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Development of a Structured Method of Mental Practice and Its Effect on the Performance of High School Band Students

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PAGE 1

D E V E L O P M E N T O F A S T R U C T U R E D M E T H O D O F M E N T A L P R A C T I C E A N D I T S E F F E C T O N T H E P E R F O R M A N C E O F H I G H S C H O O L B A N D S T U D E N T S B y S T E P H E N D A N I E L G A L Y E N A D I S S E R T A T I O N P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2006

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C opyr i ght 2006 by S t e phe n D a ni e l G a l ye n

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T hi s doc um e nt i s de di c a t e d t o m y w i f e K e l l e y I c oul d not ha ve done t hi s w i t hout you. T ha nk you f or t he s a c r i f i c e s you m a de f o r t he e nc our a ge m e nt a nd s uppor t you ga ve m e f or s e l f l e s s l y w a nt i ng m e t o be ha ppy a nd f or be l i e vi ng i n m e

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i v A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w oul d l i ke t o e xpr e s s m y s i nc e r e gr a t i t ude t o a n um be r of pe opl e f o r t he i r he l p w i t h t hi s r e s e a r c h a nd t he c om pl e t i on o f m y doc t or a l de gr e e T hi s pr oj e c t w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t he i r k i ndne s s t i m e a dvi c e a nd i nt e r e s t i n m y s uc c e s s F i r s t I w oul d l i ke t o t ha nk t he m e m be r s o f m y s upe r vi s or y c om m i t t e e : D r R us s e l l R obi ns on f or s e r vi ng a s c ha i r of t he c om m i t t e e a nd gui di ng m e t hr ough e ve r y s t e p of t he e nt i r e P h. D p r ogr a m D r C ha r l e s H of f e r f or r e a di ng a nd e di t i ng e a c h c ha pt e r a nd f o r m e e t i ng w i t h m e ( a nd m y t he n f our m ont h ol d da u ght e r ) t o gi ve m e f e e dba c k. D r D a vi d W a ybr i ght f or hi s s uppor t of m e i n t he ba nd p r of e s s i on, a nd pr ovi d i ng m e w i t h out s t a ndi ng oppor t uni t i e s f o r gr ow t h dur i ng m y t i m e a t U F D r P h i l C l a r k f or s e r v i ng on t he c om m i t t e e a nd f or a l l of t he t ool s t ha t I l e a r ne d i n hi s e xc e l l e nt l e a de r s hi p c l a s s e s I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o t ha nk D r T i m ot hy B r oph y f o r hi s gui da nc e i n w r i t i ng a nd publ i s hi ng t he pi l ot s t udy, a nd f or hi s a dvi c e on t h e s t a t i s t i c s A l s o, I a m ve r y t ha nkf ul t o D r J ohn L a ve r t y a t S yr a c us e U ni ve r s i t y f or h i s di s c us s i ons w i t h m e r e ga r di ng a udi a t i on a nd f or s how i ng m e how i t c oul d be us e d t o i m pr o ve t he pe r f o r m a nc e of a ba nd. T ha nk you t o t he f a nt a s t i c ba nd di r e c t or s a nd ba nd s t ude nt s of t he R oa noke C ount y S c hool s i n R oa noke V i r g i ni a : T i m G a l ye n, D a w n C he r na ul t M a t t Y a t e s a nd B a r r y T uc ke r T he s e i ndi vi dua l s w e r e g r a c i ous e nough t o s ha r e t he i r va l ua bl e a nd l i m i t e d c l a s s t i m e w i t h m e T he y w e r e a l s o ki nd e nough t o a s s i s t m e w i t h t he l ogi s t i c s of t he p r oj e c t s e c ur i ng e xt r a r oom s f or s t ude nt t e s t i ng, pa s s i ng o ut a nd c ol l e c t i ng s t ude nt f or m s f i ndi ng s ui t a bl e da t e s f or t he p r oj e c t a nd be c om i ng f a m i l i a r w i t h t he r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s a nd

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v t e a c he r s c r i pt s r e qui r e d f o r t he s t udy. T hi s pr oj e c t de pe nde d on y our e ne r gy f l e xi bi l i t y a nd ki ndne s s a nd I t ha nk you f or m a ki ng t he c om pl e t i on of t hi s s t udy pos s i bl e T hi s s t udy w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t he he l p of m y good f r i e nd a nd m e nt or M r B i l l S ve c w ho s e r ve d a s t he t e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or dona t e d hi s r e c or di ng e qui pm e nt a nd r e c or de d e ve r y s i ngl e s t ude nt a nd e ns e m bl e r e c or di ng us e d i n t he s t udy. T ha nk you f or you r t i m e a dvi c e ge ne r os i t y, a nd e nt hus i a s m f or t he p r oj e c t Y ou ha ve be e n gi vi ng m e va l ua bl e a dvi c e e ve r s i nc e I w a s a s t ude nt t e a c he r a nd I a m t ha nkf ul t o ha ve you a s a f r i e nd. T ha nks t o m y good f r i e nds J a y J a c obs a nd L a ur a A nt oni f or s e r vi ng a s i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or s f or t he s t udy e ve n t hough t he y w e r e e xt r e m e l y bus y w i t h t he i r ow n c our s e w or k a nd pr oj e c t s M y P h. D w oul d not ha ve be e n pos s i bl e w i t hout t h e s uppor t of m y f a m i l y. T ha nk you, M om a nd D a d, f or you r e nc our a ge m e nt a nd f i na nc i a l a s s i s t a n c e dur i ng m y g r a dua t e s t udi e s Y ou ha ve a l w a ys be e n t he r e f o r us a nd a n y s uc c e s s t ha t T i m T hom a s a nd I f i nd w i l l a l w a ys ha ve i t s r oot s i n t he s up por t a nd e nc ou r a ge m e nt t ha t you ha ve gi ve n us ou r e nt i r e l i ve s T ha nks t o m y younge s t br ot he r T ho m a s w ho w a s t he f i r s t pe r s on t o t e l l m e of t he t e r m m e nt a l p r a c t i c e one da y w hi l e he w a s pr a c t i c i ng hi s m a r i m ba a nd w ho pr ovi de d m e w i t h s e ve r a l s our c e s on t he t op i c A n d t ha nks t o m y br ot he r T i m m y ye s m a n, w ho w a s ve r y e nt hus i a s t i c a bout pa r t i c i pa t i n g i n t he pr oj e c t w ho ga ve hi s t i m e t o he l p m e a nd o f f e r e d i nva l ua bl e a dvi c e f r om t he s c hool ba nd pe r s pe c t i ve of t he s t udy. M os t i m por t a nt l y, I w oul d not be a nyw he r e c l os e t o w he r e I a m t oda y w i t hout m y w i f e K e l l e y. I do not t hi nk t ha t I c oul d ha ve f ound a m or e s uppor t i ve pe r s on i n t he w hol e w or l d. Y ou ha ve s a c r i f i c e d s o m uc h f or t hi s dr e a m e ve r s i nc e w e l e f t V i r gi ni a f or

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vi S yr a c us e i n 2001 s o t ha t I c oul d pu r s ue a M a s t e r s de gr e e A l ong t he w a y, you ha ve be e n t he one w ho ke pt m e goi ng w ho s e t m e s t r a i ght w he n I w a s f r us t r a t e d or doubt f ul a nd w ho be l i e ve d i n m e e ve r y da y s t a r t i ng f r om t he da y w e f i r s t m e t i n 1997. I a m s o t ha nkf u l f or t ha t da y you ha d a f l a t t i r e a t s c hool a nd you r e f us e d t o l e t a nyone he l p you c ha nge i t j us t s o you c oul d w a i t f or m e t o c om e a l ong a nd a s k m e f o r he l p S i nc e t he n, a nd e s pe c i a l l y ove r t he pa s t f i ve ye a r s i t ha s a c t ua l l y b e e n you w ho ha s be e n t he one t o he l p m e ove r a nd ove r a ga i n. T hi s a c c om pl i s hm e nt o f c om pl e t i ng t he P h D i s j us t a s m uc h your a c c om pl i s hm e nt a s i t i s m i ne a nd I s ha r e t hi s s uc c e s s w i t h you, a nd w i t h our w onde r f ul be a ut i f ul da ught e r K a t e

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vi i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi i i C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 P ur pos e of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 D e l i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 R e s e a r c h H ypot he s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 D e f i ni t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 C opy T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 A udi t or y I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 I m a ge r y i n M us i c : G e ne r a l R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 I m a ge r y i n M us i c : Q ua l i t a t i ve R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 I m a ge r y i n M us i c E duc a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 T he or e t i c a l F ounda t i ons o f M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 P s yc hone ur om us c ul a r T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A r ous a l or A c t i va t i on T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 S ym bol i c L e a r ni ng T he o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 B i oi nf or m a t i ona l o r I n f or m a t i on P r oc e s s i ng T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 N on E m pi r i c a l A ppr oa c he s t o M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 D a nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 L e a de r s hi p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 S por t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 M us i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 R e s e a r c h S t udi e s i n M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 N on m us i c a l R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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vi i i M us i c a l R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 M e nt a l P r a c t i c e ve r s us P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 K now l e dge of R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 M e nt a l P r a c t i c e i n t he E ns e m bl e R e he a r s a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 S i ght R e a di ng a nd M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 L e ngt h a nd P l a c e m e nt of M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 M ot i va t i on a nd M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 O t h e r M e nt a l P r a c t i c e S t ud i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3 D E S I G N O F T H E S T U D Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 P i l ot S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 S e l e c t i on of t he P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 D e pe nde nt M e a s ur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 T r e a t m e nt V a r i a bl e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 C ont r ol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 A dm i ni s t r a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 S t a t i s t i c a l A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4 R E S U L T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 P r e s e nt a t i on of D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A na l ys i s of I nt e r S c o r e r R e l i a bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 C om pa r i s on of t he E xpe r i m e nt a l a nd C ont r ol G r ou ps M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s on t he I ndi vi dua l S t ude nt S i ght R e a di ng M e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 C om pa r i s on of t he E xpe r i m e nt a l a nd C ont r ol G r ou ps M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s on t he I ndi vi dua l S t ude nt P r e pa r e d P e r f o r m a nc e M e a s ur e . . . . . . . 103 C om pa r i s on of t he I nt a c t G r oup P e r f or m a nc e s on t he E ns e m bl e P e r f o r m a nc e M e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 C om pa r i s on of S t ude nt S c or e s i n t he T h r e e E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oups i n t e r m s of G e nde r G r a de L e ve l a nd I ns t r um e nt ( W oodw i nd or B r a s s ) . . . . . . . . . . . 111 C om pa r i s on of P os t S t udy Q ue s t i onna i r e A ns w e r s f r om S t ude nt s i n t he T w o M e nt a l P r a c t i c e G r oups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5 C O N C L U S I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 D i s c us s i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 C onc l us i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 S ugge s t i ons f or F ut u r e R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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i x S um m a r y a nd I m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 A P P E N D I X A S T U D E N T I N F O R M A T I O N F O R M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 B I N S T I T U T I O N A L R E V I E W B O A R D D O C U M E N T A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 C C O R R E S P O N D E N C E W I T H T E A C H E R S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 D I N D I V I D U A L P R E P A R E D P E R F O R M A N C E M E A S U R E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 E T E A C H E R R E H E A R S A L S C R I P T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 F T E S T A D M I N I S T R A T I O N I N S T R U C T I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 G I N S T R U C T I O N S F O R S C O R I N G I N D I V I D U A L S T U D E N T P E R F O R M A N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 H R A W D A T A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 I P O S T S T U D Y Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 J S T U D E N T O P I N I O N S R E G A R D I N G M E N T A L P R A C T I C E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

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x L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e pa ge 3 1 P i l ot s t udy r e s ul t s : M e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt di f f e r e nc e f o r e xpe r i m e nt a l ( n = 24) a nd c ont r ol ( n = 19) gr oups . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 3 2 C om pa r i s on of t he f our pa r t i c i pa t i ng ba nds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3 3 N um be r a nd i ns t r um e nt of s t ude nt s c om pl e t i ng i nd i vi dua l t e s t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4 1 I nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y c o r r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s f or i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4 2 E ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s . . . . . . . . . 101 4 3 S i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e : M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol g r oups pr e t e s t po s t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4 4 A na l ys i s of va r i a nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4 5 I ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e : M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups p r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4 6 A na l ys i s of va r i a nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4 7 R e s ul t s of t he S c he f f e t e s t o f m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e . . 107 4 8 R e s ul t s of s e pa r a t e t t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e . . 109 4 9 M e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd p e r c e nt di f f e r e nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups on t he e ns e m bl e p e r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e . . . . . . 111 4 10 C om pa r i s on of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i n s t r um e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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xi 4 11 C om pa r i s on of uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4 12 C om pa r i s on of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4 13 C om pa r i s on of s t ude nt m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt f o r t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 4 14 R e s ul t s of s e pa r a t e t t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s gr oupe d a c c or di ng t o ge nd e r a nd i ns t r um e nt . . . . . . . . . 118 4 15 S t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e by pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4 16 M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ( n = 55) s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e . 123 4 17 U ns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup ( n = 51 ) s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 4 18 S t ude nt s e l f e va l ua t i ons of c l a r i t y a nd c ont r ol dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e . . . . . . . . 125 4 19 S um m a r y of ope n e nde d r e s pons e s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup s t ude nt s ( n = 55) on t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 H 1 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f pi t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 H 2 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f dy na m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 H 3 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f r hy t hm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 H 4 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . 240 H 5 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . 241 H 6 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt h m . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 H 7 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of p i t c h a c c u r a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 H 8 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

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xi i H 9 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt hm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 H 10 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of p i t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 H 11 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 H 12 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt hm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 H 13 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . 249 H 14 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . 250 H 15 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt h m . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 H 16 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y 252 H 17 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . 253 H 18 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt hm . . . . . . 254 H 19 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f p i t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 H 20 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f d yna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 H 21 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s o f r hyt hm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 H 22 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of p i t c h a c c ur a c y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 H 23 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 H 24 P r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r s t ude nt s i n t he c ont r ol gr oup on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e i n t e r m s of r hyt hm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

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xi i i A bs t r a c t of D i s s e r t a t i on P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of D oc t o r of P hi l os o phy D E V E L O P M E N T O F A S T R U C T U R E D M E T H O D O F M E N T A L P R A C T I C E A N D I T S E F F E C T O N T H E P E R F O R M A N C E O F H I G H S C H O O L B A N D S T U D E N T S B y S t e phe n D a ni e l G a l ye n M a y, 2006 C ha i r : R us s e l l L R obi ns on C oc ha i r : D a vi d A W a ybr i ght M a j or D e pa r t m e nt : M us i c T hi s s t udy de ve l ope d a nd t e s t e d a s t r uc t u r e d m e t h od of t e a c hi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s T hi s m e t hod s e r ve d a s a n a t t e m pt t o s ynt he s i z e va r i ous m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s o t ha t t he s c hool m us i c t e a c he r c oul d a ppl y t he t e c hni que s dur i ng c l a s s i ns t r uc t i on. T he m e t hod i nvol ve d e xe r c i s e s i n a ) vi s ua l a udi t or y a nd m ot or i m a ge r y, b ) a c om bi na t i on of phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd c ) a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F our hi gh s c hool ba nds i n S out hw e s t V i r gi ni a p r a c t i c e d a uni s on e t ude a nd a n e xc e r pt f r om a c onc e r t ba nd c om pos i t i on f o r s i x w e e ks E a c h i nt a c t ba nd w a s a s s i gne d t o one of t h r e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod, uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ) or t o a no pr a c t i c e c ont r o l c ondi t i on. S e l e c t e d s t ude nt s ( N = 86) w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t e r m s of i ndi vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng, i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e a nd i nt a c t e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e

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xi v F or i ndi vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng, t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t m e a n ga i n s c or e f or pi t c h a nd dyna m i c s a nd t he l ow e s t m e a n ga i n f or r hyt hm N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound a m o ng t he gr oups F or i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t m e a n ga i n s c or e s i n a l l pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup m a de s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ga i ns ove r t he c ont r ol gr oup i n e ve r y pe r f or m a nc e a r e a a nd ove r t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup i n dyn a m i c s ( p < 05) T he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup m a de s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r ga i ns t ha n t he c o nt r ol gr oup i n r hyt hm ( p < 05 ) a nd pi t c h ( p < 01 ) T he uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup m a de s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt ove r t he c ont r ol gr oup i n r hyt hm ( p < 01 ) F or e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e a na l ys i s w a s ba s e d s ol e l y on r a w s c or e s due t o a l ow N ( N = 4) A l l t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups ha d c ons i de r a bl y hi ghe r ga i n s c or e s t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup f or a l l pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s ( pi t c h, t on e qua l i t y, a nd r hyt hm ) T he r e w a s no not i c e a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he ga i n s c or e s a m ong t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups f or t he t h r e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s t a ught us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e n t a l pr a c t i c e pe r f o r m be t t e r or j us t a s w e l l a s t h os e us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d f o r m o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e

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1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N M e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e f e r s t o t he c ove r t c ogni t i ve r e he a r s a l of a s ki l l w i t hout t he us e of phys i c a l m ove m e nt or s ound. M us i c i a ns e nga ge i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e ve r y t i m e t he y s i l e nt l y a na l yz e a pi e c e of m us i c be f or e s i ght r e a di ng i t he a r a m e l ody i n t he i r he a ds be f or e a c t ua l l y pl a yi ng i t or i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s i n a s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e T he c onc e pt of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ha s be e n a ppl i e d t o m a ny di s c i pl i ne s i nc l udi ng s por t s ( W e i nbe r g, 1989 ) da nc e ( F r a nkl i n 2004 ; T a yl or 1995) l a ngua ge e du c a t i on ( G ue r r e r o, 1991) s pe c i a l e duc a t i on ( A l l br i t t on G r a nt 1985) m e di c a l r e ha bi l i t a t i on ( R i c ha r ds on, 1995) a nd m us i c ( B r ooks 1995) A n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i s m e nt a l i m a ge r y t he i m a gi na r y r e pr e s e nt a t i on of obj e c t s a nd e ve nt s i n t he m i nd M uc h of t he i m a ge r y t ha t i s of i n t e r e s t i n t he f i e l d of m us i c i s a udi t or y i m a ge r y M e nt a l i m a ge r y t e c hni que s a r e of t e n us e d i n r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e by pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s ( C a r t e r 1993 ; M oye r 1992) a nd br a s s pl a ye r s ( T r us he i m 1987) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e e m pl oy s m e nt a l i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y, but i s a m uc h br oa de r t e r m P i e r s on ( 1992) de s c r i be s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s f ol l ow s : D ur i ng t hi s t ype of p r a c t i c e t he pe r f or m e r a na l yz e s t he r hyt h m s not e s ke y s i gna t ur e a nd a ny o t he r m us i c a l e l e m e nt s pr e s e nt e d on t he pa ge w i t hout t he be ne f i t of phys i c a l m ove m e nt I n a ddi t i on t he i ns t r um e nt a l i s t t r i e s t o i m a gi ne t he pi t c he s ( a udi a t i on or a ur a l i m a ge r y ) t ha t a ppe a r on t he pa ge a nd a l s o t r i e s t o i m a gi ne a l l m us c ul a r m ove m e nt t ha t w i l l oc c ur w h i l e a c t ua l l y pl a yi ng t he m us i c ( P i e r s on, 1992 pp 29 30) S t a t e d a not he r w a y, m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i nvol ve s t he u s e of a l l t he s e ns e s i n a n i m a gi na r y r e he a r s a l of pe r f or m a nc e a c t i vi t i e s w i t hout obs e r va bl e m ove m e nt or s ound

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2 ( K ohut 1985 p 127 ) T he s e i m a gi na r y r e he a r s a l s i nvol ve m e nt a l l y he a r i ng t he m us i c vi s ua l i z i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd f e e l i ng t he m us c l e s us e d i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e T he va l ue of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e l i e s i n i t s pot e nt i a l t o i m pr ove t he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of m us i c a l pe r c e pt i on a nd pe r f o r m a nc e T he a bi l i t y t o us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s c a n a l l ow a m us i c i a n t o p r a c t i c e w he n t he i ns t r u m e nt i s not a va i l a bl e or w he n i nj ur y pr e ve nt s pr a c t i c e a nd c a n he l p t o p r e ve nt phys i c a l e xha us t i on. I t c a n a l s o e nha nc e m e m or y of w or ds or m us i c m ot i va t i on c onf i de nc e a nd c onc e nt r a t i on. C onnol l y ( 2001 ) s t a t e s t ha t t he va l ue of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s t ha t i t c a n c ut s hor t t he l e a r ni ng p r oc e s s a nd c om pl e m e nt t he a c t ua l pr a c t i c e o f s ki l l s a s i t i s i n t he b r a i n w he r e t he ul t i m a t e l e a r ni ng o f s ki l l s a nd unl e a r ni ng of ba d ha bi t s t a ke s pl a c e T he pur pos e o f p r a c t i c i ng a s ki l l m e nt a l l y or phys i c a l l y, i s t o t e l l t he br a i n, a s c l e a r l y a s pos s i bl e how t o or ga ni z e t he b ody s m ove m e nt ( p. 17) F r e ym ut h ( 1993 ) s t a t e s t ha t r e gul a r m e nt a l r e he a r s a l c a n s e r ve a s a f or m of qua l i t y c ont r ol w i t h t he pot e nt i a l f o r r e f oc us i ng a t t e nt i on r e s t or i ng c onc e nt r a t i on, a nd r e vi t a l i z i ng pe r f o r m a nc e ( p. 142) R os s ( 1985) s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s va l ua bl e be c a us e unl i ke phys i c a l pr a c t i c e [ i t ] f oc us e s t he pe r f o r m e r s a t t e nt i on on t he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of m us i c pe r f or m a nc e w i t h l e s s e m pha s i s on t he s ounds be i ng m a de T he pe r f or m e r c a n now t hi nk m or e c a r e f ul l y a bout w ha t ki nds of t hi ngs m i ght be t r i e d, t he c ons e que nc e s of e a c h a c t i on c a n be pr e di c t e d b a s e d on e xpe r i e nc e a nd i na ppr opr i a t e c our s e s of a c t i o n r ul e d out ( p. 228) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s c oul d be be ne f i c i a l t o h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s i n s e ve r a l w a ys T he y c oul d p r ovi de a ddi t i ona l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s f or t he ba nd di r e c t or t o us e i n r e he a r s i ng a pi e c e of m us i c S t ude nt s c oul d be e nc our a ge d t o us e t he t e c hni que s dur i ng dow n t i m e i n r e he a r s a l s uc h a s w he n t he di r e c t or i s r e he a r s i ng a not he r s e c t i on of t he e ns e m bl e S t ude nt s c oul d a l s o us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s pa r t of t he i r hom e pr a c t i c e r out i ne T he r e i s a ne e d f o r e duc a t or s t o pr ovi de m ul t i p l e pr a c t i c e s t r a t e gi e s f or

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3 i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c s t ude nt s ( R a w l i ns 2004) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d be i nc l ude d a s one of t he s e s t r a t e gi e s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d be be ne f i c i a l i n pr e ve nt i ng p hys i c a l e xha us t i on. P hys i c a l e xha us t i on i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e i s a c om m on r e s ul t of t he l e ngt hy r e he a r s a l s e s s i ons t ha t t ypi c a l l y t a ke pl a c e a t honor ba nds a nd s um m e r ba nd c a m ps P hys i c a l e xha us t i on i s a l s o a n i s s ue f or s c hool ba nds w ho ope r a t e unde r a bl oc k s c he dul e ( B l oc he r a nd M i l e s 1999) M e nt a l p r a c t i c e c oul d s e r ve a s a m e a ns t o c ont i nue w or ki ng on a pi e c e o f m us i c w i t hout c a us i ng phys i c a l s t r a i n. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d a l s o be ne f i t s t ude nt s dur i ng s i ght r e a di ng. I t i s c om m on f o r s c hool ba nd c ont e s t s a nd honor ba nd a udi t i ons t o r e qui r e a s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e T ypi c a l l y, t he s t ude nt or e ns e m bl e i s a l l ow e d t o s i l e nt l y s t udy t he m us i c f or a s pe c i f i c l e ngt h of t i m e be f o r e pe r f o r m i ng t he pi e c e B a nd d i r e c t or s of t e n t e a c h s t ude nt s a s t udy r out i ne t o us e dur i ng t h i s t i m e t ha t t ypi c a l l y i nvol v e s s c a nni ng t he m us i c f or ke y a n d m e t e r s i gna t ur e s a nd f o r pot e nt i a l obs t a c l e s ( C a s e y 1991; S or r e l l s 1992) A pp r opr i a t e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s c oul d be us e f ul dur i ng t hi s s t udy pe r i od. S t at e m e n t o f t h e P r ob l e m T he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e h a s yi e l de d i nc ons i s t e nt r e s ul t s T hi s i nc ons i s t e nc y i s due t o a nu m be r o f pr obl e m s w i t h t he m e t hodol ogy e m pl oye d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e s e a r c h. C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) a t t r i but e t he i nc ons i s t e nc y a m ong r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t o t he w i de di s pa r i t y i n t he m e t hods e m pl oye d i n t he r e s e a r c h, i nc l udi ng c or e di f f e r e nc e s i n t he gr oups o f m us i c i a ns r e c r ui t e d t o t a ke pa r t ( i e t he i r l e ve l of s ki l l a nd i ns t r um e nt s pe c i a l i z a t i on) t he pr oc e dur e i m pl e m e nt e d ( i e t he a m ount of t i m e gi ve n f or m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t he s e l e c t i on a nd l e ngt h of t he pi e c e t o be r e he a r s e d, a nd t he pur pos e of t he r e he a r s a l i t s e l f ) a nd t he out c om e m e a s ur e of t he pe r f or m a nc e

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4 s ki l l W ha t i s c l e a r f r om t he e xt a nt l i t e r a t u r e i s t ha t m us i c i a ns t he m s e l ve s va r y c ons i de r a bl y i n t he i r us e of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l ( pp. 224 225) A ddi t i ona l l y, m a ny r e s e a r c h s t udi e s us e a de s i gn i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s a t t e m pt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n a s i ngl e p r a c t i c e s e s s i on w i t h l i t t l e o r n o t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l t e c hni que s T he s e s t udi e s ha ve t w o pr obl e m s F i r s t be c a us e t he y onl y m e a s ur e t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a f t e r one t r i a l t he y f a i l t o c ons i de r t ha t t r a i ni ng a n d pr a c t i c e m a y be ne c e s s a r y t o f ul l y m a s t e r t he t e c hni que R e s e a r c h s uppor t s t he not i on t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be pr a c t i c e d on a r e gul a r ba s i s i n o r de r t o be be ne f i c i a l ( C onnol l y & W i l l i a m on, 2004; F r e ym ut h, 1993; S a l m on & M e ye r 1992) T he r e f o r e r e s e a r c h t ha t a t t e m pt s t o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a f t e r onl y one pr a c t i c e s e s s i on m a y not be a n a c c ur a t e i ndi c a t or of t he pot e nt i a l of t he t e c hni que S e c ond, t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s us e d i n t he s e s t udi e s a r e of t e n ope n e nde d a nd uns t r uc t ur e d. S ubj e c t s a r e a s ke d t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e a m us i c a l s e l e c t i on m e nt a l l y w i t h no gui da nc e a s t o t he ki nd of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o us e T h i s f r e e dom m a y be be ne f i c i a l f or t hos e w ho a r e e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h m e nt a l p r a c t i c e but not f or t hos e w ho ha ve ne ve r a t t e m pt e d s uc h t e c hni que s be f or e R e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t ha t t e s t s t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a f t e r a c ons i s t e nt pe r i od of pr a c t i c e w i t h t he t e c hni que s a nd t ha t p r ovi de s s t r uc t ur e a nd t r a i ni ng t o t hos e w i t h l i t t l e or no e xp e r i e nc e w i t h m e nt a l r e he a r s a l M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s us e d i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a r e of t e n a da pt e d f r om t hos e us e d i n s por t s w hi c h t e nd t o f oc us on t he vi s ua l a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e B e c a us e of t he a ur a l na t ur e o f m us i c m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e s houl d s t r e s s a udi t or y i m a ge r y r a t he r t ha n v i s ua l i m a ge r y a s t he pr i m a r y c om pone nt T he ove r w he l m i ng m a j or i t y of s t udi e s t ha t a ppl y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ha ve us e d i ndi vi dua l a dul t s ubj e c t s T he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he s e r e s e a r c h

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5 f i ndi ngs t r a ns f e r t o publ i c s c hool m us i c w i t h i t s e m pha s i s on e ns e m bl e i ns t r uc t i on of younge r m us i c i a ns r e m a i ns t o be s e e n. F e w s t udi e s ha ve be e n done t o t e s t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he s c hool e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l s e t t i ng. O ne e xc e pt i on i s a s t udy by K e e na n T a ka gi ( 1995) w ho t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n a c hor a l r e he a r s a l s e t t i ng. T he r e i s l i t t l e i f a ny i nf o r m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n t he i ns t r um e nt a l e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l I n a ddi t i on r e s e a r c h t ha t i nc or por a t e s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s w i t h youn ge r m us i c i a ns i s s pa r s e a nd i nc onc l us i ve P u r p os e of t h e S t u d y R e c e nt r e s e a r c h ha s f oc us e d on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h a dul t m us i c i a ns a nd r e l a t i ve l y f e w s t udi e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o a ppl y m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s t o t e a c hi ng s i t ua t i ons i nvol vi ng younge r m us i c i a ns T hi s s t udy w i l l a t t e m pt t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s A pi l ot s t udy us i ng m i dd l e s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t younge r m us i c i a ns c oul d us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s e f f e c t i ve l y. T he s t udy s ugge s t e d t ha t f u r t he r r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a i s ne c e s s a r y t o de t e r m i ne t he be s t m e t hod of t e a c hi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o younge r m us i c i a ns S t udi e s ha ve not a l l ow e d f or t he r e gul a r pr a c t i c e o f m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t m a ny e xpe r t s i n t he f i e l d a dvo c a t e r e gul a r pr a c t i c e i n or de r t o f ul l y de ve l op t he s ki l l s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e W hi l e t he l i t e r a t ur e on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e p r ovi de s s e ve r a l e xe r c i s e s a nd t e c hni que s t he r e a ppe a r s t o be a l a c k of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f ut i l i z i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e T hi s s t udy w i l l de ve l op a nd t e s t a s i x w e e k s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of t e a c hi ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t o s t ude nt s

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6 T he m a j or i t y of s t udi e s i nvol vi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c us e i ndi vi dua l s ubj e c t s H ow e ve r w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on i ns t r um e nt s a r e us u a l l y t a ught a s a n e ns e m bl e i n s c hool m us i c pr ogr a m s M e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s a r e ne e de d t ha t c a n be us e d by t he s c hool m us i c t e a c he r w i t h t he i ns t r u m e nt a l e ns e m bl e T he r e f or e t he m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i l l be de s i gne d t o be a ppr opr i a t e f or us e by hi gh s c hool ba nds T he s t udy w i l l e va l ua t e t he pe r f or m a nc e o f bot h t he e ns e m bl e a s a w hol e a nd t he s t ude nt a s a n i ndi v i dua l S t ude nt s w i l l be e va l ua t e d i n t e r m s o f how m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a f f e c t s t he i r s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e T he pr i m a r y c onc e r n o f t he s t udy i s how m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s houl d be s t be t a ught t o s t ude nt s a nd how t he s e t e c hni que s c a n b e us e d i n t he ba nd c l a s s s e t t i ng. T he r e f or e t he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o de s i gn a nd t e s t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a s t r uc t ur e d, s e que nt i a l m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i ns t r uc t i on o n t he m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s D e l i m i t at i on s o f t h e S t u d y T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a s a ppl i e d t o t he hi gh s c hool ba nd c l a s s M a ny ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t r e l a xa t i on t e c hni que s or e xe r c i s e s i n c onc e nt r a t i on m i ght c o m pl e m e nt m e nt a l r e he a r s a l T hi s s t udy f oc us e d on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s onl y r e l a x a t i on a nd c onc e nt r a t i on t e c hni que s w e r e not i nc l ude d. T he r e i s a m pl e e vi de nc e t ha t a l t e r na t i ng m e nt a l a n d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i s s upe r i or t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l one T he r e f o r e t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t r e a t m e nt us e d i n t h i s s t udy a l t e r na t e d be t w e e n m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l p r a c t i c e r a t he r t ha n e xc l us i ve m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w i t hout phys i c a l pr a c t i c e

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7 T he de s i gn of t he s t udy p r e s e nt e d s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i o ns T he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od f o r t hi s s t udy w a s l i m i t e d t o s i x w e e ks M or e e xpe r i e nc e w i t h m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m a y be r e qui r e d i n or de r t o a s s e s s i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s B e c a us e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s i n gr a de s 9 12, r e s ul t s m a y not a ppl y t o s t ude nt s of ot he r a ge l e ve l s F our ba nds f r o m f our di f f e r e nt hi gh s c hool s w e r e s e l e c t e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy. B e c a us e e a c h ba nd w a s t a ught by i t s r e s pe c t i ve ba nd di r e c t or a t e a c he r e f f e c t c oul d ha ve be e n pr e s e nt T e a c he r r e l a t e d va r i a bl e s s uc h a s ye a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e r a ppo r t w i t h s t ude nt s pe r s ona l i t y, a nd e nt hus i a s m f or t he s t udy m a y ha v e i nf l ue nc e d t he r e s ul t s H o m e pr a c t i c e w a s not m oni t or e d du r i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od. A d di t i ona l l y, s t ude nt a bs e nc e s f r om s c hool dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od w e r e not a c c ount e d f or A s w i t h a ny s t udy i nvol vi ng c ove r t m e nt a l a c t i vi t y i t w a s i m pos s i bl e t o de t e r m i ne i f e a c h s t ude nt a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e I t w a s a l s o i m pos s i bl e t o de t e r m i ne t he qua l i t y of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S t ude nt s l i ke l y h a d di f f e r i ng l e ve l s of c onc e nt r a t i on a nd a t t e nt i on dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s e s s i ons T he onl y w a y t o e s t i m a t e w ha t t he s t ude nt s w e r e t hi nki ng w a s t o a s k t he m a t t he c om pl e t i on o f t he s t udy. A pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e a s ke d s t ude nt s t o e s t i m a t e t he i r l e ve l of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e H ow e ve r t he e xa c t a m ount a nd qua l i t y of m e nt a l a c t i vi t y c a nnot be de t e r m i ne d. R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on s T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy: 1. W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he s i ght r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e of h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ? 2. W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ?

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8 3. W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of a hi gh s c hool ba nd pe r f o r m i ng a s a n e ns e m bl e ? 4. W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s i n t e r m s of gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd pe r f or m i ng i ns t r um e nt ? 5. W ha t a r e t he opi ni ons o f hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ? R e s e ar c h H yp ot h e s e s T he r e s e a r c h hy pot he s e s f or t h i s s t udy w e r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 2. S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r o l ) 3. A ba nd e ns e m bl e t ha t r e c e i ve s s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke c ons i de r a bl y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n p r e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e t ha n a n e ns e m bl e us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e p hys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 4. W i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt T he c or r e s pondi ng nul l hypot he s e s w e r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho p r a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e 2. T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e

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9 3. T he r e w i l l be no c ons i de r a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of a n e ns e m bl e t ha t pr a c t i c e s us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r u c t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e 4. W i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt D e f i n i t i on s A u d i at i on H e a r i ng m us i c i n t he m i nd w i t hou t t h e phys i c a l pr e s e nc e of t he s ound. S ynonym ous w i t h t he t e r m a ur a l i m a ge r y. B an d c l as s A s c hool pe r f o r m i n g e ns e m bl e of w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s c om pr i s i ng t he i ns t r um e nt a t i on of t he c om pl e t e m ode r n c onc e r t ba nd, w hi c h t ypi c a l l y i nc l ude s pi c c ol o, f l ut e oboe c l a r i ne t ba s s c l a r i ne t ba s s oon, a l t o s a xophone t e nor s a xophone ba r i t one s a xophone t r um pe t F r e nc h hor n, t r om bone ba r i t one t uba a nd pe r c us s i on. I m age r y A n i m a gi na r y or v i s ua l pi c t ur e i n t he m i nd t ha t c a n e nc om pa s s a l l t he s e ns e s A n i m a gi na r y r e pr e s e nt a t i on of a ny of t he s i x s e ns e s i n t he m i nd L e a he y a nd H a r r i s ( 2001, p. 167) de f i ne s i x t ype s of i m a ge r y: vi s ua l ( s i ght ) a udi t or y ( s ound) ol f a c t or y ( s m e l l ) gus t a t or y ( t a s t e ) t a c t i l e ( t ouc h) a nd ki ne s t he t i c ( m ot or ) M e n t al p r ac t i c e / m e n t al r e h e ar s al T he c ove r t c ogni t i ve r e he a r s a l of a s ki l l w i t hou t t he us e of phys i c a l m ove m e nt or s oun d, but m e nt a l l y i nvol vi ng a l l t he s e ns e s P h ys i c al p r ac t i c e T he a c t ua l p r a c t i c e of a s ki l l o r a c t i on i nvol v i ng a l l t he m us c l e s us e d i n a c t ua l pe r f o r m a nc e P r e p ar e d p e r f or m an c e T he pe r f or m a nc e o f a p i e c e of m us i c t ha t t he pe r f o r m e r ha s r e he a r s e d pr i or t o t he pe r f or m a nc e V i s u al i z at i on O bt a i ni ng a nd m a ni pul a t i ng a vi s ua l i m a ge i n t he m i nd w i t hout t he phys i c a l pr e s e nc e of t he i m a ge S ynonym ous w i t h t he t e r m vi s ua l i m a ge r y S i gh t r e ad i n g p e r f or m an c e T he i ni t i a l pe r f or m a nc e of a pi e c e of m us i c t ha t t he pe r f or m e r ha s not pr e vi ous l y s e e n, he a r d, or pl a ye d. S l ow m ot i o n p r ac t i c e S l ow i ng dow n a n a c t i on i n or de r t o f oc us on t he c om pone nt pa r t s or m ove m e nt s o f t he a c t i on

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10 C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W T hi s s t udy w a s c onc e r ne d w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt of a m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd i t s e f f e c t on t he pe r f o r m a nc e of hi gh s c hool w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s T he r e i s a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount of l i t e r a t ur e i n t he a r e a of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he l i t e r a t ur e c a n be di vi de d i nt o t w o gr oups : r e s e a r c h s t udi e s a nd non e m pi r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e R e s e a r c h s t udi e s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ons i s t of e m pi r i c a l f i ndi ngs r e l a t e d t o t he m e nt a l r e he a r s a l of a s ki l l H ow e ve r s t udi e s i n t hi s a r e a s uf f e r f r om t he l i m i t a t i on t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s a c ove r t m e nt a l a c t i vi t y t ha t c a nnot be di r e c t l y obs e r ve d. T he non e m pi r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e c ons i s t s pr i m a r i l y of t e c hni que s s ugge s t e d by e xpe r t pe r f or m e r s o r t e a c he r s t ha t a r e not t ypi c a l l y s uppor t e d by r e s e a r c h f i ndi n gs T h i s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i nc l ude s bot h r e s e a r c h s t udi e s a s w e l l a s t he non r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e W hi l e t he r e vi e w c onc e nt r a t e s on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s i t i s a ppl i e d t o m us i c s t udi e s i nvol vi ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n non m us i c a l a c t i vi t i e s a r e a l s o i nc l ude d. T he r e i s a l s o a c ons i de r a bl e a m ount of l i t e r a t ur e i n t he s pe c i f i c a r e a o f i m a ge r y O ne of t he p r i m a r y c om pone nt s of c ogni t i ve s c i e nc e i s t he i de a t ha t t he hum a n b r a i n s t or e s a nd ope r a t e s on m e nt a l r e p r e s e nt a t i ons or i m a ge s of t he w or l d I t i s a f unda m e nt a l c om pone n t of bot h our pe r c e pt i on o f m us i c a nd ou r a e s t he t i c r e s pons e t o m us i c M e ye r ( 1956) a f f i r m e d t he va l ue o f i m a ge r y i n m us i c w he n he s t a t e d t ha t i m a ge r y i s t he s t i m ul i t o w hi c h t he a f f e c t i ve r e s pons e i s r e a l l y m a de ( p. 256) T he r o l e of i m a ge r y a nd i t s i nf l ue nc e on m us i c a l l e a r ni ng ha s be e n t he s ubj e c t of num e r ous r e s e a r c h s t udi e s I m a ge r y pl a ys a c e nt r a l r ol e i n t he a bi l i t y t o e xe c ut e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s B e c a us e of t he

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11 unde r l yi ng f ounda t i on of i m a ge r y i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s t udi e s i nvol vi ng i m a ge r y a nd i m a ge r y i n m us i c a r e i nc l ude d i n t he r e vi e w T he pr e s e nt r e vi e w o f l i t e r a t ur e i s d i vi de d i nt o f ou r s e c t i ons : 1) i m a ge r y 2 ) t he or e t i c a l f ounda t i ons of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e 3) non e m pi r i c a l a ppr oa c he s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd 4 ) r e s e a r c h s t udi e s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h a s um m a r y of f i ndi ngs i n t he l i t e r a t u r e I m age r y T he c onc e pt of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e l i e s on t he i de a t h a t hum a ns c a n s t or e a nd m a ni pul a t e i m a ge s i n t he b r a i n. T he or i e s i nvol v i ng m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons ha ve be e n f ound i n t h e w or k of ph i l os ophe r s a nd ps yc hol ogi s t s t hr oughout hi s t or y T he i de a o f m e nt a l i m a ge r y i s f unda m e nt a l t o t he c ogni t i ve ps yc hol ogi s t s pr opos a l of t he m ul t i s t or e m ode l of t he br a i n a nd t he us e o f c ogni t i ve m a ps i n pr obl e m s ol vi ng I m a ge r y i n m us i c i s pr i m a r i l y c onc e r ne d w i t h a udi t o r y i m a ge r y w hi c h i s t he e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt of pr oduc i ng or r e pr oduc i ng m us i c i n t he m i nd, a nd t he r e f or e i s e s s e nt i a l t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on r e vi e w s t he hi s t or i c a l f ound a t i ons of m e nt a l i m a ge r y a nd t he e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng i t s a ppl i c a t i on t o hum a n be ha vi or a nd l e a r ni ng i nc l udi ng i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l l e a r n i ng. C op y T h e or y M uc h of t he hi s t or y of phi l os ophy a nd ps yc hol ogy ha s de a l t w i t h t he i de a t ha t t he hum a n br a i n c ont a i ns m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of ob j e c t s a nd e ve nt s T hi s i de a know n a s t he c opy t he or y i s pe r ha ps t he o l de s t t he or y o f kn ow l e dge a nd w a s or i gi na l l y pr opos e d by t he G r e e k phi l os ophe r s A l c m a e on, E m pe doc l e s a nd D e m oc r i t us i n t he f our t h a nd f i f t h c e nt ur i e s B C ( L e a he y a nd H a r r i s 2001 p 3) T he m a i n i de a of c opy t he or y i s t ha t w he n w e pe r c e i ve a n ob j e c t or e ve nt a m e nt a l c opy of t he obj e c t i s c r e a t e d

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12 i n our m i nds T he r e f or e w e on l y know t he a bout t he obj e c t i t s e l f i ndi r e c t l y, t hr ough i t s c opy. A r i s t ot l e e c hoe d t he i de a s of t he c opy t he o r y, be l i e vi ng t ha t hum a ns ha ve a c a pa c i t y t o pr oduc e i m m a t e r i a l obj e c t s w hi c h t he y ha ve pe r c e i ve d pr e vi ous l y. T hi s c a pa c i t y c a n a l s o be us e d t o r e c a l l ob j e c t s w hi c h a r e s t or e d i n m e m o r y, a s w e l l a s t o c r e a t e vi s i ons of r e a l o r i m a gi na r y obj e c t s ( G odo y a n d J or ge ns e n, 2001, p. 7) D e s c a r t e s e l a bor a t e d on t hi s i de a by s t a t i ng t ha t i m a gi na t i on c oul d a l s o i nc l ude ne w obj e c t s t ha t ha ve not be e n pr e vi ous l y e xpe r i e nc e d. C opy t he or y i s pa r a m ount i n t he w or k of T ol m a n ( 1948) w ho pos i t e d t ha t or ga ni s m s f or m i n t e r na l m a ps of t he w o r l d ba s e d o n e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul i T he s e c ogni t i ve m a ps a r e c e nt r a l t o T ol m a n s t he or i e s of l e a r ni ng a nd be ha vi or C opy t he or y a l s o pr ovi de s t he ba s i s f or t he a r c hi t e c t ur e o f c ogni t i ve s t udy know n a s t he s ym bol s ys t e m hypot he s i s A c c or di ng t o t hi s t he or y a n o r ga ni s m or c om put e r s t or e s w i t hi n i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t he w or l d s ym bol s w hi c h i t m a ni pul a t e s t o c ons t r uc t ne w r e pr e s e nt a t i ons ( L e a he y a nd H a r r i s 2001, p. 32) I m age r y L e a he y a nd H a r r i s ( 2001) s t a t e t ha t i m a ge r y i s of t e n de f i ne d a s a vi s ua l pi c t u r e i n t he m i nd, but t ha t t hi s de f i ni t i on i s m i s l e a di ng be c a us e i m a ge r y c a n e nc om pa s s a l l t he s e ns e s T he y s t a t e t ha t unl i ke pi c t ur e s i m a ge r y i s ve r y dyna m i c a nd c ons t r uc t i ve w i t h a hi gh de gr e e of pl a s t i c i t y. W e c a n i m a ge m ovi ng ob j e c t s c ha ngi ng e ve nt s a nd t hi ngs a nd s i t ua t i ons w e ha ve ne ve r a c t ua l l y s e e n or e xpe r i e nc e d ( p. 166 ) L e a he y a nd H a r r i s de f i ne s i x t ype s of i m a ge r y: vi s ua l ( s i ght ) a udi t o r y ( s ound) ol f a c t or y ( s m e l l ) gus t a t or y ( t a s t e ) t a c t i l e ( t ouc h) a nd ki ne s t he t i c ( m ot o r ) i m a ge r y. M e nt a l i m a ge r y i s a n e s s e nt i a l

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13 c om pone nt of t he c ogni t i ve m a ps pr opos e d by c og ni t i ve ps yc hol ogi s t s : W e ha ve i m a ge r y r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of f a m i l i a r pl a c e s a nd us e t he s e t o f i nd ou r w a y a r ound ( L e a he y a nd H a r r i s 2001 p 167 ) P i a ge t a nd I nhe l d e r ( 1971 ) di vi de i m a ge r y i nt o t w o l a r ge gr oups : r e pr oduc t i ve i m a ge s w hi c h r e pr e s e nt obj e c t s or e ve nt s a l r e a dy know n, a nd a nt i c i pa t or y i m a ge s w hi c h r e pr e s e nt e ve nt s t ha t ha ve not p r e vi ous l y be e n pe r c e i ve d. B a s e d on a s e r i e s of s t udi e s P i a ge t a nd I nhe l de r c onc l ude t ha t t he t w o c l a s s i f i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y c or r e s pond t o a n e s s e nt i a l ge ne t i c s e que nc e ( p. 352) R e pr oduc t i ve i m a ge s a r e f o r m e d dur i ng t he p r e ope r a t i ona l s t a ge of de ve l opm e nt or e ve n a s s oon a s t he a ppe a r a nc e of t he s ym bol i c f unc t i ons ( p. 352) D ur i ng t he p r e ope r a t i ona l s t a ge t he s e r e pr oduc t i ve i m a ge s a r e s t a t i c a nd una bl e t o r e pr e s e nt m ove m e nt s or t r a ns f or m a t i ons A nt i c i pa t or y i m a ge r y i s de ve l ope d i n t he c onc r e t e ope r a t i ons s t a ge a l ong w i t h t he a bi l i t y t o r e pr e s e nt ki ne t i c m ove m e nt a nd t r a ns f or m a t i on pr oc e s s e s I n hi s r e vi e w of s c i e nt i f i c l i t e r a t ur e on m e nt a l i m a ge r y, M a r ks ( 1999 ) c onc l ude s t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge r y s e r ve s a s i gni f i c a nt a da pt i ve f unc t i on i n t he pr e pa r a t i on of a c t i on a nd c opi ng w i t h c ha nge ( p 568 ) M a r ks r e vi e w f oc us e s on t he vi s ua l m ode of m e nt a l i m a ge r y. H e c l a i m s t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w hi c h e m pl oys s ubj e c t i ve l y e xpe r i e nc e d i m a ge s of f ut u r e e ve nt s a nd e xpl o r e s how t he s e e ve nt s m i ght be i nf l ue nc e d by be ha vi or a l i nt e r ve nt i on e na bl e s t he e xpe r i e nc e r s f ut ur e a c t i ons t o be m or e e f f e c t i ve l y t a r ge t e d t ow a r d hi s / he r goa l s ( p 568 ) A c c or di ng t o M a r k s t he pr i m a r y f unc t i on of c ons c i ous m e nt a l i m a ge r y i s t he s e l e c t i on, r e he a r s a l a nd pl a nni ng of goa l di r e c t e d a c t i vi t y ( p. 568)

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14 M a r ks ( 1999) di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n a c ons c i ous m e nt a l i m a ge r y us e d f o r goa l di r e c t e d a c t i ons a nd a n unc ons c i ous i m a ge r y us e d f or ha bi t ua l a c t i ons s uc h a s w a l ki ng. T he c ons c i ous f or m o f i m a ge r y i nvol ve s t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n c ons c i ous ne s s of pe r c e pt ua l m ot or a c t i vi t y i n t he a bs e nc e of t he a c t i vi t y t ha t i s r e pr e s e nt e d ( p. 569) H e a l s o s t a t e s t ha t t he vi vi dne s s of t he i m a ge r y a f f e c t s t he s uc c e s s of t he pe r c e pt ua l m ot or t a s k: A c or e a s s um pt i on i s t ha t c ons c i ous m e nt a l i m a ge r y s e r ve s a ba s i c a da pt i ve f unc t i on i n e na bl i ng e a c h pe r s on t o pr e pa r e r e he a r s e a nd pe r f e c t hi s or he r a c t i ons M e nt a l i m a ge r y pr ovi de s t he m e a ns t o gui de e xpe r i m e nt a l l y a nd t r a ns f o r m e xpe r i e nc e by r unni ng of f a c t i vi t y c yc l e s a s m e nt a l s i m ul a t i ons of t he r e a l t h i ng. S uc h a c t i vi t y r e he a r s a l c a n onl y pr oc e e d e f f e c t i ve l y w he n t he r e he a r s a l i nc o r por a t e s vi vi d i m a ge r y I m a ge r y t ha t i s vi vi d t hr ough vi r t ue of be i ng c l e a r a nd l i ve l y, a nd t he r e f or e c l os e l y a ppr oxi m a t i ng a c t ua l pe r c e pt ua l m ot or a c t i vi t y i s o f gr e a t be ne f i t t o a c t i on p r e pa r a t i on, s i m ul a t i on a nd r e he a r s a l ( p. 579) M ur phy ( 2005) s ugge s t s t ha t i ndi vi dua l s ha ve di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a nd t ha t t he l e ve l of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y c or r e s ponds t o t he e f f e c t i m a ge r y ha s on pe r f or m a nc e H e s t a t e s t ha t t he t w o i m por t a nt c om pone nt s of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a r e vi vi dne s s a nd c ont r ol l a bi l i t y: A n i m a ge i s s a i d t o be vi vi d i f i t i s c l e a r a nd r e s e m bl e s a r e a l e xpe r i e nc e i n s om e w a y. O ne a t hl e t e f or e xa m pl e t r i e s t o i m a gi ne s uc c e s s f ul l y s i nki ng a ba s ke t ba l l f r e e t hr ow i n t he f i na l s e c onds of a t i e d ga m e but s he c a n t f e e l t he ba l l c a n t s e e t h e ne t or c a n t he a r t he c r ow d. W e s a y t h a t he r i m a ge r y i s not vi vi d. O n t he ot he r ha nd s om e a t hl e t e s c r e a t e vi vi d i m a ge s t ha t don t t ur n out t he w a y t he y w a nt F or e xa m pl e a not he r a t hl e t e c a n vi vi dl y i m a gi ne hi m s e l f s t a ndi ng a t t he f r e e t hr ow l i ne a nd c a n e a s i l y f e e l t he i m a gi na r y ba l l i n hi s ha nds B ut w he ne ve r he t r i e s t o i m a gi ne m a ki ng a f r e e t hr ow he s e e s t he ba l l m i s s i ng t he ne t W e s a y t ha t he ha s l ow c ont r ol l a bi l i t y of hi s i m a ge ( p. 131) M ur phy c l a i m s t ha t i m a ge r y i s us e f ul i n l e a r ni ng n e w s k i l l s but a l s o i n r e t a i ni ng s ki l l s ove r t i m e O nc e a t hl e t e s ha ve l e a r ne d a s ki l l t he y f a c e t he c ha l l e nge o f m a i nt a i ni ng i t . t he r e gul a r r e he a r s a l o f l e a r ne d s ki l l s w i t h t h e goa l of r e t e nt i on, i s a not he r w i de l y us e d i m a ge r y s t r a t e gy a m ong a t hl e t e s ( p 139 )

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15 J e a nne r od ( 1995) di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n di f f e r e nt t ype s of i m a ge r y by de t e r m i ni ng t he s ubj e c t i ve di s t a nc e be t w e e n t he s e l f a nd h i s ow n i m a gi na l e xpe r i e nc e ( p 1419 ) H e s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge s c a n i nvol ve t he s e l f a s a s pe c t a t or w a t c h i ng a vi s ua l s c e ne i n w hi c h a n a c t i on i s pe r f o r m e d by t he r e p r e s e nt i ng s ubj e c t hi m s e l f ( p 1419) O n t he ot he r ha nd, m e nt a l i m a ge r y c a n a l s o be e xpe r i e nc e d a s t he r e s ul t of t he f i r s t pe r s on pr oc e s s i nvol vi ng m os t l y a ki ne s t he t i c r e p r e s e nt a t i on of t he a c t i on ( p 1419 ) A c c or di ng t o J e a nne r od, t he t e r m m ot or i m a ge r y r e f e r s t o t h i s l a t t e r t ype o f i m a ge r y a nd oc c ur s w he n t he s ubj e c t f e e l s hi m s e l f e xe c ut i ng a g i ve n a c t i on, w he t he r i t i nvol ve s t he w hol e body . or i t i s l i m i t e d t o a body pa r t ( pp. 14 19 1420) M a hone y a nd A ve ne r ( 1977) e xa m i ne d t he ps yc ho l ogi c a l f a c t or s a nd c ogni t i ve s t r a t e gi e s us e d by m a l e gym na s t s dur i ng t he f i na l t r i a l s f or t he U S O l ym pi c t e a m T he y f ound pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n s upe r i or a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e a nd c e r t a i n f o r m s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y. T he y a l s o f ound t ha t be t t e r a t h l e t e s r e por t e d a g r e a t e r us e of i nt e r na l i m a ge r y r a t he r t ha n e xt e r na l i m a ge r y. T he y de s c r i be t he t w o di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s of i m a ge r y a s f ol l ow s : I n e xt e r na l i m a ge r y, a pe r s on vi e w s hi m s e l f f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of a n e xt e r na l obs e r ve r ( m uc h l i ke i n hom e m ovi e s ) I nt e r na l i m a ge r y, on t he ot he r ha nd, r e qui r e s a n a ppr oxi m a t i on o f t he r e a l l i f e phe nom e nol ogy s uc h t ha t t he pe r s on a c t ua l l y i m a gi ne s be i ng i ns i de hi s / he r body a nd e xpe r i e nc i ng t hos e s e ns a t i ons w hi c h m i ght be e xpe c t e d of t he a c t ua l s i t ua t i on. ( p. 137) A ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t i m a ge r y f r o m t h e i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve pr oduc e s a c t i vi t y i n t he m us c l e s t ha t a r e i nvol ve d i n t he t a s k, w hi l e i m a ge r y f r om t he e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve pr oduc e s a c t i vi t y i n t he e ye m us c l e s onl y ( H a l e 19 82) A u d i t or y I m age r y M uc h of t he i m a ge r y t ha t i s of i n t e r e s t i n t he f i e l d of m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e i s a udi t or y i m a ge r y S e a s hor e ( 1938 ) s t a t e s t ha t a udi t or y i m a ge r y i s a dom i na nt pr e s e nc e i n

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16 na t ur a l m us i c i a ns w i t h a r i c h f e e l i ng f or m us i c ( p. 6) a nd t ha t m ot o r i m a ge r y i s a l s o w e l l de ve l ope d i n t he s e m us i c i a ns S e a s hor e c i t e s t he w r i t i ngs of S c hum a nn, M oz a r t B e r l i oz a nd W a gne r t o i l l us t r a t e t ha t i m a ge r y i s a f unda m e nt a l c om pone nt of m us i c a l c om pos i t i on. S e a s hor e s t a t e s t ha t i n t he hi ghe s t f o r m of l i s t e ni ng, t he a c t ua l s ounds of t he t one s m e r e l y f u r ni s h t he c ue s f o r t he m e nt a l r e c ons t r uc t i on t ha t pr oc e e ds f r o m t he m i nd of t he l i s t e ne r ( p 169) M us i c a l i m a ge r y i s t he r e f or e e s s e nt i a l f or a m us i c a l m e m or y i n w hi c h w e r e l i ve t he m us i c S e a s hor e c o nc l ude s t ha t t he m e nt a l i m a ge ope r a t e s i n m us i c i n t he f ol l ow i ng t hr e e w a ys : ( 1 ) i n t he he a r i ng of m us i c ; ( 2) i n t he r e c a l l of m us i c ; ( 3) i n t he c r e a t i on o f m us i c ( p 16 9) K a r pi ns ki ( 2000) s ugge s t s t ha t a ur a l i m a ge r y i s a n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt t o r e a di ng a nd pe r f or m i ng m us i c : B e f or e pe r f or m i ng, m us i c i a ns s houl d be a bl e t o e s t a bl i s h a ke y or s e t a t e m po w i t hout m a ki ng a s ound. T he a bi l i t y t o a ur a l i z e t he s e pr oc e dur e s i s va l ua bl e not onl y i n a c t ua l pe r f or m i ng s i t ua t i ons but a l s o f or e ve r yda y m us i c r e a di ng t a s ks A nyone r e a di ng m e t r i c t ona l m us i c m us t be a bl e t o a ur a l i z e ke y a nd m e t e r be f o r e be gi nni ng t o i nt e r pr e t a nd unde r s t a nd t he i ndi v i du a l not e s A nd t he a bi l i t y t o a ur a l i z e t he s ounds of t he i ndi vi dua l no t e s i s e qua l l y i m por t a nt P r of i c i e nt r e a de r s s c a n a he a d, t a ki ng i n m us i c a l l y m e a ni ngf ul g r oups of not e s a nd he a r i ng t he m i nt e r na l l y be f or e pr oduc i ng t he i r s ounds ( p. 156) T he r e i s e vi de nc e t ha t a udi t or y i m a ge r y a c t i va t e s a di f f e r e nt a r e a of t he b r a i n t ha n vi s ua l i m a ge r y. A l e m a n N i e uw e ns t e i n, B oc ke r a n d de H a a n ( 2000 ) f ound t ha t m us i c a l l y t r a i ne d s ubj e c t s pe r f or m e d be t t e r t ha n s ubj e c t s unt r a i ne d i n m us i c on a m us i c a l i m a ge r y t a s k a nd a non m us i c a l a udi t or y i m a ge r y t a s k. H o w e ve r t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t w o gr oups on a vi s u a l i m a ge r y t a s k, s ugge s t i n g t ha t vi s ua l i m a ge r y a c t i va t e s di f f e r e nt c o r t i c a l a r e a s of t he br a i n t ha n a udi t o r y i m a ge r y. I n a r e vi e w of s e ve r a l s t udi e s i nvol vi ng a udi t or y i m a ge r y, H a l pe r n ( 2001) c onc l ude s t ha t t he br a i n p r oc e s s e s bot h a c t ua l s ound a nd a ur a l i m a ge s i n a s i m i l a r

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17 m a nne r S he s t a t e s t ha t pa r t s of t he c or t e x s pe c i a l i z e d f or p r oc e s s i ng a c t ua l s ound a r e a l s o r e c r ui t e d t o p r oc e s s i m a gi ne d s ound. F u r t he r m or e t he pa r t i c ul a r s t r uc t ur e s pr oc e s s i ng i m a gi ne d m us i c be a r s om e s i m i l a r i t y t o t hos e pr oc e s s i ng he a r d m us i c ( p. 190) F i ndi ngs by W a s hi ngt on ( 1993 ) s uppor t t he s e r e s ul t s W a s hi ngt on m oni t or e d t he e l e c t r i c a l c ur r e nt s of t he br a i n i n pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on s t ha t i nvol ve d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S he t r a i ne d t w o vi ol i ni s t s a nd t w o vi ol i s t s i n a m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que Q ua nt i t a t i ve e l e c t r oe nc e pha l ogr a phi c m e a s ur e m e nt s w e r e t a ke n of t w e nt y e l e c t r ode s i t e s dur i ng s e ve n di f f e r e nt p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons T he p r a c t i c e c ondi t i o ns i nvol ve d i m a gi ne d ve r s us a c t ua l pl a yi ng a s w e l l a s s ol o ve r s us c ha m be r ( due t ) pl a yi ng. T he pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons i nc l ude d a r e s t i ng ba s e l i ne i m a gi ni ng p l a yi ng t he due t w i t ho ut l ooki ng a t t he s c or e i m a gi ni ng pl a yi ng t he due t w hi l e l ooki ng a t t he s c or e pl a yi n g t he m us i c a l one ( one pe r s on) vi ol i ni s t pl a ys w hi l e vi ol i s t i m a gi ne s pl a yi ng, vi ol i s t p l a ys w hi l e vi ol i ni s t i m a gi ne s pl a yi ng, a nd bot h m us i c i a ns pl a yi ng t oge t he r R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he a c t i vi t y of t he br a i n dur i ng i m a gi ne d m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e r e s e m bl e s t he br a i n a c t i vi t y dur i ng a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e I m age r y i n M u s i c : G e n e r al R e s e ar c h I n a s e r i e s of s t udi e s on m e nt a l i m a ge r y, B e t t s ( 19 09) de di c a t e d t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt s t o i m a ge r y i n m us i c T he f i r s t e xpe r i m e nt r e s e m bl e d a m us i c a l e a r t r a i ni ng e xe r c i s e i nvol vi ng r e l a t i ve p i t c h. S ubj e c t s l i s t e ne d t o a not e pl a ye d on t he pi a no a nd w e r e t ol d t he na m e of t he not e A f t e r 30 s e c onds a not he r not e w a s pl a ye d, a nd s ubj e c t s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o w r i t e dow n t he na m e o f t he s e c ond not e S ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d a f t e r e a c h t r i a l t o r e por t i f t he y ha d us e d a n a udi t or y i m a ge of t he f i r s t not e t o c om pa r e t o t he s e c ond not e or i f

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18 t he y j us t kne w w ha t t he s e c ond not e w a s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t 81% of t he s ubj e c t s r e por t e dl y us e d a udi t or y i m a ge s w i t h 14 out of 18 s ubj e c t s r e por t e dl y us i ng a udi t o r y i m a ge s i n e ve r y t r i a l T he pe r c e nt a ge o f a c c ur a c y f or not e na m i ng w a s gr e a t e s t w he n a udi t or y i m a ge r y w a s us e d, w i t h t he pe r c e nt a ge o f e r r o r be i ng a l m os t t w i c e a s hi gh f or t hos e w ho r e por t e d no i m a ge r y ( p. 85) I n t he s e c ond e xpe r i m e nt s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o s t udy a c om pos i t i on a nd t he n r e s pond t o a que s t i onna i r e r e ga r di ng t he i m a ge r y u s e d w hi l e s t udyi ng t he s c or e T he m a j or i t y of s ubj e c t s r e por t e d us i ng a udi t or y, ki ne s t he t i c a nd/ or vi s ua l i m a ge r y i n t he i r s i l e nt s t udy of t he m us i c I n t he t hi r d e xpe r i m e nt s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o de s c r i be t he i m a ge s t ha t a ppe a r e d i n t he i r m i nds a s t he y l i s t e ne d t o a pe r f or m a nc e o f pi a no m us i c R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t 18 out o f 19 s ubj e c t s r e por t e d us i ng vi s ua l or ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge s a s t he y l i s t e ne d. B e t t s ( 1909) s t a t e s : O ne i s i m pr e s s e d w i t h t he l a r ge a m ount o f i m a ge r y r e por t e d i n a l l of t he s e t e s t s a nd, e ve n a f t e r a l l ow a nc e i s m a de f o r t he t e nde nc y of t he unt r a i ne d obs e r ve r t o ove r s t a t e hi s i m a ge r y, t he c onvi c t i on s t i l l obt a i ns t ha t a gr e a t de a l of i m a ge r y o f vi s ua l a udi t or y, a nd ki ne s t he t i c ki nds a c c om pa ni e d t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t he t on e s a nd t he m us i c ( p. 86) B e r ge n ( 1967) f ound t ha t t he r e w a s a pos i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n pi t c h i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd m us i c a l i m a ge r y I m a ge r y s c or e s w e r e de t e r m i ne d f r om a n i m a ge r y que s t i onna i r e t ha t a s ke d s ubj e c t s t o r a t e t he i r i m a g e s of c e r t a i n s ounds on a f i ve poi nt s c a l e T o de t e r m i ne pi t c h i de nt i f i c a t i on a bi l i t y s ub j e c t s w e r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h a pi t c h a nd a s ke d t o l oc a t e i de nt i c a l pi t c he s f r o m a s e r i e s of 10 t one s B e r ge n s t a t e s t ha t be c a us e of t he s i gni f i c a nt num be r of c ue s i t i s c a pa bl e of pr ov i di ng, a n i m a ge t one m a y s e r ve a s t he s t a nda r d a ga i ns t w hi c h t o c om pa r e ot he r t one s be i ng j udge d ( p 108) H e s ugge s t s

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19 t ha t t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke j udgm e nt s r e ga r di ng pi t c h de pe nds on our i nt e r na l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of t hos e t one s I m age r y i n M u s i c : Q u a l i t at i ve R e s e ar c h T he us e of m e nt a l i m a ge r y by pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s w a s s t r ongl y s uppor t e d i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) qua l i t a t i ve s t udy on t he i s s ue C a r t e r i nt e r vi e w e d e l e ve n p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s c ur r e nt l y or pr e vi ous l y a c t i ve i n t he f i e l ds of ope r a or a t or i o, or r e c i t a l w or k R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e i s a w i de s pr e a d us e of i m a ge r y s t r a t e gi e s i n m a ny a r e a s of voi c e t r a i ni ng, pe r f o r m i ng, a nd t e a c hi ng a nd t ha t i m a ge r y i s uni que t o t he i ndi v i dua l pr i va t e i n na t u r e a nd e m pl oye d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he de gr e e o f i ndi vi dua l n e e d i n s pe c i f i c s i t ua t i ons ( p. 299) T he s i nge r s r e po r t e d us i ng m e nt a l i m a ge r y t o c he c k a nd r e t a i n pr ope r pos t ur e a nd t o a s s i s t w i t h pr ope r br e a t hi ng. T he y us e d i m a ge r y t o f e e l s ound r a t he r t ha n t o he a r i t f e e l i ng t he pr onunc i a t i on of w or ds a nd t he vi b r a t i ons i n di f f e r e nt pa r t s of t he he a d a nd body T he y a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o c om ba t a nxi e t y t e ns i on, a nd l a c k of s e l f c onf i de nc e T he voc a l i s t s r e por t e d us i ng ki ne s t he t i c a udi t or y, a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y I n a s i m i l a r s t udy, M oye r ( 1992) f ound t ha t 95 % o f s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w e d us e d m e nt a l i m a ge r y. T he m a j or i t y of s i nge r s us e d ki ne s t he t i c s e ns or y, a nd a udi t or y i m a ge r y a nd m or e e xpe r i e nc e d s i nge r s us e d vi s uo s pa t i a l i m a ge r y a s w e l l M os t s i nge r s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y us e d i m a ge r y f r om a n i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i v e us e d m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s a nd i m a ge d pi t c h a nd vow e l i nt e r a c t i ve l y T r us he i m ( 1987 ) i nt e r v i e w e d t w e nt y s i x or c he s t r a l br a s s pl a ye r s f r om f i ve m a j or s ym phony or c he s t r a s r e ga r di ng t he r ol e o f m e nt a l i m a ge r y i n t he i r m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t h a t a m a j or i t y of t he m us i c i a ns us e d a udi t or y i m a ge r y a s w e l l a s vi s ua l ki ne s t he t i c a nd t a c t i l e i m a ge r y i n t he i r m us i c a l e x pe r i e nc e s T he pl a ye r s r e por t e dl y us e d

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20 pr i or pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s a s a s our c e of i m a ge r y a nd us e d i m a ge r y e l i c i t e d i n r e s pons e t o t h e c ont e nt o f s pe c i f i c m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons I m age r y i n M u s i c E d u c at i on S e r a f i ne ( 1981 ) i nve s t i ga t e d t he a bi l i t y o f young c hi l dr e n t o s t r uc t ur e a nd m a ni pul a t e m e nt a l i m a ge s of s ounds S pe c i f i c a l l y, s he s ought t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h c hi l dr e n a r e a b l e t o m e nt a l l y c om bi ne t he i m a ge s of t w o di f f e r e nt s ounds a nd pr e di c t w ha t t he y w oul d s ound l i ke s i m ul t a ne ous l y. T he s t udy w a s ba s e d on t he t he o r i e s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y by P i a ge t a nd I nhe l de r ( 1971) a nd de a l t pr i m a r i l y w i t h w ha t t he y c a l l e d a nt i c i pa t or y i m a ge r y A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r a nt i c i pa t or y i m a ge r y r e f e r s t o i m a ge s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e ve nt s t ha t ha ve not p r e vi ous l y be e n pe r c e i ve d. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t m a ny c hi l dr e n a ge s 3 5 a r e una bl e t o de t e r m i ne i f t w o s i m ul t a ne ous s ounds a r e t he s a m e a s t w o s uc c e s s i ve s o unds S e r a f i ne s t a t e s t ha t t he y s e e m i nc a pa bl e of a n i m a gi na l c om bi ni ng o f t w o s e pa r a t e s ounds ( A = B ) i n or de r t o pr e di c t o r a nt i c i pa t e t he r e s ul t ( A B ) ( p 106) T he f i ndi ngs s uppor t P i a ge t a nd I nhe l de r s t he or y t ha t de ve l opm e nt a l s t a ge s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e a bi l i t y t o m e nt a l l y c onc e i ve a ur a l i m a ge s G i l e s H a ye s a nd G r a nt ( 1993) f ound t ha t t he us e of i m a ge r y i nc r e a s e d m ot i va t i ona l a nd a f f e c t i ve r e s pons e s of f i f t h gr a de c hi l dr e n s t udyi ng a m us i c a l c om pos i t i on. C hi l dr e n w ho us e d i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s i n s t udyi n g a pi e c e of m us i c w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o de s c r i be t he e l e m e nt s of t he m us i c t h a n c hi l dr e n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t r a di t i ona l a c t i vi t i e s I n a s e c ond s t udy, s ubj e c t s i n t he t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i on l i s t e ne d t o a c om pos i t i on a bout t he G r a nd C a nyon, a nd w e r e a s ke d t o i m a g i ne t he m s e l ve s on a c a m pi ng t r i p i n t he G r a nd C a nyon. T he y w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o d r a w pi c t ur e s of w ha t t he y s a w A l t hough t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he c ont r ol a nd t r e a t m e nt g r oups i n t e r m s of

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21 c ogni t i ve t e s t s c or e s a nd l i s t e ni ng c onc e pt s t h e i m a ge r y gr oup di d ha ve hi ghe r a f f e c t i ve s c or e s S ubj e c t s i n t he i m a ge r y gr oup a l s o r e s ponde d t he m os t f a vo r a bl y i n t ha t t he y l i ke d t he a c t i vi t y, f e l t t he a c t i vi t y he l pe d t he m unde r s t a n d t he pi e c e a nd l i ke d t he m us i c s t udi e d. B a gl e y a nd H e s s ( 1987) de s c r i be m ul t i pl e w a ys t o us e i m a ge r y i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd pr ovi de s ubj e c t s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y l e s s ons i n l a ngua ge a r t s m a t h s c i e nc e s oc i a l s t udi e s a r t a nd m us i c T he l e s s ons a s k s t ude nt s t o i m a gi ne t he v i s ua l a ur a l a nd ki ne s t he t i c a s pe c t s of a pl a c e s i t u a t i on, or e ve nt F or e xa m pl e i n a l e s s on t i t l e d L i ve a t S ym phony H a l l s t ude nt s l i s t e n t o a s ym phony r e c or di ng a nd a r e pr ovi de d w i t h i ns t r uc t i ons s uc h a s s e e t he c onduc t or e nt e r he a r t he s i l e nc e a s s he t a ps a nd r a i s e s he r ba t on, a nd f e e l t he r hyt h m ( p 200) O r z ol e k ( 2002) f ound t ha t i m a ge r y a nd m ove m e nt e xe r c i s e s a i m e d a t i nc r e a s i ng t he e xpr e s s i ve ne s s of s t ude nt c onduc t i ng i nc r e a s e d t he a bi l i t y o f s t ude nt s t o c onduc t e xpr e s s i ve l y. T he e xe r c i s e s c om bi ne d i m a ge r y w i t h t he m ove m e nt a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i m a ge r y ( a c t i ve i m a ge r y ) F or e xa m pl e s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o vi s ua l i z e a vol l e yba l l a nd phys i c a l l y s i m ul a t e c e r t a i n a c t i ons w i t h t he ba l l A not he r e xe r c i s e i nvol ve d i m a gi ng a nd a c t i ng out a s w or d f i ght or a r ope p ul l i ng a c t i vi t y ( D C O r z ol e k, pe r s ona l c om m uni c a t i on, O c t obe r 26, 2004) G or don ( 1980) c r e a t e d t he t e r m a udi a t i on t o de s c r i be a udi t or y i m a ge r y: A udi a t i on t a ke s pl a c e w he n one he a r s m us i c t hr o ugh r e c a l l or c r e a t i on, t he s ound no t be i ng phys i c a l l y pr e s e nt ( e xc e pt o f c our s e w he n one i s e nga gi ng i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ) a nd de r i ve s m us i c a l m e a ni ng ( p 2 ) G or don p r e f e r s t he t e r m a udi a t i on be c a us e t he w or d i m a ge r y of t e n i m pl i e s a vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on.

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22 S e ve r a l r e c e nt s t udi e s ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t a udi a t i o n ba s e d t e c hni que s m a de no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he m us i c a l a c hi e ve m e nt o f young ba nd s t ude nt s I n a s t udy t ha t a ppl i e d a udi a t i on t e c hni que s i n t he be gi nni ng ba nd c l a s s J os uw e i t ( 1991) f ound t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n m us i c a l c r e a t i vi t y s ki l l s be t w e e n s t ude nt s t a ught us i n g a n a udi a t i on ba s e d a ppr oa c h a nd t hos e us i ng t r a di t i ona l m e t hods S i m i l a r r e s ul t s w e r e obt a i ne d by F r i e r s on C a m pbe l l ( 2000) i n a s t udy t ha t t e s t e d t he e f f e c t s of a udi a t i on ba s e d e nr i c hm e nt a c t i vi t i e s on t he a c hi e ve m e nt o f s e c ond ye a r w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n a c hi e ve m e nt be t w e e n t he c ont r ol gr oup a nd t he gr oup us i ng a udi a t i on ba s e d a c t i vi t i e s L i pe r ot e ( 2 004) f ound t ha t f our t h gr a de ba nd s t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve d a udi a t i on ba s e d i ns t r uc t i on i n t he t hi r d g r a de w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y s upe r i or i n a r e a s of m us i c a c hi e ve m e nt or a pt i t ude t ha n s t ude nt s w ho di d not r e c e i ve d a udi a t i on ba s e d i ns t r uc t i on. H ow e ve r G r om ko ( 2004) f ound t ha t a udi a t i on w a s a s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or of s i ght r e a di ng a bi l i t y i n hi gh s c hool w i nd pl a ye r s I t a ppe a r s t ha t t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h a udi a t i on c a n s e r ve a s a t e a c hi ng t e c hni que t o i m pr ove m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e r e m a i ns unc l e a r I n hi s r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng a udi a t i on, G r a s he l ( 1991 ) c i t e s num e r ous s t udi e s t ha t i nvol v e t he us e o f a udi a t i on i n a s s e s s i ng s t ude nt m us i c i a ns H ow e ve r f e w s t udi e s w e r e c i t e d t ha t e xa m i ne d t he s pe c i f i c us e of a udi a t i on a s a t e a c hi ng t ool t o i m pr ove m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e G r a s he l s ugge s t s t ha t f ut ur e s t udi e s s houl d e xa m i ne t he us e of a udi a t i on i n i m pr ovi ng i nt ona t i on i n s c hool e ns e m bl e s C l e a r l y, i m a ge r y pl a ys a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n t he c r e a t i on a nd pe r c e pt i on o f m us i c A udi t or y i m a ge r y m a y be a va l ua bl e c om pone nt t o t he pr oc e s s of m us i c a l c om pos i t i on

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23 ( S e a s hor e 1938) m us i c r e a di ng ( G r om ko, 2004; K a r pi ns ki 2000) m us i c pe r c e pt i on ( B a gl e y a nd H e s s 1987) c onduc t i ng ( O r z ol e k, 20 02) a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e ( C a r t e r 1993; M oye r 1992; T r us he i m 1987 ) I m a ge r y a bi l i t y i n c hi l d r e n i s s t r ongl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h de ve l opm e nt a l s t a ge s ( P i a ge t a nd I nhe l de r 19 71; S e r a f i ne 1981) R e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t i m a ge r y c a n i nc r e a s e m ot i va t i ona l a nd a f f e c t i ve r e s pons e s of f i f t h g r a de c hi l dr e n s t udyi ng a m us i c a l c om pos i t i on ( G i l e s H a ye s a nd G r a nt 1993) T he de gr e e t o w hi c h i m a ge r y i s be ne f i c i a l m a y de pe nd on t he vi v i dne s s of t he i m a ge ( M a r ks 1999; M ur phy, 2005) a nd t he pe r s pe c t i ve ( i nt e r na l or e xt e r na l ) of t he i m a ge r y ( H a l e 1982; J e a nne r od, 1995; M a hone y a nd A ve ne r 1977) T h e or e t i c al F ou n d a t i on s of M e n t al P r ac t i c e A s i t w i l l be s how n, m a ny r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ha ve e x a m i ne d t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he pe r f or m a nc e of a t a s k, a nd ha ve s u gge s t e d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be e f f e c t i ve i n i m p r ovi ng pe r f or m a nc e H ow i s i t pos s i bl e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d f a c i l i t a t e i m pr ove d pe r f or m a nc e ? S ui nn ( 1993 ) c i t e s f our t he or i e s t ha t a t t e m pt t o e xpl a i n how i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l he l ps i m p r ove pe r f or m a nc e : t he ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y t he a r ous a l or a c t i va t i on t he or y, t he s ym bol i c l e a r n i ng t he or y, a nd t he bi oi n f or m a t i ona l or i nf or m a t i on p r oc e s s i ng t he or y. P s yc h on e u r om u s c u l ar T h e or y T he ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y c l a i m s t ha t w he n i m a gi ng a n a c t i on t he m us c l e s t ha t w oul d be us e d i n t he r e a l l i f e a c t i on a r e a c t i va t e d, a l t hough on a m uc h s m a l l e r s c a l e S ui nn ( 1993 ) s t a t e s t ha t unde r t hi s t he or y i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l dupl i c a t e s t he a c t ua l m ot o r pa t t e r n be i ng r e he a r s e d, a l t hough t he ne ur om us c ul a r i nne r va t i ons w i t h i m a ge r y a r e of a s m a l l e r m a gni t ude t ha n i n phys i c a l pr a c t i c e A l t hough m i nut e t he ne ur om us c ul a r a c t i va t i on f r om i m a ge r y i s s a i d t o be s uf f i c i e nt t o e nha nc e t he m o t or s c he m a i n t he m ot o r c or t e x or t he pr i m i ng o f t he c o r r e s pondi ng m us c l e m ove m e nt n ode s ( p. 493)

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24 S e ve r a l a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs s uppor t t he no t i on t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge r y c a n c a us e a c t i va t i on of t he m us c l e s us e d i n pe r f or m a nc e ( J a c obs on, 1931; S ha w 1940; S ui nn 1980; W e hne r V ogt a nd S t a dl e r 1984) I n a s e r i e s of s t udi e s J a c obs on ( 1930a 1930b 193 0c 1931) f ound t ha t w he n a s ubj e c t i m a gi ne d pe r f or m i ng a m ove m e nt t a s k ( be ndi ng t he r i ght a r m ) t he s pe c i f i c m us c l e s t ha t w oul d ha ve be e n a c t i va t e d i n t he r e a l l i f e m ove m e nt w e r e c ont r a c t e d. H e s t a t e s t ha t c ont r a c t i on of s pe c i f i c m us c l e s t a ke s pl a c e f ol l ow i ng t he i ns t r uc t i on t o i m a gi ne a n a c t pe r f or m e d w i t h t he vol un t a r y m us c ul a t ur e [ a nd t he ] m ove m e nt us ua l l y i s of m i c r os c opi c e xt e nt a nd ge ne r a l l y i s c on f i ne d w i t hi n t he g r oup of m us c l e s w hos e c ont r a c t i on w oul d be r e qui r e d f or t he a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e of t he vol un t a r y a c t ( J a c obs on, 1930c p. 711) C ont r a c t i on of t hos e s pe c i f i c m us c l e s w e r e not r e c or de d w he n t he s ubj e c t di d not i m a gi ne t he a c t i on o r i m a gi ne d pe r f or m i n g a c t s w i t h ot he r pa r t s of hi s body ( 1930a p 606 ) J a c obs on c onc l ude s t ha t t he t ot a l phys i ol ogi c a l a c t i vi t y pr e s e nt w he n t he r e i s i m a gi na t i on o f vol un t a r y m ove m e nt i nc l ud e s ne ur om us c ul a r pr oc e s s e s i n t he l oc a l e c om pr i s e d of t he i m a gi na r y a c t ( 1930a p. 607) J a c obs on ( 1931) f ound t ha t w he n s ubj e c t s w e r e a s ke d t o i m a gi ne be ndi ng t he r i ght a r m t he r e w a s not onl y a c ont r a c t i on of m us c l e f i b e r s i n t he r i ght a r m but a l s o a c ont r a c t i on of m us c l e s i n t he oc ul a r r e gi on. J a c obs on s t a t e s t ha t t hi s l e nds e vi de nc e t o t he i de a t ha t m e nt a l a c t i vi t y i s not c on f i ne d t o c l os e d c i r c ui t s w i t hi n t he br a i n, but t ha t ne ur om us c ul a r r e gi ons pa r t i c i pa t e ( p 121 ) S ui nn ( 1980 ) r e c or de d E M G m e a s ur e m e nt s of m us c l e a c t i vi t y i n t he l e gs of a s ki e r a s he i m a gi ne d hi m s e l f s ki i ng dow n a s l ope R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t a l t hough t he a t hl e t e w a s s t a t i ona r y, m us c l e r e s pons e s w e r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e t ha t w oul d be a c t i va t e d i n t he r e a l

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25 s i t ua t i on: m us c l e r e a c t i ons pe a ke d a t va r i ous m o m e nt s i n t he i m a ge r y c or r e s pondi ng t o t i m e s a t w hi c h e xt r a m us c l e i nvol ve m e nt w oul d be e xpe c t e d i n r e a l l i f e on s uc h a c our s e W he r e t he i m a ge r y s c e ne i nvol ve d a j um p, f o r e xa m pl e t he c o r r e s pondi ng E M G r e c or di ng s how e d i nt e ns e l e g a c t i vi t y ( p. 35) H e a l s o f ound t ha t w he n a t hl e t e s i m a gi ne d t he m s e l ve s i n a r a c e he a r t r a t e i nc r e a s e d s i m i l a r t o t he w a y i t w oul d i n a r e a l l i f e s i t ua t i on. H ow e ve r F e l t z a nd L a nde r s ( 1983 ) c a s t doubt on t he i de a t ha t t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a r e due t o l oc a l i z e d i nne r va t i on of t he m u s c l e s us e d i n t he a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e I ns t e a d, t he y c l a i m t ha t t he m i nut e m us c l e i nne r va t i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a r e m or e ge ne r a l t hr oughout t he w hol e body or a w hol e l i m b ( p 50 ) T he y s t a t e t ha t be c a us e J a c obs on ( 1930a 1930b, 1930c 1931) on l y pl a c e d e l e c t r ode s on t he r i ght a r m i t i s unc l e a r w he t he r ot he r m us c l e s w e r e a c t i va t e d w he n t he s ubj e c t i m a gi ne d be ndi ng t he r i ght a r m T he y c i t e t he f i ndi ngs of S ha w ( 1938) w ho f ound no e vi de nc e of l oc a l i z a t i on of m us c l e gr oups du r i ng i m a ge r y W he n s ubj e c t s i m a gi ne d s que e z i ng a ha nd gr i p w i t h t he r i ght ha nd, t he r e w a s a he i ght e ne d E M G a c t i vi t y i n bot h t he r i ght a r m a s w e l l a s t he l e f t l e g. S i m i l a r non l oc a l i z e d r e s ul t s w e r e f ound w he n s ubj e c t i m a gi ne d t ypi ng, s i ngi ng, a nd pl a yi ng a m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt H a l e ( 1981, c i t e d i n F e l t z a nd L a nde r s 1 983) f ound t ha t w he n s ubj e c t s i m a gi ne d pe r f o r m i ng a c ur l w i t h t he r i gh t a r m m us c l e a c t i vi t y i nc r e a s e d i n bot h t he r i ght a r m a nd a s w e l l a s t he t r i c e ps R e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r m us c l e a c t i vi t y dur i ng m e nt a l i m a ge r y i s l oc a l i z e d o r ge ne r a l i z e d, i t a ppe a r s t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m a y c a us e a m i nut e a c t i va t i on o f t he m us c ul a t ur e P r opone nt s o f t he ps yc hone ur om us c u l a r t he or y be l i e ve t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s e f f e c t i ve be c a us e i t c a us e s a dupl i c a t i on of t he m ot or pa t t e r ns us e d i n a c t ua l

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26 pe r f or m a nc e H ow e ve r p r opone nt s of t he a r ous a l or a c t i va t i on t he o r y be l i e ve t ha t t he s e m us c l e r e s pons e s s e r ve a di f f e r e nt pur pos e A r ou s al or A c t i vat i on T h e or y T he a r ous a l ( o r a c t i va t i on) t he or y s t a t e s t ha t t he m i ni m a l m us c l e i nne r va t i ons f ound dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a r e a r e s ul t of t he pe r f or m e r ps yc hol ogi c a l l y pr e pa r i ng f or t he t a s k. S c hm i dt ( 1982) s t a t e s t ha t t he pe r f o r m e r i s m e r e l y pr e pa r i ng f or t he a c t i on s e t t i ng t he a r ous a l l e ve l a nd ge ne r a l l y ge t t i ng pr e pa r e d f o r good pe r f or m a nc e ( p 520 ) F e l t z a nd L a nde r s ( 1983 ) s t a t e : I n c ont r a s t t o t he de l e t e r i ous pe r f or m a nc e e f f e c t s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m a xi m a l t e ns i on l e ve l s ( e g. r e duc e d a c c ur a c y o f di s c r i m i na t i on ) t he m i ni m a l t e ns i on l e ve l s a c c om pa nyi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w oul d he l p t o p r i m e t he m us c l e s . . [ a nd] c a n a c t t o l ow e r t he s e ns or y t hr e s hol d of t he pe r f or m e r a n d f a c i l i t a t e pe r f or m a nc e i n a w i de va r i e t y of m ot or t a s ks ( p. 50) S ui nn ( 1993 ) s t a t e s t ha t by t hi s r a t i ona l e t he a r o us a l w oul d a l s o i nf l ue nc e a t t e nt i on: F r om t hi s vi e w t he t he or y i s r e a l l y a t h e or y of a t t e nt i on a nd a r ou s a l I n t hi s e l a bor a t i on, i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l f oc us e s a t t e nt i on on t a s k r e l e va nt t hought s a nd a w a y f r om t a s k i r r e l e va nt c ue s w hi c h c oul d di s r upt pe r f o r m a n c e ( p. 495 ) S ym b ol i c L e ar n i n g T h e or y T he s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or y s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y i m p r ove pe r f or m a nc e be c a us e i t pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y t o r e he a r s e t he s ym bol i c c om pone nt of a t a s k, r a t he r t ha n a c t i va t i ng t he m us c l e s i nvol ve d. S c hm i dt ( 19 82) s t a t e s t ha t dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t he s ubj e c t c a n t hi nk a bout w ha t ki nds of t hi ngs m i ght be t r i e d, t he c ons e que nc e s of e a c h a c t i on c a n be pr e di c t e d t o s om e e xt e nt ba s e d on pr e vi ous e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h s i m i l a r s ki l l s a nd t he l e a r ne r c a n pe r ha ps r u l e out i na ppr o pr i a t e c our s e s of a c t i on ( p. 520) F e l t z a nd L a nde r s ( 1983) s t a t e t ha t a c c or di ng t o t hi s t he or y, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i m pr ove s pe r f or m a nc e onl y i f c ogni t i ve f a c t or s a r e i nvol ve d i n t he t a s k. S ui nn ( 1993)

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27 a gr e e s s t a t i ng t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be m or e b e ne f i c i a l w he n i t e nha nc e s pe r f or m a nc e i nvol vi ng hi gh l e ve l s of c ogni t i ve r e qui r e m e nt s s uc h a s du r i ng s pa t i a l t a s ks t a s ks i nvol vi ng s t r a t e gi c pl a nni ng, or s e que n t i a l l e a r ni ng t a s ks ( p 494) B y t hi s de f i ni t i on, m us i c pe r f o r m a nc e w oul d qua l i f y a s a n a c t t ha t r e qui r e s hi gh l e ve l s of c ogni t i on. T he r e f or e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be be ne f i c i a l i n m us i c t o t he e xt e nt t ha t i t a l l ow s t he pe r f or m e r t o r e he a r s e t he s ym bol i c e l e m e nt s of m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e T hi s t he or y i s s uppor t e d by S a c ke t t ( 1934) w ho c l a i m s t ha t t he i nf l ue nc e o f s ym bol i c r e he a r s a l i s l i m i t e d t o t hos e s ki l l s i n w hi c h t he r e i s a s ym bol i c c ont r o l o f t he m ove m e nt s i nvol ve d ( p. 393) S a c ke t t f ound t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w a s be ne f i c i a l t o t he r e t e nt i on of a f i nge r m a z e pa t t e r n H e a s ke d s ubj e c t s t o l e a r n a f i nge r m a z e a nd t he n i ns t r uc t e d t he m t o pr a c t i c e t he m a z e us i ng o ne of t hr e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i o ns O ne gr oup w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o pr a c t i c e dr a w i ng t he m a z e pa t t e r n, t he s e c ond gr oup w a s t ol d t o pr a c t i c e t he m a z e pa t t e r n by t hi nki ng t hr ough i t a nd a t hi r d gr oup w a s t ol d not t o pr a c t i c e o r t h i nk a bout t he m a z e pa t t e r n a t a l l N ot s ur pr i s i ngl y, t he dr a w i ng gr oup pr oduc e d t he be s t r e t e nt i on s c or e f ol l ow e d by t he t hi nki ng a nd no pr a c t i c e gr oups r e s pe c t i ve l y. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t hi nki ng t hr ough t he m a z e w a s be ne f i c i a l t o r e t e nt i on a nd w a s be t t e r t ha n no pr a c t i c e a t a l l P e yni r c i ogl u, T hom ps on, a nd T a ni e l i a n ( 2000) f ou nd t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i m pr ove d t he pe r f or m a nc e o f a ba s ke t ba l l f r e e t hr o w s hoot i ng t a s k i nvol vi ng hi gh c ogni t i ve de m a nd, but not t he pe r f o r m a nc e of a gr i p s t r e ngt h t a s k i nvol vi ng l ow c ogni t i ve de m a nd. T hi s f i ndi ng s uppor t s t ha t of S a c ke t t ( 193 4) w ho f ound t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i nvol vi ng t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of ove r t a c t i ons i m p r o ve s pe r f or m a nc e onl y i f t he t a s k

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28 de m a nds a hi gh l e ve l of c ogni t i on P e yni r c i ogl u e t a l s t a t e t ha t a n e l a bor a t e c ogni t i ve m e nt a l s t r a t e gy s uc h a s i m a ge r y, w hi c h br e a ks dow n t hi nki ng i nt o s t e ps a nd a na l yz e s t he upc om i ng r e s p ons e s s houl d e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e i n s por t s i n w hi c h c oor di na t i on o f nu m e r ous f i ne a nd s pe c i f i c s ki l l s i s r e qui r e d, bu t not pe r f o r m a nc e i n s por t s i n w hi c h s u c c e s s de pe nd s on f oc us i ng on j us t one gr os s m ot or s ki l l F or t he l a t t e r t ype o f s po r t s a be t t e r t ype o f s t r a t e gy a ppe a r s t o be one s uc h a s ove r t a nd nons pe c i f i c a r ous a l i n w hi c h t he pr i m a r y obj e c t i ve i s t o ga t he r up s t r e ngt h f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on, w i t hout ha vi ng t o pa y m uc h a t t e nt i on t o c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s ( p 155) B e c a us e i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a l s o i n vol ve s t he c oor di na t i on of num e r ous f i ne a nd s pe c i f i c s ki l l s ( p 155 ) a m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s t r a t e gy w oul d s e e m t o be a n a ppr opr i a t e m e t hod o f i m p r ovi ng m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e s ki l l s M ul de r S j ouke W i e br e n, a nd H oc hs t e nba c h ( 200 4) f ound t ha t s ubj e c t s s how e d s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt i n a m o t or t a s k a f t e r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e onl y i f t he y ha d pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k, w hi c h i nvol ve d m ove m e nt of t he bi g t oe S ubj e c t s w ho ha d no pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k c oul d not a c qui r e t h e m us c l e m ove m e nt a f t e r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e but c oul d a c qui r e t he t a s k a f t e r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e S ubj e c t s w ho w e r e a l r e a dy c a pa bl e of e xe c ut i ng t he t a s k s how e d i m p r ove m e nt i n t he t a s k a f t e r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s w e l l a s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e M ul de r e t a l s t a t e : T he c onc l us i on t ha t w e c a n m e nt a l l y t r a i n onl y t hos e m ove m e nt s t ha t w e ha ve pe r f or m e d be f or e i s i m por t a nt be c a us e i t m a y r e s t r i c t t he us e of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n ne ur o l ogi c a l r e ha bi l i t a t i on a nd s por t s t o m ove m e nt c a t e gor i e s t ha t ha ve be e n pe r f o r m e d e a r l i e r ( p. 21 6) M ul de r e t a l ( 2004) c l a i m t ha t t hi s f i ndi ng s uppor t s t he c e nt r a l r e p r e s e nt a t i on t he or y, w hi c h pos i t s t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a c t i va t e s a s t or e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he t a s k. S ubj e c t s w i t h no e xpe r i e nc e i n t h e t a s k w oul d ha v e no s uc h s t or e d r e p r e s e nt a t i on f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o ope r a t e on. T he y be l i e ve t ha t t h i s f i ndi ng pr ov i de s e vi de nc e a ga i ns t t he ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y. I f t he ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y w e r e va l i d t he n

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29 s ubj e c t s w i t h no e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k w oul d b e a bl e t o l e a r n a t ot a l l y nove l m ove m e nt by m e a ns of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s i nc e m e n t a l pr a c t i c e w oul d l e a d t o a c t i va t i on of t he i nvol ve d t a r ge t m us c l e ( p. 215) I n t hi s s t udy, no E M G a c t i vi t y w a s f ound i n t he f oo t dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e I n t he i r m e t a a na l ys i s of r e s e a r c h on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F e l t z a nd L a nde r s ( 1983 ) f ound e vi de nc e t ha t t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w e r e e vi de nt i n bot h e a r l y a nd l a t e r s t a ge s of l e a r ni ng. T he y c onc l ude t ha t f or t a s ks hi gh i n s ym bol i c o r c ogni t i ve e l e m e nt s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i l l be t he m os t e f f e c t i ve w he n s u bj e c t s ha ve ha d s om e pr i or pr a c t i c e w i t h t he t a s k ( p 48 ) S i m i l a r l y C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) s t a t e t ha t t he pe r s on pe r f or m i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s houl d ha ve p r i or e xpe r i e nc e i n e xe c ut i ng t he t a s k ( or o ne s i m i l a r t o i t ) ( p 2 26) U nge r l e i de r ( 1996) a gr e e s s t a t i ng t ha t i m a ge r y i s ba s e d on m e m or y, a nd w e e xpe r i e nc e i t i nt e r na l l y by r e c ons t r uc t i ng e xt e r na l e ve nt s i n our m i nds ( p. 6 ) G i nns C ha ndl e r a nd S w e l l e r ( 2003) pr ovi de s upp or t f o r t he not i on t h a t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s m or e va l ua bl e w he n us e d t o i m p r ove pe r f or m a nc e on pr e vi ous l y l e a r ne d t a s ks T he y e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l on s ubj e c t s a bi l i t y t o t ype H T M L c om put e r c ode or t o s ol ve ge om e t r y pr obl e m s I n e a c h e xpe r i m e nt one gr oup w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o s t udy t he w r i t t e n s t e ps of t he p r oc e dur e w hi l e a s e c ond gr oup w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o i m a gi ne pe r f or m i ng t he pr oc e dur e R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e of i ns t r uc t i ons w a s e f f e c t i ve onl y w he n s ubj e c t s ha d pr i o r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h or know l e dge o f t he t a s k. G i nns C ha ndl e r a nd S w e l l e r ( 2003) c i t e t he s c he m a c ons t r uc t i on t he or y i n t he i r e xpl a na t i on of w hy pr i or know l e dge i s ne c e s s a r y f or m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t o be e f f e c t i ve T he y s t a t e t ha t ne w i nf or m a t i on i s pr oc e s s e d i n w o r ki ng m e m or y w hi c h i s a l i m i t e d

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30 c a pa c i t y m e m or y s t or e H ow e ve r w he n i nf o r m a t i o n i s l e a r ne d i t c a n be o r ga ni z e d i n l ong t e r m m e m o r y i nt o a s c he m a a nd c a n be r e t r i e ve d a nd pr oc e s s e d i n w or ki ng m e m or y a s a s i ngl e e nt i t y r a t he r t ha n s e pa r a t e pi e c e s of da t a B y pr oc e s s i ng t hi s s c he m a a s a s i ngl e e nt i t y, t he l oa d on w or ki ng m e m or y i s r e duc e d. W i t h p r a c t i c e s c he m a s c a n be r e t r i e ve d f r om l ong t e r m m e m or y w i t h ve r y l i t t l e e f f or t a nd r e qui r e m i ni m a l a t t e nt i ona l c a pa c i t y. T he y s t a t e : I f s t ude nt s a r e una bl e t o p r oc e s s i nt e r a c t i ng e l e m e n t s i n w or ki ng m e m or y r e que s t i ng t he m t o i m a gi ne t hos e i nt e r a c t i ng e l e m e nt s w i l l be c ount e r p r oduc t i ve T he y w i l l be be t t e r s t udyi ng t he m a t e r i a l s t o c om m e nc e s c he m a c ons t r uc t i on. . I f s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o pr oc e s s i nt e r a c t i ng e l e m e nt s i n w or ki ng m e m o r y be c a us e s c he m a c ons t r uc t i on ha s s uf f i c i e nt l y pr ogr e s s e d, f ur t he r s t udyi ng o f t he m a t e r i a l s w i l l ha ve di m i ni s hi ng r e t ur ns A ut om a t i ng t he i nf o r m a t i on by i m a gi ni ng t he m a t e r i a l s i s a s upe r i or s t r a t e gy . . F i na l l y, i t f ol l o w s t ha t unl e a r ne d m a t e r i a l s houl d f i r s t be s t udi e d t o a s s i s t i n s c he m a c ons t r uc t i on a nd t he n i m a gi ne d t o a s s i s t i n s c he m a a ut om a t i on. A n i m a gi na t i on s t r a t e gy f ol l ow e d by a s t udy s t r a t e gy s houl d be c ount e r pr oduc t i ve . . F r om a n i ns t r uc t i ona l de s i gn pe r s pe c t i ve t he r e c om m e nda t i ons t ha t f l ow f r om t hi s t he or y a nd r e s ul t s a r e c l e a r c ut I n t he i ni t i a l pha s e s of l e a r ni ng c om pl e x m a t e r i a l s t ude nt s s hou l d be a dvi s e d t o s t udy t he i nf or m a t i on w i t h t he a s s i s t a nc e of w e l l s t r uc t ur e d i ns t r uc t i on. S ubs e que nt l y, onc e s uf f i c i e nt l e a r ni ng ha s oc c ur r e d s t ude nt s s houl d c e a s e t o s t udy t he m a t e r i a l a nd c om m e nc e t o i m a gi ne i t ( p 247 248) T he s e f i ndi ngs a r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t hos e o f D r i s ke l l C oppe r a nd M or a n ( 1994) w ho f ound t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w a s m or e e f f e c t i ve f or s ubj e c t s w ho w e r e e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h t he t a s k t ha n f or novi c e s T he y s t a t e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve e ve r yt hi ng e l s e he l d c ons t a nt i f novi c e s ubj e c t s a r e gi ve n s c he m a t i c know l e dge be f or e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e of a phys i c a l t a s k ( p. 489) T he i r f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y he l p novi c e s m or e w i t h c ogni t i ve t a s ks t ha n phys i c a l t a s ks E xpe r i e nc e d s ubj e c t s m a y be ne f i t f r om m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n bot h c ogni t i ve a nd phys i c a l t a s ks B i oi n f or m at i on al or I n f or m a t i on P r oc e s s i n g T h e or y A f our t h a nd f i na l t he or y c i t e d by S ui n n ( 1993 ) a s t he bi oi nf o r m a t i ona l o r i nf or m a t i on p r oc e s s i ng t he or y, c ons i de r s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e f r om t he s t a ndpoi nt of

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31 i nf or m a t i on p r oc e s s i ng m e c ha ni s m s i n t he br a i n. I n t hi s t he or y i m a ge r y a c t i va t e s a ne t w or k of c ode d p r opos i t i ons s t or e d i n l ong t e r m m e m or y ( p. 496) T h i s ne t w or k f unc t i ons a s a pr ot ot ype f or be ha vi or . [ t ha t ] c a n be pr oc e s s e d by i nt e r na l l y ge ne r a t i ng pr ot ot ype m a t c hi ng i n f or m a t i on s uc h a s t hr ough i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l ( p. 496) D e c e t y ( 1996) f ound t ha t w he n m ove m e nt i s i m a gi ne d s pe c i f i c a r e a s of t he b r a i n a r e a c t i va t e d. D ur i ng i m a ge r y t he pr e m ot or c or t e x i s a c t i va t e d a s t he a c t i on i s pr e pa r e d, t he pr e f r ont a l c or t e x a s t he a c t i on i s i ni t i a t e d, a nd t he c e r e be l l um dur i ng t he c ont r o l of s e que nc e s of m ove m e nt r e qui r i ng a s pe c i f i c or de r A c c or di ng t o D e c e t y, c onve r gi ng da t a f r om t h r e e di f f e r e nt t ype s o f e xpe r i m e nt a l pa r a di g m i ndi c a t e t ha t r e pr e s e nt a t i ons f or a c t i on r e l y on di s t r i but e d ne t w or ks a t t he c o r t i c a l a nd s ubc or t i c a l l e ve l s I nde e d ne ur a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons f or a c t i on i nvol ve a l l l e ve l s of t he m ot or hi e r a r c hy, e ve n t he pr i m a r y m ot or c or t e x ( p. 294) B a s e d on t hi s t he or y, i m a ge r y w i l l be t t e r e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e w he n i t m or e c l os e l y r e s e m bl e s t he a c t ua l t a s k. Z i e gl e r ( 1987) e xa m i ne d t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n a c t i ve i m a ge r y a nd pa s s i ve i m a ge r y. A c t i ve i m a ge r y i nvol ve s goi ng t hr ough t he phys i c a l m ot i ons i nvol ve d i n t he t a s k dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l Z i e gl e r s s ubj e c t s i m a gi ne d s hoot i ng a ba s ke t ba l l f r e e t h r ow a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y w e nt t hr ough t he phys i c a l m ot i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t a s k, but di d not us e t he ba l l A c t i ve i m a ge r y i nvol ve s s i m ul t a ne ous m ove m e nt a nd i m a ge r y: L ow gr a de m us c l e i nne r va t i on i s be l i e ve d, by s om e t o be i nvol ve d i n i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng, s o t he a ddi ng o f t he c or r e c t m ove m e nt pa t t e r n t o t he s uc c e s s f ul i m a ge r y w oul d s e r ve a d oubl e be ne f i t F i r s t i t w oul d c a us e i nne r va t i on of t he a ppr op r i a t e m us c ul a r s ys t e m a nd r e i nf or c e c or r e c t e xe c ut i on o f t he m ot o r t a s k. S e c ondl y, i t w oul d ha ve t he bui l t i n c ont r ol o f pr ope r a t t e nt i on a l f oc us t o t he t a s k a nd t he r e i nf or c e m e nt of s uc c e s s f ul pr a c t i c e of t he t a s k. ( p 580)

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32 P a s s i ve i m a ge r y i nc l ude s m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w i t h no phys i c a l m ove m e nt s Z i e gl e r ( 1987) de s c r i be s pa s s i ve i m a ge r y a s t he m os t t r a di t i ona l f or m of i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng i nvol vi ng vi vi d i m a ge r y of t he e nvi r onm e nt t he t a s k e l e m e nt s a nd t he s uc c e s s f ul c om pl e t i on of t he t a s k ( p. 580) T he bi oi n f or m a t i ona l t he or y s ugge s t s t ha t a c t i ve i m a ge r y w oul d be be t t e r t ha n pa s s i ve i m a ge r y be c a us e i t m or e c l os e l y m a t c he s t he pr ot ot ype f o r be ha vi or f ound i n t he i nf or m a t i on ne t w or k. I n he r s t udy, Z i e gl e r ( 1987) t e s t e d t he e f f e c t s of i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l on ba s ke t ba l l f r e e t hr ow s hoot i ng us i ng f i ve pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons : pa s s i ve i m a ge r y, a c t i ve i m a ge r y, phys i c a l pr a c t i c e pa s s i ve i m a ge r y a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd a no pr a c t i c e c ont r ol T he s t udy f ound n o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i m a ge r y gr oups but t he a c t i ve i m a ge r y gr oup di d s how g r e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt t ha n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup. F or t he c ur r e nt s t udy, a c t i ve i m a ge r y, pa s s i ve i m a ge r y, a nd pa s s i ve i m a ge r y w i t h phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a r e i nc or po r a t e d i nt o t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod. F ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s ne c e s s a r y t o m or e a c c ur a t e l y de t e r m i ne t he p r oc e s s e s by w hi c h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y f a c i l i t a t e i m pr ove d pe r f o r m a n c e P e r ha ps a l l f our pos i t i ons a r e c or r e c t a nd t he a ns w e r l i e s i n a c om bi na t i on of t h e t he or i e s U nde r t hi s a s s um pt i on, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w oul d be e f f e c t i ve be c a us e i t a ) a c t i va t e s t he m us c l e s us e d i n pe r f or m a nc e b ) a c t i va t e s a ddi t i ona l m us c ul a t ur e t ha t i s not us e d i n pe r f o r m a nc e pr e pa r i ng t he body f o r a c t i on, c ) ope r a t e s on t he m e nt a l s c h e m a of t he a c t i on d) pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y t o r e he a r s e t he s ym bol i c c om pone n t of a t a s k, a nd e ) a c t i va t e s a ne t w or k of c ode d pr opos i t i ons i n t he b r a i n. P e r ha ps t he m os t i m po r t a nt c onc l us i on f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e i s t he not i on t ha t pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k m a y be ne c e s s a r y f or m e n t a l r e he a r s a l t o be e f f e c t i ve ( C onnol l y

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33 a nd W i l l i a m on, 20 04; D r i s ke l l C oppe r a nd M or a n, 1994; F e l t z a nd L a nde r s 1 983; G i nns C ha ndl e r a nd S w e l l e r 2003; M ul de r e t a l 2004; U nge r l e i de r 1996) T hi s f i ndi ng ha s i m po r t a nt i m pl i c a t i ons f or r e s e a r c h i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t m a y e xpl a i n w hy s om e r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ha ve f ound t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s not a s good a s phys i c a l p r a c t i c e M a ny of t he s e s t udi e s ha ve gi ve n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a t a s k t he y ha ve no pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h, a nd t h e n a s ke d t he m t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t he t a s k. B a s e d on t he s e f i ndi ngs t hi s s t udy w i l l a l l ow t he pa r t i c i pa t i ng s t ude nt s t o r e he a r s e t he c om pos i t i ons f or t w o w e e ks ( f our r e he a r s a l s ) be f or e a t t e m pt i ng a ny m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c N on E m p i r i c al A p p r oac h e s t o M e n t al P r ac t i c e T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on i nc l ude s a r e vi e w o f m e t hod s t ha t a ppl y m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e s t r a t e gi e s T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s not a l w a ys c l e a r i n t he l i t e r a t u r e A c c or di ng t o U nge r l e i de r ( 1996) t he r e i s a di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i m a ge r y a nd vi s ua l i z a t i on. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s i m pl y m e a ns r e pe a t i ng a t a s k i n you r m i nd, w i t hout a ny m ove m e nt f r om your body ( p 6 ) I m a ge r y c ons t i t ut e s a ve r y s pe c i f i c a nd ve r y f oc us e d t ype of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t ha t us e s a l l t he s e ns e s t o c r e a t e a n e xpe r i e nc e i n t he m i nd ( p. 6) V i s ua l i z a t i on c onc e r ns t he pa r t of i m a ge r y t ha t i nvol ve s a vi s ua l i m a ge of a n e ve nt T he ot he r s e ns e s c a n a l s o be us e d i n t he i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e T he r e a de r i s c a ut i one d t o be a w a r e t ha t i n m uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e t he de f i ni t i ons of t he s e t e r m s a r e not a l w a ys c l e a r a nd a r e of t e n us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y. A l t hough s om e of t he f ol l ow i ng t e c hni que s a r e de r i ve d f r om e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h, m os t l a c k t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t o a c c e pt or r e j e c t t he m a s va l i d t e c hni que s T he va l ue of t he s e m e t hods m a y be due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he y ha ve be e n c r e a t e d a nd us e d w i t h s om e de gr e e of s uc c e s s by e xpe r t pe r f o r m e r s

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34 D an c e I m a ge r y ha s be e n r e c om m e nde d a s a va l ua bl e t e c hni que f or i m pr ovi ng da nc e pe r f or m a nc e ( F r a nkl i n, 2004; T a yl or 1995 ) I n h i s book T he P s y c hol ogy of D anc e T a yl or ( 1995) de vot e s a n e nt i r e c ha pt e r t o da nc e i m a ge r y. A c c or di ng t o T a yl or i m a ge r y i s a c om m on pr a c t i c e t e c hni que a m ong da nc e r s : A c om m on s i ght ba c ks t a ge a t pe r f or m a nc e s i s da nc e r s w i t h t he i r e ye s c l os e d, s l ow l y r e he a r s i ng t he c r i t i c a l e l e m e nt s of t he i r r ol e s T he y a r e i m a gi ni ng t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng w i t h m a s t e r y a nd vi r t uos i t y T he y a r e e nvi s i oni ng t he pr ope r e xe c ut i on o f t he i r m ove m e nt s a nd, m os t i m por t a nt l y, f e e l i ng t he a r t i s t r y o f t he i r r ol e ( p. 86) H e s t a t e s t ha t da nc e i m a ge r y s houl d be s ys t e m a t i c a l l y i nc or por a t e d i nt o r e he a r s a l t i m e pr e pa r a t i on pr i o r t o t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd t r a i ni ng out s i de of t he s t udi o A c c or di ng t o T a yl or t he be ne f i t s o f i m a ge r y i nc l ude t he e nha nc e m e nt of m ot i va t i on, c onc e nt r a t i on, i nt e ns i t y, a nd s e l f c onf i de nc e T a yl or ( 1995) r e c om m e nds t e n t e c hni que s t o i nc r e a s e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd qua l i t y of m e nt a l i m a ge r y. T he f ol l ow i ng i s a s um m a r y o f t hos e t e c hni que s : 1. I m a gi ne t ot a l pe r f or m a nc e D a nc e r s s houl d m e nt a l l y r e pr oduc e a l l a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e : vi s ua l a udi t or y ki ne s t he t i c t hi nki ng a nd e m ot i ona l e l e m e nt s 2. I m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve D a nc e r s s houl d m a xi m i z e bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s of pe r f or m a nc e A n i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve i nvol ve s i m a g i ni ng a pe r f or m a nc e t hr ough t he pe r f or m e r s e ye s A n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve i nvol ve s vi e w i ng t he pe r f o r m a nc e a s a n obs e r ve r w a t c hi ng t he pe r f or m a nc e f r om out s i de t he body. 3. V i vi d i m a ge r y D a nc e r s s houl d us e vi vi d i m a g e s t ha t a r e r e a l i s t i c de t a i l e d a nd c l e a r a nd i nc l ude a l l of t he r e qui s i t e s e ns e s t hought s a nd e m ot i ons ( p 88 ) 4. I m a ge r y c ont r ol D a nc e r s m us t not i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s m a ki ng m i s t a ke s i n pe r f or m a nc e T he y m us t c ont r ol t he i r i m a ge r y s o t ha t onl y s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e s a r e i m a gi ne d. W he n da nc e r s e nga ge i n poor i m a g e r y, t he y m us t i m m e di a t e l y c or r e c t i t w i t h be t t e r i m a ge r y ( p. 90) A l s o, w he n l e a r ni ng ne w t e c hni que s i t i s s om e t i m e s be s t t o br e a k t he s ki l l dow n i nt o s m a l l e r pa r t s a nd r e he a r s e e a c h pa r t i n s l ow m ot i on. O nc e a bl e t o i m a gi ne i t i n s l ow m ot i on, t he y c a n pr ogr e s s i ve l y s pe e d up t he i m a ge r y unt i l t he y c a n pe r f or m t he s ki l l a t n or m a l s pe e d ( p. 90)

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35 5. C om bi ne r e l a xa t i on w i t h i m a ge r y R e l a xa t i on e xe r c i s e s c a n he l p i nc r e a s e i m a ge r y vi vi dne s s a nd c ont r ol a nd c a n he l p da nc e r s be m or e ope n t o i m a gi ne d s c e na r i os 6. I m a gi ne r e a l i s t i c c ondi t i ons D a nc e r s s houl d i m a gi ne pe r f or m a nc e s i n t he s a m e c ondi t i ons t ha t t he pe r f or m a nc e i s l i ke l y t o oc c ur 7. I m a gi ne r e a l i s t i c pe r f o r m a nc e s L e a r ni ng m or e c om pl e x s ki l l s t a ke s t i m e a n d r e s ul t s i n s om e m i s t a ke s T he r e f o r e da nc e r s s houl d not i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng ne w or c om pl e x s ki l l s pe r f e c t l y R a t he r t he y s houl d i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng w i t hi n t he i r a bi l i t y a nd c opi ng w e l l w i t h t he ne w de m a nds ( p. 91 ) 8. A dj us t i m a g e r y s pe e d T a yl o r s ugge s t s t ha t da n c e r s us e s l ow m ot i on i m a ge r y t o l e a r n ne w s ki l l s a nd f a s t m ot i on i m a ge r y t o i nc r e a s e f oc us on t he pe r f o r m a nc e a nd pr e ve nt di s t r a c t i ng t hought s f r om i nva di ng i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l 9. F e e l t he i m a ge r y T a yl o r s ugge s t s t h a t da nc e r s m ove t he i r bodi e s w i t h t he i r i m a ge r y i n o r de r t o f a c i l i t a t e t he phys i c a l f e e l i ng a s pe c t of i m a ge r y. 10. N ot f e e l i ng r i ght B y i m a gi ni ng a s uc c e s s f ul pa s t pe r f or m a nc e da nc e r s c a n c om ba t f e e l i ngs of t i ght ne s s ba d f e e l i ngs or t i m i n g pr obl e m s L e ad e r s h i p G a r f i e l d ( 1987 ) r e c om m e nds m e nt a l pr a c t i c e f o r u s e by or ga ni z a t i ona l l e a de r s H e i nc l ude s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n a l i s t of ni ne c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of pe a k pe r f or m e r s : [ P e a k pe r f o r m e r s ] r e he a r s e i n t he i r m i nd s e ye a n i nc i de nt or e ve nt t ha t i s i m p or t a nt t o t he m M e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s a c or e c a pa bi l i t y of pe a k pe r f o r m e r s one t ha t t he S ovi e t s a nd E a s t G e r m a ns ha ve de ve l ope d e xt e ns i ve l y i n t he i r a t hl e t i c pr ogr a m s B us i ne s s e xe c ut i ve s c a n be ne f i t by r e he a r s i ng s pe c i f i c e ve nt s i n t he m i nd s e ye i nc l udi ng a l l t hos e pos s i bl e out c om e s a nd pos s i bl e s ur pr i s e s t ha t c a n m a t e r i a l i z e ( p 6 ) P e r ha ps t hi s a ppl i c a t i on of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e c oul d b e e xt e nde d t o he l pi ng c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s i m pr ove t he i r t e a c hi ng. M us i c e duc a t or s a nd c ol l e ge m us i c e duc a t i on m a j or s c oul d m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t e a c hi ng a s pe c i f i c l e s s on t o a s pe c i f i c c l a s s a nd c oul d r e he a r s e di f f e r e nt s c e na r i os t ha t a r e l i ke l y t o oc c ur i n t he c l a s s r oom

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36 S p or t s F a nni ng ( 1988) pr ovi de s s e ve r a l gui de l i ne s f o r vi s ua l i z a t i on i n s por t s pe r f or m a nc e H e s ugge s t s t ha t a t hl e t e s e xt e r na l l y vi s ua l i z e t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng a s t he y us ua l l y do i nc l udi ng a ny m i s t a ke s a nd t he n w i nd dow n t he a c t i on t o e xt r e m e s l ow m ot i on ( p. 131) b r e a ki ng dow n t he m ove s i nt o s m a l l e r pa r t s A t hl e t e s s houl d i de nt i f y w he r e m ove s go w r ong, a nd m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e t he m ove i n s l ow m ot i on, w a t c hi ng t he m ove s i m p r ove unt i l t he y a ppr oa c h pe r f e c t i on. N e xt s pe e d up t he f i l m t o no r m a l s pe e d ( p 131) a nd s e e t he m ove s done s uc c e s s f ul l y. A t hl e t e s s houl d t he n i nt e r na l l y vi s ua l i z e t he m ove s f i r s t i n s l o w m ot i on t he n a t r e gul a r s pe e d. P r of e s s i ona l gol f e r s s uc h a s T i ge r W oods B obby J one s a nd J a c k N i c kl a us ha ve us e d m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a nd i m a ge r y t e c hni que s t o i m pr ove t he i r gol f pe r f or m a nc e ( A ndr i s a ni 2002 ) A ndr i s a ni s t a t e s t ha t N i c kl a us i m a gi ne s t he pe r f e c t s hot i n hi s m i nd be f or e he hi t s t he s hot : B e f or e s w i ngi ng, he a c t ua l l y i s w i t ne s s t o a n i n c ol or c i ne m a t i c f l i c k pl a yi ng i n hi s he a d t ha t i nc l ude s f r a m e s s how i ng t he f l i ght pa t h of t he s hot a nd i t s t r a j e c t or y t he ba l l l a ndi ng i n t he gr e e n, a nd N i c kl a us m a ki ng t he s w i ng t ha t w i l l pr oduc e w ha t w a s i n hi s m e nt a l s t or yboa r ds ( p 30) M a y ( 1989) i nc l ude s m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n hi s r e vi e w of ps yc hol ogi c a l t e c hni que s t o i m pr ove a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e M a y c l a i m s t ha t t he r e a r e t h r e e s t e ps t o m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t he f i r s t t w o oc c ur r i ng be f or e t he a c t ua l m e nt a l pr a c t i c e be gi ns T he f i r s t s t e p i s m e m or i z a t i on, w hi c h i nvol ve s de f i ni ng t he t a s k or c l a r i f yi ng e xa c t l y w ha t i s t o be r e he a r s e d, a nd be c om i ng i m m e r s e d i n t he e nvi r on m e nt of t he s por t T he s e c ond s t e p i s vi s ua l i m a ge r y, w hi c h i nvol ve s pr oduc i ng a vi vi d i m a ge of t he s i t ua t i on, one t ha t us e s a l l your s e ns e s ( p. 24 ) I nc l ude d i n t he s e s e ns e s a r e t he f e e l i ngs i nvol ve d i n t he s i t ua t i on, s uc h a s t he e xc i t e m e nt one m i ght f e e l w he n m a ki n g a good t u r n on a s ki s l ope T h e t hi r d

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37 s t e p i s t he m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i t s e l f : C l os e your e ye s a nd e xpe r i e nc e t he phys i c a l a c t i vi t y m e nt a l l y a nd e m ot i ona l l y E ve r yt hi ng you vi s ua l i z e s houl d l ook a nd f e e l t he s a m e a s i f you w e r e r e a l l y on t he s l ope s or on t he c our t ( p. 2 5) M a y p r ovi de s a n e xa m pl e of t he t hr e e s t e ps a s a ppl i e d t o pe r f o r m i ng a gol f s w i ng: 1. C e nt e r your w e i ght a nd vi s ua l i z e w he r e you w a nt t he ba l l t o go 2. E xpe r i e nc e t he e a s y f l ow of you r s w i ng, f e e l t he i m pa c t of t he ba l l a nd t he f ol l ow t hr ough of t he c l ub. 3. V i s ua l i z e l i f t i ng y our he a d a nd s e e i ng t he ba l l l a nd r i ght w he r e you w a nt i t t o be ( p 25 ) S ye r a nd C onnol l y ( 1984) l i s t f i ve di f f e r e nt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s : pe r f or m anc e pr a c t i c e i ns t ant pr e pl ay dur i ng pe r f or m anc e i ns t ant r e pl ay a nd pe r f or m anc e r e v i e w P e r f or m an c e pr ac t i c e i nvol v e s vi s ua l i z i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e of a s pe c i f i c s ki l l t ha t you w a nt t o de ve l op or i m pr ove ( p. 58) I t a l s o i nvol ve s vi s ua l i z i ng a n i de a l pe r f or m a nc e I n t hi s t e c hni que one m i ght vi s ua l i z e a pe r f or m a nc e o f a w e l l know n e xpe r t a nd t he n i m a gi ne be c om i ng t ha t pe r s on. I t c a n a l s o i nvol ve vi s ua l i z i ng one of your ow n pa s t pe r f or m a nc e s t ha t you c ons i de r t o b e pe r f e c t I ns t ant pr e pl ay i s a s hor t c om pa c t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t ha t oc c ur s i m m e di a t e l y be f o r e t he pe r f or m a nc e A f oot ba l l ki c ke r m i ght us e t hi s f or m of pr a c t i c e i m m e di a t e l y be f or e a t t e m pt i ng a f i e l d goa l or a ba s ke t ba l l pl a ye r i n t h e m om e nt s be f or e a t t e m pt i ng a f oul s hot D ur i ng pe r f or m anc e i nvol ve s t he us e of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y du r i ng t he a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e A s a n e xa m pl e of t hi s i m a ge r y S ye r a nd C onnol l y ( 1984) s t a t e : M a ny a r c he r s t hi nk t he y a r e bl ow n a r ound a nd c a n t s hoot w he n i t s w i ndy O ne B r i t i s h a r c he r w e ve w or ke d w i t h de a l s w i t h s uc h c ondi t i ons by s hoot i ng a s i f s he w e r e a s t e e l s t a ke i n

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38 t he gr ound ( p 64 ) I n m us i c t hi s ki n d of i m a ge r y i s s i m i l a r t o F r e ym ut h s ( 1990) c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of m us i c a l c onc e pt s w hi c h i s di s c us s e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. I ns t ant r e pl ay i s t he oppos i t e of i ns t ant pr e pl ay a nd i nvol ve s t he vi s ua l i z a t i on of a pe r f or m a nc e t ha t ha s j us t be e n c om pl e t e d. I t c a n b e us e d t o r e i nf o r c e a good pe r f o r m a nc e or t o r e vi e w a nd a na l yz e a poo r pe r f or m a nc e I ns t a nt r e pl ay f or m s t he ba s i s f o r t he c ons t r uc t i on of a ne w i ns t ant pr e pl ay T he a l t e r a t i on of i ns t ant pr e pl ay phys i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd i ns t ant r e pl ay p r a c t i c e d m e t hodi c a l l y a nd w e l l e ns ur e s f a i r l y r a pi d i m pr ove m e nt ( S ye r a nd C onnol l y 1984 p 67 ) F r e ym ut h ( 1990 ) s ugge s t s a s i m i l a r t hr e e s t e p s e que nc e i n m us i c di s c us s e d i n t he ne xt s e c t i on. T he f i na l m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t ype i s pe r f or m anc e r e v i e w w hi c h i nvol ve s r e c ount i ng a n e nt i r e pe r f o r m a nc e or r e he a r s a l i n o r de r t o a na l yz e i t S ye r a nd C onnol l y ( 1984) s ugge s t t ha t a c oa c h or i ns t r uc t or t o be p r e s e nt w he n r e c ou nt i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e i n or de r t o t a ke not e s a nd t o a s k que s t i ons t ha t m a y t r i gge r a ddi t i o na l m e m or i e s S ye r a nd C onnol l y ( 1984) di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n c l os e d s ki l l s a nd ope n s ki l l s i n t he i r di s c us s i on of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e C l os e d s ki l l s a r e s ki l l s w hi c h a r e r e pe a t e d, pr e di c t a bl e a nd not a f f e c t e d by i nt e r a c t i on w i t h a n y ot he r pe r f or m e r s ( p. 62) D i vi ng a nd gol f a r e e xa m pl e s of c l os e d s ki l l s O pe n s ki l l s i nvo l ve i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t e a m m a t e s a nd oppone nt s . a nd a da pt i ng t o a va r i e t y o f s i t ua t i o ns ( p. 63 ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n i nvol ve bot h ope n a nd c l os e d s ki l l s S ye r a nd C onnol l y c l a i m t ha t t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s of pr e pl ay a nd r e pl ay i nvol ve m os t l y c l os e d s ki l l s S c a l e s a r pe ggi os o r b r i e f t e c hni c a l e xe r c i s e s m i ght be c ons i de r e d c l os e d s ki l l s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e w hi l e a l ong c om pos i t i on of va r yi ng m us i c a l pa s s a ge s m i ght r e qui r e a va r i e t y ope n s ki l l s E ns e m bl e

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39 pe r f or m i ng i n m us i c c oul d be c ons i de r e d a n ope n s ki l l be c a us e t he i ndi vi dua l pe r f or m a nc e de pe nds i n pa r t on t he ot he r m us i c i a ns i n t he e ns e m bl e M u s i c F r e ym ut h ( 1990 ) p r ovi de s a t hor ough e xpl or a t i on of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e f or m us i c i a ns S he s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons c a n be di v i d e d i nt o t w o c a t e gor i e s : m e nt a l r e c a l l a nd m e nt a l pr oj e c t i on S he de f i ne s m e nt a l r e c a l l a s r e c r e a t i ng a n e xpe r i e nc e s o t ha t t he m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on i s i de nt i c a l t o t he pa s t e ve nt ( p. 24) M e nt a l r e c a l l c a n be us e d t o r e c r e a t e a n i de a l pa s t pe r f or m a nc e i n or de r t o p r ov i de a m ode l o f e xc e l l e nt pe r f or m a nc e c ondi t i ons M e nt a l pr oj e c t i on, on t he ot he r ha nd, i s t he c r e a t i on of a m e nt a l m ode l t ha t e m bodi e s i de a l s t ha t you s t r i ve f or ( p. 24) M e nt a l pr oj e c t i on p r e c e de s a phys i c a l e ve nt a nd r e pr e s e nt s a pe r f or m a nc e t ha t t he pe r f or m e r i s s t r i vi ng f or W he n p r oj e c t i ng a m e nt a l m ode l j us t m o m e nt s be f or e pl a yi ng you a r e pr ogr a m m i ng your ne r vous s ys t e m a nd di r e c t l y i n f l ue nc i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e ( p 25 ) F r e ym ut h ( 199 0 ) s ugge s t s t ha t t he s e c onc e pt s be i n c or por a t e d i nt o a T hr e e S t e p P r a c t i c e L oop ( p. 26) T he l oop c ons i s t s of m e nt a l pr oj e c t i on, phys i c a l pl a yi ng, a nd m e nt a l r e c a l l : F i r s t p r oj e c t a n i de a l m e nt a l m ode l N e xt t r y t o m a t c h t he m ode l w i t h your phys i c a l p l a yi ng. T he n r e c a l l a nd a na l yz e t hi s phys i c a l r e ndi t i on ( p 26) T hi s i s s i m i l a r t o S ye r a nd C onnol l y s ( 1984) a l t e r a t i on of i ns t ant pr e pl ay phys i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd i ns t ant r e pl ay di s c us s e d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i o n. F r e ym ut h ( 1990 ) s t a t e s t ha t t he s u c c e s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e de pe nds on a hi gh de gr e e of s e ns or y a w a r e ne s s : T he m or e c ons c i ous you a r e o f s e ns or y f e e dba c k w hi l e pl ay i ng, t he m or e c l e a r l y you c a n i m a gi ne pl a yi ng. I n t u r n, t he m o r e vi vi d t he m e nt a l w or k be c om e s t he m o r e pow e r f u l l y i t c a n i nf l ue nc e pl a yi ng a nd pe r f or m a nc e ( p 33 )

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40 F r e ym ut h ( 1990 ) p r ovi de s s ugge s t i ons f or t e a c hi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o younge r s t ude nt s S he s t a t e s t ha t a l t hough s t ude nt s m a y r e s pond f a vor a bl y t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t r a i ni ng dur i ng l e s s ons t he y m a y no t be a bl e t o pe r f or m m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a t hom e w i t hou t gui da nc e S he r e c om m e nds t ha t t e a c he r s w r i t e out s hor t s pe c i f i c m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s t o m a ke t hi ngs m o r e c onc r e t e ( p. 86) M e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s s houl d a l s o be e xpl a i ne d t o pa r e nt s T o be gi n m e n t a l pr a c t i c e w i t h c hi l dr e n s t ude nt s s houl d c a r r y out a ve r y s hor t s i m pl e a c t i on f ol l ow e d by a m e nt a l r e he a r s a l of t h e a c t i on ( p. 87) T he s e a c t i ons c oul d be bi g m ot i ons o f t he w hol e body o r a n a r m o r l e g E a r t r a i ni ng s houl d be a ppr oa c he d t he s a m e w a y: F i r s t pl a y a no t e m e l ody, e t c a nd ha v e t he c hi l d s i ng i t ba c k. T he n pl a y t he s a m e t hi ng a ga i n, a nd a s k t he s t ude nt t o r e pe a t t he s ounds m e nt a l l y ( F r e ym ut h, 1990, p. 87) L e s s ons s houl d i nvol ve a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a c t i ons a nd m e nt a l r e c a l l unt i l t he s t ude nt i s pr e pa r e d t o i nc r e a s e t he c om pl e xi t y a nd f r e que nc y of t he e xe r c i s e s F r e ym ut h ( 1990 ) s ugge s t s t ha t t he i m a gi na t i on be us e d w i t h young c hi l dr e n t o de ve l op t he i r i ns t r um e nt a l t e c hni que a nd m us i c a l e a r T e a c he r s s houl d t hi nk of s t or i e s t ha t c a n be e xpr e s s e d t hr ough m us i c a nd s houl d c ha r a c t e r i z e m us i c a l c onc e pt s us i ng i m a gi na t i ve e xa m pl e s : s t ac c at o s ounds l i ke a j um pi ng r a bbi t ; gl i s s ando s w oops l i ke a bi r d; pi ani s s i m o i s l i ke t i pt oe i ng a r ound a s l e e pi ng ba by ( p 88 ) S t ude nt s s houl d t he n be e nc ou r a ge d t o m ove t o t he m us i c a nd a c t out i t s i m a gi na r y c ha r a c t e r

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41 F r e ym ut h ( 1993 ) s ugge s t s t ha t r e gul a r m e nt a l r e he a r s a l c a n s e r ve a s a f or m of qua l i t y c ont r ol S he s t a t e s t ha t t he ki nd of i m a ge r y us e d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d br oa de n a s l e a r ni ng pr oc e e ds : T he f oc us of i m a ge r y pr oba bl y s houl d c ha nge f r om s pe c i f i c c ue s a nd s e que nc e s ( dur i ng e a r l y l e a r ni ng s t a ge s ) t o a n ove r a l l a udi t or y a nd ki ne s t he t i c G e s t a l t t ha t c a pt ur e s t he f l ow o f t he pe r f or m a nc e A ppr opr i a t e l y a ppl i e d, i m a ge r y ha s t he pot e nt i a l f or r e f oc us i ng a t t e nt i on r e s t or i ng c onc e n t r a t i on, a nd r e vi t a l i z i ng pe r f or m a nc e ( p. 142) T he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod de s i gne d f o r t hi s s t ud y a t t e m pt s t o f ol l ow t hi s s ugge s t i on. I t a l l ow s t he s t ude nt s t o pr a c t i c e s m a l l e r s e c t i ons of t he m us i c us i ng s pe c i f i c f or m s o f i m a ge r y. T he m e t hod e ve nt ua l l y br oa de ns t o a m e nt a l r e he a r s a l of t he e nt i r e pe r f or m a nc e i nc or por a t i ng a l l f or m s of i m a ge r y. P r os s e r ( 2000) i nc l ude s a vi s ua l i z a t i on l e s s on i n hi s m e t hod of m us i c a l e a r t r a i ni ng T he e xe r c i s e c a l l e d vi s ua l i z a t i on i m pr o v i s a t i on, i nvol ve s he a r i ng a n i m pr ovi s e d s e r i e s of pi t c he s i n t he m i nd a nd i m a gi ni ng t he f i nge r i ng s on a m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt A l t hough he pr ovi de s a pi c t ur e o f a pi a no ke yboa r d f or vi s ua l i z i ng pur pos e s t he e xe r c i s e s c a n be done by vi s ua l i z i ng t he f i nge r i n gs on a ny i ns t r um e nt H e s t a t e s t ha t t he a bi l i t y o f t he m us i c a l m i nd t o i nt e r na l l y c r e a t e or i nt e r p r e t e xt e r na l m us i c a l s ound . ha s i m por t a nt r a m i f i c a t i ons f o r m us i c a l us e : t he s ki l l t o e nvi s i on m us i c a s i t i s c om pos e d, l e a vi ng onl y a f i na l t a s k o f phys i c a l not a t i on; t he c a pa c i t y t o s e e pr i nt e d m us i c a nd t o he a r t ha t m us i c w i t hout pl a yi ng i t on a n i ns t r um e nt ; a nd t he pr of i c i e nc y t o he a r pl a ye d o r r e c or de d m us i c a nd t o unde r s t a nd i t s s ha pe a nd f o r m pos s i bl y t o t he e xt e nt o f s e e i ng i n t he m i nd s e ye t he not e s a s t he y a r e pl a ye d a nd he a r d. T he s e a r e m os t c e r t a i nl y w o r t hw hi l e a bi l i t i e s t o s e e k t hr ough s t udy. A nd not e t ha t t he s e a bi l i t i e s a r e bo t h a na l ogous a nd c o m pl e m e nt a r y t o t he a c t of s i ght r e a di ng. ( p 21 ) K i r c hne r ( 2005 ) s ugge s t s t ha t m e nt a l vi s ua l i z a t i on m a y be a va l ua bl e t ool f o r c opi ng w i t h m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y. S he s t a t e s t ha t i n a ddi t i on t o vi s ua l i z i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e of a c om pos i t i on, m us i c i a ns s houl d vi s ua l i z e a n e nt i r e c onc e r t pe r f or m a nc e T hi s m i ght i nvol ve a vi s ua l i z a t i on o f w a l ki ng on t he s t a ge s i t t i ng dow n a t t he pi a no a nd

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42 c om pos i ng your s e l f pl a yi ng t hr ough t he p r ogr a m ha vi ng t he a udi e nc e f a vor a bl y a c know l e dge t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd w a l ki ng of f t he s t a ge ( p. 32) G r e e n ( 1986) s ugge s t s num e r ous pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s de s i gne d t o i m pr ove pe r f or m a nc e a nd r e duc e a nxi e t y i n m us i c i a ns S e v e r a l of t he s e t e c hni que s ut i l i z e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s t r a t e gi e s A m ong t he s ugge s t e d t e c hni que s G r e e n s ugge s t s t ha t m us i c i a ns us e vi s ua l i m a gi na t i on t o s e e w ha t t he f i nge r s a nd bod y l ook l i ke w he n pl a yi ng, a nd e ve n t o i m a gi ne t ha t t he y a r e a f a m ous c om pos e r or pe r f or m e r pl a yi ng t he pi e c e H e r e c om m e nds va r i ous t e c hni que s w he r e m us i c i a ns t r y t o s e e t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng or i m a gi ne a s c e ne t ha t r e l a t e s t o t he m us i c i n a n a t t e m pt t o i nc r e a s e e xpr e s s i on by m ovi ng c onc e nt r a t i on a w a y f r om t he pr i nt e d m us i c H e a l s o p r ovi de s s ugge s t i ons f or us i ng a udi t or y i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l r e he a r s a l A s i de f r om t he s e t he m a j or i t y of G r e e n s ( 1986 ) t e c hni que s i nvol ve r e l a xa t i on, f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on e xe r c i s e s W e r ne r ( 1996) a l s o pr ovi de s i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s f or m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e t ha t f oc us on r e l a xa t i on a nd m e di t a t i on. H ow e ve r P e yni r c i ogl u e t a l ( 2000 ) s t a t e t ha t m e nt a l s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s r e l a x a t i on a nd f oc us i ng do not qua l i f y a s m e nt a l r e he a r s a l be c a us e t he y do not f oc us on s pe c i f i c a c t i ons T he y s t a t e t ha t r e he a r s a l i nvol ve s r e pe a t i ng or t hi nki ng a bout t he s pe c i f i c a c t i ons t ha t w i l l be e nga ge d i n du r i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e T hus i t i s s pe c i f i c i n na t u r e ; s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s a t t e nt i ona l f oc us i ng or r e l a xa t i on a r e not r e he a r s a l a l t hough t he y a r e a l s o c ove r t or m e nt a l s t r a t e gi e s ( pp. 145 146) C a m pos ( 1996) s ugge s t s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hn i que s c a n be us e d t o i m pr ove t r um pe t pe r f or m a nc e H e r e c om m e nds bot h vi s ua l i z a t i on t e c hni que s a nd m e nt a l r e he a r s a l of t he m us i c T he vi s ua l i z a t i on t e c hni que s i nvol ve i m a gi ni ng a s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e

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43 H e s t a t e s : I m a gi ne your s e l f m ovi ng a c r os s t he s t a ge t he s ound o f t he a ppl a us e a nd s e e your f r i e nds a nd f a m i l y s uppor t i ng you T a ke your pl a c e br e a t hi ng f r e e l y a nd de e pl y, a nd s t a r t t o pl a y A c t ua l l y he a r your s e l f pl a yi ng t h e w a y you w a nt t he m us i c t o s ound ( p. 71) H e s ugge s t s t ha t pe r f or m e r s i m a gi ne de t a i l s s uc h a s how t he y l ook a nd a c t a nd s t a t e s t ha t i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t o i m a gi ne t he t ype o f a t t i t ude s a nd e m ot i ons you w i s h t o ha ve on s t a ge ( p. 71 ) M e nt a l r e he a r s a l of t he m us i c i n vol ve s a ur a l s ki l l s t o i m a gi ne t he m us i c t he w a y t he pe r f or m e r w a nt s i t t o s ound. C a m pos s t a t e s t ha t s om e pe r f or m e r s l i ke t o c om bi ne t he phys i c a l m a ni pul a t i on o f t he i ns t r um e nt s uc h a s pus hi ng t he va l ve s o r ke ys w hi l e doi ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l ( p. 71) H e a l s o s ug ge s t s t ha t pe r f or m e r s s houl d no t s i m pl y m e nt a l l y r e pl a y t he m us i c a s t he y ha ve j us t pe r f or m e d i t but a s t he y w a nt i t t o s ound, a nd r e c om m e nds m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i n s l ow m o t i on f or d i f f i c ul t pa s s a ge s P r a t t ( 1990 ) di s t i ngui s he s be t w e e n t w o m e t hods o f r e a di ng m us i c T he f i r s t i nvol ve s l ooki ng a t t he not a t i on a nd i m m e di a t e l y r e a c t i ng t o i t on t he i ns t r um e nt T he s e c ond m e t hod i nvol ve s c onve r t [ i ng] t he s ym bol s i nt o i m agi ne d s ound, i ns i de you r he a d ( p. 8 3 ) P r a t t not e s t ha t t he f i r s t m e t hod i s a m or e r e l i a bl e w a y t o di s c ove r t he pi t c he s i n a pi e c e a nd t ha t du r i ng i m a ge r y f e w m u s i c i a ns c a n i m a gi ne a s c or e pe r f e c t l y. H ow e ve r he c l a i m s t ha t i m a gi ne d r e a di ng ha s s e ve r a l be ne f i t s not p r ovi de d by phys i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a l one S i ght r e a di ng on a n i ns t r um e nt ha s a t e nde nc y t o f oc us on t he pi t c he s a nd i nc or r e c t not e s a r e of t e n r e pl a ye d i n o r de r t o be c or r e c t e d c r e a t i ng a ki nd o f m us i c a l s t a m m e r ( p. 83) P r a t t c l a i m s t ha t s i l e nt r e a di ng pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y t o f oc us on t he ot he r e l e m e nt s of t he m us i c s uc h a s m e t e r r hy t hm dyna m i c s t e xt ur e a nd t i m br e

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44 P r a t t ( 1990 ) o f f e r s s e ve r a l e xe r c i s e s f or de ve l opi ng i m a ge r y i n m us i c t ha t f oc us on non pi t c h e l e m e nt s s uc h a s t i m br e a nd dyna m i c s O ne o f t he s e e xe r c i s e s s e e m s pa r t i c ul a r l y a da pt a bl e t o t he s c hool ba nd r e he a r s a l T he e xe r c i s e i nvol ve s br e a ki ng dow n t he w hol e pr oc e s s i nt o s e pa r a t e c ons t i t ue nt pa r t s ( p. 87) T he s t ude nt i s p r e s e nt e d w i t h a m us i c s t a f f upon w hi c h i s w r i t t e n a s e c ond s pa c e A i n t r e bl e c l e f T he s t ude nt i s a s ke d t o i m a ge t he not e s a s : 1. a n A pl a ye d a t ha l f a doz e n di f f e r e nt dyna m i c l e ve l s on a pi a no; 2 t he s a m e not e a t t he s a m e dyna m i c l e ve l s on a vi ol i n/ t r um pe t / f l ut e / ha r ps i c hor d; 3. t he s a m e not e a t va r i ous dyna m i c l e ve l s on va r i ous i ns t r u m e nt s but r e pe a t e d i n a r e gul a r be a t ( 2/ 4, 3/ 4 6/ 6 ) a t va r i ous s pe e ds ( M M = 60, M M = 90, M M = 120) w i t h a c c e nt s on f i r s t / s e c ond not e s f r om s t a c c a t i s s i m o t o l e ga t o. ( p. 87) T hi s t e c hni que w a s a da pt e d f or us e a s a n e xe r c i s e i n t he pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s por t i on of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod de s i gne d f or t hi s s t udy. S a l m on a nd M e ye r ( 1992 ) i nc l ude m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s a n a l t e r na t i ve s ol ut i on t o pr obl e m s ol vi ng i n pr a c t i c e T he y s t a t e : I s s l ow p r a c t i c e t he onl y w a y t o m a s t e r a t e c hni c a l l y di f f i c ul t pa s s a ge ? . W h a t a bout s t udy i ng t he s c or e a w a y f r om you r i ns t r um e nt vi s ua l i z i ng i n de t a i l t he pl a c e m e nt of e a c h f i nge r on t he ke ys or t he m us c l e s us e d e l s e w he r e i n t he body t o pr oduc e t he s ound? ( p. 162) S a l m on a nd M e ye r c l a i m t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t r a t e gi e s a r e of t e n hi t or m i s s de pe ndi ng m a i nl y on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s w i t h w hi c h s uc h t e c hni que s a r e e m pl oye d ( p. 182 ) T he y s t a t e t ha t i n or de r f or m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o be e f f e c t i ve i t m us t be c om bi ne d w i t h a ppr op r i a t e pr a c t i c e a nd pr e pa r a t i on, a nd s houl d c onc e nt r a t e on pos i t i ve a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e T he y s t a t e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s c a nnot s ubs t i t ut e f or ot he r f o r m s of pr e pa r a t i on bu t t he y do pr ovi de a n e xt r a m a r gi n of s e c ur i t y be c a us e t he y c a n r e i nf o r c e l e a r n i ng. O ne a dva nt a ge o f s uc h t e c hni que s i s t ha t t he y m a ke i t pos s i bl e t o vi s ua l i z e a n i de a l pe r f o r m a nc e of a w or k e ve n i f t hi s l e ve l of a c c om pl i s hm e nt c a nnot a c t u a l l y be a c hi e ve d. T he pe r f o r m e r

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45 c a n i m a gi ne f o r i ns t a nc e p l a yi ng a t e c hni c a l l y de m a ndi ng pa s s a ge i n a m us i c a l l y s e ns i t i ve m a nne r f r e e o f t e c hni c a l l i m i t a t i ons or m e c ha ni c a l e r r or s T he e f f e c t of s uc h a n i m a ge c a n be s i m i l a r t o t ha t of a t t e ndi ng a pe r f or m a nc e by a n a r t i s t w hos e i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f a pi e c e e voke s s uc h a pow e r f ul ov e r a l l i m a ge t ha t i t c a n, a t l e a s t t e m por a r i l y, e l e va t e t he l e ve l of one s pl a yi ng. A c t i ve r e he a r s a l pa r t i c ul a r l y w he n f r e que nt a nd s ys t e m a t i c c a n he l p a c hi e ve a nd s us t a i n s uc h a n e f f e c t ( p 183 ) T he f a c t t ha t num e r ous s our c e s ha ve r e c om m e nde d f r e que nt a nd s ys t e m a t i c m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s a c e nt r a l c onc e r n o f t he c ur r e n t s t udy, a s pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h ha s not t e s t e d t he e f f e c t s of a r e gul a r o r s ys t e m a t i c a ppr oa c h t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S a l m on a nd M e ye r ( 1992 ) c l a i m t ha t w he n w e l e a r n a pi e c e of m us i c w e f o r m a m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he m us i c t ha t w e us e t o g ui de us t hr ough t he pi e c e D e ve l opi ng t hi s i nt e r na l r e p r e s e nt a t i on i nvol ve s a c om bi na t i on of vi s ua l a udi t or y a nd t a c t i l e or ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s A vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he m us i c pr ovi de s us w i t h a v i s ua l i m a ge of t he m us i c a l s c or e a nd a n a udi t o r y r e pr e s e nt a t i on pr ov i de s a n a ur a l i m a ge A t a c t i l e ( t ouc h) or ki ne s t he t i c ( m ove m e nt ) r e p r e s e nt a t i on de a l s w i t h t he phys i c a l f e e l i ngs of pl a yi ng a pi e c e of m us i c O r d i na r i l y, our a w a r e ne s s of t a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he t i c c ue s i s l i m i t e d be c a us e w e a r e m or e a t t e nt i ve t o vi s ua l or a udi t or y i nf o r m a t i on ( p 96) S a l m on a nd M e ye r s t a t e : A pi a ni s t f o r e xa m pl e w i l l pr oba bl y f i nd i t di f f i c u l t t o a t t e nd t o t he s e ns a t i ons of hi s or he r f i nge r s a nd j oi nt s w hi l e l i s t e ni ng t o t he e f f e c t s of t he s e ha nd m ove m e nt s S om e pi a ni s t s us e s i l e nt ke yboa r ds f or p r a c t i c e but us ua l l y j us t t o a voi d di s t ur bi ng ot he r pe opl e H ow e ve r s uc h a de vi c e a l l ow s you t o s e pa r a t e t he s ound f r om t he f e e l of m us i c ( p. 96) W i nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s c a n s e pa r a t e t he s ound f r o m t he f e e l t hr ough s i l e nt f i nge r i ng a nd a i r a r t i c ul a t i ons P e r c us s i oni s t s c a n a l s o m a ke us e of s i l e nt ke yboa r ds a nd s i l e nt pr a c t i c e pa ds B uf f i ngt on ( 1989 c i t e d i n S a l m on a nd M e ye r 199 2) of f e r s s i x s ugge s t i ons f or e f f e c t i ve m e nt a l i m a ge r y s um m a r i z e d a s f ol l ow s :

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46 1. S t r e s s a c c ur a c y i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e W he n you m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e a pi e c e of m us i c w or k out a de t a i l e d i m a ge of how you e xpe c t t he m us i c t o s ound a nd w ha t you m us t do t o a c hi e ve t he de s i r e d e f f e c t I t s a good i de a t o w r i t e dow n t he f e a t ur e s of your i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s o t ha t you c a n m a ke y our m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ons i s t e nt f r om one t i m e t o t he ne xt ( p. 1 84) 2. A c c om pa ny m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h pos i t i ve i m a ge s of s uc c e s s a nd c onf i de nc e 3. P ut pe r f o r m a nc e pr obl e m s i n pe r s pe c t i ve one p r o bl e m m e a s ur e doe s not i ndi c a t e a n ove r a l l f a i l ur e du r i ng pe r f or m a nc e 4. D ur i ng i m a ge r y f oc us on pe r f or m i ng r a t he r t ha n ot he r f a c t or s B e i ng t a s k or i e nt e d i n you r m e nt a l i m a ge r y m e a ns you f oc us on he a r i ng your s e l f pl a y t he f i r s t f e w no t e s of a pi e c e i n you r m i nd r a t he r t ha n on how t he a udi e nc e m i gh t r e a c t or how l ong you e xpe c t t o be ons t a ge ( p. 18 5) 5. M a ke m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e s e m bl e t he a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e 6. G i ve t he pr a c t i c e a nd r e f i ne m e nt of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a c ha nc e t o de ve l op i t s e f f e c t T hi s s ki l l r e qui r e s r e he a r s a l a nd m a y not w or k e s pe c i a l l y e f f e c t i ve l y t he f i r s t f e w t i m e s you t r y i t P a y a t t e nt i on t o t he c i r c um s t a nc e s unde r w hi c h you pr a c t i c e J us t a s a c t i ve pr a c t i c e p r of i t s f r om m i ni m a l di s t r a c t i ons m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s l i ke l y t o be m os t e f f e c t i ve unde r r e l a t i ve l y t r a nqui l c ondi t i ons ( pp. 185 186) L i s k ( 1987) i nc l ude s i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s i n hi s book of ba nd r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s H e s ugge s t s t ha t s t ude nt s c l os e t he i r e ye s t o r e m ov e vi s ua l di s t r a c t i on a nd t o c r e a t e a m e nt a l i m a ge of s ound: S t r onge r l e a r n i ng oc c ur s w he n t he s t ude nt s c l os e t h e i r e ye s a nd c r e a t e t he i r ow n pe r s ona l i m a ge s of s ound. T he y c a n SE E P i t c h, B a l a nc e B l e nd, I nt ona t i on T one Q ua l i t y, a nd T ot a l E ns e m bl e S ound i n t he i r M I N D S E Y E T he r e a r e no e xa c t i m a ge s or pi c t ur e s us e d. I t i s t he uni que ne s s of t hi s pi c t ur e or i m a ge t he s t ude nt c r e a t e s w hi c h i s e s s e nt i a l a nd not w ha t s om e one e l s e s e e s de f i ne s or i m pos e s ( p. 53) L i s k of f e r s a t e a c hi ng pr oc e dur e t ha t us e s m e nt a l i m a ge r y i n t he s i ght r e a di ng o f r hy t hm pa t t e r ns H e c l a i m s t ha t t he pr a c t i c e o f c om pi l i ng a nd l e a r ni n g a l a r ge a m ount of r hyt hm pa t t e r ns i s unr e a l i s t i c be c a us e i t ne ve r de a l s w i t h t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt ne e d. T ha t i s s pont a ne ous m e nt a l r e a c t i on t o r hyt h m s w he n t he y a r e ne e de d ( p 134) A c c or di ng t o

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47 L i s k, i t i s m e nt a l a w a r e ne s s r a t he r t ha n phys i c a l p r oc e s s e s t ha t a l l ow us t o r e a c t t o r hyt hm pa t t e r ns H e c l a i m s t ha t hi s t e a c hi ng t e c hni que c r e a t e s a s pont a ne ous r e s pons e t o [ t he m us i c a l ] i m a ge ( p. 134) H ow e ve r he s ugge s t s t ha t t he pr oc e dur e w or ks be s t i n a n i ndi vi dua l l e s s on s i t ua t i on r a t he r t ha n a n e ns e m bl e s c e na r i o. T he t e a c hi ng pr oc e dur e i nvol ve s s how i ng t he s t ud e nt a r hyt hm pa t t e r n w r i t t e n on a bl a c kboa r d or pi e c e o f pa pe r A f t e r t he s t ude nt s e e s t he pa t t e r n, i t i s r e m ove d, a nd t he s t ude nt i s i ns t r uc t e d t o r e m e m be r a p i c t ur e of t he p a t t e r n. A pul s e i s gi ve n, a nd t he s t ude nt s us t a i ns a pi t c h w hi l e i m a gi ng t he pa t t e r n. T he s t ude nt i s i nf o r m e d t ha t w he n t he t e a c he r c ut s t he m of f t he y a r e t o pe r f o r m t he pa t t e r n. T hi s pr oc e dur e a i ds i n t he de ve l opm e nt of m us i c r e a di ng s ki l l s by de ve l opi ng t hought p r oc e s s e s r a t he r t ha n c ont i nuous phys i c a l r e pe t i t i on. T hi s pr oc e dur e s e r ve d a s a m ode l f o r a n e xe r c i s e us e d i n t he pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod de s i gne d f or t hi s s t udy. L i s k ( 1987) a l s o pr ovi de s a p r oc e dur e de s i gne d t o ge t s t ude nt s t o i m a gi n e t he pe r f e c t pe r f o r m a nc e H e s t a t e s : T he m i nd c a nnot di s c e r n be t w e e n r e a l o r i m a gi ne d e xpe r i e nc e s ( c or r e c t ne s s a nd i nc or r e c t ne s s ) W he n w e us e our i m a gi na t i on i t i s e r r o r f r e e W e c a n he a r pe r f e c t i on i n ou r m i nds e ye I t i s onl y t he m e nt a l unde r s t a ndi n g, not phys i c a l ( t he s t ude nt s a r e a l r e a dy a w a r e of e m bouc hur e f i nge r i ng, e t c ) w hi c h i s i m po r t a nt I f t he pr ope r m e nt a l unde r s t a ndi ng a nd pr oc e s s i s i n pl a c e t he m i nd w i l l d i r e c t t he m us c l e s t o pr oduc e t he i m a gi ne d e xpe c t a t i on I f t h e phr a s e or pa s s a ge i s pr ope r l y unde r s t ood by t he s t ude nt s t he y w i l l not he ar m i s t ak e s ( p. 138 ) H i s t hr e e s t e p t e a c hi ng pr oc e dur e s t a r t s w i t h t he s t ude nt pl a yi ng a pa s s a ge t ha t c ont a i ns t e c hni c a l pr obl e m s T he n t he s t ude nt s i l e nt l y i m a g i ne s pl a yi ng t he pa s s a ge w hi l e t he t e a c he r c onduc t s L i s k s ugge s t s t ha t t he i m a gi ng of t he pa s s a ge s houl d be done a t l e a s t t hr e e t i m e s t o a s s ur e no unne c e s s a r y a t t e nt i on t o a ny pr e c onc e i ve d pr obl e m s ( p 139 ) I n t he t hi r d a nd f i na l s t e p, t he s t ude nt pl a ys t he pa s s a ge a s t he y he a r d i t dur i ng t he i m a gi ne d

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48 pe r f or m a nc e T hi s t e c hni que w a s a da pt e d f o r us e i n t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod o f t hi s s t udy. J M L a ve r t y ( pe r s ona l c om m uni c a t i on, A pr i l 8, 2 005) us e s a m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que i n t he r e he a r s a l of s e c onda r y a nd c ol l e ge l e ve l c onc e r t ba nds I n e a c h s t e p o f t he m e t hod, one phys i c a l a s pe c t of pl a yi ng t he i ns t r um e nt i s r e m ove d unt i l t he s t ude nt i s pe r f or m i ng t ot a l m e nt a l pr a c t i c e A f t e r pl a yi ng t h r ough t he pa s s a ge s t ude nt s a r e t a ke n t hr ough t he f ol l ow i ng s t e ps : 1. A i r a nd f i nge r s onl y. S t ude nt s a r e i ns t r uc t e d t o he a r t he m us i c pl a ye d pe r f e c t l y i n t he i r he a ds w hi l e t he y s i l e nt l y pe r f or m t he f i nge r i ngs a nd a r t i c ul a t i ons a nd bl ow f r e e a i r a s i f a c t ua l l y pl a yi n g. 2. F i nge r s onl y. I n t hi s s t e p t he a r t i c ul a t i ons a nd f r e e a i r a r e r e m ove d, a nd t he s t ude nt i s i ns t r uc t e d t o he a r t he pa s s a ge w hi l e pe r f or m i ng t he f i nge r i ngs f or t he pa s s a ge 3. N o m ove m e nt I n t hi s s t e p t he f i nge r i ngs a r e now r e m ove d, s o t ha t t he s t ude nt he a r s t he pa s s a ge i n t he he a d w i t hout a ny m ove m e nt a t a l l T hi s m e t hod i s pa r t i c ul a r l y us e f u l f or s t ude nt m us i c i a ns be c a us e i t gr a dua l l y m ove s t he s t ude nt f r om c om pl e t e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t o c om pl e t e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T hi s t e c hni que i s s i m i l a r t o Z e i gl e r s ( 1987) c onc e pt of a c t i ve i m a ge r y, w he r e i m a ge r y i s a c c om pa ni e d by phys i c a l m ove m e nt s i m ul a t i n g t he pe r f o r m a nc e A c t i ve i m a ge r y t e c hni que s w e r e a da pt e d f or us e i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod de s i gne d f or t hi s s t udy. R ol a nd ( 1997) s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i nvol v e s c r e a t i ng i n your m i nd a n i m a ge of you r s e l f goi ng t hr ough you r pe r f or m a nc e or pa r t s o f i t w i t hout a c t ua l l y phys i c a l l y doi ng s o. T hi s i m a ge i nc l ude s a l l s e ns e s vi s ua l a udi t or y, s m e l l t a s t e a nd ki ne s t he t i c a s w e l l a s e m ot i ons ( p. 42) H e c l a i m s t ha t a l t hough t he r e a s on f or t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s not c l e a r i t a ppe a r s t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l c r e a t e s

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49 ps yc hophys i ol ogi c a l pa t t e r ns i n t he body t ha t pr e p a r e t he a r t i s t t o c a r r y out t he phys i c a l a c t i ons i n r e a l i t y ( p 42 ) R ol a nd ( 1997) c i t e s f our m a i n a dva nt a ge s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l F i r s t a pe r f o r m e r c a n r e he a r s e w i t hou t be c om i ng phys i c a l l y t i r e d, w hi c h i s a n a dva nt a ge c l os e t o pe r f or m a nc e t i m e i n t ha t t he pe r f or m e r c a n s a ve e ne r gy. S e c ond a pe r f or m e r c a n r e he a r s e e ve n w he n i nj ur y p r e ve nt s or r e s t r i c t s phy s i c a l pr a c t i c e or w he n t he r e i s no a c c e s s t o i ns t r um e nt s or pr a c t i c e a r e a s T hi r d a pe r f or m e r c a n t r a i n t o c om pl e t e a pe r f e c t pe r f or m a nc e e ve n w he n t he y a r e phys i c a l l y una bl e t o do s o. F i na l l y, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n e nha nc e your m e m or y o f w or ds m us i c or s t e ps w i t hout ha vi ng t o go t hr ough t he m phys i c a l l y ( p. 43 ) R ol a nd c l a i m s t ha t a n a r t i s t c a n us e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o bui l d s e l f c onf i de nc e r e duc e a nxi e t y, a nd i nc r e a s e s ki l l de ve l opm e nt C onnol l y ( 2001) s t a t e s t ha t t he va l ue of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s t ha t i t c a n c ut s hor t t he l e a r ni ng p r oc e s s a nd c om pl e m e nt t he a c t ua l p r a c t i c e o f s ki l l s a s i t i s i n t he b r a i n w he r e t he ul t i m a t e l e a r ni ng o f s ki l l s a nd unl e a r ni ng of ba d ha bi t s t a ke s pl a c e T he pur pos e o f p r a c t i c i ng a s ki l l m e nt a l l y or phys i c a l l y, i s t o t e l l t he br a i n, a s c l e a r l y a s pos s i bl e how t o or ga ni z e t he b ody s m ove m e nt ( p. 17) A l t hough m os t of t he l i t e r a t ur e c i t e d i n t hi s s e c t i on i s not r e s e a r c h ba s e d, i t pr ovi de s a va l ua bl e i ns i ght i nt o how p r of e s s i ona l pe r f or m e r s us e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o i m pr ove pe r f o r m a nc e M uc h o f t he e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e i nc l ude s s t udi e s t ha t a s k pa r t i c i pa nt s t o m e nt a l l y p r a c t i c e a t a s k, but p r ovi d e no i ns t r uc t i on r e ga r di ng s pe c i f i c t e c hni que s t ha t m a y be va l ua bl e i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e O ne o f t he m a i n pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy i s t o de s i gn s pe c i f i c e xe r c i s e s a nd t e c hni que s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e f o r us e w i t h t he hi gh s c hool ba nd. T he non e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t ur e i n t hi s s e c t i on i s va l ua bl e i n t ha t i t pr ovi de s s pe c i f i c m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s om e of w hi c h w e r e a da pt e d f o r t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod de s i gne d f or t hi s s t udy.

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50 R e s e ar c h S t u d i e s i n M e n t al P r ac t i c e T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on i nc l ude s r e s e a r c h s t udi e s t ha t ha ve a ppl i e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o bot h m us i c a l a nd non m us i c a l di s c i pl i ne s S ha nks a nd C a m e r on ( 2000) de s c r i be t he t ypi c a l r e s e a r c h s t udy i n t he a r e a of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e : I n a t ypi c a l s t ud y w i t hi n t hi s r e s e a r c h dom a i n, pa r t i c i pa nt s ha ve i ni t i a l l y be e n r e qui r e d t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e a t a s k. C om m on i ns t r uc t i ons ha ve i nc l ude d a s ki ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o r e l a x, t o r e m a i n s t i l l a nd t o i m a gi ne pe r f or m i ng t he t a s k s uc c e s s f ul l y f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. U s ua l l y, a c ont r ol g r oup a nd a gr oup r e c e i vi ng phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a r e i nc l ude d f o r c om pa r i s on. F ol l ow i ng m e nt a l or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or bot h, pe r f or m a nc e i s a s s e s s e d. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e ha s be e n obs e r ve d t o ha ve a pos i t i ve ( e nha nc i ng) e f f e c t i f t he pe r f o r m a nc e of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup e xc e e ds t ha t of t he c ont r ol g r oup on s om e m e a s ur e of s pe e d or a c c ur a c y. ( p 305 ) W e i nbe r g ( 1989) s um m a r i z e s s e ve r a l pr obl e m s i nh e r e nt i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e s e a r c h. F i r s t t he c ove r t na t ur e o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a us e s di f f i c ul t y i n de t e r m i ni ng w ha t t he s ubj e c t s a r e a c t ua l l y t hi nki ng a bout dur i ng t r e a t m e nt T hi s be c om e s m or e of a pr obl e m t he l onge r t he a m ount of t i m e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s s uppos e d t o oc c ur A ddi t i ona l l y, no m a ni pul a t i on c he c ks ha ve be e n e m pl oye d i n t he c ont r ol g r oups t o gua r a nt e e t ha t t he s e s ubj e c t s ha ve not be e n pr a c t i c i ng m e nt a l l y ( p 202 ) S e c ond, W e i nbe r g ( 1989) s ugge s t s t ha t m a ny o f t h e s t udi e s i nvol vi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y ha ve be e n i nf l ue nc e d by t he H a w t ho r ne e f f e c t ( t r e a t m e nt gr oups i m pr ovi ng s i m pl y be c a us e t he y r e c e i ve d s pe c i a l a t t e nt i on) or ot he r e xpe r i m e nt a l bi a s e s I m pr ove m e nt s of pe r f or m a nc e m a y ha ve be e n t he r e s ul t of e xpe c t i ng t o do be t t e r a s oppos e d t o t he s pe c i f i c e f f e c t s o f M P [ m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ] ( p. 202) T hi r d W e i nbe r g s t a t e s t ha t i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s s uc h a s s ki l l l e ve l i m a g i ng a bi l i t y, or pr e vi ous e xpe r i e nc e c oul d i m pa c t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l W e i nbe r g r e c om m e nds t ha t t he s e va r i a bl e s be c ont r ol l e d a nd m a ni pul a t e d i n f ut ur e s t udi e s

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51 F r e ym ut h ( 1993 ) c l a i m s t ha t c ont r a di c t or y f i n di ng s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e s e a r c h a r e due t o t he f a c t t ha t va r i ous w a ys of a na l yz i ng a nd i nt e r pr e t i ng r e s ul t s a r e bot h pos s i bl e a nd l e gi t i m a t e a nd t ha t t he r e a r e of t e n f l a w s i n t h e r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy or de s i gn. S he s t a t e s : S om e t i m e s a n hypot he s i s s e e m s e nt i r e l y l o gi c a l a nd m a y e ve n ha ve e xt e ns i ve a ne c dot a l s uppor t ye t r e s e a r c h r e s ul t s s how no s i g ni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups T he c e nt r a l pr obl e m i s obvi ous l y t he s ubj e c t i ve na t ur e of t he da t a ( p. 142) N on m u s i c al R e s e ar c h I n hi s r e vi e w of r e s e a r c h on m e nt a l p r a c t i c e W e i n be r g ( 1989) s t a t e s t ha t t he l i t e r a t ur e i ndi c a t e s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s ge ne r a l l y e f f e c t i ve i n e nha nc i ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd t ha t i t s houl d be us e d i n c onj un c t i on w i t h phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd s houl d not b e t hought of a s a r e pl a c e m e nt f o r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( p. 195) T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e e m s t o be de pe n de nt on s e ve r a l va r i a bl e s i nc l udi ng a bi l i t y l e ve l t ype of t a s k, c onc e pt ua l i z i ng a bi l i t y, pr e vi ous e xpe r i e nc e a nd du r a t i on of t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons S ui nn ( 1986 ) i nc l ude s m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a s pa r t of a s e ve n s t e p m e t hod t o pe a k pe r f or m a nc e H e pr ovi de s f i ve s t a ge s f or us i ng i m a ge r y i n r e he a r s a l w hi c h he c a l l s vi s ua l m ot or be ha vi or r e he a r s a l ( V M B R ) T he e xe r c i s e s i nvol ve r e l a xa t i on t e c hni que s w he r e by t he i ndi vi dua l s w i t c he s on a r e l a xa t i on s c e ne T he n, t he i ndi vi dua l i s i ns t r uc t e d t o s w i t c h on d i f f e r e nt s c e ne s f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s uc h a s a s uc c e s s c om pe t i t i on s c e ne or a w i nni ng f e e l i ng s c e ne S ui nn ( 1980 ) f ound t ha t a s ki e r us i ng V M B R ha d t he s a m e E M G m us c l e r e s pons e s t ha t w oul d ha ve be e n pr e s e nt i n a c t ua l s ki i ng.

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52 M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be a n e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gy t o he l p s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s pe r f or m m o t or s ki l l s G e r i c h ( 1992) t e s t e d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e on a s c a r f j uggl i ng t a s k on s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s ( n = 60 ) S t ude nt s w e r e s e pa r a t e d i nt o f our gr oups t ha t pe r f or m e d t he t a s k us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e P e r f or m a nc e w a s a s s e s s e d ba s e d on t he num be r of t r i a l s ne c e s s a r y f or s ki l l a c qui s i t i on a nd r e t e nt i on R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e i n r e t e nt i on be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oups but t ha t t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup r e qui r e d f e w e r t r i a l s a nd w a s m or e s uc c e s s f ul i n s ki l l a c qui s i t i on t ha n t he ot he r gr oups A l l br i t t on G r a nt ( 1985) f ound t ha t c om bi ne d m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s i gni f i c a nt l y i m pr ove d s ubj e c t s a bi l i t y t o m e nt a l l y m e a s ur e l e ngt h. S he a l s o f ound t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l one pr oduc e d no s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt i n t he t a s k. H ow e ve r S ha nks a nd C a m e r on ( 2000) f ound t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s l e s s e f f e c t i ve t ha n e i t he r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e i n a s e que nt i a l r e a c t i on t i m e t a s k i nvol vi ng dot l oc a t i on. G ue r r e r o ( 1991 ) i n t e r vi e w e d S pa ni s h s pe a ki ng c ol l e ge s t ude nt s t o de t e r m i ne t he r ol e of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a s a s t r a t e gy f or l e a r ni ng a s e c ond l a ngua ge R e s ul t s of t he s t udy i ndi c a t e d t he pr e s e nc e of t w o m a j or t ype s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l : t a s k r e l a t e d a nd s e l f r e l a t e d. T a s k r e l a t e d r e he a r s a l i nvol ve s t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e of a s pe c i f i c a c t i vi t y or t a s k, w hi l e s e l f r e l a t e d r e he a r s a l i s de f i ne d a s s e l f t a l k w hi c h i s not di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a pa r t i c ul a r a c t i vi t y or t a s k. T he s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t a l t hough a m a j or i t y of t he pa r t i c i pa n t s us e d s om e f or m of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m os t of t he m c l a i m e d t ha t t he y d i d not unde r s t a nd w ha t i t w a s or how i t c oul d be us e d, a nd t ha t t he s t udy he l pe d t he m t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o m e t h ods i n m us i c e duc a t i on w he r e s t ude nt s

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53 a r e a s ke d t o s t udy a pi e c e o f m us i c be f o r e pl a yi ng i t a nd m a y na t ur a l l y e nga ge i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o s om e e xt e nt w i t hou t a c t ua l l y know i ng w ha t i t i s t ha t t he y a r e doi ng. W he t s t one ( 1996) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e on a f i r e a r m m a r ks m a ns hi p t a s k of pol i c e o f f i c e r t r a i ne e s T he t r e a t m e nt gr oup r e c e i ve d a t w o hour i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng s e s s i on, t e n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s e s s i on s l a s t i ng f i ve m i nut e s e a c h a nd us i ng gui de d hol i s t i c i m a ge r y t w e nt y hour s o f phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a t t he f i r i ng r a nge a nd f i ve m i nut e s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a t hom e G ui d e d hol i s t i c i m a ge r y r e f e r s t o t he i nc or por a t i on o f a l l t he s e ns e s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e W he t s t one s t a t e s t ha t i m a ge r y m us t be vi vi d t o be e f f e c t i ve a nd t ha t a m ul t i s e ns or y a ppr oa c h i nc r e a s e s t h e vi vi dne s s of t he i m a ge T he c ont r ol gr oup r e c e i ve d t he s t a nda r d f i r e a r m m a r ks m a ns hi p t r a i ni ng w hi c h i nvol ve d phys i c a l l y f i r i ng be t w e e n 50 a nd 150 r ou nds a t t a r ge t s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup ha d a n a ve r a ge ga i n s c o r e of ove r t hi r t y po i nt s hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup. R e s ul t s a l s o i ndi c a t e t ha t be l i e f i n t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y i n f l ue nc e i t s s uc c e s s P a r t i c i p a nt s w ho be l i e ve d i n t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s c or e d a n a ve r a g e of 42 63 poi nt s h i ghe r t ha n pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha d l ow be l i e f i n t he t e c hni que D i j ke r m a n ( 2004) f ound t ha t s t r oke pa t i e nt s w ho p a r t i c i pa t e d i n da i l y m ot or i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l s how e d gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt on a n a r m m ove m e nt t a s k t ha n s ubj e c t s i n a c ont r ol gr oup R e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng c oul d be a va l ua bl e t e c hni que f or r e duc i ng m ot or de f i c i t s i n s t r oke pa t i e nt s I n hi s r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e H a l l ( 2002) s ugge s t s t ha t i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e m a y be a va l ua bl e t ool f o r l e a r ni ng s ur gi c a l s ki l l s t ha t a r e c o gni t i ve i n na t u r e H e l i s t s f i ve pot e nt i a l a ppl i c a t i ons of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t o s ur gi c a l s ki l l s :

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54 1. E a r l y s t a ge s of l e a r ni ng a ba s i c s ki l l 2. D i m i ni s hi ng t he l e a r ni ng c ur ve f o r a ne w pr oc e dur e 3. T r a ns f e r r i ng s ki l l s f r om a n e s t a bl i s he d t e c hni que 4. H i nde r i ng t he de c a y o f s ki l l s 5. P r e ope r a t i on pr e pa r a t i on f o r a c om pl e x pr oc e dur e ( p. 468 ) H a l l a l s o pr opos e s a s i x s t a ge c yc l i c a l t e c hni que f o r m e nt a l i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l : 1 T a s k de f i ni t i on, 2. P r i o r l e a r ni ng 3 M e nt a l r e he a r s a l 4. R e f l e c t i on, 5 P r obl e m s ol vi ng 6 R e a l i t y c he c k ( p. 469 ) I n t he i r m e t a a na l ys i s of t he l i t e r a t ur e D r i s ke l l C o ppe r a nd M or a n ( 1994) f ound t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s e f f e c t i ve i n i m pr ovi ng pe r f or m a nc e but not a s e f f e c t i ve a s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e A ddi t i ona l f i ndi ngs f r om t he i r a na l ys i s s ugge s t t ha t : 1. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s e f f e c t i ve f o r bot h c ogni t i ve a nd phys i c a l t a s ks but t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he a m ou nt of c ogni t i ve e l e m e nt s i nvol ve d i n t he t a s k. 2. T he i nc r e a s e i n pe r f or m a nc e f r om m e nt a l pr a c t i c e de c l i ne s ove r t i m e ( a ppr oxi m a t e l y t h r e e w e e ks ) T o ga i n t he m a xi m u m be ne f i t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e one s houl d i m pl e m e nt r e f r e s he r t r a i ni ng on a t l e a s t a 1 t o 2 w e e k s c he dul e ( p. 489) 3. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s m or e be ne f i c i a l i f s ubj e c t s ha ve pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k. 4. M or e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s not a l w a ys be t t e r a nd e xt e nde d s e s s i on s c a n l e a d t o a l os s of c onc e nt r a t i on. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t 20 m i nut e s m a y be a n opt i m a l l e ngt h f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons M u s i c al R e s e ar c h T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on pr e s e nt s r e s e a r c h i nvol vi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e K ohut ( 1985 ) s t a t e s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i nvol ve s t r a i ni ng t he unc ons c i ous br a i n t o e f f i c i e nt l y pr oc e s s a nd or ga ni z e i nf or m a t i on ( goa l s s pe c i f i e d by t he c ons c i ous br a i n) a nd t r a ns f or m i t i nt o s pe c i f i c ne r v e s i gna l s t o t he m us c l e s ( p. 127) H e

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55 c l a i m s t ha t a l t hough num e r ous s t udi e s ha ve be e n d one on m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i nt e ns i ve r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a o f m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e i s s t i l l ne e de d. K ohut w a r ns t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y r e s ul t i n a de c r e a s e i n m ot i va t i on a m o ng s om e s t ude nt s be c a us e i t l a c ks i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k. T he r e f or e i n o r de r f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o be va l ua bl e t o us i t ne e ds t o be j udi c i ous l y a l t e r na t e d w i t h phys i c a l pr a c t i c e I n t h i s w a y t he t w o t ype s of pr a c t i c e c a n s uppl e m e nt a nd c om pl e m e nt e a c h ot h e r ( p. 128) I n hi s r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e B r ooks ( 1995) s t a t e s : M e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s a us e f ul t e c hni que e l e m e nt s of w hi c h a r e e m pl oye d by m us i c s t ude nt s a nd m us i c e duc a t or s i n a va r i e t y of f a m i l i a r s e t t i ngs F or e xa m pl e ba nd s t ude n t s m a y a i r a nd f i nge r t he i r pa r t s a s t he i r di r e c t or l e a ds t he e ns e m bl e i n a t i m e d, s i l e nt e xe r c i s e of a n un f a m i l i a r pi e c e j us t be f or e s i ght r e a di ng i t f or a r a t i ng a t a ba nd c ont e s t ; c hoi r m e m be r s m a y m e nt a l l y s i ng t hr ough t he i r pa r t s w hi l e t he di r e c t or r e he a r s e s w i t h a not he r s e c t i on of t he c hoi r ; a nd c onduc t or s m a y m e nt a l l y c onduc t t hr ough t he f i r s t f e w ba r s of t he ope ni ng w or k o f a c onc e r t be f or e w a l ki ng on s t a ge ( p. 4) B a s e d on t he f i ndi ngs i n t he l i t e r a t u r e B r ooks c onc l ude s t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s i nf l ue nc e d by t a s k e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he a bi l i t y t o c o nc e pt ua l i z e a nd s hor t p r a c t i c e s e s s i ons of no m o r e t ha n f i ve m i nut e s a r e ne c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n c onc e nt r a t i on. S i s t e r he n ( 2004) c i t e s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s a va l ua bl e t e c hni que f or e nha nc i ng m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a bi l i t i e s I n he r r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e s he c onc l ude s t ha t s t ude nt s m a y be ne f i t f r om t a ppi ng t he i r f i nge r s a s i f pl a yi n g t he pi a no w hi l e he a r i ng t he pi e c e m e nt a l l y. S he c l a i m s t ha t be c a us e t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n de t e r i or a t e a f t e r a pe r i od of s e ve n da ys . s t ude nt s s houl d be a dvi s e d t o pr a c t i c e m e nt a l l y a t l e a s t onc e a w e e k ( p. 34 ) A c c or di ng t o S i s t e r he n, m us i c t e a c he r s s houl d be a w a r e t ha t m e nt a l l y i m a gi ni ng a n uns uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e c oul d ha v e a ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on pe r f o r m a nc e S he c a ut i ons t ha t i f t e a c he r s w a r n t he i r s t ude nt s t o be pr e pa r e d f or a nyt hi ng t ha t c oul d go w r ong, t he y m a y be c r e a t i ng a ne ga t i ve i m a ge i n t he s t ude nt s m i nd . . T e a c he r s

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56 s houl d r e m e m be r t o s pe nd t i m e i n l e s s ons t e l l i ng s t ude nt s w hat t o do i n a c om pe t i t i on or pe r f or m a nc e r a t he r t ha n w ha t not t o do ( p. 33) S i m i l a r l y, W i l s on ( 1994 ) s t r e s s e s t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s houl d be opt i m i s t i c a nd s houl d c r e a t e a vi s i on of s uc c e s s H e r e c om m e nds t ha t pe r f or m i ng a r t i s t s e m pl oy m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a s w e l l a s vi s u a l i m a ge r y de pi c t i ng a pe r f e c t pe r f or m a nc e C onnol l y ( 2002) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of a pr ogr a m i n m e nt a l s ki l l s t r a i ni ng on t he pe r f or m a nc e of uni ve r s i t y l e ve l m us i c i a ns T he qu a l i t a t i ve s t udy e xa m i ne d s ubj e c t s pe r c e pt i on of t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he t e c hn i que s on t he i r p l a yi ng a f t e r t w o ye a r s i n t he t hr e e ye a r pr og r a m R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t s ubj e c t s f ound m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a nd r e l a xa t i on t o be t he t w o m os t us e f ul t e c hni que s S ubj e c t s r e p or t e d us i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o c or r e c t a nd r e he a r s e s pe c i f i c t e c hni ( s i c ) f o r de ve l opi ng m us i c a l m e m or y, f or pr a c t i c i ng t e c hni c a l pi e c e s i n t he m us i c a nd f or i m pr ov i ng c o m m uni c a t i on, pe r f or m a nc e a nd m us i c a l i t y ( p. 98 ) M e nt a l r e he a r s a l w a s e m pl oye d i n t he f ol l ow i ng m a nne r : M e nt a l r e he a r s a l w a s us e d t o vi s ua l i z e a n i d e a l p e r f or m a nc e bot h w he n pr a c t i c i ng a nd be f or e c onc e r t s or t o vi s ua l i z e a s pe c i f i c pa s s a ge of m us i c t o ove r c om e s om e t e c hni c a l di f f i c ul t y ( e g s t ude nt s e nvi s a ge d t he m s e l ve s i n t he c onc e r t ha l l on t he s t a ge pl a yi ng t he i r i ns t r um e nt t o a s uppor t i ve a ud i e nc e ) I t w a s of t e n s uppl e m e nt e d w i t h phys i c a l m ove m e nt ( e g. l ooki ng a t t he s c or e w hi l e m ovi ng t he f i nge r s ) M e nt a l i m a gi ng w a s a l s o us e d t o he l p p r oj e c t i on o r c om m uni c a t i on i n pe r f o r m a nc e A da pt a t i ons of m e nt a l i m a gi ng i nc l ude d i m a gi ni ng t he m us i c a s d i f f e r e nt c ol o r f ul l a nds c a pe s ; i m a gi ni ng a n i de a l s e l f r a t he r t ha n a n i de a l ot he r ; c r e a t i ng s t or i e s pa i nt i ngs a nd i m a ge s t o he l p t he pe r f o r m e r t o f i nd a w a y t hr ough a pi e c e a nd c onne c t w i t h i t e m ot i ona l l y. ( p. 98) C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) a ppl i e d m e nt a l s ki l l s t r a i ni ng us e d by a t hl e t e s t o m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e T he y de s i gne d a m e nt a l s ki l l s t r a i ni ng pr og r a m a nd pi l ot e d t he c ur r i c ul um w i t h 58 c ons e r va t or y s t ude nt s R e s ul t s of t he pi l o t s t udy c ons i s t e d of qua l i t a t i ve da t a obt a i ne d t h r ough i nt e r v i e w s w i t h t he s t ude nt s t o de t e r m i ne t he i r f e e l i ngs a nd a t t i t ude s a bout t he p r ogr a m s e f f e c t on t he i r r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e s ki l l s

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57 C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on s t a t e t ha t i n m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t he ba s i c i de a i s t ha t t he s e ns e s pr e dom i na t e l y a ur a l vi s ua l a nd ki n e s t he t i c f or t he m us i c i a n s houl d be us e d t o c r e a t e or r e c r e a t e a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t i s s i m i l a r t o a gi ve n ph ys i c a l e ve nt ( p. 224 ) T he y a l s o s t a t e t ha t t he t w o m os t s i gni f i c a nt poi nt s f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e a r e t ha t i nf or m e d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a t t he hi ghe s t l e ve l s of m us i c i a ns hi p c a n ha r dl y t a ke pl a c e w i t hout s om e s or t o f c ogni t i ve or m e nt a l a c t i vi t y a nd t ha t onl y t h r ough c om m i t t e d, pe r s ona l e f f or t c a n t he m us i c i a n e xpa nd, di f f e r e nt i a t e a nd f ul l y e xpl oi t hi s or he r r e pe r t or y o f m e nt a l s t r a t e gi e s ( p. 225 ) C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) c l a i m t ha t t he s uc c e s s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l de pe nds on s e ve r a l f a c t or s i nc l udi ng a n i ndi vi dua l s t e c hni c a l s ki l l l e ve l a nd pe r s ona l p r e f e r e nc e f or l e a r ni ng t he c ondi t i ons of t he pa r t i c ul a r pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he e xt e nt a nd m e t hod w i t h w hi c h m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i s pr a c t i c e d. T he y s t a t e : U l t i m a t e l y, i t i s not a que s t i on o f a dopt i ng e i t he r a m e nt a l or phys i c a l a ppr oa c h, but r a t he r how t o m a ke t he m os t of bot h a ppr oa c he s T he t w o a r e s i m pl y not m ut ua l l y e xc l us i ve a t t he hi ghe s t l e v e l s of pe r f or m a nc e ( p 226) C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) s um m a r i z e s e ve r a l gui di ng p r i nc i pl e s f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e : 1. P r a c t i c e r e gul a r l y 2. S hor t r e gul a r s e s s i ons a r e be t t e r t ha n l ong, i nf r e qu e nt s e s s i ons 3. S t a r t w i t h r e l a xa t i on e xe r c i s e s 4. R e he a r s e s pe c i f i c s ki l l s or qua l i t i e s 5. B e pos i t i ve a nd f oc us on onl y t hos e a s pe c t s t ha t c ont r i but e di r e c t l y t o pe r f or m a nc e

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58 6. U s e a l l of t he s e ns e s i nc l udi ng f e e l i ngs a nd e m ot i ons a nd c ont i nue t o t r y a nd i m pr ove t he c l a r i t y o f i m a ge s 7. U s e bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on. W he n c or r e c t i ng p r obl e m s s t a r t w i t h e xt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on. W he n e xt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on i s c or r e c t m ove on t o i nt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on. C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) of f e r s e ve r a l s t r a t e gi e s f or m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd s ugge s t t ha t t he s e s t r a t e gi e s c om pl e m e nt t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e pr oc e s s W hi l e t he s e t e c hni que s a r e i nt e nde d t o s uppl e m e nt phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t he y do not i nvol ve a ny phys i c a l c om pone nt s t he t e c hni que s a r e done a pa r t f r om t he i ns t r um e nt or s he e t m us i c T he pr i m a r y f oc us of t he s t r a t e g i e s i s on vi s ua l i z i ng a p e r f or m a nc e A l t hough t he a u r a l na t ur e of m us i c i s a ddr e s s e d, t he t e c hni que s s e e m t o c e nt e r on i m a gi ng t he vi s ua l a nd m ot or a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e T hi s m a y be r e s ul t of t he a da pt a t i on of t he t e c hni que s f r om s por t s ps yc hol ogy, w hi c h w oul d no t i nc l ude a n a ur a l c om pone nt i n t he s a m e s e ns e t ha t m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e doe s E m m ons a nd T hom a s ( 1998) ha ve a l s o r e c om m e nde d i m a ge r y s t r a t e gi e s f or m us i c i a ns a da pt e d f r om t he s por t s i m a ge r y t e c hni que s pr opos e d by S ye r a nd C onnol l y ( 1984) H ow e ve r pr obl e m s c a n a r i s e w he n a t t e m pt i ng t o a da pt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s us e d i n s por t s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c F i r s t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n s por t s t e nds t o s t r e s s vi s ua l i m a ge r y a nd t he vi s ua l i z a t i on of g r os s m ot o r t a s ks T he a udi t or y na t ur e of m us i c r e q ui r e s a udi t or y i m a ge r y t o be t he p r i m a r y a ge nt of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e A ddi t i ona l l y t he m ot or t a s ks r e qui r e d i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e i nvol ve f i ne m ot o r s ki l l s r a t he r t ha n t he gr os s m ot or s ki l l s r e qui r e d of a t hl e t e s T he r e f or e i t s e e m s t ha t vi s ua l i z a t i on i n s p or t s w oul d be m uc h e a s i e r a nd m or e be ne f i c i a l t ha n vi s ua l i z a t i on i n m us i c F or e xa m pl e a n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve vi s ua l i m a ge of one s e l f s hoot i ng ba s ke t ba l l f r e e t h r ow s ( w i t h l a r ge m ove m e nt s i n t he ha nds a r m s a nd l e gs ) c a n be a ve r y c l e a r i m a ge c om pa r e d t o a vi s ua l

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59 i m a ge of one s e l f pe r f or m i ng on a w i nd i ns t r um e nt w he r e t he onl y not i c e a bl e phys i c a l a c t i on i s t ha t of t he f i nge r s U nge r l e i de r ( 1996) s uppor t s t hi s not i on by r e c ogni z i ng t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t hr ow e r s j um pe r s va ul t e r s a nd o t he r f i e l d c om pe t i t or s us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m or e f r e que nt l y t ha n t hos e i n ot he r e ve nt s be c a us e f i e l d e ve nt s ha ve a l a r ge vi s ua l c om pone nt ( p. 13 ) H e s t a t e s t ha t m a ny a t hl e t e s c l a i m t ha t i m a ge r y i s e a s i e r w he n you c a n s t op vi s ua l i z e your pe r f o r m a nc e a nd t he n s e t o r c or r e c t t he i m a ge s be f or e pr oc e e di ng ( p. 13) C l e a r l y, m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e di f f e r s f r o m t he s e ki nds of s por t s i n t ha t i t i nvol ve s a c ont i nuous pe r f or m a nc e of di f f e r e nt t a s ks r a t he r t h a n a s i ngl e t a s k of one r e pe t i t i ve a c t i on. I n t e r m s of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m us i c m a y s ha r e a t r a i t w i t h m a r a t hon r unne r s w ho ha ve m or e di f f i c ul t y w i t h t he v i s ua l c om pone nt a n d t he r e f or e vi s ua l i z e l e s s f r e que nt l y, pos s i bl y be c a us e of f a t i gue a nd ot he r di s t r a c t i ons d ur i ng a l ong r a c e ( p 13 ) I n s om e c a s e s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve i f a ppl i e d t o s hor t i s ol a t e d pa s s a ge s of m us i c r a t he r t ha n e nt i r e c om pos i t i ons of gr e a t l e ngt h. M e n t al P r ac t i c e ve r s u s P h ys i c al P r ac t i c e S e ve r a l s t udi e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o c om pa r e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd a c om bi na t i on o f phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I n a n i m por t a nt a nd w i de l y c i t e d s t udy, R os s ( 1985) f ound t ha t c ol l e ge t r o m boni s t s i m pr ov e d t he m os t w he n us i ng c om bi ne d m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e S ubj e c t s ( n = 30) w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o one of f i ve t r e a t m e nt gr oups : phys i c a l p r a c t i c e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a c om bi na t i on of phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h s i m ul a t e d s l i de m ove m e nt a nd a no p r a c t i c e c ont r ol gr oup. O ne e t ude s e r ve d a s bot h t he pr e t e s t a nd po s t t e s t T he c om bi ne d p r a c t i c e gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t ga i n s c or e s be t w e e n t he p r e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t but w a s not s i gni f i c a nt l y

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60 be t t e r t ha n t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h s i m ul a t e d s l i de m ove m e nt gr oups I t w a s c onc l ude d t ha t a c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w a s j us t a s be ne f i c i a l a s a l l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e I n a n a t t e m pt t o e xpl a i n w hy m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s e f f e c t i ve R os s ( 1985) s t a t e s : M e nt a l pr a c t i c e unl i ke phys i c a l p r a c t i c e f oc us e s t he pe r f or m e r s a t t e nt i on on t he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of m us i c pe r f or m a nc e w i t h l e s s e m pha s i s on t he s ounds be i ng m a de T he pe r f or m e r c a n now t hi nk m or e c a r e f ul l y a bout w ha t ki nds o f t hi n gs m i ght be t r i e d, t he c ons e que nc e s of e a c h a c t i on c a n be pr e di c t e d ba s e d on e xpe r i e nc e a nd i na ppr op r i a t e c our s e s of a c t i on r ul e d out ( p. 228) A c c or di ng t o R os s t he v a l ue of phys i c a l p r a c t i c e i s t ha t be c a us e i t us e s bot h a udi t or y a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e dba c k, i t p r ovi de s ne c e s s a r y i nf or m a t i on t o t he pe r f or m e r r e ga r di ng t he pos i t i on of t he m us c l e s i nvol ve d i n pe r f or m a nc e T he r e f or e t he gr oup t ha t c om bi ne d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s a bl e t o be ne f i t f r om bot h t he f e e dba c k a s s oc i a t e d w i t h phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd t he i nc r e a s e d c onc e nt r a t i on o n t he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of t he m us i c ( p. 228 ) R os s s t a t e s : B e c a us e t he y ha d j us t f i ni s he d a phys i c a l t r i a l t he C P [ c om bi ne d pr a c t i c e ] s ubj e c t s c oul d be ne f i t f r om t he a ur a l f e e d ba c k obt a i ne d dur i ng t he phys i c a l t r i a l e ve n a s t he y m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e d ( p 228 ) G e e r l i ngs ( 1998) obt a i ne d s i m i l a r r e s ul t s i n he r i nv e s t i ga t i on of t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on ke yboa r d pe r f or m a nc e T w e n t y pi a ni s t s a nd t w e nt y or ga ni s t s a t t he unde r gr a dua t e a nd gr a dua t e l e ve l s w e r e a s s i gne d t o t hr e e t r e a t m e nt gr oups : m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd a c ont r ol g r oup. T he c ont r ol gr oup w a s a no pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on t ha t c ons i s t e d of r e a di ng a s hor t a r t i c l e a bout s i ght r e a di ng t e c hni que s T w o c om pos i t i ons w e r e e a c h di vi de d i n ha l f t o c om pr i s e f our e xc e r pt s : t w o pr e t e s t a nd t w o pos t t e s t s e l e c t i ons S ubj e c t s s i ght r e a d t he pr e t e s t a nd w e r e t he n a l l ow e d t o pr a c t i c e t he pos t t e s t us i ng t he i r a s s i gne d pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on f or f i ve

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61 m i nut e s S ubj e c t s t he n pe r f or m e d t he pos t t e s t T hi s w a s t he n r e pe a t e d us i ng t he t w o pa r t s of t he s e c ond c om pos i t i on a s t he pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t r e duc t i on of pi t c h e r r or s f ol l ow e d by t he p hys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup r e s pe c t i ve l y. F or num be r of pi t c h e r r or s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd c ont r ol gr oups H ow e ve r t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e f o r pi t c h e r r or s be t w e e n t he a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup G e e r l i ngs ( 1998) s t a t e s : T hi s f i ndi ng s uppor t s one of t he c ur r e nt t r e nds i n M P [ m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ] r e s e a r c h t ha t s t a t e s t ha t P P [ phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ] a nd a l t e r na t i n g P P / M P a r e of t e n e qua l l y a s e f f e c t i ve T he a l t e r na t i ng P P / M P gr oup w a s f or c e d t o t hi nk a bout w ha t t he y w e r e pl a yi ng. T he y r e l i e d not onl y on t he i r m ot o r s ki l l s dur i ng t he r e he a r s a l but a l s o on t he i r c ogni t i ve s ki l l s M P ha s be e n f ound t o be m o r e e f f e c t i ve i n a i di ng c ogni t i ve s ki l l s t ha n m ot or s ki l l s ( p 59 60) T hi s s t udy s uppor t s t he not i o n t ha t gui de d i ns t r uc t i on i s be t t e r t ha n r i gi d i ns t r uc t i on S ubj e c t s ha d t he f r e e dom t o f or m t he i r ow n c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons a nd t o us e M P [ m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ] i n t he i r ow n w a ys ( p. 6 1) P i e r s on ( 1992) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of f i f t h gr a de be gi nni ng ba nd s t ud e nt s S ubj e c t s ( n = 58) w e r e di vi de d i nt o phys i c a l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) g r oups T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup pr a c t i c e d f or t h r e e m i nut e s by s t udyi ng t he m us i c s i l e nt l y w i t hout a ny k i ne s t he t i c m ove m e nt T he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr ou p a c t ua l l y pl a ye d t he i ns t r um e nt f or t hr e e m i nut e s T he c ont r ol gr oup c ount e d ba c kw a r ds f r om 200 du r i ng t he t hr e e m i nut e s i n or de r t o pr e ve nt a ny m e nt a l p r a c t i c e P i e r s on de f i ne s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s f ol l ow s :

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62 D ur i ng t hi s t ype of p r a c t i c e t he pe r f or m e r a na l y z e s t he r hyt h m s not e s ke y s i gna t ur e a nd a ny o t he r m us i c a l e l e m e nt s pr e s e nt e d on t he pa ge w i t hout t he be ne f i t of phys i c a l m ove m e nt I n a ddi t i on t he i ns t r um e nt a l i s t t r i e s t o i m a gi ne t he pi t c he s ( a udi a t i on or a ur a l i m a ge r y ) t ha t a ppe a r on t he pa ge a nd a l s o t r i e s t o i m a gi ne a l l m us c ul a r m ove m e nt t ha t w i l l oc c ur w h i l e a c t ua l l y pl a yi ng t he m us i c ( p. 29 30) S ubj e c t s s i ght r e a d s e l e c t i on 2 f r om F o r m A of t he W a t ki ns F a r num P e r f or m a nc e S c a l e a s a pr e t e s t S ubj e c t s t he n pr a c t i c e d s e l e c t i on 2 f r om F or m B of t he W a t ki ns F a r num P e r f or m a nc e S c a l e f or t hr e e m i nut e s us i ng one of t he t h r e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons S ubj e c t s t he n pe r f or m e d s e l e c t i on 2 of F o r m B a s a pos t t e s t R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup s c or e d s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol g r oup. T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oups or t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd c ont r ol gr oups P i e r s on ( 1992 ) s ugge s t s t ha t i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he c om pl e xi t y of p l a yi ng a m us i c a l i ns t r u m e nt a nd yo ung a ge of t he s ubj e c t s ne ga t e d t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( p 47 ) T he i l e r a nd L i ppm a n ( 1995) c om pa r e d t he e f f e c t i v e ne s s of f our p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on t he s ki l l a c qui s i t i on o f gui t a r a nd v oc a l pe r f o r m e r s ( n = 14 ) r a ngi ng i n a ge f r o m 19 29 S ubj e c t s r ot a t e d be t w e e n t he p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons i n a r e pe a t e d m e a s ur e s de s i gn s i m i l a r t o t he one us e d by R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941) E a c h r e he a r s a l c ondi t i on l a s t e d f or a t ot a l of 12 m i nut e s T he c ondi t i ons w e r e : phys i c a l pr a c t i c e f o r 12 m i nut e s a l t e r na t i ng t hr e e m i nut e s phys i c a l a n d t hr e e m i nut e s m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a l t e r na t i ng t hr e e m i nut e s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hr e e m i nut e s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w hi l e l i s t e ni ng t o a m ode l a nd a c ont r ol g r oup o f t h r e e m i nut e s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hr e e m i nut e s r e a di n g a book a bout pe r f o r m a nc e a nxi e t y. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t gui t a r i s t s r e a di ng f r om a m u s i c a l s c or e ha d t he hi ghe s t r a t i ng f or pi t c h a c c ur a c y w he n us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e f ol l ow e d by phys i c a l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h m ode l a nd t he c ont r ol c ondi t i on. F or voc a l i s t s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h m o de l

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63 w a s s upe r i or t o t he o t he r c ondi t i ons i n t he a r e a s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s t e m po a nd t ona l qua l i t y. F or t ona l qua l i t y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s s upe r i or t o phys i c a l p r a c t i c e a nd t he c ont r ol c ondi t i on P r a c t i c e c ondi t i on ha d no s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on r hy t hm i c a c c ur a c y. W he n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i nc l ude d a m ode l bot h gui t a r a nd voc a l pe r f or m e r s c oul d pe r f or m l onge r por t i ons o f t he m us i c f r o m m e m or y T he i l e r a nd L i pp m a n ( 1995 ) c onc l ude t ha t t he r e s ul t s c e r t a i nl y c onf i r m t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s e f f e c t i ve but t he y a l s o s ugge s t t ha t f e a t ur e s of a m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e gi m e n s houl d be a dj us t e d t o a c c om m oda t e pa r t i c ul a r a ppl i c a t i ons be c a us e di f f e r e nt a t t r i but e s m a y be o pt i m a l f or va r i ous phys i c a l a nd m us i c a l e nde a vor s ( p. 338) T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he s e s t udi e s m a y ha ve be e n l e s s e ne d due t o t he f a c t t ha t 1) s t ude nt s ha d no t r a i ni ng i n o r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a nd 2) s t ude nt s ne e d t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t he t a s k be f or e a t t e m pt i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e of t he t a s k. B e c a us e t he y ha d no pr i o r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t h e m us i c t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup w oul d not ha ve be e n a bl e t o a c c e s s a n a udi t or y i m a ge of t he p i e c e f or us e dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e K n ow l e d ge of R e s u l t s A t l e a s t t hr e e s t udi e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o de t e r m i ne t he r ol e o f know l e dge o f r e s ul t s i n m us i c a l pr a c t i c e K now l e dge o f r e s ul t s r e f e r s t o t he i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k t ha t a m us i c i a n r e c e i ve s f r om t he m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt i e t he s ound i t s e l f W he n know l e dge o f r e s ul t s i s de ni e d, t he m us i c i a n r e c e i ve s no a ur a l f e e dba c k w i t h w hi c h t o de t e r m i ne t he c or r e c t ne s s or i nc or r e c t ne s s of t he pe r f or m a nc e C of f m a n ( 1987) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd know l e dge of r e s ul t s on pi a no pe r f o r m a nc e S ubj e c t s w e r e 80 g r a dua t e a nd unde r gr a dua t e m us i c m a j or s w hos e

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6 4 pr i nc i pa l i ns t r um e nt w a s not a ke ybo a r d i ns t r um e n t H e e m pl oye d f our di f f e r e nt p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons : phys i c a l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd a m ot i va t i ona l c ont r ol T he s e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i o ns w e r e di vi de d i n ha l f w i t h e a c h ha l f of e a c h c ondi t i on r e c e i vi ng e i t he r a pr e s e nc e or a b s e nc e of a ur a l know l e dge of r e s ul t s r e s ul t i ng i n e i ght t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i ons A l l s ubj e c t s s i ght r e a d a c om pos i t i on a s a pr e t e s t T he y t he n p r a c t i c e d a di f f e r e nt c om pos i t i on w hi c h s e r ve d a s t he pos t t e s t us i ng t he i r r e s pe c t i ve pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on ove r s i x t r i a l s T he pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e a na l yz e d f o r t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s of pe r f o r m a nc e t i m e num be r of pi t c h e r r or s a nd num be r of r hyt hm e r r or s R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oups a c hi e ve d s i gni f i c a nt l y g r e a t e r i m p r ove m e nt i n r e duc i ng t he a m ount of t i m e ne e de d t o pe r f or m t he pos t t e s t t ha n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup but w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om e a c h ot he r A l t hough a l l t hr e e p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons w e r e s i gni f i c a n t l y be t t e r t ha n t he c ont r o l c ondi t i on t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons i n r e duc i ng t he num be r o f p i t c h or r hyt hm i c e r r or s K now l e dge of r e s ul t s di d not a ppe a r t o be a s i gni f i c a nt va r i a bl e f or r e duc i ng p i t c h a nd r hyt hm i c e r r or s C of f m a n ( 1987) c onc l ude s t ha t m ode s us i ng phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a l one o r i n a l t e r na t i on w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w e r e s upe r i or t o e xc l us i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t ha t a l t e r na t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s no l e s s e f f e c t i ve t ha n e xc l us i ve phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( p. 194) S i m i l a r t o C of f m a n ( 1987) B r ooks ( 1993, c i t e d i n B r ooks 1995) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e a nd k now l e dge of r e s ul t s on t he pe r f o r m a nc e of c ol l e ge i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c m a j or s T hr e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons w e r e e a c h di vi de d i n

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65 ha l f one ha l f us i ng a r e c or de d m ode l a nd t he ot he r ha l f us i ng no r e c or de d m ode l T he s i x t r e a t m e nt gr oups w e r e : m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w i t h a pe r f or m a nc e m ode l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w i t h a pe r f o r m a nc e m ode l a c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd a c om bi na t i on o f m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w i t h a pe r f or m a nc e m ode l S ubj e c t s w e r e g i ve n a p r e t e s t e t ude a nd t he n pr a c t i c e d a pos t t e s t e t ude us i ng t he i r a s s i gne d pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on f or t h r e e pr a c t i c e t r i a l s A f t e r t he t h r e e pr a c t i c e t r i a l s s ubj e c t s pe r f o r m e d t he pos t t e s t e t ude R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he p r e s e nc e of a r e c or de d m ode l di d not a f f e c t t he s ubj e c t s pe r f or m a nc e a nd t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s a s e f f e c t i ve a s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i n i m p r ovi ng pe r f o r m a nc e A r e l a t e d s t udy c onduc t e d by H i ghbe n a nd P a l m e r ( 2003) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t of di f f e r e nt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on t he a bi l i t y of pi a ni s t s t o pe r f or m m us i c f r o m m e m or y. S ubj e c t s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n f our di f f e r e nt p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons : a nor m a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s pl a ye d on t he di gi t a l pi a no a nd he a r d t he i r pl a yi ng ove r he a dphone s a m ot or on l y c ondi t i on i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s m ove d t he i r f i nge r s on t he ke yboa r d but di d not r e c e i ve a udi t or y f e e dba c k ( c o ul d not he a r w ha t t he y w e r e pl a yi ng) a n a udi t or y onl y c ondi t i on i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s he a r d a r e c or di ng of t he pi e c e but w e r e not a l l ow e d t o m ove t he i r f i nge r s a nd a c ove r t pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s di d not m ove t he i r f i nge r s a nd he a r d s i l e nc e R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he no r m a l c ondi t i on w a s be s t a nd t he c ove r t c ondi t i on w a s w or s t i n t e r m s o f c or r e c t l y r e c a l l e d pi t c he s T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m ot or onl y a nd a udi t or y onl y c ondi t i ons a nd be t w e e n t he nor m a l a nd a udi t or y onl y c ondi t i ons P e r f or m e r s w i t h hi gh a ur a l s ki l l s w e r e l e a s t a f f e c t e d w he n a udi t or y f e e dba c k w a s r e m ove d. H i ghbe n a nd P a l m e r s ugge s t t ha t a ur a l f or m s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s s i s t i n t he l e a r ni ng o f u nf a m i l i a r m us i c

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66 B a s e d on t he s e s t udi e s i t a ppe a r s t ha t know l e dge of r e s ul t s i s not ne c e s s a r y f or m us i c a l pr a c t i c e e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he s ubj e c t ha s s t r ong a ur a l s ki l l s T h i s s ugge s t s t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s houl d not be ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t e d by t he a bs e nc e of a udi t or y f e e dba c k ( know l e dge of r e s ul t s ) M e n t al P r ac t i c e i n t h e E n s e m b l e R e h e ar s al V e r y f e w r e s e a r c h s t udi e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o a ppl y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s t o t he e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l s e t t i ng. P e r ha ps t he onl y s t udy t o a t t e m pt t hi s i s by K e e na n T a ka gi ( 1995) w ho e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l dur i ng obs e r va t i ona l l e a r ni ng i n t he e ns e m bl e s e t t i ng on t he c r i t i c a l l i s t e ni ng s ki l l s of h i gh s c hool c hor us s t ude nt s S e ve n c hor us e s w e r e a s s i gne d t o a n e xpe r i m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on i nvol vi ng m ode l i ng w i t h m e nt a l r e he a r s a l or a c ont r ol gr oup i nvol vi ng m od e l i ng w i t h no m e nt a l r e he a r s a l D i r e c t or s w e r e pr ovi de d w i t h a s a m pl e r e he a r s a l s c r i pt f o r e a c h c ondi t i on w hi c h i nc l ude d ni ne t e e n i ns t r uc t i ons t ha t t he di r e c t or c ou l d us e T he s e s c r i pt s di f f e r e d onl y i n t he a ddi t i on of t he ph r a s e a nd t i m e t o i nc l ude m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( p 53) f o r t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup. D ur i ng m ode l i ng t he d i r e c t or i ns t r uc t e d t he s t ude n t s t o l i s t e n t o t he m ode l a nd s i ng i t ba c k. D u r i ng m ode l i ng w i t h m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t h e di r e c t or i ns t r uc t e d t he s t ude nt s t o l i s t e n t o t he m ode l or va r i ous a s pe c t s of t he m ode l pr a c t i c e m e nt a l l y, a nd t he n s i ng i t ba c k. F or e xa m pl e t he c ont r ol gr oup w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o l i s t e n a nd s i ng t hi s ba c k ( p 123 ) w hi l e t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o l i s t e n a nd s i ng i t m e nt a l l y f i r s t t he n s i ng i t ba c k ( p. 120 ) W e ym ut h s C hor al M us i c A c hi e v e m e nt T e s t s e r ve d a s a pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol c ondi t i ons on t he c r i t i c a l l i s t e ni ng a c hi e ve m e nt of t he s ubj e c t s

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67 S e ve r a l i s s ue s i n t he de s i gn of t hi s s t udy s houl d be not e d. K e e na n T a ka gi ( 1995) s t a t e s t ha t no t i m e or r e he a r s a l s c he dul e w a s i m pos e d on t he di r e c t or s ( p. 57) but t ha t e a c h gr oup w a s a s ke d t o r e c or d t he i r a m ount of r e he a r s a l t i m e H ow e ve r t he a m ount of t i m e s pe nt r e he a r s i ng i s not i nc l ude d i n t he pr e s e nt a t i on of da t a a nd m a y ha ve di f f e r e d s i gni f i c a nt l y f or e a c h e ns e m bl e T he r e i s a l s o no d a t a r e ga r di ng how m uc h t i m e w a s a c t ua l l y s pe nt us i ng t he pr ovi de d s c r i pt s s o i t i s no t know n how m uc h m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w a s a c t ua l l y done T he s t udy a l s o di d not a t t e m pt t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i m pr ove d t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e o f t he s ubj e c t s H ow e ve r t h i s s t udy r e m a i ns va l ua bl e i n t ha t i t i s one o f t he f e w s t udi e s t o a t t e m pt t o a ppl y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n t he e ns e m bl e s e t t i ng. S i gh t R e ad i n g an d M e n t al P r ac t i c e M c P he r s on ( 1994) e xa m i ne d t he s i ght r e a di ng t e c hni que s us e d by hi gh s c hool t r um pe t a nd c l a r i ne t s t ude nt s i n g r a de s s e ve n t hr ough t w e l ve H e f ound t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h t he hi ghe s t s i ght r e a di ng s c or e s s c a nne d t he m us i c a nd m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e d di f f i c ul t s e c t i o ns pr i or t o pl a yi ng t he pi e c e T ypi c a l l y hi gh e r s c or i ng s ubj e c t s s t a t e d t ha t t he y s a ng t he ha r de r s e c t i ons i n t he i r he a ds w hi l e e xe c ut i ng t he f i nge r i ngs on t he i ns t r um e nt M c P he r s on s t a t e s t ha t one of t he di s t i ngui s hi ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of c om pe t e nt s i ght r e a de r s i s a n a ppr oa c h t ha t i nvo l ve s a br i e f pe r i od o f m e n t a l r e he a r s a l of t he m a j or di f f i c ul t i e s be f or e c om m e nc i ng t o pl a y ( p 229 ) H e a l s o s ugge s t s t ha t hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s ha ve not be e n t a ught or a r e una w a r e t ha t c e r t a i n s t r a t e gi e s m a y be us e d t o i m p r ove s i ght r e a di ng s c or e s I n t he p r e s e nt s t udy i t i s hope d t ha t p r ovi di ng s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i on i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s m a y he l p m a ke s t ude nt s a w a r e of a s t r a t e gy t ha t m a y he l p i m pr ove t he i r s i ght r e a di ng a bi l i t y.

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68 B r uc ks c h ( 1991) s ought t o de t e r m i n e t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l on t he s i ght r e a di ng a bi l i t y o f be gi nni ng non m a j or c ol l e ge gui t a r i s t s S he a l s o a t t e m pt e d t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t of di f f e r i ng a m ount s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t i m e S ubj e c t s ( n = 43 ) w e r e a s s i gne d t o one of t w o t r e a t m e nt gr ou ps o r a c ont r ol gr oup. S i ght r e a di ng e xe r c i s e s w e r e us e d a s t he pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t w hi c h w e r e a dm i ni s t e r e d a t t he be gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng o f a f i ve w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od T r e a t m e nt gr oup 1 r e c e i ve d 5 m i nut e s o f m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i ns t r uc t i on pe r t a i ni ng t o s i ght r e a di ng f or f i ve w e e ks or a t ot a l of 25 m i nu t e s of i ns t r uc t i on. T r e a t m e nt g r oup 2 r e c e i ve d 5 m i nut e s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i ns t r uc t i on t w i c e a w e e k f or f i ve w e e ks f o r a t ot a l o f 50 m i nut e s of i n s t r uc t i on. T he c ont r ol gr oup r e c e i ve d no m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i ns t r uc t i on: M e nt a l r e he a r s a l i ns t r uc t i on w a s pr ovi de d by t he t e a c he r a s f ol l ow s : T he s t ude nt s w e r e f i r s t di r e c t e d t o l ook a t t he m us i c f o r t e c hni c a l i nf or m a t i on, i e t i m e s i gna t ur e not e va l ue s r hyt hm i c a nd m e l odi c pa t t e r ns a nd i nt e r va l s f or one m i nut e T he y w e r e t he n a s ke d t o l ook a t t he m us i c f or one m i nu t e a nd t o i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s pl a yi ng t he e xe r c i s e vi s ua l i z i ng t he c or r e c t l e f t ha nd a nd r i ght ha nd m ove m e nt s c l e a r l y, w i t hout phys i c a l l y pl a yi ng t he i ns t r um e nt T he s t ude nt s w e r e t he n a l l ow e d t o pl a y t he e xe r c i s e on t he i r ow n f o r one m i nut e f ol l ow e d by a not he r m i nut e o f m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w i t hout pl a yi ng T he f i na l s i ght r e a di ng a c t i vi t y i nvol ve d pl a yi ng t he e xe r c i s e f or one m i nut e ( t w o t i m e s t hr ough) t o ge t he r a s a c l a s s a t a pa c e s e t by t he i ns t r uc t or ( p 40 41 ) D ur i ng t he p r e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t s ubj e c t s w e r e gi ve n 60 s e c onds t o s t udy t he s i ght r e a di ng e xe r c i s e be f or e pl a yi ng. T he s a m e e xe r c i s e s w e r e us e d i n t he pr e t e s t a nd t he pos t t e s t R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n pi t c h or r hyt hm a m ong t he t hr e e gr oups W i r t ( 1992 ) s t udi e d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he s i ght r e a di ng a bi l i t y o f j uni or hi gh w i nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n gr a de s s e ve n, e i ght a nd ni ne S ubj e c t s ( n = 80) w e r e di vi de d i nt o f our s e pa r a t e t r e a t m e nt gr oup s a nd on e c ont r ol g r oup. T he g r oups w e r e a s f ol l ow s :

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69 ( 1) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e on l y, w i t hout m ove m e nt or s ound a nd w i t hout phys i c a l c ont a c t w i t h t he m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt ( 2) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h i m a gi ne d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w i t hout a ny s ound a nd w i t hou t phys i c a l c ont a c t w i t h t he m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt ( 3) M e nt a l p r a c t i c e c om bi ne d w i t h phy s i c a l pr a c t i c e w hi l e hol di ng t he m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt i n pl a yi ng pos i t i on, but p r oduc i ng no s ound. ( 4) A c t ua l pr a c t i c e w i t h s ound, a nd ( 5) a no p r a c t i c e c ont r ol g r oup w hi c h pe r f or m e d i m m e di a t e l y w i t hout be ne f i t o f a ny ki nd o f pr a c t i c e ( pp 24 25 ) S ubj e c t s s i ght r e a d a s i xt e e n m e a s ur e e xe r c i s e w e r e gi ve n t h r e e m i nut e s t o pr a c t i c e us i ng t he pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on t he y ha d be e n a s s i gne d, a nd w e r e t e s t e d a ga i n us i ng t he s a m e e xe r c i s e R e s u l t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he c ont r ol gr oup a nd a l l f our t r e a t m e nt gr oups W i r t c onc l ude s t ha t e ve n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e onl y ( w i t h no i nt e r m e nt ) pr oduc e s be t t e r r e s ul t s t ha n no p r a c t i c e a t a l l ( p 33 ) T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n g r oups 3 a nd 4, s ugge s t i ng t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w hi l e f i nge r i ng a l ong on t he i ns t r um e nt i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y a s good a s a c t ua l l y pr a c t i c i ng on t he i ns t r um e nt ( p. 33) S e ve r a l pr obl e m s a r e i nhe r e nt i n t hi s s t udy a nd c a us e s pe c ul a t i on a bout t he va l i di t y of t he f i ndi ngs F i r s t i t s houl d be not e d t ha t gr oup t w o w a s t ol d: you m a y m a ke a ny phys i c a l m ove m e nt s a s you s e e f i t ( p 26 ) T hi s s e e m s t o c ont r a di c t t he de s c r i pt i on of gr oup t w o l i s t e d a bove a s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h i m a gi ne d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( p. 24) F ur t he r m or e i n t he r e s ul t s c ha pt e r W i r t ( 1992 ) de s c r i be s gr oup t w o a s m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w i t h i ns t r um e nt i n ha nd/ no phys i c a l m ove m e nt / no s ound ( p. 32 ) c ont r a di c t i ng t he e a r l i e r s t a t e m e nt t ha t g r oup t w o pr a c t i c e d w i t hout phys i c a l c o nt a c t w i t h t he i ns t r um e nt ( p. 24 ) T he s e di s c r e pa nc i e s m a ke t he r e pl i c a t i on o f t hi s s t udy di f f i c ul t a nd r a i s e doubt s r e ga r di ng t he va l i d i t y of t he r e s ul t s S e c ond, W i r t ( 1992) de f i ne s s i ght r e a di ng a s pe r f or m i ng m us i c w hi c h t he m us i c i a n ha s ne ve r s e e n ( p. 4 ) B e c a us e t he pos t t e s t w a s t he s a m e e xe r c i s e a s t he pr e t e s t

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70 t he pos t t e s t c a nnot be c ons i de r e d a s i ght r e a di ng e xe r c i s e be c a us e t he s ubj e c t s ha d pe r f or m e d i t m om e nt s e a r l i e r i n t he pr e t e s t T he s t udy by B r uc ks c h ( 1991) l i s t e d a bove pr e s e nt s t he s a m e pr obl e m T o c om pl e t e l y unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on s i ght r e a di ng, s ubj e c t s s houl d be t a ught m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a nd gi ve n a di f f e r e nt pi e c e t o s i ght r e a d f or t he pos t t e s t W ha t t he s e s t ud i e s m a y a c t ua l l y m e a s ur e i s t he e f f e c t of m e n t a l p r a c t i c e a s a pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on f or r e he a r s e d r e a di ng r a t he r t ha n s i ght r e a di ng. L e n gt h an d P l ac e m e n t of M e n t al P r ac t i c e C a hn ( 2003) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of t ona l pa t t e r ns of t w o di f f i c ul t y l e ve l s S pe c i f i c a l l y, he s ought t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of di f f e r e nt a m ount s of t i m e s pe nt on m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l p r a c t i c e U nde r gr a dua t e s t ude nt s ( n = 60 ) w e r e a s s i gne d t o a phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup, a m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup, or one of t w o c om bi ne d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oups O ne c om bi ne d gr oup w a s a s s i gne d a pr opor t i on of 66% phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd 33% m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t he ot he r c om bi ne d gr oup w a s a s s i gn e d a pr opor t i on of 33% phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd 66% m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S ubj e c t s pe r f o r m e d a pr e t e s t a t hr e e m i nu t e pr a c t i c e pe r i od, a nd a pos t t e s t R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he gr oups i n t e r m s of not e e r r or s T he t w o gr oups w i t h t he hi ghe r a m ount o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s c or e d be t t e r on t he e a s y pa t t e r n t h a n on t he d i f f i c ul t pa t t e r n. T he s c or e s f or t he t w o gr oups w i t h hi ghe r a m ount s of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w e r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f or t he e a s y a nd di f f i c ul t t a s ks a nd w e r e a s good a s t he m e nt a l gr oups on t he e a s y pa t t e r n. A pa i r of s t udi e s by R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941a 1941b) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of s i l e nt a na l ys i s a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m e m or i z a t i on a nd pe r f or m a nc e o f pi a no m us i c T he

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71 f i r s t s t udy ( 1941a ) c om pa r e d di f f e r e nt l e ngt hs of s i l e nt s t udy pr i o r t o pe r f or m a nc e S ubj e c t s ( n = 9 ) w e r e g i ve n a s hor t c om pos i t i on a n d a l l ow e d t o s t udy i t s i l e nt l y f or t hr e e s i x, or ni ne m i nut e s S ubj e c t s w e r e not t ol d how m uc h t i m e t he y w oul d ha ve t o i ns ur e e qua l i nt e ns i t y t hr oughout W he n t i m e w a s c a l l e d, t he s ubj e c t w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o w r i t e t he s c or e f r om m e m o r y. T he w r i t i ng t a s k w a s not t i m e d a nd s ubj e c t s w or ke d a t t he i r ow n s pe e d. S ubj e c t s t he n l e a r ne d t he pi e c e a t t he ke ybo a r d i n t r i a l s i n w hi c h t he y pl a ye d t he pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd unt i l t he pi e c e w a s br ought t o a pe r f e c t m e m o r i z e d pe r f or m a nc e T w o w e e ks l a t e r t he pi e c e w a s r e l e a r ne d t o m e a s ur e t he r e t e nt i on va l ue o f t he di f f e r i ng a m ount s of pr e l i m i na r y s t udy. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he s i x m i nut e pe r i od w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r t ha n t he t hr e e m i nut e pe r i od i n t e r m s o f t he a m ount o f m a t e r i a l t r a ns c r i be d c or r e c t l y. T he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he s i x a nd n i ne m i nut e pe r i ods R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941a ) s t a t e s t ha t t he a ddi t i ona l t hr e e m i nut e s i n t he ni ne m i nut e gr oup i nvol ve d ove r l e a r ni ng a nd w e r e i ne f f e c t i ve i n t he t r a ns c r i pt i on t a s k. T he t hr e e m i nut e gr oup r e qu i r e d t he m os t num be r of ke yboa r d t r i a l s r e qui r e d t o m e m o r i z e t h e pi e c e T he ni ne m i nut e g r oup r e qui r e d t he l e a s t a m ount of t r i a l s how e ve r t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he ni ne a nd s i x m i nut e gr oups N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f or r e t e nt i on be t w e e n t he t hr e e s t udy pe r i ods R ubi n R a bs on s ugge s t s t ha t s t udyi ng a w hol e c om pos i t i on f or s t r uc t ur e a nd f or m a nd t he n s t udy i ng s m a l l e r uni t s o f a c om pos i t i on m a y pr ove m or e e f f i c i e nt t ha n a t t e m pt s t o m e m o r i z e a nd c a r r y t oo l a r ge uni t s ( p 112) I n t he s e c ond s t udy, R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941b) c om pa r e d t he e f f e c t s of t h r e e di f f e r e nt pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons i nvol vi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on pi a no pe r f or m a nc e a nd m e m or i z a t i on. T he pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons w e r e pl a c e d a t di f f e r e nt t i m e s i n t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i on. D ur i ng

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72 m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ( n = 9 ) w e r e i ns t r u c t e d t o pe r f o r m t he m a t e r i a l m e nt a l l y w i t h e ye s c l os e d, t o m a i nt a i n t he i m a ge of t he not e s a s f i r m l y a s pos s i bl e a nd t o r e f e r t o t he m us i c onl y w he n t he r e w a s c onf us i on or unc e r t a i nt y i n [ t he i r ] m e nt a l pe r f or m a nc e ( p. 595 ) S ubj e c t s w e r e e xpos e d t o t hr e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons : m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he m i ddl e of t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i on, m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a t t he e nd of t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i on, a nd no m e nt a l pr a c t i c e E a c h c ondi t i on be ga n w i t h f i ve m i nut e s of a na l yt i c a l pr e s t udy G r oup A t he n pl a ye d t he pi e c e f o r 5 t r i a l s a nd t he n m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e d f o r f ou r m i nu t e s S ubj e c t s t he n pe r f or m e d t he m a t e r i a l unt i l t he y a c hi e ve d a p e r f e c t m e m or i z e d pe r f or m a nc e G r oup B w a s t he s a m e a s A e xc e pt t ha t s ubj e c t s di d not d o t he f i na l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l s s o m e nt a l r e he a r s a l oc c ur r e d a t t he e nd o f t he s e s s i on. G r oup C p l a ye d 5 ke yboa r d t r i a l s a nd t he n 4 m i nut e s of e xt r a ke yboa r d t r i a l s w i t h no m e nt a l r e he a r s a l G r oup A ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m i dw a y t hr ough t he s e s s i on) w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y s upe r i or t o t he ot he r m e t hods I t r e duc e d ke yboa r d t r i a l s r e q ui r e d t o l e a r n t he p i e c e a nd a c hi e ve d r e t e nt i on a s good a s t ha t of G r oup C w hi c h o f f e r e d f our e xt r a m i nut e s of ke yboa r d t r i a l s R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941b) s t a t e s t ha t t he f ou r m i nu t e s of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l pl a c e d a f t e r t he l e a r ni ng i s a ppa r e nt l y a n i nf e r i o r p r oc e dur e ( p 6 00) I t r e qui r e d m o r e ke yboa r d t r i a l s a nd pr oduc e d t he l e a s t a m ount of r e t e nt i on. P l a c i n g m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i n t he m i ddl e of t he s e s s i on i s s upe r i or be c a us e i t i s a t yp e of d i s t r i but e d pr a c t i c e w hi c h, a l t hough i t o f f e r s no a c t ua l r e s t ne ve r t he l e s s pr ovi de s a pe r i od w he n t he c e s s a t i on of ha nd m ove m e nt s r e l i e ve s t he ne c e s s i t y f or m a i nt a i ni ng a n unbr oke n s e que nc e a l l ow s f ur t he r a na l ys i s a nd r e or ga ni z a t i on of poi nt s of c o nf us i on a nd p r e s e nt s a r e s e e i ng o f t he s m a l l m us i c a l f i gur e s a ga i ns t t he ge ne r a l ba c kgr ound ( p 601) A l s o, G r oup B m a y ha ve be e n

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73 uns uc c e s s f ul be c a us e t he i nt e ns i t y i nvol ve d i n r e a c hi ng a l e a r ni ng goa l i s pr oba bl y not dupl i c a t e d i n a m e nt a l r e vi e w a f t e r t he goa l ha s be e n r e a c he d ( p. 601) I t w oul d be be ne f i c i a l t o r e pl i c a t e t hi s s t udy w i t h t he a ddi t i on of a t r e a t m e nt gr oup t ha t pe r f or m e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a t t he be gi nn i ng of t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i on. S i l e nt a na l ys i s pr i or t o pe r f o r m i ng a ne w pi e c e i s a c om m on pr a c t i c e t e c hni que F ut u r e s t udi e s s houl d c om pa r e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e pl a c e d a t t he be gi nni ng m i ddl e or e nd of t he pr a c t i c e s e s s i on. M ot i vat i on a n d M e n t al P r ac t i c e I n a c a s e s t udy of a young be gi nn i ng c l a r i ne t pl a ye r R e nw i c k a nd M c P he r s on ( 2000, c i t e d i n P a r nc ut t a nd M c P he r s on, 2002) f ou nd t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s w e r e us e d w he n t he s ubj e c t pr a c t i c e d a p i e c e s he c hos e t o l e a r n a s oppos e d t o a pi e c e he r t e a c he r c hos e W he n pr a c t i c i ng t he pi e c e he r t e a c h e r a s s i gne d, t he s ubj e c t a l m os t e xc l us i ve l y us e d a pl a y t hr ough a ppr oa c h pl a yi ng he r pi e c e s f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd w i t h l i t t l e a t t e nt i on t o c or r e c t i ng m i s t a ke s ( p. 41) W he n pr a c t i c i ng t he pi e c e s he c hos e t o l e a r n he r s e l f t he s ubj e c t di s pl a ye d a n i nc r e a s e i n t he w a y s he m oni t or e d a nd c ont r ol l e d he r pe r f o r m a nc e a s e vi de nc e d i n g r e a t e r us e of s i l e nt f i nge r i ng s i l e nt t h i nki ng, s i ngi ng, a nd m or e va r i e d s t r a t e gi e s f or c or r e c t i ng w r ong no t e s ( p. 41) M c P he r s on a nd M c C or m i c k ( 1999) f ound t ha t ha r de r w or ki ng m us i c i a ns w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o us e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s T he y a dm i ni s t e r e d a que s t i onna i r e t o 190 pi a ni s t s S ubj e c t s t he n t ook a gr a de d m us i c pe r f or m a nc e e xa m i n or de r t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s e l f r e gul a t or y a nd m ot i va t i o na l a s pe c t s of l e a r ni ng m us i c R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w ho r e por t hi ghe r l e ve l s of pr a c t i c e t e nd t o be m o r e i nc l i ne d t o

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74 r e he a r s e m us i c i n t he i r m i nds pl us m a ke c r i t i c a l on goi ng j udgm e nt s c onc e r ni ng t he s uc c e s s or ot he r w i s e of t he i r e f f or t s ( p 101 ) O t h e r M e n t al P r ac t i c e S t u d i e s T h e us e of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n pi a no pe r f or m a nc e w a s i nc l ude d i n a s t udy by A m a i z e ( 1993) w ho i de nt i f i e d a nd r a nke d t w e nt y ni ne m us i c a l c onc e pt s e m pha s i z e d by pi a no t e a c he r s m us i c t e a c he r s a nd pi a ni s t s A m on g t he c onc e pt s l i s t e d, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s r a nke d 18t h. R os e nt ha l W i l s on, E va ns a nd G r e e nw a l t ( 1988 ) t e s t e d t he e f f e c t s of f i ve di f f e r e nt pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e o f c ol l e ge i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c m a j or s S ubj e c t s pr a c t i c e d a n e t ude f o r t h r e e m i nut e s us i ng one of t he f i ve pr a c t i c e c on di t i ons : m ode l i ng ( l i s t e ni ng t o a r e c or di ng o f t he p i e c e ) s i ngi ng, s i l e nt a na l ys i s f r e e pr a c t i c e or c ont r ol D u r i ng s i l e nt a na l ys i s t he s ubj e c t s w e r e i n s t r uc t e d t o pl e a s e s t udy t he m us i c on your s t a nd s i l e nt l y f o r t h r e e m i nut e s ( p 252 ) T hi s t ype of s i l e nt a na l ys i s m a y ha ve pr ovi de d a n oppor t uni t y f or pa r t i c i pa nt s t o e nga ge i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound be t w e e n t he gr oups i n t e r m s of c or r e c t not e s a nd a r t i c ul a t i on H ow e ve r s ubj e c t s i n t he s i l e nt a na l ys i s gr oup s c or e d t he be s t i n t e r m s of r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y. P hr a s i ng w a s be s t i n t he f r e e pr a c t i c e a n d m ode l i ng g r oups w hi l e t e m po a c c ur a c y w a s be s t f or s ubj e c t s i n t he m ode l i ng f r e e pr a c t i c e a nd s i l e nt a na l ys i s gr oups R os e nt ha l e t a l s t a t e t ha t s i l e nt a na l ys i s di d no t s e e m t o pr ovi de a ny i m m e di a t e be ne f i t s ove r s i ght r e a di ng e xc e pt i n s ubj e c t s pe r f o r m a nc e of r hyt hm s ( p 254) T he y s t a t e t ha t t hi s m a y ha ve be e n be c a us e r hyt hm s i n t he e xe r c i s e w e r e c om pl e x, s o t he oppor t uni t y f or s i l e nt a na l ys i s e na bl e d t he s ubj e c t s t o w o r k out t he a na l yt i c a l a s pe c t s of t he r hyt h m s

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75 H a d t he y r e c e i ve d m or e t i m e t he s ubj e c t s . m i g ht e ve nt ua l l y ha ve f oc us e d t he i r a t t e nt i on on t he ot he r e l e m e nt s of t he m us i c ( p. 2 55) R os e nt ha l ( 1984) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of f our di f f e r e nt pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on t he pe r f or m a nc e of gr a dua t e i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c s t ude nt s T he c ondi t i ons w e r e gui de d m ode l m ode l onl y, gui de onl y a nd pr a c t i c e onl y A ve r ba l s c r i pt w a s us e d t o di r e c t t he s ubj e c t s a t t e nt i on t o s pe c i f i c de t a i l s o f t he p i e c e dur i ng a s i x a nd one ha l f m i nut e r e he a r s a l I n t he gui de d m ode l c ondi t i on t he s c r i pt w a s c om bi ne d w i t h a r e c or de d pe r f or m a nc e of t he pi e c e I n t he m ode l on l y c ondi t i on t he s ubj e c t s l i s t e ne d t o t he r e c or de d m ode l w i t ho ut t he pr e s e nc e of t he s c r i pt I n t he gui de onl y c ondi t i on, s ubj e c t s w e r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h t he s c r i pt a l one a nd pa us e s oc c ur r e d a f t e r e a c h m a i n p oi nt i n t he s c r i pt ( w he r e t he r e c or de d m ode l oc c ur r e d i n t he gui de d m ode l g r oup s c r i pt ) T hi s w a s done s o t ha t s ubj e c t s c oul d m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t he s e l e c t i on i f s o de s i r e d ( p 2 67) R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s ubj e c t s i n t he m ode l onl y gr oup obt a i ne d t he hi ghe s t s c or e s on a l l va r i a bl e s S ubj e c t s i n t he gui de onl y a nd pr a c t i c e onl y gr oup s c or e d c ons i de r a bl y l ow e r t ha n s ubj e c t s i n t he ot he r t w o gr oups T he pr a c t i c e onl y gr oup s c or e d h i ghe r t ha n t he gui de onl y g r oup i n t e r m s o f not e s a nd r hyt hm s w hi l e t he gui de onl y gr oup s c or e d be t t e r i n dyna m i c s a nd t e m po. R os e nt ha l ( 1984) di d not a t t e m pt t o de t e r m i ne or c ont r ol t he a m ount of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e pe r f or m e d by s ubj e c t s i n t he gui de onl y g r oup. H a d pa r t i c i pa nt s be e n i ns t r uc t e d t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t h e s e l e c t i on dur i ng br e a ks i n t he s c r i pt t he s t udy m a y ha ve yi e l de d di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s K e y f i ndi ngs f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s e c t i on i ndi c a t e t ha t a c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a n d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e m a y b e be t t e r t ha n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l one ( A l l br i t t on G r a nt 1985; C of f m a n, 1987 ; G e e r l i ngs 1998; K ohut 1985; R os s 1985;

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76 W e i nbe r g, 1989) I t a ppe a r s t ha t know l e dge of r e s ul t s i s not ne c e s s a r y f or e f f e c t i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( B r ooks 199 5; C of f m a n, 1987; H i ghbe n a nd P a l m e r 2003) T he r e i s a l a c k of r e s e a r c h de vot e d t o de t e r m i ni ng t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of c hi l dr e n a nd s c hool pe r f o r m i ng e n s e m bl e s K e e na n T a ka gi ( 1995) pr ovi de s t he onl y s t udy us i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n a s c hool e ns e m bl e H e r s t udy m e a s ur e d t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e on t he c r i t i c a l l i s t e ni ng s ki l l s of hi gh s c hool c hor us s t ude nt s a nd di d not m e a s ur e i t s e f f e c t on s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e I t r e m a i ns t o be de t e r m i ne d i f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a s t a ught t o a s c hool m us i c e ns e m bl e w i l l e f f e c t s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e S u m m ar y S e ve r a l c onc l us i ons c a n be m a de f r o m t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e : 1. A c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e m a y be be t t e r t ha n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a l one ( A l l br i t t on G r a nt 1985; C of f m a n, 1987; C o nnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on 2004; G e e r l i ngs 1998; K ohut 1985; R os s 1985; S a l m on a nd M e ye r 1992; W e i nbe r g, 1989) 2. K now l e dge of r e s ul t s doe s not a ppe a r t o be ne c e s s a r y f or e f f e c t i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c ( B r ooks 1995; C o f f m a n, 1987; H i g hbe n a n d P a l m e r 2003) 3. S hor t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons m a y be m or e be ne f i c i a l t ha n l onge r s e s s i ons ( B r ooks 1995; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on, 2004; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941a ) 4. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be pr a c t i c e d on a r e gul a r b a s i s ( B uf f i ngt on, 198 9 ; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on, 20 04; S a l m on a nd M e ye r 1992; S i s t e r he n, 2004) 5. A l l of t he s e ns e s s houl d be e m pl oye d dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( B a gl e y a nd H e s s 1987; C a r t e r 1993; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on, 2004; M a y 1989; M oye r 1992; S a l m on a nd M e ye r 1992; T a y l or 1995; T r us he i m 1987; W he t s t one 1996) 6. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y he l p i m p r ove s i ght r e a di ng s ki l l s ( B r ooks 1995; K a r pi ns ki 2000; M c P he r s on, 1994; P r os s e r 2000 ) 7. A c t i ve i m a ge r y phys i c a l m ove m e nt s i m ul a t i ng t he t a s k pe r f or m a nc e du r i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n pa s s i ve i m a ge r y a l one ( C a m pos 1996 ;

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77 C onnol l y, 2002; M c P he r s on, 1994; S a l m on a nd M e ye r 1992; T a yl or 1995; W i r t 1992; Z i e gl e r 1987 ) 8. A n e f f e c t i ve r out i ne i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d i nc l ude poi nt s of s l ow m ot i on i m a ge r y ( C a m pos 1996; F a nni ng 1988; T a yl o r 1995) 9. I n a ddi t i on t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on i s ol a t e d pa s s a ge s or s ki l l s pe r f or m e r s s houl d m e nt a l l y i m a gi ne t he pe r f or m a nc e i n i t s e nt i r e t y ( C a m pos 1996; F r e ym ut h 1993; K i r c hne r 2005; T a yl o r 1995) 10. T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e de pe nds on t h e vi vi dne s s of t he i m a ge r y ( F r e ym ut h, 1990; M a r ks 1999; M a y, 1989; M ur ph y, 2005; T a yl or 1995; W he t s t one 1996) 11. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve i f t he pe r f o r m e r ha s a s t r ong be l i e f i n t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he t e c hni que ( W he t s t one 199 6) 12. I t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t pe r f or m e r s m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e po s i t i ve s c e na r i os a nd pe r f or m a nc e s w i t h s uc c e s s f ul out c om e s V i s ua l i z i ng a ne ga t i ve o ut c om e c a n be de t r i m e nt a l t o pe r f or m a nc e ( B uf f i ngt on, 1989; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on, 2004; S i s t e r he n, 2004; T a yl or 1995; W i l s on, 1994) 13. P r i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k m a y be ne c e s s a r y f o r m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o be e f f e c t i ve ( B r ooks 1995; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on 2004 ; D r i s ke l l C oppe r a nd M or a n, 1994; F e l t z a nd L a nde r s 1983; G i n ns C ha ndl e r a nd S w e l l e r 2003; M a y, 1989; M ul de r e t a l 2004 ; U nge r l e i de r 1996 ) 14. I m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve m a y i n f l ue nc e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T a yl or ( 1995) s t a t e s t ha t bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y s houl d be us e d. S i m i l a r l y C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) c l a i m t ha t pe r f or m e r s s houl d us e bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on. T he y r e c om m e nd s t a r t i ng w i t h e xt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on w he n c or r e c t i ng pr obl e m s W he n e xt e r na l v i s ua l i z a t i on i s c or r e c t pe r f or m e r s s houl d m ove on t o i nt e r na l vi s ua l i z a t i on. H ow e ve r o t he r r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t i nt e r na l i m a ge r y m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n e xt e r na l i m a ge r y ( H a l e 1982; M a hone y a nd A ve ne r 1977; M oye r 1992 ) 15. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be m or e e f f e c t i ve i f i t oc c ur s i n t he m i ddl e of a phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on, r a t he r t ha n a t t he e nd or be gi nni ng of a pr a c t i c e s e s s i on ( F r e ym ut h, 1990; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941b; S ye r a nd C onnol l y, 1984) 16. P r of e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns a nd m or e s uc c e s s f ul m us i c i a ns s e e m t o a c t i ve l y e m pl oy m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t r a t e gi e s i n t he i r r e gul a r pr a c t i c e r out i ne s ( C a r t e r 1993; M c P he r s on, 1994; M c P he r s on a nd M c C or m i c k, 1999; M oye r 1992; T r us he i m 1987)

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78 C H A P T E R 3 D E S I G N O F T H E S T U D Y I n t r od u c t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o de ve l op a nd de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod w a s ba s e d on va r i ous t e c hni que s de s c r i be d i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a nd i nvol ve d t hr e e c om pone nt s : 1) e xe r c i s e s de s i gne d t o i nt r oduc e de f i ne a nd pr a c t i c e v i s ua l a udi t or y a nd m ot or i m a ge r y, 2) e xe r c i s e s t ha t c om bi ne d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s i m ul t a ne o us l y, a nd 3 ) e xe r c i s e s t ha t a l t e r na t e d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F i ve ba s i c que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d: 1) W ha t i s t h e e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ? 2) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t o f a s t r uc t u r e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e o f hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ? 3) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t u r e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e of a hi gh s c hool ba nd pe r f o r m i ng a s a n e ns e m bl e ? 4) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e of s t u de nt s i n t e r m s of gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd pe r f or m i ng i ns t r um e nt ? 5 ) W ha t a r e t he op i ni o ns of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ? T he r e s e a r c h hypot he s e s w e r e : 1) S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n

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79 uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 2) S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s e s s i ons w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 3) A ba nd e ns e m bl e t ha t r e c e i ve s s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s w e r e s t r u c t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke c ons i de r a bl y g r e a t e r i m p r ove m e nt i n p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e t ha n a n e ns e m bl e us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 4 ) W i t hi n e a c h of t he t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt T he c or r e s pondi ng nul l hypot he s e s w e r e : 1) T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd t hos e w h o e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e 2) T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e o f s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd t hos e w h o e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e 3) T he r e w i l l be no c ons i de r a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a n c e of a n e ns e m bl e t ha t p r a c t i c e s us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e 4 ) W i t hi n e a c h o f t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i n s t r um e nt

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80 P i l ot S t u d y A pi l ot s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o be t t e r und e r s t a nd t he a ppl i c a t i on of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o t he s c hool ba nd r e he a r s a l T he s t udy e x a m i ne d t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he i nt a c t e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e of t w o m i ddl e s c hool ba nds i n N or t h C e nt r a l F l or i da E a c h ba nd w a s de s i gna t e d a s e i t he r t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup or c ont r ol gr oup. A f t e r c ons ul t i ng w i t h bot h ba nd di r e c t or s r e ga r di ng t he c a pa bi l i t i e s of t he s t ude nt s a nd t he gr a de l e ve l o f m us i c t ypi c a l l y pe r f o r m e d, t he pi e c e B r i s t ol B ay L e ge nd by R obe r t S he l don w a s s e l e c t e d f or us e i n t he s t udy. E a c h ba nd s i ght r e a d t he c om pos i t i on a s a pr e t e s t T he ba nds t he n pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e us i ng a n a s s i gne d pr a c t i c e c o nd i t i on f o r 20 m i nut e s a da y ove r t h r e e da ys f or a t o t a l of 60 m i nut e s A t t he c onc l us i on of t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od, e a c h ba nd pe r f or m e d t he c om pos i t i on a s a pos t t e s t E a c h ba n d di r e c t or c onduc t e d a nd t a ught he r r e s pe c t i ve e ns e m bl e i n a l l r e he a r s a l s B a nd A s e r ve d a s t he t r e a t m e nt g r oup ( n = 24 ) O n t he da y p r i or t o t he pr e t e s t t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup r e c e i ve d 20 m i nut e s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i ns t r uc t i on f r om t he r e s e a r c he r T hi s w a s done i n o r de r t o i nt r oduc e pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t he c onc e pt of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t o gi ve t he m e xpe r i e nc e us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s pr i or t o t he p r a c t i c e t r i a l s A f t e r pl a yi ng t he pr e t e s t t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup r e he a r s e d t he pi e c e us i ng a m e nt a l r e he a r s a l pr oc e dur e t ha t a l t e r na t e d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e T he p r oc e dur e w a s de s i gn e d by t he r e s e a r c he r but l oos e l y ba s e d on t he c hor a l r e he a r s a l s c r i pt c r e a t e d by K e e na n T a ka gi ( 1995) T he m e t hod w a s not hi g hl y s t r uc t ur e d a nd a l l ow e d t he s t ude nt t o c hoos e w ha t ki nd of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o us e B e f or e e nga gi ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he t e a c h e r pr ovi de d t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i ons t o t he s t ude nt s : L e t s pl a y ( t he f i r s t 8 m e a s ur e s ) m e nt a l l y f i r s t R e l a x, put you r ho r n i n your l a p, a nd r e m a i n a s s t i l l a s pos s i bl e A s I c onduc t t he m us i c t r y t o i m a gi ne your s e l f

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81 pl a yi ng t he pa r t F e e l your f i nge r s m ovi ng t o t he r i ght not e s F e e l your e m bouc hu r e a nd t ongue ( l i ps f a c e m us c l e s e t c ) m ovi ng t o t he r i ght pos i t i ons T r y t o he a r w ha t t he r hyt hm s ounds l i ke T r y t o he a r w ha t t he m e l o dy s ounds l i ke i n you r he a d. D on t t ouc h you r i ns t r um e nt w i t h you r ha nds a nd don t m ove a ny m us c l e s J us t t hi nk a bout pl a yi ng t he m us i c a nd t r y t o he a r w ha t i t s ounds l i ke i n you r he a d. B a nd B s e r ve d a s t he c ont r ol g r oup ( n = 19 ) T he c ont r ol gr oup pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e us i ng t r a di t i ona l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s t ha t onl y e m pl oye d p hys i c a l pr a c t i c e T w o i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or s gr a de d t he pe r f or m a n c e s E a c h e va l ua t or w a s a m us i c e duc a t i on doc t or a l s t ude nt w i t h e xpe r i e nc e a nd s uc c e s s a s a s c hool ba nd di r e c t or T he e va l ua t i on pr oc e dur e w a s ba s e d on a m e t hod s i m i l a r t o t ha t us e d by M or r i s on ( 2002) E a c h e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e w a s gr a de d i n s e ve n a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y/ i nt ona t i on, r hyt hm i c pr e c i s i on, phr a s i ng, a r t i c ul a t i on, t e m po a nd dyna m i c s E a c h of t he s e a r e a s w a s gr a de d on a f i ve poi nt s c a l e w i t h 1. 0 be i ng poor a nd 5 0 be i n g s upe r i or B ot h e va l ua t or s s c or e d t he pe r f o r m a nc e s a t t he s a m e t i m e w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r pr e s e nt t o a ns w e r a ny pr oc e dur a l que s t i ons I nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y w a s c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he P e a r s on P r oduc t M om e nt C or r e l a t i on. R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s a r e l a t i ve l y s t r ong pos i t i ve r e l i a bi l i t y be t w e e n e va l ua t or s ( r = 81) T he da t a w a s a na l yz e d ba s e d on t he m e a n s c or e s o f t he t w o e va l ua t or s f o r e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a ( 5 pos s i bl e poi nt s ) a nd t he t ot a l s c or e of e a c h pe r f or m a nc e ( 35 pos s i bl e poi nt s ) B e c a us e t he s t udy e xa m i ne d t he pe r f or m a nc e of t he i nt a c t e ns e m bl e s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s w a s not c onduc t e d due t o a l ow N ( N = 2) T a bl e 3 1 s how s t he m e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s f or e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a T he r e a ppe a r e d t o be a s ubs t a nt i a l di f f e r e nc e i n t he pr e t e s t s c or e s be t w e e n t he t r e a t m e nt a nd c ont r ol gr oup T he t r e a t m e nt gr oup s c or e d hi ghe r on t he p r e t e s t i n e ve r y

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82 T a bl e 3 1. P i l o t s t udy r e s ul t s : M e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt di f f e r e nc e f o r e xpe r i m e nt a l ( n = 24) a nd c ont r ol ( n = 19) gr oups M e a n P e r c e nt P e r f or m a nc e A r e a P r e t e s t P os t t e s t D i f f e r e nc e D i f f e r e nc e P i t c h a c c ur a c y E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 5 3. 3 1. 8 36% C ont r ol G r oup 1 3 2 40% T one qua l i t y/ I nt ona t i on E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 6 2. 8 1. 2 24% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 2 2. 95 1. 75 35% R hyt hm i c P r e c i s i on E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 75 2. 75 1 20% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 1 3. 55 2. 45 49% P hr a s i ng E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 8 3. 25 1. 45 29% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 25 3. 3 2. 05 41% A r t i c ul a t i on E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 2. 05 2. 75 0. 7 14% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 35 3. 35 2 40% T e m po E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 75 3. 45 1. 7 34% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 15 3. 25 2. 1 42% D yna m i c s E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 1. 95 3 1. 05 21% C ont r ol G r oup 1. 05 3. 55 2. 5 50% T ot a l S c or e E xpe r i m e nt a l G r oup 12. 4 21. 3 8. 9 25% C ont r ol G r oup 8. 1 22. 95 14. 85 42% pe r f or m a nc e a r e a t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup i nd i c a t i ng t ha t t he t w o ba nds m a y ha ve be gun t he s t udy w i t h u ne qua l a bi l i t i e s S c or e s f or bo t h gr oups i m pr ove d be t w e e n t he pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t a nd bot h gr oups r e c e i ve d s i m i l a r s c or e s on t he pos t t e s t A n e xa m i n a t i on of t he di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd

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83 pe r c e nt a ge s r e ve a l s t ha t t he c ont r ol g r oup ha d a gr e a t e r i nc r e a s e i n s c or e s i n e ve r y a r e a t ha n t he t r e a t m e nt gr oup. H ow e ve r t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he c ont r ol a nd t r e a t m e nt gr oups a ppe a r s t o be s ubs t a nt i a l i n on l y t h r e e of t h e s e ve n pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he t w o gr oups di d not a ppe a r t o be s ubs t a nt i a l l y di f f e r e nt i n t e r m s of i m pr ove m e nt i n t he a r e a s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y/ i nt ona t i on t e m po a nd phr a s i ng. T he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup s e e m s t o ha ve m a de a not i c e a bl e i m pr ove m e nt i n t he a r e a s of r hyt h m i c pr e c i s i on, a r t i c ul a t i on, a nd dyna m i c s T he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be a n e f f e c t i ve a l t e r na t i ve r e he a r s a l t e c hni que f o r c e r t a i n pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s w he n us e d a s a s uppl e m e nt t o phys i c a l pr a c t i c e R e s ul t s of t he pi l ot s t udy pr e s e nt e d s e ve r a l i m pl i c a t i ons t ha t w e r e a ddr e s s e d i n t he f ul l s t udy. I n t he pi l ot s t ud y, s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a ppe a r e d t o ha ve di f f i c ul t y f oc us i ng a t t e nt i on on t he t a s k du r i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T hi s m a y ha ve be e n t he r e s ul t of a l a c k of s t r uc t ur e p r ovi de d by t he f a c t t h a t s t ude nt s c oul d c hoos e w he t he r t he y m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e d t he r hyt h m m e l ody, f i nge r pos i t i ons e m bouc hur e f or m a t i ons e t c I t w a s c onc l ude d t ha t a m or e s t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que m a y be ne c e s s a r y f or s t ude nt s a t t hi s a ge l e ve l a nd t ha t s t ude nt s m a y be ne f i t m or e i f t he y a r e s pe c i f i c a l l y i ns t r uc t e d a s t o w ha t a s pe c t of t he m us i c t o a t t e nd t o dur i ng t he a c t i vi t y. T he f ul l s t udy a ddr e s s e d t hi s by de ve l opi ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e S e c ond, f i ndi ngs s ugge s t t ha t t he r e s ul t s m a y ha ve be e n a f f e c t e d by t he f a c t t ha t s t ude nt s ha d no pr i or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he m us i c T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup w a s a s ke d t o he a r t he m e l ody a nd r hyt hm s i n t he i r m i nds but m a y not ha ve ha d e nough e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he m us i c t o ha ve pr ope r l y e nc ode d a n a ur a l m ode l of t he pi e c e i nt o m e m or y. I n t hi s c a s e s ubj e c t s w oul d not ha ve be e n a bl e t o he a r t he m e l ody i n t he i r m i nds i n o r de r t o

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84 m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e i t T he r e f or e t he pi l ot s t udy s ug ge s t e d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m i ght be m or e e f f e c t i ve w he n r e he a r s i ng m us i c t ha t s t ude nt s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h be c a us e t he y a l r e a dy pos s e s s a n a ur a l i m a ge of t he m us i c t ha t t h e y c a n m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e T he f ul l s t udy a ddr e s s e d t hi s c onc e r n by pr ovi di ng t w o w e e ks of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e f o r a l l t r e a t m e nt gr oups be f o r e a ny m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c w a s a t t e m pt e d. B e c a us e t he pi l ot s t udy c om pa r e d t he p e r f or m a nc e of t w o i nt a c t e ns e m bl e s no s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s w a s pos s i bl e T he r e f or e t he f ul l s t udy s ought t o m e a s ur e i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e a s w e l l a s t he pe r f or m a nc e of t he i nt a c t e ns e m bl e S e l e c t i on o f t h e P ar t i c i p an t s F our c onc e r t ba nds f r om f our di f f e r e nt hi gh s c hool s i n R oa noke C ount y, V i r gi ni a w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he f u l l s t udy. T he s e s c hool s w e r e c hos e n ba s e d on t he i r s i m i l a r i t y t o e a c h o t he r i n or de r t o ob t a i n a s hom o ge ne ous a s a m pl e a s pos s i bl e A l l of t he c ount y ba nd p r ogr a m s ope r a t e d unde r t he s a m e m us i c c ur r i c ul um a nd t e a c hi ng phi l os ophy. T he c ount y s c hool s ys t e m ha d a n e nr o l l m e nt of a ppr oxi m a t e l y 14 000 s t ude nt s a nd w a s na m e d t o t he A m e r i c a n M us i c C onf e r e nc e s B e s t 100 C om m uni t i e s f or M us i c E duc a t i on i n A m e r i c a i n t he t hr e e ye a r s i m m e di a t e l y pr i or t o t he s t udy ( 2002, 2003, a nd 2004 ) a nd i n t he s c hool ye a r t he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d ( 2006) E a c h ba nd r e he a r s e d dur i ng t he s c hool da y f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y 250 m i nut e s e a c h w e e k, a nd c ons i s t e nt l y r e c e i ve d r a t i ngs of S upe r i o r or E xc e l l e nt a t t he V i r g i ni a S t a t e C onc e r t B a nd F e s t i va l dur i ng e a c h of t he f i ve ye a r s pr i or t o t he s t udy. A c r os s t he s c hool s ys t e m ba nd ha s be e n of f e r e d t o s t ude nt s be gi nni ng i n t he s i xt h gr a de I n or de r t o ga i n a ddi t i ona l da t a a bout t he s t ude nt s i n e a c h b a nd, s t ude nt s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a n i nf o r m a t i on f or m pr i or t o t he s t udy ( A ppe ndi x A ) F ur t he r da t a w a s

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85 c ol l e c t e d i n di s c us s i ons w i t h e a c h t e a c he r a nd i n a s ur ve y of t he s c hool s ys t e m s w e bs i t e T he f our ba nds a r e c om pa r e d i n T a bl e 3 2 i n t e r m s of c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he s c hool t he t e a c he r a nd t he ba nd i t s e l f I n t e r m s o f s c hool c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a l l f our s c hool s ha d a s i m i l a r e nr o l l m e nt s i z e w i t h t he s c hool f o r B a nd C ha vi ng s l i ght l y l e s s s t ude nt s ( 815) T hr e e of t he s c hool s ope r a t e d on a da i l y c l a s s s c he dul e w i t h 50 m i nut e s f or e a c h c l a s s pe r i od. T he s c hool s c he dul e f or B a nd B w a s a bl oc k s c he dul e i n w hi c h c l a s s e s m e t e ve r y ot he r da y f or 100 T a bl e 3 2. C om pa r i s on of t he f our pa r t i c i pa t i ng ba nds B a nd C ha r a c t e r i s t i c B a nd A B a nd B B a nd C B a n d D S c hool C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s C l a s s m e e t i ng s c he dul e D a i l y B l oc k D a i l y D a i l y M i nut e s pe r c l a s s pe r i od 50 100 50 50 T ot a l s c hool e nr ol l m e nt 1005 1143 815 1075 T e a c he r C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s Y e a r s of t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e 5 7 5 28 Y e a r s a t pr e s e nt s c hool 5 7 3 4 B a nd C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s N um be r of s t ude nt s 57 50 47 46 G i r l s 22 ( 39% ) 24 ( 48% ) 20 ( 43% ) 25 ( 53% ) B oys 35 ( 61% ) 26 ( 52% ) 26 ( 57% ) 22 ( 47% ) A ve r a ge s t ude nt a ge 15. 28 15. 96 15. 23 15. 58 S t ude nt s i n pr i va t e l e s s ons 1 ( 1. 7 % ) 7 ( 14% ) 6 ( 13% ) 6 ( 13% )

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86 m i nut e s e a c h da y. T he di f f e r e nc e i n c l a s s m e e t i ng s c he dul e be t w e e n B a nd B a nd t he ot he r gr oups a ppe a r s t o be t he m os t not i c e a bl e di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he s c hool s T he t e a c he r of B a nd D ha d t he m os t t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e ( 28 ye a r s ) T he r e m a i ni ng t hr e e t e a c he r s ha d s i m i l a r ye a r s o f t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e N o t e a c he r i n t he s t udy ha d l e s s t ha n f i ve ye a r s o f e xpe r i e nc e a s a hi gh s c hool ba nd di r e c t or E a c h ba nd ha d a s i m i l a r num be r of s t ude nt s w i t h a s i m i l a r m e a n a ge P e r ha ps t he m os t not i c e a bl e di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he ba nds i s t ha t onl y one s t ude nt i n B a nd A t ook pr i va t e l e s s ons w hi l e no f e w e r t ha n s i x s t ude nt s i n t he ot he r ba nds t ook pr i va t e l e s s ons T w e nt y f i ve s t ude nt s f r om e a c h ba nd w e r e s e l e c t e d f or i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng f or a t ot a l N of 1 00 s t ude nt s T he a s s e s s m e nt of i ndi vi dua l pe r f or m a nc e w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o onl y t hos e i ns t r um e nt s c ons i de r e d t o be t he m os t c om m on a nd num e r ous i n hi gh s c hool ba nd c l a s s e s T he i ns t r um e nt s s e l e c t e d f or i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng w e r e f l ut e c l a r i ne t a l t o s a xophone t r um pe t F r e nc h ho r n, a nd t r om bone A n a t t e m pt w a s m a de t o s e l e c t a n e qua l num be r of e a c h i ns t r um e nt H ow e ve r t he num be r of e a c h i ns t r um e nt t e s t e d f r om e a c h ba nd va r i e d a c c or di ng t o ba nd i ns t r u m e nt a t i on a nd s i z e D ue t o va r i ous f a c t o r s s e ve r a l s t ude nt s w e r e una bl e t o c om pl e t e t he s t udy. N i ne s t ude nt s f r om B a nd D w e r e e xc l ude d f r o m t he s t ud y due t o r e c or di ng e qui pm e nt m a l f unc t i on dur i ng t he p r e t e s t O ne s t ude nt f r om B a nd B w a s e xc l ude d be c a us e he r i ns t r um e nt w a s br oke n dur i ng t he pr e t e s t T w o s t u de nt s f r om B a nd C a nd one s t ude nt e a c h f r om B a nds A a nd B w e r e una bl e t o c om pl e t e t he s t udy due t o s t ude nt a bs e nc e w i t hdr a w a l f r om c l a s s / s c hool or o t he r r e a s ons T h i s l e f t a t o t a l N of 86 s t ude nt s w ho c om pl e t e d t he i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng. T he f i na l num be r a nd i ns t r u m e nt o f s t ude nt s c om pl e t i ng i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 3 3.

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87 T a bl e 3 3. N um be r a nd i ns t r um e nt of s t ude nt s c om pl e t i ng i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng I ns t r um e nt B a nd A B a nd B B a nd C B a nd D F l ut e 5 5 3 7 C l a r i ne t 4 4 5 5 A l t o S a xophone 5 5 5 0 T r um pe t 5 3 4 4 F r e nc h H or n 0 2 2 0 T r om bone 5 4 4 0 T ot a l 24 23 23 16 T he r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol f or t hi s s t udy w a s e xa m i ne d a nd a ppr ove d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d. A l e t t e r t o pa r e nt s e xpl a i ni ng t he s t udy a nd a n i nf or m e d pa r e nt a l c ons e nt f or m w e r e m a i l e d t o a l l pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s w ho ga ve t he i nf or m a t i on t o t he i r s t ude nt s T he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d P r ot oc ol pa r e nt l e t t e r a nd i nf or m e d c ons e nt f or m a r e p r e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x B C or r e s ponde nc e w i t h pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s out l i ni ng t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t i e s i s pr e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x C R e s e ar c h D e s i gn T he de s i gn of t he s t udy w a s a p r e t e s t pos t t e s t de s i gn w i t h none qui va l e nt g r oups ( G a l l G a l l a nd B or g, 1999) E a c h i nt a c t ba nd w a s a s s i gne d t o one of t he t h r e e t r e a t m e nt gr oups or t o t he c ont r ol g r oup; t he r e f or e r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt of e a c h s t ude nt w a s not pos s i bl e G a l l e t a l ( 1999 ) s t a t e t ha t t hi s de s i gn i s pr oba bl y t he m os t w i de l y us e d qua s i e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn i n e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h ( p. 2 42) T he y c l a i m t ha t m a ny e xpe r i m e nt s c a r r i e d out i n t he publ i c s c hool s do no t pe r m i t r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt of r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s . . W he n t hi s ha ppe ns r e s e a r c he r s us ua l l y m us t c ons i de r e a c h c l a s s a s a n i nt a c t gr oup ( p. 242) I n t hi s s t udy c o ns i de r i ng e a c h ba nd a s a n i nt a c t g r oup w a s ne c e s s a r y be c a us e s t ude nt s c oul d not be r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o e a c h t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i on.

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88 D e p e n d e n t M e as u r e s D e pe nde nt va r i a bl e s i n t hi s s t udy m e a s ur e d 1. i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a c hi e ve m e nt 2. i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e a c hi e ve m e nt 3. ba nd e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e a c hi e ve m e nt T he W a t ki ns F a r num P e r f or m a nc e S c a l e w a s us e d t o m e a s ur e t he s i ght r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of e a c h s t ude nt E xe r c i s e 10, F or m A w a s s e l e c t e d a s a pr e t e s t a nd E xe r c i s e 10, F o r m B w a s s e l e c t e d a s a pos t t e s t E a c h e xe r c i s e w a s t he n a r r a nge d f or t he s t udy us i ng F i na l e not a t i on s of t w a r e T he W a t ki ns F a r nu m P e r f o r m a nc e S c a l e i s pe r ha ps t he m os t w i de l y us e d m e a s ur e of i ns t r u m e nt a l m us i c p e r f or m a nc e T he r e i s a hi gh r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt be t w e e n t he t w o f or m s o f t he s c a l e ( r = 94) V a l i di t y w a s de t e r m i ne d us i ng r a nk or de r c or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t he t e a c he r s r a nki ng of t he s t ude nt s a nd t he s t ude nt s s c or e s on t he t e s t V a l i di t y w a s a l s o hi gh a nd r a ng e d f r om 68 t o 87. T o m e a s ur e t he p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt a n e t ude w a s c hos e n ba s e d on t he c r i t e r i a t ha t i t be r e l a t i ve l y ob s c ur e t ona l a nd m e l odi c i n na t u r e a nd a t a n a ppr opr i a t e di f f i c ul t y l e ve l f or hi gh s c hool i n s t r um e nt a l i s t s A l l e gr o f r o m C a noni c S ona t a N o. 1 by G e or ge T e l e m a nn ( A ppe ndi x D ) w a s s e l e c t e d f r om a c ol l e c t i on o f a dva nc e d t r um pe t due t s c om pi l e d by V oxm a n ( 19 51, p 32) T he ba nd d i r e c t or s i nvol ve d ve r i f i e d t ha t t he s e l e c t i on w a s r e l a t i ve l y obs c ur e a nd a t a n a ppr op r i a t e di f f i c ul t y l e ve l f o r t he i r s t ude nt s T he pi e c e w a s a r r a nge d f or ba nd i ns t r um e nt s us i ng F i na l e m us i c not a t i on s of t w a r e a nd s hor t e ne d s o t ha t a n a ppr op r i a t e l e ng t h c oul d be m a i n t a i ne d f or t he t i m e pe r i od of t he s t udy. T he o r i gi na l o r na m e nt s w e r e o m i t t e d, a nd a r t i c ul a t i on a nd e xpr e s s i on m a r ki ngs w e r e a dde d. T he c om pos i t i on w a s t r a ns pos e d f or a l l w i nd a nd m a l l e t

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89 pe r c us s i on i ns t r um e nt s a nd c e r t a i n not e s w e r e r e w r i t t e n a n oc t a ve hi ghe r o r l ow e r i n or de r t o be pl a ya bl e on s pe c i f i c i ns t r um e nt s T hi s pr oc e dur e i s s i m i l a r t o pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h m e t hods i n w hi c h a s ol o e t ude w a s t r a ns pos e d f or e a c h ba nd i ns t r u m e nt ( H e nl e y, 2001; R os e nt ha l 1984; R os e nt ha l W i l s on, E va ns a nd G r e e nw a l t 1988) T o m e a s ur e t he pe r f or m a nc e o f t he e ns e m bl e a 24 m e a s ur e e xc e r pt f r om t he pi e c e F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e by R obe r t S he l don w a s s e l e c t e d f or us e i n t he s t udy. T hi s pi e c e w a s s e l e c t e d be c a us e i t m e t t he c r i t e r i a o f be i ng t ona l a nd m e l odi c i n na t ur e a nd of a n a ppr opr i a t e di f f i c ul t y l e ve l f or hi gh s c hool i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s E a c h ba nd di r e c t or ve r i f i e d t ha t t o t he i r know l e dge t he s t ude nt s ha d not pe r f or m e d t hi s pi e c e pr i o r t o t he s t udy. T r e at m e n t V ar i ab l e D ur i ng t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od e a c h ba nd p r a c t i c e d A l l e gr o a nd F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i f t e e n m i nut e s t w o t i m e s a w e e k us i ng one of t hr e e p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons : a s t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod u ns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e O ne ba nd w a s a s s i gne d t o a no pr a c t i c e c ont r ol c ondi t i on I t s houl d be not e d t ha t bot h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons a l s o i nc l ude d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e by a l t e r na t i ng m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e N o gr oup w a s a s ke d t o r e he a r s e m e nt a l l y w i t hout t he f e e dba c k of phys i c a l r e he a r s a l T he s t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a l s o pa r t i c i pa t e d i n f i ve da ys of pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s i n t he w e e k be f or e t h e s t a r t of t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od. T he ba nds pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e s a s a n e ns e m bl e und e r t he di r e c t i on of t he i r r e gul a r ba nd di r e c t or du r i ng t he ba nd c l a s s pe r i od. T he d i r e c t or s w e r e f r e e t o m a ke c om m e nt s t o he l p t he s t ude nt s pe r f or m t he p i e c e H o w e ve r i n o r de r t o m i ni m i z e t e a c he r e f f e c t e a c h di r e c t or w a s gi ve n a r e he a r s a l s c r i pt t o f ol l ow dur i ng e a c h pr a c t i c e s e s s i on ( A ppe ndi x E )

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90 T he r e he a r s a l s c r i pt s w e r e de s i gne d t o pr ovi de s i m i l a r i ns t r uc t i on ( a pa r t f r om t he p r a c t i c e c ondi t i on) a m ong t he gr o ups T he r e f or e t he s c r i pt he l pe d e ns ur e t ha t e a c h di r e c t or w oul d r e he a r s e t he s a m e s e c t i ons of t he m us i c a nd p r obl e m a r e a s a t t he s a m e t i m e a nd f o r t he s a m e a m ount of t i m e T he t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i ons a r e de s c r i be d a s f ol l ow s : M e n t al P r ac t i c e M e t h od B a nd A ( n = 57) w a s a s s i gne d t o t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod i nc or po r a t e d t hr e e t ype s o f i m a ge r y: a ur a l i m a ge r y v i s ua l i m a ge r y, a nd m ot or i m a ge r y T he s e t hr e e f o r m s of i m a ge r y w e r e pr a c t i c e d i n i s ol a t i on a nd t he n c om bi ne d. H ow e ve r i n t hi s m e t hod a ur a l i m a ge r y r e c e i ve d t he m a j or i t y of t he a t t e nt i on T he m e t hod us e d f i ve ge ne r a l p r e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s ( pe r f or m e d i n t he w e e k be f or e t he s t a r t of t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od) a nd s e ve n M e nt a l P r a c t i c e T e c hni que s w hi c h w e r e ba s e d on pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h or t e c hni que s but c r e a t e d by t he r e s e a r c he r f or t hi s s t udy. T he t e c hni que s i nvol ve d one or m or e o f t he t hr e e t ype s of i m a ge r y l i s t e d e a r l i e r T he y w e r e a l s o ba s e d on 1) a c om bi na t i on of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i n w hi c h s om e phys i c a l a c t i vi t y, s uc h a s f i nge r i ng t he no t e s w a s done dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( a c t i ve i m a ge r y) o r 2) a l t e r na t i ng m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l p r a c t i c e w he r e a phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l w a s a l t e r na t e d w i t h a m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t r i a l T hr oughout e a c h r e he a r s a l s t ude nt s w e r e pr ovi de d w i t h i ns t r uc t i ons a s t o t he s pe c i f i c ki nd of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o be us e d. S t ude nt s w e r e di r e c t e d t o f oc us on a n a udi t or y phys i c a l o r vi s ua l a s pe c t of t he pe r f or m a nc e T he ba nd di r e c t or s i l e nt l y c onduc t e d t he pa s s a ge dur i ng t he m a j o r i t y of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l s T he f i ve pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s a nd s e ve n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a l ong w i t h t he i m a ge r y t he y f oc us on, a r e l i s t e d be l ow :

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91 P r e l i m i n ar y E xe r c i s e 1: I n t r od u c t i on t o M e n t al P r ac t i c e T hi s e xe r c i s e i nt r oduc e s s t ude nt s t o t he c onc e pt o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t p r e s e nt s pos s i bl e be ne f i t s of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd di s c us s e s how i t ha s be e n us e d i n a r e a s s uc h a s s por t s S t ude nt s a r e i n t r oduc e d t o t he c onc e pt s of v i s ua l a nd a ur a l i m a ge r y by a s ki ng t he m t o vi s ua l i z e c om m on obj e c t s a nd t o m e nt a l l y s i ng t he H a ppy B i r t hda y s ong. P r e l i m i n ar y E xe r c i s e 2: A u r al I m age r y T hi s e xe r c i s e pr ovi de s a n oppor t un i t y t o pr a c t i c e a ur a l i m a ge r y s ki l l s T he e ns e m bl e pl a ys a r hyt hm a nd t he n m e nt a l l y r e pr o duc e s t he r hyt hm T he d i r e c t or t he n s e l e c t s va r i ous s e c t i ons of t he e ns e m bl e t o pl a y, a nd t he s t ude nt i s a s ke d t o m e nt a l l y r e pr oduc e t he s ound of e a c h i ns t r um e nt P r e l i m i n ar y E xe r c i s e 3: D e ve l op i n g A u r al a n d V i s u al I m age r y T hi s e xe r c i s e a l l ow s t he s t ude nt s t o pr a c t i c e bot h a ur a l a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y I n t hi s e xe r c i s e s t ude nt s a r e s ho w n a r hyt hm a nd t he n t h e r hyt hm i s r e m ove d. A f t e r a br i e f pe r i od of t i m e s t ude nt s a r e a s ke d t o pl a y t he r hy t h m T he pur pos e of t hi s e xe r c i s e i s t ha t i n or de r t o r e m e m be r t he r hyt hm onc e i t i s t a ke n a w a y, s t ude nt s m us t s i ng i t i n t he i r he a ds m a i nt a i n a v i s ua l pi c t u r e of t he r hy t hm or b ot h. P r e l i m i n ar y E xe r c i s e 4: I n t r od u c t i on t o M ot or I m age r y T hi s e xe r c i s e i nt r oduc e s t he s t ude nt s t o t he c onc e pt of m ot or i m a ge r y. T he s t ude nt pl a ys a s c a l e c onc e nt r a t i ng on t he f e e l i ngs of t he m us c l e s us e d t o pl a y t he s c a l e S t ude nt s a r e t he n a s ke d t o i m a gi ne t he f e e l i ng of t hos e m us c l e s w i t hout a c t ua l l y m ovi ng t he m P r e l i m i n ar y E xe r c i s e 5: I n t e r n al an d E xt e r n al P e r s p e c t i ve s T hi s e xe r c i s e i nt r oduc e s s t ude nt s t o t he c onc e pt o f i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s S t ude nt s a r e gui de d t h r ough a n i m a gi na r y pe r f o r m a nc e w he r e t he y s e e

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92 t he m s e l ve s f r om out s i de t he body ( e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ) or i ns i de t he body ( i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ) M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 1: M e n t al P r ac t i c e w i t h M od e l T hi s t e c hni que f oc us e s on a ur a l i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h a m ode l I n t he c a s e of t he hi gh s c hool pe r f or m i ng e ns e m bl e a m o de l m os t of t e n r e f e r s t o a n a udi o r e c or di ng of a pr o f e s s i ona l m us i c i a n pl a yi ng t he pi e c e I n m a ny c i r c um s t a nc e s t hi s ki nd of m ode l i s not a va i l a bl e T hi s t e c hni que m a ke s us e of t he ot he r m e m be r s of t he e ns e m bl e a s m ode l s f or m e nt a l p r a c t i c e T he s t e ps of t he t e c hni que a r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. T he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e pl a ys t he pa s s a ge 2. O ne s e c t i on of t he ba nd pl a ys w hi l e t he ot he r s e c t i ons m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e by f i nge r i ng, bl ow i ng a i r a n d t ongui ng e ve r y not e I n uni s on pa s s a ge s t hi s i s done by di vi di ng t he gr oup i nt o w oodw i nds a nd br a s s / pe r c us s i on. I n e ns e m bl e pa s s a ge s t hi s c oul d be done by a s ki ng t h a t t he r e be onl y one pl a ye r on a pa r t o r pe r s t a nd. 3. T he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e pl a ys t he pa s s a ge t oge t he r M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 2: P h ys i c al t o M e n t al S e q u e n c e T hi s t e c hni que i nvol ve s c om bi ni ng m e nt a l a nd ph ys i c a l pr a c t i c e s i m ul t a ne ous l y. I t i s de s i gne d t o m ove t he p l a ye r f r om pu r e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t o pur e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e by gr a dua l l y r e m ovi ng t he phys i c a l e l e m e nt o f pe r f or m a nc e T he s e que nc e i s a s f ol l ow s : 1. P l a y t he pa s s a ge 2. M e nt a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge w hi l e hol di ng t he i ns t r u m e nt i n pl a yi ng pos i t i on a nd bl ow i ng a i r t ongui ng a nd f i nge r i ng e a c h not e ( r e m ove s a c t ua l pl a yi ng) 3. M e nt a l l y pl a y t he p a s s a ge w hi l e hol di ng t he i ns t r u m e nt i n pl a yi ng pos i t i on a nd f i nge r i ng e a c h not e ( r e m ove s a i r a nd t ongui ng ) 4. M e nt a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge w i t h t he i ns t r um e nt pl a c e d on t he s t ude nt s l a p w i t hout a ny m ove m e nt a t a l l ( r e m ove s f i nge r i ng, a nd t hus a l l phys i c a l p r a c t i c e )

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93 5. P l a y t he pa s s a ge M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 3: S l ow M ot i on P r a c t i c e T hi s t e c hni que c om bi ne s s l ow m ot i on pr a c t i c e a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he s t e ps of t hi s t e c hni que a r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. P l a y a s hor t pa s s a ge a t r e gul a r s pe e d. 2. P l a y t he pa s s a ge a ga i n a t a m uc h s l ow e r s pe e d ( s l ow m ot i on) 3. M e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t he s e c t i on a t t he s l ow s pe e d, he a r i ng i t pe r f e c t l y i n your he a d, a nd i m a gi ni ng your f i nge r s m ovi ng t o t he c o r r e c t pos i t i ons f o r e a c h not e 4. P hys i c a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge a ga i n i n t he s l ow m ot i on s pe e d. 5. P l a y t he pa s s a ge a t t he r e gul a r s pe e d. M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 4: V i s u al I m age r y P r ac t i c e T hi s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que i nvol ve s vi s ua l i m a ge r y of t he phys i c a l m ot i ons m a de dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e I t c oul d a l s o be us e d t o i m a ge t he m us i c not a t i on of a pa s s a ge s i m i l a r t o pl a yi ng f r om m e m o r y. T he t e c hni que i s a s f ol l ow s : 1. P l a y t hr ough t he pa s s a ge 2. M e nt a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge w hi l e hol di ng t he i ns t r u m e nt i n pl a yi ng pos i t i on a nd f i nge r i ng e a c h not e bu t f oc us i ng on w ha t t he ha nds a nd f i nge r s l ook l i ke w he n pl a yi ng e a c h not e 3. P l a c e t he i ns t r um e nt i n your l a p a nd do not t ouc h i t w i t h you r ha nds I m a gi ne your s e l f pl a yi ng t he pa s s a ge he a r i t i n yo ur he a d, bu t f oc us on i m a gi ni ng t he f i nge r s a nd ha nds m ovi ng a c c ur a t e l y t o t he r i ght pos i t i ons w i t h t he m us i c 4. P l a y t hr ou gh t he pa s s a ge M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 5: M ot or I m age r y P r ac t i c e T hi s t e c hni que i nvol ve s a s ki ng s t ude nt s t o i m a gi ne t he f e e l o f t he m us c l e s us e d i n pe r f or m a nc e T he p r oc e dur e i s a s f ol l ow s :

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94 1. P l a y t hr ough t he pa s s a ge 2. M e nt a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge w hi l e hol di ng t he i ns t r u m e nt i n pl a yi ng pos i t i on a nd f i nge r i ng e a c h not e bu t f oc us i ng on how t he f i nge r s a nd ha nds f e e l dur i ng pe r f o r m a nc e 3. P l a c e t he i ns t r um e nt i n your l a p a nd do not t ouc h i t w i t h you r ha nds I m a gi ne your s e l f pl a yi ng t he pa s s a ge he a r i t i n yo ur h e a d, bu t f oc us on i m a gi ni ng how t he f i nge r s a nd ha nds f e e l w he n m ovi ng a c c ur a t e l y t o t he r i ght pos i t i ons w i t h t he m us i c 4. P l a y t hr ough t he pa s s a ge M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 6: A l t e r n at i n g M e n t al an d P h ys i c al P r ac t i c e T hi s pr oc e dur e c om bi ne s a l l t hr e e f or m s of i m a ge r y a nd a l l ow s t he s t ude nt t o c hoos e w ha t ki nd of i m a ge r y t o a t t e nd t o dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he t e c hni que i s a s f ol l ow s : 1. P l a y t hr ough t he pa s s a ge 2. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he pa s s a ge H e a r i t i n your he a d. Y ou m a y a l s o c hoos e t o s e e your s e l f pl a yi ng t h e pa r t s e e f i nge r s m ovi ng t o t he r i gh t not e s o r i m a gi ne t he f e e l i ng or you r f i nge r s a s your pl a y. 3. P l a y t hr ough t he pa s s a ge M e n t al P r ac t i c e T e c h n i q u e 7: C om p l e t e V i s u al i z at i on of P e r f or m an c e T hi s t e c hni que i s a c om pl e t e vi s ua l i z a t i on t e c hni que s i m i l a r t o t he ki nd r e c om m e nde d by W i l l i a m on ( 2004) T he t e c hni qu e i nvol ve s i m a gi ni ng a l l t he de t a i l s of a c om pl e t e pe r f or m a nc e f r om be gi nn i ng t o e nd. U n s t r u c t u r e d M e n t al P r ac t i c e B a nd B ( n = 50 ) w a s a s s i gne d t o t he uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup T hi s gr oup u s e d uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s i m i l a r t o t hos e t e s t e d i n ot he r r e s e a r c h, i nc l udi ng t he pi l ot s t udy. U nl i ke t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup no pr e l i m i na r y t r a i ni ng e xe r c i s e s w e r e gi ve n i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e pr i or t o t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od. D ur i ng

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95 r e he a r s a l of t he m us i c s t ude nt s w e r e pe r i odi c a l l y a s ke d t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a pa s s a ge of t he c om pos i t i on i n t he i r m i nd S t ude nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t ha t dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t he y s houl d t r y t o he a r t he m us i c vi s ua l i z e t he m s e l ve s pl a yi ng i t a nd f e e l t he m us c l e s us e d i n pe r f or m a nc e H ow e ve r du r i ng r e he a r s a l t he y w e r e not di r e c t e d t o us e a ny s pe c i f i c t ype of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e T hi s uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod ga ve t he s t ude nt t he f r e e dom t o c hoos e w ha t a nd how t o pr a c t i c e dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l A s w i t h t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup, t he ba nd di r e c t or s i l e nt l y c onduc t e d t he m u s i c dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e P h ys i c al P r ac t i c e B a nd C ( n = 46 ) w a s a s s i gne d t o a phys i c a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on. T hi s ba nd r e he a r s e d t he pi e c e s us i ng phys i c a l pr a c t i c e onl y. N o oppor t uni t y f or s i l e nt a na l ys i s or m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w a s pr ovi de d. D ur i ng r e he a r s a l t he t e a c he r of t hi s gr oup pr ovi de d f e e dba c k t o t he s t ude nt s r e ga r di ng t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e A l l r e he a r s a l i nvol ve d t he a c t of pe r f or m i ng on t he i ns t r um e nt T he di r e c t or c onduc t e d du r i ng a l l p r a c t i c e t r i a l s C on t r ol B a nd D ( n = 47) w a s a s s i gne d t o a c ont r ol c ondi t i o n. D ur i ng t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od t hi s gr oup di d not r e he a r s e e i t he r c om pos i t i on a t a l l A d m i n i s t r at i on T he a s s e s s m e nt of i ndi vi dua l pe r f o r m a nc e w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o t he f ol l ow i n g i ns t r um e nt s : f l ut e c l a r i ne t a l t o s a xophone t r um pe t F r e nc h hor n a nd t r om bone S t ude nt s w ho c om pl e t e d t he i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng i nc l ude d 24 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd A ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup) 23 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd B ( uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup) 23 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd C ( phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr oup) a n d 16 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd D ( c ont r ol ) F or t he a s s e s s m e nt of e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e t he p e r f or m a nc e of t he i nt a c t e ns e m bl e w a s us e d a s t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e

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96 P r e t e s t s a nd pos t t e s t s w e r e c onduc t e d dur i ng t he r e gul a r ba nd c l a s s t i m e I nt a c t e ns e m bl e s a nd i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s w e r e r e c or de d u s i ng a C r ow n S A S S P s t e r e o P Z M m i c r ophone a nd a T a s c a m D A 30 m kI I D A T r e c or de r R e c or di ngs w e r e t he n t r a ns f e r r e d t o c om pa c t di s c us i ng a D e non C D R W 1500 P C M c om pa c t di s c r e c or de r A r e t i r e d hi gh s c hool ba nd di r e c t or a nd f i ne a r t s s upe r vi s or w i t h a c c e s s t o a nd know l e dge of r e c or di ng e qui pm e nt s e r ve d a s t he t e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or a nd r e c or de d a l l o f t he p r e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t pe r f or m a nc e s T e s t a dm i n i s t r a t i on pr oc e dur e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x F F or t he p r e t e s t e a c h s t ude nt w a s a s ke d t o pl a y E xe r c i s e 10, F o r m A of t he W a t ki ns F a r num P e r f o r m a nc e S c a l e a s a p r e t e s t of s i ght r e a di ng a bi l i t y l e ve l T he s t ude nt t he n pe r f or m e d A l l e gr o a s a pr e t e s t of pr e p a r e d pe r f or m a nc e a bi l i t y l e ve l E a c h e ns e m bl e t he n s i ght r e a d t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s a pr e t e s t of e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e l e ve l A t t he e nd o f t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od e a c h s t ude nt w a s a s ke d t o pl a y E xe r c i s e 10, F or m B of t he W a t ki ns F a r num P e r f o r m a nc e S c a l e a s a pos t t e s t of s i ght r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s w e l l a s A l l e gr o a s a pos t t e s t of pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e a c hi e ve m e nt E a c h e ns e m bl e t he n pe r f or m e d t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s a pos t t e s t of e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e a bi l i t y. A l l pr e t e s t a nd pos t t e s t pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e p l a c e d i n r a ndom o r de r ont o a s e r i e s of c om pa c t di s c s a nd t he i de nt i t y of t he pe r f o r m e r a nd gr oup w a s obs c ur e d. T he p r i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s c or e d a l l of t he r e c or di ngs m a r ki ng e r r or s f o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm T o e s t a bl i s h r e l i a bi l i t y t w o i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or s s c or e d t w e nt y pe r c e nt of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt r e c or di ngs E a c h e va l ua t or w a s a m us i c e duc a t i on gr a dua t e s t ude nt a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da w i t h s uc c e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e a s s c hool ba nd di r e c t or

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97 I ndi vi dua l s t ude nt r e c or d i ngs w e r e gr a de d i n t h r e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y ( c or r e c t not e s ) dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm E ns e m bl e r e c or di ngs w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t he pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y/ i nt ona t i on, a nd r hy t hm i c a c c ur a c y. I ns t r uc t i ons f or s c or i ng t he r e c or di ngs a r e p r e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x G F or t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e s t he be a t s e r ve d a s t he s c or i n g uni t A be a t w a s m a r ke d i nc or r e c t i f t he s t ude nt f a i l e d t o pl a y t he c or r e c t p i t c h, dyna m i c s or r hyt hm T he e va l ua t or s i ndi c a t e d t he ki nd of m i s t a ke t ha t w a s m a de by m a r ki ng t he be a t w i t h a P D o r R f or p i t c h, dyna m i c or r hyt hm e r r o r r e s pe c t i ve l y. A l l a t t e m pt s w e r e m a de t o c r e a t e a nd i m pl e m e nt a n obj e c t i ve s c or i ng pr oc e s s F or t he e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e s t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or s c or e d a l l of t he r e c or di n gs i n t e r m s of t h r e e pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y / i nt ona t i on, a nd r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y. E a c h r e c or di ng w a s l i s t e ne d t o a m i ni m um of f i ve t i m e s a nd e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a w a s s c or e d on a s c a l e f r om 1 t o 7 w i t h 7 be i ng s upe r i or a nd 1 be i ng p oor T e nt hs o f a poi n t w e r e a l l ow e d i n s c or i ng. T he r e c or di ngs w e r e t he n r a ndom l y r e o r de r e d a nd s c or e d a s e c ond t i m e by t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or us i ng t he s a m e pr oc e s s A t no t i m e w a s t he i nve s t i ga t or a w a r e of t he i de nt i t y of t he gr oups A f t e r t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od s t ude nt s i n t h e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod a nd uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oups w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a que s t i onna i r e a bout t he i r a t t i t ude s a nd opi ni ons r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e S t ude nt s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o e s t i m a t e how of t e n t he y a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n r e que s t e d t o do s o. T he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e i s pr e s e nt e d i n A ppe ndi x H C e r t a i n que s t i ons i n t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e w e r e m ode l e d a f t e r t he S po r t s I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( S I Q ) de ve l ope d a nd t e s t e d by H a l l M a c k, P a i vi o a nd

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98 H a us e nbl a s ( 1998) T he S I Q a s ks s ubj e c t s t o r a t e 3 0 di f f e r e nt i t e m s a c c or di ng t o t he f r e que nc y of i m a ge r y us e a nd t he c onc r e t e ne s s or e a s e of i m a gi ng t he i t e m S ubj e c t s a r e a s ke d t o r a t e t he f r e que nc y w i t h w hi c h t he y us e t h e t ype of i m a ge r y i n t he i t e m on a 7 poi nt L i ke r t t ype s c a l e r a ngi ng f r om 1 r a r e l y t o 7 o f t e n S ub j e c t s r a t e t he c onc r e t e ne s s or e a s e of i m a gi ng t he i t e m on a 7 po i nt L i ke r t t ype s c a l e r a ngi ng f r om 1 e a s y t o i m a ge t o 7 di f f i c ul t t o i m a ge A n e va l ua t i on of t he S I Q i ndi c a t e d hi gh i nt e r na l c ons i s t e nc i e s r a ngi ng f r om 70 t o 88. I n t h e pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e de s i gne d f or t he pr e s e nt s t udy, s t ude nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r a t e t he e a s e of i m a gi ng a udi t o r y, vi s ua l a nd m ot or a s pe c t s of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e S t at i s t i c al A n al ys i s R e s ul t s of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt p r e pa r e d a nd s i gh t r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e a na l yz e d i n t e r m s of m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s be t w e e n t he pr e t e s t a nd t he pos t t e s t i n e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a A n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e e xi s t e d a m ong t he f ou r g r ou ps A S c he f f e t e s t a nd t t e s t s w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n e a c h pa i r of gr oups S t ude nt s c or e s w e r e t he n a na l yz e d i n t he s ubgr oup s of ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt ( br a s s or w oodw i nd) by c om pa r i ng t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of e a c h s ubgr oup. F or ge nde r a nd i ns t r um e nt t t e s t s w e r e us e d t o de t e r m i ne i f a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e e xi s t e d be t w e e n boys a nd gi r l s or be t w e e n w oodw i nd a nd br a s s pl a ye r s i n e a c h t r e a t m e nt gr oup F i na l l y r e s pons e s t o t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e w e r e e xa m i ne d by de t e r m i ni ng t he f r e que nc y of t he r e s pons e t o e a c h que s t i on.

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99 C H A P T E R 4 R E S U L T S I n t r od u c t i on T he f our gr oups r e pr e s e nt i ng t he f our p r a c t i c e c on di t i ons w e r e e va l ua t e d on t h r e e s e pa r a t e m e a s ur e s of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e : A n i nd i vi dua l s t ude nt s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e a n i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e a nd a n e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e F or t he i ndi vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng a nd pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e s m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of s t ude nt s i n e a c h of t he f our gr oups ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd c ont r ol ) w e r e a na l yz e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e w e r e a ny s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons S e pa r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d f or t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm T he e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e w a s e va l ua t e d i n a m a nne r s i m i l a r t o t ha t us e d by a dj udi c a t or s a t ba nd c ont e s t s a nd f e s t i va l s i n w hi c h t he gr oup pe r f o r m a nc e of e a c h e ns e m bl e i s e va l ua t e d. T he f a c t t ha t i nt a c t gr oups w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t hi s m e a s ur e pr oduc e d a s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e ( N = 4) a nd i t w a s d e t e r m i ne d t ha t s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s w oul d be i na ppr opr i a t e T he r e f or e onl y r a w da t a i n t he f o r m o f di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e pe r c e nt a ge s f or e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a w e r e e xa m i ne d f o r t he e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e T he r e s ul t s a r e p r e s e nt e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng o r de r : 1 ) a na l ys i s of i nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y, 2) c om pa r i s on of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he i ndi vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e 3) c om pa r i s on of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol

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100 gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t h e i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e 4) c om pa r i s on of t he i nt a c t gr oup pe r f o r m a nc e s on t h e e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e 5 ) c om pa r i s on of s t ude nt s c or e s i n t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups i n t e r m s of ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt ( w oodw i nd or b r a s s ) a nd 6 ) c om pa r i s on of pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e a ns w e r s f r om s t ude nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oups P r e s e n t at i on o f D at a A n al ys i s of I n t e r S c or e r R e l i ab i l i t y T he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or a nd t w o i nde pe nde nt e v a l ua t or s s c or e d t w e nt y pe r c e nt of t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt r e c or di ngs m a r ki ng e r r or s f or pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm E a c h i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or w a s a m us i c e duc a t i on gr a dua t e s t ude nt a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da w i t h s uc c e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e a s a s c hool ba nd di r e c t or I nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y be t w e e n t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or a nd t h e t w o i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or s w a s de t e r m i ne d f or e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a us i ng t he P e a r s on P r oduc t M om e nt C or r e l a t i on T a bl e 4 1 s how s t he i nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s f or e a c h va r i a bl e T he a ve r a ge r e l i a bi l i t y w a s 90 f o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y, 79 f o r dyna m i c s a nd 90 f o r r hy t hm R e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s r a nge d f r o m 74 t o 93 I t w a s c onc l ud e d t ha t t he hi gh i nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y be t w e e n t he i nde pe nde nt e va l ua t or s a nd t he p r i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or va l i da t e d t h e pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or t o s c or e t he r e m a i ni ng 80 % of t he r e c or di ngs R e l i a bi l i t y f or t he e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e w a s de t e r m i ne d us i ng t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y. T he e ns e m bl e r e c or d i ngs w e r e pl a c e d i nt o r a ndom o r de r a nd t he i de nt i t y of e a c h gr oup w a s r e m ove d t o pr e ve nt s c or i ng bi a s T he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or t he n s c or e d a l l of t he r e c or di ngs i n t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y / i nt ona t i on a nd r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y. E a c h r e c or di ng w a s l i s t e ne d t o a m i ni m um of f i ve t i m e s a nd e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a w a s s c or e d on a s c a l e f r om 1 t o 7 w i t h 7 be i ng s upe r i or a nd 1

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101 T a bl e 4 1. I nt e r s c or e r r e l i a bi l i t y c o r r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s f or i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s P e r f or m a nc e J udge C a t e gor y A a nd B A a nd C B a n d C A ve r a ge P i t c h A c c ur a c y 93 91 86 90 D yna m i c s 79 74 83 79 R hyt hm 91 90 88 90 be i ng poor T he r e c or di ngs w e r e t he n r a ndom l y r e or de r e d a nd s c or e d a s e c ond t i m e by t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or us i ng t he s a m e pr oc e s s T a bl e 4 2 s how s t he t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y c oe f f i c i e nt s f or t he e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a n c e i n e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a R e l i a bi l i t y f or e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a r a nge d f r om 964 f o r t one qua l i t y/ i nt ona t i on t o 994 f or r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y. T a bl e 4 2. E ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt s P e r f or m a nc e A r e a r P i t c h A c c ur a c y 983 T one Q ua l i t y/ I n t ona t i on 964 R hyt hm i c A c c ur a c y 994 C om p ar i s on of t h e E xp e r i m e n t al an d C on t r ol G r ou p s M e an D i f f e r e n c e S c or e s on t h e I n d i vi d u a l S t u d e n t S i gh t R e ad i n g M e as u r e A l l r a w da t a a ppe a r s i n A ppe ndi x H T a bl e 4 3 s how s t he m e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of t he f ou r g r oups on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e i n e a c h p e r f or m a nc e a r e a D i f f e r e nc e s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d by s ubt r a c t i ng t he pr e t e s t s c or e f r om t he pos t t e s t s c or e D i f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d due t o t he f a c t t ha t e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a ha d une qua l t ot a l pos s i bl e poi nt s T he r e w e r e 33 pos s i bl e poi nt s e a c h f or pi t c h a nd r hy t hm a nd 10 pos s i bl e poi nt s f or dy na m i c s

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102 T a bl e 4 3. S i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e : M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups p r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s P e r c e nt P r e t e s t P os t t e s t D i f f e r e nc e D i f f e r e nc e G r oup M S D M S D M S D P i t c h A c c ur a c y M P M e t hod 28. 6 3. 21 29. 2 3. 21 54 2. 94 1. 6% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 25. 2 6. 6 25. 17 6. 02 04 4. 19 1% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 29 3. 32 29. 21 3. 08 13 1. 71 3% C ont r ol 29. 31 3. 30 29 3. 07 31 2. 41 0. 9% D yna m i c s M P M e t hod 0. 00 0. 00 83 2. 82 83 2. 82 8. 3% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 21 1. 04 21 1. 04 0. 00 0. 00 0% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 69 2. 38 43 1. 47 26 1. 73 2. 6% C ont r ol 0. 00 0. 00 56 2. 25 56 2. 25 5. 6% R hyt hm M P M e t hod 28. 83 3. 53 29. 58 4. 56 75 4. 19 2. 2% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 26. 13 4. 69 27 3. 80 86 4. 77 2. 6% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 28. 2 4. 1 30. 13 2. 8 1. 91 3. 07 5. 78% C ont r ol 27. 9 2. 5 29. 5 3. 16 1. 56 2. 70 4. 7% A n e xa m i na t i on of t he di f f e r e nc e s c or e s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d a hi ghe r m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e i n t he a r e a s of pi t c h a nd dyna m i c s t ha n t he ot he r gr oups T he phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e i n t e r m s of r hyt hm T he t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons s c or e d hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup i n pi t c h, but not i n dyna m i c s or r hyt hm A one w a y a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he di f f e r e nc e a m ong t he gr oups i n e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a R e s ul t s of t he a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e

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103 a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4 4 S t a t i s t i c a l l y nons i gni f i c a nt F va l ue s o f 291, 1. 439 a nd 469 ( p > 05) w e r e obt a i ne d f o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm r e s pe c t i ve l y. B e c a us e t he e f f e c t of pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on on s i ght r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e s c or e s w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i t w a s c onc l ude d t ha t t he r e w a s no di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n d i f f e r e nc e s c or e s of s t ude nt s t a ught us i ng a de s i gne d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) C om p ar i s on of t h e E xp e r i m e n t al an d C on t r ol G r ou p s M e an D i f f e r e n c e S c or e s on t h e I n d i vi d u a l S t u d e n t P r e p ar e d P e r f or m a n c e M e as u r e T a bl e 4 5 s how s t he m e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of t he f our g r oups on t he i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e f or e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a A ga i n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d by s ubt r a c t i ng t h e pr e t e s t s c or e s f r om t he pos t t e s t s c or e s D i f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d be c a us e f or e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a t he t ot a l pos s i bl e poi nt s w e r e une qua l T he r e w e r e 67 pos s i bl e poi nt s e a c h f or pi t c h a nd r hyt hm a nd 10 pos s i bl e poi nt s f or dyna m i c s A n e xa m i na t i on of t he da t a s how s t ha t t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s i n a l l t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he c ont r ol gr oup ha d t he l ow e s t di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a m o ng t he gr oups i n a l l pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s A one w a y a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he di f f e r e nc e a m ong t he gr oups R e s ul t s of t he a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4 6 S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gn i f i c a nt F va l ue s w e r e obt a i ne d f or pi t c h a c c ur a c y ( F = 3 895, p = 012) dyna m i c s ( F = 4. 627 p = 005 ) a nd r hy t hm ( F = 8 013, p = 000) T he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e a m ong t he f ou r pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on t h e m e a s ur e of s t ude nt p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e

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104 T a bl e 4 4. A na l ys i s of va r i a nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol g r oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e S our c e S S df M S F p P i t c h A c c ur a c y B e t w e e n G r oups 7. 876 3 2. 625 291 832 W i t hi n G r oups 738. 961 82 9. 012 T ot a l 746. 837 85 D yna m i c s B e t w e e n G r oups 17. 143 3 5. 714 1. 439 238 W i t hi n G r oups 325. 706 82 3. 972 T ot a l 342. 849 85 R hyt hm B e t w e e n G r oups 21. 000 3 7. 000 469 704 W i t hi n G r oups 1222. 872 82 14 913 E r r o r 1243. 872 85 N ot e p < 05, ** p < 01

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105 T a bl e 4 5. I ndi v i dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e : M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups p r e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s P e r c e nt P r e t e s t P os t t e s t D i f f e r e nc e D i f f e r e nc e G r oup M S D M S D M S D P i t c h A c c ur a c y M P M e t hod 48 14. 75 61. 17 4. 03 13. 54 13. 15 20. 2% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 43. 13 15. 08 51. 17 11. 60 8. 04 11. 05 12% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 50. 47 10. 92 61. 82 5. 04 11. 34 9. 95 16. 9% C ont r ol 53. 75 8. 74 55. 93 11. 34 2. 18 7. 29 3% D yna m i c s M P M e t hod 25 1. 22 3. 125 2. 98 2. 875 2. 609 28. 7% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 0. 0 0. 0 1. 04 2. 16 1. 04 2. 16 10% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 65 1. 96 1. 91 2. 77 1. 26 3. 27 12. 6% C ont r ol 0. 0 0. 0 06 25 06 25 0. 6% R hyt hm M P M e t hod 47. 79 12. 08 65. 79 1. 74 18 11. 39 26. 8% U ns t r uc t ur e d M P 44. 47 12. 94 61. 43 6. 22 16. 95 11. 26 25. 2% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 52. 73 11. 96 65. 56 1. 75 12. 82 11. 46 19% C ont r ol 48. 06 8. 28 50. 37 8. 98 2. 31 7. 25 3. 4%

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106 T a bl e 4 6. A na l ys i s of va r i a nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol g r oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e S our c e S S df M S F p P i t c h A c c ur a c y B e t w e e n G r oups 1373. 523 3 457. 841 3. 895* 012 W i t hi n G r oups 9638. 570 82 117. 544 T ot a l 11012. 093 85 D yna m i c s B e t w e e n G r oups 84. 128 3 28. 043 4. 627** 005 W i t hi n G r oups 496. 954 82 6. 060 T ot a l 581. 081 85 R hyt hm B e t w e e n G r oups 2773. 232 3 924. 411 8. 013** 000 W i t hi n G r oups 9459. 698 82 115. 362 E r r o r 12232. 930 85 N ot e p < 05, ** p < 01 A S c he f f e t e s t w a s c onduc t e d f o r e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a a s a t e s t of m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s ons t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h g r oups pr e s e nt e d s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s T he r e s ul t s of t he S c he f f e t e s t a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4 7 F o r t he pe r f or m a nc e va r i a bl e of p i t c h a c c ur a c y, a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup ( p = 019 ) N o ot he r s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f o r pi t c h a m ong t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups or be t w e e n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups a nd t he c ont r ol g r oup. F or dyna m i c s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup

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107 T a bl e 4 7. R e s ul t s of t he S c he f f e t e s t o f m ul t i pl e c om pa r i s ons of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e G r oup ( A ) G r oup ( B ) M e a n D i f f e r e nc e ( A B ) S t d. E r r o r p P i t c h A c c ur a c y 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 5. 4982 3. 16358 394 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 2. 1938 3. 16358 923 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 11. 3542* 3. 49916 019 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 3. 3043 3. 19706 785 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 5. 8560 3. 52946 436 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 9. 1603 3. 52946 089 D yna m i c s 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 1. 8315 71834 098 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 1. 6141 71834 177 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 2. 8125** 79454 008 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 2174 72594 993 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 9810 80142 684 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 1. 1984 80142 528 R hyt hm 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 1. 0435 3. 13409 990 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 5. 1739 3. 13409 441 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 15. 6875** 3. 4 6654 000 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 4. 1304 3. 16725 638 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 14. 6440** 3. 49655 001 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 10. 5136* 3. 49655 035 N ot e p < 05, ** p < 01 M P M = m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup U M P = uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup P P = phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr ou p.

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108 a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup ( p = 008 ) N o ot he r s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f o r dyna m i c s a m ong t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups o r be t w e e n t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups F or r hyt h m s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f o und b e t w e e n t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a nd t he c ont r o l gr oup ( p < 01) t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup a nd t he c ont r ol g r oup ( p < 01) a nd t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup ( p < 05) N o ot he r s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound a m ong t he t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups I n or de r t o f ur t he r e xa m i ne t he di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he gr oups t he di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of t he f ou r gr o ups w a s a na l yz e d us i ng s e pa r a t e t t e s t s f or e a c h pa i r of gr oups a nd f or e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a A l t h ough r e pe a t e d t t e s t s m a y no t yi e l d t he m os t c ons e r va t i ve e s t i m a t e s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e t he y do pr ovi de a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on t o he l p unde r s t a nd how t he g r oups di f f e r e d f r om e a c h ot he r T he r e s ul t s of t he t t e s t s a r e s how n i n T a bl e 4 8 R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup i n a l l t h r e e pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a s ( p < 01 ) T he s e r e s ul t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e obt a i ne d i n t he S c he f f e t e s t w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of p i t c h, w hi c h ha d a p va l ue of 019 i n t he S c he f f e t e s t F or pi t c h a c om pa r i s on of t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he c ont r ol g r oup r e ve a l e d a t va l ue o f 1 8523 ( p = 0720) T he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup ( p < 05 ) a nd t he c ont r ol gr o up ( p < 05 ) i n t e r m s o f dyna m i c s A c om pa r i s on of t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a nd t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e g r oup pr oduc e d a t va l ue of 1. 8717 ( p = 0678 ) A c om pa r i s on of t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup yi e l de d a t va l ue of 1 7983 ( p = 0803) I n t e r m s of r hyt hm a l l t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l c ondi t i ons w e r e s i g ni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt f r om t he c ont r ol

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109 T a bl e 4 8. R e s ul t s of s e pa r a t e t t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l a n d c ont r ol gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e m e a s ur e S t d E r r or G r oup ( A ) G r oup ( B ) t df of D i f f e r e nc e p P i t c h A c c ur a c y 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 1. 5487 45 3. 550 1284 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 6432 45 3. 411 5234 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 3. 1405** 38 3. 615 0033 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 1. 06 44 3. 102 2926 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 1. 8523 37 3. 161 0720 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 3. 1367** 37 2. 920 0033 D yna m i c s 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 2. 6134* 45 701 0121 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 1. 8717 45 862 0678 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 4. 2795** 38 657 0001 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 2654 44 819 7919 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 1. 7983 37 546 0803 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 1. 4533 37 825 1546 R hyt hm 1 ( M P M ) 2 ( U M P ) 3155 45 3. 307 75 38 1 ( M P M ) 3 ( P P ) 1. 5515 45 3. 335 1278 1 ( M P M ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 4. 8751** 38 3. 218 0001 2 ( U M P ) 3 ( P P ) 1. 2326 44 3. 351 2243 2 ( U M P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 4. 5716** 37 3. 203 0001 3 ( P P ) 4 ( C ont r ol ) 3. 2389** 37 3. 246 0025 N ot e p < 05, ** p < 01 M P M = m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup U M P = uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup P P = phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr ou p.

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110 gr oup ( p < 01) T he m os t i m po r t a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he r e s ul t s of t he S c he f f e t e s t a nd t he s e pa r a t e t t e s t s w a s t ha t t he t t e s t f ound a s i gn i f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a nd t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s ( p = 0121) C om p ar i s on of t h e I n t ac t G r ou p P e r f or m an c e s on t h e E n s e m b l e P e r f or m a n c e M e as u r e E a c h e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e w a s s c or e d i n t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s ( pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t one qua l i t y/ i nt ona t i on a nd r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y) on a s c a l e f r om 1 t o 7, w i t h 7 be i ng s upe r i or a nd 1 be i ng poor F i na l s c or e s f or e a c h c a t e gor y w e r e obt a i ne d by a ve r a gi ng t he t w o s e pa r a t e s c or i ngs of t he g r oups A s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r s e pa r a t e s c or i ngs of t he e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e w e r e c onduc t e d t o he l p de t e r m i ne r e l i a bi l i t y T a bl e 4 9 s how s t he m e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd p e r c e nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he gr oups f or e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a B e c a us e t h e gr oups w e r e s c or e d a s i nt a c t e ns e m bl e s a nd not i ndi vi dua l s ubj e c t s i t w a s be l i e ve d t ha t s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s f or t hi s da t a w oul d be i na ppr opr i a t e I t w a s hope d t ha t a n e xa m i na t i on of t he r a w s c or e s m i ght p r ovi de s om e i nf or m a t i on on t he e f f e c t of t he p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons on e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e A n e xa m i na t i on of t he pr e t e s t s c or e s s ugge s t s t ha t a l l f our gr oups be ga n t he s t udy w i t h s i m i l a r a bi l i t y l e ve l s I n e a c h pe r f or m a nc e a r e a t he no pr a c t i c e c ont r ol gr oup s c or e d c ons i de r a bl y l ow e r on t he pos t t e s t a nd ha d l ow e r d i f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s t ha n t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups F or pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge a t 53% but t hi s w a s not not i c e a bl y di f f e r e nt t ha n t he di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s of t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup a nd t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup ( 50% e a c h) F or bot h t one qua l i t y a nd r hyt h m i c a c c ur a c y, t he phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s H ow e ve r e xa m i na t i on o f t he

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111 T a bl e 4 9. M e a n pr e t e s t pos t t e s t a nd di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt di f f e r e nc e f or e xpe r i m e nt a l a nd c ont r ol gr oups on t he e ns e m bl e p e r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e M e a n P e r c e nt G r oup P r e t e s t P os t t e s t D i f f e r e nc e D i f f e r e nc e P i t c h a c c ur a c y M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod 2. 25 6 3. 75 53% U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e 2. 75 6. 25 3. 5 50% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 3 6. 5 3. 5 50% C ont r ol 2 3 1 14% T one qua l i t y/ I nt ona t i on M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod 3 5. 5 2. 5 35 % U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e 3. 5 5. 75 2. 25 32% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 3 6 3 43% C ont r ol 2 3 1 14% R hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod 2. 5 6 3. 5 50% U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e 2. 5 6 3. 5 50% P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e 2. 5 6. 5 4 57% C ont r ol 2. 5 2. 75 25 4% m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f or t he s e t w o pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s i ndi c a t e t ha t a l l t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups m a de s i m i l a r ga i ns f r om p r e t e s t t o pos t t e s t C om p ar i s on of S t u d e n t S c or e s i n t h e T h r e e E xp e r i m e n t al G r ou p s i n t e r m s of G e n d e r G r ad e L e ve l an d I n s t r u m e n t ( Wood w i n d or B r as s ) I n or de r t o f ur t he r a na l yz e t he e f f e c t of pr a c t i c e c o ndi t i on on s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e s t ude nt s c or e s w e r e c om pa r e d by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt w i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups O nl y pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s w e r e c om pa r e d due t o t he f a c t t ha t s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound a m ong t he gr oups i n t he pr e pa r e d

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112 pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e S i ght r e a di ng s c or e s w e r e n ot a na l yz e d be c a us e t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he gr oups on t he s i g ht r e a di ng m e a s ur e M e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s f or s t ude nt s a s gr oupe d by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e s 4 10 ( m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup) 4 11 ( uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup) a nd 4 12 ( phys i c a l p r a c t i c e gr oup ) T a bl e 4 13 c om pa r e s t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s f or a l l t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups T a bl e 4 14 s how s t he r e s ul t s of s e pa r a t e t t e s t s f or s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e f or t he s ubgr oups of ge nde r a nd i ns t r um e nt w i t h i n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups I n t e r m s o f dyna m i c s 12t h gr a de s t ude nt s i n a l l t h r e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups m a de not i c e a bl y hi ghe r di f f e r e nc e s c or e s t ha n t he i r pe e r s i n l ow e r gr a de l e ve l s H ow e ve r 9 t h a nd 10t h gr a de r s i n a l l t h r e e gr oups m a de hi ghe r d i f f e r e nc e s c or e s i n r hy t hm t ha n di d t he i r ol de r c l a s s m a t e s A s s how n i n T a bl e 4 14 no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f or i ns t r um e nt i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s o r r hy t hm H ow e ve r i n t e r m s o f pi t c h a c c ur a c y t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n w oodw i nd a nd br a s s pl a ye r s i n a l l t h r e e g r oups ( p < 01) B r a s s pl a ye r s i n e a c h gr oup m a de a gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n pi t c h a c c ur a c y s c or e s t ha n w oodw i nd pl a ye r s I t i s not a bl e t ha t t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup br a s s pl a ye r s ha d t he hi ghe s t di f f e r e nc e s c or e s f o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y, s c or i ng s i gni f i c a nt l y hi ghe r t ha n w oodw i nd pl a ye r s f r om t he s a m e gr oup a nd not i c e a bl y hi ghe r t ha n b r a s s pl a ye r s f r om t he ot he r t w o e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups F o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y, t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup br a s s pl a ye r s m a de ne a r l y t w i c e a s m uc h i m pr ove m e nt t ha n br a s s pl a ye r s i n t he ot he r t w o gr oups B r a s s pl a ye r s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t ho d gr oup a l s o s c or e d c ons i de r a bl y hi ghe r t ha n b r a s s pl a ye r s f r om t he ot he r t w o gr oup s i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s I n a ddi t i on

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113 T a bl e 4 10. C om pa r i s on of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s a nd D i f f e r e nc e P e r c e nt a ge s P i t c h A c c ur a c y D yna m i c s R hyt hm C ha r a c t e r i s t i c S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge G e nde r G i r l s ( n = 10) 5 7% 2. 9 29% 22. 3 33% B oys ( n = 14) 19. 64 29% 2. 85 29% 14. 9 22% I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd ( n = 14 ) 3. 78 5. 6% 2. 35 23% 16. 57 25% B r a s s ( n = 10) 27. 2 40. 5% 3. 6 36% 20 30% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de ( n = 2 ) 2. 5 3. 7% 0. 5 5% 33. 5 50% T e nt h G r a de ( n = 4 ) 20. 25 30% 3. 25 32. 5% 20 30% E l e ve nt h G r a de ( n = 10 ) 10. 4 16% 2 20% 16 24% T w e l f t h G r a de ( n = 8) 17 25% 4. 37 44% 15. 6 23%

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114 T a bl e 4 11. C om pa r i s on of uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r u m e nt M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s a nd D i f f e r e nc e P e r c e nt a ge s P i t c h A c c ur a c y D yna m i c s R hyt hm C ha r a c t e r i s t i c S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge G e nde r G i r l s ( n = 13) 5. 92 9% 1. 07 11% 19 28% B oys ( n = 10) 10. 8 16% 1 10% 14 21% I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd ( n = 14 ) 4. 92 7 % 1. 07 11% 18 27% B r a s s ( n = 9) 16 24% 1 10% 16 24% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de ( n = 0 ) T e nt h G r a de ( n = 13 ) 6. 53 10% 85 8. 5% 20 30% E l e ve nt h G r a de ( n = 4 ) 10 15% 0. 5 5% 15. 25 23% T w e l f t h G r a de ( n = 6) 10 15% 1. 83 18% 11. 5 17%

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115 T a bl e 4 12. C om pa r i s on of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr o up m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s a nd D i f f e r e nc e P e r c e nt a ge s P i t c h A c c ur a c y D yna m i c s R hyt hm C ha r a c t e r i s t i c S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge G e nde r G i r l s ( n = 11) 9. 54 14% 1 10% 11. 54 17% B oys ( n = 12) 13 19% 1. 5 15% 14 21% I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd ( n = 13 ) 6. 61 10% 1 10% 16. 69 25% B r a s s ( n = 10) 17. 5 26% 1. 6 16% 7. 8 11. 6% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de ( n = 3 ) 18. 3 27% 33 3% 21. 6 32% T e nt h G r a de ( n = 11 ) 11. 45 17% 54 5% 15. 54 23% E l e ve nt h G r a de ( n = 3 ) 5. 66 8% 33 3% 3. 66 5% T w e l f t h G r a de ( n = 6) 10. 5 8% 3. 83 38% 8 12%

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116 T a bl e 4 13. C om pa r i s on of s t ude nt m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s a nd pe r c e nt a ge s by ge nde r gr a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt f or t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s a nd P e r c e nt a ge s M P M e t hod U ns t r uc t ur e d M P P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e C ha r a c t e r i s t i c S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge P i t c h A c c ur a c y G e nde r G i r l s 5 7% 5. 92 9% 9. 54 14% B oys 19. 64 29% 10. 8 16% 13 19% I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd 3. 78 5. 6% 4. 92 7% 6. 61 10% B r a s s 27. 2 40. 5% 16 24% 17. 5 26% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de 2. 5 3. 7% n/ a n/ a 18. 3 27% T e nt h G r a de 20. 25 30% 6. 53 10% 11. 45 17% E l e ve nt h G r a de 10. 4 16% 10 15% 5. 66 8% T w e l f t h G r a de 17 25% 10 15% 10. 5 8% D yna m i c s G e nde r G i r l s 2. 9 29% 1. 07 11% 1 10% B oys 2. 85 29% 1 10% 1. 5 15% I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd 2. 35 23% 1. 07 11% 1 10% B r a s s 3. 6 36% 1 10% 1. 6 16% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de 0 5 5% n/ a n/ a 33 3% T e nt h G r a de 3. 25 32. 5% 85 8. 5% 54 5% E l e ve nt h G r a de 2 20% 0. 5 5% 33 3% T w e l f t h G r a de 4. 37 44% 1. 83 18% 3. 83 38% R hyt hm G e nde r G i r l s 22. 3 33% 19 28% 11. 54 17% B oys 14. 9 22% 14 21% 14 21%

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117 T a bl e 4 13. C ont i nue d. M e a n D i f f e r e nc e S c or e s a nd P e r c e nt a ge s M P M e t hod U ns t r uc t ur e d M P P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e C ha r a c t e r i s t i c S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c or e P e r c e nt a ge S c o r e P e r c e nt a ge R hyt hm I ns t r um e nt W oodw i nd 16. 57 25% 18 27% 16. 69 25% B r a s s 20 30% 16 24% 7. 8 11% G r a de L e ve l N i nt h G r a de 33. 5 50% n/ a n/ a 21. 6 32% T e nt h G r a de 20 30% 20 30% 15. 54 23% E l e ve nt h G r a de 16 24% 15. 25 23% 3. 66 5% T w e l f t h G r a de 15. 6 23% 11. 5 17% 8 12% N ot e T he r e w e r e no ni nt h gr a de s t ude nt s i n t he U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e G r oup t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod br a s s pl a ye r s a l s o ha d t he hi ghe s t ga i n s c or e s i n t e r m s o f r hyt hm ( 30 % ) but t he s e s c or e s w e r e not not i c e a b l y di f f e r e nt t ha n b r a s s or w oodw i nd pl a ye r s f r om t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r ou p. B r a s s pl a ye r s f r om t he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup ha d t he l ow e s t ga i n s c or e s i n r hyt h m s c or i ng 13 % l ow e r t ha n b r a s s pl a ye r s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup a nd 19% l ow e r t ha n b r a s s pl a ye r s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup. T hi s i n f or m a t i on s ugge s t s t ha t a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be e s pe c i a l l y us e f ul t o br a s s p l a ye r s i n i m pr ovi ng m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e N o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound f or ge nde r i n a ny of t he t h r e e pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a s I t i s no t a bl e t ha t f or pi t c h a c c ur a c y, m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup boys ha d a 22 % hi ghe r m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e t ha n gi r l s i n t he s a m e gr oup. T hi s m a y ha ve be e n a r e s ul t of ge nde r di f f e r e nc e s i n i ns t r um e nt s e l e c t i on. I n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup, s e ve n of t he ni ne gi r l s p l a ye d w oodw i nd i ns t r um e nt s B oys w e r e m or e e ve nl y d i vi de d, w i t h e i ght pl a yi ng br a s s i ns t r um e nt s a nd s i x pl a yi ng w oodw i nd i ns t r um e nt s B r a s s pl a ye r s ha d a f a r

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118 T a bl e 4 14. R e s ul t s of s e pa r a t e t t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e of t he e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s gr oupe d a c c or di ng t o ge nde r a nd i ns t r u m e nt S t d E r r or G r oup ( A ) G r oup ( B ) t df of D i f f e r e nc e p P i t c h A c c ur a c y M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod G i r l s B oys 1. 5380 22 5. 285 1383 W oodw i nd B r a s s 9. 5467** 22 2. 453 0001 U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 1. 0508 21 4. 641 3053 W oodw i nd B r a s s 3. 3468** 21 3. 906 0031 P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 8255 21 4. 185 4184 W oodw i nd B r a s s 3. 0521** 21 3. 566 0061 D yna m i c s M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod G i r l s B oys 0388 22 1. 105 9694 W oodw i nd B r a s s 1. 1588 22 1. 072 2589 U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 0826 21 931 9349 W oodw i nd B r a s s 0755 21 946 9405 P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 3581 21 1. 396 7239 W oodw i nd B r a s s 4270 21 1. 405 6738 R hyt hm M e nt a l P r a c t i c e M e t hod G i r l s B oys 1. 6158 22 4. 562 1204 W oodw i nd B r a s s 7188 22 4. 770 4798 U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 1. 069 9 21 4. 724 2968 W oodw i nd B r a s s 4320 21 4. 905 6702 P hys i c a l P r a c t i c e G i r l s B oys 3581 21 1. 396 7239 W oodw i nd B r a s s 1. 9603 21 4. 536 0634 N ot e p < 05, ** p < 01

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119 gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n pi t c h a c c ur a c y t ha n w ood w i nd pl a ye r s a nd be c a us e t he m a j o r i t y of gi r l s p l a ye d w oodw i nds t hi s m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d t he ge nde r c om pa r i s on. C om p ar i s on of P os t S t u d y Q u e s t i on n ai r e A n s w e r s f r om S t u d e n t s i n t h e T w o M e n t al P r ac t i c e G r ou p s A f t e r t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od e nde d a nd a l l pos t t e s t s ha d be e n c om pl e t e d s t ude nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oups w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e ( A ppe ndi x I ) A l l s t ude nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e ns e m bl e s w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e t he s ur ve y r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he y w e r e s e l e c t e d f or i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng T he pur pos e of t hi s s ur ve y w a s t o he l p e s t i m a t e how m uc h t he s t u de nt s a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t o ga t he r a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng s t ude nt opi ni ons a bout m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S t ude nt s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o e s t i m a t e t he a m ount of c l a r i t y a n d c ont r ol t he y ha d w hi l e a t t e m pt i ng t he di f f e r e nt t ype s of i m a ge r y. T a bl e 4 15 s how s t he e va l ua t i ons o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e by s t ude nt s i n bot h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oups f or que s t i onna i r e i t e m s 1 5. B e c a us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s a c ove r t a c t i vi t y, t he r e i s no w a y t o know f or c e r t a i n i f t he s t ude nt s a c t ua l l y di d t he p r a c t i c e I t e m 1 of t he que s t i onna i r e w a s i nt e nde d t o he l p e s t i m a t e how m uc h t he s t ude nt s a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S t ude nt s i n bot h gr oups ga ve s i m i l a r e s t i m a t e s of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F o r t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup, 78% of s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he y e i t he r pa r t i c i pa t e d a l l of t he t i m e or a l m os t a l l o f t h e t i m e F or t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup, 86% o f s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he y e i t he r pa r t i c i pa t e d a l l of t he t i m e or a l m os t a l l of t he t i m e B a s e d on t he s e r e s ul t s i t w a s be l i e ve d t ha t t he m a j o r i t y o f s t ude nt s i n bot h g r oups di d pa r t i c i pa t e i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a c t i vi t i e s w he n t he y w e r e a s ke d t o do s o dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od

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120 T a bl e 4 15. S t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e by pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons M e nt a l P r a c t i c e U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l M e t hod G r oup ( n = 55 ) P r a c t i c e G r oup ( n = 51) I t e m n P e r c e nt a ge n P e r c e nt a ge 1. W he n you w e r e a s ke d t o m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e t he m us i c how of t e n w oul d you s a y you a c t ua l l y di d t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ? A N one o f t he t i m e s 3 5% 0 0% B V e r y f e w t i m e s 4 7% 3 6% C A bout hal f t he t i m e 5 9% 4 8% D A l m os t al l of t he t i m e but not e v e r y s i ngl e t i m e 17 31% 18 35% E A l l of t he t i m e 26 47% 26 51% 2. H ow m uc h do you t hi nk t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e you di d a s pa r t of t hi s s t udy he l pe d t o i m pr ove your pl a yi ng on t he pi e c e s ? A D i d not he l p at al l 6 11% 1 2% B H e l pe d a l i t t l e 33 60% 30 59% C H e l pe d a gr e at de al 16 29% 20 39% 3. I n ge ne r a l how he l pf u l do you t hi nk m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i s t o i m p r ovi ng you r pl a yi ng? A D oe s not he l p at al l 3 5% 4 8% B H e l ps a l i t t l e 35 63% 27 53% C H e l ps a gr e at de al 17 31% 20 39% 4. D o you t hi nk t ha t you w i l l us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n t he f ut ur e ? A N o 4 7% 5 10% B N ot Sur e / D on t K now 26 47% 11 21. 5% C Y e s 25 45% 35 68. 6%

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121 T a bl e 4 15. C o nt i nue d M e nt a l P r a c t i c e U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l M e t hod G r oup ( n = 55 ) P r a c t i c e G r oup ( n = 51) I t e m n P e r c e nt a ge n P e r c e nt a ge 5. W he n do you t hi nk m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i s m os t he l p f ul t o you? C he c k a l l t ha t a ppl y. L e ar ni ng a ne w pi e c e 42 76% 38 74. 5% P e r f e c t i ng a pi e c e y ou al r e ady k now 38 69% 40 78 % B e f or e s i ght r e adi ng a pi e c e y ou hav e ne v e r s e e n 42 76% 35 69% W he n y our f ac e and han ds B e c om e phy s i c al l y t i r e d 21 38% 23 45% W he n y our i ns t r um e nt i s not av ai l abl e 44 80% 32 63% W he n t he band di r e c t or i s w or k i ng w i t h anot he r s e c t i on of t he band 41 74. 5% 40 78% I n t he m om e nt s r i ght be f or e a pe r f or m anc e 26 47% 23 45% T o he l p y ou be l e s s ne r v ous 23 42% 23 45% I don t t hi nk i t i s he l pf ul i n any w ay 0 0% 0 0% I t e m s 2 a nd 3 i ndi c a t e t ha t s t ude nt s i n bot h g r oups w e r e not e xt r e m e l y c onf i de nt t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e he l pe d t he m t o i m pr ove t he i r pl a yi ng. F o r bot h i t e m s m or e s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e he l pe d a l i t t l e t ha n t h os e w ho s t a t e d t ha t i t he l pe d a gr e a t de a l I n I t e m 4 m o r e s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup pr e di c t e d t ha t t he y w oul d us e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n t he f ut ur e t ha n t hos e i n t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup. T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup w a s m o r e e ve nl y di vi de d on t hi s que s t i on, w i t h

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122 45% of t he s t ude nt s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he y w e r e uns ur e i f t he y w oul d us e t he t e c hni que s a nd 47% s t a t i ng t ha t t he y w e r e l i ke l y t o us e t he m i n t he f ut u r e S t ude nt r e s pons e s t o i t e m s 6 a nd 7 a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 4 16 ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup) a nd 4 17 ( uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup) S t ude nt s i n bot h gr oups r e por t e d s i m i l a r a nd ne ga t i ve f e e l i ngs t ow a r d vi s u a l i m a ge r y i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e I n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup, onl y 9 % of t he s t ud e nt s c l a i m e d t ha t t he y w oul d be l i ke l y t o us e vi s ua l i m a ge r y on t he i r ow n. T hi s i s c om pa r e d t o t he f a c t t ha t 73 % c l a i m e d t ha t t he y w oul d be l i ke l y t o us e a udi t or y i m a ge r y ( he a r m ys e l f pl a yi ng t he pa r t ) a nd 51% s a i d t he y w oul d us e m ot or i m a ge r y ( i m a gi ne how m y f i nge r s / ha nds / e m bouc hur e f e e l ) M os t s t ude nt s ( 87% ) c l a i m e d t ha t t he y w oul d be l i ke l y t o us e a n a c t i ve i m a ge r y i n w hi c h t he y f i nge r e d t he not e s bl e w a i r i n t o t he i ns t r um e n t a nd d i d t he a r t i c ul a t i ons w hi l e he a r i ng t he m us i c i n t he i r he a d. I n t e r m s of vi s ua l i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve f e w s t ude nt s ( 9% ) i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y pr e f e r r e d a n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve S t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup ( T a bl e 4 17 ) s e e m t o ha ve e va l ua t e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s w i t h t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup I t s houl d be not e d t ha t t he que s t i onna i r e c om pl e t e d b y t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup di f f e r e d s l i ght l y t ha n t he que s t i onna i r e c om pl e t e d by t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup. B e c a us e t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup w a s not gi ve n s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ons on how t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t he que s t i onna i r e a t t e m pt e d t o de t e r m i ne w hi c h t e c hni que s t he y m a y ha ve e m pl oye d na t u r a l l y. I t e m 6 i ndi c a t e s t ha t l e s s s t ude nt s ( 33% ) c hos e t o us e vi s ua l i m a ge r y t ha n t he y di d a udi t o r y i m a ge r y ( 91 % ) or m ot o r i m a ge r y ( 76% ) O f t hos e s t ude nt s w ho di d us e vi s ua l i m a ge r y, f e w e r s t ude nt s us e d a n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ( 14% ) t ha n a n i nt e r na l one ( 20% ) E i gh t e e n pe r c e nt of s t u d e nt s c l a i m e d t ha t t he y us e d bot h I t

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123 T a bl e 4 16. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ( n = 55) s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t e m n P e r c e nt a ge 6. I f you w e r e t o do m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on your ow n w hi c h t e c hni que s w oul d you be m os t l i ke l y t o us e ? ( C he c k a l l t ha t a ppl y) H e ar m y s e l f pl ay i ng t he par t 40 73% Se e a v i s ual pi c t ur e of m y s e l f pl ay i ng t he par t 5 9% I m agi ne how m y f i nge r s / hands / e m bouc hur e f e e l w he n pl ay i ng t he par t 28 51% H e ar t he m us i c w hi l e I f i nge r t he not e s or bl ow ai r / ar t i c ul at i ons 48 87% 7. W he n you vi s ua l l y s e e your s e l f pl a yi ng t he pa r t w hi c h pe r s pe c t i ve do you l i ke be s t ? Se e i ng f r om i ns i de m y s e l f f r om m y ow n e y e s ( i nt e r nal pe r s pe c t i v e ) 29 53% Se e i ng f r om out s i de m y s e l f as i f I w e r e w at c hi ng m y s e l f i n a m ov i e ( e x t e r nal pe r s pe c t i v e ) 5 9% I l i k e bot h pe r s pe c t i v e s e qual l y 16 29%

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124 T a bl e 4 17. U ns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup ( n = 51) s t ude nt e va l ua t i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t e m n P e r c e nt a ge 6. W he n I di d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I us ua l l y ( C he c k a l l t ha t a ppl y) H e ar d m y s e l f pl ay i ng t he par t 50 91% Saw a v i s ual pi c t ur e of m y s e l f pl ay i ng t he par t 17 33% I m agi ne d how m y f i nge r s / hands / e m bouc hur e f e e l w he n pl ay i ng t he par t 39 76% 7. I f you vi s ua l l y s a w your s e l f pl a yi ng t he m us i c di d you Se e f r om i ns i de y our s e l f as i f l ook i ng f r om y our ow n e y e s 10 20% Se e f r om out s i de y our s e l f as i f y ou w e r e w at c hi ng a m ov i e of y our s e l f 7 14% B ot h 9 18% I di d no t v i s ual l y s e e m y s e l f pl ay i ng t he m us i c 27 53% s houl d be not e d t ha t un l i ke t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup, s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup w e r e not gi ve n s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng r e ga r di ng vi s ua l i m a ge r y or i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t s t ude nt s i n t hi s gr oup w e r e l e s s s ur e a bout how t o a ns w e r t h i s que s t i on t ha n s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup T a bl e 4 18 s how s s t ude nt s e l f e va l ua t i ons of c l a r i t y a nd c ont r ol dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e f or bot h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oups C l a r i t y r e f e r s t o how c l e a r t he s t ude nt s c oul d he a r s e e o r f e e l t he m s e l ve s pl a yi ng dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e C ont r o l r e f e r s t o how m uc h s t ude nt s f e l t t he y c oul d c ont r ol o r m a ni pul a t e t he i m a ge s i n t he i r he a ds

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125 T a bl e 4 18. S t ude nt s e l f e va l ua t i ons of c l a r i t y a nd c ont r ol dur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e M e nt a l P r a c t i c e U ns t r uc t ur e d M e nt a l M e t hod G r oup ( n = 55 ) P r a c t i c e G r oup ( n = 51) I t e m n P e r c e nt a ge n P e r c e nt a ge 8. D ur i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w he n you t r i e d t o he a r t he m us i c i n your he a d, how c l e a r l y c oul d you he a r t he m us i c ? 1 ( not c l e ar ) 1 1. 8% 0 0% 2 0 0% 2 4% 3 5 9% 7 14% 4 28 51% 26 51% 5 ( v e r y c l e ar ) 21 38% 16 31% 9. W he n you t r i e d t o vi s ua l l y s e e you r s e l f pl a yi ng, how c l e a r l y c oul d you s e e t he m ovi e of your s e l f ? 1 ( not c l e ar ) 3 5% 5 10% 2 6 11% 2 4% 3 22 40% 6 12% 4 17 31% 6 12% 5 ( v e r y c l e ar ) 7 13% 5 10% 10. W he n you t r i e d t o i m a gi ne t he f e e l o f your m us c l e s m ov i ng dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e how w e l l w e r e you a bl e t o f e e l you r m us c l e s m ove ? 1 ( not w e l l ) 3 5% 1 2% 2 16 29% 3 6% 3 16 29% 15 29% 4 13 24% 6 12% 5 ( v e r y w e l l ) 7 13% 17 33% 11. H ow m uc h c ont r ol do you t hi nk you ha ve ove r y our m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ? 1 ( v e r y l i t t l e c ont r ol ) 0 0% 1 2% 2 2 4% 5 10% 3 11 20% 13 25% 4 32 58% 22 43% 5 ( a gr e at de al of c ont r ol ) 10 18% 9 18% N ot e F or i t e m s 8, 9, a nd 10 s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r u c t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup w e r e i ns t r uc t e d not t o a ns w e r i f t he y di d not us e t ha t pa r t i c ul a r i m a ge r y t ype dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e

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126 I t e m 8 s ugge s t s t ha t f o r bot h gr oups t he m a j o r i t y of s t ude nt s f e l t t ha t t he y w e r e a bl e t o he a r t he m us i c c l e a r l y i n t he i r he a ds I n I t e m 9, onl y 13 % of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod s t ude nt s a nd 10% o f uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s t ude nt s c l a i m e d t he y w e r e a bl e t o s e e a ve r y c l e a r i m a ge of t he m s e l ve s pl a yi ng t he i r i ns t r um e nt s I n I t e m 11, s t ude nt s w e r e a s ke d t o de t e r m i ne how m uc h c ont r ol t he y t hought t he y ha d ove r t he i r m e nt a l p r a c t i c e on a s c a l e of 1 t o 5 w i t h 1 be i ng ve r y l i t t l e c ont r ol a nd 5 be i ng a gr e a t de a l o f c ont r ol I n bot h gr oups t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s r a t e d t he i r c ont r ol a t a 3 o r hi ghe r F or t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup, onl y 4% o f s t ude nt s r a t e d t he i r c ont r ol a t a 2 or l ow e r F o r t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup 12% r a t e d t he i r c ont r ol a t a 2 or l ow e r T he s e r e s ul t s s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s i n bot h g r oups w e r e a bl e t o c ont r ol m e nt a l i m a ge s i n or de r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e A t t h e e nd o f t he q ue s t i onna i r e s t ude nt s w e r e i nvi t e d t o r e s pond t o s e ve r a l ope n e nde d que s t i ons I n one o f t he que s t i ons s t ude nt s i n bot h gr oups w e r e i nvi t e d t o gi ve a ny a ddi t i ona l t hought s on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e S t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t hi s que s t i on a r e l i s t e d i n A ppe ndi x J T hi r t y s i x s t ude nt s ( 71 % ) f r om t he un s t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup a nd 18 s t ude nt s ( 33% ) f r om t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t ho d gr oup c hos e t o r e s pond t o t hi s que s t i on. O f t he 54 s t ude nt s w ho r e s ponde d i n bot h gr oups on l y f ou r s t ude nt s ( 7% ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y e i t he r di d not e nj oy m e nt a l pr a c t i c e or t ha t i t w a s not he l pf ul t o t he i r pl a yi ng. O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d: I t c a n be he l pf ul bu t a bi t bor i ng. A not he r s t ude nt obs e r ve d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ne e ds t o be i n s hor t e r bl oc ks a nd not e xt r e m e l y l ong s e c t i ons l e s s t ha n 12 m e a s ur e s P e r ha ps t he m os t ne ga t i ve c om m e nt r e ga r di ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s f r om a s t ude nt w ho s t a t e d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e do e s n t he l p a s m uc h a s r e pe a t e dl y pl a yi ng. I a l s o t hought t ha t i t i r r i t a t e d m e m or e c a us e I t hought i t ki nda w a s t e d t i m e

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127 T he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt s r e s pondi ng t o t h i s que s t i on ( 93% ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y ha d a pos i t i ve e xpe r i e nc e w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F our s t ude nt s i n t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup s t a t e d t ha t t he y di d not l i ke i t a t f i r s t but t ha t a s t he y c ont i nue d t o be c om e f a m i l i a r w i t h m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t he y l i ke d i t m o r e a n d f ound i t m o r e he l pf ul O ne o f t he s e s t ude nt s r e s ponde d: A t f i r s t I t hought i t w a s r e a l l y dum b, but a f t e r w e di d i t I w a s a m a z e d a t how m uc h i t r e a l l y he l pe d. S e ve n s t ude nt s r e c ogni z e d t ha t t he y ha d na t ur a l l y a nd pe r ha ps s ubc ons c i ous l y us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e be f or e a l t hough not t o t he e xt e nt r e que s t e d i n t hi s s t udy. S t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t hi s que s t i on i ndi c a t e t ha t s t ude nt s i n bot h g r oups t ook t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e xe r c i s e s s e r i ous l y a n d ha d s pe c i f i c a nd t hought f ul opi ni ons a bout t he t e c hni que O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d: I t he l pe d m e gr ow a s a m us i c i a n. I l e a r ne d t o l i s t e n a nd pa y a t t e nt i on t o s ongs m or e I ns t e a d of j us t pl a yi ng t he dyna m i c s w he n I m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e d I c oul d he a r i t i n m y he a d a nd t he n a c t ua l l y pl a y t he dyna m i c s w e l l A l s o, I pl a y pi a no, s o i t e ve n he l pe d w i t h m y pi a no pl a yi ng A not he r s t ude nt r e m a r ke d: I t hought t he i de a o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s a good o ne t ha t I ha d ne ve r t r i e d/ us e d be f or e I be l i e ve t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni q ue w i l l gr e a t l y be ne f i t m y pl a yi ng i n t he f ut ur e be c a us e i t he l ps m e t o s t op a nd t hi nk a b out w ha t I m pl a yi ng be f or e I a c t ua l l y pl a y i t A l s o, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e he l ps m e t o c onc e nt r a t e a nd be m or e pr oduc t i ve i n m y pr a c t i c i ng/ r e he a r s a l s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t ho d gr oup s t ude nt s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o l i s t a ny t e c hni que s i n t he m e t hod t ha t t he y t hought w e r e va l ua bl e or not va l u a bl e S t ude nt c om m e nt s a nd t he f r e que nc y t ha t s t ude nt s m a de e a c h c om m e nt a r e s um m a r i z e d i n T a bl e 4 19 S t ude nt r e s pons e s i n t hi s s e c t i on s e e m t o pa r a l l e l s t ude nt r e s pons e s f r om ot he r a r e a s of t he que s t i onna i r e A c t i ve i m a ge r y ( he a r i ng i n you r he a d w hi l e f i nge r i ng a nd/ o r bl ow i ng ) w a s c ons i de r e d a va l ua bl e t e c hni que by a l a r ge num be r of s t ude nt s ( 42 % ) T hi r t y t h r e e

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128 T a bl e 4 19. S um m a r y of ope n e nd e d r e s pons e s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup s t ude nt s ( n = 55 ) on t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e N um be r of S t ude nt s P e r c e nt a ge of S t ude nt s S t ude nt C om m e nt L i s t i ng T he C om m e nt L i s t i ng T he C om m e nt Q ue s t i on: P l e as e l i s t any m e nt al pr ac t i c e t e c hni qu e s t hat y ou t hought w e r e v al uabl e 1. H e a r i ng t he m us i c w hi l e f i nge r i ng t he not e s 12 22% 2. H e a r i ng t he m us i c w hi l e f i nge r i ng a nd bl ow i ng 11 20% 3. H e a r i ng t he m us i c i n your he a d 8 33% 4. H e a r i ng t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e 3 5% 5. I m a gi n i ng m us c l e m ove m e nt 4 7% 6. V i s ua l i z a t i on/ vi s ua l i m a ge r y 6 11% 7. A l l t e c hni que s w e r e va l ua bl e 5 9% Q ue s t i on: P l e as e l i s t any m e nt al pr ac t i c e t e c hni qu e s t hat t hought w e r e N O T v al uabl e 1. V i s ua l i z a t i on/ vi s ua l i m a ge r y 11 20% 2. V i s ua l i z i ng f r om a n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve 12 22% 3. I m a gi n i ng m us c l e m ove m e nt 2 3. 6% 4. D oi ng t he f i nge r i ng w i t hout bl ow i ng t he a r t i c ul a t i ons 1 1. 8% 5. N one o f t he t e c hni que s w e r e not va l ua bl e 10 18

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129 pe r c e nt o f s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t he a r i ng t he m us i c i n t he i r he a ds w a s a va l ua bl e t e c hni que T hr e e s t ude nt s ( 5% ) c om m e nt e d t ha t a t t e m pt i ng t o he a r t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e m e nt a l l y w a s he l pf ul t o t he i r pl a yi ng O ne s t ude nt r e m a r ke d: W he n a s ke d t o he a r bot h t he s ound o f y our pa r t a nd t ha t of t he e nt i r e ba nd i t he l pe d by l e t t i ng you know w ha t you ne e d t o w or k on a l one a nd a s a gr oup S i m i l a r t o pr e vi ous que s t i ons i n t he s ur ve y, 42% o f s t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t vi s ua l i z a t i on w a s not a va l ua bl e t e c hni que w hi l e 1 1% t hought t he t e c hni que w a s us e f ul S t ude nt s s t a t e d t ha t t he m ov i e w a s ha r d t o i m a g i ne f r om a n out s i de vi e w a nd I c oul d ne ve r r e a l l y s e e m ys e l f i n t he m ovi e m e O ne s t ude nt s t a t e d: W a t c hi ng your s e l f t ha t w a s s t upi d. A not he r s t ude nt s t a t e d t ha t t he y di d n ot l i ke one o f t he pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s t ha t i nvol ve d s e e i ng t he di f f e r e nt c ol o r s a nd s t uf f on m y t r um pe t T he s t ude nt s s e e m e d t o be di vi de d on w he t he r t he y t hought m ot o r i m a ge r y t e c hni que s w e r e va l ua bl e F our s t ude nt s ( 7% ) t hou ght t he t e c hni que s w e r e va l ua bl e w hi l e t w o s t ude nt s ( 3. 6% ) c l a i m e d t ha t t he y w e r e not va l ua bl e O ne s t ude nt r e m a r ke d t ha t t he r e w e r e [ no t e c hni que s ] t ha t w e r e not va l ua bl e but t he ha r de s t one t o i m a gi ne w a s f e e l i ng t he m us c l e s m ove

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130 C H A P T E R 5 C O N C L U S I O N S S u m m ar y T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o de ve l op a nd t e s t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s T he pr i m a r y c onc e r n of t he s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e ho w m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s houl d be s t be t a ught t o s t ude nt s a nd how t he s e t e c hni que s c a n be us e d i n t he ba nd c l a s s s e t t i ng t o i m pr ove s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e P r e vi ous r e s e a r c h i nvol vi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m u s i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ha s f oc us e d on a dul t m us i c i a ns i n a n i ndi vi dua l ( s ol o) pe r f o r m a nc e s e t t i ng. H ow e ve r f or younge r m us i c i a ns w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on i ns t r um e nt s a r e us ua l l y t a ught a s a n e ns e m bl e i n A m e r i c a n publ i c s c hool m us i c pr og r a m s T hi s s t udy a t t e m pt e d t o a ppl y m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s t o t e a c hi ng s i t ua t i ons i nvol vi ng hi gh s c hool a ge m us i c i a ns i n a n e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e s e t t i ng. T hi s s t udy s ought t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s A pi l ot s t udy us i ng m i ddl e s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t younge r m us i c i a n s c oul d us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hn i que s e f f e c t i ve l y t o i m pr ove t he i r e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e T he s t udy s ugge s t e d t ha t m or e s t r uc t ur e m a y be ne c e s s a r y w he n us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h m i ddl e s c hool s t ude nt s a nd t ha t f u r t he r r e s e a r c h w a s ne c e s s a r y t o de t e r m i ne t he be s t m e t hod o f t e a c hi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o younge r m us i c i a ns A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e f ound num e r ous e xe r c i s e s a nd t e c hni que s f or us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e D e s pi t e t he pr e s e nc e of

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131 t he s e e xe r c i s e s t he r e a ppe a r e d t o be a l a c k of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of ut i l i z i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e P r e vi ous s t udi e s ha ve not a l l ow e d s ubj e c t s t o r e gul a r l y pr a c t i c e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s de s pi t e t he f a c t t ha t m a ny e xpe r t s i n t h e f i e l d a dvoc a t e r e gul a r pr a c t i c e i n or de r t o f ul l y de ve l op t he s ki l l s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T hi s s t udy de ve l ope d a nd t e s t e d a s i x w e e k s t r uc t u r e d m e t hod o f t e a c hi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s T h i s m e t hod s e r ve d a s a n a t t e m pt t o s ynt he s i z e va r i ous m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i nt o a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod a nd t o a l l ow f or t he r e gul a r pr a c t i c e of m e nt a l r e he a r s a l ove r a s i x w e e k pe r i od T he m e t hod w a s de s i gne d s o t ha t t he s c hool m us i c t e a c he r c oul d a ppl y t he t e c hni que s dur i ng i ns t r uc t i on of t he i ns t r um e nt a l e ns e m bl e T he m e t hod i nvol ve d t h r e e c om pone nt s : 1) e xe r c i s e s de s i gne d t o i nt r oduc e de f i ne a nd p r a c t i c e a udi t or y vi s ua l a nd m ot o r i m a ge r y, 2) e xe r c i s e s t ha t c om bi ne d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s i m ul t a ne ous l y, a nd 3 ) e xe r c i s e s t ha t a l t e r na t e d phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F our c onc e r t ba nds f r om f our di f f e r e nt hi gh s c hool s i n one S out hw e s t V i r gi ni a c ount y w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. E a c h i nt a c t ba nd w a s a s s i gne d t o one of t hr e e pr a c t i c e c ondi t i ons or t o a no p r a c t i c e c ont r ol c ondi t i on. E a c h ba nd pr a c t i c e d a uni s on e t ude a nd a n e x c e r pt f r om a c onc e r t ba nd c om pos i t i on ove r t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od f or t w o da ys a w e e k f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y 15 m i nut e s e a c h da y. B a nd A ( m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup) pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e s us i ng t he s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e de s i gne d f or t he s t udy. B a nd B ( un s t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup) pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e s us i ng uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s i m i l a r t o t ha t us e d i n t he pi l ot s t udy a s w e l l a s pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h. B a nd C ( phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup) pr a c t i c e d t he pi e c e s

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132 us i ng phys i c a l pr a c t i c e on l y. B a nd D ( c ont r ol gr ou p) di d no t pr a c t i c e t he pi e c e s a t a l l ove r t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od T he de s i gn of t he s t udy w a s a p r e t e s t pos t t e s t de s i gn w i t h none qui va l e nt g r oups ( G a l l G a l l a nd B or g, 1999) T o m e a s ur e e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e e a c h i n t a c t ba nd w a s r e c or de d pe r f o r m i ng t he e ns e m bl e e xc e r pt pr i or t o t he s t a r t o f t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od a s a pr e t e s t a nd a ga i n a t t he e nd o f t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od a s a pos t t e s t T o m e a s ur e i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e a pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s w e r e r e c or de d i ndi vi dua l l y pe r f or m i ng a s i ght r e a di ng pi e c e a nd t he p r e pa r e d uni s on e t ude T he r e f or e s t ude nt s w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t hr e e di f f e r e nt pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e s : 1. i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e on a pr e pa r e d e t ude 2. i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e on a s i ght r e a di n g e xe r c i s e 3. e ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e on a p r e pa r e d c onc e r t ba nd c om pos i t i on A t ot a l of 86 s t ude nt s w e r e r e c or de d i ndi vi dua l l y : 24 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd A 23 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd B 23 s t ude nt s f r om B a nd C a nd 16 s t u de nt s f r om B a nd D R e c or di ngs w e r e a na l yz e d i n t e r m s of m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of bot h t he e ns e m bl e a nd t he i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt be t w e e n t he pr e t e s t a nd t he pos t t e s t I ndi vi dua l s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e s w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s : pi t c h a c c ur a c y, dyna m i c s a nd r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y. E ns e m bl e pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e e va l ua t e d i n t e r m s o f pi t c h a c c ur a c y, r hyt hm i c a c c ur a c y, a nd t one qua l i t y / i nt ona t i on. A t t he e nd o f t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od, s t ude nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oups w e r e a s ke d t o c om pl e t e a que s t i onna i r e i n or de r t o ga t he r i nf o r m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he i r opi ni ons a bout m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he que s t i onna i r e a s ke d s t ude nt s t o r a t e t he a m ount of c l a r i t y a nd c ont r ol t ha t t he y ha d w he n e nga ge d i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e S t ude nt s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o

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133 e s t i m a t e how of t e n t he y a c t ua l l y pa r t i c i pa t e d i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n a s ke d t o do s o, a nd w e r e i nvi t e d t o r e s pond t o s e ve r a l ope n e nde d que s t i ons w i t h t he i r opi n i ons on t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e F i ve ba s i c que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy: 1) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t o f a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ? 2) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s ? 3) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t o f a s t r uc t ur e d m e t h od of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n e ns e m bl e r e he a r s a l on t he pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of a hi gh s c hool ba nd pe r f o r m i ng a s a n e ns e m bl e ? 4) W ha t i s t he e f f e c t o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e o f s t ude nt s i n t e r m s of gr a de l e ve l ge nde r a nd pe r f or m i ng i ns t r um e nt ? 5) W ha t a r e t he op i ni ons of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ? T he r e s e a r c h hypot he s e s w e r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r o l ) 2. S t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e t ha n s t ude nt s us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no pr a c t i c e ( c ont r o l ) 3. A ba nd e ns e m b l e t ha t r e c e i ve s s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd w hos e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons w e r e s t r uc t ur e d by t he t e a c he r w i l l m a ke c ons i de r a bl y gr e a t e r i m pr ove m e nt i n p r e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e t ha n a n e ns e m bl e us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phy s i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e ( c ont r ol ) 4. W i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt

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134 T he c or r e s pondi ng nul l hypot he s e s w e r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e 2. T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e 3. T he r e w i l l be no c ons i de r a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of a n e ns e m bl e t ha t pr a c t i c e s us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no p r a c t i c e 4. W i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t f or i nd i vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d t he hi ghe s t m e a n ga i n s c or e i n t e r m s of pi t c h a nd dyna m i c s bu t ha d t he l ow e s t m e a n ga i n i n t e r m s of r hyt h m H ow e ve r a n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e be t w e e n t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s i ndi c a t e d no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e a m on g t he f our g r oups i n a ny of t he t h r e e pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a s F or i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup m a de t he gr e a t e s t m e a n ga i n s c or e s i n a l l pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup m a de s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ga i n s ove r t he c ont r ol gr oup i n e ve r y pe r f or m a nc e a r e a a nd ove r t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oup i n dyn a m i c s ( p < 05) T he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e gr oup m a de s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r ga i ns t ha n t he c o nt r ol gr oup i n r hyt hm ( p < 05 ) a nd pi t c h a c c ur a c y ( p < 01 ) T he uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e gr oup m a de s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt ove r t he c ont r ol gr oup i n r hyt hm ( p < 01)

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135 T he e ns e m bl e s w e r e e va l ua t e d a s i nt a c t gr oups i n t he e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e T hi s r e s ul t e d i n a n e xt r e m e l y l ow N ( N = 4) m a ki ng s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s of t he r e s ul t s i na ppr opr i a t e T he r e f o r e a na l ys i s of t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he e ns e m bl e s w a s ba s e d s ol e l y on r a w s c or e s A l l t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups ha d c ons i de r a bl y hi ghe r ga i n s c or e s t ha n t he c ont r ol g r oup f or e a c h o f t he t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s H ow e ve r t he r e di d not a ppe a r t o be a not i c e a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he ga i n s c or e s a m ong t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups f or t he t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he r e s ul t s f r om t he i ndi v i dua l a nd e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e s s ugge s t t ha t f or t he m a j or i t y o f pe r f or m i ng a r e a s s t ude nt s t a ught us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e pe r f o r m be t t e r or j us t a s w e l l a s t hos e t a ught us i ng e i t he r a n uns t r uc t ur e d f or m of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e C om pa r i s on of s t ude nt s i n t e r m s of i ns t r um e nt ge nde r a nd g r a de l e ve l s ugge s t t ha t br a s s pl a ye r s m a y be m or e l i ke l y t o be ne f i t f r om a m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t ha n w oodw i nd pl a ye r s B r a s s pl a ye r s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup ha d hi ghe r m e a n ga i n s c or e s t ha n w oodw i nd pl a ye r s f r om t he s a m e gr oup a nd b r a s s pl a ye r s i n t he ot he r t w o gr oups i n t he a r e a s of pi t c h a c c ur a c y a nd dyna m i c s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup br a s s pl a ye r s a l s o ha d t he hi ghe s t ga i n s c or e s i n t e r m s of r hyt h m but t he s e s c or e s w e r e not not i c e a bl y di f f e r e nt t ha n br a s s or w oodw i nd pl a ye r s f r om t he ot he r gr oups R e s pons e s t o t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e by s t ude nt s i n t he t w o m e nt a l p r a c t i c e gr oups i ndi c a t e t ha t t he s t ude nt s f ound vi s ua l i z a t i o n or vi s ua l i m a ge r y t o be t he l e a s t va l ua bl e t e c hni que i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e S t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup r a t e d a c t i ve i m a ge r y t e c hni que s a nd a udi t or y i m a ge r y t e c hni que s a s t he m os t va l ua bl e

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136 D i s c u s s i on T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s t r ongl y s uppor t t he c onc e pt of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s a va l ua bl e r e he a r s a l t e c hni que f or us e w i t h t he hi gh s c hool b a nd. I n bot h s i ght r e a di ng a nd pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e s t ude nt s t a ught us i ng a s t r u c t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e pe r f or m e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y j us t a s w e l l or be t t e r t ha n t h os e t a ught us i ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e o r t r a di t i ona l phys i c a l p r a c t i c e F or i nt a c t e ns e m bl e pe r f or m a nc e ba nds t ha t r e he a r s e d us i ng e i t he r a m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e or uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a ppe a r t o ha ve pe r f or m e d j us t a s w e l l a s a ba nd t ha t r e he a r s e d us i ng t r a di t i ona l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e F i na l l y, t he m a j or i t y of s t ude nt r e s pons e s t o a pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s e nj oye d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t ook t he pr oc e s s s e r i ous l y, a nd c ons i de r e d t he t e c hni que t o be o f va l ue t o i m p r ovi ng t he i r i ndi vi dua l a nd gr oup pe r f o r m a nc e F o r t he s e r e a s ons i t c a n be c o nc l u de d w i t h s om e c onf i de nc e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a r e of va l ue t o i m pr ovi ng t he pe r f o r m a nc e of s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s a nd s houl d be i nc or por a t e d on a r e gul a r b a s i s i n r e he a r s a l E xa m i na t i on of s c or e s f or t he i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e m e a s ur e r e ve a l s t ha t t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup ha d t he hi ghe s t m e a n ga i n s c or e s i n e ve r y pe r f or m a nc e a r e a F or s i ght r e a di ng t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr ou p ha d t he hi ghe s t ga i n s c or e s f or pi t c h a nd dyna m i c s but not r hyt h m A s s how n i n t he r e s ul t s not a l l of t h e s e di f f e r e nc e s w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt H ow e ve r i t c a n be r e a s ona bl y c onc l ude d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s be ne f i c i a l t o s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e A l t hough m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y not ne c e s s a r i l y be be t t e r t ha n phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i n a l l c a s e s i t i s a t t he ve r y l e a s t j us t a s e f f e c t i ve a s t r a di t i ona l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e

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137 B e c a us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s a t t he ve r y l e a s t j us t a s e f f e c t i ve a s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i t s houl d be a dde d t o t he c a c he of r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s f r om w hi c h m us i c e duc a t or s ha ve t o c hoos e I f us e d a ppr op r i a t e l y, m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s c a n s e r ve a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o t r a di t i ona l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s R a w l i ns ( 2004 ) r e c ogni z e s t he ne e d f or e duc a t or s t o pr ovi de m ul t i pl e pr a c t i c e s t r a t e gi e s f or i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c s t ude nt s H e a c know l e dge s t ha t no s i ngl e pr a c t i c e s t r a t e gy c a n be us e d i n a l l s i t ua t i ons but s t a t e s t ha t t e a c he r s c a n do m uc h m or e t ha n t he y us ua l l y do t o pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h s om e ba s i c s t r a t e gi e s a nd a n a r s e na l of t e c hni que s f or m a s t e r i ng ne w m us i c ( p 44) B l oc he r a nd M i l e s ( 1999 ) s t a t e t h a t va r i ous s c hool c l a s s s c he dul e s a r e di c t a t i ng a ne e d f or m or e r e he a r s a l va r i e t y, m or e c r e a t i ve t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd/ or m or e e f f i c i e nt us e of t i m e i n r e he a r s a l s ( p. 17) C l e a r l y t he r e i s a ne e d f or va r i e t y i n t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e he l ps t o i m pr ove s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e w hi l e p r ovi di ng t he e duc a t or w i t h a n a l t e r na t i ve r e he a r s a l s t r a t e gy t ha t a dds va r i e t y t o how c onc e pt s a r e a ddr e s s e d i n r e he a r s a l M e nt a l pr a c t i c e pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y f o r a m us i c i a n t o pr a c t i c e w he n t he i ns t r um e nt i s n ot a va i l a bl e or w he n i nj ur y pr e ve nt s pr a c t i c e a nd c a n pr e ve nt phys i c a l t i r e dne s s I l t i s ( 2002 ) w a r ns t ha t i nt e ns e pr a c t i c i ng t ha t us e s r e pe t i t i ve m ot i ons f or m a ny hour s e a c h da y c a n l e a d t o he a l t h pr obl e m s s uc h a s dys t oni a a c ondi t i on t ha t r e s ul t s i n unc ont r ol l a bl e m us c l e c ont r a c t i ons H e s t a t e s : I ns t r um e nt a l t e a c he r s s houl d e nc our a ge a nxi ous pe r f e c t i oni s t s t o de ve l op r out i ne s t ha t e nc our a ge br e a ks a nd a voi d t he pr ot r a c t e d r e pe t i t i ons of one m ove m e nt ( pp 39 40) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s houl d be a v a l ua bl e c om pone nt of s uc h a r out i ne a l l ow i ng m us i c i a ns t o c ont i nue pr a c t i c i ng w i t hout pl a c i ng s t r a i n on t he m us c l e s i nvol ve d i n phys i c a l pe r f or m a nc e

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138 I n t he i r di s c us s i on of va r i ous c l a s s s c he dul i ng m ode l s a nd t he i r e f f e c t on s c hool ba nd pr ogr a m s B l oc he r a nd M i l e s ( 1999) de s c r i be ove r 40 s c hool m us i c pr ogr a m s a nd t he a dva nt a ge s a nd di s a dva nt a ge s t o t he i r s c he dul i ng. S e ve r a l ba nd di r e c t or s t ha t w e r e on a bl oc k s c he dul e c l a i m e d t ha t s t ude nt e ndur a nc e w a s a pr obl e m due t o t he l onge r c l a s s pe r i od. T he us e of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s dur i ng r e he a r s a l c oul d he l p s t ude nt s m a i nt a i n t he i r e ndu r a nc e M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d a l s o he l p i n ot he r s c e na r i os i n w hi c h s t ude nt s a r e a s ke d t o pe r f or m f o r l onge r pe r i ods o f t i m e s uc h a s ba nd c a m ps or hono r ba nd r e he a r s a l s A ddi t i ona l be ne f i t s i nc l ude t he po t e nt i a l f or e nha nc i ng m e m or y of w or ds or m us i c m ot i va t i on, c onf i de nc e a nd c onc e nt r a t i o n. O ne of t he r e a s ons t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s be ne f i c i a l i n t he s c hool e ns e m bl e i s t ha t i t pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y f o r s t ude nt s t o t h i nk a bout w ha t t he y a r e phys i c a l l y a t t e m pt i ng t o do. O ne s t ude nt m a y ha ve s a i d t hi s be s t w he n s he r e s ponde d i n t he que s t i onna i r e w i t h t he s t a t e m e nt : I be l i e ve t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que w i l l g r e a t l y be ne f i t m y pl a yi ng i n t he f ut ur e be c a us e i t he l ps m e t o s t op a nd t hi nk a bout w ha t I m pl a yi ng be f o r e I a c t ua l l y pl a y i t W he n r e he a r s a l i s r e s t r i c t e d t o e xc l us i ve phys i c a l pr a c t i c e t he s t ude nt i s f or c e d t o de ve l op m ot or s ki l l s w i t h l i t t l e a t t e nt i on t o de ve l op i ng t he c ogni t i ve s ki l l s r e qui r e d f or m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e I n s hor t t he s t ude nt doe s not ha ve a n a de qua t e e nough oppo r t uni t y t o t hi nk a bout t he t a s k a t ha nd. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s pe r f or m be t t e r w he n bot h m ot or a nd c ogni t i ve s ki l l s a r e de ve l ope d a nd us e d i n r e he a r s a l T he de ve l opm e nt of c ogni t i ve s ki l l s a ppe a r s t o be e s s e nt i a l t o t he i m p r ove m e nt of m ot o r pe r f o r m a nc e W he n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a r e e i t he r c om bi ne d or a l t e r n a t e d, t he s t ude nt ha s a n oppo r t uni t y t o

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139 de ve l op bot h t he c ogni t i ve a nd m ot o r s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y f or a s m oot h a nd a c c ur a t e pe r f or m a nc e O ne of t he l i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy w a s t ha t t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od w a s l i m i t e d t o s i x w e e ks w i t h s e s s i ons oc c ur r i ng t w o t i m e s a w e e k f or 15 m i nut e s e a c h da y. D u r i ng t hi s t i m e s t ude nt s i n t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e c ondi t i on s e n ga ge d i n a l a r ge a m ount o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he a s s i gne d c om pos i t i ons I t c oul d be e s t i m a t e d t ha t pe r ha ps 30% t o 40% of t he t r e a t m e nt r e he a r s a l s i nvol ve d s om e f or m of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t i s t he opi ni on of t he r e s e a r c he r t ha t r e a l w o r l d a ppl i c a t i on of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d not a s k s t ude nt s t o e nga ge i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t h i s f r e que nt l y W he n us e d t oo of t e n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s c oul d ba c kf i r e a nd c a us e bor e dom a nd di s c i pl i ne pr obl e m s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be us e d on a r e gul a r ba s i s i n o r de r t o c ont i n ue t o bui l d s t ude nt s ki l l s i n t he t e c hni que s but m us i c e duc a t or s a r e c a ut i one d a ga i ns t ove r us i ng t he t e c hni que s T he f r e que nc y a t w hi c h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be us e d w i l l de pe nd on t e a c he r a nd s t ude nt ne e ds a nd a t t e nt i on s pa ns P e r ha ps t w o t o f ou r t i m e s a m ont h i s a n a de qua t e a m ount of t i m e t o e m pl oy m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n r e he a r s a l I n a dd i t i on, t he us e of a w i de va r i e t y of di f f e r e nt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s m a y he l p t o k e e p s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd i nvol ve m e nt w i t h t he a c t i vi t y T hi s s t udy s ugge s t s t ha t bot h uns t r uc t ur e d a nd s t r u c t ur e d f or m s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a r e be ne f i c i a l t o i m pr ovi ng s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e A l t hough s t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e i ndi c a t e d t r e nds i n s t ude nt opi ni ons on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he y a l s o s ugge s t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w e r e di f f e r e nt i n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s t he y l i ke d or di s l i ke d. T he a dva nt a ge t o a n uns t r uc t u r e d m e t hod i s t ha t s t ude nt s m a y c hoos e t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que t ha t t he y l i ke be s t dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i ons T he a dva nt a ge t o a

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140 s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i s t ha t s t ude n t s s e e m t o be be t t e r e duc a t e d a bout m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd a r e pr ov i de d w i t h a w i de va r i e t y of t e c hni que s t o us e w he n e nga ge d i n m e nt a l r e he a r s a l I t i s t he opi ni on o f t he r e s e a r c he r t ha t pe r ha ps a c om pr om i s e be t w e e n t he uns t r uc t ur e d a nd s t r uc t ur e d ve r s i ons of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y w or k be s t C om pl e t e s t r uc t ur e i n t he a c t i vi t y m a y s t i f l e s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd c a us e f r us t r a t i on. A c om pl e t e l a c k of s t r uc t ur e s e e m s i na ppr opr i a t e f or t he a t t e nt i on s pa n of s t ude nt s a t t hi s a ge l e ve l A n e f f e c t i ve c ur r i c ul um i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w oul d i nt r o duc e a nd e xpl a i n a w i de va r i e t y of t e c hni que s a nd a l l ow s t ude nt s t o p r a c t i c e a nd e xp e r i m e nt w i t h t he t e c hni que s D ur i ng r e he a r s a l of a m us i c a l pa s s a ge t he m us i c e duc a t or s houl d a l t e r na t e be t w e e n a s t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n w hi c h t he s t ude nt i s t ol d a s pe c i f i c f or m of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t o us e a nd uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a l l ow i ng t he s t ude nt t o c hoos e t he m e t hod t he y pr e f e r I t a ppe a r s t ha t t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy do not s uppor t t he f i ndi ng of G e e r l i ngs ( 1998 ) t ha t gui de d i ns t r uc t i on i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i s be t t e r t ha n r i gi d i ns t r uc t i on R a t he r i t s e e m s t ha t bot h f or m s o f i ns t r uc t i on a r e va l ua bl e t o he l pi ng s t ude nt s a ppl y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he i r r e gul a r pr a c t i c e r out i ne s S t ude nt r e s p ons e s a nd opi ni ons r e ga r di ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a r e va l ua bl e t o de t e r m i ni ng a n a ppr op r i a t e s t r a t e gy f or t e a c hi ng a nd i nc or por a t i ng m e nt a l p r a c t i c e S t ude nt c om m e nt s s ugge s t t ha t e ve r y s t ude nt i s di f f e r e nt w i t h r e ga r ds t o t he i r p r e f e r e nc e s f or m e nt a l pr a c t i c e O ne of t he be ne f i t s o f t he s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s t ha t w he n a va r i e t y o f t e c hni que s a r e us e d, m or e s t ude n t s a r e a bl e t o i de nt i f y w i t h a t e c hni que t ha t i s of pa r t i c ul a r va l ue t o t he m pe r s ona l l y. R e s ul t s of t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e s ugg e s t t ha t m a ny s t ude nt s do not f i nd va l ue i n vi s ua l i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s H ow e ve r

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141 s e ve r a l s t ude nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y t hought vi s ua l i m a ge r y w a s be ne f i c i a l t o t he i r pl a yi ng. T h i s i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he us e o f onl y one t yp e of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i l l not a nd c a nnot m e e t t he ne e ds of e ve r y s t ude nt be c a us e e a c h s t ude nt ha s di f f e r e nt t a s t e s a nd s t r e ngt hs w i t h r e ga r d t o how t he y e nga ge i n t he a c t i vi t y. T he opi ni ons of s t ude nt s a r e i m po r t a nt due t o t he f a c t t ha t i f t he y e nj oy a n a c t i vi t y or f i nd i t va l ua bl e t he y w i l l b e m or e l i ke l y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he a c t i vi t y w he n r e que s t e d t o do s o. H ow e ve r c a ut i on s houl d be us e d w he n us i ng s t ude nt opi ni on t o de s i gn i ns t r uc t i ona l pr ogr a m s S i m pl y be c a us e s t ude nt s do not l i ke a n a c t i vi t y doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y ne ga t e i t s va l ue T he r e f o r e j us t be c a us e m a ny s t ude nt s t hought t ha t vi s ua l i m a ge r y w a s of l i t t l e va l ue doe s not m e a n t ha t i t a c t ua l l y i s of l i t t l e va l ue a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y s houl d not be e xc l ude d f r om m e nt a l pr a c t i c e pr ogr a m s unt i l e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t i t s houl d be R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy f ound no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e a m ong t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of t he f our gr oups i n t e r m s o f s i g ht r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e B a s e d on t he s e r e s ul t s i t w oul d a ppe a r t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e d oe s not he l p t o i m pr ove s i ght r e a di n g s ki l l s H ow e ve r t hi s i s not s ur p r i s i ng c ons i de r i ng t he f a c t t ha t du r i ng t he s i x w e e k t r e a t m e nt pe r i od m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w a s not a ppl i e d t o s i ght r e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s T he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod de a l t w i t h i m pr ov i ng pe r f or m a nc e on a p r e pa r e d pi e c e r a t he r t h a n i n s i ght r e a di ng s i t ua t i ons a nd t h i s m a y ha ve a f f e c t e d t he r e s ul t s on t he s i ght r e a di ng m e a s ur e T he r e f o r e t h i s s t udy doe s not p r ovi de a d e qua t e i nf or m a t i on f or dr a w i ng c onc l us i ons r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on s i ght r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e M or e i nf or m a t i on i s ne e de d t o m o r e a c c ur a t e l y de t e r m i n e t hi s e f f e c t

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142 C on c l u s i on s A f t e r e xa m i na t i on o f t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy, t he f ol l ow i ng c onc l us i ons w e r e m a de w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he nul l hypot he s e s : N u l l H yp ot h e s i s A : T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or s i ght r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no pr a c t i c e C on c l u s i on 1: B a s e d on a n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e of t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of s t ude nt s i n t he f our p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons t he r e w a s no s i gni f i c a nt d i f f e r e nc e a m ong t he gr oups i n t e r m s of i ndi vi dua l s i ght r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e T h e r e f or e N ul l H ypot he s i s A i s a c c e pt e d. N u l l H yp ot h e s i s B : T he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or pr e pa r e d pe r f or m a nc e of s t ude nt s w ho pr a c t i c e us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l p r a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e o r no pr a c t i c e C on c l u s i o n 2: B a s e d on a n a na l ys i s of va r i a nc e of t he m e a n di f f e r e nc e s c or e s of s t ude nt s i n t he f our p r a c t i c e c ondi t i ons s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound a m ong t he g r oups i n t e r m s of i ndi vi dua l pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e S c he f f e s t e s t a nd r e pe a t e d t t e s t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e w a s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod gr oup a nd t he c ont r ol gr oup f or a l l t h r e e pe r f o r m a nc e va r i a bl e s a nd be t w e e n t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod g r oup a nd t he uns t r uc t ur e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e g r oup i n t e r m s of dyna m i c s T he r e f o r e N ul l H ypot he s i s B i s r e j e c t e d. N u l l H yp ot h e s i s C : T he r e w i l l be no c ons i de r a bl e di f f e r e nc e i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s f or e ns e m bl e pr e pa r e d pe r f o r m a nc e of a n e ns e m bl e t ha t pr a c t i c e s us i ng a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t hos e w ho e nga ge i n uns t r uc t u r e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e phys i c a l pr a c t i c e or no p r a c t i c e

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143 C on c l u s i on 3: N o s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s w e r e c onduc t e d on t hi s da t a due t o a n e xt r e m e l y l ow n. T he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l g r oups di d not a ppe a r t o be c on s i de r a bl y di f f e r e nt f r om e a c h ot he r i n a ny of t he t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s A l l t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups s c or e d not i c e a bl y hi ghe r t ha n t he c ont r ol gr oup i n a l l t hr e e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s T he r e f o r e N ul l H ypot he s i s C i s r e j e c t e d. N u l l H yp ot h e s i s D : W i t hi n e a c h of t he t hr e e e xpe r i m e nt a l gr oups t he r e w i l l be no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he m e a n ga i n s c or e s of s t ude nt s w i t h r e ga r ds t o ge nde r g r a de l e ve l a nd i ns t r um e nt C on c l u s i on 4: S e pa r a t e t t e s t s i ndi c a t e d no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s a m ong t he s ubgr oups f or dyna m i c s or r hyt hm H ow e ve r w i t hi n e a c h e x pe r i m e nt a l gr oup b r a s s pl a ye r s m a de s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt ove r w oodw i nd pl a ye r s i n pi t c h a c c ur a c y ( p < 01) B e c a us e a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n w oodw i nd a nd br a s s pl a ye r s N ul l H ypot he s i s D i s r e j e c t e d. T he f ol l ow i ng a ddi t i ona l c onc l us i ons w e r e m a de b a s e d on t he a na l ys i s of t he da t a : C on c l u s i on 5: A s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be e s pe c i a l l y us e f ul t o i m p r ovi ng t he pe r f or m a nc e of br a s s pl a ye r s e s pe c i a l l y i n t e r m s o f pi t c h a c c ur a c y. C on c l u s i on 6: S t ude nt s s e e m t o f e e l t ha t t he us e of vi s ua l i m a ge r y i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i s not va l ua bl e t o i m pr ovi ng t he i r pl a yi ng. T e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s s houl d be a dj us t e d t o r e f l e c t t hi s t r e nd. S u gge s t i on s f or F u t u r e R e s e ar c h T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o de s i gn a nd t e s t t h e e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a s t r uc t ur e d m e t hod of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he pe r f or m a nc e of h i gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s I t w a s be l i e ve d t ha t t hi s w a s t he f i r s t s t udy t o a ppl y s pe c i f i c m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s w i t h t he hi gh s c hool ba nd. F ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d i n t hi s a r e a i n or de r t o m or e c om pl e t e l y unde r s t a nd t he be ne f i t s a ppl i c a t i ons a nd pe da gog y of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i t h s t ude nt

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144 m us i c i a ns F ut ur e r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m i ght i nc l ude t he f ol l ow i ng t opi c s : 1. T h e e f f e c t o f m e n t al p r ac t i c e on s i gh t r e ad i n g p e r f or m an c e A s s t a t e d i n C ha pt e r 2, s e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s c l a i m t h a t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be be ne f i c i a l t o t he s i ght r e a di ng pr oc e s s ( B r ooks 19 95; K a r pi ns ki 2000 ; M c P he r s on, 1994; P r os s e r 2000; W i r t 1992) H o w e ve r m or e e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs a r e ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a f f e c t s s i ght r e a di ng. R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ha d no s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t on t he s i ght r e a di ng s ki l l s of hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ud e nt s H ow e ve r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s ne ve r a ppl i e d t o s i ght r e a di ng or s ugge s t e d a s a s i ght r e a di ng s t r a t e gy du r i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od s o t he s e r e s ul t s a r e not s ur p r i s i ng. F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d a da pt t he m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e t hod us e d i n t hi s s t udy f or us e a s pa r t o f a s i ght r e a di ng s t r a t e gy. 2. T h e e f f e c t o f s t r u c t u r e d m e n t al p r ac t i c e o n t h e p e r f or m an c e of ad d i t i o n al i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h e c on c e r t b an d i n c l u d i n g p e r c u s s i on I n t hi s s t udy, t he a s s e s s m e nt of i ndi vi dua l pe r f or m a nc e w a s l i m i t e d t o onl y t hos e i ns t r um e nt s c ons i de r e d t o be t he m os t c om m on a n d num e r ou s i n h i gh s c hool ba nd c l a s s e s T he i ns t r um e nt s s e l e c t e d f or i ndi vi dua l t e s t i ng w e r e f l ut e c l a r i ne t a l t o s a xophone t r um pe t F r e nc h ho r n, a nd t r om bone A l t hough pe r c us s i on i ns t r um e nt s a r e of t e n c om m on a nd num e r ous i n t he c onc e r t ba nd, pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s w e r e not s e l e c t e d f or i nd i vi dua l t e s t i ng due t o t i m e a nd l ogi s t i c a l l i m i t a t i ons F u t ur e s t udi e s s houl d t e s t t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he ot he r i ns t r um e nt s o f t he m ode r n c onc e r t ba nd, i nc l udi ng pi c c ol o, oboe ba s s c l a r i ne t ba s s oon, t e nor s a x ophone ba r i t one s a xophone ba r i t one t uba a n d pe r c us s i on. 3. T h e e f f e c t o f m e n t al p r ac t i c e on b an d s t u d e n t s at var yi n g a ge l e ve l s B e c a us e t hi s s t udy f oc us e d on hi gh s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod de ve l ope d f or t hi s s t udy s houl d be a da pt e d f or us e w i t h e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s a nd t e s t e d f or i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n i m pr ovi ng s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e 4. T h e e f f e c t o f m e n t al p r ac t i c e on o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t al an d voc al e n s e m b l e s T he e xe r c i s e s de ve l ope d f or t h i s s t udy w e r e de s i gn e d f o r us e w i t h hi gh s c hool w i nd a nd pe r c us s i on s t ude nt s T he s e e xe r c i s e s s houl d be a da pt e d f o r us e w i t h ot he r s c hool i ns t r um e nt a l e ns e m bl e s ( or c he s t r a gu i t a r ) a nd voc a l gr oups a nd t e s t e d f or t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n i m p r ovi ng s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e

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145 5. Q u al i t at i v e s t u d i e s e xam i n i n g s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t ow ar d m e n t a l p r ac t i c e S t ude nt r e s pons e s t o t he pos t s t udy que s t i onna i r e i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w e r e ve r y t hought f ul a nd s e r i ous i n t he i r opi ni ons r e ga r di ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e B e c a us e of t he c ove r t na t ur e o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he onl y w a y t o know i f s t ude nt s a r e r e a l l y e nga gi ng i n t he a c t i vi t y i s t o a s k t he m a bout i t Q u a l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h s e e m s t o be a n i de a l ve hi c l e f o r ga i ni ng a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng a bout how s t ude nt s r e s pond t o a nd e nga ge i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a c t i vi t i e s 6. T h e e f f e c t o f m e n t al p r ac t i c e on t e ac h e r c on d u c t i n g an d r e h e ar s i n g. F ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d a t t e m pt t o a da pt m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s t r a t e gi e s f or us e by t he m us i c e duc a t or i n c onduc t i ng a nd r e he a r s i ng t he e ns e m bl e M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s f or e duc a t or s m i g ht i nc l ude a ur a l i m a g e r y of t he m us i c a l s c or e o r he a r i ng a n a ur a l i m a ge of t he s c or e w hi l e us i ng vi s ua l a nd/ or m ot or i m a ge r y o f c onduc t i ng ge s t ur e s 7. M e n t al p r ac t i c e t e c h n i q u e s i n j az z i m p r ovi s at i o n t r ai n i n g T he r e i s no know n e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h t ha t i nv e s t i g a t e s t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on j a z z pe r f o r m a nc e or j a z z i m pr ovi s a t i on S t udi e s a r e ne e de d t ha t a ppl y m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o j a z z e duc a t i on, a nd i n pa r t i c ul a r j a z z i m pr ovi s a t i on i ns t r uc t i o n. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n t hi s a r e a c oul d i nc l u de pr o vi di ng s t ude nt s w i t h a n oppor t uni t y t o c r e a t e a n a u r a l i m a ge o f a s hor t s ol o or s ol o pa s s a ge w hi l e l i s t e ni ng t o t he c hor d c ha nge s a nd t he n a s ki ng t he s t ude nt t o phys i c a l l y pl a y t he s ol o S t ude nt s c oul d a l s o be a s ke d t o phys i c a l l y i m pr ovi s e a s ol o w hi l e a u r a l l y i m a gi ng t he c hor d c ha nge s 8. F u r t h e r an al ys i s of t h e m e n t al p r ac t i c e m e t h od d e ve l op e d f or t h i s s t u d y W hi l e t he m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod de ve l ope d f o r t h i s s t udy a ppe a r s t o ha ve be e n s uc c e s s f ul i n i m pr ovi ng s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e a c h e xe r c i s e i s unc l e a r I t i s s t i l l not know n w hi c h i ndi vi dua l e xe r c i s e s i n t he m e t hod w e r e t he m os t or l e a s t be ne f i c i a l t o s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e S t ude nt s a ppe a r t o ha ve f ound a c t i ve i m a ge r y, a udi t o r y i m a ge r y a nd m ot or i m a g e r y t o be f a r m or e va l ua bl e t ha n v i s ua l i m a ge r y. H ow e ve r a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of e a c h of t he s e t e c hni que s S u m m ar y an d I m p l i c at i on s o f t h i s S t u d y T hi s s t udy r e pr e s e nt s t he onl y know n e m pi r i c a l i n ve s t i ga t i on of t he us e o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he hi gh s c hool ba nd r e he a r s a l P r e vi ou s r e s e a r c h ha s f oc us e d on i ndi vi dua l a dul t m us i c i a ns ha s not a l l ow e d f or t he r e gul a r r e he a r s a l of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd ha s us e d

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146 uns t r uc t ur e d f or m s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T hi s s t udy i s uni que i n t ha t i t i nvo l ve d hi gh s c h ool m us i c i a ns t a ught a s a n e ns e m bl e a l l ow e d t he s t ud e nt s t o e xpe r i e nc e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s pr i or t o t he s t udy, pr ovi de d s t r uc t ur e d t e c hni que s f or us e dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd p r ovi de d a phys i c a l e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he t a s k pr i or t o m e nt a l r e he a r s a l A s t he onl y know n s t udy t o a ppl y t he c onc e pt o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o hi gh s c hool ba nds i t w a s be l i e ve d t ha t t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s va l ua bl e t o de t e r m i ni ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he c onc e pt c oul d be ne f i t s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s a r e be ne f i c i a l t o s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e a pp r opr i a t e f or us e i n t he e ns e m bl e c l a s s r oom a nd a c c e pt e d by s t ude nt m us i c i a ns a s a us e f ul a c t i vi t y. B a s e d on t h e s e f i ndi ngs s c hool ba nd di r e c t or s a r e e nc our a ge d t o i m pl e m e nt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i nt o t he i r r e gul a r r e he a r s a l r out i ne s W he n t r a di t i ona l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i s s uppl e m e nt e d w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o e xpe r i e nc e m us i c c ogni t i ve l y a nd phys i c a l l y B y e xpe r i e nc i ng m us i c i n t he s e t w o dom a i ns s t ude nt s a r e a bl e t o m a ke a m o r e c om pl e t e c om m i t m e nt t o t he a c t i vi t y of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e S t ude nt s pr ovi de d w i t h a n e xpe r i e nc e i n m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w i l l de ve l op t he m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l di m e ns i ons of m u s i c a l pe r f or m a nc e bot h of w hi c h a r e e s s e nt i a l f or pe r f or m a nc e i n m us i c A ba nd c ur r i c ul um t ha t r e l i e s e xc l us i ve l y on phys i c a l pr a c t i c e c a n f a i l t o de ve l op e s s e nt i a l c ogni t i ve s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y f or qua l i t y pe r f or m a nc e I n t hi s e nvi r onm e nt t he s t ude nt pr oduc e s a s ound f r om t he i ns t r um e nt a nd m a ke s a n a t t e m pt t o i m pr ove t ha t s ound ba s e d on i ns t r uc t i ons f r om t he t e a c he r a s w e l l a s phys i c a l t r i a l a nd e r r o r H e r e t he s t ude nt c ons i de r s t he c ur r e nt pe r f or m a nc e a nd a t t e m pt s t o m a ke i t be t t e r f r om a phys i c a l s t a ndpoi nt T hi s c om pl e t e r e l i a nc e on phys i c a l a t t r i but e s of t e n oc c ur s a t a t i m e w he n

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147 s t ude n t s a r e unde r goi ng t he phys i c a l a nd de ve l opm e nt a l c ha nge s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pube r t y, m a ki ng phys i c a l c oor di na t i on m o r e di f f i c ul t A n e nvi r onm e nt t ha t s uppl e m e nt s phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w i t h r e gul a r m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s houl d ope r a t e unde r di f f e r e nt c ondi t i ons L i ke t he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt de s c r i be d a bove t he s t ude nt p r oduc e s a s ound a nd a t t e m pt s t o i m pr ove i t t h r ough i ns t r uc t i ons f r om t he t e a c he r a nd phys i c a l t r i a l a nd e r r or U nl i ke t he e xc l us i ve phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt s t ude nt s ut i l i z i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i l l he a r t he i de a l pe r f or m a nc e i n t he i r m i nds a nd w or k t o r e pr oduc e t he i de a l s ound t ha t e xi s t s w i t hi n S t u de nt s a r e a bl e t o p r ovi de t he m s e l ve s w i t h a m e nt a l m ode l by w hi c h t he y c ons t a nt l y c om pa r e a nd a dj us t t he e xi s t i ng pe r f or m a nc e T he s t ude nt i s a l l ow e d t o i s ol a t e t he m e nt a l c om pone nt of pe r f o r m a nc e t hi nk t hr ough va r i ous i s s ue s a nd obs t a c l e s a nd pr e pa r e t he body f or t he c or r e c t a c t i on. I n a ddi t i on, t he s t ude nt i s pr ovi de d w i t h a n oppor t uni t y t o f oc us on s pe c i f i c e l e m e nt s of pe r f or m a nc e w i t hout t he di s t r a c t i on of p hys i c a l a c t i on. T he phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s t ude nt doe s not ha ve t hi s oppor t uni t y t o m a ke m e nt a l a dj us t m e nt s T hi s s t ude nt m us t c onc e nt r a t e c om pl e t e l y on phys i c a l a s pe c t s w hi l e t he m e nt a l di m e ns i on of pe r f o r m a nc e i nc l udi ng a pr ope r l y f o r m e d a ur a l m ode l goe s u nde r de ve l ope d. B a s e d on t he s e c onc l us i ons ba nd s t ude nt s s houl d pa r t i c i pa t e i n a nd e xpe r i e nc e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e xe r c i s e s on a r e gul a r ba s i s T he s e e xe r c i s e s s houl d f oc us on a ur a l i m a ge r y but s houl d a l s o i nc l ude vi s ua l a nd m ot o r i m a ge r y. A c t i ve i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s t ha t c om bi ne phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a ppe a r t o be of g r e a t va l ue a s t he y a l l ow t he s t ude nt t o m a i nt a i n s om e phys i c a l r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he a c t i vi t y dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T o be e f f e c t i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be us e d a s a s uppl e m e nt t o phys i c a l pr a c t i c e not a r e pl a c e m e nt

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148 T he r e a r e nu m e r ous w a ys i n w hi c h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s m a y be ne f i t t he hi gh s c hool ba nd. D e s pi t e a l a c k of e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m i ght be us e f ul t o he l pi ng s t ude nt s pr e pa r e f o r s i ght r e a di ng I t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t o s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s w ho ha ve m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e d r hy t hm s or f i nge r i ng s w oul d be be t t e r pr e pa r e d t o s i ght r e a d a pa s s a ge M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d be us e d w he n s t ude nt s a r e f i r s t l e a r ni ng a pi e c e t o w or k out t e c hni c a l d i f f i c ul t i e s w i t h f i nge r i ngs or r hyt hm s A f t e r s t ude nt s ha ve m a de c ons i de r a bl e pr ogr e s s w i t h t he pi e c e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m a y be a n e xc e l l e nt m e t hod of he l pi ng s t ude nt s t o i m pr ove t he e f f i c i e nc y of t he i r pe r f or m a nc e A t t hi s poi nt s t ude nt s s houl d be phys i c a l l y a dj us t e d t o t he m us i c a nd m e nt a l r e he a r s a l c a n he l p t he m t o c ont i nue t o i m p r ove t he i r ove r a l l pe r f or m a nc e s o t ha t i t c om e s c l os e r t o t he i de a l m e nt a l m ode l S t ude nt s s houl d be e nc our a ge d t o us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n t he di r e c t or i s w or ki ng w i t h ot he r s e c t i ons or i ndi vi dua l s i n t he e ns e m bl e W hi l e s om e s t ude nt s m a y na t ur a l l y do t hi s a l r e a dy, t he di r e c t or s houl d pr ovi de s pe c i f i c i n s t r uc t i ons t o e nga ge a l l s t ude nt s i n t he a c t i vi t y. F o r e xa m pl e i f t he di r e c t or i s a bout t o w o r k w i t h b r a s s pl a ye r s on a c e r t a i n pa s s a ge of m us i c he or s he s houl d i ns t r uc t t he w o odw i nds t o m e nt a l l y p r a c t i c e a s pe c i f i c pa s s a ge a nd i nf or m t he m t ha t t he y w i l l be a s ke d t o pl a y i t m om e nt a r i l y I n a ddi t i on t o i m pr ovi ng t he i r pe r f or m a nc e t hi s pr ovi de s a g r e a t e r c ha nc e of ke e pi ng a l l s t ude nt s a c t i ve i n r e he a r s a l a nd m a y r e duc e di s c i pl i ne pr obl e m s t h a t t ypi c a l l y oc c ur w he n t he di r e c t or i s a t t e ndi ng t o ot he r s e c t i ons of t he e ns e m bl e I f s t ud e nt s a r e a l w a ys pr ovi de d w i t h a n a s s i gnm e nt t he y m a y be l e s s l i ke l y t o f e e l t ha t t he i r t i m e i s be i ng w a s t e d w he n t he di r e c t or i s not a ddr e s s i ng t he m W he n t he di r e c t or i ns t r uc t s s t ude nt s t o m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e a s e c t i on of m us i c s t ude nt s s houl d a l w a ys be a s ke d t o pe r f or m t he pa s s a ge f or t he

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149 di r e c t or I t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t o be l i e ve t ha t s t ude nt s w i l l be m o r e l i ke l y t o m e nt a l l y r e vi e w t he i r pa r t s i f know t he y a r e a bout t o pe r f or m i t a s a s e c t i on or a s a n i ndi vi dua l M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s m a y a l s o be va l ua bl e i n t he da ys i m m e di a t e l y pr i o r t o a pe r f or m a nc e M a ny pe r f or m e r s a nd m us i c t e a c he r s be l i e ve t ha t t he r e i s a t i m e i n w hi c h t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e pe a ks t ha t i s t he y a c hi e ve t he i r ve r y be s t pe r f or m a nc e a nd a f t e r t ha t poi nt t he pe r f o r m a nc e qua l i t y de c l i ne s s l i ght l y W he t he r t hi s i s a c t ua l l y t r ue or a ps yc hol ogi c a l phe nom e non, m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c oul d be us e d t o ke e p s t ude nt s m e nt a l l y s ha r p l e a di ng up t o a pe r f or m a nc e O f t e n s t ude nt s do s e e m t o r e a c h a poi nt i n w hi c h t he y do not a ppe a r t o m a ke a ny i m pr ove m e nt i n t he i r pe r f or m a nc e M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n he l p s t ude nt s t o r e e va l ua t e t he i r pl a yi ng a nd p r ovi de a ne w w a y t o e xpe r i e nc e t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e ke e pi ng t he m m e nt a l l y a t t une d t o t he m us i c a nd pr e ve nt i ng t he m f r om s i m pl y goi ng t hr ough t he m ot i ons of pe r f or m a nc e O ne t he da y of t he pe r f or m a nc e m a ny di r e c t or s w or r y t ha t a f u l l r e he a r s a l m a y be de t r i m e nt a l t o t he phys i c a l e ndur a nc e of t he s t ude n t s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e pr ovi de s a n oppor t uni t y f or s t ude nt s t o pr a c t i c e t he i r pa r t s w i t h out a dve r s e l y a f f e c t i ng t he i r e ndur a nc e S i m i l a r e ndur a nc e c onc e r ns t ypi c a l l y a r i s e a t ba nd c a m ps or w e e ke nd honor ba nds i n w hi c h s t ude nt s pl a y t he i r i ns t r u m e nt s f or m a ny hour s e a c h da y. A ppl i e d br a s s t e a c he r s ha ve of t e n be e n know n t o i ns t r uc t t he i r s t ude nt s t o t a ke s e ve r a l da ys of f f r o m pl a yi ng i n o r de r t o r e l e a s e t he t e ns i on f r om t he i r b odi e s a nd a l l ow t he e m bouc hur e t o he a l M e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s e e m t o be a n i de a l s ol ut i on f o r pr ovi d i ng a m e t hod of m us i c a l r e he a r s a l t ha t doe s not ove r e xt e nd s t ude nt s phys i c a l c a pa bi l i t i e s A t pe r f or m a nc e t i m e s t ude nt s a r e of t e n e xc i t e d a nd ne r vous t o pe r f or m i n f r ont of a n a udi e nc e or a dj udi c a t or s T he m om e nt s be f or e a c on c e r t w hi c h of t e n t a ke pl a c e i n a

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150 s e pa r a t e w a r m up r oom c a n be c r uc i a l t o t he qu a l i t y of t he pe r f o r m a nc e M a ny s t ude nt s a nd m us i c i a ns ope r a t e unde r t he a s s um pt i on t ha t dur i ng t hi s t i m e t he y ne e d t o t a ke t he i r m i nds o f f t he upc om i ng pe r f or m a nc e a n d w i l l o f t e n e nga ge i n c onve r s a t i ons unr e l a t e d t o m us i c S t ude nt s w i l l of t e n a ppe a r t o b e i n a n e xc i t e d s t a t e i n w hi c h t he y a r e e xc e s s i v e l y s oc i a l a nd a r e c om pl e t e l y unf oc us e d o n t he t a s k a t ha nd B y a dve r t i ng t he i r a t t e nt i on f r om t he t a s k, s t ude nt s e nt e r t he c o nc e r t s t a ge w i t h l i t t l e t o no m e nt a l f oc us w hi c h c a n a dve r s e l y a f f e c t pe r f or m a nc e qua l i t y R a t he r t ha n a l l ow s t ude nt s t o t a ke t he i r m i nds of f t he t a s k, di r e c t or s s houl d t r a i n s t ude nt s t o f oc us t he i r m i nds on t he upc om i ng pe r f or m a nc e A n e ns e m bl e t ha t e nt e r s t he c onc e r t s t a ge w i t h a hi gh l e ve l of c onc e nt r a t i on a nd f oc us on t he t a s k s e e m s m uc h m or e l i ke l y t o g i ve a s upe r i or pe r f or m a nc e I t s e e m s r e a s ona bl e t o s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s s houl d be e nga ge d i n s om e f o r m o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he m om e nt s l e a di ng up t o a pe r f or m a nc e a nd t ha t s t ude nt s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s e t e c hni que s on a r e gul a r ba s i s w i l l be c om f o r t a bl e a nd c onf i de nt i n us i ng t he m i n t hi s s i t ua t i on. M e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n a l s o be a va l ua bl e t ool i n he l p i ng s t ude nt s t o f oc us on t hi ngs t ha t w i l l go r i gh t i n t he upc om i ng pe r f or m a nc e a n d pr e ve nt s t he m f r om e m pha s i z i ng t hi ngs t ha t c oul d go w r ong R e s e a r c h s ugge s t s t ha t vi s ua l i z i ng or f oc us i ng on ne ga t i ve out c om e s c a n be de t r i m e nt a l t o pe r f o r m a nc e ( B uf f i ngt on, 1989; C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on, 2004; R obi ns on a n d A l t hous e 1995; S i s t e r he n, 20 04; T a yl or 1995; W i l s on, 1994 ) I f s t ude nt s a r e a nxi ous a bout t he i r pe r f or m a nc e t he y m a y be m or e l i ke l y t o vi s ua l i z e a ne ga t i ve s c e na r i o i n t he i r he a ds T o pr e ve nt t h i s t h e di r e c t or m us t he l p s t ude nt s t o f oc us t he i r a t t e nt i on on t he pos i t i ve out c om e s of pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng t he w a r m up pe r i od pr i or t o t he c onc e r t M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e e m s t o be a n i de a l m e t hod of a c c om pl i s hi ng t hi s t a s k.

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151 W he n s t ude nt s us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o e xpe r i e nc e a pos i t i ve a nd s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e t he y e nt e r t he s t a ge w i t h a n opt i m i s t i c c onf i de nt d e m e a nor t ha t c a n i m p r ove t he qua l i t y of t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e A s a r e s ul t of t hi s s t udy, i t i s be l i e ve d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s s houl d be a dde d t o t he pe da gogy o f s c hool ba nd p r ogr a m s T he s e t e c hni que s s h oul d be a va l ua bl e a ddi t i on t o e xi s t i ng r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s us e d by b a nd di r e c t or s w i t h s c hool e ns e m bl e s I t i s hope d t ha t t he us e o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he s c hool ba nd r e he a r s a l w i l l he l p t o i m pr ove s t ude nt m us i c i a ns hi p by ut i l i z i ng bot h phys i c a l a nd c og ni t i ve di m e ns i ons of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e

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152 A P P E N D I X A S T U D E N T I N F O R M A T I O N F O R M S T U D E N T I N F O R M A T I O N F O R M T h i s i n f or m at i o n w i l l b e u s e d t o h e l p an al yz e d a t a i n t h e s t u d y. T h i s i s a c on f i d e n t i al f or m an d w i l l on l y b e s e e n b y t h e r e s e ar c h t e am P l e as e an s w e r e ac h q u e s t i on as ac c u r at e l y as p os s i b l e T h a n k you f or you r p ar t i c i p at i on i n t h e s t u d y ! M ake s u r e t o f i l l ou t t h e f r on t a n d bac k o f t h i s f o r m F i r s t an d L as t N am e : _____________________________________________________ A ge : _________ G e n d e r : M A L E _________ F E M A L E _________ P l e as e c i r c l e y ou r gr ad e i n s c h ool : 9 t h 10 t h 11 t h 12 t h C on c e r t B an d I n s t r u m e n t : ________________________________________________ A t w h at age d i d you s t ar t p l ayi n g yo u r i n s t r u m e n t ?________________ Wh at gr ad e w e r e you i n w h e n yo u s t ar t e d t o p l ay you r i n s t r u m e n t ? _________ H ow m an y ye ar s d i d you p l ay i n t h e m i d d l e s c h ool b an d ? _________ H ow m an y ye ar s i n c l u d i n g t h i s on e h ave yo u p l aye d i n t h e h i gh s c h ool b an d ?_____ D o you c u r r e n t l y t ak e p i an o l e s s on s ? Y E S ______ N O ______ I f you an s w e r e d ye s ab o u t h ow m a n y ye ar s h av e you t a k e n p i a n o l e s s on s ? ______ I f you an s w e r e d n o h ave you e ve r t ak e n p i an o l e s s on s ? Y E S ______ N O ______ A b ou t h ow m an y ye ar s d i d y ou t ak e t h e m ? ___ ___ D o you c u r r e n t l y t ak e p r i vat e l e s s on s on you r b an d i n s t r u m e n t ? Y E S ___ N O __ I f you an s w e r e d ye s ab o u t h ow m a n y ye ar s h av e you t a k e n p r i va t e l e s s on s ? ______ I f you an s w e r e d n o h ave you e ve r h a d p r i va t e l e s s on s on you r b an d i n s t r u m e n t ? Y E S ______ N O ______ A b ou t h ow m an y ye ar s d i d y ou t ak e t h e m ? ___ ____

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153 O n ave r age ab o u t h ow l on g w ou l d you e s t i m at e t h at you p r ac t i c e you r i n s t r u m e n t at h om e e ac h w e e k ?____________ H ow m an y of yo u r b r ot h e r s or s i s t e r s p l ay a m u s i c al i n s t r u m e n t ?________ D o you h ave a p ar e n t or g u ar d i an t h at p l ays a m u s i c al i n s t r u m e n t ?________ I f ye s p l e as e p l ac e a c h e c k n e xt t o al l t h os e t h a t p l ay a m u s i c al i n s t r u m e n t : ______M ot h e r ______F at h e r ______S t e p m ot h e r ______S t e p f at h e r ______G u ar d i an Wh y d o yo u p l ay i n t h e s c h ool b an d ? C h e c k al l t h at a p p l y: _______ I l i k e t h e b an d d i r e c t or _______ M y f r i e n d s ar e i n t h e b an d _______ M y p ar e n t s m ad e m e _______ I t s f u n _______ I l ove p l ay i n g an d m ak i n g m u s i c O t h e r t h a n s ym p h o n i c b an d / c on c e r t b an d p l e a s e p l ac e a c h e c k b y t h e m u s i c al gr ou p s t h at you ar e a m e m b e r of or h ave b e e n a m e m b e r o f i n t h e p as t ye ar : _______ S c h ool j az z b an d _______ S c h ool m ar c h i n g b an d _______ S c h ool gu i t ar c l as s _______ S c h ool m u s i c t h e or y c l as s _______ S c h ool i n s t r u m e n t al e n s e m b l e / s m al l e n s e m b l e _______ A l l c ou n t y b an d _______ A l l d i s t r i c t b an d _______ A l l s t at e b an d ______ C h u r c h c h oi r _______ C h u r c h i n s t r u m e n t al e n s e m b l e / b an d _______ S ol o an d e n s e m b l e f e s t i val _______ O t h e r ( p l e as e l i s t / d e s c r i b e ) : _________ _________________________ I f you p l ay an y ot h e r i n s t r u m e n t s o t h e r t h a n t h e on e you p l ay i n b a n d c l as s p l e as e l i s t t h e m h e r e : __________________________________________________________ T H A N K Y O U F O R Y O U R H E L P WI T H T H I S S T U D Y

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154 A P P E N D I X B I N S T I T U T I O N A L R E V I E W B O A R D D O C U M E N T A T I O N 1. T I T L E O F P R O T O C O L : T he de ve l opm e nt of a s e que nt i a l m e nt a l p r a c t i c e m e t hod a nd i t s e f f e c t on t he m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e of s e c onda r y s c hool ba nd s t ude nt s 2. P R I N C I P A L I N V E S T I G A T O R ( s ) : ( N am e de gr e e t i t l e de pt addr e s s phone #, e m ai l & f ax ) S t e phe n D a ni e l G a l ye n, D oc t o r a l S t ude nt M us i c E duc a t i on, [ P e r s ona l c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on] 3. S U P E R V I S O R ( I F P I I S S T U D E N T ) : ( N am e c am pus addr e s s phone #, e m ai l & f ax ) D r R us s e l l R obi ns on, P O B ox 117900, G a i ne s vi l l e F l o r i da 32611 7900. 352 392 0223, e xt 216 r l r ob@ u f l e du 4. D A T E S O F P R O P O S E D P R O T O C O L : F r om A ugus t 15, 2005 T o N ove m be r 30, 2005 5. S O U R C E O F F U N D I N G F O R T H E P R O T O C O L : ( A c opy o f y our gr ant pr opos al m us t be i nc l ude d w i t h t hi s pr ot oc ol i f D H H S f undi ng i s i nv ol v e d. ) N o f undi ng s our c e 6. S C I E N T I F I C P U R P O S E O F T H E I N V E S T I G A T I O N : T he pur pos e of t hi s i nve s t i ga t i on i s t o de t e r m i ne t h e e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t e c hni que i n t he pe r f or m a nc e of s e c onda r y s c hool m us i c e ns e m bl e s a nd s t ude nt m u s i c i a ns 7. D E S C R I B E T H E R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y I N N O N T E C H N I C A L L A N G U A G E T he U F I R B ne e ds t o know w ha t w i l l be done w i t h or t o t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt ( s ) P a r t i c i pa nt s w i l l be a s ke d t o r e he a r s e a pi e c e o f m us i c f or 20 m i nut e s a da y 2 da ys a w e e k, f or 6 w e e ks D u r i ng t he r e he a r s a l t he y w i l l be i ns t r uc t e d t o p r a c t i c e us i ng e i t he r

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155 phys i c a l or m e nt a l p r a c t i c e P hys i c a l p r a c t i c e w i l l i nvol ve t r a di t i ona l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s of pl a yi ng a nd pe r f e c t i ng c or r e c t not e s a nd r hyt hm s M e nt a l pr a c t i c e w i l l i nvol ve a s ki ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s pl a yi ng t he pi e c e 8. P O T E N T I A L B E N E F I T S A N D A N T I C I P A T E D R I S K ( I f r i s k o f phys i c a l ps yc hol ogi c a l or e c onom i c ha r m m a y be i nvol ve d, de s c r i be t he s t e ps t a ke n t o p r ot e c t pa r t i c i pa nt ) T he be ne f i t s i nc l ude t he pot e nt i a l t o l e a r n a be ne f i c i a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que t o i m pr ove pe r f or m a nc e a nd r e duc e pr obl e m s of phys i c a l e nd ur a nc e dur i ng r e he a r s a l A nt i c i pa t e d r i s k i nc l ude s pos s i bl e ne r vous ne s s due t o i nvol ve m e nt i n a s t udy. T he a nt i c i pa t e d r i s k w i l l be m i t i ga t e d by t he s ubj e c t s v e r ba l a s s e nt a s w e l l a s r e m ova l f r o m t he s t udy i f di s c om f or t i m pe de s t he s ubj e c t s pa r t i c i pa t i on. 9. D E S C R I B E H O W P A R T I C I P A N T ( S ) WI L L B E R E C R U I T E D T H E N U M B E R A N D A G E O F T H E P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D P R O P O S E D C O M P E N S A T I O N ( i f an y) : P a r t i c i pa nt s w i l l be r e c r ui t e d f r om m i ddl e s c hool b a nd c l a s s e s i n A l a c hua C ount y, F l or i da a nd h i gh s c hool ba nd c l a s s e s i n R oa noke C ount y, V i r g i ni a T he a ppr ox i m a t e a ge of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l r a nge f r o m 12 18 A pp r oxi m a t e l y 250 s t ude nt s w i l l be r e c r ui t e d N o c om pe ns a t i on w i l l be gi ve n 10. D E S C R I B E T H E I N F O R M E D C O N S E N T P R O C E S S I N C L U D E A C O P Y O F T H E I N F O R M E D C O N S E N T D O C U M E N T ( i f a ppl i c a bl e ) P a r e nt s w i l l be a s ke d t o s i gn a n i n f or m e d c ons e nt f or m ( a t t a c he d) w hi c h w i l l be di s t r i but e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y t w o ( 2 ) w e e ks pr i o r t o t h e s t udy. V ol unt a r y a gr e e m e nt f r om s t ude nt s w i l l be de t e r m i ne d f r om a ve r ba l a s s e nt s c r i pt ( a t t a c he d) pr i o r t o pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy. S t ude nt s w i l l not be a ppr oa c he d by t he r e s e a r c he r unt i l i nf or m e d c ons e nt f or m s ha ve be e n c ol l e c t e d f r om pa r e nt s P l e as e u s e at t ac hm e nt s s par i ngl y ____________ _________ ____ P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or s S i gna t ur e ____________ _________ ____ S upe r vi s or 's S i gna t ur e I a ppr ove t h i s pr ot oc ol f or s ubm i s s i on t o t he U F I R B : ____________ _________ ____ D e pt C ha i r / C e nt e r D i r e c t or D a t e

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156 S D an i e l G al ye n P O B ox 117900 U n i ve r s i t y of F l or i d a G ai n e s vi l l e F L 32611 7900 D e a r P a r e nt / G ua r di a n, I a m a doc t or a l s t ude nt i n t he M us i c D e pa r t m e nt a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l or i da c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h on t he e f f e c t of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on t he m u s i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e a c hi e ve m e nt of s c hool ba nds T hi s s t udy i s unde r t he s upe r vi s i on o f D r R us s e l l R obi ns on, c ha i r o f t he de pa r t m e nt of m us i c e duc a t i on. T he pur pos e o f t hi s s t udy i s t o c om pa r e t he s t ude nt s m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a f t e r r e c e i vi ng di f f e r e nt t e a c hi ng t e c hni que s one us i ng t r a di t i ona l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s a nd t he ot he r us i ng a c om bi na t i on of t r a di t i ona l t e c hni que s w i t h a pr oc e dur e of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e T he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy m a y he l p m us i c t e a c he r s be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he a ppl i c a t i on of a uni que t e a c hi ng t e c hni que a nd a l l ow t he m t o de s i gn i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s a c c or di ngl y. T he s e r e s ul t s m a y not di r e c t l y he l p you r c hi l d t oda y, but m a y be ne f i t f ut u r e s t ude nt s W i t h your pe r m i s s i on, I w oul d l i ke t o a s k your c hi l d t o vol unt e e r f or t hi s r e s e a r c h. P a r t i c i pa t i ng c h i l dr e n w i l l r e he a r s e a pi e c e of m us i c us i ng e i t he r t r a di t i ona l t e a c hi ng t e c hni que s or t e c hni que s t ha t i nc or por a t e m e nt a l p r a c t i c e M e nt a l pr a c t i c e i nvol ve s a s ki ng t he c hi l d t o s t udy t he m us i c s i l e nt l y a nd a s ki ng t he m t o he a r t he m us i c i n t he i r he a d a nd t h i nk a bout e a c h r hyt hm not e a nd f i nge r i ng. T he m us i c w i l l be a t a l e ve l e a s y e nough f or t he c hi l d t o pe r f or m s uc c e s s f ul l y i n a r e l a t i ve l y s hor t a m ount of t i m e T he pi e c e w i l l be t a ught by you r c hi l d s t e a c he r dur i ng t he nor m a l B a nd c l a s s pe r i od. T he s t udy w i l l t a ke pl a c e t w o da ys a w e e k f o r s i x c ons e c ut i ve w e e ks dur i ng t he m ont hs o f S e pt e m be r O c t obe r a nd N ove m be r W i t h your pe r m i s s i on, a n a udi o r e c or di ng w i l l be m a de of t he s t ude nt i ndi vi dua l l y pe r f or m i ng t he pi e c e on t he f i r s t a nd l a s t da y of t he s t udy. T he a udi ot a pe w i l l be a c c e s s i bl e onl y t o t he r e s e a r c h t e a m f or ve r i f i c a t i on pur pos e s A t t he e nd of t he s t udy, t he t a pe w i l l be e r a s e d. T he i de nt i t y of t he c hi l d r e n w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l t o t he e xt e nt pr ovi de d by l a w R e s ul t s w i l l onl y be r e por t e d i n t he f or m o f gr ou p da t a P a r t i c i pa t i on or non pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy w i l l not a f f e c t t he c hi l dr e n s gr a de s or p l a c e m e nt i n a ny pr ogr a m s Y ou a nd your c hi l d ha ve t he r i ght t o w i t hdr a w c on s e nt f or you r c hi l d s pa r t i c i pa t i on a t a ny t i m e w i t hout c ons e que nc e T he r e a r e no know n r i s ks or i m m e di a t e be ne f i t s t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s N o c om pe ns a t i on i s o f f e r e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on. G r oup r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy w i l l be a va i l a bl e i n M a y upon r e que s t I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol pl e a s e c ont a c t m e a t e i t he r ( 352) 392 0223 e xt 24 1 or s dgal y e n@uf l e du o r c ont a c t t he f a c ul t y s upe r vi s or D r R obi ns on, a t ( 352) 392 022 3 e xt 216 Q ue s t i ons or c onc e r ns a bout your c hi l d s r i ght s a s a r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt m a y b e di r e c t e d t o t he U F I R B of f i c e U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da B ox 112250 G a i ne s vi l l e F L 32611, ( 352 ) 392 0433 S D a ni e l G a l ye n s dgal y e n@uf l e du ( 352 ) 392 0223 e xt 241

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157 M E N TA L P R A C TI C E S TU D Y P E R M I S S I O N F O R M I ha ve r e a d t he pr oc e dur e de s c r i be d a bove I vol unt a r i l y gi ve m y c ons e nt f or m y c hi l d, _____ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ __ _, t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n S D a ni e l G a l ye n s s t udy of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e s ki l l s I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy of t hi s de s c r i pt i on. ____ ___ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ _____ ____ __ P a r e nt / G ua r di a n D a t e ____ ____ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ _____ ____ __ 2nd P a r e nt / W i t ne s s D a t e

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158 A P P E N D I X C C O R R E S P O N D E N C E W I T H T E A C H E R S L e t t e r t o T r e at m e n t G r ou p T e ac h e r s O u t l i n i n g R e s p on s i b i l i t i e s D e a r [ T e a c he r N a m e ] T ha nk you s o m uc h f or a gr e e i ng t o he l p m e w i t h t hi s pr oj e c t I know how bus y you a r e e s pe c i a l l y dur i ng t he m a r c hi n g ba nd s e a s on. P l e a s e know t ha t you r t i m e a nd e f f or t a r e s o gr e a t l y a ppr e c i a t e d a nd t ha t your he l p m e a ns a gr e a t de a l t o m e pe r s ona l l y. T hi s s t udy i s a n i nve s t i ga t i on o f t he e f f e c t o f s pe c i f i c pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s on t he pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nds a n d ba nd s t ude nt s Y ou ha ve be e n a s s i gne d t o a s pe c i f i c pr a c t i c e c ondi t i on, w hi c h I w i l l a s k you t o us e a s you r e he a r s e t w o s hor t pi e c e s w i t h your ba nd T he f i r s t pi e c e A l l e gr o, i s a uni s o n e t ude of a ppr oxi m a t e l y 72 m e a s ur e s T he s e c ond pi e c e i s a 24 m e a s u r e e xc e r pt f r om t he c onc e r t ba nd c om pos i t i on F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e by R obe r t S he l don. I a m a s ki ng you t o d o one w e e k of e xe r c i s e s pr i or t o be gi nni ng r e he a r s a l t he s e pi e c e s T he n you w i l l r e he a r s e t he pi e c e s i n t w o 15 m i nut e s e s s i ons e a c h w e e k, ove r a pe r i od of s i x w e e ks I h a ve pr ovi de d a r e he a r s a l s c r i pt f or you t o f ol l ow dur i ng r e he a r s a l a nd I w i l l c ont a c t you p r i or t o t he s t udy t o di s c us s t he s e s c r i pt s [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l c om e t o your c l a s s dur i ng t he w e e k p r i or a nd t he w e e k f ol l ow i ng t he s t udy. H e w i l l f i r s t r e c or d s t ude nt s i n di vi dua l l y a s t he y pe r f or m A l l e gr o. F ol l ow i ng t hi s he w i l l r e c or d t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e p e r f or m i ng t he s hor t e xc e r pt f r om F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e I w i l l ke e p i n c l os e c ont a c t w i t h you t hr oughout t h e t r e a t m e nt pe r i od t o he l p you a nd a ns w e r a ny que s t i ons P l e a s e do not he s i t a t e t o c on t a c t m e by phone or e m a i l a t a ny t i m e i f a ny c onc e r ns or que s t i ons a r i s e I ha ve t r i e d t o d e s i gn t hi s s t udy s o t ha t i t c a us e s a s l i t t l e i nt e r f e r e nc e f or you a s pos s i bl e P l e a s e l e t m e know i f yo u ha ve a ny s ugge s t i ons or c om m e nt s r e ga r di ng a ny a s pe c t of t hi s s t udy. Y our i nput a nd f e e dba c k a r e ve r y va l ua bl e t o m e T he f ol l ow i ng pa c ke t c ont a i ns a l l o f t he i nf or m a t i o n t ha t you s houl d ne e d f o r t he p r oj e c t I n t hi s pa c ke t you s houl d f i nd: 1. A t e n t at i ve s c h e d u l e f or t h e s t u d y

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159 2. S t u d e n t p e r m i s s i on f or m s ( 50 ) T he s e f or m s a r e r e qui r e d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a s w e l l a s t he R oa noke C ount y S c hool S ys t e m a nd s t ude nt s s houl d not be pul l e d i ndi vi dua l l y f r om c l a s s t o be r e c or de d unt i l t he y ha ve t ur ne d i n t hi s f o r m 3. S t u d e n t i n f or m at i o n f or m s ( 50) I nf or m a t i on pr ovi de d by s t ude nt s on t hi s f or m i s s t r i c t l y c onf i de nt i a l a nd w i l l on l y be s e e n by m e or ot he r m e m be r s of t he r e s e a r c h t e a m 4. A l l e gr o I ha ve t r i e d t o i nc l ude e nough c opi e s of t he p i e c e A l l e gr o f o r e ve r y s t ude nt i n your ba nd P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c opy pa r t s i f ne e de d. 5. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e I ha ve t r i e d t o i nc l ude e n ough pa r t s t o c ove r t he i ns t r u m e nt a t i on of your ba nd. Y ou w i l l onl y r e he a r s e / pe r f or m a n e xc e r pt f r om t hi s pi e c e be gi nni ng a t m e a s ur e 107 a nd goi ng t o t he e nd of t he pi e c e ( 24 m e a s ur e s ) T he r e f or e you ha ve onl y be e n pr ovi de d w i t h t he l a s t pa ge o f t hi s pi e c e 6. T e ac h e r M an u al ( b l ac k b i n d e r ) T hi s bi nde r c ont a i ns t he f ol l ow i ng: A n a ddi t i ona l c opy o f t he t e nt a t i ve s c he d ul e T e a c he r i ns t r uc t i ons T e a c he r s c r i pt s C onduc t or s s c or e t o A l l e gr o C onduc t or s s c or e t o F a l l R i v e r O v e r t ur e I w i l l c ont a c t you s oon t o di s c us s t he s c he dul e a nd t e a c hi ng s c r i pt s a nd t o pr ovi de m o r e de t a i l s r e ga r di ng t he p r oj e c t O nc e a ga i n, I c a nnot t h a nk you e nough f or you r he l p w i t h t hi s s t udy! T ha nks a ga i n, D a nny G a l ye n [ P e r s ona l c ont a c t i nf o r m a t i on]

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160 T E N T A T I V E S C H E D U L E A N D I N S T R U C T I O N S 1. M on d ay A u g u s t 29 2005 P a s s out s t ude nt p e r m i s s i on f or m s ( 2 a t t a c he d s he e t s ) P l e a s e r e a d t he f ol l ow i ng t o t he s t ude nt s be f or e pa s s i ng out t he i nf o r m a t i on f or m s : W E H A V E B E E N A S K E D T O P A R T I C I P A T E I N A R E S E A R C H P R O J E C T B E I N G D O N E A T T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A T H E S T U D Y W I L L L O O K A T T H E D I F F E R E N T W A Y S T H A T S T U D E N T S P R A C T I C E M U S I C [ T E S T A D M I N I S T R A T O R S N A M E ] W I L L B E C O M I N G T O O U R C L A S S I N A C O U P L E O F W E E K S T O R E C O R D U S S I G H T R E A D I N G A P I E C E F I R S T H E W I L L R E C O R D T H E E N T I R E B A N D S I G H T R E A D I N G A N D T H E N H E W I L L P U L L S O M E O F Y O U O U T O F C L A S S T O S I G H T R E A D A C O U P L E O F S H O R T P I E C E S I N D I V I D U A L L Y T H E N W E W I L L H A V E A C H A N C E T O P R A C T I C E T H E M U S I C F O R A B O U T S I X W E E K S [ T E S T A D M I N I S T R A T O R S N A M E ] W I L L C O M E B A C K A T T H E E N D O F T H E S I X W E E K S A N D R E C O R D Y O U P L A Y I N G T H E M U S I C A G A I N T H I S I S S O W E W I L L K N O W H O W M U C H Y O U H A V E I M P R O V E D O N T H E P I E C E S A F T E R P R A C T I C I N G T H E M N O N E O F T H I S I S F O R A G R A D E N O O N E W I L L K N O W Y O U R N A M E A N D N O O N E W I L L H E A R T H E R E C O R D I N G E X C E P T F O R T H E P E O P L E H E L P I N G W I T H T H E R E S E A R C H I A M G O I N G T O G I V E Y O U A L E T T E R A N D P E R M I S S I O N F O R M T H A T E X P L A I N S T H E S T U D Y P L E A S E T A K E T H I S H O M E A N D H A V E Y O U R P A R E N T S S I G N I T Y O U A L S O N E E D T O S I G N I T P L E A S E T U R N T H E F O R M S I N T O M E T H I S T H U R S D A Y S E P T E M B E R 1. 2. T h u r s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 1 2005 S t ude nt pe r m i s s i on f or m s due P l e as e ac c e p t an y l at e f or m s f r om s t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s m u s t t u r n i n a f or m b e f or e [ T e s t ad m i n i s t r at or s n am e ] c an p u l l t h e m f r o m c l as s an d as k t h e m t o p l ay i n d i vi d u a l l y. 3. T u e s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 6 P l e a s e ha ve s t ude nt s c om pl e t e t he ye l l ow s t ude nt i nf or m a t i on f or m s a t t he be gi nni ng of c l a s s a nd c o l l e c t t he s e f or m s 4. T u e s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 6 t h r ou gh F r i d ay S e p t e m b e r 16 ( A c t ua l da t e s t o be de t e r m i ne d) P r e t e s t i ng. [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t o r s na m e ] w i l l r e c or d t he ba nd s i ght r e a di ng F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e H e w i l l t he n pul l s om e s t ude n t s f r om c l a s s t o s i ght r e a d a c ou pl e o f s hor t pi e c e s i ndi vi dua l l y. T hi s s houl d not t a ke l on ge r t ha n t w o da ys 5. M on d ay S e p t e m b e r 12 B e gi n P r e l i m i na r y E xe r c i s e s [ G r oup 1 O nl y] 6. M on d ay S e p t e m b e r 19 R e he a r s a l s be gi n, T R E A T M E N T W E E K 1 7. M on d ay S e p t e m b e r 26 T R E A T M E N T W E E K 2 8. M on d ay O c t ob e r 3 T R E A T M E N T W E E K 3 9. M on d ay O c t ob e r 10 T R E A T M E N T W E E K 4 10. M on d ay O c t ob e r 17 T R E A T M E N T W E E K 5

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16 1 11. M on d ay O c t ob e r 24 T R E A T M E N T W E E K 6 F I N A L W E E K 12. We d n e s d ay, O c t ob e r 26 t h r o u gh F r i d ay, N o ve m b e r 4 ( A c t ua l da t e s t o be d e t e r m i ne d) P os t t e s t i ng. [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l r e c or d t he ba nd pe r f or m i ng F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e H e w i l l t he n pul l s om e s t ude n t s f r om c l a s s t o s i ght r e a d a pi e c e a nd pe r f or m A l l e gr o i ndi vi dua l l y T hi s s houl d not t a ke l onge r t ha n t w o da ys

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162 L e t t e r t o C on t r ol G r ou p T e ac h e r O u t l i n i n g R e s p on s i b i l i t i e s D e a r [ T e a c he r N a m e ] T ha nk you s o m uc h f or a gr e e i ng t o he l p m e w i t h t hi s pr oj e c t I know how bus y you a r e e s pe c i a l l y dur i ng t he m a r c hi ng ba nd s e a s on. P l e a s e know t ha t you r t i m e a nd e f f or t a r e s o gr e a t l y a ppr e c i a t e d a nd t ha t your he l p m e a ns a gr e a t de a l t o m e pe r s ona l l y. T he s t udy ha s c ha nge d s l i ght l y s i nc e w e s poke l a s t s pr i ng, a nd I t hi nk you w i l l l i ke t hi s ve r s i on be t t e r a s i t r e qui r e s l e s s t i m e a nd e f f or t T h i s s t u dy i s a n i nve s t i ga t i on of t he e f f e c t of s pe c i f i c pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s on t he pe r f or m a nc e of hi gh s c hool ba nds a nd ba nd s t ude nt s Y ou ha ve be e n a s s i gne d t o t he c ont r ol gr oup. [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l c om e t o your c l a s s dur i ng t he w e e k o f S e pt e m be r 6. H e w i l l f i r s t r e c or d s t ude nt s i ndi vi dua l l y a s t he y s i ght r e a d a c oupl e o f s hor t e t ude s F ol l ow i ng t h i s he w i l l r e c or d t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e s i ght r e a di ng a n e xc e r pt f r o m t he c onc e r t ba nd pi e c e F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e by R obe r t S he l don A f t e r a pe r i od of s i x w e e ks [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l r e t u r n t o r e c or d t he s a m e pi e c e s a s be f or e D ur i ng t he s i x w e e k i nt e r va l you a r e f r e e t o t e a c h you r c l a s s a s you nor m a l l y w oul d t he r e i s no t e a c hi ng a s s i gnm e nt f or you du r i ng t hi s t i m e [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l pr ovi de you w i t h t he m us i c w he n he a r r i ve s P l e a s e do not he s i t a t e t o c ont a c t m e by phone or e m a i l a t a ny t i m e i f a ny c onc e r ns o r que s t i ons a r i s e I ha ve t r i e d t o de s i gn t hi s s t udy s o t ha t i t c a us e s a s l i t t l e i nt e r f e r e nc e f o r you a s pos s i bl e P l e a s e l e t m e know i f you ha ve a n y s ugge s t i ons or c om m e nt s r e ga r di ng a ny a s pe c t of t hi s s t udy. Y our i nput a nd f e e dba c k a r e ve r y va l ua bl e t o m e A t t he e nd of t he pr oj e c t a ny r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s t ha t w e r e di s c ove r e d t o be be ne f i c i a l i n t he hi gh s c hool ba nd r e he a r s a l w i l l be m a de a va i l a bl e t o yo u a nd your s t ude nt s T he f ol l ow i ng pa c ke t c ont a i ns a l l o f t he i nf or m a t i o n t ha t you s houl d ne e d f o r t he p r oj e c t : 1. A t e n t at i ve s c h e d u l e f or t h e s t u d y 2. S t u d e n t p e r m i s s i on f or m s ( 50 ) T he s e f or m s a r e r e qui r e d by t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a s w e l l a s t he R oa noke C ount y S c hool S ys t e m a nd s t ude nt s s houl d not be pul l e d i ndi vi dua l l y f r o m c l a s s t o be r e c or de d un t i l t he y ha ve t ur ne d i n t hi s f or m P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o m a ke a ddi t i ona l c opi e s i f ne e de d. 3. S t u d e n t i n f or m at i o n f or m s ( 50) I nf or m a t i on pr ovi de d by s t ude nt s on t hi s f or m i s s t r i c t l y c onf i de nt i a l a nd w i l l onl y be s e e n b y m e or ot he r m e m be r s of t he r e s e a r c h t e a m P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o m a ke a ddi t i ona l c opi e s i f ne e de d. I w i l l c ont a c t you s oon t o di s c us s t he s c he dul e a nd t o pr ov i de m or e de t a i l s r e ga r di ng t he pr oj e c t O nc e a ga i n, I c a nnot t ha nk you e nough f or your he l p w i t h t hi s s t udy! T ha nks a ga i n, D a nny G a l ye n

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163 T E N T A T I V E S C H E D U L E A N D I N S T R U C T I O N S 1. M on d ay A u g u s t 29 2005 P l e a s e pa s s out s t u de nt pe r m i s s i on f or m s ( 2 a t t a c he d s he e t s ) P l e a s e r e a d t he f ol l ow i ng t o t he s t ude nt s b e f or e pa s s i ng out t he i n f or m a t i on f or m s : W E H A V E B E E N A S K E D T O P A R T I C I P A T E I N A R E S E A R C H P R O J E C T B E I N G D O N E A T T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A T H E S T U D Y W I L L L O O K A T T H E D I F F E R E N T W A Y S T H A T S T U D E N T S P R A C T I C E M U S I C [ T E S T A D M I N I S T R A T O R S N A M E ] W I L L B E C O M I N G T O O U R C L A S S I N A C O U P L E O F W E E K S T O R E C O R D U S S I G H T R E A D I N G A P I E C E F I R S T H E W I L L R E C O R D T H E E N T I R E B A N D S I G H T R E A D I N G A N D T H E N H E W I L L P U L L S O M E O F Y O U O U T O F C L A S S T O S I G H T R E A D A C O U P L E O F S H O R T P I E C E S I N D I V I D U A L L Y L A T E R I N T H E S E M E S T E R [ T E S T A D M I N I S T R A T O R S N A M E ] W I L L C O M E B A C K A N D R E C O R D Y O U P L A Y I N G T H E M U S I C A G A I N T H I S I S S O W E W I L L K N O W H O W M U C H Y O U H A V E I M P R O V E D O N T H E P I E C E S A F T E R P L A Y I N G I N C L A S S F O R S E V E R A L W E E K S N O N E O F T H I S I S F O R A G R A D E N O O N E W I L L K N O W Y O U R N A M E A N D N O O N E W I L L H E A R T H E R E C O R D I N G E X C E P T F O R T H E P E O P L E H E L P I N G W I T H T H E R E S E A R C H I A M G O I N G T O G I V E Y O U A L E T T E R A N D P E R M I S S I O N F O R M T H A T E X P L A I N S T H E S T U D Y P L E A S E T A K E T H I S H O M E A N D H A V E Y O U R P A R E N T S S I G N I T Y O U A L S O N E E D T O S I G N I T P L E A S E T U R N T H E F O R M S I N T O M E T H I S T H U R S D A Y S E P T E M B E R 1. 2. T h u r s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 1 2005 S t ude nt pe r m i s s i on f or m s due P l e as e ac c e p t an y l at e f or m s f r om s t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s m u s t t u r n i n a f or m b e f or e [ T e s t ad m i n i s t r a t or s n am e ] c an p u l l t h e m f r o m c l as s an d as k t h e m t o p l ay i n d i vi d u a l l y. 3. T u e s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 6 P l e a s e ha ve s t ude nt s c om pl e t e t he ye l l ow s t ude nt i nf or m a t i on f or m s a t t he be gi nni ng of c l a s s a nd c o l l e c t t he s e f or m s f r om s t ude nt s 4. T u e s d ay, S e p t e m b e r 6 t h r ou gh F r i d ay S e p t e m b e r 16 ( A c t ua l da t e s t o be de t e r m i ne d) P r e t e s t i ng. [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t o r s na m e ] w i l l r e c or d t he ba nd s i ght r e a di ng F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e H e w i l l t he n pul l s om e s t ude n t s f r om c l a s s t o s i ght r e a d a c oupl e o f s hor t pi e c e s i ndi vi dua l l y T hi s s houl d not t a ke l on ge r t ha n t w o da ys 5. We d n e s d ay, O c t ob e r 26 t h r o u gh F r i d ay, N ov e m b e r 4 ( A c t ua l da t e s t o be de t e r m i ne d) P os t t e s t i ng. [ T e s t a dm i ni s t r a t or s na m e ] w i l l r e c or d t he ba nd pe r f or m i ng F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e H e w i l l t he n pul l s om e s t ude nt s f r om c l a s s t o s i ght r e a d a c oupl e o f s hor t pi e c e s i ndi vi dua l l y. T hi s s houl d not t a ke l on ge r t ha n t w o da ys

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164 A P P E N D I X D I N D I V I D U A L P R E P A R E D P E R F O R M A N C E M E A S U R E A l l e gr o f r om C an on i c S on a t a N o 1 b y G e or ge T e l e m an n ( E xpr e s s i on a nd a r t i c ul a t i on m a r ki ngs w e r e a dde d by t he r e s e a r c he r )

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167 A P P E N D I X E T E A C H E R R E H E A R S A L S C R I P T S T e ac h e r S c r i p t : M e n t a l P r ac t i c e M e t h od G r ou p ( G r ou p 1) G R O U P 1 T E A C H E R S C R I P T A N D I N S T R U C T I O N S T ha nk you onc e a ga i n f or a gr e e i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. I t i s hope d t ha t t hi s s t udy w i l l p r ovi de i nf o r m a t i on on va r i ous p r a c t i c e t e c hni que s t ha t m a y be be ne f i c i a l t o hi gh s c hool ba nds P l e a s e us e t he f ol l ow i ng gui de l i ne s w he n r e he a r s i ng t he m us i c dur i ng t he s t udy pe r i od: 1. Y our i nvol ve m e nt i n t he s t udy w i l l l a s t a pp r oxi m a t e l y s e ve n w e e ks 2. Y our a c t i vi t i e s a r e di v i de d i nt o t w o pa r t s : a pr e l i m i na r y w e e k of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e xe r c i s e s f ol l ow e d by s i x w e e ks of r e he a r s a l us i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e 3. D ur i ng t he w e e k o f p r e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e s pl e a s e t a ke t he e ns e m bl e t hr ough t he e xe r c i s e s pr ovi de d on t he f ol l ow i ng pa ge s E a c h pr e l i m i na r y e xe r c i s e t a ke s a bout t e n t o f i f t e e n m i nut e s 4. O ve r t he s i x r e he a r s a l w e e ks pl e a s e r e he a r s e t he m us i c pr ovi de d f o r t w o da ys e a c h w e e k f or 20 m i nut e s e a c h da y. I f pos s i bl e s pr e a d out t he r e he a r s a l s s o t ha t t he y a r e not on c ons e c ut i ve da ys F or e xa m pl e a n i de a l s c he dul e w oul d be t o r e he a r s e t he m us i c on T ue s da ys a nd T hu r s da ys 5. P l e a s e pl a c e t he 20 m i nut e r e he a r s a l s e gm e nt a t t h e be gi nni ng of t he c l a s s pe r i od, a f t e r t he r e gul a r w a r m up/ t uni ng ha s t a ke n pl a c e 6. T he t w o pi e c e s be i ng r e he a r s e d f or t he s t udy a r e A l l e gr o by T e l e m a nn a nd a n e xc e r pt f r om F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e by R obe r t S he l d on. T he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt w i l l be f r om m e a s ur e 107 t o t he e nd of t he pi e c e ( 24 t ot a l m e a s ur e s ) 7. T he f ol l ow i ng t e a c he r s c r i pt s a r e de s i gne d t o gui de you t hr ough e a c h r e he a r s a l I ns t r uc t i ons pr i nt e d i n a l l c a pi t a l l e t t e r s s houl d be r e a d t o t he s t ude nt I ns t r uc t i ons i n r e gul a r l e t t e r i ng s e r ve t o gui de t he t e a c he r t h r ou gh t he s c r i pt 8. E a c h 20 m i nut e r e he a r s a l s e gm e nt i s de s i gne d t o d i vi de t he t i m e e ve nl y s o t ha t e a c h pi e c e i s r e he a r s e d f or a pp r oxi m a t e l y t e n m i nu t e s 9. O n t he f i r s t da y of r e he a r s a l pl e a s e m a ke t he f ol l o w i ng s t a t e m e nt : W E A R E G O I N G T O P L A Y A L L E G R O A N D F A L L R I V E R O V E R T U R E A S P A R T O F A R E S E A R C H S T U D Y B A S I C A L L Y W E H A V E 6 W E E K S T O P R A C T I C E T H E S E P I E C E S T O S E E H O W W E L L W E C A N P L A Y T H E M A T T H E E N D O F S I X W E E K S W E W I L L B E R E C O R D E D P L A Y I N G T H E P I E C E S 10. A s i de f r om t hi s a nnounc e m e nt dur i ng r e he a r s a l s p l e a s e do not dr a w e xt r a a t t e nt i on t o t he f a c t t ha t t he m us i c i s be i ng pl a ye d f or a r e s e a r c h s t udy. 11. I f s t ude nt s a s k w ha t w e a r e s t udyi ng or i nqui r e f ur t he r a bout t he s t udy, pl e a s e s a y: A R E S E A R C H E R F R O M T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I S L O O K I N G A T

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168 D I F F E R E N T W A Y S T H A T P E O P L E P R A C T I C E I f pos s i bl e pl e a s e do not e l a bor a t e f ur t he r on t he pur pos e of t he e xpe r i m e nt 12. D ur i ng t he r e he a r s a l s pl e a s e do not d r a w a ny a t t e n t i on t o t he f a c t t ha t you m a y be us i ng r e he a r s a l t e c hni que s t ha t a r e di f f e r e nt o r unu s ua l D ur i ng t he s t udy, i f you a r e a s ke d t o us e a n unus ua l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que a p pr oa c h t hi s a s i f i t w e r e a c om pl e t e l y nor m a l pa r t of your ow n t e a c hi ng a nd not a t e c hni que be i ng r e que s t e d of you by r e s e a r c he r s 13. D ur i ng r e he a r s a l p l e a s e do not s i ngl e out a ny s t ud e nt t o pl a y i ndi vi dua l l y. Y ou m a y r e he a r s e di f f e r e nt s e c t i ons ( e g. t he c l a r i ne t s e c t i on) but not i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s 14. I w i l l m a i nt a i n c l os e c ont a c t w i t h you t h r oughout t he t r e a t m e nt pe r i od I f a ny c onc e r ns a r i s e pl e a s e c ont a c t m e i m m e di a t e l y a t [ pe r s ona l c ont a c t i nf or m a t i on ]

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169 G R O U P 1 P R E L I M I N A R Y WE E K D A Y 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T O M E N T A L P R A C T I C E P l e a s e r e a d t he f ol l ow i ng s c r i pt t o t he s t ude nt s : T O D A Y W E A R E G O I N G T O S T A R T T A L K I N G A B O U T H O W T O U S E M E N T A L P R A C T I C E T O I M P R O V E O U R P L A Y I N G W H E N I S A Y M E N T A L P R A C T I C E I M E A N T H A T Y O U B A S I C A L L Y I M A G I N E Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T W I T H O U T A C T U A L L Y P L A Y I N G I T W H E N Y O U W A T C H A P R O F E S S I O N A L B A S K E T B A L L G A M E O N T V A T S O M E P O I N T I N T H E G A M E A P L A Y E R W I L L S T E P U P T O T H E F O U L L I N E T O S H O O T F O U L S H O T S L O T S O F T I M E S Y O U W I L L S E E T H E P L A Y E R S T A N D A T T H E L I N E A N D P A U S E F O R A C O U P L E O F S E C O N D S B E F O R E S H O O T I N G T H E B A L L W H A T D O Y O U T H I N K I S G O I N G O N I N T H E P L A Y E R S M I N D D U R I N G T H O S E S E C O N D S B E F O R E T H E Y S H O O T T H E B A L L ? T H E Y A R E W A T C H I N G A M E N T A L V I D E O O F T H E M S E L V E S M A K I N G T H E B A S K E T I N O T H E R W O R D S T H E Y A R E I M A G I N I N G W H A T T H E P E R F E C T F O U L S H O T L O O K S L I K E R I G H T B E F O R E T H E Y T A K E T H E S H O T T H E S A M E T H I N G H A P P E N S W H E N Y O U W A T C H A F O O T B A L L G A M E W H E N T H E K I C K E R C O M E S O U T T O K I C K A F I E L D G O A L Y O U U S U A L L Y S E E H I M O F F B Y H I M S E L F N O T S P E A K I N G T O A N Y O N E H E L O O K S L I K E S H E I S D E E P L Y F O C U S E D D U R I N G T H I S T I M E T H E K I C K E R I S I M A G I N I N G H I M S E L F M A K I N G T H E P E R F E C T K I C K I N T H E M O M E N T S R I G H T B E F O R E H E K I C K S T H E F I E L D G O A L G O L F E R S D O I T B E F O R E T H E Y D R I V E T H E B A L L T E N N I S P L A Y E R S D O I T B E F O R E T H E Y S E R V E T H E B A L L A N D B A S E B A L L P I T C H E R S D O I T B E F O R E T H E Y T H R O W A P I T C H A L L O F T H E S E A T H L E T E S A R E A B L E T O I M A G I N E T H E M S E L V E S P E R F O R M I N G T H E T A S K S U C C E S S F U L L Y I N T H E I R M I N D S A N D B E C A U S E O F T H I S T H E I R B O D I E S A R E B E T T E R A B L E T O D O W H A T T H E Y H A V E M E N T A L L Y P R A C T I C E D W H Y D O Y O U T H I N K T H I S W O R K S ? W H Y D O E S M E N T A L P R A C T I C E H E L P T H E M P E R F O R M B E T T E R ? ( A l l ow s t ude nt s t o r e s pond) H E R E S W H Y M E N T A L P R A C T I C E H E L P S P E O P L E T O P E R F O R M : W H E N Y O U P H Y S I C A L L Y D O S O M E T H I N G L I K E P L A Y I N G A N I N S T R U M E N T C E R T A I N P A R T S O F Y O U R B R A I N A R E A C T I V A T E D

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170 W H E N Y O U I M A G I N E Y O U R S E L F D O I N G S O M E T H I N G A N D Y O U A R E R E A L L Y C O N C E N T R A T I N G O N I T Y O U R B R A I N I S A L S O A C T I V A T E D S I M I L A R T O T H E W A Y T H A T I T I S W H E N Y O U A R E A C T U A L L Y D O I N G I T S O Y O U R B R A I N S H O W S S O M E O F T H E S A M E A C T I V I T Y W H E N Y O U A R E I M A G I N I N G Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T T H A T I T D O E S W H E N Y O U A R E A C T U A L L Y P L A Y I N G O V E R T H E N E X T C O U P L E O F D A Y S W E A R E G O I N G T O D O S O M E E X E R C I S E S T H A T W I L L H E L P Y O U T O M E N T A L P R A C T I C E O N Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T W E L L D O O N E O F T H O S E E X E R C I S E S R I G H T N O W I m age r y E xe r c i s e T he f ol l ow i ng e xe r c i s e i s de s i gne d t o p r ovi de s t ud e nt s w i t h a n i ni t i a l e xpe r i e nc e w i t h ba s i c i m a ge r y. P l e a s e r e a d t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i o ns t o t he s t ude nt s : F I R S T I W A N T Y O U T O I M A G I N E W H A T A N O R A N G E L O O K S L I K E D O Y O U H A V E T H A T I M A G E I N Y O U R H E A D ? T R Y T O M A K E I T A S C L E A R A P I C T U R E A S P O S S I B L E N O T I C E A L L T H E D E T A I L S O F T H E O R A N G E ( P a us e br i e f l y f o r s t ude nt s t o i m a gi ne t hi s pi c t ur e ) N O W C H O O S E A F A M I L Y M E M B E R A N D I M A G I N E W H A T T H E I R F A C E L O O K S L I K E T R Y T O I M A G I N E T H E P E R S O N S F A C E I N G R E A T D E T A I L A N D T R Y T O M A K E T H E P I C T U R E A S C L E A R A S P O S S I B L E ( P a us e br i e f l y f o r s t ude nt s t o i m a gi ne t hi s pi c t u r e ) W H E N Y O U C A N S E E S O M E T H I N G I N Y O U R H E A D W I T H O U T I T A C T U A L L Y B E I N G H E R E T H A T I S C A L L E D I M A G E R Y L E T S D O A N O T H E R I M A G E R Y E X E R C I S E L O O K A T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T R I G H T N O W A N D T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E E X C A T L Y W H A T I T L O O K S L I K E N O W C L O S E Y O U R E Y E S I M A G I N E W H A T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T L O O K S L I K E T H I S S H O U L D B E E A S Y B E C A U S E Y O U J U S T L O O K E D A T I T N O W J U S T R E C A L L T H A T I M A G E N O W K E E P I M A G I N I N G T H A T P I C T U R E O F Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T B U T I W A N T Y O U T O C H A N G E I T S C O L O R T O B L U E ( P a us e ) N O W C H A N G E I T S C O L O R T O R E D ( P a us e ) N O W C H A N G E I T T O G R E E N ( P a us e ) N O W M A K E I T T U R N B A C K T O T H E O R I G I N A L C O L O R G O O D

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171 N O W K E E P I M A G I N I N G T H A T P I C T U R E O F Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T B U T I W A N T Y O U T O M A K E I T S L O W L Y G R O W B I G G E R A N D B I G G E R I N S I Z E I M A G I N E T H A T I T I S A S B I G A S A C A R N O W S L O W L Y S H R I N K I T D O W N T O T H E T I N I E S T S I Z E M A K E I T V E R Y T I N Y A B O U T T H E S I Z E O F A P A P E R C L I P A N D H O L D Y O U R T I N Y I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R H A N D ( P a us e ) G O O D N O W O P E N Y O U R E Y E S I M A G E R Y D O E S N T J U S T H A P P E N W I T H S E E I N G I M A G E S Y O U C A N I M A G I N E S O U N D S M E L L T O U C H A N D M O V E M E N T L E T S P R A C T I C E H E A R I N G M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D T H I S H A P P E N S A L L T H E T I M E W H E N Y O U S A Y I C A N T G E T T H A T S O N G O U T O F M Y H E A D I M A G I N E A G R O U P O F P E O P L E S I N G I N G H A P P Y B I R T H D A Y ( P a us e ) C A N Y O U H E A R T H E S O N G I N Y O U R H E A D ? N O W I M A G I N E T H E S O N G A T T H I S T E M P O ( G i ve t he t e m po f o r m m = 120 w i t h a m e t r onom e a nd t ur n i t o f f P a us e w hi l e t he s t ude nt s i m a gi ne t he s ong a t t ha t s pe e d. ) G O O D N O W I M A G I N E T H E S O N G B E I N G S U N G A T A T E R R I B L Y S L O W T E M P O A S I F A L L T H E P E O P L E W E R E M O V I N G I N S L O W M O T I O N ( P a us e ) N O W I M A G I N E T H A T T H O S E P E O P L E A R E S I N G I N G H A P P Y B I R T H D A Y A T T H E T O P S O F T H E I R L U N G S T H E Y A R E P R A C T I C A L L Y Y E L L I N G T H E S O N G ( P a us e ) N O W I M A G I N E T H E M S I N G I N G I T V E R Y S O F T L Y A L M O S T A W H I S P E R ( P a us e ) G O O D T O D A Y W E T A L K E D A B O U T I M A G I N I N G B O T H V I S U A L I M A G E S A N D S O U N D T O M O R R O W W E W I L L C O N T I N U E W I T H S O M E M O R E M E N T A L P R A C T I C E E X E R C I S E S

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172 G R O U P 1 P R E L I M I N A R Y WE E K D A Y 2 A U R A L I M A G E R Y P l e a s e r e a d t he f ol l ow i ng s c r i pt t o t he s t ude nt s : Y E S T E R D A Y W E T A L K E D A B O U T M E N T A L P R A C T I C E W E A L S O T A L K E D A B O U T D I F F E R E N T T Y P E S O F I M A G E R Y W H E N Y O U I M A G I N E A V I S U A L I M A G E S U C H A S A P I C T U R E O F A F R I E N D S F A C E I T I S C A L L E D V I S U A L I M A G E R Y W H E N Y O U I M A G I N E S O U N D S L I K E T H E S O U N D O F P E O P L E S I N G I N G H A P P Y B I R T H D A Y I T I S C A L L E D A U R A L I M A G E R Y B E C A U S E A U R A L I M A G E R Y D E A L S W I T H S O U N D W E W I L L U S E I T A L O T I N P R A C T I C I N G M U S I C L E T S P R A C T I C E S O M E A U R A L I M A G E R Y S K I L L S N O W W r i t e t he f o l l ow i ng r hyt hm on t he boa r d: T he n s a y: L E T S P L A Y T H I S R H Y T H M O N A N F C O N C E R T P I T C H H a ve t he gr oup pl a y t he r hyt hm w hi l e you c onduc t T he n s a y: P L A Y I T A G A I N A N D T H I S T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E T H E S O U N D O F T H E B A N D A S I T P L A Y S H a ve t he gr oup pl a y t he r hyt hm w hi l e you c onduc t T he n s a y: N O W T H I S T I M E D O N T P L A Y I A M G O I N G T O C O N D U C T A N D I W A N T Y O U T O H E A R T H E B A N D P L A Y I N G T H E R H Y T H M I N Y O U R H E A D I T S L I K E P L A Y I N G A M E N T A L T A P E O F W H A T Y O U J U S T P L A Y E D C onduc t t he r hyt hm w hi l e t he g r oup t r i e s t o pl a y i t m e nt a l l y T he n s a y: W E R E Y O U A B L E T O H E A R T H E B A N D I N Y O U R H E A D ? C O U L D Y O U H E A R T H E A C C E N T S A N D S T A C C A T O M A R K S ? T R Y I T A G A I N C onduc t t he r hyt hm w hi l e t he g r oup t r i e s t o pl a y i t m e nt a l l y T he n s a y:

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173 T H I S T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O P L A Y T H E R H Y T H M T H R E E T I M E S I N A R O W T H E F I R S T T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O P L A Y I T T H E S E C O N D T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O I M A G I N E I T W I T H O U T P L A Y I N G A N D T H E T H I R D T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O P L A Y I T A G A I N S O T H E S E Q U E N C E I S P L A Y I M A G I N E P L A Y I W I L L C O N D U C T T H E W H O L E T I M E C onduc t t he r hyt hm t hr e e t i m e s i n a r ow w i t hout s t oppi ng. T he n s a y: G O O D L E T S T R Y I T O N E M O R E T I M E C ond uc t t he r hyt hm t hr e e t i m e s i n a r ow w i t hout s t oppi ng. T he n s a y: N O W I W A N T Y O U T O T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E W H A T C E R T A I N I N S T R U M E N T S S O U N D L I K E F O R E X A M P L E I W A N T Y O U T O B E A B L E T O I M A G I N E T H E D I F F E R E N C E B E T W E E N A F L U T E S O U N D A N D A S A X O P H O N E S O U N D L E T S P R A C T I C E I T N O W W E W I L L D O T H E S A M E T H I N G A S B E F O R E W E L L D O T H E R H Y T H M T H R E E T I M E S W E W I L L P L A Y I T O N C E I M A G I N E I T O N C E A N D T H E N P L A Y I T A G A I N T H E D I F F E R E N C E I S T H I S T I M E I M G O I N G T O C H O O S E A S E C T I O N O F T H E B A N D T O P L A Y T H E R H Y T H M A N D O N L Y T H A T S E C T I O N W I L L P L A Y I W A N T Y O U T O L I S T E N T O T H A T S E C T I O N A N D M E M O R I Z E T H E S O U N D O F T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D W H E N Y O U I M A G I N E I T I W A N T Y O U T O R E P R O D U C E T H A T S O U N D I N Y O U R M I N D E X A C T L Y A S Y O U H E A R D I T T H E F I R S T I N S T R U M E N T T O P L A Y W I L L B E F L U T E C onduc t t he r hyt hm t hr e e t i m e s i n a r ow w i t hout s t oppi ng. O nl y t he f l ut e s pl a y t he f i r s t t i m e t he s t ude nt s i m a gi ne a f l u t e s ound t he s e c ond t i m e a nd t he f l ut e s pl a y t he r hyt hm on t he t hi r d a nd f i na l t i m e T he n s a y: W A S E V E R Y O N E A B L E T O H E A R T H E S O U N D O F T H E F L U T E ? G O O D L E T S T R Y A N O T H E R R e pe a t t he e xe r c i s e w i t h t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons t o pl a y t he r hyt hm C l a r i ne t T r um pe t A l t o S a x T r om bone T uba M a l l e t P e r c us s i on T he n s a y: N O W I W A N T T O R E P E A T T H I S E X E R C I S E W I T H E V E R Y O N E P L A Y I N G T H E R H Y T H M N O T I C E H O W A L L T H E S O U N D S T H A T Y O U J U S T H E A R D

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174 C O M B I N E T O M A K E T H E E N S E M B L E S O U N D M E M O R I Z E T H I S E N S E M B L E S O U N D C onduc t t he r hyt hm t hr e e t i m e s i n a r ow w i t hout s t oppi ng. T he n s a y: G O O D J O B D U R I N G T H E R E S T O F T H E D A Y T R Y T O P R A C T I C E H E A R I N G D I F F E R E N T S O N G S I N Y O U R H E A D T R Y T A K I N G A R O C K S O N G Y O U L I K E A L O T A N D H E A R I N G I T P L A Y E D B Y D I F F E R E N T I N S T R U M E N T S Y O U C O U L D T R Y I M A G I N I N G T H A T A R O C K S O N G I S B E I N G P L A Y E D B Y A S Y M P H O N Y O R B Y A M A R C H I N G B A N D I F T H E S O N G I S S U N G B Y A M A N I M A G I N E A W O M A N S I N G I N G I T A N D V I C E V E R S A Y O U C O U L D A L S O I M A G I N E T H E S O N G B E I N G P L A Y E D A T A R E A L L Y S L O W O R R E A L L Y F A S T T E M P O T H E M O R E Y O U U S E Y O U R A U R A L I M A G E R Y T H E B E T T E R Y O U L L B E A T I T T O M O R R O W W E W I L L T R Y S O M E D I F F E R E N T E X E R C I S E S

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175 G R O U P 1 P R E L I M I N A R Y WE E K D A Y 3 D E V E L O P I N G A U R A L A N D V I S U A L I M A G E R Y I n t hi s e xe r c i s e s t ude nt s w i l l be s how n a r hyt hm a nd t he n t he r hyt hm w i l l be r e m ove d. A f t e r a b r i e f pe r i od o f t i m e s t ude nt s w i l l be a s ke d t o pl a y t he r hyt hm T he pur pos e of t hi s e xe r c i s e i s t ha t i n o r de r t o r e m e m be r t he r hyt h m onc e i t i s t a ke n a w a y, s t ude nt s w i l l ha ve t o e i t he r s i ng i t i n t he i r he a ds m a i nt a i n a vi s u a l pi c t ur e of t he r hyt hm or bot h. I f t he r hyt hm s be c om e t oo di f f i c ul t f or t he s t ude nt s t o r e m e m be r you m a y s i m pl i f y t hi s e xe r c i s e by us i ng onl y one o r t w o m e a s ur e s of t he t hr e e m e a s ur e r hyt hm W r i t e t he f o l l ow i ng r hyt hm on t he bl a c kboa r d or o ve r he a d: G i ve t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i on: P L E A S E L O O K A T T H E R H Y T H M O N T H E B O A R D S T U D Y I T C A R E F U L L Y B E C A U S E I A M A B O U T T O E R A S E I T A N D Y O U A R E G O I N G T O H A V E T O P L A Y I T W a i t be t w e e n f i f t e e n t o t w e nt y s e c onds a nd e r a s e t he r hyt hm c om pl e t e l y T he n w a i t a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i f t e e n s e c onds a nd t he n a s k t he s t ude nt s t o pl a y t he r hyt hm on a n F c onc e r t pi t c h. T he n s a y: G O O D W E A R E G O I N G T O D O T H I S S E V E R A L M O R E T I M E S I A M G O I N G T O G I V E Y O U A R H Y T H M A N D Y O U W I L L H A V E A C O U P L E O F S E C O N D S T O S T U D Y I T T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E W H A T I T L O O K S L I K E A N D W H A T I T S O U N D S L I K E T H E N I W I L L E R A S E I T I W I L L W A I T F O R A P E R I O D O F T I M E B E F O R E I A S K Y O U T O P L A Y I T D U R I N G T H E T I M E T H A T Y O U A R E W A I T I N G T O P L A Y Y O U S H O U L D T R Y T O S I N G T H E R H Y T H M O V E R A N D O V E R I N Y O U R H E A D A N D T R Y T O C O N T I N U E T O S E E W H A T I T L O O K E D L I K E H E R E I S T H E N E X T R H Y T H M W r i t e t he ne xt r hyt hm on t he boa r d. G i ve t he s t ude nt s a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i f t e e n t o t w e nt y s e c onds t o s t udy i t a nd t he n e r a s e i t W a i t a ppr oxi m a t e l y f i f t e e n s e c onds a nd t he n a s k t he s t ude nt s t o pl a y t he r hy t hm I f you f e e l t ha t t he r hy t hm s a r e t oo di f f i c ul t you m a y us e onl y t he f i r s t t w o m e a s ur e s of e a c h e xa m pl e U s e t he f ol l ow i ng r hyt hm s :

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177 G R O U P 1 P R E L I M I N A R Y WE E K D A Y 4 I N T R O D U C T I O N T O M O T O R I M A G E R Y P l e a s e gi ve t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i ons t o t he s t ude nt s : T H E P A S T C O U P L E O F D A Y S W E H A V E U S E D V I S U A L I M A G E R Y T O I M A G I N E P I C T U R E S A N D A U R A L I M A G E R Y T O I M A G I N E S O U N D S T O D A Y W E A R E G O I N G T O U S E A T H I R D T Y P E O F I M A G E R Y C A L L E D M O T O R I M A G E R Y M O T O R I M A G E R Y I N V O L V E S T R Y I N G T O I M A G I N E H O W S O M E T H I N G F E E L S W I T H O U T A C T U A L L Y D O I N G I T I F I A S K E D A P R O F E S S I O N A L B A S K E T B A L L P L A Y E R T O I M A G I N E W H A T I T F E E L S L I K E T O M A K E A F O U L S H O T H E O R S H E W O U L D B E A B L E T O I M A G I N E T H E F E E L I N G O F E A C H M U S C L E U S E D T O M A K E T H E B A S K E T W E C A N D O S O M E T H I N G S I M I L A R I N M U S I C L E T S D O A N E X E R C I S E W I T H M O T O R I M A G E R Y N O W H O L D Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N P L A Y I N G P O S I T I O N N O W P L A Y A B b C O N C E R T S C A L E C onduc t t he s t ude nt s i n a B b C onc e r t s c a l e N O W I W A N T Y O U T O J U S T A I R A N D F I N G E R T H E S C A L E Y O U W I L L D O T H E F I N G E R I N G S A N D B L O W A I R T H R O U G H T H E I N S T R U M E N T B U T D O N O T P L A Y F O R P E R C U S S I O N I S T S Y O U W I L L M O V E T H E M A L L E T S O V E R T H E R I G H T B A R S A S I F Y O U W E R E G O I N G T O S T R I K E T H E M B U T D O N T A C T U A L L Y H I T T H E M T R Y T O H E A R T H E S C A L E I N Y O U R H E A D A S W E D O T H I S C onduc t t he s t ude nt s i n a s i l e nt B b C onc e r t s c a l e a s t he y f i nge r a nd bl ow a i r N O W C O N T I N U E T O H O L D Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T U P A N D L E A V E Y O U R F I N G E R S O N T H E K E Y S B U T D O N T M O V E T H E M A T A L L W E W I L L D O T H E S C A L E W I T H A I R O N L Y T R Y T O I M A G I N E W H A T Y O U R F I N G E R S W O U L D F E E L L I K E A S T H E Y P L A Y T H E S C A L E B U T D O N T A C T U A L L Y M O V E T H E M H E A R T H E S C A L E I N Y O U R H E A D A S W E D O T H I S C O N C E N T R A T E O N I M A G I N I N G T H E F E E L I N G O F Y O U R H A N D S A N D F I N G E R S C onduc t t he s t ud e nt s i n a s i l e nt B b C onc e r t s c a l e a s t he y bl ow a i r onl y. N O W P L A C E Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P R E M O V E Y O U R H A N D S F R O M T H E I N S T R U M E N T S O T H A T Y O U R H A N D S A R E N O T T O U C H I N G I T I W I L L S I N G T H E S C A L E A N D Y O U W I L L I M A G I N E Y O U R F I N G E R S M O V I N G T R Y T O F E E L T H E M U S C L E S T I G H T E N I N G I N S I D E Y O U R F I N G E R S A S T H E Y A R E M O V E D B U T D O N T A C T U A L L Y M O V E T H E M

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178 C onduc t a nd s i ng t he s c a l e a s s t ude nt s i m a gi ne t he m us c l e m ove m e nt s W E R E Y O U A B L E T O I M A G I N E T H E F E E L I N G O F Y O U R F I N G E R S M O V I N G T O T H E R I G H T P O S I T I O N S ? T R Y P R A C T I C I N G T H I S T E C H N I Q U E A T H O M E T O M O R R O W W E W I L L T R Y A N O T H E R M E N T A L P R A C T I C E E X E R C I S E

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179 G R O U P 1 P R E L I M I N A R Y WE E K D A Y 5 I N T E R N A L A N D E X T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S P l e a s e gi ve t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i ons t o t he s t ude nt s : W H E N A P R O F E S S I O N A L B A S K E T B A L L P L A Y E R I M A G I N E S M A K I N G A F O U L S H O T H E O F T E N D O E S M E N T A L P R A C T I C E B Y T R Y I N G T O S E E H I M S E L F M A K I N G T H E S H O T T H E R E A R E T W O W A Y S T H A T T H E P L A Y E R C A N S E E H I M S E L F F I R S T H E C A N I M A G I N E T H E F O U L S H O T F R O M O U T S I D E O F H I S O W N B O D Y A S I F H E W E R E W A T C H I N G H I M S E L F O N T V O R H E C O U L D I M A G I N E T H E F O U L S H O T F R O M I N S I D E H I M S E L F S E E I N G T H E S H O T A S I T W O U L D L O O K F R O M H I S O W N E Y E S W H E N Y O U S E E Y O U R S E L F F R O M O U T S I D E O F Y O U R O W N B O D Y A S I F Y O U W E R E I N T H E A U D I E N C E W A T C H I N G Y O U R S E L F I T I S C A L L E D E X T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E W H E N Y O U S E E Y O U R S E L F D O I N G S O M E T H I N G J U S T A S Y O U W O U L D S E E I T F R O M Y O U R O W N E Y E S I T I S C A L L E D I N T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E L E T S P R A C T I C E B O T H P L A Y A B b C O N C E R T S C A L E C onduc t t he s t ude nt s i n a B b C onc e r t s c a l e N O W W E A R E G O I N G T O I M A G I N E T H A T Y O U A R E A B O U T T O P E R F O R M T H A T S C A L E O N T H E S T A G E O F T H E S C H O O L A U D I T O R I U M F O R A F U L L A U D I E N C E I W A N T Y O U T O I M A G I N E T H I S U S I N G A N E X T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O I M A G I N E I T A S I F Y O U W E R E A N A U D I E N C E M E M B E R W A T C H I N G Y O U R S E L F P E R F O R M O N S T A G E N O W C L O S E Y O U R E Y E S I M A G I N E Y O U R S E L F W A L K I N G O N T O T H E S T A G E O F O U R S C H O O L A U D I T O R I U M N O W I M A G I N E Y O U R S E L F P U T T I N G Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T U P T O Y O U R M O U T H A N D H E A R A N D S E E Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G T H E S C A L E P E R F E C T L Y P a us e w hi l e s t ude nt s i m a gi ne t hi s s c e ne G O O D W A S E V E R Y O N E A B L E T O S E E A N D H E A R T H E P E R F O R M A N C E ? I T S H O U L D B E L I K E W A T C H I N G A M O V I E O F Y O U R S E L F

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180 N O W I W A N T Y O U T O I M A G I N E T H A T S C E N E F R O M A D I F F E R E N T P E R S P E C T I V E F R O M T H E I N T E R N A L O R 1S T P E R S O N P E R S P E C T I V E T R Y T O S E E T H E W H O L E P E R F O R M A N C E F R O M Y O U R O W N E Y E S N O W W A L K O N T H E S T A G E A N D L O O K O U T I N T O T H E A U D I E N C E N O W I M A G I N E P L A C I N G T H E I N S T R U M E N T T O Y O U R L I P S A N D H E A R A N D S E E Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G T H E S C A L E P E R F E C T L Y P a us e w hi l e s t ude nt s i m a gi ne t hi s s c e ne T he n s a y: G O O D T H I S W E E K W E H A V E T A L K E D A L O T A B O U T M E N T A L P R A C T I C E W E H A V E D I S C U S S E D D I F F E R E N T T Y P E S O F I M A G E R Y V I S U A L I M A G E R Y A U R A L I M A G E R Y A N D M O T O R I M A G E R Y W E H A V E T A L K E D A B O U T S E E I N G Y O U R S E L F F R O M A N I N T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E O R A N E X T E R N A L P E R S P E C T I V E W E H A V E A L S O P R A C T I C E D H E A R I N G M U S I C I N O U R H E A D S Y O U C A N U S E A L L O F T H E S E T E C H N I Q U E S T O H E L P Y O U R S E L F P L A Y Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T B E T T E R M A K E S U R E T O T R Y T H E M O N Y O U R O W N T H E M O R E Y O U U S E T H E M T H E B E T T E R Y O U W I L L B E A T T H E M A N D T H E M O R E T H E Y C A N H E L P Y O U

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181 G R O U P 1 WE E K O N E D A Y O N E M a ke s ur e t ha t e a c h s t ude nt ha s a c opy of t he m us i c t o A l l e gr o a nd F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e A l l e gr o 1. P oi nt out t he ke y s i gna t ur e of A l l e gr o. 2. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 92) w i t h a m e t r onom e A l l ow t he m e t r onom e t o s ound f or 16 be a t s 3. P l a y t hr ou gh A l l e gr o f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s how e ve r i f t he gr oup i s una bl e pl a y t h r ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e s t op a nd r e s t a r t a t a l og i c a l pl a c e I f ne c e s s a r y, you m a y s l ow t he t e m po dow n i n or de r t o m a ke i t t h r ough t he f i r s t r e a di ng 4. W he n f i ni s he d, go ba c k a nd pl a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e I f pos s i bl e do not s t op dur i ng t hi s s e c ond r e a di ng 5. P r ovi de ge ne r a l c om m e nt s on r hyt h m s a nd pi t c he s onl y. Y ou m a y s i ng o r c ount a ny r hyt hm D o not a s k t he s t ude nt s t o s i ng or c ount a nd do not f i x a ny dy na m i c s or a r t i c ul a t i ons a t t hi s poi nt 6. P l a y t hr ough A l l e gr o a t hi r d a nd f i na l t i m e F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. P oi nt out t he ke y s i gna t ur e of F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e a t 107. 2. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e A l l ow t he m e t r onom e t o s ound f or 16 be a t s 3. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 4. D o not pr ovi de c om m e nt s a t t hi s t i m e 5. P l a y f r om 107 t o t he e nd a ga i n.

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182 G R O U P 1 WE E K O N E D A Y T WO A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e f or 1 6 be a t s 2. P l a y t hr ough A l l e gr o f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s how e ve r i f t he gr oup i s una bl e pl a y t h r ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e s t op a nd r e s t a r t a t a l og i c a l pl a c e I f ne c e s s a r y, you m a y s l ow t he t e m po dow n i n or de r t o m a ke i t t h r ough t hi s r e a di ng. 3. T he n pl a y t h r ough t he f i r s t 20 m e a s ur e s of t he pi e c e a nd s t op. 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke 6 7 m i nut e s t o p r ovi d e i ns t r uc t i on r e ga r di ng r hyt h m s pi t c he s a r t i c ul a t i on, a nd dyna m i c s Y ou s houl d ha ve s t ude nt s pl a y por t i ons of t he f i r s t 20 m e a s ur e s dur i ng t hi s t i m e of i ns t r uc t i on, i n t he m a nne r of a nor m a l r e he a r s a l 5. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. T a ke a m om e nt t o m a ke ge ne r a l c om m e nt s on r hyt hm s a nd pi t c he s Y ou m a y s i ng or c ount a ny r hyt hm D o not a s k t he s t ude nt s t o s i ng or c ount a nd do not f i x a ny dyna m i c s or a r t i c ul a t i ons a t t hi s poi nt 4. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s e c ond a nd f i na l t i m e

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183 G R O U P 1 WE E K T WO D A Y T H R E E A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e f or 1 6 be a t s 2. P l a y t hr ough A l l e gr o f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s how e ve r i f t he gr oup i s una bl e pl a y t h r ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e s t op a nd r e s t a r t a t a l og i c a l pl a c e I f ne c e s s a r y, you m a y s l ow t he t e m po dow n i n or de r t o m a ke i t t h r ough t hi s r e a di ng. 3. T he n pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 21 38 a nd s t op. 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke 6 7 m i nut e s t o p r o vi d e i ns t r uc t i on r e ga r di ng r hyt h m s pi t c he s a r t i c ul a t i on, a nd dyna m i c s Y ou s houl d ha ve s t ude nt s pl a y por t i ons of t hi s s e c t i on ( m e a s ur e s 21 38) dur i ng t hi s t i m e of i ns t r u c t i on, i n t he m a nne r of a nor m a l r e he a r s a l 5. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. T a ke a m om e nt t o m a ke ge ne r a l c om m e nt s on r hyt hm s pi t c he s a r t i c ul a t i on a nd dyna m i c s D o not i s ol a t e a ny i ns t r um e nt s e c t i on o r a ny pa s s a ge of t he m us i c a t t hi s t i m e 4. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s e c ond a nd f i na l t i m e

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184 G R O U P 1 WE E K T WO D A Y F O U R A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e f or 1 6 be a t s 2. P l a y t hr ough A l l e gr o f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s how e ve r i f t he gr oup i s una bl e pl a y t h r ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e s t op a nd r e s t a r t a t a l og i c a l pl a c e I f ne c e s s a r y, you m a y s l ow t he t e m po dow n i n or de r t o m a ke i t t h r ough t hi s r e a di ng. 3. T he n pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 38 72 a nd s t op. 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke 6 7 m i nut e s t o p r ovi d e i ns t r uc t i on r e ga r di ng r hyt h m s pi t c he s a r t i c ul a t i on, a nd dyna m i c s Y ou s houl d ha ve s t ude nt s pl a y por t i ons of t hi s s e c t i on ( m e a s ur e s 38 72) dur i ng t hi s t i m e of i ns t r u c t i on, i n t he m a nne r of a nor m a l r e he a r s a l 5. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r o m 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 4 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t he pi e c e D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a W oodw i nd t r i l l s a t 107, 111, a nd 124 126 T r i l l s s houl d s t a r t on t he w r i t t e n not e b. I s ol a t e t h e f l ut e oboe a nd c l a r i ne t pa s s a ge f r om 1 07 115. L i s t e n t o t hi s s e c t i on a nd f i x a ny p r obl e m s w i t h r hyt hm s pi t c he s or a r t i c ul a t i ons 4. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a f i n a l t i m e

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185 G R O U P 1 WE E K T H R E E D A Y F I V E A l l e gr o 1. G i v e t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 1 38 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke 3 4 m i nut e s t o r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f o l l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a A l l dyna m i c m a r ki ngs b. T he oc t a ve j um ps i n m e a s ur e 30 a nd 34 e s pe c i a l l y he l pi ng t he b r a s s pl a ye r s t o m a ke t he s e l e a ps 5. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 3 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on by f ol l ow i ng t hi s s c r i pt : a P L E A S E P L A Y F R O M M E A S U R E 1 20. b. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 1 20. T he n s a y: c N O W T H I S T I M E W O O D W I N D S W I L L P L A Y W H I L E B R A S S A N D P E R C U S S I O N S I L E N T L Y P R A C T I C E B R A S S P L A Y E R S F I N G E R T H E N O T E S B L O W A I R I N T O T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D T O N G U E P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T T R Y T O F I N G E R A N D T O N G U E E V E R Y N O T E P E R F E C T L Y W H I L E W O O D W I N D S P L A Y d. C onduc t m e a s ur e 1 20 w i t h w oodw i nds p l a yi ng a n d br a s s pl a ye r s doi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e T he n ha ve t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e pl a y t he pa s s a ge f T he n, r e ve r s e t h i s by ha vi ng br a s s a nd pe r c us s i on pl a y w hi l e w oodw i nds s i l e nt l y f i nge r a i r a nd t ongue t he no t e s g. R e pe a t t hi s pr oc e dur e f or m e a s ur e 21 38 M a ke s ur e t o c onduc t e a c h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l 6. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 3 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t he pi e c e M a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i n g c onc e pt s : a I s ol a t e t he t r um pe t pa r t f r om 107 115 L i s t e n t o t hi s s e c t i on a nd f i x a ny pr obl e m s w i t h r hy t hm s pi t c he s or a r t i c ul a t i ons b. I s ol a t e a c c om pa ni m e nt ( l ow w oodw i nds l ow br a s s ) f r om 107 115 L i s t e n t o t hi s s e c t i on a nd f i x a ny p r obl e m s w i t h r hyt hm s pi t c he s or a r t i c ul a t i ons A s k t he e ns e m bl e t o l ook ba c k a t m e a s ur e 99 f or t he c or r e c t a r t i c ul a t i on t o us e i n t hi s s e c t i on. 4. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on by f ol l ow i ng t hi s s c r i pt : a P L E A S E P L A Y F R O M M E A S U R E 107 11 5.

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186 b. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 107 115. T he n s a y: c N O W T H I S T I M E W O O D W I N D S W I L L P L A Y W H I L E B R A S S A N D P E R C U S S I O N S I L E N T L Y P R A C T I C E B R A S S P L A Y E R S F I N G E R T H E N O T E S B L O W A I R I N T O T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D T O N G U E P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T T R Y T O F I N G E R A N D T O N G U E E V E R Y N O T E P E R F E C T L Y W H I L E W O O D W I N D S P L A Y d. C onduc t m 107 115 w i t h w oodw i nds pl a yi ng a nd br a s s pl a ye r s doi ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e e N ow ha ve t he e nt i r e e ns e m bl e pl a y t he pa s s a ge f T he n, r e ve r s e t hi s by ha vi ng br a s s a nd pe r c us s i on pl a y w hi l e w oodw i nds s i l e nt l y f i nge r a i r a nd t ongue t he no t e s 5. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a f i n a l t i m e

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187 G R O U P 1 WE E K T H R E E D A Y S I X A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 39 60 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke 4 m i nu t e s t o r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f o l l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a A r t i c ul a t i ons i n m e a s ur e 60 b. T he oc t a ve j um ps i n m e a s ur e 55. c T he s l ur r e d s e c t i ons f r om m e a s ur e 48 52 5. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 3 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng s c r i pt : a P L E A S E P L A Y F R O M M E A S U R E 39 48. S T O P O N T H E F I R S T N O T E A T 48. b. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 39 48. T he n s a y: c N O W P L A C E T H E I N S T R U M E N T I N P L A Y I N G P O S I T I O N A N D I W A N T Y O U T O F I N G E R T H E N O T E S B L O W A I R I N T O T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D T O N G U E D O N O T P L A Y J U S T F I N G E R S A I R A N D T O N G U E P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D A S I F I T W E R E P L A Y E D P E R F E C T L Y d. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 39 48 w hi l e s t ude nt s a i r t ongue a nd f i nge r t he not e s T he n s a y: e C O U L D Y O U H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D ? T R Y T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D A S I F Y O U W E R E P L A Y I N G I T P E R F E C T L Y f N O W I W A N T Y O U T O O N L Y F I N G E R T H E N O T E S N O A I R O R T O N G U I N G P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T J U S T A S Y O U D I D B E F O R E A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D g. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 39 48 w hi l e s t ude nt s f i nge r t he not e s T he n s a y: h. N O W I W A N T Y O U T O P L A C E Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P A N D S T A Y P E R F E C T L Y S T I L L N O F I N G E R S N O M A L L E T S N O T H I N G M O V E S L O O K A T Y O U R M U S I C A N D A S I C O N D U C T I T I W A N T Y O U T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D T R Y T O I M A G I N E W H A T I T S O U N D S L I K E W H E N I T I S P L A Y E D P E R F E C T L Y i C onduc t m e a s ur e s 39 48 w hi l e s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y r e he a r s e T he n s a y: j G O O D N O W P I C K U P Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T S A N D P L A Y T H I S S E C T I O N k. C onduc t t he s t ude nt s w hi l e t he y phys i c a l l y pl a y t h e s e c t i on. l N ow r e pe a t t hi s m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni que ( s t e ps A J ) f or m e a s ur e s 46 60. 6. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd.

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188 F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t he pi e c e M a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a R e he a r s e t he s e c t i on f r om 114 118 M a ke s ur e t he e ns e m bl e pl a ys t he c r e s c e ndi i n m e a s ur e 115 a nd 117 a s w e l l a s m a r c a t o e i ght h not e s i n m e a s ur e s 116 117. 4. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on by f ol l ow i ng t hi s s c r i pt : a P L E A S E P L A Y F R O M M E A S U R E 107 T O T H E E N D b. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 107 t o t he e nd. c N O W P L A C E T H E I N S T R U M E N T I N P L A Y I N G P O S I T I O N A N D I W A N T Y O U T O F I N G E R T H E N O T E S W H I L E Y O U B L O W A I R I N T O T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D T O N G U E D O N O T P L A Y J U S T F I N G E R S A I R A N D T O N G U E P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D d. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 107 t he e nd w hi l e s t ude nt s a i r t ongue a nd f i nge r t he not e s T he n s a y: e C O U L D Y O U H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D ? T R Y T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D A S I F Y O U W E R E P L A Y I N G I T P E R F E C T L Y f N O W I W A N T Y O U T O O N L Y F I N G E R T H E N O T E S N O A I R A N D T O N G U I N G P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T J U S T A S Y O U D I D B E F O R E A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D g. C onduc t m e a s ur e 107 t o t he e nd w hi l e s t ude nt s f i n ge r t he not e s T he n s a y: h. N O W I W A N T Y O U T O P L A C E Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P A N D S T A Y P E R F E C T L Y S T I L L N O F I N G E R S N O M A L L E T S N O T H I N G M O V E S L O O K A T Y O U R M U S I C A N D A S I C O N D U C T I T I W A N T Y O U T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D T R Y T O I M A G I N E W H A T I T S O U N D S L I K E W H E N I T I S P L A Y E D P E R F E C T L Y i C onduc t m e a s ur e s 107 118 w hi l e s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y r e he a r s e T he n s a y: j G O O D N O W P I C K U P Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T S A N D P L A Y T H I S S E C T I O N k. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 107 t o t he e nd. 5. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r p t

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189 G R O U P 1 WE E K F O U R D A Y S E V E N A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 1 38 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L I N C O R P O R A T I N G M E N T A L P R A C T I C E : T a ke 6 7 m i nut e s t o r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on ( m e a s ur e s 1 38) D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a M a ke s ur e t o r e he a r s e t he a r t i c ul a t i ons a c c i de nt a l s a nd dyna m i c s i n m e a s ur e s 35 38. b. D ur i ng t hi s r e he a r s a l t i m e i s ol a t e 4 di f f e r e nt s e c t i ons of m us i c ( a bout 4 8 m e a s ur e s e a c h) a nd a s k s t ude nt s t o m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e t he m us i ng t he s a m e pr oc e dur e a s be f or e T he pr oc e dur e s houl d be : A i r t ongue a nd f i nge r s ( or a i r m a l l e t s f or pe r c us s i on) F i nge r s onl y ( no a i r ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e onl y w i t h no m ove m e nt C ont i nue t o e nc our a ge s t ude nt s t o f oc us on he a r i n g t he s ound of t he m us i c a s i f i t w e r e be i ng pl a ye d pe r f e c t l y. c D i s pe r s e t he s e 4 m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l s t h r oughout t he ope n r e he a r s a l a s you s e e f i t A l w a ys c onduc t dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l 5. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e f r om be gi nni ng t o e nd. F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nu t e s t o r e h e a r s e m e a s ur e s 118 125. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a dd r e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a M a ke s ur e t he e ns e m bl e pl a ys t he c r e s c e ndi i n m e a s ur e 119 a nd 121 b. M a ke s ur e a l l br a s s a c c e nt s a r e obs e r ve d. Q ua r t e r not e a c c e nt s s houl d ha ve a s l i ght s pa c e i n be t w e e n t he m 4. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l l y r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on by f ol l ow i ng t hi s s c r i pt : a P L E A S E P L A Y F R O M M E A S U R E 118 130. b. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e 118 130. T he n s a y: c N O W P L A C E T H E I N S T R U M E N T I N P L A Y I N G P O S I T I O N A N D I W A N T Y O U T O F I N G E R T H E N O T E S W H I L E Y O U B L O W A I R I N T O T H E I N S T R U M E N T A N D T O N G U E D O N O T P L A Y J U S T F I N G E R S A I R A N D T O N G U E P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D d. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 118 130 w hi l e s t ude nt s a i r t on gue a nd f i nge r t he not e s T he n s a y:

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190 e C O U L D Y O U H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D ? T R Y T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D A S I F Y O U W E R E P L A Y I N G I T P E R F E C T L Y f N O W I W A N T Y O U T O O N L Y F I N G E R T H E N O T E S N O A I R A N D T O N G U I N G P E R C U S S I O N S H O U L D M O V E T H E M A L L E T S J U S T A B O V E T H E K E Y B O A R D W I T H O U T T O U C H I N G I T J U S T A S Y O U D I D B E F O R E A S Y O U D O T H I S T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D g. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 118 130 w hi l e s t ude nt s f i nge r t he not e s T he n s a y: h. N O W I W A N T Y O U T O P L A C E Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P A N D S T A Y P E R F E C T L Y S T I L L N O F I N G E R S N O M A L L E T S N O T H I N G M O V E S L O O K A T Y O U R M U S I C A N D A S I C O N D U C T I T I W A N T Y O U T O H E A R I T I N Y O U R H E A D T R Y T O I M A G I N E W H A T I T S O U N D S L I K E W H E N I T I S P L A Y E D P E R F E C T L Y i C onduc t m e a s ur e s 118 130 w hi l e s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y r e he a r s e T he n s a y: j G O O D N O W P I C K U P Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T S A N D P L A Y T H I S S E C T I O N k. C onduc t a s s t ude nt s pl a y f r om m e a s ur e s 118 130 5. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r p t a f i na l t i m e

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191 G R O U P 1 WE E K F O U R D A Y E I G H T A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 21 60 a nd s t op. 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L I N C O R P O R A T I N G M E N T A L P R A C T I C E : T a ke a bout 7 m i nut e s t o r e he a r s e t hi s s e c t i on. D u r i ng t h i s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a I s ol a t e a nd r e he a r s e m 21 30, 35 38 54 59, a nd m e a s ur e 60 f or c or r e c t not e s r hyt hm s dyna m i c s a nd a r t i c ul a t i ons b. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e you w i l l us e a s l ow m ot i on m e t h od on t he f ol l ow i ng f i ve s e c t i ons : m 21 24, 25 30 35 38, 54 59, a nd m e a s ur e 60. T he p r oc e dur e you w i l l us e i s a s f o l l ow s : i P l a y t he i s ol a t e d s e c t i on ( e g. m 21 24) a t a s l ow e r t e m po c l os e t o m m = 60. i i A s k s t ude nt s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he s e c t i on i n s l ow m ot i on by s a yi ng: N O W I W A N T Y O U T O M E N T A L L Y P R A C T I C E T H I S S E C T I O N I N S L O W M O T I O N H E A R I T P E R F E C T L Y P L A Y E D I N Y O U R H E A D A N D I M A G I N E Y O U R F I N G E R S M O V I N G T O T H E C O R R E C T P O S I T I O N S F O R E A C H N O T E B U T D O N O T M O V E A N Y P A R T O F Y O U R B O D Y R E M A I N C O M P L E T E L Y S T I L L A N D P L A Y A M E N T A L R E C O R D I N G O F T H E P A S S A G E I N Y O U R H E A D i i i T he n, phys i c a l l y pl a y t he s e c t i on i n s l ow m ot i on i v. P l a y t he s e c t i on a t t he c or r e c t t e m po. c R e pe a t t hi s pr oc e dur e f or t he r e m a i ni ng 4 s e c t i ons D i s pe r s e t he s e 5 m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t r i a l s t h r oughout t he ope n r e he a r s a l a s you s e e f i t S t r e s s c or r e c t not e s r hyt hm s dyna m i c s a nd a r t i c ul a t i ons A l w a ys c onduc t dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l 5. C onc l ude t hi s s e s s i on by pl a yi ng t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 1 16) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e m e a s ur e s 118 125. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a dd r e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a I s ol a t e t he f l ut e oboe c l a r i ne t a nd a l t o s a x l i ne M a ke s ur e t he s t a c c a t o a r t i c ul a t i ons a r e obs e r ve d. b. I n m e a s ur e s 121 a nd 122 m a ke s ur e t ha t a l l w ood w i nd a c c i de nt a l s a r e be i ng pl a ye d c or r e c t l y c M a ke s ur e t ha t t he r e i s a n a pp r opr i a t e ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he br a s s a nd w oodw i nds i n m e a s ur e s 119 a nd 121 123

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192 d. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o us e t he pr e vi ous s l ow m ot i on m e t hod on t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons : m 107 1 13 a nd m 114 117 T he pr oc e dur e you w i l l us e i s a s f ol l ow s : i P l a y t he i s ol a t e d s e c t i on ( e g. m 107 113) a t a s l o w e r t e m p o c l os e t o m m = 60. i i A s k s t ude nt s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he s e c t i on i n s l ow m ot i on by s a yi ng: N O W I W A N T Y O U T O M E N T A L L Y P R A C T I C E T H I S S E C T I O N I N S L O W M O T I O N H E A R I T P E R F E C T L Y P L A Y E D I N Y O U R H E A D A N D I M A G I N E Y O U R F I N G E R S M O V I N G T O T H E C O R R E C T P O S I T I O N S F O R E A C H N O T E B U T D O N O T M O V E A N Y P A R T O F Y O U R B O D Y R E M A I N C O M P L E T E L Y S T I L L A N D P L A Y A M E N T A L R E C O R D I N G O F T H E P A S S A G E I N Y O U R H E A D i i i T he n, phys i c a l l y pl a y t he s e c t i on i n s l ow m ot i on i v. P l a y t he s e c t i on a t t he c or r e c t t e m po. e R e pe a t t hi s pr oc e dur e f or t he ne xt s e c t i on ( m 114 117) S t r e s s f or c or r e c t not e s r hyt hm s dyna m i c s a nd a r t i c ul a t i ons A l w a ys c onduc t dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l 4. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r p t a f i na l t i m e

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193 G R O U P 1 WE E K F I V E D A Y N I N E A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 1 38 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 5 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t hi s s e c t i on ( m e a s ur e s 1 38) C or r e c t s t ude nt pr ob l e m s a s you s e e f i t D ur i n g t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a S t r e s s c or r e c t not e s r hyt hm s dyna m i c s a nd a r t i c ul a t i ons i n m e a s ur e s 15 20. b. A c c e nt e d qua r t e r not e s m e a s ur e s 1 4 s houl d ha ve a ve r y s l i ght s pa c e i n be t w e e n t he m c Q ua r t e r not e s i n m e a s ur e s 8, 16 a nd 20 s houl d be h e l d f or t he i r f ul l va l ue 5. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 2 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t h i s s e c t i on us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng pr oc e dur e : a H a ve s t ude nt s pl a y m e a s ur e s 1 38. b. N ow a s k s t ude nt s t o s i l e nt l y f i nge r m e a s ur e s 21 38 on t he i r ow n ( no c onduc t i ng) T e l l t he m t o l ook a t t he m us i c a nd he a r i t i n t he i r he a d, but t o a l s o w a t c h t he i r f i nge r s / ha nds a nd m e m or i z e w ha t t he y l ook l i ke w hi l e t he y a r e pl a yi ng. c N ow s a y: P U T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P S A N D M A L L E T S D O W N I W A N T Y O U L O O K A T T H E M U S I C A N D M E N T A L P R A C T I C E M E A S U R E S 21 38 T R Y T O H E A R Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G T H E M U S I C P E R F E C T L Y I N Y O U R H E A D A L S O T R Y T O G E T A V I S U A L P I C T U R E O F W H A T Y O U R H A N D S A N D F I N G E R S L O O K L I K E W H E N Y O U A R E P L A Y I N G I M A G I N E T H E M M O V I N G T O T H E R I G H T P O S I T I O N S B U T D O N T M O V E T H E M d. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 21 38 w hi l e t he s t ude nt s m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e a vi s ua l i m a ge of t he i r f i nge r i ngs e P l a y m e a s ur e s 21 38. 6. T o c l os e pl a y t he e nt i r e pi e c e F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 5 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e m e a s ur e s 124 130. D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a dd r e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a M a ke s ur e t he e ns e m bl e pl a ys t he c or r e c t r hyt hm i n m e a s ur e s 127 128. b. T he a c c e nt e d not e s i n m e a s ur e s 127 128 s houl d ha ve a s l i ght s pa c e be t w e e n t he m

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194 c M a ke s ur e t he e ns e m bl e pl a ys a f p a nd c r e s c e ndo i n m e a s ur e 129, a nd f f i n m e a s ur e 130. T he c r e s c e ndo s houl d onl y be pl a ye d i n m e a s ur e 129 a nd s houl d not c ont i nue t h r ough ba r 130. d. M a ke s ur e t ha t t he r e i s a n a pp r opr i a t e ba l a nc e be t w e e n t he br a s s a nd w oodw i nds i n m e a s ur e s 119 a nd 121 123 4. M E N T A L R E H E A R S A L : C hoos e a poi nt i n r e he a r s a l t o ha ve s t ude nt s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e m e a s ur e s 124 130 us i ng t he s a m e pr oc e du r e a s be f or e us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng s c r i pt : a H a ve s t ude nt s pl a y m e a s ur e s 124 130. b. N ow a s k s t ude nt s t o s i l e nt l y f i nge r m e a s ur e s 124 1 30, on t he i r ow n ( no c onduc t i ng) T e l l t he m t o l ook a t t he m us i c a nd he a r i t i n t he i r he a d, but t o a l s o w a t c h t he i r f i nge r s / ha nds a nd m e m or i z e w ha t t he y l ook l i ke w hi l e t he y a r e pl a yi ng. c N ow s a y: P U T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P S A N D M A L L E T S D O W N I W A N T Y O U L O O K A T T H E M U S I C A N D M E N T A L P R A C T I C E M E A S U R E S 124 130 B U T T H I S T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O D O T W O T H I N G S A T O N C E F I R S T H E A R Y O U R S E L F P L A Y I N G T H E M U S I C P E R F E C T L Y I N Y O U R H E A D S E C O N D G E T A V I S U A L P I C T U R E O F W H A T Y O U R H A N D S A N D F I N G E R S L O O K L I K E W H E N Y O U A R E P L A Y I N G I M A G I N E T H E M M O V I N G T O T H E R I G H T P O S I T I O N S B U T D O N T M O V E T H E M d. C onduc t m e a s ur e s 124 130 w hi l e t he s t ude nt s m e n t a l l y pr a c t i c e a vi s ua l i m a ge of t he i r f i nge r i ngs e P l a y m e a s ur e s 124 130. 5. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s e c ond a nd f i na l t i m e

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195 G R O U P 1 WE E K F I V E D A Y T E N A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke s U s e t he c or r e c t t e m po 3. P l a y f r om m e a s ur e 39 72 4. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 5 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t hi s s e c t i on ( m e a s ur e s 39 72) D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c onc e pt s : a C or r e c t not e s r hy t hm s a r t i c ul a t i ons i n m e a s ur e s 3 9 47. b. A c c i de nt a l s : P oi nt out t o t he s t ude nt s t ha t t h i s s e c t i on ha s m a ny a c c i de nt a l s W a r n t he m t ha t a f t e r p l a yi ng c onc e r t B na t ur a l s i n m e a s ur e s 41 a nd 43, m e a s ur e 45 goe s ba c k t o B f l a t S i m i l a r l y, a f t e r pl a yi ng m a ny c onc e r t A na t ur a l s w e go ba c k t o A f l a t i n m e a s ur e 60. 5. M E N T A L P R A C T I C E : T a ke a bout 2 3 m i nut e s t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t h i s s e c t i on us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng pr oc e dur e : a G i ve t he f ol l ow i ng i ns t r uc t i ons : W E A R E G O I N G T O P L A Y F R O M 39 45, P L E A S E F I N D T H I S S E C T I O N O F T H E P I E C E W H E N Y O U P L A Y T H R O U G H I T I W A N T Y O U T O C O N C E N T R A T E O N W H A T I T F E E L S L I K E T O P L A Y I T T H I N K A B O U T W H A T Y O U R F I N G E R S A N D H A N D S F E E L L I K E A S Y O U P L A Y E A C H N O T E A N D W H A T Y O U R E M B O U C H U R E A N D T O N G U E F E E L L I K E A S Y O U P L A Y E A C H N O T E b. P l a y t hr ough m e a s ur e s 39 45. T he n s a y: c N O W I W A N T Y O U T O D O T H E F I N G E R I N G S O N L Y F O R M E A S U R E S 39 45 T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E T H E F E E L I N G O F Y O U R F I N G E R S A N D H A N D S A S Y O U D O I T A N D T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D d. C onduc t s i l e nt l y t hr ough m e a s ur e s 39 45 a s s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y f i nge r T he n s a y: e N O W P U T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P A N D M E N T A L L Y P R A C T I C E T H I S S E C T I O N W I T H O U T M O V I N G A N Y M U S C L E C O N C E N T R A T E O N W H A T I T F E E L S L I K E T O P L A Y T H I S S E C T I O N T R Y T O F E E L Y O U R F I N G E R S A S T H E Y M O V E T O T H E R I G H T N O T E S B U T D O N T M O V E T H E M A L W A Y S S I N G T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D f C onduc t s i l e nt l y t hr ough m e a s ur e s 39 45. T he n s a y: g. W E R E Y O U A B L E T O I M A G I N E T H E F E E L I N G O F Y O U R H A N D S A N D F I N G E R S ? N O W D O I T A G A I N B U T T H I S T I M E I W A N T Y O U T O A L S O I M A G I N E Y O U R E M B O U C H U R E A N D T O N G U E S O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D A N D I M A G I N E W H A T Y O U R F I N G E R S E M B O U C H U R E A N D T O N G U E F E E L L I K E A S T H E Y P L A Y h. C onduc t t hr ough m e a s ur e s 39 45 a s s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y f i nge r i T he n phys i c a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge

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196 j R e pe a t t hi s pr oc e dur e f or m e a s ur e s 48 53 a nd m e a s ur e s 54 60. T he pr oc e dur e i s i P L A Y i i F I N G E R i i i I M A G I N A R Y F I N G E R i v. I M A G I N A R Y F I N G E R E M B O C H U R E A N D T O N G U E v. P L A Y 6. C onc l ude t hi s s e s s i on by pl a yi ng t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e F al l R i v e r O v e r t u r e E xc e r p t ( 107 e n d ) 1. G i ve t he t e m po ( qua r t e r not e e qua l s 116) w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e f r om 107 t o t he e nd a t t he c o r r e c t t e m po 3. O P E N R E H E A R S A L : T a ke a bout 4 m i nut e s t o r e h e a r s e t he e xc e r pt D ur i ng t hi s t i m e m a ke s ur e t o a ddr e s s t he f ol l ow i ng c on c e pt s : a T he w oodw i nd l i ne i n m e a s ur e s 129 130 b. T he w oodw i nd r un i n m e a s ur e 117. c T he a r t i c ul a t i ons i n m e a s ur e 117 a t t he e nd o f t he l ow br a s s a nd l ow w oodw i nd de s c e ndi ng l i ne 4. M E N T A L P R A C T I C E : T a ke a bout 1 2 m i nut e s t o r e he a r s e f r om 107 117 us i ng t he f ol l ow i ng pr oc e dur e : a N O W I W A N T Y O U T O D O T H E F I N G E R I N G S O N L Y F O R M E A S U R E S 107 117 T R Y T O M E M O R I Z E T H E F E E L I N G O F Y O U R F I N G E R S A N D H A N D S A S Y O U D O I T A N D T R Y T O H E A R T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D b. C onduc t s i l e nt l y t hr ough m e a s ur e s 107 117 a s s t ude nt s s i l e nt l y f i nge r c T he n s a y: N O W P U T Y O U R I N S T R U M E N T I N Y O U R L A P A N D M E N T A L L Y P R A C T I C E T H I S S E C T I O N W I T H O U T M O V I N G A N Y M U S C L E S C O N C E N T R A T E O N W H A T I T F E E L S L I K E T O P L A Y T H I S S E C T I O N T R Y T O F E E L Y O U R F I N G E R S A S T H E Y M O V E T O T H E R I G H T N O T E S B U T D O N T M O V E T H E M A L W A Y S S I N G T H E M U S I C I N Y O U R H E A D d. C onduc t s i l e nt l y t hr ough m e a s ur e s 107 117. e T he n phys i c a l l y pl a y t he pa s s a ge f r om 107 117 5. P l a y t hr ough t he F al l R i v e r O v e r t ur e e xc e r pt a s e c ond a nd f i na l t i m e

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197 G R O U P 1 WE E K S I X D A Y E L E V E N A l l e gr o 1. G i ve t he t e m po o f A l l e gr o w i t h a m e t r onom e 2. P l a y t hr ough t he e nt i r e pi e c e D o not s t op f or m i s t a ke
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013520/00001

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Title: Development of a Structured Method of Mental Practice and Its Effect on the Performance of High School Band Students
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013520/00001

Material Information

Title: Development of a Structured Method of Mental Practice and Its Effect on the Performance of High School Band Students
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Copyright 2006

by

Stephen Daniel Galyen


































This document is dedicated to my wife, Kelley. I could not have done this without you.
Thank you for the sacrifices you made, for the encouragement and support you gave me,
for selflessly wanting me to be happy, and for believing in me.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to a number of people for their help

with this research and the completion of my doctoral degree. This project would not have

been possible without their kindness, time, advice, and interest in my success.

First I would like to thank the members of my supervisory committee: Dr. Russell

Robinson for serving as chair of the committee and guiding me through every step of the

entire Ph.D. program. Dr. Charles Hoffer for reading and editing each chapter and for

meeting with me (and my then four-month-old daughter) to give me feedback. Dr. David

Waybright for his support of me in the band profession, and providing me with

outstanding opportunities for growth during my time at UF. Dr. Phil Clark for serving on

the committee and for all of the tools that I learned in his excellent leadership classes.

I would also like to thank Dr. Timothy Brophy for his guidance in writing and

publishing the pilot study, and for his advice on the statistics. Also, I am very thankful to

Dr. John Laverty at Syracuse University for his discussions with me regarding audiation

and for showing me how it could be used to improve the performance of a band.

Thank you to the fantastic band directors and band students of the Roanoke County

Schools in Roanoke, Virginia: Tim Galyen, Dawn Chernault, Matt Yates, and Barry

Tucker. These individuals were gracious enough to share their valuable and limited class

time with me. They were also kind enough to assist me with the logistics of the project -

securing extra rooms for student testing, passing out and collecting student forms, finding

suitable dates for the project, and becoming familiar with the rehearsal techniques and









teacher scripts required for the study. This project depended on your energy, flexibility,

and kindness, and I thank you for making the completion of this study possible.

This study would not have been possible without the help of my good friend and

mentor Mr. Bill Svec, who served as the test administrator, donated his recording

equipment, and recorded every single student and ensemble recording used in the study.

Thank you for your time, advice, generosity, and enthusiasm for the project. You have

been giving me valuable advice ever since I was a student teacher, and I am thankful to

have you as a friend.

Thanks to my good friends Jay Jacobs and Laura Antoni for serving as independent

evaluators for the study even though they were extremely busy with their own

coursework and projects.

My Ph.D. would not have been possible without the support of my family. Thank

you, Mom and Dad, for your encouragement and financial assistance during my graduate

studies. You have always been there for us, and any success that Tim, Thomas, and I find

will always have its roots in the support and encouragement that you have given us our

entire lives. Thanks to my youngest brother Thomas, who was the first person to tell me

of the term "mental practice" one day while he was practicing his marimba, and who

provided me with several sources on the topic. And thanks to my brother Tim, my "yes"

man, who was very enthusiastic about participating in the project, who gave his time to

help me and offered invaluable advice from the school band perspective of the study.

Most importantly, I would not be anywhere close to where I am today without my

wife, Kelley. I do not think that I could have found a more supportive person in the whole

world. You have sacrificed so much for this dream, ever since we left Virginia for









Syracuse in 2001 so that I could pursue a Masters degree. Along the way, you have been

the one who kept me going, who set me straight when I was frustrated or doubtful, and

who believed in me every day starting from the day we first met in 1997. I am so thankful

for that day you had a flat tire at school, and you refused to let anyone help you change it,

just so you could wait for me to come along and ask me for help. Since then, and

especially over the past five years, it has actually been you who has been the one to help

me over and over again. This accomplishment of completing the Ph.D. is just as much

your accomplishment as it is mine, and I share this success with you, and with our

wonderful, beautiful daughter, Kate.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN TS ................................................................ .......................iv

L IST O F T A B L E S ................................................. ............................................... x

A B S T R A C T ................................................................................ ............................xiii

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................. ............ .....................

Statement of the Problem.......................................................... 3
Purpose of the Study................................................................... .................... 5
D elim stations of the Study ................................................................................... 6
R research Q questions .................................................................... .................... 7
R research H ypotheses ................................................................... .................... 8
D efinitions.............................................................. ...................................... 9

2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................. 10

Im ag ery ........................................................................................... ................ 1 1
C opy T theory ...................................... ............... .......... ............ ....... 11
Im agery ......................................... ................... ..........12
A uditory Im agery ............................................................ ................ 15
Imagery in Music: General Research ..................................................... 17
Imagery in Music: Qualitative Research ................................................ 19
Im agery in M usic Education .................................................... .................... 20
Theoretical Foundations of Mental Practice ......................................................... 23
Psychoneuromuscular Theory ...................................................................... 23
A rousal or A ctivation Theory .......................................................................26
Symbolic Learning Theory .................................... ........................................26
Bioinformational or Information Processing Theory ........................................30
Non-Empirical Approaches to Mental Practice ...................................................33
D a n c e ......................................................................................................... 3 4
L ead ersh ip ......................................................................... ......................... 3 5
S p o rts ......................................................................................................... 3 6
M music ................................... ........................... ......... ...........39
Research Studies in Mental Practice ..............................................................50
N on-m musical Research ............................................... .... ....................... 51









M musical R research ....................................................................................... 54
Mental Practice versus Physical Practice ........................................................59
Knowledge of Results .......................................... .................................. 63
Mental Practice in the Ensemble Rehearsal ...................................................66
Sight-Reading and Mental Practice.................................................................. 67
Length and Placement of Mental Practice ......................................................70
Motivation and Mental Practice....... .......................................................73
O their M ental Practice Studies .................................................. .................... 74
S u m m ary ................................................................................. .......................... 7 6

3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY.............................................................. ....................78

In tro d u ctio n ............................................................................ ........................... 7 8
P ilot S tudy ................... ..................................... ........................ .................. 80
Selection of the Participants...................................................... 84
R research D design ............................................................................ .......... .......... 87
D dependent M measures ................................................................... ................... 88
Treatm ent V ariable................................................................... .................... 89
Mental Practice Method ............................... ... ........................................ 90
Unstructured Mental Practice................................................... 94
Physical Practice........................................................................................ 95
C o n tro l ................................................................................................... 9 5
A d m in istratio n .............................................................................. ..................... 9 5
Statistical A analysis ................................................................... .................... 98

4 R E SU L T S ........................ .... ................................................. .................... 99

Introduction .............................................................................. ................ ......... 99
Presentation of Data .................................................. 100
Analysis of Inter-Scorer Reliability ............................................................. 100
Comparison of the Experimental and Control Groups Mean Difference
Scores on the Individual Student Sight-Reading Measure........................... 101
Comparison of the Experimental and Control Groups Mean Difference
Scores on the Individual Student Prepared Performance Measure.............. 103
Comparison of the Intact Group Performances on the Ensemble Performance
M measure ................................................. ............................................... 110
Comparison of Student Scores in the Three Experimental Groups in terms of
Gender, Grade Level, and Instrument (Woodwind or Brass) ...................... 111
Comparison of Post-Study Questionnaire Answers from Students in the Two
M ental Practice G roups.................................... ........................................ 119

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ...................................... ........................... ........................ 130

S u m m ary ............................................................................... .......................... 13 0
D iscu ssio n ............................................................................. .......................... 13 6
C conclusions .................................................................................................. 142
Suggestions for Future Research........................................ ..... 143










Summary and Implications of this Study ............................................................ 145

APPENDIX

A STUDENT INFORMATION FORM...................................... .......................... 152

B INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION............................ 154

C CORRESPONDENCE WITH TEACHERS........................... .................. 158

D INDIVIDUAL PREPARED PERFORMANCE MEASURE.............................. 164

E TEACHER REHEARSAL SCRIPTS ...................................... 167

F TEST ADMINISTRATION INSTRUCTIONS...................... .................... 233

G INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING INDIVIDUAL STUDENT
PERFORMANCES ...................... ...... ................... 235

H R A W D A T A .......... ...................... ............ ............................................... 236

I POST-STUDY QUESTIONNAIRES .......................................................... 261

J STUDENT OPINIONS REGARDING MENTAL PRACTICE........................268

LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................... .................... 272

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................................... 282
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Pilot study results: Mean pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent
difference for experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 19) groups.......................... 82

3-2 Comparison of the four participating bands........................................................85

3-3 Number and instrument of students completing individual testing ........................87

4-1 Inter-scorer reliability correlation coefficients for individual student
performance scores........................................... 101

4-2 Ensemble performance test-retest reliability correlation coefficients................. 101

4-3 Sight-reading performance: Means and standard deviations of the experimental
and control groups pretest, posttest, and difference scores and difference
percentages .............................................. ........................................... 102

4-4 Analysis of variance for experimental and control groups mean difference scores
on the sight-reading performance measure................................... 104

4-5 Individual prepared performance: Means and standard deviations of the
experimental and control groups pretest, posttest, and difference scores and
difference percentages............................................................... ................... 105

4-6 Analysis of variance for experimental and control groups mean difference scores
on the prepared performance measure .......................................................... 106

4-7 Results of the Scheffe test of multiple comparisons of the experimental and
control groups mean difference scores on the prepared performance measure..... 107

4-8 Results of separate t tests of statistical significance of the experimental and
control groups mean difference scores on the prepared performance measure..... 109

4-9 Mean pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent difference for
experimental and control groups on the ensemble performance measure............. 111

4-10 Comparison of mental practice method group mean difference scores and
percentages by gender, grade level, and instrument ........................................... 113









4-11 Comparison of unstructured mental practice group mean difference scores and
percentages by gender, grade level, and instrument ........................................... 114

4-12 Comparison of physical practice group mean difference scores and percentages
by gender, grade level, and instrum ent ......................................................... 115

4-13 Comparison of student mean difference scores and percentages by gender, grade
level, and instrument for the three experimental groups.................................... 116

4-14 Results of separate t tests of statistical significance of the experimental groups
mean difference scores grouped according to gender and instrument ................ 118

4-15 Student evaluations of mental practice by participants in the two mental practice
co n d itio n s............................................................................ ............. ........... 12 0

4-16 Mental practice method group (n = 55) student evaluations of mental practice ... 123

4-17 Unstructured mental practice group (n = 51) student evaluations of mental
practice ... ............................................................................ 124

4-18 Student self-evaluations of clarity and control during mental practice............... 125

4-19 Summary of open-ended responses of mental practice method group students (n
= 55) on the post-study questionnaire ........................................................... 128

H-1 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the sight-reading measure in terms of pitch accuracy ........................... 237

H-2 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the sight-reading measure in terms of dynamics................................. 238

H-3 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the sight-reading measure in terms of rhythm .................................... 239

H-4 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the sight-reading measure in terms of pitch accuracy............240

H-5 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the sight-reading measure in terms of dynamics.................... 241

H-6 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the sight-reading measure in terms of rhythm ......................... 242

H-7 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the sight-reading measure in terms of pitch accuracy................................... 243

H-8 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the sight-reading measure in terms of dynamics.......................................... 244









H-9 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the sight-reading measure in terms of rhythm .............................................. 245

H-10 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
sight-reading measure in terms of pitch accuracy............................................... 246

H-11 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
sight-reading measure in terms of dynamics ...................................................... 247

H-12 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
sight-reading measure in terms of rhythm...................................... 248

H-13 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the prepared performance measure in terms of pitch accuracy............ 249

H-14 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the prepared performance measure in terms of dynamics ..................... 250

H-15 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the mental practice method
group on the prepared performance measure in terms of rhythm......................... 251

H-16 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the prepared performance measure in terms of pitch accuracy. 252

H-17 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the prepared performance measure in terms of dynamics........ 253

H-18 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the unstructured mental
practice group on the prepared performance measure in terms of rhythm............ 254

H-19 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the prepared performance measure in terms of pitch accuracy....................... 255

H-20 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the prepared performance measure in terms of dynamics ............................... 256

H-21 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the physical practice group
on the prepared performance measure in terms of rhythm................................. 257

H-22 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
prepared performance measure in terms of pitch accuracy .................................. 258

H-23 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
prepared performance measure in terms of dynamics........................................ 259

H-24 Pretest, posttest, and difference scores for students in the control group on the
prepared performance measure in terms of rhythm ........................................... 260
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

DEVELOPMENT OF A STRUCTURED METHOD OF MENTAL PRACTICE AND
ITS EFFECT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL BAND STUDENTS

By

Stephen Daniel Galyen

May, 2006

Chair: Russell L. Robinson
Cochair: David A. Waybright
Major Department: Music

This study developed and tested a structured method of teaching mental practice to

high school band students. This method served as an attempt to synthesize various mental

practice techniques so that the school music teacher could apply the techniques during

class instruction. The method involved exercises in a) visual, auditory, and motor

imagery, b) a combination of physical and mental practice, and c) alternating physical

and mental practice.

Four high school bands in Southwest Virginia practiced a unison etude and an

excerpt from a concert band composition for six weeks. Each intact band was assigned to

one of three practice conditions (mental practice method, unstructured mental practice, or

physical practice) or to a no practice control condition. Selected students (N = 86) were

evaluated in terms of individual sight-reading, individual prepared performance, and

intact ensemble prepared performance.









For individual sight-reading, the mental practice method group had the highest mean

gain score for pitch and dynamics, and the lowest mean gain for rhythm. No significant

differences were found among the groups.

For individual prepared performance, the mental practice method group had the

highest mean gain scores in all performance areas. The mental practice method group

made statistically significant gains over the control group in every performance area, and

over the unstructured mental practice group in dynamics (p < .05). The physical practice

group made significantly greater gains than the control group in rhythm (p < .05) and

pitch (p < .01). The unstructured mental practice group made significant improvement

over the control group in rhythm (p < .01).

For ensemble performance, analysis was based solely on raw scores due to a low N

(N = 4). All three experimental groups had considerably higher gain scores than the

control group for all performance areas (pitch, tone quality, and rhythm). There was no

noticeable difference in the gain scores among the three experimental groups for the three

performance areas.

These results suggest that high school students taught using a structured method of

mental practice perform better or just as well as those using an unstructured form of

mental practice or physical practice.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Mental practice refers to the covert, cognitive rehearsal of a skill without the use of

physical movement or sound. Musicians engage in mental practice every time they

silently analyze a piece of music before sight-reading it, hear a melody in their heads

before actually playing it, or imagine themselves in a successful performance. The

concept of mental practice has been applied to many disciplines, including sports

(Weinberg, 1989), dance (Franklin, 2004; Taylor, 1995), language education (Guerrero,

1991), special education (Allbritton-Grant, 1985), medical rehabilitation (Richardson,

1995), and music (Brooks, 1995).

An essential component of mental practice is mental imagery the imaginary

representation of objects and events in the mind. Much of the imagery that is of interest

in the field of music is auditory imagery. Mental imagery techniques are often used in

rehearsal and performance by professional singers (Carter, 1993; Moyer, 1992) and brass

players (Trusheim, 1987). Mental practice employs mental imagery extensively, but is a

much broader term. Pierson (1992) describes mental practice as follows:

During this type of practice the performer analyzes the rhythms, notes, key
signature, and any other musical elements presented on the page, without the
benefit of physical movement. In addition, the instrumentalist tries to imagine the
pitches (audiation or aural imagery) that appear on the page and also tries to
imagine all muscular movement that will occur while actually playing the music.
(Pierson, 1992, pp. 29-30)

Stated another way, mental practice involves the use of all the senses in an

"imaginary rehearsal of performance activities without observable movement or sound"









(Kohut, 1985, p. 127). These imaginary rehearsals involve mentally hearing the music,

visualizing the performance, and feeling the muscles used in musical performance.

The value of mental practice lies in its potential to improve the cognitive aspects of

musical perception and performance. The ability to use mental practice techniques can

allow a musician to practice when the instrument is not available or when injury prevents

practice, and can help to prevent physical exhaustion. It can also enhance memory of

words or music, motivation, confidence, and concentration. Connolly (2001) states that

the value of mental rehearsal is that it

can cut short the learning process and complement the actual practice of skills, as it
is in the brain where the ultimate learning of skills, and unlearning of bad habits,
takes place. The purpose of practicing a skill, mentally or physically, is to tell the
brain, as clearly as possible, how to organize the body's movement. (p. 17)

Freymuth (1993) states that regular mental rehearsal can serve as a form of quality

control, with "the potential for refocusing attention, restoring concentration, and

revitalizing performance" (p. 142). Ross (1985) states that mental practice is valuable

because

unlike physical practice, [it] focuses the performer's attention on the cognitive
aspects of music performance with less emphasis on the sounds being made. The
performer can now think more carefully about what kinds of things might be tried,
the consequences of each action can be predicted based on experience, and
inappropriate courses of action ruled out. (p. 228)

Mental practice techniques could be beneficial to high school band students in

several ways. They could provide additional rehearsal techniques for the band director to

use in rehearsing a piece of music. Students could be encouraged to use the techniques

during "down time" in rehearsal, such as when the director is rehearsing another section

of the ensemble. Students could also use mental practice as part of their home practice

routine. There is a need for educators to provide multiple practice strategies for









instrumental music students (Rawlins, 2004). Mental practice could be included as one of

these strategies.

Mental practice could be beneficial in preventing physical exhaustion. Physical

exhaustion in musical performance is a common result of the lengthy rehearsal sessions

that typically take place at honor bands and summer band camps. Physical exhaustion is

also an issue for school bands who operate under a block schedule (Blocher and Miles,

1999). Mental practice could serve as a means to continue working on a piece of music

without causing physical strain.

Mental practice could also benefit students during sight-reading. It is common for

school band contests and honor band auditions to require a sight-reading performance.

Typically, the student or ensemble is allowed to silently study the music for a specific

length of time before performing the piece. Band directors often teach students a study

routine to use during this time that typically involves scanning the music for key and

meter signatures and for potential obstacles (Casey, 1991; Sorrells, 1992). Appropriate

mental practice techniques could be useful during this study period.

Statement of the Problem

The research literature regarding mental practice has yielded inconsistent results.

This inconsistency is due to a number of problems with the methodology employed in

mental practice research. Connolly and Williamon (2004) attribute the inconsistency

among research findings to the

wide disparity in the methods employed in the research, including core differences
in the groups of musicians recruited to take part (i.e. their level of skill and
instrument specialization), the procedure implemented (i.e. the amount of time
given for mental rehearsal, the selection and length of the piece to be rehearsed, and
the purpose of the rehearsal itself), and the outcome measure of the performance









skill. What is clear from the extant literature is that musicians themselves vary
considerably in their use of mental rehearsal. (pp. 224-225)

Additionally, many research studies use a design in which subjects attempt mental

practice in a single practice session with little or no training in mental techniques. These

studies have two problems. First, because they only measure the effect of mental practice

after one trial, they fail to consider that training and practice may be necessary to fully

master the technique. Research supports the notion that mental practice should be

practiced on a regular basis in order to be beneficial (Connolly & Williamon, 2004;

Freymuth, 1993; Salmon & Meyer, 1992). Therefore, research that attempts to assess the

effectiveness of mental practice after only one practice session may not be an accurate

indicator of the potential of the technique.

Second, the mental practice techniques used in these studies are often open-ended

and unstructured. Subjects are asked to mentally rehearse a musical selection mentally

with no guidance as to the kind of mental practice to use. This freedom may be beneficial

for those who are experienced with mental practice, but not for those who have never

attempted such techniques before. Research is needed that tests the effect of mental

practice after a consistent period of practice with the techniques, and that provides

structure and training to those with little or no experience with mental rehearsal.

Mental practice techniques used in musical performance are often adapted from

those used in sports, which tend to focus on the visual aspects of performance. Because

of the aural nature of music, mental practice techniques in musical performance should

stress auditory imagery rather than visual imagery as the primary component.

The overwhelming majority of studies that apply mental practice to musical

performance have used individual adult subjects. The extent to which these research









findings transfer to public school music, with its emphasis on ensemble instruction of

younger musicians, remains to be seen. Few studies have been done to test the

effectiveness of mental practice in the school ensemble rehearsal setting. One exception

is a study by Keenan-Takagi (1995), who tested the effect of mental practice in a choral

rehearsal setting. There is little, if any, information regarding the effectiveness of mental

practice techniques in the instrumental ensemble rehearsal. In addition, research that

incorporates mental practice techniques with younger musicians is sparse and

inconclusive.

Purpose of the Study

Recent research has focused on mental practice with adult musicians, and relatively

few studies have attempted to apply mental practice techniques to teaching situations

involving younger musicians. This study will attempt to determine the effectiveness of

mental practice with high school band students. A pilot study using middle school band

students indicated that younger musicians could use mental practice techniques

effectively. The study suggested that further research in this area is necessary to

determine the best method of teaching mental practice to younger musicians.

Studies have not allowed for the regular practice of mental rehearsal techniques,

despite the fact that many experts in the field advocate regular practice in order to fully

develop the skills of mental practice. While the literature on mental practice provides

several exercises and techniques, there appears to be a lack of a structured method of

utilizing mental practice. This study will develop and test a six-week structured method

of teaching mental practice to students.









The majority of studies involving mental practice in music use individual subjects.

However, wind and percussion instruments are usually taught as an ensemble in school

music programs. Mental practice techniques are needed that can be used by the school

music teacher with the instrumental ensemble. Therefore, the method of mental practice

will be designed to be appropriate for use by high school bands. The study will evaluate

the performance of both the ensemble as a whole and the student as an individual.

Students will be evaluated in terms of how mental practice affects their sight-reading

performance and prepared performance.

The primary concern of the study is how mental practice techniques should best be

taught to students, and how these techniques can be used in the band class setting.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to design and test the effectiveness of a structured,

sequential method of mental practice instruction on the musical performance of high

school band students.

Delimitations of the Study

This study focused on a structured method of mental practice techniques as applied

to the high school band class. Many psychologists have suggested that relaxation

techniques or exercises in concentration might complement mental rehearsal. This study

focused on mental practice techniques only relaxation and concentration techniques

were not included.

There is ample evidence that alternating mental and physical practice is superior to

mental practice alone. Therefore, the mental practice treatment used in this study

alternated between mental and physical practice, rather than exclusive mental practice

without physical practice.









The design of the study presented several limitations. The treatment period for this

study was limited to six weeks. More experience with mental practice may be required in

order to assess its effectiveness. Because the participants were high school band students

in grades 9-12, results may not apply to students of other age levels. Four bands from

four different high schools were selected for participation in this study. Because each

band was taught by its respective band director, a teacher effect could have been present.

Teacher-related variables such as years of teaching experience, rapport with students,

personality, and enthusiasm for the study may have influenced the results. Home practice

was not monitored during the treatment period. Additionally, student absences from

school during the treatment period were not accounted for.

As with any study involving covert mental activity, it was impossible to determine

if each student actually engaged in mental practice. It was also impossible to determine

the quality of the mental practice. Students likely had differing levels of concentration

and attention during mental practice sessions. The only way to estimate what the students

were thinking was to ask them at the completion of the study. A post-study questionnaire

asked students to estimate their level of participation in mental practice. However, the

exact amount and quality of mental activity cannot be determined.

Research Questions

The following research questions were addressed in this study:

1. What is the effect of a structured method of mental practice in ensemble
rehearsal on the sight-reading performance of high school band students?

2. What is the effect of a structured method of mental practice in ensemble
rehearsal on the prepared performance of high school band students?









3. What is the effect of a structured method of mental practice in ensemble
rehearsal on the prepared performance of a high school band performing as an
ensemble?

4. What is the effect of mental practice on the musical performance of students
in terms of grade level, gender, and performing instrument?

5. What are the opinions of high school band students regarding mental practice?

Research Hypotheses

The research hypotheses for this study were as follows:

1. Students who receive specific training in mental practice and whose mental
practice sessions were structured by the teacher will make significantly greater
improvement in sight-reading performance than students using an
unstructured method of mental practice, physical practice, or no practice
(control).

2. Students who receive specific training in mental practice and whose mental
practice sessions were structured by the teacher will make significantly greater
improvement in prepared performance than students using an unstructured
method of mental practice, physical practice, or no practice (control).

3. A band ensemble that receives specific training in mental practice and whose
mental practice sessions were structured by the teacher will make
considerably greater improvement in prepared performance than an ensemble
using an unstructured method of mental practice, physical practice, or no
practice (control).

4. Within each of the three experimental groups, there will be significant
differences in the mean gain scores of students with regards to gender, grade
level, and instrument.

The corresponding null hypotheses were as follows:

1. There will be no significant differences in the mean gain scores for sight-
reading performance of students who practice using a structured method of
mental practice and those who engage in unstructured mental practice,
physical practice, or no practice.

2. There will be no significant differences in the mean gain scores for prepared
performance of students who practice using a structured method of mental
practice and those who engage in unstructured mental practice, physical
practice, or no practice.









3. There will be no considerable difference in the mean gain scores for ensemble
prepared performance of an ensemble that practices using a structured method
of mental practice and those who engage in unstructured mental practice,
physical practice, or no practice.

4. Within each of the three experimental groups, there will be no significant
differences in the mean gain scores of students with regards to gender, grade
level, and instrument.

Definitions

Audiation Hearing music in the mind without the physical presence of the sound.
Synonymous with the term "aural imagery."

Band class A school performing ensemble of wind and percussion students comprising
the instrumentation of the complete modern concert band, which typically
includes piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, bass clarinet, bassoon, alto saxophone,
tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, trumpet, French horn, trombone, baritone,
tuba, and percussion.

Imagery An imaginary or visual picture in the mind that can encompass all the senses.
An imaginary representation of any of the six senses in the mind. Leahey and
Harris (2001, p. 167) define six types of imagery: visual (sight), auditory (sound),
olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), tactile (touch) and kinesthetic (motor).

Mental practice/mental rehearsal The covert, cognitive rehearsal of a skill without
the use of physical movement or sound, but mentally involving all the senses.

Physical practice The actual practice of a skill or action involving all the muscles used
in actual performance.

Prepared performance The performance of a piece of music that the performer has
rehearsed prior to the performance.

Visualization Obtaining and manipulating a visual image in the mind without the
physical presence of the image. Synonymous with the term "visual imagery."

Sight-reading performance The initial performance of a piece of music that the
performer has not previously seen, heard, or played.

Slow-motion practice Slowing down an action in order to focus on the component
parts or movements of the action.















CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This study was concerned with the development of a method of mental practice and

its effect on the performance of high school wind and percussion students. There is a

considerable amount of literature in the area of mental practice. The literature can be

divided into two groups: research studies and non-empirical literature. Research studies

in mental practice consist of empirical findings related to the mental rehearsal of a skill.

However, studies in this area suffer from the limitation that mental practice is a covert

mental activity that cannot be directly observed.

The non-empirical literature consists primarily of techniques suggested by expert

performers or teachers that are not typically supported by research findings. This

literature review includes both research studies as well as the non-research literature.

While the review concentrates on mental practice as it is applied to music, studies

involving mental practice in non-musical activities are also included.

There is also a considerable amount of literature in the specific area of imagery.

One of the primary components of cognitive science is the idea that the human brain

stores and operates on mental representations or images of the world. It is a fundamental

component of both our perception of music and our aesthetic response to music. Meyer

(1956) affirmed the value of imagery in music when he stated that imagery is "the stimuli

to which the affective response is really made" (p. 256). The role of imagery and its

influence on musical learning has been the subject of numerous research studies. Imagery

plays a central role in the ability to execute mental practice techniques. Because of the









underlying foundation of imagery in mental practice, studies involving imagery and

imagery in music are included in the review.

The present review of literature is divided into four sections: 1) imagery, 2)

theoretical foundations of mental practice, 3) non-empirical approaches to mental

practice, and 4) research studies in mental practice. The chapter concludes with a

summary of findings in the literature.

Imagery

The concept of mental practice relies on the idea that humans can store and

manipulate images in the brain. Theories involving mental representations have been

found in the work of philosophers and psychologists throughout history. The idea of

mental imagery is fundamental to the cognitive psychologist's proposal of the multi-store

model of the brain and the use of cognitive maps in problem solving. Imagery in music is

primarily concerned with auditory imagery, which is the essential component of

producing or reproducing music in the mind, and therefore is essential to mental practice.

The following section reviews the historical foundations of mental imagery and the

empirical research regarding its application to human behavior and learning, including

imagery in musical learning.

Copy Theory

Much of the history of philosophy and psychology has dealt with the idea that the

human brain contains mental representations of objects and events. This idea, known as

the copy theory, is "perhaps the oldest theory of knowledge" and was "originally

proposed by the Greek philosophers Alcmaeon, Empedocles, and Democritus in the

fourth and fifth centuries B.C." (Leahey and Harris, 2001, p. 3). The main idea of copy

theory is that when we perceive an object or event, a mental copy of the object is created









in our minds. Therefore, we only know the about the object itself indirectly, through its

copy.

Aristotle echoed the ideas of the copy theory, believing that "humans have a

capacity to produce immaterial objects which they have perceived previously. This

capacity can also be used to recall objects which are stored in memory, as well as to

create visions of real or imaginary objects" (Godoy and Jorgensen, 2001, p. 7). Descartes

elaborated on this idea by stating that imagination could also include new objects that

have not been previously experienced.

Copy theory is paramount in the work of Tolman (1948), who posited that

organisms form internal maps of the world based on environmental stimuli. These

"cognitive maps" are central to Tolman's theories of learning and behavior. Copy theory

also provides the basis for the architecture of cognitive study known as the symbol-

system hypothesis. According to this theory, "an organism or computer stores within it

representations of the world symbols which it manipulates to construct new

representations" (Leahey and Harris, 2001, p. 32).

Imagery

Leahey and Harris (2001) state that imagery is often defined as a visual picture in

the mind, but that this definition is misleading because imagery can encompass all the

senses. They state that "unlike pictures, imagery is very dynamic and constructive with a

high degree of plasticity. We can image moving objects, changing events, and things and

situations we have never actually seen or experienced" (p. 166). Leahey and Harris define

six types of imagery: visual (sight), auditory (sound), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste),

tactile (touch) and kinesthetic (motor) imagery. Mental imagery is an essential









component of the cognitive maps proposed by cognitive psychologists: "We have

imagery representations of familiar places and use these to find our way around" (Leahey

and Harris, 2001, p. 167).

Piaget and Inhelder (1971) divide imagery into two large groups: reproductive

images, which represent objects or events already known, and anticipatory images, which

represent events that have not previously been perceived. Based on a series of studies,

Piaget and Inhelder conclude that the two classifications of imagery correspond "to an

essential genetic sequence" (p. 352). Reproductive images are formed during the pre-

operational stage of development or "even as soon as the appearance of the symbolic

functions" (p. 352). During the pre-operational stage, these reproductive images are static

and unable to represent movements or transformations. Anticipatory imagery is

developed in the concrete operations stage, along with the ability to represent kinetic

movement and transformation processes.

In his review of scientific literature on mental imagery, Marks (1999) concludes

that "mental imagery serves a significant adaptive function in the preparation of action

and coping with change" (p. 568). Marks' review focuses on the visual mode of mental

imagery. He claims that "mental practice which employs subjectively experienced images

of future events and explores how these events might be influenced by behavioral

intervention enables the experience's future actions to be more effectively targeted

toward his/her goals" (p. 568). According to Marks, the primary function of conscious

mental imagery is "the selection, rehearsal and planning of goal-directed activity" (p.

568).









Marks (1999) distinguishes between a conscious mental imagery used for goal-

directed actions and an unconscious imagery used for habitual actions such as walking.

The conscious form of imagery involves "the representation in consciousness of

perceptual-motor activity in the absence of the activity that is represented" (p. 569). He

also states that the vividness of the imagery affects the success of the perceptual-motor

task:

A core assumption is that conscious mental imagery serves a basic adaptive
function in enabling each person to prepare, rehearse and perfect his or her actions.
Mental imagery provides the means to guide experimentally and transform
experience by running off activity cycles as mental simulations of the real thing.
Such activity rehearsal can only proceed effectively when the rehearsal
incorporates vivid imagery. Imagery that is vivid, through virtue of being clear and
lively, and therefore closely approximating actual perceptual-motor activity, is of
great benefit to action preparation, simulation and rehearsal. (p. 579)

Murphy (2005) suggests that individuals have different levels of imagery ability,

and that the level of imagery ability corresponds to the effect imagery has on

performance. He states that the two important components of imagery ability are

vividness and controllability:

An image is said to be vivid if it is clear and resembles a real experience in some
way. One athlete, for example, tries to imagine successfully sinking a basketball
free throw in the final seconds of a tied game, but she can't "feel" the ball, can't
"see" the net, or can't "hear" the crowd. We say that her imagery is not vivid. On
the other hand, some athletes create vivid images that don't turn out the way they
want. For example, another athlete can vividly imagine himself standing at the free
throw line and can easily feel the imaginary ball in his hands. But whenever he tries
to imagine making a free throw, he sees the ball missing the net. We say that he has
low controllability of his image. (p. 131)

Murphy claims that imagery is useful in learning new skills, but also in retaining skills

over time. "Once athletes have learned a skill, they face the challenge of maintaining

it... the regular rehearsal of learned skills, with the goal of retention, is another widely


used imagery strategy among athletes" (p. 139).









Jeannerod (1995) distinguishes between different types of imagery by determining

"the subjective 'distance' between the self and his own imaginal experience" (p. 1419).

He states that mental images can involve "the self as a spectator watching a visual scene

in which an action is performed by the representing subject himself" (p. 1419). On the

other hand, mental imagery can also be experienced "as the result of the 'first person'

process involving mostly a kinesthetic representation of the action" (p. 1419). According

to Jeannerod, the term 'motor imagery' refers to this latter type of imagery, and occurs

when "the subject feels himself executing a given action, whether it involves the whole

body ... or it is limited to a body part" (pp. 1419-1420).

Mahoney and Avener (1977) examined the psychological factors and cognitive

strategies used by male gymnasts during the final trials for the U.S. Olympic team. They

found positive correlations between superior athletic performance and certain forms of

mental imagery. They also found that better athletes reported a greater use of internal

imagery rather than external imagery. They describe the two different perspectives of

imagery as follows:

In external imagery, a person views himself from the perspective of an external
observer (much like in home movies). Internal imagery, on the other hand, requires
an approximation of the real-life phenomenology such that the person actually
imagines being inside his/her body and experiencing those sensations which might
be expected of the actual situation. (p. 137)

Additional research indicates that imagery from the internal perspective produces activity

in the muscles that are involved in the task, while imagery from the external perspective

produces activity in the eye muscles only (Hale, 1982).

Auditory Imagery

Much of the imagery that is of interest in the field of musical performance is

auditory imagery. Seashore (1938) states that auditory imagery is a dominant presence in









"natural musicians with a rich feeling for music" (p. 6), and that motor imagery is also

well developed in these musicians. Seashore cites the writings of Schumann, Mozart,

Berlioz, and Wagner to illustrate that imagery is a fundamental component of musical

composition. Seashore states that in the highest form of listening, "the actual sounds of

the tones merely furnish the cues for the mental reconstruction that proceeds from the

mind of the listener" (p. 169). Musical imagery is therefore essential for a musical

memory in which we relive the music. Seashore concludes that the mental image

"operates in music in the following three ways: (1) in the hearing of music; (2) in the

recall of music; (3) in the creation of music" (p. 169).

Karpinski (2000) suggests that aural imagery is an essential component to reading

and performing music:

Before performing, musicians should be able to establish a key or set a tempo
without making a sound. The ability to auralize these procedures is valuable not
only in actual performing situations but also for everyday music-reading tasks.
Anyone reading metric tonal music must be able to auralize key and meter before
beginning to interpret and understand the individual notes. And the ability to
auralize the sounds of the individual notes is equally important. Proficient readers
scan ahead, taking in musically meaningful groups of notes and hearing them
internally before producing their sounds. (p. 156)

There is evidence that auditory imagery activates a different area of the brain than

visual imagery. Aleman, Nieuwenstein, Bocker, and de Haan (2000) found that musically

trained subjects performed better than subjects untrained in music on a musical imagery

task and a non-musical auditory imagery task. However, there was no difference between

the two groups on a visual imagery task, suggesting that visual imagery activates

different cortical areas of the brain than auditory imagery.

In a review of several studies involving auditory imagery, Halpern (2001)

concludes that the brain processes both actual sound and aural images in a similar









manner. She states that "parts of the cortex specialized for processing actual sound are

also recruited to process imagined sound. Furthermore, the particular structures

processing imagined music bear some similarity to those processing heard music" (p.

190).

Findings by Washington (1993) support these results. Washington monitored the

electrical currents of the brain in practice conditions that involved mental practice. She

trained two violinists and two violists in a mental rehearsal technique. Quantitative

electroencephalographic measurements were taken of twenty electrode sites during seven

different practice conditions. The practice conditions involved imagined versus actual

playing as well as solo versus chamber (duet) playing. The practice conditions included a

resting baseline, imagining playing the duet without looking at the score, imagining

playing the duet while looking at the score, playing the music alone (one person),

violinist plays while violist imagines playing, violist plays while violinist imagines

playing, and both musicians playing together. Results indicated that the activity of the

brain during imagined musical performance resembles the brain activity during actual

performance.

Imagery in Music: General Research

In a series of studies on mental imagery, Betts (1909) dedicated three experiments

to imagery in music. The first experiment resembled a musical eartraining exercise

involving relative pitch. Subjects listened to a note played on the piano and were told the

name of the note. After 30 seconds, another note was played, and subjects were instructed

to write down the name of the second note. Subjects were asked after each trial to report

if they had used an auditory image of the first note to compare to the second note, or if









they just "knew" what the second note was. Results indicated that 81% of the subjects

reportedly used auditory images, with 14 out of 18 subjects reportedly using auditory

images in every trial. The percentage of accuracy for note naming was greatest when

auditory imagery was used, with the "percentage of error being almost twice as high for

those who reported no imagery" (p. 85).

In the second experiment, subjects were asked to study a composition and then

respond to a questionnaire regarding the imagery used while studying the score. The

majority of subjects reported using auditory, kinesthetic, and/or visual imagery in their

silent study of the music. In the third experiment, subjects were asked to describe the

images that appeared in their minds as they listened to a performance of piano music.

Results indicated that 18 out of 19 subjects reported using visual or kinesthetic images as

they listened. Betts (1909) states:

One is impressed with the large amount of imagery reported in all of these tests,
and, even after allowance is made for the tendency of the untrained observer to
over-state his imagery, the conviction still obtains that a great deal of imagery of
visual, auditory, and kinesthetic kinds accompanied the interpretation of the tones
and the music. (p. 86)

Bergen (1967) found that there was a positive correlation between pitch

identification and musical imagery. Imagery scores were determined from an imagery

questionnaire that asked subjects to rate their images of certain sounds on a five-point

scale. To determine pitch identification ability, subjects were presented with a pitch and

asked to locate identical pitches from a series of 10 tones. Bergen states that "because of

the significant number of cues it is capable of providing, an 'image tone' may serve as

the standard against which to compare other tones being judged" (p. 108). He suggests









that the ability to make judgments regarding pitch depends on our internal representations

of those tones.

Imagery in Music: Qualitative Research

The use of mental imagery by professional singers was strongly supported in

Carter's (1993) qualitative study on the issue. Carter interviewed eleven professional

singers currently or previously active in the fields of opera, oratorio, or recital work.

Results indicated that there is a "widespread use of imagery strategies in many areas of

voice training, performing, and teaching" and that "imagery is unique to the individual,

private in nature and employed in accordance with the degree of individual need in

specific situations" (p. 299). The singers reported using mental imagery to check and

retain proper posture and to assist with proper breathing. They used imagery to feel sound

rather than to hear it, feeling the pronunciation of words and the vibrations in different

parts of the head and body. They also used imagery to combat anxiety, tension, and lack

of self-confidence. The vocalists reported using kinesthetic, auditory, and visual imagery.

In a similar study, Moyer (1992) found that 95% of singers interviewed used

mental imagery. The majority of singers used kinesthetic, sensory, and auditory imagery,

and more experienced singers used visuo-spatial imagery as well. Most singers indicated

that they used imagery from an internal perspective, used mental rehearsal techniques,

and imaged pitch and vowel interactively.

Trusheim (1987) interviewed twenty-six orchestral brass players from five major

symphony orchestras regarding the role of mental imagery in their musical performance.

Results indicated that a majority of the musicians used auditory imagery as well as visual,

kinesthetic, and tactile imagery in their musical experiences. The players reportedly used









prior personal experiences as a source of imagery and used imagery elicited in response

to the content of specific musical compositions.

Imagery in Music Education

Serafine (1981) investigated the ability of young children to structure and

manipulate mental images of sounds. Specifically, she sought to determine the extent to

which children are able to mentally combine the images of two different sounds and

predict what they would sound like simultaneously. The study was based on the theories

of mental imagery by Piaget and Inhelder (1971), and dealt primarily with what they

called anticipatory imagery. As stated earlier, anticipatory imagery refers to images that

represent events that have not previously been perceived. Results indicated that many

children ages 3-5 are unable to determine if two simultaneous sounds are the same as two

successive sounds. Serafine states that "they seem incapable of an imaginal combining of

two separate sounds (A=B) in order to predict or anticipate the result (AB)" (p. 106). The

findings support Piaget and Inhelder's theory that developmental stages are related to the

ability to mentally conceive aural images.

Giles, Hayes, and Grant (1993) found that the use of imagery increased

motivational and affective responses of fifth-grade children studying a musical

composition. Children who used imagery exercises in studying a piece of music were

better able to describe the elements of the music than children participating in traditional

activities. In a second study, subjects in the treatment condition listened to a composition

about the Grand Canyon, and were asked to imagine themselves on a camping trip in the

Grand Canyon. They were also asked to draw pictures of what they saw. Although there

was no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of









cognitive test scores and listening concepts, the imagery group did have higher affective

scores. Subjects in the imagery group also responded the most favorably in that they liked

the activity, felt the activity helped them understand the piece, and liked the music

studied.

Bagley and Hess (1987) describe multiple ways to use imagery in the classroom,

and provide subject-specific imagery lessons in language arts, math, science, social

studies, art, and music. The lessons ask students to imagine the visual, aural, and

kinesthetic aspects of a place, situation, or event. For example, in a lesson titled "Live at

Symphony Hall," students listen to a symphony recording and are provided with

instructions such as "see the conductor enter," "hear the silence as she taps and raises her

baton," and "feel the rhythm" (p. 200).

Orzolek (2002) found that imagery and movement exercises aimed at increasing the

expressiveness of student conducting increased the ability of students to conduct

expressively. The exercises combined imagery with the movement associated with the

imagery (active imagery). For example, subjects were asked to visualize a volleyball and

physically simulate certain actions with the ball. Another exercise involved imaging and

acting out a sword fight or a rope pulling activity (D. C. Orzolek, personal

communication, October 26, 2004).

Gordon (1980) created the term "audiation" to describe auditory imagery:

"Audiation takes place when one hears music through recall or creation, the sound not

being physically present (except, of course, when one is engaging in musical

performance) and derives musical meaning" (p. 2). Gordon prefers the term audiation

because the word "imagery" often implies a visual representation.









Several recent studies have suggested that audiation-based techniques made no

significant difference in the musical achievement of young band students. In a study that

applied audiation techniques in the beginning band class, Josuweit (1991) found that

there was no significant difference in musical creativity skills between students taught

using an audiation-based approach and those using traditional methods.

Similar results were obtained by Frierson-Campbell (2000) in a study that tested

the effects of audiation-based enrichment activities on the achievement of second-year

wind and percussion students. Results indicated that there were no significant differences

in achievement between the control group and the group using audiation-based activities.

Liperote (2004) found that fourth-grade band students who received audiation-

based instruction in the third-grade were not significantly superior in areas of music

achievement or aptitude than students who did not received audiation-based instruction.

However, Gromko (2004) found that audiation was a significant predictor of sight-

reading ability in high school wind players.

It appears that the extent to which audiation can serve as a teaching technique to

improve musical performance remains unclear. In his review of the literature regarding

audiation, Grashel (1991) cites numerous studies that involve the use of audiation in

assessing student musicians. However, few studies were cited that examined the specific

use of audiation as a teaching tool to improve musical performance. Grashel suggests that

future studies should examine the use of audiation in improving intonation in school

ensembles.

Clearly, imagery plays an important role in the creation and perception of music.

Auditory imagery may be a valuable component to the process of musical composition









(Seashore, 1938), music reading (Gromko, 2004; Karpinski, 2000), music perception

(Bagley and Hess, 1987), conducting (Orzolek, 2002), and musical performance (Carter,

1993; Moyer, 1992; Trusheim, 1987). Imagery ability in children is strongly correlated

with developmental stages (Piaget and Inhelder, 1971; Serafine, 1981). Research

indicates that imagery can increase motivational and affective responses of fifth-grade

children studying a musical composition (Giles, Hayes, and Grant, 1993). The degree to

which imagery is beneficial may depend on the vividness of the image (Marks, 1999;

Murphy, 2005) and the perspective (internal or external) of the imagery (Hale, 1982;

Jeannerod, 1995; Mahoney and Avener, 1977).

Theoretical Foundations of Mental Practice

As it will be shown, many research studies have examined the effect of mental

practice on the performance of a task, and have suggested that mental practice may be

effective in improving performance. How is it possible that mental practice could

facilitate improved performance? Suinn (1993) cites four theories that attempt to explain

how imagery rehearsal helps improve performance: the psychoneuromuscular theory, the

arousal or activation theory, the symbolic learning theory, and the bioinformational or

information processing theory.

Psychoneuromuscular Theory

The psychoneuromuscular theory claims that when imaging an action, the muscles

that would be used in the real life action are activated, although on a much smaller scale.

Suinn (1993) states that under this theory,

imagery rehearsal duplicates the actual motor pattern being rehearsed, although the
neuromuscular innervations with imagery are of a smaller magnitude than in
physical practice. Although minute, the neuromuscular activation from imagery is
said to be sufficient to enhance the motor schema in the motor cortex or the
priming of the corresponding muscle movement nodes. (p. 493)









Several additional research findings support the notion that mental imagery can cause

activation of the muscles used in performance (Jacobson, 1931; Sli\\, 1940; Suinn,

1980; Wehner, Vogt, and Stadler, 1984).

In a series of studies, Jacobson (1930a, 1930b, 1930c, 1931) found that when a

subject imagined performing a movement task (bending the right arm), the specific

muscles that would have been activated in the real-life movement were contracted. He

states that "contraction of specific muscles takes place following the instruction to

imagine an act performed with the voluntary musculature [and the] movement usually is

of microscopic extent and generally is confined within the group of muscles whose

contraction would be required for the actual performance of the voluntary act" (Jacobson,

1930c, p. 711). Contraction of those specific muscles were not recorded when the subject

did not imagine the action or imagined "performing acts with other parts of his body"

(1930a, p. 606). Jacobson concludes that "the total physiological activity present when

there is imagination of voluntary movement includes neuromuscular processes in the

locale comprised of the imaginary act" (1930a, p. 607).

Jacobson (1931) found that when subjects were asked to imagine bending the right

arm, there was not only a contraction of muscle fibers in the right arm, but also a

contraction of muscles in the ocular region. Jacobson states that this lends evidence to the

idea "that mental activity is not confined to closed circuits within the brain, but that

neuromuscular regions participate" (p. 121).

Suinn (1980) recorded EMG measurements of muscle activity in the legs of a skier

as he imagined himself skiing down a slope. Results indicated that although the athlete

was stationary, muscle responses were similar to those that would be activated in the real









situation: "muscle reactions peaked at various moments in the imagery corresponding to

times at which extra muscle involvement would be expected in real life on such a course.

Where the imagery scene involved a jump, for example, the corresponding EMG

recording showed intense leg activity" (p. 35). He also found that when athletes imagined

themselves in a race, heart rate increased similar to the way it would in a real life

situation.

However, Feltz and Landers (1983) cast doubt on the idea that the effects of mental

practice are due to localized innervation of the muscles used in the actual performance.

Instead, they claim that the minute muscle innervations associated with mental practice

are "more general throughout the whole body or a whole limb" (p. 50). They state that

because Jacobson (1930a, 1930b, 1930c, 1931) only placed electrodes on the right arm, it

is unclear whether other muscles were activated when the subject imagined bending the

right arm. They cite the findings of Shi\\ (1938), who found no evidence of localization

of muscle groups during imagery. When subjects imagined squeezing a hand grip with

the right hand, there was a heightened EMG activity in both the right arm as well as the

left leg. Similar non-localized results were found when subject imagined typing, singing,

and playing a musical instrument. Hale (1981, cited in Feltz and Landers, 1983) found

that when subjects imagined performing a curl with the right arm, muscle activity

increased in both the right arm and as well as the triceps.

Regardless of whether muscle activity during mental imagery is localized or

generalized, it appears that mental practice may cause a minute activation of the

musculature. Proponents of the psychoneuromuscular theory believe that mental practice

is effective because it causes a duplication of the motor patterns used in actual









performance. However, proponents of the arousal or activation theory believe that these

muscle responses serve a different purpose.

Arousal or Activation Theory

The arousal (or activation) theory states that the minimal muscle innervations found

during mental practice are a result of the performer psychologically preparing for the

task. Schmidt (1982) states that the "performer is merely preparing for the action, setting

the arousal level, and generally getting prepared for good performance" (p. 520). Feltz

and Landers (1983) state:

In contrast to the deleterious performance effects associated with maximal tension
levels (e.g., reduced accuracy of discrimination), the minimal tension levels
accompanying mental practice would help to prime the muscles. [and] can act
to lower the sensory threshold of the performer and facilitate performance in a wide
variety of motor tasks. (p. 50)

Suinn (1993) states that by this rationale, the arousal would also influence

attention: "From this view, the theory is really a theory of attention and arousal. In this

elaboration, imagery rehearsal focuses attention on task-relevant thoughts and away from

task-irrelevant cues which could disrupt performance" (p. 495).

Symbolic Learning Theory

The symbolic-learning theory states that mental practice may improve performance

because it provides an opportunity to rehearse the symbolic component of a task, rather

than activating the muscles involved. Schmidt (1982) states that during mental practice

the subject "can think about what kinds of things might be tried, the consequences of

each action can be predicted to some extent based on previous experiences with similar

skills, and the learner can perhaps rule out inappropriate courses of action" (p. 520).

Feltz and Landers (1983) state that according to this theory, mental practice

improves performance only if cognitive factors are involved in the task. Suinn (1993)









agrees, stating that mental practice may be more beneficial when it enhances

"performance involving high levels of cognitive requirements, such as during spatial

tasks, tasks involving strategic planning, or sequential learning tasks" (p. 494). By this

definition, music performance would qualify as an act that requires high levels of

cognition. Therefore, mental practice may be beneficial in music to the extent that it

allows the performer to rehearse the symbolic elements of musical performance.

This theory is supported by Sackett (1934), who claims that "the influence of

symbolic rehearsal is limited to those skills in which there is a symbolic control of the

movements involved" (p. 393). Sackett found that mental rehearsal was beneficial to the

retention of a finger maze pattern. He asked subjects to learn a finger maze and then

instructed them to practice the maze using one of three practice conditions. One group

was instructed to practice drawing the maze pattern, the second group was told to practice

the maze pattern by thinking through it, and a third group was told not to practice or think

about the maze pattern at all. Not surprisingly, the drawing group produced the best

retention score, followed by the thinking and no practice groups respectively. Results

indicated that thinking through the maze was beneficial to retention and was better than

no practice at all.

Peynircioglu, Thompson, and Tanielian (2000) found that mental rehearsal

improved the performance of a basketball free-throw shooting task involving high

cognitive demand, but not the performance of a grip strength task involving low cognitive

demand. This finding supports that of Sackett (1934), who found that mental rehearsal

involving the representation of overt actions improves performance only if the task









demands a high level of cognition. Peynircioglu et al. state that

an elaborate cognitive mental strategy such as imagery, which breaks down
thinking into steps and analyzes the upcoming responses, should enhance
performance in sports in which coordination of numerous fine and specific skills is
required, but not performance in sports in which success depends on focusing on
just one gross motor skill. For the latter type of sports, a better type of strategy
appears to be one, such as overt and nonspecific arousal, in which the primary
objective is to gather up strength, focus, and concentration, without having to pay
much attention to cognitive aspects. (p. 155)

Because instrumental musical performance also involves the "coordination of numerous

fine and specific skills" (p. 155), a mental rehearsal strategy would seem to be an

appropriate method of improving musical performance skills.

Mulder, Sjouke, Wiebren, and Hochstenbach (2004) found that subjects showed

significant improvement in a motor task after mental practice only if they had prior

experience with the task, which involved movement of the big toe. Subjects who had no

prior experience with the task could not acquire the muscle movement after mental

practice but could acquire the task after physical practice. Subjects who were already

capable of executing the task showed improvement in the task after mental practice as

well as physical practice. Mulder et al. state: "The conclusion that we can mentally train

only those movements that we have performed before is important, because it may

restrict the use of mental practice in neurological rehabilitation and sports to movement

categories that have been performed earlier" (p. 216).

Mulder et al. (2004) claim that this finding supports the central representation

theory, which posits that mental practice activates a stored representation of the task.

Subjects with no experience in the task would have no such stored representation for

mental practice to operate on. They believe that this finding provides evidence against the

psychoneuromuscular theory. If the psychoneuromuscular theory were valid, then









subjects with no experience with the task "would be able to learn a totally novel

movement by means of mental practice, since mental practice would lead to activation of

the involved target muscle" (p. 215). In this study, no EMG activity was found in the foot

during mental practice.

In their meta-analysis of research on mental practice, Feltz and Landers (1983)

found evidence that the effects of mental practice were evident in both early and later

stages of learning. They conclude that "for tasks high in symbolic or cognitive elements,

mental practice will be the most effective when subjects have had some prior practice

with the task" (p. 48). Similarly, Connolly and Williamon (2004) state that the person

performing mental rehearsal "should have prior experience in executing the task (or one

similar to it)" (p. 226). Ungerleider (1996) agrees, stating that imagery "is based on

memory, and we experience it internally by reconstructing external events in our minds"

(p. 6).

Ginns, Chandler, and Sweller (2003) provide support for the notion that mental

practice is more valuable when used to improve performance on previously learned tasks.

They examined the effects of mental rehearsal on subjects' ability to type HTML

computer code or to solve geometry problems. In each experiment, one group was

instructed to study the written steps of the procedure while a second group was instructed

to imagine performing the procedure. Results indicate that mental practice of instructions

was effective only when subjects had prior experience with or knowledge of the task.

Ginns, Chandler, and Sweller (2003) cite the schema construction theory in their

explanation of why prior knowledge is necessary for mental practice to be effective.

They state that new information is processed in working memory, which is a limited









capacity memory store. However, when information is learned it can be organized in

long-term memory into a schema, and can be retrieved and processed in working memory

as a single entity rather than separate pieces of data. By processing this schema as a

single entity, the load on working memory is reduced. With practice, schemas can be

retrieved from long-term memory with very little effort, and require minimal attentional

capacity. They state:

If students are unable to process interacting elements in working memory,
requesting them to imagine those interacting elements will be counterproductive.
They will be better studying the materials to commence schema construction. ... If
students are able to process interacting elements in working memory because
schema construction has sufficiently progressed, further studying of the materials
will have diminishing returns. Automating the information by imagining the
materials is a superior strategy. Finally, it follows that unlearned material
should first be studied to assist in schema construction and then imagined to assist
in schema automation. An imagination strategy followed by a study strategy should
be counterproductive. From an instructional design perspective, the
recommendations that flow from this theory and results are clear-cut. In the initial
phases of learning complex material, students should be advised to study the
information with the assistance of well-structured instruction. Subsequently, once
sufficient learning has occurred, students should cease to "study" the material and
commence to "imagine" it. (p. 247-248)

These findings are consistent with those of Driskell, Copper, and Moran (1994),

who found that mental practice was more effective for subjects who were experienced

with the task than for novices. They state that "mental practice may be more effective,

everything else held constant, if novice subjects are given schematic knowledge before

mental practice of a physical task" (p. 489). Their findings indicate that mental practice

may help novices more with cognitive tasks than physical tasks. Experienced subjects

may benefit from mental practice in both cognitive and physical tasks.

Bioinformational or Information Processing Theory

A fourth and final theory, cited by Suinn (1993) as the bioinformational or

information processing theory, considers mental practice from the standpoint of









information processing mechanisms in the brain. In this theory, imagery activates a

"nci\\ ork of coded propositions stored in long-term mcm, ri (p. 496). This network

functions as a "prototype for behavior ... [that] can be processed by internally generating

prototype-matching information, such as through imagery rehearsal" (p. 496).

Decety (1996) found that when movement is imagined specific areas of the brain

are activated. During imagery, the premotor cortex is activated as the action is prepared,

the prefrontal cortex as the action is initiated, and the cerebellum during the control of

sequences of movement requiring a specific order. According to Decety, converging data

from three different types of experimental paradigm indicate that "representations for

action rely on distributed networks at the cortical and subcortical levels. Indeed, neural

representations for action involve all levels of the motor hierarchy, even the primary

motor conlc\" (p. 294).

Based on this theory, imagery will better enhance performance when it more

closely resembles the actual task. Ziegler (1987) examined the difference between "active

imagery" and "passive imagery." Active imagery involves going through the physical

motions involved in the task during mental rehearsal. Ziegler's subjects imagined

shooting a basketball free throw and simultaneously went through the physical motions

associated with the task, but did not use the ball. Active imagery involves simultaneous

movement and imagery:

Low grade muscle innervation is believed, by some, to be involved in imagery
training, so the adding of the correct movement pattern to the successful imagery
would serve a double benefit. First, it would cause innervation of the appropriate
muscular system and reinforce correct execution of the motor task. Secondly, it
would have the built-in control of proper attentional focus to the task and the
reinforcement of successful practice of the task. (p. 580)









Passive imagery includes mental rehearsal with no physical movements. Ziegler

(1987) describes passive imagery as "the most traditional form of imagery training,"

involving "vivid imagery of the environment, the task elements and the successful

completion of the task" (p. 580). The bioinformational theory suggests that active

imagery would be better than passive imagery because it more closely matches the

prototype for behavior found in the information network.

In her study, Ziegler (1987) tested the effects of imagery rehearsal on basketball

free throw shooting using five practice conditions: passive imagery, active imagery,

physical practice, passive imagery and physical practice, and a no practice control. The

study found no significant differences between the imagery groups, but the active

imagery group did show greater improvement than the physical practice group. For the

current study, active imagery, passive imagery, and passive imagery with physical

practice are incorporated into the mental practice method.

Further research is necessary to more accurately determine the processes by which

mental practice may facilitate improved performance. Perhaps all four positions are

correct, and the answer lies in a combination of the theories. Under this assumption,

mental practice would be effective because it a) activates the muscles used in

performance, b) activates additional musculature that is not used in performance,

preparing the body for action, c) operates on the mental schema of the action, d) provides

an opportunity to rehearse the symbolic component of a task, and e) activates a network

of coded propositions in the brain.

Perhaps the most important conclusion from the literature is the notion that prior

experience with the task may be necessary for mental rehearsal to be effective (Connolly









and Williamon, 2004; Driskell, Copper, and Moran, 1994; Feltz and Landers, 1983;

Ginns, Chandler, and Sweller, 2003; Mulder et al., 2004; Ungerleider, 1996). This

finding has important implications for research in mental practice. It may explain why

some research studies have found that mental practice is not as good as physical practice.

Many of these studies have given the participants a task they have no prior experience

with, and then asked them to mentally rehearse the task. Based on these findings, this

study will allow the participating students to rehearse the compositions for two weeks

(four rehearsals) before attempting any mental practice on the music.

Non-Empirical Approaches to Mental Practice

The following section includes a review of methods that apply mental rehearsal to

practice and performance strategies. The difference between imagery and mental practice

is not always clear in the literature. According to Ungerleider (1996), there is a difference

between mental practice, imagery, and visualization. Mental practice "simply means

repeating a task in your mind, without any movement from your body" (p. 6). Imagery

constitutes "a very specific and very focused type of mental practice that uses all the

senses to create an experience in the mind" (p. 6). Visualization concerns the part of

imagery that involves a visual image of an event. The other senses can also be used in the

imagery experience. The reader is cautioned to be aware that in much of the literature, the

definitions of these terms are not always clear and are often used interchangeably.

Although some of the following techniques are derived from empirical research,

most lack the research findings to accept or reject them as valid techniques. The value of

these methods may be due to the fact that they have been created and used with some

degree of success by expert performers.









Dance

Imagery has been recommended as a valuable technique for improving dance

performance (Franklin, 2004; Taylor, 1995). In his book The Psychology of Dance,

Taylor (1995) devotes an entire chapter to dance imagery. According to Taylor, imagery

is a common practice technique among dancers:

A common sight backstage at performances is dancers with their eyes closed,
slowly rehearsing the critical elements of their roles. They are imagining
themselves performing with mastery and virtuosity. They are envisioning the
proper execution of their movements and, most importantly, feeling the artistry of
their role. (p. 86)

He states that dance imagery should be systematically incorporated into rehearsal time,

preparation prior to the performance, and training outside of the studio. According to

Taylor, the benefits of imagery include the enhancement of motivation, concentration,

intensity, and self-confidence.

Taylor (1995) recommends ten techniques to increase the effectiveness and quality

of mental imagery. The following is a summary of those techniques:

1. Imagine total performance Dancers should mentally reproduce all aspects of
performance: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, thinking, and emotional elements.

2. Imagery perspective Dancers should maximize both internal and external
perspectives of performance. An internal perspective involves imagining a
performance through the performer's eyes. An external perspective involves
viewing the performance as an observer, watching the performance from outside
the body.

3. Vivid imagery Dancers should use vivid images that are "realistic, detailed,
and clear and include all of the requisite senses, thoughts, and emotions" (p. 88).

4. Imagery control Dancers must not imagine themselves making mistakes in
performance. They must control their imagery so that only successful performances
are imagined. "When dancers engage in poor imagery, they must immediately
correct it with better imagery" (p. 90). Also, when learning new techniques it is
sometimes best to break the skill down into smaller parts and rehearse each part in
slow motion. "Once able to imagine it in slow motion, they can progressively speed
up the imagery until they can perform the skill at normal speed" (p. 90).









5. Combine relaxation with imagery Relaxation exercises can help increase
imagery vividness and control, and can help dancers be more open to imagined
scenarios.

6. Imagine realistic conditions Dancers should imagine performances in the same
conditions that the performance is likely to occur.

7. Imagine realistic performances Learning more complex skills takes time, and
results in some mistakes. Therefore, dancers should not imagine themselves
performing new or complex skills perfectly. Rather, "they should imagine
themselves performing within their ability and coping well with the new demands"
(p. 91).

8. Adjust imagery speed Taylor suggests that dancers use slow motion imagery to
learn new skills, and fast motion imagery to increase focus on the performance and
prevent distracting thoughts from invading imagery rehearsal.

9. Feel the imagery Taylor suggests that dancers move their bodies with their
imagery in order to facilitate the physical feeling aspect of imagery.

10. Not feeling right By imagining a successful past performance, dancers can
combat feelings of tightness, bad feelings, or timing problems.

Leadership

Garfield (1987) recommends mental practice for use by organizational leaders. He

includes mental practice in a list of nine characteristics of peak performers:

[Peak performers] rehearse, in their mind's eye, an incident or event that is
important to them. Mental rehearsal is a core capability of peak performers one
that the Soviets and East Germans have developed extensively in their athletic
programs. Business executives can benefit by rehearsing specific events in the
mind's eye, including all those possible outcomes and possible surprises that can
materialize. (p. 6)

Perhaps this application of mental practice could be extended to helping classroom

teachers improve their teaching. Music educators and college music education majors

could mentally rehearse teaching a specific lesson to a specific class, and could rehearse


different scenarios that are likely to occur in the classroom.









Sports

Fanning (1988) provides several guidelines for visualization in sports performance.

He suggests that athletes externally visualize themselves performing as they usually do,

including any mistakes, and then "wind down the action to extreme slow motion" (p.

131), breaking down the moves into smaller parts. Athletes should identify where moves

go \w ir lng. and mentally practice the move in slow motion, watching the moves improve

until they approach perfection. Next, "speed up the film to normal speed" (p. 131) and

see the moves done successfully. Athletes should then internally visualize the moves, first

in slow motion, then at regular speed.

Professional golfers such as Tiger Woods, Bobby Jones, and Jack Nicklaus have

used mental rehearsal and imagery techniques to improve their golf performance

(Andrisani, 2002). Andrisani states that Nicklaus imagines the perfect shot in his mind

before he hits the shot:

Before swinging, he actually is witness to an in-color cinematic flick playing in
his head that includes frames showing the flight path of the shot and its trajectory,
the ball landing in the green, and Nicklaus making the swing that will produce what
was in his mental storyboards. (p. 30)

May (1989) includes mental practice in his review of psychological techniques to

improve athletic performance. May claims that there are three steps to mental rehearsal,

the first two occurring before the actual mental practice begins. The first step is

memorization, which involves defining the task or clarifying exactly what is to be

rehearsed, and becoming immersed in the environment of the sport. The second step is

visual imagery, which involves "producing a vivid image of the situation, one that uses

all your senses" (p. 24). Included in these senses are the feelings involved in the situation,

such as the excitement one might feel when making a good turn on a ski slope. The third









step is the mental rehearsal itself: "Close your eyes and experience the physical activity

mentally and emotionally. Everything you visualize should look and feel the same as if

you were really on the slopes or on the court" (p. 25). May provides an example of the

three steps as applied to performing a golf swing:

1. Center your weight and visualize where you want the ball to go.

2. Experience the easy flow of your swing, feel the impact of the ball and the
follow-through of the club.

3. Visualize lifting your head and seeing the ball land right where you want it to
be. (p. 25)

Syer and Connolly (1984) list five different mental practice techniques:

performance practice, instant preplay, during performance, instant replay, and

performance review. Performance practice involves "visualizing the performance of a

specific skill that you want to develop or improve" (p. 58). It also involves visualizing an

ideal performance. In this technique, one might visualize a performance of a well-known

expert, and then imagine becoming that person. It can also involve visualizing one of

your own past performances that you consider to be perfect.

Instant preplay is a short, compact mental practice that occurs immediately before

the performance. A football kicker might use this form of practice immediately before

attempting a field goal, or a basketball player in the moments before attempting a foul

shot. During performance involves the use of metaphorical imagery during the actual

performance. As an example of this imagery, Syer and Connolly (1984) state: "Many

archers think they are blown around and can't shoot when it's windy. One British archer

we've worked with deals with such conditions by shooting 'as if' she were a steel stake in









the ground" (p. 64). In music, this kind of imagery is similar to Freymuth's (1990)

characterization of musical concepts, which is discussed in the next section.

Instant replay is the opposite of instant preplay, and involves the visualization of a

performance that has just been completed. It can be used to reinforce a good performance

or to review and analyze a poor performance. Instant replay forms "the basis for the

construction of a new instant preplay. The alteration of instant preplay, physical

performance, and instant replay, practiced methodically and well, ensures fairly rapid

improvement" (Syer and Connolly, 1984, p. 67). Freymuth (1990) suggests a similar

three-step sequence in music, discussed in the next section.

The final mental practice type is performance review, which involves recounting an

entire performance or rehearsal in order to analyze it. Syer and Connolly (1984) suggest

that a coach or instructor to be present when recounting the performance in order to take

notes and to ask questions that may trigger additional memories.

Syer and Connolly (1984) distinguish between "closed skills" and "open skills" in

their discussion of mental practice. Closed skills are "skills which are repeated,

predictable and not affected by interaction with any other performers" (p. 62). Diving and

golf are examples of closed skills. Open skills involve "interaction with team mates and

opponents and adapting to a variety of situations" (p. 63). Mental practice can involve

both open and closed skills. Syer and Connolly claim that the mental practice techniques

of preplay and replay involve mostly closed skills. Scales, arpeggios, or brief technical

exercises might be considered closed skills in musical performance, while a long

composition of varying musical passages might require a variety open skills. Ensemble









performing in music could be considered an open skill because the individual

performance depends in part on the other musicians in the ensemble.

Music

Freymuth (1990) provides a thorough exploration of mental practice for musicians.

She states that mental representations can be divided into two categories: mental recall

and mental projection. She defines mental recall as "recreating an experience so that the

mental representation is identical to the past event" (p. 24). Mental recall can be used to

recreate an ideal past performance in order to provide a model of excellent performance

conditions. Mental projection, on the other hand, "is the creation of a mental 'model' that

embodies ideals that you strive for" (p. 24). Mental projection precedes a physical event

and represents a performance that the performer is striving for. "When projecting a

mental model just moments before playing, you are programming your nervous system

and directly influencing the performance" (p. 25).

Freymuth (1990) suggests that these concepts be incorporated into a "Three-Step

Practice Loop" (p. 26). The loop consists of mental projection, physical playing, and

mental recall: "First, project an ideal mental model. Next, try to match the model with

your physical playing. Then, recall and analyze this physical rendition" (p. 26). This is

similar to Syer and Connolly's (1984) alteration of instant preplay, physical performance,

and instant replay, discussed in the previous section.

Freymuth (1990) states that the success of mental practice depends on a high

degree of sensory awareness: "The more conscious you are of sensory feedback while

playing, the more clearly you can imagine playing. In turn, the more vivid the mental

work becomes, the more powerfully it can influence playing and performance" (p. 33).









Freymuth (1990) provides suggestions for teaching mental practice to younger

students. She states that although students may respond favorably to mental practice

training during lessons, they may not be able to perform mental practice at home without

guidance. She recommends that teachers write out "short, specific mental practice and

imagery exercises to make things more concrete" (p. 86). Mental practice techniques

should also be explained to parents.

To begin mental practice with children, students should "carry out a very short,

simple action followed by a mental rehearsal of the action" (p. 87). These actions could

be big motions of the whole body or an arm or leg. Eartraining should be approached the

same way: "First play a note, melody, etc., and have the child sing it back. Then play the

same thing again, and ask the student to repeat the sounds mentally" (Freymuth, 1990, p.

87). Lessons should involve alternating physical actions and mental recall until the

student is prepared to increase the complexity and frequency of the exercises.

Freymuth (1990) suggests that the imagination be used with young children to

develop their instrumental technique and musical ear. Teachers should think of stories

that can be expressed through music, and should characterize musical concepts using

imaginative examples:

staccato sounds like a jumping rabbit;
glissando swoops like a bird;
pianissimo is like tiptoeing around a sleeping baby. (p. 88)

Students should then be encouraged to move to the music and act out its imaginary

character.









Freymuth (1993) suggests that regular mental rehearsal can serve as a form of

quality control. She states that the kind of imagery used in mental practice should

broaden as learning proceeds:

The focus of imagery probably should change from specific cues and sequences
(during early learning stages) to an overall auditory and kinesthetic Gestalt that
captures the flow of the performance. Appropriately applied, imagery has the
potential for refocusing attention, restoring concentration, and revitalizing
performance. (p. 142)

The mental practice method designed for this study attempts to follow this suggestion. It

allows the students to practice smaller sections of the music using specific forms of

imagery. The method eventually broadens to a mental rehearsal of the entire performance

incorporating all forms of imagery.

Prosser (2000) includes a visualization lesson in his method of musical ear training.

The exercise, called "visualization-improvisation," involves hearing an improvised series

of pitches in the mind and imagining the fingerings on a musical instrument. Although he

provides a picture of a piano keyboard for visualizing purposes, the exercises can be done

by visualizing the fingerings on any instrument. He states that the ability of

the musical mind to internally create or interpret external musical sound .. has
important ramifications for musical use: the skill to envision music as it is
composed, leaving only a final task of physical notation; the capacity to see printed
music and to hear that music without playing it on an instrument; and the
proficiency to hear played or recorded music and to understand its shape and form,
possibly to the extent of seeing in the mind's eye the notes as they are played and
heard. These are, most certainly, worthwhile abilities to seek through study. And
note that these abilities are both analogous and complementary to the act of sight-
reading. (p. 21)

Kirchner (2005) suggests that mental visualization may be a valuable tool for

coping with musical performance anxiety. She states that in addition to visualizing the

performance of a composition, musicians should visualize an entire concert performance.

This might involve a visualization of "walking on the stage, sitting down at the piano and









composing yourself, playing through the program, having the audience favorably

acknowledge the performance and walking off the stage" (p. 32).

Green (1986) suggests numerous practice techniques designed to improve

performance and reduce anxiety in musicians. Several of these techniques utilize mental

rehearsal strategies. Among the suggested techniques, Green suggests that musicians use

visual imagination to see what the fingers and body look like when playing, and even to

imagine that they are a famous composer or performer playing the piece. He recommends

various techniques where musicians try to see themselves performing or imagine a scene

that relates to the music in an attempt to increase expression by moving concentration

away from the printed music. He also provides suggestions for using auditory imagery in

musical rehearsal.

Aside from these, the majority of Green's (1986) techniques involve relaxation,

focus and concentration exercises. Werner (1996) also provides imagery exercises for

musical performance that focus on relaxation and meditation. However, Peynircioglu et

al. (2000) state that mental strategies such as relaxation and focusing do not qualify as

mental rehearsal because they do not focus on specific actions. They state that "rehearsal

involves repeating or thinking about the specific actions that will be engaged in during

the performance. Thus, it is specific in nature; strategies such as attentional focusing or

relaxation are not rehearsal, although they are also covert or mental strategies" (pp. 145-

146).

Campos (1996) suggests that mental practice techniques can be used to improve

trumpet performance. He recommends both visualization techniques and mental rehearsal

of the music. The visualization techniques involve imagining a successful performance.









He states: "Imagine yourself moving across the stage, the sound of the applause, and see

your friends and family supporting you. Take your place, breathing freely and deeply,

and start to play. Actually hear yourself playing the way you want the music to sound" (p.

71). He suggests that performers imagine details such as how they look and act, and

states that "it is imperative to imagine the type of attitudes and emotions you wish to have

on stage" (p. 71). Mental rehearsal of the music involves aural skills to imagine the music

the way the performer wants it to sound. Campos states that some performers "like to

combine the physical manipulation of the instrument, such as pushing the valves or keys,

while doing mental rehearsal" (p. 71). He also suggests that performers should not simply

mentally replay the music as they have just performed it, but as they want it to sound, and

recommends mental rehearsal in slow motion for difficult passages.

Pratt (1990) distinguishes between two methods of reading music. The first

involves looking at the notation and immediately reacting to it on the instrument. The

second method involves convertingn] the symbols into imagined sound, inside your

head" (p. 83). Pratt notes that the first method is a more reliable way to discover the

pitches in a piece, and that during imagery few musicians can imagine a score perfectly.

However, he claims that imagined reading has several benefits not provided by physical

performance alone. Sight-reading on an instrument has a tendency to focus on the

pitches, and incorrect notes are often replayed in order to be corrected, "creating a kind of

musical stammer" (p. 83). Pratt claims that silent reading provides an opportunity to

focus on the other elements of the music such as meter, rhythm, dynamics, texture, and

timbre.









Pratt (1990) offers several exercises for developing imagery in music that focus on

"non-pitch" elements such as timbre and dynamics. One of these exercises seems

particularly adaptable to the school band rehearsal. The exercise involves "breaking down

the whole process into separate constituent parts" (p. 87). The student is presented with a

music staff upon which is written a second space A in treble clef. The student is asked to

image the notes as:

1. an A played at half a dozen different dynamic levels on a piano; 2. the same note
at the same dynamic levels on a violin/trumpet/flute/harpsichord; 3. the same note,
at various dynamic levels, on various instruments, but repeated in a regular beat
(2/4, 3/4, 6/6), at various speeds (MM=60, MM=90, MM=120), with accents on
first/second notes, from staccatissimo to legato. (p. 87)

This technique was adapted for use as an exercise in the preliminary exercises portion of

the mental practice method designed for this study.

Salmon and Meyer (1992) include mental practice as an alternative solution to

problem solving in practice. They state: "Is slow practice the only way to master a

technically difficult passage? ... What about studying the score away from your

instrument, visualizing in detail the placement of each finger on the keys or the muscles

used elsewhere in the body to produce the sound?" (p. 162). Salmon and Meyer claim

that mental practice strategies are "often hit-or-miss, depending mainly on the

effectiveness with which such techniques are employed" (p. 182). They state that in order

for mental rehearsal to be effective, it must be combined with appropriate practice and

preparation, and should concentrate on positive aspects of performance. They state that

mental practice techniques

cannot substitute for other forms of preparation, but they do provide an extra
margin of security because they can reinforce learning. One advantage of such
techniques is that they make it possible to visualize an ideal performance of a work
even if this level of accomplishment cannot actually be achieved. The performer









can imagine, for instance, playing a technically demanding passage in a musically
sensitive manner, free of technical limitations or mechanical errors. The effect of
such an image can be similar to that of attending a performance by an artist whose
interpretation of a piece evokes such a powerful overall image that it can, at least
temporarily, elevate the level of one's playing. Active rehearsal, particularly when
frequent and systematic, can help achieve and sustain such an effect. (p. 183)

The fact that numerous sources have recommended "frequent and systematic" mental

rehearsal is a central concern of the current study, as previous research has not tested the

effects of a regular or systematic approach to mental practice.

Salmon and Meyer (1992) claim that when we learn a piece of music we form a

mental representation of the music that we use to guide us through the piece. Developing

this internal representation involves a combination of visual, auditory, and tactile or

kinesthetic senses. A visual representation of the music provides us with a visual image

of the musical score, and an auditory representation provides an aural image. A tactile

(touch) or kinesthetic (movement) representation deals with the physical feelings of

playing a piece of music. "Ordinarily, our awareness of tactile and kinesthetic cues is

limited because we are more attentive to visual or auditory information" (p. 96). Salmon

and Meyer state:

A pianist, for example, will probably find it difficult to attend to the sensations of
his or her fingers and joints while listening to the effects of these hand movements.
Some pianists use "silent keyboards" for practice, but usually just to avoid
disturbing other people. However, such a device allows you to separate the sound
from the feel of music. (p. 96)

Wind instrumentalists can "separate the sound from the feel" through silent fingering and

"air articulations." Percussionists can also make use of silent keyboards and silent

practice pads.

Buffington (1989, cited in Salmon and Meyer, 1992) offers six suggestions for

effective mental imagery, summarized as follows:









1. Stress accuracy in mental practice. "When you mentally rehearse a piece of
music, work out a detailed image of how you expect the music to sound and
what you must do to achieve the desired effect. It's a good idea to write down
the features of your imagery exercise, so that you can make your mental
practice consistent from one time to the next" (p. 184).

2. Accompany mental practice with positive images of success and confidence.

3. Put performance problems in perspective one problem measure does not
indicate an overall failure during performance.

4. During imagery focus on performing rather than other factors. "Being task-
oriented in your mental imagery means you focus on hearing yourself play the
first few notes of a piece in your mind, rather than on how the audience might
react or how long you expect to be onstage" (p. 185).

5. Make mental practice resemble the actual performance as much as possible.

6. "Give the practice and refinement of mental rehearsal a chance to develop its
effect. This skill requires rehearsal, and may not work especially effectively
the first few times you try it. Pay attention to the circumstances under which
you practice. Just as active practice profits from minimal distractions, mental
rehearsal is likely to be most effective under relatively tranquil conditions"
(pp. 185-186).

Lisk (1987) includes imagery exercises in his book of band rehearsal techniques.

He suggests that students close their eyes to remove visual distraction and to create a

mental image of sound:

Stronger learning occurs when the students close their eyes and create their own
personal images of sound. They can "SEE" Pitch, Balance, Blend, Intonation, Tone
Quality, and Total Ensemble Sound in their MIND'S EYE. There are no exact
images or "pictures" used. It is the uniqueness of this "picture" or image the student
creates which is essential, and not what someone else sees, defines, or imposes. (p.
53)

Lisk offers a teaching procedure that uses mental imagery in the sight-reading of rhythm

patterns. He claims that the practice of compiling and learning a large amount of rhythm

patterns is "unrealistic because it never deals with the most significant need. That is,

spontaneous mental reaction to rhythms when they are needed" (p. 134). According to









Lisk, it is mental awareness, rather than physical processes, that allow us to react to

rhythm patterns. He claims that his teaching technique "creates a spontaneous response to

[the musical] image" (p. 134). However, he suggests that the procedure works best in an

individual lesson situation rather than an ensemble scenario.

The teaching procedure involves showing the student a rhythm pattern written on a

blackboard or piece of paper. After the student sees the pattern, it is removed, and the

student is instructed to remember a picture of the pattern. A pulse is given, and the

student sustains a pitch while imaging the pattern. The student is informed that when the

teacher cuts them off, they are to perform the pattern. This procedure aids in the

development of music reading skills by developing thought processes rather than

continuous physical repetition. This procedure served as a model for an exercise used in

the preliminary exercises of the mental practice method designed for this study.

Lisk (1987) also provides a procedure designed to get students to imagine the

perfect performance. He states:

The mind cannot discern between real or imagined experiences (correctness and
incorrectness). When we use our imagination it is error free. We can hear
perfection in our "minds eye." It is only the mental understanding, not physical (the
students are already aware of embouchure, fingering, etc.), which is important. If
the proper mental understanding and process is in place, the mind will direct the
muscles to produce the imagined expectation. If the phrase or passage is properly
understood by the students, they will not hear mistakes! (p. 138)

His three-step teaching procedure starts with the student playing a passage that contains

technical problems. Then, the student silently imagines playing the passage while the

teacher conducts. Lisk suggests that the imaging of the passage should be done "at least

three times to assure no unnecessary attention to any preconceived problems" (p. 139). In

the third and final step, the student plays the passage as they heard it during the imagined









performance. This technique was adapted for use in the mental practice method of this

study.

J. M. Laverty (personal communication, April 8, 2005) uses a mental practice

technique in the rehearsal of secondary and college level concert bands. In each step of

the method, one physical aspect of playing the instrument is removed until the student is

performing total mental practice. After playing through the passage, students are taken

through the following steps:

1. Air and fingers only. Students are instructed to hear the music played
perfectly in their heads while they silently perform the fingerings and
articulations and blow free air as if actually playing.

2. Fingers only. In this step the articulations and free air are removed, and the
student is instructed to hear the passage while performing the fingerings for
the passage.

3. No movement. In this step the fingerings are now removed, so that the student
hears the passage in the head without any movement at all.

This method is particularly useful for student musicians because it gradually moves

the student from complete physical practice to complete mental practice. This technique

is similar to Zeigler's (1987) concept of active imagery, where imagery is accompanied

by physical movement simulating the performance. Active imagery techniques were

adapted for use in the mental practice method designed for this study.

Roland (1997) states that mental rehearsal "involves creating in your mind an

image of yourself going through your performance, or parts of it, without actually

physically doing so. This image includes all senses visual, auditory, smell, taste, and

kinesthetic, as well as emotions" (p. 42). He claims that although the reason for the

effectiveness of mental practice is not clear, it appears that "mental rehearsal creates









psychophysiological patterns in the body that prepare the artist to carry out the physical

actions in reality" (p. 42).

Roland (1997) cites four main advantages of mental rehearsal. First, a performer

can rehearse without becoming physically tired, which is an advantage close to

performance time in that the performer can save energy. Second, a performer can

rehearse even when injury prevents or restricts physical practice, or when there is no

access to instruments or practice areas. Third, a performer can train to complete a perfect

performance even when they are physically unable to do so. Finally, mental practice can

"enhance your memory of words, music or steps without having to go through them

physically" (p. 43). Roland claims that an artist can use mental rehearsal to build self-

confidence, reduce anxiety, and increase skill development. Connolly (2001) states that

the value of mental rehearsal is that it

can cut short the learning process and complement the actual practice of skills, as it
is in the brain where the ultimate learning of skills, and unlearning of bad habits,
takes place. The purpose of practicing a skill, mentally or physically, is to tell the
brain, as clearly as possible, how to organize the body's movement. (p. 17)

Although most of the literature cited in this section is not research based, it

provides a valuable insight into how professional performers use mental rehearsal to

improve performance. Much of the empirical research literature includes studies that ask

participants to mentally practice a task, but provide no instruction regarding specific

techniques that may be valuable in mental practice. One of the main purposes of this

study is to design specific exercises and techniques in mental practice for use with the

high school band. The non-empirical literature in this section is valuable in that it

provides specific mental practice techniques, some of which were adapted for the mental

practice method designed for this study.









Research Studies in Mental Practice

The following section includes research studies that have applied mental practice to

both musical and non-musical disciplines. Shanks and Cameron (2000) describe the

typical research study in the area of mental practice:

In a typical study within this research domain, participants have initially been
required to mentally rehearse a task. Common instructions have included asking the
participant to relax, to remain still, and to imagine performing the task successfully
from start to finish. Usually, a control group and a group receiving physical
practice are included for comparison. Following mental or physical practice, or
both, performance is assessed. Mental practice has been observed to have a positive
(enhancing) effect if the performance of the mental practice group exceeds that of
the control group on some measure of speed or accuracy. (p. 305)

Weinberg (1989) summarizes several problems inherent in mental practice

research. First, the covert nature of mental practice causes difficulty in determining what

the subjects are actually thinking about during treatment. This becomes more of a

problem the longer the amount of time mental practice is supposed to occur.

Additionally, "no manipulation checks have been employed in the control groups to

guarantee that these subjects have not been practicing mentally" (p. 202).

Second, Weinberg (1989) suggests that many of the studies involving mental

practice may have been influenced by the Hawthorne effect (treatment groups improving

simply because they received special attention) or other experimental biases.

Improvements of performance "may have been the result of expecting to do better as

opposed to the specific effects of MP [mental practice]" (p. 202). Third, Weinberg states

that individual differences such as skill level, imaging ability, or previous experience

could impact the effectiveness of mental rehearsal. Weinberg recommends that these

variables be controlled and manipulated in future studies.









Freymuth (1993) claims that contradictory findings in mental practice research are

due to the fact that "various ways of analyzing and interpreting results are both possible

and legitimate" and that there are often flaws in the research methodology or design. She

states: "Sometimes an hypothesis seems entirely logical and may even have extensive

anecdotal support, yet research results show no significant differences between

experimental and control groups. The central problem is obviously the subjective nature

of the data" (p. 142).

Non-musical Research

In his review of research on mental practice, Weinberg (1989) states that the

literature indicates "that mental practice was generally effective in enhancing

performance" and that it "should be used in conjunction with physical practice and

should not be thought of as a replacement for physical practice" (p. 195). The

effectiveness of mental practice seems to be dependent on several variables, including

ability level, type of task, conceptualizing ability, previous experience, and duration of

the practice sessions.

Suinn (1986) includes mental rehearsal as part of a seven-step method to peak

performance. He provides five stages for using imagery in rehearsal, which he calls

visual-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR). The exercises involve relaxation techniques

whereby the individual switches on a "relaxation scene." Then, the individual is

instructed to switch on different scenes for mental practice, such as a "success-

competition scene" or a "winning-feeling scene." Suinn (1980) found that a skier using

VMBR had the same EMG muscle responses that would have been present in actual

skiing.









Mental practice may be an effective strategy to help students with learning

disabilities perform motor skills. Gerich (1992) tested the effects of mental practice on a

scarf-juggling task on students with learning disabilities (n = 60). Students were

separated into four groups that performed the task using mental practice, physical

practice, a combination of mental and physical practice, or no practice. Performance was

assessed based on the number of trials necessary for skill acquisition and retention.

Results indicated that there was no significant difference in retention between the mental

practice and physical practice groups, but that the mental practice group required fewer

trials and was more successful in skill acquisition than the other groups.

Allbritton-Grant (1985) found that combined mental and physical practice

significantly improved subjects' ability to mentally measure length. She also found that

mental practice alone produced no significant improvement in the task. However, Shanks

and Cameron (2000) found that mental practice was less effective than either physical

practice or no practice in a sequential reaction time task involving dot location.

Guerrero (1991) interviewed Spanish-speaking college students to determine the

role of mental rehearsal as a strategy for learning a second language. Results of the study

indicated the presence of two major types of mental rehearsal: task-related and self-

related. Task-related rehearsal involves the mental practice of a specific activity or task,

while self-related rehearsal is defined as self-talk which is not directly related to a

particular activity or task. The study revealed that although a majority of the participants

used some form of mental practice, most of them claimed that they did not understand

what it was or how it could be used, and that the study helped them to better understand

mental practice techniques. This is similar to methods in music education where students









are asked to study a piece of music before playing it, and may naturally engage in mental

practice to some extent without actually knowing what it is that they are doing.

Whetstone (1996) examined the effect of mental imagery and mental practice on a

firearm marksmanship task of police officer trainees. The treatment group received a

two-hour imagery training session, ten mental practice sessions lasting five minutes each

and using guided holistic imagery, twenty hours of physical practice at the firing range,

and five minutes of mental practice at home. Guided holistic imagery refers to the

incorporation of all the senses in mental practice. Whetstone states that imagery must be

vivid to be effective, and that a multi-sensory approach increases the vividness of the

image. The control group received the standard firearm marksmanship training, which

involved physically firing between 50 and 150 rounds at targets. Results indicated that

participants in the mental practice group had an average gain score of over thirty points

higher than the control group. Results also indicate that belief in the effectiveness of

mental practice may influence its success. Participants who believed in the effectiveness

of the mental practice techniques scored an average of 42.63 points higher than

participants who had low belief in the technique.

Dijkerman (2004) found that stroke patients who participated in daily motor

imagery rehearsal showed greater improvement on an arm movement task than subjects

in a control group. Results suggest that imagery training could be a valuable technique

for reducing motor deficits in stroke patients.

In his review of the literature, Hall (2002) suggests that imagery practice may be a

valuable tool for learning surgical skills that are cognitive in nature. He lists five potential

applications of mental practice to surgical skills:









1. Early stages of learning a basic skill

2. Diminishing the learning curve for a new procedure

3. Transferring skills from an established technique

4. Hindering the decay of skills

5. Preoperation preparation for a complex procedure. (p. 468)

Hall also proposes a six-stage cyclical technique for mental imagery rehearsal: "1. Task

definition, 2. Prior learning, 3. Mental rehearsal, 4. Reflection, 5. Problem solving, 6.

Reality check" (p. 469).

In their meta-analysis of the literature, Driskell, Copper, and Moran (1994) found

that mental practice was effective in improving performance, but not as effective as

physical practice. Additional findings from their analysis suggest that:

1. Mental practice is effective for both cognitive and physical tasks, but the effect of
mental practice is highly correlated with the amount of cognitive elements
involved in the task.

2. The increase in performance from mental practice declines over time
(approximately three weeks). "To gain the maximum benefits of mental practice,
one should implement refresher training on at least a 1- to 2-week schedule" (p.
489).

3. Mental practice is more beneficial if subjects have prior experience with the task.

4. More mental practice is not always better, and extended sessions can lead to a loss
of concentration. Results indicate that 20 minutes may be an optimal length for
mental practice sessions.

Musical Research

The following section presents research involving mental practice in music and

musical performance. Kohut (1985) states that mental practice "involves training the

unconscious brain to efficiently process and organize information (goals specified by the

conscious brain) and transform it into specific nerve signals to the muscles" (p. 127). He









claims that although numerous studies have been done on mental practice, intensive

research in the area of musical performance is still needed. Kohut warns that mental

practice may result in a decrease in motivation among some students because it lacks

immediate feedback. "Therefore, in order for mental practice to be valuable to us, it

needs to be judiciously alternated with physical practice. In this way the two types of

practice can supplement and complement each other" (p. 128).

In his review of the literature on mental practice, Brooks (1995) states:

Mental practice is a useful technique, elements of which are employed by music
students and music educators in a variety of familiar settings. For example, band
students may "air" and "finger" their parts as their director leads the ensemble in a
timed, silent exercise of an unfamiliar piece just before sight-reading it for a rating
at a band contest; choir members may mentally "sing" through their parts while the
director rehearses with another section of the choir; and conductors may mentally
"conduct" through the first few bars of the opening work of a concert before
walking on stage. (p. 4)

Based on the findings in the literature, Brooks concludes that mental practice is

influenced by task experience and the ability to conceptualize, and short practice sessions

of no more than five minutes are necessary to maintain concentration.

Sisterhen (2004) cites mental practice as a valuable technique for enhancing

musical performance abilities. In her review of the literature, she concludes that students

may benefit from tapping their fingers as if playing the piano while hearing the piece

mentally. She claims that because the "effects of mental practice can deteriorate after a

period of seven days .. students should be advised to practice mentally at least once a

week" (p. 34). According to Sisterhen, music teachers should be aware that mentally

imagining an unsuccessful performance could have a negative impact on performance.

She cautions that if teachers "warn their students to be prepared for anything that could

go \w ir lng. they may be creating a negative image in the student's mind ... Teachers









should remember to spend time in lessons telling students what to do in a competition or

performance, rather than what not to do" (p. 33).

Similarly, Wilson (1994) stresses that mental rehearsal should be optimistic and

should create a vision of success. He recommends that performing artists employ mental

rehearsal as well as visual imagery depicting a perfect performance.

Connolly (2002) examined the effects of a program in mental skills training on the

performance of university level musicians. The qualitative study examined subjects'

perception of the effectiveness of the techniques on their playing after two years in the

three-year program. Results indicate that subjects found mental rehearsal and relaxation

to be the two most useful techniques. Subjects reported using mental rehearsal to "correct

and rehearse specific techni (sic), for developing musical memory, for practicing

technical pieces in the music, and for improving communication, performance, and

musicality" (p. 98). Mental rehearsal was employed in the following manner:

Mental rehearsal was used to visualize an ideal performance both when practicing
and before concerts, or to visualize a specific passage of music to overcome some
technical difficulty (e.g., students envisaged themselves in the concert hall, on the
stage, playing their instrument to a supportive audience). It was often supplemented
with physical movement (e.g., looking at the score while moving the fingers).
Mental imaging was also used to help projection or communication in performance.
Adaptations of mental imaging included imagining the music as different colorful
landscapes; imagining an "ideal self" rather than an "ideal other"; creating stories,
paintings and images to help the performer to find a way through a piece and
connect with it emotionally. (p. 98)

Connolly and Williamon (2004) applied mental skills training used by athletes to

musical performance. They designed a mental skills training program and piloted the

curriculum with 58 conservatory students. Results of the pilot study consisted of

qualitative data obtained through interviews with the students to determine their feelings

and attitudes about the program's effect on their rehearsal and performance skills.









Connolly and Williamon state that in mental rehearsal, "the basic idea is that the senses -

predominately aural, visual, and kinesthetic for the musician should be used to create or

recreate an experience that is similar to a given physical event" (p. 224).

They also state that the two most significant points from the literature are that

"informed physical practice at the highest levels of musicianship can hardly take place

without some sort of cognitive or mental activity" and that "only through committed,

personal effort can the musician expand, differentiate, and fully exploit his or her

repertory of mental strategies" (p. 225).

Connolly and Williamon (2004) claim that the success of mental rehearsal depends

on several factors, including an individual's technical skill level and personal preference

for learning, the conditions of the particular performance, and the extent and method with

which mental rehearsal is practiced. They state: "Ultimately, it is not a question of

adopting either a mental or physical approach, but rather how to make the most of both

approaches. The two are simply not mutually exclusive at the highest levels of

performance" (p. 226).

Connolly and Williamon (2004) summarize several guiding principles for mental

practice:

1. Practice regularly.

2. Short, regular sessions are better than long, infrequent sessions.

3. Start with relaxation exercises.

4. Rehearse specific skills or qualities.

5. Be positive and focus on only those aspects that contribute directly to
performance.









6. Use all of the senses, including feelings and emotions, and continue to try
and improve the clarity of images.

7. Use both internal and external visualization. When correcting problems,
start with external visualization. When external visualization is correct,
move on to internal visualization.

Connolly and Williamon (2004) offer several strategies for mental practice, and

suggest that these strategies complement the physical practice process. While these

techniques are intended to supplement physical practice, they do not involve any physical

components the techniques are done apart from the instrument or sheet music. The

primary focus of the strategies is on visualizing a performance. Although the aural nature

of music is addressed, the techniques seem to center on imaging the visual and motor

aspects of performance. This may be result of the adaptation of the techniques from

sports psychology, which would not include an aural component in the same sense that

musical performance does. Emmons and Thomas (1998) have also recommended

imagery strategies for musicians adapted from the sports imagery techniques proposed by

Syer and Connolly (1984).

However, problems can arise when attempting to adapt mental practice techniques

used in sports to mental practice in music. First, mental practice in sports tends to stress

visual imagery and the visualization of gross motor tasks. The auditory nature of music

requires auditory imagery to be the primary agent of mental practice. Additionally, the

motor tasks required in musical performance involve fine motor skills rather than the

gross motor skills required of athletes. Therefore, it seems that visualization in sports

would be much easier and more beneficial than visualization in music. For example, an

external perspective visual image of oneself shooting basketball free throws (with large

movements in the hands, arms, and legs) can be a very clear image, compared to a visual









image of oneself performing on a wind instrument, where the only noticeable physical

action is that of the fingers.

Ungerleider (1996) supports this notion by recognizing the possibility that

"throwers, jumpers, vaulters and other field competitors use mental practice more

frequently than those in other events because field events have a large visual component"

(p. 13). He states that many athletes claim that imagery is easier "when you can stop,

visualize your performance and then set or correct the images before proceeding" (p. 13).

Clearly, musical performance differs from these kinds of sports in that it involves a

continuous performance of different tasks rather than a single task of one repetitive

action. In terms of mental practice, music may share a trait with marathon runners, "who

have more difficulty with the visual component and therefore visualize less frequently,

possibly because of fatigue and other distractions during a long race" (p. 13). In some

cases, mental practice in music may be more effective if applied to short, isolated

passages of music rather than entire compositions of great length.

Mental Practice versus Physical Practice

Several studies have attempted to compare mental practice, physical practice, and a

combination of physical and mental practice. In an important and widely cited study,

Ross (1985) found that college trombonists improved the most when using combined

mental and physical practice. Subjects (n = 30) were randomly assigned to one of five

treatment groups: physical practice, mental practice, a combination of physical and

mental practice, mental practice with simulated slide movement, and a no practice control

group. One etude served as both the pretest and posttest. The combined practice group

had the highest gain scores between the pretest and posttest, but was not significantly









better than the physical practice or mental practice with simulated slide movement

groups. It was concluded that a combination of mental and physical practice was just as

beneficial as all-physical practice.

In an attempt to explain why mental practice is effective, Ross (1985) states:

Mental practice, unlike physical practice, focuses the performer's attention on the
cognitive aspects of music performance with less emphasis on the sounds being
made. The performer can now think more carefully about what kinds of things
might be tried, the consequences of each action can be predicted based on
experience, and inappropriate courses of action ruled out. (p. 228)

According to Ross, the value of physical practice is that because it uses both auditory and

kinesthetic feedback, it provides necessary information to the performer regarding the

position of the muscles involved in performance. Therefore, the group that combined

physical and mental practice was "able to benefit from both the feedback associated with

physical practice and the increased concentration on the cognitive aspects of the music"

(p. 228). Ross states: "Because they had just finished a physical trial, the CP [combined

practice] subjects could benefit from the aural feedback obtained during the physical trial,

even as they mentally practiced" (p. 228).

Geerlings (1998) obtained similar results in her investigation of the effect of mental

practice on keyboard performance. Twenty pianists and twenty organists at the

undergraduate and graduate levels were assigned to three treatment groups: mental

practice, physical practice, alternating physical and mental practice, and a control group.

The control group was a no-practice condition that consisted of reading a short article

about sight-reading techniques. Two compositions were each divided in half to comprise

four excerpts: two pretest and two posttest selections. Subjects sight-read the pretest, and

were then allowed to practice the posttest using their assigned practice condition for five









minutes. Subjects then performed the posttest. This was then repeated using the two parts

of the second composition as the pretest and posttest.

Results indicated that the alternating physical and mental practice group had the

highest reduction of pitch errors, followed by the physical practice group and the mental

practice group respectively. For number of pitch errors, a significant difference was

found between alternating physical and mental practice and the mental practice and

control groups. However, there was no significant difference for pitch errors between the

alternating physical and mental practice group and the physical practice group. Geerlings

(1998) states:

This finding supports one of the current trends in MP [mental practice] research
that states that PP [physical practice] and alternating PP/MP are often equally as
effective. The alternating PP/MP group was forced to think about what they were
playing. They relied not only on their motor skills during the rehearsal, but also on
their cognitive skills. MP has been found to be more effective in aiding cognitive
skills than motor skills. (p. 59-60)

This study supports the notion that guided instruction is better than rigid instruction.

Subjects "had the freedom to form their own conceptualizations and to use MP [mental

practice] in their own w\ ," (p. 61).

Pierson (1992) examined the effect of mental and physical practice on the musical

performance of fifth-grade beginning band students. Subjects (n = 58) were divided into

physical practice, mental practice, or no practice (control) groups. The mental practice

group practiced for three minutes by studying the music silently without any kinesthetic

movement. The physical practice group actually played the instrument for three minutes.

The control group counted backwards from 200 during the three minutes in order to

prevent any mental practice. Pierson defines mental practice as follows:









During this type of practice the performer analyzes the rhythms, notes, key
signature, and any other musical elements presented on the page, without the
benefit of physical movement. In addition, the instrumentalist tries to imagine the
pitches (audiation or aural imagery) that appear on the page and also tries to
imagine all muscular movement that will occur while actually playing the music.
(p. 29-30)

Subjects sight-read selection 2 from Form A of the Watkins-Farnum Performance

Scale as a pretest. Subjects then practiced selection 2 from Form B of the Watkins-

Farnum Performance Scale for three minutes using one of the three practice conditions.

Subjects then performed selection 2 of Form B as a posttest. Results indicated that the

physical practice group scored significantly higher than the control group. There was no

significant difference between the mental and physical practice groups or the mental

practice and control groups. Pierson (1992) suggests that "it is possible that the

complexity of playing a musical instrument and young age of the subjects negated the

effectiveness of mental practice" (p. 47).

Theiler and Lippman (1995) compared the effectiveness of four practice conditions

on the skill acquisition of guitar and vocal performers (n = 14) ranging in age from 19-29.

Subjects rotated between the practice conditions in a repeated measures design similar to

the one used by Rubin-Rabson (1941). Each rehearsal condition lasted for a total of 12

minutes. The conditions were: physical practice for 12 minutes, alternating three minutes

physical and three minutes mental practice, alternating three minutes physical practice

and three minutes mental practice while listening to a model, and a control group of three

minutes physical practice and three minutes reading a book about performance anxiety.

Results indicated that guitarists reading from a musical score had the highest rating

for pitch accuracy when using mental practice, followed by physical practice, mental

practice with model, and the control condition. For vocalists, mental practice with model









was superior to the other conditions in the areas of pitch accuracy, dynamics, tempo, and

tonal quality. For tonal quality, mental practice was superior to physical practice and the

control condition. Practice condition had no significant effect on rhythmic accuracy.

When mental practice included a model, both guitar and vocal performers could perform

longer portions of the music from memory. Theiler and Lippman (1995) conclude that the

results "certainly confirm that mental practice is effective, but they also suggest that

features of a mental practice regimen should be adjusted to accommodate particular

applications, because different attributes may be optimal for various physical and musical

endeavors" (p. 338).

The effectiveness of mental practice in these studies may have been lessened due to

the fact that 1) students had no training in or experience with mental practice techniques

and 2) students need to be familiar with the task before attempting mental practice of the

task. Because they had no prior experience with the music, the mental practice group

would not have been able to access an auditory image of the piece for use during mental

practice.

Knowledge of Results

At least three studies have attempted to determine the role of knowledge of results

in musical practice. Knowledge of results refers to the immediate feedback that a

musician receives from the musical instrument, i.e. the sound itself. When knowledge of

results is denied, the musician receives no aural feedback with which to determine the

correctness or incorrectness of the performance.

Coffman (1987) examined the effect of mental practice and knowledge of results

on piano performance. Subjects were 80 graduate and undergraduate music majors whose









principal instrument was not a keyboard instrument. He employed four different practice

conditions: physical practice, mental practice, alternating physical and mental practice,

and a motivational control. These practice conditions were divided in half, with each half

of each condition receiving either a presence or absence of aural knowledge of results,

resulting in eight treatment conditions. All subjects sight-read a composition as a pretest.

They then practiced a different composition, which served as the posttest, using their

respective practice condition over six trials. The performances were analyzed for the

dependent variables of performance time, number of pitch errors, and number of rhythm

errors.

Results indicated that the physical practice and alternating physical and mental

practice groups achieved significantly greater improvement in reducing the amount of

time needed to perform the posttest than the mental practice group, but were not

significantly different from each other. Although all three practice conditions were

significantly better than the control condition, there was no significant difference between

the practice conditions in reducing the number of pitch or rhythmic errors. Knowledge of

results did not appear to be a significant variable for reducing pitch and rhythmic errors.

Coffman (1987) concludes that "modes using physical practice, alone or in alternation

with mental practice, were superior to exclusive mental practice" and that "alternating

physical and mental practice was no less effective than exclusive physical practice" (p.

194).

Similar to Coffman (1987), Brooks (1993, cited in Brooks, 1995) examined the

effects of mental practice, physical practice, and knowledge of results on the performance

of college instrumental music majors. Three practice conditions were each divided in









half, one half using a recorded model and the other half using no recorded model. The six

treatment groups were: mental practice, mental practice with a performance model,

physical practice, physical practice with a performance model, a combination of mental

and physical practice, and a combination of mental and physical practice with a

performance model. Subjects were given a pretest etude, and then practiced a posttest

etude using their assigned practice condition for three practice trials. After the three

practice trials, subjects performed the posttest etude. Results indicated that the presence

of a recorded model did not affect the subjects' performance, and that mental practice

was as effective as physical practice in improving performance.

A related study conducted by Highben and Palmer (2003) examined the effect of

different mental practice conditions on the ability of pianists to perform music from

memory. Subjects participated in four different practice conditions: a normal practice

condition in which subjects played on the digital piano and heard their playing over

headphones, a motor only condition in which subjects moved their fingers on the

keyboard but did not receive auditory feedback (could not hear what they were playing),

an auditory only condition in which subjects heard a recording of the piece but were not

allowed to move their fingers, and a covert practice condition in which subjects did not

move their fingers and heard silence. Results indicated that the normal condition was best

and the covert condition was worst in terms of correctly recalled pitches. There was no

significant difference between the motor only and auditory only conditions and between

the normal and auditory only conditions. Performers with high aural skills were least

affected when auditory feedback was removed. Highben and Palmer suggest that aural

forms of mental practice assist in the learning of unfamiliar music.









Based on these studies, it appears that knowledge of results is not necessary for

musical practice, especially when the subject has strong aural skills. This suggests that

mental rehearsal should not be negatively affected by the absence of auditory feedback

(knowledge of results).

Mental Practice in the Ensemble Rehearsal

Very few research studies have attempted to apply mental practice techniques to the

ensemble rehearsal setting. Perhaps the only study to attempt this is by Keenan-Takagi

(1995), who examined the effects of mental rehearsal during observational learning in the

ensemble setting on the critical listening skills of high school chorus students. Seven

choruses were assigned to an experimental practice condition involving modeling with

mental rehearsal or a control group involving modeling with no mental rehearsal.

Directors were provided with a sample rehearsal script for each condition, which

included nineteen instructions that the director could use. These scripts differed only in

the addition of "the phrase and time to include mental practice" (p. 53) for the treatment

group.

During modeling, the director instructed the students to listen to the model and sing

it back. During modeling with mental rehearsal, the director instructed the students to

listen to the model or various aspects of the model, practice mentally, and then sing it

back. For example, the control group was instructed to "listen and sing this back" (p. 123)

while the treatment group was instructed to "listen and sing it mentally first then sing it

back" (p. 120). Weymuth's Choral Music Achievement Test served as a pretest and

posttest. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the

experimental and control conditions on the critical listening achievement of the subjects.









Several issues in the design of this study should be noted. Keenan-Takagi (1995)

states that "no time or rehearsal schedule was imposed on the directors" (p. 57), but that

each group was asked to record their amount of rehearsal time. However, the amount of

time spent rehearsing is not included in the presentation of data and may have differed

significantly for each ensemble. There is also no data regarding how much time was

actually spent using the provided scripts, so it is not known how much mental practice

was actually done. The study also did not attempt to determine whether mental practice

improved the musical performance of the subjects. However, this study remains valuable

in that it is one of the few studies to attempt to apply mental practice techniques in the

ensemble setting.

Sight-Reading and Mental Practice

McPherson (1994) examined the sight-reading techniques used by high school

trumpet and clarinet students in grades seven through twelve. He found that students with

the highest sight-reading scores scanned the music and mentally rehearsed difficult

sections prior to playing the piece. Typically, higher scoring subjects stated that they sang

the harder sections in their heads while executing the fingerings on the instrument.

McPherson states that one of the distinguishing characteristics of competent sight-readers

is an approach that involves "a brief period of mental rehearsal of the major difficulties

before commencing to play" (p. 229). He also suggests that high school students have not

been taught or are unaware that certain strategies may be used to improve sight-reading

scores. In the present study it is hoped that providing specific instruction in mental

practice techniques may help make students aware of a strategy that may help improve

their sight-reading ability.









Brucksch (1991) sought to determine the effects of mental rehearsal on the sight-

reading ability of beginning non-major college guitarists. She also attempted to determine

the effect of differing amounts of mental rehearsal time. Subjects (n = 43) were assigned

to one of two treatment groups or a control group. Sight-reading exercises were used as

the pretest and posttest, which were administered at the beginning and ending of a five-

week treatment period. Treatment group 1 received 5 minutes of mental rehearsal

instruction pertaining to sight-reading for five weeks or a total of 25 minutes of

instruction. Treatment group 2 received 5 minutes of mental rehearsal instruction twice a

week for five weeks, for a total of 50 minutes of instruction. The control group received

no mental rehearsal instruction:

Mental rehearsal instruction was provided by the teacher as follows: The students
were first directed to look at the music for technical information, i.e. time signature,
note values, rhythmic and melodic patterns, and intervals, for one minute. They
were then asked to look at the music for one minute and to imagine themselves
playing the exercise, visualizing the correct left hand and right hand movements
clearly, without physically playing the instrument. The students were then allowed
to play the exercise on their own for one minute, followed by another minute of
mental rehearsal without playing. The final sight-reading activity involved playing
the exercise for one minute (two times through) together as a class, at a pace set by
the instructor. (p. 40-41)

During the pretest and posttest, subjects were given 60 seconds to study the sight-reading

exercise before playing. The same exercises were used in the pretest and the posttest.

Results indicated that there were no significant differences in pitch or rhythm among the

three groups.

Wirt (1992) studied the effects of mental practice on the sight-reading ability of

junior-high wind instrumentalists in grades seven, eight and nine. Subjects (n = 80) were

divided into four separate treatment groups and one control group. The groups were as

follows:









(1) Mental practice only, without movement or sound and without physical
contact with the musical instrument. (2) Mental practice with imagined physical
practice, without any sound and without physical contact with the musical
instrument. (3) Mental practice combined with physical practice while holding the
musical instrument in playing position, but producing no sound. (4) Actual practice
with sound, and (5) a "no practice" control group which performed immediately
without benefit of any kind of practice. (pp. 24-25)

Subjects sight-read a sixteen-measure exercise, were given three minutes to practice

using the practice condition they had been assigned, and were tested again using the same

exercise. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between the control

group and all four treatment groups. Wirt concludes that "even mental practice only (with

no interment) produces better results than no practice at all" (p. 33). There was no

significant difference between groups 3 and 4, suggesting that "mental practice while

fingering along on the instrument is statistically as good as actually practicing on the

instrument" (p. 33).

Several problems are inherent in this study and cause speculation about the validity

of the findings. First, it should be noted that group two was told: "you may make any

physical movements as you see fit" (p. 26). This seems to contradict the description of

group two listed above as "mental practice with imagined physical practice" (p. 24).

Furthermore, in the results chapter, Wirt (1992) describes group two as "mental practice

with instrument in hand/no physical movement/no sound" (p. 32), contradicting the

earlier statement that group two practiced "without physical contact with the instrument"

(p. 24). These discrepancies make the replication of this study difficult, and raise doubts

regarding the validity of the results.

Second, Wirt (1992) defines sight-reading as "performing music which the

musician has never seen" (p. 4). Because the posttest was the same exercise as the pretest,









the posttest cannot be considered a sight-reading exercise because the subjects had

performed it moments earlier in the pretest. The study by Brucksch (1991) listed above

presents the same problem. To completely understand the effect of mental practice on

sight-reading, subjects should be taught mental practice techniques and given a different

piece to sight-read for the posttest. What these studies may actually measure is the effect

of mental practice as a practice condition for rehearsed reading rather than sight-reading.

Length and Placement of Mental Practice

Cahn (2003) investigated the effects of mental practice on the musical performance

of tonal patterns of two difficulty levels. Specifically, he sought to determine the

effectiveness of different amounts of time spent on mental and physical practice.

Undergraduate students (n = 60) were assigned to a physical practice group, a mental

practice group, or one of two combined physical and mental practice groups. One

combined group was assigned a proportion of 66% physical practice and 33% mental

practice, and the other combined group was assigned a proportion of 33% physical

practice and 66% mental practice. Subjects performed a pretest, a three-minute practice

period, and a posttest. Results indicated that there were no significant differences

between the groups in terms of note errors. The two groups with the higher amount of

mental practice scored better on the easy pattern than on the difficult pattern. The scores

for the two groups with higher amounts of physical practice were not significantly

different for the easy and difficult tasks, and were as good as the mental groups on the

easy pattern.

A pair of studies by Rubin-Rabson (1941a, 1941b) examined the effects of silent

analysis and mental practice on the memorization and performance of piano music. The









first study (1941a) compared different lengths of silent study prior to performance.

Subjects (n = 9) were given a short composition and allowed to study it silently for three,

six, or nine minutes. Subjects were not told how much time they would have to insure

equal intensity throughout. When time was called, the subject was instructed to write the

score from memory. The writing task was not timed and subjects worked at their own

speed. Subjects then learned the piece at the keyboard in trials in which they played the

piece from beginning to end until the piece was brought to a perfect memorized

performance. Two weeks later the piece was released to measure the retention value of

the differing amounts of preliminary study.

Results indicated that the six-minute period was significantly greater than the three-

minute period in terms of the amount of material transcribed correctly. There was no

significant difference between the six- and nine-minute periods. Rubin-Rabson (1941a)

states that the additional three minutes in the nine-minute group involved overlearning

and were ineffective in the transcription task. The three-minute group required the most

number of keyboard trials required to memorize the piece. The nine-minute group

required the least amount of trials, however, there was no significant difference between

the nine- and six-minute groups. No significant differences were found for retention

between the three study periods. Rubin-Rabson suggests that studying a whole

composition for structure and form, and then studying smaller units of a composition may

"prove more efficient than attempts to memorize and carry too large units" (p. 112).

In the second study, Rubin-Rabson (1941b) compared the effects of three different

practice conditions involving mental practice on piano performance and memorization.

The practice conditions were placed at different times in the practice session. During









mental practice, the participants (n = 9) were instructed to perform the material "mentally

with eyes closed, to maintain the image of the notes as firmly as possible, and to refer to

the music only when there was confusion or uncertainty in [their] mental performance"

(p. 595). Subjects were exposed to three practice conditions: mental practice in the

middle of the practice session, mental practice at the end of the practice session, and no

mental practice. Each condition began with five minutes of analytical pre-study. Group A

then played the piece for 5 trials, and then mentally practiced for four minutes. Subjects

then performed the material until they achieved a perfect memorized performance. Group

B was the same as A except that subjects did not do the final physical practice trials, so

mental rehearsal occurred at the end of the session. Group C played 5 keyboard trials and

then 4 minutes of extra keyboard trials with no mental rehearsal.

Group A (mental practice midway through the session) was significantly superior

to the other methods. It reduced keyboard trials required to learn the piece and achieved

retention as good as that of Group C, which offered four extra minutes of keyboard trials.

Rubin-Rabson (1941b) states that "the four minutes of mental rehearsal placed after the

learning is, apparently, an inferior procedure" (p. 600). It required more keyboard trials

and produced the least amount of retention. Placing mental rehearsal in the middle of the

session is superior because it "is a type of distributed practice, which, although it offers

no actual rest, nevertheless provides a period when the cessation of hand movements

relieves the necessity for maintaining an unbroken sequence, allows further analysis and

reorganization of points of confusion and presents a 're-seeing' of the small musical

figures against the general background" (p. 601). Also, Group B may have been









unsuccessful because "the intensity involved in reaching a learning goal is probably not

duplicated in a mental review after the goal has been reached" (p. 601).

It would be beneficial to replicate this study with the addition of a treatment group

that performed mental practice at the beginning of the practice session. Silent analysis

prior to performing a new piece is a common practice technique. Future studies should

compare the effectiveness of mental practice placed at the beginning, middle, or end of

the practice session.

Motivation and Mental Practice

In a case study of a young beginning clarinet player, Renwick and McPherson

(2000, cited in Parncutt and McPherson, 2002) found that mental practice techniques

were used when the subject practiced a piece she chose to learn as opposed to a piece her

teacher chose. When practicing the piece her teacher assigned, the subject "almost

exclusively used a play-through approach, playing her pieces from beginning to end with

little attention to correcting mistakes" (p. 41). When practicing the piece she chose to

learn herself, the subject displayed an increase "in the way she monitored and controlled

her performance, as evidenced in greater use of silent fingering, silent thinking, singing,

and more varied strategies for correcting wrong notes" (p. 41).

McPherson and McCormick (1999) found that harder working musicians were

more likely to use mental practice techniques. They administered a questionnaire to 190

pianists. Subjects then took a graded music performance exam in order to determine the

relationship between self-regulatory and motivational aspects of learning music. Results

indicated that "students who report higher levels of practice tend to be more inclined to









rehearse music in their minds plus make critical ongoing judgments concerning the

success or otherwise of their efforts" (p. 101).

Other Mental Practice Studies

The use of mental practice in piano performance was included in a study by

Amaize (1993), who identified and ranked twenty-nine musical concepts emphasized by

piano teachers, music teachers, and pianists. Among the concepts listed, mental practice

was ranked 18th.

Rosenthal, Wilson, Evans, and Greenwalt (1988) tested the effects of five different

practice conditions on the musical performance of college instrumental music majors.

Subjects practiced an etude for three minutes using one of the five practice conditions:

modeling (listening to a recording of the piece), singing, silent analysis, free practice, or

control. During silent analysis, the subjects were instructed to "please study the music on

your stand silently for three minutes" (p. 252). This type of silent analysis may have

provided an opportunity for participants to engage in mental practice. No significant

differences were found between the groups in terms of correct notes and articulation.

However, subjects in the silent analysis group scored the best in terms of rhythmic

accuracy. Phrasing was best in the free practice and modeling groups, while tempo

accuracy was best for subjects in the modeling, free practice and silent analysis groups.

Rosenthal et al. state that "silent analysis did not seem to provide any immediate benefits

over sight-reading except in subjects' performance of rhythms" (p. 254). They state that

this may have been because rhythms in the exercise were complex, so "the opportunity

for silent analysis enabled the subjects to work out the analytical aspects of the rhythms.









Had they received more time, the subjects might eventually have focused their

attention on the other elements of the music" (p. 255).

Rosenthal (1984) examined the effects of four different practice conditions on the

performance of graduate instrumental music students. The conditions were guided model,

model only, guide only, and practice only. A verbal script was used to direct the subjects'

attention to specific details of the piece during a six and one-half minute rehearsal. In the

guided model condition, the script was combined with a recorded performance of the

piece. In the model only condition, the subjects listened to the recorded model without

the presence of the script. In the guide only condition, subjects were presented with the

script alone, and pauses occurred after each main point in the script (where the recorded

model occurred in the guided model group script). This was done so that "subjects could

mentally rehearse the selection if so desired" (p. 267).

Results indicated that subjects in the model only group obtained the highest scores

on all variables. Subjects in the guide only and practice only group scored considerably

lower than subjects in the other two groups. The practice only group scored higher than

the guide only group in terms of notes and rhythms, while the guide only group scored

better in dynamics and tempo. Rosenthal (1984) did not attempt to determine or control

the amount of mental practice performed by subjects in the guide only group. Had

participants been instructed to mentally rehearse the selection during breaks in the script,

the study may have yielded different results.

Key findings from the literature presented in this section indicate that a

combination of mental and physical practice may be better than mental practice alone

(Allbritton-Grant, 1985; Coffman, 1987; Geerlings, 1998; Kohut, 1985; Ross, 1985;









Weinberg, 1989). It appears that knowledge of results is not necessary for effective

mental practice (Brooks, 1995; Coffman, 1987; Highben and Palmer, 2003). There is a

lack of research devoted to determining the effect of mental practice on the musical

performance of children and school performing ensembles. Keenan-Takagi (1995)

provides the only study using mental practice in a school ensemble. Her study measured

the effect of mental practice on the critical listening skills of high school chorus students,

and did not measure its effect on student performance. It remains to be determined if

mental practice techniques, as taught to a school music ensemble, will effect student

performance.

Summary

Several conclusions can be made from the literature regarding mental practice:

1. A combination of mental and physical practice may be better than mental practice
alone (Allbritton-Grant, 1985; Coffman, 1987; Connolly and Williamon, 2004;
Geerlings, 1998; Kohut, 1985; Ross, 1985; Salmon and Meyer, 1992; Weinberg,
1989).

2. Knowledge of results does not appear to be necessary for effective mental practice in
music (Brooks, 1995; Coffman, 1987; Highben and Palmer, 2003).

3. Short mental practice sessions may be more beneficial than longer sessions (Brooks,
1995; Connolly and Williamon, 2004; Rubin-Rabson, 1941a).

4. Mental practice should be practiced on a regular basis (Buffington, 1989; Connolly
and Williamon, 2004; Salmon and Meyer, 1992; Sisterhen, 2004).

5. All of the senses should be employed during mental practice (Bagley and Hess, 1987;
Carter, 1993; Connolly and Williamon, 2004; May, 1989; Moyer, 1992; Salmon and
Meyer, 1992; Taylor, 1995; Trusheim, 1987; Whetstone, 1996).

6. Mental practice may help improve sight-reading skills (Brooks, 1995; Karpinski,
2000; McPherson, 1994; Prosser, 2000).

7. Active imagery physical movement simulating the task performance during mental
practice may be more effective than passive imagery alone (Campos, 1996;









Connolly, 2002; McPherson, 1994; Salmon and Meyer, 1992; Taylor, 1995; Wirt,
1992; Ziegler, 1987).

8. An effective routine in mental practice should include points of slow motion imagery
(Campos, 1996; Fanning, 1988; Taylor, 1995).

9. In addition to mental practice on isolated passages or skills, performers should
mentally imagine the performance in its entirety (Campos, 1996; Freymuth, 1993;
Kirchner, 2005; Taylor, 1995).

10. The effectiveness of mental practice depends on the vividness of the imagery
(Freymuth, 1990; Marks, 1999; May, 1989; Murphy, 2005; Taylor, 1995; Whetstone,
1996).

11. Mental practice may be more effective if the performer has a strong belief in the
effectiveness of the technique (Whetstone, 1996).

12. It is essential that performers mentally rehearse positive scenarios and performances
with successful outcomes. Visualizing a negative outcome can be detrimental to
performance (Buffington, 1989; Connolly and Williamon, 2004; Sisterhen, 2004;
Taylor, 1995; Wilson, 1994).

13. Prior experience with the task may be necessary for mental rehearsal to be effective
(Brooks, 1995; Connolly and Williamon, 2004; Driskell, Copper, and Moran, 1994;
Feltz and Landers, 1983; Ginns, Chandler, and Sweller, 2003; May, 1989; Mulder et
al., 2004; Ungerleider, 1996).

14. Imagery perspective may influence the effectiveness of mental practice. Taylor
(1995) states that both internal and external imagery should be used. Similarly,
Connolly and Williamon (2004) claim that performers should use both internal and
external visualization. They recommend starting with external visualization when
correcting problems. When external visualization is correct, performers should move
on to internal visualization. However, other research indicates that internal imagery
may be more effective than external imagery (Hale, 1982; Mahoney and Avener,
1977; Moyer, 1992).

15. Mental practice may be more effective if it occurs in the middle of a physical practice
session, rather than at the end or beginning of a practice session (Freymuth, 1990;
Rubin-Rabson, 1941b; Syer and Connolly, 1984).

16. Professional musicians and more successful musicians seem to actively employ
mental practice strategies in their regular practice routines (Carter, 1993; McPherson,
1994; McPherson and McCormick, 1999; Moyer, 1992; Trusheim, 1987).















CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF THE STUDY

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the effect of a structured

method of mental practice on the musical performance of high school wind and

percussion students. The mental practice method was based on various techniques

described in the literature, and involved three components: 1) exercises designed to

introduce, define and practice visual, auditory, and motor imagery, 2) exercises that

combined physical and mental practice simultaneously, and 3) exercises that alternated

physical and mental practice.

Five basic questions were addressed: 1) What is the effect of a structured method of

mental practice in ensemble rehearsal on the sight-reading performance of high school

band students? 2) What is the effect of a structured method of mental practice in

ensemble rehearsal on the prepared performance of high school band students? 3) What is

the effect of a structured method of mental practice in ensemble rehearsal on the prepared

performance of a high school band performing as an ensemble? 4) What is the effect of

mental practice on the musical performance of students in terms of grade level, gender,

and performing instrument? 5) What are the opinions of high school band students

regarding mental practice?

The research hypotheses were: 1) Students who receive specific training in mental

practice and whose mental practice sessions were structured by the teacher will make

significantly greater improvement in sight-reading performance than students using an









unstructured method of mental practice, physical practice, or no practice (control).

2) Students who receive specific training in mental practice and whose mental practice

sessions were structured by the teacher will make significantly greater improvement in

prepared performance than students using an unstructured method of mental practice,

physical practice, or no practice (control). 3) A band ensemble that receives specific

training in mental practice and whose mental practice sessions were structured by the

teacher will make considerably greater improvement in prepared performance than an

ensemble using an unstructured method of mental practice, physical practice, or no

practice (control). 4) Within each of the three experimental groups, there will be

significant differences in the mean gain scores of students with regards to gender, grade

level, and instrument.

The corresponding null hypotheses were: 1) There will be no significant differences

in the mean gain scores for sight-reading performance of students who practice using a

structured method of mental practice and those who engage in unstructured mental

practice, physical practice, or no practice. 2) There will be no significant differences in

the mean gain scores for prepared performance of students who practice using a

structured method of mental practice and those who engage in unstructured mental

practice, physical practice, or no practice. 3) There will be no considerable difference in

the mean gain scores for ensemble prepared performance of an ensemble that practices

using a structured method of mental practice and those who engage in unstructured

mental practice, physical practice, or no practice. 4) Within each of the three

experimental groups, there will be no significant differences in the mean gain scores of

students with regards to gender, grade level, and instrument.









Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted in order to better understand the application of mental

practice to the school band rehearsal. The study examined the effect of mental practice on

the intact ensemble performance of two middle school bands in North Central Florida.

Each band was designated as either the treatment group or control group. After consulting

with both band directors regarding the capabilities of the students and the grade level of

music typically performed, the piece Bristol Bay Legend by Robert Sheldon was selected

for use in the study. Each band sight-read the composition as a pretest. The bands then

practiced the piece using an assigned practice condition for 20 minutes a day over three

days for a total of 60 minutes. At the conclusion of the treatment period, each band

performed the composition as a posttest. Each band director conducted and taught her

respective ensemble in all rehearsals.

Band A served as the treatment group (n = 24). On the day prior to the pretest, the

treatment group received 20 minutes of mental practice instruction from the researcher.

This was done in order to introduce participants to the concept of mental practice and to

give them experience using mental practice techniques prior to the practice trials. After

playing the pretest, the treatment group rehearsed the piece using a mental rehearsal

procedure that alternated physical and mental practice. The procedure was designed by

the researcher but loosely based on the choral rehearsal script created by Keenan-Takagi

(1995). The method was not highly structured and allowed the student to choose what

kind of mental practice to use. Before engaging in mental practice, the teacher provided

the following instructions to the students:

Let's play (the first 8 measures) mentally first. Relax, put your horn in your lap,
and remain as still as possible. As I conduct the music, try to imagine yourself









playing the part. Feel your fingers moving to the right notes. Feel your embouchure
and tongue (lips, face muscles, etc.) moving to the right positions. Try to hear what
the rhythm sounds like. Try to hear what the melody sounds like in your head.
Don't touch your instrument with your hands and don't move any muscles. Just
think about playing the music and try to hear what it sounds like in your head.

Band B served as the control group (n = 19). The control group practiced the piece

using traditional rehearsal techniques that only employed physical practice.

Two independent evaluators graded the performances. Each evaluator was a music

education doctoral student with experience and success as a school band director. The

evaluation procedure was based on a method similar to that used by Morrison (2002).

Each ensemble performance was graded in seven areas: pitch accuracy, tone

quality/intonation, rhythmic precision, phrasing, articulation, tempo, and dynamics. Each

of these areas was graded on a five-point scale with 1.0 being poor and 5.0 being

superior. Both evaluators scored the performances at the same time, with the researcher

present to answer any procedural questions. Inter-scorer reliability was calculated using

the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation. Results indicated that there was a relatively

strong positive reliability between evaluators (r = .81).

The data was analyzed based on the mean scores of the two evaluators for each

performance area (5 possible points) and the total score of each performance (35 possible

points). Because the study examined the performance of the intact ensemble, statistical

analysis was not conducted due to a low N (N = 2). Table 3-1 shows the mean pretest,

posttest, and difference scores and difference percentages for each performance area.

There appeared to be a substantial difference in the pretest scores between the

treatment and control group. The treatment group scored higher on the pretest in every









Table 3-1. Pilot study results: Mean pretest, posttest, and difference scores and percent
difference for experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 19) groups

Mean Percent
Performance Area Pretest Posttest Difference Difference

Pitch accuracy
Experimental Group 1.5 3.3 1.8 36%
Control Group 1 3 2 40%

Tone quality/Intonation
Experimental Group 1.6 2.8 1.2 24%
Control Group 1.2 2.95 1.75 35%

Rhythmic Precision
Experimental Group 1.75 2.75 1 20%
Control Group 1.1 3.55 2.45 49%

Phrasing
Experimental Group 1.8 3.25 1.45 29%
Control Group 1.25 3.3 2.05 41%

Articulation
Experimental Group 2.05 2.75 0.7 14%
Control Group 1.35 3.35 2 40%

Tempo
Experimental Group 1.75 3.45 1.7 34%
Control Group 1.15 3.25 2.1 42%

Dynamics
Experimental Group 1.95 3 1.05 21%
Control Group 1.05 3.55 2.5 50%

Total Score
Experimental Group 12.4 21.3 8.9 25%
Control Group 8.1 22.95 14.85 42%

performance area than the control group, indicating that the two bands may have begun

the study with unequal abilities.

Scores for both groups improved between the pretest and posttest, and both groups

received similar scores on the posttest. An examination of the difference scores and









percentages reveals that the control group had a greater increase in scores in every area

than the treatment group. However, the difference between the control and treatment

groups appears to be substantial in only three of the seven performance areas. The two

groups did not appear to be substantially different in terms of improvement in the areas of

pitch accuracy, tone quality/intonation, tempo, and phrasing. The physical practice group

seems to have made a noticeable improvement in the areas of rhythmic precision,

articulation, and dynamics. These results suggest that mental practice may be an effective

alternative rehearsal technique for certain performance areas when used as a supplement

to physical practice.

Results of the pilot study presented several implications that were addressed in the

full study. In the pilot study, students in the mental practice group appeared to have

difficulty focusing attention on the task during mental practice. This may have been the

result of a lack of structure provided by the fact that students could choose whether they

mentally rehearsed the rhythm, melody, finger positions, embouchure formations, etc. It

was concluded that a more structured mental practice technique may be necessary for

students at this age level, and that students may benefit more if they are specifically

instructed as to what aspect of the music to attend to during the activity. The full study

addressed this by developing a structured method of mental practice.

Second, findings suggest that the results may have been affected by the fact that

students had no prior experience with the music. The mental practice group was asked to

hear the melody and rhythms in their minds, but may not have had enough experience

with the music to have properly encoded an aural model of the piece into memory. In this

case, subjects would not have been able to hear the melody in their minds in order to









mentally rehearse it. Therefore, the pilot study suggested that mental practice might be

more effective when rehearsing music that students' are familiar with because they

already possess an aural image of the music that they can mentally rehearse. The full

study addressed this concern by providing two weeks of physical practice for all

treatment groups before any mental practice on the music was attempted.

Because the pilot study compared the performance of two intact ensembles, no

statistical analysis was possible. Therefore, the full study sought to measure individual

student performance as well as the performance of the intact ensemble.

Selection of the Participants

Four concert bands from four different high schools in Roanoke County, Virginia,

were selected to participate in the full study. These schools were chosen based on their

similarity to each other in order to obtain as homogeneous a sample as possible. All of

the county band programs operated under the same music curriculum and teaching

philosophy. The county school system had an enrollment of approximately 14,000

students, and was named to the American Music Conference's "Best 100 Communities

for Music Education in America" in the three years immediately prior to the study (2002,

2003, and 2004), and in the school year the study was conducted (2006). Each band

rehearsed during the school day for approximately 250 minutes each week, and

consistently received ratings of "Superior" or "Excellent" at the Virginia State Concert

Band Festival during each of the five years prior to the study. Across the school system,

band has been offered to students beginning in the sixth grade.

In order to gain additional data about the students in each band, students were

asked to complete an information form prior to the study (Appendix A). Further data was









collected in discussions with each teacher and in a survey of the school system's website.

The four bands are compared in Table 3-2 in terms of characteristics of the school, the

teacher, and the band itself.

In terms of school characteristics, all four schools had a similar enrollment size,

with the school for Band C having slightly less students (815). Three of the schools

operated on a daily class schedule with 50 minutes for each class period. The school

schedule for Band B was a block schedule in which classes met every other day for 100

Table 3-2. Comparison of the four participating bands

Band
Characteristic Band A Band B Band C Band D

School Characteristics

Class meeting schedule Daily Block Daily Daily

Minutes per class period 50 100 50 50

Total school enrollment 1005 1143 815 1075

Teacher Characteristics

Years of teaching experience 5 7 5 28

Years at present school 5 7 3 4

Band Characteristics

Number of students 57 50 47 46

Girls 22 (39%) 24 (48%) 20 (43%) 25 (53%)

Boys 35 (61%) 26 (52%) 26 (57%) 22 (47%)

Average student age 15.28 15.96 15.23 15.58

Students in private lessons 1(1.7%) 7(14%) 6(13%) 6(13%)









minutes each day. The difference in class meeting schedule between Band B and the

other groups appears to be the most noticeable difference between the schools.

The teacher of Band D had the most teaching experience (28 years). The remaining

three teachers had similar years of teaching experience. No teacher in the study had less

than five years of experience as a high school band director. Each band had a similar

number of students with a similar mean age. Perhaps the most noticeable difference

between the bands is that only one student in Band A took private lessons, while no fewer

than six students in the other bands took private lessons.

Twenty-five students from each band were selected for individual testing for a total

N of 100 students. The assessment of individual performance was administered to only

those instruments considered to be the most common and numerous in high school band

classes. The instruments selected for individual testing were flute, clarinet, alto

saxophone, trumpet, French horn, and trombone. An attempt was made to select an equal

number of each instrument. However, the number of each instrument tested from each

band varied according to band instrumentation and size.

Due to various factors, several students were unable to complete the study. Nine

students from Band D were excluded from the study due to recording equipment

malfunction during the pretest. One student from Band B was excluded because her

instrument was broken during the pretest. Two students from Band C and one student

each from Bands A and B were unable to complete the study due to student absence,

withdrawal from class/school, or other reasons. This left a total N of 86 students who

completed the individual testing. The final number and instrument of students completing

individual testing are presented in Table 3-3.