<%BANNER%>

Influence of Professional Community and Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Privatized Juvenile Ju...


PAGE 1

INFLUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL CO MMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS IN PRIVATIZED JUVENILE JUSTICE PROGRAMS By GLORIA CURRY JOHNSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

PAGE 2

Copyright 2006 by Gloria Curry Johnson

PAGE 3

This document is dedicated to the students in Juvenile Justice Pr ograms in Florida and their teachers.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my advisor, M. E. Swisher, for her brilliant intellect, her can do attitude and her unwavering support.

PAGE 5

v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................7 3 RESEARCH DESGIN AND METHODS..................................................................28 Concepts, Indicators and Variables............................................................................28 Preliminary Research..................................................................................................29 Design......................................................................................................................... 30 Sampling.....................................................................................................................32 Instrumentation....................................................................................................37 Procedure.............................................................................................................42 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................43 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................46 Professional Community............................................................................................52 Shared Sense of Purpose.....................................................................................52 Structural Conditions....................................................................................58 Human and Social Resources.......................................................................62 Organizational Justice.................................................................................................67 Privatization................................................................................................................71 5 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................80 Implications for Future Research................................................................................80 Conclusion..................................................................................................................81

PAGE 6

vi APPENDIX A TEACHER TALK......................................................................................................86 B QUESTIONS FROM TEACHER TALK QUESTIONNAIRE AND INSTRUMENT GROUPED ACCORD ING TO RELEVANCE TO THE INTERVENING VARIABLES RELATIVE TO PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, 2005..................................96 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................99 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................106

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 3–1 2004 Quality Assurance Scores for Six Schools Operated by A.M.I. (Florida Department of Juvenile Justice)...............................................................................36 4–1 A Socio-demographic Analysis of Re spondents (n=27) who Participated in Research Project on Teacher Satisfacti on in Privatized Juvenile Justice Programs Contracted by the Florida De partment of Juvenile Justice, 2005............47 4-2 Individual and Composite Mean Scores of Teacher Ratings of Six Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005..........................................................48

PAGE 8

viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Theoretical Framework Describing the Intervening Variables of Professional Community and Organizational Justice and Their Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction in Pr ivatized Juvenile Justice Schools..................................................27 4-1 Mean Length of Employment per Individua l School of Teachers in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the Florida Depa rtment of Juvenile Justice, 2005...............67 4-2 Length of Employment Measured in Si x Month Increments of Teachers in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the Flor ida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005..........................................................................................................................7 0 4-3 Theoretical Framework Describing the In fluence of Privatization on the Presence of Professional Community, Organizational Justice, and School Effectiveness on Teacher Satisfaction and R ecidivism in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools..........74

PAGE 9

ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science INFLUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL CO MMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS IN PRIVATIZED JUVENILE JUSTICE PROGRAMS By Gloria Curry Johnson May 2006 Chair: Marilyn E. Swisher Major Department: Family, Y outh and Community Sciences In the United States, 68.2 percent of stat es have shown increased activity towards privatization in the area of juvenile rehabi litation. These programs find it increasingly necessary to attract and retain highly qualified teachers in or der to comply with the No Child Left Behind Act. This research expl ores the effects of two major variables on teacher satisfaction: the presence of a prof essional community and organizational justice in the private juvenile justice setting. A cas e study design is used to identify trends in satisfaction relating to teachers’ perception of professional community and organizational justice. Data were collected from a purposiv e sample of teachers working in private, juvenile justice facilities us ing a self-completion questionn aire and a structured oral interview. Grounded theory help ed to analyze trends in th ese data. These trends may help foster the effectiveness of efforts to retain quality teachers in juvenile justice programs and improve the educational servi ces provided to these youths. This could prove beneficial to youths and to communities because more consistent educational

PAGE 10

x services may assist the youths in achie ving academically and improve vocational opportunities. Academic achievement has b een shown to have a positive impact on juvenile crime and delinquency.

PAGE 11

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION All good research is influenced by real life situations. The impetus for this research arose from my first hand experiences as a te acher in a private juvenile justice program. My co-workers were qualified and dedicated. Like me, these teachers chose to work with at risk youth because they wanted to make a difference. They did not enter the field unwittingly. Their purpose was clear. They we re competent and caring. They were great educators and co-workers. Or should I say th ey are all of the a bove, however, they no longer work within the ju venile justice setting. All of my former coworkers have left thei r chosen career path for some other work setting. They all work with youth in some capacity, just not with those who may need their qualities of enthusiasm, dedication, and compassion the most. The youths they taught at the juvenile justice program were complex, challenging, and very needy. Their teachers found their work to be rewarding, interesting, and never dull. The Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) is the agency in Florida charged with the care and oversight of the yout hs involved with the lega l system. In Florida, 43,000 youths a year are served by the department. The department attributes the high mobility of our society as a contributing factor to de linquency in youth. The department offers a variety of services to these youths. Their mission is to “prote ct public by reducing juvenile crime and delinquency.” Treatment a nd rehabilitation are at the cornerstone of the department’s prevention policy (Florida De partment of Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, 2004).

PAGE 12

2 Often, juvenile offenders have had a l ong history of problems in school. Many of them exhibit behavior problems and perform below grade level academically. The youths in juvenile correctional facili ties are among the most educa tionally disadvantaged in our society. The Juvenile Justice Education E nhancement Project (JJEEP) reports that 70 percent of the youth perform below grade leve l. Thirty-eight percent are eligible for exceptional student education. These problem s, academic and behavioral often signal a lifetime of limitations, vocationally and pers onally. Youths who are incarcerated during adolescence often experience underemplo yment, achieve minimal education requirements, and demonstrate poor parent ing skills and outcomes. (Todis, Bullis, Waintrup, Schulz, & D’Ambrosio, 2001; JJEEP, 2004). According to the U.S. Department of Education (1983), 82 percent of the inmates in U.S. prisons did not graduate from high school. It is estimated that 70 percent of the inma tes read at the two lowest literacy levels. Re search demonstrates that i ndividuals tend to commit fewer crimes as their level of education and em ployability increases (Andrews et al. 1990). The At Risk Youth and Delinquency Act of 19741 called for the implementation of rehabilitative efforts to be made on the be half of the youths. The American Disabilities Act of 19952 reinforced the policy of the Department of Juvenile Justice that every child must be given access to education in the leas t restrictive environment. The system for juvenile offenders was established as a result of the belief that yout hs are more amenable to change and the potential of rehabilitative interventions to have a positive influence more likely. Educational programs are a central component of the re habilitative process 1 42 U.S.C. 5667e-2 2 42 U.S.C 1210 et.seq.

PAGE 13

3 for incarcerated youth .It is the Department of Juvenile Justice’s policy as well as its mandate that every youth who is in the custody of the department be given access to appropriate educational services. The department fulfils this requirement in a variety of ways. Some districts employ educational staff from the local school board to teach the youth in their care. Others choose to contract with other private agencies for these services. This trend is growing rapidly. In 2004, fifty-four percent of all the youths involved with the Department of Juvenile Justice in Florida received their educational services th rough a private agency contracted by the department. (JJEEP, 2004) These agencies operate as a non-profit, not for profit, or as a for profit organization. The State of Florida began its foray into privatization by enteri ng into a contract with Associated Marine Institut es to provide services to j uveniles in 1974. Since then, the numbers of agencies the state contracts with has swollen. This is not only a statewide trend. 68.2 percent of states have shown incr eased activity towards privatization in the area of juvenile rehabilitation. 45.5 percent of the respondents listed cost savings as a reason, while only 22.2 percent list ed quality of service as mo tivating factors in the trend toward privatization (A Review of Privatization in State Governments, www.privatization.org 2004). Clarke (2004) describes the kinds of market readjustme nts that the trend toward privatization can bring. He outlines how sh ifting public responsibil ity to the private sector can fragment service provision, incr ease the number of agencies involved and increase the number of deci sion making settings. This “dis persal” creates new problems of coordination and regulation. Communi cation among the decision makers becomes

PAGE 14

4 increasingly important, among both the individua ls and agencies deliv ering services to these youths. This study involves teachers who work in pr ograms that have c ontracted with the state to deliver educational services to youths. The teachers are employed by a company that holds a state contract. The task of these contractors is to edu cate the youths who are court ordered to attend the program as a provi sion of their probation. The program assists the youths in getting back on track so that they can either return to their community school or earn a GED. Some of the youths attend the program afte r having completed a residential treatment program. In this case, the program is designed to support the youths in their transition back into the community. The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors that influence the decision of teachers to abandon a chosen career path. It examines this decision making of teachers in a specialized setti ng, a private juvenile justice se tting. The study looks at the working conditions of the teachers through the lens of the constructs of professional community and organizational justice. Th e concept of professional community was developed by Louis, Marks, and Kruse (1996). They used it to assess the level of job satisfaction and commitment among 910 public school teachers. They theorized that teachers who work in a school where there is a shared vision focu sed on student learning, collaboration among peers, and supportive lead ership would experien ce a higher level of job satisfaction. Greenberg (1987) described orga nizational justice in a series of articles about management and employee retention. It is a theory that suggests that employees function best and enjoy a higher level of j ob satisfaction and commitment in a workplace

PAGE 15

5 where consistent, transparent policies and procedur es result in fair and equal treatment for everyone. When these conditions exist empl oyees are more likely to stay on their job. There is a significant amount of data exam ining teacher attrition in the public school setting. It is clearly documented that t eachers leave this profession at a higher rate than any other profession. A national repor t conducted in 1996 by National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF) desc ribes the attrition ra te and the factors that contribute to it. This report estimates that between 30 and 50 pe rcent of the teachers leave the profession within the first three to five years. Th e report cites low pay, lack of support from administration, and increasing problems w ith student discipline as increasing factors. This de parture from the profession has created a national teacher shortage. Research by Ingersoll (2001) demonstrated that a su fficient number of teachers are drawn to the profession. Attrition creates the shorta ges. He reports that bad management is often to blame because new t eachers are often given the most challenging students to teach, sometimes in subject s they are not certified to teach. Much of this research desc ribes the situation I observed in my experience at the juvenile justice program. However, there ar e two major differences. First, these teachers chose to work in a private setting. Second, th is group of teachers chose to work with the most difficult and challenging students. As one teacher put it, “these are the children left behind.” They described the work as satisfyi ng, rewarding. A co-worker said it this way, “When I go home at night, I know I made a di fference. And, that is what teaching is all about.” The purpose of this research project was to examine the working conditions and the motivating factors of teachers in the private juvenile justice program s. To what extent do

PAGE 16

6 they require and receive similar working conditions as they public school teachers described in the Louis, Marks, and Kruse st udy? To what extent does the presence of clear, consistent policie s and procedures and fair equitabl e treatment affect their level of job satisfaction and commitment? And, how are the working conditions of teachers affected by working in the private sector? Ar e the teachers in these programs affected by any of the conditions described by Clarke, such as dispersal of accountability? If so, how and to what extent does it affect their job satisfaction and commitment? Teacher satisfaction is a complex issue. I e xpect that there are a multitude of factors contributing to teacher satisfaction in the pr ivatized juvenile justice setting. From the literature review and the pilot study I c onducted I expect the following hypotheses: 1) I expect that the most positive component of the teachers’ job to be the student/teacher relationship. 2) I expect that peer relationships will have a mediating effect upon teachers’ level of job satisfaction. 3) I predict that when the indicators of professional community are not present in the workplace that teachers will experien ce a low level of job satisfaction. 4) I predict that when the indicators of organizational justice ar e not present in the workplace that teachers will experien ce a low level of job satisfaction.

PAGE 17

7 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Most matters concerning humans are not simple or easy. This topic is no exception. The issue of teacher satisfaction in privatized juvenile justice programs is complex and multifaceted. The primary focus of this research is teachers’ perception of the conditions in the workpl ace and how these factors e ffect their job satisfaction. However, the fundamental concern is the fair and just treatment of the youth the teachers serve. The growing trend towards incarcerati on and privatization creates an imperative need to know about the quality of care a nd education these juveniles receive. Vaca (2004) documents the trend toward in carceration. He reports that the New Jersey Department of Corrections ha d 6,000 prisoners in1975. The population had swollen to 25,000 people by 1997. Vaca (2004) reports there are a disproportionate number of adults in the prison system that they are economically poor or disadvantaged. He estimates that 70 percent of the inmates read at the two lowest literacy levels. Illiteracy is the strongest common deno minator among individuals in correctional institutions (Kidder, 1990). 82 percent of prison inmates have dropped out of high school (Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 2005). V aca (2004) reports that of the $25,000 spent yearly on each inmate, only two percent wa s spent on education. Furthermore, Vaca (2004) reported that expanded and enhan ced educational opport unities could reduce recidivism and improve the potential fo r offenders to lead productive lives. Juvenile facilities report similar statistics. In Florida, the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) serves 45,000 youths each year (Department of Juveni le Justice Juvenile,

PAGE 18

8 2005). State and federal laws mandate that the department provide fair and equal educational opportunities should be provided for the youth it se rves. As the department moves increasingly toward privatization, conc erns about the quality of these services arise. Are there sufficient processes in pl ace to ensure that this population has equal access to the educational and vocational training necessary to become productive citizens? While justice and fair treatment are important to all, it is most important to youth who have been placed at risk through their own behavior a nd/or circumstances beyond their control such as poverty, race, and/or learning and emotional disabilities. These youth need remedial education to reach th eir potential and to ga in a foothold on the opportunities an education can provide for them. They need an education so that they can become employable, productive citizens. The Florida Department of Juvenile Ju stice (Department of Juvenile Justice Juvenile Crime Trends and Conditions, 2005) re ports that the high mobility of our society influences the delinquency rate. The departme nt also describes the fragmentation of our neighborhoods as a factor in the delinquency rate. They report that 54 percent of the youths that they serve come from single parent homes. They report that three out of four juvenile offenders report that they use ill egal drugs and/or dr ink alcohol. (Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, 2004) Information presented on the Coalition for Juvenile Justice (CJJ) website reports that poor school perfor mance is one of the strongest predictors of whether youths will drink, smoke, use weapons, or attempt suicide (Trends in Juvenile Justice, 2005). Young pe ople who receive inadequate education are disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system. The Coalition for Juvenile Justice reports that 70-87 percen t of the youths in Juvenile Ju stice System have either an

PAGE 19

9 emotional or learning disability that imped es their educational progress (Trends in Juvenile Justice, 2005). Maguin and Loeb er (1996) argue that poor academic performance is related to deli nquent behavior regardless of socioeconomic status and that cognitive deficit and attention problems are associated with poor academic performance and delinquency. The Individuals with Disabilities act (IDEA)3 is federal legislation requiring that eligible youth with disab ilities receive free appropriat e public education (FAPE), including special education and related services. Through the spending power of Congress, and corresponding state statues or regulations, IDEA mandates that states receiving federal support for education of student s with disabilities ensu re that all eligible students receive FAPE. All states and the Dist rict of Columbia cu rrently receive funding under IDEA. However, shrinking state and loca l budgets mean that these services may not always be provided to the youths involved in this system According to the Coalition for Juvenile Justice website, youths that in juvenile justice programs receive the same treatment regardless of their individual needs (Trends in Juvenile Justice, 2005). Currently, schools across the United States are experiencing a s hortage of trained, certified teachers. Educational programs that serve juveniles are no exception. Qualified, experienced special education teachers are in high demand. Another trend in juve nile justice is the disproporti onate numbers of minorities and disadvantaged youth involved in the system. In this regard the juve nile justice system reflects the status of the e ducational system as a whole. Minority and disadvantaged students are generally over repr esented in special education classes. Schools that serve 320 U.S.C., 1400 et seq.; P.L. 105-170

PAGE 20

10 minority and students for low income homes usually receive less funding and resources than other schools. The students often do not perform as well on standardized tests and have a lower graduation rate than other students (Dar ling-Hammond, 2000). Vang (2005) analyzed a report by the Califor nia Teachers Association completed in 2004. He states that this re port documents a widening achievement gap between majority and minority students. The report indicates that this gap is caused by poverty. The students living in poverty have a greater percentage of teachers teaching without certification or teaching out of field. Additionally, the report by the California Teachers Association found that schools serving large minority popula tions have a higher than average rate of teacher turnover. Darl ing Hammond (2001) reports schools serving minority students and economically disadvant aged students often do not have as many resources, such as up to date te xtbooks or access to technology. Vang’s (2005) suggests that the fundamenta l approach to developing an effective pedagogy is through encouraging academic su ccess, cultural affiliation, and personal efficacy. He cautions educators and administrato rs about the effects of increased testing and the decrease in funding for educational progr amming. He worries that this could lead to an even wider breach in the achievement gap. Stewart (2003, p. 580) argues that, “The sc hool environment is one of the most important environments in which children ar e socialized.” Schools provide a venue for socialization by providing st ructured norms and values for the youths. Byrk and his associates found that an atmosphere in wh ich there was trust among the adults employed at the school was fundamental to school effectiveness (Byrk, Schneider & Kochanik, 1996). Students reported feeling safe in an environment in which the teachers and

PAGE 21

11 administrators reported having a shared focu s or mission and in which the staff operated in an atmosphere of mutual respect. Anderson and Keith (1997) compared stude nts at various high schools and ranked the schools according to graduation rates and scores on achievement tests. They found that ability and academic coursework had a significant impact upon high school students in general. However, these factors played an even more important role in the achievement of at risk students. Additi onally, the student’s level of motivation and the quality of instruction exerted a powerful influence on the level of achievement attained by the at risk students. This research has several im plications for educating at risk youth. Anderson and Keith (1997) s uggest that educational atta inment, that is finishing coursework, has a positive influence for these students. Their research shows that when at-risk students complete two courses that they can expect an improvement in achievement test scores of almost one st andard deviation. McE voy and Welker (2000) argue that at-risk students be nefit from courses that empha size communication skills such as reading writing, listening and artistic e xpression. These skills offer the students an opportunity to improve academically and to develop ways to express themselves effectively. Anderson and Keith (1997) conc lude that the way to improve academic achievement for at risk students is to impr ove school quality, increase student motivation, and emphasize academic achievement. McEvoy and Welker (2000) also argue that effective schools share similar characteristics including high expectations for student achievement, a shared mission among staff, and students’ perception to a safe environment in which to learn. These are a part of school climate, which affect the atti tudes and beliefs that reinforce instructional

PAGE 22

12 practices, the level of academic achievement and the daily operations of the school. An effective school is one in wh ich every member feels valued and respected and is actively working toward meaningful goals (McEvoy and Welker, 2000). Zigarelli (1996) analyzed data taken from the National Longitudinal Study for the years 1988, 1990, and 1992. He reviewed thirty years of literature on the subject of effective schools to ascertain the most comm only noted variables. A regression analysis of the data indicates what is documented as the most important characteristics of effective schools. The indicators most cited are: Employment of quality teachers, teacher participation and satisfaction, principal leadership and involvement, a culture of academic achievement, positive relationships with central school administration, and high parental involvement. Most educators agree that an academic school climate is one in which achievement is the prevailing norm is the hall mark of an effective school. Indicators of an academic culture are high expectations of students, frequent monitoring of student progress, emphasis on basic ski ll acquisition, a significant amount of time in class, and a clear academically oriented mission of the school. Brock and Groth (2003) present findings from a longitudinal case study of 50 low income and racial, ethnic or language minority schools that participated in a state funded school improvement program. The authors use an analytical framework for examining the process of organizational change. Brock and Groth (2003) found that schools in which adults perceived a real opportunity to improve the academic circumst ances of their students were able to transform their schools in more substantial ways than those schools in which the adults

PAGE 23

13 perceived little hope for incr easing student learning. This pe rception is fostered by six key factors: a) ongoing professi onal development, b) a high degree of staff involvement, c) a strong focus or vision of the school based on student le arning, d) continuous monitoring on the program and student achieve ment, e) reallocation of resources to support the school wide plan, a nd f) strong principal leadersh ip. These schools have most frequently been described as having a common mission, an emphasis on learning, and a climate conducive to learning. Gaziel (1997) examines the effect of school culture on school effectiveness. He investigated cultural differ ences among effective high sc hools and average high schools. He looked at the differences in terms of student participation, orderliness, school improvement and academic achievement. He found that the best predictor of an effective school was its focus on the students’ academic achievement. He found that the organizational culture of the school had a profound effect on the students’ academic achievement. Gaziel (1997, p.313) writes, “School cu lture is significant in explaining school effectiveness.” Elements of school culture th at are important to students’ achievements are sense of shared goals, academic emphasis, monitoring of student progress, and an orderly, safe climate. Gaziel (1997) reports these elements appear to have a greater influence on disadvantaged students than on students with middle to high socioeconomic status. These schools have most frequently b een described as having a common mission, an emphasis on learning, and a climate conducive to learning (Stoll & Fink, 1996).

PAGE 24

14 Kruger (1997) examined the influence of school climate on the perception of self efficacy among teachers and its effect on stud ent achievement. They looked at problem solving skills among elementary teachers. Thei r research demonstrat ed the effect that working conditions can have on the teachers’ f eelings of worth and that these feelings were transmitted to the students. They found that when there ar e expectations for sharing mo st of the work and there is interaction in which teachers discuss, plan for, design, conduct, analyze, evaluate, and experiment with the business of teaching, stude nts’ achievement is greater. They also found that when that an emphasis on safe and orderly climate c ontributes to school success. They contend that a shared culture across all groups that emphasizes academic achievement is indicative of an effective school. Strike (2004) emphasized the importance of creating a shared culture or vision. He insists that schools should be communities. He discusses the four C’s of community, coherence, cohesion, care, and contact and th e importance of these in establishing and maintaining an effective school. He reite rates the importance of the presence of coherence, a shared vision, and argues that there is alienation and disengagement when they are not present. This article draws on the research of others to support a value and an opinion. Strike is a very pers uasive writer. He uses anecd otal evidence and previous research to address ideas and concepts supported in a much of the l iterature. The concept of community is addressed by Louis, Marks, and Kruse (1996). Their research defines the concept of professional community for teachers. They analyzed the type of professional community that o ccurs within a school and examined the

PAGE 25

15 organizational factors that support its development. This research also looks at the effect of professional community on the teachers’ sens e of responsibility for student learning. The researchers asked teachers from 24 sc hools to complete a questionnaire that probed their perceptions about instructional practices, pr ofessional activities, school governance, management, and leadership, as well as their beliefs about school culture. The researchers then visited the schools a nd observed instruction. They also conducted structured interviews with 2535 teachers and administrators. Louis, Marks & Kruse (1996) define prof essional community as movement toward shared values, a focus on student learning, collaboration, deprivat ized practice, and reflective dialogue. They argue, “Shared values in a professional community have a basis in moral authority that is derived from the central importance of t eaching and socializing youth” (1996, p.760). They believe that a colle ctive focus on learni ng is “an undeviating concentration on student learning. Teachers discuss the ways in which instruction promotes student intellectual growth ” (1996, p.760). Collaboration among faculty “fosters the sharing of expe rtise. Collaborative work increases teachers’ sense of affiliation and their sense of responsibility for effective instruction” (1996, p.760). Deprivatization refers to teach ers varied relationships with in the school setting. At times a teacher is a mentor, an advisor, or a special ist. They often perform a myriad of roles. Reflective dialogue implies self-awareness. In depth conversations about teaching and learning assist teachers in examining assu mptions basic to quality instruction. The researchers identify structural c onditions that facili tate professional community. They include; size, staffing complexity, scheduled planning time, and teacher empowerment. The authors recognize th e importance of several human and social

PAGE 26

16 conditions that support the presence of pr ofessional community. These are: supportive leadership, openness to innova tion, respect, feedback on inst ructional performance, and professional development. The results of the study showed that the pr esence of professional community varied among schools. Their findings suggest that human and social responses are as critical to the presence of professional community as stru ctural conditions. This study confirms that respect is at the core of a positive school culture. Research that connects educators’ feelings of responsibility fo r student achievement is not common. However, this study seems to demonstrate that teach ers’ feelings of self effi cacy are relative to students’ academic achievement. Furthermore, this study suggests that “the working conditionsindividual job satisfaction sc hool level of professional community-are a primary factor associated with student learning” (Louis, Marks and Kruse, 1996 p. 786) The concept of job satisfaction implies an overall affective orientation on the part of an individual toward the roles undertaken while completing tasks related to their work (Kalleberg, 1977). Locke (1976) argues that job satisfaction is th e positive emotional reaction to one’s job or job experience a nd empirical study indicates that the work environment is more important in shap ing job satisfaction than demographic characteristics. Cranny, Smith, and Stone (1992) argue that job satisfaction involves cognitive and affective reactions to what an employee expects to receive and what the employee actually does receive. Glisson and Duri ck (1988) argue that the three variables that contribute to an employ ee’s level of job satisfaction are the characteristics of the tasks performed by the employee, the characte ristics of the organization in which the tasks are performed, and characteristics of th e employee performing th e tasks within that

PAGE 27

17 organization. Job satisfaction is seen as an influential factor in employee commitment and intent to leave a job. Fresko, Kfir, and Nasser (1997) argue that j ob satisfaction can be classified into extrinsic and intrinsic categories. Extrinsic satisfaction comes from income, power, prestige, and availability of re sources. Intrinsic satisfaction is derived through feelings of efficacy, self-determination, and self-fulfillmen t. Job satisfaction is thought to be a predictor of commitment to th e job and intent to leave. There is a body of literature that describes job satisfacti on for teachers particularly in relation to teacher retention and attriti on. Ingersoll (2002) reports the departure of teachers from the profession creates the shortage of teachers. He claims that there enough teachers being trained to meet the demand. He likens the situation of continually training new teachers without retaining the existing ones to pouring water in a bucket with a fistsized hole in the bottom. Shann (1998) interviewed 92 teachers working in urban schools to assess the importance and satisfaction they assigned to re lationships within the school setting. This was a collaborative effort that involved edu cators at the university level as well as teachers in the schools involved in the study. They worked together to design the research instrument. Teacher job satisfaction is a multifaceted c onstruct that is critical to teacher retention, teacher commitment and school e ffectiveness. The teachers ranked their relationships with the students as the highest in terms of importance and satisfaction. Shann’s (1998) study reaffirms other research that demonstrates that teacher satisfaction

PAGE 28

18 influences student performance. It also points to a strong correlation between job satisfaction and commitment. The teachers’ assessments of what thei r schools were doing well and not so well were closely aligned with opinions and obser vations of other knowledgeable observers of the schools. Both groups acknow ledged similar strengths a nd weaknesses in the schools. What teachers like first and foremost a bout their jobs were their students. Shann (1998) uses several indicators to assess satisfaction. Among other things, she included salary, job securit y, decision making, autonomy, an d questions about various relationships. These indicators were grouped to gether to construct the concept of job satisfaction. Shann (1998) admonishes admini strators to involve teachers in reform efforts by allowing them to share in the respons ibility of selecting st rategies for change. Liu and Meyer (2005) analyzed teachers’ perceptions of their jobs and teacher turnover by examining data form the National Center for Educational Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follo w-Up Survey. They emphasized the multidimensionality of teachers’ perceptions a bout their jobs because a global measure of job satisfaction is too general to inform us of a particular ar ea of need or an appropriate intervention. Liu and Meyer’s (2005) fi ndings suggest that teachers were most dissatisfied with student discipline. Low compensation was secondary. They found that private school teachers experienced less behavior problems and lower wages, and a higher level of job satisfaction. Liu and Meyer (2005) found a high correlati on between school climate and work conditions which confirms conve ntional wisdom about school environment. When school leadership encourages teacher involvement in governance, school leaders and teacher are

PAGE 29

19 actively improving work conditions. They found that a collegial envi ronment, one that provides professional support, mediat es student behavior problems. Liu and Meyer (2005) found that minority teachers expressed even more dissatisfaction with their jobs than nonminority teachers. Compensation and work conditions appear to be substant ially worse for minority teachers. A pilot study I conducted examined the work ing conditions of teachers in juvenile justice programs. The purpose of this study wa s to determine what factors influenced the teachers’ feelings of job satis faction. I conducted structured interviews with six certified teachers working with juvenile offenders in two different privatized juvenile justice programs operated by two separate organizations. These teachers all reported that they chose to work with juvenile offenders because they wanted to make a difference. They a ll reported that working with the kids was the best part of their job. As one teacher put it, “Teaching these kids is a powerful experience. I don’t need to send a donation to the Save the Children fund. I have an opportunity to help really needy kids every day. And, I do. I know I am making a difference in these kids’ lives.” The teachers I interviewed appeared to be honest and open. They discussed the challenges of working with a special need s population. Several teachers discussed the frustration of trying to teach high school students that co uld not read, or that were mentally handicapped or mentally ill. They expressed their feelings of inadequacy when faced with those tasks. The teachers reported th at they felt as though their concerns about the situation were unheeded by the administra tion. They conveyed a sense of injustice about the situation. One teacher said, “It is so unfair to these students. I am not trained or

PAGE 30

20 experienced in teaching a mentally handicappe d student. These students are not getting the instruction they ought to have. This pr ogram is completely ineffective in helping these students develop the skills they need to have a successful life. They will just continue living a life of crime. The ad ministration does not seem to care.” All of the teachers interviewed reported a lack of resources. They described over crowded, run down classrooms, insufficient, out of date text books and a paucity of teaching materials. Another area of concer n was the lack of continuing education and professional development opportunities for the t eachers. They reported that there were no paid substitutes to cover their classes if th ey were absent. This meant that the other teachers had to cover for them, placing extra stre ss on the entire faculty. They stated that they had no input about the allo cation of funds or budge tary issues that directly affected the work in their classrooms. Each teacher reported conditions in the wo rkplace that made their job even more difficult. These teachers indicated that th ey received unequal treatment from the administration. They were not given perfor mance evaluations. Raises appeared to be given in a capricious, unsystematic manner. The teachers did not have lunch breaks or planning periods. The teachers expressed fr ustration about the l ack of communication between them and the administration. The teachers described their relationship w ith administration with these comments, “Administration is often dis honest about issues. They re fuse to communicate in an honest, solution oriented way. The administra tion rewards staff according to who they like…reminiscent of high school. You know wh o is popular…rather than competency or how well one does their job.”

PAGE 31

21 The observations made by these teachers pr ompted me to conduct a review of the research literature to find a theoretical fr amework that would help me to examine the conditions described by these teachers. I f ound a substantial body of research on the theory of organizational justice. It appears to be a relevant framework in which to explore these concerns in the workplace. Greenberg (1987) described organizational just ice as the fair and equal treatment of individuals in the workplace. He discusses it in terms of distributiv e justice, which is concerned with the fairness of organizational outcomes and procedural justice, the latter is concerned with the fairness of the processe s and procedures used to determine desired outcomes. Informational justice suggests that information should be disseminated in a fair and equal manner. Greenberg (1990) explains th at employees’ feelings of equity in the workplace are determined primarily by how d ecisions affecting them are made and the outcomes of these decisions. Laschinger and Finegan (2005) used the theory of organizat ional justice and Kanter’s (1977) model of organizational empowerment to analyze job satisfaction, commitment and attrition among registered nurs es. They mailed questionnaires to group of randomly selected nurses. They used pa th analysis techniques to evaluate the responses from 273 respondents. Kanter (1977) describes organizational em powerment as the ability to exercise informal power through positive relationships wi th superiors, peers, and subordinates. She reports that organizational empowerment allows employees to accomplish their work in meaningful ways, access information, obtai n necessary support and resources, and to develop professionally. Employees use discretion and are able to build effective alliances

PAGE 32

22 when organizational empowerment is presen t. They also experience greater job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Respect and organizational trust are embedde d in these constructs. The researchers argue that respect is fundamental to empl oyees’ trust in the or ganization. A lack of respect can manifest itself in how and what the management communicates, for example, failing to address concerns expressed by empl oyees. Employees hesitate to commit to the organizational goals and activities when th ere is a lack of respect and trust. Organizational trust is the beli ef that an employer will be forthright, straightforward and follow through on commitments. Laschinger and Finegan (2005) found that he level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment strongly aff ected the respondents’ perceptions of organizational justice and empowerment. The nurses’ perceptions of fair management practices, feelings of being respected in the work setting, and their trust in management had a significant impact upon their level of job satis faction and organizational commitment. Employees with a high level of organizational commitment are more likely to rise to the challenges and demands in the workplace. A high level of commitment mediated job stress and burnout. The resear ch findings suggest th at their trust in management increased when the employees fe lt that they received the respect they deserve. The employees felt as though the managers were more reliable, honest, and competent and compassionate, resulting in great er job satisfaction. The nurses were more likely to believe in the goals of the organiza tion and to exert extra effort on the job, and employee turnover declined. Laschinger and Finegan(2005) urge employers to create a

PAGE 33

23 work environment that manifests justice, tr ust and respect, which, in turn, will promote consistent professional practice. Most of the research literature I have discussed examines education in the public sector. My research project focuses on the educ ation in a specialized setting, a privatized juvenile justice setting. A lthough, privatization is growi ng rapidly in the U.S. and internationally, I found little research about the phenom enon. Kalaftides (2001 p.26) shares my perception: “Along w ith other public services, edu cation is being dragged into the private sector. Yet, little is being published on the matter.” Clarke (2004) discusses a theory about th e potential effects of privatization. He argues that privatization holds the potential to disrupt traditional agreements in the public and private realms. He warns that this disr uption may have undesira ble consequences for our communities, impact our economy and reduce morale. According to Clark (2004), there are two main trends in privatization affecting social policy: 1) a shift in ac tivities, resources, and the ava ilability of goods and services and 2) a modification of social responsibil ity. A reallocation in the provision of goods and services can assume many different role s. Among these are complete privatization, public/private partnerships and outsourcing, all of which can create competition for available resources. The transfer al of function is also tangible. Clients may become aware of privatization because they find themselves dealing with a new entity, rather than a government agency. The change in social re sponsibility, however, may be subtle. This change may reach the public consciousness or be a topic of their conversation. However, the recent tragedy in the Gulf Coast States of the United States seems to have reawakened the public discourse about social responsibility.

PAGE 34

24 Clarke (2004) reports that the realignment of these traditional understandings can affect peer relationships, the structure of the organization, and the way the system operates. A byproduct of privatization can be an increase in the number of agencies involved, a dispersal of decision making auth ority, and new problems of regulation and administration. Accountability is disperse d among the agencies and decision making bodies. Clarke’s (2004) article is thought provoking. He offers a theoretical perspective about the practice of privatization. However, as previously mentioned there is little empirical data to support or refute his views. Research that appears about on the actual outcomes of j uvenile justice programs is also limited. According to research conduc ted by Pealer and La tessa (2004) about juvenile justice correctional programs, relatively few corr ectional programs that serve juveniles provide services a nd treatment consistent with the principles of effective intervention. The researcher s assessed a variety of pr ograms including, government operated, and private non-profit and private for profit service providers. They did not select the programs for study randomly but they argue that there is no reason to assume that these results are atypi cal of other juvenile programs in the United States. Pealer and Latessa (2004) use the Correc tional Program Assessment Inventory to evaluate 107 juvenile correctional programs to determine how well they adhere to selected standards. The most common shor tcomings were that the programs were designed and operated without th e benefit of empiri cal research to dr ive or validate practices. There was a lack of objective assessment of the youths and, when assessments were performed, the all youths received identica l services regardless of the results of the

PAGE 35

25 assessments. Staff training was inconsistent and lacking. Little consid eration was given to matching the program to the needs of the youths. Pealer and Latessa (2004) found few measures of program performance. They report that correctional researchers have la rgely ignored the measurement of program quality. Traditionally, quality has been measur ed by process evaluations. This is helpful in determining the status of a program’s opera tions, but these evaluati ons say little about the outcomes of the program. The information they provide meet auditors’ need to track fulfillment of contractual obligations; but, these criteria used may have little relevance to recidivism. Jensen (2003) provides an account of his experience as an educator in a correctional facility serving juveniles. He descri bes the conflict that arose in a facility as a result of privatization. It involves a pa rtnership between the state department of corrections and a provider that is contracted to deliver educational services to incarcerated juvenile offenders. Jensen (2003) described the conflicts that ensued between the correctional staff and the teachers at the beginning of the process. The guards appeared to have little confidence in the educational process. He reports that the communication among the faculty and other staff at a juvenile correctional facil ity was improved by deve loping common goals. This facilitated an improvement in the educat ional services for the youths. The teachers noted fewer behavior problems, less disc ipline referrals, and accelerated academic progress. Jensen (2003. p.116) reports th at, “Communication, coordination, and collaborative problem solving resulted in the educational and correctional staffs experiencing personal ownership of the visi on, the mission, and goals of the organization.

PAGE 36

26 Correctional educators are challenged to bri ng inquiry and learning to places mainly designed for custody and control…and safety a nd security concerns take precedence over educational practices.” Jensen (2003) describes a recurring theme th at surfaced in the pilot project that I conducted. Both studies discuss conflict betwee n the juvenile justice educators and the other staff. Jensen’s (2003) refers to the conflict as appa rent differences in perceived missions and turf issues. Jensen (2003) suggest s that some of the factors that influence effectiveness of schools in main stream education are also infl uential in a juvenile justice setting. These are collaboration among sta ff, shared vision and goals, a focus on academic achievement, and the structural conditions necessary to do their job. Figure 2.1 is a graphical disp lay of the construct of professional community. This diagram demonstrates how the variables in teract and influence the level of job satisfaction of teachers.

PAGE 37

27 ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY Structural Conditions Human & Social Resources Shared Vision Focus on student learning Scheduled planning time professional development feedback on instructional performance respect supportive leadership school effectiveness TEACHER SATISFACTION Figure-2.1 Theoretical Framew ork Describing the Interveni ng Variables of Professional Community and Organizational Justice and Their Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools

PAGE 38

28 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESGIN AND METHODS Concepts, Indicators and Variables The social researcher is charged with id entifying relationships between abstract concepts and searching for measurable in dicators of these concepts. My research examines the concepts of teacher satisf action and the presence of professional community. Teacher satisfaction is defined as the attitudes of teachers affected by extrinsic factors (like relationships with pe ers and administration, salary, environment) and intrinsic factors (commitment, achieve ment, recognition and re sponsibility) (Bogler 2001). The area of teacher satisfaction con ceptualized in this research focuses on relationships between teachers and their peers and administrators in a privatized environment. An indicator of teacher satisfaction is th e presence of a professional community. Professional community indicates how the pr esence of a respectful and synergetic relationship affects teacher satisfaction a nd thus influences students’ academic achievement (Louis, Marks, and Kruse 1996). Many variables can measure the presence of professional community, but this research groups them into three main perceptual variables: shared sense of purpose, st ructural conditions, an d human and social resources. A shared sense of purpose im plies a common goal an emphasis on student learning. Structural conditions include issu es like planning time, decision making, and adherence to school policy. Human and soci al resources involve mutual respect, supportive leadership, and instructiona l feedback.

PAGE 39

29 Preliminary Research According to Dillman (2001), a pilot study is a pretest that can provide more information than cognitive interviews or inst rument pretests. By emulating the research design on a smaller scale, one may identify correlations among variables, problems with the instrument, possible response rates, and issues with scalar questions. A colleague and I conducted research dur ing the summer of 2004 that explored three dimensions of teacher satisfaction in th e private sector setting: satisfaction with peers, satisfaction with the environment, a nd satisfaction with the organization. After pre-testing the interview and questionnaire instrument on three teachers, we used a purposive sample selection to identify six te achers. We presented six case studies of teachers who work in juvenile justice schools in the private sector. In this article, private schools referred specifically to secular schools not affiliated with religious education. Juvenile justice schools referred to private co mpanies that provide educational services to adjudicated youth in both residential and non-re sidential settings. Teacher satisfaction referred to individual perceptions of perf ormance in the peer, environmental, and organizational contexts. This pilot study fuel ed our interest in further examining how teacher satisfaction is af fected in the private j uvenile justice setting. After compiling the results of the pilot st udy, we were able to answer some of the questions that Dillman (2001) suggests a pilo t study may answer. For example, we found that increasing our sample size might be a problem due to teachers’ limited time and administrators’ reluctance to have teachers part icipate. Also, we were able to identify the specific concepts concerning satisfaction that we wanted to concentrate on. This identification guided the revision of our interview and questionnaire instrument.

PAGE 40

30 Design This research uses an explanatory, theo ry building case study design. This choice reflects a number of different factors. By using case studies, we could examine several variables that interact without having to isolate one factor (de Vaus 2001). First, the stage of theory development regarding this subject implies that research has a descriptive and explanatory role at present (de Vaus 2001, Fowler 1993). Finall y, the limited amount of research in the area of t eacher satisfaction and privatiza tion demands work that begins to build theories. The cons truction of theory is “what makes qualitative research research … linkages with theory; extension of theory, creation of theory… makes qualitative research useful, signi ficant, and powerful (Morse 2002, p.12). In light of the pace of privatization in edu cation and social services, relatively little research exists to tell us how private juvenile justice provid ers perform in education. The State of Florida Department of Juven ile Justice does, however, conduct yearly evaluations of juvenile jus tice programs through the Qualit y Assurance process and the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancemen t Program. These formative evaluations provide stakeholders with information on what is happening in programs from an operational standpoint. Howeve r, we know little about what happens from an outcome basis or why it happens. Therefore, resear ch that has explanat ory power is most appropriate at this time. This research also relies upon a case study design because of the complex interacting variables involved in understandi ng teacher satisfaction in this setting (de Vaus 2001). In an organization, the elimina tion of external variables is impossible because of the necessity of daily functions. Additionally, the outcome variable I intend to study, satisfaction, does not occu r independently of the myriad of external variables

PAGE 41

31 transpiring everyday in an organization. In fact, the way external variables influence satisfaction is precisely what we want to study. According to de Vaus (2001 p. 232), “case study designs are particularly useful when we do not wish or are unable to screen out the influence of ‘external’ variables but when we wish to examine their effect on the phenomenon we are investigating.” Furthermor e, this design allows us to conduct what Bryman (2001) calls an intensive examinati on of the setting. To achieve a complete analysis of teacher satisfaction, or any variable, one must consider the whole, not just the part (de Vaus 2001). Finally, the case study design corresponds well with this research question because one way to achieve explanatory power is through theory build ing (de Vaus 2001). “Theory building is a process in which rese arch begins with obs ervations and uses inductive reasoning to derive a theory fr om these observations” (de Vaus 2001, p.223). These derived theories would attempt to make sense of the observations collected. Not only is there a stunning lack of research in th e area of private juvenile justice programs, but we lack sufficient theories to conduct the research or make sound policy decisions. Pealer and Latessa (2004) argue that the majority of the juvenile justice programs in operation are atheoretical; the programs serve the youth and communities without guidance from theories that have been developed and tested through research. Theories from related fields such as teacher satisfaction, organizational theory, psychology, education, and social policy provid e researchers with a starting place in building theory for this research. However, it will be necessary to observe the current phenomenon, understand how it coincides with current theories, and begin to create new theories. This process of th eory building is the only way to create external validity,

PAGE 42

32 according to Morse (1999). The case study design is most appropriate for research in need of this beginning process. This particular case study examines a si ngle case, teachers at AMI schools. This allows the research to broade n the knowledge about larger pop ulation. In this way it is similar to ethnography. An ethnography and a ca se study are not mutually exclusive as they both have similar features (Basit, 2003). Sampling Several sampling issues deserve consider ation in a case study design. Although a purposive, or judgmental, sample is often interpreted as a conv enience sample, that assumption is erroneous. According to de Vaus (2001, p.223), “using a theory building approach to case studies we select cases to help develop and refine the propositions and develop a theory that fits the cases we study.” Consequently, sample selection is just as important in qualitative research as it is in quantitative research. Sampling selection can pose control for internal validity threats in unique ways. Sampling response can also pose problems for the researcher. However, these sampling issues, if handled properly, help contribute to the validity of the research. The theoretical population for this study is al l teachers who work in juvenile justice education programs. Any attempt to create ge neralized theories from this research would apply only to teachers who work in these types of organizations. The accessible population for this research is teachers who liv e and work Florida. Gaining access to this population was dependent on working with De partment of Juvenile Justice and the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program and their endorsement of this research. The sampling frame consists of teachers who work at schools in Florida operated by Associate Marine Institutes (A MI). “Purposive or judgmental sampling

PAGE 43

33 involves selecting elements for the sample that the researcher’s judgment and prior knowledge suggests will best serve the pur poses of the study and provide the best information” (Sullivan 2000, p. 133). The or ganization that has the most experience running privatized juven ile justice programs in Florida is a logical choice for this study. Additionally, threats of histor y can be reduced because the researcher can acquire in depth knowledge about the organization a nd its individual school s and because the uniform institutional setting provides a common history among the schools. AMI was the first private agency to be gi ven a contract by the state of Florida to provide services to juvenile offenders. Associated Marine In stitutes had its beginnings at Florida Ocean Sciences Institute in 1969. The Institute was mainly involved in oceanographic research projects. The employ ees began involving troubled youths in the projects. They noticed positive changes in th e youths. This inspired them to create a permanent program that encouraged the deve lopment of life and voc ational skills through experiential learning ( www.amikids.org/Default.htm .). In 1974, AMI Inc. was formed so that it c ould offer a central office for consistent, uniform management for its affiliate orga nizations. AMI, Inc. now has 49 different programs in seven different states. They have served over 50,000 youths since their conception. The website states th at, “For almost 35 years we ha ve striven to be the best and provide the safest and most economical way to benefit society a nd the kids we serve” ( www.amikids.org/Default.htm ). So de Vaus notes (2001, p.238) “The external validity of case studies is enhanced by the strategic selection of cases rather than by the statistical selection of cases.” Inside the sampling frame, this research will rely on representative case selection. Typical or

PAGE 44

34 representative cases show ne ither extremely good nor extremel y negative examples of the organizations under consideration. de Vaus (2001, p.240) argues, “We have no sure way of knowing whether a case is tr uly typical and no way of estimating its typicality.” Instead of typical cases, de Vaus claims re searchers should focus on cases that present valid and challenging test s of theory. However, in this in stance I use results from existing state evaluations to select cases that show typical or representative performance. According to the Juvenile Justice Edu cation Enhancement Program Annual Report (2003), there are 137 private programs that provi de educational services to Department of Juvenile Justice youth. Approximately 363 te achers are employed by all of the private programs in Florida. Associated Marine In stitutes runs twenty-six of those programs, including both residential and day treatment facilities. Although th ese numbers fluctuate on a yearly, even monthly, basis due to attri tion, program closures, and other events, it could be extrapolated that Associated Mari ne Institutes employs approximately ninteen percent (70) of the teachers employed (363) in private juvenile justice facilities in Florida. There are on average four teachers at each Associated Marine Institute School. By interviewing as many teachers as possible from at least nine schools, I feel that a wide enough range of responses were collected to discern common themes that cut across all cases, using the approach to theory de velopment suggested by grounded theory. Furthermore, multiple cases in a study c ontribute to a form of replication, which increases confidence in the findings (de Vaus 2001). I chose three cases with low, three with medium, and three with high performing formative evaluation scores as determined by the Quality Assurance reports. Specific

PAGE 45

35 program goals and objectives provide the basis for the development of the standards used in the quality assessment process. The standa rds are the general categories in which the programs are evaluated to determine overall level of quality. Thes e categories include program management, health care, mental health services, employee training, and program safety. The quality assurance system uses a team of evaluators comprised of a lead reviewer, peer reviewers, a juvenile justice board or council member and an educator. The quality assurance process uses multiple data sources to document compliance with policies, procedures, and practices. The evaluators inspect records provided by the program, interview staff, a nd observe daily operations. The Juvenile Justice Educational Enhan cement Program conducts a re view of the educational programs. The educational portion of the revi ew examines the programs compliance with assessment requirements, academic instructor certification, in-service training and the community involvement. The reviewers assess compliance with lesson plan requirements and the maintenance of grade books. Based on these findings the programs are rated by their level of performance and compliance with the program’s adherence to its policies and procedures. These scores are then used to determine an overall score. This report is published each year on the Departme nt of Juvenile Justice website ( http://www.djj.state.fl.us/Resear ch/statsnresearch/keystrends.html ). I used the 2004 QA report to determine the cases I intended to sample. I chose three schools that fell in the bottom third of the repo rted scores. Likewise, I chose three schools whose overall scores fell in the mid range a nd three schools that ha d overall scores that fell in the high range of scor es on the 2004 QA report. By using cases from schools with different performance rates, I was better ab le to identify outlying cases and explore

PAGE 46

36 situations that did no t meet my expectations (de Vaus 2001). These cases were chosen to reflect the fullness of the experience of teacher s working in the priva tized juvenile justice setting. I used ordinal data co llected and provided by the Depa rtment of Juvenile Justice to purposively select the cases that represen t a range of circumstances happening within the specific context of the private juvenile justice sett ing. The range of experiences and the in depth descriptions expressed by the re spondents offer the greatest opportunity for a thorough examination of the setting. The schools are considered units of analys is, with teachers as the embedded units within the cases (de Vaus 2001). Keeping in mind that these programs are generally small, community-based programs with rela tively few students, I worked with all teachers, or embedded units, from each school or case that I was able to visit. I collected data from twenty-seven teacher s from six different schools. There were three cases of unit non-response. The three sc hools chosen from the lower range of the QA scores are not in this study, not by design, because I was unable to collect data from these schools. This issue is discussed completely in the results section. Figure 2 denotes the six schools in which I gathered data and the 2004 overall QA score. The schools are coded with a number to maintain the respondents’ confidentiality. Table-3.1 2004 Quality Assurance Scores for Six Schools Operated by A.M.I. (Florida Department of Juvenile Justice) SCHOOL # 2004 OVERALL QA SCORE 1 68% 2 86% 3 *Deemed 4 81% 5 72% 6 74% *Deemed status means that in the previous review period the school performed at a 95% or better and did not receive a review this year.

PAGE 47

37 Instrumentation I administered both a self-completion questi onnaire and a structur ed oral interview designed specifically for this investigati on. The complete instrument is found in Appendix A. The self-completion questionnai re obtained demogra phic information as well as perceptual data as measured by s calar response questions. The questionnaire offers the respondent a range of choices a nd therefore measures the intensity of a response to variable (satisfaction) (Sullivan 2001). The closed answer response structure allows the researcher to aggregate ordinal data, which can have more statistical power than nominal data (Sullivan 2001). Also, a llowing respondents to answer questions on their own instead of to an in terviewer may produce less social desirability bias for some items (Fowler 1993). The respondents may feel a greater sense of anonymity and confidentiality when their an swers are written on an anonymous paper with reminders in the instructions that answers will be availa ble to the researchers only (Fowler 1993). The questions on the questionnaire were written in present te nse and grammatically agreed with the response cat egories (Fowler 1993). According to Fowler (1993), the researcher needs to ensure that questions directly relate to the concepts and i ndicators under consideration. Th erefore, the self-completion questionnaire I administered was organized in sections that correspond to the indicators I wish to measure. Each time a new secti on was introduced, an introduction statement was placed at the beginning. Additionally, new in structions appeared each time the format changed (from agree/disagree question to high/low questions to demographic questions) (Fowler 1993). In both the agree/disagree and the high/low sections, I provided four answer types, one extreme positive, one positive, one nega tive, and one extreme negative. Although

PAGE 48

38 many researchers provide five item responses (Fowler 1993), I chose to omit a “middle of the road” alternative. Converse and Presser (1986) suggest that to measure intensity, a questionnaire should force the person to deci de on his/her opinion. They further suggest providing gradations in intensity such as ve ry high, high, low, very low. Thus, you avoid losing information about the direc tion in which some people lean. Questions for the index were devised from variables outlined by two main researchers. Louis, et al (1996) outlined many variables to measure the main indicators of professional community. They state, “Wor king in concert, structural conditions, and human and social resources provide the foundations of pr ofessional community” (p.761). The researchers used shared norms and va lues, collective focus on student learning, collaboration among faculty, and reflective dialogue to measure school wide professional community. They also examined structur al conditions such as organizational environment, scheduled planning time, and teacher empowerment. Some of the human and social resources measured in their rese arch were supportive leadership, openness to innovation, respect, feedback on instruct ional performance, and professional development. I contacted the researchers and obtaine d permission to include some of the questions they developed on the instrument I developed. This proved to be a wise choice, as they had used this instrument on 910 pub lic school teachers. This was an indication that the items are valid and the questions provi de a reasonable estimation of the variables to be measured. I included questions about the teachers’ perceptions about a shared sense of purpose. I asked the teachers to rate their feelings about whether their colleagues share

PAGE 49

39 their beliefs and values about the mission of the school. The respondents were asked to rate the alignment of the administrati on and the teachers to a shared goal. I probed the teachers’ opportunity to colla borate with other teachers by asking them to rate their level of cooperat ion with other teachers and thei r efforts to coordinate course content. Additionally, I inquired about the fr equency of education meetings and shared planning meetings. The teachers were asked to describe how often they have received meaningful feed back from their peers and from administration. These questions probed the teachers’ professional re lationships. The presence of meaningful feedback about instructional practices is wide ly discussed in the literatur e as a mediating factor in professional isolationism. The schools that I planned to visit were very small. Ther e are usually only four or five teachers on the faculty at any one time. With this in mind, I did not use the measure of staffing complexity or of school size. I al so did not include quest ions about reflective dialogue on this instrument. To measure perceptions of administration re lationships, I asked teachers to rate the level of cooperation they received from th e administration. The teachers were asked to rate the level of responsiven ess of the administration. Addi tionally, the respondents were asked to indicate whether the communicati on between them and the administration was adequate. The teachers were asked to rate their perceptions of respect and decision making processes. I asked teachers to rate their level of agreement with the mission state through a series of questions. These questions asked the teachers to rate how the day to day operations of the school reflected the mission statement. The respondents were also asked

PAGE 50

40 to rate how closely their personal philosophy was aligned to the mission statement. One question asked the teachers to rate how clear the goals of the school were. To measure perceptions of the use of clea r and consistent policies and procedures, I asked teachers to rate whether resources ar e distributed in a fair way and whether financial incentives were awarded in a sy stematic way. The respondents were asked to rate their perceptions about how well the Qual ity Assurance scores reflect the quality of the school on a day-to-day basis. They were asked to rate how much they were personally motivated by the Quality Assurance process. Additionally the teachers were asked to rate their feelings about whether changes to policie s and procedures are re lated to the teaching staff in a timely manner. The structured interview gathered data a bout satisfaction relati ng to organizational justice and professional commun ity. The decision to include a section of open response format questions in the interview stemmed from two considerations. First, it allows for triangulation. Collecting the information in mo re than one format provides reiteration of that data collected. One of the ways to incr ease validity in subjective questions is to ask the same question in different forms (Fow ler 1993). Therefore, the open response questions approach the same indicators but us e slightly different wo rding and a different response format. Second, open response questions may more closely re veal the attitudes, opinions, and perceptions of the respondent s because they allow for unanticipated responses in the respondents’ own words (Fow ler 1993). Shacklock (1 998) argues for the necessity of gathering authentic portrayals of teachers’ work. He asserts that the true description of the complexity of the pr ofession can only be voiced by the teachers themselves. Shacklock argues that it is more productive for teachers to attend to the basic

PAGE 51

41 values of their own enterprise and to forge a professionalism distinctively suited to their ideals. Malm (2004 p. 412) states, “Tendencies to wards continuity or change in education depend to a great extent on the wa ys in which teachers are able to critically reflect about how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact essential in order to understand the forces that sway their motivations, something I believe to be of relevance and concern to all involved with teaching and educational processes.” The oral interview provides teachers a chance to freely comment on their experiences as a professional. They can describe factors that may contribute to satisfaction. Again, the questions have been designed to lead teachers through a thought process. The first question asks about sati sfaction and provides pr obes to the principal investigator to ensure thorough coverage of the subject. These questions also give teachers a chance to make suggestions for what would increase their levels of satisfaction. After having considered what contributes to satisfaction, their reflections might be more focused and revealing. These data will be analyzed according to the principles of grounded theory (discussed below) for trends in answers. Because of the nature of the research design, the data will no t be coded. It will, however, be examined for trends that occur in multiple teachers’ responses as well as nuggets that help to explain a phenomena in whole new ways. To measure perceptions of peer relations hips, I asked teachers to describe their working relationships with their peers. I aske d teachers to discuss th eir perceptions about their working relationships with the administ ration and how it impacts their performance

PAGE 52

42 in the classroom. The teachers were asked to discuss their feelings about the school’s mission statement and its impact on their performance as an educator. To measure overall satisfaction regarding these indicators, I asked teachers: 1) What would you describe as the most signifi cant factor in your d ecision to continue teaching at your school, 2) Describe the st rengths of your school and 3) Describe the weaknesses of your school. Appendix B disp lays the questions contained on the questionnaire and survey inst rument grouped into categories according to relevance to the intervening variables and their relation to professional community and organizational justice. Procedure Participants were recruited by contacti ng nine selected schools in a proximal geographical area and asking administrators for their cooperation in the research process. I asked teachers if they would be intere sted in participating. I interviewed all respondents, from each location. No m onetary compensation was offered. Willing teachers were contacted to schedule interviews at the work site. The interviews were scheduled at the teach ers’ convenience. In a pilot study on teacher satisfaction, I experienced several threats to internal validity because of sampling response issues. Sampling non-response can indicate bias if the reasons for non-response are somehow rela ted to the variables under consideration. In order to deal with this threat, I had to devise several ways to improve the response rate. I joined a professional orga nization, Correctional E ducators Association, in order to increase contacts and increase prof essional credibility. I obtained a letter from Secretary Schembri of the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice endorsing the research because this letter might help administrato rs and teachers understand that the research

PAGE 53

43 goal is to improve conditions for teachers and organizations – not point blame. One researcher created a one page flyer describing the research effort, its goals, and intent. I mailed and emailed the flyer to the schools. I contacted the Juvenile Justice Enhancement Project (JJEEP) to request a letter of endorsement. At the appointed time, respondents were prov ided with a letter of consent and given an introduction to the purpose of the resear ch. I advised the pa rticipants concerning consent, instructions on how to answer writ ten and oral questions, and the length of the interview. The participants were then given the self-comple tion questionnaire to complete. When the participants were finished, I began the oral interview, which lasted approximately 45 minutes. The names of th e respondents were not recorded on the instrument. I was the only person conducting inte rviews in order to protect the privacy of the participants. At the end of the interview, the participants were thanked and informed that the results of the research would be made available to them. Data Analysis I used a grounded theory epistemological approach to analyze the data from the open response items in the interview. According to Bryman (2001, p. 144), “Grounded theory has become by far the most widely us ed framework for analyz ing qualitative data. It has been defined as theory that has been derived from data that was systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process. In this me thod, data collection, analysis, and eventual theory stand in cl ose relationship to one another.” Data are analyzed as they are collected and what is learned in one se tting is used to enrich and enhance the data collection process itself. Throughout the data collection process, constant comparisons between and within ca ses need to be made. This is a dynamic,

PAGE 54

44 intuitive and creative process that involves inductive reasoning, cri tical self-examination, verification and theorizing. Verification is a process used in qualitative research that ensures reliability and validity. Verification techniques are interwoven in to every step of the research design and implementation process. It involves using the appropriate research design, instrumentation, sampling procedure, and identi fying and correcting design related issues as they arise in the inquiry process (Morse et al., 2002). In the data collection phase, the data was transcribed from the interviews w ith the help of another researcher and an assistant. The responses from the interviews were carefully examined and discussed with the other researchers to determine which data was relevant. The data was organized into cohesive units and a matrix was created. This matrix sorted the data into categories corresponding to variables under consideration. The other researcher and I independently examined the data organized in the matrix and identified themes. We met again and consistent themes were then agreed upon a nd reviewed for their interrelationships. This process provided an opportunity to minimize personal bias and subjectivity and to improve reliability and validity. Re liability was increased by having the data examined multiple times by different researchers. This was done through discussion and in written form. Extensive quotes were also included to enhanc e validity. Validity was increased through the process of triangulati on. The triangulation process involved the use of various data sources, researchers and me thods to investigate the same phenomenon. The goal of much case study data analys is, according to de Vaus (2001), is theoretical generalizatio n, not statistical generalization. Anal ytical inductive strategies are used to help explain indicator s of causality. Statistical an alyses are not useful when

PAGE 55

45 sample size is small, and often not when sample selection is purposive. Instead, the iterative, inductive approach to data analysis is used to identify the categories, relationships and assumptions that inform th e respondents’ view of the world in general and of the research topic in particular. This approach resp ects the complexity, subtlety and detail of human transactions. Know ing how many people feel positively or negatively about something was not the intention of this por tion of the research. Rather the intent was to ascertain how teachers feel and why they feel that way. This provides an in-depth understanding not easily captured by numbers, percen tages or statistical tests (Basit 2003).

PAGE 56

46 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There were three incidences of unit non-response. The di rector at one school did not respond to repeated attempts to schedule the interviews. Anothe r school lost their contract with the local school board and was closed completely. The third episode of nonresponse occurred because the sc hool’s faculty had dwindled to one certified teacher and one vocational teacher. The certified teacher was out sick the day I visited the school. Attempts to reschedule failed. I had identified these three schools to include in the study because the results of the 2004 QA report indi cated they were low performing schools. The QA scores ranked them in the lower third of all of the AMI school s. The fact that I cannot include any data from these schools in my research is a limiting factor. The absence of this data means that I am una ble to include information, experiences, and insights from teachers who were working at these low rated schools. My research does not reflect their feelings or thoughts. The complete effect of the non-response on the validity of the study is unknown however, because I learned nothing about the nonrespondents and their experien ces. Although, not by design, my research is based on the experiences of the teachers in the middle ra nge and the high range of private juvenile justice programs operated by AMI in Florida. Table 3.1 (contained in the previous chap ter) has a chart iden tifying the schools from which data was collected and their sc ores from the 2004 QA repor t. I collected data from 27 teachers at six different schools. Th e results and discussion that follow are based

PAGE 57

47 on this data. Table 4.1 displays a socio-demographic description of the analysis of teachers that participated in this project. Table 4–1 A Socio-demographic Analysis of Respondents (n=27) who Participated in Research Project on Teacher Satisfacti on in Privatized Juvenile Justice Programs Contracted by the Florida De partment of Juvenile Justice, 2005 Race 17 White 1 Hispanic 5 Black 2 Other 2 Unknown Gender 15 Males 11 Females Level of Education 17 B.S. 7 M.S. 2 Ph.D. Current Annual Salary 1 $20,000 $25,000 18 $25,001 $30,000 6 $30,001 $35,000 1 $35,001 + I measured professional community and or ganizational justice through a series of questions about their perceptions of conditi ons in the workplace. Table 4.2 shows the teachers’ responses to the five measures of professional community and organizational justice, grouped by school. The table shows the mean for each category for each school and the mean of all values form each category for each school is also shown. A four indicates strongly agree, a thre e means agreement, a two signifies disagreement and a one denotes strong disagreement. Agreement repr esents a positive opini on about the issue. Disagreement signifies a conflict. The overa ll mean of each school was derived by adding the scores to all questions.

PAGE 58

48Table 4-2 Individual and Composite Mean Scor es of Teacher Ratings of Six Factors Aff ecting Teacher Satisfaction in Six Privatiz ed Schools Contracted by the Florida Depa rtment of Juvenile Justice, 2005 SCHOOL # TEACHER WORKING RELATIONSHIPS POLICIES & PROCEDURES INTERACTIONS WITH ADMINISTRATORS SCHOOL MISSION STATEMENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES JOB SATISFACTION SCHOOL COMPOSITE MEAN 1 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 2 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.2 3 3.0 3.1 2.2 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.8 4 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0 5 3.3 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.9 6 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4 COMPOSITE MEAN 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.9 3.0

PAGE 59

49 Hypothesis 1: I expect that the most positiv e component of the teachers’ job to be the student/teacher relationship. The responses show the teachers felt mo st positively about the school’s mission statement. Teachers at four of the schools felt most positive about this variable. They indicated that they agreed with the mission statement and that they felt as though it contributed to their feelings of satisfacti on in the workplace. This finding supports the theory that teachers chose the t eaching profession because they want to contribute to their community through their work with the youth. This finding supports my hypothesis that teachers derive the highest level of job sa tisfaction from their work with the youth. Hypothesis 2: I expect that pe er relationships will have a mediating effect upon teachers’ level of job satisfaction. Responses about the teachers working re lationships with other teachers also indicated agreement. The teachers rated this ar ea second highest. They indicated that they feel positively about their peer relationships. These peer rela tionships contribute to their feelings of job satisfaction. This finding supports my hypothesis that the teachers’ working relationships with their peers would be a positive influence on their feelings of job satisfaction. The use of consistent policies and pro cedures was also rated as a positive condition by the teachers. They indicated that the use of cons istent policies and procedures contributed to thei r feelings of job satisfacti on. This finding is interesting when considering how the respondent s rated the next two areas. The teachers gave the lowest marks to thei r interactions with administrators and with the strategies of the management. Th e teachers indicated that these two areas

PAGE 60

50 contributed to feelings of disagreement and dissatisfac tion with their job. These two categories of questions examined issues su ch as shared decision making, respect from administrators, professional development, and feedback on instructional practice. There is almost a full point difference between the composite mean scores reported by the schools. Teachers at school 6 reported the highest level of job satisfaction. Teachers at schools 2 and 5 scor es indicate an agr eeable level of job satisfaction. While school 1 and 3 reported le ss than positive level of job satisfaction. These findings support my hypothesis that teac hers will feel most positive about the student/teacher and teac her/teacher relationships; however, these positive aspects of their job are not enough to sustain feel ings of job satisfaction. Their levels of job satisfaction will diminish if the teachers do not receive ad equate support from administrators, respect and they are not given feedback on instru ctional performance. Additionally, when management practices are perceived as fair and consistent, teach ers will experience a lower level of job satisfaction. These findi ngs support my hypothesis that teachers’ positive perceptions about their working relationships with the students and peers will insufficient to mediate the negative feelings caused due to the lack of indicators of professional community and organizational justice. One of the most interesting results of my research is the disparity that exists between the results from the self completion questionnaires and thos e of the interviews. The results of the two just do not agree. The same respondents who indicate that they have a good relationship with th e administration on the questi onnaire disclose details in the interview that de scribe unfair treatment of the staff by the administration.

PAGE 61

51 I turned to the existing research literature to help me better u nderstand this phenomenon. Sommer and Sommer (1986, p.157) write, “Interviews are pa rticularly useful for exploring complex and emotiona lly arousing topics. They can be used to explore beliefs, opinions, and personal experiences An interview gives peop le the opportunity to tell their stories in their own words. It can provide a release fo r pent-up feelings and can be empowering as it recognizes pe ople as experts on their own experiences. A further advantage of the interview is that people who may be unwilling or unable to write out a long, coherent answer are often willi ng to say it to an interviewer.” I believe that the discrepancy in the results is a consequence of fear of reprisal from administration. It is less intimidating to verbalize something than to put it in writing. It is safer to say wh at you think and feel than to commit it in writing. At the beginning of each interview, after I had inform ed the subject that th e interview would be confidential, the teachers would again ask if what they were going to write or say would be passed on to their superiors. They would often ask for reassurance of their confidentiality again at the star t of the structured interview, and again as they were going to disclose some information that could be interpreted as negative about the working environment. Once I had gained their trus t, it was if a floodgate had opened. Their thoughts, feelings and insights about their experiences as a teacher rushed forth, creating a rich body of data. Kvale (1996) uses the metaphor of a miner for the interviewer. This model assumes that the subject has sp ecific information and that the interviewer’s job is to dig it out. Narrative inquiry encourages reflection. It captures the nature of beliefs, thoughts and practices. In this study, the structured interview gave the interviewer an opportunity

PAGE 62

52 to ask questions that encouraged the responde nt to describe their experiences in more depth. The process became thought provoking. Ov erall, I place greate r confidence in the data from the interviews than those from th e questionnaires. The more the teachers talked the more they thought of to talk about. They identified experiences in their professional lives that describe and qualify the work of a teacher in a private juve nile justice program. These narratives can provide insight into the events that form their professional knowledge. Reflecting collaboratively on the stories and their lessons can provide understanding of how teachers make sense of th eir experiences and incorporate them into their personal practical knowledge. Shari ng stories and lessons among teachers can further build a sense of community, reduce the isolation so endemic to teaching, and encourage teachers to see themselves as inte ntional practitioners integrating skill and art into their practice. Professional Community Hypothesis 3: I predict that when the indi cators of professional community are not present in the workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction. Shared Sense of Purpose A shared sense of purpose is characte rized by a belief in common values and expectations. The focus is on student lear ning in a school community. Members of the school community reinforce these common values and beliefs through language, instruction, and personal inter action among staff, and the st aff’s interaction with the students. The focus on student learning crea tes an opportunity for students to succeed academically. Additionally, the concentration on academic achievement provides teachers with the opportunity to fulfill their professional mission. Teachers want to teach.

PAGE 63

53 A professional community values and s upports this mission by promoting a school culture that expects kids to learn and teachers to teach. The mission statement in any organization provides the ethos fo r that organization. AMI schools are guided by the company’s mission statement. The teachers were asked to describe their feelings about the influence of the mission statement on their ability to perform as a teacher. Many of the teachers I interviewed expressed a strong affinity to AMI’s mission statement. Teachers at school 1 report an affinity for the mission statement. They state, “I believe in it, but it is not be ing put into action.” The responde nts from school 2 described the mission statement as a “goalpost, it’s wh at we do.” At school 3, the teachers report, “It makes the biggest difference.” The teachers from schools 4 and 5 gave similar responses. The faculty at school 6 seems to ha ve a remarkable allegiance to the mission statement. They described the mission statemen t as permeating their day. They stated that the staff and students recite it together several times throughout the day. They stated that it helps the teachers st ay on track and reminds them of their purpose throughout the day. The teachers indicated that the mission statement is used to reinforce positive behavior among the students. One teacher said, “It re flects my goals for being a teacher.” The teachers I met during this research pr oject spoke about their goals for being a teacher and their dedication to the youth in th eir care. They explained that teaching these youths was of great importance to them. Th e teachers described the fulfillment and rewards of working with these hard to reac h youths. They expressed appreciation for the opportunity to impact a youth’s life.

PAGE 64

54 The teachers’ responses were consistent w ith the research described in the in the literature. The teachers reported that their gr eatest motivation was their work with the youths. Several teachers made comments like, “The relationships with the kids are the whole core of this.” Another teacher told this story, “At the last graduation, seven students thanked me for helping them get th eir GED. I would be happy with just one thank you a year…but seven kids a ttributed their success to me. That is the real reason I want to be a teacher…to hear kids say thank you.” All but tw o of the teachers reported positive relationships with the students and a feeling of satisfaction with this part of their job. However, several teachers expressed concern about the lack of focus on academic achievement at their school. One of the teach ers expressed his concern in this anecdote. “The executive director is not an educator He does not understand the nuances of the educational process. When he walks down the hall, he just has a knee jerk reaction to something. He doesn’t inquire about the educa tional aspect of the situation. He doesn’t even understand kids. He was a professional athl ete and he just thinks kids should just do what they are told. He really does not unders tand these kids at all. Academics are not priority. On a scale from 1 to 10, academics are number 9. This is frustrating and worrisome. What will happen to these kids without an education?” Other teachers voiced similar concerns about the emphasis placed on student learning at their school. Severa l discussed the fact that students were pulled from their classes without prior notificati on without a system in place for the student to make up the class time. The teachers were unable to point to the process in place that created the situation. One respondent stated, “How can I te ach a child that is not in the classroom?”

PAGE 65

55 One teacher reported, “Teaching is pushed to th e side. The administration doesn’t care if teaching is done.” Other teachers reported that academic instruction was impeded by constant interruptions from noise from th e walkie talkies and support staff addressing issues like dress code during instructional tim e. One teacher stated, “The administration is more concerned about the boats and marine activities than they were about educating the kids.” Another stated, “AMI has given up on these kids.” Other teachers reported that the students in one class are at varying levels of capability. This requires that the teacher prepare several different lesson plans for one cl ass. This places extra stress on the teacher and gives less time to direct instruction. A recurring positive comment was about the flexibility and autonomy the teachers were able to exercise in the classrooms They reported that hands-on learning is encouraged. One teacher reported that he teach es surfing and that was a really great way to kids involved. Another reporte d that he was able to build models with the students and this was a way to reinforce teamwork, r eading and following directions. One of the teachers said, “They allow me to approach t eaching in my own way. They respect the fact that I am an adult and that I know why I am here. I am given the leeway to try different things.” Another teacher stated that they felt as though the school went above and beyond in funding field trips. A teacher in an other school described taking students on a snorkeling trip to the Florida Keys, a trip to the capital, and taking the kids to a statewide Olympic meet. She felt these were all posit ive, learning opportunitie s for the students. She indicated that opportunities like these we re one of the reasons she liked working in that school, and continued opportunities like th is would influence her decision to stay working there.

PAGE 66

56 A sense of shared vision is an integral component of any community. In the school community, developing a shared meaning or vision can create a foundation that is inspiring to the educator. A re lated contribution of the commun ity is that of providing the interactive locus of the emergence of the se lf (Wilkinson 1991). This contributes to the professional self. This shared vision provides consistency and structure for the youths, as well. The youths may find the coherence that was prev iously lacking in th eir lives through the positive interaction of the staff. The interaction and shared vision provide a locus of control. It is a function of community. Membership in communities is the primary way in which socialization of wants and needs happens (Strike 2004). The interaction of the staff provides a model of behavior for the youths. Community begins in learning the norms of those who care fo r and about us, and ends in caring for and about those whos e norms we share. People be gin to internalize the norms of communities because someone cares about them. Normation begins with caring and belonging, not with reasoning and not with nature. The community’s focus on student learning creates the expecta tion of academic achievement and of personal success. The teachers interviewed during this resear ch project appear to share the common goals and values for student learning. They identify with the school’s mission statement and believe that adherence to it will help them succeed as teachers and help their students succeed in the classroom and in the community at large. However, some of the teachers also express disappointment about how their school puts this mission statement into action. They say when the school does not stay focused on its mission of student learning, that their ability to perform as an educator is compromised. The teachers I interviewed

PAGE 67

57 indicate that they have a st rong affinity to the mission stat ement but dissatisfaction with the degree to which daily practice actually reflects it. The mission statement serves as a blue pr int for an organization’s shared vision. When teachers perceived that the vision and th e goals of the school were clearly shared philosophically and in day to day operations, they expr essed a high level of job satisfaction. They reported that they were mo tivated and better able to perform in the classroom. They expressed commitment to th e school and their intent to stay at the school. The positive impact of a common goal wa s expressed by the majority of teachers at two of the schools I visited. However, when the tenets of the statement were not adhered to, when the vision was blurred through inconsiste nt practices, teachers expr essed a low level of job satisfaction. They expressed frustration and di scontentment due to shifting of policies caused by unclear goals and practices that did not adhere to the mission statement. These teachers reported that dissatisfaction and an inability to trust the organization. These teachers discussed their disappointment because when the mission is not adhered to it means that the students are not receiving the ed ucational services they need and deserve. A shared vision appears to have an impact on the job satisfaction of teachers in juvenile justice programs. This indicates th at this component of professional community is important in juvenile justice settings just as it is in public school settings. However, these findings indicate that this element of professional community is lacking in most of the settings that I visited. Most of the t eachers I interviewed felt as though the education was not valued. They were not able to provide the quality of educational services that the students needed and deserved. Consequently, they felt devalued as professionals which

PAGE 68

58 diminished their levels of job satisfaction. This finding supports my hypothesis that when this indicator of professional community is not present teachers feel less job satisfaction. It is important to teachers to be able to t each in an environment that focuses on student achievement and when this goal is not upheld by the school culture teachers become frustrated and dissatisfied. The teachers at sc hool 2 reported that their school had a clear mission. The average length of employment of the teaching staff was three years. Their teachers had been there the longest and they planned to stay. Structural Conditions Structural conditions such as shared planning time, shared decision making, and adherence to school policy and procedures are important components of a professional community. Allocation of resources in a sc hool affects the teac her’s instructional performance. Structural condi tions are features in a school community that provide the framework for the day to da y operations of the school. The allocation of resources in these sc hools was inconsistent with information found in the literature about the lack of funding availabl e to schools with primarily minority, low achieving students. Teachers at sc hools 2-6 all reported that they had the supplies they needed. The teachers made commen ts like, “I have everything I need, I get everything I ask for, and I am never told no.” One teacher indicated that the executive director’s generous allocation of funds showed that he was 100 percent for education. One teacher reported that he can get anyt hing for the students however supplies that teachers need are not readily available. However, there were some important di fferences. Teachers at school 1 reported a dismal picture of resource allocation. One teacher put it like this, “Supplies are whatever you can find. There are not enough textbooks and the ones we have are way out of date,

PAGE 69

59 second hand, and the wrong grade level. This pu ts a terrific strain on teachers. We have to make extra copies just to have en ough to go around. It is very frustrating.” All teachers at all schools were in agreed about salary. They all agreed that the salary was “terrible, $10,000.00 less than at public school. And we work year round.” A teacher pointed out that they also work 45 more days than public school teachers. Another consistent theme expressed by th e teachers at all of the schools was not having planning periods, lunch breaks or bath room breaks. Most of the teachers are required to supervise their students during lunc h. Since the students must stay in constant supervision a teacher must request coverage fr om another staff person in order to use the restroom. The lack of planning time a nd lunch breaks was a major issue among the teachers I interviewed. They reported that they were with the students from 9:00 am until 5:00 pm, without a break. A teacher said it like this, “Being on for that long is exhausting…mentally, physically, and emoti onally. It takes away from my overall performance as a teacher. Any preparati on I do, I have to do on my own time.” The teachers referred to the lack of planning time as an impediment in their ability to build collegiate support. One of the teacher s said, “The lack of planning time limits the amount of time we teachers have to discuss in structional issues informally. This does not allow us to grow professionally.” Another question probed the use of consistent policies and procedures. Overall, most teachers reported that there was inconsiste ncy in this area. One teacher referred to the way the inconsistency affected his ability to teach, “The policies are not consistent which makes it really hard to implement rule s and to run a classroom.” Another described his school’s policies and procedures like th is, “They look very good on paper. In reality,

PAGE 70

60 there are some lapses. In the morning meeti ng we’re instructed to do something, but then the decision is changed and we don’t know a nything about it. The kids play on this inconsistency. I am confused about some ru les because they are unclear. I end up not being able to make some simple decisions be cause the rules change instantly. Like we are told not to let the students use the restroom during class but then the team leader will let them.” At another school, a teacher described a si milar situation. She reported that during the morning meeting there will be a decision made, but by lunchtime this decision will be changed. Why and who changed it will not be communicated. What is clear to her is that none of the teachers had input into the cha nge, because the teachers were with the students in class. This teacher reported that, “This type of inconsistency diminishes the integrity of the whole school. It is a slap in the face to us teachers… because nine out of ten times we are the ones who will implement the decision, because we are the ones who actually work with the kids. This kind of management causes confusion among the staff and the students.” Comparable circumstances were describe d by a teacher at another school. These teachers reported that they are responsible fo r supervision of the students. Students in DJJ programs must be in the sight of staff at all times. This means a student can not have a bathroom pass or a hall pass, or can a teacher ju st step out of the room for a minute. This means that they are very busy and often not co nsulted about potential changes in policies and procedures that they are asked to impl ement. And like the ot her two schools, these changes are made while the te achers are teaching and “on the fly.” This teacher reported that this practice “causes disruption and a chaotic climate on the campus and an element

PAGE 71

61 of mistrust between the teaching staff and th e administration.” Teacher s from four of the schools mentioned the inconsistency as a wea kness of their school. On e teacher described it as the biggest weakness at his school. The majority of respondents th at participated in this study reported dissatisfaction in these indicators of prof essional community. The lack of adherence to policy and procedures create confusion and impair the teach ers’ ability to perfor m in the classroom. Peer collaboration is made difficult due to the lack of planning periods, inconsistent faculty meetings, and the amount of time they spend directly supervising the students. However, teachers at five of the schools did report that they have more than adequate financial resources that enable them to get the necessary instructional supplies to operate their classrooms. The findings of this research support the theory that structur al conditions impact the level of job satisfaction among teachers in ju venile justice settings in much the same way as they do in public educational sett ings. When teachers reported the use of consistent policies and procedures they re ported a higher level of job satisfaction and commitment to the job. They also reporte d that they felt more competent in the classroom. The majority teachers at one of the schools I interviewed felt as though these conditions were not present in their school. When teachers reported that they could not rely on consistent policies and procedures th ey reported distrust of the organization and inability to commit to the organization. They reported a low level of job satisfaction when the structural conditions do not contri bute to a professional community. Consider the average length of employment four of th e schools was a year. This further supports

PAGE 72

62 the theory that when teachers are dissatisfied they do not stay at that school creating a high level of teacher turnover. Human and Social Resources Human and social resources are the feat ures of professional community like administrative support or supporti ve leadership, mutual respect feedback on instructional performance and professional development. Supportive l eadership is crucial in developing and sustaining profe ssional community. Leaders id entify and reward actions that promote the mission of the school. They ar e the “keepers of the vision.” Respect is the honoring of the expertise a nd value of others. Respect va lidates the members of the community. Feedback on instructional perf ormance provides teachers with essential information about their instructional practi ces. This critique provides substance for a teacher’s sense of efficacy and commitme nt to teaching. Professional development grounds a teacher to broader community of educ ators. This process encourages personal and professional growth (Loui s, Marks, & Kruse, 1996). Responses were very mixed. At school 2, the teachers report that they do have adequate support. They spoke of the admi nistration’s effective and careful hiring practices. They report that this has had a positive influence on teacher retention. One teacher mentioned that she gets the support she needs to be creative and to do things without obstacles in her clas sroom. The teachers at school 3 report hat there has been a lot of turnover in the admini stration causing a disruption in the organization. Four of the teachers there mentioned a lack of clear communication from the administration. Teachers from schools 4, 5, and 6 expressed co ncerns about unequal treatment of staff by the administration, not being treated as profe ssionals, and the recurring theme of no lunch breaks, planning time, and no time away from the students during the day. A teacher at

PAGE 73

63 school 1 described that admini stration there as “being in a bubble.” Another teacher at that school reported that, “The administrato rs act interested un til I bring up a real concern. Then they don’t want to listen a nd they certainly don’t respond with an appropriate action.” The teach ers at school 1 also repor t a lack of feedback on instructional performance from the admini stration. One teacher made this comment, “They don’t give feedback. I am given autonomy in my class, but I really don’t know if I am doing the right thing. This diminishes my performance.” The respondents also gave a variety of answers when asked about promotion of professional development through policies and procedures. Teachers at school 2 consistently gave their school high mark s. Teachers at school 4 reported similar circumstances. A teacher stated, “The director of education does a great job keeping us in line; the school pays for cer tification and classes.” Commen ts from teachers at school 6 reflected a positive climate for professional development. The teachers remarked that most of the teachers were currently pursui ng further education and that the school was providing tuition assistance. They reported that they had regu lar education meetings that were “very professional.” They indicated that they were informed and encouraged to attend trainings held thr ough the local school board. Teachers at school 3 reported that they were compensated for costs related to certification and that AMI offers various training opportunities, however, they had education meetings on an inconsistent basis. Teachers at school 5 reported that most of the monthly trainings focus on DJJ requirement s. One teacher reported that, “This school is out of the loop. We don’t get memos about trainings. We have to aggressively find it. And, then our training days do not coincide with the school boards days. So it is hard for

PAGE 74

64 us to earn points toward recer tification.” The teachers at sc hool 1 consistently reported a deficit in this area. One teacher stated, “There are monthly trainings but they are only lip service. They are lackluster and have no real value to us teachers.” There was variation not only among school s, but among staff members within a school. The answers given by teachers in the sa me school make it seem like they are not describing the same school. These comments from two different teachers at the same school regarding how the school is preparing to meet the standards set by the No Child Left Behind Act provide an example. One t eacher reports that, “The administration is doing everything they need to do; they ar e following every guideline to a T.” While another teacher at the same school stated, “They have never really discussed it.” The teachers at schools 1 and 3 consistently repor ted that they were unaware of what the school was doing to prepare to meet the specif ications of the law. The teachers at those schools also reported that they did not know wh at they needed to do as individuals to prepare professionally to be in compliance with the law. Several teachers reported that they wanted to know more about the act. One teacher stated that they had mostly learned about it from reading the newspaper. Teachers at schools 2, 5, 4, and 6 reported that their schoo ls were making efforts to ensure that the teachers were teaching within their subject area. Several teachers repo rted that they were taking extra classes. One teacher reported that she was working on obtaining the reading endorsement certificate. Dissatisfaction with the No Child Left Behind Act was expressed by several teachers at the different school s. Their comments were: “The law has handcuffed us. There are some brilliant teachers who are not qualified under that act so they are no

PAGE 75

65 longer allowed to work here. This is a lo ss for the faculty and most of all for the students.” Another teacher called the act an “under funded joke.” Several teachers referred to the kids in their schoo l as “the children left behind.” The teachers were also asked to discu ss teacher turnover at their school. The teachers at school 2 described th e director as “human and co mfortable”, as a contributor to the fact that the low turnover rate at that school. The average length of employment was almost three years at school 2. Table 4.3 shows the mean length of employment at each school. Teachers at schools 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 described the turnover as high. The teachers’ average length of stay was about a one year for the other schools except for one. School 1’s teachers reported an average le ngth of employment of five months. The teachers were also asked to discuss how the administration motivated teachers. This question was designed to illuminate pr actices in the school that would encourage teachers to develop as professionals. Another question aimed at discovering administrative action was one that asked a bout ways the administration encourages teacher retention. The responses from the t eachers indicated that these subjects were closely related in their minds. The actions an administration takes to motivate teachers correspond strongly to the actions th ey take to retain teachers. The teachers at school 2 described a huma nistic approach to training and the recognition from the administration that th e teachers are doing a good job. Teachers at schools 5 and 6 discussed financial incentives and bonuses as being used as motivation to stay at that school. At school 1 all of the respondents indicated th at the administration does nothing at all. Teachers at schools 3 and 4 responded similarly.

PAGE 76

66 The findings of this research support the theory that human and social conditions contribute to job satisfaction among teacher s in juvenile justice programs. The components of professional community have an impact on the level of job satisfaction experienced by teachers in this setting. The findings support the hypothesis that teachers derive the greatest satisfacti on from their work with their students and secondly from their working relationships with their peers. However, the overall level of job satisfaction is diminished by inadequate support from th e administration. Teachers feel conflicted. They love the kids, they like their coworker s, but, they do not feel as though they have the support they need to do their job. This c ontributes to feelings of frustration and alienation. Most teachers do not stay long in this working environment. Teachers like other professionals thrive in an environment where their work is valued and respected. Teachers, unlike many other professionals, c hoose their career because they want to contribute to their community and society. However, when they feel as though their efforts are thwarted and devalu ed, they feel as though they mu st forsake their convictions and move elsewhere. The teachers at school 2 st and alone in their conviction to remain at that school. They repeatedly indicated that th ey had the support from each other and the administration to do their jobs. Professiona l development is encouraged and supported. These findings support the hypothesis that when the human and social conditions support professional community teachers experience a hi gher level of job satisfaction. Figure 4.1 demonstrates the mean length of employment for each school that participated in the study.

PAGE 77

67 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 123456 SCHOOLYEARS Figure 4-1 Mean Length of Employment pe r Individual School of Teachers in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the Flor ida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005 Organizational Justice Hypothesis 4: I predict that wh en the indicators of organizat ional justice ar e not present in the workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction. Organizational justice is a theory used to examine how clear, consistent, transparent policies and procedures are implemented to ensure individuals r eceive fair and equal treatment. In the study by Laschinger and Fi negan (2005) the effects of organizational justice on the turnover rate in the nursing profession were examined. They found that the nurses’ perceptions of fair management practi ces, feelings of respec tful treatment by the management, and trust in the management im pacted their level of job satisfaction and commitment. They found that these conditions buffered feelings of burnout and stress and contributed to the promotion of professional practice among the nurses. I used this theory of organizational justic e to examine the working conditions of the teachers in the juvenile justice programs. I propose that this theoretical construct correlates to that of profe ssional community. Professional co mmunity cannot be fostered

PAGE 78

68 without consistent policies and procedures or fair and equal treatment of the individuals in the community. Most of the comments previously discusse d refer to policies and procedures in general. Some of the teachers also described procedures that affected them personally and professionally, such as inconsis tent use of employee incentives, inconsistent treatment of employees, and inconsistent salary advances. Others reported that they were not given evaluations on a consistent, timely basis. Th e questions regarding th e use of consistent policies and procedures were de signed to evaluate the pres ence of organizational justice within the school. As before re sponses varied from school to school and within schools. When asked directly to describe the impact of organizational justice on their performance, organizational justice was ra nked as high among teach ers at school 4. One teacher commented, “It is very high, it is on e of the reasons I stay.” At school 2, the teachers report, “We have all the way thr ough to the kids. Respect begets respect.” Teachers at school 3 report that there is not a lot of positive feedback; however, everyone is treated fairly. At school 5, teacher repor ted, “I was very successf ul but that rapidly went away. My enthusiasm fizzled because I am not treated as a professional.” The teachers at school 1 reported th at the lack of it “saps my motivation and means I am often frustrated and don’t know what is going on.” The teachers at school 6 described a situa tion that involves all the elements of organizational justice. This situation unfolded during the di fferent interviews with the staff. One of the teachers I interviewed remark ed that he did not feel as though employees received equal and fair treatment. He describe d a contest that was initiated by a manager. This contest was for homeroom of the month. The prize was a $1000 for the teacher

PAGE 79

69 whose class won. The teacher reported that he was highly motivated and that he was really proud of his class’s performance. He st ated that he thought he won, but, at the end of the month the winner was never announced. The contest was never discussed again. The program disappeared without a trace. The teacher described his frustration and disappointment: “The absence of justice take s away from the students because you can’t serve them in the same way because you do not feel valued.” During the final interview of the day at that school, another teacher disclosed to me that he did not feel as though a ll teachers were treated equally or fairly. He reported that he was treated well, but that it bothered him that the other t eachers did not get the same level of respect. He then desc ribed the very same contest, for homeroom of the month. He discussed it as a way to describe employ ee incentives. He had w on the $1000 reward for the homeroom of the month. The award was ma de in private and not communicated to the rest of the staff. It seemed apparent that this school does not always have transparent procedures or treat the staff in fair and predictable ways. This had a negative effect on level of job satisfaction experienced by both of teachers; the recipient of the incentive and the one that was excluded. This example illustrate s how organizational justice impacts job satisfaction. This is also evidenced in comments ma de by other teachers at other schools. “Administration does not enforce policies equa lly.” “The rules change instantly.” “We are not consulted about procedures that we have to implement.” “Management has meetings behind closed doors and don’t tell us what is going on.” “The executive director is leaving. We all know it but it is a secret.”

PAGE 80

70 Does the presence of organizational justice have an effect on the rate of teacher turnover in these schools? Tables 4.3 and 4.4 show a graphic re presentation of the information gathered in this study. Table 4.4 shows the length of employment in six month increments across the entire sample. Table 4.3 shows the average length of employment per school. The study published by Ingersoll (2002) s poke of the alarming rate of teacher turnov er in public schools. He reported that 30 to 50 percent of the teachers entering the field leave within the fi rst five years. Clearly the teacher turnover rate in the privatized juven ile justice programs I studied doe s not follow the same pattern. However, it does support the hypotheses that te achers experience a lower level of job satisfaction when they do not feel as though everyone is receiving fair and equal treatment. The majority of the teachers in fi ve of the schools did not feel as though they were treated fairly. These schools reported a hi gh rate of teacher turnover. Teachers at school 1 consistently reported inconsistencie s in adherence to po licies and procedures and unfair practices. Their turnover rate wa s the highest among th e schools I visited. Figure 4-2 displays the length of employment measured in six month increments of the teachers who participated in the study. 0 2 4 6 8 10 0-6712 1318 1924 2530 3136 3742 4348 4954 5560 TIME PERIOD ( MONTHS ) # OF TEACHERS Figure 4-2 Length of Employment Measured in Six Month Increments of Teachers in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the Flor ida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005

PAGE 81

71 Privatization Could the fact that these schools are operated by a private company have an influence on the presence of professional community and organizational justice? Are some of the situations previously described an indication of the di sruption of traditional agreements, the disordering of tradition de scribed by Clarke (2004)? He also cautions that there could be a disp ersal of decision making aut hority and new problems of regulation. Currently, there is an inves tigation into misuse of f unds, cronyism, and nepotism in the state prison system in Florida. The sordid details are revealed to the general public in the newspaper, on television, and on the radio. The public is aware of just exactly whose relatives were on the payroll, how much they were paid, and what their qualifications were. Corruption happens. It happens at the nati onal, state, and local levels. It happens in government agencies and in private ones. Pe rhaps the difference is that when it is happens in a government agency the public ha s the right to know all about it. Does having the affairs of an agency under the sc rutiny of the public ey e lessen the temptation to abuse and misuse the power of authority ? Does public scrutiny encourage honesty and quality of service and de ter inappropriate actions? A story told by one of the teachers I in terviewed causes one to pause and consider this very question. The story involves a school vehicle, a ma nager, and a bit of intrigue. One Monday morning a manager did not come to work. There was no explanation about his absence. And on the same day, the school’s van was also absent. Several days passed and still there was no van, no manager, a nd no explanation about his absence. The rumors around the school were plentifu l and colorful. The students had several theories. Their presumptions were driven by the circumstances that had been involved in

PAGE 82

72 this employee’s two previous extended ab sences. This employee had been suspended twice while the Department of Children and Families investigated allegations of abuse against him. The employee never returned a nd the staff was never told why he and the van disappeared at the same time. The mana gers at the school refused to discuss the situation. However, a teacher from another scho ol told this teacher that the employee was driving the van while intoxicated and got in to an accident. Soon all the students knew it. The staff knew it, but there was no discussion of the incident. The secrecy spawned even more rumors, th at he was involved romantically with another manager, for example, another was that a manager was mishandling funds and giving this employee monies se t aside for the students’ activities. Mistrust of the administration grew, and with it a sense of alienation between the faculty and the administration. From this teacher’s perspec tive, the lack of communication from the administration about the incident demonstrated a lack of trust by the administration for the faculty. This behavior of the manager who used the school van for personal reasons while intoxicated is unacceptable, if true. Truth be told, a person working for any agency, public or private could make such a terrible judgment call. However, when this kind of mishap occurs in the public sector there are pr ocedures in place to deal with the situation. The situation was not just a bout the employee and the van. It truly affected everyone at the school. It caused a disruption upset at the school and the other manager’s personal decision to sweep the issue under the rug left the school shrouded in mystery. This decision disrupted the delivery of service to the constituents. However, the constituents, the public, or the consumers, th e students were not given an opportunity to

PAGE 83

73 address the situation. Due to the dispersal of accountability there was no structure present that could process the concerns of those in immediate contac t with the situation. Those of us outside the circle of cont act are still affected. This pr ogram is entrusted to provide service to some of the neediest members of our society. The manager is an employee of the public sector because he is the executor of the contract this company has with the state. However, due to the dispersal of accountability his and those of his employee remain out of the purview of the public. Is this for the public good? The findings of my research indicate that the presence of pr ofessional community and organizational justice has a profound e ffect on the level of job satisfaction experienced by teachers in juvenile justic e programs. Unfortunately, most of the indicators of professional community and organizational justice are lacking in the majority of the juvenile justice programs surv eyed in this study. Where there was a lack of professional community and organizational justice there was also a high level of dissatisfaction among the teachers. Where ther e was a high level of dissatisfaction, there was also a high level of teacher attrition and reported intent to leave. These findings are consistent with those found in research lit erature. Figure 4.5 repr esents a graphical display of the intervening va riables and their relationships that I propose influence the conditions in the workplace of teachers in private juvenile justice settings.

PAGE 84

74 PRIVATIZATION ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY Structural Conditions Human & Social Resources Shared Vision Focus on student learning Scheduled planning time school effectiveness professional development feedback on instructional performance respect supportive leadership TEACHER SATISFACTION teacher attrition student achievement employabilityschool success RECIDIVISM Figure 4-3 Theoretical Framework Describi ng the Influence of Privatization on the Presence of Professional Community, Organizational Justice, and School Effectiveness on Teacher Satisfaction and Recidivism in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools

PAGE 85

75 Community is a place where people share common goals and interact. Students in a DJJ program are no longer served by thei r community school. This relationship has been restricted through a court order due to the youth’s involvement with law enforcement. More than likely it is a te mporary separation. Often these programs are physically isolated. The youths they serve have failed to make the grade in their community in some fashion. These youths requ ire an extra measure of care, consistency, educational services, and community. The t eachers serving these youth are challenged to meet the needs that the family, the sc hools, and the community could not. Like other professionals in education, (M eich and Elder, 1996) the teachers report the reason they work with these youths is b ecause they want to help their community. This is why teachers choose to be teachers. They report that the best pa rt of their jobs is their relationship with the st udents and the other teachers. Like other professionals, teachers need to work within a professional group, community that encourages them to develop their sense of craft en abling them to work within contexts that are difficult, challe nging, and potentially rewarding. Collaboration among peers is one of the ways professiona ls have a way of knowing how good of a job they are doing. Teachers rely on one another for mutual support and this communication encourages responsibility for effective instruction. A lack of feedback is one of the reasons Meich and Elder (1996) list for the high rate of turnover among teachers. They found that the lack of information about whet her one’s service was of value contributed to their decision to leave the profession. This lack of information leads to professional isolation. Shared planning time is one way to facilitate this.

PAGE 86

76 This focus on instruction confirms th e school’s mission, to educate youth. The focus on student learning is fundamental to an effective school. Groth and Brock (2003) reported that an effective school can be described as having a common mission, an emphasis on learning, and a climate conducive to learning. Their rese arch suggests that these components along with professional development, a high degree of staff involvement, continuous monitoring of stude nt progress and strong administrative leadership can mediate the effects of socioeconomic factors and promote academic achievement. Shann (1998, p.99) argues, “Principal s can promote strong professional relationships within the professional community. An effective principal will foster professional growth, active involvement in the educational community and increased autonomous behavior. As a result, the teachers are more likely to become active and effective leaders within the educationa l community. (Shann (1998) and Singh and Billingsly (1996) found the strongest influence on job satisfaction was principal support. Administrative support takes many form s. Feedback about instructional performance, providing resources for educat ional materials, or involving teachers in decision making about educational policies ar e all ways administrators show support. Additionally, administrators develop and impl ement policies and pro cedures that effect staff and students. They oversee hiring, co mpensation, and promotion of staff. The manner in which tasks are carried out makes a significant difference in employees’ ability to develop trust in the organi zation. When administrators tr eat individuals fairly, with respect and dignity, employees are able to develop trust in the organization. Implementation and adherence to consistent, transparent policies and procedures promote

PAGE 87

77 perceptions of justice in the workplace. Perceptions of jus tice have pervasive effects on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. They can mediate burnout, promote organizational commitment, and discourage employee turnover (Laschinger, Spence, & Finegan 2005) An inconsistent finding in my resear ch was the perception among the teachers interviewed about the lack of interest and concern from the administration about the high rate of attrition. Policy make rs, administrators at the st ate and national level and at universities and colleges that educate teacher s expend considerable energy searching for solutions to the problem of high rate of teacher attrition. Cons istently, the teachers at five out of six of the schools wh ere I interviewed reported th at the administration was doing nothing to retain teachers. One teacher report ed to me that executive director had told him that he does not intend to retain teachers. The director had explained to the teacher that this school just provided a training gr ound for the teachers. The teachers would work there for a while and then move on to pub lic schools. A teacher at another school reported that the administration saw teachers as “expendable.” This attitude appears to be indicative of diminished expectation. A “why even try” approach ra ther than mirroring the solution approach of the other leaders in fi eld of education. This attitude translates to the teachers (and perhaps the students) as a l ack of value of them as people and as professionals and for education itself. Contrary, to my hypothesis, the results of this research indi cate that supportive leadership from the administration has the mo st significant impact on the level of job satisfaction and commitment of the teachers. Th is leadership takes several forms. One is that the leadership recognizes the value of its teaching staff. This leadership knows you cannot have a school without te achers. It also recognizes teaching as a profession and

PAGE 88

78 consistently encourages prof essional development. The leader knows that people need to be treated fairly and they operate best in an organized, predictable environment. This goes for the teachers as well as the student s. As evidenced by the responses by the teachers at school 2, you can even pay them less, if you treat them and the students fairly and give them what they need to teach, th ey will not only sta y, they will be happy. A truly disappointing fact is that this type of leadersh ip was only present in one out of six schools. The teachers at the other schools are willing to work with the most difficult youth, to work 45 more days than public school teachers, and to work for a lower salary. However, regardless of their contribution they felt they were not valued. The lack of leadership resulted in a lack of focus on student learning, and an inconsistency in the fruition of the school’s mission. Inconsistent and erratic adherence to policies and procedures led to unequal and unfair treatment of the teachers and the students. This inconsistency contributed to a chaotic atmos phere where decisions are “made on the fly” and not clearly communicated. A chaotic environment is not conducive to learning reading, writing, and arithmetic. Many of these students have le arned all to well how to function in an unstructured and untrustworthy environment, one in which you must fend for yourself. They come to these programs in need of a predictable, safe environment, one in which they can learn some skills they do not have, the skills that will enable them to finish high school, become employable, and become produc tive, law abiding citizens of society. In fact, the culture represented in the majority of the school s I visited mirrors the dog eat dog mentality of the streets. When what thes e kids need most and what these teacher want most to give, is a safe, structured e nvironment that is focused on student learning

PAGE 89

79 and academic achievement. Research by Gaziel ( 2003) indicated that that at risk students are more sensitive to environmental factors such as school climate. Does the lack of leadership present in these programs have a relationship to privatization and the consequential di spersal of decision making bodies and accountability? My research is far too limited to draw any firm conclusions. However, I believe there are indicators of this relations hip. If one believes in the validity of the trickle down effect, that the directors are hired, retained, and promoted in the same manner as the directors hire and fire their t eaching staff, there is reason to believe these same problems exist at the top of the corpora tion. I do not know, and at this point have no way of knowing. Although this corporation rece ives public funds and serves the public, its operational procedures such as hiring prac tices are private. They are not within the public domain. One conclusion I can draw from my resear ch is that the Quality Assurance (QA) reports produced by the Department of Juvenile Justice do not tell the same story as the teachers I interviewed. In the QA reports for 2004 school 1’s overall score was 68 percent. In that same time period, the school lost its entire teaching staff. When I interviewed teachers there the average length of employment was fi ve months. A follow up call to the school in Octobe r reveals that the school has lost 50 percent of its staff since June. Whereas school 2 had a QA score of 81 percent and had an average length of employment of almost three years. The t eachers there consistently reported favorable conditions. A follow up call to thei r school indicated that they have lost no teachers since June.

PAGE 90

80 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Implications for Future Research The opportunities for future research are many. Further research into the working conditions of teachers in juvenile justice programs seems appropriate. This study could examine their feelings of self efficacy or discuss their insights into program reform. A comparative study of teachers in privately and publicly run programs could broaden the research on the phenomenon of privatizati on. This research could assist us in understanding how the practice of privatization is effecti ng service provision. At this point, there is only speculation about the outcome of this endeavor. Another area ripe for further research is a study of outcome measures for the consumers themselves. This could take the notion of customer se rvice to examine the perceptions of quality of care from the pers pective of the youths and their parents. Research that probes the belie f systems of the administrato rs could extend our knowledge about their views on relevant issues such as the teacher attrition a nd retention, the value of education, and organizational justice. A study that compares the views of the administrators and the educator s could prove beneficial in cr eating a shared vision of the mission of juvenile justice. These research efforts could assist policy makers and people responsible for oversight in developing assessmen t tools that will enable us to examine the effectiveness of juvenile justice programs. These asse ssment tools would measure outcomes for the youths. This assessment would measure re cidivism, educational attainment, and

PAGE 91

81 employment, adherence to policies and proce dures, and interview staff, students, and parents about their perceptions of the program. They will help us determine if these programs are truly benefiting the youth they serv e. This is really the crux of the matter. Conclusion One of my former coworkers took a job at an inner city school when she left the juvenile justice setting. She teaches first grade, quite a change from the high school setting. She says they are the same kids just a little bit younger. She is very happy at her new school. She loves her coworkers, her kids and her vacation days. She loves having a lunch break and planning periods. She told me “The first thing I di d was join the union. Now, if anyone even thinks about asking me to give up my time, without giving me something back, I’ll be on that phone so quick to that union rep that it will make their head swim. If I don’t have time to think about what I am going to teach or to get things ready for the kids or if I am hungry, I am not as good of a teacher as I can be. And, that is not fair to the kids or to me. Why else would I go thr ough all that schooling to be a teacher, if I am not going to be a good one?” My former coworker is certain that sh e never wants to be in a position where someone can diminish her poten tial as a teacher. She feels as though her membership in the teachers’ union will be a safeguard agai nst mismanagement and poor administrative practice. Could this work for the teachers at the private juvenile justice programs? Would they be protected from whimsical d ecision making and unequal treatment by the administration? Would this also promote a school culture that was focused on student achievement? I believe it could prove bene ficial to all. If the teache rs had the option to join the local teachers’ union it would ensure that th ey are given the same treatment as other

PAGE 92

82 teachers in the area. It would mean like th e teachers employed by the school board, they would be compensated for time spent above th eir normal hours, such as if they had to cover another teacher’s class during their planning time. It would also mean that the school would have access to a pool of subs titute teachers that would result in more stability in the school. It would reduce the teach ers’ isolation from the larger educational community. They would have access to other be nefits available to educators in the union. An additional advantage would be an endor sement as a professional in the local educational community. After all, these teache rs are teaching the kids the other teachers just couldn’t handle any more. To be successful at this, they need and deserve all the support, recognition and encouragement possibl e. They perform a huge service to the community and should be treated thus. The t eachers need to be a part of the larger educational community. I propose that joining th e union would have a stabilizing effect on the turnover rate as well as enhancing the educationa l programming the students are receiving. The affiliation with union would encourage profe ssionalism and instructional excellence. Additionally, the affiliation would limit the possibilities for the unjust treatment of the teachers that was disclosed during the cour se of this study. They would be evaluated, compensated, and promoted by the same prof essional guidelines as the public school teachers. They would have access to the same grievance policies as the other professionals in their field. Every youth deserves to be educated by a competent teacher. Students that have the greatest needs require high quality instruction. This is more li kely to occur in a climate

PAGE 93

83 where the educators are respected, valued and experienced. To attract and retain teachers in this setting, changes must be made at the policy level. “If you treat an individual as he is, he will st ay as he is, but if you treat him as if he were what he ought to become then he will become what he ought.” Goethe Well, maybe sometimes but if we do not do something differently we will probably have similar results. If these six schools are indicative of private juvenile justice programs in Florida, we need to do something different. It really boils down to expectations. The teachers need to expect that the students will achieve. The teachers need to expect that they will be treated like valued professionals and they will have the resources ne cessary to instruct their pupils in a safe environment focused on student achievement. The administrators need to provide this for the students and the teachers. Since these pr ograms are all in essence public programs for the public good we, the public, should expect that they come under the scrutiny of the public. We, the public, need to expect that these programs will provide every resource necessary to make sure that these children don’t get left behind permanently. We can help them now or as the research shows they w ill more than likely they will end up behind bars. Secretary Schembri, the current head of Fl orida’s Department of Juvenile Justice has voiced his intention to provide improved re habilitation services. I applaud his efforts. These youths need comprehensive services to address the many issues that contribute to their involvement in the juvenile justice syst em. Many of them need treatment. They have

PAGE 94

84 been victims of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Punishment and harsh treatment will not heal the scars caused by the misdeeds of adults that have been entrusted with their care. Often when these issues of abuse and neglect are present, youths struggle with substance abuse, poor academic performance, and emotional and behavioral problems. These problems can not go untreated if we hope to assist these youths in reaching their potential. Adequate funding for enhanced educational services and instructional resources could improve th e opportunities for thes e youths to attain sufficient academic skills needed to obtain employment. This additional funding needs to be avai lable to fully staff these programs with competent individuals. This trained staff need s to be compensated at a level consistent with other professionals in the field. Why do we expect th e people who work with the most challenging students, the students who n eed the most help to work more days for less money? This mindset is setting up the st udents for further failure as well as limiting the potential for success of the staff and the pr ograms. This direction can only take place through proper funding and these monies can only be assured th rough policy changes. These policy changes would reinforce the ed ucational and treatment components of the juvenile justice programs. Another area in need of reform is that the managers and administrators of these programs need to have a solid foundation and training in the principles of effective educational practices. How can the administra tor in charge make informed decisions about educational practices if they have no understanding and inadequate information about pedagogy? Additionally, the administrator needs to have a firm understanding about the process of human development. Th ey need to have sufficient knowledge and

PAGE 95

85 insight into the factors that influence and promote growth in the developing human being. How can an administrator make wise choices about the care and treatment of these youths without training in this area? This change must take place through a change in policy and with adequate funding to ensure compliance. Juvenile justice programs need to have comprehensive assessments that reflect the true mission of the programs. These program s exist to rehabilitate youth. The assessment process should reflect this goal. When this is the criteria by which success is measured, programs will begin to focus more on the quality of the care of the yout h they serve. This refocusing must be policy driven and properly funded. The reformation of juvenile justice programs requires that management and operational procedures come out of the sha dows and into the purview of the public. The Sunshine laws that protect other govern mental agencies should apply to these organizations, as well. These agencies exist to serve the public and the quality of the services they provide will be enhanced by full disclosure of their strengths and weaknesses. Just like the st udents and the teachers, these programs need to know that they are valued and that they are expected to succeed. This message will most effectively be conveyed through adequate funding a nd comprehensive monitoring and honest, thorough assessment that demonstrate how well the program serves the student and the community.

PAGE 96

86 APPENDIX A TEACHER TALK 1) In this setting (organizationa l structure, i.e. private setting) how do these elements impact your performance as a teacher? a) Budget/financial support b) Administrative support for teachers c) Relationships (student/teacher bonds, coworkers, management) d) Mission statement e) Consistent policies and procedures 2) What is your most important motivation for being a teacher? 3) Describe in your own words your work ing relationship with your peers. 4) Describe in your own words your worki ng relationship with your administration. 5) Who holds decision-making power for th e educational program at your school? a) Describe the chain of command 6) What does the administrati on do to retain teachers? a) How would you describe teacher turnover? 7) What does the administrati on do to motivate teachers? 8) What is your school doing to prepare for No Child Left Behind Act?

PAGE 97

87 9) What percentage of your teaching staff is c onsidered “highly qualified” under the No Child Left Behind Act? 10) How are you preparing professionally to meet the No Child Left Behind Act? 11) Describe the policies and procedures th at promote professional development. 12) What is the mission statement of your school? 13) Describe the strengths of your school. 14) Describe the weaknesses of your school. 15) Does your organization/setting/school refl ect your idea of a sp ace that promotes successful teaching? 16) Does the presence of justice in the workpl ace have an effect on your performance? 17) Considering our conversation, what would you describe as the most significant factor in your decision to continue teaching at your school?

PAGE 98

88 TEACHER TALK Instructions : Please take a moment to answer the following questions concerning job satisfaction using the scale pr ovided. You do not have to answer any question you do not feel comfortable answering. Please mark ONE box for each question: Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly Agree. How are your relationships with other teachers? This section of the questionnaire explores some aspects your rapport with other teachers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree I feel that I receive the cooperation I need from my peers to do my job effectively. I make a conscious effort to coordinate the content of my courses with other teachers. I have the opportunity to participate in regularly scheduled planning time with other teachers. I would be willing to participate in cooperative planning time with other teachers. I feel like cooperative planning time with other teachers would be beneficial to reaching our vision. I feel respected as a colleague by most other teachers. I feel respected as a colleague by most other staff members.

PAGE 99

89 This section of the questionnaire looks at the use of consistent policies and procedures. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Resources are distributed in a fair way. Financial incentives are awarded in a systematic way. I am knowledgeable about the way financial incentives are awarded. I am aware of how financial resources are allocated. The Quality Assurance auditing process motivates my performance. The Quality Assurance audit scores reflect the quality of your school on a day-to-day basis. Changes to policies and procedures are related to the teaching staff in a timely manner.

PAGE 100

90 How do your interactions with administrators affect your job satisfaction? These questions examine your relationships with administrators. 1= Strongly Disagree 2= Disagree 3= Agree 4= Strongly Agree I feel that I receive the cooperation I need from my administration to do my job effectively. The administration is responsive to my concerns. There is adequate communication between teachers and administrators. The school administration’s behavior toward the teaching staff is supportive? I feel the principal/director is interested in teachers’ ideas. I feel respected as a teacher by the administration. My opinions are considered when making decisions concerning education. My opinions are valued by the administration. The decisions made about education at my school are made by educators. The administrators at my school are educators. The decisions about education at my school are grounded in scientifically based research.

PAGE 101

91 How does the mission statement of your school influence everyday practices? These questions assess how the relationship between your job satisfaction and the mission statement’s impact. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree A focused school vision for student learning is shared by most staff in the school. Most of my colleagues share my beliefs about what the central mission of the school should be. Goals for the school are clear. In this school teachers and administration are in close agreement on the school discipline policy. In this school teachers and administration are in close agreement on the school teaching philosophy. My classroom environment reflects the mission statement of the school. Day to day operations reflect the values contained in the mission statement. Interactions between the faculty and the administration reflect the values contained in the mission statement. Overall, this school adheres to its mission statement. I believe that adherence to the mission statement improves the quality of a school.

PAGE 102

92 How do management strategies enhance your job performance? Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree I am likely to receive written congratulations for my work. I am likely to experience oral congratulations for my work. I am likely to experience a written reprimand for my work. I am likely to experience an oral reprimand for my work. The administration visits my classroom often to observe teaching practices. I am aware of procedures in place to evaluate teachers’ performance. I have received a performance evaluation according to the school procedures. I receive meaningful feedback from the administration on my performance. Most of the in-service programs I attended this school year dealt with issues specific to my needs and concerns. Staff development programs in this school permit me to acquire important new knowledge and skills. The administration helps me develop and evaluate professional development goals on a regular basis.

PAGE 103

93 Instructions : Please take a moment to answer the following questions concerning job satisfaction using the scale provided. You do not have to answer any question you do not feel comfortable answering. Please mark ONE box for each question: Very Low, Low, High, Very High. Very Low Low High Very High How would you rate the consistent use of established procedures by teachers? How would you rate the consistent use of established procedures by administration? How would you rate the level of professionalism of the administration? How would you rate your satisfaction with your working relationships with your administration? How would you rate the level of professionalism of the teaching staff? How would you rate your satisfaction with your working relationships with other teachers? How would you rate your satisfaction with the system of financial incentives at your school? How would you rate your satisfaction with the quality of the feedback you receive on your teaching evaluations? How would you rate your commitment to the school’s mission statement? How would you rate your satisfaction with the school’s adherence to the mission statement? How would you rate the organizational justice in this school?

PAGE 104

94 Instructions : Please take a moment to answ er the following questions. You do not have to answer any question you do not f eel comfortable answering. Please remember that this info rmation, as with all other answers, is anonymous and confidential. How long have you been employed at your current school? __________________________ In what range does your salary fall? $20,000$25,000 $25,001$30,000 $30,001$35,000 >$35,001 How much paid time off do you get? 0-10 days 11-20 days 21-30 days >30 days What is your gender? _________________________________ What is your race? ______________________________________ Education background Bachelor’s Master’s Specialist (Ed.S.) Doctorate Type of Certification Temporary Professional None Under the No Child Left Behind Act, would you be considered a highly qualified teacher? Yes No I don’t know Total years teaching experience _________________________________

PAGE 105

95 Dear Educator: We are graduate students at the Universi ty of Florida in the Family, Youth and Community Sciences Department. As part of our research proj ect we are conducting interviews, the purpose of which is to learn about educators’ job sa tisfaction in private schools. The interview will last no longer than 45 minutes. We also ask that you fill out a self-completion questionnaire. You do not ha ve to answer any question you do not wish to answer. Your interview will be conducted in person at a time conducive to your schedule. With your permission we would like to audiotape this inte rview. Only we will have access to the tape that we will personall y transcribe, removing any identifiers during transcription. The tape will then be erased. Y our identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law and your identity will not be revealed in the final manuscript. There are no anticipated risk s, compensation or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this interview. You are free to withdraw your consent to participate and may discontinue your participation in the in terview at any time w ithout consequence. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please cont act us at (352) 3763593 or (352) 375-9933 or our faculty supervis or, Dr. M. E. Swisher at (352) 392-2202, ext. 256. Questions or concerns about your ri ghts as a research participant may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; ph (352) 392-0433. By signing this letter, you give us permi ssion to report your responses anonymously in the final manuscript to be submitted to our faculty supervisor for possible publication. Melisa Toothman and Gloria Curry ___________________________________________________ I have read the procedure described above for the Teacher Satisfaction Survey. I voluntarily agree to participate in the inte rview and I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Signature of participant Date

PAGE 106

96 APPENDIX B QUESTIONS FROM TEACHER TALK QUESTIONNAIRE AND INSTRUMENT GROUPED ACCORDING TO RELEVANCE TO THE INTERVENING VARIABLES RELATIVE TO PROFESSIONAL CO MMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, 2005 Professional Community Structural Conditions 1. I have the opportunity to participate in regularly scheduled planning time with other teachers. 2. I would be willing to partic ipate in cooperative planni ng time with other teachers. 3. My opinions are considered when maki ng decisions concerning education. 4. My opinion is valued by the administration. 5. Does your organization/setting/school refl ect your idea of a sp ace that promotes successful teaching? Human and Social Conditions 1. I feel that I receive the c ooperation I need from my peers to do my job effectively. 2. I make a conscious effort to coordinate the content of my courses with other teachers. 3. I feel respect as a collea gue by most other teachers. 4. I feel respected as a colleague by most other staff members. 5. I feel that I receive the cooperation I need from my administration to do my job effectively. 6. The administration is responsive to my concerns. 7. There is adequate communication betw een teachers and administrators. 8. The school administration’s behavior to ward the teaching staff is supportive? 9. I feel respected as a t eacher by the administration. 10. I am likely to receive written congratulations for my works. 11. I am likely to experience oral congratulations for my work. 12. The administration visits my classroo m often to observe teaching practices. 13. I receive meaningful feedback from the administration on my performance. 14. Most of the in-service programs I attende d this school year dealt with issues specific to my needs and concerns. 15. Staff development programs in this school permit me to acquire important new knowledge and skills. 16. The administration helps me develop a nd evaluate professional development goals on a regular basis.

PAGE 107

97 17. How would you rate your sati sfaction with your worki ng relationship with your administration? 18. How would you rate the level of prof essionalism of the teaching staff? 19. How would you rate your sati sfaction with your working relationships with other teachers? 20. How would you rate your satisf action with the quality of the feedback you receive on your teaching evaluations? 21. In this setting (organizati on structure, i.e. private setting) how do these elements impact your performance as a teacher? a. Budget/financial support b. Administrative support for teachers c. Relationship (student/teacher bonds, coworkers, management) 22. Describe in your own words your work ing relationship with your peers. 23. Describe in your own words your worki ng relationship with your administration. 24. What does the administrati on do to retain teachers? a. How would you describe teacher turnover Shared Vision 1. I feel like cooperative planning time with other teachers would be beneficial to reaching our vision. 2. I feel the principal/director is interested in teachers’ ideas. 3. The decisions made about education at my school are made by educators. 4. The administrators at my school are educators. 5. The decisions about education at my sc hool are grounded in scientifically based research. 6. A focused school vision for student learning is shared by most staff in the school. 7. Most of my colleagues share my beliefs about what the central mission of the school should be. 8. Goals for the school are clear. 9. In this school teachers an d administration are in close agreement on the school discipline policy. 10. In this school teachers an d administration are in close agreement on the school teaching philosophy. 11. My classroom environment reflects the mission statement of the school. 12. Day to day operations reflect the values contained in the mission statement. 13. Interactions between the faculty and the administration reflect the values contained in the mission statement. 14. Overall, this school adheres to its mission statement. 15. I believe that adherence to the mission statement improves the quality of a school. 16. How would you rate the consistent use of established procedures by teachers? 17. How would you rate your commitment to the school’s mission statement? 18. How would you rate your sati sfaction with the school’s adherence to the mission statement? 19. What is your most important motivation for being a teacher? 20. What does the administrati on do to motivate teachers?

PAGE 108

98 21. What is the mission statement of your school? 22. Does your organization/setting/school refl ect your idea of a space that promotes successful teaching? 23. In this setting (organiza tional structure, i.e. private settings) how do these elements impact your performance as a teacher? a. Mission statement Organizational Justice 1. Resources are distributed in a fair ways. 2. Financial incentives are awarded in a systematic way. 3. I am knowledgeable about the way fi nancial incentives are awarded. 4. I am aware of how financia l resources are allocated. 5. Changes to policies and procedures are re lated to the teaching staff in a timely manner. 6. I am likely to experience a wr itten reprimand for my work. 7. I am likely to experience an oral reprimand for my work. 8. I am aware of procedures in place to evaluate teachers’ performance. 9. I have received a performance evaluati on according to the school procedures. 10. How would you rate the consistent use of established procedures by administration? 11. How would you rate the level of prof essionalism of the administration? 12. How would you rate your satisf action with the system of financial incentives at your school? 13. How would you rate the organizatio nal justice in this school? 14. In this setting (organiza tional structure, i.e. private settings) how do these elements impact your performance as a teacher? a. Consistent policies and procedures 15. Describe the policies and procedures th at promote professional development. 16. Does the presence of justice in th e workplace have an effect on your performance?

PAGE 109

99 LIST OF REFERENCES A Review of Privatization in State Gove rnments. (2004), Retrieved May 11, 2005 from http://priva tization.org./ Amatea, E. & Clark, M. (2005). Changing schools, changing counselors: A qualitative study of school administrators’ concep tions of the school counselor role. Professional School Counseling 9:1, 16-27. Anderson, C. (1982). The search for school climate: A review of the literature. Educational Research 52, 368-420. Anderson, E. & Keith, T. (1997), A longitudinal test of a model of academic success for at-risk high school students. Journal of Educational Research 90:5, 259-269. Andrews, D. & Lewis, M. (2002). The experi ence of a professional community: Teachers developing a new image of them selves and their workplace. Educational Research 44:3, 237-254. Andrews, D., Zinger, I., Hoge, R., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. (1990). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed metaanalysis. Criminology. 28:3, 369-404. Associated Marine Instit utes (2005), Who we are. Retrieved May 13, 2005 from www.amikids.org/Default.htm Babbie, E. (1998). The Practice of Social Research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Ballinger, J. (2000). Programs aim to stop teacher washout. Journal of Staff Development 21:2, 28-33. Baez, B. (2005). Schools and the public good: privatization, democracy, freedom, and “government”. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing 21:2, 63-87. Basit, T. N. (2003). Manual or electronic? the role of coding in qualitative data analysis. Educational Research. 45:2, 143-154. Bidwell, C. E. (2001). Analyzing schools as organizations: long-term permanence and short-term change Sociology of Education. 74, 100-114 Bogler, R. (2002). Two profiles of schoolteach ers: a discriminate analysis of job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education. 18:6, 665-673.

PAGE 110

100 Brock, K. J., & Groth, C. (2003). “Becoming” e ffective: lessons from one state’s reform initiative in schools serv ing low-income students. Journal of Education For Students Placed at Risk. 8:2, 167-190. Brookover, W. & Erickson, E. (1975). Sociology of Education Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press. Brookover, W., Erickson, F., McEvoy, A., Beamer L., Efthim, H., Ha thaway, D.,Lezotte, L., Miller, S. Passalacqua, J. & Tomatsky, L. (1997). Creating effective schools An in service program for enhancing school le arning climate and achievement. Holmes Beach: Learning Publications. Bryman, A. (2001). Social Research Methods New York: Oxford University Press. Bryk, A., Schneider, B., & Kochanik, J. (1996). Social Trust: A Moral Resource for School I mprovement. Washington, DC: Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Burrell, S. & Warboys, L. (2000). Special education and the juvenile justice system Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Ju stice, Office of J uvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Clarke, J. (2004). Dissolving the public realm? The logic and limits of neo-liberalism. Social Policy 33:1, 27-48. Coalition for Juvenile Justice. (2005), Trends in Juvenile Justice Retrieved June 6, 2005 from http://www.juvjustice.org/. Converse, J. M. & Presser, S. (1986) Survey Questions: Handcrafting the Standardized Questionnaire. (pp. 39-47). Beverly Hills: Sage. Cranny, C., Smith, P. & Stone, E. (1992). How People Feel about Their Jobs and How it Affects Their Performance New York: Lexington Books. Curran, S., Towler, A., Judge, T., & Kohn, L. (2005). Pay satisfaction and organizational outcomes. Personnel Psychology 58:3, 613-642. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: a review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives. 8:1. Darling-Hammond, L. (2001). The cha llenge of staffing our schools. Educational Leadership 58:8, 12-17. Department of Juvenile Justice Key Juvenile Crime Trends and Conditions (2005), Retrieved April 8, 2005. from http://www.djj.state.fl.us/Resear ch/statsnresearch/keystrends.html deVaus, D. (2001). Research Design in Social Research London: Sage.

PAGE 111

101 Dillman, D. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method New York: John Wiley and Sons. Feld, S. (1981). The focused organization of social ties. American Journal of Sociology 86 1015-35. Foley, R. (2001). Academic characteristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: A literature review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 9, 248-259. Fowler, F. (1993). Survey Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Fredricks, J. G. (2001). Why teachers leave. The Education Digest. 66:8, 46-48. Freiberg, H., (1998). Measuring school climate: Let me count the ways. Educational Leadership 56:1, 22-26. Fresko, B., Kfir, D. & Nasser, F. (1 997). Predicting teacher commitment. Teaching and Teacher Education 13:4, 429-438. Gaziel, H. (1997). Impact of school culture on effectiveness of secondary schools with disadvantaged students. The Journal of Educational Research. 90:5, 310-325. Glaser, B. (2002) Conceptualization: On th eory and theorizing using grounded theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1:2, 1-30. Glisson, C. & Durick, M. (1988). Predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in human service organizations. Administrative Quarterly 33, 61-81. Goddard, R., Hoy, W., & Hoy, A. (2000). Co llective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal 37:2, 479-507. Greenberg, J. (1990). Looking fair vs. being fair. Managing impressions of organizational justice. B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Greenberg, J. (1987). A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review 12:1, 9-23. Griffith, J. (2003). Schools as organizational models: Implications for examining school effectiveness. The Elementary School Journal. 104:1, 29-52. Harrell, P., Leavell, A., van Tassel, F., & McKee, K. (2004). No teacher left behind: results of a five-year study of teacher attrition. Action in Teacher Education. 26:2, 47-59.

PAGE 112

102 Heck, R. (2000). Examining the impact of school quality on school outcomes and improvement: A value-added approach. Educational Administration Quarterly 56:4, 513-552. Hellman, C. (1997). Job satisfacti on and the intent to leave. The Journal of Social Psychology 137:6, 677-689. Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. The Elementary School Journal 93:4, 355-371. Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal. 38:3, 499-534. Ingersoll, R. (2002). Out of field teaching, e ducational inequality, and the organization of schools: An exploratory anal ysis. Seattle. WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. Jensen, W. (2003). The quest for collabora tion and cooperation: Communication is the most demanding adjustment between contra ct education providers and department of corrections staff in ac hieving a joint perspectiv e of service coordination. Journal of Correctional Education 54:3, 98-105. Juvenile Justice Education Enhancement Project. (2005). 2004 Annual Report to the Florida Department of Education. Tallahassee. Kalaftides, L. (2001). Education on the ropes. The Ecologist. 31:9, 26-31. Kalleberg, A. (1977). Work values and job rewards: A theory of job satisfaction. American Sociological Review 42, 124-143. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation New York: Basic Books. Kelley, R., Thornton, B. & Daughtery, R. (2005) Relationships between measures of leadership and school climate. Education 126:1, 17-25. Kidder, R. (1990). Should schools pay the pri ce of prison? Christia n Science Monitor. 82:102, 13. Kruger, L. (1997). Social support and self-e fficacy in problem solving among teacher assistance teams and school staff. The Journal of Educational Research 90:3, 164174. Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Laschinger, H., Spence, K., and Finegan, J. (2005). Using empowerment to build trust and respect in the workplace: a strategy for addressing the nursing shortage. Nursing Economics. 23, 1.

PAGE 113

103 Liao, H. & Rupp, D. (2005). The impact of ju stice climate and justice orientation on work outcome: a cross-level multifoci framework. Journal of Applied Psychology. 90:2, 242-256. Liu, X. & Meyer, J. (2005). Teachers’ percep tions of their jobs: A multilevel analysis of the teacher follow-up survey for 1994-95. Teachers College Record 107:5, 9851003. Locke, E. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In : Dunnette, M. (Ed.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Chicago: Rand McNally. Locke, E. (1995). The micro-analysis of job satisfaction: Comments on Taber and Alliger Journal of Organizational Behavior 16, 123-125. Louis, K., Marks, M., & Elder, G. ( 1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal 33:4, 757-798. Lucas, J. (2003). Generalization and the Problem of External Validity. Sociological Theory. 21:3, 236-253. Maguin, E. & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic Performance and Delinquency: Crime and Justice: A Review of Research Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Malm, B. (2004). Constructing professional id entities: Montessori teachers’ voices and visions. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 48:4, 397-410. Masterson, S. (2001). A tric kle-down model of organiza tional justice: Relating employees’ and customers’ perceptions of and reactions to fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology 86, 594-604. McEvoy, A. & Welker, R. (2000). Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate: A critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 8:3, 214-226. Meyer, J. (1970). High school e ffects on college intentions. American Journal of Sociology 76, 59-70. Miech, R. A., & Elder, G. H. (1996). The service ethic and teaching. Sociology of Education. 69, 237-253. Morse, J. M. (1997). Completing a Qualitative Project: Details and Dialogue Thousand Oaks: Sage. Morse, J.M. (1999). Myth #93: Reliability a nd validity are not relevant to qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Health Research 9,717.

PAGE 114

104 Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Ol son, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 1(2), 1-19. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. (1996). What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future. New York. National Research Council, National Academ y of Sciences Panel on High-Risk Youth (1993). Losing Generations: Adolescen ts in High-Risk Settings National Academy Press. Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between sa tisfaction, attitudes, and performance: An organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 77, 963-974. Pealer, J. & Latessa, E. (2004) Applying the principles of effective intervention to juvenile correctional programs. Juvenile Justice News 66:7, 26-30. Schacklock, G. (1998). Professionalism and in tensification in teaching: a case study of “care” in teachers’ work. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 26:3, 177189. Shank, G., & Villella, O. (2004). Building on new foundations: Core principles and new directions for qua litative research. The Journal of Educational Research 98:1, 4655. Shann, M. H. (1998). Professional commitme nt and satisfaction among teachers in urban middle schools. The Journal of Educational Research. 92:2, 67-73. Silverman, D. (2004). Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice London, England: Sage. Singh, K. & Billingsly, B. (1996). Intent to stay in teaching. Remedial and Special Education. 17, 37-48. Sommer, R., & Sommer, B. (1986). A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research: Tools and Techniques. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Stewart, E. (2003). School social bonds, sc hool climate, and school misbehavior: A multilevel analysis. Justice Quarterly 20:3 579-590. Strike, K. A. (2004). Community, the missi ng element of school reform: why schools should be more like congregations than banks. American Journal of Education. 110, 215-231.

PAGE 115

105 Sullivan, T. (2001). Methods of Social Research Orlando, FL: Harcourt. Todis, B., Bullis, M., Waintrup, R. & D’Am brosio, D. (2001). Overcoming the odds: qualitative examination of resilience among formerly incarcerated adolescents. Exceptional Children 68(1), 119-131 Tuckett, A. (2005). Rigor in qualitative research: complexiti es and solutions. Nurse Researcher 13:1, 29-33. Vacca, J. S. (2004). Educated prisoners are less likely to return to prison. Journal of Correctional Education. 55(4), 297-305. Vang, C. T. (2005). Minority students are far from academic success and still at-risk in public schools. Multicultural Education 12:4, 9-26. Yin, R. (1994). Discovering the future of th e case study method in evaluation research. Evaluation Research 15, 283-290. Yin, R. (1999). Enhancing the quality of case st udies in health servic es research. Health Services Research. 34:5, 1209-1221. Weaver, C. (1974). Correlates of job satisfa ction: Some evidence from the national surveys. The Academy of Management Journal. 17:2, 373-375. Weinstein, R., Madison, S., & Kuklinski, M. (1995). Raising expect ations in schooling: obstacles and opportunities for change. American Educational Research Journal. 32, 121-159. Wilkinson, K. (1991). The Community in Rural America New York: Greenwood Press. Yin, R. (1994). Discovering the future of th e case study method in evaluation research. Evaluation Practice 15, 283-290. Zigarelli, M. (1996). An empirical test of c onclusions from effective schools research. The Journal of Educational Research. 90, 103-110.

PAGE 116

106 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I graduated from Santa Fe Community Colle ge in 1976. My major areas of interest were anthropology and psychology. Santa Fe Community College was a dynamic, innovative campus where I was exposed to a variety of informal educational opportunities. I earned a degree in elementary educati on in 2002 from St. Leo University. I graduated magna cum laude. This degree en abled me to earn a Florida Teachers Certificate and to become cer tified in special education. I was accepted in the graduate program of the Department of Family, Youth, and Community Sciences in August 2003. My studi es have given me the opportunity to develop new skills as well as enhance the skills I learned dur ing the twenty years I have worked with youths and their families.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013386/00001

Material Information

Title: Influence of Professional Community and Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Privatized Juvenile Justice Programs
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013386:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0013386/00001

Material Information

Title: Influence of Professional Community and Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Privatized Juvenile Justice Programs
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0013386:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












INFLUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL
JUSTICE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS IN PRIVATIZED JUVENILE
JUSTICE PROGRAMS
















By

GLORIA CURRY JOHNSON


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Gloria Curry Johnson


































This document is dedicated to the students in Juvenile Justice Programs in Florida and
their teachers.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my advisor, M. E. Swisher, for her brilliant intellect, her can do attitude and

her unwavering support.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .............. .......... .... ....... .. .. .. .. .. ...... .............. vii

LIST OF FIGURES .............. ......... ... .... ....... ........ ..... viii

ABSTRACT .............. .................. .......... .............. ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W .................................................................... ....................7

3 RESEARCH DESGIN AND METHODS..........................................................28

C oncepts, Indicators and V ariables ................................................... ....................28
Prelim inary R research ................ .... ............... .. ...................... 29
Design ............ ..........................................................30
Sampling ............... .............................................32
In stru m en tatio n ............................................................................................... 3 7
P procedure ................................................................................................... ........ 42
D ata A nalysis.................................................. 43

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................. 46

Professional Com m unity ................................................ ............... 52
Shared Sense of Purpose ................. ............. ...................52
Structural Conditions.............................. ...............58
Human and Social Resources ............................. ......... 62
O rg an ization al Ju stice ............................................................................................ 6 7
Privatization ........................................... 71

5 CONCLUSION..................... ..................80

Im plications for Future Research................................ ................... 80
C on clu sion .................................................................................................8 1




v









APPENDIX

A T E A C H E R T A L K ........................................................................... .....................86

B QUESTIONS FROM TEACHER TALK QUESTIONNAIRE AND
INSTRUMENT GROUPED ACCORDING TO RELEVANCE TO THE
INTERVENING VARIABLES RELATIVE TO PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, 2005 ................................96

LIST OF REFEREN CES ......... .................. .............. .................................... 99

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH ......... ................. ...................................... .....................106
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 2004 Quality Assurance Scores for Six Schools Operated by A.M.I. (Florida
Department of Juvenile Justice) ..... ................. ............. 36

4-1 A Socio-demographic Analysis of Respondents (n=27) who Participated in
Research Project on Teacher Satisfaction in Privatized Juvenile Justice
Programs Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005 ...........47

4-2 Individual and Composite Mean Scores of Teacher Ratings of Six Factors
Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in Six Privatized Schools Contracted by the
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005...... ......... ............48















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Theoretical Framework Describing the Intervening Variables of Professional
Community and Organizational Justice and Their Relationship to Teacher
Satisfaction in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools............... ...... ............... 27

4-1 Mean Length of Employment per Individual School of Teachers in Six Privatized
Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005 ..............67

4-2 Length of Employment Measured in Six Month Increments of Teachers in Six
Privatized Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice,
2 0 0 5 ............................................................................. 7 0

4-3 Theoretical Framework Describing the Influence of Privatization on the Presence
of Professional Community, Organizational Justice, and School Effectiveness on
Teacher Satisfaction and Recidivism in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools..........74















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree Master of Science

INFLUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL
JUSTICE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS IN PRIVATIZED JUVENILE
JUSTICE PROGRAMS

By

Gloria Curry Johnson

May 2006

Chair: Marilyn E. Swisher
Major Department: Family, Youth and Community Sciences

In the United States, 68.2 percent of states have shown increased activity towards

privatization in the area of juvenile rehabilitation. These programs find it increasingly

necessary to attract and retain highly qualified teachers in order to comply with the No

Child Left Behind Act. This research explores the effects of two major variables on

teacher satisfaction: the presence of a professional community and organizational justice

in the private juvenile justice setting. A case study design is used to identify trends in

satisfaction relating to teachers' perception of professional community and organizational

justice. Data were collected from a purposive sample of teachers working in private,

juvenile justice facilities using a self-completion questionnaire and a structured oral

interview. Grounded theory helped to analyze trends in these data. These trends may

help foster the effectiveness of efforts to retain quality teachers in juvenile justice

programs and improve the educational services provided to these youths. This could

prove beneficial to youths and to communities because more consistent educational









services may assist the youths in achieving academically and improve vocational

opportunities. Academic achievement has been shown to have a positive impact on

juvenile crime and delinquency.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

All good research is influenced by real life situations. The impetus for this research

arose from my first hand experiences as a teacher in a private juvenile justice program.

My co-workers were qualified and dedicated. Like me, these teachers chose to work with

at risk youth because they wanted to make a difference. They did not enter the field

unwittingly. Their purpose was clear. They were competent and caring. They were great

educators and co-workers. Or should I say they are all of the above, however, they no

longer work within the juvenile justice setting.

All of my former coworkers have left their chosen career path for some other work

setting. They all work with youth in some capacity, just not with those who may need

their qualities of enthusiasm, dedication, and compassion the most. The youths they

taught at the juvenile justice program were complex, challenging, and very needy. Their

teachers found their work to be rewarding, interesting, and never dull.

The Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) is the agency in Florida charged with the

care and oversight of the youths involved with the legal system. In Florida, 43,000

youths a year are served by the department. The department attributes the high mobility

of our society as a contributing factor to delinquency in youth. The department offers a

variety of services to these youths. Their mission is to "protect public by reducing

juvenile crime and delinquency." Treatment and rehabilitation are at the cornerstone of

the department's prevention policy (Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet,

2004).









Often, juvenile offenders have had a long history of problems in school. Many of

them exhibit behavior problems and perform below grade level academically. The youths

in juvenile correctional facilities are among the most educationally disadvantaged in our

society. The Juvenile Justice Education Enhancement Project (JJEEP) reports that 70

percent of the youth perform below grade level. Thirty-eight percent are eligible for

exceptional student education. These problems, academic and behavioral often signal a

lifetime of limitations, vocationally and personally. Youths who are incarcerated during

adolescence often experience underemployment, achieve minimal education

requirements, and demonstrate poor parenting skills and outcomes. (Todis, Bullis,

Waintrup, Schulz, & D'Ambrosio, 2001; JJEEP, 2004). According to the U.S.

Department of Education (1983), 82 percent of the inmates in U.S. prisons did not

graduate from high school. It is estimated that 70 percent of the inmates read at the two

lowest literacy levels. Research demonstrates that individuals tend to commit fewer

crimes as their level of education and employability increases (Andrews et al. 1990).

The At Risk Youth and Delinquency Act of 19741 called for the implementation of

rehabilitative efforts to be made on the behalf of the youths. The American Disabilities

Act of 19952 reinforced the policy of the Department of Juvenile Justice that every child

must be given access to education in the least restrictive environment. The system for

juvenile offenders was established as a result of the belief that youths are more amenable

to change and the potential of rehabilitative interventions to have a positive influence

more likely. Educational programs are a central component of the rehabilitative process


1 42 U.S.C. 5667e-2
2 42 U.S.C 1210 et.seq.









for incarcerated youth .It is the Department of Juvenile Justice's policy as well as its

mandate that every youth who is in the custody of the department be given access to

appropriate educational services.

The department fulfils this requirement in a variety of ways. Some districts employ

educational staff from the local school board to teach the youth in their care. Others

choose to contract with other private agencies for these services. This trend is growing

rapidly. In 2004, fifty-four percent of all the youths involved with the Department of

Juvenile Justice in Florida received their educational services through a private agency

contracted by the department. (JJEEP, 2004) These agencies operate as a non-profit, not

for profit, or as a for profit organization.

The State of Florida began its foray into privatization by entering into a contract

with Associated Marine Institutes to provide services to juveniles in 1974. Since then, the

numbers of agencies the state contracts with has swollen. This is not only a statewide

trend. 68.2 percent of states have shown increased activity towards privatization in the

area of juvenile rehabilitation. 45.5 percent of the respondents listed cost savings as a

reason, while only 22.2 percent listed quality of service as motivating factors in the trend

toward privatization (A Review of Privatization in State Governments,

www.privatization.org, 2004).

Clarke (2004) describes the kinds of market readjustments that the trend toward

privatization can bring. He outlines how shifting public responsibility to the private

sector can fragment service provision, increase the number of agencies involved and

increase the number of decision making settings. This "dispersal" creates new problems

of coordination and regulation. Communication among the decision makers becomes









increasingly important, among both the individuals and agencies delivering services to

these youths.

This study involves teachers who work in programs that have contracted with the

state to deliver educational services to youths. The teachers are employed by a company

that holds a state contract. The task of these contractors is to educate the youths who are

court ordered to attend the program as a provision of their probation. The program assists

the youths in getting back on track so that they can either return to their community

school or earn a GED. Some of the youths attend the program after having completed a

residential treatment program. In this case, the program is designed to support the youths

in their transition back into the community.

The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors that influence the

decision of teachers to abandon a chosen career path. It examines this decision making of

teachers in a specialized setting, a private juvenile justice setting. The study looks at the

working conditions of the teachers through the lens of the constructs of professional

community and organizational justice. The concept of professional community was

developed by Louis, Marks, and Kruse (1996). They used it to assess the level of job

satisfaction and commitment among 910 public school teachers. They theorized that

teachers who work in a school where there is a shared vision focused on student learning,

collaboration among peers, and supportive leadership would experience a higher level of

job satisfaction. Greenberg (1987) described organizational justice in a series of articles

about management and employee retention. It is a theory that suggests that employees

function best and enjoy a higher level of job satisfaction and commitment in a workplace









where consistent, transparent policies and procedures result in fair and equal treatment

for everyone. When these conditions exist employees are more likely to stay on their job.

There is a significant amount of data examining teacher attrition in the public

school setting. It is clearly documented that teachers leave this profession at a higher rate

than any other profession. A national report conducted in 1996 by National Commission

on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) describes the attrition rate and the factors

that contribute to it. This report estimates that between 30 and 50 percent of the teachers

leave the profession within the first three to five years. The report cites low pay, lack of

support from administration, and increasing problems with student discipline as

increasing factors. This departure from the profession has created a national teacher

shortage. Research by Ingersoll (2001) demonstrated that a sufficient number of teachers

are drawn to the profession. Attrition creates the shortages. He reports that bad

management is often to blame because new teachers are often given the most challenging

students to teach, sometimes in subjects they are not certified to teach.

Much of this research describes the situation I observed in my experience at the

juvenile justice program. However, there are two major differences. First, these teachers

chose to work in a private setting. Second, this group of teachers chose to work with the

most difficult and challenging students. As one teacher put it, "these are the children left

behind." They described the work as satisfying, rewarding. A co-worker said it this way,

"When I go home at night, I know I made a difference. And, that is what teaching is all

about."

The purpose of this research project was to examine the working conditions and the

motivating factors of teachers in the private juvenile justice programs. To what extent do









they require and receive similar working conditions as they public school teachers

described in the Louis, Marks, and Kruse study? To what extent does the presence of

clear, consistent policies and procedures and fair equitable treatment affect their level of

job satisfaction and commitment? And, how are the working conditions of teachers

affected by working in the private sector? Are the teachers in these programs affected by

any of the conditions described by Clarke, such as dispersal of accountability? If so, how

and to what extent does it affect their job satisfaction and commitment?

Teacher satisfaction is a complex issue. I expect that there are a multitude of factors

contributing to teacher satisfaction in the privatized juvenile justice setting. From the

literature review and the pilot study I conducted I expect the following hypotheses:

1) I expect that the most positive component of the teachers' job to be the student/teacher
relationship.
2) I expect that peer relationships will have a mediating effect upon teachers' level of job
satisfaction.
3) I predict that when the indicators of professional community are not present in the
workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction.
4) I predict that when the indicators of organizational justice are not present in the
workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Most matters concerning humans are not simple or easy. This topic is no

exception. The issue of teacher satisfaction in privatized juvenile justice programs is

complex and multifaceted. The primary focus of this research is teachers' perception of

the conditions in the workplace and how these factors effect their job satisfaction.

However, the fundamental concern is the fair and just treatment of the youth the teachers

serve. The growing trend towards incarceration and privatization creates an imperative

need to know about the quality of care and education these juveniles receive.

Vaca (2004) documents the trend toward incarceration. He reports that the New

Jersey Department of Corrections had 6,000 prisoners in1975. The population had

swollen to 25,000 people by 1997. Vaca (2004) reports there are a disproportionate

number of adults in the prison system that they are economically poor or disadvantaged.

He estimates that 70 percent of the inmates read at the two lowest literacy levels.

Illiteracy is the strongest common denominator among individuals in correctional

institutions (Kidder, 1990). 82 percent of prison inmates have dropped out of high school

(Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 2005). Vaca (2004) reports that of the $25,000 spent

yearly on each inmate, only two percent was spent on education. Furthermore, Vaca

(2004) reported that expanded and enhanced educational opportunities could reduce

recidivism and improve the potential for offenders to lead productive lives.

Juvenile facilities report similar statistics. In Florida, the Department of Juvenile

Justice (DJJ) serves 45,000 youths each year (Department of Juvenile Justice Juvenile,









2005). State and federal laws mandate that the department provide fair and equal

educational opportunities should be provided for the youth it serves. As the department

moves increasingly toward privatization, concerns about the quality of these services

arise. Are there sufficient processes in place to ensure that this population has equal

access to the educational and vocational training necessary to become productive

citizens? While justice and fair treatment are important to all, it is most important to

youth who have been placed at risk through their own behavior and/or circumstances

beyond their control such as poverty, race, and/or learning and emotional disabilities.

These youth need remedial education to reach their potential and to gain a foothold on the

opportunities an education can provide for them. They need an education so that they can

become employable, productive citizens.

The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (Department of Juvenile Justice

Juvenile Crime Trends and Conditions, 2005) reports that the high mobility of our society

influences the delinquency rate. The department also describes the fragmentation of our

neighborhoods as a factor in the delinquency rate. They report that 54 percent of the

youths that they serve come from single parent homes. They report that three out of four

juvenile offenders report that they use illegal drugs and/or drink alcohol. (Florida

Department of Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet, 2004) Information presented on the Coalition

for Juvenile Justice (CJJ) website reports that poor school performance is one of the

strongest predictors of whether youths will drink, smoke, use weapons, or attempt suicide

(Trends in Juvenile Justice, 2005). Young people who receive inadequate education are

disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system. The Coalition for Juvenile

Justice reports that 70-87 percent of the youths in Juvenile Justice System have either an









emotional or learning disability that impedes their educational progress (Trends in

Juvenile Justice, 2005). Maguin and Loeber (1996) argue that poor academic

performance is related to delinquent behavior regardless of socioeconomic status and that

cognitive deficit and attention problems are associated with poor academic performance

and delinquency.

The Individuals with Disabilities act (IDEA)3 is federal legislation requiring that

eligible youth with disabilities receive free appropriate public education (FAPE),

including special education and related services. Through the spending power of

Congress, and corresponding state statues or regulations, IDEA mandates that states

receiving federal support for education of students with disabilities ensure that all eligible

students receive FAPE. All states and the District of Columbia currently receive funding

under IDEA. However, shrinking state and local budgets mean that these services may

not always be provided to the youths involved in this system. According to the Coalition

for Juvenile Justice website, youths that in juvenile justice programs receive the same

treatment regardless of their individual needs (Trends in Juvenile Justice, 2005).

Currently, schools across the United States are experiencing a shortage of trained,

certified teachers. Educational programs that serve juveniles are no exception. Qualified,

experienced special education teachers are in high demand.

Another trend in juvenile justice is the disproportionate numbers of minorities and

disadvantaged youth involved in the system. In this regard the juvenile justice system

reflects the status of the educational system as a whole. Minority and disadvantaged

students are generally over represented in special education classes. Schools that serve


320 U.S.C., 1400 et seq.; P.L. 105-170









minority and students for low income homes usually receive less funding and resources

than other schools. The students often do not perform as well on standardized tests and

have a lower graduation rate than other students (Darling-Hammond, 2000).

Vang (2005) analyzed a report by the California Teachers Association completed in

2004. He states that this report documents a widening achievement gap between majority

and minority students. The report indicates that this gap is caused by poverty. The

students living in poverty have a greater percentage of teachers teaching without

certification or teaching out of field. Additionally, the report by the California Teachers

Association found that schools serving large minority populations have a higher than

average rate of teacher turnover. Darling Hammond (2001) reports schools serving

minority students and economically disadvantaged students often do not have as many

resources, such as up to date textbooks or access to technology.

Vang's (2005) suggests that the fundamental approach to developing an effective

pedagogy is through encouraging academic success, cultural affiliation, and personal

efficacy. He cautions educators and administrators about the effects of increased testing

and the decrease in funding for educational programming. He worries that this could lead

to an even wider breach in the achievement gap.

Stewart (2003, p. 580) argues that, "The school environment is one of the most

important environments in which children are socialized." Schools provide a venue for

socialization by providing structured norms and values for the youths. Byrk and his

associates found that an atmosphere in which there was trust among the adults employed

at the school was fundamental to school effectiveness (Byrk, Schneider & Kochanik,

1996). Students reported feeling safe in an environment in which the teachers and









administrators reported having a shared focus or mission and in which the staff operated

in an atmosphere of mutual respect.

Anderson and Keith (1997) compared students at various high schools and ranked

the schools according to graduation rates and scores on achievement tests. They found

that ability and academic coursework had a significant impact upon high school students

in general. However, these factors played an even more important role in the achievement

of at risk students. Additionally, the student's level of motivation and the quality of

instruction exerted a powerful influence on the level of achievement attained by the at

risk students. This research has several implications for educating at risk youth.

Anderson and Keith (1997) suggest that educational attainment, that is finishing

coursework, has a positive influence for these students. Their research shows that when

at-risk students complete two courses that they can expect an improvement in

achievement test scores of almost one standard deviation. McEvoy and Welker (2000)

argue that at-risk students benefit from courses that emphasize communication skills such

as reading writing, listening and artistic expression. These skills offer the students an

opportunity to improve academically and to develop ways to express themselves

effectively. Anderson and Keith (1997) conclude that the way to improve academic

achievement for at risk students is to improve school quality, increase student motivation,

and emphasize academic achievement.

McEvoy and Welker (2000) also argue that effective schools share similar

characteristics including high expectations for student achievement, a shared mission

among staff, and students' perception to a safe environment in which to learn. These are a

part of school climate, which affect the attitudes and beliefs that reinforce instructional









practices, the level of academic achievement and the daily operations of the school. An

effective school is one in which every member feels valued and respected and is actively

working toward meaningful goals (McEvoy and Welker, 2000).

Zigarelli (1996) analyzed data taken from the National Longitudinal Study for the

years 1988, 1990, and 1992. He reviewed thirty years of literature on the subject of

effective schools to ascertain the most commonly noted variables. A regression analysis

of the data indicates what is documented as the most important characteristics of effective

schools. The indicators most cited are: Employment of quality teachers, teacher

participation and satisfaction, principal leadership and involvement, a culture of academic

achievement, positive relationships with central school administration, and high parental

involvement.

Most educators agree that an academic school climate is one in which

achievement is the prevailing norm is the hallmark of an effective school. Indicators of

an academic culture are high expectations of students, frequent monitoring of student

progress, emphasis on basic skill acquisition, a significant amount of time in class, and a

clear academically oriented mission of the school.

Brock and Groth (2003) present findings from a longitudinal case study of 50 low

income and racial, ethnic or language minority schools that participated in a state funded

school improvement program. The authors use an analytical framework for examining the

process of organizational change.

Brock and Groth (2003) found that schools in which adults perceived a real

opportunity to improve the academic circumstances of their students were able to

transform their schools in more substantial ways than those schools in which the adults









perceived little hope for increasing student learning. This perception is fostered by six

key factors: a) ongoing professional development, b) a high degree of staff involvement,

c) a strong focus or vision of the school based on student learning, d) continuous

monitoring on the program and student achievement, e) reallocation of resources to

support the school wide plan, and f) strong principal leadership. These schools have most

frequently been described as having a common mission, an emphasis on learning, and a

climate conducive to learning.

Gaziel (1997) examines the effect of school culture on school effectiveness. He

investigated cultural differences among effective high schools and average high schools.

He looked at the differences in terms of student participation, orderliness, school

improvement and academic achievement. He found that the best predictor of an effective

school was its focus on the students' academic achievement. He found that the

organizational culture of the school had a profound effect on the students' academic

achievement.

Gaziel (1997, p.313) writes, "School culture is significant in explaining school

effectiveness." Elements of school culture that are important to students' achievements

are sense of shared goals, academic emphasis, monitoring of student progress, and an

orderly, safe climate. Gaziel (1997) reports these elements appear to have a greater

influence on disadvantaged students than on students with middle to high socioeconomic

status.

These schools have most frequently been described as having a common mission,

an emphasis on learning, and a climate conducive to learning (Stoll & Fink, 1996).









Kruger (1997) examined the influence of school climate on the perception of self

efficacy among teachers and its effect on student achievement. They looked at problem

solving skills among elementary teachers. Their research demonstrated the effect that

working conditions can have on the teachers' feelings of worth and that these feelings

were transmitted to the students.

They found that when there are expectations for sharing most of the work and there

is interaction in which teachers discuss, plan for, design, conduct, analyze, evaluate, and

experiment with the business of teaching, students' achievement is greater. They also

found that when that an emphasis on safe and orderly climate contributes to school

success. They contend that a shared culture across all groups that emphasizes academic

achievement is indicative of an effective school.

Strike (2004) emphasized the importance of creating a shared culture or vision. He

insists that schools should be communities. He discusses the four C's of community,

coherence, cohesion, care, and contact and the importance of these in establishing and

maintaining an effective school. He reiterates the importance of the presence of

coherence, a shared vision, and argues that there is alienation and disengagement when

they are not present. This article draws on the research of others to support a value and an

opinion. Strike is a very persuasive writer. He uses anecdotal evidence and previous

research to address ideas and concepts supported in a much of the literature.

The concept of community is addressed by Louis, Marks, and Kruse (1996). Their

research defines the concept of professional community for teachers. They analyzed the

type of professional community that occurs within a school and examined the









organizational factors that support its development. This research also looks at the effect

of professional community on the teachers' sense of responsibility for student learning.

The researchers asked teachers from 24 schools to complete a questionnaire that

probed their perceptions about instructional practices, professional activities, school

governance, management, and leadership, as well as their beliefs about school culture.

The researchers then visited the schools and observed instruction. They also conducted

structured interviews with 25-35 teachers and administrators.

Louis, Marks & Kruse (1996) define professional community as movement toward

shared values, a focus on student learning, collaboration, deprivatized practice, and

reflective dialogue. They argue, "Shared values in a professional community have a basis

in moral authority that is derived from the central importance of teaching and socializing

youth" (1996, p.760). They believe that a collective focus on learning is "an undeviating

concentration on student learning. Teachers discuss the ways in which instruction

promotes student intellectual growth" (1996, p.760). Collaboration among faculty

"fosters the sharing of expertise. Collaborative work increases teachers' sense of

affiliation and their sense of responsibility for effective instruction" (1996, p.760).

Deprivatization refers to teachers varied relationships within the school setting. At times

a teacher is a mentor, an advisor, or a specialist. They often perform a myriad of roles.

Reflective dialogue implies self-awareness. In depth conversations about teaching and

learning assist teachers in examining assumptions basic to quality instruction.

The researchers identify structural conditions that facilitate professional

community. They include; size, staffing complexity, scheduled planning time, and

teacher empowerment. The authors recognize the importance of several human and social









conditions that support the presence of professional community. These are: supportive

leadership, openness to innovation, respect, feedback on instructional performance, and

professional development.

The results of the study showed that the presence of professional community varied

among schools. Their findings suggest that human and social responses are as critical to

the presence of professional community as structural conditions. This study confirms that

respect is at the core of a positive school culture. Research that connects educators'

feelings of responsibility for student achievement is not common. However, this study

seems to demonstrate that teachers' feelings of self efficacy are relative to students'

academic achievement. Furthermore, this study suggests that "the working conditions-

individual job satisfaction school level of professional community-are a primary factor

associated with student learning" (Louis, Marks and Kruse, 1996 p. 786)

The concept of job satisfaction implies an overall affective orientation on the part

of an individual toward the roles undertaken while completing tasks related to their work

(Kalleberg, 1977). Locke (1976) argues thatjob satisfaction is the positive emotional

reaction to one's job or job experience and empirical study indicates that the work

environment is more important in shaping job satisfaction than demographic

characteristics. Cranny, Smith, and Stone (1992) argue that job satisfaction involves

cognitive and affective reactions to what an employee expects to receive and what the

employee actually does receive. Glisson and Durick (1988) argue that the three variables

that contribute to an employee's level of job satisfaction are the characteristics of the

tasks performed by the employee, the characteristics of the organization in which the

tasks are performed, and characteristics of the employee performing the tasks within that









organization. Job satisfaction is seen as an influential factor in employee commitment

and intent to leave a job.

Fresko, Kfir, and Nasser (1997) argue that job satisfaction can be classified into

extrinsic and intrinsic categories. Extrinsic satisfaction comes from income, power,

prestige, and availability of resources. Intrinsic satisfaction is derived through feelings of

efficacy, self-determination, and self-fulfillment. Job satisfaction is thought to be a

predictor of commitment to the job and intent to leave.

There is a body of literature that describes job satisfaction for teachers particularly

in relation to teacher retention and attrition. Ingersoll (2002) reports the departure of

teachers from the profession creates the shortage of teachers. He claims that there enough

teachers being trained to meet the demand. He likens the situation of continually training

new teachers without retaining the existing ones to pouring water in a bucket with a fist-

sized hole in the bottom.

Shann (1998) interviewed 92 teachers working in urban schools to assess the

importance and satisfaction they assigned to relationships within the school setting. This

was a collaborative effort that involved educators at the university level as well as

teachers in the schools involved in the study. They worked together to design the research

instrument.

Teacher job satisfaction is a multifaceted construct that is critical to teacher

retention, teacher commitment and school effectiveness. The teachers ranked their

relationships with the students as the highest in terms of importance and satisfaction.

Shann's (1998) study reaffirms other research that demonstrates that teacher satisfaction









influences student performance. It also points to a strong correlation between job

satisfaction and commitment.

The teachers' assessments of what their schools were doing well and not so well

were closely aligned with opinions and observations of other knowledgeable observers of

the schools. Both groups acknowledged similar strengths and weaknesses in the schools.

What teachers like first and foremost about their jobs were their students.

Shann (1998) uses several indicators to assess satisfaction. Among other things, she

included salary, job security, decision making, autonomy, and questions about various

relationships. These indicators were grouped together to construct the concept of job

satisfaction. Shann (1998) admonishes administrators to involve teachers in reform

efforts by allowing them to share in the responsibility of selecting strategies for change.

Liu and Meyer (2005) analyzed teachers' perceptions of their jobs and teacher

turnover by examining data form the National Center for Educational Statistics Schools

and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey. They emphasized the

multidimensionality of teachers' perceptions about their jobs because a global measure of

job satisfaction is too general to inform us of a particular area of need or an appropriate

intervention. Liu and Meyer's (2005) findings suggest that teachers were most

dissatisfied with student discipline. Low compensation was secondary. They found that

private school teachers experienced less behavior problems and lower wages, and a

higher level of job satisfaction.

Liu and Meyer (2005) found a high correlation between school climate and work

conditions which confirms conventional wisdom about school environment. When school

leadership encourages teacher involvement in governance, school leaders and teacher are









actively improving work conditions. They found that a collegial environment, one that

provides professional support, mediates student behavior problems.

Liu and Meyer (2005) found that minority teachers expressed even more

dissatisfaction with their jobs than non-minority teachers. Compensation and work

conditions appear to be substantially worse for minority teachers.

A pilot study I conducted examined the working conditions of teachers in juvenile

justice programs. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors influenced the

teachers' feelings of job satisfaction. I conducted structured interviews with six certified

teachers working with juvenile offenders in two different privatized juvenile justice

programs operated by two separate organizations.

These teachers all reported that they chose to work with juvenile offenders because

they wanted to make a difference. They all reported that working with the kids was the

best part of their job. As one teacher put it, "Teaching these kids is a powerful

experience. I don't need to send a donation to the Save the Children fund. I have an

opportunity to help really needy kids every day. And, I do. I know I am making a

difference in these kids' lives."

The teachers I interviewed appeared to be honest and open. They discussed the

challenges of working with a special needs population. Several teachers discussed the

frustration of trying to teach high school students that could not read, or that were

mentally handicapped or mentally ill. They expressed their feelings of inadequacy when

faced with those tasks. The teachers reported that they felt as though their concerns about

the situation were unheeded by the administration. They conveyed a sense of injustice

about the situation. One teacher said, "It is so unfair to these students. I am not trained or









experienced in teaching a mentally handicapped student. These students are not getting

the instruction they ought to have. This program is completely ineffective in helping

these students develop the skills they need to have a successful life. They will just

continue living a life of crime. The administration does not seem to care."

All of the teachers interviewed reported a lack of resources. They described over

crowded, run down classrooms, insufficient, out of date text books, and a paucity of

teaching materials. Another area of concern was the lack of continuing education and

professional development opportunities for the teachers. They reported that there were no

paid substitutes to cover their classes if they were absent. This meant that the other

teachers had to cover for them, placing extra stress on the entire faculty. They stated that

they had no input about the allocation of funds or budgetary issues that directly affected

the work in their classrooms.

Each teacher reported conditions in the workplace that made their job even more

difficult. These teachers indicated that they received unequal treatment from the

administration. They were not given performance evaluations. Raises appeared to be

given in a capricious, unsystematic manner. The teachers did not have lunch breaks or

planning periods. The teachers expressed frustration about the lack of communication

between them and the administration.

The teachers described their relationship with administration with these comments,

"Administration is often dishonest about issues. They refuse to communicate in an

honest, solution oriented way. The administration rewards staff according to who they

like...reminiscent of high school. You know who is popular...rather than competency or

how well one does their job."









The observations made by these teachers prompted me to conduct a review of the

research literature to find a theoretical framework that would help me to examine the

conditions described by these teachers. I found a substantial body of research on the

theory of organizational justice. It appears to be a relevant framework in which to explore

these concerns in the workplace.

Greenberg (1987) described organizational justice as the fair and equal treatment of

individuals in the workplace. He discusses it in terms of distributive justice, which is

concerned with the fairness of organizational outcomes and procedural justice, the latter

is concerned with the fairness of the processes and procedures used to determine desired

outcomes. Informational justice suggests that information should be disseminated in a fair

and equal manner. Greenberg (1990) explains that employees' feelings of equity in the

workplace are determined primarily by how decisions affecting them are made and the

outcomes of these decisions.

Laschinger and Finegan (2005) used the theory of organizational justice and

Kanter's (1977) model of organizational empowerment to analyze job satisfaction,

commitment and attrition among registered nurses. They mailed questionnaires to group

of randomly selected nurses. They used path analysis techniques to evaluate the

responses from 273 respondents.

Kanter (1977) describes organizational empowerment as the ability to exercise

informal power through positive relationships with superiors, peers, and subordinates.

She reports that organizational empowerment allows employees to accomplish their work

in meaningful ways, access information, obtain necessary support and resources, and to

develop professionally. Employees use discretion and are able to build effective alliances









when organizational empowerment is present. They also experience greaterjob

satisfaction and commitment to the organization.

Respect and organizational trust are embedded in these constructs. The researchers

argue that respect is fundamental to employees' trust in the organization. A lack of

respect can manifest itself in how and what the management communicates, for example,

failing to address concerns expressed by employees. Employees hesitate to commit to the

organizational goals and activities when there is a lack of respect and trust.

Organizational trust is the belief that an employer will be forthright, straightforward and

follow through on commitments.

Laschinger and Finegan (2005) found that he level of job satisfaction and

organizational commitment strongly affected the respondents' perceptions of

organizational justice and empowerment. The nurses' perceptions of fair management

practices, feelings of being respected in the work setting, and their trust in management

had a significant impact upon their level of job satisfaction and organizational

commitment. Employees with a high level of organizational commitment are more likely

to rise to the challenges and demands in the workplace. A high level of commitment

mediated job stress and burnout. The research findings suggest that their trust in

management increased when the employees felt that they received the respect they

deserve. The employees felt as though the managers were more reliable, honest, and

competent and compassionate, resulting in greater job satisfaction. The nurses were more

likely to believe in the goals of the organization and to exert extra effort on the job, and

employee turnover declined. Laschinger and Finegan(2005) urge employers to create a









work environment that manifests justice, trust and respect, which, in turn, will promote

consistent professional practice.

Most of the research literature I have discussed examines education in the public

sector. My research project focuses on the education in a specialized setting, a privatized

juvenile justice setting. Although, privatization is growing rapidly in the U.S. and

internationally, I found little research about the phenomenon. Kalaftides (2001 p.26)

shares my perception: "Along with other public services, education is being dragged into

the private sector. Yet, little is being published on the matter."

Clarke (2004) discusses a theory about the potential effects of privatization. He

argues that privatization holds the potential to disrupt traditional agreements in the public

and private realms. He warns that this disruption may have undesirable consequences for

our communities, impact our economy and reduce morale.

According to Clark (2004), there are two main trends in privatization affecting

social policy: 1) a shift in activities, resources, and the availability of goods and services

and 2) a modification of social responsibility. A reallocation in the provision of goods

and services can assume many different roles. Among these are complete privatization,

public/private partnerships and outsourcing, all of which can create competition for

available resources. The transferal of function is also tangible. Clients may become aware

of privatization because they find themselves dealing with a new entity, rather than a

government agency. The change in social responsibility, however, may be subtle. This

change may reach the public consciousness or be a topic of their conversation. However,

the recent tragedy in the Gulf Coast States of the United States seems to have reawakened

the public discourse about social responsibility.









Clarke (2004) reports that the realignment of these traditional understandings can

affect peer relationships, the structure of the organization, and the way the system

operates. A byproduct of privatization can be an increase in the number of agencies

involved, a dispersal of decision making authority, and new problems of regulation and

administration. Accountability is dispersed among the agencies and decision making

bodies.

Clarke's (2004) article is thought provoking. He offers a theoretical perspective

about the practice of privatization. However, as previously mentioned there is little

empirical data to support or refute his views.

Research that appears about on the actual outcomes of juvenile justice programs is

also limited. According to research conducted by Pealer and Latessa (2004) about

juvenile justice correctional programs, relatively few correctional programs that serve

juveniles provide services and treatment consistent with the principles of effective

intervention. The researchers assessed a variety of programs including, government

operated, and private non-profit and private for profit service providers. They did not

select the programs for study randomly but they argue that there is no reason to assume

that these results are atypical of other juvenile programs in the United States.

Pealer and Latessa (2004) use the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory to

evaluate 107 juvenile correctional programs to determine how well they adhere to

selected standards. The most common shortcomings were that the programs were

designed and operated without the benefit of empirical research to drive or validate

practices. There was a lack of objective assessment of the youths and, when assessments

were performed, the all youths received identical services regardless of the results of the









assessments. Staff training was inconsistent and lacking. Little consideration was given to

matching the program to the needs of the youths.

Pealer and Latessa (2004) found few measures of program performance. They

report that correctional researchers have largely ignored the measurement of program

quality. Traditionally, quality has been measured by process evaluations. This is helpful

in determining the status of a program's operations, but these evaluations say little about

the outcomes of the program. The information they provide meet auditors' need to track

fulfillment of contractual obligations; but, these criteria used may have little relevance to

recidivism.

Jensen (2003) provides an account of his experience as an educator in a

correctional facility serving juveniles. He describes the conflict that arose in a facility as

a result of privatization. It involves a partnership between the state department of

corrections and a provider that is contracted to deliver educational services to

incarcerated juvenile offenders.

Jensen (2003) described the conflicts that ensued between the correctional staff and

the teachers at the beginning of the process. The guards appeared to have little confidence

in the educational process. He reports that the communication among the faculty and

other staff at a juvenile correctional facility was improved by developing common goals.

This facilitated an improvement in the educational services for the youths. The teachers

noted fewer behavior problems, less discipline referrals, and accelerated academic

progress. Jensen (2003. p.116) reports that, "Communication, coordination, and

collaborative problem solving resulted in the educational and correctional staffs

experiencing personal ownership of the vision, the mission, and goals of the organization.









Correctional educators are challenged to bring inquiry and learning to places mainly

designed for custody and control... and safety and security concerns take precedence over

educational practices."

Jensen (2003) describes a recurring theme that surfaced in the pilot project that I

conducted. Both studies discuss conflict between the juvenile justice educators and the

other staff. Jensen's (2003) refers to the conflict as apparent differences in perceived

missions and turf issues. Jensen (2003) suggests that some of the factors that influence

effectiveness of schools in mainstream education are also influential in a juvenile justice

setting. These are collaboration among staff, shared vision and goals, a focus on

academic achievement, and the structural conditions necessary to do their job.

Figure 2.1 is a graphical display of the construct of professional community. This

diagram demonstrates how the variables interact and influence the level of job

satisfaction of teachers.











































Figure-2.1 Theoretical Framework Describing the Intervening Variables of Professional
Community and Organizational Justice and Their Relationship to Teacher
Satisfaction in Privatized Juvenile Justice Schools














CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESGIN AND METHODS

Concepts, Indicators and Variables

The social researcher is charged with identifying relationships between abstract

concepts and searching for measurable indicators of these concepts. My research

examines the concepts of teacher satisfaction and the presence of professional

community. Teacher satisfaction is defined as the attitudes of teachers affected by

extrinsic factors (like relationships with peers and administration, salary, environment)

and intrinsic factors (commitment, achievement, recognition and responsibility) (Bogler

2001). The area of teacher satisfaction conceptualized in this research focuses on

relationships between teachers and their peers and administrators in a privatized

environment.

An indicator of teacher satisfaction is the presence of a professional community.

Professional community indicates how the presence of a respectful and synergetic

relationship affects teacher satisfaction and thus influences students' academic

achievement (Louis, Marks, and Kruse 1996). Many variables can measure the presence

of professional community, but this research groups them into three main perceptual

variables: shared sense of purpose, structural conditions, and human and social

resources. A shared sense of purpose implies a common goal an emphasis on student

learning. Structural conditions include issues like planning time, decision making, and

adherence to school policy. Human and social resources involve mutual respect,

supportive leadership, and instructional feedback.









Preliminary Research

According to Dillman (2001), a pilot study is a pretest that can provide more

information than cognitive interviews or instrument protests. By emulating the research

design on a smaller scale, one may identify correlations among variables, problems with

the instrument, possible response rates, and issues with scalar questions.

A colleague and I conducted research during the summer of 2004 that explored

three dimensions of teacher satisfaction in the private sector setting: satisfaction with

peers, satisfaction with the environment, and satisfaction with the organization. After

pre-testing the interview and questionnaire instrument on three teachers, we used a

purposive sample selection to identify six teachers. We presented six case studies of

teachers who work in juvenile justice schools in the private sector. In this article, private

schools referred specifically to secular schools not affiliated with religious education.

Juvenile justice schools referred to private companies that provide educational services to

adjudicated youth in both residential and non-residential settings. Teacher satisfaction

referred to individual perceptions of performance in the peer, environmental, and

organizational contexts. This pilot study fueled our interest in further examining how

teacher satisfaction is affected in the private juvenile justice setting.

After compiling the results of the pilot study, we were able to answer some of the

questions that Dillman (2001) suggests a pilot study may answer. For example, we found

that increasing our sample size might be a problem due to teachers' limited time and

administrators' reluctance to have teachers participate. Also, we were able to identify the

specific concepts concerning satisfaction that we wanted to concentrate on. This

identification guided the revision of our interview and questionnaire instrument.









Design

This research uses an explanatory, theory building case study design. This choice

reflects a number of different factors. By using case studies, we could examine several

variables that interact without having to isolate one factor (de Vaus 2001). First, the

stage of theory development regarding this subject implies that research has a descriptive

and explanatory role at present (de Vaus 2001, Fowler 1993). Finally, the limited amount

of research in the area of teacher satisfaction and privatization demands work that begins

to build theories. The construction of theory is "what makes qualitative research

research... linkages with theory; extension of theory, creation of theory... makes

qualitative research useful, significant, and powerful (Morse 2002, p.12).

In light of the pace of privatization in education and social services, relatively little

research exists to tell us how private juvenile justice providers perform in education. The

State of Florida Department of Juvenile Justice does, however, conduct yearly

evaluations of juvenile justice programs through the Quality Assurance process and the

Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program. These formative evaluations

provide stakeholders with information on what is happening in programs from an

operational standpoint. However, we know little about what happens from an outcome

basis or why it happens. Therefore, research that has explanatory power is most

appropriate at this time.

This research also relies upon a case study design because of the complex

interacting variables involved in understanding teacher satisfaction in this setting (de

Vaus 2001). In an organization, the elimination of external variables is impossible

because of the necessity of daily functions. Additionally, the outcome variable I intend to

study, satisfaction, does not occur independently of the myriad of external variables









transpiring everyday in an organization. In fact, the way external variables influence

satisfaction is precisely what we want to study. According to de Vaus (2001 p. 232),

"case study designs are particularly useful when we do not wish or are unable to screen

out the influence of 'external' variables but when we wish to examine their effect on the

phenomenon we are investigating." Furthermore, this design allows us to conduct what

Bryman (2001) calls an intensive examination of the setting. To achieve a complete

analysis of teacher satisfaction, or any variable, one must consider the whole, not just the

part (de Vaus 2001).

Finally, the case study design corresponds well with this research question because

one way to achieve explanatory power is through theory building (de Vaus 2001).

"Theory building is a process in which research begins with observations and uses

inductive reasoning to derive a theory from these observations" (de Vaus 2001, p.223).

These derived theories would attempt to make sense of the observations collected. Not

only is there a stunning lack of research in the area of private juvenile justice programs,

but we lack sufficient theories to conduct the research or make sound policy decisions.

Pealer and Latessa (2004) argue that the majority of the juvenile justice programs in

operation are theoretical; the programs serve the youth and communities without

guidance from theories that have been developed and tested through research.

Theories from related fields such as teacher satisfaction, organizational theory,

psychology, education, and social policy provide researchers with a starting place in

building theory for this research. However, it will be necessary to observe the current

phenomenon, understand how it coincides with current theories, and begin to create new

theories. This process of theory building is the only way to create external validity,









according to Morse (1999). The case study design is most appropriate for research in

need of this beginning process.

This particular case study examines a single case, teachers at AMI schools. This

allows the research to broaden the knowledge about larger population. In this way it is

similar to ethnography. An ethnography and a case study are not mutually exclusive as

they both have similar features (Basit, 2003).

Sampling

Several sampling issues deserve consideration in a case study design. Although a

purposive, or judgmental, sample is often interpreted as a convenience sample, that

assumption is erroneous. According to de Vaus (2001, p.223), "using a theory building

approach to case studies we select cases to help develop and refine the propositions and

develop a theory that fits the cases we study." Consequently, sample selection is just as

important in qualitative research as it is in quantitative research. Sampling selection can

pose control for internal validity threats in unique ways. Sampling response can also

pose problems for the researcher. However, these sampling issues, if handled properly,

help contribute to the validity of the research.

The theoretical population for this study is all teachers who work in juvenile justice

education programs. Any attempt to create generalized theories from this research would

apply only to teachers who work in these types of organizations. The accessible

population for this research is teachers who live and work Florida. Gaining access to this

population was dependent on working with Department of Juvenile Justice and the

Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program and their endorsement of this

research. The sampling frame consists of teachers who work at schools in Florida

operated by Associate Marine Institutes (AMI). "Purposive or judgmental sampling









involves selecting elements for the sample that the researcher's judgment and prior

knowledge suggests will best serve the purposes of the study and provide the best

information" (Sullivan 2000, p. 133). The organization that has the most experience

running privatized juvenile justice programs in Florida is a logical choice for this study.

Additionally, threats of history can be reduced because the researcher can acquire in

depth knowledge about the organization and its individual schools and because the

uniform institutional setting provides a common history among the schools.

AMI was the first private agency to be given a contract by the state of Florida to

provide services to juvenile offenders. Associated Marine Institutes had its beginnings at

Florida Ocean Sciences Institute in 1969. The Institute was mainly involved in

oceanographic research projects. The employees began involving troubled youths in the

projects. They noticed positive changes in the youths. This inspired them to create a

permanent program that encouraged the development of life and vocational skills through

experiential learning (www.amikids.org/Default.htm.).

In 1974, AMI Inc. was formed so that it could offer a central office for consistent,

uniform management for its affiliate organizations. AMI, Inc. now has 49 different

programs in seven different states. They have served over 50,000 youths since their

conception. The website states that, "For almost 35 years we have striven to be the best

and provide the safest and most economical way to benefit society and the kids we serve"

(www.amikids.org/Default.htm).

So de Vaus notes (2001, p.238) "The external validity of case studies is enhanced

by the strategic selection of cases rather than by the statistical selection of cases." Inside

the sampling frame, this research will rely on representative case selection. Typical or









representative cases show neither extremely good nor extremely negative examples of the

organizations under consideration. de Vaus (2001, p.240) argues, "We have no sure way

of knowing whether a case is truly typical and no way of estimating its typicality."

Instead of typical cases, de Vaus claims researchers should focus on cases that present

valid and challenging tests of theory. However, in this instance I use results from existing

state evaluations to select cases that show typical or representative performance.

According to the Juvenile Justice Education Enhancement Program Annual Report

(2003), there are 137 private programs that provide educational services to Department of

Juvenile Justice youth. Approximately 363 teachers are employed by all of the private

programs in Florida. Associated Marine Institutes runs twenty-six of those programs,

including both residential and day treatment facilities. Although these numbers fluctuate

on a yearly, even monthly, basis due to attrition, program closures, and other events, it

could be extrapolated that Associated Marine Institutes employs approximately ninteen

percent (70) of the teachers employed (363) in private juvenile justice facilities in

Florida.

There are on average four teachers at each Associated Marine Institute School. By

interviewing as many teachers as possible from at least nine schools, I feel that a wide

enough range of responses were collected to discern common themes that cut across all

cases, using the approach to theory development suggested by grounded theory.

Furthermore, multiple cases in a study contribute to a form of replication, which

increases confidence in the findings (de Vaus 2001).

I chose three cases with low, three with medium, and three with high performing

formative evaluation scores as determined by the Quality Assurance reports. Specific









program goals and objectives provide the basis for the development of the standards used

in the quality assessment process. The standards are the general categories in which the

programs are evaluated to determine overall level of quality. These categories include

program management, health care, mental health services, employee training, and

program safety. The quality assurance system uses a team of evaluators comprised of a

lead reviewer, peer reviewers, a juvenile justice board or council member and an

educator. The quality assurance process uses multiple data sources to document

compliance with policies, procedures, and practices. The evaluators inspect records

provided by the program, interview staff, and observe daily operations. The Juvenile

Justice Educational Enhancement Program conducts a review of the educational

programs. The educational portion of the review examines the programs compliance with

assessment requirements, academic instructor certification, in-service training and the

community involvement. The reviewers assess compliance with lesson plan requirements

and the maintenance of grade books. Based on these findings the programs are rated by

their level of performance and compliance with the program's adherence to its policies

and procedures. These scores are then used to determine an overall score. This report is

published each year on the Department of Juvenile Justice website

(http://www.djj.state.fl.us/Research/statsnresearch/keystrends.html).

I used the 2004 QA report to determine the cases I intended to sample. I chose three

schools that fell in the bottom third of the reported scores. Likewise, I chose three schools

whose overall scores fell in the mid range and three schools that had overall scores that

fell in the high range of scores on the 2004 QA report. By using cases from schools with

different performance rates, I was better able to identify outlying cases and explore









situations that did not meet my expectations (de Vaus 2001). These cases were chosen to

reflect the fullness of the experience of teachers working in the privatized juvenile justice

setting. I used ordinal data collected and provided by the Department of Juvenile Justice

to purposively select the cases that represent a range of circumstances happening within

the specific context of the private juvenile justice setting. The range of experiences and

the in depth descriptions expressed by the respondents offer the greatest opportunity for a

thorough examination of the setting.

The schools are considered units of analysis, with teachers as the embedded units

within the cases (de Vaus 2001). Keeping in mind that these programs are generally

small, community-based programs with relatively few students, I worked with all

teachers, or embedded units, from each school, or case that I was able to visit.

I collected data from twenty-seven teachers from six different schools. There were

three cases of unit non-response. The three schools chosen from the lower range of the

QA scores are not in this study, not by design, because I was unable to collect data from

these schools. This issue is discussed completely in the results section.

Figure 2 denotes the six schools in which I gathered data and the 2004 overall QA

score. The schools are coded with a number to maintain the respondents' confidentiality.

Table-3.1 2004 Quality Assurance Scores for Six Schools Operated by A.M.I. (Florida
Department of Juvenile Justice)
SCHOOL # 2004 OVERALL QA SCORE
1 68%
2 86%
3 *Deemed
4 81%
5 72%
6 74%
*Deemed status means that in the previous review period the school performed at a 95%
or better and did not receive a review this year.









Instrumentation

I administered both a self-completion questionnaire and a structured oral interview

designed specifically for this investigation. The complete instrument is found in

Appendix A. The self-completion questionnaire obtained demographic information as

well as perceptual data as measured by scalar response questions. The questionnaire

offers the respondent a range of choices and therefore measures the intensity of a

response to variable (satisfaction) (Sullivan 2001). The closed answer response structure

allows the researcher to aggregate ordinal data, which can have more statistical power

than nominal data (Sullivan 2001). Also, allowing respondents to answer questions on

their own instead of to an interviewer may produce less social desirability bias for some

items (Fowler 1993). The respondents may feel a greater sense of anonymity and

confidentiality when their answers are written on an anonymous paper with reminders in

the instructions that answers will be available to the researchers only (Fowler 1993). The

questions on the questionnaire were written in present tense and grammatically agreed

with the response categories (Fowler 1993).

According to Fowler (1993), the researcher needs to ensure that questions directly

relate to the concepts and indicators under consideration. Therefore, the self-completion

questionnaire I administered was organized in sections that correspond to the indicators I

wish to measure. Each time a new section was introduced, an introduction statement was

placed at the beginning. Additionally, new instructions appeared each time the format

changed (from agree/disagree question to high/low questions to demographic questions)

(Fowler 1993).

In both the agree/disagree and the high/low sections, I provided four answer types,

one extreme positive, one positive, one negative, and one extreme negative. Although









many researchers provide five item responses (Fowler 1993), I chose to omit a "middle of

the road" alternative. Converse and Presser (1986) suggest that to measure intensity, a

questionnaire should force the person to decide on his/her opinion. They further suggest

providing gradations in intensity such as very high, high, low, very low. Thus, you avoid

losing information about the direction in which some people lean.

Questions for the index were devised from variables outlined by two main

researchers. Louis, et al (1996) outlined many variables to measure the main indicators

of professional community. They state, "Working in concert, structural conditions, and

human and social resources provide the foundations of professional community" (p.761).

The researchers used shared norms and values, collective focus on student learning,

collaboration among faculty, and reflective dialogue to measure school wide professional

community. They also examined structural conditions such as organizational

environment, scheduled planning time, and teacher empowerment. Some of the human

and social resources measured in their research were supportive leadership, openness to

innovation, respect, feedback on instructional performance, and professional

development.

I contacted the researchers and obtained permission to include some of the

questions they developed on the instrument I developed. This proved to be a wise choice,

as they had used this instrument on 910 public school teachers. This was an indication

that the items are valid and the questions provide a reasonable estimation of the variables

to be measured.

I included questions about the teachers' perceptions about a shared sense of

purpose. I asked the teachers to rate their feelings about whether their colleagues share









their beliefs and values about the mission of the school. The respondents were asked to

rate the alignment of the administration and the teachers to a shared goal.

I probed the teachers' opportunity to collaborate with other teachers by asking them

to rate their level of cooperation with other teachers and their efforts to coordinate course

content. Additionally, I inquired about the frequency of education meetings and shared

planning meetings. The teachers were asked to describe how often they have received

meaningful feed back from their peers and from administration. These questions probed

the teachers' professional relationships. The presence of meaningful feedback about

instructional practices is widely discussed in the literature as a mediating factor in

professional isolationism.

The schools that I planned to visit were very small. There are usually only four or

five teachers on the faculty at any one time. With this in mind, I did not use the measure

of staffing complexity or of school size. I also did not include questions about reflective

dialogue on this instrument.

To measure perceptions of administration relationships, I asked teachers to rate the

level of cooperation they received from the administration. The teachers were asked to

rate the level of responsiveness of the administration. Additionally, the respondents were

asked to indicate whether the communication between them and the administration was

adequate. The teachers were asked to rate their perceptions of respect and decision

making processes.

I asked teachers to rate their level of agreement with the mission state through a

series of questions. These questions asked the teachers to rate how the day to day

operations of the school reflected the mission statement. The respondents were also asked









to rate how closely their personal philosophy was aligned to the mission statement. One

question asked the teachers to rate how clear the goals of the school were.

To measure perceptions of the use of clear and consistent policies and procedures, I

asked teachers to rate whether resources are distributed in a fair way and whether

financial incentives were awarded in a systematic way. The respondents were asked to

rate their perceptions about how well the Quality Assurance scores reflect the quality of

the school on a day-to-day basis. They were asked to rate how much they were personally

motivated by the Quality Assurance process. Additionally the teachers were asked to rate

their feelings about whether changes to policies and procedures are related to the teaching

staff in a timely manner.

The structured interview gathered data about satisfaction relating to organizational

justice and professional community. The decision to include a section of open response

format questions in the interview stemmed from two considerations. First, it allows for

triangulation. Collecting the information in more than one format provides reiteration of

that data collected. One of the ways to increase validity in subjective questions is to ask

the same question in different forms (Fowler 1993). Therefore, the open response

questions approach the same indicators but use slightly different wording and a different

response format. Second, open response questions may more closely reveal the attitudes,

opinions, and perceptions of the respondents because they allow for unanticipated

responses in the respondents' own words (Fowler 1993). Shacklock (1998) argues for the

necessity of gathering authentic portrayals of teachers' work. He asserts that the true

description of the complexity of the profession can only be voiced by the teachers

themselves. Shacklock argues that it is more productive for teachers to attend to the basic









values of their own enterprise and to forge a professionalism distinctively suited to their

ideals. Malm (2004 p. 412) states, "Tendencies towards continuity or change in education

depend to a great extent on the ways in which teachers are able to critically reflect about

how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact

essential in order to understand the forces that sway their motivations, something I

believe to be of relevance and concern to all involved with teaching and educational

processes."

The oral interview provides teachers a chance to freely comment on their

experiences as a professional. They can describe factors that may contribute to

satisfaction. Again, the questions have been designed to lead teachers through a thought

process. The first question asks about satisfaction and provides probes to the principal

investigator to ensure thorough coverage of the subject. These questions also give

teachers a chance to make suggestions for what would increase their levels of

satisfaction. After having considered what contributes to satisfaction, their reflections

might be more focused and revealing. These data will be analyzed according to the

principles of grounded theory (discussed below) for trends in answers. Because of the

nature of the research design, the data will not be coded. It will, however, be examined

for trends that occur in multiple teachers' responses as well as nuggets that help to

explain a phenomena in whole new ways.

To measure perceptions of peer relationships, I asked teachers to describe their

working relationships with their peers. I asked teachers to discuss their perceptions about

their working relationships with the administration and how it impacts their performance









in the classroom. The teachers were asked to discuss their feelings about the school's

mission statement and its impact on their performance as an educator.

To measure overall satisfaction regarding these indicators, I asked teachers: 1)

What would you describe as the most significant factor in your decision to continue

teaching at your school, 2) Describe the strengths of your school and 3) Describe the

weaknesses of your school. Appendix B displays the questions contained on the

questionnaire and survey instrument grouped into categories according to relevance to

the intervening variables and their relation to professional community and organizational

justice.

Procedure

Participants were recruited by contacting nine selected schools in a proximal

geographical area and asking administrators for their cooperation in the research process.

I asked teachers if they would be interested in participating. I interviewed all

respondents, from each location. No monetary compensation was offered. Willing

teachers were contacted to schedule interviews at the work site. The interviews were

scheduled at the teachers' convenience.

In a pilot study on teacher satisfaction, I experienced several threats to internal

validity because of sampling response issues. Sampling non-response can indicate bias if

the reasons for non-response are somehow related to the variables under consideration.

In order to deal with this threat, I had to devise several ways to improve the

response rate. I joined a professional organization, Correctional Educators Association,

in order to increase contacts and increase professional credibility. I obtained a letter from

Secretary Schembri of the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice endorsing the research

because this letter might help administrators and teachers understand that the research









goal is to improve conditions for teachers and organizations not point blame. One

researcher created a one page flyer describing the research effort, its goals, and intent. I

mailed and emailed the flyer to the schools. I contacted the Juvenile Justice Enhancement

Project (JJEEP) to request a letter of endorsement.

At the appointed time, respondents were provided with a letter of consent and given

an introduction to the purpose of the research. I advised the participants concerning

consent, instructions on how to answer written and oral questions, and the length of the

interview. The participants were then given the self-completion questionnaire to

complete. When the participants were finished, I began the oral interview, which lasted

approximately 45 minutes. The names of the respondents were not recorded on the

instrument. I was the only person conducting interviews in order to protect the privacy of

the participants. At the end of the interview, the participants were thanked and informed

that the results of the research would be made available to them.

Data Analysis

I used a grounded theory epistemological approach to analyze the data from the

open response items in the interview. According to Bryman (2001, p. 144), "Grounded

theory has become by far the most widely used framework for analyzing qualitative data.

It has been defined as theory that has been derived from data that was systematically

gathered and analyzed through the research process. In this method, data collection,

analysis, and eventual theory stand in close relationship to one another." Data are

analyzed as they are collected and what is learned in one setting is used to enrich and

enhance the data collection process itself. Throughout the data collection process,

constant comparisons between and within cases need to be made. This is a dynamic,









intuitive and creative process that involves inductive reasoning, critical self-examination,

verification and theorizing.

Verification is a process used in qualitative research that ensures reliability and

validity. Verification techniques are interwoven into every step of the research design and

implementation process. It involves using the appropriate research design,

instrumentation, sampling procedure, and identifying and correcting design related issues

as they arise in the inquiry process (Morse et al., 2002). In the data collection phase, the

data was transcribed from the interviews with the help of another researcher and an

assistant. The responses from the interviews were carefully examined and discussed with

the other researchers to determine which data was relevant. The data was organized into

cohesive units and a matrix was created. This matrix sorted the data into categories

corresponding to variables under consideration. The other researcher and I independently

examined the data organized in the matrix and identified themes. We met again and

consistent themes were then agreed upon and reviewed for their interrelationships.

This process provided an opportunity to minimize personal bias and subjectivity

and to improve reliability and validity. Reliability was increased by having the data

examined multiple times by different researchers. This was done through discussion and

in written form. Extensive quotes were also included to enhance validity. Validity was

increased through the process of triangulation. The triangulation process involved the use

of various data sources, researchers and methods to investigate the same phenomenon.

The goal of much case study data analysis, according to de Vaus (2001), is

theoretical generalization, not statistical generalization. Analytical inductive strategies are

used to help explain indicators of causality. Statistical analyses are not useful when









sample size is small, and often not when sample selection is purposive. Instead, the

iterative, inductive approach to data analysis is used to identify the categories,

relationships and assumptions that inform the respondents' view of the world in general

and of the research topic in particular. This approach respects the complexity, subtlety

and detail of human transactions. Knowing how many people feel positively or

negatively about something was not the intention of this portion of the research. Rather

the intent was to ascertain how teachers feel and why they feel that way. This provides an

in-depth understanding not easily captured by numbers, percentages or statistical tests

(Basit 2003).














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There were three incidences of unit non-response. The director at one school did

not respond to repeated attempts to schedule the interviews. Another school lost their

contract with the local school board and was closed completely. The third episode of non-

response occurred because the school's faculty had dwindled to one certified teacher and

one vocational teacher. The certified teacher was out sick the day I visited the school.

Attempts to reschedule failed. I had identified these three schools to include in the study

because the results of the 2004 QA report indicated they were low performing schools.

The QA scores ranked them in the lower third of all of the AMI schools. The fact that I

cannot include any data from these schools in my research is a limiting factor. The

absence of this data means that I am unable to include information, experiences, and

insights from teachers who were working at these low rated schools. My research does

not reflect their feelings or thoughts. The complete effect of the non-response on the

validity of the study is unknown however, because I learned nothing about the non-

respondents and their experiences. Although, not by design, my research is based on the

experiences of the teachers in the middle range and the high range of private juvenile

justice programs operated by AMI in Florida.

Table 3.1 (contained in the previous chapter) has a chart identifying the schools

from which data was collected and their scores from the 2004 QA report. I collected data

from 27 teachers at six different schools. The results and discussion that follow are based










on this data. Table 4.1 displays a socio-demographic description of the analysis of

teachers that participated in this project.

Table 4-1 A Socio-demographic Analysis of Respondents (n=27) who Participated in
Research Project on Teacher Satisfaction in Privatized Juvenile Justice
Programs Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005
Race
17 White
1 Hispanic
5 Black
2 Other
2 Unknown
Gender
15 Males
11 Females
Level of Education
17 B.S.
7 M.S.
2 Ph.D.
Current Annual Salary
1 $20,000 $25,000
18 $25,001 $30,000
6 $30,001 $35,000
1 $35,001 +


I measured professional community and organizational justice through a series of

questions about their perceptions of conditions in the workplace. Table 4.2 shows the

teachers' responses to the five measures of professional community and organizational

justice, grouped by school. The table shows the mean for each category for each school

and the mean of all values form each category for each school is also shown. A four

indicates strongly agree, a three means agreement, a two signifies disagreement and a one

denotes strong disagreement. Agreement represents a positive opinion about the issue.

Disagreement signifies a conflict. The overall mean of each school was derived by adding

the scores to all questions.













Table 4-2 Individual and Composite Mean Scores of Teacher Ratings of Six Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in Six Privatized
Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, 2005





TEACHER INTERACTIONS SCHOOL SCHOOL
WORKING POLICIES & WITH MISSION MANAGEMENT JOB COMPOSITE
SCHOOL # RELATIONSHIPS PROCEDURES ADMINISTRATORS STATEMENT STRATEGIES SATISFACTION MEAN

1 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6

2 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.2

3 3.0 3.1 2.2 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.8

4 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0

5 3.3 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.9

6 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4

COMPOSITE
MEAN 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.9 3.0









Hypothesis 1: I expect that the most positive component of the teachers' job to be the

student/teacher relationship.

The responses show the teachers felt most positively about the school's mission

statement. Teachers at four of the schools felt most positive about this variable. They

indicated that they agreed with the mission statement and that they felt as though it

contributed to their feelings of satisfaction in the workplace. This finding supports the

theory that teachers chose the teaching profession because they want to contribute to their

community through their work with the youth. This finding supports my hypothesis that

teachers derive the highest level of job satisfaction from their work with the youth.

Hypothesis 2: I expect that peer relationships will have a mediating effect upon teachers'

level ofjob satisfaction.

Responses about the teachers working relationships with other teachers also

indicated agreement. The teachers rated this area second highest. They indicated that they

feel positively about their peer relationships. These peer relationships contribute to their

feelings of job satisfaction. This finding supports my hypothesis that the teachers'

working relationships with their peers would be a positive influence on their feelings of

job satisfaction.

The use of consistent policies and procedures was also rated as a positive

condition by the teachers. They indicated that the use of consistent policies and

procedures contributed to their feelings of job satisfaction. This finding is interesting

when considering how the respondents rated the next two areas.

The teachers gave the lowest marks to their interactions with administrators and

with the strategies of the management. The teachers indicated that these two areas









contributed to feelings of disagreement and dissatisfaction with their job. These two

categories of questions examined issues such as shared decision making, respect from

administrators, professional development, and feedback on instructional practice.

There is almost a full point difference between the composite mean scores

reported by the schools. Teachers at school 6 reported the highest level of job

satisfaction. Teachers at schools 2 and 5 scores indicate an agreeable level of job

satisfaction. While school 1 and 3 reported less than positive level of job satisfaction.

These findings support my hypothesis that teachers will feel most positive about the

student/teacher and teacher/teacher relationships; however, these positive aspects of their

job are not enough to sustain feelings of job satisfaction. Their levels of job satisfaction

will diminish if the teachers do not receive adequate support from administrators, respect

and they are not given feedback on instructional performance. Additionally, when

management practices are perceived as fair and consistent, teachers will experience a

lower level of job satisfaction. These findings support my hypothesis that teachers'

positive perceptions about their working relationships with the students and peers will

insufficient to mediate the negative feelings caused due to the lack of indicators of

professional community and organizational justice.

One of the most interesting results of my research is the disparity that exists

between the results from the self completion questionnaires and those of the interviews.

The results of the two just do not agree. The same respondents who indicate that they

have a good relationship with the administration on the questionnaire disclose details in

the interview that describe unfair treatment of the staff by the administration.









I turned to the existing research literature to help me better understand this phenomenon.

Sommer and Sommer (1986, p.157) write, "Interviews are particularly useful for

exploring complex and emotionally arousing topics. They can be used to explore beliefs,

opinions, and personal experiences. An interview gives people the opportunity to tell

their stories in their own words. It can provide a release for pent-up feelings and can be

empowering as it recognizes people as experts on their own experiences. A further

advantage of the interview is that people who may be unwilling or unable to write out a

long, coherent answer are often willing to say it to an interviewer."

I believe that the discrepancy in the results is a consequence of fear of reprisal

from administration. It is less intimidating to verbalize something than to put it in

writing. It is safer to say what you think and feel than to commit it in writing. At the

beginning of each interview, after I had informed the subject that the interview would be

confidential, the teachers would again ask if what they were going to write or say would

be passed on to their superiors. They would often ask for reassurance of their

confidentiality again at the start of the structured interview, and again as they were going

to disclose some information that could be interpreted as negative about the working

environment. Once I had gained their trust, it was if a floodgate had opened. Their

thoughts, feelings and insights about their experiences as a teacher rushed forth, creating

a rich body of data.

Kvale (1996) uses the metaphor of a miner for the interviewer. This model

assumes that the subject has specific information and that the interviewer's job is to dig it

out. Narrative inquiry encourages reflection. It captures the nature of beliefs, thoughts

and practices. In this study, the structured interview gave the interviewer an opportunity









to ask questions that encouraged the respondent to describe their experiences in more

depth. The process became thought provoking. Overall, I place greater confidence in the

data from the interviews than those from the questionnaires. The more the teachers talked

the more they thought of to talk about. They identified experiences in their professional

lives that describe and qualify the work of a teacher in a private juvenile justice program.

These narratives can provide insight into the events that form their professional

knowledge. Reflecting collaboratively on the stories and their lessons can provide

understanding of how teachers make sense of their experiences and incorporate them into

their personal practical knowledge. Sharing stories and lessons among teachers can

further build a sense of community, reduce the isolation so endemic to teaching, and

encourage teachers to see themselves as intentional practitioners integrating skill and art

into their practice.

Professional Community

Hypothesis 3: I predict that when the indicators of professional community are not

present in the workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction.

Shared Sense of Purpose

A shared sense of purpose is characterized by a belief in common values and

expectations. The focus is on student learning in a school community. Members of the

school community reinforce these common values and beliefs through language,

instruction, and personal interaction among staff, and the staff s interaction with the

students. The focus on student learning creates an opportunity for students to succeed

academically. Additionally, the concentration on academic achievement provides

teachers with the opportunity to fulfill their professional mission. Teachers want to teach.









A professional community values and supports this mission by promoting a school

culture that expects kids to learn and teachers to teach.


The mission statement in any organization provides the ethos for that organization.

AMI schools are guided by the company's mission statement. The teachers were asked to

describe their feelings about the influence of the mission statement on their ability to

perform as a teacher. Many of the teachers I interviewed expressed a strong affinity to

AMI's mission statement.

Teachers at school 1 report an affinity for the mission statement. They state, "I

believe in it, but it is not being put into action." The respondents from school 2 described

the mission statement as a "goalpost, it's what we do." At school 3, the teachers report,

"It makes the biggest difference." The teachers from schools 4 and 5 gave similar

responses. The faculty at school 6 seems to have a remarkable allegiance to the mission

statement. They described the mission statement as permeating their day. They stated that

the staff and students recite it together several times throughout the day. They stated that

it helps the teachers stay on track and reminds them of their purpose throughout the day.

The teachers indicated that the mission statement is used to reinforce positive behavior

among the students. One teacher said, "It reflects my goals for being a teacher."

The teachers I met during this research project spoke about their goals for being a

teacher and their dedication to the youth in their care. They explained that teaching these

youths was of great importance to them. The teachers described the fulfillment and

rewards of working with these hard to reach youths. They expressed appreciation for the

opportunity to impact a youth's life.









The teachers' responses were consistent with the research described in the in the

literature. The teachers reported that their greatest motivation was their work with the

youths. Several teachers made comments like, "The relationships with the kids are the

whole core of this." Another teacher told this story, "At the last graduation, seven

students thanked me for helping them get their GED. I would be happy with just one

thank you a year...but seven kids attributed their success to me. That is the real reason I

want to be a teacher...to hear kids say thank you." All but two of the teachers reported

positive relationships with the students and a feeling of satisfaction with this part of their

job.

However, several teachers expressed concern about the lack of focus on academic

achievement at their school. One of the teachers expressed his concern in this anecdote.

"The executive director is not an educator. He does not understand the nuances of the

educational process. When he walks down the hall, he just has a knee jerk reaction to

something. He doesn't inquire about the educational aspect of the situation. He doesn't

even understand kids. He was a professional athlete and he just thinks kids should just do

what they are told. He really does not understand these kids at all. Academics are not

priority. On a scale from 1 to 10, academics are number 9. This is frustrating and

worrisome. What will happen to these kids without an education?"

Other teachers voiced similar concerns about the emphasis placed on student

learning at their school. Several discussed the fact that students were pulled from their

classes without prior notification without a system in place for the student to make up the

class time. The teachers were unable to point to the process in place that created the

situation. One respondent stated, "How can I teach a child that is not in the classroom?"









One teacher reported, "Teaching is pushed to the side. The administration doesn't care if

teaching is done." Other teachers reported that academic instruction was impeded by

constant interruptions from noise from the walkie talkies and support staff addressing

issues like dress code during instructional time. One teacher stated, "The administration

is more concerned about the boats and marine activities than they were about educating

the kids." Another stated, "AMI has given up on these kids." Other teachers reported that

the students in one class are at varying levels of capability. This requires that the teacher

prepare several different lesson plans for one class. This places extra stress on the teacher

and gives less time to direct instruction.

A recurring positive comment was about the flexibility and autonomy the teachers

were able to exercise in the classrooms. They reported that hands-on learning is

encouraged. One teacher reported that he teaches surfing and that was a really great way

to kids involved. Another reported that he was able to build models with the students and

this was a way to reinforce teamwork, reading and following directions. One of the

teachers said, "They allow me to approach teaching in my own way. They respect the fact

that I am an adult and that I know why I am here. I am given the leeway to try different

things." Another teacher stated that they felt as though the school went above and beyond

in funding field trips. A teacher in another school described taking students on a

snorkeling trip to the Florida Keys, a trip to the capital, and taking the kids to a statewide

Olympic meet. She felt these were all positive, learning opportunities for the students.

She indicated that opportunities like these were one of the reasons she liked working in

that school, and continued opportunities like this would influence her decision to stay

working there.









A sense of shared vision is an integral component of any community. In the school

community, developing a shared meaning or vision can create a foundation that is

inspiring to the educator. A related contribution of the community is that of providing the

interactive locus of the emergence of the self (Wilkinson 1991). This contributes to the

professional self.

This shared vision provides consistency and structure for the youths, as well. The

youths may find the coherence that was previously lacking in their lives through the

positive interaction of the staff. The interaction and shared vision provide a locus of

control. It is a function of community. Membership in communities is the primary way

in which socialization of wants and needs happens (Strike 2004).

The interaction of the staff provides a model of behavior for the youths.

Community begins in learning the norms of those who care for and about us, and ends in

caring for and about those whose norms we share. People begin to internalize the norms

of communities because someone cares about them. Normation begins with caring and

belonging, not with reasoning and not with nature. The community's focus on student

learning creates the expectation of academic achievement and of personal success.

The teachers interviewed during this research project appear to share the common

goals and values for student learning. They identify with the school's mission statement

and believe that adherence to it will help them succeed as teachers and help their students

succeed in the classroom and in the community at large. However, some of the teachers

also express disappointment about how their school puts this mission statement into

action. They say when the school does not stay focused on its mission of student learning,

that their ability to perform as an educator is compromised. The teachers I interviewed









indicate that they have a strong affinity to the mission statement but dissatisfaction with

the degree to which daily practice actually reflects it.

The mission statement serves as a blue print for an organization's shared vision.

When teachers perceived that the vision and the goals of the school were clearly shared

philosophically and in day to day operations, they expressed a high level of job

satisfaction. They reported that they were motivated and better able to perform in the

classroom. They expressed commitment to the school and their intent to stay at the

school. The positive impact of a common goal was expressed by the majority of teachers

at two of the schools I visited.

However, when the tenets of the statement were not adhered to, when the vision

was blurred through inconsistent practices, teachers expressed a low level of job

satisfaction. They expressed frustration and discontentment due to shifting of policies

caused by unclear goals and practices that did not adhere to the mission statement. These

teachers reported that dissatisfaction and an inability to trust the organization. These

teachers discussed their disappointment because when the mission is not adhered to it

means that the students are not receiving the educational services they need and deserve.

A shared vision appears to have an impact on the job satisfaction of teachers in

juvenile justice programs. This indicates that this component of professional community

is important in juvenile justice settings just as it is in public school settings. However,

these findings indicate that this element of professional community is lacking in most of

the settings that I visited. Most of the teachers I interviewed felt as though the education

was not valued. They were not able to provide the quality of educational services that the

students needed and deserved. Consequently, they felt devalued as professionals which









diminished their levels of job satisfaction. This finding supports my hypothesis that when

this indicator of professional community is not present teachers feel less job satisfaction.

It is important to teachers to be able to teach in an environment that focuses on student

achievement and when this goal is not upheld by the school culture teachers become

frustrated and dissatisfied. The teachers at school 2 reported that their school had a clear

mission. The average length of employment of the teaching staff was three years. Their

teachers had been there the longest and they planned to stay.

Structural Conditions

Structural conditions such as shared planning time, shared decision making, and

adherence to school policy and procedures are important components of a professional

community. Allocation of resources in a school affects the teacher's instructional

performance. Structural conditions are features in a school community that provide the

framework for the day to day operations of the school.

The allocation of resources in these schools was inconsistent with information

found in the literature about the lack of funding available to schools with primarily

minority, low achieving students. Teachers at schools 2-6 all reported that they had the

supplies they needed. The teachers made comments like, "I have everything I need, I get

everything I ask for, and I am never told no." One teacher indicated that the executive

director's generous allocation of funds showed that he was 100 percent for education.

One teacher reported that he can get anything for the students however supplies that

teachers need are not readily available.

However, there were some important differences. Teachers at school 1 reported a

dismal picture of resource allocation. One teacher put it like this, "Supplies are whatever

you can find. There are not enough textbooks and the ones we have are way out of date,









second hand, and the wrong grade level. This puts a terrific strain on teachers. We have

to make extra copies just to have enough to go around. It is very frustrating."

All teachers at all schools were in agreed about salary. They all agreed that the

salary was "terrible, $10,000.00 less than at public school. And we work year round." A

teacher pointed out that they also work 45 more days than public school teachers.

Another consistent theme expressed by the teachers at all of the schools was not

having planning periods, lunch breaks or bathroom breaks. Most of the teachers are

required to supervise their students during lunch. Since the students must stay in constant

supervision a teacher must request coverage from another staff person in order to use the

restroom. The lack of planning time and lunch breaks was a major issue among the

teachers I interviewed. They reported that they were with the students from 9:00 am until

5:00 pm, without a break. A teacher said it like this, "Being on for that long is

exhausting... mentally, physically, and emotionally. It takes away from my overall

performance as a teacher. Any preparation I do, I have to do on my own time."

The teachers referred to the lack of planning time as an impediment in their ability

to build collegiate support. One of the teachers said, "The lack of planning time limits the

amount of time we teachers have to discuss instructional issues informally. This does not

allow us to grow professionally."

Another question probed the use of consistent policies and procedures. Overall,

most teachers reported that there was inconsistency in this area. One teacher referred to

the way the inconsistency affected his ability to teach, "The policies are not consistent

which makes it really hard to implement rules and to run a classroom." Another described

his school's policies and procedures like this, "They look very good on paper. In reality,









there are some lapses. In the morning meeting we're instructed to do something, but then

the decision is changed and we don't know anything about it. The kids play on this

inconsistency. I am confused about some rules because they are unclear. I end up not

being able to make some simple decisions because the rules change instantly. Like we are

told not to let the students use the restroom during class but then the team leader will let

them."

At another school, a teacher described a similar situation. She reported that during

the morning meeting there will be a decision made, but by lunchtime this decision will be

changed. Why and who changed it will not be communicated. What is clear to her is that

none of the teachers had input into the change, because the teachers were with the

students in class. This teacher reported that, "This type of inconsistency diminishes the

integrity of the whole school. It is a slap in the face to us teachers... because nine out of

ten times we are the ones who will implement the decision, because we are the ones who

actually work with the kids. This kind of management causes confusion among the staff

and the students."

Comparable circumstances were described by a teacher at another school. These

teachers reported that they are responsible for supervision of the students. Students in DJJ

programs must be in the sight of staff at all times. This means a student can not have a

bathroom pass or a hall pass, or can a teacher just step out of the room for a minute. This

means that they are very busy and often not consulted about potential changes in policies

and procedures that they are asked to implement. And like the other two schools, these

changes are made while the teachers are teaching and "on the fly." This teacher reported

that this practice "causes disruption and a chaotic climate on the campus and an element









of mistrust between the teaching staff and the administration." Teachers from four of the

schools mentioned the inconsistency as a weakness of their school. One teacher described

it as the biggest weakness at his school.

The majority of respondents that participated in this study reported dissatisfaction

in these indicators of professional community. The lack of adherence to policy and

procedures create confusion and impair the teachers' ability to perform in the classroom.

Peer collaboration is made difficult due to the lack of planning periods, inconsistent

faculty meetings, and the amount of time they spend directly supervising the students.

However, teachers at five of the schools did report that they have more than adequate

financial resources that enable them to get the necessary instructional supplies to operate

their classrooms.

The findings of this research support the theory that structural conditions impact

the level of job satisfaction among teachers in juvenile justice settings in much the same

way as they do in public educational settings. When teachers reported the use of

consistent policies and procedures they reported a higher level of job satisfaction and

commitment to the job. They also reported that they felt more competent in the

classroom. The majority teachers at one of the schools I interviewed felt as though these

conditions were not present in their school. When teachers reported that they could not

rely on consistent policies and procedures they reported distrust of the organization and

inability to commit to the organization. They reported a low level of job satisfaction

when the structural conditions do not contribute to a professional community. Consider

the average length of employment four of the schools was a year. This further supports









the theory that when teachers are dissatisfied they do not stay at that school creating a

high level of teacher turnover.

Human and Social Resources

Human and social resources are the features of professional community like

administrative support or supportive leadership, mutual respect, feedback on instructional

performance and professional development. Supportive leadership is crucial in

developing and sustaining professional community. Leaders identify and reward actions

that promote the mission of the school. They are the "keepers of the vision." Respect is

the honoring of the expertise and value of others. Respect validates the members of the

community. Feedback on instructional performance provides teachers with essential

information about their instructional practices. This critique provides substance for a

teacher's sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. Professional development

grounds a teacher to broader community of educators. This process encourages personal

and professional growth (Louis, Marks, & Kruse, 1996).

Responses were very mixed. At school 2, the teachers report that they do have

adequate support. They spoke of the administration's effective and careful hiring

practices. They report that this has had a positive influence on teacher retention. One

teacher mentioned that she gets the support she needs to be creative and to do things

without obstacles in her classroom. The teachers at school 3 report hat there has been a

lot of turnover in the administration causing a disruption in the organization. Four of the

teachers there mentioned a lack of clear communication from the administration.

Teachers from schools 4, 5, and 6 expressed concerns about unequal treatment of staff by

the administration, not being treated as professionals, and the recurring theme of no lunch

breaks, planning time, and no time away from the students during the day. A teacher at









school 1 described that administration there as "being in a bubble." Another teacher at

that school reported that, "The administrators act interested until I bring up a real

concern. Then they don't want to listen and they certainly don't respond with an

appropriate action." The teachers at school 1 also report a lack of feedback on

instructional performance from the administration. One teacher made this comment,

"They don't give feedback. I am given autonomy in my class, but I really don't know if I

am doing the right thing. This diminishes my performance."

The respondents also gave a variety of answers when asked about promotion of

professional development through policies and procedures. Teachers at school 2

consistently gave their school high marks. Teachers at school 4 reported similar

circumstances. A teacher stated, "The director of education does a great job keeping us in

line; the school pays for certification and classes." Comments from teachers at school 6

reflected a positive climate for professional development. The teachers remarked that

most of the teachers were currently pursuing further education and that the school was

providing tuition assistance. They reported that they had regular education meetings that

were "very professional." They indicated that they were informed and encouraged to

attend training held through the local school board.

Teachers at school 3 reported that they were compensated for costs related to

certification and that AMI offers various training opportunities, however, they had

education meetings on an inconsistent basis. Teachers at school 5 reported that most of

the monthly training focus on DJJ requirements. One teacher reported that, "This school

is out of the loop. We don't get memos about training. We have to aggressively find it.

And, then our training days do not coincide with the school boards days. So it is hard for









us to earn points toward recertification." The teachers at school 1 consistently reported a

deficit in this area. One teacher stated, "There are monthly training but they are only lip

service. They are lackluster and have no real value to us teachers."

There was variation not only among schools, but among staff members within a

school. The answers given by teachers in the same school make it seem like they are not

describing the same school. These comments from two different teachers at the same

school regarding how the school is preparing to meet the standards set by the No Child

Left Behind Act provide an example. One teacher reports that, "The administration is

doing everything they need to do; they are following every guideline to a T." While

another teacher at the same school stated, "They have never really discussed it." The

teachers at schools 1 and 3 consistently reported that they were unaware of what the

school was doing to prepare to meet the specifications of the law. The teachers at those

schools also reported that they did not know what they needed to do as individuals to

prepare professionally to be in compliance with the law.

Several teachers reported that they wanted to know more about the act. One teacher

stated that they had mostly learned about it from reading the newspaper. Teachers at

schools 2, 5, 4, and 6 reported that their schools were making efforts to ensure that the

teachers were teaching within their subject area. Several teachers reported that they were

taking extra classes. One teacher reported that she was working on obtaining the reading

endorsement certificate.

Dissatisfaction with the No Child Left Behind Act was expressed by several

teachers at the different schools. Their comments were: "The law has handcuffed us.

There are some brilliant teachers who are not qualified under that act so they are no









longer allowed to work here. This is a loss for the faculty and most of all for the

students." Another teacher called the act an "under funded joke." Several teachers

referred to the kids in their school as "the children left behind."

The teachers were also asked to discuss teacher turnover at their school. The

teachers at school 2 described the director as "human and comfortable", as a contributor

to the fact that the low turnover rate at that school. The average length of employment

was almost three years at school 2. Table 4.3 shows the mean length of employment at

each school. Teachers at schools 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 described the turnover as high. The

teachers' average length of stay was about a one year for the other schools except for one.

School l's teachers reported an average length of employment of five months.

The teachers were also asked to discuss how the administration motivated teachers.

This question was designed to illuminate practices in the school that would encourage

teachers to develop as professionals. Another question aimed at discovering

administrative action was one that asked about ways the administration encourages

teacher retention. The responses from the teachers indicated that these subjects were

closely related in their minds. The actions an administration takes to motivate teachers

correspond strongly to the actions they take to retain teachers.

The teachers at school 2 described a humanistic approach to training and the

recognition from the administration that the teachers are doing a good job. Teachers at

schools 5 and 6 discussed financial incentives and bonuses as being used as motivation to

stay at that school. At school 1 all of the respondents indicated that the administration

does nothing at all. Teachers at schools 3 and 4 responded similarly.









The findings of this research support the theory that human and social conditions

contribute to job satisfaction among teachers in juvenile justice programs. The

components of professional community have an impact on the level of job satisfaction

experienced by teachers in this setting. The findings support the hypothesis that teachers

derive the greatest satisfaction from their work with their students and secondly from

their working relationships with their peers. However, the overall level of job satisfaction

is diminished by inadequate support from the administration. Teachers feel conflicted.

They love the kids, they like their coworkers, but, they do not feel as though they have

the support they need to do their job. This contributes to feelings of frustration and

alienation. Most teachers do not stay long in this working environment. Teachers like

other professionals thrive in an environment where their work is valued and respected.

Teachers, unlike many other professionals, choose their career because they want to

contribute to their community and society. However, when they feel as though their

efforts are thwarted and devalued, they feel as though they must forsake their convictions

and move elsewhere. The teachers at school 2 stand alone in their conviction to remain at

that school. They repeatedly indicated that they had the support from each other and the

administration to do their jobs. Professional development is encouraged and supported.

These findings support the hypothesis that when the human and social conditions support

professional community teachers experience a higher level of job satisfaction. Figure 4.1

demonstrates the mean length of employment for each school that participated in the

study.









5.0
4.0
C',
^ 3.0
w 2.0
1.0
0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6

SCHOOL

Figure 4-1 Mean Length of Employment per Individual School of Teachers in Six
Privatized Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice,
2005

Organizational Justice

Hypothesis 4: I predict that when the indicators of organizational justice are not present

in the workplace that teachers will experience a low level of job satisfaction.

Organizational justice is a theory used to examine how clear, consistent, transparent

policies and procedures are implemented to ensure individuals receive fair and equal

treatment. In the study by Laschinger and Finegan (2005) the effects of organizational

justice on the turnover rate in the nursing profession were examined. They found that the

nurses' perceptions of fair management practices, feelings of respectful treatment by the

management, and trust in the management impacted their level of job satisfaction and

commitment. They found that these conditions buffered feelings of burnout and stress

and contributed to the promotion of professional practice among the nurses.

I used this theory of organizational justice to examine the working conditions of the

teachers in the juvenile justice programs. I propose that this theoretical construct

correlates to that of professional community. Professional community cannot be fostered









without consistent policies and procedures or fair and equal treatment of the individuals

in the community.

Most of the comments previously discussed refer to policies and procedures in

general. Some of the teachers also described procedures that affected them personally and

professionally, such as inconsistent use of employee incentives, inconsistent treatment of

employees, and inconsistent salary advances. Others reported that they were not given

evaluations on a consistent, timely basis. The questions regarding the use of consistent

policies and procedures were designed to evaluate the presence of organizational justice

within the school. As before responses varied from school to school and within schools.

When asked directly to describe the impact of organizational justice on their

performance, organizational justice was ranked as high among teachers at school 4. One

teacher commented, "It is very high, it is one of the reasons I stay." At school 2, the

teachers report, "We have all the way through to the kids. Respect begets respect."

Teachers at school 3 report that there is not a lot of positive feedback; however, everyone

is treated fairly. At school 5, teacher reported, "I was very successful but that rapidly

went away. My enthusiasm fizzled because I am not treated as a professional." The

teachers at school 1 reported that the lack of it "saps my motivation and means I am often

frustrated and don't know what is going on."

The teachers at school 6 described a situation that involves all the elements of

organizational justice. This situation unfolded during the different interviews with the

staff. One of the teachers I interviewed remarked that he did not feel as though employees

received equal and fair treatment. He described a contest that was initiated by a manager.

This contest was for homeroom of the month. The prize was a $1000 for the teacher









whose class won. The teacher reported that he was highly motivated and that he was

really proud of his class's performance. He stated that he thought he won, but, at the end

of the month the winner was never announced. The contest was never discussed again.

The program disappeared without a trace. The teacher described his frustration and

disappointment: "The absence of justice takes away from the students because you can't

serve them in the same way because you do not feel valued."

During the final interview of the day at that school, another teacher disclosed to me

that he did not feel as though all teachers were treated equally or fairly. He reported that

he was treated well, but that it bothered him that the other teachers did not get the same

level of respect. He then described the very same contest, for homeroom of the month. He

discussed it as a way to describe employee incentives. He had won the $1000 reward for

the homeroom of the month. The award was made in private and not communicated to

the rest of the staff.

It seemed apparent that this school does not always have transparent procedures or

treat the staff in fair and predictable ways. This had a negative effect on level of job

satisfaction experienced by both of teachers; the recipient of the incentive and the one

that was excluded. This example illustrates how organizational justice impacts job

satisfaction.

This is also evidenced in comments made by other teachers at other schools.

"Administration does not enforce policies equally." "The rules change instantly." "We

are not consulted about procedures that we have to implement." "Management has

meetings behind closed doors and don't tell us what is going on." "The executive director

is leaving. We all know it but it is a secret."









Does the presence of organizational justice have an effect on the rate of teacher

turnover in these schools? Tables 4.3 and 4.4 show a graphic representation of the

information gathered in this study. Table 4.4 shows the length of employment in six

month increments across the entire sample. Table 4.3 shows the average length of

employment per school. The study published by Ingersoll (2002) spoke of the alarming

rate of teacher turnover in public schools. He reported that 30 to 50 percent of the

teachers entering the field leave within the first five years. Clearly the teacher turnover

rate in the privatized juvenile justice programs I studied does not follow the same pattern.

However, it does support the hypotheses that teachers experience a lower level of job

satisfaction when they do not feel as though everyone is receiving fair and equal

treatment. The majority of the teachers in five of the schools did not feel as though they

were treated fairly. These schools reported a high rate of teacher turnover. Teachers at

school 1 consistently reported inconsistencies in adherence to policies and procedures

and unfair practices. Their turnover rate was the highest among the schools I visited.

Figure 4-2 displays the length of employment measured in six month increments of the

teachers who participated in the study.

0 10
8
Or 6
O 4


0-6 7- 13- 19- 25- 31- 37- 43- 49- 55-
12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60

TIME PERIOD (MONTHS)

Figure 4-2 Length of Employment Measured in Six Month Increments of Teachers in Six
Privatized Schools Contracted by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice,
2005









Privatization

Could the fact that these schools are operated by a private company have an

influence on the presence of professional community and organizational justice? Are

some of the situations previously described an indication of the disruption of traditional

agreements, the disordering of tradition described by Clarke (2004)? He also cautions

that there could be a dispersal of decision making authority and new problems of

regulation.

Currently, there is an investigation into misuse of funds, cronyism, and nepotism in

the state prison system in Florida. The sordid details are revealed to the general public in

the newspaper, on television, and on the radio. The public is aware of just exactly whose

relatives were on the payroll, how much they were paid, and what their qualifications

were. Corruption happens. It happens at the national, state, and local levels. It happens in

government agencies and in private ones. Perhaps the difference is that when it is

happens in a government agency the public has the right to know all about it. Does

having the affairs of an agency under the scrutiny of the public eye lessen the temptation

to abuse and misuse the power of authority? Does public scrutiny encourage honesty and

quality of service and deter inappropriate actions?

A story told by one of the teachers I interviewed causes one to pause and consider

this very question. The story involves a school vehicle, a manager, and a bit of intrigue.

One Monday morning a manager did not come to work. There was no explanation about

his absence. And on the same day, the school's van was also absent. Several days passed

and still there was no van, no manager, and no explanation about his absence.

The rumors around the school were plentiful and colorful. The students had several

theories. Their presumptions were driven by the circumstances that had been involved in









this employee's two previous extended absences. This employee had been suspended

twice while the Department of Children and Families investigated allegations of abuse

against him. The employee never returned and the staff was never told why he and the

van disappeared at the same time. The managers at the school refused to discuss the

situation. However, a teacher from another school told this teacher that the employee was

driving the van while intoxicated and got into an accident. Soon all the students knew it.

The staff knew it, but there was no discussion of the incident.

The secrecy spawned even more rumors, that he was involved romantically with

another manager, for example, another was that a manager was mishandling funds and

giving this employee monies set aside for the students' activities. Mistrust of the

administration grew, and with it a sense of alienation between the faculty and the

administration. From this teacher's perspective, the lack of communication from the

administration about the incident demonstrated a lack of trust by the administration for

the faculty.

This behavior of the manager who used the school van for personal reasons while

intoxicated is unacceptable, if true. Truth be told, a person working for any agency,

public or private could make such a terrible judgment call. However, when this kind of

mishap occurs in the public sector there are procedures in place to deal with the situation.

The situation was not just about the employee and the van. It truly affected everyone at

the school. It caused a disruption upset at the school and the other manager's personal

decision to sweep the issue under the rug left the school shrouded in mystery.

This decision disrupted the delivery of service to the constituents. However, the

constituents, the public, or the consumers, the students were not given an opportunity to









address the situation. Due to the dispersal of accountability there was no structure present

that could process the concerns of those in immediate contact with the situation. Those of

us outside the circle of contact are still affected. This program is entrusted to provide

service to some of the neediest members of our society. The manager is an employee of

the public sector because he is the executor of the contract this company has with the

state. However, due to the dispersal of accountability his and those of his employee

remain out of the purview of the public. Is this for the public good?

The findings of my research indicate that the presence of professional community

and organizational justice has a profound effect on the level of job satisfaction

experienced by teachers in juvenile justice programs. Unfortunately, most of the

indicators of professional community and organizational justice are lacking in the

majority of the juvenile justice programs surveyed in this study. Where there was a lack

of professional community and organizational justice there was also a high level of

dissatisfaction among the teachers. Where there was a high level of dissatisfaction, there

was also a high level of teacher attrition and reported intent to leave. These findings are

consistent with those found in research literature. Figure 4.5 represents a graphical

display of the intervening variables and their relationships that I propose influence the

conditions in the workplace of teachers in private juvenile justice settings.






















































Figure 4-3 Theoretical Framework Describing the Influence of Privatization on the
Presence of Professional Community, Organizational Justice, and School
Effectiveness on Teacher Satisfaction and Recidivism in Privatized Juvenile
Justice Schools









Community is a place where people share common goals and interact. Students in

a DJJ program are no longer served by their community school. This relationship has

been restricted through a court order due to the youth's involvement with law

enforcement. More than likely it is a temporary separation. Often these programs are

physically isolated. The youths they serve have failed to make the grade in their

community in some fashion. These youths require an extra measure of care, consistency,

educational services, and community. The teachers serving these youth are challenged to

meet the needs that the family, the schools, and the community could not.

Like other professionals in education, (Meich and Elder, 1996) the teachers report

the reason they work with these youths is because they want to help their community.

This is why teachers choose to be teachers. They report that the best part of their jobs is

their relationship with the students and the other teachers.

Like other professionals, teachers need to work within a professional group,

community that encourages them to develop their sense of craft enabling them to work

within contexts that are difficult, challenging, and potentially rewarding. Collaboration

among peers is one of the ways professionals have a way of knowing how good of a job

they are doing. Teachers rely on one another for mutual support and this communication

encourages responsibility for effective instruction. A lack of feedback is one of the

reasons Meich and Elder (1996) list for the high rate of turnover among teachers. They

found that the lack of information about whether one's service was of value contributed

to their decision to leave the profession. This lack of information leads to professional

isolation. Shared planning time is one way to facilitate this.









This focus on instruction confirms the school's mission, to educate youth. The

focus on student learning is fundamental to an effective school. Groth and Brock (2003)

reported that an effective school can be described as having a common mission, an

emphasis on learning, and a climate conducive to learning. Their research suggests that

these components along with professional development, a high degree of staff

involvement, continuous monitoring of student progress and strong administrative

leadership can mediate the effects of socioeconomic factors and promote academic

achievement.

Shann (1998, p.99) argues, "Principals can promote strong professional

relationships within the professional community. An effective principal will foster

professional growth, active involvement in the educational community and increased

autonomous behavior. As a result, the teachers are more likely to become active and

effective leaders within the educational community. (Shann (1998) and Singh and

Billingsly (1996) found the strongest influence on job satisfaction was principal support.

Administrative support takes many forms. Feedback about instructional

performance, providing resources for educational materials, or involving teachers in

decision making about educational policies are all ways administrators show support.

Additionally, administrators develop and implement policies and procedures that effect

staff and students. They oversee hiring, compensation, and promotion of staff. The

manner in which tasks are carried out makes a significant difference in employees' ability

to develop trust in the organization. When administrators treat individuals fairly, with

respect and dignity, employees are able to develop trust in the organization.

Implementation and adherence to consistent, transparent policies and procedures promote









perceptions of justice in the workplace. Perceptions of justice have pervasive effects on

employees' attitudes and behaviors. They can mediate burnout, promote organizational

commitment, and discourage employee turnover. (Laschinger, Spence, & Finegan, 2005)

An inconsistent finding in my research was the perception among the teachers

interviewed about the lack of interest and concern from the administration about the high

rate of attrition. Policy makers, administrators at the state and national level and at

universities and colleges that educate teachers expend considerable energy searching for

solutions to the problem of high rate of teacher attrition. Consistently, the teachers at five

out of six of the schools where I interviewed reported that the administration was doing

nothing to retain teachers. One teacher reported to me that executive director had told

him that he does not intend to retain teachers. The director had explained to the teacher

that this school just provided a training ground for the teachers. The teachers would work

there for a while and then move on to public schools. A teacher at another school

reported that the administration saw teachers as "expendable." This attitude appears to be

indicative of diminished expectation. A "why even try" approach rather than mirroring

the solution approach of the other leaders in field of education. This attitude translates to

the teachers (and perhaps the students) as a lack of value of them as people and as

professionals and for education itself.

Contrary, to my hypothesis, the results of this research indicate that supportive

leadership from the administration has the most significant impact on the level of job

satisfaction and commitment of the teachers. This leadership takes several forms. One is

that the leadership recognizes the value of its teaching staff. This leadership knows you

cannot have a school without teachers. It also recognizes teaching as a profession and









consistently encourages professional development. The leader knows that people need to

be treated fairly and they operate best in an organized, predictable environment. This

goes for the teachers as well as the students. As evidenced by the responses by the

teachers at school 2, you can even pay them less, if you treat them and the students fairly

and give them what they need to teach, they will not only stay, they will be happy.

A truly disappointing fact is that this type of leadership was only present in one

out of six schools. The teachers at the other schools are willing to work with the most

difficult youth, to work 45 more days than public school teachers, and to work for a lower

salary. However, regardless of their contribution they felt they were not valued. The lack

of leadership resulted in a lack of focus on student learning, and an inconsistency in the

fruition of the school's mission. Inconsistent and erratic adherence to policies and

procedures led to unequal and unfair treatment of the teachers and the students. This

inconsistency contributed to a chaotic atmosphere where decisions are "made on the fly"

and not clearly communicated.

A chaotic environment is not conducive to learning reading, writing, and

arithmetic. Many of these students have learned all to well how to function in an

unstructured and untrustworthy environment, one in which you must fend for yourself.

They come to these programs in need of a predictable, safe environment, one in which

they can learn some skills they do not have, the skills that will enable them to finish high

school, become employable, and become productive, law abiding citizens of society. In

fact, the culture represented in the majority of the schools I visited mirrors the dog eat

dog mentality of the streets. When what these kids need most and what these teacher

want most to give, is a safe, structured environment that is focused on student learning









and academic achievement. Research by Gaziel (2003) indicated that that at risk students

are more sensitive to environmental factors such as school climate.

Does the lack of leadership present in these programs have a relationship to

privatization and the consequential dispersal of decision making bodies and

accountability? My research is far too limited to draw any firm conclusions. However, I

believe there are indicators of this relationship. If one believes in the validity of the

trickle down effect, that the directors are hired, retained, and promoted in the same

manner as the directors hire and fire their teaching staff, there is reason to believe these

same problems exist at the top of the corporation. I do not know, and at this point have no

way of knowing. Although this corporation receives public funds and serves the public,

its operational procedures such as hiring practices are private. They are not within the

public domain.

One conclusion I can draw from my research is that the Quality Assurance (QA)

reports produced by the Department of Juvenile Justice do not tell the same story as the

teachers I interviewed. In the QA reports for 2004 school l's overall score was 68

percent. In that same time period, the school lost its entire teaching staff. When I

interviewed teachers there the average length of employment was five months. A follow

up call to the school in October reveals that the school has lost 50 percent of its staff

since June. Whereas school 2 had a QA score of 81 percent and had an average length of

employment of almost three years. The teachers there consistently reported favorable

conditions. A follow up call to their school indicated that they have lost no teachers since

June.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

Implications for Future Research

The opportunities for future research are many. Further research into the working

conditions of teachers in juvenile justice programs seems appropriate. This study could

examine their feelings of self efficacy or discuss their insights into program reform. A

comparative study of teachers in privately and publicly run programs could broaden the

research on the phenomenon of privatization. This research could assist us in

understanding how the practice of privatization is effecting service provision. At this

point, there is only speculation about the outcome of this endeavor.

Another area ripe for further research is a study of outcome measures for the

consumers themselves. This could take the notion of customer service to examine the

perceptions of quality of care from the perspective of the youths and their parents.

Research that probes the belief systems of the administrators could extend our knowledge

about their views on relevant issues such as the teacher attrition and retention, the value

of education, and organizational justice. A study that compares the views of the

administrators and the educators could prove beneficial in creating a shared vision of the

mission of juvenile justice.

These research efforts could assist policy makers and people responsible for

oversight in developing assessment tools that will enable us to examine the effectiveness

of juvenile justice programs. These assessment tools would measure outcomes for the

youths. This assessment would measure recidivism, educational attainment, and









employment, adherence to policies and procedures, and interview staff, students, and

parents about their perceptions of the program. They will help us determine if these

programs are truly benefiting the youth they serve. This is really the crux of the matter.

Conclusion

One of my former coworkers took a job at an inner city school when she left the

juvenile justice setting. She teaches first grade, quite a change from the high school

setting. She says they are the same kids just a little bit younger. She is very happy at her

new school. She loves her coworkers, her kids, and her vacation days. She loves having a

lunch break and planning periods. She told me, "The first thing I did was join the union.

Now, if anyone even thinks about asking me to give up my time, without giving me

something back, I'll be on that phone so quick to that union rep that it will make their

head swim. If I don't have time to think about what I am going to teach or to get things

ready for the kids or if I am hungry, I am not as good of a teacher as I can be. And, that is

not fair to the kids or to me. Why else would I go through all that schooling to be a

teacher, if I am not going to be a good one?"

My former coworker is certain that she never wants to be in a position where

someone can diminish her potential as a teacher. She feels as though her membership in

the teachers' union will be a safeguard against mismanagement and poor administrative

practice. Could this work for the teachers at the private juvenile justice programs? Would

they be protected from whimsical decision making and unequal treatment by the

administration? Would this also promote a school culture that was focused on student

achievement?

I believe it could prove beneficial to all. If the teachers had the option to join the

local teachers' union it would ensure that they are given the same treatment as other









teachers in the area. It would mean like the teachers employed by the school board, they

would be compensated for time spent above their normal hours, such as if they had to

cover another teacher's class during their planning time. It would also mean that the

school would have access to a pool of substitute teachers that would result in more

stability in the school. It would reduce the teachers' isolation from the larger educational

community. They would have access to other benefits available to educators in the union.

An additional advantage would be an endorsement as a professional in the local

educational community. After all, these teachers are teaching the kids the other teachers

just couldn't handle any more. To be successful at this, they need and deserve all the

support, recognition and encouragement possible. They perform a huge service to the

community and should be treated thus. The teachers need to be a part of the larger

educational community.

I propose that joining the union would have a stabilizing effect on the turnover

rate as well as enhancing the educational programming the students are receiving. The

affiliation with union would encourage professionalism and instructional excellence.

Additionally, the affiliation would limit the possibilities for the unjust treatment of

the teachers that was disclosed during the course of this study. They would be evaluated,

compensated, and promoted by the same professional guidelines as the public school

teachers. They would have access to the same grievance policies as the other

professionals in their field.

Every youth deserves to be educated by a competent teacher. Students that have the

greatest needs require high quality instruction. This is more likely to occur in a climate









where the educators are respected, valued and experienced. To attract and retain teachers

in this setting, changes must be made at the policy level.



"If you treat an individual as he is, he will stay as he is, but if you treat him as if he

were what he ought to become then he will become what he ought." Goethe



Well, maybe sometimes but if we do not do something differently we will probably

have similar results. If these six schools are indicative of private juvenile justice

programs in Florida, we need to do something different.

It really boils down to expectations. The teachers need to expect that the

students will achieve. The teachers need to expect that they will be treated like valued

professionals and they will have the resources necessary to instruct their pupils in a safe

environment focused on student achievement. The administrators need to provide this for

the students and the teachers. Since these programs are all in essence public programs for

the public good we, the public, should expect that they come under the scrutiny of the

public. We, the public, need to expect that these programs will provide every resource

necessary to make sure that these children don't get left behind permanently. We can help

them now or as the research shows they will more than likely they will end up behind

bars.

Secretary Schembri, the current head of Florida's Department of Juvenile Justice

has voiced his intention to provide improved rehabilitation services. I applaud his efforts.

These youths need comprehensive services to address the many issues that contribute to

their involvement in the juvenile justice system. Many of them need treatment. They have









been victims of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Punishment and harsh

treatment will not heal the scars caused by the misdeeds of adults that have been

entrusted with their care. Often when these issues of abuse and neglect are present,

youths struggle with substance abuse, poor academic performance, and emotional and

behavioral problems. These problems can not go untreated if we hope to assist these

youths in reaching their potential. Adequate funding for enhanced educational services

and instructional resources could improve the opportunities for these youths to attain

sufficient academic skills needed to obtain employment.

This additional funding needs to be available to fully staff these programs with

competent individuals. This trained staff needs to be compensated at a level consistent

with other professionals in the field. Why do we expect the people who work with the

most challenging students, the students who need the most help to work more days for

less money? This mindset is setting up the students for further failure as well as limiting

the potential for success of the staff and the programs. This direction can only take place

through proper funding and these monies can only be assured through policy changes.

These policy changes would reinforce the educational and treatment components of the

juvenile justice programs.

Another area in need of reform is that the managers and administrators of these

programs need to have a solid foundation and training in the principles of effective

educational practices. How can the administrator in charge make informed decisions

about educational practices if they have no understanding and inadequate information

about pedagogy? Additionally, the administrator needs to have a firm understanding

about the process of human development. They need to have sufficient knowledge and









insight into the factors that influence and promote growth in the developing human being.

How can an administrator make wise choices about the care and treatment of these youths

without training in this area? This change must take place through a change in policy and

with adequate funding to ensure compliance.

Juvenile justice programs need to have comprehensive assessments that reflect the

true mission of the programs. These programs exist to rehabilitate youth. The assessment

process should reflect this goal. When this is the criteria by which success is measured,

programs will begin to focus more on the quality of the care of the youth they serve. This

refocusing must be policy driven and properly funded.

The reformation of juvenile justice programs requires that management and

operational procedures come out of the shadows and into the purview of the public. The

Sunshine laws that protect other governmental agencies should apply to these

organizations, as well. These agencies exist to serve the public and the quality of the

services they provide will be enhanced by full disclosure of their strengths and

weaknesses. Just like the students and the teachers, these programs need to know that

they are valued and that they are expected to succeed. This message will most effectively

be conveyed through adequate funding and comprehensive monitoring and honest,

thorough assessment that demonstrate how well the program serves the student and the

community.














APPENDIX A
TEACHER TALK


1) In this setting (organizational structure, i.e. private setting) how do these elements
impact your performance as a teacher?

a) Budget/financial support

b) Administrative support for teachers


c) Relationships (student/teacher bonds, coworkers, management)

d) Mission statement

e) Consistent policies and procedures

2) What is your most important motivation for being a teacher?


3) Describe in your own words your working relationship with your peers.


4) Describe in your own words your working relationship with your administration.


5) Who holds decision-making power for the educational program at your school?

a) Describe the chain of command


6) What does the administration do to retain teachers?

a) How would you describe teacher turnover?


7) What does the administration do to motivate teachers?


8) What is your school doing to prepare for No Child Left Behind Act?











9) What percentage of your teaching staff is considered "highly qualified" under the No
Child Left Behind Act?

10) How are you preparing professionally to meet the No Child Left Behind Act?

11) Describe the policies and procedures that promote professional development.

12) What is the mission statement of your school?

13) Describe the strengths of your school.

14) Describe the weaknesses of your school.

15) Does your organization/setting/school reflect your idea of a space that promotes
successful teaching?

16) Does the presence of justice in the workplace have an effect on your performance?

17) Considering our conversation, what would you describe as the most significant factor
in your decision to continue teaching at your school?









TEACHER TALK

Instructions: Please take a moment to answer the following questions concerning job
satisfaction using the scale provided. You do not have to answer any question you do not
feel comfortable answering. Please mark ONE box for each question: Strongly
Disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly Agree.


How are your relationships with other teachers? This section
of the questionnaire explores some aspects your rapport with
other teachers.

Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
I feel that I receive the cooperation I need from my O O O O
peers to do my job effectively.

I make a conscious effort to coordinate the content of | |
my courses with other teachers.

I have the opportunity to participate in regularly O O O
scheduled planning time with other teachers.

I would be willing to participate in cooperative -
planning time with other teachers.

I feel like cooperative planning time with other | | |
teachers would be beneficial to reaching our vision.

I feel respected as a colleague by most other | |
teachers. l l


I feel respected as a colleague by most other staff
members.










This section of the questionnaire looks at the use of consistent policies and procedures.

Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
Resources are distributed in a fairway. O O O O

Financial incentives are awarded in a systematic way. O O O O

I am knowledgeable about the way financial incentives
are awarded.

I am aware of how financial resources are allocated. O O O O

The Quality Assurance auditing process motivates my O O O
performance.

The Quality Assurance audit scores reflect the quality O O O
of your school on a day-to-day basis.

Changes to policies and procedures are related to the | |
teaching staff in a timely manner.











How do your interactions with administrators affect your job satisfaction? These questions
examine your relationships with administrators.

1= 2= 3= 4=
Strongly Disagree Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
I feel that I receive the cooperation I need O O O O
from my administration to do my job
effectively.

The administration is responsive to my O O O O
concerns.

There is adequate communication between I L I I
teachers and administrators.

The school administration's behavior IL I I
toward the teaching staff is supportive?

I feel the principal/director is interested in I I I I
teachers' ideas.

I feel respected as a teacher by the LI I
administration.

My opinions are considered when making O O O O
decisions concerning education.

My opinions are valued by the I L I I
administration.

The decisions made about education at my O O O O
school are made by educators.

The administrators at my school are I I I I
educators.

The decisions about education at my school O O O O
are grounded in scientifically based
research.