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Development of TiO2/Activated Carbon Composite Photocatalyst for the Removal of Methanol and Hydrogen Sulfite from Paper...

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DEVELOPMENT OF TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST FOR THE REMOVAL OF METHANOL AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM PAPER MILLS By YONG TAO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Yong Tao

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To my parents, Bang-He Tao and Ping-Fen Li, who raised me up. Your love is always in my heart. To my twin sister, Hui Tao. Wit hout your encouragement and support, I could not have this achievement.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to give my sin cere gratitude to Dr. ChangYu Wu for his support and guidance in my Ph.D. study. His advice and encouragement were precious for my graduate study. My special thanks go to my committee, Dr. David W. Mazyck, Dr. Jean M. Andino, and Dr. Wolfgang Sigmund, who gave me continuous comments and valuable advice on my research. I also thank the staff in ERC and MAIC for teaching and allowing me to use many instruments such as XRD, SEM, and BET. I would like to thank our past and present group members. Special thanks go to Jenni fer, Ameena, Yu-Mei, A-Chuan, Ying, and Anadi. Finally I would like to give my sincere gr atitude to my family Without their care and encouragement, I could not have achieved this goal.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..x CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION....................................................................................1 2 PHOTOCATALYTIC REGENERATION................................................................10 Introduction.................................................................................................................10 Experimental Section..................................................................................................14 Catalyst and Chemicals.......................................................................................14 Characterization...................................................................................................14 Methanol Removal Evaluation............................................................................15 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................19 TiO2/AC Characterization...................................................................................19 Methanol Removal by Adsorption and Ad sorption/Photocatalytic Oxidation....20 Effect of Water....................................................................................................21 Regeneration Performance..................................................................................25 Conclusions.................................................................................................................28 3 PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATLYST BY DRY IMPREGNATION......................................................................................................30 Introduction.................................................................................................................30 Experimental Section..................................................................................................32 Materials..............................................................................................................32 Material Preparation............................................................................................32 Characterization...................................................................................................35 Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation......................................................................35 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................36 Effect of Calcination Conditions.........................................................................36 Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions..........................................................................37

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vi Effect of TTIP Concentration..............................................................................43 Effect of Moisture in Carbon...............................................................................44 Photocatalytic Activity........................................................................................46 Conclusion..................................................................................................................49 4 H2S REMOVAL BY A TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST PREPARED BY DRY IMPREGNATION................................................................50 Introduction.................................................................................................................50 Properties of H2S and Regulations......................................................................50 H2S Adsorption/Oxidation on AC.......................................................................52 Experimental Section..................................................................................................55 Materials..............................................................................................................55 Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation......................................................................55 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................57 Conclusions.................................................................................................................63 5 MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST..................................................................................................64 Introduction.................................................................................................................64 Experimental Section..................................................................................................69 Materials..............................................................................................................69 TiO2/AC Preparation...........................................................................................70 Characterization...................................................................................................71 Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation......................................................................71 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................72 Carbon Weight Loss and TiO2 Loading..............................................................72 TiO2/AC Characterization...................................................................................76 Methanol removal testing....................................................................................79 Conclusions.................................................................................................................81 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMANDATIONS.....................................................83 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................93

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Pollution control techniques for gaseous and particulate matter emissions from Kraft pulp mill sources...............................................................................................3 1-2 H2S and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds emissions.......................................5 2-1 The experimental conditions of methanol removal*.................................................18 2-2 BET surface area and pore size distribution of AC and TiO2/AC...........................20 3-1 Effect of hydrolysis conditions*..............................................................................33 3-2 Effect of calcination conditions................................................................................34 3-3 TTIP concentration and carbon moisture*...............................................................34 4-1 Surface pH of AC and TiO2/AC...............................................................................59 5-1 Penetration depth of microwaves (2.45 GHz)..........................................................67 5-2 Preparation conditions a nd characterization of TiO2/AC.........................................71 5-3 Ash content of F400 AC before and after microwave process.................................74

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Simplified process flow ch art of the Kraft pulp mill.................................................2 1-2 Schematic photoexcitation in a photocat alyst followed by deexciatation events......7 2-1 Overview of available te chniques for AC regeneration...........................................11 2-2 Setup of experimental apparatus..............................................................................17 2-3 SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite.................................................................20 2-4 The relative effluent methanol concen tration profiles for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC...................................................................................................................22 2-5 The relative methanol effluent concentration of 7 g TiO2/AC composite...............22 2-6 The relative effluent methanol c oncentration for Sets 1, 2 and 3............................24 2-7 The adsorption breakthrough curves of me thanol from fresh and regenerated beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4..........................................................................................26 2-8 The adsorption capacity of each cycle of Set 4, 5 and 6..........................................26 2-9 The methanol adsorption amount in adsorption, methanol desorption and formaldehyde formation amount in regenera tion of each cycle of Sets 7 and 8......27 3-1 Schematic of the hydrolysis reactor.........................................................................34 3-2 XRD patterns of samples calcined under different conditions.................................37 3-3 XRD patterns of samples prepared u nder different hydrolysis conditions..............38 3-4 SEM images of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions................39 3-5 The LaMer diagram related to nuc leation and growth mechanism..........................42 3-6 SEM image of sample 2s inner surface...................................................................43 3-7 SEM images of samples 9-10...................................................................................44

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ix 3-8 SEM image of sample 11.........................................................................................45 3-9 XRD pattern of sample 11........................................................................................45 3-10 Methanol effluent concentration profiles.................................................................47 3-11 Average methanol removal efficiency of samples...................................................47 4-1 Proposed pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC in the presence of water..54 4-2 Experimental set-up for H2S removal......................................................................57 4-3 Outlet H2S concentration profiles............................................................................58 4-4 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency...........................................59 4-5 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency of AC................................61 4-6 Outlet H2S concentration passing empty reactor......................................................62 5-1 Schematic description of a microwave)...................................................................65 5-2 Rotation of molecules with microwave....................................................................65 5-3 F400 AC Weight Loss under me dium level MW irradiation...................................74 5-4 Weight loss curves of TiO2/AC samples..................................................................76 5-5 SEM images of TiO2/AC samples............................................................................77 5-6 Cross-section of Sample 12......................................................................................77 5-7 Region 1 and Region 2 in Figure 5-6.......................................................................78 5-8 XRD patterns of different samples...........................................................................79 5-9 Methanol effluent concentration profiles.................................................................80 5-10 Average methanol removal efficiencies...................................................................81

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x Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy DEVELOPMENT OF TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST FOR THE REMOVAL OF METHANOL AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM PAPER MILLS By Yong Tao May, 2006 Chair: Chang-Yu Wu Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences The objective of this study was to inves tigate the technical efficacy of in-situ treatment of pulp and paper emissions via adsorption and photocatalytic regeneration. Firstly, activated carbon was coated with a commercially available photocatalyst by a spray desiccation method. The spent TiO2/AC was regenerated by UV light irradiation. The photocatalytic regenera tion is ascribed to both desorption from AC and photocatalytic degradation on TiO2. In order to improve the photocatalytic degradation rate, the synthesis of TiO2/AC composites by dry impregnation method was developed. The composites prepared using various hydrolysis and calcination cond itions were evaluated. High hydrolysis temperature resulted in rough particulate co ating layers with higher surface area. The TiO2 loading was positively correlated with the precursor concentration although the TiO2 loading in the study range (2 8 wt %) was not critical to the photocatalytic

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xi performance. The moisture in carbon was be neficial for the hydrolysis of precursor (titanium tetra-isopropoxide, TTIP) and improved the composite performance. Under proper preparation conditions, the TiO2/AC composite outperformed the composite prepared by spray desiccation at removing methanol. The BioNuchar AC support itself was a good H2S remover. After coating TiO2 by dry impregnation, H2S removal efficiency of TiO2/AC decreased compared with the virgin AC due to the change of su rface pH. Under UV light irradiation, H2S removal efficiency of TiO2/AC composite doubled, and its su lfate conversion efficiency was higher than that of AC. The formation of sulfate is preferred fo r water regeneration. TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst was also prepared by a novel microwave-assisted impregnation method and was employed for th e removal of methanol from humid air streams. A commercial micr owave oven (800 W) was used as the microwave source. Under 2450 MHz microwave irradiation, TTIP was quickly hydrolyzed and anatase TiO2 was formed in a short time (< 20 minutes). Due to the volumetric heating and selective heating of microwave, the so lvent and by-products were qui ckly removed which reduced energy consumption and processing time. The formed submicron TiO2 particles were mainly deposited on the external surface of carbon and had photocatalytic activity.

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1 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION The pulp and paper industry deserves sp ecial attention for both its energy and environmental impact. It is the fourth larges t consumer of electric ity and fuels and the third largest consumer of fresh water in the United States (Sittig, 1977). During the 4 years spanning 1997-2000, the pulp and paper industry spent $6 billion per year on energy, or about 4 percent of its net sale s and averaged over $800 million per year on environmental protection capital, or about 14 percent of the aver age annual capital invested on equipment (Depar tment of Energy [DOE], 2003). To produce paper or paperboard, the wood is pulped at first. Pulps are made from wood chips, whole tree chips, sawmill residues, or logs. Pulps can be prepared through chemical and/or mechanical means. The pulp may then be bleached to various degrees of brightness. Finally, bleached or unbleached pulp is processed into paper board or paper. The dominant wood pulping process today is the Kraft process (Buonicore and Davis, 1992). Figure 1-1 shows a simplified process flow sheet of the pulp mill (Buonicore and Davis, 1992). Pulp and paper mill effluents are complex mixtures. The characteristics of each effluent are dependent on numerous factors including wood furnish and process technology (including washing, c ooking, bleaching, prebleaching, etc.), as well as final effluent treatment (Serros, 1996). The atmospheric emissions from the Kraft process include both gaseous and particulate mate rials. The major gaseous emissions are malodorous reduced sulfur compounds referred to as total reduced sulfur (TRS), such as

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2 hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), and dimethyl disulfide ((CH3)2S2); organic nonsulfur compounds; oxides of sulfur; and oxides of nitrogen The partic ulate emissions are primarily sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. Historically, odor and visible partic ulate emissions from Kraft pulp mills have received considerable attention. A summary of the major control techniques for gaseous and particulate emissions from specific kraft pulp mill sources are presented in Table 1-1. Figure 1-1 Simplified process flow chart of the Kraft pulp mill (adapted from Buonicore and Davis, 1992) In 1992, the National Council of the Paper Industry Air and Stream Improvement, Inc. (NCASI) conducted a st udy to characterize the emi ssions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air polluta nts (HAPs) from chemical pulp mill sources (NCASI, 1994). Seven lime kilns, four smelt dissolving tanks, and a number of

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3 Table 1-1 Pollution control techniques for ga seous and particulate matter emissions from Kraft pulp mill sources Emission Source Gaseous Control Particulate Control Digester gases Incineration Condensation NA(not applicable) Washer vent Incineration NA Evaporator gases Incineration Scrubbing Condensation NA Condensate water Steam stripping Air stripping NA Condensate Stripper Vent Incineration NA Black Liquor Oxidation Tower Vent Incineration NA Tall Oil Vent Scrubbing NA Recovery Furnance Scrubbing Precipitators Scrubbing Smelt Tank Scrubbing Scrubbing Lime Kiln Scrubbing Precipitators Scrubbing Slaker Vent NA Scrubbing Bleach Plant Scrubbing NA Paper Machine Incineration Adsorption Condensation NA Power Boiler NA Cyclones Precipitators Scrubbing (Adapted from Sittig, 1996) vents in the causticizing areas of eight mills were tested. Their results showed the average HAPs and EPA method 25A VOC emissions from causticizing areas vents, including lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks, and miscel laneous causticizing area vents, were 0.66 lb/ADTP (pounds/air dried tons of pulp) a nd 0.48 lb C/ADTP ( lb as carbon (Method 25 A)/ADTP). The smelt dissolving tank contribut ed over 75% of the total HAP emissions. The total HAP emissions of the four tested smelt dissolving tank scrubbers vent averaged 0.50 lb C/ADTP, and methanol was the major HAP which contributed on average 98% to the total HAPs. The average concentration of me thanol in the four tested smelt dissolving

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4 tank scrubbers vent ranged from around 10 to 1100 ppm. The flow rates ranged from 5000 to 16000 DSCFM (dry standard cubic feet per minute). Although odor emissions from pulp and paper mill have received considerable attention, the control and abatement of them are difficu lt tasks to achieve in the air pollution problems afflicting the paper and pulp mills. This is due to the very low human olfactory threshold levels of TRS gases. Tw o main TRS sources are recognized to occur in paper and pulp mills: 1) the LVHC (low volume high concentration) gases, usually dealt with by incineration, emerge from br ownstock washers, digester, and evaporator systems, etc.; 2) the HVLC (high volume low co ncentration) gases, dealt with by alkaline amine wet scrubbing, are released by recovery furnaces and lime kilns. However, these control devices can not remove all th e pollutants. Bordado and Gomes (2001) characterized the reduced sulfur compounds emitted from a Kraft pulp mill, which was the biggest Portuguese plant pr oducing bleached eucal yptus elemental chlorine free pulp and its output was 430,000 t/yr. Table 1-2 s hows part of their results (Bordado and Gomes, 2001). It is clear that there is considerable amount of TRS gases in the emissions from incinerators and scrubbers. In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the cluster rules for the pulp and paper industry. The Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) portion of the April 1998 Cl uster Rule specifies the control of hazardous air pollutant emissions. For the pulp and paper industry, this is primarily methanol. These rules require compliance by April 15, 2001. Additiona l controls will be required by 2006 for HVLC streams (Springer, 2000). New regulations for air emission have stimulated researchers to search for a coat-effective technique for in-situ treatment

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5 of these pollutants. A limited number of Kraft mills currently have HVLC collection and incineration systems in place (Varma, 2003). Considering the opera ting cost and the formation of noxious by-products, incineration is unfavorable in the long run. Therefore, an alternative technique for the treatment of the HVLC emis sion is worthy of exploration. Table 1-2 H2S and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds emissions source H2S Q H2S Emission TRS Emission (ppm)(mg/Nm3)(m3/h) (kg/h) (kg/h) Stationary sources Recovery boiler scrubber <5 <7.2 183100<1.318 16.5 Smelt tank 70 100.8 5000 0.504 0.754 Incinerator exhaust <5 <7.2 5000 <0.036 0.679 Incinerator scrubber 48 69.12 5000 0.346 0.346 Lime kiln 17 24.48 21200 0.519 0.519 Pulp cooking and Washing section Bin hopper 46 66.24 3900 0.258 7.793 Pulp bleaching section Oxygen reactor <5 <7.2 2662.9 <0.019 0.24 (Adapted Bordado and Davis, 2001) Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorpti on is a commonly used technique for the removal of various VOCs and HAPs. The majo r limitation of activated carbon adsorption is its nondestructive character. Once exhausted, activated carbon is either disposed of, or treated to destroy the adsorbed pollutants (regeneration). Moreover, the spent carbon itself may have to be handled as a hazardous waste when disposed of (Liu et al., 1996). Regeneration of spent carbon is a very critical step to the effective use of carbon and thus lowers the cost. Recently, heterogeneous photocatalysis a nd its application in environmental cleanup have been one of the most active re search topics. Scientific research in heterogeneous photocatalysis started in 1970s. Fujishima and Honda (1972) discovered the photocatalytic splitting of water on TiO2 electrodes, which mark ed the beginning of a

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6 new era in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Phot ocatalysts are invariably semiconductors, which can promote reactions in the presence of light and are not consumed in the overall reactions. Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) under the form of anatase has been found as an excellent photocatalyst sinc e it is able to utilize near UV light, is safe, and is inexpensive. It has been shown to be eff ective for a variety of inorganic and organic compounds, for the destruction of microorgani sms, for the inactivation of cancer cells, for odor control, and for the clean-up of oil spills. (Hoffmann et al ., 1995; Linsebigler et al., 1995; Peral et al., 1997; Bhatkhande et al., 2001) Figure 1-2 shows the mechanism of photo catalysis. Semiconductors possess a void energy region, which extends from the top of the filled valence band (VB) to the bottom of the vacant conduction band (CB). This void region is called band gap. By light absorption with energy equal to or greater th an the band gap, an electron in the VB is excited to the CB (the enlarged section of Figure 1-2). The highly reactive electron-hole pair undergoes de-excitations in severa l pathways, as shown in Figure 1-2. A photoinduced electron can migrate to the surface and reduce th e electron acceptor (usually oxygen in air or an aerated solu tion). A photoinduced hole can migrate to the surface and oxidize the donor species. In this way, highly reactive radical species, such as hydroxyl radical OH and superoxdie ion O2 are formed. Pollutant degradation may occur indirectly via the surface-bound hydroxyl ra dical or directly via the VB hole before it is trapped (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Linsebigler et al., 1995; Peral et al., 1997; Bhatkhande et al., 2001). In practice, the separation of nanosized photocatalyst from the treated fluid limits its industrial applicability (Chen et al., 2001; El-Sheikh et al., 2004). To overcome this

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7 drawback, the powder photocatalyst can be dispersed onto a suppor t. The photocatalyst coated on nonporous support has a limited contact area, thus lo w efficiency (El-Sheikh et al., 2004). Porous support has been used to enhance the efficiency (El-Sheikh et al., 2004). Activated carbon is chemically inert at low temperature and hence is a suitable support for photocatalysts (Torimoto et al., 1997; Harada et al., 1999; Khan, 2003;Tao et al., 2005). Figure 1-2 Schematic photoexcitation in a photocatalyst followed by deexciatation events. (Linsebigler et al., 1995) On the other hand, in a heterogeneou s photocatalysis system, photoinduced molecular transformations take place at the su rface of a catalyst (Linsebigler et al., 1995). The destruction rate is dependent upon the ab ility of the pollutants to diffuse to the catalyst. When the pollutants concentrations are low, the degradation rates are low. Malato and coworkers (2001) studied the photocatalytic oxidation of 2,4 -Dichlorophenol (DCP) in water using Degussa P25 TiO2 (BET specific surface area 50 m2 g-1, mean primary particle diameter 20 nm, density = 4 g cm-3, 80% anatase phase/20% rutile

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8 phase) suspension under solar ra diation. Their result showed that mineralization of DCP was slow when its concentration was low. Th ey proposed a combina tion of photocatalytic degradation with granular AC treatment. Th e effluent from the photocatalytic process was filtered through a granular AC adsorber. The total cost was reduced considerably by using AC adsorption as the last step of treatment (Malato et al., 2001). However, the saturated AC must be disposed of or regenerated. Immobilizing TiO2 on AC can result in a syne rgistic combination of both adsorption and photocatalysis. On one hand, AC works as the support of nanosized TiO2 photocatalyst and concentrat es the pollutants and in termediates around the TiO2; on the other hand, the photocatalyst can destroy the po llutants thus regenera ting the AC in situ. In traditional thermal or microwave regene ration, part of the pollutants is simply desorbed. Regeneration on the TiO2/AC composite is achieved by photocatalytic oxidation of pollutants; thus no post-treatment is needed for the desorbed pollutants. Besides the advantage of low-temperature in situ regeneration, this novel composite possesses synergistic functions of simultaneous adsorption and oxidation that are greater than in the cases when either carbon or TiO2 irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light is employed alone (Herrmann and Guillard, 2000; Matos et al., 2001; Khan, 2003). In summary, the TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst for air pollution control of pulp and paper mills is a technique worthy of expl oration. In Chapter 2, th e technical efficacy of photocatalytic regeneration was studied. Methanol was chos en as the model pollutant. The effects of humidity and purge air on rege neration were investigated. In Chapter 3, a dry impregnation method was developed to prepare TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst in order to improve its performance. The im pacts of preparation conditions on the

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9 photocatalytic activity (methanol as th e model pollutant) of prepared TiO2/AC were further studied. In Chapter 4, the removal pe rformance of hydrogen sulfide, which was chosen as the representative of TRS gases, was tested. In Chapter 5, a novel microwaveassisted impregnation was developed to prepare TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. In Chapter 6, conclusion of this work and recommendations are provided.

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10 CHAPTER 2 PHOTOCATALYTIC REGENERATION Introduction One of the major technologies for the abat ement of low concentrations of toxic organic compounds in air is adsorption. Ac tivated carbon (AC) is by far the most frequently used adsorbent. The term activat ed refers to the increased internal and external surface area imparted by specia l treatment processes. Any carbonaceous materials, such as coconut shells, bones, wood, coal, petroleum coke, lignin, and lignite, can be converted to AC. AC is manufact ured by first dehydrating and carbonizing the carbonaceous raw material. Activation is comp leted by heating the carbonized materials in the presence of an oxidizing gas (usually CO2 or H2O) during a controlled oxidation step. AC is tailored for special end use by bot h raw material selecti on and control of the activation process. ACs typically have a surface area in the range from 600 to 1400 m2/g, an internal porosity from 55% to 75%. Mo st of the pore volume is distributed over a narrow range of pore diameters, usually ranging from 4 to 30 angstroms (Cooper and Alley, 1994). As discussed in Chapter 1, successful regeneration is critical to a wider application of AC adsorption processes. The first significant commercial-scale granular AC regeneration was the burning of spen t AC in sugar refineries around 1828. Regeneration in modern sense is aimed to restore the adsorption capacity without much loss of carbon and without much altering the surface of AC. A variety of regeneration techniques have been suggested, evaluated and applied. These methods are based either

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11 on desorption or decomposition. Figure 2-1 shows an overview of available techniques for the regeneration of spent AC adsorbents (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). These regeneration methods have thei r advantages and disadvantages. Figure 2-1 Overview of available techni ques for AC regeneration (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). Thermal regeneration is the most commonl y used regeneration method which refers to processes of drying, thermal desorption a nd high temperature react ive treatment (700 1000 oC) in the presence of in ert gas or limited quantities of oxidizing gases such as water vapor of flue gas. The thermal regenerati on behavior of the AC loaded with various compounds has been studied (Sheintuch a nd Matatov-Metal, 1999). Spent AC undergoes the following scenario with increasing temp erature: drying and loss of highly volatile compounds occurs at temperatures below 200 oC, vaporization and decomposition of unstable compounds takes place at 200 < T < 500 oC and pyrolysis of nonvolatile adsorbates to form char occurs at 500 < T < 700 oC followed by oxidation of the residue at higher temperatures. Exposur e to temperatures of 750 980 oC leads to oxidation of Regeneration of spent AC Desorption Decomposition Thermal Nonthermal Inert gas Steam Hot water Solvent extraction Surfactant enhanced Supercritical fluid extraction Microbial Chemical Electrochemical Reduction Oxidation Catalytic HDC Thermal Catalytic Photocatalytic

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12 the residual material as well as that of the carbon itself. The pore structure may be altered in the latter steps where small pores (< 2 nm) are lost while large pores are created. There are some disadvantages of thermal regeneration. Firstly, it is usually not conducted in situ, requiring specia l regeneration units such as multiple hearth furnaces or rotary kilns (Shein tuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999; Kh an, 2003). Secondly, it typically results in a continuous loss of 5 -15 % per cycle in adsorp tion capacity and in surface area due to the high-temperature (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). The adsorption capacity may even drop to zero after few cycles Thirdly, the cost of regeneration is high, accounting for nearly 50% of the entire tr eatment technique e xpenditures (Khan, 2003). Generally speaking, thermal regene ration is applicable to all. However, it is economically feasible only for large systems that use mo re than 500,000 tons of granular AC per year (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). Therma l regeneration depends both on thermal desorption and thermal oxidation. The degree of desorption and oxidation depends on the nature of the adsorbent and the adsorbate a nd the rate of the process (Sheintuch and Matatov-Metal, 1999). Some undestroyed pollu tants and harmful byproducts may get into the environment. Therefore, another disadvant age of thermal regeneration is that some adsorbates, especially highly volatile orga nic compounds, just desorb. Post-treatment devices may be needed. Several other regeneration methods have b een suggested in recent years, such as solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extr action, surfactant enhan ced regeneration, and chemical oxidation using various oxidants (c hlorine, chlorine di oxide, peroxide, ozone, and potassium permanganate). However, th ese methods have not proven technically

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13 feasible for continuous operation, nor econom ically viable (Sheintuch and Mataovmeytal, 1999). Photocatalytic oxidation is one recently suggested me thod that can be used to regenerate spent AC adsorbent and dest roy organic adsorbates simultaneously (Crittenden et al., 1993; Li u et al., 1996). The advantages of heterogeneous photocatalysis over other rege neration methods include: 1. It can destroy a wide va riety of organic compounds (Hoffmann et al., 1995); 2. No post-treatment is needed since the or ganic pollutants can be mineralized into nontoxic by-products such as H2O, CO2, and mineral acids (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Alberici and Jardim 1997) ; 3. The process can be performed at low temp erature (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Alberici and Jardim 1997; Pitoniak et al., 2003); 4. It can be promoted by solar radiation, re sulting in low energy cost (Crittenden et al., 1997; Malato et al., 2001); 5. On-site regeneration of spent adsorbent and destruction of adsorbed organic material is provided (Crittenden et al., 1993); 6. The loss of adsorbents due to attrition and burn-off which occurs in thermal regeneration is less (Crittenden et al., 1993). Several works were carried out in ap plying AC adsorption and photocatalytic regeneration in water treatment. Critte nden and coworkers studied the removal of trichlorethene (TCE) and p -dichlorobenzene (DCB) from water by Pt-TiO2 coated AC (Filtrasorb-400). Based on this study, the phot ocatalytic regeneration process was found to be limited by reaction rate at the begi nning of the regeneration cycle and then by desorption of the adsorbates from the interi or of the AC. The photoc atalytic regeneration for water treatment was a very long process which makes it unsuitable for this practical application (Crittenden et al., 1996). The diffusibility of mole cules in air is faster than that in water. The gas phase application of photocatalytic regenerati on may be suitable.

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14 The objective of this chapter was to study the technical efficacy of photocatalytic regeneration in gas phase application. The model pollutant, methanol, was removed from humid air stream by using combined AC ad sorption and photocatalytic regeneration. To achieve this objective, TiO2/AC composite was prepared by a low-cost spray desiccation method. The removal of methanol and the regeneration performance were tested. The effect of humidity on adsorption and photocatal ytic oxidation and the effect of purge air on photocatalytic regeneration were further studied. Experimental Section Catalyst and Chemicals The TiO2 photocatalyst used in this study wa s Degussa P25 titanium dioxide. Research on the use of Degussa P25 has been reported in numerous articles (Lu et al., 1999; Pozzo et al., 2000; Bhatkhande et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2004; Jeong et al., 2004). AC used in this study was MeadWestvaco BioNuchar 120 (a wood based chemically AC, 8 12 mesh). The BioNuchar 120 was selected because it possesses the best methanol adsorption capacity among various carbons tested, according to a previous study (Stokke, 2003). TiO2/AC composite is prepared by a spra y desiccation method. The P25 slurry was sprayed on AC and then dried in a rota ry kiln. The methanol/air mixture cylinder (1000 ppm) was purchased from the Praxair Company. Characterization The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO2/AC samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isothe rms performed at 77 K (NOVA 1200, Quantachrome). All samples were dried at 110 oC for 2 h prior to measurement. The specific surface area was determined by multipoint BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) method using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/P0) range of 0.05-

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15 0.30. The isotherms were used to determine th e pore size distribution using the Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH) met hod. The surface morphology of TiO2/AC composites was characterized by Scanning Electr on Microscopy (JSM6330F, JEOL). The amount of P25 TiO2 and AC added in this procedure depended on the experimental conditions. The TiO2 loading on the AC was determined by ash content analysis. Both virgin AC and TiO2/AC composite were combusted in an oven at 600 oC for 4 h. After combustion in the oven at 600 oC for two or more hours, the mass of the material did not further change. Based on the condition that the ash content of carbon remains the same for both the AC and TiO2/AC, the loading of TiO2 can then be determined by the following equation, ash ash T R TiOW W W W 1, 2 (2-1) where, Wash (%) is the ash content of AC (i.e. the residual ma ss of virgin AC after combustion); WR,T (%) is the residual mass of TiO2/AC after combustion; WTiO2 (%) is the TiO2 loading. Methanol Removal Evaluation In order to simulate the emissions from paper mills, a low methanol concentration and high humidity were chosen. The experi mental set up is shown in Figure 2-2. One gram of TiO2/AC was placed on the frit in the react or which was equipped with an 8 W black light UV lamp (peak wavelength at 365 nm) at the center of the reactor. The distance between the UV lamp and the inner wall of the reactor is 9 mm. The outer diameter of the reactor is 48 mm. The methanol concentration in the influent and effluent of the reactor during the experiment was measured according to the NCASI chilled impinger test method (Method CI/SG/PULP-94.02) The methanol in the air flow was

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16 first collected by drawing it th rough two midget impingers (Analytical Research Systems, Inc.) in series which were filled with 10 mL of water. The impingers were kept in an ice water bath (around 2 oC) during sampling to enhance co llection efficiency. The sampling time was 1 h. The methanol concentration in the impingers was analyzed by direct injection into a gas chromatograph (Claru s 500, Perkin Elmer) equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Cyclohexanol solution (3 mg L-1) was used as an internal standard. The methanol calibrati on curve is liner (correlation co efficient grater than 0.99) throughout the range of the cal ibration curve (0.5 100 mg L-1).The methanol removal performance of different samples was evaluate d by the concentration of methanol in the effluent. Formaldehyde is one of the possi ble intermediate products of methanol photocatalytic oxidation (Araa et al., 2004). The NCASI chilled impinger method (Method CI/WP-98.01) was used to measure formaldehyde concentration. A 2.0 mL aliquot of the impinger sample was mixed thoroughly with 2.0 mL of acetylacetone reagent and reacted in a water bath at 60 oC for 10 min. After cooling to room temperature, the absorbance of the solution at 412 nm was measured by a spectrophotometer (DR/4000U, HACH). Form aldehyde concentration was calculated according to a standard calibration curve. The formaldehyde calibration curve is liner ( correlation coefficient grater than 0.99) thr oughout the range of th e calibration curve (0.5 10 mg L-1). Due to the high humidity in the atmos pheric emission of pulp and paper mills, before testing 1.00 g TiO2/AC sample was prehumidified until equilibrium was established at a constant stream humidity (RH 80% at 298 K, water vapor concentration was 19 mgL-1) which was achieved by bubbling the car rier gas (air) th rough the vessel

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17 with water at the rate of 0.4 Lmin-1. Humid methanol laden air was then passed through the fixed bed of TiO2/AC with or without UV light for 6 h. With UV light irradiation, the temperature in the reactor rose to 328 K due to the heat re lease from the UV lamp and the relative humidity dropped to 16%. The bed depth was 0.4 cm and the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was about 0.35 s. EBCT is determ ined by dividing the volume of the carbon bed (L) by the airflow rate (L min-1). Note that the actual contact time is less than the EBCT because the carbon fills much of the bed volume. Air flows through only the void space that is smaller than the entire bed volum e. EBCT is used in the study because the actual contact time is difficult to measure. In order to investigate the effect of EBCT, methanol removal performance in 7.00 g TiO2/AC (prehumidified) column with and without UV irradiation was also tested. Th e bed depth was 2.8 cm and the EBCT was 2.45 s. Figure 2-2 Setup of experimental apparatu s: 1. Methanol/Air mi xture cylinder (1000 ppmv MeOH); 2. Mass flow c ontroller; 3. Water bubble bottle; 4. Photocatalytic reactor (equipped with an 8 W black light UV lamp); 5. Impingers in ice bath; 6. TiO2/AC; 7. Frit; 8. Thermocouple In order to evaluate the effect of wate r on methanol adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, experiments were also carried out without prehumidification and/or in dry

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18 airstreams. Table 2-1 lists the expe rimental conditions using 1.00 g TiO2/AC to evaluate the effect of water on adsorption and photocat alytic oxidation (Set 1-3). In order to reduce the operation cost, adsorption followed by periodic photocatalyt ic regeneration of TiO2/AC was tested. Experiments were carried out following the similar procedure used in Sets 1-3. Methanol laden air was passed through the fixed bed of 1.00g TiO2/AC without UV light (T = 298 K) for 6 h. The fl ow was then cut off and the UV light was turned on to regenerate the spent carbon for 3 to 9 h (T = 328 K). The adsorptionregeneration cycle was repeated four times The methanol adsorption capacity of each cycle was determined. The effect of purge air flow rate in regeneration was also investigated. Table 2-1 The experimental cond itions of methanol removal* Set Prehumidification RH Operation Regeneration 1 Yes 80%6 h, with or without UV light -2 No 80%6 h, with or without UV light -3 No 0% 6 h, with or without UV light -4 Yes 80%6 h without UV light 9 h between the 1st and the 2nd cycles; 6 h between the 2nd and the 3rd cycles; 3 h between the 3rd and the 4th cycles; all without purge air 5 No 80%6 h without UV light 3 h, without purge air 6 No 0% 6 h without UV light 3 h, without purge air 7 No 0% 6 h without UV light 3 h, with 0.1 L/min purge air 8 No 0% 6 h without UV light 3 h, with 0.2 L/min purge air EBCT = 0.35 s

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19 Table 2-1 also lists the experi mental conditions using 1.00 g TiO2/AC to evaluate the effect of water on regeneration (Set 4-6) and the effect of purge air flow rate on regeneration (Set 6-8). Results and Discussion TiO2/AC Characterization Figure 2-3 shows the SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite prepared by the described method. The SEM image of the external surface indicates the P25 TiO2 particles were coated on the AC surface by the described method. Although the primary particle size of P25 is about 20 nm (Degu ssa AG, TI 1234), the P25 nanoparticles on the carbon surface were agglomerated. The diffe rence between the SEM images of the external and internal surface of the TiO2/AC particle indicates that the TiO2 was mainly coated on the outer surface of the AC particles. The TiO2 loading was 7.61 0.20 wt % measured by the ash analysis method described earlier. Table 2-2 lists the specific surface area and pore size distribution of AC before and after TiO2 coating. The BET surface area measurement of one F400 AC (coal based thermally activated, Calgon) sample was repeated three times. The results were 733, 742, and 745 m2/g. The reproducibility was 0.84%. Because of the inhomogeneity of AC, th e reproducibility of different AC samples (same type of AC) is even higher. The BET surface area measurement of F400 AC (different samples) was repeated five times. The results were 618, 653, 709, 740, and 745 m2/g. The reproducibility was 8.03%. Therefore, the TiO2 coating didnt significantly change the BET surface area of the AC which indicated that the TiO2 particles just coated on the external surface of AC.

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20 Table 2-2 BET surface area and pore size distribution of AC and TiO2/AC BET (m2g-1) Total Pore Volume (ccg-1) Micropores (ccg-1) Mesopores (ccg-1) AC 1472 1.45 0.46 0.84 TiO2/AC 1380 1.38 0.54 0.79 (a) (b) Figure 2-3 SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite: (a) external surface; (b) internal surface. Methanol Removal by Adsorption and Ad sorption/Photocatalytic Oxidation The efficiency of the virgin AC and TiO2/AC composites for methanol removal was evaluated in the presence and absence of UV light. The relative effluent methanol

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21 concentration profiles for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC are shown in Figure 2-4. It is apparent from Figure 2-4 that the effluent methanol con centration increased quickly when treated by the virgin AC with and w ithout UV light. The e ffluent concentration was higher when treated with UV light probabl y due to the heat released by UC lamp. When treated by TiO2/AC without UV light irradiation, a similar adsorption profile was observed, and the methanol adsorption capacities for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC composite were similar. However, when methanol was treated by the TiO2/AC with UV light irradiation, the methanol concentration didnt reach satu ration for the duration of the experiment. The effluent methanol concentra tion increased during the first 2 h and then remained almost constant (~35% removal). Figure 2-5 displays the methanol effluent concentration when using 7.00 g TiO2/AC composite. As shown, increasing the EBCT increased the methanol removal. Under UV i rradiation, the methanol removal efficiency remained stable around 90% for 12 h. These two sets of experiments show that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to dest roy methanol adsorbates simultaneously and to extend the ACs usage life. Effect of Water In order to investigate the effect of water on methanol adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, several experiments we re carried out as described in Table 2-1 (Sets 1-3). Figure 2-6 shows the relative effluent methanol concentration. It is well known that the adsorption of organic vapors on AC can be disturbed by the presence of water vapor because of the molecular inte ractions that account for the various nonidealities exhibited during the co adsorption of the mixt ure. Typically, the adsorption of organic compounds exhibit a type I isotherm (T aqvi et al., 1999; Finqueneisel et al., 2005). As a result, much of the pore volume is filled at low relative

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22 Time (h) 0123456 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 TiO2/AC TiO2/AC/UV AC AC/UV Figure 2-4 The relative effluent methanol con centration profiles for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC (C0= 31.0 ppm, EBCT=0.35 s). Time (h) 02468101214 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 With UV Without UV Figure 2-5 The relative methanol ef fluent concentration of 7 g TiO2/AC composite (C0=36.4 ppm, EBCT = 2.45 s) pressures. Water dose not inte ract strongly with carbonaceous solids and exhibits a type V (S-shaped) isotherm on AC (Taqvi et al ., 1999; Finqueneisel et al., 2005). At higher

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23 relative humidity values ( >40 to 50%) the moisture adsorption increases sharply due to capillary condensation. The adsorbed water fill s the small pores in the adsorbent and can interfere with the adsorption capacity of or ganic compounds (Noll, 1999). Methanol is a polar molecule and is miscible in water. Ta qvi et al. (1999) reporte d water promoted the adsorption of methanol on BPL AC by the abil ity of alcohol to form H bond with water. Friqueneisel et al. (2005) de veloped a model of adsorption isotherms of methanol/water vapor mixture on microporous AC (hydrophobic su rface). This model predicted that the amount of methanol adsorbed at RH = 42% is equal to the amount of methanol adsorbed in dry conditions. Below this value the amount of methanol adsorbed is lower than in dry conditions and above this value the amount is higher than in dry conditions. Gubkina et al. (2003) studied the adsorption of gas phase methanol on a humidified AC (T = 293 K, RH = 75%). Within their studied con centration range (methanol < 0.2 mg L-1), the adsorption for methanol on humidified AC in the presence of water vapor (T = 293 K, RH = 75%) has a weakly concave shape and can be considered to be linear. Our results of methanol removal without UV light (Figure 2-6 a) show that high humidity greatly hindered the methanol adsorption on TiO2/AC. The methanol adsorption capacity of Set 1 and Set 2 was much lower than that of Set 3. This result is different form the results of Taqvi et al. (1999) and Fri queneisel et al. (2005). The difference is due to the different conditions tested. Their re sults were based on equi librium adsorption and our results were based on fi xed-bed breakthrough experiments and the bed depth was short. For Set 1, TiO2/AC was humidified. Compared with Set 2, the methanol adsorption was higher in the beginning due to the form ation of hydrogen bond with water molecules.

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24 However, the difference diminished later because the adsorbed water filled the pores resulting in less space available for adsorption. Time (h) 0123456 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 (a) Time (h) 0123456 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 ( b ) Figure 2-6 The relative effluent methanol conc entration for Sets 1, 2 and 3: (a) without UV light; (b) with UV light. (C0=31.0 ppm) With UV light irradiation, the temperatur e rose to 328 K and the RH decreased to 16%. When adsorption is an exothermic process, the adsorption of both methanol and water decreased with the increase of temper ature. Therefore, the photocatalytic oxidation is the main mechanism of methanol removal under UV light irradiation. The results of methanol removal with UV light (Figure 2-6 b) show that methanol oxidation on TiO2/AC was improved in dry condition. This result is in concord with the results of Kim and Hong (2002) that the photocatalytic degrad ation rate of methanol was relatively high in lower water vapor concentration and that high humidity (RH > 10.6%, T = 318 K) hindered the photocatalytic degradation of me thanol. The influence of water vapor on the photocatalytic oxidation has been reported by many researchers. Although water plays an important role in the formation of the hydroxyl radicals, adsorbed water is an effective electron-hole recombination cente r leading to less photocataly tic activity (Linsebigler et

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25 al., 1995; Chang et al., 2005). Hence, high co ncentration of water vapor reduces the adsorption of organic vapor and leads to the inhibition of meth anol oxidation. Regeneration Performance The advantages of the integration of ad sorption and photocatalytic regeneration are that the photocatalytic oxidation on TiO2/AC can be accelerated by the high concentration of pollutants eluted from the adsorbent a nd can reduce the UV irradiation time, thus improving the economy of the process. More over, the regeneration process can be operated in-situ at ambient conditions. Figure 2-7 shows the adsorption breakthrough curves of methanol from fres h and regenerated beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4. Figure 2-7 shows the adsorption capacity of each cycle of Sets 4, 5 and 6. For Set 4, Figures 2-7 and 2-8 show that around 60% of the virgin capacity of the TiO2/AC was regenerated and in creasing the regeneration ti me did not increase the regeneration capacity. Therefore, 3 h regeneration was used in Set 5 and Set 6. For Set 5, the virgin capacity was slightly higher than that of Set 4. This result is consistent with the result of Figure 2-6a. The regeneration capacity of cycles 2, 3 and 4 of Set 5 was around 80%, 74% and 60% of the virgin capacity, respec tively. In the first 3 cycles of adsorption, the TiO2/AC was not saturated with water vapor. Th at resulted in a higher capacity of Set 5 compared to Set 4. After 3 cycles of adsorption, the TiO2/AC was almost saturated with water vapor. Therefore the re generation capacity of the 4th cycle of Set 5 was similar to that of Set 4. For Set 6, Fi gure 2-8 shows that the virgin capacity was 1.8 times of the virgin capacity of Set 4. This result was c onsistent with the result of Figure 2-6a. However, the regeneration capacity of Set 6 was quite similar to that of Set 4. That indicated just the ou ter layer of the TiO2/AC was regenerated where the UV light can reach and where the TiO2 coating is. This is consistent with the finding reported by

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26 Crittenden et al. (1997) that the photocatalytic regenerati on process was limited by the desorption of the adsorbate from the interior of the carbon. Time (h) 0123456 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Figure 2-7 The adsorption breakthrough curves of methanol from fresh and regenerated beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4 (C0 =31.0 ppm). Adsorption/Regeneration Cycles Cycle 1Cycle 2Cycle 3Cycle 4 Adsorption Capacity (mg/g) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Set 4 Set 5 Set 6 Figure 2-8 The adsorption capacity of each cycle of Set 4(C0 =31.0 ppm), 5 (C0= 34.3ppm) and 6 (C0 =27.6 ppm)

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27 A possible way to increase the regenera tion capacity is to increase the desorption rate through heating or purging. Therefore, pur ge air was used to increase the desorption rate and the effect of purge air flow was i nvestigated. During rege neration, the methanol and formaldehyde in reactor effluents were co llected and measured. Figure 2-9 shows the amount of methanol adsorbed, the amount of methanol deso rbed in purge air and the amount of formaldehyde formed in regenera tion in each cycle of Sets 7 and 8. When using 0.2 L min-1 purge air (Set 8), around 77% of the original capacity was regenerated after 3 h regeneration. Around 52% regeneration capacity resulted from direct desorption. When using 0.1 L min-1 purge air (Set 7), ar ound 80% of the original capacity was regenerated af ter 3 h regeneration. Around 24% regeneration capacity resulted from direct desorption. Without purge air (Set 6), only 40% of the original capacity was regenerated af ter 3 h UV irradiation. Set 7 Adsorption/Regeneration Cycles 1-Set 72-Set 73-Set 74-Set 71-Set 82-Set 83-Set 84-Set 8 Amount (mg) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Adsorption Desorption CH2O Set 8 Figure 2-9 The methanol adsorption amount in adsorption, methanol desorption and formaldehyde formation amount in regene ration of each cycle of Sets 7 and 8 (C0 =23.7 ppm)

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28 Photocatalytic regeneration of AC is ascribed to bo th desorption from AC and photocatalytic degradation on TiO2. Therefore, both the deso rption rate and degradation rate affect the regeneration efficiency. Without purge air, desorption rate from AC was so low that the methanol adsorbed on the carbon co uld not be effectivel y transferred to the TiO2 photocatalyst. Hence, the photocatalytic regeneration process was limited by the desorption rate. With 0.1 L min-1 purge air, the regeneration efficiency was greatly increased. If the desorption rate was higher than the degradation rate, part of the methanol directly desorbed without degradation as de monstrated by the comparison of Sets 7 and 8. With 0.2 L min-1 purge air, the desorption rate was greatly enhanced although the regeneration efficiency decreased because of the decreased degrad ation rate resulting from the reduction in contact time. Furtherm ore the formaldehyde formation of Set 7 was lower than that of Set 8. This further indi cates that the contact time was not enough for complete photocatalytic oxidation. Without purge air (Set 6), there should be no incomplete degradation product formed because the contact time was much longer. Based on the above mentioned results, the photocat alytic degradation should reach maximum when the rate of degradati on and the rate of desorpti on match with each other. Conclusions Photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate spent adsorbent (Bio-Nuchar AC) and destroy methanol simultaneously. Th e photocatalyst loaded onto the AC has no significant impact on the adsorption capacity of the AC. Increasing the EBCT from 0.35 s to 2.45 s can significantly increase the effi ciency of the simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. High humidity can reduce the effectiveness of methanol adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation on TiO2/AC. The regeneration process is limited by desorption of adsorbate from the interior surface of the

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29 carbon. Increasing desorption rate can signifi cantly increase the regeneration capacity. However, when the rate of desorption is grea ter than the rate of photocatalytic oxidation, part of the methanol directly desorbs without degradation.

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30 CHAPTER 3 PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATLYST BY DRY IMPREGNATION Introduction Recently, several works were carried out on the preparation a nd application of TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. Few works prepared TiO2/AC during the activation of carbon, such as carbonization of a mixture of coal and TiO2 or TiO2 precursor (Aikyo et al., 1996; Przepiorski et al., 2001) Most works used commercially available AC as the raw material. The deposition of TiO2 nanophotocatalyst on commercial AC can be categorized into chemical and physical met hods. The chemical methods mainly rely on hydrolysis of titanium alkoxides such as ch emical vapor deposition (El-Sheikh et al., 2004), impregnation (Harada et al., 1999) and sol-gel method (Capio et al., 2005). The physical methods use commercially available photocatalyst. Examples include spray desiccation (Lu et al., 1999), mechano-fu sion (Khan, 2003), dip-coating (Jeong et al., 2004), and spray desiccation technique (used in Chapter 2). However, the best methods and experimental conditions of carrying out th e process are not yet clear because of the high porosity and non-homogeneous nature of AC. The inhomogeneity makes it difficult to produce homogeneous distribution of TiO2 on the surface of AC (El-Sheikh et al., 2004). Furthermore, UV light cannot penetrate into pores rendering TiO2 nanoparticles deposited inside the pores useless. Therefore, TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the outer surface of activated carbon is desired.

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31 Impregnation is a commonly used method in supported catalyst preparation. Impregnated catalysts are usually obtaine d from preformed supports by impregnation with the active phase. The impregnation met hod involves three steps: (1) contacting the support with the impregnating solution for a cer tain period of time, (2) drying the support to remove the imbibed liquid and (3) activa ting the catalyst by cal cination, reduction or other appropriate treatment. Two methods of contacting, wet impregnation and dry impregnation, may be distinguished, depending on the total amount of solution (Perego and Villa, 1997). The principle of dry impre gnation is that the volume of the precursor solution used in the impregnation is equa l to the pore volume of the support, which results in a better distribution of the solu te on the support surface (Huang et al., 2002). The advantages of impregnation method include: The process can be performed continuously in industry. It produces uniform coating with good reproducibility and adhesion; It controls crystal structure and surface morphology of the TiO2 by controlling the process parameters. The spray desiccation coating method used in this Chapter 2 can effectively coat commercial TiO2 on AC. However, the nanoparticles of TiO2 were agglomerated on the carbon surface which reduced the photocatalytic efficiency. Besides, this coating method is a physical method. The TiO2 particles were coated on the carbon surface by weak physical force. In order to improve the phot ocatalytic efficiency and the adherence between TiO2 photocatalyst and carbon support, dry impregnation method was used to prepare TiO2/AC composite photocataly st in this chapter. Although impregnation method has been adopted in TiO2/AC preparation before, very few studies have been carried out to prepare TiO2/AC composite using titanium te tra-isopropoxide precursor and

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32 information about the preparation details is very limited. This chapter focused on the understanding of the effects of various prepar ation parameters (hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, water vapor concentration, pr ecursor concentration, and moisture content of AC) of the synthetic method. The prepared TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst was also evaluated by removing low concentrati on methanol from humid air stream. Experimental Section Materials All chemicals were reagent grade or better: titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) (Ti(OC3H7)4, 98+%, Fisher); 2-proponal (99.9%, Fi sher); methanol/air mixture (1000 ppmv, Praxair); AC (Bio-Nuchar120, wood based chemically activated carbon, 8-16 mesh, pore volume of 1.45 cc/g, Me adWestvaco), commercial TiO2 photocatalyst (Degussa P25). Material Preparation The TiO2/AC composites were prepared by dry impregnation using a TTIP solution (with 80 vol % of 2-propanol) followed by hydr olysis and calcinat ion. The TTIP solution was stored in sealed contai ner. No hydrolysis in the solution was observed. Before coating, the AC was heated at 105 oC for 4 h to remove moistu re. The carbon (3.5 g) was then mixed with 5 mL of TTIP solution and i mmediately placed in a hydrolysis reactor, as shown in Figure 3-1. The diameter of the reactor is 1 inch, and the pore size of the support frit to better distribute the air flow is 25-50 m. Air saturated with water from a humidifier was passed through the reactor at 0.75 L/min for 2 or 24 h. The empty bed contact time was 0.8 s. The temperature of th e humidifier was maintained at 25 or 90 oC by a hot plate with a temperature controller to determine the effect of moisture content.

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33 The temperature of the reactor was controlled at 25, 90, or 175 oC, depending upon the desired synthesis strategy, by heating tape wrapped around the reactor. The various hydrolysis conditions are summarized in Ta ble 3-1. After hydrolysis, the samples were dried at 105 oC for 4 h to evaporate the adsorbed 2-propanol and then calcined at 300 oC for 2 h in air. This calcination condition wa s chosen according to Coln et al. (2002) who reported that TiO2/AC samples (prepared by means of sol-gel precipitation from TTIP) calcined under this condition showed highe r photon efficiency. Other different calcination conditions were also investigat ed for their effects on product properties. Considering that carbon will partly gasify during calcination in ai r, calcination in N2 was also performed. Table 3-2 lists the calcination conditions. Sa mples 6-8 listed in Table 3-2 were prepared by 20 vol % TTIP solution and hydrolyzed in an ope n vessel under humid air (RH = 47 %) for 24 h. BioNuchar AC coat ed with 9 wt % P25 photocatalyst by spray desiccation method (used in Chapter 2) was used as the baseline for photocatalytic activity evaluation. Table 3-1 Effect of hydrolysis conditions* Sample No. Water bath Temp. (oC) Hydrolysis Temp. (oC) Hydrolysis Time (hour) Specific Surface Area (m2/g) TiO2 Amount (%wt) 1 25 25 2 1113 6.38 2 25 25 24 1150 5.53 3 25 90 2 1140 5.09 4 25 175 2 1018 2.38 5 90 90 2 1270 8.33 TTIP concentration was 20 vol % in 2-propa nol; calcinatio n conditions were the same as sample 7. The effect of TTIP concentration on the prepared TiO2/AC was also tested. The TTIP concentration varied from 20 vol % to 5 vol % in 2-propanol. Table 3-3 listed the preparation conditions. Carbon moisture is an other important factor that affects the

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34 properties of the prepared TiO2/AC. Sample 11 was prepared under the same conditions as sample 2 except that the carbon wa s not dried before preparation. Table 3-2 Effect of calcination conditions Sample Specific Surface Area (m2/g) Temp. (oC) AtmosphereTime (h) Total Pore Volume (cc/g) Micropores (<20) (cc/g) Mesopores (200500) (cc/g) AC 1472 1.45 0.46 0.84 AC* 1338 300 air 2.0 NA NA NA 6 1265 300 air 0.5 1.35 0.47 0.84 7 1238 300 air 2.0 1.32 0.46 0.78 8** 1479 300 N2 2.0 NA NA NA BioNuchar AC calcined at 300 oC in air * Pore volume distribution wasnt measured because the anatase phase was not present Figure 3-1 Schematic of the hydrolysis reacto r: 1. mass flow controller; 2. water bubble bottle with water bath a nd hot plate (with temperat ure controller); 3. heating tape; 4. temperature controller; 5. po rous frit; 6. carbon loaded with TTIP solution; 7.hydrolysis reactor Table 3-3 TTIP concentration and carbon moisture* Sample Carbon TTIP Conc. (vol %) TiO2 Amount (wt %) 9 Dry 10 4.27 10 Dry 5 2.01 0.17 11 With moisture 20 5.59 0.33 *Other conditions were the same as sample 2.

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35 Characterization The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD 3720, Philips) for identification of crystalline species in the continuous-scan mode (scanning speed: 0.005o/sec, scanning range: 20o to 50o). The major anatase (101) peak at 2 = 25.4o was analyzed. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO2/AC samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isothe rms performed at 77 K (NOVA 1200, Quantachrome). All samples were dried at 105 oC for 2 h prior to measurement. The specific surface area was determined by multipoint BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/P0) range of 0.05-0.30. As discussed in Chapter 2, the inhomogeneity of AC resulted in the high deviation of the measured BET surface area. The isotherms were used to determine the pore size distribution using the Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH) me thod with cylindrical pore size. The surface morphology of TiO2/AC composites was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (JSM6330F, JEOL). The TiO2 loading on the TiO2/AC composites were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, STA 449, NETZSCH). Approximately 20 mg of material was heated up to 1200 oC at 10 oC/min under 50 mL min-1 air flow. By comparing the resulting ash content of the AC with that of each TiO2/AC composite, the TiO2 loading in each composite was calculated according to Equation 2-1 in Chapter 2. Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation The same experimental set up used in Chap ter 2 (shown in Figure 2-2) was used to evaluate the photocatalyt ic activity of the composite materi al thus prepared. One gram of TiO2/AC was used each time. The TiO2/AC sample was prehumidified until saturated by passing humid air through the re actor at the rate of 0.4 L/mi n for 16 h. Methanol laden air

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36 (RH = 80%) was then passed through the fixed bed of TiO2/AC with and without UV light for 6 h. The empty bed contact time wa s about 0.35s. The methanol concentration in the influent and effluent of the reactor dur ing the experiment was measured by the same method in Chapter 2. The photocatalytic activity of different samples was evaluated by comparing the concentration of methanol in th e effluent. Each test was repeated at least two times. Results and Discussion Effect of Calcination Conditions In order to optimize the formation of an atase, samples prepared by hydrolysis at ambient (25 oC, RH = 47%) for 24 h and dried at 105 oC for 4 h were calcined under different conditions (Table 3-2) Figure 3-2 shows the XRD patterns of these samples. By comparing the XRD patterns of samples 6 and 7, it can be seen that the anatase phase was formed during the heat treatment, and the degree of TiO2 crystallinity increased with longer treatment time. The comparison of th e XRD patterns of samples 7 and 8 shows that the anatase phase did not form to the same extent when calcined in N2 at the same temperature. The specific surface areas for the samples prepared utilizing different calcination conditions are also listed in Table 3-2. When calcined in air, carbon was partially oxidized and resulted in the decrease of surface area. The specific surface area of BioNuchar AC after calcina tion (Table 3-2) was 1338 m2/g, and the weight loss was 4.3 wt %. The surface area of sample 8 did not change a lot from the virgin carbon because the porous structure of the carbon didnt incu r serious damage during calcination in N2. Compared with that of the un-coated Bionuchar, the volume of micropores and mesopores of samples 6 and 7 didnt change significantly. This showed that TiO2

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37 particles mainly deposited on the outer surf ace and only slightly in the macropores. This is further confirmed by SEM analys es to be discussed later. Figure 3-2 XRD patterns of samples calcined under different conditions In this study, hydrolysis r eaction immediately started after mixing the precursor solution with the carbon. The precursor so lution might not have sufficient time to penetrate the pores of the carbon. Therefore, TiO2 just formed on the outer layer of the carbon particle. Since UV light can not penetrate in to the carbon, the formation of TiO2 formation on the outer layer of carbon particles is desired. In summary, the anatase phase wa s formed during calcination at 300 oC for 2 h in air (sample 7) with minimal carbon loss. This calcination condition was used in the subsequent studies. Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions Five hydrolysis conditions were tested (Table 3-1) in order to investigate how these changes effected anatase formation. The sp ecific surface areas for those samples after calcination and the TiO2 loading derived from TGA m easurement described above are also listed in Table 3-1. Figure 3-3 shows the XRD patterns of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions. Before ca lcination, there was no anatase peak on the

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38 XRD pattern; i.e. the as-prepared TiO2 without calcination was amorphous. Regarding the morphology, Figure 3-4 shows the SEM images of their outer surface. Figure 3-3 XRD patterns of samples prepared u nder different hydrolysis conditions Two simultaneous reactions hydrolysis and polycondensation take place when TTIP reacts with water. The overall reacti on of TTIP occurs as (Seto et al., 1995): TTIP + 2H2O TiO2 + 4C3H7OH (3-1) The vapor phase hydrolysis rate constant k is given by Seto et al. (1995): k =3.0 1015 exp(-8.43KJ mol-1/RT) Although the hydrolysis of TTIP in vapor phase is very fast, the hydrolysis of TTIP adsorbed on the carbon is much slower due to mass transfer limitation. There are two possible routes for the adsorbed TTIP to be hydrolyzed: 1) the TTIP desorbs first and then hydrolyzes in vapor phase; 2) the wate r vapor directly hydrolyzes the adsorbed TTIP.

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39 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 3-4 SEM images of samples prepar ed under different hydrolysis conditions (Magnification: 10,000): (a) sample 1; (b) sample 2; (c) sample 3; (d) sample 4; (e) sample 5; (f) 9%P25/AC. Hydrolysis is the key step for TiO2 formation in this system. Hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time and reactant con centration all effect the hydrolysis reaction. Kinetically, the higher the temper ature, the faster the reaction. According to Kim et al. (2000), when the hydrolysis reaction is in complete, a large amount of unhydrolyzed alkyls remain on the powder. The presence of these alkyls prevents crystallization, thus

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40 keeping TiO2 in the amorphous phase (Kim et al., 2000). Therefore, the higher the degree of hydrolysis reaction is, th e higher the degree of TiO2 crystallinity. Comparing the XRD patterns for samples 1, 3, and 4, it is clearly demonstrated that the formation of the anatase phase was favored at high hydrolysis temperature. The result concurs with the notion that the hydrolysis reaction is faster at higher hydrolysis temperatures and it agrees with the trend explained by Kim et al (2000). At the same hydr olysis temperature and reactants concentration, increasing the reac tion time didnt significantly increase the degree of TiO2 crystallinity as demonstrated by the similar XRD patterns for samples 1 and 2. In addition to temperature, a higher reactant concentration also results in a faster reaction. Therefore, when the water concentr ation was higher (sample 5 vs. sample 3), the reaction rate and the majo r anatase (101) peak at 2 = 25.4o was higher. Moreover, the hydrolysis c onditions affect the TiO2 loading and the morphology of TiO2. Table 3-1 shows that the TiO2 loading decreased with the increase in hydrolysis temperature due to the increase of desorption of TTIP (boiling point: 220 oC). The TiO2 loadings for sample 1, sample 3, and sample 4 were 6.38%, 5.09%, and 2.38% respectively. Although the vapor pressure of TiO2 is extremely low, TiO2 molecules formed by hydrolysis need to diffuse to car bon surface and then nucleate. Part of the TiO2 molecules may be transported by the purge ai r. Under the same hydrolysis conditions, the TiO2 loadings for sample 1 and sample 2 were 6.38% and 5.53% respectively. The TiO2 loading decreased with the in crease of hydrolysis time because the loss of TTIP and/or TiO2 mainly caused by the purge air. The unhydrolyzed TTIP left on the carbon can be hydrolyzed and/or thermally decomposed in the subsequent processes. The TiO2 thus formed has higher probability to deposit on the carbon surface because of no purge air.

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41 Desorption of TTIP should work the same wa y under the same hydrol ysis temperature for sample 3 and sample 5. The TiO2 loading of sample 5 (8.33 %), however, is higher than that of sample 3 (5.09%). The comparison of these two conditions evidences that the TiO2 loading positively correlates with the rate of hydrolysis when desorption of TTIP works the same. It should be noted that the theoretical TiO2 loading (assuming all the TTIP on the carbon is converted to TiO2) is 8.24%. That indicates all TTIP can be converted to TiO2 under proper hydrolysis conditions. Figure 3-4 shows the SEM images of different samples. TiO2 formed a rough particulate coating layer on the sample 4, and dense coating layers on the other samples. The results presented in the previous paragr aph demonstrated that TTIP desorption into the gas phase followed by vapor phase hydrolysis was the main route for the formation of hydrolyzed titanium compounds. The subse quent nucleation of hydrolyzed titanium compounds follows a LaMer type nucleati on process (Figure 3-5) (Giesche, 1998). Heterogeneous nucleation doesnt start until the hydrolyzed titanium compounds concentration reaches above the saturation va por pressure. If the critical nucleation concentration is never exceeded, the system is forced to follow a heterogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism (Curve I in Figure 3-5). Dense coating layers with a uniform thickness are formed (Giesche, 1998). Wh en the critical nucleation concentration is exceeded, homogeneous nucleation is prefer red. A lot of nuclei are formed which then relieve the supersaturation (Curve II). Part of those nuclei may also deposit on the carbon surface due to heterocoagulation. When th e concentration of hydrolyzed titanium compounds falls below the critical nucleation concentration, heteroge neous nucleation is preferred again and results in the subse quent uniform growth on the existing nuclei

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42 (Giesche, 1998). Therefore rough particulate coating layers formed on sample 4 because the TTIP desorption rate was high enough for the formed hydrolyzed titanium compounds concentration to exceed critical nucleation concentr ation. Dense coating layers formed on other samples because the critical nucleation concentration wasnt exceeded. The SEM image for the sample pr epared by spray desiccation (9% P25/AC) was also shown in Figure 3-4. Although the pr imary particle size of P25 is about 20 nm, coating thus prepared consisted of agglom erated particles on th e carbon surface. The distribution of P25 on TiO2/AC prepared by spray desiccation was not well dispersed compared to the TiO2 on the samples prepared by the described method. Figure 3-5 The LaMer diagram related to nuc leation and growth mechanism Figure 3-6 shows the SEM image of sample 2s inner surface. Compared with the SEM image of sample 2s outer surf ace (Figure 3-4), it indicates TiO2 was mostly coated on the outer layer of the AC. This is c onsistent with the pore size distribution measurements. In summary, the hydrolysis reaction rate positively correlated with the hydrolysis temperature and the reactant concentration. Low hydrolysis temperature and shorter hydrolysis time can reduce the vaporizati on loss of TTIP. Regarding the TiO2 Critical nucleation conc. Saturation vapor pressure Heterogeneous Nucleation Homogeneous N ucleation Time Vapor Concentration II I

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43 morphology, high hydrolysis temperat ure results in particulate coating layer with higher surface area than dense coating layer. Alt hough sample 4 satisfied the requisites for higher photocatalytic activity, large surface ar ea and high crystallinity (Kominami et al., 1997), the hydrolysis conditions of sample 2 were used in the following sections. This is because: 1) carbon is flammable and heating in air poses a hazard of self-ignition; 2) high TTIP loss of sample 4; 3) low energy consumption of sample 2. Figure 3-6 SEM image of sample 2s inner surface Effect of TTIP Concentration Three different TTIP concentrations (sampl es 2, 9, 10) were used to evaluate the effects of this parameter. Figure 3-7 shows the SEM images of the outer surface of samples 9 and 10. The SEM image of the outer surface of sample 2 is in Figure 3-4. The measured TiO2 loading amount are listed in Table 3-1 for sample 2 and Table 3-3 for the others. The results show that dense coating layers formed on all three samples. Therefore, TTIP concentration has no direct impact on the morphology of TiO2. The TiO2 loading increased with the increase of TTIP concentr ations. Assuming all of the TTIP on the carbon is converted to TiO2, the theoretical TiO2 loading values are 8.24, 4.12, and 2.06

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44 wt %, for 20, 10, and 5 vol % TTIP solution. Different from sample 2, the TiO2 loadings of samples 9 and 10 were very close to the theoretical values. All TTIP converted into TiO2 on samples 9 and 10. This is because, as discussed previously, that the hydrolysis rate was not quick enough to hydrolyze all TTIP in gas phase when the TTIP concentration was 20 vol %. (a) (b) Figure 3-7 SEM images of samples 9-10. (a) sample 9; (b) sample 10. Effect of Moisture in Carbon Activated carbon is a good adsorbent for mo isture. The AC used in samples 110 was dried to remove moisture before coati ng. Sample 11 was prepared under the same

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45 conditions of sample 2 except that the AC wa snt dried before coating. After heating at 105 oC for 2 h, the weight loss of the used AC was 4.73%. Because the moisture content of AC depends on the storage conditions, its va lue varies a lot. Fi gure 3-8 shows the SEM image of the outer surface of sample 11. The measured TiO2 loading is listed in Table 33. Figure 3-9 shows the XRD pattern of sample 11. Figure 3-8 SEM image of sample 11 Figure 3-9 XRD pattern of sample 11

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46 Even though the moisture hadnt been removed before impregnation, TiO2 particles were not formed immediately after mixing w ith the TTIP solution. The reason is that the adsorbed water has lower reaction activity than water vapor. The TiO2 loading of sample 2 and sample 11 were similar. Although dense coating layers formed on sample 11 (Figure 3-8), there were quite a few particles as shown. T hose particles deposited on the surface of the formed dense coating layer. This indicated two kinds of hydrolysis of TTIP: 1) hydrolyzed by adsorbed water; 2) hydrolyzed by water vapor in the air streams. The TTIP hydrolyzed by adsorbed water form ed the dense coating layer. The surplus TTIP hydrolyzed by water vapor in airstreams and deposited on it. Compared with the XRD patterns of sample 2 and sample 11, the moisture in the carbon increased the degree of TiO2 crystallinity. So, it is not necessary to remove the moisture before impregnation. Photocatalytic Activity Methanol removal by the original AC and various TiO2/AC composites with and without UV light was carried out in order to compare their abil ity to remove methanol via simultaneous adsorption and oxidation. The effl uent methanol concentration profiles are shown in Figure 3-10 for the virgin AC and sa mple 4 as a represen tative. The effluent methanol concentration increased quickly when treated by the virgin AC with and without UV light. When treated by sample 4 without UV light irradiation, a similar adsorption profile was observed, and the me thanol adsorption capacities for the virgin AC and sample 4 composite were similar. However, when methanol was treated by sample 4 with UV light irradiation, the metha nol concentration didnt reach saturation for the duration of the experiment. The methanol concentration increased during the first 2 h and then maintained at about 58% removal. Figure 3-11 shows the methanol removal efficiency for the different TiO2/AC samples based on the measurements of the last four h

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47 (i.e., after the value did not vary more th an 2 ppm), wherein, 9% P25/AC was BioNuchar AC coated with 9 wt % P25 by spray desiccation. Time (h) 0123456 Methanol Effulent Concentration (ppmv) 0 10 20 30 40 AC AC/UV Sample 4 Sample 4/UV Figure 3-10 Methanol effluent concentration profiles (C0=31.0 ppmv) 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 11 9% P25/AC Sample Methanol Remval Efficiency 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Figure 3-11 Average methanol remo val efficiency of samples (C0=31.0 ppmv)

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48 Because of the low surface area of dense coating layer compared with particulate coating layer, photocatalytic activity of samples 1, 2, 3 and 5 was lower than that of sample 4. The TiO2 loading also played an important role. For those samples with a dense coating layer, the photocatalytic activity was negatively correlated to the TiO2 loading. It is well known that the photocatal ytic activity decreases with the increase of particle size due to quantum size effect (Alberici et al ., 1997). Although sample 5 had a higher degree of anatase crystallinity than did samples 1, 2 and 3, its methanol removal efficiency was the lowest because of the increase in th e film thickness. Furthermore, it can be conjectured that the photocatalytic activity can be further improved by reducing the TiO2 loading to a critical value. Below this critical value, the photocatalytic activity would decrease because the TiO2 loading is too low to cover all surfaces. The methanol removal performances of sample 2 (20 vol % TTIP) and sample 9 (10 vol % TTIP) were similar. The methanol performance of sample 10 (5 vol % TTIP) was better because of lower TiO2 loading than those two samples. Under the same hydrolysis and calcination conditions, the TTIP concentration only influence the TiO2 loading and had no significant effect on the TiO2 morphology. As mentioned above, dense coating layers were formed on these three samples and photocatalytic activities were similar. Considering the effective usag e of TTIP, lower concentration was preferred. The photocatalytic activity of sample 11 was better than that of sample 2 because of the degree of TiO2 crystallinity. Comparing sample 4 and sample 11, their methanol removal efficiencies were similar. Sample 11 was therefore used in Chapter 4 due to its high performance and simplicity in preparation procedure.

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49 In comparison, the methanol removal effici ency of the base line (9% P25/AC) was lower than samples 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, and 11. The better distribution of TiO2 particles prepared by the dry impregnati on contributes to the better performance. The results demonstrate that the dry impregnation can be an effective method for preparing the photocatalytic TiO2/AC composites that have a higher photocatalytic activity for methanol removal. Conclusion TiO2/AC composites were successfully prepared by the described dry impregnation. TTIP was effectively conve rted to the anatase form of TiO2 by hydrolysis and calcination. The hydrolysis conditions infl uenced the loading and morphology of the formed TiO2. The favorable hydrolysis condition to form particulate coating layer was high temperature that would result in a con centration exceeding the critical nucleation concentration. The favorable calcination condition was 300 oC in air for 2 h. The TiO2 was mostly coated on the outer surface and macropores of AC. High hydrolysis temperature results in particul ate coating layer and high TiO2 crystallinity. Under the same hydrolysis and calcination conditions, th e TTIP concentration mainly affected the TiO2 loading and had little influence on the photo catalytic activity. It is not necessary to remove moisture from carbon before coating. The moisture in the carbon increased the crystallinity of TiO2. Under proper prepara tion conditions, the TiO2/AC composite prepared by dry impregnation outperformed the TiO2/AC composite prepared by spray desiccation.

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50 CHAPTER 4 H2S REMOVAL BY A TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST PREPARED BY DRY IMPREGNATION Introduction Properties of H2S and Regulations Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic air polluta nt which has been identified in the list of 190 air toxic substances in T itle III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Yang, 1992). It is almost as toxic as hydr ogen cyanide (HCN). Human exposure to low concentration of H2S in air can cause headaches, nausea, and eye irritation, and higher concentration can cause paralysis of the resp iratory system, which results in fainting and possibly death. Concentrations of the gas approaching 0.2% (2000 ppmv) are fatal to humans after exposure for a few minutes. Hydr ogen sulfide is an odorous gas, and its presence at low concentrations is easily perc eived and recognized due to its characteristic odor of rotten eggs. H2S is perceptible to most people at the concentration in excess of 0.5 parts per billion (ppb) in air. However, as the level of H2S increases, a persons ability to sense dangerous concentration by smell is quickly lost. If the concentration is high enough, unconsciousness will come suddenly, fo llowed by death if there is no prompt rescue (Yang, 1992). The Occupational Safe ty and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) fo r General Industry as follows: Exposure shall not exceed 20 ppm (ceiling) with the following exception: if no other measureable exposure occurs during the 8-hour work shift, exposures may exceed 20 ppm, but not more than 50 ppm (peak), for a single time period up to 10 mintes. The National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends a

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51 single 10-ppm 10-minute ceiling PEL fo r this substance. Control of H2S emissions is essential to the protection of public health and welfare as well as to the mitigation of vegetation and material da mage problems (Yang, 1992). Hydrogen sulfide is one of the major pollu tants in air emissions from kraft pulp mills. It is a colorless gas, slightly heavier than air, and moderately soluble in water. The solubility of H2S decreases with increasing temperatures. The dissolved H2S dissociates in accordance with the following revers ible ionization reactions (Yang, 1992): H HS S H2 (4-1) H S HS2 (4-2) The dissociation of H2S is effected by pH. The concentration of HSspecies is insignificant when pH valu es are less than 6, and S2may not occur at all when pH values are less than 6. Processes that have been used to remove H2S from waste gas streams involve either physical treatment or chemical oxidation. The means of removing H2S depend on the concentration. At high concentrations, the Claus reaction process is commonly used (Bouzaza et al., 2004). At lower concentrations several processes have been developed, such as transition-metal oxides catalytic ox idation (Li et al., 1997) bifunctional redox scrubbing process (Petre and Larachi, 2005), and AC adsorp tion/oxidation (Katoh et al., 1995; Bagreev et al., 2001; Bandosz, 2002; Le Leuch et al., 2003; Bouzaza et al., 2004). Some methods require additions of chemi cals, and energy expenditure is usually necessary for physical treatment. Additiona l environmental problems are encountered with chemical additives, wh ere the resulting products a nd by-products require further treatment and disposal (Yang, 1992).

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52 H2S Adsorption/Oxidation on AC Activated carbons used for the removal of H2S are generally impregnated with caustic materials such as NaOH or KOH, or are otherwise modified. Air currents around odor-generating facilities are in itially washed in scrubbers, during which they intake high levels of humidity, and are then blown thr ough the AC vessels. The carbon bed is mostly used as a passive support for the caustic ma terial. The disadvantage s of caustic carbons include: 1) the impregnation decreases the i gnition temperature of the carbon and poses a hazard of self-ignition; 2) the oxidation pr oduct is elemental sulfur which cannot be removed from carbon by washing with water; 3) the activity of caustic carbons toward H2S oxidation ends when the caustic is consumed and the carbon pores are blocked by sulfur and sodium or potassium salts; 4) its co st is much higher than virgin AC (Bandosz, 2002). The application of virgin (unimpre gnated) AC for the removal of H2S from air has been investigated. Many papers published in the literature in dicate a good removal efficiency of H2S on ACs (Katoh et al., 1995; Bagreev et al., 2001; Bandosz, 2002; Le Leuch et al., 2003; Bouzaza et al., 2004). The structural parameters and surface chemistry of ACs, which are governed by the presence of heteroatoms (such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphours), are impor tant for their performance as a H2S remover. The surface area and pore volume are not the crucial factors that determine the final performance of carbons as H2S removers (Bandosz, 2002). The pH of carbon surface has a signif icant effect on the efficiency of H2S dissociation and its oxidation to various sulfur species. A mo derately low average pH of the carbon surface is expected to suppress the dissociation of H2S and the creation of HSions. Hydrosulfide ions, when present in low concentration on carbon surface are

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53 oxidized to sulfur oxides which subsequently form sulfuric acid. When the pH value is very low (< 4.5), only physical adsorption can occur and the concentr ation of dissociated H2S ions is negligible. On the other ha nd, a pH in the basic range promotes the dissociation of H2S. This results in a high concentration of HSions, which are then oxidized to sulfur. For the efficacy of regene ration of the spent carbon, the formation of sulfuric acid is preferred. Water is anot her important factor in the process of H2S removal. The data collected by Ba ndosz clearly show that the H2S breakthrough capacities of prehumidified carbons are about two to six times higher than those of the as received carbons (Bandosz, 2002). The presen ce of humidity in airstreams increased strongly the equilibrium capacity (in batch reactor) of ACs compared to dry atmosphere (Le Leuch et al., 2003). However, an excess of water flooding was reported as a factor that decreased adsorption of H2S on AC. The optimal relative humidity for WWP3 AC cloth was around 60% (Le Leuch et al., 2003). When H2S is adsorbed onto unmodified ACs at elevated temperatures, elemental sulfur is the main product. El emental sulfur also deposits wh en caustic carbons are used. At ambient temperature, however, sulfuric acid is formed and results in a significant decrease in the pH of carbon (B andosz, 2002). The mechanism of H2S oxidation on AC proposed by Hidden et al. (1976) requires the presence of a water film, which enables the dissociation of H2S molecules to HSions. The following figure shows the proposed pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC (Bandosz, 2002). Under dry air, Le Leuch et al. (2003) proposed the mechanism of H2S oxidation on AC as follows: ) ( 2 22O C O Cf (4-3)

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54 fC O H S O C S H 2 0 8 28 1 ) ( (4-4) where Cf is free active site, maybe an oxygen-contai ning site or radical C formed at the carbon surface. The first mechanism is the adsorption of oxygen from air by the carbon. The second mechanism is the oxidation of H2S by the adsorbed oxygen. Figure 4-1 Proposed pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC in the presence of water (Bandosz, 2002) Bandosz (2002) investigated the regeneration of th e exhausted carbon by water washing or heat treatment. The study of the water regeneration showed that after the first adsorption run around 60% capacity was lost ir reversibly. This was the result of the deposition of elemental sulfur in carbon micropores and the strong adsorption of sulfuric acid leading to the low pH. The regeneration of spent carbon by hea ting at 573 K resulted in 70% capacity loss. The H2S destruction in gas-phase using TiO2 photocatalyst has been studied by Canela et al. (1998). These authors observ ed high degradation yields of 99% at concentration of 33 to 855 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to be necessary for the

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55 photodestruction of H2S. The photocatalytic process using TiO2/UV-VIS showed that at 217 ppmv, there was no loss of the activity ove r extended operation periods (3 h). The main product in the photocat alytic destruction of H2S in gas-phase was sulfate ions. The objective of this chapter was to evaluate the performance of the TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst developed in the previous chapter as a H2S remover. Although H2S is among the pollutants effectively re moved by AC (Bagreev et al., 2001), TiO2/AC composite was used to increase the oxidation of H2S to sulfate. Experimental Section Materials All chemicals were reagent grade or better: H2S/air mixture (1000 ppmv, Praxair); DI water (> 17.9 M /cm); air (breath grade, Praxair). AC used in this study was MeadWestvaco Bio-Nuchar 120 (a chemica lly activated wood based carbon, 8 12 mesh). The TiO2/AC composite photocatal yst used was Sample 11 prepared by dry impregnation method as described in Chapter 3. Photocatalytic Acti vity Evaluation Figure 4-2 shows the experimental set-up. The H2S (1000 ppm in air) from a cylinder was mixed with air and diluted to around 40 ppm. The reactor was the same as in Chapters 2 and 3. The temperature of the reactor was measured by the thermal couple inserted in the reactor. Each time 1.00 g adsorbent was used. The flow rate was 0.42 L/min and the EBCT was 0.35 s. The H2S removal was tested with UV light and without UV light (at room temperature). Because the reactor has no cooling system, the temperature rises to 328 K when the UV light is turned on. The H2S removal by AC at 328 K was also carried out to investigate the effect of temperature (the UV lamp was covered by Al foil and turned on so that th ere was no UV light in the reactor but the

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56 temperature was the same as the run with UV light). For convenience, the labels RT (at room temperature, without UV), 328 K (at 328 K, without UV), and UV (under UV Light irradiation) were used to indi cate the experimental conditions. A Jerome 631-X H2S analyzer (Arizona Instrument LLC) was used to measure H2S concentrations in the sample gas. The detec tion range of the analyzer is 0.003 to 50 ppm and the precision is 5% relative standard deviation. H2S concentration at the inlet of the reactor was measured when the H2S laden gas bypassed the reactor. By comparing the outlet H2S concentration with the inlet level, the H2S removal efficiency can be obtained. Finally, the gas stream passed through an alkaline trap before it was exhausted into the fume hood. The amount of sulfate formed on the adsorbents was measured according to the following method. The used sample was taken out and added to 100 ml DI water (> 17.9 M /cm) and the suspension was stirred over night to reach equilibrium (Bandosz, 2002). In the following morning, the sample wa s filtered and the sulf ate concentration in the filtrate was measured by ion chromatography (ICS-1500, DIONEX). The H2S removal efficiency and sulfate c onversion efficiency were calculated according to the following equations: 5 24 t Q C ni t (4-5) 5 24 2 ) ( Q t C C nt i r (4-6) % 100 t r rn n (4-7) % 100 r s cn n (4-8)

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57 where, nt (mol) is the total H2S amount entering the reactor; Ci (ppm) is the inelt concentration of H2S; t (min) is the total time of expe riment; Q (L/min) is the gas flow rate; 24.5 (L/mol) is the gas constant at 25 oC and 1 atm; nr (mol) is the removed H2S amount during the experiment; Ct is the outlet concentration of H2S at time t; t (min) is the time interval between two data points; ns (mol) is the amount of sulfate formed on the adsorbent; r is the H2S removal efficiency; c is the sulfate conversion efficiency. Figure 4-2 Experimental set-up for H2S removal Results and Discussion Figure 4-3 shows the outlet concentration profiles of virgin BioNuchar AC and TiO2/AC in dry condition. From bottom to top, the six lines are AC/UV, AC/328K, AC/RT, TiO2/AC/UV, TiO2/AC/328K, and TiO2/AC/RT respectively. In all cases, the outlet H2S concentration increased with time and was lower than the inlet concentration during the entire operation peri od (120 min), indicating that the adsorbents were not saturated. Hence, the rem oval amount calculated by Eq. 46 was not the saturation capacity. The outlet concentrations of TiO2/AC were higher than that of AC in all three conditions. Figure 4-4 shows the H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion efficiency in each situation. For AC, the removal efficiencies were 91.40 1.84 % (RT),

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58 96.84 0.65 % (328 K), and 97.97 0.10 % (UV) ; the sulfate conversion efficiencies were 15.01 1.93 % (RT), 12.57 1.66 % (328 K), and 14.10 2.15 % (UV). For TiO2/AC, the removal efficiencies were 45.70 5.64 % (RT), 53.78 0.32 % (328 K), and 86.62 1.93 % (UV); the sulfate conversi on efficiencies were 13.45 4.37 % (RT), 12.11 0.39 % (328 K), and 18.73 1.24 % ( UV). Details of the effect of each parameter are discussed below. Time (min) 020406080100120140 H2S Concentration (ppm) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 AC/RT AC/328K AC/UV TiO2/AC/RT TiO2/AC/328K TiO2/AC/UV Figure 4-3 Outlet H2S concentration profiles (inlet c oncentration was 40.5 ppm, RH = 0%) Surface pH As shown, BioNuchar AC is a better H2S remover than TiO2/AC. This may result from the changes of the surf ace properties during the preparation. As discussed earlier, the surface chemistr y is the dominant factor in the H2S removal performance of carbons. The pH of carbon surf ace has a significant effect on the removal capacity of H2S. To verify the effect of this para meter, the pH of the virgin BioNuchar AC and the TiO2/AC composite were measured. 0.4 g of dry sample was added to 20 ml

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59 of DI water ( > 17.9 M /cm) and the suspension was stirred overnight to reach equilibrium (Bandosz, 2002). The sample was th en filtered and the pH of the filtrate was measured by Accumet AP71 pH meter. Th e results are listed in Table 4-1. RemovalConversion Efficiency (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 AC/RT AC/328K AC/UV TiO2/AC/RT TiO2/AC/328K TiO2/AC/UV Figure 4-4 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency (inlet concentration was 40.5 ppm, RH = 0%) Table 4-1 Surface pH of AC and TiO2/AC Sample Surface pH BioNuchar AC 6.84.13 TiO2/AC 4.19.36 The virgin BioNuchar AC has a moderate pH which is good for both high capacity and sulfuric acid formation (Bandosz, 2002). After coating TiO2, the surface pH was decreased to acidic range wh ich is not desired for H2S removal. Temperature High temperature improved the H2S removal on AC and TiO2/AC. Generally, chemical reaction proceeds faster at higher temperature. The oxidation of H2S on AC was faster at 328 K than at room temp erature. Therefore the removal efficiency increased. The sulfate conversion efficiencies at 328 K decreased compared to at room

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60 temperature. As mentioned above, elemen tal sulfur is the main product of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC at elevated temperature (Bandosz, 2002). UV light At the same temperature (at 328 K), UV light irradiation improved the H2S removal on TiO2/AC from 53.78 % to 86.62%. Furthermore, sulfate conversion efficiency, which is important for regenerati on using water wash, was also increased. This proved that H2S was photocatalytically degraded on TiO2/AC composite. Compared to the results of Canela et al. (1998), the H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC with the presence of UV light are lower. This is mainly because the EBCT was much shorter (0.35 s) in th e current system. The EBCT used by Canela and coworkers was 48 s. UV light also improved the removal of H2S on AC. In Figures 4-3, the outlet H2S concentration of AC/UV was lower than th at of AC (328 K). The difference between AC/UV and AC (328 K), however, was not clear because the rem oval efficiencies in both cases were high. To clarify the effect of UV light, H2S was increased to 59 ppm. It should be noted that the inlet concentration wa s calculated according to the flow rates of the two mass flow controller and the H2S concentration in the cylinder because the inlet concentration was out of the measuring range of 631X H2S analyzer. Figure 4-5 shows the removal and conversion efficiencies. With the increase of inlet H2S concentration to 59 ppm, the removal efficiencies decreased to 85.03 5.07 % (RT), 88.77 3.78 % (328 K), and 94.75 1.96 % (UV) respectively. The difference between AC at 328 K and under UV irradiation was increased. This proved that UV light im proved the AC performance. The sulfate conversion efficiencies were 15.72 1.87 % (RT), 20.03 1.19 % (328 K), and 15.14

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61 0.12 % (UV). Except at 328 K without UV irradia tion, the sulfate conve rsion efficiencies were almost the same as the case of 40.5 pp m inlet concentration. The peak wavelength of the used UV lamp (black light lamp) is 365 nm. Photolysis of H2S occurs in light with wavelength shorter than 300 nm (Khriachtchev et al., 1998). However, Nozawa et al. (2001) observed the photolysis of H2S under black light lamp (365 nm). This was inconsistent with the results of Khriacht chev and co-workers (1998). Figure 4-6 shows the relative outlet concentration of H2S under UV light irradiation without AC or TiO2/AC adsorbent (i.e. empty reactor). Removal Conversion Efficiency (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 AC/RT AC/328K AC/UV Figure 4-5 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency of AC (inlet concentration was 59 ppm, RH = 0%) The outlet concentration was lower than the inlet concentration. This might result from the H2S adsorption on the reactor (reactor wall, porous frit, and tubing). With the presence of UV light, the outle t concentration was not lower than that without UV light. After 30 minutes, the outlet concentration with the presence of UV light was higher than

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62 that without UV light because of the rise of temperature and decrease of adsorption. The results proved there was no photolysis unde r the black light lamp used (365 nm). Therefore, photolysis is not responsible for the improved H2S removal on AC under the UV light in the current system (365 nm). There are two possible mechanisms for the enhanced removal and conversion of AC under UV. It is possible that UV light induces heterogeneous photolysis of H2S adsorbed to the external surface of the carbon. Another possible mechanism is the functional groups of AC, such as carbonyl group, are excited under UV light irradiation. The mechanism wasnt further explored due facility limitation. To the best of the authors know ledge, this phenomena and mechanism have not been reported Time (h) 0102030405060 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Without UV With UV Figure 4-6 Outlet H2S concentration passing empty reac tor (inlet concentration was 45 ppm, RH = 0%)

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63 Conclusions BioNuchar AC itself is a good H2S remover. Without UV irra diation, a fraction of adsorbed H2S was already oxidized to sulfate. The presence of UV light improved H2S removal efficiency in dry airstreams. After coating TiO2, the H2S removal efficiency of TiO2/AC decreased due to the surface ch ange. Under UV light irradiation, H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite increased. The sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite was higher than that of AC which is preferred for water regeneration.

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64 CHAPTER 5 MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PR EPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST Introduction Microwave is a form of energy that fa lls at the lower frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is defined in the 300 to 300,000 megahertz (MHz) frequency range. A microwave is comprised of two elem ents: an electric field and a magnetic field (Figure 5-1). Microwave was first deve loped primarily for communications. Around 40 years ago, the heating effect of microwave was discovered. Micr owave, as a heating method, is a dielectric heating method us ing dipole rotation a nd ionic conduction, wherein the applied energy is converted into heat by mutual interaction between media. In contrast to all other co mmonly used heating methods, microwave allows volumetric heating of materials. Processes based on microwave heating find many industrial applications such as cooking, tempering and thawing, and curing of wood and rubber products. The electromagnetic energy of microwav es is dissipated by substances through three different mechanisms (Bathen, 2003): Magnetic losses in ferromagnetic materials; Ohmic losses in conducting materials; Electric losses caused by el ectromagnetic inhomogeneitie s like dipoles and ions. The following explains the mechanism of electric loss. The electric field of microwave interacts with mol ecules through either a dipole or ionic conductivity in the molecules themselves. As the electric field ch anges from positive to negative, the positive

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65 and negative ends of the dipol e (or the positive and negative i ons) seek to align with the opposite field. This causes molecular rotation (Figure 5-2). The rotational motion of the molecule as it tries to orient itself with th e field results in tran sfer of energy. The coupling ability of this mechanism is relate d to the polarity of the molecules and their ability to align with the electric field. Th ere are a number of factors that will ultimately determine the dipole rotation coupling efficiency; however, any polar species (solvent and/or substrate) present will encounter this mechanism of energy transfer. Figure 5-1 Schematic description of a microwave (Hayes, 2002). Figure 5-2 Rotation of molecules with microwave (Hayes, 2002).

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66 Of the four frequencies available for industr ial, scientific, or medical applications (915 MHz, 2450 MHz, 5800 MHz, and 22,125 MHz), 2450 MHz is the most commonly used. At this frequency, the energy supplied to the system is equal to 0.037 kcal/mol. Even the weakest intramolecular bonds (V an der Waals forces) are 48 kcal/mol. Therefore, microwave only serves to rotate the molecules, and will neither break nor form any additional bonds. (Hayes, 2002) Materials like glass, octane or nitroge n (with none of the properties mentioned earlier), are transparent to microwave. Micr owave energy transfer is not dependent on thermal conduction and is very rapid, e.g. h eating water in a beak er. With conventional (conductive) heating, as a hotplate is slowly heated, ther mal energy is slowly transferred to the beaker. That heat must then be tran sferred again through each layer of water until the temperature is uniform. Microwave tran sfers energy differently. Glass vessels are transparent to microwave energy, enabling the water molecules to absorb the energy directly, meaning more efficient energy transfer. As a consequence, thermal energy is produced only as a byproduct (Hayes, 2002). The property that describes how well a material absorbs microwave energy and converts it into heat is th e dielectric loss factor ( ). In general, the heat-up rate of a material in an applied electric field is proportional to the dielectric loss factor, frequency, and the square of the strength of the electric field inside the material. The penetration depth ( ), defined as the distance from the surfac e of the bed at which the power decay to 1/e of its value at the surface, is inversel y proportional to the di electric loss factor (Bathen, 2003) as 20 (5-1)

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67 where 0 is the wavelength of the radiation in free space, is the dielectric constant, and is the dielectric loss factor. This equation suggests that a material with a high lossfactor, such as activated carbon, exhibits sh ort penetration depths, making it difficult to uniformly heat a large bed of the material Table 5-1 lists some calculated values according to the above equation (Bathen, 2003). Table 5-1 Penetration depth of microwaves (2.45 GHz) Compound Temperature (oC) Penetration depth (cm) Air 25 infinity Water (distilled) 25 1.42 Water with 29 g/l NaCl 25 0.38 Methanol 25 0.64 Tetrachlorocarbon 25 3210 Zeolite NaX 20 15.71 Zeolite DAY 20 >100 Aluminum 25 0.02 Aluminum Oxide 25 656 Advantages of microwave heating include (Bykov et al., 2001): 7. Reducing energy consumption and process tim e: microwave energy transforms into heat inside the material, which results in significant energy sa vings and reduction in process time. 8. Rapid and controllable heating: the heat is transmitted directly inside the sample, and the heating rate is controlled by the power of the microwave source. 9. Inverse temperature profile: the heat is dissipated to the environment through the surface. Therefore, the temperature inside the sample is always higher than on the surface (including the case when a constant te mperature is maintained). In order to reduce this temperature difference the sa mple can be surrounded by a layer of a thermally insulating material which redu ces heat loss from the surface of the sample. 10. Selectivity: microwave heating is based on th e capacity of a material to absorb the electromagnetic energy. The selective abso rption of microwave irradiation opens a way to implementation of selective heating.

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68 11. Possibility of surface processing: for a given material and frequency, if the microwave penetration depth is small e nough, microwave heating takes place only in the near surface la yer of the material. Besides these advantages, th ere are many experimental observations that suggest non-thermal microwave effects that accelerate reaction rates, alter reaction pathways, and enhance mass transport and result in unique properties in polymers, ceramics and composites. Still, the specific mechanism of this effect needs further theoretical and experimental investigation (Bykov et al., 2001). There are several reports in the literature of TiO2 powder preparation by microwave processing. Ramakvishnan (1999) synthesized titania ceramic powders from TTIP in methanol under microwave irradiation. Ay lln et al. (2000) prepared anatase TiO2 powder from fluorine-complexed titanium aqueous solution us ing microwave irradiation. Crystalline anatase TiO2 powders with submicron size were obtained in a short time, at low temperature and atmospheric pressure. Howe ver, the obtained ma terials did not show photocatalytic activity. Wilson et al. (2002) reported microwave hydrothermal treatment of colloidal TiO2 suspensions. Their results showed th at the microwave treatment allowed for rapid heating rate and rapid recrystalizati on. This resulted in highly nanocrystalline material and reduced process time and energy with respect to the conventional hydrothermal treatment. Yamamota et al. ( 2002) studied hydrolysis and polycondensation of TTIP in alkanedial solvent under micr owave irradiation to obtain anatase TiO2 nanocrystallite. Hart et al. (2004) synthesized anatase TiO2 by a sol-gel method followed by microwave heat treatment (silicon carbide was used as a microwave susceptor). Using microwave processing, crystallization of TiO2 was significantly fast er and occurred at lower temperature than by conventional furn ace treatments. While there have been many studies on the prep aration of TiO2 powder by microwave processes, there are only few

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69 literature relevant to the preparation of TiO2/AC by microwave proce ss. Lee et al. (2004) reported the preparation of TiO2/AC by a modified sol-gel method followed by drying and microwave heat treatment. The prepared ma terial successfully degraded microcystinLR in water. However, they simply used mi crowave in the heat tr eatment to accelerate crystallization without taking advantag e of enhanced chemical reactions. The objective of this chapter was to prepare dispersed TiO2 photocatalyst on AC via microwave-assisted impr egnation method for the treatme nt of HVLC emissions from paper and pulp mills. Methanol was chosen as the target pollutant because it is the major pollutant in the HVLC emissions. With micr owave heating, the microwave supply energy to the carbon particles themselves. Some car bons have free electrons whose displacement is restricted by grain boundaries. When these carbons are subjected to the electromagnetic field of microwave, space charge polarization takes place. Entire macroscopic regions of the material become either positive or negative synchronizing their orientation with the field. This m echanism is often called the Maxwell-Wagner effect. At low frequency the polar ization synchronizes its orientation with the field, but as the frequency increases there is a phase lag between the polari zation of energy and heating of the carbon particle s (Carrott et al., 2001). On e advantage of microwaveassisted preparation of TiO2/AC is the use of AC as the microwave susceptor. In this way, heat-enhanced processes such as deso rption, hydrolysis, and crystallization are favored, eventually leading to quick formation of crystallized TiO2. Experimental Section Materials All chemicals were reagent grade or better: Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) (Ti(OC3H7)4, 98+%, Fisher); 2-proponal (99.9%, Fi sher); methanol/air mixture (1000

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70 ppmv, Praxair); DI water; F400 AC (coal ba sed thermally activated carbon, effective particle size 14-20 mesh, Calgon). F400 AC was chosen because the th ermal stability of BioNuchar AC used in previous ch apters was not as good as F400 AC. TiO2/AC Preparation A commercial microwave oven (SHAR P CAROUSEL II) was used as the microwave source. The capacity of the oven is 0.8 ft3, the full power is 800W, and the microwave frequency is 2450 MHz. It should be noted that the microwave power output in a common microwave oven can not be adjust ed. When the power level is adjusted, it merely regulates the fraction of synchronic irradiation time. At high, medium, medium low, and low power level, the fractions of synchronic irradiation time are 100%, 60%, 40%, and 20% respectively. Before experiments, AC was dried at 383 K for 2 hours. A typical procedure of the preparation of TiO2/AC by microwave-assisted impre gnation was as follows: F400 AC (1.00 g) was impregnated with l mL 50% TTIP 2-propanol solution in a 20 mL glass vial and then stood for overnight to allow the solution to penetrate the pores of carbon. A designated amount of water was added into the vial and the vial was immediately exposed to microwave irradiation. The hydr olysis of TTIP produced a supersaturated vapor of TiO2, which nucleated and grew to form TiO2 particles on the AC surface. After a designated period of time, the sample wa s taken out and weighed. The effects of microwave power level, H2O/TTIP ratio and irradiation time on the activity of TiO2/AC, which were characterized by the methanol re moval efficiency, were explored. Table 5-2 lists the preparation conditions.

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71 Table 5-2 Preparation conditions and characterization of TiO2/AC Sample No. MW Power H2O/TTI P Ratio Irradiation Time TiO2 Loading (wt %) BET Surface Area (m2g-1) Total Pore Volume (cm3g-1) 12 Medium 28 20 min 8.59.05 753.06 0.4091 13 Medium Low 28 20 min 8.78.21 723.52 0.3928 14 Low 28 20 min ---15 Medium 4 20 min 9.42.52 887.48 0.4561 16 Medium 28 30 min 9.27.12 905.19 0.4652 17 Medium 4 30 min 8.94.46 891.83 0.4504 Characterization The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO2/AC samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isothe rms performed at 77 K (NOVA 2200, Quantachrome). All samples were outgassed at 393 K on the outgas station overnight prior to measurement. The speci fic surface area was determined by multipoint BET using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/P0) range of 0.005-0.20. The isotherms were used to determine the total pore volume of different samples. The surface morphology of TiO2/AC composites was characterize d by Scanning Electron Microscopy (JSM 6330F, JEOL). The samples were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD 3720, Philips) for identification of crystalline species in the continuous-scan mode. The scanning speed was 0.05 osec-1 or 0.005 osec-1 and the scanning range was from 20o to 50o. The major anatase (101) peak at 2 = 25.4o was analyzed. The TiO2 loading on the AC was estimated by ash content analysis as described in Chapter 2. Photocatalytic Acti vity Evaluation As used in Chapters 2 and 3, low meth anol concentration and high humidity were chosen. The experimental set up is sh own in Figure 2-2. 2.00 g of TiO2/AC was placed on the frit in the reactor. The methanol concentr ation in the influent and effluent of the

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72 reactor during the experiment was measured by the same method used in Chapters 2 and 3. The TiO2/AC sample was humidified until equilibrium was established at a constant stream humidity (RH= 80% at 298 K, water concentration was 19 mgL-1). Humidification was achieved by bubbling the car rier gas (air) through the vessel with water at the rate of 0.4 L/min. Humid meth anol laden air (water concentration was 19 mgL-1) was then passed through the fixed bed of TiO2/AC with or without UV light for 6 hours. With UV light irradiation, the temperatur e of the reactor rose to 328 K from room temperature due to the heat release from the UV lamp and the relative humidity was 16% at 328 K. The bed depth was 0.4 cm and the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was approximately 0.35s. Results and Discussion Carbon Weight Loss and TiO2 Loading In order to investigate th e stability of AC under micr owave irradiation, 1.00 g virgin F400 AC was placed in a 20 mL gla ss vial and then exposed to microwave irradiation. After a designate d period of time, it was taken out and weighed. Figure 5-3 shows the weight loss curves of F400 AC under different power levels of microwave irradiation. The carbon did not start to combust under the tested conditions. However, the results (Figure 5-3) show that under high pow er level F400 activated carbon continue to lose weight in 30 minutes. Under medium powe r level F400 AC just lost weight in the first 10 minutes and the weight loss was mu ch less than that under high power level. Because of the instability of F400 AC under high power level, this level was not used in subsequent study and only power levels equal to or less than medium were used. The

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73 weight loss of F400 AC is likely due to th e removal of some su rface functional groups and/or the oxidation of carbon. The ash cont ent of F400 AC before and after microwave process listed in Table 5-3 pr oved that the carbon lost so me flammable composition in the microwave process. The pH of the carbon suspension, which provides some information about the average acidity/basic ity of carbons, was measured following the procedures described in Chapter 4. The pH of F400 AC before and after microwave process are also listed in Table 5-3. The results showed the pH of carbon surface increased after microwave process. This may result from the decomposition of oxygenated surface groups. The carboxylic a nd lactonic functional groups on AC surface are less stable, which decompose at temper atures as low as 570 K and evolve CO2 (Li et al., 2003). The phenol, quinine, and carbonyl groups are fairly stable, which only decompose at temperature above 770 K and e volve CO (Li et al., 2003). Li and cowokers (2003) observed the starting decompos ition of surface functiona l groups of AC in He flow as low as 400 K. Li et al. (2003) al so reported that AC tr eated in air at 693 K resulted in the increase of surface area and pore volume. This proved that AC may be oxidized by air at elevated temperature. Table 5-3 lists the ash content, BET surf ace area, and total pore volume of virgin F400 AC and the F400 AC after 20 minutes me dium level microwave irradiation. As shown, the microwave process did not signifi cantly affect the specific surface area and total pore volume of F400 AC This also proved that the F400 AC was stable under medium power level irradiation. Because carbon and 2-propanol solvent are flammable, it may not be safe to run the microwave proce ss in air, if vapor pr essure is high. The explosion limits of 2-propanol are 2.0 vol % (lower) and 12.7 vol % (upper). In each

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74 experiment, just 1 g of carbon and 1 mL of 50% TTIP solution were used. The volume percentage of 2-propanol vapor in the used microwave oven was less than 1 vol %. Hence, it was safe under medium or lower power level. Irradiation Time (min) 05101520253035 Weight (g) 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.02 Medium Level High Level Figure 5-3 F400 AC Weight Loss unde r medium level MW irradiation Table 5-3 Ash content of F400 AC before and after microwave process Ash Content (wt %) BET Surface Area1 (m2g-1) Total Pore Volume (cm3g-1) Surface pH Virgin F400 5.54.03 1005.10 0.5290 6.18.02 MW F400* 5.69.06 1025.19 0.5289 6.83 .03 MW F400 is virgin F400 carbon exposed to medium level MW irradiation for 20 minutes. Figure 5-4 shows the weight loss in the pr eparation of samples 1215. The results showed that the higher the mi crowave power was, the faster the weight loss occurred. Considering that heat was dissipated to the environment through the surface 1 The BET surface area of F400 AC liste d in this table is higher than th at listed in Chapter 2. This is because the relative pressure ranges of the adsorption data used in the multipoint BET calculation were different. The relative pressure range used here was 0.005 -0.20. The relative pressure range used in Chapter 2 was 0.05 -0.30.

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75 continuously, the bulk temperature and heat ing rate of the sample under different microwave power levels should be differe nt. Although the bulk temperature wasnt measured because of the fac ility limitation, it can be conjectured that the bulk temperature and heating rate increased with the power level. The weight loss of sample 15 was faster than that of sample 12 although the microwave power levels used were the same. The evaporation of water and solvent wa s responsible for the difference. Due to the different heat capacities of these two ma terials, the heat dissipation rate was also different, which resulted in bulk temperatur e of sample 15 being higher than that of sample 12. Assuming that all the TTIP was converted into TiO2, 0.13 g TiO2 would be generated. The weights of sample 12-15 were 1.13 g, 1.13 g, 1.32 g and 1.10 respectively. Clearly, the low power level was not enough to vaporize the chemicals and there was still volatile mate rial (solvent, by-products and/or unhydrolyzed TTIP) adsorbed on sample 14. Hence, low power level was not considered in subsequent experiments. Considering the weight loss of virgin AC under microwave irradiation (0.03 g), the expected weight was 1.10. Therefor e, the TTIP conversion of samples 12 and 13 perhaps were also incomplete. The TiO2 loading, BET surface area, and total pore volume of TiO2/AC sample are also listed in Table 1. The ash content of F400 AC after mi crowave process was used to calculate the TiO2 loading. The various preparation c onditions listed in Table 5-2 did not exhibit significant in fluences on the TiO2 loading, specific surface area, and total pore volume of samples 15, 16 and 17. Compared with samples 15, 16 and 17, these properties of samples 12 and 13 were lower. This fu rther supports that th e TTIP conversion of samples 12 and 13 was not complete. Compar ed with virgin F400 AC, however, the

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76 specific surface area and total pore volume of samples 15 17 were lower which resulted from the TiO2 deposited on the carbon surf ace that blocked the pores. Irradiation Time (min) 05101520 Weight (g) 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 Sample 12 Sample 13 Sample 14 Sample 15 Figure 5-4 Weight loss curves of TiO2/AC samples TiO2/AC Characterization Figure 5-5 shows the SEM images of TiO2/AC prepared by the described method and the virgin carbon. It demonstrates that TiO2 particles were formed on the carbon surface. The preparation conditions didnt significantly affect the TiO2 morphology because the actual power output rate at each condition was the same; just the irradiation time was changed. Figure 5-6 shows the SEM im age of the cross-section of sample 12. Figure 5-7 shows the SEM images, EDS spect ra, and the EDS mapping of Ti element on section 1 (external surface) and section 2 (i nternal surface) in Figur e 5-6. Obviously, the formed TiO2 was rich on the external surface of carbon. The deposition of TiO2 on the external surface is preferred since UV light cannot penetrate into inner pores. Because water was added later, thermal reaction of TTIP inside pores could yield TiO2 on the

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77 (a) (b) Figure 5-5 SEM images of TiO2/AC samples: (a) Sample 15; (b) Virgin Carbon Figure 5-6 Cross-section of Sample 12 1 2

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78 internal surface. Under microwav e irradiation, however, part of TTIP inside pores could also be desorbed and/or ev aporated out before decomposition. These TTIP molecules reacted with water and then deposited on outer surface. (1a) (2a) (1b) (2b) (1c) (2c) Figure 5-7 Region 1 and Regi on 2 in Figure 5-6: (a) SEM images; (b)EDS spectra; (c)EDS mapping of Ti element. Figure 5-8 shows the XRD patterns of diffe rent samples. Fast scanning speed, 0.05 o/sec was used initially. If a ny clear peaks were detected slow scanning speed, 0.005 o/sec was used to verify the result. No si gnificant peak was detected on samples 12 and 13. However, some peaks were detected on samples 15 -17. Therefore slow scanning

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79 speed was used to rerun samples 15-17. The results revealed that anatase phase was formed on samples 15 and 17, and rutile phase was formed on samples 16 and 17 that resulted from the high bulk temperature. The formation of anatase TiO2 is important due to its photocatalytic performance, which will be explained in the next section. Figure 5-8 XRD patterns of differe nt samples (scanning speed: 0.05 o/sec for samples 12 and 13; 0.005 o/sec for samples 15 -17) Methanol removal testing Methanol removal by the original F400 AC and TiO2/AC composites with and without UV light was carried out in order to compare their ability The inlet methanol concentration was 22.4 ppm. The relative efflue nt methanol concentration profiles for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC are shown in Figure 5-9. It is apparent from Figure 5-9 that the effluent methanol concentration increased qui ckly when treated by the virgin AC with and without UV light. When treated by TiO2/AC without UV light irradiation, a similar adsorption profile was observed, and the me thanol adsorption capacities for sample 12 composite was actually lower than that of th e virgin carbon due to the lower surface area.

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80 However, with UV light irradiation, the meth anol concentration did not reach saturation for the duration of the experiment. Another thing that should be mentioned was that acetone and 2-propanol were de tected by GC in the impinger samples of samples 12 and 13 (with UV light). Acetone is the product of reaction between TTIP and the carbonyl groups on activated carbon surface (Tatsuda et al., 2005). Because acetone and 2propanol werent the products of methanol degr adation, their presence further proved that the TTIP conversion of samples 12 and 13 wa s incomplete. Regarding sample 15 (with UV light), the effluent methanol concentrati on increased during the first 2 hours and then maintained at about 53% removal. Therefore, th e average of the last four data was used to calculate the average methanol removal efficiency for subsequent analysis. Time (h) 0123456 C/C0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 AC AC/UV Sample 12 Sample 12/UV Sample 13/UV Sample 15/UV Figure 5-9 Methanol effluent concentration profiles: inlet methanol concentration was 22.4 ppm, inlet water concentration was 19 mgL-1, EBCT was 0.35 s

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81 Figure 5-10 shows the average methanol removal efficiencies of samples 15 -17 with UV irradiation. No acetone and 2-propa nol were detected by GC in the impinger samples of these samples, and their average methanol removal efficiencies were similar. This revealed that increasing the irra diation time can not further increase the photocatalytic activity once the TTIP conversion was completed. Sample 15 Sample 16 Sample 17 Average methanol removal efficiency 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Figure 5-10 Average methanol removal effici encies: inlet methanol concentration was 38.8 ppm, inlet water concentration was 19 mgL-1, EBCT was 0.35 s Conclusions Under medium level of 800 W micr owave irradiation, anatase TiO2 was quickly formed from TTIP precursor in a short time, at atmospheric pressure. F400 AC was stable under this energy level, and the formed submicron TiO2 particles were rich on the external surface of carbon. When the TTIP conversion was completed, the irradiation time and water/TTIP ratio would no longer pos e any significant impact on the final product. The prepared TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst showed lower adsorption

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82 capacity for methanol than virgin carbon due to pore blockage by the newly formed TiO2 particles. Photocatalytic oxidation of methanol from humid air was successfully accomplished by the composite, and the material did not reach saturation for the duration of the experiment.

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83 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMANDATIONS Pulp and paper mills rank in the ten larges t industrial activities in the United States. More and more stricter air emission regulat ions urged researchers and engineers to explore advanced control technologies. Th is study was carried out to develop TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst as an alternative technique for the treatment of high volume low concentration air emissions from pulp and paper mills. TiO2/AC composite prepared by conventi onal methods as well as microwave methodology was characterized and evaluated by activity tests for the degradation of methanol and H2S, two important pollutants of HVLC air emissions from pulp and paper mills. First, the technical efficacy of photocatal ytic regeneration of the spent carbon was investigated. The model pollutant, metha nol, was removed from airstreams using TiO2/AC composite prepared by spray desic cation method. The spent adsorbent was regenerated under UV light irradiation. Photocatalytic regeneration of TiO2/AC is ascribed to both desorption from AC and photocatalytic degradation on TiO2. Increasing desorption rate by using purge air greatly in creased the regeneration capacity. However, when the desorption rate was gr eater than the photocatalytic oxidation rate, part of the methanol was directly desorbed without de gradation. So, improvi ng the photocatalytic degradation rate is important for the application of photocatal ytic regenerati on in the gas phase.

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84 Dry impregnation was developed to impr ove the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/AC composite. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) the precursor, was e ffectively converted to the anatase form of TiO2 on the carbon surface after hydrol ysis and calcination. Under proper preparation conditions, the TiO2/AC composite outperformed the composite prepared by spray desiccation method in re moving methanol. Another model pollutant, hydrogen sulfide, also photocat alytically degraded on TiO2/AC composite. The sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite was higher than that of AC. A high sulfate conversion efficiency is desi red since the formed sulfate can be easily washed away. Finally, a novel microwave-assisted impregnation was developed for TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst preparation. Due to th e volumetric heating and selective heating of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickl y removed which required less energy and shorter processing ti me. The formed submicron TiO2 particles were mainly deposited on the external surface of carbon. Based on the conclusions presented above and the experience gained in this research, recommendations can be made to help further advance the application of TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. 1. The moisture in carbon is beneficial to the hydrolysis of TTIP. The effect of moisture content on the pe rformance of final product should be further studied. There will be a relationship between th e moisture content and the hydrolysis degree. When the moisture reaches a critical value, it is possible that no extra water is needed for the hydrolysis of TTIP. An additional benefit is that the hydrolysis and drying can be combined into one step. Ho wever, there is a cr itical issue of how to control the moisture content of the car bon and its distribution to deliver optimal result. 2. The UV light (peak wavelength is 36 5 nm) irradiation improved the H2S removal and sulfate conversion efficiency on virg in BioNuchar AC. The mechanism has not been reported in prior work. Two possibl e mechanisms can be hypothesized: 1) the adsorbed H2S and/or the oxidation products of H2S on AC (mainly elemental sulfur) could be excited under the irradiation of UV li ght which may create a more

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85 adsorbable species; 2) the surface of AC can be modified by UV light irradiation. These hypotheses are worthy of exploration. 3. The application of the suggested microwav e-assisted impregnation can be further studied. This method may be applied to pr eparation of supported catalyst. Due to the facility limitation, th e microwave power and sample temperature couldnt be controlled. This limited further investig ation of the suggested method. Inert atmosphere could be used to protect the carbon and avoid a ny possible combustion and explosion. Thermally in sulating material, temperature sensors, and automatic power control systems could be used to improve the uniformity of microwave heating and avoid overheating. Further understanding of how microwave energy interacts with materials is the key. 4. Investigated the effect of different ty pes of AC (coal based or wood based) on photocatalytic activity of TiO2/AC composite.

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86 LIST OF REFERENCES Aikyo, H., Suzuki, M., Matsumura, A. I. K., Okuyama, K., 1996. The European Caubon Conference Carbon 96, Newcastle, UK, (Extended Abstracts), 296. Alberici, R. M., Jardim, W. F., 1997. Photocatal ytic destruction of VO Cs in the gas-phase using titanium dioxide. Appl. Catal. B: Env. 14, 55-68. Ao, C.H., Lee, S.C., 2003. Enhancement effect of TiO2 immoblized on activated carbon filter for the photodegradation of pollutants at typical indoor air level. Appl. Catal. B: Env. 44, 191-205. Araa, J., Doa-Rodrguez, J.M., Garriga I Cabo, C., Gonzlez-Daz, O., Herrera-Melin, J.A., Prez-Pea, J., 2004.FTIR study of gas-phase alcohols photocatalytic degradation with TiO2 and AC-TiO2.Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 53, 221-232. Aylln. J. A., Peir, A. M., Saadoun, L., Vigil, E., Domnech, X., Peral, J., 2000. Preparation of anatase powders from fl uorine-complexed titanium (IV) aqueous solution using microwave irradiation. J. Mater. Chem. 10, 1911-1914. Bandosz, T., 2002. On the adsorption/oxidati on of hydrogen sulfide on activated carbons at ambient temperatures. J. Co lloid Interface Sci. 246, 1-20. Bargreev, A., Adib, F., Bandosz, T., 2001. pH of activated carbon surface as an indication of its suitability for H2S removal from moisture air streams. Carbon 39, 1897-1905. Bathen, D. Physical waves in adsorption t echnology-an overview. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2003, 33, 163. Bhatkhande, D. S., Pangarkar, V. G., B eenackers A. ACM, 2001. Photocatlytic degradation for envirnmental applica tions a review. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 77, 102-116. Bordado, J. C. M., Gomes, J. F. P., 2002. Atmospheric emissions of Kraft pulp mills. Chem. Eng. Processing 41, 667-671. Bouzaza, A., Laplanche, A., Marsteau, S., 2004. Adsorption-oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on activated carbon fibers: effect of the composition and the relative humidity of the gas phase. Chemosphere 54, 481-488.

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89 Kim, S. B., Hong, A. C., 2002. Kinetic study for photocatalytic degr adation of volatile organic compounds in air using thin film TiO2 photocatalyts. Appl Catal. B: Env. 35, 305-315. Kirkbir, K. and Komiyama H., 1998. Continuous production of fine TiO2 powder by vapor-phase hydrolysis of titanium tetrais opropoxide. Adv. Ceram. Mater. 3, 511. Kong, Y., Cha, C.Y., 1996. Reduction of NOx adsorption on char with microwave energy. Carbon 34, 1027. Le Leuch, L., Subrenat, A., Le Cloirec, P., 2003. Hydrogen sulfide adsorption and oxidation onto activated carbon cloths: a pplication to odorous gaseous emission treatment. Langmuir 19, 10869-10877. Lee, D.K., Kim, S.C., Kim, S.J., Chung, I.S ., Kim, S.W., 2004. Photocatalytic oxidation of microcystin-LR with TiO2-loaded activated carbon. Chem. Eng. J. 102, 93-98. Lei, L., Chu, H. P., Hu, X., Yue, P.,1999. Preparation of heter ogeneous photocatalyst (TiO2/Alumina) by metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 3381-3385. Li, Y. H., Lee, C. W., Gullet, B.K., 2003. Importance of activated carbon’s oxygen surface functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption. Fuel 82, 451-457. Linsebigler, A. L., Lu, G., Yates, J. T., 1995. Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfces: principles, mechanusms, and selected results. Chem. Rev. 95, 735-758. Liu, J., Crittenden, J. C., Hand, D. W., Pe rram, D. L., 1996. Regeneration of adsorbents using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxid ation. J. Environ. Eng. 8, 707-713. Liu, S. X., Sun, G. L., Zhang, S. R., 2004. Photocatalytic regeneration of exhausted activated carbon saturated with phenol. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 73, 10171024. Lu, M., Chen, J., Chang, K., 1999. Effect of adsorbents coated with titanium dioxide on the photocatalytic degradation of propoxur. Chemosphere 38, 617-627. Malato, S., Blanco, J., Fernndez-lbez, P., Cceres, J., 2001. Treatment of 2,4dichlorophenol by solar phot ocatalysis: comparison of coupled photocatalyticactive carbon vs. active carbon. Trans. ASME 123, 138-142. Matos, J., Laine, J., Herrmann, J.-M. 2001 Effect of the type of activated carbons on the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous organi c pollutants by UV-irradiated titania. J. Catal. 200, 10-20. Mergel, D., Buschendorf, D., Eggert, S., Gram mes, R. And Samset, B., 2000. Thin Solid Films, 371, 218.

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90 NCASI (National Council of Air and Stream Improvement) Method CI/SG/PULP-94.02., 1998NCASI Southern Regional Center. NCASI (National Council of Air and Stream Improvement) Technical Bulletin No. 676, 1994. Volatile organic emission from pulp and paper mill sources part II – lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks and miscel laneous causticizing area vent. New York, N.Y.: Noll, K. E., 1999. Fundamentals of air quality systems: design of air o\pollution control devices. American Academy of Envir onmental Engineers, Annapolis, MD. Nozawa, M., Tanigawa, K., Hosomi, M., Ch ikusa, T., Kawada, E., 2001. Removal and decomposition of malodorants by using titanium dioxide photocatalyst supported on fiber activated carbon. Water Sci. Technol. 144, 127-133. Peral J, Domnech X, Ollis D, 1997. Hete rogeneous photocatalysis for purification, decomtamination and deodorization of air. J. Chem.. Technol. Biotechnol. 70, 117140. Perego, C., Villa, P., 1997. Catalyst pr eparation methods. Catal. Today 34, 281. Petre, C., Larachi, F., 2005. Bifunctiona l redox iron/cerium (hydr)oxide process for H2S removal from pulp and paper emissions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 9391-9397. Pitoniak, E., Wu, C.-Y., Londeree, D., M azyck, D., Bonzongo, J.-C., Powers, K., Sigmund, W., 2003. Nanostructured SilicaGel Doped with TiO2 for Mercury Vapor Control. J. Nanopa. Res. 5, 281-292. Pozzo, R. L., Giombi, J. L., Baltans, M. A., Cassano, A. E., 2000.The performance in a fluidized bed reactor of photocatalyst immobilized onto inert supports. Catal. Today 62, 175. Przepiorski, J., Yoshizawa, N., Yamada, Y., 2001. Activated carbons containing TiO2: characterization and influence of a prep aration method on the state of supported TiO2. J. Mater. Sci. 36, 4249. Qourzal, S., Assabbane, A., Ait-Ic hou, Y., 2004. Synthesis of TiO2 via hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide a nd its photocatalytic activ ity on a suspended mixture with activated carbon in the degradation of 2-naphthol. J. Photoch. Photobio. A: Chem. 16, 317. Ramakrishnan, K. N., 1999. Powder particle size relationship in microwave synthesized ceramic powders. Mater. Sci. Eng. 259, 120-125. Rubio,F., Rubio, J., Duran, P., Oteo, J. L ., 1999. Preparation of nanometric titanium hydrous oxide particles by vapor phase hydrol ysis of titanium tetrabutoxide. J. Mater. Sci. 34, 3397.

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92 Tatsuda, N., Itahara, H., Setayama, N., F ukushima, Y., 2005. Preparation of titanium dioxide/activated carbon composites usi ng supercritical carbon dioxide. Carbon, 43, 2358-2365. Torimoto, T., Okawa, Y., Takada, N., Yone yama, H., 1997. Effect of AC content in TiO2-loaded AC on photodegradation behavior of dichloromethane. J. Photochem. Photobiol, A: chem, 103, 153-157. Ubuka, T., Abe, T., Kajikawa, T., Morino, K., 2001. J. Chromatogr., B: Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 757, 31. Varma, V. K., 2003. Experience with the collec tion, transport, and burning of kraft mill high volume low concentration gases. NCASI Special Report No. 03-03. Wilson, G. J., Will, G.D., Frost, R. L., Montgomery, S.A., 2002. Efficient microwave hydrothermal preparation of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 colloids. J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1787-1791. Wu, CY, Lee, TG, Tyree, G., Arar, E., Biswas, P., 1998. Capture of mercury in combustion systems by in situ generated tita nia particles with UV irradiation. Env. Eng. Sci. 15, 137-148. Yamamoto, T., Wada, Y., Yin, H., Sakata, T ., Mori, H., Yanagida, S., 2002. Microwavedriven polyol method for preparation of TiO2 nanocrystallites. Chem. Lett. 964965. Yamashita, H., Harada, M., Tanii, A., Honda, M., Takeuchi, M., Ichihashi, Y., Anpo, M., Iwamoto, N., Itoh, N., Hirao, T., 2000. Pr eparation of effici ent titanium oxide photocatalysts by an ionized cluster beam (ICB) met hod and their photocatalytic reactivities for the purification of water. Catal. Today 63, 63-69. Yang, Y.,1992. Biofiltration for control of hydrogen sulfide. Ph.D.dissertation, University of Florida. Yoneyama, H., Torimoto, T., 2000. Titanium dioxide/adsorbent hybrid photocatalysts for photodestruction of organic subs tances of dilute concentr ations. Catal. Today 58, 133.

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93 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yong Tao was born in Shijiazhuang, Hebei province, P. R. China, on June 19, 1975. She graduated from Shijiazhuang No. 23 high school in 1993 and went to East China University of Science and Technology in Shanghai in the same year. She applied to the Biochemistry Department but she was admitted to the Inorganic Materials Department. After she got her Bachelor of E ngineering degree from Inorganic Materials Department in 1997, she worked in Shanghai Huaming Hi-Tech (group) Co. Ltd. for one year. Influenced by her twin sister, Hui Tao, She attended the Nati onal Graduate School Entrance Exam in January 1998 and was admitted to Chemical Engineering Department of East China University of Science and Technology. After graduating with Master of Engineering degree in 2001, she worked as the applica tion lab manager in NETZSCH instruments (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. Then she deci ded to pursue her Ph.D. degree in USA. In 2003, she was admitted with a research assistantship from Dr. Chang-Yu Wu to Environmental Engineering and Sciences Depart ment in University of Florida and started her Ph.D. study.


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Title: Development of TiO2/Activated Carbon Composite Photocatalyst for the Removal of Methanol and Hydrogen Sulfite from Paper Mills
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013764/00001

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Title: Development of TiO2/Activated Carbon Composite Photocatalyst for the Removal of Methanol and Hydrogen Sulfite from Paper Mills
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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DEVELOPMENT OF TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON COMPOSITE
PHOTOCATALYST FOR THE REMOVAL OF METHANOL AND HYDROGEN
SULFIDE FROM PAPER MILLS
















By

YONG TAO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Yong Tao

































To my parents, Bang-He Tao and Ping-Fen Li, who raised me up. Your love is always in
my heart. To my twin sister, Hui Tao. Without your encouragement and support, I could
not have this achievement.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to give my sincere gratitude to Dr. Chang-Yu Wu for his support and

guidance in my Ph.D. study. His advice and encouragement were precious for my

graduate study. My special thanks go to my committee, Dr. David W. Mazyck, Dr. Jean

M. Andino, and Dr. Wolfgang Sigmund, who gave me continuous comments and

valuable advice on my research.

I also thank the staff in ERC and MAIC for teaching and allowing me to use many

instruments such as XRD, SEM, and BET. I would like to thank our past and present

group members. Special thanks go to Jennifer, Ameena, Yu-Mei, A-Chuan, Ying, and

Anadi.

Finally I would like to give my sincere gratitude to my family. Without their care

and encouragement, I could not have achieved this goal.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST O F TA BLE S ........... .............. .... ............. .............. .. vii

L IST O F F IG U R E S .......................................................................... ..... viii

A B ST R A C T ................. .......................................................................................... x

CHAPTER

1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................1

2 PHOTOCATALYTIC REGENERATION ............................ ............... 10

In tro du ctio n ...............10..............................................
E x p erim ental Section ......................................................................... ................... 14
C atalyst and C hem icals ............................................... ............................ 14
Characterization ................. .................. ...... .. .................. 14
M ethanol R em oval Evaluation............................................. ......... ... ............... 15
R results and D discussion .......... .. .................... ................ ............ .... ..... 19
TiO 2/A C C haracterization ............................................................... ..................19
Methanol Removal by Adsorption and Adsorption/Photocatalytic Oxidation....20
E effect of W after ............................................. .. ..................... 2 1
Regeneration Performance ....................................................... 25
C o n c lu sio n s........................................................................................................... 2 8

3 PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATLYST BY DRY
IM PR E G N A T IO N ..................................................................... ..... ......................30

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 30
E xperim ental Section ........... ...... ...................................... .............. .. .... .. .. 32
M materials ................................................................................................... ....... 32
M material Preparation .................................................. .............................. 32
C characterization .................................................................. 35
Photocatalytic A activity Evaluation.................................... ...................... 35
R results and D iscu ssion ................................................. ... .. ........ .... ............36
Effect of Calcination Conditions .......................................................................36
Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions.......... .. .................................. ...............37


v









E effect of TTIP C concentration ...................................................................... ...43
Effect of M oisture in Carbon...................................................... ... ........... 44
Photocatalytic A activity ............................................... ............................. 46
C conclusion ...................................................................................................... ....... 49

4 H2S REMOVAL BY A TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST
PREPARED BY DRY IMPREGNATION ..................................... ...............50

Introduction ..................................... ............ 50
Properties of H2S and Regulations .........................................................50
H2S Adsorption/Oxidation on AC ............................................ ............... 52
E xperim ental Section ........... ...... ...................................... .............. .. .... ...... 55
Materials ...................... .. ...............55
Photocatalytic A activity Evaluation.................................... ...................... 55
R results and D discussion ..................... .. .. .......................... ..... ..... 57
C o n c lu sio n s........................................................................................................... 6 3

5 MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE
P H O T O C A T A L Y ST ......................................................................... ...................64

In tro d u ctio n ............................................................................................6 4
E xperim ental Section ........... ...... ...................................... .............. .. .... ...... 69
Materials .............. ......... ........ ....... ...............69
T iO 2/A C P reparation ................................................... .. ........ ...... ............70
Characterization ........... ... .. .. ....... .. .......................... ....... .. 71
Photocatalytic A activity Evaluation................................... ....................... 71
R esu lts an d D iscu ssion ....................................................... ............................ .....72
Carbon Weight Loss and TiO2 Loading ................................... ...............72
TiO2/AC Characterization .................................. .......................... 76
M ethanol rem oval testing ........................................................ ............... 79
C conclusions ................................................ 81

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMANDATIONS.......................... .....................83

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................................ .....................86

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................93
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1 Pollution control techniques for gaseous and particulate matter emissions from
K raft pulp m ill sources ....................................... .............. .. .. ........ .. ..

1-2 H2S and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds emissions ......................................5

2-1 The experimental conditions of methanol removal ................................................18
..2-2 BET surface area and pore size distribution of AC and TiO2/AC ........................20

3-1 E effect of hydrolysis conditions* ................................................... ..................... 33

3-2 Effect of calcination conditions........................................ ............................ 34

3-3 TTIP concentration and carbon moisture* .......... .........................................34

4-1 Surface pH of AC and TiO2/AC ........... ........... ............... 59

5-1 Penetration depth of microwaves (2.45 GHz) ......... ..................................... 67

5-2 Preparation conditions and characterization of TiO2/AC...................................71

5-3 Ash content of F400 AC before and after microwave process ..............................74
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Simplified process flow chart of the Kraft pulp mill ...............................................2

1-2 Schematic photoexcitation in a photocatalyst followed by deexciatation events ......7

2-1 Overview of available techniques for AC regeneration.................................. 11

2-2 Setup of experimental apparatus .............. .... ............................ ............. 17

2-3 SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite ............... ................ 20

2-4 The relative effluent methanol concentration profiles for the virgin AC and
T iO 2/A C ............................................................................22

2-5 The relative methanol effluent concentration of 7 g TiO2/AC composite ...............22

2-6 The relative effluent methanol concentration for Sets 1, 2 and 3 ...........................24

2-7 The adsorption breakthrough curves of methanol from fresh and regenerated
beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4 .................................... ......... ...............26

2-8 The adsorption capacity of each cycle of Set 4, 5 and 6 .......................................26

2-9 The methanol adsorption amount in adsorption, methanol desorption and
formaldehyde formation amount in regeneration of each cycle of Sets 7 and 8 ......27

3-1 Schematic of the hydrolysis reactor ........ .... ................................. ............... 34

3-2 XRD patterns of samples calcined under different conditions.............................37

3-3 XRD patterns of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions ..............38

3-4 SEM images of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions ..............39

3-5 The LaMer diagram related to nucleation and growth mechanism........................42

3-6 SEM im age of sample 2's inner surface........................................ ............... 43

3-7 SEM im ages of samples 9-10 ......... .................. ................... ...................... 44









3-8 SEM im age of sam ple 11 .................................. ........................................ 45

3-9 X RD pattern of sam ple 11 .............................................. .............................. 45

3-10 M ethanol effluent concentration profiles ...................................... ............... 47

3-11 Average methanol removal efficiency of samples ................................................47

4-1 Proposed pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC in the presence of water ..54

4-2 Experim ental set-up for H2S rem oval ........................................... ............... 57

4-3 Outlet H 2S concentration profiles ........................................ ........................ 58

4-4 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency..............................59

4-5 H2S removal efficiency and SO4 conversion efficiency of AC...............................61

4-6 Outlet H2S concentration passing empty reactor..........................................62

5-1 Schematic description of a microwave). ...................................... ............... 65

5-2 Rotation of molecules with microwave............ ............................ .............65

5-3 F400 AC Weight Loss under medium level MW irradiation...............................74

5-4 Weight loss curves of TiO2/AC samples....................... ...... ...............76

5-5 SEM images of TiO2/AC samples............................ ...................... 77

5-6 Cross-section of Sam ple 12............................................. ............................. 77

5-7 Region 1 and Region 2 in Figure 5-6 ............................................ ............... 78

5-8 XRD patterns of different sam ples..................................... .......................... 79

5-9 M ethanol effluent concentration profiles ...................................... ............... 80

5-10 Average methanol removal efficiencies ............ .............................................81














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

DEVELOPMENT OF TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON COMPOSITE
PHOTOCATALYST FOR THE REMOVAL OF METHANOL AND HYDROGEN
SULFIDE FROM PAPER MILLS


By

Yong Tao

May, 2006

Chair: Chang-Yu Wu
Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences

The objective of this study was to investigate the technical efficacy of in-situ

treatment of pulp and paper emissions via adsorption and photocatalytic regeneration.

Firstly, activated carbon was coated with a commercially available photocatalyst by

a spray desiccation method. The spent TiO2/AC was regenerated by UV light irradiation.

The photocatalytic regeneration is ascribed to both desorption from AC and

photocatalytic degradation on TiO2.

In order to improve the photocatalytic degradation rate, the synthesis of TiO2/AC

composites by dry impregnation method was developed. The composites prepared using

various hydrolysis and calcination conditions were evaluated. High hydrolysis

temperature resulted in rough particulate coating layers with higher surface area. The

TiO2 loading was positively correlated with the precursor concentration although the

TiO2 loading in the study range (2 8 wt%) was not critical to the photocatalytic









performance. The moisture in carbon was beneficial for the hydrolysis of precursor

(titanium tetra-isopropoxide, TTIP) and improved the composite performance. Under

proper preparation conditions, the TiO02/AC composite outperformed the composite

prepared by spray desiccation at removing methanol.

The BioNuchar AC support itself was a good H2S remover. After coating TiO2 by

dry impregnation, H2S removal efficiency of TiO02/AC decreased compared with the

virgin AC due to the change of surface pH. Under UV light irradiation, H2S removal

efficiency of TiO02/AC composite doubled, and its sulfate conversion efficiency was

higher than that of AC. The formation of sulfate is preferred for water regeneration.

Ti02/AC composite photocatalyst was also prepared by a novel microwave-assisted

impregnation method and was employed for the removal of methanol from humid air

streams. A commercial microwave oven (800 W) was used as the microwave source.

Under 2450 MHz microwave irradiation, TTIP was quickly hydrolyzed and anatase TiO2

was formed in a short time (< 20 minutes). Due to the volumetric heating and selective

heating of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickly removed which reduced

energy consumption and processing time. The formed submicron TiO2 particles were

mainly deposited on the external surface of carbon and had photocatalytic activity.














CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The pulp and paper industry deserves special attention for both its energy and

environmental impact. It is the fourth largest consumer of electricity and fuels and the

third largest consumer of fresh water in the United States (Sittig, 1977). During the 4

years spanning 1997-2000, the pulp and paper industry spent $6 billion per year on

energy, or about 4 percent of its net sales and averaged over $800 million per year on

environmental protection capital, or about 14 percent of the average annual capital

invested on equipment (Department of Energy [DOE], 2003).

To produce paper or paperboard, the wood is pulped at first. Pulps are made from

wood chips, whole tree chips, sawmill residues, or logs. Pulps can be prepared through

chemical and/or mechanical means. The pulp may then be bleached to various degrees of

brightness. Finally, bleached or unbleached pulp is processed into paper board or paper.

The dominant wood pulping process today is the Kraft process (Buonicore and Davis,

1992). Figure 1-1 shows a simplified process flow sheet of the pulp mill (Buonicore and

Davis, 1992).

Pulp and paper mill effluents are complex mixtures. The characteristics of each

effluent are dependent on numerous factors including wood furnish and process

technology (including washing, cooking, bleaching, prebleaching, etc.), as well as final

effluent treatment (Serros, 1996). The atmospheric emissions from the Kraft process

include both gaseous and particulate materials. The major gaseous emissions are

malodorous reduced sulfur compounds referred to as total reduced sulfur (TRS), such as









hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), and

dimethyl disulfide ((CH3)2S2); organic nonsulfur compounds; oxides of sulfur; and

oxides of nitrogen The particulate emissions are primarily sodium sulfate and sodium

carbonate. Historically, odor and visible particulate emissions from Kraft pulp mills have

received considerable attention. A summary of the major control techniques for gaseous

and particulate emissions from specific kraft pulp mill sources are presented in Table 1-1.






"- J II -

.......if c t o te K TOI' p lr





.n i 19 -2 ). [E
Sai Ctr and Stream Imn----
I -
Lfl-iQU ------*L,- i T ,,-i











and Davis, 1992)



Inc. (NCASI) conducted a study to characterize the emissions of volatile organic
sources (NCASI, 1994). Seven lime kilns, four smelt dissolving tanks, and a number of
TO BLEACH PLANT '- ~ -~ ]
OR PAPPfl NL NMI





Figure 1-1 Simplified process flow chart of the Kraft pulp mill (adapted from Buonicore
and Davis, 1992)

In 1992, the National Council of the Paper Industry Air and Stream Improvement,

Inc. (NCASI) conducted a study to characterize the emissions of volatile organic

compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from chemical pulp mill

sources (NCASI, 1994). Seven lime kilns, four smelt dissolving tanks, and a number of









Table 1-1 Pollution control techniques for gaseous and particulate matter emissions from
Kraft pulp mill sources
Emission Source Gaseous Control Particulate Control
Digester gases Incineration NA(not applicable)
Condensation
Washer vent Incineration NA
Evaporator gases Incineration NA
Scrubbing
Condensation
Condensate water Steam stripping NA
Air stripping
Condensate Stripper Vent Incineration NA
Black Liquor Oxidation Incineration NA
Tower Vent
Tall Oil Vent Scrubbing NA
Recovery Furnance Scrubbing Precipitators
Scrubbing
Smelt Tank Scrubbing Scrubbing
Lime Kiln Scrubbing Precipitators
Scrubbing
Slaker Vent NA Scrubbing
Bleach Plant Scrubbing NA
Paper Machine Incineration NA
Adsorption
Condensation
Power Boiler NA Cyclones
Precipitators
Scrubbing
(Adapted from Sittig, 1996)

vents in the causticizing areas of eight mills were tested. Their results showed the average

HAPs and EPA method 25A VOC emissions from causticizing areas vents, including

lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks, and miscellaneous causticizing area vents, were 0.66

lb/ADTP (pounds/air dried tons of pulp) and 0.48 lb C/ADTP ( lb as carbon (Method 25

A)/ADTP). The smelt dissolving tank contributed over 75% of the total HAP emissions.

The total HAP emissions of the four tested smelt dissolving tank scrubbers vent averaged

0.50 lb C/ADTP, and methanol was the major HAP which contributed on average 98% to

the total HAPs. The average concentration of methanol in the four tested smelt dissolving










tank scrubbers' vent ranged from around 10 to 1100 ppm. The flow rates ranged from

5000 to 16000 DSCFM (dry standard cubic feet per minute).

Although odor emissions from pulp and paper mill have received considerable

attention, the control and abatement of them are difficult tasks to achieve in the air

pollution problems afflicting the paper and pulp mills. This is due to the very low human

olfactory threshold levels of TRS gases. Two main TRS sources are recognized to occur

in paper and pulp mills: 1) the LVHC (low volume high concentration) gases, usually

dealt with by incineration, emerge from brownstock washers, digester, and evaporator

systems, etc.; 2) the HVLC (high volume low concentration) gases, dealt with by alkaline

amine wet scrubbing, are released by recovery furnaces and lime kilns. However, these

control devices can not remove all the pollutants. Bordado and Gomes (2001)

characterized the reduced sulfur compounds emitted from a Kraft pulp mill, which was

the biggest Portuguese plant producing bleached eucalyptus elemental chlorine free pulp

and its output was 430,000 t/yr. Table 1-2 shows part of their results (Bordado and

Gomes, 2001). It is clear that there is considerable amount of TRS gases in the emissions

from incinerators and scrubbers.

In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the

"cluster rules" for the pulp and paper industry. The Maximum Achievable Control

Technology (MACT) portion of the April 1998 Cluster Rule specifies the control of

hazardous air pollutant emissions. For the pulp and paper industry, this is primarily

methanol. These rules require compliance by April 15, 2001. Additional controls will be

required by 2006 for HVLC streams (Springer, 2000). New regulations for air emission

have stimulated researchers to search for a coat-effective technique for in-situ treatment









of these pollutants. A limited number of Kraft mills currently have HVLC collection and

incineration systems in place (Varma, 2003). Considering the operating cost and the

formation of noxious by-products, incineration is unfavorable in the long run. Therefore,

an alternative technique for the treatment of the HVLC emission is worthy of exploration.

Table 1-2 H2S and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds emissions
source H2S Q H2S Emission TRS Emission
I(ppm) (mgNm3) (m3/h) (kg/h) (kg/h)
Stationary sources
Recovery boiler scrubber <5 <7.2 183100 <1.318 16.5
Smelt tank 70 100.8 5000 0.504 0.754
Incinerator exhaust <5 <7.2 5000 <0.036 0.679
Incinerator scrubber 48 69.12 5000 0.346 0.346
Lime kiln 17 24.48 21200 0.519 0.519

Pulp cooking and Washing section
Bin hopper 46 66.24 3900 0.258 7.793

Pulp bleaching section
Oxygen reactor <5 <7.2 2662.9 <0.019 0.24
(Adapted Bordado and Davis, 2001)

Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is a commonly used technique for the

removal of various VOCs and HAPs. The major limitation of activated carbon adsorption

is its nondestructive character. Once exhausted, activated carbon is either disposed of, or

treated to destroy the adsorbed pollutants (regeneration). Moreover, the spent carbon

itself may have to be handled as a hazardous waste when disposed of (Liu et al., 1996).

Regeneration of spent carbon is a very critical step to the effective use of carbon and thus

lowers the cost.

Recently, heterogeneous photocatalysis and its application in environmental

cleanup have been one of the most active research topics. Scientific research in

heterogeneous photocatalysis started in 1970s. Fujishima and Honda (1972) discovered

the photocatalytic splitting of water on TiO2 electrodes, which marked the beginning of a









new era in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Photocatalysts are invariably semiconductors,

which can promote reactions in the presence of light and are not consumed in the overall

reactions. Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) under the form of anatase has been found as

an excellent photocatalyst since it is able to utilize near UV light, is safe, and is

inexpensive. It has been shown to be effective for a variety of inorganic and organic

compounds, for the destruction of microorganisms, for the inactivation of cancer cells,

for odor control, and for the clean-up of oil spills. (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Linsebigler et

al., 1995; Peral et al., 1997; Bhatkhande et al., 2001)

Figure 1-2 shows the mechanism of photocatalysis. Semiconductors possess a void

energy region, which extends from the top of the filled valence band (VB) to the bottom

of the vacant conduction band (CB). This void region is called band gap. By light

absorption with energy equal to or greater than the band gap, an electron in the VB is

excited to the CB (the enlarged section of Figure 1-2). The highly reactive electron-hole

pair undergoes de-excitations in several pathways, as shown in Figure 1-2. A

photoinduced electron can migrate to the surface and reduce the electron acceptor

(usually oxygen in air or an aerated solution). A photoinduced hole can migrate to the

surface and oxidize the donor species. In this way, highly reactive radical species, such

as hydroxyl radical OH* and superoxdie ion 0O are formed. Pollutant degradation may

occur indirectly via the surface-bound hydroxyl radical or directly via the VB hole before

it is trapped (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Linsebigler et al., 1995; Peral et al., 1997;

Bhatkhande et al., 2001).

In practice, the separation of nanosized photocatalyst from the treated fluid limits

its industrial applicability (Chen et al., 2001; El-Sheikh et al., 2004). To overcome this









drawback, the powder photocatalyst can be dispersed onto a support. The photocatalyst

coated on nonporous support has a limited contact area, thus low efficiency (El-Sheikh et

al., 2004). Porous support has been used to enhance the efficiency (El-Sheikh et al.,

2004). Activated carbon is chemically inert at low temperature and hence is a suitable

support for photocatalysts (Torimoto et al., 1997; Harada et al., 1999; Khan, 2003;Tao et

al., 2005).



hv CB hv


e- + h+






A- 4 e- + h+ ht D+



A


Figure 1-2 Schematic photoexcitation in a photocatalyst followed by deexciatation
events. (Linsebigler et al., 1995)

On the other hand, in a heterogeneous photocatalysis system, photoinduced

molecular transformations take place at the surface of a catalyst (Linsebigler et al., 1995).

The destruction rate is dependent upon the ability of the pollutants to diffuse to the

catalyst. When the pollutants' concentrations are low, the degradation rates are low.

Malato and coworkers (2001) studied the photocatalytic oxidation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

(DCP) in water using Degussa P25 TiO2 (BET specific surface area 50 m2 g1, mean

primary particle diameter z 20 nm, density = 4 g cm-3, 80% anatase phase/20% rutile


natase phase/20% rutile









phase) suspension under solar radiation. Their result showed that mineralization of DCP

was slow when its concentration was low. They proposed a combination of photocatalytic

degradation with granular AC treatment. The effluent from the photocatalytic process

was filtered through a granular AC adsorber. The total cost was reduced considerably by

using AC adsorption as the last step of treatment (Malato et al., 2001). However, the

saturated AC must be disposed of or regenerated.

Immobilizing TiO2 on AC can result in a synergistic combination of both

adsorption and photocatalysis. On one hand, AC works as the support of nanosized TiO2

photocatalyst and concentrates the pollutants and intermediates around the TiO2; on the

other hand, the photocatalyst can destroy the pollutants thus regenerating the AC in situ.

In traditional thermal or microwave regeneration, part of the pollutants is simply

desorbed. Regeneration on the TiO2/AC composite is achieved by photocatalytic

oxidation of pollutants; thus no post-treatment is needed for the desorbed pollutants.

Besides the advantage of low-temperature in situ regeneration, this novel composite

possesses synergistic functions of simultaneous adsorption and oxidation that are greater

than in the cases when either carbon or TiO2 irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light is

employed alone (Herrmann and Guillard, 2000; Matos et al., 2001; Khan, 2003).

In summary, the TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst for air pollution control of pulp

and paper mills is a technique worthy of exploration. In Chapter 2, the technical efficacy

of photocatalytic regeneration was studied. Methanol was chosen as the model pollutant.

The effects of humidity and purge air on regeneration were investigated. In Chapter 3, a

dry impregnation method was developed to prepare TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst in

order to improve its performance. The impacts of preparation conditions on the






9


photocatalytic activity (methanol as the model pollutant) of prepared TiO2/AC were

further studied. In Chapter 4, the removal performance of hydrogen sulfide, which was

chosen as the representative of TRS gases, was tested. In Chapter 5, a novel microwave-

assisted impregnation was developed to prepare TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. In

Chapter 6, conclusion of this work and recommendations are provided.














CHAPTER 2
PHOTOCATALYTIC REGENERATION

Introduction

One of the major technologies for the abatement of low concentrations of toxic

organic compounds in air is adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) is by far the most

frequently used adsorbent. The term "activated" refers to the increased internal and

external surface area imparted by special treatment processes. Any carbonaceous

materials, such as coconut shells, bones, wood, coal, petroleum coke, lignin, and lignite,

can be converted to AC. AC is manufactured by first dehydrating and carbonizing the

carbonaceous raw material. Activation is completed by heating the carbonized materials

in the presence of an oxidizing gas (usually CO2 or H20) during a controlled oxidation

step. AC is tailored for special end use by both raw material selection and control of the

activation process. ACs typically have a surface area in the range from 600 to 1400 m2/g,

an internal porosity from 55% to 75%. Most of the pore volume is distributed over a

narrow range of pore diameters, usually ranging from 4 to 30 angstroms (Cooper and

Alley, 1994).

As discussed in Chapter 1, successful regeneration is critical to a wider

application of AC adsorption processes. The first significant commercial-scale granular

AC regeneration was the burning of spent AC in sugar refineries around 1828.

Regeneration in modern sense is aimed to restore the adsorption capacity without much

loss of carbon and without much altering the surface of AC. A variety of regeneration

techniques have been suggested, evaluated and applied. These methods are based either







11


on desorption or decomposition. Figure 2-1 shows an overview of available techniques

for the regeneration of spent AC adsorbents (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). These


regeneration methods have their advantages and disadvantages.


generation of spent AC


Desorption

Thermal Nonthermal Microbal

Inert gas Solvent extraction


Steam Surfactant enhanced


Hot water Supercntical fluid extraction


Figure 2-1 Overview of available techniques for AC regeneration (Sheintuch and
Mataov-meytal, 1999).

Thermal regeneration is the most commonly used regeneration method which refers

to processes of drying, thermal desorption and high temperature reactive treatment (700 -

1000 C) in the presence of inert gas or limited quantities of oxidizing gases such as


water vapor of flue gas. The thermal regeneration behavior of the AC loaded with various

compounds has been studied (Sheintuch and Matatov-Metal, 1999). Spent AC undergoes

the following scenario with increasing temperature: drying and loss of highly volatile

compounds occurs at temperatures below 200 C, vaporization and decomposition of

unstable compounds takes place at 200 < T < 500 C and pyrolysis of nonvolatile

adsorbates to form char occurs at 500 < T < 700 C followed by oxidation of the residue

at higher temperatures. Exposure to temperatures of 750 980 C leads to oxidation of


Decomposition

Chemical Electrochemical

Reduction Oxidation

Catalytc HDC T hermal


Catalytic


Photocatalytic


lytic









the residual material as well as that of the carbon itself. The pore structure may be altered

in the latter steps where small pores (< 2 nm) are lost while large pores are created.

There are some disadvantages of thermal regeneration. Firstly, it is usually not

conducted in situ, requiring special regeneration units such as multiple hearth furnaces or

rotary kilns (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999; Khan, 2003). Secondly, it typically

results in a continuous loss of 5 -15 % per cycle in adsorption capacity and in surface

area due to the high-temperature (Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). The adsorption

capacity may even drop to zero after few cycles. Thirdly, the cost of regeneration is high,

accounting for nearly 50% of the entire treatment technique expenditures (Khan, 2003).

Generally speaking, thermal regeneration is applicable to all. However, it is economically

feasible only for large systems that use more than 500,000 tons of granular AC per year

(Sheintuch and Mataov-meytal, 1999). Thermal regeneration depends both on thermal

desorption and thermal oxidation. The degree of desorption and oxidation depends on the

nature of the adsorbent and the adsorbate and the rate of the process (Sheintuch and

Matatov-Metal, 1999). Some undestroyed pollutants and harmful byproducts may get into

the environment. Therefore, another disadvantage of thermal regeneration is that some

adsorbates, especially highly volatile organic compounds, just desorb. Post-treatment

devices may be needed.

Several other regeneration methods have been suggested in recent years, such as

solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, surfactant enhanced regeneration, and

chemical oxidation using various oxidants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxide, ozone,

and potassium permanganate). However, these methods have not proven technically









feasible for continuous operation, nor economically viable (Sheintuch and Mataov-

meytal, 1999).

Photocatalytic oxidation is one recently suggested method that can be used to

regenerate spent AC adsorbent and destroy organic adsorbates simultaneously

(Crittenden et al., 1993; Liu et al., 1996). The advantages of heterogeneous

photocatalysis over other regeneration methods include:

1. It can destroy a wide variety of organic compounds (Hoffmann et al., 1995);

2. No post-treatment is needed since the organic pollutants can be mineralized into
nontoxic by-products such as H20, C02, and mineral acids (Hoffmann et al., 1995;
Alberici and Jardim 1997) ;

3. The process can be performed at low temperature (Hoffmann et al., 1995; Alberici
and Jardim 1997; Pitoniak et al., 2003);

4. It can be promoted by solar radiation, resulting in low energy cost (Crittenden et
al., 1997; Malato et al., 2001);

5. On-site regeneration of spent adsorbent and destruction of adsorbed organic
material is provided (Crittenden et al., 1993);

6. The loss of adsorbents due to attrition and burn-off which occurs in thermal
regeneration is less (Crittenden et al., 1993).

Several works were carried out in applying AC adsorption and photocatalytic

regeneration in water treatment. Crittenden and coworkers studied the removal of

trichlorethene (TCE) and p-dichlorobenzene (DCB) from water by Pt-TiO2 coated AC

(Filtrasorb-400). Based on this study, the photocatalytic regeneration process was found

to be limited by reaction rate at the beginning of the regeneration cycle and then by

desorption of the adsorbates from the interior of the AC. The photocatalytic regeneration

for water treatment was a very long process which makes it unsuitable for this practical

application (Crittenden et al., 1996). The diffusibility of molecules in air is faster than

that in water. The gas phase application of photocatalytic regeneration may be suitable.









The objective of this chapter was to study the technical efficacy of photocatalytic

regeneration in gas phase application. The model pollutant, methanol, was removed from

humid air stream by using combined AC adsorption and photocatalytic regeneration. To

achieve this objective, TiO02/AC composite was prepared by a low-cost spray desiccation

method. The removal of methanol and the regeneration performance were tested. The

effect of humidity on adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation and the effect of purge air

on photocatalytic regeneration were further studied.

Experimental Section

Catalyst and Chemicals

The TiO2 photocatalyst used in this study was Degussa P25 titanium dioxide.

Research on the use of Degussa P25 has been reported in numerous articles (Lu et al.,

1999; Pozzo et al., 2000; Bhatkhande et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2004; Jeong et al., 2004).

AC used in this study was MeadWestvaco BioNuchar 120 (a wood based chemically AC,

8 12 mesh). The BioNuchar 120 was selected because it possesses the best methanol

adsorption capacity among various carbons tested, according to a previous study (Stokke,

2003). TiO02/AC composite is prepared by a spray desiccation method. The P25 slurry

was sprayed on AC and then dried in a rotary kiln. The methanol/air mixture cylinder

(1000 ppm) was purchased from the Praxair Company.

Characterization

The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO02/AC

samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms performed at 77 K (NOVA

1200, Quantachrome). All samples were dried at 110 oC for 2 h prior to measurement.

The specific surface area was determined by multipoint BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and

Teller) method using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/Po) range of 0.05-









0.30. The isotherms were used to determine the pore size distribution using the Barrett,

Joyner, and Halenda (BJH) method. The surface morphology of TiO2/AC composites was

characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (JSM6330F, JEOL).

The amount of P25 TiO2 and AC added in this procedure depended on the

experimental conditions. The TiO2 loading on the AC was determined by ash content

analysis. Both virgin AC and TiO2/AC composite were combusted in an oven at 600 oC

for 4 h. After combustion in the oven at 600 oC for two or more hours, the mass of the

material did not further change. Based on the condition that the ash content of carbon

remains the same for both the AC and TiO2/AC, the loading of TiO2 can then be

determined by the following equation,

W -W
W02 R, ash (2-1)


where, Wash (%) is the ash content of AC (i.e. the residual mass of virgin AC after

combustion); WR,T (%) is the residual mass of TiO2/AC after combustion; WTio2 (%) is

the TiO2 loading.

Methanol Removal Evaluation

In order to simulate the emissions from paper mills, a low methanol concentration

and high humidity were chosen. The experimental set up is shown in Figure 2-2. One

gram of TiO2/AC was placed on the frit in the reactor which was equipped with an 8 W

black light UV lamp (peak wavelength at 365 nm) at the center of the reactor. The

distance between the UV lamp and the inner wall of the reactor is 9 mm. The outer

diameter of the reactor is 48 mm. The methanol concentration in the influent and effluent

of the reactor during the experiment was measured according to the NCASI chilled

impinger test method (Method CI/SG/PULP-94.02). The methanol in the air flow was


e air flow was









first collected by drawing it through two midget impingers (Analytical Research Systems,

Inc.) in series which were filled with 10 mL of water. The impingers were kept in an ice

water bath (around 2 C) during sampling to enhance collection efficiency. The sampling

time was 1 h. The methanol concentration in the impingers was analyzed by direct

injection into a gas chromatograph (Clams 500, Perkin Elmer) equipped with a flame

ionization detector (GC/FID). Cyclohexanol solution (3 mg L1) was used as an internal

standard. The methanol calibration curve is liner (correlation coefficient grater than 0.99)

throughout the range of the calibration curve (0.5 100 mg L1).The methanol removal

performance of different samples was evaluated by the concentration of methanol in the

effluent. Formaldehyde is one of the possible intermediate products of methanol

photocatalytic oxidation (Arafia et al., 2004). The NCASI chilled impinger method

(Method CI/WP-98.01) was used to measure formaldehyde concentration. A 2.0 mL

aliquot of the impinger sample was mixed thoroughly with 2.0 mL of acetylacetone

reagent and reacted in a water bath at 60 C for 10 min. After cooling to room

temperature, the absorbance of the solution at 412 nm was measured by a

spectrophotometer (DR/4000U, HACH). Formaldehyde concentration was calculated

according to a standard calibration curve. The formaldehyde calibration curve is liner (

correlation coefficient grater than 0.99) throughout the range of the calibration curve (0.5

- 10 mg L1).

Due to the high humidity in the atmospheric emission of pulp and paper mills,

before testing 1.00 g TiO2/AC sample was prehumidified until equilibrium was

established at a constant stream humidity (RH z 80% at 298 K, water vapor concentration

was 19 mgL-1) which was achieved by bubbling the carrier gas (air) through the vessel










with water at the rate of 0.4 Lmin1. Humid methanol laden air was then passed through

the fixed bed of TiO02/AC with or without UV light for 6 h. With UV light irradiation, the

temperature in the reactor rose to 328 K due to the heat release from the UV lamp and the

relative humidity dropped to 16%. The bed depth was 0.4 cm and the empty bed contact

time (EBCT) was about 0.35 s. EBCT is determined by dividing the volume of the carbon

bed (L) by the airflow rate (L min-'). Note that the actual contact time is less than the

EBCT because the carbon fills much of the bed volume. Air flows through only the void

space that is smaller than the entire bed volume. EBCT is used in the study because the

actual contact time is difficult to measure. In order to investigate the effect of EBCT,

methanol removal performance in 7.00 g TiO02/AC (prehumidified) column with and

without UV irradiation was also tested. The bed depth was 2.8 cm and the EBCT was

2.45 s.




2 6 8




3 5






Figure 2-2 Setup of experimental apparatus: 1. Methanol/Air mixture cylinder (1000
ppmv MeOH); 2. Mass flow controller; 3. Water bubble bottle; 4.
Photocatalytic reactor (equipped with an 8 W black light UV lamp); 5.
Impingers in ice bath; 6. TiO02/AC; 7. Frit; 8. Thermocouple

In order to evaluate the effect of water on methanol adsorption and photocatalytic

oxidation, experiments were also carried out without prehumidification and/or in dry









airstreams. Table 2-1 lists the experimental conditions using 1.00 g TiO02/AC to evaluate

the effect of water on adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation (Set 1-3). In order to

reduce the operation cost, adsorption followed by periodic photocatalytic regeneration of

Ti02/AC was tested. Experiments were carried out following the similar procedure used

in Sets 1-3. Methanol laden air was passed through the fixed bed of 1.00g TiO02/AC

without UV light (T = 298 K) for 6 h. The flow was then cut off and the UV light was

turned on to regenerate the spent carbon for 3 to 9 h (T = 328 K). The adsorption-

regeneration cycle was repeated four times. The methanol adsorption capacity of each

cycle was determined. The effect of purge air flow rate in regeneration was also

investigated.

Table 2-1 The experimental conditions of methanol removal*
Set Prehumidification RH Operation Regeneration
1 Yes 80% 6 h, with or
without UV
light
2 No 80% 6 h, with or
without UV
light
3 No 0% 6 h, with or
without UV
light
4 Yes 80% 6 h without 9 h between the 1st and the 2nd cycles; 6
UV light h between the 2nd and the 3rd cycles; 3 h
between the 3rd and the 4th cycles; all
without purge air
5 No 80% 6 h without 3 h, without purge air
UV light
6 No 0% 6 h without 3 h, without purge air
UV light
7 No 0% 6 h without 3 h, with 0.1 L/min purge air
UV light
8 No 0% 6 h without 3 h, with 0.2 L/min purge air
UV light
*EBCT= 0.35 s









Table 2-1 also lists the experimental conditions using 1.00 g TiO2/AC to evaluate

the effect of water on regeneration (Set 4-6) and the effect of purge air flow rate on

regeneration (Set 6-8).

Results and Discussion

TiO2/AC Characterization

Figure 2-3 shows the SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite prepared by the

described method. The SEM image of the external surface indicates the P25 TiO2

particles were coated on the AC surface by the described method. Although the primary

particle size of P25 is about 20 nm (Degussa AG, TI 1234), the P25 nanoparticles on the

carbon surface were agglomerated. The difference between the SEM images of the

external and internal surface of the TiO2/AC particle indicates that the TiO2 was mainly

coated on the outer surface of the AC particles. The TiO2 loading was 7.61 + 0.20 wt %

measured by the ash analysis method described earlier. Table 2-2 lists the specific surface

area and pore size distribution of AC before and after TiO2 coating. The BET surface area

measurement of one F400 AC (coal based thermally activated, Calgon) sample was

repeated three times. The results were 733, 742, and 745 m2/g. The reproducibility was

0.84%. Because of the inhomogeneity of AC, the reproducibility of different AC samples

(same type of AC) is even higher. The BET surface area measurement of F400 AC

(different samples) was repeated five times. The results were 618, 653, 709, 740, and 745

m2/g. The reproducibility was 8.03%. Therefore, the TiO2 coating didn't significantly

change the BET surface area of the AC which indicated that the TiO2 particles just coated

on the external surface of AC.









Table 2-2 BET surface area and pore size distribution of AC and TiO2/AC
BET Total Pore Volume Micropores Mesopores
(2gm-) (ccg1 -1 (cc-1 (cc-1
AC 1472 1.45 0.46 0.84
TiO2/AC 1380 1.38 0.54 0.79


(b)

Figure 2-3 SEM images for the TiO2/AC composite: (a) external surface; (b) internal
surface.

Methanol Removal by Adsorption and Adsorption/Photocatalytic Oxidation

The efficiency of the virgin AC and TiO2/AC composites for methanol removal

was evaluated in the presence and absence of UV light. The relative effluent methanol









concentration profiles for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC are shown in Figure 2-4. It is

apparent from Figure 2-4 that the effluent methanol concentration increased quickly

when treated by the virgin AC with and without UV light. The effluent concentration

was higher when treated with UV light probably due to the heat released by UC lamp.

When treated by TiO2/AC without UV light irradiation, a similar adsorption profile was

observed, and the methanol adsorption capacities for the virgin AC and TiO2/AC
A
composite were similar. However, when methanol was treated by the TiO2/AC with UV

light irradiation, the methanol concentration didn't reach saturation for the duration of the

experiment. The effluent methanol concentration increased during the first 2 h and then

remained almost constant (-35% removal). Figure 2-5 displays the methanol effluent

concentration when using 7.00 g TiO2/AC composite. As shown, increasing the EBCT

increased the methanol removal. Under UV irradiation, the methanol removal efficiency

remained stable around 90% for 12 h. These two sets of experiments show that

photocatalytic oxidation can be used to destroy methanol adsorbates simultaneously and

to extend the AC's usage life.

Effect of Water

In order to investigate the effect of water on methanol adsorption and

photocatalytic oxidation, several experiments were carried out as described in Table 2-1

(Sets 1-3). Figure 2-6 shows the relative effluent methanol concentration.

It is well known that the adsorption of organic vapors on AC can be disturbed by

the presence of water vapor because of the molecular interactions that account for the

various nonidealities exhibited during the coadsorption of the mixture. Typically, the

adsorption of organic compounds exhibit a type I isotherm (Taqvi et al., 1999;

Finqueneisel et al., 2005). As a result, much of the pore volume is filled at low relative


























o U.6 ... .



0.4

TiO2/AC
0.2..... 0...O... TiO2/AC/UV
------- AC
---V---- AC/UV

0.00--
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (h)

Figure 2-4 The relative effluent methanol concentration profiles for the virgin AC and
TiO2/AC (Co= 31.0 ppm, EBCT=0.35 s).


0.8



0.6



0.4


0.2 -


0


S.. ... .
...... O .


S ......
........ .....
0----


9 ....
0 .0


.


-*- With UV
O 0- Without UV


4 6 8 10 12


Time (h)


Figure 2-5 The relative methanol effluent concentration of 7 g TiO2/AC composite
(Co=36.4 ppm, EBCT = 2.45 s)


pressures. Water dose not interact strongly with carbonaceous solids and exhibits a type


V (S-shaped) isotherm on AC (Taqvi et al., 1999; Finqueneisel et al., 2005). At higher


"'


~CC~CL--4


-1 /k


1 i









relative humidity values ( >40 to 50%) the moisture adsorption increases sharply due to

capillary condensation. The adsorbed water fills the small pores in the adsorbent and can

interfere with the adsorption capacity of organic compounds (Noll, 1999). Methanol is a

polar molecule and is miscible in water. Taqvi et al. (1999) reported water promoted the

adsorption of methanol on BPL AC by the ability of alcohol to form H bond with water.

Friqueneisel et al. (2005) developed a model of adsorption isotherms of methanol/water

vapor mixture on microporous AC (hydrophobic surface). This model predicted that the

amount of methanol adsorbed at RH = 42% is equal to the amount of methanol adsorbed

in dry conditions. Below this value the amount of methanol adsorbed is lower than in dry

conditions and above this value the amount is higher than in dry conditions. Gubkina et

al. (2003) studied the adsorption of gas phase methanol on a humidified AC (T = 293 K,

RH = 75%). Within their studied concentration range (methanol < 0.2 mg L-1), the

adsorption for methanol on humidified AC in the presence of water vapor (T = 293 K,

RH = 75%) has a weakly concave shape and can be considered to be linear.

Our results of methanol removal without UV light (Figure 2-6 a) show that high

humidity greatly hindered the methanol adsorption on TiO2/AC. The methanol adsorption

capacity of Set 1 and Set 2 was much lower than that of Set 3. This result is different

form the results of Taqvi et al. (1999) and Friqueneisel et al. (2005). The difference is due

to the different conditions tested. Their results were based on equilibrium adsorption and

our results were based on fixed-bed breakthrough experiments and the bed depth was

short. For Set 1, TiO2/AC was humidified. Compared with Set 2, the methanol adsorption

was higher in the beginning due to the formation of hydrogen bond with water molecules.










However, the difference diminished later because the adsorbed water filled the pores

resulting in less space available for adsorption.


a)10 (b)

08 ............ _____ 08-

8__ -- --^4 81
06 06
04. -- --- .. .-'


02-- Set 1 -- Set 1
02 Set2 02- G.o Set2
-T- Set3 -V- et 3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (h) Time (h)


Figure 2-6 The relative effluent methanol concentration for Sets 1, 2 and 3: (a) without
UV light; (b) with UV light. (Co=31.0 ppm)

With UV light irradiation, the temperature rose to 328 K and the RH decreased to

16%. When adsorption is an exothermic process, the adsorption of both methanol and

water decreased with the increase of temperature. Therefore, the photocatalytic oxidation

is the main mechanism of methanol removal under UV light irradiation. The results of

methanol removal with UV light (Figure 2-6 b) show that methanol oxidation on

Ti02/AC was improved in dry condition. This result is in concord with the results of Kim

and Hong (2002) that the photocatalytic degradation rate of methanol was relatively high

in lower water vapor concentration and that high humidity (RH > 10.6%, T = 318 K)

hindered the photocatalytic degradation of methanol. The influence of water vapor on the

photocatalytic oxidation has been reported by many researchers. Although water plays an

important role in the formation of the hydroxyl radicals, adsorbed water is an effective

electron-hole recombination center leading to less photocatalytic activity (Linsebigler et


n-hole recombination center leading to less photocatalytic activity (Linsebigler et









al., 1995; Chang et al., 2005). Hence, high concentration of water vapor reduces the

adsorption of organic vapor and leads to the inhibition of methanol oxidation.

Regeneration Performance

The advantages of the integration of adsorption and photocatalytic regeneration are

that the photocatalytic oxidation on TiO2/AC can be accelerated by the high concentration

of pollutants eluted from the adsorbent and can reduce the UV irradiation time, thus

improving the economy of the process. Moreover, the regeneration process can be

operated in-situ at ambient conditions. Figure 2-7 shows the adsorption breakthrough

curves of methanol from fresh and regenerated beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4. Figure 2-7

shows the adsorption capacity of each cycle of Sets 4, 5 and 6.

For Set 4, Figures 2-7 and 2-8 show that around 60% of the virgin capacity of the

TiO2/AC was regenerated and increasing the regeneration time did not increase the

regeneration capacity. Therefore, 3 h regeneration was used in Set 5 and Set 6. For Set 5,

the virgin capacity was slightly higher than that of Set 4. This result is consistent with the

result of Figure 2-6a. The regeneration capacity of cycles 2, 3 and 4 of Set 5 was around

80%, 74% and 60% of the virgin capacity, respectively. In the first 3 cycles of adsorption,

the TiO2/AC was not saturated with water vapor. That resulted in a higher capacity of Set

5 compared to Set 4. After 3 cycles of adsorption, the TiO2/AC was almost saturated with

water vapor. Therefore the regeneration capacity of the 4th cycle of Set 5 was similar to

that of Set 4. For Set 6, Figure 2-8 shows that the virgin capacity was 1.8 times of the

virgin capacity of Set 4. This result was consistent with the result of Figure 2-6a.

However, the regeneration capacity of Set 6 was quite similar to that of Set 4. That

indicated just the outer layer of the TiO2/AC was regenerated where the UV light can

reach and where the TiO2 coating is. This is consistent with the finding reported by













Crittenden et al. (1997) that the photocatalytic regeneration process was limited by the


desorption of the adsorbate from the interior of the carbon.


Time (h)


Figure 2-7 The adsorption breakthrough curves of methanol from fresh and regenerated
beds of TiO2/AC of Set 4 (Co =31.0 ppm).


3.0


2.5
0)

2.0
C
0_
( 1.5
c
o
S1.0
0
0


Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4

Adsorption/Regeneration Cycles


Figure 2-8 The adsorption capacity of each cycle of Set 4(Co =31.0 ppm), 5 (Co:
34.3ppm) and 6 (Co =27.6 ppm)










A possible way to increase the regeneration capacity is to increase the desorption

rate through heating or purging. Therefore, purge air was used to increase the desorption

rate and the effect of purge air flow was investigated. During regeneration, the methanol

and formaldehyde in reactor effluents were collected and measured. Figure 2-9 shows the

amount of methanol adsorbed, the amount of methanol desorbed in purge air and the

amount of formaldehyde formed in regeneration in each cycle of Sets 7 and 8.

When using 0.2 L min- purge air (Set 8), around 77% of the original capacity was

regenerated after 3 h regeneration. Around 52% regeneration capacity resulted from

direct desorption. When using 0.1 L min- purge air (Set 7), around 80% of the original

capacity was regenerated after 3 h regeneration. Around 24% regeneration capacity

resulted from direct desorption. Without purge air (Set 6), only 40% of the original

capacity was regenerated after 3 h UV irradiation.


2.5
Set 7 Set 8

2.0 Adsorption
I I Desorption
S CH20

S 1.5 -
E

o
E 1.0 -



0.5 -



1-Set7 2-Set7 3-Set7 4-Set7 1-Set8 2-Set8 3-Set8 4-Set8
Adsorption/Regeneration Cycles

Figure 2-9 The methanol adsorption amount in adsorption, methanol desorption and
formaldehyde formation amount in regeneration of each cycle of Sets 7 and 8
(Co =23.7 ppm)









Photocatalytic regeneration of AC is ascribed to both desorption from AC and

photocatalytic degradation on TiO2. Therefore, both the desorption rate and degradation

rate affect the regeneration efficiency. Without purge air, desorption rate from AC was so

low that the methanol adsorbed on the carbon could not be effectively transferred to the

TiO2 photocatalyst. Hence, the photocatalytic regeneration process was limited by the

desorption rate. With 0.1 L min- purge air, the regeneration efficiency was greatly

increased. If the desorption rate was higher than the degradation rate, part of the methanol

directly desorbed without degradation as demonstrated by the comparison of Sets 7 and 8.

With 0.2 L min- purge air, the desorption rate was greatly enhanced although the

regeneration efficiency decreased because of the decreased degradation rate resulting

from the reduction in contact time. Furthermore the formaldehyde formation of Set 7 was

lower than that of Set 8. This further indicates that the contact time was not enough for

complete photocatalytic oxidation. Without purge air (Set 6), there should be no

incomplete degradation product formed because the contact time was much longer. Based

on the above mentioned results, the photocatalytic degradation should reach maximum

when the rate of degradation and the rate of desorption match with each other.

Conclusions

Photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate spent adsorbent (Bio-Nuchar

AC) and destroy methanol simultaneously. The photocatalyst loaded onto the AC has no

significant impact on the adsorption capacity of the AC. Increasing the EBCT from 0.35 s

to 2.45 s can significantly increase the efficiency of the simultaneous adsorption and

photocatalytic oxidation. High humidity can reduce the effectiveness of methanol

adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation on TiO2/AC. The

regeneration process is limited by desorption of adsorbate from the interior surface of the






29


carbon. Increasing desorption rate can significantly increase the regeneration capacity.

However, when the rate of desorption is greater than the rate of photocatalytic oxidation,

part of the methanol directly desorbs without degradation.














CHAPTER 3
PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATLYST BY DRY
IMPREGNATION

Introduction

Recently, several works were carried out on the preparation and application of

TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst. Few works prepared TiO2/AC during the activation of

carbon, such as carbonization of a mixture of coal and TiO2 or TiO2 precursor (Aikyo et

al., 1996; Przepiorski et al., 2001). Most works used commercially available AC as the

raw material. The deposition of TiO2 nanophotocatalyst on commercial AC can be

categorized into chemical and physical methods. The chemical methods mainly rely on

hydrolysis of titanium alkoxides such as chemical vapor deposition (El-Sheikh et al.,

2004), impregnation (Harada et al., 1999) and sol-gel method (Capio et al., 2005). The

physical methods use commercially available photocatalyst. Examples include spray

desiccation (Lu et al., 1999), mechano-fusion (Khan, 2003), dip-coating (Jeong et al.,

2004), and spray desiccation technique (used in Chapter 2). However, the best methods

and experimental conditions of carrying out the process are not yet clear because of the

high porosity and non-homogeneous nature of AC. The inhomogeneity makes it difficult

to produce homogeneous distribution of TiO2 on the surface of AC (El-Sheikh et al.,

2004). Furthermore, UV light cannot penetrate into pores rendering TiO2 nanoparticles

deposited inside the pores useless. Therefore, TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the outer

surface of activated carbon is desired.









Impregnation is a commonly used method in supported catalyst preparation.

Impregnated catalysts are usually obtained from preformed supports by impregnation

with the active phase. The impregnation method involves three steps: (1) contacting the

support with the impregnating solution for a certain period of time, (2) drying the support

to remove the imbibed liquid and (3) activating the catalyst by calcination, reduction or

other appropriate treatment. Two methods of contacting, wet impregnation and dry

impregnation, may be distinguished, depending on the total amount of solution (Perego

and Villa, 1997). The principle of dry impregnation is that the volume of the precursor

solution used in the impregnation is equal to the pore volume of the support, which

results in a better distribution of the solute on the support surface (Huang et al., 2002).

The advantages of impregnation method include:

* The process can be performed continuously in industry.
* It produces uniform coating with good reproducibility and adhesion;
* It controls crystal structure and surface morphology of the TiO2 by controlling the
process parameters.


The spray desiccation coating method used in this Chapter 2 can effectively coat

commercial TiO2 on AC. However, the nanoparticles of TiO2 were agglomerated on the

carbon surface which reduced the photocatalytic efficiency. Besides, this coating method

is a physical method. The TiO2 particles were coated on the carbon surface by weak

physical force. In order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and the adherence

between TiO2 photocatalyst and carbon support, dry impregnation method was used to

prepare TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst in this chapter. Although impregnation method

has been adopted in TiO2/AC preparation before, very few studies have been carried out

to prepare TiO2/AC composite using titanium tetra-isopropoxide precursor and









information about the preparation details is very limited. This chapter focused on the

understanding of the effects of various preparation parameters hydrolysiss temperature,

hydrolysis time, water vapor concentration, precursor concentration, and moisture content

of AC) of the synthetic method. The prepared TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst was also

evaluated by removing low concentration methanol from humid air stream.



Experimental Section

Materials

All chemicals were reagent grade or better: titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP)

(Ti(OC3H7)4, 98+%, Fisher); 2-proponal (99.9%, Fisher); methanol/air mixture (1000

ppmv, Praxair); AC (Bio-Nucharl20, wood based chemically activated carbon, 8-16

mesh, pore volume of 1.45 cc/g, MeadWestvaco), commercial TiO2 photocatalyst

(Degussa P25).

Material Preparation

The TiO2/AC composites were prepared by dry impregnation using a TTIP solution

(with 80 vol % of 2-propanol) followed by hydrolysis and calcination. The TTIP solution

was stored in sealed container. No hydrolysis in the solution was observed. Before

coating, the AC was heated at 105 C for 4 h to remove moisture. The carbon (3.5 g) was

then mixed with 5 mL of TTIP solution and immediately placed in a hydrolysis reactor,

as shown in Figure 3-1. The diameter of the reactor is 1 inch, and the pore size of the

support frit to better distribute the air flow is 25-50 tm. Air saturated with water from a

humidifier was passed through the reactor at 0.75 L/min for 2 or 24 h. The empty bed

contact time was 0.8 s. The temperature of the humidifier was maintained at 25 or 90 C

by a hot plate with a temperature controller to determine the effect of moisture content.









The temperature of the reactor was controlled at 25, 90, or 175 C, depending upon the

desired synthesis strategy, by heating tape wrapped around the reactor. The various

hydrolysis conditions are summarized in Table 3-1. After hydrolysis, the samples were

dried at 105 C for 4 h to evaporate the adsorbed 2-propanol and then calcined at 300 C

for 2 h in air. This calcination condition was chosen according to Col6n et al. (2002) who

reported that TiO2/AC samples (prepared by means of sol-gel precipitation from TTIP)

calcined under this condition showed higher photon efficiency. Other different

calcination conditions were also investigated for their effects on product properties.

Considering that carbon will partly gasify during calcination in air, calcination in N2 was

also performed. Table 3-2 lists the calcination conditions. Samples 6-8 listed in Table 3-2

were prepared by 20 vol % TTIP solution and hydrolyzed in an open vessel under humid

air (RH = 47 %) for 24 h. BioNuchar AC coated with 9 wt % P25 photocatalyst by spray

desiccation method (used in Chapter 2) was used as the baseline for photocatalytic

activity evaluation.

Table 3-1 Effect of hydrolysis conditions*
Sample Water bath Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Specific TiO2
No. Temp. Temp. Time Surface Area Amount
(C) (C) (hour) (m2/g) (%wt)

1 25 25 2 1113 6.38
2 25 25 24 1150 5.53
3 25 90 2 1140 5.09
4 25 175 2 1018 2.38
5 90 90 2 1270 8.33
* TTIP concentration was 20 vol % in 2-propanol; calcination conditions were the same
as sample 7.

The effect of TTIP concentration on the prepared TiO2/AC was also tested. The

TTIP concentration varied from 20 vol % to 5 vol % in 2-propanol. Table 3-3 listed the

preparation conditions. Carbon moisture is another important factor that affects the









properties of the prepared TiO02/AC. Sample 11 was prepared under the same conditions

as sample 2 except that the carbon was not dried before preparation.

Table 3-2 Effect of calcination conditions
Sample Specific Temp. Atmosphere Time Total Micropores Mesopores
Surface (oC) (h) Pore (<20A) (200-
Area Volume (cc/g) 500A)
(m2/g) (cc/g)cc/
AC 1472 1.45 0.46 0.84
AC 1338 300 air 2.0 NA NA NA
6 1265 300 air 0.5 1.35 0.47 0.84
7 1238 300 air 2.0 1.32 0.46 0.78
8 1479 300 N2 2.0 NA NA NA
* BioNuchar AC calcined at 300 oC in air
* Pore volume distribution wasn't measured because the anatase phase was not present


tVent


Figure 3-1 Schematic of the hydrolysis reactor: 1. mass flow controller; 2. water bubble
bottle with water bath and hot plate (with temperature controller); 3. heating
tape; 4. temperature controller; 5. porous frit; 6. carbon loaded with TTIP
solution; 7.hydrolysis reactor


Table 3-3 TTIP concentration and carbon moisture*
Sample Carbon TTIP Conc. TiO2 Amount
(vol %) (wt %)
9 Dry 10 4.27
10 Dry 5 2.01 0.17
11 With moisture 20 5.59 0.33
*Other conditions were the same as sample 2.









Characterization

The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD 3720, Philips) for

identification of crystalline species in the continuous-scan mode (scanning speed:

0.005o/sec, scanning range: 200 to 500). The major anatase (101) peak at 20 = 25.4 was

analyzed. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO2/AC

samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms performed at 77 K (NOVA

1200, Quantachrome). All samples were dried at 105 C for 2 h prior to measurement.

The specific surface area was determined by multipoint BET (Brunauer, Emmett and

Teller) using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/Po) range of 0.05-0.30. As

discussed in Chapter 2, the inhomogeneity of AC resulted in the high deviation of the

measured BET surface area. The isotherms were used to determine the pore size

distribution using the Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH) method with cylindrical pore

size. The surface morphology of TiO2/AC composites was characterized by Scanning

Electron Microscopy (JSM6330F, JEOL).

The TiO2 loading on the TiO2/AC composites were determined using

thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, STA 449, NETZSCH). Approximately 20 mg of

material was heated up to 1200 C at 10 oC/min under 50 mL min1 air flow. By

comparing the resulting ash content of the AC with that of each TiO2/AC composite, the

TiO2 loading in each composite was calculated according to Equation 2-1 in Chapter 2.

Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation

The same experimental set up used in Chapter 2 (shown in Figure 2-2) was used to

evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the composite material thus prepared. One gram of

TiO2/AC was used each time. The TiO2/AC sample was prehumidified until saturated by

passing humid air through the reactor at the rate of 0.4 L/min for 16 h. Methanol laden air









(RH = 80%) was then passed through the fixed bed of TiO2/AC with and without UV

light for 6 h. The empty bed contact time was about 0.35s. The methanol concentration in

the influent and effluent of the reactor during the experiment was measured by the same

method in Chapter 2. The photocatalytic activity of different samples was evaluated by

comparing the concentration of methanol in the effluent. Each test was repeated at least

two times.

Results and Discussion

Effect of Calcination Conditions

In order to optimize the formation of anatase, samples prepared by hydrolysis at

ambient (25 C, RH = 47%) for 24 h and dried at 105 C for 4 h were calcined under

different conditions (Table 3-2). Figure 3-2 shows the XRD patterns of these samples. By

comparing the XRD patterns of samples 6 and 7, it can be seen that the anatase phase was

formed during the heat treatment, and the degree of TiO2 crystallinity increased with

longer treatment time. The comparison of the XRD patterns of samples 7 and 8 shows

that the anatase phase did not form to the same extent when calcined in N2 at the same

temperature.

The specific surface areas for the samples prepared utilizing different calcination

conditions are also listed in Table 3-2. When calcined in air, carbon was partially

oxidized and resulted in the decrease of surface area. The specific surface area of

BioNuchar AC after calcination (Table 3-2) was 1338 m2/g, and the weight loss was 4.3

wt %. The surface area of sample 8 did not change a lot from the virgin carbon because

the porous structure of the carbon didn't incur serious damage during calcination in N2.

Compared with that of the un-coated Bionuchar, the volume of micropores and

mesopores of samples 6 and 7 didn't change significantly. This showed that TiO2











particles mainly deposited on the outer surface and only slightly in the macropores. This

is further confirmed by SEM analyses to be discussed later.

25e8
[Iounts. ) I Anaase
Figure 3-2 XRD patternsSample 7


In summary, the anatase phase was formed during cSaple 8

1800-



























subsequent studies.
sample 6
sea


to a te 2 8 6 e e e e a e


Figure 3-2 XRD patterns of samples calcined under different conditions

In this study, hydrolysis reaction immediately started after mixing the precursor

solution with the carbon. The precursor solution might not have sufficient time to

penetrate the pores of the carbon. Therefore, Ti02 just formed on the outer layer of the

carbon particle. Since UV light can not penetrate into the carbon, the formation of Ti02

formation on the outer layer of carbon particles is desired.

In summary, the anatase phase was formed during calcination at 300 TC for 2 h in

air (sample 7) with minimal carbon loss. This calcination condition was used in the

subsequent studies.

Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions

Five hydrolysis conditions were tested (Table 3-1) in order to investigate how these

changes effected anatase formation. The specific surface areas for those samples after

calcination and the Ti02 loading derived from TGA measurement described above are

also listed in Table 3-1. Figure 3-3 shows the XRD patterns of samples prepared under

different hydrolysis conditions. Before calcination, there was no anatase peak on the









XRD pattern; i.e. the as-prepared TiO2 without calcination was amorphous. Regarding

the morphology, Figure 3-4 shows the SEM images of their outer surface.


SCott


2 sanpl 4


eemlp la 4 hb Fa rr c allc ttim r,






said- I- PM _P1_ I'l


z. Z1 L 30n q1' I" .e 1 so

Figure 3-3 XRD patterns of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions

Two simultaneous reactions hydrolysis and polycondensation take place when

TTIP reacts with water. The overall reaction of TTIP occurs as (Seto et al., 1995):

TTIP + 2H20 TiO2 + 4C3H70H (3-1)

The vapor phase hydrolysis rate constant k is given by Seto et al. (1995):

k=3.0 X 1015 exp(-8.43KJ.mol-/RT)


Although the hydrolysis of TTIP in vapor phase is very fast, the hydrolysis of TTIP

adsorbed on the carbon is much slower due to mass transfer limitation. There are two

possible routes for the adsorbed TTIP to be hydrolyzed: 1) the TTIP desorbs first and

then hydrolyzes in vapor phase; 2) the water vapor directly hydrolyzes the adsorbed

TTIP.


vapor directly hydrolyzes the adsorbed

TTIP.


















(a) (b)










(C ) (d)










(e) (f)

Figure 3-4 SEM images of samples prepared under different hydrolysis conditions
(Magnification: 10,000): (a) sample 1; (b) sample 2; (c) sample 3; (d) sample
4; (e) sample 5; (f) 9%P25/AC.

Hydrolysis is the key step for TiO2 formation in this system. Hydrolysis

temperature, hydrolysis time and reactant concentration all effect the hydrolysis reaction.

Kinetically, the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction. According to Kim et al.

(2000), when the hydrolysis reaction is incomplete, a large amount of unhydrolyzed

alkyls remain on the powder. The presence of these alkyls prevents crystallization, thus









keeping TiO2 in the amorphous phase (Kim et al., 2000). Therefore, the higher the degree

of hydrolysis reaction is, the higher the degree of TiO2 crystallinity. Comparing the XRD

patterns for samples 1, 3, and 4, it is clearly demonstrated that the formation of the

anatase phase was favored at high hydrolysis temperature. The result concurs with the

notion that the hydrolysis reaction is faster at higher hydrolysis temperatures and it agrees

with the trend explained by Kim et al. (2000). At the same hydrolysis temperature and

reactants concentration, increasing the reaction time didn't significantly increase the

degree of TiO2 crystallinity as demonstrated by the similar XRD patterns for samples 1

and 2. In addition to temperature, a higher reactant concentration also results in a faster

reaction. Therefore, when the water concentration was higher (sample 5 vs. sample 3),

the reaction rate and the major anatase (101) peak at 20 = 25.4 was higher.

Moreover, the hydrolysis conditions affect the TiO2 loading and the morphology of

TiO2. Table 3-1 shows that the TiO2 loading decreased with the increase in hydrolysis

temperature due to the increase of desorption of TTIP (boiling point: 220 C). The TiO2

loadings for sample 1, sample 3, and sample 4 were 6.38%, 5.09%, and 2.38%

respectively. Although the vapor pressure of TiO2 is extremely low, TiO2 molecules

formed by hydrolysis need to diffuse to carbon surface and then nucleate. Part of the TiO2

molecules may be transported by the purge air. Under the same hydrolysis conditions, the

TiO2 loadings for sample 1 and sample 2 were 6.38% and 5.53% respectively. The TiO2

loading decreased with the increase of hydrolysis time because the loss of TTIP and/or

TiO2 mainly caused by the purge air. The unhydrolyzed TTIP left on the carbon can be

hydrolyzed and/or thermally decomposed in the subsequent processes. The TiO2 thus

formed has higher probability to deposit on the carbon surface because of no purge air.









Desorption of TTIP should work the same way under the same hydrolysis temperature for

sample 3 and sample 5. The TiO2 loading of sample 5 (8.33%), however, is higher than

that of sample 3 (5.09%). The comparison of these two conditions evidences that the

TiO2 loading positively correlates with the rate of hydrolysis when desorption of TTIP

works the same. It should be noted that the theoretical TiO2 loading (assuming all the

TTIP on the carbon is converted to TiO2) is 8.24%. That indicates all TTIP can be

converted to TiO2 under proper hydrolysis conditions.

Figure 3-4 shows the SEM images of different samples. TiO2 formed a rough

particulate coating layer on the sample 4, and dense coating layers on the other samples.

The results presented in the previous paragraph demonstrated that TTIP desorption into

the gas phase followed by vapor phase hydrolysis was the main route for the formation of

hydrolyzed titanium compounds. The subsequent nucleation of hydrolyzed titanium

compounds follows a LaMer type nucleation process (Figure 3-5) (Giesche, 1998).

Heterogeneous nucleation doesn't start until the hydrolyzed titanium compounds

concentration reaches above the saturation vapor pressure. If the critical nucleation

concentration is never exceeded, the system is forced to follow a heterogeneous

nucleation and growth mechanism (Curve I in Figure 3-5). Dense coating layers with a

uniform thickness are formed (Giesche, 1998). When the critical nucleation concentration

is exceeded, homogeneous nucleation is preferred. A lot of nuclei are formed which then

relieve the supersaturation (Curve II). Part of those nuclei may also deposit on the carbon

surface due to heterocoagulation. When the concentration of hydrolyzed titanium

compounds falls below the critical nucleation concentration, heterogeneous nucleation is

preferred again and results in the subsequent uniform growth on the existing nuclei








(Giesche, 1998). Therefore rough particulate coating layers formed on sample 4 because

the TTIP desorption rate was high enough for the formed hydrolyzed titanium

compounds concentration to exceed critical nucleation concentration. Dense coating

layers formed on other samples because the critical nucleation concentration wasn't

exceeded. The SEM image for the sample prepared by spray desiccation (9% P25/AC)

was also shown in Figure 3-4. Although the primary particle size of P25 is about 20 nm,

coating thus prepared consisted of agglomerated particles on the carbon surface. The

distribution of P25 on TiO2/AC prepared by spray desiccation was not well dispersed

compared to the TiO2 on the samples prepared by the described method.


t Homogeneous


iNucleation
i, Critical nucleation conc. | Nucleation
| ---y--\-----------------

II Heterogeneous
Nucleation
U // I

Saturation vapor pressure

Time

Figure 3-5 The LaMer diagram related to nucleation and growth mechanism
Figure 3-6 shows the SEM image of sample 2's inner surface. Compared with the

SEM image of sample 2's outer surface (Figure 3-4), it indicates TiO2 was mostly coated

on the outer layer of the AC. This is consistent with the pore size distribution

measurements.

In summary, the hydrolysis reaction rate positively correlated with the hydrolysis

temperature and the reactant concentration. Low hydrolysis temperature and shorter

hydrolysis time can reduce the vaporization loss of TTIP. Regarding the TiO2









morphology, high hydrolysis temperature results in particulate coating layer with higher

surface area than dense coating layer. Although sample 4 satisfied the requisites for

higher photocatalytic activity, large surface area and high crystallinity (Kominami et al.,

1997), the hydrolysis conditions of sample 2 were used in the following sections. This is

because: 1) carbon is flammable and heating in air poses a hazard of self-ignition; 2) high

TTIP loss of sample 4; 3) low energy consumption of sample 2.
















Figure 3-6 SEM image of sample 2's inner surface

Effect of TTIP Concentration

Three different TTIP concentrations (samples 2, 9, 10) were used to evaluate the

effects of this parameter. Figure 3-7 shows the SEM images of the outer surface of

samples 9 and 10. The SEM image of the outer surface of sample 2 is in Figure 3-4. The

measured TiO2 loading amount are listed in Table 3-1 for sample 2 and Table 3-3 for the

others.

The results show that dense coating layers formed on all three samples. Therefore,

TTIP concentration has no direct impact on the morphology of TiO2. The TiO2 loading

increased with the increase of TTIP concentrations. Assuming all of the TTIP on the

carbon is converted to TiO2, the theoretical TiO2 loading values are 8.24, 4.12, and 2.06









wt %, for 20, 10, and 5 vol % TTIP solution. Different from sample 2, the TiO2 loadings

of samples 9 and 10 were very close to the theoretical values. All TTIP converted into

TiO2 on samples 9 and 10. This is because, as discussed previously, that the hydrolysis

rate was not quick enough to hydrolyze all TTIP in gas phase when the TTIP

concentration was 20 vol %.


(b)M I

Figure 3-7 SEM images of samples 9-10. (a) sample 9; (b) sample 10.

Effect of Moisture in Carbon

Activated carbon is a good adsorbent for moisture. The AC used in samples 1- 10

was dried to remove moisture before coating. Sample 11 was prepared under the same


MAIC St I Y'OkV X10.000 1pril WO 13 91 .... i











conditions of sample 2 except that the AC wasn't dried before coating. After heating at


105 C for 2 h, the weight loss of the used AC was 4.73%. Because the moisture content


of AC depends on the storage conditions, its value varies a lot. Figure 3-8 shows the SEM


image of the outer surface of sample 11. The measured TiO2 loading is listed in Table 3-


3. Figure 3-9 shows the XRD pattern of sample 11.


Figure 3-8 SEM image of sample 11

980
[count l
888



680

586

480
58B -------------







309

288

100- ,


28 25 35


Figure 3-9 XRD pattern of sample 11









Even though the moisture hadn't been removed before impregnation, TiO2 particles

were not formed immediately after mixing with the TTIP solution. The reason is that the

adsorbed water has lower reaction activity than water vapor. The TiO2 loading of sample

2 and sample 11 were similar. Although dense coating layers formed on sample 11

(Figure 3-8), there were quite a few particles as shown. Those particles deposited on the

surface of the formed dense coating layer. This indicated two kinds of hydrolysis of

TTIP: 1) hydrolyzed by adsorbed water; 2) hydrolyzed by water vapor in the air streams.

The TTIP hydrolyzed by adsorbed water formed the dense coating layer. The surplus

TTIP hydrolyzed by water vapor in airstreams and deposited on it. Compared with the

XRD patterns of sample 2 and sample 11, the moisture in the carbon increased the degree

of TiO2 crystallinity. So, it is not necessary to remove the moisture before impregnation.

Photocatalytic Activity

Methanol removal by the original AC and various TiO2/AC composites with and

without UV light was carried out in order to compare their ability to remove methanol via

simultaneous adsorption and oxidation. The effluent methanol concentration profiles are

shown in Figure 3-10 for the virgin AC and sample 4 as a representative. The effluent

methanol concentration increased quickly when treated by the virgin AC with and

without UV light. When treated by sample 4 without UV light irradiation, a similar

adsorption profile was observed, and the methanol adsorption capacities for the virgin

AC and sample 4 composite were similar. However, when methanol was treated by

sample 4 with UV light irradiation, the methanol concentration didn't reach saturation for

the duration of the experiment. The methanol concentration increased during the first 2 h

and then maintained at about 58% removal. Figure 3-11 shows the methanol removal

efficiency for the different TiO2/AC samples based on the measurements of the last four h








47


(i.e., after the value did not vary more than 2 ppm), wherein, 9% P25/AC was Bio-

Nuchar AC coated with 9 wt % P25 by spray desiccation.


0 0
0


Figure 3-10 Methanol


1 2 3 4
Time (h)
effluent concentration profiles (Co:


5 6


-31.0 ppmv)


0.6

0.5


0.3 P


Figure 3-11


1 2 3 4 5 9 10 11
Sample
Average methanol removal efficiency of samples (Co:


9% P25/AC

=31.0 ppmv)


T
3En









Because of the low surface area of dense coating layer compared with particulate

coating layer, photocatalytic activity of samples 1, 2, 3 and 5 was lower than that of

sample 4. The TiO2 loading also played an important role. For those samples with a dense

coating layer, the photocatalytic activity was negatively correlated to the TiO2 loading. It

is well known that the photocatalytic activity decreases with the increase of particle size

due to quantum size effect (Alberici et al., 1997). Although sample 5 had a higher degree

of anatase crystallinity than did samples 1, 2 and 3, its methanol removal efficiency was

the lowest because of the increase in the film thickness. Furthermore, it can be

conjectured that the photocatalytic activity can be further improved by reducing the TiO2

loading to a critical value. Below this critical value, the photocatalytic activity would

decrease because the TiO2 loading is too low to cover all surfaces.

The methanol removal performances of sample 2 (20 vol % TTIP) and sample 9

(10 vol % TTIP) were similar. The methanol performance of sample 10 (5 vol % TTIP)

was better because of lower TiO2 loading than those two samples. Under the same

hydrolysis and calcination conditions, the TTIP concentration only influence the TiO2

loading and had no significant effect on the TiO2 morphology. As mentioned above,

dense coating layers were formed on these three samples and photocatalytic activities

were similar. Considering the effective usage of TTIP, lower concentration was preferred.

The photocatalytic activity of sample 11 was better than that of sample 2 because of

the degree of TiO2 crystallinity. Comparing sample 4 and sample 11, their methanol

removal efficiencies were similar. Sample 11 was therefore used in Chapter 4 due to its

high performance and simplicity in preparation procedure.









In comparison, the methanol removal efficiency of the base line (9% P25/AC) was

lower than samples 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, and 11. The better distribution of TiO2 particles

prepared by the dry impregnation contributes to the better performance. The results

demonstrate that the dry impregnation can be an effective method for preparing the

photocatalytic TiO2/AC composites that have a higher photocatalytic activity for

methanol removal.

Conclusion

TiO2/AC composites were successfully prepared by the described dry

impregnation. TTIP was effectively converted to the anatase form of TiO2 by hydrolysis

and calcination. The hydrolysis conditions influenced the loading and morphology of the

formed TiO2. The favorable hydrolysis condition to form particulate coating layer was

high temperature that would result in a concentration exceeding the critical nucleation

concentration. The favorable calcination condition was 300 C in air for 2 h. The TiO2

was mostly coated on the outer surface and macropores of AC. High hydrolysis

temperature results in particulate coating layer and high TiO2 crystallinity. Under the

same hydrolysis and calcination conditions, the TTIP concentration mainly affected the

TiO2 loading and had little influence on the photocatalytic activity. It is not necessary to

remove moisture from carbon before coating. The moisture in the carbon increased the

crystallinity of TiO2. Under proper preparation conditions, the TiO2/AC composite

prepared by dry impregnation outperformed the TiO2/AC composite prepared by spray

desiccation.















CHAPTER 4
H2S REMOVAL BY A TiO2/AC COMPOSITE PHOTOCATALYST PREPARED BY
DRY IMPREGNATION

Introduction

Properties of H2S and Regulations

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic air pollutant which has been identified in

the list of 190 air toxic substances in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

(Yang, 1992). It is almost as toxic as hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Human exposure to low

concentration of H2S in air can cause headaches, nausea, and eye irritation, and higher

concentration can cause paralysis of the respiratory system, which results in fainting and

possibly death. Concentrations of the gas approaching 0.2% (2000 ppmv) are fatal to

humans after exposure for a few minutes. Hydrogen sulfide is an odorous gas, and its

presence at low concentrations is easily perceived and recognized due to its characteristic

odor of rotten eggs. H2S is perceptible to most people at the concentration in excess of

0.5 parts per billion (ppb) in air. However, as the level of H2S increases, a person's ability

to sense dangerous concentration by smell is quickly lost. If the concentration is high

enough, unconsciousness will come suddenly, followed by death if there is no prompt

rescue (Yang, 1992). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry as follows:

Exposure shall not exceed 20 ppm (ceiling) with the following exception: if no
other measureable exposure occurs during the 8-hour work shift, exposures may
exceed 20 ppm, but not more than 50 ppm (peak), for a single time period up to 10
minutes.

The National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends a










single 10-ppm 10-minute ceiling PEL for this substance. Control of H2S emissions is

essential to the protection of public health and welfare as well as to the mitigation of

vegetation and material damage problems (Yang, 1992).

Hydrogen sulfide is one of the major pollutants in air emissions from kraft pulp

mills. It is a colorless gas, slightly heavier than air, and moderately soluble in water. The

solubility of H2S decreases with increasing temperatures. The dissolved H2S dissociates

in accordance with the following reversible ionization reactions (Yang, 1992):

H2S -> HS + H (4-1)

HS < S2 + H (4-2)

The dissociation of H2S is effected by pH. The concentration of HS- species is

insignificant when pH values are less than 6, and S2- may not occur at all when pH values

are less than 6.

Processes that have been used to remove H2S from waste gas streams involve either

physical treatment or chemical oxidation. The means of removing H2S depend on the

concentration. At high concentrations, the Claus reaction process is commonly used

(Bouzaza et al., 2004). At lower concentrations, several processes have been developed,

such as transition-metal oxides catalytic oxidation (Li et al., 1997), bifunctional redox

scrubbing process (Petre and Larachi, 2005), and AC adsorption/oxidation (Katoh et al.,

1995; Bagreev et al., 2001; Bandosz, 2002; Le Leuch et al., 2003; Bouzaza et al., 2004).

Some methods require additions of chemicals, and energy expenditure is usually

necessary for physical treatment. Additional environmental problems are encountered

with chemical additives, where the resulting products and by-products require further

treatment and disposal (Yang, 1992).









H2S Adsorption/Oxidation on AC

Activated carbons used for the removal of H2S are generally impregnated with

caustic materials such as NaOH or KOH, or are otherwise modified. Air currents around

odor-generating facilities are initially washed in scrubbers, during which they intake high

levels of humidity, and are then blown through the AC vessels. The carbon bed is mostly

used as a passive support for the caustic material. The disadvantages of caustic carbons

include: 1) the impregnation decreases the ignition temperature of the carbon and poses a

hazard of self-ignition; 2) the oxidation product is elemental sulfur which cannot be

removed from carbon by washing with water; 3) the activity of caustic carbons toward

H2S oxidation ends when the caustic is consumed and the carbon pores are blocked by

sulfur and sodium or potassium salts; 4) its cost is much higher than virgin AC (Bandosz,

2002).

The application of virgin unimpregnatedd) AC for the removal of H2S from air has

been investigated. Many papers published in the literature indicate a good removal

efficiency of H2S on ACs (Katoh et al., 1995; Bagreev et al., 2001; Bandosz, 2002; Le

Leuch et al., 2003; Bouzaza et al., 2004). The structural parameters and surface chemistry

of ACs, which are governed by the presence of heteroatoms (such as oxygen, hydrogen,

nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphours), are important for their performance as a H2S remover.

The surface area and pore volume are not the crucial factors that determine the final

performance of carbons as H2S removers (Bandosz, 2002).

The pH of carbon surface has a significant effect on the efficiency of H2S

dissociation and its oxidation to various sulfur species. A moderately low average pH of

the carbon surface is expected to suppress the dissociation of H2S and the creation of HS-

ions. Hydrosulfide ions, when present in low concentration on carbon surface are









oxidized to sulfur oxides which subsequently form sulfuric acid. When the pH value is

very low (< 4.5), only physical adsorption can occur and the concentration of dissociated

H2S ions is negligible. On the other hand, a pH in the basic range promotes the

dissociation of H2S. This results in a high concentration of HS- ions, which are then

oxidized to sulfur. For the efficacy of regeneration of the spent carbon, the formation of

sulfuric acid is preferred. Water is another important factor in the process of H2S

removal. The data collected by Bandosz clearly show that the H2S breakthrough

capacities of prehumidified carbons are about two to six times higher than those of the as

received carbons (Bandosz, 2002). The presence of humidity in airstreams increased

strongly the equilibrium capacity (in batch reactor) of ACs compared to dry atmosphere

(Le Leuch et al., 2003). However, an excess of water flooding was reported as a factor

that decreased adsorption of H2S on AC. The optimal relative humidity for WWP3 AC

cloth was around 60% (Le Leuch et al., 2003).

When H2S is adsorbed onto unmodified ACs at elevated temperatures, elemental

sulfur is the main product. Elemental sulfur also deposits when caustic carbons are used.

At ambient temperature, however, sulfuric acid is formed and results in a significant

decrease in the pH of carbon (Bandosz, 2002). The mechanism of H2S oxidation on AC

proposed by Hidden et al. (1976) requires the presence of a water film, which enables the

dissociation of H2S molecules to HS- ions. The following figure shows the proposed

pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC (Bandosz, 2002).

Under dry air, Le Leuch et al. (2003) proposed the mechanism of H2S oxidation on

AC as follows:

2C, + 0, 2C(O) (4-3)










H2S + C(O) -> S, + H20+Cf (4-4)
8

where Cf is free active site, maybe an oxygen-containing site or radical C formed at the

carbon surface. The first mechanism is the adsorption of oxygen from air by the carbon.

The second mechanism is the oxidation of H2S by the adsorbed oxygen.

H2S + H20 H5- + H30O
C, + 0.5 02 = C(O)
(Medium strength) Acidic pH -- Strong Basic


HS(ads) + C(O) C(S*) + H20 2 HS-(ads)) +C(O) C(SSH) + H20

C(S*) + 02-, SO (ads)+ Cf C(SSH) + 2HS- C(S3SH) + H20
SO2(ads) + 0.5 02 S03(ads)
SO3(ads) H20 (ads) H2504(ads)
H2SO4+ HS S +x H2O C(SJ)

Strong Acidic pH

H2S H2S(os) Cf- free active sites


Figure 4-1 Proposed pathway of H2S oxidation on unmodified AC in the presence of
water (Bandosz, 2002)

Bandosz (2002) investigated the regeneration of the exhausted carbon by water

washing or heat treatment. The study of the water regeneration showed that after the first

adsorption run around 60% capacity was lost irreversibly. This was the result of the

deposition of elemental sulfur in carbon micropores and the strong adsorption of sulfuric

acid leading to the low pH. The regeneration of spent carbon by heating at 573 K resulted

in 70% capacity loss.

The H2S destruction in gas-phase using TiO2 photocatalyst has been studied by

Canela et al. (1998). These authors observed high degradation yields of 99% at

concentration of 33 to 855 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to be necessary for the









photodestruction of H2S. The photocatalytic process using TiO2/UV-VIS showed that at

217 ppmv, there was no loss of the activity over extended operation periods (3 h). The

main product in the photocatalytic destruction of H2S in gas-phase was sulfate ions.

The objective of this chapter was to evaluate the performance of the TiO2/AC

composite photocatalyst developed in the previous chapter as a H2S remover. Although

H2S is among the pollutants effectively removed by AC (Bagreev et al., 2001), TiO2/AC

composite was used to increase the oxidation of H2S to sulfate.

Experimental Section

Materials

All chemicals were reagent grade or better: H2S/air mixture (1000 ppmv, Praxair);

DI water (> 17.9 MQ/cm); air (breath grade, Praxair). AC used in this study was

MeadWestvaco Bio-Nuchar 120 (a chemically activated wood based carbon, 8 12

mesh). The TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst used was Sample 11 prepared by dry

impregnation method as described in Chapter 3.

Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation

Figure 4-2 shows the experimental set-up. The H2S (1000 ppm in air) from a

cylinder was mixed with air and diluted to around 40 ppm. The reactor was the same as in

Chapters 2 and 3. The temperature of the reactor was measured by the thermal couple

inserted in the reactor. Each time 1.00 g adsorbent was used. The flow rate was 0.42

L/min and the EBCT was 0.35 s. The H2S removal was tested with UV light and without

UV light (at room temperature). Because the reactor has no cooling system, the

temperature rises to 328+2 K when the UV light is turned on. The H2S removal by AC at

328 K was also carried out to investigate the effect of temperature (the UV lamp was

covered by Al foil and turned on so that there was no UV light in the reactor but the









temperature was the same as the run with UV light). For convenience, the labels RT (at

room temperature, without UV), 328 K (at 328 K, without UV), and UV (under UV Light

irradiation) were used to indicate the experimental conditions.

A Jerome 631-X H2S analyzer (Arizona Instrument LLC) was used to measure H2S

concentrations in the sample gas. The detection range of the analyzer is 0.003 to 50 ppm

and the precision is 5% relative standard deviation. H2S concentration at the inlet of the

reactor was measured when the H2S laden gas bypassed the reactor. By comparing the

outlet H2S concentration with the inlet level, the H2S removal efficiency can be obtained.

Finally, the gas stream passed through an alkaline trap before it was exhausted into the

fume hood. The amount of sulfate formed on the adsorbents was measured according to

the following method. The used sample was taken out and added to 100 ml DI water (>

17.9 MQ/cm) and the suspension was stirred overnight to reach equilibrium (Bandosz,

2002). In the following morning, the sample was filtered and the sulfate concentration in

the filtrate was measured by ion chromatography (ICS-1500, DIONEX).

The H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion efficiency were calculated

according to the following equations:

C, xQxt
n, = (4-5)
24.5

(c, -C) AtxQ
n = 2 (4-6)
24.5



n,
r, --n x 100% (4-7)



77= n x100% (4-8)
rn










where, nt (mol) is the total H2S amount entering the reactor; Ci (ppm) is the inelt

concentration of H2S; t (min) is the total time of experiment; Q (L/min) is the gas flow

rate; 24.5 (L/mol) is the gas constant at 25 C and 1 atm; nr (mol) is the removed H2S

amount during the experiment; Ct is the outlet concentration of H2S at time t; At (min) is

the time interval between two data points; ns (mol) is the amount of sulfate formed on the

adsorbent; fir is the H2S removal efficiency; rl, is the sulfate conversion efficiency.



Photo ctalytic
Reactor
MFC 1
Thermal Couple
Air

HS Analyzer Vent

Mixing
Chamber La .1

MFC 2 Three Way On/Off Valves Alkaline
Va le Trap


Figure 4-2 Experimental set-up for H2S removal

Results and Discussion

Figure 4-3 shows the outlet concentration profiles of virgin BioNuchar AC and

TiO2/AC in dry condition. From bottom to top, the six lines are AC/UV, AC/328K,

AC/RT, TiO2/AC/UV, TiO2/AC/328K, and TiO2/AC/RT respectively. In all cases, the

outlet H2S concentration increased with time and was lower than the inlet concentration

during the entire operation period (120 min), indicating that the adsorbents were not

saturated. Hence, the removal amount calculated by Eq. 4- 6 was not the saturation

capacity. The outlet concentrations of TiO2/AC were higher than that of AC in all three

conditions. Figure 4-4 shows the H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion

efficiency in each situation. For AC, the removal efficiencies were 91.40 + 1.84 % (RT),










96.84 0.65 % (328 K), and 97.97 0.10 % (UV); the sulfate conversion efficiencies

were 15.01 + 1.93 % (RT), 12.57 1.66 % (328 K), and 14.10 2.15 % (UV). For

TiO2/AC, the removal efficiencies were 45.70 5.64 % (RT), 53.78 0.32 % (328 K),

and 86.62 1.93 % (UV); the sulfate conversion efficiencies were 13.45 4.37 % (RT),

12.11 0.39 % (328 K), and 18.73 + 1.24 % (UV). Details of the effect of each

parameter are discussed below.



35
-- AC/RT
-- AC/328K
30 .---- AC/UV
-- TiO2/AC/RT
E0 25 TiO2/AC/328K
H -o- TiO2/AC/UV
0


o 15
0
10


5-

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Time (min)

Figure 4-3 Outlet H2S concentration profiles (inlet concentration was 40.5 ppm, RH =
0%)

Surface pH As shown, BioNuchar AC is a better H2S remover than TiO2/AC. This

may result from the changes of the surface properties during the preparation. As

discussed earlier, the surface chemistry is the dominant factor in the H2S removal

performance of carbons. The pH of carbon surface has a significant effect on the removal

capacity of H2S. To verify the effect of this parameter, the pH of the virgin BioNuchar

AC and the TiO2/AC composite were measured. 0.4 g of dry sample was added to 20 ml







59


of DI water ( > 17.9 MQ/cm) and the suspension was stirred overnight to reach

equilibrium (Bandosz, 2002). The sample was then filtered and the pH of the filtrate was

measured by Accumet AP71 pH meter. The results are listed in Table 4-1.



100


80 AC/RT
AC/328K
AC/UV












4 Sure val Conversion


Figure 4-4 H2S removal efficiency and S04 conversion efficiency (inlet concentration
was 40.5 ppm, RH = 0%)
Table 4-1 Surface pH of AC and T2/AC2/AC/RT









Sample Surface pH
BioNuchar AC 6.840.13
Ti02/AC/328K











TiO2/AC 4.19T0.36
40


20



Removal Conversion







Figure virgin BioNuchar AC hasiency a moderate pH which is good for both high capacity

and sulfuric acid formation (Bandosz, 2002). After coating TiO, the surface pH was







decreased to acidic range which is not desired for H2S removal.
Table 4-1 Surface High temperature improved the HS removal on AC and T2/AC/AC.
Sample Surface pH
BioNuchar AC 6.84+0.13
TiO2/AC 4.19+0.36

The virgin BioNuchar AC has a moderate pH which is good for both high capacity

and sulfuric acid formation (Bandosz, 2002). After coating TiO2, the surface pH was

decreased to acidic range which is not desired for H2S removal.

Temperature High temperature improved the H2S removal on AC and TiO2/AC.

Generally, chemical reaction proceeds faster at higher temperature. The oxidation of H2S

on AC was faster at 328 K than at room temperature. Therefore the removal efficiency

increased. The sulfate conversion efficiencies at 328 K decreased compared to at room









temperature. As mentioned above, elemental sulfur is the main product of H2S oxidation

on unmodified AC at elevated temperature (Bandosz, 2002).

UV light At the same temperature (at 328 K), UV light irradiation improved the

H2S removal on TiO2/AC from 53.78 % to 86.62%. Furthermore, sulfate conversion

efficiency, which is important for regeneration using water wash, was also increased.

This proved that H2S was photocatalytically degraded on TiO2/AC composite. Compared

to the results of Canela et al. (1998), the H2S removal efficiency and sulfate conversion

efficiency of TiO2/AC with the presence of UV light are lower. This is mainly because

the EBCT was much shorter (0.35 s) in the current system. The EBCT used by Canela

and coworkers was 48 s.

UV light also improved the removal of H2S on AC. In Figures 4-3, the outlet H2S

concentration of AC/UV was lower than that of AC (328 K). The difference between

AC/UV and AC (328 K), however, was not clear because the removal efficiencies in both

cases were high. To clarify the effect of UV light, H2S was increased to 59 ppm. It

should be noted that the inlet concentration was calculated according to the flow rates of

the two mass flow controller and the H2S concentration in the cylinder because the inlet

concentration was out of the measuring range of 63 IX H2S analyzer. Figure 4-5 shows

the removal and conversion efficiencies.

With the increase of inlet H2S concentration to 59 ppm, the removal efficiencies

decreased to 85.03 5.07 % (RT), 88.77 3.78 % (328 K), and 94.75 1.96 % (UV)

respectively. The difference between AC at 328 K and under UV irradiation was

increased. This proved that UV light improved the AC performance. The sulfate

conversion efficiencies were 15.72 1.87 % (RT), 20.03 + 1.19 % (328 K), and 15.14 +











0.12 % (UV). Except at 328 K without UV irradiation, the sulfate conversion efficiencies

were almost the same as the case of 40.5 ppm inlet concentration. The peak wavelength

of the used UV lamp (black light lamp) is 365 nm. Photolysis of H2S occurs in light with

wavelength shorter than 300 nm (Khriachtchev et al., 1998). However, Nozawa et al.

(2001) observed the photolysis of H2S under black light lamp (365 nm). This was

inconsistent with the results of Khriachtchev and co-workers (1998). Figure 4-6 shows

the relative outlet concentration of H2S under UV light irradiation without AC or

Ti02/AC adsorbent (i.e. empty reactor).



100
T

80 -


AC/RT
60 -- AC/328K
om AC/UV





20
0E 40 g







Removal Conversion

Figure 4-5 H2S removal efficiency and SO04 conversion efficiency of AC (inlet
concentration was 59 ppm, RH = 0%)

The outlet concentration was lower than the inlet concentration. This might result

from the H2S adsorption on the reactor (reactor wall, porous frit, and tubing). With the

presence of UV light, the outlet concentration was not lower than that without UV light.

After 30 minutes, the outlet concentration with the presence of UV light was higher than










that without UV light because of the rise of temperature and decrease of adsorption. The

results proved there was no photolysis under the black light lamp used (365 nm).

Therefore, photolysis is not responsible for the improved H2S removal on AC under the

UV light in the current system (365 nm). There are two possible mechanisms for the

enhanced removal and conversion of AC under UV. It is possible that UV light induces

heterogeneous photolysis of H2S adsorbed to the external surface of the carbon. Another

possible mechanism is the functional groups of AC, such as carbonyl group, are excited

under UV light irradiation. The mechanism wasn't further explored due facility

limitation. To the best of the author's knowledge, this phenomena and mechanism have

not been reported




1.0 ................--^ ^
1.0


0.8 -


0.6 -*- Without UV
O-- With UV


0.4-


0.2 -


0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (h)
Figure 4-6 Outlet H2S concentration passing empty reactor (inlet concentration was 45
ppm, RH = 0%)











Conclusions

BioNuchar AC itself is a good H2S remover. Without UV irradiation, a fraction of

adsorbed H2S was already oxidized to sulfate. The presence of UV light improved H2S

removal efficiency in dry airstreams. After coating TiO2, the H2S removal efficiency of

TiO2/AC decreased due to the surface change. Under UV light irradiation, H2S removal

efficiency and sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite increased. The

sulfate conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite was higher than that of AC which is

preferred for water regeneration.














CHAPTER 5
MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF TiO2/AC COMPOSITE
PHOTOCATALYST

Introduction

Microwave is a form of energy that falls at the lower frequency end of the

electromagnetic spectrum. It is defined in the 300 to 300,000 megahertz (MHz) frequency

range. A microwave is comprised of two elements: an electric field and a magnetic field

(Figure 5-1). Microwave was first developed primarily for communications. Around 40

years ago, the heating effect of microwave was discovered. Microwave, as a heating

method, is a dielectric heating method using dipole rotation and ionic conduction,

wherein the applied energy is converted into heat by mutual interaction between media.

In contrast to all other commonly used heating methods, microwave allows volumetric

heating of materials. Processes based on microwave heating find many industrial

applications such as cooking, tempering and thawing, and curing of wood and rubber

products.

The electromagnetic energy of microwaves is dissipated by substances through

three different mechanisms (Bathen, 2003):

* Magnetic losses in ferromagnetic materials;
* Ohmic losses in conducting materials;
* Electric losses caused by electromagnetic inhomogeneities like dipoles and ions.


The following explains the mechanism of electric loss. The electric field of

microwave interacts with molecules through either a dipole or ionic conductivity in the

molecules themselves. As the electric field changes from positive to negative, the positive











and negative ends of the dipole (or the positive and negative ions) seek to align with the

opposite field. This causes molecular rotation (Figure 5-2). The rotational motion of the

molecule as it tries to orient itself with the field results in transfer of energy. The

coupling ability of this mechanism is related to the polarity of the molecules and their

ability to align with the electric field. There are a number of factors that will ultimately

determine the dipole rotation coupling efficiency; however, any polar species (solvent

and/or substrate) present will encounter this mechanism of energy transfer.



E 'C







E = electric field
H1 = magnetic field
S=- wavelengrh (12,2 cm for 2450 MHz)
c = speed of light (300,000 kmis)

Figure 5-1 Schematic description of a microwave (Hayes, 2002).

Dipole Rotation
Microwave Electric Field Interaction With Water Molecule



E E E




SWater molecule ns
t=o t (.3ns



H H
S ter molecule
\H H/ Water molecule
8: Water molecule 6; H H
The water dipole moment The dipole moment rotates in The dipole moment rotates in the opposite
is aligned with the field. an attempt to follow the field. direction trying to align with the field.

Figure 5-2 Rotation of molecules with microwave (Hayes, 2002).


molecules with microwave (Hayes, 2002).









Of the four frequencies available for industrial, scientific, or medical applications

(915 MHz, 2450 MHz, 5800 MHz, and 22,125 MHz), 2450 MHz is the most commonly

used. At this frequency, the energy supplied to the system is equal to 0.037 kcal/mol.

Even the weakest intramolecular bonds (Van der Waals forces) are 48 kcal/mol.

Therefore, microwave only serves to rotate the molecules, and will neither break nor

form any additional bonds. (Hayes, 2002)

Materials like glass, octane or nitrogen (with none of the properties mentioned

earlier), are transparent to microwave. Microwave energy transfer is not dependent on

thermal conduction and is very rapid, e.g. heating water in a beaker. With conventional

(conductive) heating, as a hotplate is slowly heated, thermal energy is slowly transferred

to the beaker. That heat must then be transferred again through each layer of water until

the temperature is uniform. Microwave transfers energy differently. Glass vessels are

transparent to microwave energy, enabling the water molecules to absorb the energy

directly, meaning more efficient energy transfer. As a consequence, thermal energy is

produced only as a byproduct (Hayes, 2002).

The property that describes how well a material absorbs microwave energy and

converts it into heat is the dielectric loss factor ( ). In general, the heat-up rate of a

material in an applied electric field is proportional to the dielectric loss factor, frequency,

and the square of the strength of the electric field inside the material. The penetration

depth (6), defined as the distance from the surface of the bed at which the power decay to

1/e of its value at the surface, is inversely proportional to the dielectric loss factor

(Bathen, 2003) as


8 A= (5-1)
2;m '"









where Xo is the wavelength of the radiation in free space, F is the dielectric constant, and

F is the dielectric loss factor. This equation suggests that a material with a high loss-

factor, such as activated carbon, exhibits short penetration depths, making it difficult to

uniformly heat a large bed of the material. Table 5-1 lists some calculated values

according to the above equation (Bathen, 2003).


Table 5-1 Penetration de th of microwaves (2.45 GHz)
Compound Temperature Penetration depth
(C) (cm)

Air 25 infinity
Water (distilled) 25 1.42
Water with 29 g/1NaCl 25 0.38
Methanol 25 0.64
Tetrachlorocarbon 25 3210
Zeolite NaX 20 15.71
Zeolite DAY 20 >100
Aluminum 25 0.02
Aluminum Oxide 25 656


Advantages of microwave heating include (Bykov et al., 2001):

7. Reducing energy consumption and process time: microwave energy transforms into
heat inside the material, which results in significant energy savings and reduction in
process time.

8. Rapid and controllable heating: the heat is transmitted directly inside the sample,
and the heating rate is controlled by the power of the microwave source.

9. Inverse temperature profile: the heat is dissipated to the environment through the
surface. Therefore, the temperature inside the sample is always higher than on the
surface (including the case when a constant temperature is maintained). In order to
reduce this temperature difference the sample can be surrounded by a layer of a
thermally insulating material which reduces heat loss from the surface of the
sample.

10. Selectivity: microwave heating is based on the capacity of a material to absorb the
electromagnetic energy. The selective absorption of microwave irradiation opens a
way to implementation of selective heating.









11. Possibility of surface processing: for a given material and frequency, if the
microwave penetration depth is small enough, microwave heating takes place only
in the near surface layer of the material.

Besides these advantages, there are many experimental observations that suggest

non-thermal microwave effects that accelerate reaction rates, alter reaction pathways, and

enhance mass transport and result in unique properties in polymers, ceramics and

composites. Still, the specific mechanism of this effect needs further theoretical and

experimental investigation (Bykov et al., 2001).

There are several reports in the literature of TiO2 powder preparation by microwave

processing. Ramakvishnan (1999) synthesized titania ceramic powders from TTIP in

methanol under microwave irradiation. Ayll6n et al. (2000) prepared anatase TiO2

powder from fluorine-complexed titanium aqueous solution using microwave irradiation.

Crystalline anatase TiO2 powders with submicron size were obtained in a short time, at

low temperature and atmospheric pressure. However, the obtained materials did not show

photocatalytic activity. Wilson et al. (2002) reported microwave hydrothermal treatment

of colloidal TiO2 suspensions. Their results showed that the microwave treatment allowed

for rapid heating rate and rapid recrystalization. This resulted in highly nanocrystalline

material and reduced process time and energy with respect to the conventional

hydrothermal treatment. Yamamota et al. (2002) studied hydrolysis and polycondensation

of TTIP in alkanedial solvent under microwave irradiation to obtain anatase TiO2

nanocrystallite. Hart et al. (2004) synthesized anatase TiO2 by a sol-gel method followed

by microwave heat treatment (silicon carbide was used as a microwave susceptor). Using

microwave processing, crystallization of TiO2 was significantly faster and occurred at

lower temperature than by conventional furnace treatments. While there have been many

studies on the preparation of TiO2 powder by microwave processes, there are only few









literature relevant to the preparation of TiO2/AC by microwave process. Lee et al. (2004)

reported the preparation of TiO2/AC by a modified sol-gel method followed by drying

and microwave heat treatment. The prepared material successfully degraded microcystin-

LR in water. However, they simply used microwave in the heat treatment to accelerate

crystallization without taking advantage of enhanced chemical reactions.

The objective of this chapter was to prepare dispersed TiO2 photocatalyst on AC

via microwave-assisted impregnation method for the treatment of HVLC emissions from

paper and pulp mills. Methanol was chosen as the target pollutant because it is the major

pollutant in the HVLC emissions. With microwave heating, the microwave supply energy

to the carbon particles themselves. Some carbons have free electrons whose displacement

is restricted by grain boundaries. When these carbons are subjected to the

electromagnetic field of microwave, space charge polarization takes place. Entire

macroscopic regions of the material become either positive or negative synchronizing

their orientation with the field. This mechanism is often called the Maxwell-Wagner

effect. At low frequency the polarization synchronizes its orientation with the field, but as

the frequency increases there is a phase lag between the polarization of energy and

heating of the carbon particles (Carrott et al., 2001). One advantage of microwave-

assisted preparation of TiO2/AC is the use of AC as the microwave susceptor. In this

way, heat-enhanced processes such as desorption, hydrolysis, and crystallization are

favored, eventually leading to quick formation of crystallized TiO2.

Experimental Section

Materials

All chemicals were reagent grade or better: Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP)

(Ti(OC3H7)4, 98+%, Fisher); 2-proponal (99.9%, Fisher); methanol/air mixture (1000









ppmv, Praxair); DI water; F400 AC (coal based thermally activated carbon, effective

particle size 14-20 mesh, Calgon). F400 AC was chosen because the thermal stability of

BioNuchar AC used in previous chapters was not as good as F400 AC.

TiO2/AC Preparation

A commercial microwave oven (SHARP CAROUSEL II) was used as the

microwave source. The capacity of the oven is 0.8 ft3, the full power is 800W, and the

microwave frequency is 2450 MHz. It should be noted that the microwave power output

in a common microwave oven can not be adjusted. When the power level is adjusted, it

merely regulates the fraction of synchronic irradiation time. At high, medium, medium

low, and low power level, the fractions of synchronic irradiation time are 100%, 60%,

40%, and 20% respectively.

Before experiments, AC was dried at 383 K for 2 hours. A typical procedure of the

preparation of TiO2/AC by microwave-assisted impregnation was as follows: F400 AC

(1.00 g) was impregnated with 1 mL 50% TTIP 2-propanol solution in a 20 mL glass vial

and then stood for overnight to allow the solution to penetrate the pores of carbon. A

designated amount of water was added into the vial and the vial was immediately

exposed to microwave irradiation. The hydrolysis of TTIP produced a supersaturated

vapor of TiO2, which nucleated and grew to form TiO2 particles on the AC surface. After

a designated period of time, the sample was taken out and weighed. The effects of

microwave power level, H20/TTIP ratio and irradiation time on the activity of TiO2/AC,

which were characterized by the methanol removal efficiency, were explored. Table 5-2

lists the preparation conditions.









Table 5-2 Preparation conditions and characterization of Ti02/AC
Sample MW Power H20/TTI Irradiation TiO2 BET Total
No. P Ratio Time Loading Surface Pore
(wt %) Area Volume
(m2g-1) (cm3g-_)
12 Medium 28 20 min 8.590.05 753.06 0.4091
13 Medium Low 28 20 min 8.780.21 723.52 0.3928
14 Low 28 20 min -- -- --
15 Medium 4 20 min 9.420.52 887.48 0.4561
16 Medium 28 30 min 9.270.12 905.19 0.4652
17 Medium 4 30 min 8.940.46 891.83 0.4504


Characterization

The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the carbon and TiO2/AC

samples were obtained by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms performed at 77 K (NOVA

2200, Quantachrome). All samples were outgassed at 393 K on the outgas station

overnight prior to measurement. The specific surface area was determined by multipoint

BET using the adsorption data in the relative pressure (P/Po) range of 0.005-0.20. The

isotherms were used to determine the total pore volume of different samples. The surface

morphology of TiO02/AC composites was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy

(JSM 6330F, JEOL). The samples were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD 3720,

Philips) for identification of crystalline species in the continuous-scan mode. The

scanning speed was 0.05 osec'l or 0.005 osec'l and the scanning range was from 200 to

500. The major anatase (101) peak at 20 = 25.40 was analyzed. The TiO2 loading on the

AC was estimated by ash content analysis as described in Chapter 2.

Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation

As used in Chapters 2 and 3, low methanol concentration and high humidity were

chosen. The experimental set up is shown in Figure 2-2. 2.00 g of Ti02/AC was placed

on the frit in the reactor. The methanol concentration in the influent and effluent of the









reactor during the experiment was measured by the same method used in Chapters 2 and

3.

The TiO2/AC sample was humidified until equilibrium was established at a

constant stream humidity (RH= 80% at 298 K, water concentration was 19 mgL-1).

Humidification was achieved by bubbling the carrier gas (air) through the vessel with

water at the rate of 0.4 L/min. Humid methanol laden air (water concentration was 19

mgL-1) was then passed through the fixed bed of TiO2/AC with or without UV light for 6

hours. With UV light irradiation, the temperature of the reactor rose to 328 K from room

temperature due to the heat release from the UV lamp and the relative humidity was 16%

at 328 K. The bed depth was 0.4 cm and the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was

approximately 0.35s.

Results and Discussion

Carbon Weight Loss and TiO2 Loading

In order to investigate the stability of AC under microwave irradiation, 1.00 g

virgin F400 AC was placed in a 20 mL glass vial and then exposed to microwave

irradiation. After a designated period of time, it was taken out and weighed. Figure 5-3

shows the weight loss curves of F400 AC under different power levels of microwave

irradiation.

The carbon did not start to combust under the tested conditions. However, the

results (Figure 5-3) show that under high power level F400 activated carbon continue to

lose weight in 30 minutes. Under medium power level F400 AC just lost weight in the

first 10 minutes and the weight loss was much less than that under high power level.

Because of the instability of F400 AC under high power level, this level was not used in

subsequent study and only power levels equal to or less than medium were used. The









weight loss of F400 AC is likely due to the removal of some surface functional groups

and/or the oxidation of carbon. The ash content of F400 AC before and after microwave

process listed in Table 5-3 proved that the carbon lost some flammable composition in

the microwave process. The pH of the carbon suspension, which provides some

information about the average acidity/basicity of carbons, was measured following the

procedures described in Chapter 4. The pH of F400 AC before and after microwave

process are also listed in Table 5-3. The results showed the pH of carbon surface

increased after microwave process. This may result from the decomposition of

oxygenated surface groups. The carboxylic and lactonic functional groups on AC surface

are less stable, which decompose at temperatures as low as 570 K and evolve CO2 (Li et

al., 2003). The phenol, quinine, and carbonyl groups are fairly stable, which only

decompose at temperature above 770 K and evolve CO (Li et al., 2003). Li and co-

wokers (2003) observed the starting decomposition of surface functional groups of AC in

He flow as low as 400 K. Li et al. (2003) also reported that AC treated in air at 693 K

resulted in the increase of surface area and pore volume. This proved that AC may be

oxidized by air at elevated temperature.

Table 5-3 lists the ash content, BET surface area, and total pore volume of virgin

F400 AC and the F400 AC after 20 minutes medium level microwave irradiation. As

shown, the microwave process did not significantly affect the specific surface area and

total pore volume of F400 AC. This also proved that the F400 AC was stable under

medium power level irradiation. Because carbon and 2-propanol solvent are flammable, it

may not be safe to run the microwave process in air, if vapor pressure is high. The

explosion limits of 2-propanol are 2.0 vol % (lower) and 12.7 vol % (upper). In each










experiment, just 1 g of carbon and 1 mL of 50% TTIP solution were used. The volume

percentage of 2-propanol vapor in the used microwave oven was less than 1 vol %.

Hence, it was safe under medium or lower power level.


1.02


1.00k


0.98 -


S0.96 -


0.94 -

--- Medium Level
0.92 -0- High Level


0.90 i I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Irradiation Time (min)

Figure 5-3 F400 AC Weight Loss under medium level MW irradiation

Table 5-3 Ash content of F400 AC before and after microwave process
Ash Content BET Surface Total Pore Surface pH
(wt %) Areal Volume
(m2g-1) (cm3g-l)
Virgin F400 5.540.03 1005.10 0.5290 6.180.02
MW F400* 5.690.06 1025.19 0.5289 6.83 0.03
* MW F400 is virgin F400 carbon exposed to medium level MW irradiation for 20
minutes.
Figure 5-4 shows the weight loss in the preparation of samples 12- 15. The results

showed that the higher the microwave power was, the faster the weight loss occurred.

Considering that heat was dissipated to the environment through the surface



1 The BET surface area of F400 AC listed in this table is higher than that listed in Chapter 2. This is
because the relative pressure ranges of the adsorption data used in the multipoint BET calculation were
different. The relative pressure range used here was 0.005 -0.20. The relative pressure range used in
Chapter 2 was 0.05 -0.30.


0.









continuously, the bulk temperature and heating rate of the sample under different

microwave power levels should be different. Although the bulk temperature wasn't

measured because of the facility limitation, it can be conjectured that the bulk

temperature and heating rate increased with the power level. The weight loss of sample

15 was faster than that of sample 12 although the microwave power levels used were the

same. The evaporation of water and solvent was responsible for the difference. Due to

the different heat capacities of these two materials, the heat dissipation rate was also

different, which resulted in bulk temperature of sample 15 being higher than that of

sample 12. Assuming that all the TTIP was converted into TiO2, 0.13 g TiO2 would be

generated. The weights of sample 12-15 were 1.13 g, 1.13 g, 1.32 g and 1.10

respectively. Clearly, the low power level was not enough to vaporize the chemicals and

there was still volatile material (solvent, by-products, and/or unhydrolyzed TTIP)

adsorbed on sample 14. Hence, low power level was not considered in subsequent

experiments. Considering the weight loss of virgin AC under microwave irradiation (0.03

g), the expected weight was 1.10. Therefore, the TTIP conversion of samples 12 and 13

perhaps were also incomplete.

The TiO2 loading, BET surface area, and total pore volume of TiO02/AC sample are

also listed in Table 1. The ash content of F400 AC after microwave process was used to

calculate the TiO2 loading. The various preparation conditions listed in Table 5-2 did not

exhibit significant influences on the TiO2 loading, specific surface area, and total pore

volume of samples 15, 16 and 17. Compared with samples 15, 16 and 17, these properties

of samples 12 and 13 were lower. This further supports that the TTIP conversion of

samples 12 and 13 was not complete. Compared with virgin F400 AC, however, the










specific surface area and total pore volume of samples 15 17 were lower which resulted

from the TiO2 deposited on the carbon surface that blocked the pores.



2.8

2.6

2.4 -\

2.2 \ Sample 12
........ 0 ....... Sam ple 13
S2.0 ------- Sample 14
S\. ----v .. Sample 15

1.6 \


"1. C 'T-- -- -
\ ...... ..
1.4 -
1.2

1.0
0 5 10 15 20
Irradiation Time (min)

Figure 5-4 Weight loss curves of TiO2/AC samples

TiO2/AC Characterization

Figure 5-5 shows the SEM images of TiO2/AC prepared by the described method

and the virgin carbon. It demonstrates that TiO2 particles were formed on the carbon

surface. The preparation conditions didn't significantly affect the TiO2 morphology

because the actual power output rate at each condition was the same; just the irradiation

time was changed. Figure 5-6 shows the SEM image of the cross-section of sample 12.

Figure 5-7 shows the SEM images, EDS spectra, and the EDS mapping of Ti element on

section 1 (external surface) and section 2 (internal surface) in Figure 5-6. Obviously, the

formed TiO2 was rich on the external surface of carbon. The deposition of TiO2 on the

external surface is preferred since UV light cannot penetrate into inner pores. Because

water was added later, thermal reaction of TTIP inside pores could yield TiO2 on the






















(a)














(b)

Figure 5-5 SEM images of TiO2/AC samples: (a) Sample 15; (b) Virgin Carbon


Figure 5-6 Cross-section of Sample 12







78


internal surface. Under microwave irradiation, however, part of TTIP inside pores could

also be desorbed and/or evaporated out before decomposition. These TTIP molecules

reacted with water and then deposited on outer surface.















(la) (2a)


(lb)


TI


o 5 10 15 20
En..r... (2b)


(I c) (2c)

Figure 5-7 Region 1 and Region 2 in Figure 5-6: (a) SEM images; (b)EDS spectra;
(c)EDS mapping of Ti element.

Figure 5-8 shows the XRD patterns of different samples. Fast scanning speed, 0.05

/sec was used initially. If any clear peaks were detected, slow scanning speed, 0.005

/sec was used to verify the result. No significant peak was detected on samples 12 and

13. However, some peaks were detected on samples 15 -17. Therefore slow scanning


)0-


Ts .

0 5 10 15 20
EnWra4teV










speed was used to rerun samples 15-17. The results revealed that anatase phase was

formed on samples 15 and 17, and rutile phase was formed on samples 16 and 17 that

resulted from the high bulk temperature. The formation of anatase TiO2 is important due

to its photocatalytic performance, which will be explained in the next section.

1800
countsl
16088 I0i^ f Sample 17





Sample 15



0 .. . ...- .. ..... ,:,,. ....,,.
480
Sample 12



20 25 38 35 48 45 [201 50

Figure 5-8 XRD patterns of different samples (scanning speed: 0.05 o/sec for samples 12
and 13; 0.005 /sec for samples 15 -17)

Methanol removal testing

Methanol removal by the original F400 AC and TiO2/AC composites with and

without UV light was carried out in order to compare their ability. The inlet methanol

concentration was 22.4 ppm. The relative effluent methanol concentration profiles for the

virgin AC and TiO2/AC are shown in Figure 5-9. It is apparent from Figure 5-9 that the

effluent methanol concentration increased quickly when treated by the virgin AC with

and without UV light. When treated by TiO2/AC without UV light irradiation, a similar

adsorption profile was observed, and the methanol adsorption capacities for sample 12

composite was actually lower than that of the virgin carbon due to the lower surface area.








80


However, with UV light irradiation, the methanol concentration did not reach saturation

for the duration of the experiment. Another thing that should be mentioned was that

acetone and 2-propanol were detected by GC in the impinger samples of samples 12 and

13 (with UV light). Acetone is the product of reaction between TTIP and the carbonyl

groups on activated carbon surface (Tatsuda et al., 2005). Because acetone and 2-

propanol weren't the products of methanol degradation, their presence further proved that

the TTIP conversion of samples 12 and 13 was incomplete. Regarding sample 15 (with

UV light), the effluent methanol concentration increased during the first 2 hours and then

maintained at about 53% removal. Therefore, the average of the last four data was used to

calculate the average methanol removal efficiency for subsequent analysis.





1.0 r

SI I ,1 ---
0.8 -- -- ---









---_ ---- Sample 12
0.2 --...--v- Sample 12/UV
_Sample 13/UV
---- -- Sample 15/UV

0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (h)

Figure 5-9 Methanol effluent concentration profiles: inlet methanol concentration was
22.4 ppm, inlet water concentration was 19 mgL-1, EBCT was 0.35 s







81


Figure 5-10 shows the average methanol removal efficiencies of samples 15 -17

with UV irradiation. No acetone and 2-propanol were detected by GC in the impinger

samples of these samples, and their average methanol removal efficiencies were similar.

This revealed that increasing the irradiation time can not further increase the

photocatalytic activity once the TTIP conversion was completed.



0.6


S0.5 -


S0.4 -
0

0.3 -
o

E 0.2 -
a)

S 0.1 -


0.0

Sample 15 Sample 16 Sample 17


Figure 5-10 Average methanol removal efficiencies: inlet methanol concentration was
38.8 ppm, inlet water concentration was 19 mgL1, EBCT was 0.35 s

Conclusions

Under medium level of 800 W microwave irradiation, anatase TiO2 was quickly

formed from TTIP precursor in a short time, at atmospheric pressure. F400 AC was stable

under this energy level, and the formed submicron TiO2 particles were rich on the

external surface of carbon. When the TTIP conversion was completed, the irradiation

time and water/TTIP ratio would no longer pose any significant impact on the final


product. The prepared TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst showed lower adsorption


showed lower adsorption






82


capacity for methanol than virgin carbon due to pore blockage by the newly formed TiO2

particles. Photocatalytic oxidation of methanol from humid air was successfully

accomplished by the composite, and the material did not reach saturation for the duration

of the experiment.














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Pulp and paper mills rank in the ten largest industrial activities in the United States.

More and more stricter air emission regulations urged researchers and engineers to

explore advanced control technologies. This study was carried out to develop TiO2/AC

composite photocatalyst as an alternative technique for the treatment of high volume low

concentration air emissions from pulp and paper mills.

TiO2/AC composite prepared by conventional methods as well as microwave

methodology was characterized and evaluated by activity tests for the degradation of

methanol and H2S, two important pollutants of HVLC air emissions from pulp and paper

mills.

First, the technical efficacy of photocatalytic regeneration of the spent carbon was

investigated. The model pollutant, methanol, was removed from airstreams using

TiO2/AC composite prepared by spray desiccation method. The spent adsorbent was

regenerated under UV light irradiation. Photocatalytic regeneration of TiO2/AC is

ascribed to both desorption from AC and photocatalytic degradation on TiO2. Increasing

desorption rate by using purge air greatly increased the regeneration capacity. However,

when the desorption rate was greater than the photocatalytic oxidation rate, part of the

methanol was directly desorbed without degradation. So, improving the photocatalytic

degradation rate is important for the application of photocatalytic regeneration in the gas

phase.









Dry impregnation was developed to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/AC

composite. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP), the precursor, was effectively converted

to the anatase form of TiO2 on the carbon surface after hydrolysis and calcination. Under

proper preparation conditions, the TiO2/AC composite outperformed the composite

prepared by spray desiccation method in removing methanol. Another model pollutant,

hydrogen sulfide, also photocatalytically degraded on TiO2/AC composite. The sulfate

conversion efficiency of TiO2/AC composite was higher than that of AC. A high sulfate

conversion efficiency is desired since the formed sulfate can be easily washed away.

Finally, a novel microwave-assisted impregnation was developed for TiO2/AC

composite photocatalyst preparation. Due to the volumetric heating and selective heating

of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickly removed which required less

energy and shorter processing time. The formed submicron TiO2 particles were mainly

deposited on the external surface of carbon.

Based on the conclusions presented above and the experience gained in this

research, recommendations can be made to help further advance the application of

TiO2/AC composite photocatalyst.

1. The moisture in carbon is beneficial to the hydrolysis of TTIP. The effect of
moisture content on the performance of final product should be further studied.
There will be a relationship between the moisture content and the hydrolysis
degree. When the moisture reaches a critical value, it is possible that no extra water
is needed for the hydrolysis of TTIP. An additional benefit is that the hydrolysis
and drying can be combined into one step. However, there is a critical issue of how
to control the moisture content of the carbon and its distribution to deliver optimal
result.

2. The UV light (peak wavelength is 365 nm) irradiation improved the H2S removal
and sulfate conversion efficiency on virgin BioNuchar AC. The mechanism has not
been reported in prior work. Two possible mechanisms can be hypothesized: 1) the
adsorbed H2S and/or the oxidation products of H2S on AC (mainly elemental
sulfur) could be excited under the irradiation of UV light which may create a more








85


adsorbable species; 2) the surface of AC can be modified by UV light irradiation.
These hypotheses are worthy of exploration.

3. The application of the suggested microwave-assisted impregnation can be further
studied. This method may be applied to preparation of supported catalyst. Due to
the facility limitation, the microwave power and sample temperature couldn't be
controlled. This limited further investigation of the suggested method. Inert
atmosphere could be used to protect the carbon and avoid any possible combustion
and explosion. Thermally insulating material, temperature sensors, and automatic
power control systems could be used to improve the uniformity of microwave
heating and avoid overheating. Further understanding of how microwave energy
interacts with materials is the key.

4. Investigated the effect of different types of AC (coal based or wood based) on
photocatalytic activity of TiO02/AC composite.
















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