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Beliefs and Practices of Successful Teachers of Black Students: Case Studies from Secondary English Classrooms

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013661/00001

Material Information

Title: Beliefs and Practices of Successful Teachers of Black Students: Case Studies from Secondary English Classrooms
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013661:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013661/00001

Material Information

Title: Beliefs and Practices of Successful Teachers of Black Students: Case Studies from Secondary English Classrooms
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013661:00001


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BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF SUCCESSFUL TEACHERS OF BLACK
STUDENTS: CASE STUDIES FROM SECONDARY ENGLISH CLASSROOMS















By

THERESA ANN ADKINS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Theresa Ann Adkins
































This dissertation is dedicated in loving memory to my best friend, my hero, my father-
his humility, his thirst for knowledge, and his lifelong commitment to education and his
community continue to motivate and inspire me.

Rutherford Hamlet Adkins, Ph.D. (1924-1998)















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This dissertation is a result of the contributions of my family, my friends, and the

other individuals who sustained me through this process, and it is with great humility that

I express my gratitude. I want to thank the many people who accompanied me on this

journey and showed generosity, kindness, and unwavering support.

My advisor, Dr. Dorene Ross, exemplifies everything I have learned about

exemplary teachers, and I wish there were words to capture the depth and breadth of my

sincere appreciation for her guidance during this journey. She supported me in countless

ways, from providing specific, detailed feedback on every draft to offering words of

encouragement at just the right time, and she gave me the kind of attention that made me

feel like I was her only student. She is a wonderful mentor, and I am blessed to have her

in my comer. I also want to thank my dissertation committee members, Dr. Vivian

Correa, Dr. Ruth Lowery, and Dr. Barbara Pace, for the expert advisement, time, and

commitment demonstrated on my behalf. My work is far better because of their

contributions and encouragement.

My mother, Jacqueline Adkins, has been my biggest cheerleader since the day I

was born. Her support, optimism, and complete confidence in me provided the

motivation I needed to continue on this journey, and it is so comforting to know that,

even as an adult, I can always count on her to do everything in her power to help me

when I need it. I also am thankful for the support from the rest of my family. My sister









and brothers, Sheila Scales, Mark Adkins, and Brian Parker, in particular, provided an

abundance of support and encouragement.

My wonderful friends have helped to make this journey worthwhile. They kept me

grounded and provided the anchor I needed to stay focused and to maintain a sense of

humor. While I am thankful for my friends for too many reasons to mention, I

particularly appreciate the support of two of my closest friends, Dr. Sean Coleman and

LaTanya Catron. In addition to providing encouragement throughout this process, they

gave of their time and shared their resources on short notice to come to my rescue when I

needed them most. Without their help, the study would have been delayed another

semester. Their kindness prevented me from losing time, money, motivation, and

possibly my mind, and I thank God for their enduring friendship. In the home stretch,

Sean also used his knowledge of this process to put out fires and keep me sane and, for

that, I am eternally grateful.

My appreciation also goes to my mentor, Dr. Joan Kaywell, who encourages me

and continues to remind me of my responsibility to children and to the field. Her tireless

efforts on behalf of students and teachers in the state of Florida inspire me to do more. I

also want to thank the teachers and principals who believed in my work from the

beginning and continue to encourage me. They opened their doors to me and willingly

took time away from their many responsibilities to participate in this study. Finally, I am

thankful for those courageous souls who traveled this journey before me. Their struggles

made it possible for me to dream without limits.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .............. ......................................................... .x

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ........................................... ............ xi

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. .. ...... .......... .......... xii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ..................................... ...............

State ent of th e P rob lem ................................................................... .....................2
Statem ent of the Q question ............................................................................ ........ 5
Statem ent of Significance .................................................................................... ... 5
Hold High Expectations for All Students and Provide Support............................8
Focus on Academics and Encourage Students to Inquire, Problem-Solve, and
Construct Knowledge Collaboratively............................................................9
Care about Students and Incorporate Students' Lives and Cultural
Backgrounds into Classroom Instruction......................................................9..
Know and Stay Involved in the Communities in Which Students Live .............10
Hold High Expectations for Themselves and Possess a Deep Knowledge of
Their Students and Their Subject M atter ............. ........................................10
D efinitions of K ey Term s ........................................................................ 12
Effective Practice............... .......... ................................... 12
Predom inantly African Am erican.................................... ........................ 13
T each er B beliefs ............................................................................... 13
Organization of Study .................. ............................ ........ ................. 13

2 DISCUSSION OF RELATED LITERATURE....................................................15

Intro du action ...................................... ................................................ 15
Teacher B beliefs and Practices ................ .......................................... ....... .............. 15
Beliefs and Practices of Effective Teachers of Black Students..............................21
Black Students and Effective High School Teachers.......................................27
Black Students and Effective English Teachers...............................................28
C conclusion ............................................................... ..... ..... ........ 34









3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 38

O v e rv iew .........................................................................................3 8
In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................3 9
R a tio n a le ......................................................................................3 9
R research O orientation ..................................................................................... 4 0
Case study research. ............................................. ............... 40
Interpretive case study................................... ................... 40
Ethnographic techniques ................................. ............... 41
T h e S ettin g ....................................................4 2
M s M o rriso n ................................................................................................. 4 3
M s L o m ax ..................................................................................................... 4 3
P ro c e d u re s ............................ ......................................................4 4
Identification of Participants ....................................................... 44
The selection process. .................................................44
Number of teachers. .............................................. ............... 45
G ain in g a c c e ss ........................................................................................ 4 5
Teacher knowledge of the study ............... ........................................46
D ata Collection ................................................................ ..... ............ 46
O observation. ............................................................47
Field notes. .............................................................47
Interview ing. ............................................................49
Collection of artifacts ................................... ........ ............... 51
Sum m ary of data collection..................................................... ........ 51
D ata A n a ly sis ................................................................................................. 5 1
M ethodological Issues ............................................................52
C re d ib ility ..................................................................................................5 3
Transferability ................................................. 53
Confirmability and Dependability ............................................. 54
L im itatio n s ..................................................................................................... 5 5
R e cip ro city ................................................................5 6

4 M S M O R R IS O N ................................................................................................. 57

Teaching and Learning in the Secondary English Classroom ......... ...............58
The How People Learn (HPL) Framework ............... ......................... 58
Essential Features of Effective English Instruction ............................59
English Instruction that Engages African American Students ............................ 60
K now ledge-C enteredness ................................................. ............... ............... 63
L earner-C enteredness ................................................. ...........................69
Students Learn Skills and Knowledge in Multiple Lesson Types....................71
Teachers Make Connections across Instruction, Curriculum, and Life ............72
Students are Expected to be Creative Thinkers, or Making Students Feel
S m a rt ....................................................................................................7 5
Com m unity-Centeredness..................................................... .................. ......... 76
A ssessm ent-C enteredness .............................................................................. .... 82
Teachers Integrate Test Preparation into Instruction...........................................86









Teachers Provide Feedback, Especially on Writing, and Check for All
Students' U nderstanding........................................................ ......... ...... 88

5 M S. LOM AX .................................................................... ........ 91

Teaching and Learning in the Secondary English Classroom.............. .....................93
The How People Learn (HPL) Framework............... ....................................93
Essential Features of Effective English Instruction............. .................94
English Instruction that Engages African American Students ..........................94
K now ledge-C enteredness .............. ..... ..... ...........................................................96
Teachers Maintain an Instructional Focus in the Classroom...........................100
Teachers Em phasize Skill D evelopm ent..........................................................101
L earner-C enteredness ..................... .... ..... ................. .. ... ..... .... .. ................... 102
Students Learn Skills and Knowledge in Multiple Lesson Types...................105
Students are Expected to Be Creative Thinkers .........................................106
C om m unity-C enteredness..................... .................................................... .... .... 108
Classrooms Foster Cognitive Collaboration.................................... 108
Students are Valued Participants in a Learning Community.............................110
A ssessm ent-Centeredness..................................................... ............... ............... 111

6 STRATEGIES THAT FACILITATE ENGAGEMENT AMONG AFRICAN
A M ER IC A N STU D EN T S .......................................................................... .... ...116

Culturally Responsive Classroom M anagement......................................................117
A Caring Attitude .................. .......................... .. ...... ................ 117
Creating a community of care. ...... ........... .......................................119
Strong relationships and mutual respect ....................................................123
Establishing A ssertiveness and Authority ........................................................ 126
Establishing Congruent Communication Processes ............... ................133
D em ending Effort ............................................................................ .. 135
Su m m ary ...................................... ....................................................14 1

7 DISCUSSION .................. ................................... ........... .............. 142

O v e rv iew ...................................... ................................................. 14 2
Sum m aries of the C ases............................................................................. ...... 143
M s. M orrison ................................................................ ... ......... 143
M s. L om ax ....................... ........... ... .. . .................. ............... 14 5
Similarities and Differences in the Beliefs and Practices of Effective Teachers of
A frican A m erican Students............................................................. ............... 147
K now ledge-Centeredness ........................................................ ............... 148
Sim ilarities. ............................................................148
D differences. ................................................................. 149
Learner-Centeredness ......................................................... ............... 151
Com m unity-Centeredness ........................................................................... 152
A ssessm ent-C enteredness.............................................................................. 154
Sim ilarities. ................... ............... ................................. 155









D differences. ............................................................155
Im p lic atio n s .............................................................................................................. 1 5 7
T each er E du cation ............................................................. .. ............ .... 158
Professional D evelopm ent............................................ ........................... 159
Future R research D irections................................................. ............................ 160
S u m m a ry ........................................................................................1 6 2

APPENDIX

A STUDENT NOMINATION FORM...................................... ......................164

B PRINCIPAL NOMINATION FORM .............................. .................... 165

C INFORM ED CON SEN T FORM ..................................... ............................. ....... 166

D IN TER V IEW PR O TO CO L 1 ............................................. ................................167

E IN TERVIEW PROTOCOL 2 ......................................................... ..................169

F IN TER V IEW PR O TO C O L 3 .......................................................... ....................170

G UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW GUIDE................................172

R E F E R E N C E S ........................................ ......................................................... .. 17 3

BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH .............................................................. ............... 180
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

3-1. Schedule of observations ......................................................................... 47

3-2 Interview schedule ........... .................................................................. ....... ............... 49

4-1. English instruction that engages African American students................................62

4-2. Lesson types found in the English classroom....................................................72

5-1. English instruction that engages African American students................................95

5-2. Lesson types found in the English classroom..................................................... 105

















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


4-1. Culturally competent English instruction.................. ........................................62


page















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF SUCCESSFUL TEACHERS OF BLACK
STUDENTS: CASE STUDIES FROM SECONDARY ENGLISH CLASSROOMS

By

Theresa Ann Adkins

August 2006

Chair: Dorene D. Ross
Major Department: Teaching and Learning

Many new teachers will need to take positions in predominantly Black, urban

schools without having the opportunity to work with effective teachers of African

American students prior to taking these positions. With little exposure to successful

secondary teachers of Black students, either as student teachers or through an

examination of current research which rarely focuses on a single secondary content area,

prospective teachers will find it difficult to learn how to elicit academic growth

effectively among African American high school students. This collective case study,

therefore, documented the beliefs and practices of two successful secondary English

teachers in predominantly Black schools in order to examine their beliefs and practices.

Qualitative methods, including interviews, observations, and the collection of documents,

were used to address the following research questions: 1. What are the beliefs and

practices of two English teachers considered to be effective in their predominantly Black









high schools? 2. What are the connections between their beliefs and practices? 3. How

are beliefs and practices similar and different across the two teachers?

Each case study described the daily classroom practices and beliefs of the two

teachers and how they fit within the How People Learn Framework in order to

understand how they facilitated academic gains in their classrooms. The final findings

chapter looked more closely at the classroom management strategies the teachers used to

create structured learning environments based in high expectations and an ethic of care.

Five areas of further study emerged through the analysis of the teachers' beliefs and

practices.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Pedagogic problems in our cities are not chiefly matters of injustice, inequality, or
segregation, but of insufficient information about teaching strategies. If we could
simply learn "what works" in [the classroom of an exemplary teacher], we'd then
be in a position to repeat this ... in every other system. (Kozol, 1991, p. 128)

While researchers maintain that effective teaching cannot eliminate outside forces

that hinder academic success, they have found that effective teaching plays a major role

in academic achievement and is the primary factor over which schools have control

(Kozol, 1991, p. 128; Ladson-Billings, 1994, p. 13; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003, p.

5). Widely discussed in current research on effective teaching of students of color is

pedagogy that uses students' cultural backgrounds to facilitate academic achievement by

empowering them in their academic lives and in their personal lives (Gay, 2000; Ladson-

Billings, 1994). Also called equity pedagogy, culturally relevant pedagogy consists of

teaching methods and strategies that provide students with the opportunity to build new

knowledge by applying and extending their own constructed knowledge. Gay (2000)

explained that culturally responsive teaching is "validating," "comprehensive,"

"multidimensional," "empowering," "transformative," and "emanicipatory" (pp. 29-36).

Affirming culturally relevant pedagogy, Hilliard (2002) emphasized the importance

of teachers doing more than simply acknowledging that students' language and culture

should be considered in instruction. This understanding of the importance of language

and culture in curriculum and instruction must be accompanied by effective practice.

According to Hilliard and others (Ladson-Billings, 1994; Perry & Delpit, 1998), it is









teachers' inability to integrate students' language into the learning process, not students'

language, that creates the problem. Consequently, the literature has begun to explore the

practices of teachers who teach students of color effectively. To this end, researchers

(Athanases, 1998; Cone, 1994; Cooper, 2003; Foster, 1991; Howard, 2001; Key, 1999;

Knoeller, 1998; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ostrowski, 2002) have stepped into the

classrooms of effective teachers of Black students to see if and how these teachers

facilitate culturally relevant pedagogy. Although they do not always term it "culturally

relevant pedagogy," many researchers (Athanases, 1998; Cooper, 2003; Foster, 1991;

Howard, 2001; Key, 1999; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ostrowski, 2002) have described

practices that fall in line with culturally relevant pedagogy in these classrooms. This kind

of research provides more depth into what we know about how effective teachers

understand effective practice and academic achievement among Black students and how

their understanding translates into practice.

Statement of the Problem

Some researchers have blamed factors beyond the school's control for student

failure. For example, Ogbu (2003) asserted that "low-effort syndrome" (p. 17) inhibited

Black students from reaching high academic achievement. He stated that the majority of

Black participants in his study demonstrated the lack of desire to work hard and believed

working hard would make them less popular. Consequently, these students exerted little

academic effort, hence the term "low-effort syndrome." Based on his conversations with

Black students in the Shaker Heights community of Ohio, Ogbu suggested that low-effort

syndrome developed from minimum effort typically exerted by these students. According

to Ogbu, low-effort syndrome also stemmed from poor study habits, the inability to

focus, and choosing other priorities that took time away from academics. He also noted









that Black students blamed teachers for their poor performance instead of taking

responsibility for their inaction (Obgu, 2003, p. 31).

New (1996), however, emphasized that research does not support the idea that

Black students do not want to learn or that they do not want to exert academic effort.

Leroy Lovelace, in Black Teachers on Teaching (Foster, 1997), therefore, urged teachers

not to misinterpret students' resistance to learning as a lack of desire for learning. In fact,

he stated that, when students did not feel like they were being pushed by their teachers,

they often believed their teachers did not care (Foster, 1997, p. 48). Wilson and Corbett

(2001) further elaborated this idea with evidence from their study on the pedagogical

needs and wants of middle-school students. Interviewing over 150 students over three

years, they found that students from a variety of levels of academic achievement and

motivation repeatedly asserted that they wanted teachers who made sure they completed

all assignments, helped them until they fully understood a given concept, and controlled

behavior so all students could learn.

Researchers (Boykin, Tyler, & Miller, 2005; Ladson-Billings, 1994; New, 1996;

Perry & Delpit, 1998; Rios, 1996) have argued that students' intrinsic motivation or lack

thereof is only part of a more complex problem. They have found that many factors

contribute to the low academic achievement of Black students in public schools. Some

researchers (Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ogbu, 2003; Perry & Delpit, 1998; Rios, 1996) have

pointed to institutional and societal factors to provide an explanation for low academic

performance among Black students. Within the school, teachers tend to interact less with

students of color and reprimand them more. They also often give less attention to

students of color during classroom discussion (Ladson-Billings, 1994; Perry & Delpit,









1998; Rios, 1996). Many researchers (Kozol, 1991; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ogbu, 2003;

Perry & Delpit, 1998) also have found that teachers often hold lower expectations for

Black students in the classroom. Hilliard (2002) suggested that teachers' behaviors

toward the language and culture of Black students could hinder academic success, even if

it were embedded within effective teaching strategies (p. 101).

Other researchers (Kozol, 1991, p. 128; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Thernstrom &

Thernstrom, 2003) have argued that the structure of classrooms and schools foster (or fail

to foster) effort in students and therefore have focused on what teachers could do to

reverse the cycle. For example, Nieto (2000) concluded that school environment and

teaching practices had much more to do with student success or failure than student

background. Similarly, Crawford and Aagaard (1991) found the major factors that

contributed to high achievement growth in urban schools primarily fell within the

school's control. The factors included "principal as an instructional leader, positive

climate, high expectations, instructional focus, parental and community involvement, and

use of measurement" (p. 78). While teachers may have little control over creating a

positive school climate, they do have the power to create a positive climate within their

classrooms, to hold high expectations for their students, to maintain an instructional

focus, to involve parents and the community, and to use formal and informal measures to

meet the academic needs of their students.

Some teachers, however, fail to create a positive environment for students because

they believe their own behaviors and the behaviors of those from similar racial and

cultural backgrounds constitute what is normal and interpret the behaviors of others as

abnormal or deviant (Banks & Banks, 1997; Delpit, 1995; Foster, 1997; Kutz &









Roskelly, 1991; Ladson-Billings, 1994). This cultural conflict, or mismatch, often leads

teachers to misinterpret language and social behaviors of students who represented

different cultures or ethnic groups and to reprimand the behaviors in an effort to change

them instead of using them as a resource (Darling-Hammond & Sclan, 1996). Such

misunderstanding creates obstacles for Black students in the pursuit of academic success,

such as over-referral to special education and higher rates of suspension. Gay (2000) and

others (Banks & Banks, 1997; Ladson-Billings, 1994) have called for culturally

responsive teaching as an approach to reducing the problems caused by a cultural

mismatch between students and teachers. With specific knowledge of how effective

teachers integrate culturally responsive pedagogy into their classrooms, even when

differences in race and/or culture exist, teachers and teacher educators will have a better

understanding of how to facilitate academic gains among Black students.

Statement of the Question

The following questions guided this investigation:

* What are the beliefs and practices of two English teachers who are considered to be
effective in their predominantly Black high schools?
* What are the connections between their beliefs and practices?
* What are the similarities and differences between the two teachers?

Statement of Significance

The achievement gap between White students and Black and Hispanic students is

long-standing and tenacious, and the gap is larger for African American students than for

any other minority group (Ogbu, 2003; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003). In their review

of current statistics, Thernstrom and Thernstrom (2003) found that a high percentage

(42% to 78% depending on the subject area) of Black students performed "below basic"

on five of the seven subject tests of the National Assessment of Educational Progress









(NAEP) assessment between 1998 and 2000. Specifically, in 1998, Black students

scored, on average, 30 points below White students in reading regardless of educational

attainment of their parents. On both the NAEP science and math assessments in 2000, for

students whose parents did not finish high school, Black students scored, on average, 18

points below White students and, for students whose parents graduated from college,

Black students scored 34 points below White students. Further, the NAEP scores of

Black students peaked in 1988 and have not increased over time (Hoffman, Llagas, &

Snyder, 2003, p. 49; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003, p. 17).

The College Entrance Examination Board also found that, in 2001, only 11 percent

of Black students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). The scores (verbal and

quantitative) of those who took the test were, on average, only seven points higher than

the scores of Black students who took the SAT in 1991. This contrasts with the much

higher percentage (66%) of White students who took the SAT in 2001. The combined

scores of White students taking the test in 2001 were 18 points higher than those of White

students who took the SAT in 1991(Hoffman, Llagas, & Snyder, 2003, p. 64). On the

2001 American College Test (ACT), which is designed to measure college readiness, the

average composite score for Black students was below minimal readiness for college and

lower than the average composite score for any other racial group (Hoffman, Llagas, &

Snyder, 2003, p. 65).

While the racial gap in academic achievement is widely documented and generally

undisputed, some researchers have suggested that it is primarily a consequence of the

larger issue of low academic achievement among Black students across socioeconomic

levels (Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003). In fact, Thernstrom and Thernstrom suggested









that, while Black students from higher income families outperformed Black students from

low-income families, they still demonstrated lower academic achievement than White

students of comparable socioeconomic status. Other researchers, however, have focused

not on low achievement across socioeconomic status, but on the inadequate preparation

of teachers who enter urban schools that serve low-income families. Foster (1991), for

example, found little agreement in the literature on teacher education about how to

prepare teachers to facilitate academic achievement among students of color from low-

income families. Ladson-Billings (1991) underscored the need to focus on teacher

preparation by emphasizing that developing effective teachers of students of color

depended on what we learned from successful teachers of Black students.

Many new teachers will need to take positions in predominantly Black urban

schools and the majority of student teachers will not have the opportunity to work with

effective teachers of African American students prior to taking these positions (Foster,

1991). Consequently, teacher educators often turn to current research on successful

teachers on Black students in order to provide prospective teachers with some idea of the

beliefs and practices of effective teachers. Although some research has documented

beliefs and practices that facilitate academic growth among Black students, there have

been only a few studies particularly focused on a single "gate-keeping" subject like

English (Athanases, 1998; Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Key, 1999; Ostrowski, 2002).

While this research has provided valuable insight into the classroom and, at times, does

include extended classroom observations, it typically does not include detailed

descriptions of classroom observations or a discussion of the connection between beliefs

and practices. In the current research both within and across content areas and grade









levels (Ayers & Shubert, 1994; Bowers, 2000; Boykin et al., 2005; Brookhart & Rusnak,

1993; Corbett, Wilson, & Williams, 2002; Foster, 1991; Gay, 2000; Howard, 2001;

Ladson-Billings, 1994; Noddings, 1992; Ostrowski, 2002; Thompson, 2004), the beliefs

and practices of effective teachers of Black students generally fall within the following

five categories:

* Hold high expectations for all students and provide support for students to meet
these expectations.
* Focus on academics and encourage students to inquire, problem-solve, and
construct knowledge collaboratively about big concepts instead of isolated facts.
* Care about students and incorporate students' lives and cultural backgrounds into
classroom instruction, building on students' prior knowledge and connecting it to
the world outside the classroom.
* Know and stay involved in the communities in which students live, integrate this
understanding into the curriculum, and involve parents.
* Hold high expectations for themselves and possess a deep knowledge of their
students and their subject matter.

Hold High Expectations for All Students and Provide Support

Effective teachers that have been described in the literature expect students to meet

firm, behavioral expectations that include completing every assignment and doing high

quality work (Ayers & Shubert, 1994; Corbett et al., 2002; Foster, 1991). They also treat

each student as capable and create an environment in which students can see their

strengths and, in collaboration with the teacher, establish their own academic and

behavioral goals and participate in decision-making and assessment (Bowers, 2000;

Ladson-Billings, 1994). Further, effective teachers constantly monitor students'

understanding as they push them to reach their full intellectual potential and empower

them to become critical thinkers who challenge the status quo (Corbett et al., 2002;

Ladson-Billings, 1994). These teachers lead students to become academically successful

and confident, concerned members of society (Gay, 2000). At the same time, these









teachers emphasize that making mistakes is part of the learning process and approach

academic and behavioral errors not punitively, but with an ethos of care (Noddings,

1992).

Focus on Academics and Encourage Students to Inquire, Problem-Solve, and
Construct Knowledge Collaboratively

Effective teachers maintain an academic purpose in a classroom setting that

encourages students to inquire, problem-solve, and construct knowledge collaboratively

about big concepts instead of isolated facts (Ayers & Shubert, 1994; Bowers, 2000;

Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994). With continuous support

from the teacher and each other, students engage in active learning and challenge

themselves to move beyond minimum competencies to mastery of challenging

curriculum as demonstrated through multiple formats (Corbett et al., 2002; Foster, 1991;

Thompson, 2004). Effective teachers demonstrate an excitement for learning and an

understanding of their role in helping students to develop cognitively, emotionally, and

socially (Ayers & Shubert, 1994). They also recognize the need to integrate both teacher-

centered and student-centered pedagogy in innovative ways that stress collaboration over

competition (Boykin et al., 2005; Brown, 2003; Foster, 1991).

Care about Students and Incorporate Students' Lives and Cultural Backgrounds
into Classroom Instruction

Effective teachers of Black students facilitate relevant, engaging, and diverse

learning experiences that affirm students' cultural backgrounds (Boykin et al., 2005;

Foster, 1991; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994). They create classroom environments

that reflect an "Afrocultural ethos," which includes elements such as communalism, an

emphasis on social connectedness, and oral tradition, an emphasis on creativity in spoken

language (Boykin et al., 2005, p. 527). Further, effective teachers demonstrate









communicative competencies appropriate to the group of students with whom they work

and build upon students' prior knowledge (Gay, 2000; Howard, 2001; Ladson-Billings,

1994). These teachers include students' lives as an integral part of the curriculum, and

they encourage students to maintain personal and academic involvement with school

(Ayers & Shubert, 1994; Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Ladson-Billings, 1994). In the

classrooms of effective teachers of Black students, teachers connect ideas and concepts to

the world outside of the classroom and create a supportive classroom environment (Ayers

& Shubert, 1994; Bowers, 2000; Ostrowski, 2002).

Know and Stay Involved in the Communities in Which Students Live

Effective teachers have a deep understanding of the communities from which their

students come. They encourage parental involvement in the school and assume all

families will support the academic development of their children when given the

opportunity and guidance to do so (Foster, 1991). They not only invite community

members to come to the school, but also they integrate projects and activities in the

community into the curriculum (Bowers, 2000).

Hold High Expectations for Themselves and Possess a Deep Knowledge of Their
Students and Their Subject Matter

Effective teachers possess a deep knowledge of their students and the subject

matter and constantly seek resources to learn more (Ayers & Shubert, 1994; Foster, 1991;

Ladson-Billings, 1994). These teachers have both personal and academic involvement

with students and stay involved with the school and district. They also influence and are

influenced by other effective teachers (Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Ostrowski, 2002).

They maintain high quality relationships with their students inside and outside of the

classroom, and their great sense of care for their students leads them to take responsibility









for student learning, motivation, and student failure (Brown, 2003; Foster, 1991;

Ostrowski, 2002). They also demonstrate an ability to address difficult issues, such as

race and racism, by openly discussing these issues with their students (Cooper, 2003).

The teachers described in the literature as successful may not incorporate all of

these elements at all times. These broad categories, however, provide a foundation for

examining effective practice and offer some insight into effective pedagogy for African

American students. The research across grade levels and across disciplines that helped to

generate this list often inadvertently overlooks some of the nuances unique to the

secondary English classroom and what effective English teachers, in particular, do to

facilitate academic gains among Black students. Current research focused specifically on

secondary English teachers offers more depth into beliefs and practices particularly

effective in English classrooms, but it typically omits the kind of detail necessary for

teacher educators to provide prospective teachers with an accurate description of the daily

practices of effective teachers and how their beliefs influence these practices. In addition,

current research on effective teachers of Black students also generally fails to include

students in the process of selecting teachers. Wilson and Corbett (2001) explained that

research in the area of school reform often includes the voices of students (Oldfather,

1993; Poplin & Weeres, 1992; Wasley, Hampel, & Clark, 1997; Wilson & Corbett,

2001), and this research supports the value of student voice. Students' perceptions of

their educational experiences documented in research on school reform provided

meaningful data, and their perceptions of good secondary English teachers also provided

important insight into this study of effective teachers.









This study sought to document the beliefs and practices of effective teachers of

Black students in order to examine their beliefs about teaching and how their beliefs

influenced their practice. English is a "gate-keeping" subject and all of the academic

content areas rely on skills developed in language arts, such as reading and writing skills,

so this study focused on English classrooms. It attempted to explore the practices and

beliefs of teachers who facilitated significant academic growth among African American

students, recognizing the limitations of a small-scale study. This study also examined any

connections, or lack thereof, between these teachers' practices and those identified in

current research as practices exhibited by effective teachers of Black students. This thick

description of the practices and beliefs of two exemplary secondary English teachers, as

determined by students and principals, while not broadly generalizable, adds valuable

information to the current discussion of teacher preparation, effective pedagogy, and

academic achievement among Black students. Documenting the "wisdom of practice" of

these teachers provides depth to current literature on effective pedagogy and teacher

preparation (Ladson-Billings, 1994, p. 154).

Definitions of Key Terms

The written presentation of the dissertation assumed the following definitions of

key terms.

Effective Practice

Effective practice has been described as classroom behaviors of teachers that

facilitate both effort and excellence among students by providing adequate support and

encouragement (Corbett et al., 2002). In addition, effective practice among Black

students has been defined as culturally relevant pedagogy which, "is able to promote

academic achievement without sacrificing an African and African American identity"









(Cooper, 2000, p. 32). Ladson-Billings (1994) further explained that culturally relevant

pedagogy is, "a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally,

and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes" (p.

18). Without being labeled as culturally relevant pedagogy, effective practice also has

been described as classroom behaviors of teachers that lead to academic growth by

demonstrating high expectations of all students, strong content knowledge and content

specific pedagogical skills, unconditional academic support, and personal relationships

with students inside and outside of the classroom (Foster, 1991). For the purpose of this

study, effective teachers were defined as those who facilitated strong academic gains

among African American students.

Predominantly African American

Predominantly African American in this study refers to schools in which African

American students make up more than 75% of the total student population.

Teacher Beliefs

Teachers' beliefs can be defined as the "implicit assumptions held about students,

classrooms, and the curriculum" (Rios, 1996, p. 263). These assumptions, mediated by

the sociocultural contexts of the school, the students, and the teacher, determine a

teacher's classroom behaviors and interaction with students (Rios, 1996). Teachers'

beliefs also are the best indication of their future decision-making in the classroom

(Kagan, 1992; Pajares, 1992).

Organization of Study

The written presentation of the dissertation includes one chapter for the

introduction, one chapter for the literature review, one chapter for methods, one chapter









for each of the two teachers, one chapter for a cross-case comparison of strategies that

facilitate engagement, and one chapter for cross-case analysis and implications.














CHAPTER 2
DISCUSSION OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

A survey of literature related to beliefs and practices of effective teachers of Black

students must begin with an overview of current research on teacher beliefs and practices.

The chapter then includes a discussion of current research on the beliefs and practices of

effective teachers of Black students, including research that focuses specifically on the

English classroom. Considering that much of the literature on effective teachers of Black

students uses terms like "urban," "high poverty," "at-risk," "diverse," and "minority" to

refer to teaching African American students, the discussion includes such studies that

identify the student population by any of these or similar terms.

Teacher Beliefs and Practices

Rios (1996) and others (Clark & Peterson, 1986; Gillete, 1996; Kagan, 1992;

Pajares, 1992) found that teachers' behaviors toward their students were "in large part a

product of the theories [they] hold of students generally and the theories [they] hold of

each specific student" (p.133). Teachers' theories, or negotiated interpretations, and

beliefs, therefore, determined the quality and quantity of teacher-student interactions.

Although researchers have found that teachers treat students of color differently, and

often in negative ways, generally they rarely incorporate the idea of race and culture in

current research on the beliefs of practicing teachers (Clark & Peterson, 1986; Gillette,

1996; McAllister, 1999; Rios, 1996).









The literature has suggested that teachers' beliefs are the best indication of their

future decision-making in the classroom (Kagan, 1992; Pajares, 1992). In fact, when

teachers reach a point where nothing works, they typically turn to their beliefs to address

the particular situation. Although research has shown that teachers' beliefs are difficult to

change, there is research to document that change is possible under certain conditions.

Pajares (1992) explained that these conditions included a conflict with existing beliefs, an

awareness that the conflict should be reconciled, a desire to reconcile the conflict, and

attempts to bring the conflicting information together must not have worked. Other

researchers (Cook & Van Cleaf, 2000; Grisham, Berg, Jacobs, & Mathison, 2002;

McAllister & Irvine, 2002) found that both preservice and inservice training that included

experiences in urban schools or schools with a high minority population had a positive

impact on the existing beliefs of teachers. Current research focused on the effects of

preservice and inservice interventions on teachers' beliefs (Byrnes, Kiger, & Manning,

1997; Cook & Van Cleaf, 2000; Grisham et al., 2002; McAllister & Irvine, 2002),

however, generally has made no comparison to actual practice (Artiles, 1996; Dilworth,

1998; McAllister, 1999).

Grisham et al. (2002), for example, found teachers' beliefs to be malleable when

they participated in preservice experiences that took place in a professional development

school. In their study of the impact of a professional development school, researchers

administered written surveys and conducted focus groups with 38 teachers who taught in

one of three professional development schools. Based on school climate and interview

data, they found that graduates of the Model Education Center (MEC), which was

designed "to promote the core beliefs of collaboration, reflective thinking, risk taking,









and continuous learning" (p. 21), did have a positive effect on teachers' beliefs and

practices. All of the focal teachers not only worked in professional development schools

as preservice teachers, but also they continued to work in professional development

schools as practicing teachers.

In a study on preservice and novice teachers' perceptions of cultural diversity,

Cook and Van Cleaf (2000) also examined the effects of preservice experiences.

Specifically, they studied how student-teaching experiences in Comer schools, which

tend to have a high minority population from low-income families, affected the first year

of teaching. The researchers sent questionnaires to 79 first-year elementary school

teachers in order to determine to what degree urban Comer schools contributed to their

preparation. After they received responses from 59 practicing teachers, they found that

students who completed their student-teaching in urban, Comer and non-Comer, schools

felt a greater understanding of the sociocultural needs of students. There was no

significant difference between those students placed in Comer and non-Comer schools.

The survey relied solely on self-report from the first-year teachers.

Byrnes et al. (1997) found that experience, coupled with appropriate academic

resources and training like those offered in graduate programs, led to positive attitudes

about language. In their study of teachers' attitudes about language diversity, researchers

administered the Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS) to 191 teachers from

Arizona, Utah, and Virginia who were taking courses in teacher education. According to

their findings, specific training in teaching students with limited English proficiency

provided teachers with the tools to teach effectively and led to more positive beliefs about









language diversity. They also found that going beyond isolated training and actually

attaining a graduate degree was associated with more positive beliefs among teachers.

McAllister and Irvine (2002) also concluded that formal training had a positive

impact on teachers' beliefs. In their study of the role of empathy in teaching students

from culturally diverse backgrounds, they examined several documents submitted by 34

practicing teachers who were enrolled in the CULTURES program, a professional

development program designed to encourage culturally relevant pedagogy. The sources

of data included each teacher's application to the program, each teacher's final project,

exit interviews, and the CULTURES report. Researchers used QSR NUDIST software to

organize the data, and they noted that the teachers who participated in the program

showed an increased level of empathy as demonstrated in the data, which was primarily

self-reported by the teachers. The researchers acknowledged that, while the teachers did

find the professional development useful in facilitating more positive beliefs about

cultural diversity, the teachers in the study may have previously held "a predisposition to

cross-cultural empathy" (p. 442). Further, the study did not include data about teachers'

beliefs prior to the intervention.

Like research on preservice and inservice training designed to facilitate positive

beliefs about diversity, research that documents existing beliefs of preservice and

practicing teachers generally has made minimal connections to actual practice. Freeman,

Brookhart, and Loadman (1999) discovered that novice teachers felt it was more difficult

to establish relationships with students in schools characterized by diversity. The teachers

who worked in high diversity schools also reported lower levels of job satisfaction.

Relying on questionnaires to determine teachers' perceptions, researchers surveyed









between 1,400 and 1,700 teacher education graduates from 10 different teacher

preparation programs using the National Follow-Up Survey of Teacher Education

Program Graduates. While providing useful information about the beliefs of beginning

teachers, the study did not provide insight into how these beliefs developed, what they

looked like in the classroom, or at what grade level these teachers taught. In a similar

study, Marshall (1996) surveyed 206 preservice and practicing teachers across grade

levels and content areas to understand their concerns about teaching students who were

culturally different. Based on the results of the survey, both preservice and practicing

teachers expressed greater concerns about teaching students who were culturally different

than about teaching White students, but no data were provided about their teaching

practices.

Four qualitative studies focused on teacher beliefs and practices across grade levels

and content areas, paying particular attention to issues of diversity. In one study, for

example, Hulsebosch and Koerner (1993) compiled case studies of six self-proclaimed,

culturally-aware teachers who identified themselves as Hispanic, Italian, Filipino-Irish-

Dutch-German-Cherokee-American, Euro-American, Black, and Chicano. The focal

teachers met for two years to discuss the implications of their past lives, their connections

to each other as culturally-aware teachers, and their connections with other teachers. The

teachers, then, provided autobiographical sketches that served as the data for the study.

These teachers believed in the importance of maintaining and expressing their own

cultural identities in their classrooms in order to create an environment in which students

felt comfortable to express their own cultural identities. Although the researchers stated









that they collected some classroom data, none were presented in the study that described

the classroom behaviors and practices of the focal teachers.

Through the use of extensive interviews, Ayers and Schubert (1994) documented

the art and wisdom of teachers considered by colleagues, students, or supervisors to be

outstanding. While no attempt was made to define the term "outstanding," the researchers

developed a list of emerging themes about effective teachers from questions that asked

about assumptions, beliefs, approaches, strategies, experience, and wisdom. The list

included the following themes:

* Effective teachers exhibit a deep sense of responsibility for student learning and
motivation.

* Effective teachers demonstrate high expectations for students and themselves.

* Effective teachers blame self if students fail or are unmotivated.

* Effective teachers maintain an academic task orientation.

* Effective teachers demonstrate a desire to create a warm, supportive environment.

* Effective teachers exhibit excitement that spurs student excitement about learning.

* Effective teachers show an eagerness to learn from any resource available.

* Effective teachers demonstrate wariness of the value of theory.

* Effective teachers feel dissatisfied with teacher education courses.

* Effective teachers believe in the importance of student interest as a basis for
teaching and learning. (pp. 109-110)

Sleeter (1992) conducted an ethnographic study of 30 teachers enrolled in

multicultural education training over the course of two years. This study focused on a

much longer in-service training with practicing teachers. In the study, she looked at the

impact of the training on teachers' beliefs and practices. At the end of two years, Sleeter

found that, although the teachers reported the training was beneficial and provided good









information, they included multicultural education in their teaching on only a limited

basis.

Unlike Sleeter, Dyson (1995) did not focus on an intervention tied to a structured

program. Instead, she invited 12 elementary school teachers, chosen by the school

district's director of staff development, to participate in weekly "teas" to discuss issues

related to diversity, literacy, and teaching in an urban environment. Dyson supplemented

the data gathered during these sessions with periodic classroom observations of the focal

teachers. From her conversations with the teachers, Dyson found that the teachers were

able to meet the needs of children more effectively when collegial relationships existed.

She also discovered that the success of using cultural differences as a resource in a school

depended on all staff members knowing what others were doing. These teachers, Dyson

noted, thought of their classrooms as "homes" and "families" and believed teacher

agency was linked to child agency They, therefore, sought students' feedback when

there were difficulties in the classroom.

Beliefs and Practices of Effective Teachers of Black Students

Boykin et al. (2005) suggested that, in order for instruction to be most effective for

Black students, it needed to reflect students' culture in the way concepts were defined

and presented, in the way knowledge was gained and demonstrated, and in the

environment in which learning occurred. Thompson (2004) further noted that effective

instruction of students of color demonstrated a belief that all students can and want to

learn, that students bring a wealth of cultural capital to the classroom, and that teachers

must do whatever it takes to facilitate academic growth. Researchers (Gay, 2000; Ladson-

Billings, 1994) also have found that successful teachers use students' cultural

backgrounds to empower them in their academic lives and in their personal lives. They









also gave them the opportunity to build new knowledge by applying and extending their

own constructed knowledge.

Culturally relevant pedagogy in particular seeks to bring together what research has

learned about effective instruction for Black students and specifically attempts to foster

an environment where language and cultural differences serve as strengths to which

students can link new knowledge (Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994). Not a set of

prescribed strategies, culturally relevant pedagogy deals with how teachers see

themselves and their students and how they continually help students to make

community, cultural, and global connections (Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994).

Whether called equity pedagogy, culturally relevant teaching, culturally responsive

pedagogy, or simply effective instruction for African American students, this philosophy

has been observed to some degree in many classrooms of successful teachers of Black

students documented in current research.

Twelve studies describing the beliefs and/or practices of exemplary teachers of

Black students were found, and they all identified at least some beliefs and strategies that

were consistent with culturally relevant pedagogy, whether or not they were identified as

such. All 12 studies primarily employed qualitative methodology. Foster (1993), for

example, conducted case studies on 18 exemplary African American teachers of African

American students to understand their philosophies of education. One teacher taught at

the community college level while the others taught in elementary through high school,

and all teachers were selected by community nomination. With a range of 17-66 years of

experience, these teachers participated in extensive life and career history interviews that

addressed their backgrounds, their thoughts and beliefs about teaching and learning, and









their teaching experiences. All of the teachers agreed that, while desegregation brought

substantial material improvements to the education of Black students, it came with

serious consequences, such as tracking and low expectations, that limited students' access

to an equitable education.

Howard (2001) sought to understand the practices of successful teachers of Black

students, focusing specifically on the extent to which these teachers used culturally

relevant pedagogy. Four parents, six principals, five teachers, three district

administrators, and three community leaders were asked to select elementary teachers

they believed facilitated academic and social development among Black students. The

four Black women chosen from the initial list of 12 teachers were selected after

classroom observations suggested that they implemented at least 15 of 20 practices that

Howard identified as consistent with culturally responsive pedagogy. All of the focal

teachers taught in predominantly Black schools in both lower and middle class settings.

Howard observed these exemplary teachers over four months and conducted three formal

interviews in order to capture their daily instructional practices and understand if and

how their practices related to the tenets of culturally relevant teaching as he described

them. Using a grounded theory approach to analyze the data, he found their practices did

in fact reflect culturally relevant pedagogy and, specifically, they centered on the

following pedagogical themes: "holistic instructional strategies" which referred to a focus

on both academic and social/emotional development, "culturally consistent

communicative competence" which referred to the understanding and use of language

patterns students used in their homes, and "skill-building strategies to promote academic









success" which referred to a focus on helping students to develop skills necessary for

academic achievement, such as encouraging students to take risks and work hard (p. 179).

Cooper (2003) also looked at effective teaching of Black children, but concentrated

on the practices of White teachers. Like other researchers, she used community

nomination to select three White elementary school teachers who "key members of the

Black community in which they teach" found to be effective (p. 413). Over 20 weeks,

Cooper conducted weekly classroom observations preceded and followed by structured

interviews. Based on her findings, teacher beliefs fell into two categories: "operational

beliefs and practices" and "conceptual beliefs and practices" (p. 419), and these beliefs

were generally consistent with the literature on effective Black teachers of Black

children. A major difference, however, occurred in the area of addressing racism. The

literature suggested that, even with young children, effective Black teachers dealt with

issues of racism explicitly and openly, but the White teachers in this study avoided

discussions of race and racism. Cooper noted that avoiding such discussions "undermined

the teachers' espoused beliefs and practices around respect for and empathy with the

Black community at large, including a willingness to learn from it" (p. 425).

In their study of urban teachers' assumptions about low-income students, Corbett,

Wilson, and Williams (2002) interviewed 125 elementary and secondary teachers to

understand how they defined the statement "all children can learn and succeed" (p. 7).

Researchers provided a snapshot into the classrooms of four teachers who interpreted the

statement as a personal call to action to do whatever it took to ensure their students

learned. Calling it an "It's my job" / "No excuses" philosophy, Corbett et al. emphasized

that it was not particular instructional strategies that set these teachers apart, but it was









the belief that it was their responsibility to create conditions in which students could and

would succeed academically. These "supportive actions" included the following

strategies (pp. 134-144):

* Insisting that students complete every assignment
* Expecting students to do high quality work
* Checking for all students' understanding
* Providing extra help

In her study of exemplary teachers of African American children, Ladson-Billings

(1995) focused on the beliefs and practices of eight African American elementary school

teachers in a low-income school district in Northern California. Using community

nomination to select the teachers, Ladson-Billings conducted interviews, classroom

observations, and collaborative discussions and found that all of the focal teachers held

high expectations for their students and would not allow them to fail. The teachers also

chose to be a part of the communities they served and maintained relationships of mutual

respect with the students. In these classrooms, students learned from each other as well as

the teacher and demonstrated their understanding through a variety of assessment

strategies.

In an earlier study, Ladson-Billings (1994) examined the teaching practices of four

teachers, three of whom practiced culturally relevant teaching and one who did not. All of

the teachers who integrated culturally relevant teaching into their classroom had several

years of teaching experience, and the one who did not was a student-teacher. Ladson-

Billings took field notes during scheduled, weekly observations, examined student

records, and interviewed teachers to understand their perspectives on teaching. After

observing the teachers and discussing her findings with them, Ladson-Billings developed

several overarching tenets of culturally relevant teaching (pp. 117-125):









* Teachers interact with students as if they are competent.
* Teachers integrate students' lives and experiences into the curriculum.
* Teachers maintain an instructional focus in the classroom.
* Teachers make instructional decisions based on students' mastery level.
* Teachers demonstrate a strong knowledge of students and subject matter.

Wilson and Corbett (2001) took a slightly different approach from other researchers

and interviewed students to understand their classroom experiences and what they said

about school. According to the authors, if comprehensive school reform actually occurred

in schools, then students' descriptions of classroom activities would demonstrate

substantial change. Wilson and Corbett attempted to include students who represented the

diversity of the school population, which included attention to instructional experience,

academic performance, behavior, motivation, gender, and race. After beginning with 247

sixth-graders at the beginning of the three-year study, the authors drew from interviews

with 153 middle school students who remained in the study for its duration. Each student

participated in three 30- to 45-minute interviews that took place during the spring of their

sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. They also interviewed 114 eight-graders during

the first year of the study in order to remedy the influence of changes noted because of

"adolescent maturation and development" and not actual changes in the school (p. 11).

For the initial interview protocol development, the researchers involved both the school

staff and staff from the funding agency, the Philadelphia Education Fund (PEF).

Subsequent protocols were derived from issues that emerged from the previous year's

interviews. The researchers relied solely on interviews to collect data, and they used

"verbatim field notes" to record interviews. To analyze the abundance of data,

researchers wrote descriptive memos as they read their field notes and noted emerging









themes to establish categories. After analyzing the data, they found similarities in the

kinds of teachers wanted by students:

* The teacher 'stayed on students' to complete assignments.
* The teacher was able to control student behavior without ignoring the lesson.
* The teacher went out of his or her way to provide help.
* The teacher explained things until the 'light bulb went on' for the whole class.
* The teacher provided students with a variety of activities through which to learn.
* The teacher understood students' situations and factored that into their lessons.
(p. 64)

The authors interpreted these findings to mean that students believed effective teachers

demonstrated a "no excuses policy" that included both high expectations and a high level

of support to meet those expectations (p. 64).

Black Students and Effective High School Teachers

Five of the 12 studies describing the beliefs and/or practices of exemplary teachers

of Black students were focused on the secondary level. Focusing on the secondary level

because it is "a level where teaching in urban areas is often most problematic" (p. 275),

Foster (1991) described the life experiences and practices of five, African American

urban high school teachers in various content areas. Each of these teachers was chosen by

community nomination as an exemplary teacher of African American children.

Specifically, Foster consulted Black newspapers, churches, organizations, and other

individuals in the community to identify exemplary teachers. For two years, data were

collected through life history interviews that lasted for two to four hours, limited

classroom observations when possible, and archival data, such as newspapers, yearbooks,

lesson plans, and other documents. Using a qualitative software program, Foster coded

the data and allowed the following themes to emerge: community and school context;

family, childhood, and community experiences; schooling experiences; and









connectedness to family and community. Foster found that, in addition to knowing their

subject area well, all of the focal teachers held high expectations for their students and

provided unlimited support for them to reach those expectations. They also maintained

relationships with students outside of the classroom and demonstrated an abundance of

knowledge of the communities they served. Further, they characterized themselves as

"serious, tough, and hard" and encouraged parents to play an active role in the school.

Black Students and Effective English Teachers

Four studies focused specifically on the perceptions, beliefs, and practices of

English teachers related to issues of literacy and diversity. Brookhart and Rusnak (1993)

used structured interviews to learn from exemplary secondary urban teachers. After

selecting six White teachers and two Black teachers from the 12 nominated by the

Pittsburgh English Division Director, researchers conducted one interview with each

teacher that lasted from 30 to 60 minutes. The audiotaped interviews focused on one

recent, successful lesson from each of the teachers and took place in the teachers' schools

at a time that was convenient for the teacher. After coding the data twice to determine

appropriate categories, the researchers analyzed the data to identify emerging themes

using a constant comparative method. They found that each of the teachers described

"student-centered lessons, explicit connections between the lesson content and students'

lives, giving and receiving feedback, especially about revision of student writing, an

atmosphere of mutual respect among students and the teacher, an emphasis on modeling,

teacher enthusiasm, explicit and broad academic goals, higher order thinking, and a sense

of the importance of content" (p. 25). While these teaching practices and beliefs were not

supported with actual classroom observations, they were consistent with research on

exemplary teachers of Black students and with the tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy.









Key (1999) conducted formal and informal interviews and classroom observations

with four high-school English teachers for four months to understand how teachers used

their time to address the issue of literacy and how they interacted with students with

different language and cultural backgrounds. She also performed document analysis and

acted as a participant observer, but these processes were not described in the study. While

the researcher did not describe the teacher selection process, she did identify the

following research questions: (a) how do teachers utilize their instructional time to meet

the literacy needs of their students in the English classroom, (b) what goals and

expectations did the teachers have concerning academic achievement and/or literacy

learning for their students, and (c) what did the teachers feel would enhance their

teaching and students' learning by way of additional training or professional

development. In response to her research questions, Key found "a 'cookie cutter' type of

instructional strategy designed to meet the needs of the testing procedures" (p. 13) and

most of the instructional time was devoted to literature instruction.

Key also noted that, while educational goals were much clearer in their honors

classes than in their regular classes, the teachers were concerned with the Alabama Exit

Exam and ACT in all of their classes. Although the teachers could articulate the

importance of teaching other things, they all spent the majority of their time focusing on

developing skills that would be assessed on the exams. All of the teachers also agreed

that current professional development was not strong, and they wanted to learn effective

strategies for teaching their Spanish-speaking students. The data supported the need for

help with students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Key, for example, found that

teachers did not give much attention to students' diverse learning styles, abilities, cultural









backgrounds, or interests. They also had great difficulty communicating with Spanish-

speaking students and demonstrated low expectations for these students. Teachers

explained they lacked the time to teach these students effectively.

As part of a larger five-year study, the Excellence in English project (EIE) directed

by Langer, that examined the classrooms of 88 teachers in 25 schools, Ostrowski (2002)

investigated four English teachers in two secondary schools in an urban district to

examine how they understood effective practice in the English classroom. Conducting

one classroom observation during each of the two years of the study, Ostrowski found

several commonalities among the teachers. All of these teachers worked in schools that

researchers chose because they were "beating the odds" according to test scores and

recommendations from state education departments, the National Council of Teachers of

English, and other local, state, and national educational organizations (p. 67). William H.

Turner Technical Arts High School, for example, was located in a community surrounded

by severe socioeconomic depression, but the researcher found that all staff members were

focused on academic success for all students. At the high school, not only were test

scores and graduation rates high, but also the building was beautifully kept and the

interaction between students and staff was meaningful. The middle school, Highland

Oaks, also boasted of being an engaging learning environment that fostered meaningful

relationships between students and staff. Serving a student population from more diverse

racial and socioeconomic backgrounds, Highland Oaks Middle School enrolled many

students from less privileged circumstances. Two of the teachers taught at Turner Tech

and two at Highland Oaks and were selected not only because they taught in a school in









which their students "beat the odds," but also because they agreed to participate in the

study for two years.

Ostrowski found these exceptionally effective teachers were not atypical in their

schools. In fact, "their school and/or district (often both) encouraged all teachers, not just

those in our study, to achieve comparable profession goals" and researchers found "the

instructional approaches of the teachers in our study were widely accepted and carried

out in their schools" (p. 11). First, they all implemented strategies they learned from

professional development opportunities. The Miami-Dade County District Language Arts

Department offered many workshops throughout the year, including an intensive writing

institute for two weeks during the summer break. Teachers identified several strategies

that they attributed to professional development workshops sponsored by the District that

included: analysis of scoring rubrics used by the statewide writing exam, graphic

organizers, modeling of poetry writing, literature circles, jigsawing, and reciprocal

teaching (p. 73). A second commonality among the four teachers was the fact that they all

were highly involved in their schools and worked closely with other effective teachers.

Specifically, each of the teachers identified other teachers within their schools with

whom they shared lesson plans and test ideas and even with whom they commiserated.

The teachers at Turner Tech participated in Critical Friends Groups that met regularly

throughout the month to address various educational issues. A third commonality

identified by Ostrowski dealt with the influence effective teachers had on each other. The

researcher noticed that, when the focal teachers attended the same NCTE and District

workshops, they found each other and immediately shared teaching ideas they found to

be effective. A fourth commonality among the focal teachers involved classroom









dynamics and intimacy. They all maintained quality relationships with their students that

included being well-liked, trusted, and respected by students, using reader-response

techniques that encouraged students to connect their personal lives to literature, wasting

little time during class sessions, and holding high expectations for students' academic

performance.

In his study of literary encounters in two English classes in two different urban

high schools, Athanases (1998) conducted classroom observations, student surveys and

interviews, teacher interviews, and interviews with parents and other school personnel to

understand students' reactions to culturally responsive instruction. The two teachers

selected for the study were identified through a nomination process that included

nominations from teacher leaders and instructors at the local Writing Project and state

Literature Project, instructors and supervisors from a teacher education program, the

district's Director of Curriculum and Instruction, English department chairs and

members, directors of Poets and Artists in the Schools, and language and literacy

researchers. After conducting classroom observations and interviews with 10 of the 30

teachers named through the nomination process, Athanases selected two teachers who fit

his stated criteria that included the following: (a) urban setting, (b) multiethnic student

population, (c) public school, (d) ninth or tenth grade English class, (e) academically

heterogeneous, (f) typical class size for California schools, (g) focus on cultural diversity,

(h) reputation for strong literature instruction, (i) facilitated classroom discussion, (j)

valued student response, (k) reflective practitioner, and (1) expressed interest in research

and inquiry (p. 270).









For the actual study, Athanases took field notes during two weekly classroom

observations during one school year, recorded 30 class discussions, and conducted over

60 interviews with teachers, focal students, parents, and other school personnel. He also

recorded some small-group discussions and collected student surveys and writing

samples. After two years, he went back and captured retrospective data from students. In

his analysis of data, Athanases coded data and identified emerging themes that he verified

with both participants and outsiders of the study. According to his findings, teachers

valued student interpretations and incorporated a great deal of class discussion to

"support exploratory thinking" (p. 277). From the teachers, Athanases found the use of a

variety of multicultural literature, the encouragement of diverse perspectives, and the

exploration of students' personal and cultural knowledge in relation to literature. From

the students, he found they linked the literature to their own lived experiences, they

reconsidered how they thought about culture and diversity, and some of them resisted

engaging in difficult conversations about race. When the researcher went back to collect

retrospective data from students, he found they not only valued the text selections made

by their teachers, but also they remembered actual moments from class discussions that

helped them to connect literature to their lived experiences outside of school.

Current research on secondary English teachers offers some insight into effective

practice in classrooms populated primarily by students of color. Based on previous

findings, we know the following about effective English teachers (Athanases, 1998;

Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Key, 1999; Ostrowski, 2002):

* Instruction is student-centered with explicit connections to students' lives and
students' perspectives.
* Teachers provide specific feedback to students about their work in order to support
their academic development.









* Teachers and students share a mutual respect for each other.
* Teachers demonstrate an excitement and enthusiasm for their content.
* Teachers seek professional development opportunities and value continuous
learning and development of pedagogical skills.

Current research provides an adequate framework for effective English instruction

among students of color, but it typically does not include student voice in identifying

good teachers and it rarely provides detailed descriptions of the beliefs and daily

practices of effective teachers of African American students. While beliefs and practices

invariably will be different from teacher to teacher, there still may be some

commonalities within the individual classrooms of effective teachers of Black students.

By offering a comprehensive snapshot of the classrooms of two English teachers who

have been identified as effective in predominantly Black schools, the present study gives

practicing teachers, teacher educators, and preservice teachers the opportunity to learn

from the experiences of the kinds of teachers they may not see during student teaching

experiences. Such rich description provides the kind of teacher preparation that is missing

from most teacher education programs simply because current research typically does not

include more than generalizations about the practices and beliefs of effective teachers of

students of color. It also generally does not value the contribution of students in the

selection process. The present study's focus on the classrooms of teachers determined to

be effective by students and administrators, therefore, paints a more complete picture of

what happens from day to day in the classrooms of effective English teachers and how

their beliefs influence their practices.

Conclusion

A review of current studies related to teachers' beliefs and practices justifies the

need for continued interpretive research on effective teachers of Black students. Current









research, often in the form of quantitative inquiry, rarely examines the connections

between teachers' attitudes and beliefs and their instructional practices when teaching

diverse groups of students. Focusing on both preservice and practicing teachers,

researchers have used quantitative surveys to understand teachers' beliefs and attitudes,

but these studies rarely attempt to document the beliefs and attitudes of teachers

identified as effective.

Researchers also have used both quantitative and qualitative methods to examine

the impact of coursework and workshops and to describe the practices of teachers who

are particularly effective with students from various cultural backgrounds. These studies,

however, often provide only generalizations of effective practices. Researchers in nine of

the reviewed studies chose to examine teacher beliefs and practices across grade level

and content areas in relation to issues of cultural diversity. These studies documented the

teachers' decision-making processes, attitudes, and practices. Of the four quantitative

studies, all relied on teacher self-report and did not include classroom observations or

interviews with teachers to understand further how these beliefs were manifested in the

classroom. Further, none of the quantitative studies sought to examine the beliefs and

practices of effective teachers.

Regardless of level taught, the literature suggests the following strategies are used

by effective teachers of students of color: (a) hold high expectations for all students, (b)

focus on academics, (c) care about and incorporate students' lives and cultural

backgrounds into instruction, (d) know and stay involved in the communities in which

students live, and (e) hold high expectations for themselves as teachers (Ayers & Shubert,

1994; Bowers, 2000; Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Brown, 2003; Foster, 1991; Gay, 2000;









Howard, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ostrowski, 2002; Thompson, 2004). In addition,

at the high school level, effective teachers: (a) know their subject matter well, (b)

characterize themselves as hard but fair, (c) focus on both academic and social/emotional

development of students, and (d) more than simply holding high expectations for their

students, they do whatever it takes to ensure students' academic success (Foster, 1991;

Howard, 2001; Wilson & Corbett, 2001). In the English classroom, in particular,

effective teachers: (a) engage in instruction that is student-centered with explicit

connections to students' lives and students' perspectives, (b) provide specific feedback to

students about their work in order to support their academic development, (c) share a

mutual respect with students, (d) demonstrate an excitement and enthusiasm for their

content, and (e) seek professional development opportunities and value continuous

learning and development of pedagogical skills (Ostrowski, 2002).

Much of the current research, however, either relies heavily on self-report of beliefs

and practices or other data that does not include detailed snapshots of classroom practice.

Current research also rarely includes detailed descriptions of the instructional day and

complementary interviews to begin to understand what happens in the classrooms of

successful secondary English teachers of African American students and how their

beliefs influence their practices. This project, therefore, describes the classroom

behaviors and practices of two secondary English teachers whom school administrators

and students identified as effective teachers of Black students. Although the sample size

limits the generalizability of the findings of this study, the project begins to fill the void

in the research and open the door for more studies that provide detailed descriptions of









the beliefs and practices of effective high school English teachers, as determined by

students and administrators, who facilitate academic gains among Black students.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

I was overwhelmed by how carefully the teachers thought out their practices and
how cogently they talked about them. I was disappointed how little of their
'wisdom of practice' has found its way into teacher preparation literature...
Therefore, it is more important than ever to capture this practice in order to build a
knowledge base of effective pedagogical practice for African American students.
(Ladson-Billings, 1994, p. 154)

Overview

The purpose of this study was to document the beliefs and practices of successful

teachers of African American students. Through extended classroom observations,

interviews, and the collection and examination of artifacts, I attempted to provide a

snapshot of the classrooms of two high-school English teachers who facilitated academic

gains among Black students in an urban school district. Following the example of

research on school reform, I incorporated student voice, in addition to the insight offered

by school administrators, in the nomination process. Researchers (Nieto, 2000; Poplin &

Weeres, 1992; Wilson & Corbett, 2001) have found that students provide valuable insight

into various topics relevant to school reform such as, "relationships, race/culture/class,

values, teaching and learning, safety, and the physical environment" (Wilson & Corbett,

2001, p. 9). This study, therefore, sought to select teachers more credibly by including the

voices of students who know their practices better than any other source.

According to Hatch (2002), this kind of qualitative study must take place within a

natural setting, incorporate participant perspectives, utilize the researcher as the primary

data gathering instrument, and include extended observation. The researcher, therefore,









along with the participants, co-constructed meaning, inferences, and conclusions from the

beliefs and practices of the two individual teachers. Documenting the "wisdom of

practice" of these teachers provided enough detail to accurately represent their voices and

perspectives within this particular context and informs both the literature on teacher

preparation and the literature on professional development. The following research

questions guided this study:

* What are the beliefs and practices of two English teachers considered to be
effective in their predominantly Black high schools?
* What are the connections between their beliefs and practices?
* What are the similarities and differences between the two teachers?

Introduction

Rationale

The purpose of the present study was to document the beliefs and practices of

successful teachers of Black students in order to examine what they believed about

teaching, how their beliefs influenced their practice, and how the teachers were similar

and different in their perspectives and practices. Such an examination begins to fill a void

in the research that, currently, does not include student voice in the selection process and

provides little documentation of the daily practices of teachers who facilitate academic

gains among Black students, particularly those in urban high schools. Further, the

research rarely seeks to capture the connections between beliefs and practices in the

secondary English classroom. The literature, instead, tends to focus on either beliefs or

practices and typically does not focus on one particular subject area or engage students in

the selection process. In addition, it usually provides an overview of classroom practices

instead of offering detailed descriptions that could be used by teachers and teacher

educators as tools for improving practice. The present study provides a snapshot of









teaching practices in the classrooms of two high school English teachers who teach in

predominantly Black, urban schools. The study also examines the connection between

these practices and the teachers' beliefs. These data offer rich, descriptive details that

create a snapshot of this moment in time in these classrooms of effective teachers.

Research Orientation

Case study research. A case study examines a single entity, such as an individual

or a classroom, within a particular context (Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Yin, 2003). The

focus on an individual or a classroom allows the researcher to create a vivid picture of the

phenomenon. Case studies provide insight into processes that large studies fail to see.

Their careful and comprehensive description helps educators and researchers to see what

actually happens in individual classrooms. Such information can inform the development

of theory. Howard (2001), for example, used case studies to understand the extent to

which four African American secondary teachers implemented culturally relevant

pedagogy in various content areas. Athaneses (1998) also used case studies to examine

students' reactions to culturally responsive pedagogy in two secondary English

classrooms.

Interpretive case study. According to Merriam (1998), interpretive research

considers education and schooling to be a dynamic process instead of a static entity.

Therefore, an interpretive study seeks to gain understanding from an "inductive,

hypothesis- or theory-generating (rather than a deductive or testing) mode of inquiry" (p.

4). As an interpretive investigation, therefore, the present study attempted to understand

the process by which teachers made sense of their own practice and related this

understanding to their beliefs, particularly as they related to teaching Black students. The

interpretive approach to research, according to Rios (1996), "is emic as it searches for the









meanings constructed by participants as they seek to make sense of what they encounter

in classrooms... The result, for the interpretivist researcher, is not to search for answers

but rather to search for a source of criticism and generate new questions" (p. 11).

Like the studies of Howard and Athaneses, the present study used interpretive case

studies to examine closely teachers' beliefs and practices in order to add depth to the

literature on effective pedagogy and the academic achievement of Black students. Each

investigation of the individual teachers was presented as a single case study. The

investigation attempted to provide greater understanding of effective teaching of Black

students by compiling two case studies that examined the beliefs and practices of

individual teachers in different classroom settings, so it is best described as a collective

case study (Kozol, 1991; Stake, 1994). Yin (2003) asserted that multiple case studies are

preferable to single case studies for several reasons that include adding to generalizability

because the contexts of the cases are likely to differ. Further, the findings that arise will

have greater impact coming from more than one case. In a collective case study, analysis

is derived from each case individually and across cases (Merriam, 1998; Yin, 2003).

Ethnographic techniques. Drawing from ethnographic techniques of research

allows researchers to see what actually happens in classrooms. Full ethnography requires

extended participant observation (Marshall & Rossman, 1995) that is nearly impossible

for classroom research. Therefore, education researchers use some of the techniques of

ethnography in order to capture classroom activities. Some of these techniques include

interviewing all participants and audiotaping and transcribing the interviews, observing

classroom instruction and student interactions, and collecting relevant artifacts, such as

teachers' lesson plans and students' papers (Marshall & Rossman, 1995). Foster (1991),









for example, collected data through interviews, observations, and the collection of

archival data to describe the life experiences and practices of African American

secondary teachers in various content areas. Further, Ladson-Billings (1995) conducted

interviews and observations in order to examine the beliefs and practices of African

American elementary school teachers. Similarly, the present study employed the

ethnographic techniques of interviews, observations, and the collection of artifacts to

understand the beliefs and practices of urban high school English teachers. Ethnographic

techniques were most appropriate to gather a significant amount of data about beliefs and

practices in order to describe accurately the daily instructional practices of two teachers

and the connections between those practices and their beliefs.

The Setting

The large school district in which the study took place was located in an

ethnically and socioeconomically diverse county just outside of a major, urban mid-

Atlantic city. The student population was just below 140,000 and was 78% African

American, 11% Hispanic, 8% White, and 3% Asian. The graduation rate was

approximately 90%. Forty-six percent of students enrolled qualified for free or reduced

lunch.

The study focused on two teachers in two of the district's most challenged high

schools, both of which served a student population that was over 95% African American.

One of the high schools, Zora Neale Hurston High School (all names of people and

places are pseudonyms), enrolled approximately 1,200 students and the other, Marian

Wright Edelman High School, enrolled approximately 1,600 students. The graduation

rate at both schools was below the district average, at approximately 80% and 40% of

students qualified for free or reduced lunch. According to state high school assessment









data, just below 40% of students in these two schools read at or above the proficiency

level.

Ms. Morrison

Ms. Morrison, a Jamaican-American woman in her late thirties, was in her eighth

year of teaching at Zora Neale Hurston High School. Prior to entering the classroom, Ms.

Morrison earned a Bachelor of Science degree in criminal justice from the local state

college. After working in juvenile justice for two years, she decided to become a teacher

and accepted a position at Hurston High School. Over the next few years, she fulfilled the

certification requirements and, at the time of the study, she was fully certified in

secondary English. During the study, she was the English department chairperson and the

yearbook and newspaper sponsor. She also taught a general-level, ninth-grade English

class and the honors-level, ninth-grade English class that participated in this study. The

honors class consisted of 14 African American boys, 10 African American girls, one

White girl, and one Latina.

Ms. Lomax

Ms. Lomax, an African American woman in her early forties, has taught English

for 19 years. She entered the classroom immediately after completing a Bachelor of Arts

degree in English from a nearby historically Black university and, early in her teaching

career, she earned a Master of Education degree in education administration from a local,

private university that established a partnership with the school district. She spent the first

half of her career in a neighboring school district and has been at Marian Wright Edelman

High School for the last nine years. Similar to Ms. Morrison, she was the English

department chairperson and the sponsor of the literary magazine. In addition to the

journalism class, she taught general-level, 1 Ith-grade English and 1 Ith-grade, advanced









placement English. The advance placement class participated in the present study and

consisted of 15 students, 11 African American girls and four African American boys.

Procedures

Identification of Participants

The selection process. The selection process began with a variation of Foster's

(1991) "community nomination." Foster, and later Ladson-Billings (1994), attempted to

gain the insiders' point of view by selecting their participants from a list of names

provided by members of the African American communities they studied. Foster solicited

names from a variety of community members and sources, such as Black newspapers,

churches, and organizations. Ladson-Billings gathered names from parents and cross-

referenced those names with school principals. Instead of involving parents, who Ladson-

Billings called "the consumers," this study treated students as the primary consumers and

asked them to identify effective teachers on a nomination form (Appendix A) that was

administered to 10th- through 12th-grade students at both high schools. Ninth graders

were not included in the nomination process, because they had not had an English teacher

for a full year of high school. This nomination form asked students to identify the best

English teacher they had encountered in high school and their criteria for judging a

teacher as good. The principals of the two high schools also were asked to complete

nomination forms (Appendix B) to identify English teachers for whom they had evidence

to support that they facilitated strong academic gains among Black students and the

criteria they used to determine their selections. The list of teachers identified by students

was cross-referenced with the lists from the principals. The two teachers who received

the highest percentage of student nominations and received nominations from the

principals were invited to participate in the present study.









Number of teachers. Two teachers were selected as participants for the present

study. Yin (2003) asserted that two to three cases would be sufficient for collective case

study. In the present study, both teachers taught secondary English at schools that served

students from similar communities. Therefore, it was predicted that, while their

individual practices and beliefs may differ in some ways, their classroom contexts could

be similar. Further, Yin noted that, in a collective case design, it was up to the discretion

of the researcher to determine the number of cases. For the present study, two cases were

the maximum number that one researcher could examine closely and effectively.

Gaining access. All researchers affiliated with the University of Florida must

secure Institutional Review Board (IRB) permission prior to conducting research that

involves human subjects. The review process began with the submission an application

that listed the following information: title of project, name of principal investigator,

supervisor, dates of proposed research, source of funding, scientific purpose of the

investigation, research methodology, potential benefits and anticipated risks, participant

recruitment and compensation, and informed consent process. Once the board reviewed

the application, they sent written notification of the decision to approve the study. The

informed consent process, in particular, ensured that participants understood clearly what

was asked of them. The informed consent (Appendix C) provided participants with a

description of the research and asked for voluntary participation in the study which

included the participant's signature.

Obtaining clearance from the school district to conduct research that did not

involve student records required permission from the school principals. Copies of the

dissertation abstract, the University of Florida IRB form and letter of approval, and the









nomination form that would be distributed to students were provided to the principals to

gain permission to conduct research in the two schools. Upon approval, both principals

requested that a summary report of findings be submitted to them at the conclusion of the

study.

Participation in this project involved no more than minimal risk to teachers. The

teachers remained anonymous and were given pseudonyms in all transcripts and reports.

Teacher knowledge of the study. Teachers were aware they had been chosen by

students and the principal as successful teachers of Black students. They also were made

aware that the purpose of the study was to document their beliefs and practices in order to

understand how to facilitate academic growth among Black students. The purpose of the

research was made clear to teachers in order to minimize any apprehension that teachers

had about their classroom practices being observed and documented. Further, it was

important to make the purpose of the research transparent to teachers in order to gain a

full understanding of their beliefs and practices. To minimize any possible resentment

toward the participants because of their recognition as exemplary teachers, they were

asked to tell those who asked about the study, including students, that it was solely an

investigation of teaching practices in secondary English classrooms. I also told students

and others who asked that I was examining teaching practices in the secondary English

classroom and in no way would I evaluate students' behavior during observations.

Data Collection

Data collection for the present study took place from April 2005 to June 2005.

Methods of data collection included the following: classroom observations, interviews,

and the collection of artifacts.









Observation. Observations were conducted in each teacher's classroom for six

weeks. Both of the high schools operated under block scheduling, so classes met for 87

minutes. Marian Wright Edelman High School held the same 87-minute classes

everyday, while Zora Neale Hurston High School held them every other day. Therefore,

over the course of six weeks, a class at Edelman High School met approximately 30 times

and, at Hurston High School, met approximately 15 times. I observed each teacher for six

weeks, or 26 class sessions at Edelman and 13 class sessions at Hurston, for a total of 39

classroom observations. The observation schedule was as follows:

Table 3-1. Schedule of observations
Week Classroom observed
1 A
2 A B
3 A B
4 A B
5 B
6 A
7 A B
8 B

During the classroom observations, I took field notes and acted as a non-participant

observer. These observations allowed me to gain a better understanding of the context

and learn more about those things teachers did not mention in interviews (Hatch, 2002).

Further, my research questions centered on understanding the teaching practices of these

teachers, and the most effective way to capture their practice was to see it first-hand in a

natural setting.

Field notes. The goal of the classroom observations was to document naturally

occurring activities, and the observations served as the primary record of the situation

being investigated (Hatch, 2002; Merriam, 1998). During each of the classroom

observations, field notes were taken by hand and transcribed after each visit. These









written accounts of the observations were the least distracting and most cost-effective

means to record interactions that took place in the two teachers' classrooms. The raw

field notes were recorded on a note pad and included detailed descriptions of events,

behaviors, interactions, and dialogue that took place in the classroom. On the first visit to

each of the classrooms, I described the classroom setting and paid attention to more

general issues that were connected to my research questions, such as how the teachers

organized their classes and what kinds of activities the teachers facilitated. Subsequent

observations looked more closely at issues that may not have been addressed in

interviews, such as what the teachers did when they first realized students were having

difficulty or were ready to move forward. These raw field notes were as close to verbatim

as possible and included graphic descriptions of the actions that occurred in the

classroom during the observation (Hatch, 2002). Merriam (1998) suggested that field

notes include descriptions of the setting, the people, the activities, and include direct

quotations whenever possible, all of which were included in the field notes for this study.

I also kept a record of time, beginning with the time the observation started and

continuing approximately every five minutes.

As soon as possible after each observation and before the next observation, the

field notes were typed into Microsoft Word and completed with information that was

omitted due to time constraints or other interruptions in a process called "filling in"

(Hatch, 2002). The resulting research protocols included the time and place of the

observation, a list of participants, transcription of discussions, and a diagram of the

setting. They made clear who the interlocutors were in the conversations and who the

major actors were in the classroom activities. They also included as much concrete detail









as possible and included no generalizations or personal interpretations in the actual data.

Instead, I bracketed my emerging feelings, reactions, insights, and interpretations in a

separate column. After each observation, I also wrote personal reflections of the

experience in a research journal. Further, I kept a research log to keep a record of every

step of the data collection process (Hatch, 2002). As a non-participant observer, I was

minimally involved in classroom activities, and I recorded field notes as unobtrusively as

possible in order to minimize my impact on the classroom.

Interviewing. The present study included both structured interviews and

unstructured interviews. A total of six structured interviews took place at the teachers'

convenience and were audiotaped and transcribed. Periodic, unstructured interviews also

took place during the study and were audiotaped and transcribed. These informal

conversations allowed for clarification of data collected during the observations and

provided the opportunity to work with the participants to understand what happened in

the classroom. Field notes were also taken during these conversations. Each teacher was

interviewed according to the following schedule:

Table 3-2. Interview schedule
Interview Date of interview Type of interview Purpose of Interview
1 April Structured To document past schooling a
professional experiences
2 May Unstructured To follow up on first and seco
weeks of observations
3 May Structured To solicit feedback on


May
June


Unstructured
Structured


nd

nd


preliminary analysis and to
discuss teachers' philosophy
of teaching Black students
To follow up on observations
To solicit feedback on
preliminary analysis and to
address any questions not
answered previously in
interviews and observations










The teachers participated in three structured interviews (before the observations

began, mid-way through the study, and at the conclusion of the observations). In addition,

Ms. Morrison participated in two unstructured interviews, and Ms. Lomax participated in

one. All interviews occurred at a time and place that were convenient for the teachers,

and all interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The purpose of the initial structured

interview (Appendix D) was to document past schooling and professional experiences

and the teachers' philosophies of teaching. The first interview lasted approximately 45

minutes and asked teachers about their educational backgrounds, their professional

experience, the classroom setting, and the goals they held for their students. Interview

questions pertaining to teachers' educational and professional background, the classroom

setting, and the goals they had for their students were adapted from Ross (1978).

The second (Appendix E) and third (Appendix F) structured interviews, also lasting

approximately 45 minutes each, were derived directly from classroom observations and

preliminary data analysis. The purpose of these interviews was to solicit feedback and

clarification on preliminary analysis. The second structured interview also solicited their

perspectives on teaching Black students, and the questions were adapted from Ladson-

Billings (1995). The third structured interview also sought to answer questions that had

not been addressed through other means. Following an interview guide (Appendix G), the

unstructured interviews began with a request for the teachers' perception on the classes

observed during the previous weeks. They continued with questions to clarify and

understand activities and interactions that took place during the classroom observations.

These unstructured interviews also probed the teachers for information about perceptions

of students' academic progress during the observation period. These unstructured









interviews lasted approximately 15 minutes at a time and place that were convenient for

the teacher. All interview transcripts were given to participants for them to make

corrections to meaning and intent.

Collection of artifacts. The present study attempted to understand the practices of

effective English teachers. Therefore, materials used for instruction, including materials

distributed to students, were collected, numbered, and indexed in the research log. The

purpose of collecting these artifacts was to understand further the practices of these

teachers based on how the kinds of activities they assigned to students.

Summary of data collection. Over the course of the eight-week study, I conducted

13 observations in Ms. Morrison's classroom and 26 observations in Ms. Lomax's

classroom for a total of 39 observations. I also conducted three structured interviews and

two unstructured interviews with Ms. Morrison and three structured interviews and one

unstructured interview with Ms. Lomax for a total of six structured interviews and three

unstructured interviews. Artifacts, including handouts distributed to students, also were

collected throughout the study.

Data Analysis

Once researchers have gathered an exhaustive amount of data from observations

and interviews, they must find ways to make sense of so much information. To make

meaning of the abundance of data collected for this collective case study, I included both

within-case and cross-case analysis. Within-case analysis involved following a series of

steps to identify emerging themes in a single case. Cross-case analysis then involved

identifying both similarities and differences that occurred between the two case studies.

Hatch (2002) recommended that interpretive analysis follow a number of steps that

allow for making sense of the data and coming up with explanations. I followed these









steps from the first data collection. The first step simply involved reading the data to get

an idea of the whole picture, so, after the first interview and after every subsequent data

collection, I read through the transcripts, protocols, and artifacts. After reading through

the data, I turned to those comments bracketed in the research protocols and recorded in

my research journal, and I wrote each of these impressions and interpretations in separate

memos. Then, I read through the data again recording new impressions in additional

memos.

Once impressions and interpretations were identified and written in memos, I read

the memos and organized them by emerging themes. Using the initial interpretations as a

guide, I created a coding system to read through the data again to look for evidence to

support or contradict these interpretations, and I noted on a separate page data that were

connected to these interpretations. Next, I wrote a detailed summary that explained and

supported my initial interpretations. When I completed the summary, I shared my

thoughts with participants to serve as a member check. At that time, I solicited feedback

from participants. Using their feedback, I revised the summary and added excerpts from

the data to support my interpretations. Over time with each data collection, these

summaries became more complete and led to the findings of the study.

Methodological Issues

To ensure the quality and rigor of qualitative research, Lincoln and Guba (1986)

recommend that researchers consider the following four issues: credibility,

transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Further, it is important to consider

limitations and reciprocity (Cooper, 2000; Hatch, 2000; Merriam, 1998).









Credibility

Credibility refers to the degree of trustworthiness in the research inquiry and the

level to which the findings are an accurate portrayal of the participants and their context

(Marshall & Rossman, 1995). The use of multiple sources in order to triangulate the data

ensures credibility of the study. Providing evidence from several sources makes the

findings of the study more accurate and convincing (Yin, 2003). For the present study,

data collection included observations, structured interviews, unstructured interviews, and

the collection and examination of artifacts. I conducted six structured and three

unstructured interviews with the primary participants. The unstructured interviews

provided the opportunity to conduct member checks and clarify the information I

collected in the structured interviews and the classroom observations. I also shared

interpretations with both primary participants and my committee chair in order to clarify

information. In addition, I spent eight weeks in the field observing 39 class sessions.

Transferability

Transferability refers to the idea of extending the findings of the study outside of

the scope of the individual cases (Yin, 2003). While case studies cannot be generalized in

the same way as larger studies, they do offer a thorough knowledge of the particular that

can inform understanding of the general (Merriam, 1998). Merriam also outlines three

strategies to maximize the transferability of a qualitative study. The first strategy, rich,

thick description, offers such great detail that readers can decide if the context of the

study relates to their own. The second strategy, typicality or modal category, refers to

how similar the case under study is to others. The third strategy, multisite designs,

encourages the use of more than one case so the findings can be applied to a greater









number of contexts. As a collective case study, the present study addressed all of these

strategies.

Confirmability and Dependability

A qualitative study of high quality includes enough detail for it to be evident that

the findings are either consistent with current research or, if the findings differ in some

way from current research, they are easily understood from the detailed reporting of data

collection and analysis included in the study (Lincoln & Guba, 1986). Therefore,

researchers must maintain a high level of rigor in the data gathering and analysis process

and in the reporting of the findings. To ensure the quality and confirmability of the

current study, I included thorough explanations of every step of the research inquiry,

from the selection of the participants to the reporting of findings.

Merriam (1998) asserted that a key characteristic of qualitative research is that the

researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. To ensure quality

and authenticity in the writing of the final report, researchers must maintain sensitivity

and integrity during data collection and analysis and this level of care depends on the

qualifications of the researcher. The researcher plays such a significant part in qualitative

research that it is important to state explicitly the researcher's qualifications and biases

(Merriam, 1998). The following description documents my educational background and

experiences that I believe made me qualified to conduct the present study.

I have earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and a Master of Arts degree in

English education. I taught secondary English in public schools for three and a half years.

During that time, I worked primarily with African American students. For two years, I

taught English to African American high school students in the Upward Bound program

at the University of Florida. This program was designed to enhance the academic and









social development of students who had been labeled as "at-risk." As a teacher in

Upward Bound, I conducted classroom research on effective reading strategies for

reluctant readers. The study was published in an issue of English Journal.

Further, I have completed coursework for a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction,

with an emphasis on English education. While in the program, I completed two courses in

qualitative research methodology. One course focused on the foundations of qualitative

research and the other course focused on methods of ethnographic research. Further, as a

doctoral student, I have presented workshops to preservice and practicing teachers on

culturally relevant pedagogy at various conferences.

Throughout my teaching career and the doctoral program, I have been concerned

with preparing teachers to create classroom environments that make African American

students feel valued and motivated to learn. I also have been particularly interested in

helping teachers to understand and implement teaching strategies that promote academic

and social-emotional growth among African American students. My research into the

area of effective teaching for Black students has led me to develop a bias toward

pedagogy that can be described as "culturally responsive teaching." Therefore, I may

have a tendency to look for elements of culturally relevant pedagogy in the classrooms I

observe. To minimize the influence of this bias, I continually looked for disconfirming

evidence whenever I began to find support for this interpretation.

Limitations

The present study focused on two English teachers in two urban high schools

during one semester of one school year. It did not include the perspectives of other

English teachers in the same schools or other urban schools, so it does not attempt to

suggest that all English teachers demonstrate the same beliefs or practices or encounter









the same issues in their classrooms. Further, a qualitative case study is inevitably limited

not only by its lack of representativeness, but also by the biases of the researcher

(Merriam, 1998). This lack of representativeness, however, is bolstered by the rich data

and thick description inherent in case studies.

Reciprocity

The teachers who chose to participate in this study sacrificed the time to participate

in several interviews and to accommodate me in their classrooms. To demonstrate my

understanding and appreciation, it was important that we establish a reciprocal

relationship in which the teachers received some benefits for their participation in the

study. Therefore, because I am certified to teach secondary English and have taught in the

district in which the study took place, I offered to provide tutoring to students during

times I was not conducting observations. This activity fell in line with my professional

experience and training. I also provided participants with the findings from this study.














CHAPTER 4
MS. MORRISON

A proud moment for me is when they take responsibility and initiative without me
having to make them. [In an interview, Ms. Morrison shared her thoughts about
what makes her most proud as a teacher.] (T2.Int001.041505.1i48-49)

Shortly after class began, Ms. Morrison distributed worksheets for students to use
as a review for their final exam. She also reminded the class that she had not
finished speaking with students about their research papers and would continue to
do so during this class period. She called a male student to her desk and announced,
"I'm in my office. The door is closed and it says do not disturb." Then, she sat with
the student and took out the rubric for the assignment. They began to discuss his
research paper on sixteenth century ballads. While the class worked on their
handouts, Ms. Morrison began to read Mark's paper aloud. She paused in her
reading to say, "Number one problem, we do not use slang in research papers.
Everywhere you see you, you, you, you, take it out."

While they discussed the paper, another student walked up to the teacher's desk.
Before the student spoke, Ms. Morrison said, "Didn't I say the door is shut?" The
female student pretended to open the door, and Ms. Morrison responded, "You
have no respect for Mark." The student said, "Excuse me," and Ms. Morrison
replied, "Rude is rude." The student returned to her seat. Ms. Morrison continued
her discussion with Mark and explained sections of the rubric while they walked
through his paper, "Okay, so, it says, attention-getter, hooks the reader. First, I need
you to define what a ballad is. Assume your reader knows nothing." Mark
answered her questions and shared his thoughts about the paper while Ms.
Morrison proceeded to ask for clarification. As they discussed it, the teacher
recorded points on the rubric that she and the student could see. Their discussion
addressed various issues related to clarity of expression, organization and
mechanics, connecting the topic to present day, and even who he could turn to for
assistance in his home and/or neighborhood. Ms. Morrison continued to read his
paper and discuss ways he could improve it. While they discussed the paper, Ms.
Morrison explained each point on the rubric and asked the student to show her
where certain elements were when she could not identify them. This process
allowed him to see when key components were missing, so he was not surprised by
the grade he received and understood he had the opportunity to improve.
(T2.ObsO13.052605.1i98-184)

Ms. Morrison's ninth grade honors English class, consisting of 14 African

American boys, 10 African American girls, one White girl, and one Latina, participated









in the present study. Throughout the conversation that took place in this class of 26

students, Ms. Morrison, a Jamaican American woman in her eighth year of teaching,

helped Mark to develop writing skills (i.e., "A paragraph is one idea that you build

upon.") and connect his existing knowledge to the assignment (i.e., "Who do you [think

spreads news] in their rap lyrics, like you said, ballads are designed to spread news?").

Utilizing Mark's knowledge of rap, and other students' areas of interest, she also

cultivated a community of learners whose prior knowledge was respected and valued.

Then, by walking Mark through the rubric, Ms. Morrison incorporated formative

assessment that served as a learning tool as well as an evaluation. The teacher engaged in

these kinds of activities with each student before returning their research papers and

encouraged each student to rewrite the paper based on their conversation. These

strategies for facilitating student learning exemplified the components of the How People

Learn (HPL) framework (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005) and the features of

effective English instruction (Langer, 2002), which together provided a theoretical basis

to understand the connections between student learning and effective teaching.

Teaching and Learning in the Secondary English Classroom

The How People Learn (HPL) Framework

Darling-Hammond and Bransford (2005) adapted the How People Learn

framework introduced by the National Academy of Sciences as a guide to understand

teaching and learning. Initially crafted to provide a guide for thinking about children's

learning as documented in two National Academy of Sciences reports, the HPL

framework also offered a theoretical framework for interpreting classroom practices and

their connections to student learning. Effective teachers described in current research

(Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005) consider and incorporate all four components of









the framework throughout their instructional practices. These components include the

following considerations:

* What should be taught, why, and how to organize it (knowledge-centeredness)
* Who learns, how, and why (learner-centeredness)
* What kinds of classroom, school, and school-community environments support
learning (community-centeredness)
* What kinds of evidence provide the most reliable information to students, teachers,
parents, and others about student learning (assessment-centeredness) (p. 41)

To be most effective in supporting learning in their classrooms, successful teachers

balance all four components of the framework.

Essential Features of Effective English Instruction

In a study that examined 44 English teachers in 25 schools in a variety of settings

that served students from ethnically and socio-economically diverse backgrounds, Langer

(2002) identified six features of effective literacy instruction. These features included

instructional practices found in schools that "beat the odds," or schools that fostered

academic success despite societal factors that made learning and engagement more

challenging for students. The six features included the following instructional practices:

* Students learn skills and knowledge in multiple lesson types.
* Teachers integrate test preparation into instruction.
* Teachers make connections across instruction, curriculum, and life.
* Students learn strategies for ways to do the work.
* Students are expected to be creative thinkers.
* Classrooms foster cognitive collaboration. (p. 40)

These features of effective English instruction are consistent with the components

of the HPL framework. Because the features of the HPL framework are broader

constructs, the features of effective English instruction were subsumed within that

framework to provide a theoretical framework to describe and interpret teaching and

learning within secondary English classrooms.









English Instruction that Engages African American Students

The HPL framework, combined with Langer's features of effective English

instruction, provided a theoretical base to discuss and analyze secondary English

instruction. The first component of the framework, knowledge-centeredness, refers to the

focus on what should be taught, why, and how. In the classrooms of effective teachers,

decisions about what is worth knowing are carefully considered and, for effective English

teachers in particular, teaching content knowledge includes teaching strategies for

learning the particular content. The second component of the HPL framework, learner-

centeredness, emphasizes the importance of understanding students' various learning

preferences. For effective English teachers, this includes using a variety of instructional

strategies and making connections across the curriculum and students' personal

experiences.

The third component of the HPL framework is community-centeredness which

refers to a focus on establishing a supportive learning environment. In the English

classroom, this supportive learning environment should foster cognitive collaboration.

The final component of the HPL framework, assessment-centeredness, refers to

identifying and utilizing the kinds of evidence that provides the most useful information

about student learning. In this sense, assessment becomes a learning tool through which

teachers can make informed instructional decisions based on the students' particular

needs. This attribute of the HPL framework also integrates test preparation into

instruction to enhance the students' abilities to demonstrate their learning on various

kinds of assessment tools. The successful English teacher provides frequent specific

feedback, particularly on writing, as a formative assessment to encourage revision and

further development of student understanding. The formative assessment also serves as a









window into student thinking which, again, can assist teachers in making the most

appropriate instructional decisions (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005; Langer,

2002).

Layering characteristics of effective instruction for African American students

onto the HPL framework and Langer's features of effective English instruction created a

theoretical framework focused on English instruction that engaged African American

students in particular. The HPL framework and Langer's features include some elements

of effective pedagogy for Black students and infer other elements, but there are additional

characteristics of effective instruction for African American students and culturally

relevant pedagogy that fall within the scope of the HPL framework that should be

included in a theoretical framework for English instruction that engages African

American students. Researchers (Athanases, 1998; Brookhart & Rusnak, 1993; Corbett et

al., 2002; Foster, 1991; Howard, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Ostrowski, 2002; Wilson

& Corbett, 2002) have identified the following characteristics:

* Teachers facilitate scaffolding by allowing students to use what they know to learn
what they need to know.
* Teachers maintain an instructional focus in the classroom.
* Teachers emphasize skill development.
* Teachers demonstrate strong knowledge of students and their communities.
* Teachers demonstrate high expectations for all students and provide support.
* Students are valued participants in a learning community.
* Teachers understand that learning is a social process.
* Teachers insist that students complete every assignment.
* Teachers check for all students' understanding.
* Teachers provide feedback, especially on students' writing.

These selected characteristics of instruction that engages Black students exemplify the

four components of the HPL framework and are listed, along with the features of

effective English instruction, in Table 4-1.










Table 4-1. English instruction that engages African American students


Knowledge-centeredness
Teachers provide students
with strategies to
learn the content

Teachers scaffold students
to success



Teachers maintain an
instructional focus in
the classroom
Teachers emphasize skill
development


Teachers focus instruction
on essential content


Learner-centeredness
Students learn skills and
knowledge in
multiple lesson
types
Teachers link instruction
to students' lives
and lived
experiences

Teachers make
connections across
curriculum and life
Teachers demonstrate
strong knowledge of
students
Students are expected to
be creative thinkers


Community-
centeredness
Classrooms foster
cognitive
collaboration

Teachers hold high
expectations for all
students and provide
a great deal of
support
Students are valued
participants in a
learning community
Teachers understand that
learning is a social
process


Assessment-
centeredness
Teachers integrate test
preparation into
instruction

Teachers use assessment
and evidence to
guide instructional
decisions

Teachers provide
feedback, especially
on students' writing
Teachers use formative
and summative
assessment

Teachers check for all
students'
understanding


The HPL framework, along with components of culturally relevant pedagogy,

features of effective English instruction, and selected characteristics of effective teachers

of Black students, can be consolidated into a model for engaging English instruction for

Black students. This model (Table 4-2), which can be called "culturally competent

English instruction," reflects the beliefs and practices of successful secondary English

teachers of Black students.


Knowledge-Centered
* Teach students strategies to learn the content
* Scaffold students to success
* Maintain instructional focus
* Emphasize skill development
* Focus instruction on essential content


Learner-Centered
* Incorporate multiple lesson types
* Make connections across curriculum and life
* Expect students to be creative thinkers
* Demonstrate strong knowledge of students
* Link instruction to students' lives and lived
experiences


Community-Centered Assessment-Centered
* Foster collaboration Assessment and evidence are used to guide
* Hold high expectations instructional decisions
* Value students' contribution to learning Use formative and summative assessment
community Integrate test preparation
* Understand social nature of learning Provide frequent feedback
Check for all students' understanding


Figure 4-1. Culturally competent English instruction









Knowledge-Centeredness

Knowledge-centeredness refers not only to a focus on the skills and material to be

learned, but also to decisions about what is worth learning and knowing. In addition,

knowledge-centeredness requires teachers to consider how knowledge is organized which

influences the methods of instruction and the order in which new knowledge is

introduced. This new knowledge includes both the standard curriculum, which lists areas

to be covered, and the hidden curriculum, which "tacitly implements the underlying goals

and perceptions schools and teachers hold for students individually and as a group"

(Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005, p. 170). Effective teachers make both standard

and hidden curricula visible to themselves and their students in order to make the most

appropriate decisions about what is worth knowing.

With her strong knowledge of the subject matter, Ms. Morrison easily integrated a

knowledge-centered approach in her classroom that facilitated student engagement. She

made decisions about what was worth knowing and made clear the value of learning it. In

one interview, Ms. Morrison explained that a major goal for her students was to get them

to read more. Although she knew the school district only required students to read one

book per quarter, she required her students to read at least three per quarter. She pointed

out that reading had always been the goal for her students because she believed it was the

foundation for learning and so many of the students who entered the school could not

read. She explained her approach to teaching reading:

First, you start off small, you know, short stories. If you like the book, you know,
this is out of a book, a chapter out of a book, a paragraph out of a book .. you
[have to] kind of invite them, lure them in, kind of like reel them in, trick them into
reading it ... I like the literature circles because it [places] responsibility on each
[student] and kids don't want to feel left out, so [they] read the book because they
don't want to feel left out, so I try to devise it in a way that [they] want to read and
I choose books that they'll want to read, that's going to interest them. ... I try to









start off with, like, The Pearl. That's six chapters, kind of easy. You kind of wean
them to do a bigger [book]. (T2.Int001.041505.1i51-54)

Ms. Morrison tried to emphasize the importance of reading inside and outside of

the classroom and found ways to get students in the habit of reading. For one assignment

early in the school year, for example, she required students to carry a book with them all

day. Then, they had to discuss the experience, noting what their friends said or did when

they noticed the book. While simply carrying around a book may have seemed like a

trivial activity, based on students' responses, the activity made them feel smart and they

were more motivated to actually read the book and talk about it in class. Through formal

and informal learning activities, like the preceding assignment, Ms. Morrison maintained

an instructional focus in her classroom from the moment students arrived and continued

that focus throughout the class. In one discussion in particular, Ms. Morrison asked

students to define the term "foil" and apply it to characters in Romeo and Juliet which

allowed Ms. Morrison to instruct students through the use of questioning:

Ms. Morrison walked to the front of the room and pulled down the film screen to
show the brief constructed response (BCR) writing prompts again. She asked
Tyesha to answer question number two.

Ms. Morrison: Give me the definition of foil and incorporate it. The nurse is
considered a blank for Juliet.

Tyesha: A mother.

Ms. Morrison: A foil ... You have to understand the question in order to answer it.

Ms. Morrison repeats the question.

Robert: Protector.

Ms. Morrison: What is the definition of foil?

Students remained quiet.

Ms. Morrison: A striking contrast to Juliet.









Robert: They're alike.

Jessica: Are equal.

Ms. Morrison: They're not equal. The nurse acts as a foil to Juliet. Foil is not
friend.

Julian: Oh, I know what a foil is ... a character is the exact opposite ... While
looking at the foil, it brings out certain qualities in the other character.

(T2.Obs004.0426.05.1i241-253)

In this example, Ms. Morrison persisted in her attempt to teach the concept of foil to her

students so they could respond to the writing prompt effectively. Students guessed

incorrectly and, when Ms. Morrison gave the definition and students still did not

understand, she continued to push students until a student could explain it to the class.

Her focus on instruction demonstrated the importance of student learning in her

classroom and gave students room to try until they understood.

Langer (2002) asserted that, for students to succeed in secondary English

classrooms, they needed to be taught explicitly how to do the work they were expected to

complete. Students also needed to learn strategies for thinking about the material before

them. When Ms. Morrison introduced a new concept, she explained exactly how students

were to approach it. Making concepts accessible to students increased their level of

engagement even if a task were challenging because they knew they had the tools to meet

her high expectations. During one particular lesson, for example, students were required

to write a BCR to a question about the play, Romeo and Juliet. Students were still

learning how to approach BCR questions which mimicked the writing prompts that

appeared on the state test later in the school year. In the following example, Ms. Morrison

reminded students specifically how to approach a BCR question as they constructed their

responses:









Writing prompt: Compare the reactions of Juliet's father and mother when Paris
proposes marriage to their daughter Juliet.

Ms. Morrison: We know the BCR ... three things we got to do. Answer the
question, provide what?

Jerome: Details.

Ms. Morrison: Provide details and explain your answer. ... Before you do number
one, you have to come up with some kind of chart or Venn diagram.

Ms. Morrison walked to the board where she had a chart and a Venn diagram.

Ms. Morrison: Once you have [the details on your chart], you can respond. Once
you explain the reactions, you begin to explain. ... Who's still copying? ... I want
to see what type of chart you come up with in your journals.

Ms. Morrison: What scene are we talking about?

Imani: Act I, scene 2.

Ms. Morrison: Act I, scene 2. ... You've got to [think about] the visual imageries in
your head, the one you created in your head and the one that you saw in the film.
You can have a well constructed response. ... You need to find the exact reaction.
Then give that emotion a name and don't say good or bad. That's not an option.

Paul: Can you say that again?

Ms. Morrison: Read the question to me.

The student read the question aloud.

Ms. Morrison: Paul, so you're thinking the Capulet response was what? Don't say
it [aloud] because I want everybody to do it. Think about Lady Capulet's response.
Find a line that supports what you're thinking. Then, you explain it again.

Aaliyah: On a separate sheet?

Ms. Morrison: Yes, on a separate sheet, so I can collect it. Anyone getting less than
a three [out of a maximum score of four], I have a problem with. If you do those
three things, [answer the question, provide details, and explain your answer], you
should have more than a three.

(T2.Obs004.042605.li 104-130)

In this example, Ms. Morrison identified specific steps for students to follow to respond

to the BCR prompt successfully. She walked them through each step and shared her









expectation that, at the very least, they would earn three out of the four points for the

question. This instructional activity built on what they previously learned about effective

writing, and Ms. Morrison believed, if they followed the recommended steps, they would

earn a perfect score.

Ms. Morrison often used guiding questions to scaffold students in learning how to

analyze an assignment-an important skill necessary for independent learning. For

example, when she assigned a brief essay about Juliet's plan in Romeo and Juliet, she

asked a student to examine the question being asked by the writing prompt. When the

student, Julian, simply repeated the question in the writing prompt, she began a series of

questions to scaffold his analysis of the question. The following example provided a

snapshot of that series of questions:

Writing Prompt: Friar Lawrence has prepared to help Juliet to avoid marrying
Paris. Describe the uncertainties which might complicate the plan.

Ms. Morrison: So, what are we looking for, Julian, in the answer? What are you
describing?

Julian: What uncertainties complicate the plan?

Ms. Morrison: What does uncertainties mean because how are you going to answer
the question if you don't know the word? Let's break it down, LaTanya.

LaTanya responded incorrectly.

Ms. Morrison: So, what does "un" mean?

Several students respond: Not.

Ms. Morrison: So, what does certain mean?

Several students respond: Sure.

Ms. Morrison: So, what does uncertain mean? Unsure.

(T2.Obs005.050405.1i78-88)









Ms. Morrison used questions to clarify the assignment and guide students to figure out

what was being asked of them. This kind of questioning allowed Ms. Morrison to show

students how to analyze a writing prompt in order to complete the assignment and

demonstrate their knowledge of the text under study.

In Ms. Morrison's classroom, student work primarily centered on writing about

text. Her work as the sponsor of the school newspaper and her emphasis on teaching

students to notice details in film, in literature, and in the world around them supported the

notion that, to provide support and evidence in the analysis of literature or in life

circumstances, they must notice details. Consequently, much of her instructional practice

focused on teaching students how to notice and incorporate details in writing and in

discussion. Ms. Morrison, therefore, created a learning environment where students had

many opportunities to discuss, develop their own understanding of, and write about

literature. Their less formal analyses of literature included tasks such as offering their

opinions about a director's faithfulness to a playwright's intent and examining how the

time period of the film influenced the adaptations a director chose to make. For more

formal written analyses of literature, such as BCRs, Ms. Morrison generally walked

students through the following steps that fit within the frameworks recommended by

researchers (Calkins, 1994; Langer, 1995; Kirby and Liner, 1988):

* Students read and copied writing prompt.

* A student read the question aloud.

* Another student explained the writing prompt in his/her own words.

* Teacher used questioning to assist students with unfamiliar terms in the prompt. If
the teacher noticed students still had difficulty with a term, then she directed a
student to look up the word and read the definition to the class. Another student
then put that definition in his/her own words. Once they understood the term, they
returned to the prompt.









* Teacher recommended a strategy for approaching the prompt (i.e., using a graphic
organizer, incorporating terms they have learned, or referring to the text).

* Teacher reminded students to find textual support and relevant details for their
ideas that included using the exact line that led to their interpretation.

* Teacher encouraged students to begin the assignment without looking at the text as
a self-evaluation of what they knew.

* Teacher encouraged students to turn to the text once they wrote their initial
thoughts on the writing prompt.

* Teacher read initial drafts to see how students incorporated textual support.

* Teacher provided direct instruction for common writing errors (i.e., just listing
quotations with no explanation).

Students appeared to be familiar with these steps and, often, would initiate at least some

of them without prompting from Ms. Morrison.

Learner-Centeredness

Learner-centeredness refers to an understanding of how people learn and using that

understanding to identify appropriate instructional strategies. This component of the HPL

framework includes both the cognitive processes involved in learning and the impact of

student motivation on learning. For learning to occur and for a learner to become fluent,

the learner must attend to and work toward understanding the concept being taught. The

amount of attention required to understand a concept depends on each learner's prior

experience with that concept. The teacher, therefore, not only needs to be aware of where

the students are in relation to a given concept, but also needs to help students to become

metacognitive learners who can analyze their own learning. Further, effective teachers

recognize the importance of intrinsic motivation in the learning process and help students

to find ways to activate it (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005). Part of this motivation

comes from applying new knowledge to situations that are relevant to students and









making connections to the students' lived experiences. Langer (1998) found "when

[lower-performing students] were engaged in meaningful activities that they perceived as

'personally meaningful,' their meaning-building processes were more like those of their

higher-performing classmates" (p. 19). Making connections to the learners' experiences,

therefore, was important for the meaning-making process and for encouraging intrinsic

motivation.

Ms. Morrison encouraged students to identify with characters in the text to make

the literature more meaningful to them. In a discussion of The Devil andDaniel Webster,

for example, she asked students if they would free Jabez so he would not be sent to hell,

and she encouraged students to consider multiple possibilities by asking students to take

opposing sides. The following excerpt from their discussion demonstrated their

exploration:

Ms. Morrison: So, if you were on the jury, would you free Jabez?

Mia: Yes, I would think about my children and descendents.

Ms. Morrison: I want someone to play devil's advocate and be on the side of
Scratch.

Aaliyah: I wouldn't free him. He made a decision.

Ms. Morrison: And, he signed a contract. ... My soul is damned. Does everybody
get a second chance?

Aaliyah: No.

LaTanya: Did he sign it with his own blood?

Mia: Yes, he did.

Ms. Morrison: Imani, would you free him?

Imani: Yes and no.

T2: Yes or no.









Imani: I say no.

Ms. Morrison: Because?

Imani: Ain't nobody force him.

Ms. Morrison: Where is it? I want you all to get in the habit [of providing support
for your arguments].

Julian: Page 428.

Ms. Morrison: Where?

Julian: Second, third paragraph.

Ms. Morrison: What? First column? Second column?

Julian: Second.

(T2.Obs010.051805.1il42-164)

During this exchange, Ms. Morrison encouraged students to think beyond their current

knowledge of the play to consider what could happen based on their own interpretation

and understanding of the characters in the play. This kind of questioning allowed students

to provide multiple answers as long as they supported their responses through reference

to the text. Allowing students to offer and support various responses enabled them to

create their own understanding of the text in a supportive, engaging learning

environment.

Students Learn Skills and Knowledge in Multiple Lesson Types

For students to learn important concepts and skills in the English classroom, they

must be taught in a variety of ways. These strategies should be balanced across three

lesson types (Langer, 2002):

* separated, or taught in isolation

* simulated, or taught in the context of an exercise

* integrated, or taught in a meaningful way in the context of a larger activity









Spreading instruction across lesson types allows teachers to reach a wider variety of

learners and to provide the opportunity for transfer of new knowledge to other situations.

Ms. Morrison demonstrated an understanding of the importance of multiple lesson types

by the variety of activities she offered to students. Table 4-2 identifies some examples of

how Ms. Morrison addressed each of the three lesson types in her classroom.

Table 4-2. Lesson types found in the English classroom
Type of Lesson Teaching strategy Purpose
Separated Requiring students to write To prepare students for the
paragraphs in response state high school
to BCR questions about assessment
Romeo and Juliet
Meeting individually with To help students develop
students upon writing skills
completion of the
research paper
Simulated Drawing on knowledge of To engage students in
the Black church writing and performing
eulogies for characters
in Romeo and Juliet
Providing an article from To help students to
the local newspaper on understand Romeo and
a modem day Romeo Juliet
and Juliet
Integrated Connecting an incident of To encourage students to
school violence to write stories for the
Romeo and Juliet school newspaper

In each of the teaching strategies mentioned in Table 4-2, Ms. Morrison facilitated high

levels of student engagement by implementing strategies that crossed each of the three

learner-centered lesson types.

Teachers Make Connections across Instruction, Curriculum, and Life

Effective English teachers observed by Langer (2002) made explicit connections

across instruction, across curriculum, and across life. They found ways to scaffold

student knowledge by integrating prior knowledge attained inside and outside of the









English classroom and the school into the curriculum. Bringing in students' lives and

other learning experiences and making connections facilitated student engagement. Freire

and Macedo (1987) pushed this idea further by asserting, "knowledge made from

experience has to be the point of departure in any popular educational effort oriented

toward the creation of a more rigorous knowledge on the part of the people" (p.78).

Knowledge needed to grow from personal experiences with the world, not just built upon

superficial connections articulated by the teacher.

Ms. Morrison regularly drew on her knowledge of African American culture to link

course content to students' cultural and life experiences. For one assignment in particular,

Ms. Morrison asked students to write eulogies for Romeo and Juliet from other characters

in the play. She explained the assignment to the class in the following excerpt:

Ms. Morrison: I want you all to write a eulogy. Check it out. Girls on this side will
write a eulogy [and will be Lady Capulet. You girls on this side] will be the nurse.

Robert: I don't know what a eulogy is.

Ms. Morrison: Look it up. Where my girls at? You'll each be the nurse or Lady
Capulet. You'll eulogize either Juliet or Romeo. The boys, you will be Balthazar,
Friar Lawrence, or Lord Capulet or Lord Montague. All the people that are still
living ... come up here and do the eulogy of Romeo and Juliet after you take the
test.

(T2.Obs006.050605.1i287-290)

Although students left the classroom that day without learning about a eulogy, most of

them returned the next day with interesting and entertaining eulogies that demonstrated

an understanding of a eulogy. The following is an example of a eulogy for Juliet:

Ms. Morrison: All right, she has to leave so let's listen to her eulogy.

The student began to read her paper.

Alicia: The nurse to Juliet. From the day you were born, you never left my side ... I
knew you were entering the beginning stages of becoming a woman. ... There has









never been nothing more rewarding ... oh, my Juliet ... Juliet, the girl who had a
deep passion for life.

Aaliyah: That's very good.

Alicia (reading the eulogy): Rest in peace my dear child.

(T2.Obs007.051005.1il61-171)

Some students were quite animated in their presentations of the eulogy and assumed the

role of charismatic preachers. The rest of the class joined in and started shouting like the

congregation in a traditional Black Baptist church. This assignment gave students the

opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of the play through an assignment that

built upon their understanding of the Black church.

Ms. Morrison also drew on school experiences to make the curriculum more

vivid. For example, during the present study, an incident occurred in the school that

allowed Ms. Morrison to use her strong knowledge of students and their communities to

effectively create knowledge that built upon students' personal experiences. On a

Wednesday afternoon, a tenth grade student stabbed another tenth grade student on the

school bus as students loaded the bus after school. According to police reports, problems

existed between the two boys for several months prior to the incident and the school

administration knew about the problems. In fact, the local newspaper reported that the

administration decided to cancel a school dance earlier in the year to prevent any

confrontation between the two boys. On the day of the stabbing, one of the boys boarded

the other student's bus instead of his own and confronted him. In self-defense, the boy

who sat on the correct bus pulled out a knife and stabbed the other boy. The student who

was stabbed was taken to the hospital with non-life threatening injuries while the other

student was arrested and later released. During a discussion of a feud in Romeo and Juliet









on the following day, Ms. Morrison mentioned the idea of the two families being alike in

dignity. At that point, she saw a connection between the play and the stabbing and shared

it with the class:

Ms. Morrison asked about local neighborhoods that were alike in dignity and
students responded.

Ms. Morrison: We're going to write a prologue about neighborhoods. We could
write a play about the stabbing on the bus.

Mia: They don't love each other.

Ms. Morrison: Romeo and Tybalt don't love each other ... I see a similarity. We're
going to write it for our newspaper. Anybody who can rewrite the prologue for
what happened, I'll give you an A most definitely. You have to write in the same
rhyme scheme and I'll publish it.

Aaliyah: What did you challenge us to do again?

Ms. Morrison named the two neighborhoods from which the two boys involved in
the stabbing came and began to discuss briefly what happened on the bus.

Ms. Morrison: I got to think about that. I may say you don't have to take the Romeo
and Juliet final.

Mia: I'd rather take the Romeo andJuliet final.

Robert: Can I do it for extra credit?

(T2.Obs006.050605.1i94-101)

Although Ms. Morrison did not spend a great deal of time on the topic, she did provide an

opportunity for students to further develop their understanding of literature while they

voiced their feelings about a traumatic experience that touched all of their lives.

Students are Expected to be Creative Thinkers, or Making Students Feel Smart

A third attribute of learner centeredness is expecting students to be creative

thinkers. Langer (2002) explained that, in the classrooms of effective teachers, students

were pushed to think beyond the minimum competencies. Instead, they were encouraged

to be "generative thinkers to know names, definitions, and facts, and then to explore the









additional roads that the new knowledge suggests" (p. 2). A number of examples

previously described demonstrated this attribute. For example, when the class read The

Devil andDaniel Webster, they were told to give their own perspectives on Jabez's deal

with the devil. As they developed their opinions, they were strongly encouraged to share

interpretations that other students may not have considered. During the discussion of the

play, Ms. Morrison reminded students, "Remember, life is about reading, but you also

need to be able to interpret what you read" (T2.Obs010.051805.1i98). Her comment

further impressed upon students the importance of thinking creatively.

When students in Ms. Morrison's classroom thought creatively, or in a new

direction, they received positive feedback from her and she made them feel smart. When

students felt capable, particularly when the material was challenging, they became even

more engaged in the learning process. During one class discussion, for example, Mia

answered a knowledge-level question incorrectly, but her response demonstrated insight

so Ms. Morrison said to her, "I am very impressed that you would think of that." Mia felt

so pleased with Ms. Morrison's feedback that she told her, "I feel smart" and Ms.

Morrison told her that she should feel smart (T2.Obs010.051805.1i 5-23).

Community-Centeredness

Community-centeredness refers to the "social nature of learning" (Darling-

Hammond & Bransford, 2005, p. 64). Not a superficial idea of everyone getting along

and feeling good, the community-centeredness aspect of the HPL framework suggests a

more rigorous kind of learning community that works together toward a common goal.

The group recognizes the purpose and value of the work they undertake and support each

other in the learning process. Community-centeredness grew out of Vygotsky's (1978)









emphasis on the social and cultural aspects of learning, and the notion that intellect is not

fixed at birth and develops through social engagement.

Ms. Morrison appeared to recognize the social aspects of learning and supported it

in her classroom. Students were very social and talked a lot during Ms. Morrison's

classes, and, in some classrooms, this would be considered evidence of non-engagement.

In response to an interview question about facilitating academic gains among Black

students, however, Ms. Morrison explained student talk in her classroom a little

differently:

They're very social, so you can't let [their talking] get on your nerves. Actually, ...
the only time [you're going to have a quiet atmosphere] is during tests because they
don't want to get that zero for talking, but for the most part, I've learned that, when
they're doing their work, they'll talk to themselves. They'll sing. They'll do
whatever it is to tune out whatever is going on to focus. To them, talking is
focusing and they will say I'm not talking. They're not talking to other people.
They're talking to themselves, so they don't understand [because] they feel that
talking is having a conversation with someone else. So, [you have to kind of]
overlook all those things as long as they're staying on target. Like, when they're
doing their work, they're not cheating. They're just [asking each other what
number they're on] just to see. (Ti.Int003.051005.1i36-38)

With Ms. Morrison's explanation in mind, student talk was not coded as non-engagement

in this study unless it did not relate to the task at hand. In fact, student talk in this case

represented a high level of engagement.

Ms. Morrison further supported the social nature of learning whenever students

completed writing assignments, aside from those assigned as practice for state tests. If

students wrote a short essay or other writing, they read it aloud to the class in its entirety

and, if it were a longer assignment, they summarized it for the class. Ms. Morrison

encouraged students to ask questions at the conclusion of these presentations as a way to

spark discussion. These discussions of students' work occurred 15 times out of the 49

instances of class discussion. During two class sessions, for example, students shared









their research projects. They submitted their papers at the beginning of class and, with no

notes in hand, presented their topics and fielded questions from the class. Each student

presented a different topic, such as crime and punishment during the Elizabethan era or

Elizabethan fashion. In the following example, students asked questions following

Andrew's presentation on Elizabethan theatre:

Mia: Very interesting.

Jessica: Have you heard of Hamlet?

Andrew: Yeah.

Jessica: What category will that be?

Andrew: That would be history.

Jessica: Was there a type that most people liked?

Andrew: Most people liked comedies. I read that most people wanted to see
comedies. Any more questions? Thank you for your time.

Students applauded.

(T2.ObsO12.052405.1il66-173)

The student presenter usually facilitated the discussion, but Ms. Morrison stepped in

when she felt the students were not asking enough questions or if there were an issue of

disrespect, like in the following example from a presentation on Tudor history:

LaTanya: You said Henry the Seventh? He made his family rich or his father made
the family rich?

Aaliyah: The family was already rich, but you have to make more.

Ms. Morrison: Second question?

Timothy: How long did a queen reign?

Aaliyah responded to his question.

Ms. Morrison: Travis has a question.









Travis: What happens [when a queen dies]?

Aaliyah: That ain't a question.

Ms. Morrison: Answer his question. It is important. Don't talk to him like that.

(T2.Obs011.052005.1i90-99)

Ms. Morrison appeared to understand that students were learning the rules of discourse,

so she pushed them to prolong the discussion and to remain respectful in the process.

Effective English classrooms support and encourage the social nature of learning

and facilitate the sharing of and responding to ideas of members of the class (Langer,

2002). Similarly, Ms. Morrison often supported students' sharing and responding.

Participating actively in creating new knowledge encouraged student engagement and

motivation. Providing students with the opportunity to co-construct knowledge in concert

with the teacher and other students during class discussions gave them the time to engage

in exploration and reflection. Class discussion also allowed students to clarify or confirm

their new knowledge.

Rosenblatt (1978) suggested that successful classroom discussion of literature

stemmed from "two prime criteria of validity... that the reader's interpretation not be

contradicted by any element of the text, and that nothing be projected for which there is

no verbal basis" (p. 115). Students, therefore, were encouraged to return to the text

frequently to find specific links between their interpretations and the text. Readers then

constructed new meaning by interacting with the text and the experiences, thoughts, and

ideas of other readers. During these discussions, the teacher acted as a facilitator allowing

student voices to be the focus (Lindfors, 1991). Ms. Morrison employed instructional

strategies that not only allowed student voices to be heard, but also created an









environment where students felt comfortable to participate even when they were unsure.

Theses strategies fell into six areas:

* Modeling respect and reminding students to show respect to each other (i.e., on the
few occasions when students talked over another student, she said, "I respect you
even if they don't" and the student would continue to speak)
* Giving credit for trying (i.e., "Those of you who gave oral presentations got a
hundred for being brave, but you got a hundred anyway for meeting all the
requirements.")
* Encouraging students to take unpopular sides in discussion (i.e., "I want someone
to play devil's advocate.")
* Noticing when students were missing from discussions (i.e., "I miss your voice. Is
everything okay?")
* Fostering acceptance of multiple perspectives (i.e., "Look how everyone has their
own opinion.")
* Encouraging and responding to student questions (see example below)

By creating a safe environment for students to play with ideas, she provided students with

the opportunity to think aloud in their discussions and to feel confident to take the lead as

exemplified in the following discussion:

Ms. Morrison: She has a question.

Kim: Wasn't Paris a Montague since he was Romeo's cousin?

Students discussed it.

LaTanya: You lost.

Kim: No, I'm not.

LaTanya: Mercucio wasn't part of the Montagues.

Kim: Yes, he was.

LaTanya: No, he was Romeo's best friend.

Ms. Morrison: [Look at the text.] Paris is there first putting flowers on Juliet's
grave. Then, Romeo came and they got into a fight and Romeo killed Paris and
Paris' last words are, "Lay me next to Juliet ..." and [Romeo] does.

Kim: I want to know if Paris is related [to Romeo].

(T2.Obs006.050605.1i238-249)









In this exchange, Kim sought the help of others as she constructed meaning from the text.

Ms. Morrison redirected Kim, and the rest of the class, back to the text to help Kim find

the answer to her question. Having the time and assistance to share her thinking helped

Kim to develop her own thought process while also helping others in the class to learn

from this process.

Discussions of literature in Ms. Morrison's class frequently involved discussions of

film. Ms. Morrison explained, "I never show the entire film. I just take snippets, so they

can see and that way you can do an effective [comparison] and just focus on a certain

scene and analyze it for what it is because, by that time, the kids should know the play.

They've read it" (T2.Int002.042205.1i2-3). During class discussions of a piece of

literature, Ms. Morrison often showed excerpts from a film and the class compared the

scene from the movie to the scene in the text. Students appeared to be accustomed to

making comparisons between snippets from film and a text, and these viewings served

several purposes. First, they reinforced and further developed students' understanding of

the literature by encouraging them to think critically about not only how the words and

actions compared, but also how the mood and intention behind the scene differed. In

addition, Ms. Morrison found it important that students analyzed critically the movies

they saw outside of the classroom, so she encouraged them to ask the same kinds of

questions whenever they saw movies outside of school.

Many of the discussions of film began with a general question about what

students thought about the film adaptation. Then, she encouraged students to look more

closely at the similarities and differences between the film version and the text version of

a given scene. Students often took the lead in the discussion of the film:









Julian: This is really different from the other one.

Mia: That was more emotional than the [play].

Julian: The music, the surroundings-

Mark: The fight.

Mia: Mercucio wasn't really mad about it [in the play].

(T2.Obs003.042205.1i229-235)

Sometimes, students began their comparison as soon as Ms. Morrison stopped the film

without any prompting:

Ms. Morrison paused the tape.

Robert: Dag, you can really see the intensity in that.

Mia: Romeo was too dramatic.

Ms. Morrison: Romeo just came and got the gun and shot him. There was no build
up, no fight. In the other one, there was building up ... they actually fought to the
death, but that's how it is in today's society. You just shoot.

(T2.Obs003.042205.1i253-255)

In both examples, students began to formulate critical interpretations of the film in

comparison to the play. In the first excerpt, for example, Mia noticed that the film version

exaggerated Mercucio's feelings of anger. In order for her to make such a claim, she

needed to understand Mercucio's state of mind in the play. Also, in the second excerpt,

Mia again noticed that the director of the film exaggerated Romeo's emotions. Sharing

her thoughts on the film allowed her to further develop her thinking and allowed others to

push their own thinking a step further.

Assessment-Centeredness

Assessment-centeredness refers to knowing what needs to be assessed, knowing

and administering many different kinds of assessment, utilizing both formative and









summative assessment, and recognizing the value of assessment as a learning tool as well

as an evaluative tool. By frequently implementing assessment in a variety of ways,

effective teachers give students the chance to rethink their ideas and reconsider concepts

that are new to them (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005). Frequent formative

assessment proactively addresses potential challenges students have in understanding

new concepts; it also allows teachers to see when they may not have made material

accessible enough to their students. Treating assessment as another learning tool, and not

a punishment, increases students' level of comfort in making mistakes and, therefore,

increases their level of engagement (Langer, 2002).

Current research on teachers who facilitate academic gains emphasizes the

importance of teachers providing frequent feedback to students in order to facilitate

academic success. In addition, current research notes that effective teachers constantly

monitor students' understanding as they push them to reach their full intellectual potential

(Corbett et al., 2002; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Langer, 2002). These teachers emphasize

that making mistakes is part of the learning process, so they provide formative feedback

for students to use in revision. Ms. Morrison applied this strategy in her classroom and,

when students received unsatisfactory grades (an unsatisfactory grade could be a D or an

F on a test or quiz or less than an A on a writing assignment), they had the opportunity to

retake tests or rewrite papers.

Ms. Morrison implemented frequent formative assessment, most often, through

class discussion. When reading plays, students typically read a piece of literature aloud

and then discussed it as a class. During their discussions of Romeo and Juliet, for

example, Ms. Morrison often insisted that students find textual support for their claims,









one of Rosenblatt's (1978) criteria for effective discussion of literature. Morrison also

encouraged students to apply elements of drama to their interpretations of the text. She

encouraged students to go beyond memorization of facts and definitions in order to

understand concepts and add depth to their analyses. In their discussion of Act I in Romeo

and Juliet, for example, Ms. Morrison continuously challenged students to develop their

thinking and add more depth to their responses:

Ms. Morrison: Yes ... we're seeing, as a result of Romeo killing Tybalt, the whole
plot changes. What happens to the main characters now?

A student responded. Ms. Morrison and the students talked about the typical
punishment for murder, which was death. Since Romeo killed Tybalt, he was
supposed to be put to death.

Ms. Morrison: It was supposed to be death, but why not Romeo? ... Why did the
prince give banishment instead of death to Romeo?

Tyesha: I forgot, Ms. Morrison.

A student provided an incomplete response.

Ms. Morrison: When Romeo kills who?

Aaliyah: Tybalt.

Ms. Morrison: Okay.

The student continued to elaborate and said that Romeo was glad he killed Tybalt.

Ms. Morrison: I wouldn't say glad. Just look at the dynamics. We saw how it
happened. We read it, we saw it, and we read it again.

Julian: Oh, I get it.

The student explained his answer and Ms. Morrison repeated it.

Ms. Morrison: Right, because Tybalt killed Mercucio ... Tybalt would've been [put
to death for murder even if Romeo hadn't killed him and], since Romeo upheld the
law [by killing Tybalt and he was] the prince's relative, he didn't suffer the most
severe consequences for committing murder.

(T2.Obs002.042005.1i72-95)









Obviously, students had difficulty understanding the significance of Romeo killing

Tybalt, but asking them questions allowed Ms. Morrison to assess students' level of

understanding and push them to rethink, clarify, or add to their ideas. It also allowed

students to see when they did and did not understand a concept. This kind of co-

construction of meaning provided Ms. Morrison with the opportunity to engage

simultaneously in formative assessment of students' understanding of the text and

instruction based on the evidence she gathered during the discussion.

To make sure students understood the text, Ms. Morrison also asked knowledge-

level questions during and after class readings. These questions required students to

answer information-seeking questions with a single right answer and, after Ms. Morrison

called on a student who may or may not have volunteered to answer the question, she

sometimes asked a clarification question to make sure she understood the student's

response. In 58 instances out of 106 instances of teacher questioning, she asked these

kinds of questions. During the following discussion, for example, Ms. Morrison asked

students to find specific differences between the play, The Devil andDaniel Webster, and

the film adaptation:

Ms. Morrison stopped the tape again.

Ms. Morrison: Did y'all hear the comment in reference to Indians? What is the
negative comment he made?

Sheila: If two New Hampshire men can't do it, we should give the country back to
the Indians.

Ms. Morrison: Is that in the play?

Travis: Yeah.

Ms. Morrison: Let's find it. Where's it at?

Julian: It's not in there.









Kim: But, it said something about it.

Ms. Morrison: Let's find it. What's the difference?

Kim read the section of the text that was being portrayed at that point in the film.

Kim: No, they don't say it.

Ms. Morrison: The comment about the Indians. Look back at the time of the film
... What does that comment say?

Students responded.

Ms. Morrison: How is the director referring to Indians?

Robert: Superior.

Mia: Inferior.

(T2.Obs010.051805.1i212-227)

In this part of the discussion, Ms. Morrison simply wanted students to state facts about

the film in comparison to the play. She asked specifically whether or not certain events

took place or comments were made in both the play and the film. Then, she asked

students to find exact passages to support their answers. These kinds of questions

appeared to assess students' level of understanding of the facts in the film and the play

and allowed Ms. Morrison to gauge students' understanding and determine if she needed

to re-teach or move forward.

Teachers Integrate Test Preparation into Instruction

Langer (2002) found that effective English teachers consistently integrated test

preparation into their instructional practices. These teachers recognized the importance of

preparing students for high-stakes tests, whether or not they supported the administration

of those tests. Ms. Morrison similarly recognized the need to prepare her students for

standardized tests and integrated test preparation into instruction. Even mundane tasks,

like completing worksheets or answering writing prompts designed to prepare for state









tests, were perceived as personally meaningful to students depending on how and by

whom they were presented to students. While Ms. Morrison did incorporate activities that

students appeared to find fun and interesting, she also created an environment in which

students appeared to find purpose in completing more ordinary tasks. Despite the fact that

some tasks for test preparation could have seemed uninteresting to students, Ms.

Morrison managed to maintain student engagement in the assignments by reminding

students of the value of the tasks and encouraging them to rise to the challenge.

In an effort to prepare for standardized tests administered by the state, teachers

were required to assign a certain number of brief constructed response (BCR) questions

and extended constructed response (ECR) questions throughout the school year leading

up to the state tests in May. The writing prompts mimicked the kinds of questions that

appeared on the writing portion of the test, and the state not only expected teachers to

assign these kinds of writing prompts, but also they provided the actual questions

teachers should use for practice. A BCR was an open-ended question that could be

answered in a paragraph or two, and, during test administration, students were expected

to answer a BCR in about eight minutes. An ECR also was an open-ended question, but

students were expected to write a longer response and, during test administration, they

were expected to do it in about 15 minutes. Ms. Morrison assigned several BCR

questions to students, but did not impose a time limit for students to complete their

responses.

Although Ms. Morrison complied with state requirements and prepared students for

the test, she explained that she believed written tests were one of the least effective ways

to measure students' progress, particularly the progress of Black students. With that in