all lounge furniture. Tables found in this space wi ll be matched closely to the wood tone of the desk. Figure 6.22 Example of Lounge Furniture [44] Figure 6.23 Original Construc tion Document, Lounge Area [9]

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68 Figure 6.24 New Layout of Lounge Area Meeting Rooms In the original design of the building, there were five meeting rooms on the ground floor. Four of them had storage closets, and two out of the four also had a small kitchenette. The fifth meeti ng room was a larger room that could be subdivided into two smaller meeting rooms, and is the only room w ith natural daylight penetrating the space. Currently, four of the meeting r ooms, including the la rge one, are being used as offices or meeting space with some changes to the orig inal layout. One of the meeting rooms has been completely changed into a laundry room. The proposed design plan will keep three meeting rooms, including the larger one. The rooms will have a storage closet and furn iture appropriate to work groups or small

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69 meetings. Glazing will be added to the interi or walls in order to allow some natural sunlight to reach these dark rooms. This glazing will relate to the glass doors found across the basement recreation room that exits onto the pa tio. Student study groups or activity groups can utilize thes e spaces. Professors and grad uate students can also use the spaces to meet with groups or to work while being available for office hours within the residential facility. Additionally, the laundry ro om will remain. Only one of the original meeting spaces will change functions in the new design, to a workout room. This will benefit users of the building by allowing them to work out without leaving their living community. This supports a healthy environment and well-rounded student. Figure 6.25 Original Construction Document Meeting Rooms and Recreation Room [9]

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70 Figure 6.26 New Layout of Meeting Rooms, Fitness Room, Laundry Facility, and Recreation Room

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71 Recreation Room There is a second lounge area in Jennings Hall, in the basement off of the lobby space. This lounge area or recreation room houses a large screen TV, lounge seating, vending machines, a pool table, and a ping-pong table. This space will remain virtually intact, with only the addition of some tables and chairs. With new equipment and extra chairs, this space could also double as a multi-purpose room, allowing speakers or presentations take advantage of the large open space. The furniture found in this space will be similar to the lounge furniture found on the first floor and the tables and chairs found in the lobby basement. Studio Work Space Since there is a lack of studio work sp ace for the students in Architectural Design 1, an area with desks or tables with appr opriate chairs for studio work will be incorporated into the proposed design plan. This space will support the needs of students in the beginning studios and foster an envi ronment where students can collaborate or discuss their thoughts and ideas with others. Lockers will be benefi cial for students to conveniently store supplies. This new space will be found in the base ment of Jennings Hall down the hall from the recreation room fitness facility, and laundry room. There is a Key Shop, originally a linen room, located on southeast side of this wing that will be absorbed to support the new studio space. This space is positioned on a patio area with double doors leading outside. A secondary storage room across the ha ll from the Key Shop will be absorbed to house an additional studio space. Desks and stools will be used as the furniture in the room.

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72 Figure 6.27 New Layout of the Studio Space Paint Room A paint room can be equipped for spray painting models for design assignments. Using spray paint in undesignate d areas can result in vandalized walls and floors. Fumes can also be an issue when not ventilated pr operly. The rehabil itation plan will propose this room to be placed in the original dry cleaning space which is now a general maintenance room. Since this room is found on an outside wall on the loading dock, proper ventilation could be instal led to mitigate paint fumes. Figure 6.28 New Layout of the Paint Room

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73 Public Restrooms Public restroom facilities were once found in Jennings Hall basement. Though these facilities are now utilized as storag e rooms, the plumbing still remains. The proposed plan will reinstall the plumbing, turning the storage rooms back into restrooms. These are much needed with the proposed addition of academic support spaces found in this area of the basement. Supportive Spaces There are other spaces found within the residence hall that will not be changed. These spaces are used to support the workings of the building such as mechanical rooms, storage rooms, supply closets, etc. Most of these supportive spaces are found in the basement of Jennings Hall. In addition, there are offices for the facility found on the first floor that will not be altered. The restrooms found next to these offices will also remain intact. Residential Wings One residential wing’s layout will change while one will stay the same. This proposed change will enable a variety of living arrangements to be housed under one roof. If this change were to occur, studies could be done within Jennings Hall to compare the two different living styles. The reha bilitation plan, which was influenced by Middlebury College, will conve rt the double-loaded corridor into suite-style rooms hosting a variety of room occupancies such as singles, doubles, and triples. These rooms will have access to private or semi-private ba throom facilities. This type of mixed-use plan was also used at Middlebury College wi thin residence halls built in the 1960s [23]. Creating rooms that allow students to f eel like they have control over their environment is an important and attractive feat ure in new or renovated facilities [11]. To

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74 allow students this freedom in the rehabilitated residentia l wing, new furniture that is stackable and moveable will be placed in each room. This will allow students to create their own room layout upon star ting school, which gives a percep tion that a room is more spacious [45]. Students who have a higher attachment to their space have a higher retention rate [46]. The standard furnitu re to be found in eac h room will contain a wardrobe with two drawers, a bed that is ad justable to three hei ghts, one three-drawer dresser, and one desk with a hutch containing a light and a chair. Figure 6.29 Example of the Moveable and Stackable Furniture [47] Some minor renovations have already occurr ed within these residential wings such as the removal of laundry rooms from each floor in order to accommodate wiring reflective of technology updates. This room will remain intact, like the trash room and the placement of the service elevator. The kitchenettes have had updates on the cabinets since the originals built in 1961. The lounges and kitchenettes will remain in the same location in the rehabilitation plan but will be updated. Additional lounge space will be provided adjacent to the kitchen and lounge space and will provide a di fferent seating arrangement. The kitchen will support hard surfaces such as a couple of tables and a counter, while the additional lounge space added will contain plush lounge chairs. The chairs found within the

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75 kitchenettes will be similar to the chairs found in the basement lobby space, which are prepared with molded wood (refer to Figure 6.6 A and B). The lounge seats will be the same as the chairs found in the library, which have desktops that can be used if needed (refer to Figure 6.17 B). These chairs will use a different pattern on the material to reflect a different ambience within the residence hall. The kitchen space will be visually open to the hallway with a glass wall, which will visually assist in blending these spaces. The glazed wall will re flect the massive amounts of glass found in the entry space of Jennings Hall. This space will be a focal point of the hallway found in the middle of the z-shaped corridor. Currently the residential wings have vinyl tile flooring in the hallways and student rooms. The tile flooring will remain in the rooms and the kitchen space, but appropriate carpeting will be recommended for the hallways and the open lounge space found adjacent to the kitchenette. This will help to create a softer-looking environment while absorbing some of the noise. Figure 6.30 Detail of Furnis hed Residence Hall Rooms

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76 Figure 6.31 Original Construction Do cument, North Residential Wing [9]

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77 Figure 6.32 Original Construction Do cument, South Residential Wing [9]

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78 Figure 6.33 New Residential Floor Layout without Furniture

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79 Figure 6.34 New Residential Floor Layout with Furniture

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80 Exterior Spaces The exterior spaces of Jennings Hall are vi tal to defining the residence hall. The Japanese-inspired garden, found on the west side of the building off the main entrance, was designed and implemented by Noel Lake and should not be compromised in any way other than to be regularly maintained. This setting is conducive to small reception events where food and beverage tables can be set up eith er outside or just insi de in the first floor lobby space. Few permanent benches are found in this space, so additional seating may be needed for events and gatherings taking place on this porch. More permanent benches or a few permanent tables could be added to the north edge of the space to support studying in the inspirational garden landscape. The patio found on the east side of the building, off the basement lobby space, is also underutilized. This space may need addi tional foliage to hide any blemishes found on the service road, such as dumpsters. The sp ace in its current state has minimal seating and contains a built-in grill. Additional sea ting will invite students to utilize the space more for gatherings or studying and will extend the usage of the inside lobby space found at the basement level, no matte r what function is occurring. The saw-toothed patios found off of the first and basement floor of the public spaces are important exterior environments. These patios are not currently used due to past misuse by the residents. The majority of the basement view of the outside is disturbed by planted shrubs, so the rehabilita tion plan proposes to create or place planters on this patio with different vari eties of plant life. The patio off of the first floor lounge and library should not be disturbed. This pa tio should be reconsider ed as viable space that could be utilized by the residents of th e building or during events in the hall. The

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81 patio space off of the first floor lounge, acro ss from the control, could be monitored more closely by dorm employees at the desk to prevent misuse from occurring again. Figure 6.35 Original Construction Docu ment, West Side Planted Area [9] Figure 6.36 Jennings Hall Patio Spaces on East Side

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82 Summary Guy Fulton designed Jennings Hall to crea te a living environment for the users during a time when other inst itutions across the country were concentrating on bed counts. With laundry amenities found on ever y floor and library and meeting rooms found within its public spaces, Fulton’s living environment was supportive of the whole student. These spaces, coupled with the qual ity of the construction and material usage, made Jennings Hall a stat e-of-the-art facility. In 2006, residence halls are designed with spaces that support the overall student experience on campus—complete with living, socializing, and academic spaces. Though Jennings Hall started out with most of thes e supportive spaces, th e years have brought a change in the definition of the students’ needs. The proposed rehabilitation plan incorporates more supportive environments for the overall student, such as computers with access to the Internet and individual control over living environments, which, over time, have become priorities.

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83 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS From the late 1940s through the early 1960s, modern architecture buildings were beginning to be accepted more and more on co llege campuses across the country [1]. These structures emphasized less ornamentati on, less cost, and more concern for function [1-3]. A dramatic increase in student enro llment across the country during this period was in response to the war ending and the ba by boomers coming of college age [1]. The government reacted by offering low-interest loans for construction of buildings for colleges and universities [4]. In order to get the most for their money, modern architecture styles were a promising choice due to the lower costs of these structures. The University of Florida wa s no exception to the issues other colleges were facing during this time. The University also had peak enrollments from the men coming home from the war in the late 1940s through the early 1950s [6 -7]. Another increase in numbers was caused by the acceptance of women into the institution, starting the fall of 1948 [6-8]. Baby boomers then increased these numbers further [1]. All of these factors created a huge housing demand on campus, re sulting in a housing building boom from 1950–1961. During this time, many permanent re sidence halls were built on campus, accounting for over fifty percent of the entire residence facility housing in 2006. These residence halls were built w ith a modern approach, the re sult of many factors, one of which was financial [16]. All dormitories were built under the direction of Guy Fulton, State University System Archite ct to the Board of Control [6 ]. Even after Fulton stepped

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84 down as head architect in 1958, he continue d to work within the Gainesville area, including the University of Florida [38]. Because Fulton designed all the residence halls during this time, many features are similar between buildings. Fulton first took materials used in other buildings on campus and incorporated them into the dormitories to create continuity on campus [16]. Within the finished products, one can see how these modern halls fit into the overall historic campus. Other features were utilized that connected all of Fult on’s buildings, including horizontal concrete awnings above the windows, which functionally served as a way to keep the hot Florida sun from baking the students in their rooms [7, 16]. Jennings Hall was the last female residen ce hall to be built and was finalized in 1961 [6]. This hall was also one of the last under Fulton’s reign. It had similar features to all the previous residence halls, as well as some new distinguish ing features that are still unmatched today. These main features are found in the sawtooth roofline and the overall placement on the site, which took advant age of the natural la ndscape setting. In response to the natural landscape, Fulton created a space for a planned landscape element. Through these distinct ive features and other functi onal spaces geared to support the college student, this hall was a m odel for the phrase state-of-the-art. While Jennings Hall has housed students for ne arly half a century, it was clear that changes were needed to address the current trends of residence halls in 2006. A rehabilitation design has been proposed that balances the needs of current students and the historic features that originally set this facility apart from the rest. Since Jennings Hall stands out from all of University of Florida modern architecture dormitories, it is important to keep the building’s historic characteristics

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85 intact so that it can be honored for its arch itecture, unique in the era in which it was erected. The saw-tooth roofline is a primary character defini ng feature that is reflected throughout the facility in fenest ration, patios, walls, and plan ters. The lobby creates an atrium-like space that provides individuals the opportunity to experience the natural landscape setting through glass walls. Not onl y do the walls allow individuals to enjoy the view, but the walls reflect the saw-tooth de sign in plan. The cont rol area or desk was redesigned in the same locati on as the original de sk; however, in the process, the design integrity changed. The original desk provided an angled front, while the current desk is perpendicular to the floor and counter. Though th e desk has been altered, it still serves as a significant feature. The library contains original walnut builtin bookcases that have had minor maintenance. These bookcases de monstrate the quality of the built-ins originally in the hall. These significant interior features and sp aces and exterior characteristics impacted the rehabilitation plan designed for Jennings Hall. The lush landscapes and views influenced the color palette used within the f acility. Wood tones origin al to the structure, coupled with natural tones, were preferred wh en choosing furniture and in other aesthetic considerations. The modern architecture m ovement was another ae sthetic influence in the design, both in time and definition. Furniture and the redesigning of the control desk took cues from the modernist movement. Spaces now designed in the facility follow these aesthetic cues, while implementing the functionality needed by the st udents of 2006. For this thesis project, a new user group was defined that encompasses students in the College of Design, Construction and Planning taking Architectural Design 1. These students need to have

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86 spaces in their residence hall that supports thei r academic needs, especially studio space. Though there will not be enough studio space for all to have their own desk, studio space in the residence hall will help create a bond within this group of st udents, and will allow students to work in their liv ing environment. Though this initiative was seen in early models of residence halls, it disappeared with the building boom, and is seeing a comeback in later years of construction a nd renovation. Other areas that will support these students include a spray paint room, mu lti-purpose spaces that can support lectures and speakers, a fitness facility, a convenience store, and a media room that included print and digital resources. Another area of the facility to be redesi gned is one of the two residential wings. Not only are academic initiatives becoming a trend in residence halls, but so is suite-style living. Suite-style living can be seen in ear ly male dormitories and has been reinvented for today’s students. This type of livi ng style provides quarters for students that encompass some sort of semi-private bathrooms, and sometimes shared lounges and kitchens. The Jennings Hall rehabilitation plan reinvented the short residential wing to accommodate suite-style living. This plan ha s a variety of living arrangements including singles, doubles, and triples, all with semi-p rivate bathrooms. Additionally, the rooms include moveable furniture, with the exception of sinks fixed to the walls. Research has shown that students who have a greater contro l over their environments are happier, and moveable furniture allows individuals to create their own spatial layout. Recommendations Though many residential facilities are rehab ilitated, the research that goes into rehabilitation decisions is not published regul arly in peer-reviewed journals. “How are these decisions being made?” and “What in formation has been consulted to draw

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87 conclusions being used for a rehabilitated dorm?” are just a two questions that may be posed to individuals facing th e challenge of rehabilitating a space. Those who have gone through this process succ essfully or are currently going th rough it should be encouraged to write about their experiences and processe s, including their research tools. This information would be helpful to other institu tions that may be looking for something to assist their decision-making process. Modern architecture, especially on colle ge campuses, is just beginning to be observed and recognized for its historic value. There is a lack of in formation on this era, as it has yet to be clearly defined. Studying th is period of architectur e can help to start classifying the defining features of this pe riod and define modern campus architecture. Because the University of Florida’s mode rnist residence halls were built under the direction of Guy Fulton, it would be valuable to do a more in-depth comparative analysis between the architecture and interior design of two or more residence halls. A comparison of women’s and men’s resi dence halls would be of interest. Summary In summary, this thesis looked specifically at Jennings Hall’s hi storical context in order to define its distinguishing characteristics. These historic features then helped to guide the proposed rehabilitation plan. This plan not only took into consideration the defining characteristics, but also incorporated residence hall design trends to provide a state-of-the-art facility for 2006. Looking fo rward towards new ideas or trends of the times is not a new concept for the University of Florida residential facilities. Guy Fulton, the architect of the modern residence ha lls, continuously looked above and beyond the normal standards of dormitory design, which made Jennings Hall stand out as a state-ofthe-art facility during its prime. A rehabi litation plan that preserves Jennings Hall and

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88 meets the needs of a new generation of stude nts recognizes the significance of Fulton’s original vision.

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89 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Turner, P. V. (1984). Campus: An American Planning Tradition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2. Whiton, S., & Abercrombie, S. (2002). Interior Design & Decoration Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 3. Curl, J. S. (1999). A Dictionary of Architecture Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. 4. Frederiksen, C. F. (1993). A Brief History of Collegiate Housing. In R. B. Winston, Jr.; S. Anchors; & Associates (Ed.), Student Housing and Residential Life (pp. 167184). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 5. Facilities Planning and Construction Campus Maps, 1905-1966 (2001). University of Florida Archives, Department of Sp ecial Collections. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/ digital/collections/spe cial/archives/mss144a/ 6. Blansett, S. C. (2003). A History of University of Florida Residence Facilities Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Division of Housing. 7. Garrett, J. (2005). Finally Home: The University of Florida Campus as a Microcosm of American Post World War II Residential Design Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 8. Dean of Women Records (19471968). University of Florida Archives, Department of Special Collections. Series 12, Box 1. Ga inesville, FL: University of Florida. 9. Jennings Hall Original Construction Do cuments and Specifications (1961). Physical Plant Division, Architectur e/Engineering Department. Building #469. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 10. Blimling, G. S. (1993). New Challenges and Goals for Residential Life Programs. In R. B. Winston, Jr.; S. Anchors; & Associates (Ed.), Student Housing and Residential Life (pp. 1-20). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 11. Kennedy, M. (2002). Trends Shaping Housing Design. American School & University, 74 34-36.

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90 12. Riker, H. C. (1993). Foreward. In R. B. Winston, Jr.; S. Anchors; & Associates (Ed.), Student Housing and Residential Life (pp. xiii-xvii). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 13. John J. Tigert Papers (1929-1947). Univers ity of Florida Archives, Department of Special Collections. Series P7d, Box 2, 5. Ga inesville, FL: Univer sity of Florida. 14. J. Hillis Miller Papers (1 947-1953). University of Florida Archives, Department of Special Collections. Series 10a, Box 4. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 15. Jennings Hall Archives (1961-Present). Depa rtment of Housing and Residence Life Education. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 16. Catinna, A. (1993). Years of Transition: Architecture on the University of Florida Campus 1944-1956 Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 17. Arnett, W. T. (1932) A Study of the Campus Planning Pr oblem at the University of Florida Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 18. United States Green Building Council (2005). Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.usgbc.org/ 19. Potter, W. (2004). The First Certified “Green” Dormitory. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50 132-137. 20. Dagit, C. (2003). Cornell’s Commitment to Housing for Freshman. Planning for Higher Education, 32 4-14. 21. Hill, C. (2004). Housing Strategies for the 21st Century: Revitalizing Residential Life on Campus. Planning for Higher Education, 32 25-36. 22. Pocorobba, J. S. (2001). Living and Learni ng in Style: Reside nce Hall Construction and Renovation can Provide Modern Amenities while Respecting a School’s History and Tradition. American School & University, 74 332-336. 23. Birdsey, T. D.; McKinney, J. I.; & St ouffer, J. (1996). Renovation Increases Student Requests: Middlebury College Re sidence Hall Revamp Illustrates Five Major Design Trends. School Planning and Management, 35 C1-C4. 24. The Secretary of the Interior Standard s for Rehabilitation (1995). Retrieved November 14, 2005, from http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tp s/tax/rhb/stand.htm 25. Stewart, H. Q. (1942). Some Social Aspects of Reside nce Halls for College Women. New York, NY: Professiona l & Technical Press. 26. Hayes, H. (1932). Planning Residence Halls for Undergraduate Students in American Colleges and Universities New York, NY: Columbia University.

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91 27. Hayes, H. (1932). College-operated Residence Halls for Women Students in 125 Colleges and Universities New York, NY: Columbia University. 28. Horowitz, H. L. (1993). Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Women’s Colleges from their Nineteenthcentury Beginnings to the 1930s Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 29. Larson, J. F., & Palmer, A. M. (1933). Architectural Planning of the American College New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 30. National Association of D eans of Women of the Nati onal Education Association. (1947). Residence Halls for Women Students: Administrative Principles and Procedures Washington, DC: Author. 31. Winston, R. B., & Anchors, S. (1993). St udent Development in the Residential Environment. In R. B. Winston, Jr.; S. Anchors; & Associates (Ed.), Student Housing and Residential Life (pp. 25-64). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 32. Rowe, L. P. (1981). Environmental Stru cturing: Residence Halls as Living Learning Centers. In G. S. Blimling & J. H. Schuh (Ed.), Increasing the Educational Role of Residence Halls (pp. 51-64). San Franci sco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 33. Pike, G. R. (1999). The Effects of Residential Learning Communities and Traditional Residential Living Arrangement s on Educational Gains during the First Year of College. Journal of College St udent Development, 40 269-284. 34. Edwards, K. E., & McKelfresh, D. A. (2002). The Impact of a Living Learning Center on Students’ Academic Success and Persistence. Journal of College Student Development, 43 395-402. 35. Connor, J. A. (1931). Survey of Housing Conditions for Students at the University of Florida Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 36. University of Florida: Postwar Camp us Flourishes, 1945-1960 (2004, July 28) Gainesville Sun Retrieved September 19, 2005, from http://www.gainesville.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=news 37. University of Florida (1947). The Building Program of the University of Florida: A Report to Floridians St. Augustine, FL: By the Record Press. 38. Webb, D. N. (1997). Fifty Years of Building the Un iversity of Florida, 1925-1975 Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 39. McCarthy, K. M., & Laurie, M. D. (1997). Guide to the University of Florida and Gainesville Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press.

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92 40. Academic Initiatives & Enhancement. Un iversity of Florida, Department of Housing and Residence Education. Retrieved November 30, 2005, from http://www.housing.ufl.edu/AIE/index.htm 41. R. T. London Norse. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.rtlondonnorse.com/index.cfm 42. Sauder Education, Inc. (2006). Re trieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.saudereducation.com/ 43. Integra (2006). Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.integraseating.com/ 44. Kwalu, Inc. (2005). Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.kwalu.com/produc ts/seating.cfm#Lounge&Lobby 45. Strange, C. C. (1993). Developmental Imp acts of Campus Living Environments. In R. B. Winston, Jr.; S. An chors; & Associates (Ed.), Student Housing and Residential Life (pp. 134-166). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 46. Harris, P. B.; Brown, B. B.; & Werner, C. M. (1996). Privacy Regulation and Place Attachment: Predicting Attachments to a Student Family Housing Facility. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16 287-301. 47. American Loft & Lounge (2004). Retrieved February 1, 2006, from http://www.americanloftandlounge.com/products.html

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93 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Paula grew up in Northwest Indiana and at tended Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, for undergraduate studies. Origin ally majoring in education, Paula graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree, majoring in marketing with a minor in mathematics. While attending Ball State, Paula was active in the housing and residence life community as a resident assistant, a member and officer of the National Residence Hall Honorary (NRHH), a committee member for the National Association of College and University Residence Halls (NACURH) conference, a member and chairperson for the Indiana Resident Assistant conference, and the Housi ng and Residence Life Marketing Intern, to name a few roles. Additionally, Paula served on the Regional Board of Directors as the NRHH Regional Director for the Great Lake s Association of College and University Residence Halls (GLACURH). After leaving the Ball State University community in May of 2000, Paula moved to Chicago, working as the Marketing and Re tail Coordinator in the Hermann Union Building at the Illinois Institute of Technol ogy for two years. During the spring of 2001, Paula married Ryan Wagner. In the fall of 2002, Paula started gra duate school at the University of Florida as a Master of Interi or Design student within the College of Design, Construction and Planning. Because of Paula’ s history in the housing and residence life field, Paula wanted to capitalize on her experiences by doing research on institutional design, more specifically residence halls, for her thesis work. Additionally, historic preservation studies became another area of interest due to her experiences living in a

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94 historic neighborhood of Chicago— Hyde Park. This interest led Paula to participate in the Preservation Institute: Na ntucket during the summer of 2005. After graduation, Paula plans to move back to the Chicago area to pur sue a career in rehabili tation or institutional design.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013765/00001

Material Information

Title: Jennings Hall : Analysis of the significance and viability of a 1961 residence hall on the University of Florida Campus
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Wagner, Paula M. ( Dissertant )
Tate, Susan ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Dissertations, Academic -- Interior Design -- UF
Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
Interior design
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Gainesville

Notes

Abstract: The University of Florida experienced a housing boom on campus between the years 1950 and 1961. During this time, fifteen permanent residence halls were constructed, accounting for more than fifty percent of living accommodations in 2006. Completed in 1961, Jennings Hall was the sixth and final all-female residence. Though other dormitories of this period have similar architectural features, Jennings Hall is the only one to have a unique saw-toothed roofline defining the placement of public spaces from private spaces; integration of the building design with the natural landscapes; and an entry garden surrounded by a saw-tooth covered walkway leading individuals up to the formal, atrium-like entry space. Jennings Hall is still serving its main objective, to house students pursuing a college education, and has seen only minimal renovations. Upon the opening of this residence hall in 1961, it was classified as a state-of-the- art residence facility with supportive spaces for the college student. In 2006, students have different expectations from their living environments. Can rehabilitation of this residence hall accommodate the needs of students in 2006 and beyond, while preserving its defining features? This thesis will analyze these characteristics and propose a rehabilitation design plan, including current state-of-the-art features designed within the framework of the Secretary of Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2006
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (leaves 89-92)
General Note: Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013765:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013765/00001

Material Information

Title: Jennings Hall : Analysis of the significance and viability of a 1961 residence hall on the University of Florida Campus
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Wagner, Paula M. ( Dissertant )
Tate, Susan ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Dissertations, Academic -- Interior Design -- UF
Interior Design thesis, M.I.D.
Interior design
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Gainesville

Notes

Abstract: The University of Florida experienced a housing boom on campus between the years 1950 and 1961. During this time, fifteen permanent residence halls were constructed, accounting for more than fifty percent of living accommodations in 2006. Completed in 1961, Jennings Hall was the sixth and final all-female residence. Though other dormitories of this period have similar architectural features, Jennings Hall is the only one to have a unique saw-toothed roofline defining the placement of public spaces from private spaces; integration of the building design with the natural landscapes; and an entry garden surrounded by a saw-tooth covered walkway leading individuals up to the formal, atrium-like entry space. Jennings Hall is still serving its main objective, to house students pursuing a college education, and has seen only minimal renovations. Upon the opening of this residence hall in 1961, it was classified as a state-of-the- art residence facility with supportive spaces for the college student. In 2006, students have different expectations from their living environments. Can rehabilitation of this residence hall accommodate the needs of students in 2006 and beyond, while preserving its defining features? This thesis will analyze these characteristics and propose a rehabilitation design plan, including current state-of-the-art features designed within the framework of the Secretary of Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.
Thesis: Thesis (M.I.D.)--University of Florida, 2006
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (leaves 89-92)
General Note: Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013765:00001


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Full Text












JENNINGS HALL: ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE AND VIABILITY OF A
1961 RESIDENCE HALL ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS
















By

PAULA M. WAGNER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006


































Copyright 2006

by

Paula M. Wagner

































To Ryan and my soon-to-be-born daughter.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my committee members for assisting and guiding me with this

process of writing a thesis. Their insights provided support and challenged me to become

a better investigator and writer throughout the process.

The University of Florida Department of Housing and Residence Education was a

huge part of the success of this thesis. They provided information through site visits,

meetings, and emails, greatly helping my research and giving an overall feeling of

support. The University of Florida Physical Plant Division, more specifically the

Architecture/Engineering Department, was instrumental with supplying access to archival

construction documents and specifications for the residence hall.

Finally, I need to thank my husband for his support and encouragement throughout

the time I have known him, especially in the past few years. In addition, I appreciate the

support that our families have provided in this experience.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ........................................ iv

TABLE.......................................................................... vii

LIST OF FIGURES ......... .................................................. viii

ABSTRACT.................. .................. xi

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................... .................. .............. .... ......... .......

State ent of Problem .............. ................ .. .......... .......... .. ........ .4
Significance ................................................4

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................. ...............5

Introduction...................................... .................. .............. ........ 5
Prim ary Resources .................. .............. .. .......... .......... ... ........ .5
Secondary Sources ................ .............. .. ............ ......... ... ......... .8
U university of Florida Inform ation .......................................................................8
Campus Planning and Residence Hall History..................................................10
Current Residence Hall Trends ............................... ............... 12
Summary ...................................... .................................. ......... 14

3 R E SE A R C H M E TH O D S ...................................................................................... 16

4 EVOLUTION OF RESIDENCE HALLS ...................................... ...............19

R evidence H all H history ................... .................................... .... ................... 19
Current Residence Hall Trends.................... ... .................21
University of Florida Campus Residential Facilities through 1961 ...........................24
Summary ............... .............. ......... ... ......................27

5 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF JENNINGS HALL................................................29

The University of Florida Residence Halls, 1950-1961 ........................................29
C om parative A analysis ........................................ .................30
Summary..................................................................... ........34


v









Jennings H all ................................................................... 35
Site Analysis.......................... ................. 35
Exterior D description of the Facility ......... ..................... ................................. 37
Interior D description of the Facility ........... ............. ..................... ............... 40
A architect's V ision............... ...... ........ .......... ... .. ............. .. .. ................. 44
C character D efining Features......... ............................................ ...... ......... 45
Areas Subject to Alteration .......................................... ........................47
Su m m ary .................................................................................................. 4 8

6 PROPOSED REHABILITATION DESIGN PLAN................................................49

In tro d u ctio n ........................................................................................................... 4 9
P program O v erview ............ ................................................................. ........ .. ....... .. 49
T h e U ser ................................................................5 0
Aesthetic Considerations ......................... ............... ........... .... 53
D description of R rehabilitation Plan ......... ............................................................. 53
L ob b y S p ace ................................................................5 8
Convenience Store ....... .. ............ .... .... ......... .. ..................61
Control or Reception Desk ................. ................................. 62
L ib ra ry ........................................................................................................... 6 4
Lounge ....................... .............................67
M e etin g R o o m s ............................................................................................. 6 8
Recreation Room .................. ....... .......... ......... 71
Studio Work Space ........ ....... ... .................................71
P ain t R o o m ................................................................7 2
Public Restrooms .............. ......... ........... .......... 73
S u p p o rtiv e S p ace s ......................................................................................... 7 3
Residential W ings ....... .. .............. .. ............................. 73
Exterior Spaces .......... .. .......... .. .. .................... ... ..... 80
Summary ......... ......... ... ............. ........................ 82

7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................. 83

R ecom m en d action s ......................... ......................................................... .. 86
Sum m ary ............. ...................... .. ... ............... 87

LIST OF REFERENCES ........... ...... .......... ........... .... ... ............... 89

BIO GRAPH ICAL SK ETCH ........................................................................................93
















TABLE

Table page

6.1 Program O overview ....................... .................. ... .... ..................50
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1.1 1961 U university of Florida Cam pus M ap ........................................ .....................2

1.2 East Side of Jennings Hall................. ........ ..............3

4.1 1961 University of Florida Campus M ap ..................................... .................27

5.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map, Dormitory Areas ................................29

5.2 Brow ard H all H ipped Roof ........................................................... ............... 31

5.3 Examples of the Entryways at (A) Weaver Hall with Enclosures, and (B) Yulee
H all w ith O pen Porches ......................................................................... 31

5.4 Porticos on (A) Broward Hall, and (B) Rawlings Hall. .........................................32

5.5 Glass Block at (A) Broward Hall, (B) Riker Hall, and (C) Yulee Hall....................33

5.6 Other Types of Glazing (A) Rawlings Hall, and (B) Jennings Hall ......................33

5.7 Breezeways at (A) Mallory, Yulee, and Reid Halls, and (B) Riker and Weaver
H a lls ............................................................................. 3 4

5.8 O original Construction D ocum ent, Site ........................................ .....................35

5.9 The A approach to Jennings H all ...................................................... ............... 36

5.10 A Detail of the Japanese-inspired Garden at Jennings Hall ...............................36

5.11 H orizontal Concrete A w nings ........................................................ ............... 37

5.12 Saw -tooth R oofline ......................................................................... ................... 38

5.13 T w o-story L obby Space ........................................ .............................................39

5.14 Original Construction Document, Terrazzo Pattern .............................................39

5.15 Control or D esk of Jennings H all .................................. ........................... .......... 40

5.16 Library Bookcase W all and Patio Doors............................................................ 41









6.1 Original Construction Document, First Floor Public Spaces ................................54

6.2 New Layout of First Floor Public Spaces ..... ......... ...................................... 55

6.3 Original Construction Document, Basement Public Spaces .................................56

6.4 Copy of Original Construction Document, Basement Support Spaces ...................56

6.5 N ew Layout of the Basem ent Public Spaces ...........................................................57

6.6 Examples of M olded W ood Chairs ............. .................................59

6.7 Original Construction Document, First Floor Lobby Space .................................59

6.8 Original Construction Document, Basement Lobby Space ...................................59

6.9 Lobby Space Showing Terrazzo Pattern ...................................... ............... 60

6.10 Proposed Lobby Space Functions (A) Study Space, (B) Presentation or Speaker
Space, and (C ) G allery Space........................................................ ............... 60

6.11 Original Construction Document, Bookstore .................................. ............... 61

6.12 Original Construction Document, Control Area ............................................. 62

6.13 Original Construction Document, Desk Section Cut Detail .................................63

6.14 Original Construction Document, Elevation of Desk and Mail Area ...................63

6.15 N ew Layout of Control Area.............. .......................................... ............... 63

6.16 New Details of Control Desk (A) Sections, and (B) Elevation............................64

6.17 Examples of Seating for the Library ............................................ ............... 65

6.18 Exam ple of Tables for the Library ........................................ ....... ............... 65

6.19 Original Construction Document, Library ................................... ............... 66

6.20 Original Construction Document, Bookcase Elevation .......................................66

6.21 N ew Layout for M edia Room ............................................................................ 66

6.22 Exam ple of Lounge Furniture ........................................................................... 67

6.23 Original Construction Document, Lounge Area ............................................. 67

6.24 N ew Layout of Lounge A rea......... ................................................ ............... 68

6.25 Original Construction Document, Meeting Rooms and Recreation Room ............69









6.26 New Layout of Meeting Rooms, Fitness Room, Laundry Facility, and
R creation R oom .................. .......................... ... ............ ............... 70

6.27 New Layout of the Studio Space................ ........ ................ ... ............ 72

6.28 N ew Layout of the Paint Room ...................... .... ......................... .... ............ 72

6.29 Example of the Moveable and Stackable Furniture .............................................74

6.30 D etail of Furnished Residence H all Room s ...................................... .....................75

6.31 Original Construction Document, North Residential Wing ..................................76

6.32 Original Construction Document, South Residential Wing ..................................77

6.33 New Residential Floor Layout without Furniture .................................... .........78

6.34 New Residential Floor Layout with Furniture ............................... ............... .79

6.35 Original Construction Document, West Side Planted Area ..................................81

6.36 Jennings Hall Patio Spaces on East Side....................................... ............... 81















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design

JENNINGS HALL: ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE AND VIABILITY OF A
1961 RESIDENCE HALL ON THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CAMPUS

By

Paula M. Wagner

May 2006

Chair: Susan Tate
Major Department: Interior Design

The University of Florida experienced a housing boom on campus between the

years 1950 and 1961. During this time, fifteen permanent residence halls were

constructed, accounting for more than fifty percent of living accommodations in 2006.

Completed in 1961, Jennings Hall was the sixth and final all-female residence. Though

other dormitories of this period have similar architectural features, Jennings Hall is the

only one to have a unique saw-toothed roofline defining the placement of public spaces

from private spaces; integration of the building design with the natural landscapes; and an

entry garden surrounded by a saw-tooth covered walkway leading individuals up to the

formal, atrium-like entry space. Jennings Hall is still serving its main objective, to house

students pursuing a college education, and has seen only minimal renovations.

Upon the opening of this residence hall in 1961, it was classified as a state-of-the-

art residence facility with supportive spaces for the college student. In 2006, students

have different expectations from their living environments. Can rehabilitation of this









residence hall accommodate the needs of students in 2006 and beyond, while preserving

its defining features? This thesis will analyze these characteristics and propose a

rehabilitation design plan, including current state-of-the-art features designed within the

framework of the Secretary of Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

By 1960, it was clear that the battle between the architectural traditionalists and
modernists, which had been waged on the American campus for at least three
decades, had been won firmly by the moderns. [1: 294]
-Paul V. Turner. Campus: An American Planning Tradition, 1984

In the book Campus: An American Planning Tradition, Paul Turner asserts that

American colleges and universities accepted "modern architecture" later than the general

population and society as a whole [1]. Turner defines modern architecture as "rejection

of historical tradition and its frequent emphasis on functionalism and flexibility" [1: 251].

Modem architecture may be characterized as "bold, clean, simplified, and efficient" and

affordable [2: 572]. The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture describes "the aims of

Modernism" as "radical, concerned with the suppression of all ornament, historical

allusions, and styles, counterbalanced by the elevation of objectivity and the evolution of

industrialized methods of building" [3: 428]. Throughout this thesis, modem architecture

will be defined as a style of architecture that emphasizes minimal ornamentation and

capitalizes on function.

Modernist residence halls flourished across the country after World War II, when

veterans and baby boomers began going to college [1]. During the 1950s and '60s

residence hall facilities were rapidly being built across the country to accommodate the

influx of all types of students [1, 4]. Not only was there a high need for dorms, but the

government was providing low-interest loans for schools to build housing because of the

1950 Title IV of the Housing Act [4]. Schools across the country wanted to take













advantage of these loans, so ornate decorative buildings


affordable approach to modern architecture.

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gave way to a functional and


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Figure 1.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map [5]


The University of Florida built fifteen permanent residence halls between the years


1950 and 1961, which accounted for more than fifty percent of the residence halls on


campus in the year 2006. These residence buildings are Mallory, Yulee, Reid, Tolbert,


Weaver, North, Riker, Broward, Rawlings, Graham, East, Simpson, Trusler, and Jennings


Halls [6]. The residence hall building boom on the University of Florida campus was in


response to the large number of World War II veterans who enrolled in college under the


GI Bill and the first enrollment of women in 1948, after passage of the Coeducation Bill


[1, 7-8].


.i
*I































figure 1.2 hast 1ide ot Jennlngs Hall

Jennings Hall opened in 1961, along with five other residence halls that were

completed that year [6]. This hall was the last dedicated to women students on the

University of Florida campus, and later was the first female hall to host both men and

women under the same roof. The original residence hall design boasted such spaces as

laundry rooms, kitchenettes, multiple public lounges, a library, and a room that

functioned as either a classroom or meeting room [9]. Public spaces were enclosed and

positioned between the two residential wings of the building, allowing students to easily

pass from one wing to another without going outside the building.

This state-of-the-art facility was well designed and well thought out by the

architect, but many years of advancements have left Jennings Hall lacking its competitive

edge among newer and renovated residential facilities. There is an increasing awareness

that residence halls built across the country during the post-World War II building boom,

including those on the University of Florida campus, need to be continuously updated









with new technology and spatial renovations, while maintaining their historical features

[10-12].

Statement of Problem

This thesis will analyze the state-of-the-art of Jennings Hall at the time of

construction so that the original vision of the facility can stay intact when devising a

rehabilitation plan. This research will also analyze current design trends of residential

facilities in order to propose a state-of-the-art rehabilitation. Since this building will soon

be eligible for historic designation, it is crucial to understand the historic context of the

building in order to achieve both of these goals.

Significance

Modernist campus housing buildings from the post-World War II era are in the

early stages of being identified as historic among historic preservationists. Additional

buildings of the late 1950s and early 1960s will soon reach the benchmark of historic

designation. Jennings Hall will be used in this thesis as a case study to distinguish

historic characteristics of the early 1960s, when it was erected. An understanding of this

hall historically, together with a rehabilitation plan that not only celebrates the building's

unique style but also brings the vision of the architect back into the building, will position

the University of Florida as a leader in preservation and sustainability issues. Preserving

and rehabilitating this residence hall will help to maintain a community that is

knowledgeable about the past of the institution and provide a new link in the campus

history of compatible growth, while allowing students to experience history in a facility

updated to new standards of accommodation, security, and technology.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Residence halls or dormitories have been a part of American college tradition since

Harvard was founded in 1636 [1]. Though these buildings serve a vital purpose on

college campuses, relatively little research has been published about them. While

published works and professional journals were searched for related research and case

studies, the primary material utilized in this thesis came from original construction

documents and specifications, university archival records, and on-site analysis.

Primary Resources

The University Archives in Smathers Library East and the University of Florida

Department of Housing and Residence Education were sources for photographic and

documentary records. The original construction documents, along with specifications for

Jennings Hall, were found through the Architecture/Engineering Department of the

Physical Plant Division located on Radio Road in the northwest section of the University

of Florida. The department stores all original construction documents and specifications

wrapped in a temperature-controlled room. The wrappings are labeled so that individuals

can find bundles of drawings and information for a specific building. Most buildings

have more than one bundle of original material.

The original construction documents indicated that Jennings Hall was built in 1961

with an annex or dining hall on-site [9]. This facility was connected by a covered

walkway contained by a designated planted area to be designed and implemented a few









years after the opening date. The dining hall no longer serves the original purpose and

has been turned into office space, primarily for the University Police Department. The

original dining facility is not being considered as part of Jennings Hall for the purpose of

this thesis.

The original construction documents subdivide Jennings Hall into three parts-A,

B, and C [9]. Section B is the public spaces of the residence hall while sections A and C

are the private wings that comprise the residential spaces or private spaces of the facility.

The public spaces sit in between the two private wings.

The original construction documents contained floor plans, elevations, and details

[9]. There were also electrical plans, beam schedules, and a site plan, to name a few

other drawings [9]. The floor plans, elevations, and details indicated the original function

of spaces and some of those spaces have changed functions prior to the initiation of this

research. These differences were evaluated during site visits of Jennings Hall.

The original construction documents often contained notations of specific materials

to be used for a particular detail [9]. For example, on the drawing details for the front

desk, or "control," notations indicated the use of walnut paneling [9]. Besides these

notations, specifications for fixtures, windows, and flooring were found. For example,

each residential room contains a built-in closet and storage unit. The specifications found

indicate that this unit was built locally in Gainesville, Florida by Wood Products, Inc [9].

These original units have a 1/16" red birch veneer [9].

Since these documents and specifications are archival, notes were taken on-site for

reference at a later date. The original construction documents have been previously









scanned, and the Architectural/Engineering Department provided a disc of these drawings

in TIFF format.

The archival library at the University of Florida provided original letters, memos,

and papers from various sources that helped with understanding the change in

architecture from Collegiate Gothic to modernism and the acceptance of women into the

University. Presidential papers and memos from the eras overseen by Tigert and Miller

provided information about the transition of the campus architecture after World War II.

More specifically, these papers called for architecture to be "modern" and "without

decoration" [13]. The Miller papers requested that Northwestern University, the

University of Vermont, and the University of Connecticut be toured in order to examine

their new buildings [14]. This enabled the University of Florida to acquire ideas of high

quality from other areas of the country.

Looking into the Dean of Women's records in the archival library provided insights

into women's issues at the University after women were accepted as full-time students in

1948 [8]. Reports regarding the temporary living conditions women endured were found

within the records. The dedication speeches given by Dean Marna V. Brady and Mrs.

Harris at the opening of the first female residence halls, Mallory and Yulee, were

insightful into their perspectives of the architecture used for the buildings and the spaces

created within the residential facilities [8].

The Department of Housing and Residence Education hosts its own archival

information on every residence hall on campus. The Jennings Hall folder contains

written information for the building, such as handbooks given to residents that contain

rules of the facility [15]. It also contains articles from newspapers.









Secondary Sources

University of Florida Information

Sharon Blansett' s book, A History of University ofFlorida Residence Facilities,

provided historic background information on all residential facilities on the University of

Florida campus [6]. The book is written in chronological order, from the oldest residence

hall facility still being used today to the most recent facilities built. Blansett's book

includes photographs of all the buildings, which, when coupled with the accompanying

information, provide a noticeable link between some of the residence halls and their

architecture styles. Primarily, this resource served as a starting point into the historic

context of Jennings Hall.

Anne Catinna's thesis from 1993, Years of Transition: Architecture on the

University ofFlorida Campus 1944-1956, was another important source. Catinna

targeted these years because of contemporary architectural changes on the campus. From

the first campus plan in 1905, the University adopted a collegiate gothic style, but 1944

marked a transition [16]. The post-World War II era reflected the modernism expanding

across the United States. The thesis discussed the first three buildings completed during

this time period-Tigert Hall, the administration building, and Mallory and Yulee, two

female dormitories [16].

During these specific years, Guy Fulton was the named architect on the State Board

of Control (BOC), which governed all state schools in Florida, including the construction

of facilities [16]. Guy Fulton was a named contributing influence into the change of

styles by Catinna's thesis. Evidence also shows that President Tigert called for the

architectural style change by requesting a decrease in decorative features. According to

an interview between Catinna and Forrest Kelly, who succeeded Fulton as the BOC









architect, lack of money was also an underlying factor for the change in architecture

styles [16].

According to Catinna, there were many factors that influenced architectural change;

however, Fulton was the one who ultimately decided to keep the architecture compatible

through the use of materials [16]. Red bricks, terra cotta roof tiles, and simplified stone

accents were utilized in the new buildings to show compatibility with all the buildings on

campus [16]. By using the materials in this fashion, Fulton kept the campus unified. In

fact, Kelley said in his interview with Catinna that it was an expectation that he continue

to work with these materials when designing buildings on campus [16].

Jennifer Garrett's thesis, Finally Home: The University ofFlorida Campus as a

Microcosm ofAmerican Post World War II Residential Desig,n was completed in 2005.

Garrett's research looked at all housing on the University of Florida campus from 1945-

1956. Garrett looks generally at the housing situation over the country in suburbia as

well as college campuses, finally narrowing the scope down to the University of Florida

campus [7].

The Garrett thesis begins by looking at the University as a whole during 1945,

taking into consideration the return of Florida veterans and the acceptance of women

students [7]. Due to the influx of students, the housing demand was great at that time.

This caused the University to look to some temporary buildings, known as the Flavet

Villages, to provide shelter for veterans and their families [7].

Single student facilities were being constructed in various parts of the University

for both men and women students [7]. These structures, Tolbert, Riker, Weaver, North,

Mallory, Yulee, and Reid Halls, opened in 1950. Garrett discusses their architectural









significance and reaction to the local climate and compares their features to the trends

found in residential design throughout the country [7].

Garrett gives suggestions of further study within the recommendation area of her

thesis. She points to a need to discuss ways of bringing post-World War II residence

halls, especially those significant on the University of Florida campus, back to the

original concept created by architect Guy Fulton [7].

William Arnett's thesis, A Study of the Campus Planning Problem at the University

ofFlorida, written in 1932, gave insight into planning at the University through the year

1931. The status of the campus plan and buildings is a focus of the thesis.

During the 1930-1931 academic year, the Educational Survey Commission

directed that the University of Florida house halve its student population [17]. That

academic year, the school was housing 21.5% of the student population [17]. Arnett

hypothesized a few solutions to the campus planning, going a step further and included

women's dormitories within his suggested campus plan. Though women were not yet

being accepted into the University, Arnett saw a need to plan ahead for that time when

women would be allowed to attend the University on a full-time basis [17].

Arnett's thesis suggested where new housing could be provided for both male and

female residents [17]. Each solution was discussed and all but one was discarded. The

solution chosen was then discussed in more detail, giving locations for buildings.

Estimations on acreage and how many individuals could be housed on this land were also

provided [17].

Campus Planning and Residence Hall History

Paul Turner's book Campus. An American Planning Tradition was a valuable

resource that gives an overview of campus planning, including its history at American









colleges [1]. The discussion of residence halls provided insights into the connection of

American universities to English and European universities, specifically how their

traditions have been utilized or reworked in America [1]. For instance, early schools

created courtyards by bounding the sides with connected buildings [1]. Though most

American universities do not continue this practice of keeping the town or community

out of the campus, it is clear that courtyards are still an important concept, reinterpreted.

Residence halls are often placed in such a way to create these courtyards without keeping

the rest of campus outside of the space [1].

Due to the general nature of the topic, each era is addressed in limited detail,

especially most recent eras. Turner points out that there was a transition in architecture

and planning on campuses, although campuses accepted modernism more slowly than

elsewhere [1].

Insight into residence hall history and the planning of facilities during this era was

also found through many independently written chapters in the book Student Housing and

Residential Life, edited by Roger Winston, Jr. The chapter titled "A Brief History of

Collegiate Housing," by Charles Frederiksen, discussed the Title IV or Housing Act.

This act, which was passed by Congress in 1950, gave institutions low rates on loans to

build or repair residential facilities on college campuses [4]. Colleges and universities

everywhere took advantage of these loans and built high-rise facilities that focused on

getting the most students possible into a unit without much concern for their needs [4].

This act did not cover furnishings of rooms, and schools skirted around this issue by

applying fixed furniture in the rooms so the furniture would fall under the construction

cost or what the loan covered [4].









These buildings took away the fundamental purpose of a residence hall, which is to

provide a social education and bridge the gap between academics and the living

environment [4]. Now that these buildings are getting older, campuses are currently

involved in another building boom or renovation period where colleges are trying to

rectify the negative effects of the Housing Act. In fact, Harold Riker makes a call to

action to avoid emulating these facilities when plans for new construction or renovations

are being created [12].

Current Residence Hall Trends

Residence hall construction and renovation projects share common features, which

help to define what state-of-the-art means and what current design trends are. Over the

last few years, with the support of the United States Green Building Council (USGBC),

sustainable buildings are being erected at a steady pace [18]. Colleges and universities

are beginning to see benefits to utilizing sustainable construction methods within new

construction and renovation projects. There are a couple of certified, sustainable

renovated and new construction residence halls listed on the USGBC website, one of

which is located on the Carnegie Mellon University campus [18]. In 2004, The Chronicle

of Higher Education reported on this sustainable dormitory. The article, written by Will

Potter, provides a brief overview of the project. Though there are not too many

dormitories classified as sustainable, the growing concern for the environment and rising

construction costs will catapult sustainable design deeper into the residential facilities

[19].

Besides The Chronicle of Higher Education, other journals such as Planningfor

Higher Education, American School & University, and School Planning and

Management were sources that publish information about current residence hall









construction and renovation projects. Planningfor Higher Education provided two

articles summarizing projects that have been recently completed. In the first article,

written in 2003, Charles Dagit discusses Cornell University's experience with freshman

housing. This project at Cornell University started in 1998, and the facilities were

completed for the fall of 2001 [20]. The concern was that freshmen coming onto the

campus were not being housed together and that their "class identity" was not cohesive;

thus, the institution decided to create accommodations just for the freshman class [20].

Glass walls and open multi-storied public spaces help to keep the plan open and allow

students to see one another even while interacting in different spaces. The residence

wings are comprised of suite-style rooms-two double rooms and one single room share

one bathroom. Hallways are varied in width to create entryways into the student rooms

and reject the traditional straight-run corridor seen in past residence halls. Dagit states

that halls geared for certain populations need to be designed to promote cohesion while

decreasing seclusion [20].

In the second article, from 2004, Christopher Hill highlights different trends found

in current residence hall designs at Colby College, Pennsylvania State University, and the

College of the Holy Cross [21]. Suite-style rooms are highlighted, along with the

interaction spaces created throughout the building. Integrating academics into the

residence hall is another feature pointed out within the article. In the end, Hill remarks

that "successful residence halls should not lean on the past, but they should improve on

the history and vitality of a school" [21: 35].

The articles found in American School & University and School Planning and

Management discuss renovation projects. First, at Princeton University, Blair/Buyers









Hall was constructed in 1896, and by 1996 had not seen major renovations; needless to

say, the building was worn and needed an overhaul [22]. This residential facility

originally housed restroom facilities only in the basement. The renovation changed this

by adding facilities to other floors. The attic and basement spaces were reclaimed for

residential rooms as well as social and academic spaces. Historic characteristics were

restored while allowing technologies to be updated, which was the goal of the project

[22].

The second renovation project took place on the Middlebury College campus [23].

Four residence halls built towards the end of the 1960s were the center of the project.

The residence halls were reorganized to create multiple types of rooms such as singles,

doubles, and suites that included bathrooms. Along with the reorganization of the

residence hall rooms, additions were constructed to allow free passage between the

buildings [23].

At the University of Florida, Reid Hall, one of the three original residence halls for

females, is currently under renovation to integrate academic spaces geared specifically

towards the College of Fine Arts into the residence hall. These spaces will eventually

provide an art studio, a multi-purpose gallery space, and sound-proof practice rooms.

Summary

The information gathered from various sources was instrumental in providing a

solid framework for this thesis. Original construction documents and specifications

provided invaluable insights into the innovative design and functionality of the building.

This, coupled with on-site investigations, led to conclusions on the status of the facility.

Other archival information found at the University of Florida effectively communicated

the influences that were making an impact during this era. Understanding the history of






15


campus planning and residence halls only provided a stronger basis when researching the

trends currently found in new construction and rehabilitations of these facilities on

college and university campuses. Overall, all this information was immeasurable when

determining the defining characteristics and new functions to be executed within

Jennings Hall.














CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODS

The research on Jennings Hall is meant to serve two purposes. The first purpose is

to understand the residence hall historically and architecturally, and the second is to

understand the new trends in residence hall design and test these ideas and thoughts

through a rehabilitation design for Jennings Hall. To achieve the second goal, archival

and on-site analysis were the two main methods utilized within this thesis project.

Archival analysis was conducted primarily through the University of Florida's

library system, the Physical Plant Division, and the Department of Housing and

Residence Education Office. The archive library served as a resource mostly for

background information for the project such as presidential papers. Architecture trade

publications from the late 1950s and early 1960s were consulted to find the trends of

residence hall design from that time period. The Architectural/Engineering Department

within the Physical Plant Division, located on Radio Road, provided access to all the

original drawings and specifications of Jennings Hall [9]. These drawings have been

scanned in order to provide digital images, which have also been a valuable working

platform.

The Department of Housing and Residence Education Office shared an archive file

kept on the residence hall. This file contained all handbooks and rules for Jennings Hall

since the opening of the facility [15]. Sharon Blansett, Assistant Director of Housing for

Marketing, Public Relations, and Research, continuously updates this file and has also

published a book, A History of University ofFlorida Residence Facilities, which contains









many facts and historical information about all the residence halls, including Jennings

Hall [6].

The Department of Housing and Residence Education Office has been supportive

by providing information during on-site analysis. In addition, photos were taken of the

residence hall during the site visit in order to have reference to spaces while working on

the design plans away from the facility. These site visits and photos provided a

comparison to the original construction documents and specifications of Jennings Hall.

The Secretary of the Interior Standards for Rehabilitation guided the process of

identifying historic features [24]. Information received from the United States

Department of the Interior through the website and printed materials were instrumental in

determining the historic status evaluation process of the building. Practical experience

gained while documenting and studying a historic building on Nantucket Island assisted

with the evaluation process. The materials and practical experience served as a

framework while Jennings Hall was being evaluated and helped identify the historic

significance of the building.

According to the material from the Department of the Interior, in order to assess the

building properly, original construction documents, original specifications, and

alterations to the building are to be located and studied [24]. Original documents and

archival information are coordinated with on-site investigation. During this investigation,

the interior and exterior environments are surveyed for the original materials and design

solutions, and alterations made to the building through the years are identified [24]. This

process assists with determining the defining characteristics of the building. These









characteristics or features are then listed and referred to regularly in the proposed

rehabilitation design solution for the building.

Other useful information was gathered while meeting with different individuals

within the Department of Housing and Residence Education Office. Understanding their

philosophy and financial situation was helpful when decisions were being made about the

direction of the renovation plan. Maintenance and other staff members of the building

who have seen Jennings Hall change through the decades were also a valuable resource

especially when clarification was needed.

A survey of current information on residence hall design was done through current

publications and journals. Peer-reviewed journals and trade publications were a main

source for current projects and case studies about new construction and renovation

projects for other residence halls around the United States. These articles provided a

basis for competitive and comparable facilities at other institutions to be evaluated. This

basis helped define what state-of-the-art means at this time and guided the proposed

rehabilitation design solution for Jennings Hall.














CHAPTER 4
EVOLUTION OF RESIDENCE HALLS

Residence Hall History

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, European colleges and universities laid the

groundwork for the residence facilities students would live in while working toward an

education [1, 4, 25]. These facilities were not provided by the school-instead, students

would seek out housing within the community in which the school was located [25].

Sometimes students could afford to live alone with servants while attending the

institution, and other times students would live with townspeople. In addition, students

would often group together to rent a house and create their own community, asking a

leader within the town or institution to help oversee finances and activities. In Paris,

France, these places were referred to as hospicium, while in Oxford, England, they were

referred to as halls or hostels [1, 25]. By approximately the middle of the thirteenth

century, colleges and universities took over governing these houses or halls [25].

Undergraduate housing on colleges and universities was secured shortly after the first

known halls were created strictly for graduate students [1]. Colleges then began taking

on the role of what is commonly referred to as in loco parents, or being a parent to the

students living on campus; many students traveled great distances to go to school and

parents wanted proper guidance for their children [4]. This act of the college serving as

the parents originated in Germany [4].

American colleges and universities took these influences from France, Germany,

and England to create the residence hall or dormitory [1, 4, 25]. Since history suggests









that men started living in houses together while going to school, the early men's

residence halls took on characteristics that reflected these houses [26]. These

characteristics included smaller sections with separate entrances, and each section, if

multi-storied, had its own stairwell [1, 26]. The rooms were then created on each floor

around the stairwells. Individual rooms were usually equipped with a bed, mattress,

dresser, desk, and chair-the same furniture offered to students during the twelfth and

thirteenth centuries, which remains the standard today [27].

By 1870, the number of schools open to women started to increase [28]. However,

a survey done in 1875 showed that of the 209 schools offering women a "superior

education," only six met the standards set for men's colleges [28: 56]. When designing

residence halls for women, different standards were followed. The biggest difference

was in the spatial layout, which did not utilize sections, but rather a long corridor with

rooms on either side [1, 27]. These floors then had bathrooms in a central location for all

the residents of the floor to share. In addition, the long building layout was utilized for

security reasons so that all college functions were under one roof, and there was only one

point of entry [1]. This strategy was first utilized in Vassar College to provide security

and more of a family-oriented environment among residents. This female dormitory

design eventually became an American style [1].

Since women's dormitories strived to create a family environment, spaces were

planned on both intimate and grand scales to accommodate all needs of female students

[1]. These spaces, in some cases, included rooms such as a laundry room, a sewing

room, a shampooing room, a kitchenette, a trunk room, common or entertaining rooms

(both formal and informal), and a room that could serve refreshments [1, 29-30]. These









spaces helped contribute to the realization of the idea that female dormitories were to

serve as a home away from home where students could learn social graces such as dinner

party or afternoon tea etiquette [30]. Books, magazines, artwork, flowers, and plants were

just a few items that were supposed to be on display around the residence hall to illustrate

the beauty and homelike nature of the residence facility [29-30].

After World War II, veterans were beginning to return to institutions for degrees

[1]. This phenomenon created a housing shortage over many college campuses, so

schools began to buy up barracks from the government that were no longer being used at

the close of the war [1, 4]. The enrollment boost increased the universities' need for

permanent residential facilities, creating a housing building boom in the 1950s and 1960s

[4]. During this boom, the housing staff living within dormitories started to become more

of a professional class. This meant that the role of the "housemother" began shifting-

the beginning of the end of in loco parents [4].

The federal government's response to this building boom was to provide low-

interest loans for construction of facilities, a result of the Title IV, or the Housing Act, of

1950 [4]. In order to get the most for their money, institutions started creating "built-in"

furniture so that furnishings would qualify as part of the construction costs, since the low-

interest loans could not be used on free-standing furnishings [4].

Current Residence Hall Trends

Two residence hall design trends began recently emerging during the construction

of new residence halls. First, suite-style residence halls became popular. Students

perceive less crowding in a facility that is composed of suite-style rooms rather than

rooms in a double-loaded corridor [31]. These same residents feel that they develop their

social skills more than those in a double-loaded corridor [31].









Hill reports projects in which three schools all created some form of suite-style

living, consisting of a series of single or double rooms sharing a common lounge, a

kitchen, and bathroom facilities in some variation [21]. Cornell University in Ithaca,

New York created a new freshman residence hall complex that coupled a double and a

single room together, sharing a bathroom [20]. Birdsey reports on Middlebury College's

rehabilitation of four residence halls built in the 1960s [23]. Because students leave their

homes with high expectations of their new living arrangements, some students opt out of

living in residence halls because of the double-loaded corridor and shared restroom

facilities, choosing instead to live off-campus [23]. Middlebury took their residence halls

and created a variety of living accommodations such as singles, doubles, and suites with

various combinations of these room types sharing living room space and bathrooms [23].

Academic endeavors included within the residence hall spaces also surfaced as an

emerging trend. Bringing academics into the dormitory setting has taken on various

formats such as special interest halls and like-major floors or halls [31-32]. Pike's study

shows that students involved in a learning community have positive experiences outside

the classroom, which lead to a high level of involvement and interaction within the

university community as a whole [31, 33]. Edwards' study shows an increase in GPAs

among the male participants, and an increase in persistence within minority students [34].

Persistence was measured between year one and two by factors such as staying at the

university, staying within the same college and major, and staying within the learning

community [31, 34]. Bringing academics into the residence hall was not a new thought;

Rowe pointed out that this idea came from the original residence halls of Europe [32].









An trend currently gaining momentum is the creation of sustainable residential

buildings. The first dormitory to encompass features representative of sustainable design

is found at Carnegie Mellon University [19]. This facility was built with small private

rooms and many social spaces, in order to draw students out of their rooms. For the 260

residents living in the facility, there are 230 interaction spaces [19]. Additionally, each

resident room has operable windows and controls for the temperature [19]. Not only is

this a characteristic of sustainable design, but also gives students control over their

environment.

Kennedy outlines a few key concepts to remember when dealing with residence

facilities, whether in new construction or a renovation plan [11]. They include creating

communities with academic focus; giving students amenities such as cable and computer

jacks; creating a variety of living spaces; providing enough electricity for all appliances

needed; and providing flexible furniture in order for students to be able to creatively

move their rooms around [11]. Birdsey concurs but adds the need to promote social

interaction by spatial layout and to reflect private housing with respect to the look of

furnishings [23]. Colleges and universities also need to upgrade facilities once new

amenities surface, in order to keep students' interest and keep the facilities most up-to-

date [23]. Pocorobba further affirms these needs by defining a living and learning

community as "halls having dining, computer interactive services, collaborative student

areas, faculty living spaces and retail options" [22: 332].

Based on observation and analysis of recent studies, state-of-the-art facilities in

2006 and later should encompass sustainable design whether the building is new

construction or a renovation. Since technology is always changing, it is important to









continue to upgrade living spaces to accommodate these changing needs while providing

enough power to run the technologies. Another concept to consider is academics;

students go to school to become educated. Interaction of academics and the social living

environment only strengthens that fact, and brings together individuals who have similar

interests or goals in life. Residents should not feel crowded and should feel that they

have their own space. Living arrangements should give students more control over their

environment, such as flexible or moveable furniture. Small groups of residents sharing

common study, social, and restroom facilities should create an environment that is less

crowded than spaces accommodating thirty or forty students.

University of Florida Campus Residential Facilities through 1961

The University of Florida opened in Gainesville in 1906 with only two buildings,

Thomas and Buckman Halls [6, 17]. The pair of buildings were designed as residence

halls, but initially served all the living, learning, and administrative functions of the

university. The facilities were organized with the individual entrances characteristic of

an England dormitory and followed the 1905 plan for the new campus, with collegiate

gothic detail of red brick and clay tile [17]. Both halls became strictly residence facilities

by World War II [6, 17].

The housing demand continued to increase for the University. The rooms in

Thomas and Buckman Halls were intended for two people; however, they began housing

three and four people per room [35]. In 1915, the first boarding facility was opened by

Mrs. G. S. Ramsey, and between 1915 and 1920, houses taking in boarders off-campus

increased [35]. In 1919, the University bought the first set of barracks to be used as

housing for students starting in the fall of 1920, but these were condemned by 1928 [35].









Though there was an obvious need for housing, the next residence facility, Sledd

Hall, was not completed until 1929 [6]. This facility was built in sections and utilized

construction methods that fireproofed the structure [17]. Rudolph Weaver, State Board

of Control Architect for the period 1925-1944, continued the collegiate gothic plan of

William Edwards [6, 17]. The dormitories of the Weaver era increased detail in

ornaments on the building such as seals of European universities, animals, and plants [6].

The use of European university seals solidified the direct ties the American university

housing system sought with earlier schools.

A survey of the student living situation during the 1930-31 academic year showed

that only 21.5% of the attending student body lived in University of Florida dormitories

[17]. The rest of the student population lived in either fraternity houses (23.1%) or

private homes (55.4%) [17]. At this time, the Educational Survey Commission hoped

that the university could house half the student population [17]. This goal could not be

met with the current living facilities, so new construction was inevitable. Fletcher and

Murphree Halls were completed in 1939, enclosing courtyards with the adjacent Sledd,

Thomas, and Buckman Halls [6].

During World War II, campus and residence hall enrollment decreased significantly

[6]. With the ending of the war in 1945, veterans began returning to school. Since

residence halls were not full, veterans who had wives and families were able to rent

rooms in Muphree Hall [6]. The number of students enrolling in school soon surpassed

pre-war numbers [36]. Due to the increase in demand for housing, the University began

purchasing temporary structures, which opened in 1946 [6]. By 1947, these temporary

structures allowed 9,000 students to live in University buildings [37]. In a published









building program by the University, these temporary structures could also allow coeds to

live on campus, if and when women were allowed to enroll [37]. This program also

planned the next ten years of building on campus, and evidently residence facilities,

though already in dire need, were not a high priority. Constructing housing for students

fell to third priority during the second part of the ten-year plan [37].

The next fall after this building plan was published, women were allowed to enroll

at the University, and in that first academic year, approximately 500 women enrolled [8].

That first fall, the women were not given any housing options on the University of

Florida campus. In 1948, construction began on the first women's residence hall, and

some women took residence in sorority houses, Lonilair and Michael Halls, or Pierce and

Patrick Courts [6, 36]. Grove Hall, a temporary facility located where the School of

Architecture now stands, was also used to house women during the early 1950s and again

in the late 1950s [6].

In 1950, the first female residence halls-Mallory, Yulee, and Reid-opened to

freshman students [8]. These halls were designed and built under new State Board of

Control Architect Guy Fulton [6, 38]. The spatial arrangement of these residence halls

was characterized by long corridors with central public restrooms, reflecting the typical

female-designed dormitory, which came to be known as the typical American dormitory

[1]. There were also extra rooms within these halls to support the social, hygienic, and

storage needs of female residents [1, 29-30]. The architecture moved away from

collegiate gothic, but the buildings used the traditional campus red brick and clay tile,

concrete awnings, and glass block as the prominent material selection [16, 39]. Other

residence halls built with this same architecture style under Fulton included Tolbert,









North, Weaver, and Riker Halls (all 1950); Broward Hall (1954); Rawlings Hall (1958);

and Graham, East, Simpson, Trusler, and Jennings Halls (all 1961) [6]. Hume Hall was

built in 1958, but by 2000, it had been razed to construct a brand new Hume Hall for

honors students [6]. In addition, Fulton oversaw the construction of Corry and Schucht

Villages, permanent apartments located on-campus [6].


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residence halls of today. Trends seen in new construction and renovations have a direct

link to the history of dormitories. For example, academic spaces within the living facility

are not new concepts; however, history shows that there was a diversion from this notion.









But the idea of providing academic support spaces within the living environment is

making a presence in today's residential facilities.

Now that there is a general understanding of the history and current trends of

residence halls, the scope can be narrowed down and information can be interpreted

specifically for the University of Florida campus. Not only can changes in the facility

design at the University of Florida be seen as history has evolved, but also the rejection

of some design influences in the creation of dormitories. For example, a move towards

long corridors from the original clusters of rooms around a stairwell is seen through the

history of the residential facilities on campus. However, Fulton noticeably rejected the

notion of giving up support spaces for students to increase the bed count within the

residence halls, which was popular at other colleges and universities. Fulton's

dormitories continued to have necessary and ample amounts of social spaces with multi-

use rooms that contributed to the residence hall environment. These designs helped to

continuously classify Fulton's dorms as state-of-the-art facilities.














CHAPTER 5
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF JENNINGS HALL

The University of Florida Residence Halls, 1950-1961

On the southeast side of campus, Jennings Hall opened in 1961 as the last female

residence hall to be built during the post-World War II building boom [6]. Fourteen

University of Florida residence hall facilities built during 1950-1961 were operational in

2006, accounting for more than half the housing facilities on campus. These dormitories

were built in response to the influx of enrollment caused by the ending of the war, the

enrollment of women, and the coming of age baby boomer generation [1, 7-8].

-. .- i.
V-





00 -^ 14



.-II~ I'i .

Figure 5.1 1961 University of Florida Campus Map, Dormitory Areas [5]

The first dormitories to be built during this time period were Mallory and Yulee

Halls built for the first women residents [6, 16]. A third residence hall for female

residents, Reid, was finished shortly after, in 1950, and completed this group, linked by

breezeways [6, 16]. Tolbert, Weaver, North, and Riker Halls were all built in 1950 for

male residents and were located on the west side of campus [6, 7]. Broward Hall, opened









in 1954, and Rawlings Hall, opened in 1958, were the next two residential facilities built,

and they were constructed for women on the east side of campus close to Mallory, Yulee,

and Reid Halls [6]. In 1961, Graham, East, Simpson, and Trusler Halls were opened on

the west side of campus to house male residents [6].

All fourteen residence halls named above were built under the State University

System Architect to the Board of Control (BOC) Guy Fulton [6]. Fulton had received his

Architecture degree from the University of Illinois [16]. Prior to working for the State

University System Architect, Fulton worked at a firm and for Washington State

University, under the State Architect Rudolph Weaver [16]. In 1926, Fulton came to

Florida to once again work under the State University System Architect, who was once

more Rudolph Weaver [16]. Fulton took over Weaver's position in 1944 [16, 38]. In

1958, Fulton resigned as head architect due to health problems, which promoted Forrest

M. Kelly, Jr. as the BOC head architect [38]. However, Fulton continued to work as the

architect in Gainesville until his full retirement in 1962 [38]. Fulton passed away in 1974

[38].

Comparative Analysis

Since all fourteen residence halls were designed under the same architect, many

similarities can be noted. The residence halls built during 1950-1961 moved away from

the traditional Collegiate Gothic architecture of the campus, but maintained compatibility

of materials and scale [16]. All of these four-story facilities utilize horizontal lines

created by concrete awnings to emphasize their length and keep the hot Florida sun from

baking the rooms [7, 16].

























Figure 5.2 Broward Hall Hipped Roof

Only the female residence halls built between 1950 and 1954 share common

themes of hipped roofs with clay tile raised above a flat frieze. All the male dormitories

built between 1950 and 1954 have flat roofs above a flat frieze, like the dorms

constructed after 1954.





















Figure 5.3 Examples of the Entryways at (A) Weaver Hall with Enclosures, and (B)
Yulee Hall with Open Porches























Figure 5.4 Porticos on (A) Broward Hall, and (B) Rawlings Hall.

Another common architecture theme is the use of a formal entryway that features a

modernist interpretation of classical engaged portico1 and a fronton2 surrounding the

actual door to the residence hall. Concrete supports project from the ground up four

stories to the roof, framing either porches or windows. Mallory, Yulee, Reid, and

Broward Halls feature porches, while Weaver, North, Tolbert, and Riker Halls feature

window bays. On the ground floor, there is a wood fronton surrounding the entry door

that has the name of the hall on the top portion. Glass doors are used, and glazing is

found on both sides and above the fronton. Though Broward Hall does not incorporate a

portico around the fronton, an interpretation of this portico can be seen encasing the

public lounge spaces found on each residential floor, and can also be seen in Rawlings

Hall, built in 1958. Broward introduced a public entrance space to bridge two wings of

residents' rooms; this concept would be incorporated in the design of Jennings Hall.

Glass block is a common material used in the construction and design of the early

residence halls-Mallory, Yulee, Reid, North, Riker, Weaver, Tolbert, and Broward

1 Engaged portico-columns placed at regular intervals supporting a roof, normally attached as a porch to a
building all embedded into the wall [3: 513]

2 Fronton-small pediment or similar element over a doorway [3: 257]










Halls. The glass block is curved, creating a wave pattern versus flat glass block. This

material is used heavily within stairwells of these residential facilities, in order to allow

sunlight to penetrate a usually dark space [7]. The other residential facilities, Rawlings,

Jennings, East, Graham, Simpson, and Trusler Halls, utilize other types of glazing within

the stairwells to serve the same purpose.

--a


A


B C


Figure 5.5 Glass Block at (A) Broward Hall, (B) Riker Hall, and (C) Yulee Hall


AM B
Figure 5.6 Other Types of Glazing (A) Rawlings Hall, and (B) Jennings Hall

Breezeways are another common feature shared by Mallory, Yulee, Reid, Tolbert,

North, Riker, Weaver, East, Trusler, and Simpson Halls. These covered, open walkways

connect buildings on the ground level and sometimes on the upper levels of residential









facilities, allowing residents to move between facilities without having the sun and rain

beat down upon them [7]. Broward and Jennings Halls were designed this way; however,

the breezeways were completely enclosed, creating public spaces shared by each of the

residential wings.

















Figure 5.7 Breezeways at (A) Mallory, Yulee, and Reid Halls, and (B) Riker and Weaver
Halls

Summary

Guy Fulton's architecture style is noteworthy on campus for the scale, concrete

awnings, brick, and glass block that create continuity. At the same time, even halls that

use the same materials may use it differently. Figure 5.5 shows three examples of glass

block encasement in three different residence halls. Fulton seemed to draw inspiration

from the variations of each project. This is also seen in the usage of a massive public

space connecting two residential wings. This simple element could have drawn

inspiration from the open covered walkway seen in earlier buildings, but enclosed and

made more functional. Such changes allowed each building to be connected while

making each residence hall distinctive in its own way.









Jennings Hall

Site Analysis




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Figure 5.8 Original Construction Document, Site [9]

Jennings Hall is located in the southeast quadrant of the main campus. The

residential facility is positioned south of Museum Road, west of 13th Street and east of
Newell Drive. Most of the building is established on a northeast and southwest axis. The






land is not completely flat on this site; a part of the ground floor is nestled into the site or

against the earth creating spaces without windows. Along the east side of the building is

a wooded area containing a creek. This natural landscape runs on the same axis of the

building-a northeast and southwest axis; this landscape setting more than likely

determined the way the building was placed on the site. Between the natural landscape

area and the building is a service road, which houses dumpsters and a loading dock area

for the facility. A small parking lot is located on the south side of the building and

continues west past the edge of Jennings Hall.























Figure 5.9 The Approach to Jennings Hall















Figure 5.10 A Detail of the Japanese-inspired Garden at Jennings Hall

As visitors and residents approach Jennings Hall along its western side, walking

south from Museum Road, a Japanese-inspired garden greets them. Though this type of

garden was not specified in the original construction documents, University of Florida

Landscape Architect Noel Lake designed and implemented this garden a few years after

the completion of the facility. This patio space is bounded on the east side by Jennings

Hall and the west side by the annex building. The southern edge has decorative concrete

blocks lined with plant life such as banana trees. The northern edge has a rail and

landscaping beds that hold plants such as bamboo. The stairs up to the garden or the









patio space are also located on the northern edge. There is a concrete sidewalk taking

one around the garden, and above part of the sidewalks is a saw-toothed roof for cover, or

a breezeway. The garden, located in the middle of the space, is full of plant life. There is

a walking path through the middle that leads to a bridge over a stocked Koi pond.

The Jennings Annex building is located on the west side of the residence hall.

Originally this structure served as a dining facility for the residence hall. Architecturally,

the facility has matching characteristics to Jennings Hall, such as the saw-toothed

roofline. It has been renovated to house offices and helps serve the University Police

Department. Further west of this annex building are a parking lot and the historic

University Police Department building.

Along the east side of the building, a patio extends off of Jennings Hall. This space

has a few picnic tables and a built-in grill, installed in the early 1990s. Tall shrubbery

and decorative concrete block help to create the boundaries of this patio space. There are

stairs down to the service road the runs between the natural wooded landscape area and

the residence hall.

Exterior Description of the Facility


Figure 5.11 Horizontal Concrete Awnings









Jennings Hall utilizes red brick and concrete as major material elements in the

facade. Concrete awnings run horizontally above the windows of the residential wings,

helping to emphasize the building's length, while keeping the hot Florida sun out of the

residents' rooms. Decorative concrete blocks are used to help create some privacy on

concrete porches and patios.


Figure 5.12 Saw-tooth Roofline

The roof of Jennings Hall is flat. In order to help distinguish the public space from

the private residential wings on the exterior of the building, a unique and decorative saw-

toothed roofline was created. This pattern is repeated in other elements of the facade.

The porches and railings off the public spaces on the east side of the facility reflect the

distinctive element. The landscape beds on the west side of the building and the edge of

the patio are also saw-toothed.
























figure 3.13 Iwo-story LoDDy space

I__ LI.I


Figure 5.14 Original Construction Document, Terrazzo Pattern [9]

Windows are another major element, creating a rhythm formed by the single-pane,

steel casement fenestrations found within each room. The public spaces also take

advantage of the glazing, especially in the atrium-like lobby space. This space is one

story on the west side of the building and two stories on the east side, and the walls are

made of continuous glazing. These walls are also saw-toothed in plan, creating a

diamond pattern with the saw-toothed roofline above. The walls are composed of 1/4"

polished plate glass with aluminum and steel mullions [9]. Glazing can also be found in









all stairwells (see figure 5.6B). These windows are stacked one on top the other, creating

a vertical feature within the facade.

There are a total of four stairwells in Jennings Hall. Each pair encapsulates the

private wings that contain the residents' rooms. However, the two that touch the public

spaces are taller than the rest of the building. This, combined with the vertical window

element, disrupts the horizontality of the building, signifing a design change, which is

emphasized in the saw-toothed roofline.

Interior Description of the Facility

The main or formal entryway is into a lobby space that has an atrium impression,

resulting from the continuous glazing found in this space. The west side of the space is

one story, while the east side is two stories (see figure 5.13). The walls of glass help to

maintain a connection between the landscapes-the Japanese-inspired garden to the west

and the natural wooded area to the east-and the inside of the building. There are stairs

within the lobby, allowing travel down to the ground floor; otherwise, the lobby space

allows traffic to flow into one of the two private wings or more public spaces.

..^-^ -:--


Figure 5.15 Control or Desk of Jennings






















Figure 5.16 Library Bookcase Wall and Patio Doors

The recreational room off of the lobby also hosts the control area or the reception

desk and the student mailboxes. The recreational room has points of entry created by

glass doors that allows for exit on and off the saw-toothed patio. Past the control area,

there is a library on the left or east side of the building. This room is completely enclosed

and has a built-in bookcase wall. Along the eastern edge, there are glass doors that exit

onto the saw-toothed shaped patio overlooking the natural wooded area to the east. Past

the library, there are offices and public restrooms. The other residential wing starts

thereafter.

Downstairs, off the lobby space, there is another point of entry into the private

wing and another recreational room. This recreational room has game tables, vending

machines, and a TV. Double glass doors, like the ones on the first floor, are along the

eastern edge of this space and lead out onto a saw-tooth edged patio and rail. Offices for

various student organizations are linked to this recreational space on the western edge

and do not have windows. The original office spaces had closets and a small buffet

kitchen; however, renovations in some of the spaces have made each office different,

depending on the needs of the organization. One office was converted into a laundry

room with a fenestration into the recreation room so students can see washers and dryers









without walking into the enclosed space. Off the southern edge of the recreation room is

a large meeting space capable of being divided into two rooms. There are two points of

entry for this space and glass doors allow occupants to exit onto the saw-toothed patio.

Past all the offices and the meeting room, there is the other private wing entry

point. However, past the entry of this wing, there are other spaces currently utilized by

the Department of Housing and Residence Education. These spaces include various

storage rooms and a key shop. Some of these spaces are no longer needed by the

department, and can be utilized for other purposes.

Every residential floor has the same common spaces. The first space is a lounge

with a small kitchenette. Each kitchen includes a stove, an oven, a sink, vending

machines, and a microwave. Tables and chairs occupy the space and a TV is mounted on

the wall. Trash rooms are located adjacent to each lounge area. The shared restrooms are

also adjacent to the lounge space. Each restroom is equipped with showers, sinks, and

toilets. Originally there were some baths in addition to the shower stalls; however, most

of the restrooms have been renovated and the baths have been taken out to make room for

more shower stalls [9].

Each residential floor is lined on both sides of the hallway with double occupancy

rooms. The rooms have one window and come with moveable beds, desks, and dressers.

Built-in closet and storage units surround the door. Originally these closets and storage

shelves had sliding doors to enclose the space, but over the years, most have been taken

off. Most floors have one triple and one single occupancy room. There are a few

apartments scattered throughout the building that contain a living space with a

kitchenette, a bathroom, and a bedroom.









The original terrazzo flooring is still seen in Jennings Hall. The National Terrazzo

and Mosaic Association, Inc. supplied the gray terrazzo [9]. The light-colored mortar is

balanced with dark chips polished at the surface. This flooring material was used

throughout the atrium-like lobby space and in both the first floor and ground floor

recreational rooms. Carpet was used in the office and meeting spaces found adjacent to

the recreation rooms. Vinyl tile was used throughout the remainder of the building [9].

The control desk and library included built-in units. These were made with walnut

veneers on plywood or solid walnut wood [9]. The reception desk area was altered from

the original plan in the early 1990s. It was reconstructed to be similar to the original, but

now meets codes for accessibility. The major alteration is located in the front facade of

the desk. The original desk front facade was at a slight angle so that it did not create a

ninety degree angle to the floor or counter [9]. The new desk front is perpendicular to the

floor and countertop. The library built-in bookcase is original in design and has had

minor repairs, which resulted in the replacement of some walnut wood located in the

doors.

Each residence hall room comes with a built-in closet and storage area surrounding

the entry door. Originally, this was a product made with red birch veneer, but over the

years, this built-in has been painted and the doors have been removed [9]. The product

was made locally in Gainesville, Florida at Wood Products, Inc. [9]. This company also

did work on the cabinetry found in the original linen rooms, which no longer exist [9].

Wood Products, Inc. also created the bookstore counter [9]. The bookstore was originally

found in Jennings Hall just off of the first floor lobby, and is currently being used as an

office.









The restrooms on each floor originally had Crane brand baths [9]. These baths

were equipped with showerheads, though there were also shower stalls. The original

shower stalls had two small enclosed spaces-one was the actual shower, and the other

was designed as a dressing area with a seat [9]. The original shower partitions and toilet

partitions were composed of marble [9]. The toilet partitions are still there; however, the

shower area has been renovated over the years, and those marble partitions are gone.

Architect's Vision

Through the site planning analysis, it became evident that the building was

arranged on this piece of land to purposefully take advantage of the views. Spaces were

designed and glazing was utilized to take advantage of the natural landscapes.

Additionally, porches and patios were created to overlook this area. Providing residents

with the ability to experience this natural landscape was a goal of the architect.

Guy Fulton and the University of Florida wanted to make the women's residence

halls top quality and state-of-the-art. Tours of other women's facilities at three other

institutions were taken to gather ideas, to see building standards, and to examine spaces

provided for the residents [16]. The feedback provided gave an idea of spaces to be

considered and possibly incorporated into the design plan of the facility. This research

also suggested the possibility of using pre-cast concrete as a method of construction [16].

Because of Fulton's high expectations, he wrote a letter discussing the issues found with

this method, including the lower-than-standard spaces it could provide for the University

[16]. Fulton received support for this position, and the tilt-up wall construction of the

first female residence halls, Yulee, Mallory, and Reid, began [16]. These actions show

how dedicated Fulton was to create designs and spaces that were better than those seen at

other institutions.









Though Jennings Hall was built and completed eleven years later, this dormitory

still showed the newest ideas, in order to bring this residence hall above the norm. This

facility had kitchenettes and laundry facilities on each floor, giving the residents more

convenient amenities. Roof decks were created in order for the students to sunbathe [9].

These decks have some privacy, due to the use of the decorative concrete block used on

other porch areas of the building. Another convenience was the bookstore located

adjacent to the main entry doors. Though the trend of the times was to minimize

amenities and to maximize the number of students living in a space, Fulton incorporated

and raised the standards in his designs, as exemplified in Jennings Hall.

Character Defining Features

To proceed with rehabilitation, it is necessary to identify significant character

defining features, according to the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation

[24]. The determination of these features is based on research of the building through

archival documentation and the study of original construction documents, combined with

on-site survey to evaluate original features and changes [24].

A major exterior feature of the building that defines the era in which it was built is

the saw-toothed roofline. This roofline is not seen on any other building on campus

besides the Jennings Hall Annex, and is used in the covered porch area in front of the

main entrance to the building. This element is reflected in landscape beds and porches.

Curtain walls that define the lobby space are saw-toothed in plan, creating a diamond

pattern with the saw-toothed roofline above. Additionally, the concrete awnings used to

create a horizontal feel and keep the Florida sun from baking the student rooms also

provide a link to the other residence halls of the era.









The relation of the building to the site is a significant feature that defines Jennings

Hall. The natural wooded and creek landscape area, as well as the Japanese-inspired

garden, provide a picturesque setting for the residence hall. No other residential facility

has as distinctive or extensive landscapes as Jennings Hall. The woods, the Japanese-

inspired garden, and various plant life help define the site, as well as the character of the

interior spaces with which they interact

Inside Jennings Hall, the atrium-like lobby space is a distinguishing feature of the

building. Since the exterior walls of this space reflect the roofline in a saw-toothed

manner, the experience of this space is different than any other within the facility. The

curtain walls allow the Florida sunlight to penetrate the space and the natural views

outside to be observed.

The terrazzo flooring found in this space and the other public spaces is original and

in good condition. This flooring material should not be disturbed and should continue to

be used. The other public spaces have many double doors made of glass that overlook

the natural wooded area. These should not be disturbed because the glazing allows

people within these spaces to enjoy the scenery.

The built-in bookcases found in the library are another distinguishing characteristic

of this building. The bookcases are made of walnut-faced plywood and paneling that

surrounds glass [9]. These built-in bookcases are in good condition and have had some

repairs over the years. The repairs did not alter the design but some of the tones of wood

are different.

The restroom facilities found on each floor have some defining characteristics-

both unchanged and changed. The one feature that has not been changed or altered in the









restrooms is the marble stall partitions found between the toilets. These seem to be in

fairly good condition and are the original polished sterling gray sheets that came from the

Candoro Marble Co. in Knoxville, Tennessee [9].

Areas Subject to Alteration

Other features in the restrooms have been altered, including showers, baths, and

sinks. The shower stalls have all been changed from the original forms that also utilized

marble partitions. Now tiled walls separate the shower areas. Most of the bathtubs have

been taken out and only a few remain throughout the building. The sinks were originally

attached directly to the wall but are currently in the process of being encased by a long

countertop.

Each room has a built-in closet and storage unit that surrounds the door. These

units still remain, but the original doors have been removed. These once red birch veneer

units are now painted white to match the wall color [9]. Additionally, the kitchenettes on

each floor have been renovated, and the laundry rooms have been taken off each floor.

Now the laundry facility is found on the ground floor adjacent to the recreational lounge

space.

Another defining space within the building would have been the control area and

mailbox slots. However, in the early 1990s, these spaces were altered, creating

differences from the original design. The mailroom and some mail slots were changed in

order to provide more secure mailboxes for residents. The desk area kept most of the

storage features, upgrading only in certain areas for technology or for the American

Disabilities Act standards. However, two major changes did occur with the renovation of

the desk. First, the walnut veneer was not reused. Secondly, the design of the front of

the desk was changed. The original desk's front was at a slight angle while the new desk









front is straight meeting the counter and the floor at a ninety-degree angle [9]. Though

the change to the desk is subtle, it is noticeable.

Summary

Jennings Hall is distinguished by the saw-toothed roofline and curtain walls that

link the interior atrium space with the landscape setting. It is the only building on

campus to have such a recognizable roof edge, a feature that links the building with

prevailing trends. Fulton designed the building to take advantage of the landscape on the

east side, and included a place for a planted area before the formal entrance on the west

side. Though the Japanese-inspired garden located in this space was not planned by

Fulton but Noel Lake, it contrasts with the natural landscape to provide a different

experience. Some of Jennings Hall's defining characteristics have been altered, but the

major elements that distinguish this hall from other buildings on campus still remain.

These factors make Jennings Hall a piece of irreplaceable architecture on the University

of Florida campus and should be taken into consideration when the structure is

undergoing maintenance or rehabilitation plans are being created.














CHAPTER 6
PROPOSED REHABILITATION DESIGN PLAN

Introduction

The proposed rehabilitation design for Jennings Hall followed the framework set

forth by the Secretary of the Interior's Standards [24]. Through this framework, key

defining features of the building were identified and preserved in the rehabilitation

design. The saw-tooth roofline was a significant feature to the exterior of the building.

The concrete awnings added functional and visual value while creating a link to other

buildings on campus. The two-story glass enclosed atrium, the terrazzo flooring, and the

built-in furniture were determined to be significant interior attributes. These character

defining features preserve a visual record of this architectural era on the University of

Florida campus.

Other factors taken into consideration in the creation of a rehabilitation design

came from concepts and ideas found within the history of residence halls and current

trends in dormitory construction. Understanding of past and present trends allowed new

and reinterpreted concepts to be brought into the rehabilitation design effectively.

Program Overview

The program detailed spaces that would contribute to the goal of providing an

academic environment within Jennings Hall. The user of the residence hall was defined

to identify specialized spaces that would relate to the specific academic field incorporated

in this project. Aesthetic considerations were considered that would benefit the overall

goals of the facility.









Below is the table that illustrates the program. The table lists both new and old

spaces along with the required square footages needed in order to accommodate the

spaces within a design [9].

Table 6.1 Program Overview
Original square Current square New square
feet feet feet
Lobby space 1897.25 1897.25 1897.25
Bookstore/ Convenience store 408 0 408
Control/Desk and Mail area 711.875 711.875 711.875
Library 1438 1438 1438
Lounge 1683 1683 1683
Meeting Rooms 1997.1 1664.2 1305.1
Laundry Room 0 326.2 326.2
Fitness Room 0 0 322.4
Recreation Room 2560 2560 2560
Studio Space 0 0 847.8
Paint Room 0 0 184.3
Public Restrooms (basement) 260.4 0 260.4
Supportive Spaces 6133.35 6801.75 5101.25
Residential Wings
Single Rooms 0 116 156.75
Double Rooms (average) 193.875 193.875 228.875
Triple Rooms 276 276 331.75
ADA Room 0 149.5 136.5
average per student 94 105 129.6
Bathroom Space (average) 417.56 417.56 500.5
average per student 12.3 12.3 20
Kitchenette/Lounge 346.5 346.5 453.75
Guest Restroom 0 0 39

The User

The Department of Housing and Residence Education began planning academic

initiatives in the residence halls in 2000, but the first implemented program was in 2002

[40]. Currently there are residence halls that foster support for specific colleges such as

the College of Engineering, the College of Fine Arts, and the Honors Program [40].









There are also floors and halls focusing on international students, student leaders, and

students devoted to wellness [40]. Each program implements these initiatives through

planned events, and in some cases, specific academic spaces are created within the living

environment [40].

Jennings Hall is currently one of two residential facilities dedicated to wellness

through a program entitled GatorWell [40]. This program involves a partnership with the

Student Health Care Center and the Department of Housing and Residence Education

[40]. Events within the facility focus on health screenings, sex education, and massage

therapy to name a few [40]. However, for the purpose of this thesis, the Department of

Housing and Residence Education allowed complete freedom in the creation of a

rehabilitation plan which included the ability to change the focus of the facility.

For this thesis, the new primary user was identified as students in the College of

Design, Construction and Planning. More specifically, this user was to be enrolled in the

beginning design studios through the School of Architecture. These studios educate and

introduce students to the design fields of architecture, interior design, and landscape

design.

The beginning studio, Architectural Design 1, does not have dedicated studio space

for the students registered in this course. These students depend on shared studio space,

and personal space found within their residences, to complete their projects. Lockers are

available on a first-come, first-serve basis for these individuals. Usually the lockers fill

up during the first week of school, and there are not enough lockers available for every

student enrolled in the first design studio.









In identifying a new user group for this residential facility, an important

consideration was the proximity of the college to the residence hall. The actual college

and all the facilities associated with that college are located within the same area as on

campus Jennings Hall. A second consideration was the ability to create a community

around a specific academic goal. The students enrolled in the beginning design studios

experience a unique transition into college by way of these classes, prior to being

accepted into the program of their design profession of choice. This unique situation

bonds students differently than other first year students on campus. The third

consideration was the need for more academic spaces that could enhance the community.

This facility would provide more support spaces as a remedy to the limited studio design

space for these individuals.

There are other secondary users to be considered for the proposed design of

Jennings Hall. Other students in the College of Design, Construction and Planning not

enrolled in the beginning design studio live in this residence hall. Because some

beginning students complete Design 1 during summer school, some may be enrolled in

the Architectural Design 2 course in the fall when the majority of the students are

registered in the Architectural Design 1 course. Faculty and graduate assistants that help

teach this beginning design course will be considered secondary users if they decide to

take advantage of the academic spaces provided within the residence hall. Meeting space

could be utilized to hold office hours or meet with students outside the classroom setting.

Additionally, the current shortage of gallery, reception, and presentation space would

suggest that the faculty and upper division or graduate students might take advantage of









these spaces in Jennings Hall. Participation in these events would help orient the

beginning students.

Aesthetic Considerations

When considering a color palette and general aesthetic appeal of the interior spaces

of Jennings Hall, it is important to take into account the era of construction, significant

features of this building, and influences of the exterior environment. This building was

completed in 1961; hence, the 1950s and '60s eras are inspirational time periods when

aesthetics are being considered for the rehabilitation plan. Since the building falls within

the modern architecture movement on the University of Florida campus, it is important to

consider furniture and materials that are compatible with this time period. Furniture that

features wood and utilizes clean, simple lines will be chosen for the facility. Ray Eames

furniture from the 1950s served as an influence when selecting fixtures for the public

spaces. Sustainability is a growing concern and trend in dormitory design and choosing

furniture and materials from companies who use recycled content or have environmental

policies assists the goal of creating an updated state-of-the-art facility. Additionally, the

exterior landscapes prominently displayed around the building seep into the facility

through the large amounts of glazing and need to be coordinated with the interior.

Description of Rehabilitation Plan

This section will describe the spaces in the proposed rehabilitation plan. Figures

illustrating the original construction documents and the newly proposed design plan will

follow each description. The overall layouts will be first followed by the details of some

spaces.








54








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Figure 6.1 Original Construction Document, First Floor Public Spaces [9]
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Figure 6.1 Orginal Constrution Documen, FrtFlo ubi pae 9













































































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Figure 6.2 New Layout of First Floor Public Spaces







56





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Figure 6.3 Original Construction Document, Basement Public Spaces [9]























Figure 6.4 Copy of Original Construction Document, Basement Support Spructi[9]


t, Basement Public Spaces [9]


























Figure 6.4 Copy of Original Construction Document, Basement Support Spaces [9]













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Figure 6.5 New Layout of the Basement Public Spaces









Lobby Space

The lobby space has been identified as a character defining feature and will remain

intact. The first floor functions of the lobby space will remain, while the ground floor of

the lobby will be assigned a few new functions, such as study, presentation, reception,

and gallery spaces. Moveable furniture and partitions will make it possible to transform

the ground floor lobby space for these purposes. The ground floor of the lobby opens up

onto a patio space, which will assist with carrying out these new functions.

Unless the ground floor lobby space is to be utilized as a gallery, reception, or

presentation space, the main function will be study space. This space will have high top

tables with stackable bar stools. This furniture can be utilized during receptions either

with or without the bar stools. Since the stools stack, the space can easily transform into

a presentation or gallery space. The presentation space will need chairs of normal height

to be set up, while a gallery will need moveable partitions or screens to be properly

placed. Storage for the extra furniture could be in the adjacent storage room off of the

basement lobby space.

The chairs found within this space will be composed of molded wood, similar to

chairs from the 1950s. Tables will be made of the same or similar materials. The

moveable partitions or screens that will be utilized in the space will take on the same

saw-tooth design found on the roof line of the facility, as well as the walls in the plan of

the lobby space. This feature will enhance the importance of the saw-tooth roof line

found only on Jennings Hall.







59













Figure 6.6 Examples of Molded Wood Chairs [41]


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9, I


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Figure 6.7 Original


Figure 6.8 Original Construction Document, Basement Lobby Space [9]
Figure 6.8 Original Construction Document, Basement Lobby Space [9]


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Figure 6.9 Lobby Space Showing Terrazzo Pattern














A B













C
0"





Figure 6.10 Proposed Lobby Space Functions (A) Study Space, (B) Presentation or
Speaker Space, and (C) Gallery Space









Convenience Store

There is an office off Jennings Hall's first-floor lobby entrance, which was a

bookstore when the building opened in 1961 [9]. In order to recapture the original use of

this space, a convenience store is proposed. This store will have supplies for architecture

students such as foam core, balsa wood, cutting blades, rewritable CDs, and other

supplies that are common and often necessary while working on a project. Additionally,

there could be a place for cold drinks such as soda and iced coffee and some food items

such as energy bars, snack packs of cookies or chips, and possibly pre-made items, such

as sandwiches. Cold drinks and minor food items will keep the students energetic while

working on projects.

This proposal suggests the store be open during late afternoon through evening

hours or just evening hours, from Sunday through Thursday, because other popular stores

in the area that carry these supplies are closed in the evening.


V 6.. i i c "u t o



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Figure 6.11 Original Construction Document, Bookstore [9]
Figure 6.11 Original Construction Document, Bookstore [9]






62


Control or Reception Desk

Though the front desk and mail area were renovated in the early 1990s, their

locations have not changed. The design of the desk was altered at this time, but the built-

in cabinetry work behind the desk is similar. For example, the built-in storage cabinets

found on the west wall are identical; however, a peninsula desk area was added to the

original desk for more work space [9].

The rehabilitation plan will redesign the desk area in the original location with an

interpretation of the original design characteristics. The added storage that was built

behind the desk will be considered when redesigning the control area. Materials

reflective of the original desk will be used in the new construction, creating a closer

match in wood color between the desk and the built-ins found in the library across the

hall. Another change to be made to the desk is to use a wooden rolling door instead of

the metal rolling door presently found in the facility. This material change will be more

aesthetically pleasing when the desk is closed.




















F figure 6.12 Original Construction Document, Control Area [9]
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Figure 6.12 Original Construction Document, Control Area [9]



























Figure 6.13 Original Construction Document, Desk Section Cut Detail [9]

1.1--C.C 1% ff


Elevation of Desk and Mail Area [9]


Figure 6.15 New Layout of Control Area




























A






Walnut -

2'-6"
B/ /
Figure 6.16 New Details of Control Desk (A) Sections, and (B) Elevation

Library

The library is located down the hall from the front desk area. This space provides a

quiet study place for residents. There is an original built-in bookcase located along one

wall. This bookcase is made of walnut wood and glass and has had only minor

maintenance [9]. In the rehabilitation plan, this library will take on a broader sense of its

name and become a media room. This room will continue to use the bookcases with

books and periodicals that serve as sources to all the design fields. Having some

computers and a printer in this space will also be benefit students who want to check their

email or complete school assignments. These computers will be found on the opposite


signments. These computers will be found on the opposite









wall of the built-in bookcases. Internet access will be provided in the space with tables

that have Internet connections and electrical outlets.

The tables and chairs chosen for the space will be composed of wood materials.

The style of the chair is influenced by the 1950s, while the table legs are influenced by

the angle found on the original desk facade. Since the tables and chairs are more

conducive for group study, a few seating choices will be available for individuals

studying alone. Study carrels and lounge seats with built-in desks will be found within

the media room. All wood used within this space will be monitored to closely match the

original walnut coloring of the built-in bookcases. The lounge seating will be

upholstered with a pattern reflective of the era, while using the color scheme influenced

by nature. The carpeting will be replaced by new carpet to relate to the new material

selections of the room. The carpet chosen should be from a company that has recycling

programs for their products.








Figure 6.17 Examples of Seating for the Library [43]


sample of Tables for the Library [41]







66






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Figure 6.19 Original Construction Document, Library [9]


Figure 6.20 Original Construction Document, Bookcase Elevation [9]


Figure 6.21 New Layout for Media Room









Lounge

The first floor lounge will continue to serve the purpose of a general lounge area

for the residential facility. This space is located across from the desk. It currently has a

small TV and general lounge seating in small clusters that are defined by area rugs over

the original terrazzo flooring. The new plan will allow residents to move the furniture

around to meet their needs, removing the need for area rugs and allowing the terrazzo to

be exposed. Lounge furniture will be influenced by the clean lines of the modern

architecture movement and furniture from the 1950s and '60s. Patterns influenced from

that time period and color natural color scheme will be chosen as the material for all

lounge furniture. Tables found in this space will be matched closely to the wood tone of

the desk.









Figure 6.22 Example of Lounge Furniture [44]




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Figure 6.23 Original Construction Document, Lounge Area [9]





































Figure 6.24 New Layout of Lounge Area

Meeting Rooms

In the original design of the building, there were five meeting rooms on the ground

floor. Four of them had storage closets, and two out of the four also had a small

kitchenette. The fifth meeting room was a larger room that could be subdivided into two

smaller meeting rooms, and is the only room with natural daylight penetrating the space.

Currently, four of the meeting rooms, including the large one, are being used as offices or

meeting space with some changes to the original layout. One of the meeting rooms has

been completely changed into a laundry room.

The proposed design plan will keep three meeting rooms, including the larger one.

The rooms will have a storage closet and furniture appropriate to work groups or small









meetings. Glazing will be added to the interior walls in order to allow some natural

sunlight to reach these dark rooms. This glazing will relate to the glass doors found

across the basement recreation room that exits onto the patio. Student study groups or

activity groups can utilize these spaces. Professors and graduate students can also use the

spaces to meet with groups or to work while being available for office hours within the

residential facility. Additionally, the laundry room will remain. Only one of the original

meeting spaces will change functions in the new design, to a workout room. This will

benefit users of the building by allowing them to work out without leaving their living

community. This supports a healthy environment and well-rounded student.

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Figure 6.25 Original Construction Document, Meeting Rooms and Recreation Room [9]
























































Figure 6.26 New Layout of Meeting Rooms, Fitness Room, Laundry Facility, and
Recreation Room









Recreation Room

There is a second lounge area in Jennings Hall, in the basement off of the lobby

space. This lounge area or recreation room houses a large screen TV, lounge seating,

vending machines, a pool table, and a ping-pong table. This space will remain virtually

intact, with only the addition of some tables and chairs. With new equipment and extra

chairs, this space could also double as a multi-purpose room, allowing speakers or

presentations take advantage of the large open space. The furniture found in this space

will be similar to the lounge furniture found on the first floor and the tables and chairs

found in the lobby basement.

Studio Work Space

Since there is a lack of studio work space for the students in Architectural Design

1, an area with desks or tables with appropriate chairs for studio work will be

incorporated into the proposed design plan. This space will support the needs of students

in the beginning studios and foster an environment where students can collaborate or

discuss their thoughts and ideas with others. Lockers will be beneficial for students to

conveniently store supplies.

This new space will be found in the basement of Jennings Hall down the hall from

the recreation room, fitness facility, and laundry room. There is a Key Shop, originally a

linen room, located on southeast side of this wing that will be absorbed to support the

new studio space. This space is positioned on a patio area with double doors leading

outside. A secondary storage room across the hall from the Key Shop will be absorbed to

house an additional studio space. Desks and stools will be used as the furniture in the

room.











/A


Figure 6.27 New Layout of the Studio Space
Paint Room
A paint room can be equipped for spray painting models for design assignments.

Using spray paint in undesignated areas can result in vandalized walls and floors. Fumes

can also be an issue when not ventilated properly. The rehabilitation plan will propose

this room to be placed in the original dry cleaning space which is now a general

maintenance room. Since this room is found on an outside wall on the loading dock,

proper ventilation could be installed to mitigate paint fumes.










Figure 6.28 New Layout of the Paint Room
Figure 6.28 New Layout of the Paint Room









Public Restrooms

Public restroom facilities were once found in Jennings Hall basement. Though

these facilities are now utilized as storage rooms, the plumbing still remains. The

proposed plan will reinstall the plumbing, turning the storage rooms back into restrooms.

These are much needed with the proposed addition of academic support spaces found in

this area of the basement.

Supportive Spaces

There are other spaces found within the residence hall that will not be changed.

These spaces are used to support the workings of the building such as mechanical rooms,

storage rooms, supply closets, etc. Most of these supportive spaces are found in the

basement of Jennings Hall. In addition, there are offices for the facility found on the first

floor that will not be altered. The restrooms found next to these offices will also remain

intact.

Residential Wings

One residential wing's layout will change while one will stay the same. This

proposed change will enable a variety of living arrangements to be housed under one

roof. If this change were to occur, studies could be done within Jennings Hall to compare

the two different living styles. The rehabilitation plan, which was influenced by

Middlebury College, will convert the double-loaded corridor into suite-style rooms

hosting a variety of room occupancies such as singles, doubles, and triples. These rooms

will have access to private or semi-private bathroom facilities. This type of mixed-use

plan was also used at Middlebury College within residence halls built in the 1960s [23].

Creating rooms that allow students to feel like they have control over their

environment is an important and attractive feature in new or renovated facilities [11]. To









allow students this freedom in the rehabilitated residential wing, new furniture that is

stackable and moveable will be placed in each room. This will allow students to create

their own room layout upon starting school, which gives a perception that a room is more

spacious [45]. Students who have a higher attachment to their space have a higher

retention rate [46]. The standard furniture to be found in each room will contain a

wardrobe with two drawers, a bed that is adjustable to three heights, one three-drawer

dresser, and one desk with a hutch containing a light and a chair.













Figure 6.29 Example of the Moveable and Stackable Furniture [47]

Some minor renovations have already occurred within these residential wings such

as the removal of laundry rooms from each floor in order to accommodate wiring

reflective of technology updates. This room will remain intact, like the trash room and

the placement of the service elevator. The kitchenettes have had updates on the cabinets

since the originals built in 1961.

The lounges and kitchenettes will remain in the same location in the rehabilitation

plan but will be updated. Additional lounge space will be provided adjacent to the

kitchen and lounge space and will provide a different seating arrangement. The kitchen

will support hard surfaces such as a couple of tables and a counter, while the additional

lounge space added will contain plush lounge chairs. The chairs found within the









kitchenettes will be similar to the chairs found in the basement lobby space, which are

prepared with molded wood (refer to Figure 6.6 A and B). The lounge seats will be the

same as the chairs found in the library, which have desktops that can be used if needed

(refer to Figure 6.17 B). These chairs will use a different pattern on the material to

reflect a different ambience within the residence hall.

The kitchen space will be visually open to the hallway with a glass wall, which will

visually assist in blending these spaces. The glazed wall will reflect the massive amounts

of glass found in the entry space of Jennings Hall. This space will be a focal point of the

hallway found in the middle of the z-shaped corridor.

Currently the residential wings have vinyl tile flooring in the hallways and student

rooms. The tile flooring will remain in the rooms and the kitchen space, but appropriate

carpeting will be recommended for the hallways and the open lounge space found

adjacent to the kitchenette. This will help to create a softer-looking environment while

absorbing some of the noise.


Figure 6.30 Detail of Furnished Residence Hall Rooms





















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Figure 6.32 Original Construction Document, South Residential Wing [9]




























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Figure 6.33 New Residential Floor Layout without Furniture

















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Figure 6.34 New Residential Floor Layout with Furniture


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Exterior Spaces

The exterior spaces of Jennings Hall are vital to defining the residence hall. The

Japanese-inspired garden, found on the west side of the building off the main entrance,

was designed and implemented by Noel Lake and should not be compromised in any way

other than to be regularly maintained. This setting is conducive to small reception events

where food and beverage tables can be set up either outside or just inside in the first floor

lobby space. Few permanent benches are found in this space, so additional seating may

be needed for events and gatherings taking place on this porch. More permanent benches

or a few permanent tables could be added to the north edge of the space to support

studying in the inspirational garden landscape.

The patio found on the east side of the building, off the basement lobby space, is

also underutilized. This space may need additional foliage to hide any blemishes found

on the service road, such as dumpsters. The space in its current state has minimal seating

and contains a built-in grill. Additional seating will invite students to utilize the space

more for gatherings or studying and will extend the usage of the inside lobby space found

at the basement level, no matter what function is occurring.

The saw-toothed patios found off of the first and basement floor of the public

spaces are important exterior environments. These patios are not currently used due to

past misuse by the residents. The majority of the basement view of the outside is

disturbed by planted shrubs, so the rehabilitation plan proposes to create or place planters

on this patio with different varieties of plant life. The patio off of the first floor lounge

and library should not be disturbed. This patio should be reconsidered as viable space

that could be utilized by the residents of the building or during events in the hall. The







81


patio space off of the first floor lounge, across from the control, could be monitored more

closely by dorm employees at the desk to prevent misuse from occurring again.


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Figure 6.35 Original Construction Document, West Side Planted Area [9]
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Figure 6.36 Jennings Hall Patio Spaces on East Side









Summary

Guy Fulton designed Jennings Hall to create a living environment for the users

during a time when other institutions across the country were concentrating on bed

counts. With laundry amenities found on every floor and library and meeting rooms

found within its public spaces, Fulton's living environment was supportive of the whole

student. These spaces, coupled with the quality of the construction and material usage,

made Jennings Hall a state-of-the-art facility.

In 2006, residence halls are designed with spaces that support the overall student

experience on campus-complete with living, socializing, and academic spaces. Though

Jennings Hall started out with most of these supportive spaces, the years have brought a

change in the definition of the students' needs. The proposed rehabilitation plan

incorporates more supportive environments for the overall student, such as computers

with access to the Internet and individual control over living environments, which, over

time, have become priorities.














CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From the late 1940s through the early 1960s, modem architecture buildings were

beginning to be accepted more and more on college campuses across the country [1].

These structures emphasized less ornamentation, less cost, and more concern for function

[1-3]. A dramatic increase in student enrollment across the country during this period

was in response to the war ending and the baby boomers coming of college age [1]. The

government reacted by offering low-interest loans for construction of buildings for

colleges and universities [4]. In order to get the most for their money, modern

architecture styles were a promising choice due to the lower costs of these structures.

The University of Florida was no exception to the issues other colleges were facing

during this time. The University also had peak enrollments from the men coming home

from the war in the late 1940s through the early 1950s [6-7]. Another increase in

numbers was caused by the acceptance of women into the institution, starting the fall of

1948 [6-8]. Baby boomers then increased these numbers further [1]. All of these factors

created a huge housing demand on campus, resulting in a housing building boom from

1950-1961.

During this time, many permanent residence halls were built on campus,

accounting for over fifty percent of the entire residence facility housing in 2006. These

residence halls were built with a modern approach, the result of many factors, one of

which was financial [16]. All dormitories were built under the direction of Guy Fulton,

State University System Architect to the Board of Control [6]. Even after Fulton stepped









down as head architect in 1958, he continued to work within the Gainesville area,

including the University of Florida [38].

Because Fulton designed all the residence halls during this time, many features are

similar between buildings. Fulton first took materials used in other buildings on campus

and incorporated them into the dormitories to create continuity on campus [16]. Within

the finished products, one can see how these modern halls fit into the overall historic

campus. Other features were utilized that connected all of Fulton's buildings, including

horizontal concrete awnings above the windows, which functionally served as a way to

keep the hot Florida sun from baking the students in their rooms [7, 16].

Jennings Hall was the last female residence hall to be built and was finalized in

1961 [6]. This hall was also one of the last under Fulton's reign. It had similar features

to all the previous residence halls, as well as some new distinguishing features that are

still unmatched today. These main features are found in the saw-tooth roofline and the

overall placement on the site, which took advantage of the natural landscape setting. In

response to the natural landscape, Fulton created a space for a planned landscape

element. Through these distinctive features and other functional spaces geared to support

the college student, this hall was a model for the phrase state-of-the-art.

While Jennings Hall has housed students for nearly half a century, it was clear that

changes were needed to address the current trends of residence halls in 2006. A

rehabilitation design has been proposed that balances the needs of current students and

the historic features that originally set this facility apart from the rest.

Since Jennings Hall stands out from all of University of Florida modem

architecture dormitories, it is important to keep the building's historic characteristics









intact so that it can be honored for its architecture, unique in the era in which it was

erected. The saw-tooth roofline is a primary character defining feature that is reflected

throughout the facility in fenestration, patios, walls, and planters. The lobby creates an

atrium-like space that provides individuals the opportunity to experience the natural

landscape setting through glass walls. Not only do the walls allow individuals to enjoy

the view, but the walls reflect the saw-tooth design in plan. The control area or desk was

redesigned in the same location as the original desk; however, in the process, the design

integrity changed. The original desk provided an angled front, while the current desk is

perpendicular to the floor and counter. Though the desk has been altered, it still serves as

a significant feature. The library contains original walnut built-in bookcases that have

had minor maintenance. These bookcases demonstrate the quality of the built-ins

originally in the hall.

These significant interior features and spaces and exterior characteristics impacted

the rehabilitation plan designed for Jennings Hall. The lush landscapes and views

influenced the color palette used within the facility. Wood tones original to the structure,

coupled with natural tones, were preferred when choosing furniture and in other aesthetic

considerations. The modem architecture movement was another aesthetic influence in

the design, both in time and definition. Furniture and the redesigning of the control desk

took cues from the modernist movement.

Spaces now designed in the facility follow these aesthetic cues, while

implementing the functionality needed by the students of 2006. For this thesis project, a

new user group was defined that encompasses students in the College of Design,

Construction and Planning taking Architectural Design 1. These students need to have









spaces in their residence hall that supports their academic needs, especially studio space.

Though there will not be enough studio space for all to have their own desk, studio space

in the residence hall will help create a bond within this group of students, and will allow

students to work in their living environment. Though this initiative was seen in early

models of residence halls, it disappeared with the building boom, and is seeing a

comeback in later years of construction and renovation. Other areas that will support

these students include a spray paint room, multi-purpose spaces that can support lectures

and speakers, a fitness facility, a convenience store, and a media room that included print

and digital resources.

Another area of the facility to be redesigned is one of the two residential wings.

Not only are academic initiatives becoming a trend in residence halls, but so is suite-style

living. Suite-style living can be seen in early male dormitories and has been reinvented

for today's students. This type of living style provides quarters for students that

encompass some sort of semi-private bathrooms, and sometimes shared lounges and

kitchens. The Jennings Hall rehabilitation plan reinvented the short residential wing to

accommodate suite-style living. This plan has a variety of living arrangements including

singles, doubles, and triples, all with semi-private bathrooms. Additionally, the rooms

include moveable furniture, with the exception of sinks fixed to the walls. Research has

shown that students who have a greater control over their environments are happier, and

moveable furniture allows individuals to create their own spatial layout.

Recommendations

Though many residential facilities are rehabilitated, the research that goes into

rehabilitation decisions is not published regularly in peer-reviewed journals. "How are

these decisions being made?" and "What information has been consulted to draw









conclusions being used for a rehabilitated dorm?" are just a two questions that may be

posed to individuals facing the challenge of rehabilitating a space. Those who have gone

through this process successfully or are currently going through it should be encouraged

to write about their experiences and processes, including their research tools. This

information would be helpful to other institutions that may be looking for something to

assist their decision-making process.

Modem architecture, especially on college campuses, is just beginning to be

observed and recognized for its historic value. There is a lack of information on this era,

as it has yet to be clearly defined. Studying this period of architecture can help to start

classifying the defining features of this period and define modern campus architecture.

Because the University of Florida's modernist residence halls were built under the

direction of Guy Fulton, it would be valuable to do a more in-depth comparative analysis

between the architecture and interior design of two or more residence halls. A

comparison of women's and men's residence halls would be of interest.

Summary

In summary, this thesis looked specifically at Jennings Hall's historical context in

order to define its distinguishing characteristics. These historic features then helped to

guide the proposed rehabilitation plan. This plan not only took into consideration the

defining characteristics, but also incorporated residence hall design trends to provide a

state-of-the-art facility for 2006. Looking forward towards new ideas or trends of the

times is not a new concept for the University of Florida residential facilities. Guy Fulton,

the architect of the modern residence halls, continuously looked above and beyond the

normal standards of dormitory design, which made Jennings Hall stand out as a state-of-

the-art facility during its prime. A rehabilitation plan that preserves Jennings Hall and






88


meets the needs of a new generation of students recognizes the significance of Fulton's

original vision.