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San Juan Evangelista: A Sixteenth-Century Spanish Colonial Mission in Culhuacan, Mexico


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SAN JUAN EVANGELISTA: A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY SPANISH COLONIAL MISSION IN CULHUACAN MEXICO By LAURIE P. RINFRET A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Laurie P. Rinfret

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe a great deal of gratitude to many people who encouraged and guided me in the completion of this thesis. I especially want to thank Dr. Kathleen Deagan, chair of the committee, for her patience, understanding, and academic assistan ce through the years as I juggled my desire to complete this paper with the demands of a full-time job. Dr. Murdo MacLeod and Dr. Lynette Norr, also as members of the comm ittee, provided many helpful suggestions and comments on my work, and I value their contributions. Thomas Charlton was very gracious to me when I emailed him with questions and I am grateful that he took the time to help me, even though we had never met before. I also want to thank Leah Minc for her instrumental neutron activation analysis of an Early Aztec sherd that is included in this thesis. While I was doing my ceramic analysis at the Historical Ar chaeology Lab I often turned to Al Woods, Jamie Waters, or Giffo rd Waters when I was having trouble with identifying a particular sherd. They were always willing to share their expertise and I appreciate their assistance. Without the gentle and constant enco uragement of my husband, Joe, and daughters, Kree and Karla, I would have found it very difficult, inde ed, to finish this paper.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................v ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 John Goggin in Mexico................................................................................................2 Culhuacn.....................................................................................................................3 Culhuacn in Prehistory........................................................................................4 Culhuacn Colonial History................................................................................10 2 ARCHAEOLOGY AT CULHUACN.....................................................................15 Historical Archaeological Research in Mexico..........................................................15 Archaeological Research in Culhuacn...............................................................16 John Goggin at Culhuacn...................................................................................17 Methods of the Present Study.....................................................................................19 Analysis of Material Remains....................................................................................21 Vessel Analysis...........................................................................................................31 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................36 4 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................44 APPENDIX A NEUTRON ACTIVATI ON ANALYSIS OF EARLY AZTEC SHERD..................48 B INDIGENOUS RIM STUDY.....................................................................................51 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................55 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................59

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v LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Chronology.................................................................................................................5 2 All Artifacts..............................................................................................................23 3 European Decorated Ceramics.................................................................................25 4 Indigenous Ceramics................................................................................................26 5 Indigenous Decorated Ceramics...............................................................................27 6 European and Indigenous Decorated Ceramics........................................................42 7 Decorated Rims........................................................................................................51 8 Rim Types Compared to Total Rims by Percentage................................................53 9 Indigenous Plain Rims.............................................................................................54

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Aztec Types at San Juan Evangelista.......................................................................28 2 Early Aztec...............................................................................................................29 3 Aztec Grater Bowl Fragment...................................................................................31 4 Indigenous Decorated Bowls and Jars.....................................................................33 5 Indigenous Plain Bowls and Jars..............................................................................34 6 Sketch of Test Units I and II at San Juan Evangelista.............................................36 7 European Cast Iron Pot Fragment............................................................................37 8 European Ceramics..................................................................................................38 9 Unidentified Indigenous...........................................................................................39 10 Unidentified Indigenous Decorated.........................................................................41 11 Indigenous Artifacts.................................................................................................46 12 Early Aztec Sherd.....................................................................................................48 13 Early Aztec Black/Orange Pottery from the Basin of Mexico.................................50

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vii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts SAN JUAN EVANGELISTA: A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY SPANISH COLONIAL MISSION IN CULHUACAN, MEXICO By Laurie P. Rinfret December 2005 Chair: Kathleen Deagan Major Department: Latin American Studies This thesis presents data concerning the post-contact changes that occurred during the initial period of Spanish contact as reflec ted in the indigenous ceramics of the area. The focus of the study is the early sixteen th century Augustinian mission of San Juan Evangelista, in the town of Culhuacn, Mexico. This study is based on the ceramic sherds from Test Unit 3 that John Goggin collected during his excavations at San Juan Evangelista in 1951. The artifacts were initially cataloged and then st ored at the Florida Museum of Natural History after their transfer in 1973 from the University of Florida Anthropology Department. Included in the study is a ge neral history of the area, a discussion of historical archaeological research in Mexico, and a prel iminary classification and discussion of the indigenous pottery found at San Juan Evangelis ta. The pottery classification focused on pre-contact and contact period indigenous ceramic vessels and was used as a basis for determining post-contact cha nges in native pottery.

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viii Results of the study indicate that there is little cha nge in indigenous decorated ceramics from the preto post-contact periods The native inhabita nts were interacting with the Spanish before the mission wa s built, though the archaeological evidence suggests there was a minimal European presence at this time. The decline in the native population that occurred during the Contact pe riod can be seen in the considerable decrease in the volume of material per leve l of excavated material after Level 7 where there appears to be a sustained European pres ence at the site. The presence of Aztec ceramics at all levels of the test unit shows that the occupation of the site can be dated to Aztec times. However, there was a much stronger non-Aztec presence as shown by the consistently large amount of Red-onBuff ceramics throughout all levels.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION John Goggin, a professor of anthropology at the University of Florida from 1948 until 1963, was a pioneer in historical archaeology (Weisman 2002). He undertook important studies in European artifacts at Span ish contact sites in Florida, as well as in the Caribbean and Latin America. He was the first to do extensive, and still the most inclusive, studies of Spanish ceramics in th e New World and Spanish coarse earthenware olive jars (Goggin 1968, 1964) which are still considered to be important primary reference works (Deagan 1987; Lister a nd Lister 1982). During the 1940s and 1950s, Goggin carried out excavations in a large numbe r of sites in Florida, the Carribbean, and Mexico. Many resulted in large collections th at are curated today at the Florida Museum of Natural History (www.flmnh.ufl.edu). Since Goggin’s emphasis was on Spanish ceramics, much of the material in this co llection remains unreported, including that from several important sites in the Valley of Mexic o. This thesis addre sses the issue of using unreported early collections to produce new information useful to archaeologists and historians. This study has two objectives. First, to do a preliminary analysis and make available the previously unr eported and unexamined archae ological ceramics from the mission of San Juan Evangelista in Culhuacn, pa rt of the Distrito Fe deral (DF), Mexico. Second, based on this analysis I also attempt to reveal what, if any, changes occurred in native ceramics from the pre-contact period to the arrival of the Europeans in the sixteenth century. I will interpret the archaeo logical data from the San Juan Evangelista

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2 site (DF 7), assessing its si gnificance to historical and Mexican archaeology. How did the Indigenous pottery change over time? Was there any indication of Indigenous interaction with Europeans before the San Juan Evangelista mission was built? Was the decline in population evidenced through changes in Indigeno us pottery? These are the questions I will attempt to address. John Goggin in Mexico Goggin spent the early 1950s doing re search in Mexico, including the investigations at Culhuacn in the Distrito Federal, Mexico that are the subject of my research. Goggin was primarily interested in majolica pottery. His purpose in undertaking the DF investigati ons was to “make as complete an examination as possible of all available majolica ranging from the late 15th to the 18th century” (Goggin 1968:v) in order to make sense of the majolica pottery types that he had found in 1949 at the Fig Springs archaeological site in Northern Flor ida (8-CO-1). The Fig Springs types were inconsistent with types that had been found at previously ex cavated Spanish-Indian sites in Florida. Goggin determined that in orde r to understand the majolica from Fig Springs a thorough examination of majolica pottery t ypes throughout Spanish America needed to be done and this led to his research in th e West Indies, South and Central America, Mexico and the United States. Goggin died in 1963 without publis hing the results from his majolica study; the monograph he was work ing on was incomplete at the time of his death. After his death Irving Rouse of Yale University undertook th e responsibility of getting the manuscript into publishable form. The result was John Goggin’s Spanish Majolica in the New World Types of the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries published by Yale University in 1968.

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3 Eleven of the DF sites that Goggin excav ated in 1951 as part of his majolica ceramic research are included in the book. In this book he lists the majolica types he found during his excavations and also provide s a general description of each ceramic type. However, he gave little consider ation to other ceramic types—including 19th and 20th century majolica types found at the site—since “these and other artifacts, omitted in this majolica study, will be considered in th e final report on the Mexican work” (Goggin 1968:50-1). Most of these ceramics are Native American and have never been counted, listed, or described. Goggin’s final report wa s never published nor have I been able to find any unpublished versions during my sear ch for his written work concerning the Distrito Federal excavations. The sites excav ated in the Distrito Federal in Mexico included eleven DF sites: Tacubaya (DF 1) Carmen (DF 2), Tacuba (DF 3), Ixtacalco (DF 4), Ixtapalapa (DF 5), Tlhuac (DF 6) Culhuacn (DF 7), Churubusco (DF 8), and Desierto de los Leones (DF 11). DF 9 is an Aztec mound and DF 10 is an unnamed site; I have been unable to find any information i ndicating the location of DF 10. Nine of the sites were churches or monasteries (DF 1-8 and 11); Goggin undertook surface collections at all of these sites and dug test units at DF 7 as well. Culhuacn Culhuacn means “the place of those with ancestors” (Cline 1986:1) and it is a city with a rich native trad ition. It may have been founded as early as the seventh century; however, Cline (1986:313) notes that there is some disput e about when the city was established. Today Culhuacn is part of the urban sprawl associated with Mexico City). The Valley of Mexico, which is about one a nd a half miles high and covers an area of approximately 3,000 square miles, is a natural basin su rrounded by volcanic mountains, some as high as 16,000 feet. Much of the Valley was once covered by an

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4 enormous shallow lake system comprised of three lake subsystems: Lakes ChalcoXochimilco, Xaltocan-Zumpango, and Texcoco. In the prehistoric and early colonial periods, before the lake levels dropped because of drainage and desiccation, the town of Culhuacn was located on the northwester n shore of Lake Chalco-Xochimilco. ( http://www.belizenews.com/file s/pages/mayan/art/lakemed.jpg ; 11/20/05) Lake Xaltocan-Zumpango to the north and Lake Chal co-Xochimilco to the south drained into central Lake Texcoco where the Aztec island city of Tenochtitln was located. Of the three lakes, Chalco-Xochimilco was the only one with freshwater; the other two lakes were saline. Access to freshwater enabled th e inhabitants of Lake Chalco-Xochimilco to build a productive system of chinampas or floating gardens, that allowed the cultivation of fresh produce all year long. Archaeological excavations indicate that the inhabitants of Culhuacn built chinampas as early as C.E. 1100. Chinampas can still be seen today in the city of Xochimilco. Culhuacn in Prehistory Culhuacn figured prominently in the pr e-contact era in the Valley of Mexico, which is generally characterized by three pr inciple cultures and pe riods (Davies 1982:1920): Classic, Toltec, and Aztec. The Cl assic period (see Table 1) was dominated by Teotihuacan (100 B.C.E. to 750 C.E.). The Toltec culture flourished between the 11th and 12th centuries and was centered at Tula as well as Culhuacn. The Toltecs were followed by the Aztecs whose empire lasted from 1428 until 1521 when Cortes captured the capital city of Te nochtitln (1982:19-20). Unlike Te nochtitln, Teotihuacan and Tula were located outside the boundaries of present-day Mexico City.

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5 Table 1. Chronology Major Archaeological Periods and Phase Names Absolute Chronology New System Old System 1500 1400 Late Horizon Late Aztec Tenochtitlan Phase Three Early Aztec Culhuacan/Tenayuca Phase Two Late Toltec Mazapan 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Second Intermediate Phase One Early Toltec Coyotlatelco Phase Two Late Classic Metepec Xolapan 700 600 500 400 300 Middle Horizon Phase One Phase Five Early Classic Tlamimilolpa Miccaotli Phase Four Phase Three Terminal Formative Tzacualli Patlachique Phase Two Late Formative Ticoman Phase One-B 200 100 C.E. 0 B.C.E. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 First Intermediate Phase One-A Middle Formative Cuautepec La Pastora El Arbolillo Bomba Phase Two 1200 1300 1400 1500 Early Horizon Phase One Early Formative Manantial Ayotla Coapexco Adapted from Parsons, Jeffrey R., Elizabeth Brumfiel, Mary H. Parsons, David J. Wilson, Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Southern Valley of Mexico The ChalcoXochimilco Region University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1982, p. 72.

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6 The Culhuas, whose name means “grandfathers ,” were one of the original tribes to migrate into central Mesoamer ica. According to Davies (1982:23) the name Culhua came to be associated with the Toltec urban dwellers of the Valley of Mexico as distinct from the successive waves of Tolteca-Chichimecs who poured into the region after the collapse of To llan. The distinction is a fine one, since the Toltecs . were themselves a blend of Tolteca-Ch ichimecs, who had originally come from the northwest, and of Nonoalcas from the southeast. …Culhua blood came to be copiously diluted as the people of the c ity [Culhuacn] mingled with Alcohuas and other newcomers. It is unclear where the original inhabitants of Culhuacn came from. The Memorial Breve (Davies 1982:23) mentions that the Culhua s (whom it also calls Chichimecs) came from Chicomoztoc during Toltec ti mes. On the other hand, the Relacin de la Genealoga notes that the Culhua came from Te oculhuacn, a legendary city whose name means “the Old, or Holy, Culhuacn” (1982:24); the location of which is still unknown, even the residents of Culhuacn at the tim e of the Conquest did not know its location. The Culhua rulers reigned from 1205 C.E. to 1430 C.E. (Cline 1986:5), though Davies (1980:1) notes that the dates of the dynasties are difficult to establish. At one time, about 1100 C.E., Culhuacn was heavily populated and possibly the largest community in the Valley of Mexico. Culhuacn remained an island community until sometime around 1550 when it was partially or completely moved to the mainland (Blanton 1972:160). It was a densely settled chinampa town and the first town built on freshwater Lake Xochimilco. Blanton ( 1972:166) estimates the population at between 1,625 to 3,250 during the Early (1150 C.E. to 1350 C.E.) as well as the Late Aztec (1350 C.E. to 1520 C.E.) periods. Culhuacn has long been of interest to archaeologists. Franz Boas, who did extensive investigations at Culhuacn in 1911-12, gave th e name “Culhuacn ware” to the many black-on-orange potsherds he found ther e. Boas indicates that the presence of

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7 Teotihuacan IV sherds at the site suggests that Culhuacn probably had contact with Teotihuacan, possibly through trad e or settlement (Cline 1986:3). Culhuacn may be the oldest town in the southern Valley of Mexico. The earliest written records about Culhuacn are pict orial form migratio n myths from the 10th century. The myths tell about the Toltec empire and the arri val of ethnic groups to the Valley of Mexico as the empire was declin ing (Cline 1986:3). Native chronicles do not agree on the town’s relation to Tollan, the Toltec center of power Vaillant (1938:559) suggests that the term “Tollan” could m ean any important Toltec settlement. He speculates that it “would be not unlikely that the site now called Teotihuacn was called Tollan by early eastern immigrants, while th e imposing site now known as Azcapotzalco might equally well be Tollan to western invade rs.” Cline (1986:4) notes that Culhuacn could have either risen to importance after Tollan fell about 1100 C.E. or could have been its partner and a well-established settle ment by then. Regardless, its people viewed themselves as the rightful heirs to the Toltec heritage. Most scholars agree that the historical accuracy of the Aztec native chronicles decreases as one moves further back in time: The creation of an objective record of actual historical events with precise chronological accuracy was not a goal of th e indigenous historical traditions nor of their colonial inscription. Rather, pre-Hisp anic native historical traditions served to legitimize peoples and dynasties, and to glorify the accomplishments of kings and ancestors . (Smith 2003:33). In order to increase their prestige, the Aztecs linked their heritage with the Toltecs—a process Smith calls “genealogical parasitism” (2003:32). Scholars should be wary of assuming these indigenous traditions provide accurate historical information on Tula and the Toltecs.

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8 According to Nigel Davies (1980:41) Culhuacn saw fewer than 50 years of political dominance in the Valley of Mexico. Culhuacn’s role as the bastion of Toltec cultu re in the Valley of Mexico is fundamental to the whole history of the period that separates the Toltec from the Aztec Empire.Chichimecs, Acolhuas, Tepanecs, Chalcas and Mexica] were successive claimants to power [who] sought in turn to occupy Culhua land . (Cline 1986:4). Culhuacn was defeated in 1253 by Huetzi n, the Acolhua ruler of Coatlinchan which was located near the eastern shore of Lake Texcoco. Even though defeated Culhuacn remained a major cultural center as well as a “point of cultural diffusion” (Vaillant 1938:568) in the Valley. The Mexica were only one of the numerous aggressive and nomadic tribes that migrated south after the fall of the Toltec empire, but they were to become the most powerful. The group of Aztecs who inhabited Tenochtitln-Tlatelolco called themselves Mexica. The term “Aztec” refers to the va rious groups of Nahuatl-speaking people who lived in central Mexico in the Late Po stclassic period, 1350 to 1520 C.E. (Weaver 1993:439). The Aztec confederation, created by the Me xica and their allies, was comprised of three great cities. Two of the cities were already established as imperial centers when the Mexica arrived in the mid-th irteenth century (Davies 1982: 167): Texcoco, founded by the Chichimec (Vaillant: 1944:44), and Tlacopn, founded by the Tepanac (Davies 1982:177). The Mexica built the third great c ity, Tenochtitln, about 1325 C.E. and conquered Culhuacn in the 14th century. Culhuacn took part in wars instigated by their conquerors and eventually went to war agai nst Huexotzinco, Tlaxcal a and other polities, or city-states, that were against the Aztec ruler, Motecuhoma.

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9 The history of the Mexica is intertwined w ith that of Culhuacn. Having settled in Chapultepec in 1299, the Mexica were then expelled from there by the Culhuaque (the people of Culhuacn) in 1319. In spite of this, the Mexica “threw themselves on the mercy of Coxcox, the ruler of Culhuacn” (Cline 1986:4). According to the Codex Acatitlan, the Mexica were exiled to Ti zaapan after their ruler Huitzilihuitl was sacrificed. Another account has the Culhuaque “impressed by the staying power and fortitude of the Mexica” ( 1986:4) trading and intermarrying with them. The Mexica referred to themselves as Culhua-Mexica and “claimed ties to the To ltec line” (1986:5). The pre-contact trade and exchange pattern s that affected Culhuacn fluctuated with the changing political configuration. Un til the formation of th e Triple Alliance (a coalition of the three city -states of Tenochtitln, Te xcoco, and Tlacopan) around 1428 there were about 40 polities, or city-states, in the Valley of Mexico, each consisting of an urban center and surrounding territory that co ntained villages and hamlets (Hodge, Minc 1990:417). These dependencies provided cera mics and other provisi ons to city-state rulers on a daily or weekly basis. Accord ing to Hodge and Minc, under Aztec imperial rule, the tribute system and market exchange were two ways of m oving goods; utilitarian products such as painted ceramics were most frequently moved through market exchange. Among city-states market exchange was more frequent with nei ghboring polities than with distant ones. The emergence of the Aztec--or as Barl ow (1945:346-49) calls it, the CulhuaMexica--Empire in the 14th century and subsequent politic al unification resulted in a greater level of exchange among all polities. City-states brought under the domination of the Triple Alliance members (Tenochtitln, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan) were required to

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10 provide manufactured goods and services to the Alliance capitals. Decorated ceramics were probably one type of goods that was demanded as tribute (Hodge, Minc 1990:417). Culhuacn Colonial History The Aztec confederation was at the pinnacle of its power when Corts invaded their capital city of Tenochtitln in 1519. The Spanish brought to the New World diseases to which the American Indians had no immunity. One of the diseases, smallpox, devastated the besieged city and was linked with th e Spanish success in “t aking and holding the Aztec heartland” (Cook: 1998:69-70). Tenocht itln finally fell to the Spanish on August 21, 1521 despite heroic efforts by the Aztec leaders to expel Corts and his men. The effect of the Spanish conquest on the Indigenous population in the New World was catastrophic. There was a drastic decline in the native populati on that was caused in part by the illnesses brought by the Spaniard s to Indigenous people. Cook (1998:13) calls this “the greatest human catastrophe in history, far exceeding even the disaster of the Black Death of medieval Europe.” There were other causes for the population decline as well. The wars of the conquest, th e abusive treatment the Indians received at the hands of the Spaniards, starvation, mal nutrition, natural disasters, and “flight and forced migration” all had a part in the d ecline of the post-contact Indigenous population (Burkholder, Johnson 1998:110). By 1548 the Indian population was probably half of what it was in 1520 and the encomienda system became the principal method of controlling Indian labor (MacLeod 1973:110-111). Under this system the care and religious instru ction of a group of Indians was entrusted to a Spaniard who would reap the benefits of the Indians labor. It was general practice for a cacique, or native ruler, and his pe ople to be awarded as an encomienda, increasing the already onerous burden on the common Indian who then had

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11 to pay tribute to both his cacique and to the encomendero. The encomienda supplied labor and tribute when it was needed, and wh atever time the Indians had left would be spent tending to their milpas or fields (1973:111) Simpson (1966:110) writes: “This legal fiction [encomienda], by one name or another, was behind all measures by which the Indian was coerced into doing work.” By the mid to late 16th century, according to Kubler (1948:134), vast numbers of Indian laborers were being recruited for building the religious and civil architecture of 16th century Mexico. The forced labor of the encomienda was eventually replaced by the repartimiento which required the Indian communities to s upply a quota of laborers to work on public construction and agricultural projects for a pe riod of anywhere from three weeks to four months per year. Although the Indians were supposed to receive “a fixed wage, the tools required for their work, an adequate diet and satisfactory housi ng” (MacLeod 1973:207) abuses were widespread. The repartimento was the most common source of labor and was widely used between 1570 and 1630 (1973:208). By the 1550s the region, part of what was by then called New Spain, was firmly under the control of the Spanish. As part of the Spanish Crown’s Christianizing mission in the New World, the religious clergy were present almost from the beginning of Spanish exploration. The first regular clergy to arrive in Mexico we re the Franciscans in 1524, followed by the Augustinians in 1533, and the Dominicans in 1538. Different religious orders tended to concentrate thei r missionary efforts in separate areas—the Franciscans, the first to arrive, focused th eir religious work on Mexico City, Tlaxcala, and Michoacn while those area s to the immediate north of Mexico City came under the jurisdiction of the Augustinia ns. The Dominicans pushed south and founded a chain of

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12 monasteries extending through Puebla to Oax aca (Perry 1992:13). Perry notes that the Augustinians “were the most militant and apocalyptic of the missionaries.” The Franciscans, Augustinians, and Dominicans pl anned towns, built churches, established schools and infirmaries, and governed the communities (Kubler 1948:2; Perry 1992:15). Monasteries or churches established by the regular clergy as early as the 16th century occupied at least nine of the eleven DF sites, including DF 7, investigated by John Goggin in 1951. After the Spanish gained cont rol of Central Mexico Cort s granted the tribute and labor of its people to the conquerors. Cu lhuacn was subsequently awarded to the encomendero, Cristbal de Oate in 1525. It was in his hands for over forty years when it passed to his son, Hernando Oate, and remained in the family until 1659 when the Spanish crown took control of it. Sarah Cline (1986) offers an excellent in-d epth discussion of the people of late 16th century Culhuacn (http://instructional1.calst atela.edu/bevans/Art454L-01MapsDocsEtc/WebPage-Full.00040.html ; 11/20/05) as revealed by th eir wills. In the late 16th century Culhuacn was a “typical Indian town in the Valley of Mexico” with a minimal Spanish presence (Cline 1986:161) In 1580 Gonzalo Gallegos was the corregidor or royal administrator, over approximately thirty-s ix hundred Indians, and at least one Augustinian friar in the town (1986:6-7). The traders of Culhuacn traveled from the Valley of Morelos to the Spanish colonial capital of Mexico-Te nochtitln with their wares. As Cline (1986:167) says, “there was movement of mone y, goods, and people.” Even those who did not engage in

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13 trade had contact with people of other pla ces and intermarriage between Culhuacn’s citizens and outsiders was not uncommon. By 1552 Augustinian friars had undertaken th e building of the church of San Juan Evangelista in Culhuacn, which was proba bly completed by 1580. The Augustinians were able to draw on a vast supply of Indian labor to build the church and a convento (the friars’ living quarters) that contained a seminary. Stone s taken from nearby Indian temples that had been demolished comprise d much of the building material (Perry 1992:33). The porous volcanic stone, known as recinto —exceedingly hard and difficult to carve—was perfectly suited to the monume ntal architecture [pre-contact Indian temples], but ill-suited for indulging the Augustinians taste for ornamental sculpture. There was no sacrifice of scale however. The massive church is accompanied by a seemingly endless sequen ce of conventual rooms and corridors (1992:33). The roof of the church collapsed due to an earthquake early in the 18th century. It was never rebuilt and in the 1900s a smaller church was added to the southeast corner of the convento. Ruins of the Augustinian convento of San Ju an Evangelista can still be seen at the site. When Goggin examined the site in 1951 he found that “most of the original church building is now in state of ruin but much of the convent remains” (Goggin 1968:52). The church that exists there today was built between 1880 and 1897 using materials from the original building (Trueba 1959:14). However, according to Perry (1992:33), the modern day church was built in the 1900s. Across the street from the church are the remains of the first molina de papel or paper mill, built in the Americas ( http://www.inah.gob.mx/muse6/cccu/htme/cccu001.html ; 11/20/05). It was built about

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14 1580 to satisfy the paper requirements of th e Seminario de Lenguas Indgenas that the friars established in the convento and wher e they trained missionaries in the native languages. In order to faci litate the missionari es training, the friars needed great quantities of paper in order to produce the catechisms used in the Christianization of the Indians (Trueba 1959:10).

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15 CHAPTER 2 ARCHAEOLOGY AT CULHUACN Historical Archaeological Research in Mexico With only a few exceptions, such as J ohn Goggin’s work, archaeology in Mexico before the 1960s meant prehistoric archaeol ogy, the study of later er as was the venue of ethnohistorians and historians (Fournier-Garcia and Mirand a-Flores: 1992). Eduardo Noguera (1934) was one of the first archaeo logists to undertake a study of the Spanish colonial period in Mexico. He carried out a preliminary study of historic ceramics in order to understand the processe s of stylistic and technical changes between pre-colonial and colonial ceramic traditions. His work foreshadowed the future direction that Mexican historic archaeology w ould take, “which would be closely linked to analyses of ceramics and changes resulting from Europ ean contact” (Fournie r-Garcia, MirandaFlores 1992:76). Noguera’s was the only wo rk done within the field of historic archaeology until the 1960s when the archae ology of historic sites assumed a more significant role in Mexican archaeology. During the past several decades research on historic sites has been carried out throughout Mexico by many Mexican and foreign investigators. Some of these include A. Benavides (1985), Thomas Charlton (1972, 1979), Patricia Four nier (1985), Janine Gasco (1987), Robert and Florence List er (1975, 1982), and Fernando Miranda-Flores and R. Manzanilla (1984). These studies can be grouped into three categories: (1) studies where the historic past is treated as an archaeological

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16 topic in the same manner as the pre-Hispanic past; (2) studies where historic sites have been analyzed as part of larger pr ograms of architectural restoration; and (3) studies where investigators have shown inte rest in the development of a scientific form of historical archaeology focused on the analysis of socio-economic processes (Fournier-Garcia and Miranda-Flores: 1992:76). The study of historic ceramics, vessels made in Mexico as well as those imported from other areas, has occupied a significan t place in these investigations. Archaeological Research in Culhuacn Most of the archaeological research in Culhuacn has concentrated on the precontact era, and has produced a basic archaeo logical sequence of the area. Franz Boas (1913) conducted archaeological excavatio ns during 1911-12, naming the black-and orange pottery he found there “Culhuacn styl e.” Prior to his investigations Boas had divided the black and orange Aztec pottery into three subgroups, based on the fineness of the design. Since all three types were found at Culhuacn, he undertook excavations there to determine the chronological sequence of the types. Aztec I, the crudest type, was mainly found at the lower levels. This type was prevalent at the level of the water and is contemporary with the building of chinampa s about 1100 C.E. Boas found that the amount of pottery had noticeably decreased be low the water level a nd he described that pottery as Teotihuacn type (Blanton 1972:160-161, Cline 1986:3). Richard Blanton’s 1970 dissertation, “Pre hispanic Settlemen t Patterns of the Ixtapalapa Peninsula Region Mexico” was part of a larger study entitled “Coordinated Anthropological Research in the Valley of Mexico” which had as its general objective “… to better understand the influence of cultu ral development in th e Basin of Mexico on cultural development in Mesoamerica as a whol e” (1970:13). Blanton goes on to say that the purpose of the Ixtapalapa study was to “outlin e the configurations of settlement of all

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17 the major time periods from the Early Forma tive through the Aztec, and to estimate the total population of the region during each of those periods” (1972:15). This project included his excavation at a site in the to wn of Culhuacn. Blanton felt that the Teotihuacn pottery found below Aztec I po ttery probably did not suggest an actual Teotihuacn occupation since this would have resulted in a greater density of ceramics (1972:16). When Laurette Sj ourn published the results of her excavations at San Juan Evangelista (also known as San Matias) in 1970, she concluded that the site was contemporaneous with Te otihuacn (1970:35). Of all the sites Blanton (1972:166) survey ed in the Ixtapalapa Region, Culhuacn had the most significant number of Aztec I sher ds and is the type site for that phase. During the Aztec II period, it was the only la rge settlement in the region (1972:176). According to Sjourn (1970:54) Aztec II pot tery also originated in Culhuacn. The artifact collection from Goggin’s DF 7 excava tion contains examples of Aztec I, II, and III. John Goggin at Culhuacn As noted above, Goggin’s excavations in th e Distrito Federal, including Culhuacn, were carried out to provide stratigraphic anal ysis of Spanish majolica. At Culhuacn (DF 7) he did surface collections and examined ope n reconstruction trenches at DF 4. I chose to examine DF 7 (Culhuacn) because it was th e only site in his DF investigations at which Goggin dug stratigraphic test pits. Of the three test pits at this site, this study will concentrate on Test Unit 3 which was the deepes t, extending to 10 feet. It also yielded approximately 40,000 artifacts; this was the la rgest quantity found at the Culhuacn site or at any of the other DF sites. The number of artifacts collected at the other sites ranged from 7 (DF 3) to 499 (DF 4). I felt that th e assemblage from Culhuacn’s stratigraphic

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18 excavations was the most likely to provide su fficient information enabling me to answer my original research questions. All of the artifacts from Goggin’s DF excavations have been stored in the Florida Museum of Natura l History after their tr ansfer in 1973 from the UF Anthropology Department. The ceramic sherds collected from Test Un it 3 of the DF 7 (Culhuacn) site are the basis of my analysis. John G oggin determined that none of th e three test units from DF 7 was satisfactory for a stratigraphic analysis of majolica ceramics; the first unit was too shallow, only a small amount of majolica was found in the second, and majolica was found only in the first foot of refuse in the third unit. Other information, however, could be obtained from these units, particularly Unit 3. I have not been able to locate detailed records about the excavation and site; however, John Goggin did write brief notes on his field excavation forms. He had a small field crew of two University of Flor ida students, Paul Hahn and Donald Kokomoor, and several local workers. The precise lo cation of Test Unit 3 is unrecorded, although Goggin noted that two of the three test units at the site were dug in what is now the modern church garden, and th e third was dug in the central patio. Goggin’s rough sketch of the site shows the general locations of Test Units 1 and 2, in the garden and patio respectively; therefore, it app ears that Test Unit 3 was also dug in the garden. His field notes from Unit 3 are marked “Section: 0’ – 5’” indicating that the Test Unit was 5’ long and, since other trenches he dug during his 1951 Mexico excavations were 5’ wide, this unit was probably 5’ wide also. The depth of the test unit ranges fr om 122” along its east wall to 125” along the west wall. Goggin excavat ed the unit in 6 inch arbitrary levels and

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19 since I found nothing archaeologically that suggests a disturbance, I have accepted his assessment of the stratigraphic integrity of the site. The field notes that I have been able to find do not mention screening. Goggin noted that the first layer (0-6”) of soil wa s heavy, dark, and damp. In the next three layers (6” – 24”) the soil was heavy, dark, and granular. At 24” he indicates that the soil is beginning to lighten from “dark to a dark brown ‘granular’ type.” From 30” to 60” the soil is dark brown granular, and from 60” to 114” it is dark granular. At 108” to 114” he reached “partially cemented” sand that did not contain any artifacts. There were four small holes in this hardpan and he excavated each of them separately. He found “that there seemed to be another hardpan layer lowe r with a layer of earth between the hardpan layer. This dirt revealed sh erds also.” He stopped excavating at 114” to 125” when he hit a solid bed of clay that was 12” deep. John Goggin left only sketchy information a bout the two features he found in the test unit. In his excavation notes he writes“ [At 12 to 18” ] In N.E. corner a lighter material found. granular but quite brown. It shows no indication of being a later excavation or pit.” In the southeast corner of the unit at 54” – 60” he encountered a feature of dark grey soil which he believed to be old post holes. When he reached the next level the holes had disappeared. Methods of the Present Study Prudence Rice (1987:25) writes th at pottery is “formed and in formed” and that each step in the process can reveal insights into human behavior. The choices potters make in the use of raw materials, decorations a nd vessel shapes are “culturally conditioned decisions” that can yield insights into peopl es “aesthetic perceptions and ideological systems.” It is because pottery is sensitive to such culturally conditioned decisions that I

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20 chose to look at Indigenous decorated ceram ics to see what, if any, post-contact cultural changes they reflected. In order to determine if there were ch anges over time in Indigenous pottery, I planned to analyze and quantify the ceramics in a stratigraphic context For each level, I separated the Indigenous pottery into Decorated Ceramics (Aztec types, Red Ware, Redon-Buff, and Unidentified Indigenous Decora ted ceramics) and Undecorated or Plain Indigenous Ceramics. The Aztec types identif ied in the Culhuacan sample include Aztec I, II, and III (Sjourn 1970). Aztec types that I was unable to identify I labeled as Aztec UID (unidentified). I further determined if the decorated sh erds were most likely bowls or jars. The Red Ware ceramics in the te st unit included Black-Red; Black-White-Red; and White-Red. I have followed Jeffrey Pa rson’s (1966) usage for the Red Ware type names. Following Jeffrey Parson’s (1966:1) lead, I use the term “Aztec” to refer to the period of time from approximately the mid-12th century to 1521 in the Valley of Mexico; therefore, Aztec pottery include s Indigenous as well as the speci fic Aztec I, II, III, and IV type ceramics. According to Parsons (1966: 1) it is highly likel y that Aztec pottery continued to be used well after 1521. I found nine types of European ceramics in the assemblage: Columbia Plain Majolica, El Morro, Lead Glazed Coarse Ea rthenware, Transfer Printed Pearlware, Unidentified Coarse Earthenware, Unidentified Mexican Majolica, Unidentified Majolica, Black Lead Glazed Coarse Earthenw are, and Unidentified Lead Glazed Coarse Earthenware. These nine groups comprised the 106 European sherds in the test unit.

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21 Once I had sorted and counted the Indi genous and European ceramics and other artifacts I entered the information into the Historical Archaeology Microsoft Access database. The database is used to or ganize information on each artifact from an excavation site. I entered the data from DF 7 into the following data fields: FS Number, Provenience, Item, Description, Frequenc y, Group, Weight, Color, Fragment Form, Composition, Decoration, Modifier 1, Modifier 2, Diameter, and Length. For each item I filled in the first six fields and remaining fiel ds as appropriate. In order to answer my research questions and determine trends in Indigenous ceramics, I graphed the percentages of European and Indigenous types; Indigenous Deco rated and Indigenous Undecorated (Plain); and, Indigenous Decorate d bowl and jar forms to level totals (see List of Tables). Analysis of Material Remains Twenty-one levels were excavated in Test Unit 3. Goggin’s or iginal field notation cards indicate that one of the levels was 66”72” (Level 12) and another, 72”78” (Level 13). However, an artifact box that was part of the original collec tion identified Level 14 as 66”78”; but this level was not listed on the field notation cards. One way that may account for the discrepancy in these levels is that some of the sherds from the two separate levels (66”-72” and 72”-78”) were inadvertently mixed together when the collection was brought back to UF from Mexico for cataloging. Sinc e there is no way of knowing which level (Level 12 or 13) the sherds came from I omitted Level 14 from my analysis. As noted, more than 40,000 artifacts were excavated from Test Unit 3 (see Table 2). These artifacts included European a nd Indigenous pottery sherds, several clay figurines, glass, and small amounts of obsidian flakes, bone fragments, chert, slate, and

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22 plaster (see Tables 3-5). I ndigenous ceramics accounted fo r almost 99% of the total assemblage and provide the focus for this anal ysis. The majority of sherds fell into the two ceramic categories Indigenous Pl ain and Indigenous Decorated. Aztec ceramics were either hand modeled or mold-made; neither the potter’s wheel nor glazes were known in Mexico until the Europeans introduced them in the early 16th century. Native artisans produ ced a variety of utilitarian and ceremonial objects such as bowls, plates, serving dishes, grater bowls, gobl ets, incense burners, braziers, figurines, stamps and pyramid temple models, as well as vessels for special purposes such as cocoa jugs, sauce dishes, and ladles. There we re utilitarian wares, probably made by nonspecialists, and finer wares that were pr obably crafted by expe rienced artisans (Bray 1968:137-138). All households owned some t ype of pottery and commoner as well as elite households had access to exotic goods su ch as obsidian, decorated ceramics, metal items, and jade beads. Some uses for vessels included jars for stor ing water; pots for cooking beans and soaking maize; round flat griddles, called comales for baking tortillas; and cajetes or bowls, with criss-cross incisions on the inside (Bray 1968:138-139). All types and sizes of sites in the Valley of Mexico seem to have had access to nonlocal ceramics.

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23 Table 2. All Artifacts LEVEL 1 2345678 910 POTTERY Aztec 3 3326843 311 Black Lead-Glazed 2 Columbia Plain 1 Delftware 1 El Morro 49 149643 1 Figurine Fragments 13642104 614 Indigenous Plain 974 192213429241192200729102865 20993116 Lead-Glazed 2 1 1 Modern 7 Pearlware Transfer Print 1 Red-on-Buff 49 4539263237106103 83138 Redware 1545494 1011 UID Coarse Earthenware 1 2 2 UID Indigenous Decorated 28 93647174222 2258 UID Majolica 6 UID Mexico City Majolica 1 OTHER Bone (grams) 8.5 7.34.43.12.22.5 1.5 0.8 Bldg. Mat'l (grams) 463151 46372 159 46142 Ceramic Bead 1 Chert 11 12 11 Clay Marbles 1 2 1 Clay Whistle 1 Coprolite Gaming Disk 1 1 1 Glass 7 4 Matate 1 N ail 1 Obsidian 7 913712 10 814 Pendant Spindle Whorl Stone Disk Worked Stone

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24 Table 2. Continued LEVEL 11121315161718192021Total POTTERY Aztec 326512643 32 Black Lead-Glazed 0 Columbia Plain 0 Delftware 0 El Morro 0 Figurine Fragments 13159587988385 Indigenous Plain 22832193286316251974181421602419175847619565 Lead-Glazed 0 Modern Pearlware Transfer Print 0 Red-on-Buff 107103123871057711616614921035 Redware 1252112471211 66 UID Coarse Earthenware 0 UID Indigenous Decorated 3146772331224639322349 UID Majolica 0 UID Mexico City Majolica 0 OTHER 0 Bone (grams) 1.71.72.31.2 0.84.55.95.44.33 Bldg. Mat’l (grams) 30981331142588585 7 Ceramic Bead Chert 1 1 2 Clay Marbles 1 21 4 Clay Whistle 0 Coprolite 1 1 Gaming Disk 1121 5 Glass 0 Matate 0 N ail 0 Obsidian 18994871043476 Pendant 1 Spindle Whorl 1 1 Stone Disk 1 1 Worked Stone 1 1

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25 Table 3. European Decorated Ceramics Columbia Plain El Morros Lead-Glazed Delftware Unidentified Coarse Earthenware Unidentified Mexico City Majolica Unidentified Majolica Black Lead-Glazed Pearlware Transfer Print Unidentified Lead-Glazed Level Total Level L01 49 1 1 62 11144 L02 1 14 1 2 1 2036 L03 9 1 1 1443 L04 6 1019 L05 4 1259 L06 3 2092 L07 1 2 3101 L08 3012 L09 1 2236 L10 3366 L11 2467 L12 2378 L13 3092 L15 1752 L16 2141 L17 1944 L18 2359 L19 2653 L20 1966 L21 487 Total 1 86 31 5162 1

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26Table 4. Indigenous Ceramics Level ABO DEC AZTEC TYPE REDWARE RED on BUFF ABOP Level Total # Level % # Level % # Level %# Level %# Level % L01 28 0.0230.00 0 0.0049 0.059740.85 1144 L02 9 0.0030.00 1 0.0045 0.0219220.94 2036 L03 36 0.0230.00 5 0.0039 0.0313420.93 1443 L04 4 0.0020.00 4 0.0026 0.039240.91 1019 L05 7 0.0160.00 5 0.0032 0.0311920.95 1259 L06 17 0.0180.00 4 0.0037 0.0220070.96 2092 L07 42 0.0140.00 9 0.001060.0429100.94 3101 L08 22 0.0130.00 4 0.001030.0428650.95 3012 L09 22 0.0130.00 100.0083 0.0420990.94 2236 L10 58 0.02110.00 110.001380.0431160.93 3366 L11 31 0.0130.00 120.001070.0522830.93 2467 L12 46 0.0220.00 5 0.001030.0521930.92 2378 L13 77 0.0260.00 2 0.001230.0428630.93 3092 L15 23 0.0150.00 1 0.0087 0.0516250.93 1752 L16 31 0.0110.00 120.011050.0519740.92 2141 L17 22 0.0120.00 4 0.0077 0.0418140.93 1944 L18 46 0.0260.00 7 0.001160.0521600.92 2359 L19 39 0.0140.00 120.001660.0724190.91 2653 L20 32 0.0230.00 110.011490.0817580.89 1966 L21 2 0.0000.00 0 0.002 0.004760.98 487 Total 595 0.01780.00 1080.0017060.04389160.93 41947

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27 Table 5. Indigenous Decorated Ceramics Level UID DECORATED UID AZTECAZTECI AZTECIIAZTECIII RED WARE RED on BUFF Total # % # % #% #% #% # % # % L01 2835.00% 0.00% 0.00%22.50%11.25%0 0.00%49 61.25%80 L02 915.52%11.72% 0.00%23.45% 0.00%1 1.72%45 77.59%58 L03 3643.37%33.61% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%5 6.02%39 46.99%83 L04 411.11% 0.00% 0.00%25.56% 0.00%4 11.11%26 72.22%36 L05 714.00%24.00% 0.00%48.00% 0.00%5 10.00%32 64.00%50 L06 1725.76%812.12% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%4 6.06%37 56.06%66 L07 4226.09%31.86%10.62% 0.00% 0.00%9 5.59%10665.84%161 L08 2216.67%10.76% 0.00%10.76%10.76%4 3.03%10378.03%132 L09 2218.64%21.69% 0.00% 0.00%10.85%10 8.47%83 70.34%118 L10 5826.61%104.59% 0.00%10.46% 0.00%11 5.05%13863.30%218 L11 3120.26%21.31%10.65% 0.00% 0.00%12 7.84%10769.93%153 L12 4629.49%10.64% 0.00% 0.00%10.64%5 3.21%10366.03%156 L13 7737.02%62.88% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%2 0.96%12359.13%208 L15 2319.83%43.45% 0.00%10.86% 0.00%1 0.86%87 75.00%116 L16 3120.81% 0.00% 0.00%10.67% 0.00%12 8.05%10570.47%149 L17 2220.95% 0.00% 0.00%21.90% 0.00%4 3.81%77 73.33%105 L18 4626.29%21.14% 0.00%42.29% 0.00%7 4.00%11666.29%175 L19 3917.65%10.45% 0.00%31.36% 0.00%12 5.43%16675.11%221 L20 3216.41%21.03% 0.00%10.51% 0.00%11 5.64%14976.41%195 L21 250.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%0 0.00%2 50.00%4 Total 59523.95%481.93%20.08%240.97%40.16%108 4.35%170668.68%2484

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28 The following discussion describes the ceramic types used to classify materials for the purpose of this study. They are based pr imarily on the works of Jeffrey Parsons and Laurette Sejourn. The two predominant ce ramic wares during the Aztec period in the Valley of Mexico are Orange Ware and Red Wa re. Orange Wares are either of the Plain Orange type, which can vary in color from light orange to orange-brown to yellowish brown to reddish-orange to re ddish-brown; or the Black-onOrange decorated type. Red Wares are red-slipped ceramics with decora tive elements in white and/or black, and occasionally yellow. There are four characteristic styles of Black-on-Orange Aztec ceramics in the Valley of Mexico: Aztec I, II, III, and IV. A B C D Figure 1. Aztec Types at San Juan Evangelista. A) Aztec I, B) Azte c II, C) Aztec II, D) Aztec III.

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29 Aztec I and II are in the Early Aztec Period (1150 C.E.-1350 C.E.) and Aztec III and IV are part of the Late Aztec Pe riod (1350 C.E.-1520 C.E.). At one time archaeologists thought that the Aztec II styl e followed Aztec I, but now the accepted thought is that the two styl es are contemporaneous (Parsons 1982: 438). Aztec I ceramics are found largely in the southern part of the Valley while Aztec II ceramics predominate in the northern part. (See Appendix A for a compositional analysis of a DF 7 Aztec II sherd.) In contrast, the Late Aztec styles appear to exhibit uniformity throughout the Valley of Mexico where the spatia l differences generally seem to be more rural vs. urban and center vs. periphery than northern vs. southern as in the Early Aztec styles (1982:450). Figure 2. Early Aztec. There are varieties of Late Aztec pottery found at some of the large urban centers such as Tenochtitln, Chalco, and Texcoco which are missing from the peripheral villages and hamlets. In general, pottery in use at the northern vill age sites looks similar to pottery used at villages in the southern region. Aztec I is characterized by wavy lines, th ick uneven brush strokes, and border designs of frets, spirals, circ les and parallel lines. Center medallions are common motifs. The vessel walls are generally thicker than th e other Aztec styles. Aztec II designs are

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30 similar to Aztec I but with smaller and multiple elements. Thin walls as well as slanting lines and spirals on vessel interiors are charac teristic of Aztec II pottery. Multiple thin parallel lines and dots are characteristic of Aztec III pottery; designs range from simple to complex. Aztec IV type pottery is similar to Aztec III in vessel forms, but with “unique decorative techniques which incl ude thicker lines, new confi gurations of elements, and some use of European-derived designs” and is “predominantly post-hispanic (but probably all 16th century)” (Parsons et al 1982:450). Aztec IV pottery, found only in urban areas, incorporates more naturalistic forms and figurative motifs such as birds, flowers, fish, deer and monkeys (Pasztory 1983:296). Aztec-type pottery continued to be made until the 17th century; the majority of decorated vessels were ornamented with native flowers and animals. Some of the native designs were of animals that had significan t ritualistic meaning for the Aztecs; however, the Spanish probably did not consider these mo tifs idolatrous and ther efore were slow in eradicating them. Though the Spanish were quick to detect heathen idols on large monuments, they were apparently less concerned about pottery designs. The term “Red Ware” can be confusing. It can apply to any red slipped pottery no matter where or when it occurs or to ceramic s made with any reddish earthernware clay which can be slipped, unslipped, glazed, or unglazed. However, for purposes of this study I use Thomas Charlton’s definition of Red Ware: it “usually refers to Aztec period red/painted/slipped pottery. It continues into the Coloni al period with new forms and designs. Other periods have red painted pot tery, but the pastes and forms are quite distinct from the Aztec Red Ware” (pers onal communication 7/4/05). For Red Ware types found in the southern Valley of Mexico I followed the lead of Parsons, et al (1982)

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31 for type names. The types found at the DF 7 site include Black-Red, Black-White-Red; and White-Red; the type names are based on the surface decoration. The only blackwhite-red sherd found at this test unit came from Level 7. There were 41 black-red sherds, and 66 white-red sherds (see Table 3) The total number of Red Ware decorated sherds found in Test Unit III was 108 out of a total of approximately 40,000 artifacts excavated from Test Unit 3. Vessel Analysis As part of my ceramic analysis I di d a quantitative assessment of Indigenous decorated bowl and jar sherds with the id ea that such a study might be helpful in answering questions related to changes in Indi genous pottery. I used a simple method to determine if a decorated sherd was most lik ely a bowl or jar by examining the outer and inner surface treatments; bowl sherds were bur nished on both sides and jar sherds only on the outside (Norr, personal communication, 2001 ). My criterion for determining bowl or jar was meant to be a “most likely,” not definitive, assessment of use. Figure 3. Aztec Grat er Bowl Fragment. A bowl is a wide mouthed vessel with its height “varying fr om one-third the maximum diameter of the vessel up to equal to the diameter” (Ri ce 1987:216). A jar is generally defined as a vessel that is “necked (and therefore rest ricted) . w ith its height

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32 greater than its maximum diameter” (1987:216) Common uses for bowls were graters ( cajetes ), servicing utensils, or cooking pots, while jars were used for storing food, collecting and storing liquids, and cooking. It appears that with the arrival of the Eu ropeans there was a significant decline in the use of Indigenous Decorate d jars (Figure 4) while the production of Indigenous Plain jars remained fairly steady (Figure 5). Ov erall the use of native bowls and jars was generally consistent from Level 21 until Level 10 when there was a higher percentage of bowls than jars found at each level (Figure 6). Changes in the manufacture and use of pottery may be caused by “changes in available labor, extraction of resources, altere d diet, and loss of cultu ral identity,” (Cusick 1989:28), characteristics of the Contact Period in the central Valley of Mexico. The shift from one type of vessel to another--jars to bowls--implies a shift in eating patterns, cooking methods, or food availabi lity; changes instigated by the European presence in the The sample dissertation is not designed to replace the Guide for Preparing Theses and Dissertations produced and distributed by the Graduate School. It is to be used as a supplementary example of formatting. This samp le dissertation attempts to use all of the styles and formatting instructions dictated by the Guide You will notice throughout this sample dissertation bracketed statements and graphic boxes. These graphic boxes and bracketed statements are notes used to point out certain formatti ng aspects and methods of using the dissertation.

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33 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 1234567891011121315161718192021 Level Bowls Jars Figure 4. Indigenous Decorated Bowls and Jars

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34 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 12345678910111213151617181920 LevelPercentage Bowls Jars Figure 5. Indigenous Plain Bowls and Jars

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35 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 1234567891011121315161718192021 LevelPercent Bowls Jars Figure 6. All Indigenous Bowls and Jars

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36 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The only notes that I was able to locate from John Goggin’s excavations at the DF 7 site were sparsely written; I never f ound his field notebooks, which probably would contain more detailed information. Since his notes are incomplete, it is impossible to know with certainty, for example, the type of soil he encountered at each level. He often writes that the soil is “dark granular,” but he does not give an accura te description of its color. We are left with only a general idea of where two of the three DF 7 test units were dug since his sketch of the site (Figure 7) does not include any measurements and leaves out Test Unit 3 entirely. Archaeological me thodology in the 1950s was not as precise as it is today and, therefore, ther e are interpretive limitations when using older, unreported archaeological data. Figure 6. Sketch of Test Units I and II at San Juan Evangelista. Courtesy of the Florida Museum of Natural History.

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37 Tables 2 through 9 summarize the distribution of materials through the excavated levels. The presence of European artifact s provides a delineation of contact and precontact stages at this site dating approximately from 1150 C.E. to 1950 C.E. Levels 21 to 10 are pre-contact and Levels 9 and above are post-contact. The first 18 inches of soil at DF 7 cont ains modern debris consisting of glass, construction material, and pottery sherds as well as European and pre-contact Indigenous artifacts (see Tables 2-4). Levels 4 th rough 9 contain both European and pre-contact Indigenous artifacts while Le vels 10 through 21 are compri sed solely of pre-contact Indigenous material. The archaeological evidence indicates th at the first European presence at Culhuacn occurred at Level 9 where a fragment of a cast iron pot was found. Figure 7. European Cast Iron Pot Fragment We know that Corts awarded Culhuacn as an encomienda to Cristbal Oate in 1525 (Cline 1986:7); therefore, based upon the hi storical record plus the archaeological evidence, I believe that Level 9 probably da tes to about 1525. I have not relied on the one El Morro sherd found at Leve l 9 as the indicator of the terminus post quem (TPQ) for

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38 the level because El Morro sherds do not a ppear again until Level 7. All levels above Level 9 belong to the post-contact period. A B C D Figure 8. European Ceramics. A) Pearlwar e Transfer Print, Columbia Plain, two El Morro, B) El Morro, two unidentified Ma jolica, Black Lead-Glazed, C) LeadGlazed, unidentified coarse earthenware, D) unidentified Majolica, Delftware Native Americans interacted with European s before construction began on the San Juan Evangelista mission around 1552. The TPQ of 1550 for El Morro ceramics (3 sherds were found at Level 7) i ndicates that construction most likely began at this level. No European ceramics were found at Level 8 and only one at Level 9, which implies a limited European presence at th e site during Levels 8 and 9. The percentages of Indigenous plain pottery in the total ceramic assemblage vary only slightly from level to level with the exception of a 9% decreas e in plain Indigenous pottery from Level 21 to Level 20 (when the first Aztec type pottery appears). After

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39 Level 20 the percentage of plain Indigenous pot tery gradually increased; however it never reached the high of 98% found at Level 21. The DF 7 site appears to have been sparsely settled at Level 21. Of the 487 sherds at this level, 98% or 476 were plain and only about 1% or 4 were decorated. It is possible that an outside influence entered the area and the initial result was a dramatic increase in nativ e decorated pottery as well as a significant initial decline in plain pottery. A B Figure 9. Unidentified Indigenous. A) figurines, B) vessel handle. Red-on-Buff sherds consistently comprise the highest percentage of preand postcontact Indigenous decorated sh erds per level indicating a cl ear non-Aztec presence at the site. Charlton notes that Red-on-Buff pottery is characteristic of Formative, Teotihuacn, Coyotlatelco (Early Toltec Period, 750 C.E. to 950 CE), and Mazapan (Late Toltec Period, 950 C.E. to 1150 C.E.) ceramics and is no t considered part of Aztec or Colonial complexes (personal communication 7/5/05) Red on Buff is distinguished by red decoration on a buff-colored slip.

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40 Figure 10. Red-on-Buff Aztec type sherds were found at all levels from Level 9 to Level 20 ( 5), suggesting stratigraphically that the site was occupied onl y during the period of Aztec influence. An intrusion of some sort could account for the pr esence of Aztec sherds at the lowest levels; however, in Goggin’s field notes the only mention of possible post holes is at Level 10 while at Level 20 he indicates there were sm all breaks in the “hardpan which were small holes.” He does not identify these as post hol es, however. It is cl ear that there was a non-Aztec presence at the site represented by the Red-on-Buff sherds which comprise a very consistent Indigenous tradition with little change throughout the occupation period. Red-on-Buff ceramics were most frequent at lower levels. While Indigenous decorated pottery (other than Red-on-Buff) is always present in smaller numbers, the overall proportion of Red-on-Buff remains cons istent (see Table 5). The percentages of Indigenous plain pottery are much greater (averaging 93%) and generally consistent throughout the unit. The two instances when the percentages of Indigenous Decorated and Indigenous Plain pottery sharply dive rge are from Level 21 to 20 (Red-on-Buff increases while Plain decreases) and from Leve l 2 to 1 where there is a sharp decrease in

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41 plain pottery and an increas e (though not as marked) in Decorated and Red-on-Buff. After Level 20 the percentages of both Redon-Buff and Plain ceramics stabilize. The numbers of artifacts found at Level 21 (487) and Level 20 (1964), along with the sharp increase in Red-on-Buff pottery at Level 20, su ggest the arrival of newcomers to the area. They probably brought with them a diffe rent tradition of decorated pottery. There were 595 Indigenous decorated ceram ic sherds other than Aztec, Red-onBuff, or Red Ware types found in Test Unit I II. The Indigenous decorated ceramics were incised, punctuated, appliqud, stamped, or pain ted. One hundred and thirty nine figurine fragments were found in the test unit. Figure 10. Unidentified Indigenous Decorated The percentage of all Indigenous decorated sh erds to level totals is between 3% and 10% throughout all levels, with the exception of Level 21 wher e it is less than 1% (see Table 6). The difference in percentages between levels is so small that it is difficult to draw any conclusions from this. The excep tion is between Levels 6 and 7. Assuming that Level 7 marks the beginning of a sustaine d European presence at the site, this may reflect an alteration in the ceramic producti on tradition and the decline in the number of .skilled craftsmen available who could produ ce decorative pottery. This may explain the 50% decline in the number of Indigenous deco rated ceramics from Level 7 to Level 6.

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42 Table 6. European and Indigenous Decorated Ceramics Level European Percent of Level Indigenous Percent of Level 1600.05800.07 2180.01580.03 3130.01830.06 460.01360.04 540.00500.04 630.00660.03 730.001610.05 800.001320.04 910.001180.05 1000.002180.06 1100.001530.06 1200.001560.07 1300.002080.07 1500.001160.07 1600.001490.07 1700.001050.05 1800.001750.07 1900.002210.08 2000.001950.10 2100.0040.01 In general, in the Valley of Mexico ther e was a gradual decline in the frequency of decorated wares as well as an increase in the frequency of plain wares between the conquest and 1650. There is evidence that the surface treatment of ceramic finishes declines also. Charlton (1968:98) notes that burnishing was one area in which a difference in treatment can be noted: pre-co ntact ceramics often had both exterior and interior burnished whil e post-contact Aztec ceramics ofte n have only the interior area burnished. According to Charlton, the decline in pottery complexity may be due to the

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43 post-contact population decline as well as sh ifts in the sociopo litical organization (congregaciones) which probably affected craft industries.

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44 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION The primary purposes of this thesis were to provide documentation of the collection from DF 7 and to look at the post-contact conf igurations at the site The questions I set out to answer were: (1) Did the Indigenous pottery change over time? (2) Was there any indication of Indigenous inter action with Europeans before the San Juan Evangelista mission was built? (3)Was the decline in population evidenced through changes in Indigenous pottery? My preliminary analysis uncovered few indi cations that changes over time occurred in Indigenous Decorated pottery at the DF 7 site. The change s I found were related to the increase or decrease in frequency of different types of pottery; for example, Red-on Buff, or the more general category of Indigenous Decorated pottery. In an article on postcontact Aztec ceramics in the Teotihuacn Va lley, Charlton (1968:99) says that changes in Aztec ceramics between the 16th and early 17th century were of “minor aesthetic and technical losses and re-emphases in tradi tion.” My research did not concentrate on stylistic or technical changes in Indige nous pottery production. A study focusing on these aspects of pottery manufacture is n eeded to yield information on what, if any, effects the early Europeans had on native ceramic pottery production. The fragment of a cast iron pot found at Le vel 9 suggests an Indigenous interaction with the Europeans before the building of the mission in 1552, though there appears to have been a limited European presence at th e site until construction began, probably at

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45 Level 7. The absence of any European artif acts at Level 8 supports the idea of a minimal Spanish influence at the s ite during this time. There is some ceramic evidence for the decline in the nativ e population with the arrival of the Europeans to the area. The d ecline in ceramic decorated bowls from over 5% to less than 2% from Levels 8 to 6 suggests there was less of a demand for these products at this time, probably because there were fewer people to use them or fewer artisans who could produce them There is also a 50% reduc tion in Red-on Buff pottery between Levels 7 and 6. Charlton notes this pottery type is not characteristic of Aztec complexes (personal communication 7/5/05), so the decline might be attributed to the fact that though this pottery was still available, there were fewer people to use it. The percentage of Indigenous Plain bowls dr opped sharply at Level 7, implying a sudden decrease in the production or demand for this item. The downward trend was short-lived; the percentage climbed sharply at Level 6 and continued upward. The decline in population can also be seen in the considerable decrease in the volume of material per arbitrary level after Le vel 7 where there appears to be a sustained European presence. Prior to Level 7 there are only minor fl uctuations in the amount of artifacts per level. There is an average decr ease of just over 30% per level from Level 7 to Level 4 after which the volume begins to increase, probably mirroring the recovery of the native population. The frequency of obsidian blades and flakes at the site remains fairly consistent throughout the levels while the few domestic objects, a metate, spindle whorl, and clay whistle, are found at lower levels. The meta te was found at Level 9 where there is a limited European presence at the site; the clay whistle was found at Level 10 and the

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46 spindle whorl at Level 17. The unchanged lith ic assemblage together with the decrease in domestic items seems to signal a gender-b ased response to changes triggered by the entrance of Europeans in Culhuacn. A B C D Figure 11. Indigenous Artifacts. A) obsidia n, B) bead, C) vessel supports, D gaming disks. According to Kellogg (1995:560) certain activ ities are gender based; for example, Mexica women performed tasks within the hou sehold such as food preparation, weaving, spinning, household cleaning, and childcare. In his discussion of I ndian barracks at La Pursima Mission in California, James Deetz not es that an absence of chipped stone is indicative of the disappearance of hunting a nd weapon manufacture, both male activities (Schuyler 1978:180-81). Obsidian blades, used for cutting a nd scraping tools (Pasztory 1983:250), and flakes are found at all levels in the test unit, with th e exception of Level 7 where no

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47 obsidian was found. One reason production stop ped could be that the obsidian producers were among the laborers engaged in the cons truction of the mission which occurred about this time. However, the halt in obsidian production was only temporary since it is again found at Levels 6 and above. The presence of Aztec ceramics at all levels of the site, with the exception of Level 21, means that the occupation peri od of the site can be dated to Aztec times. However, there was a much stronger nonAztec presence as shown by th e consistently large amount of Red-on-Buff ceramics th roughout all levels. A principal objective of this thesis was to make available previously unreported and unexamined archaeological ce ramics from the Spanish colonial mission of San Juan Evangelista. The artifacts from DF 7 have been in storage and unknown to all but a few people for over fifty years. I hope that this study encourages those who are interested in the archaeological and historical significance of the area to use this preliminary analysis as a starting point fo r further research.

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48 APPENDIX A NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF EARLY AZTEC SHERD Compositional analysis of the Early Azt ec sherd was conducted using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the University of Michigan’s Ford Nuclear Reactor. Weathered surfaces of a portion of the sherd were removed through abrasion with a tungsten-carbide rotary file, and th e cleaned portion was then rinsed, dried, and ground to a powder in an agate mortar and pestle. Approximately 200 mg of powdered sherd was weighed out into a high-purity quartz vial and the vial sealed. Figure 12. Early Aztec Sherd The encapsulated sample, along with standa rds and check-standards, was irradiated for 20 hours in a core-face location with an average thermal flux of 4.2 x 1012 n/cm2 /s. After a 1-week decay, gamma activity from in termediate half-life isotopes was recorded over a 5000-second count on an HPGecoaxial detect or (38% relative e fficiency). After a period of 5 weeks decay, a second gamma count for 10000-seconds recorded activity from long half-life isotopes.

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49 Elemental concentrations were determined based on comparison with three replicates of the standard reference materi al NIST 1633A (coal fly ash) using consensus values for the standards (Glascock 1991, Ta ble 26). The following elements were quantified: As, Ba, La Lu, Na, Sm, U, Yb, Ce Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf Nd, Rb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn. Samples of New Ohio Red Clay and NIST 1633B (coal fly ash) were included as check standards on pr ecision and accuracy of results. The Aztec sherd was compared against a data set of Early Aztec Black/Orange ceramics from the southern and eastern Basin of Mexico. Prior analyses (Minc 35 et al. 1994) had identified three compositionally and st ylistically distinct regional types of Early Aztec Black/Orange: (1) Culhuacn -area ceramics (including Culhuacn and Calligraphic Tenayuca styles); (21) Chal co-area (including Chalco and Mixquic Black/Orange variants); and (30) Texcoco-area Black/Orang e (represented by Geometric Tenayuca). Early Aztec ceramics produced in Tenayuca proper are not represented in this data set. Discriminant function analysis was utilized to assign the Aztec sherd to the most likely of these three compositional groups Based on the 16 most precise minor and trace elements characterized (La, Lu, Sm, Y b, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, and Th), the unknown sherd is clearly classed with the Culhuacn area ceramics. This sherd, marked by an X on the attached graphs, falls within the 95% density ellipse for the Culhuacn group (marked in green), and is cl early separated from the Chalco group (red) and Texcoco group (blue). This indicates that the unknown sherd is highly similar in composition to the Culhuacn material, and is most likely a local product.

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50 Figure 13. Early Aztec Black/Orange Po ttery from the Basin of Mexico.

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51 APPENDIX B INDIGENOUS RIM STUDY Table 7. Decorated Rims Level Bowls Jars Everted Straight Curved Thick Wedge Beveled Rolled Folded Flared Total Total Rims per Level % Rims per Level 1 1 1250.00% X 020.00% 2 X 2 21191.68% X 16 2 1811915.13% 3 2 21121.79% X 24 2411221.43% 4 X 5 5647.81% X 10 6 166425.00% 5 X 1 1881.14% X 27 1 1 298832.95% 6 X 2 2822.44% X 1 13 1 158218.29% 7 X 1 2 1 41313.05% X 7 2 2 111318.40% 8 X 1 11780.56% X 1 33 3 13817821.35% 9 X 2 1 31382.17% X 7 17 4 3 13213823.19% 10 X 8 2 2 2 141817.73% X 8 21 9 1 3918121.55% 11 X 2 4 1 3 101407.14% X 3 14 3 2014014.29% 12 X 5 3 2 2 121577.64% X 5 8 9 1 1 2415715.29%

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52 Table 7. Continued Level Bowls Jars Everted Straight Curved Thick Wedge Bevelled Rolled Folded Flared Total Total Rims per Level % Rims per Level 13 X 3 1 41462.74% X 2 7 4 1141469.59% 15 X 2 4 1 3 101287.81% X 20 5 2512819.53% 16 X 1 8 1 101407.14% X 4 16 3 2314016.43% 17 X 4 6 1 1 1211810.17% X 3 8 1 1 1311811.02% 18 X 4 11 1 1 13 2113815.22% X 2 16 3 2113815.22% 19 X 2 1 2 2 71943.61% X 4 39 11 4519423.20% 20 X 3 2 14 109210.87% X 2 24 1 1 289230.43% 21 0220.00% X 1 1 2229.09%

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53 Table 8. Rim Types Compared to Total Rims by Percentage Level Everted Straight Curved Thick Wedge Beveled Rolled Folded Flared Total Per Level 1 100% 2 2 26.72% 77.31%6.72%0.84%0.84%5.88%0.84%0.84%0.00% 8 92811711 119 322.32% 61.61%4.46%0.00%0.89%8.93%0.89%0.00%0.89% 25 695 1101 1112 415.63% 65.63%9.38%1.56%0.00%7.81%0.00%0.00%0.00% 10 4261 5 64 523.86% 54.55%6.82%2.27%0.00%12.50%0.00%0.00%0.00% 21 4862 11 88 617.07% 68.29%4.88%0.00%1.22%7.32%0.00%0.00%1.22% 14 564 16 182 738.17% 43.51%3.05%1.53%0.76%10.69%0.00%0.76%1.53% 50 5742114 12131 817.98% 63.48%2.81%2.25%2.25%7.30%1.69%0.56%1.69% 32 11354413313178 931.16% 44.20%5.07%2.17%0.72%13.04%0.72%1.45%1.45% 43 6173118122138 1033.15% 48.62%6.63%1.66%0.00%9.39%0.55%0.00%0.00% 60 88123 171 181 1130.71% 51.43%7.14%0.71%1.43%7.86%0.71%0.00%0.00% 43 721012111 140 1227.39% 48.41%10.19%6.37%2.55%3.82%0.00%1.27%0.00% 43 76161046 2 157 1329.45% 39.04%21.23%1.37%1.37%6.85%0.00%0.00%0.68% 43 57312210 1146 1518.75% 57.03%6.25%4.69%1.56%10.94%0.00%0.00%0.78% 24 7386214 1128 1625.00% 57.86%5.00%2.14%0.71%8.57%0.71%0.00%0.00% 35 81731121 140 1733.90% 52.54%1.69%5.93%0.00%5.93%0.00%0.00%0.00% 40 6227 7 118 1836.23% 47.10%4.35%2.90%0.72%8.70%0.00%0.00%0.00% 50 6564112 138 1921.13% 59.28%2.06%1.03%0.52%14.95%0.00%1.03%0.00% 41 11542129 2 194 2011.96% 72.83%1.09%2.17%1.09%9.78%0.00%1.09%0.00% 11 671219 1 92 2145.45% 40.91%0.00%4.55%0.00%9.09%0.00%0.00%0.00% 10 9 1 2 22

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54 Table 9. Indigenous Plain Rims Level Bowls Jars Everted Straight Curved Thick Wedge B eve l e d Rolled Folded Flared Total 1 1 1 X 0 2 X 8 28 17 11 46 X 46 6 1 53 3 18 6 1101 36 X 7 39 3 150 4 X 7 6 1 5 19 X 3 21 24 5 X 8 2 2 9 21 X 13 19 4 1 37 6 X 10 9 1 16 27 X 3 32 2 138 7 X 31 20 2 9 264 X 11 37 2 11 52 8 X 25 27 3 39 31 71 X 5 53 2 1 14 268 9 X 23 11 2 11112 51 X 11 33 2 1 4 152 10 X 28 18 1 151 63 X 16 47 1 1 65 11 X 21 17 5 1 18 53 X 17 37 2 1 57 12 X 25 24 3 4 42 2 64 X 8 41 4 3 1 57 13 X 25 25 4 1 29 66 X 13 25 22 1 1 62 15 X 21 20 5 211 160 X 1 29 3 33 16 X 19 16 1 1 6 1 44 X 11 41 3 2 6 63 17 X 29 23 3 7 62 X 4 25 2 31 18 X 23 14 1 8 46 X 21 24 2 2 1 50 19 X 34 34 1 23 92 X 3 42 2 3 50 20 X 1 9 1 5 1 17 X 5 32 37 21 8 6 2 16 X 2 2 4

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55 LIST OF REFERENCES Barlow, R. H. 1945 Some Remarks on the Term “Aztec Empire,” The Americas 1(3):345-349. Benavides, Antonio 1985 Notas sobre la arqueologa histr ica de la Hacienda Tab, Yucatn. Revista Mexicana de Estudios, Antropolgicos 31:43-58. Blanton, Richard 1972 Prehispanic Settlement Patterns of the Ixtapalapa Peninsula Region Mexico. PhD. diss., Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Boas, Franz., and Manuel. Gamio 1921 Album de Colecciones Arqueolgicas y Etnolgicas Americana, Mexico, 1911-12. Mexico D.F., Mexico. Boas, Franz., and A.M. Tosser 1915 Summary of the Work of the In ternational School of American Archaeology and Ethnology in Mexico, 1910-14. American Anthropologist 17:384-95. Bray, Warwick 1968 Everyday Life of the Aztecs. New York: Dorset Press. Burkholder, Mark, and Lyman Johnson 1998 Colonial Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Third Edition. Charlton, Thomas H. 1968 Post-Conquest Aztec Ceramics: Implications for Archaeological Interpretation, The Florida Anthropologist 21(4):96-101. 1972 Post-Conquest Developments in the Teotihuacn Valley, Mexico. Part 1, Excavations. Report 5. Office of the St ate Archaeologist, Iowa City, Iowa. 1979 Historical Archaeology in the Vall ey of Mexico. Actes du XLII Congrs International des Amric anistes 8:21-33. Paris. Cline, S. L. 1986 Colonial Culhuacan, 1580-1600 A Social History of an Aztec Town. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

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56 Cook, Noble David 1998 Born to Die. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cusick, James 1989 Change in Pottery as a Reflection of Social Change: A Study of Taino Pottery Before and After Contact at the Site of En Bas Saline, Haiti. M.A. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. Davies, Nigel 1977 The Toltecs. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 1980 The Toltec Heritage From the Fall of Tula to the Rise of Tenochtitln. Norman, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma Press. 1982 The Ancient Kingdoms of Mexico. London: Penguin. Deagan, Kathleen 1987 Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, 15001800. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press. Fournier, Patricia 1985a Evdencias arqueolgicos de la impo rtacin de cermica en Mxico con base en los materials del ex-Convento de San Jernimo. Unpublished B.A. thesis, ENAH, Mexco. 1985b Arqueologa histrica en la Ciudad de Mxico. Boletn de Antropologa Americana 11:27-31. Fournier-Garcia, Patricia and F.A. Miranda-Flores 1992 Historic Sites Archaeology in Mexico, Historical Archaeology 26(1):76 Gasco, Janine 1987 Cacao and the Economic Integration of Native Socielty in Colonial Soconusco, New Spain. Unpublished PhD. diss., Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Glascock, M. D. 1991 s for Neutron Activation Analysis. Columbia, University of Missouri. Goggin, John M. 1964 The Spanish Olive Jar. In Indian and Spanish Selected Writings. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press. 1968 Spanish Majolica in the New World. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 72. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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57 Gorbea, Trueba, Jos 1959 Culhuacan. INAH: Mexico D.F., Mexico. Hodge, Mary G. and Michael E. Smith 1994 Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm. Austin: University of Texas Press. Hodge, Mary G., and Leah D. Minc 1990 The Spatial patterning of Aztec Cera mics: Implications for Prehispanic Exchange Systems in the Valley of Mexico. Ethnohistory 42(4):563-576. Kellogg, Susan 1995 The Woman’s Room: Some Aspects of Gender Relations in Tenochtitlan in the Late Pre-Hispanic Period. Journal of Field Archaeology 17:415437 Kicza, John E. 1997 Native American, African, and Hispan ic Communities During the Middle Period in the Colonial Americas. Historical Archaeology 31:9-17. Kubler, George 1948 Mexican Architecture of the Sixteen th Century. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale. University Press. Lister, Florence, and Robert Lister 1975 Non-Indian Ceramics from the Mexico City Subway. El Palacio 81(2):2448. 1982 Sixteenth century majolica pottery in the Valley of Mexico. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, no. 3. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. MacLeod, Murdo J. 1973 Spanish Central America A Socioec onomic History 1520-1720. Berkeley: University of California Press. Minc, L. D., M.G. Hodge, and M. J. Blackman 1994 Stylistic and Spatial Variability in Early Aztec Ceramics: Insights into Pre-Imperial Exchange Systems. In Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm, edited by M.G. Hodge and M.E. Smith, pp. 1330173. IMS Studies on Culture and Society Series No. 5. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York, Albany. Miranda Flores, Fernando A., and R. Manzanilla 1984 Proyecto Metro: Lnea 7. Boletn del Consejo de Arqueologa, 1984. INAH, Mxico.

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58 Parsons, Jeffrey R. 1966 The Aztec Ceramic Sequence in the Teotihuacan Valley, Mexico. Ph.D. diss., Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Parsons, Jeffrey R., Elizabeth Brumfiel Mary H. Parsons, David J. Wilson 1982 Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Southern Valley of Mexico The Chalco-Xochimilco Region. Univer sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Pasztory, Esther 1998 Aztec Art. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Perry, Richard 1992 Mexico’s Fortress Monasteries. Santa Barbara: Espadaa Press. Rice, Prudence 1987 Pottery Analysis A Sourcebook. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Sjourn, Laurette 1970 Arqueologa del valle de Mxico. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia Schuyler, Robert, ed. 1978 Historical Archaeology: A Guide to Substantive and TheoreticalContributions. Farmingdale, N.J.: Baywood. Simpson, Lesley Byrd 1966 Many Mexicos. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. Smith, Michael 2003 Comments on the Historicity of T opiltzin Quetzalcoatl, Tollan, and the Toltecs. The Nahua Newslett er, no. 36 (November 2003):31-36. Trueba, Jose Gorbea 1959 Culhuacan. Mexico, D. F. Direccion de Monumentos Coloniales. Vaillant, George 1938 Aztecs of Mexico. Middlesex, England: Penguin. 1944 A Correlation of Archaeological and Historical Sequences in the Valley ofMexico. American Anthropologist (40) 4:535-573. Weaver, Muriel Porter 1993 The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors San Diego: Academic Press. Weisman, Brent Richards 2002 Pioneer in Time and Space. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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59 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Laurie Rinfret was born in New Haven, Conn ecticut, and lived at various times in New Hampshire, Colorado, and New Mexico, bu t spent most of her life in Vermont. She attended Greenfield Community Colle ge in Greenfield, Massachusetts, and then Marlboro College, a small progressive liberal arts college in Vermont, earning a B.A. in anthropology. While at Marlboro College she was fortunate to have the opportunity to spend a summer with the University of Colorado at Boulder’s archaeological field school in Managua, Nicaragua. That experience led her to a threemonth internship in San Marcos, Nicaragua where she was in charge of a small archaeological dig on a coffee plantation. When she made the decision to get her M.A. degree she knew two things: she wanted to continue her work in archaeology and she wanted to live someplace warm. This led her to the University of Florida where she is currently finishing requirements for her M.A. degree.


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Title: San Juan Evangelista: A Sixteenth-Century Spanish Colonial Mission in Culhuacan, Mexico
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
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SAN JUAN EVANGELISTA:
A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY SPANISH COLONIAL MISSION
IN CULHUACAN MEXICO















By

LAURIE P. RINFRET


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Laurie P. Rinfret















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe a great deal of gratitude to many people who encouraged and guided me in

the completion of this thesis.

I especially want to thank Dr. Kathleen Deagan, chair of the committee, for her

patience, understanding, and academic assistance through the years as I juggled my desire

to complete this paper with the demands of a full-time job. Dr. Murdo MacLeod and Dr.

Lynette Norr, also as members of the committee, provided many helpful suggestions and

comments on my work, and I value their contributions.

Thomas Charlton was very gracious to me when I emailed him with questions and I

am grateful that he took the time to help me, even though we had never met before. I

also want to thank Leah Minc for her instrumental neutron activation analysis of an Early

Aztec sherd that is included in this thesis.

While I was doing my ceramic analysis at the Historical Archaeology Lab I often

turned to Al Woods, Jamie Waters, or Gifford Waters when I was having trouble with

identifying a particular sherd. They were always willing to share their expertise and I

appreciate their assistance.

Without the gentle and constant encouragement of my husband, Joe, and

daughters, Kree and Karla, I would have found it very difficult, indeed, to finish this

paper.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iii

L IST O F T A B L E S .............................................................................................. v

LIST O F FIG U R E S .... .............................. ....................... ........ .. ............... vi

ABSTRACT .............. ..................... .......... .............. vii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

John Goggin in M exico ...................................... ........................ ... .
C ulhu ac n ............................................................. 3
C ulhuacan in Prehistory ............................................................................ 4
Culhuacan C olonial H history ........................................ .......................... 10

2 ARCHAEOLOGY AT CULHUACAN ........................................ ............... 15

Historical Archaeological Research in M exico ..................................................... 15
Archaeological Research in Culhuacan............... ..............................................16
John G oggin at C ulhuacan..................................................................... .. ...... 17
M ethods of the Present Study ......................................................................... ..... 19
Analysis of M material Rem ains ............................................................................. 21
V essel A n aly sis.................................................. ................ 3 1

3 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION ........................................... .......................... 36

4 C O N C L U SIO N ......... ......................................................................... ........ .. ..... .. 44

APPENDIX

A NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF EARLY AZTEC SHERD ..................48

B IN D IG EN O U S R IM STU D Y .......................................................... .....................51

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................... ...............55

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................59



iv
















LIST OF TABLES

Table p

1 C hron ology .................................................. .......................... 5

2 A ll A artifacts ............ ... .. ....... .... ........ ........ ................... 23

3 European Decorated Ceramics ....................................... ..................................25

4 Indigenous C eram ics ...................................................... ................ 26

5 Indigenous D ecorated Ceram ics......................................... .......................... 27

6 European and Indigenous Decorated Ceramics............................................ 42

7 D decorated Rim s ........... ...... ... ............................................ .51

8 Rim Types Compared to Total Rims by Percentage................... ... .............53

9 Indigenou s P lain R im s ..................................................................... .................. 54



























v
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1 Aztec Types at San Juan Evangelista .... ..................... ...............28

2 Early Aztec ................................. ............................... ......... 29

3 Aztec Grater Bowl Fragm ent .............................................................................31

4 Indigenous Decorated Bowls and Jars ........................................ ............... 33

5 Indigenous Plain Bowls and Jars.................................................... .............. ... 34

6 Sketch of Test Units I and II at San Juan Evangelista ..........................................36

7 European Cast Iron Pot Fragm ent ................................................. ....... ........ 37

8 European C eram ics ............................................ ......................... 38

9 U identified Indigenous ......................................................... ............... 39

10 U identified Indigenous D ecorated .............................................. ............... 41

11 Indigenou s A artifacts ....................................................................... ....................46

12 E early A ztec Sherd .................. ....................... ......... ...... ..... .. ... 48

13 Early Aztec Black/Orange Pottery from the Basin of Mexico..............................50















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

SAN JUAN EVANGELISTA:
A SIXTEENTH-CENTURY SPANISH COLONIAL MISSION
IN CULHUACAN, MEXICO

By

Laurie P. Rinfret

December 2005

Chair: Kathleen Deagan
Major Department: Latin American Studies

This thesis presents data concerning the post-contact changes that occurred during

the initial period of Spanish contact as reflected in the indigenous ceramics of the area.

The focus of the study is the early sixteenth century Augustinian mission of San Juan

Evangelista, in the town of Culhuacan, Mexico.

This study is based on the ceramic sherds from Test Unit 3 that John Goggin

collected during his excavations at San Juan Evangelista in 1951. The artifacts were

initially cataloged and then stored at the Florida Museum of Natural History after their

transfer in 1973 from the University of Florida Anthropology Department.

Included in the study is a general history of the area, a discussion of historical

archaeological research in Mexico, and a preliminary classification and discussion of the

indigenous pottery found at San Juan Evangelista. The pottery classification focused on

pre-contact and contact period indigenous ceramic vessels and was used as a basis for

determining post-contact changes in native pottery.









Results of the study indicate that there is little change in indigenous decorated

ceramics from the pre- to post-contact periods. The native inhabitants were interacting

with the Spanish before the mission was built, though the archaeological evidence

suggests there was a minimal European presence at this time. The decline in the native

population that occurred during the Contact period can be seen in the considerable

decrease in the volume of material per level of excavated material after Level 7 where

there appears to be a sustained European presence at the site. The presence of Aztec

ceramics at all levels of the test unit shows that the occupation of the site can be dated to

Aztec times. However, there was a much stronger non-Aztec presence as shown by the

consistently large amount of Red-on-Buff ceramics throughout all levels.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

John Goggin, a professor of anthropology at the University of Florida from 1948

until 1963, was a pioneer in historical archaeology (Weisman 2002). He undertook

important studies in European artifacts at Spanish contact sites in Florida, as well as in

the Caribbean and Latin America. He was the first to do extensive, and still the most

inclusive, studies of Spanish ceramics in the New World and Spanish coarse earthenware

olive jars (Goggin 1968, 1964) which are still considered to be important primary

reference works (Deagan 1987; Lister and Lister 1982). During the 1940s and 1950s,

Goggin carried out excavations in a large number of sites in Florida, the Carribbean, and

Mexico. Many resulted in large collections that are curated today at the Florida Museum

of Natural History (www.flmnh.ufl.edu). Since Goggin's emphasis was on Spanish

ceramics, much of the material in this collection remains unreported, including that from

several important sites in the Valley of Mexico. This thesis addresses the issue of using

unreported early collections to produce new information useful to archaeologists and

historians.

This study has two objectives. First, to do a preliminary analysis and make

available the previously unreported and unexamined archaeological ceramics from the

mission of San Juan Evangelista in Culhuacan, part of the Distrito Federal (DF), Mexico.

Second, based on this analysis I also attempt to reveal what, if any, changes occurred in

native ceramics from the pre-contact period to the arrival of the Europeans in the

sixteenth century. I will interpret the archaeological data from the San Juan Evangelista









site (DF 7), assessing its significance to historical and Mexican archaeology. How did

the Indigenous pottery change over time? Was there any indication of Indigenous

interaction with Europeans before the San Juan Evangelista mission was built? Was the

decline in population evidenced through changes in Indigenous pottery? These are the

questions I will attempt to address.

John Goggin in Mexico

Goggin spent the early 1950s doing research in Mexico, including the

investigations at Culhuacan in the Distrito Federal, Mexico that are the subject of my

research. Goggin was primarily interested in majolica pottery. His purpose in

undertaking the DF investigations was to "make as complete an examination as possible

of all available majolica ranging from the late 15th to the 18th century" (Goggin 1968:v) in

order to make sense of the majolica pottery types that he had found in 1949 at the Fig

Springs archaeological site in Northern Florida (8-CO-1). The Fig Springs types were

inconsistent with types that had been found at previously excavated Spanish-Indian sites

in Florida. Goggin determined that in order to understand the majolica from Fig Springs

a thorough examination of majolica pottery types throughout Spanish America needed to

be done and this led to his research in the West Indies, South and Central America,

Mexico and the United States. Goggin died in 1963 without publishing the results from

his majolica study; the monograph he was working on was incomplete at the time of his

death. After his death Irving Rouse of Yale University undertook the responsibility of

getting the manuscript into publishable form. The result was John Goggin's Spanish

Majolica in the New World Types of the Si\weeili to Eighteenth Centuries published by

Yale University in 1968.









Eleven of the DF sites that Goggin excavated in 1951 as part of his majolica

ceramic research are included in the book. In this book he lists the majolica types he

found during his excavations and also provides a general description of each ceramic

type. However, he gave little consideration to other ceramic types-including 19th and

20th century majolica types found at the site-since "these and other artifacts, omitted in

this majolica study, will be considered in the final report on the Mexican work" (Goggin

1968:50-1). Most of these ceramics are Native American and have never been counted,

listed, or described. Goggin's final report was never published nor have I been able to

find any unpublished versions during my search for his written work concerning the

Distrito Federal excavations. The sites excavated in the Distrito Federal in Mexico

included eleven DF sites: Tacubaya (DF 1), Carmen (DF 2), Tacuba (DF 3), Ixtacalco

(DF 4), Ixtapalapa (DF 5), Tlihuac (DF 6), Culhuacan (DF 7), Churubusco (DF 8), and

Desierto de los Leones (DF 11). DF 9 is an Aztec mound and DF 10 is an unnamed site;

I have been unable to find any information indicating the location of DF 10. Nine of the

sites were churches or monasteries (DF 1-8 and 11); Goggin undertook surface

collections at all of these sites and dug test units at DF 7 as well.

Culhuacan

Culhuacan means "the place of those with ancestors" (Cline 1986:1) and it is a city

with a rich native tradition. It may have been founded as early as the seventh century;

however, Cline (1986:313) notes that there is some dispute about when the city was

established. Today Culhuacan is part of the urban sprawl associated with Mexico City).

The Valley of Mexico, which is about one and a half miles high and covers an area

of approximately 3,000 square miles, is a natural basin surrounded by volcanic

mountains, some as high as 16,000 feet. Much of the Valley was once covered by an









enormous shallow lake system comprised of three lake subsystems: Lakes Chalco-

Xochimilco, Xaltocan-Zumpango, and Texcoco. In the prehistoric and early colonial

periods, before the lake levels dropped because of drainage and desiccation, the town of

Culhuacan was located on the northwestern shore of Lake Chalco-Xochimilco.

(http://www.belizenews.com/files/pages/mayan/art/lakemed.jpg; 11/20/05) Lake

Xaltocan-Zumpango to the north and Lake Chalco-Xochimilco to the south drained into

central Lake Texcoco where the Aztec island city of Tenochtitlan was located. Of the

three lakes, Chalco-Xochimilco was the only one with freshwater; the other two lakes

were saline. Access to freshwater enabled the inhabitants of Lake Chalco-Xochimilco to

build a productive system of chinampas, or floating gardens, that allowed the cultivation

of fresh produce all year long. Archaeological excavations indicate that the inhabitants of

Culhuacan built chinampas as early as C.E. 1100. Chinampas can still be seen today in

the city of Xochimilco.

Culhuacan in Prehistory

Culhuacan figured prominently in the pre-contact era in the Valley of Mexico,

which is generally characterized by three principle cultures and periods (Davies 1982:19-

20): Classic, Toltec, and Aztec. The Classic period (see Table 1) was dominated by

Teotihuacan (100 B.C.E. to 750 C.E.). The Toltec culture flourished between the 11th

and 12th centuries and was centered at Tula as well as Culhuacan. The Toltecs were

followed by the Aztecs whose empire lasted from 1428 until 1521 when Cortes captured

the capital city of Tenochtitlan (1982:19-20). Unlike Tenochtitlan, Teotihuacan and Tula

were located outside the boundaries of present-day Mexico City.









Table 1. Chronology
Absolute Major Archaeological Periods and Phase Names
Chronology New System Old System
1500
Late Horizon Late Aztec Tenochtitlan
1400
1300
1200 Phase Three Early Aztec Culhuacan/Tenayuca
1100 Second
1000 Intermediate Phase Two Late Toltec Mazapan
900
800 Phase One Early Toltec Coyotlatelco
700 Metepec
600 Phase Two Late Classic
500 Middle Horizon Xolapan
400 Tlamimilolpa
Phase One
300 Early Classic
200 Phase Five Miccaotli
100
C.E.
0 Phase Four Terminal Tzacualli
0 Terminal
B.C.E. Formative
100 Phase Three Patlachique
200
300
400 First Intermediate Late
Phase Two e Ticoman
500 Formative
600
700
800 Phase One-B id Cuautepec
900 F ive La Pastora
1000or El Arbolillo
1100 Phase One-A Bomba
1200 Early Horizon Phase Two Manantial
1300 Early
1400 Phase One Formative Ayotla
1500 Coapexco
Adapted from Parsons, Jeffrey R., Elizabeth Brumfiel, Mary H. Parsons, David J. Wilson,
Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the S.,nnitl ii Valley of Mexico The Chalco-
Xochimilco Region. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1982, p. 72.









The Culhuas, whose name means "grandfathers," were one of the original tribes to

migrate into central Mesoamerica. According to Davies (1982:23) the name Culhua

came to be associated with the Toltec urban dwellers of the Valley of Mexico as
distinct from the successive waves of Tolteca-Chichimecs who poured into the
region after the collapse of Tollan. The distinction is a fine one, since the Toltecs .
.. were themselves a blend of Tolteca-Chichimecs, who had originally come from
the northwest, and of Nonoalcas from the southeast. ... Culhua blood came to be
copiously diluted as the people of the city [Culhuacan] mingled with Alcohuas and
other newcomers.

It is unclear where the original inhabitants of Culhuacan came from. The Memorial

Breve (Davies 1982:23) mentions that the Culhuas (whom it also calls Chichimecs) came

from Chicomoztoc during Toltec times. On the other hand, the Relacion de la

Genealogia notes that the Culhua came from Teoculhuacan, a legendary city whose name

means "the Old, or Holy, Culhuacan" (1982:24); the location of which is still unknown,

even the residents of Culhuacan at the time of the Conquest did not know its location.

The Culhua rulers reigned from 1205 C.E. to 1430 C.E. (Cline 1986:5), though Davies

(1980:1) notes that the dates of the dynasties are difficult to establish.

At one time, about 1100 C.E., Culhuacan was heavily populated and possibly the

largest community in the Valley of Mexico. Culhuacan remained an island community

until sometime around 1550 when it was partially or completely moved to the mainland

(Blanton 1972:160). It was a densely settled chinampa town and the first town built on

freshwater Lake Xochimilco. Blanton (1972:166) estimates the population at between

1,625 to 3,250 during the Early (1150 C.E. to 1350 C.E.) as well as the Late Aztec (1350

C.E. to 1520 C.E.) periods.

Culhuacan has long been of interest to archaeologists. Franz Boas, who did

extensive investigations at Culhuacan in 1911-12, gave the name "Culhuacan ware" to

the many black-on-orange potsherds he found there. Boas indicates that the presence of









Teotihuacan IV sherds at the site suggests that Culhuacan probably had contact with

Teotihuacan, possibly through trade or settlement (Cline 1986:3).

Culhuacan may be the oldest town in the southern Valley of Mexico. The earliest

written records about Culhuacan are pictorial form migration myths from the 10th

century. The myths tell about the Toltec empire and the arrival of ethnic groups to the

Valley of Mexico as the empire was declining (Cline 1986:3). Native chronicles do not

agree on the town's relation to Tollan, the Toltec center of power. Vaillant (1938:559)

suggests that the term "Tollan" could mean any important Toltec settlement. He

speculates that it "would be not unlikely that the site now called Teotihuacan was called

Tollan by early eastern immigrants, while the imposing site now known as Azcapotzalco

might equally well be Tollan to western invaders." Cline (1986:4) notes that Culhuacan

could have either risen to importance after Tollan fell about 1100 C.E. or could have

been its partner and a well-established settlement by then. Regardless, its people viewed

themselves as the rightful heirs to the Toltec heritage.

Most scholars agree that the historical accuracy of the Aztec native chronicles

decreases as one moves further back in time:

The creation of an objective record of actual historical events with precise
chronological accuracy was not a goal of the indigenous historical traditions nor of
their colonial inscription. Rather, pre-Hispanic native historical traditions served to
legitimize peoples and dynasties, and to glorify the accomplishments of kings and
ancestors (Smith 2003:33).

In order to increase their prestige, the Aztecs linked their heritage with the

Toltecs-a process Smith calls "genealogical parasitism" (2003:32). Scholars should be

wary of assuming these indigenous traditions provide accurate historical information on

Tula and the Toltecs.









According to Nigel Davies (1980:41) Culhuacan saw fewer than 50 years of

political dominance in the Valley of Mexico. Culhuacan's role

as the bastion of Toltec culture in the Valley of Mexico is fundamental to the whole
history of the period that separates the Toltec from the Aztec Empire.Chichimecs,
Acolhuas, Tepanecs, Chalcas and Mexica] were successive claimants to power
[who] sought in turn to occupy Culhua land ... (Cline 1986:4).

Culhuacan was defeated in 1253 by Huetzin, the Acolhua ruler of Coatlinchan

which was located near the eastern shore of Lake Texcoco. Even though defeated

Culhuacan remained a major cultural center as well as a "point of cultural diffusion"

(Vaillant 1938:568) in the Valley.

The Mexica were only one of the numerous aggressive and nomadic tribes that

migrated south after the fall of the Toltec empire, but they were to become the most

powerful. The group of Aztecs who inhabited Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco called themselves

Mexica. The term "Aztec" refers to the various groups of Nahuatl-speaking people who

lived in central Mexico in the Late Postclassic period, 1350 to 1520 C.E. (Weaver

1993:439).

The Aztec confederation, created by the Mexica and their allies, was comprised of

three great cities. Two of the cities were already established as imperial centers when the

Mexica arrived in the mid-thirteenth century (Davies 1982:167): Texcoco, founded by the

Chichimec (Vaillant: 1944:44), and Tlacopan, founded by the Tepanac (Davies

1982:177). The Mexica built the third great city, Tenochtitlan, about 1325 C.E. and

conquered Culhuacan in the 14th century. Culhuacan took part in wars instigated by their

conquerors and eventually went to war against Huexotzinco, Tlaxcala and other polities,

or city-states, that were against the Aztec ruler, Motecuhcoma.









The history of the Mexica is intertwined with that of Culhuacan. Having settled in

Chapultepec in 1299, the Mexica were then expelled from there by the Culhuaque (the

people of Culhuacan) in 1319. In spite of this, the Mexica "threw themselves on the

mercy of Coxcox, the ruler of Culhuacan" (Cline 1986:4). According to the Codex

Acatitlan, the Mexica were exiled to Tizaapan after their ruler Huitzilihuitl was

sacrificed. Another account has the Culhuaque "impressed by the staying power and

fortitude of the Mexica" (1986:4) trading and intermarrying with them. The Mexica

referred to themselves as Culhua-Mexica and "claimed ties to the Toltec line" (1986:5).

The pre-contact trade and exchange patterns that affected Culhuacan fluctuated

with the changing political configuration. Until the formation of the Triple Alliance (a

coalition of the three city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan) around 1428

there were about 40 polities, or city-states, in the Valley of Mexico, each consisting of an

urban center and surrounding territory that contained villages and hamlets (Hodge, Minc

1990:417). These dependencies provided ceramics and other provisions to city-state

rulers on a daily or weekly basis. According to Hodge and Minc, under Aztec imperial

rule, the tribute system and market exchange were two ways of moving goods; utilitarian

products such as painted ceramics were most frequently moved through market exchange.

Among city-states market exchange was more frequent with neighboring polities than

with distant ones.

The emergence of the Aztec--or as Barlow (1945:346-49) calls it, the Culhua-

Mexica--Empire in the 14th century and subsequent political unification resulted in a

greater level of exchange among all polities. City-states brought under the domination of

the Triple Alliance members (Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan) were required to









provide manufactured goods and services to the Alliance capitals. Decorated ceramics

were probably one type of goods that was demanded as tribute (Hodge, Minc 1990:417).

Culhuacan Colonial History

The Aztec confederation was at the pinnacle of its power when Cortes invaded their

capital city of Tenochtitlan in 1519. The Spanish brought to the New World diseases to

which the American Indians had no immunity. One of the diseases, smallpox, devastated

the besieged city and was linked with the Spanish success in "taking and holding the

Aztec heartland" (Cook: 1998:69-70). Tenochtitlan finally fell to the Spanish on August

21, 1521 despite heroic efforts by the Aztec leaders to expel Cortes and his men.

The effect of the Spanish conquest on the Indigenous population in the New World

was catastrophic. There was a drastic decline in the native population that was caused in

part by the illnesses brought by the Spaniards to Indigenous people. Cook (1998:13)

calls this "the greatest human catastrophe in history, far exceeding even the disaster of

the Black Death of medieval Europe." There were other causes for the population

decline as well. The wars of the conquest, the abusive treatment the Indians received at

the hands of the Spaniards, starvation, malnutrition, natural disasters, and "flight and

forced migration" all had a part in the decline of the post-contact Indigenous population

(Burkholder, Johnson 1998:110).

By 1548 the Indian population was probably half of what it was in 1520 and the

encomienda system became the principal method of controlling Indian labor (MacLeod

1973:110-111). Under this system the care and religious instruction of a group of Indians

was entrusted to a Spaniard who would reap the benefits of the Indians labor. It was

general practice for a cacique, or native ruler, and his people to be awarded as an

encomienda, increasing the already onerous burden on the common Indian who then had









to pay tribute to both his cacique and to the encomendero. The encomienda supplied

labor and tribute when it was needed, and whatever time the Indians had left would be

spent tending to their milpas, or fields (1973:111). Simpson (1966:110) writes: "This

legal fiction [encomienda], by one name or another, was behind all measures by which

the Indian was coerced into doing work." By the mid to late 16th century, according to

Kubler (1948:134), vast numbers of Indian laborers were being recruited for building the

religious and civil architecture of 16th century Mexico.

The forced labor of the encomienda was eventually replaced by the repartimiento

which required the Indian communities to supply a quota of laborers to work on public

construction and agricultural projects for a period of anywhere from three weeks to four

months per year. Although the Indians were supposed to receive "a fixed wage, the tools

required for their work, an adequate diet, and satisfactory housing" (MacLeod 1973:207)

abuses were widespread. The repartimento was the most common source of labor and

was widely used between 1570 and 1630 (1973:208).

By the 1550s the region, part of what was by then called New Spain, was firmly

under the control of the Spanish. As part of the Spanish Crown's Christianizing mission

in the New World, the religious clergy were present almost from the beginning of

Spanish exploration. The first regular clergy to arrive in Mexico were the Franciscans in

1524, followed by the Augustinians in 1533, and the Dominicans in 1538. Different

religious orders tended to concentrate their missionary efforts in separate areas-the

Franciscans, the first to arrive, focused their religious work on Mexico City, Tlaxcala,

and Michoacan while those areas to the immediate north of Mexico City came under the

jurisdiction of the Augustinians. The Dominicans pushed south and founded a chain of









monasteries extending through Puebla to Oaxaca (Perry 1992:13). Perry notes that the

Augustinians "were the most militant and apocalyptic of the missionaries." The

Franciscans, Augustinians, and Dominicans planned towns, built churches, established

schools and infirmaries, and governed the communities (Kubler 1948:2; Perry 1992:15).

Monasteries or churches established by the regular clergy as early as the 16th century

occupied at least nine of the eleven DF sites, including DF 7, investigated by John

Goggin in 1951.

After the Spanish gained control of Central Mexico Cortes granted the tribute and

labor of its people to the conquerors. Culhuacan was subsequently awarded to the

encomendero, Crist6bal de Ofiate in 1525. It was in his hands for over forty years when

it passed to his son, Hernando Ofiate, and remained in the family until 1659 when the

Spanish crown took control of it.

Sarah Cline (1986) offers an excellent in-depth discussion of the people of late 16th

century Culhuacan (http://instructionall.calstatela.edu/bevans/Art454L-01-

MapsDocsEtc/WebPage-Full.00040.html; 11/20/05) as revealed by their wills. In the late

16th century Culhuacan was a "typical Indian town in the Valley of Mexico" with a

minimal Spanish presence (Cline 1986:161). In 1580 Gonzalo Gallegos was the

corregidor, or royal administrator, over approximately thirty-six hundred Indians, and at

least one Augustinian friar in the town (1986:6-7).

The traders of Culhuacan traveled from the Valley of Morelos to the Spanish

colonial capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan with their wares. As Cline (1986:167) says,

"there was movement of money, goods, and people." Even those who did not engage in









trade had contact with people of other places and intermarriage between Culhuacan's

citizens and outsiders was not uncommon.

By 1552 Augustinian friars had undertaken the building of the church of San Juan

Evangelista in Culhuacan, which was probably completed by 1580. The Augustinians

were able to draw on a vast supply of Indian labor to build the church and a convento (the

friars' living quarters) that contained a seminary. Stones taken from nearby Indian

temples that had been demolished comprised much of the building material (Perry

1992:33).

The porous volcanic stone, known as recinto-exceedingly hard and difficult to
carve-was perfectly suited to the monumental architecture [pre-contact Indian
temples], but ill-suited for indulging the Augustinians taste for ornamental
sculpture. There was no sacrifice of scale however. The massive church is
accompanied by a seemingly endless sequence of conventual rooms and corridors
(1992:33).

The roof of the church collapsed due to an earthquake early in the 18th century. It was

never rebuilt and in the 1900s a smaller church was added to the southeast corner of the

convento.

Ruins of the Augustinian convento of San Juan Evangelista can still be seen at the

site. When Goggin examined the site in 1951 he found that "most of the original church

building is now in state of ruin but much of the convent remains" (Goggin 1968:52). The

church that exists there today was built between 1880 and 1897 using materials from the

original building (Trueba 1959:14). However, according to Perry (1992:33), the modern

day church was built in the 1900s.

Across the street from the church are the remains of the first molina depapel, or

paper mill, built in the Americas

(http://www.inah.gob.mx/muse6/cccu/htme/cccu001.html; 11/20/05). It was built about






14


1580 to satisfy the paper requirements of the Seminario de Lenguas Indigenas that the

friars established in the convento and where they trained missionaries in the native

languages. In order to facilitate the missionaries training, the friars needed great

quantities of paper in order to produce the catechisms used in the

Christianization of the Indians (Trueba 1959:10).














CHAPTER 2
ARCHAEOLOGY AT CULHUACAN

Historical Archaeological Research in Mexico

With only a few exceptions, such as John Goggin's work, archaeology in Mexico

before the 1960s meant prehistoric archaeology, the study of later eras was the venue of

ethnohistorians and historians (Fournier-Garcia and Miranda-Flores: 1992). Eduardo

Noguera (1934) was one of the first archaeologists to undertake a study of the Spanish

colonial period in Mexico. He carried out a preliminary study of historic ceramics in

order to understand the processes of stylistic and technical changes between pre-colonial

and colonial ceramic traditions. His work foreshadowed the future direction that

Mexican historic archaeology would take, "which would be closely linked to analyses of

ceramics and changes resulting from European contact" (Fournier-Garcia, Miranda-

Flores 1992:76). Noguera's was the only work done within the field of historic

archaeology until the 1960s when the archaeology of historic sites assumed a more

significant role in Mexican archaeology.

During the past several decades research on historic sites has been carried out

throughout Mexico by many Mexican and foreign investigators. Some of these include

A. Benavides (1985), Thomas Charlton (1972, 1979), Patricia Fournier (1985), Janine

Gasco (1987), Robert and Florence Lister (1975, 1982), and Fernando Miranda-Flores

and R. Manzanilla (1984). These studies can be grouped into three categories:

(1) studies where the historic past is treated as an archaeological









topic in the same manner as the pre-Hispanic past; (2) studies where historic sites
have been analyzed as part of larger programs of architectural restoration; and (3)
studies where investigators have shown interest in the development of a scientific
form of historical archaeology focused on the analysis of socio-economic processes
(Foumier-Garcia and Miranda-Flores: 1992:76).


The study of historic ceramics, vessels made in Mexico as well as those imported from

other areas, has occupied a significant place in these investigations.

Archaeological Research in Culhuacin

Most of the archaeological research in Culhuacan has concentrated on the pre-

contact era, and has produced a basic archaeological sequence of the area. Franz Boas

(1913) conducted archaeological excavations during 1911-12, naming the black-and

orange pottery he found there "Culhuacan style." Prior to his investigations Boas had

divided the black and orange Aztec pottery into three subgroups, based on the fineness of

the design. Since all three types were found at Culhuacan, he undertook excavations

there to determine the chronological sequence of the types. Aztec I, the crudest type, was

mainly found at the lower levels. This type was prevalent at the level of the water and is

contemporary with the building of chinampas about 1100 C.E. Boas found that the

amount of pottery had noticeably decreased below the water level and he described that

pottery as Teotihuacan type (Blanton 1972:160-161, Cline 1986:3).

Richard Blanton's 1970 dissertation, "Prehispanic Settlement Patterns of the

Ixtapalapa Peninsula Region Mexico" was part of a larger study entitled "Coordinated

Anthropological Research in the Valley of Mexico" which had as its general objective

"... to better understand the influence of cultural development in the Basin of Mexico on

cultural development in Mesoamerica as a whole" (1970:13). Blanton goes on to say that

the purpose of the Ixtapalapa study was to "outline the configurations of settlement of all









the major time periods from the Early Formative through the Aztec, and to estimate the

total population of the region during each of those periods" (1972:15). This project

included his excavation at a site in the town of Culhuacan. Blanton felt that the

Teotihuacan pottery found below Aztec I pottery probably did not suggest an actual

Teotihuacan occupation since this would have resulted in a greater density of ceramics

(1972:16). When Laurette Sejourn published the results of her excavations at San Juan

Evangelista (also known as San Matias) in 1970, she concluded that the site was

contemporaneous with Teotihuacan (1970:35).

Of all the sites Blanton (1972:166) surveyed in the Ixtapalapa Region, Culhuacan

had the most significant number of Aztec I sherds and is the type site for that phase.

During the Aztec II period, it was the only large settlement in the region (1972:176).

According to Sejourne (1970:54) Aztec II pottery also originated in Culhuacan. The

artifact collection from Goggin's DF 7 excavation contains examples of Aztec I, II, and

III.

John Goggin at Culhuacin

As noted above, Goggin's excavations in the Distrito Federal, including Culhuacan,

were carried out to provide stratigraphic analysis of Spanish majolica. At Culhuacan (DF

7) he did surface collections and examined open reconstruction trenches at DF 4. I chose

to examine DF 7 (Culhuacan) because it was the only site in his DF investigations at

which Goggin dug stratigraphic test pits. Of the three test pits at this site, this study will

concentrate on Test Unit 3 which was the deepest, extending to 10 /2 feet. It also yielded

approximately 40,000 artifacts; this was the largest quantity found at the Culhuacan site

or at any of the other DF sites. The number of artifacts collected at the other sites ranged

from 7 (DF 3) to 499 (DF 4). I felt that the assemblage from Culhuacan's stratigraphic









excavations was the most likely to provide sufficient information enabling me to answer

my original research questions. All of the artifacts from Goggin's DF excavations have

been stored in the Florida Museum of Natural History after their transfer in 1973 from the

UF Anthropology Department.

The ceramic sherds collected from Test Unit 3 of the DF 7 (Culhuacan) site are the

basis of my analysis. John Goggin determined that none of the three test units from DF 7

was satisfactory for a stratigraphic analysis of majolica ceramics; the first unit was too

shallow, only a small amount of majolica was found in the second, and majolica was

found only in the first foot of refuse in the third unit. Other information, however, could

be obtained from these units, particularly Unit 3.

I have not been able to locate detailed records about the excavation and site;

however, John Goggin did write brief notes on his field excavation forms. He had a

small field crew of two University of Florida students, Paul Hahn and Donald Kokomoor,

and several local workers. The precise location of Test Unit 3 is unrecorded, although

Goggin noted that two of the three test units at the site were dug in what is now the

modern church garden, and the third was dug in the central patio. Goggin's rough sketch

of the site shows the general locations of Test Units 1 and 2, in the garden and patio

respectively; therefore, it appears that Test Unit 3 was also dug in the garden. His field

notes from Unit 3 are marked "Section: 0' 5"' indicating that the Test Unit was 5' long

and, since other trenches he dug during his 1951 Mexico excavations were 5' wide, this

unit was probably 5' wide also. The depth of the test unit ranges from 122" along its east

wall to 125" along the west wall. Goggin excavated the unit in 6 inch arbitrary levels and









since I found nothing archaeologically that suggests a disturbance, I have accepted his

assessment of the stratigraphic integrity of the site.

The field notes that I have been able to find do not mention screening. Goggin

noted that the first layer (0-6") of soil was heavy, dark, and damp. In the next three

layers (6" 24") the soil was heavy, dark, and granular. At 24" he indicates that the soil

is beginning to lighten from "dark to a dark brown 'granular' type." From 30" to 60" the

soil is dark brown granular, and from 60" to 114" it is dark granular. At 108" to 114" he

reached "partially cemented" sand that did not contain any artifacts. There were four

small holes in this hardpan and he excavated each of them separately. He found "that

there seemed to be another hardpan layer lower with a layer of earth between the hardpan

layer. This dirt revealed sherds also." He stopped excavating at 114" to 125" when he hit

a solid bed of clay that was 12" deep.

John Goggin left only sketchy information about the two features he found in the

test unit. In his excavation notes he writes" [At 12 to 18"] In N.E. corner a lighter

material found. granular but quite brown. It shows no indication of being a later

excavation or pit." In the southeast corer of the unit at 54" -60" he encountered a

feature of dark grey soil which he believed to be old post holes. When he reached the

next level the holes had disappeared.

Methods of the Present Study

Prudence Rice (1987:25) writes that pottery is "formed and informed" and that each

step in the process can reveal insights into human behavior. The choices potters make in

the use of raw materials, decorations and vessel shapes are "culturally conditioned

decisions" that can yield insights into peoples "aesthetic perceptions and ideological

systems." It is because pottery is sensitive to such culturally conditioned decisions that I









chose to look at Indigenous decorated ceramics to see what, if any, post-contact cultural

changes they reflected.

In order to determine if there were changes over time in Indigenous pottery, I

planned to analyze and quantify the ceramics in a stratigraphic context For each level, I

separated the Indigenous pottery into Decorated Ceramics (Aztec types, Red Ware, Red-

on-Buff, and Unidentified Indigenous Decorated ceramics) and Undecorated or Plain

Indigenous Ceramics. The Aztec types identified in the Culhuacan sample include Aztec

I, II, and III (Sejourn 1970). Aztec types that I was unable to identify I labeled as Aztec

UID (unidentified). I further determined if the decorated sherds were most likely bowls

or jars. The Red Ware ceramics in the test unit included Black-Red; Black-White-Red;

and White-Red. I have followed Jeffrey Parson's (1966) usage for the Red Ware type

names.

Following Jeffrey Parson's (1966:1) lead, I use the term "Aztec" to refer to the

period of time from approximately the mid-12th century to 1521 in the Valley of Mexico;

therefore, Aztec pottery includes Indigenous as well as the specific Aztec I, II, III, and IV

type ceramics. According to Parsons (1966:1) it is highly likely that Aztec pottery

continued to be used well after 1521.

I found nine types of European ceramics in the assemblage: Columbia Plain

Majolica, El Morro, Lead Glazed Coarse Earthenware, Transfer Printed Pearlware,

Unidentified Coarse Earthenware, Unidentified Mexican Majolica, Unidentified

Majolica, Black Lead Glazed Coarse Earthenware, and Unidentified Lead Glazed Coarse

Earthenware. These nine groups comprised the 106 European sherds in the test unit.









Once I had sorted and counted the Indigenous and European ceramics and other

artifacts I entered the information into the Historical Archaeology Microsoft Access

database. The database is used to organize information on each artifact from an

excavation site. I entered the data from DF 7 into the following data fields: FS Number,

Provenience, Item, Description, Frequency, Group, Weight, Color, Fragment Form,

Composition, Decoration, Modifier 1, Modifier 2, Diameter, and Length. For each item I

filled in the first six fields and remaining fields as appropriate. In order to answer my

research questions and determine trends in Indigenous ceramics, I graphed the

percentages of European and Indigenous types; Indigenous Decorated and Indigenous

Undecorated (Plain); and, Indigenous Decorated bowl and jar forms to level totals (see

List of Tables).

Analysis of Material Remains

Twenty-one levels were excavated in Test Unit 3. Goggin's original field notation

cards indicate that one of the levels was 66"-72" (Level 12) and another, 72"- 78" (Level

13). However, an artifact box that was part of the original collection identified Level 14

as 66"- 78"; but this level was not listed on the field notation cards. One way that may

account for the discrepancy in these levels is that some of the sherds from the two

separate levels (66"-72" and 72"-78") were inadvertently mixed together when the

collection was brought back to UF from Mexico for cataloging. Since there is no way of

knowing which level (Level 12 or 13) the sherds came from I omitted Level 14 from my

analysis.

As noted, more than 40,000 artifacts were excavated from Test Unit 3 (see Table

2). These artifacts included European and Indigenous pottery sherds, several clay

figurines, glass, and small amounts of obsidian flakes, bone fragments, chert, slate, and









plaster (see Tables 3-5). Indigenous ceramics accounted for almost 99% of the total

assemblage and provide the focus for this analysis. The majority of sherds fell into the

two ceramic categories Indigenous Plain and Indigenous Decorated.

Aztec ceramics were either hand modeled or mold-made; neither the potter's wheel

nor glazes were known in Mexico until the Europeans introduced them in the early 16th

century. Native artisans produced a variety of utilitarian and ceremonial objects such as

bowls, plates, serving dishes, grater bowls, goblets, incense burners, braziers, figurines,

stamps and pyramid temple models, as well as vessels for special purposes such as cocoa

jugs, sauce dishes, and ladles. There were utilitarian wares, probably made by

nonspecialists, and finer wares that were probably crafted by experienced artisans (Bray

1968:137-138). All households owned some type of pottery and commoner as well as

elite households had access to exotic goods such as obsidian, decorated ceramics, metal

items, and jade beads. Some uses for vessels included jars for storing water; pots for

cooking beans and soaking maize; round flat griddles, called comales, for baking tortillas;

and cajetes, or bowls, with criss-cross incisions on the inside (Bray 1968:138-139). All

types and sizes of sites in the Valley of Mexico seem to have had access to nonlocal

ceramics.









Table 2. All Artifacts
LEVEL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POTTERY
Aztec 3 3 3 2 6 8 4 3 3 11
Black Lead-Glazed 2
Columbia Plain 1
Delftware 1
El Morro 49 14 9 6 4 3 1
Figurine Fragments 1 3 6 4 2 10 4 6 14
Indigenous Plain 974 1922 1342 924 1192 2007 2910 2865 2099 3116
Lead-Glazed 2 1 1
Modern 7
Pearlware Transfer
Print 1
Red-on-Buff 49 45 39 26 32 37 106 103 83 138
Redware 1 5 4 5 4 9 4 10 11
UID Coarse
Earthenware 1 2 2
UID Indigenous
Decorated 28 9 36 4 7 17 42 22 22 58
UID Majolica 6
UID Mexico City
Majolica 1
OTHER
Bone (grams) 8.5 7.3 4.4 3.1 2.2 2.5 1.5 0.8
Bldg. Mat'l (grams) 463 151 46 372 159 46 142
Ceramic Bead 1
Chert 1 1 1 2 1 1
Clay Marbles 1 2 1
Clay Whistle 1
Coprolite
Gaming Disk 1 1 1
Glass 7 4
Matate 1
Nail 1
Obsidian 7 9 1 3 7 12 10 8 14
Pendant
Spindle Whorl
Stone Disk
Worked Stone









Table 2. Continued
LEVEL 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total
POTTERY
Aztec 3 2 6 5 1 2 6 4 3 32
Black Lead-Glazed 0
Columbia Plain 0
Delftware 0
El Morro 0
Figurine Fragments 13 15 9 5 8 7 9 8 8 3 85
Indigenous Plain 2283 2193 2863 1625 1974 1814 2160 2419 1758 476 19565
Lead-Glazed 0
Modern
Pearlware Transfer
Print 0
Red-on-Buff 107 103 123 87 105 77 116 166 149 2 1035
Redware 12 5 2 1 12 4 7 12 11 66
UID Coarse
Earthenware 0
UID Indigenous
Decorated 31 46 77 23 31 22 46 39 32 2 349
UID Majolica 0
UID Mexico City
Majolica 0
OTHER 0
Bone (grams) 1.7 1.7 2.3 1.2 0.8 4.5 5.9 5.4 4.33
Bldg. Mat'l (grams) 30 98 1331 142 58 85 85 7
Ceramic Bead
Chert 1 1 2
Clay Marbles 1 2 1 4
Clay Whistle 0
Coprolite 1 1
Gaming Disk 1 1 2 1 5
Glass 0
Matate 0
Nail 0
Obsidian 18 9 9 4 8 7 10 4 3 4 76
Pendant 1
Spindle Whorl 1 1
Stone Disk 1 1
Worked Stone 1 1









Table 3. European Decorated Ceramics
o 0 "

-- m










LO3 9 1 1 1443
LO4 6 1019

LO6 3 2092
L09 1 2236




L13 3 092
Level_____________________

102 1 14 11 2037
103 311144












L15 1752
L16 2141
L17 1944
L18 2359
L19 2653
L20 1966

L21 487
Total 1 86 3 1 5 1 6 2 1












Table 4. Indigenous Ceramics
AZTEC RED on Level
Level ABO DEC TYPE REDWARE BUFF ABOP Total

# Level% # Level% # Level% # Level % # evel %
L01 28 0.02 3 0.00 0 0.00 49 0.05 974 0.85 1144
L02 9 0.00 3 0.00 1 0.00 45 0.02 1922 0.94 2036
L03 36 0.02 3 0.00 5 0.00 39 0.03 1342 0.93 1443
L04 4 0.00 2 0.00 4 0.00 26 0.03 924 0.91 1019
L05 7 0.01 6 0.00 5 0.00 32 0.03 1192 0.95 1259
L06 17 0.01 8 0.00 4 0.00 37 0.02 2007 0.96 2092
L07 42 0.01 4 0.00 9 0.00 106 0.04 2910 0.94 3101
L08 22 0.01 3 0.00 4 0.00 103 0.04 2865 0.95 3012
L09 22 0.01 3 0.00 10 0.00 83 0.04 2099 0.94 2236
L10 58 0.0211 0.00 11 0.00 138 0.04 3116 0.93 3366
L11 31 0.01 3 0.00 12 0.00 107 0.05 2283 0.93 2467
L12 46 0.02 2 0.00 5 0.00 103 0.05 2193 0.92 2378
L13 77 0.02 6 0.00 2 0.00 123 0.04 2863 0.93 3092
L15 23 0.01 5 0.00 1 0.00 87 0.05 1625 0.93 1752
L16 31 0.01 1 0.00 12 0.01 105 0.05 1974 0.92 2141
L17 22 0.01 2 0.00 4 0.00 77 0.04 1814 0.93 1944
L18 46 0.02 6 0.00 7 0.00 116 0.05 2160 0.92 2359
L19 39 0.01 4 0.00 12 0.00 166 0.07 2419 0.91 2653
L20 32 0.02 3 0.00 11 0.01 149 0.08 1758 0.89 1966
L21 2 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 0.00 476 0.98 487
Total 595 0.0178 0.00 108 0.001706 0.04 38916 0.93 41947













Table 5. Indigenous Decorated Ceramics
UID RED on
Level DECORATED UID AZTEC AZTECI AZTECII AZTECIII RED WARE BUFF Total
# % # # % % # % # % # % # %
L01 28 35.00% 0.00% 0.00% 2 2.50% 1 1.25% 0 0.00% 49 61.25% 80
L02 9 15.52% 1 1.72% 0.00% 2 3.45% 0.00% 1 1.72% 45 77.59% 58
L03 36 43.37% 3 3.61% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 5 6.02% 39 46.99% 83
L04 4 11.11% 0.00% 0.00% 2 5.56% 0.00% 4 11.11% 26 72.22% 36
L05 7 14.00% 2 4.00% 0.00% 4 8.00% 0.00% 5 10.00% 32 64.00% 50
L06 17 25.76% 8 12.12% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 4 6.06% 37 56.06% 66
L07 42 26.09% 3 1.86% 1 0.62% 0.00% 0.00% 9 5.59% 106 65.84% 161
L08 22 16.67% 1 0.76% 0.00% 1 0.76% 1 0.76% 4 3.03% 103 78.03% 132
L09 22 18.64% 2 1.69% 0.00% 0.00% 1 0.85% 10 8.47% 83 70.34% 118
L10 58 26.61% 10 4.59% 0.00% 1 0.46% 0.00% 11 5.05% 138 63.30% 218
L11 31 20.26% 2 1.31% 1 0.65% 0.00% 0.00% 12 7.84% 107 69.93% 153
L12 46 29.49% 1 0.64% 0.00% 0.00% 1 0.64% 5 3.21% 103 66.03% 156
L13 77 37.02% 6 2.88% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 2 0.96% 123 59.13% 208
L15 23 19.83% 4 3.45% 0.00% 1 0.86% 0.00% 1 0.86% 87 75.00% 116
L16 31 20.81% 0.00% 0.00% 1 0.67% 0.00% 12 8.05% 105 70.47% 149
L17 22 20.95% 0.00% 0.00% 2 1.90% 0.00% 4 3.81% 77 73.33% 105
L18 46 26.29% 2 1.14% 0.00% 4 2.29% 0.00% 7 4.00% 116 66.29% 175
L19 39 17.65% 1 0.45% 0.00% 3 1.36% 0.00% 12 5.43% 166 75.11% 221
L20 32 16.41% 2 1.03% 0.00% 1 0.51% 0.00% 11 5.64% 149 76.41% 195
21 2 50.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 0.00% 2 50.00% 4

Total 595 23.95% 48 1.93% 2 0.08%24 0.97% 4 0.16% 108 4.35% 1706 68.68% 2484









The following discussion describes the ceramic types used to classify materials for

the purpose of this study. They are based primarily on the works of Jeffrey Parsons and

Laurette Sejourne. The two predominant ceramic wares during the Aztec period in the

Valley of Mexico are Orange Ware and Red Ware. Orange Wares are either of the Plain

Orange type, which can vary in color from light orange to orange-brown to yellowish

brown to reddish-orange to reddish-brown; or the Black-on-Orange decorated type. Red

Wares are red-slipped ceramics with decorative elements in white and/or black, and

occasionally yellow.

There are four characteristic styles of Black-on-Orange Aztec ceramics in the

Valley of Mexico: Aztec I, II, III, and IV.


Figure 1. Aztec Types at San Juan Evangelista. A) Aztec I, B) Aztec II, C) Aztec II, D)
Aztec III.









Aztec I and II are in the Early Aztec Period (1150 C.E.-1350 C.E.) and Aztec III

and IV are part of the Late Aztec Period (1350 C.E.-1520 C.E.). At one time

archaeologists thought that the Aztec II style followed Aztec I, but now the accepted

thought is that the two styles are contemporaneous (Parsons 1982: 438). Aztec I

ceramics are found largely in the southern part of the Valley while Aztec II ceramics

predominate in the northern part. (See Appendix A for a compositional analysis of a DF

7 Aztec II sherd.) In contrast, the Late Aztec styles appear to exhibit uniformity

throughout the Valley of Mexico where the spatial differences generally seem to be more

rural vs. urban and center vs. periphery than northern vs. southern as in the Early Aztec

styles (1982:450).













Figure 2. Early Aztec.

There are varieties of Late Aztec pottery found at some of the large urban centers

such as Tenochtitlan, Chalco, and Texcoco which are missing from the peripheral

villages and hamlets. In general, pottery in use at the northern village sites looks similar

to pottery used at villages in the southern region.

Aztec I is characterized by wavy lines, thick uneven brush strokes, and border

designs of frets, spirals, circles and parallel lines. Center medallions are common motifs.

The vessel walls are generally thicker than the other Aztec styles. Aztec II designs are









similar to Aztec I but with smaller and multiple elements. Thin walls as well as slanting

lines and spirals on vessel interiors are characteristic of Aztec II pottery. Multiple thin

parallel lines and dots are characteristic of Aztec III pottery; designs range from simple to

complex. Aztec IV type pottery is similar to Aztec III in vessel forms, but with "unique

decorative techniques which include thicker lines, new configurations of elements, and

some use of European-derived designs" and is "predominantly post-hispanic (but

probably all 16th century)" (Parsons et al 1982:450). Aztec IV pottery, found only in

urban areas, incorporates more naturalistic forms and figurative motifs such as birds,

flowers, fish, deer and monkeys (Pasztory 1983:296).

Aztec-type pottery continued to be made until the 17th century; the majority of

decorated vessels were ornamented with native flowers and animals. Some of the native

designs were of animals that had significant ritualistic meaning for the Aztecs; however,

the Spanish probably did not consider these motifs idolatrous and therefore were slow in

eradicating them. Though the Spanish were quick to detect heathen idols on large

monuments, they were apparently less concerned about pottery designs.

The term "Red Ware" can be confusing. It can apply to any red slipped pottery no

matter where or when it occurs or to ceramics made with any reddish earthernware clay

which can be slipped, unslipped, glazed, or unglazed. However, for purposes of this

study I use Thomas Charlton's definition of Red Ware: it "usually refers to Aztec period

red/painted/slipped pottery. It continues into the Colonial period with new forms and

designs. Other periods have red painted pottery, but the pastes and forms are quite

distinct from the Aztec Red Ware" (personal communication 7/4/05). For Red Ware

types found in the southern Valley of Mexico I followed the lead of Parsons, et al (1982)









for type names. The types found at the DF 7 site include Black-Red, Black-White-Red;

and White-Red; the type names are based on the surface decoration. The only black-

white-red sherd found at this test unit came from Level 7. There were 41 black-red

sherds, and 66 white-red sherds (see Table 3). The total number of Red Ware decorated

sherds found in Test Unit III was 108 out of a total of approximately 40,000 artifacts

excavated from Test Unit 3.

Vessel Analysis

As part of my ceramic analysis I did a quantitative assessment of Indigenous

decorated bowl and jar sherds with the idea that such a study might be helpful in

answering questions related to changes in Indigenous pottery. I used a simple method to

determine if a decorated sherd was most likely a bowl or jar by examining the outer and

inner surface treatments; bowl sherds were burnished on both sides and jar sherds only on

the outside (Norr, personal communication, 2001). My criterion for determining bowl or

jar was meant to be a "most likely," not definitive, assessment of use.













Figure 3. Aztec Grater Bowl Fragment.

A bowl is a wide mouthed vessel with its height "varying from one-third the

maximum diameter of the vessel up to equal to the diameter" (Rice 1987:216). Ajar is

generally defined as a vessel that is "necked (and therefore restricted) .. with its height









greater than its maximum diameter" (1987:216). Common uses for bowls were graters

(cajetes), servicing utensils, or cooking pots, while jars were used for storing food,

collecting and storing liquids, and cooking.

It appears that with the arrival of the Europeans there was a significant decline in

the use of Indigenous Decorated jars (Figure 4) while the production of Indigenous Plain

jars remained fairly steady (Figure 5). Overall the use of native bowls and jars was

generally consistent from Level 21 until Level 10 when there was a higher percentage of

bowls than jars found at each level (Figure 6).

Changes in the manufacture and use of pottery may be caused by "changes in

available labor, extraction of resources, altered diet, and loss of cultural identity," (Cusick

1989:28), characteristics of the Contact Period in the central Valley of Mexico. The shift

from one type of vessel to another--jars to bowls--implies a shift in eating patterns,

cooking methods, or food availability; changes instigated by the European presence in the

The sample dissertation is not designed to replace the Guide for Preparing Theses and

Dissertations produced and distributed by the Graduate School. It is to be used as a

supplementary example of formatting. This sample dissertation attempts to use all of the

styles and formatting instructions dictated by the Guide. You will notice throughout this

sample dissertation bracketed statements and graphic boxes. These graphic boxes and

bracketed statements are notes used to point out certain formatting aspects and methods

of using the dissertation.


















V\,


Ti/


AX


V


6.00%-

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%
2.00%

1.00%

0.00%


-- Bowls


Jars


Figure 4. Indigenous Decorated Bowls and Jars


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Level



















6.00%



5.00%



4.00%



3.00%

A a

2.00%



1.00%



0.00% -
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20
Level

Bowls Jars


Figure 5. Indigenous Plain Bowls and Jars

















0.1


0.09


0.08


0.07


0.06


S0.05


0.04


0.03


0.02


0.01



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Level
-0-- Bowls Jars


Figure 6. All Indigenous Bowls and Jars














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The only notes that I was able to locate from John Goggin's excavations at the DF

7 site were sparsely written; I never found his field notebooks, which probably would

contain more detailed information. Since his notes are incomplete, it is impossible to

know with certainty, for example, the type of soil he encountered at each level. He often

writes that the soil is "dark granular," but he does not give an accurate description of its

color. We are left with only a general idea of where two of the three DF 7 test units were

dug since his sketch of the site (Figure 7) does not include any measurements and leaves

out Test Unit 3 entirely. Archaeological methodology in the 1950s was not as precise as

it is today and, therefore, there are interpretive limitations when using older, unreported

archaeological data.









I -







Figure 6. Sketch of Test Units I and II at San Juan Evangelista. Courtesy of the Florida
Museum of Natural History.









Tables 2 through 9 summarize the distribution of materials through the excavated

levels. The presence of European artifacts provides a delineation of contact and pre-

contact stages at this site, dating approximately from 1150 C.E. to 1950 C.E. Levels 21

to 10 are pre-contact and Levels 9 and above are post-contact.

The first 18 inches of soil at DF 7 contains modern debris consisting of glass,

construction material, and pottery sherds as well as European and pre-contact Indigenous

artifacts (see Tables 2-4). Levels 4 through 9 contain both European and pre-contact

Indigenous artifacts while Levels 10 through 21 are comprised solely of pre-contact

Indigenous material.

The archaeological evidence indicates that the first European presence at

Culhuacan occurred at Level 9 where a fragment of a cast iron pot was found.


















Figure 7. European Cast Iron Pot Fragment

We know that Cortes awarded Culhuacan as an encomienda to Crist6bal Ofiate in 1525

(Cline 1986:7); therefore, based upon the historical record plus the archaeological

evidence, I believe that Level 9 probably dates to about 1525. I have not relied on the

one El Morro sherd found at Level 9 as the indicator of the terminus post quem (TPQ) for







the level because El Morro sherds do not appear again until Level 7. All levels above
Level 9 belong to the post-contact period.


B


4


ilD


Figure 8. European Ceramics. A) Pearlware Transfer Print, Columbia Plain, two El
Morro, B) El Morro, two unidentified Majolica, Black Lead-Glazed, C) Lead-
Glazed, unidentified coarse earthenware, D) unidentified Majolica, Delftware
Native Americans interacted with Europeans before construction began on the San
Juan Evangelista mission around 1552. The TPQ of 1550 for El Morro ceramics (3
sherds were found at Level 7) indicates that construction most likely began at this level.
No European ceramics were found at Level 8 and only one at Level 9, which implies a
limited European presence at the site during Levels 8 and 9.
The percentages of Indigenous plain pottery in the total ceramic assemblage vary
only slightly from level to level with the exception of a 9% decrease in plain Indigenous
pottery from Level 21 to Level 20 (when the first Aztec type pottery appears). After









Level 20 the percentage of plain Indigenous pottery gradually increased; however it never

reached the high of 98% found at Level 21. The DF 7 site appears to have been sparsely

settled at Level 21. Of the 487 sherds at this level, 98% or 476 were plain and only about

1% or 4 were decorated. It is possible that an outside influence entered the area and the

initial result was a dramatic increase in native decorated pottery as well as a significant

initial decline in plain pottery.









A B

Figure 9. Unidentified Indigenous. A) figurines, B) vessel handle.

Red-on-Buff sherds consistently comprise the highest percentage of pre- and post-

contact Indigenous decorated sherds per level indicating a clear non-Aztec presence at the

site. Charlton notes that Red-on-Buff pottery is characteristic of Formative, Teotihuacan,

Coyotlatelco (Early Toltec Period, 750 C.E. to 950 CE), and Mazapan (Late Toltec

Period, 950 C.E. to 1150 C.E.) ceramics and is not considered part of Aztec or Colonial

complexes (personal communication 7/5/05). Red on Buff is distinguished by red

decoration on a buff-colored slip.

























Figure 10. Red-on-Buff

Aztec type sherds were found at all levels from Level 9 to Level 20 ( 5), suggesting

stratigraphically that the site was occupied only during the period of Aztec influence. An

intrusion of some sort could account for the presence of Aztec sherds at the lowest levels;

however, in Goggin's field notes the only mention of possible post holes is at Level 10

while at Level 20 he indicates there were small breaks in the "hardpan which were small

holes." He does not identify these as post holes, however. It is clear that there was a

non-Aztec presence at the site represented by the Red-on-Buff sherds which comprise a

very consistent Indigenous tradition with little change throughout the occupation period.

Red-on-Buff ceramics were most frequent at lower levels. While Indigenous

decorated pottery (other than Red-on-Buff) is always present in smaller numbers, the

overall proportion of Red-on-Buff remains consistent (see Table 5). The percentages of

Indigenous plain pottery are much greater (averaging 93%) and generally consistent

throughout the unit. The two instances when the percentages of Indigenous Decorated

and Indigenous Plain pottery sharply diverge are from Level 21 to 20 (Red-on-Buff

increases while Plain decreases) and from Level 2 to 1 where there is a sharp decrease in









plain pottery and an increase (though not as marked) in Decorated and Red-on-Buff.

After Level 20 the percentages of both Red-on-Buff and Plain ceramics stabilize. The

numbers of artifacts found at Level 21 (487) and Level 20 (1964), along with the sharp

increase in Red-on-Buff pottery at Level 20, suggest the arrival of newcomers to the area.

They probably brought with them a different tradition of decorated pottery.

There were 595 Indigenous decorated ceramic sherds other than Aztec, Red-on-

Buff, or Red Ware types found in Test Unit III. The Indigenous decorated ceramics were

incised, punctuated, appliqued, stamped, or painted. One hundred and thirty nine figurine

fragments were found in the test unit.













Figure 10. Unidentified Indigenous Decorated

The percentage of all Indigenous decorated sherds to level totals is between 3% and

10% throughout all levels, with the exception of Level 21 where it is less than 1% (see

Table 6). The difference in percentages between levels is so small that it is difficult to

draw any conclusions from this. The exception is between Levels 6 and 7. Assuming

that Level 7 marks the beginning of a sustained European presence at the site, this may

reflect an alteration in the ceramic production tradition and the decline in the number of

.skilled craftsmen available who could produce decorative pottery. This may explain the

50% decline in the number of Indigenous decorated ceramics from Level 7 to Level 6.











Table 6. European and Indigenous Decorated Ceramics


Percent of Percent of
Level European Level Indigenous Level
1 60 0.05 80 0.07
2 18 0.01 58 0.03
3 13 0.01 83 0.06
4 6 0.01 36 0.04
5 4 0.00 50 0.04
6 3 0.00 66 0.03
7 3 0.00 161 0.05
8 0 0.00 132 0.04
9 1 0.00 118 0.05
10 0 0.00 218 0.06
11 0 0.00 153 0.06
12 0 0.00 156 0.07
13 0 0.00 208 0.07
15 0 0.00 116 0.07
16 0 0.00 149 0.07
17 0 0.00 105 0.05
18 0 0.00 175 0.07
19 0 0.00 221 0.08
20 0 0.00 195 0.10
21 0 0.00 4 0.01


In general, in the Valley of Mexico there was a gradual decline in the frequency of

decorated wares as well as an increase in the frequency of plain wares between the

conquest and 1650. There is evidence that the surface treatment of ceramic finishes

declines also. Charlton (1968:98) notes that burnishing was one area in which a

difference in treatment can be noted: pre-contact ceramics often had both exterior and

interior burnished while post-contact Aztec ceramics often have only the interior area

burnished. According to Charlton, the decline in pottery complexity may be due to the






43


post-contact population decline as well as shifts in the sociopolitical organization

(congregaciones) which probably affected craft industries.














CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

The primary purposes of this thesis were to provide documentation of the collection

from DF 7 and to look at the post-contact configurations at the site. The questions I set

out to answer were: (1) Did the Indigenous pottery change over time? (2) Was there any

indication of Indigenous interaction with Europeans before the San Juan Evangelista

mission was built? (3)Was the decline in population evidenced through changes in

Indigenous pottery?

My preliminary analysis uncovered few indications that changes over time occurred

in Indigenous Decorated pottery at the DF 7 site. The changes I found were related to the

increase or decrease in frequency of different types of pottery; for example, Red-on Buff,

or the more general category of Indigenous Decorated pottery. In an article on post-

contact Aztec ceramics in the Teotihuacan Valley, Charlton (1968:99) says that changes

in Aztec ceramics between the 16th and early 17th century were of "minor aesthetic and

technical losses and re-emphases in tradition." My research did not concentrate on

stylistic or technical changes in Indigenous pottery production. A study focusing on

these aspects of pottery manufacture is needed to yield information on what, if any,

effects the early Europeans had on native ceramic pottery production.

The fragment of a cast iron pot found at Level 9 suggests an Indigenous interaction

with the Europeans before the building of the mission in 1552, though there appears to

have been a limited European presence at the site until construction began, probably at









Level 7. The absence of any European artifacts at Level 8 supports the idea of a minimal

Spanish influence at the site during this time.

There is some ceramic evidence for the decline in the native population with the

arrival of the Europeans to the area. The decline in ceramic decorated bowls from over

5% to less than 2% from Levels 8 to 6 suggests there was less of a demand for these

products at this time, probably because there were fewer people to use them or fewer

artisans who could produce them. There is also a 50% reduction in Red-on Buff pottery

between Levels 7 and 6. Charlton notes this pottery type is not characteristic of Aztec

complexes (personal communication 7/5/05), so the decline might be attributed to the fact

that though this pottery was still available, there were fewer people to use it. The

percentage of Indigenous Plain bowls dropped sharply at Level 7, implying a sudden

decrease in the production or demand for this item. The downward trend was short-lived;

the percentage climbed sharply at Level 6 and continued upward.

The decline in population can also be seen in the considerable decrease in the

volume of material per arbitrary level after Level 7 where there appears to be a sustained

European presence. Prior to Level 7 there are only minor fluctuations in the amount of

artifacts per level. There is an average decrease of just over 30% per level from Level 7

to Level 4 after which the volume begins to increase, probably mirroring the recovery of

the native population.

The frequency of obsidian blades and flakes at the site remains fairly consistent

throughout the levels while the few domestic objects, a metate, spindle whorl, and clay

whistle, are found at lower levels. The metate was found at Level 9 where there is a

limited European presence at the site; the clay whistle was found at Level 10 and the







spindle whorl at Level 17. The unchanged lithic assemblage together with the decrease
in domestic items seems to signal a gender-based response to changes triggered by the
entrance of Europeans in Culhuacan.


U AA B






C D
Figure 11. Indigenous Artifacts. A) obsidian, B) bead, C) vessel supports, D gaming
disks.
According to Kellogg (1995:560) certain activities are gender based; for example,
Mexica women performed tasks within the household such as food preparation, weaving,
spinning, household cleaning, and childcare. In his discussion of Indian barracks at La
Purisima Mission in California, James Deetz notes that an absence of chipped stone is
indicative of the disappearance of hunting and weapon manufacture, both male activities
(Schuyler 1978:180-81).
Obsidian blades, used for cutting and scraping tools (Pasztory 1983:250), and
flakes are found at all levels in the test unit, with the exception of Level 7 where no









obsidian was found. One reason production stopped could be that the obsidian producers

were among the laborers engaged in the construction of the mission which occurred about

this time. However, the halt in obsidian production was only temporary since it is again

found at Levels 6 and above.

The presence of Aztec ceramics at all levels of the site, with the exception of Level

21, means that the occupation period of the site can be dated to Aztec times. However,

there was a much stronger non-Aztec presence as shown by the consistently large amount

of Red-on-Buff ceramics throughout all levels.

A principal objective of this thesis was to make available previously unreported

and unexamined archaeological ceramics from the Spanish colonial mission of San Juan

Evangelista. The artifacts from DF 7 have been in storage and unknown to all but a few

people for over fifty years. I hope that this study encourages those who are interested in

the archaeological and historical significance of the area to use this preliminary analysis

as a starting point for further research.














APPENDIX A
NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF EARLY AZTEC SHERD

Compositional analysis of the Early Aztec sherd was conducted using instrumental

neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear

Reactor. Weathered surfaces of a portion of the sherd were removed through abrasion

with a tungsten-carbide rotary file, and the cleaned portion was then rinsed, dried, and

ground to a powder in an agate mortar and pestle. Approximately 200 mg of powdered

sherd was weighed out into a high-purity quartz vial and the vial sealed.













Figure 12. Early Aztec Sherd

The encapsulated sample, along with standards and check-standards, was irradiated

for 20 hours in a core-face location with an average thermal flux of 4.2 x 1012 n/cm2 /s.

After a 1-week decay, gamma activity from intermediate half-life isotopes was recorded

over a 5000-second count on an HPGecoaxial detector (38% relative efficiency). After a

period of 5 weeks decay, a second gamma count for 10000-seconds recorded activity

from long half-life isotopes.









Elemental concentrations were determined based on comparison with three

replicates of the standard reference material NIST 1633A (coal fly ash) using consensus

values for the standards (Glascock 1991, Table 26). The following elements were

quantified: As, Ba, La Lu, Na, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sr, Ta,

Tb, Th, and Zn. Samples of New Ohio Red Clay and NIST 1633B (coal fly ash) were

included as check standards on precision and accuracy of results.

The Aztec sherd was compared against a data set of Early Aztec Black/Orange

ceramics from the southern and eastern Basin of Mexico. Prior analyses (Minc 35 et al.

1994) had identified three compositionally and stylistically distinct regional types of

Early Aztec Black/Orange: (1) Culhuacan-area ceramics (including Culhuacan and

Calligraphic Tenayuca styles); (21) Chalco-area (including Chalco and Mixquic

Black/Orange variants); and (30) Texcoco-area Black/Orange (represented by Geometric

Tenayuca). Early Aztec ceramics produced in Tenayuca proper are not represented in

this data set. Discriminant function analysis was utilized to assign the Aztec sherd to the

most likely of these three compositional groups. Based on the 16 most precise minor and

trace elements characterized (La, Lu, Sm, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb,

and Th), the unknown sherd is clearly classed with the Culhuacan area ceramics. This

sherd, marked by an X on the attached graphs, falls within the 95% density ellipse for the

Culhuacan group (marked in green), and is clearly separated from the Chalco group (red)

and Texcoco group (blue). This indicates that the unknown sherd is highly similar in

composition to the Culhuacan material, and is most likely a local product.







50



Canonical Axis (2)




o
0 ,t -- '-7- --- ---




o 5 -


















(Canonical Axis (2)
- .t t



i. I















sA
e-L
o
0 0








o 0 3
CD'


o \







R" S
4p X


Figure 13. Early Aztec Black/Orange Pottery from the Basin of Mexico.


.. ........ ... .. .... 1 .,















APPENDIX B
INDIGENOUS RIM STUDY


Table 7. Decorated Rims

-- -e 0 0 -e0 E
00 ^ t o0

1 1 1 2 50.00%
X 0 2 0.00%
2 X 2 2 119 1.68%
X 16 2 18 119 15.13%
3 2 2 112 1.79%
X 24 24 112 21.43%
4 X 5 5 64 7.81%
X 10 6 16 64 25.00%
5 X 1 1 88 1.14%
X 27 1 1 29 88 32.95%
6 X 2 2 82 2.44%
X 1 13 1 15 82 18.29%
7 X 1 2 1 4 131 3.05%
X 7 2 2 11 131 8.40%
8 X 1 1 178 0.56%
X 1 33 3 1 38 178 21.35%
9 X 2 1 3 138 2.17%
X 7 17 4 3 1 32 138 23.19%
10 X 8 22 2 14 181 7.73%
X 8 21 9 1 39 181 21.55%
11 X 2 4 1 3 10 140 7.14%
X 3 14 3 20 140 14.29%
12 X 5 3 2 2 12 157 7.64%
X 5 8 9 1 1 24 157 15.29%





Contain led


Tabh e 7


X 2 7 4 1 14 146 9.59%
15 X 2 4 1 3 10 128 7.81%
X 20 5 25 128 19.53%
16 X 1 8 1 10 140 7.14%
X 4 16 3 23 140 16.43%
17 X 4 6 1 1 12 118 10.17%
X 3 8 1 1 13 118 11.02%
18 X 4 11 1 1 1 3 21 138 15.22%
X 2 16 3 21 138 15.22%
19 X 2 1 2 2 7 194 3.61%
X 4 39 1 1 45 194 23.20%
20 X 3 2 1 4 10 92 10.87%
X 2 24 1 1 28 92 30.43%
21 0 22 0.00%
X 1 1 2 22 9.09%









Table 8. Rim Types Compared to Total Rims by Percentage



SH C
1 100%
2 2
2 6.72%77.31% 6.72% 0.84% 0.84% 5.88% 0.84% 0.84% 0.00%
8 92 8 1 1 7 1 1 119
322.32%61.61% 4.46% 0.00% 0.89% 8.93% 0.89% 0.00% 0.89%
25 69 5 1 10 1 1 112
415.63%65.63% 9.38% 1.56% 0.00% 7.81% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
10 42 6 1 5 64
523.86%54.55% 6.82% 2.27% 0.00% 12.50% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
21 48 6 2 11 88
617.07%68.29% 4.88% 0.00% 1.22% 7.32% 0.00% 0.00% 1.22%
14 56 4 1 6 1 82
738.17%43.51% 3.05% 1.53% 0.76% 10.69% 0.00% 0.76% 1.53%
50 57 4 2 1 14 1 2 131
817.98%63.48% 2.81%2.25%2.25% 7.30% 1.69% 0.56% 1.69%
32 113 5 4 4 13 3 1 3 178
931.16%44.20% 5.07%2.17%0.72% 13.04% 0.72% 1.45% 1.45%
43 61 7 3 1 18 1 2 2 138
1033.15%48.62% 6.63% 1.66% 0.00% 9.39% 0.55% 0.00% 0.00%
60 88 12 3 17 1 181
1130.71%51.43% 7.14%0.71% 1.43% 7.86% 0.71% 0.00% 0.00%
43 72 10 1 2 11 1 140
1227.39%48.41%10.19%6.37%2.55% 3.82% 0.00% 1.27% 0.00%
43 76 16 10 4 6 2 157
1329.45%39.04%21.23% 1.37% 1.37% 6.85% 0.00% 0.00% 0.68%
43 57 31 2 2 10 1 146
15 18.75% 57.03% 6.25% 4.69% 1.56% 10.94% 0.00% 0.00% 0.78%
24 73 8 6 2 14 1 128
1625.00%57.86% 5.00% 2.14% 0.71% 8.57% 0.71% 0.00% 0.00%
35 81 7 3 1 12 1 140
1733.90%52.54% 1.69% 5.93% 0.00% 5.93% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
40 62 2 7 7 118
1836.23%47.10% 4.35% 2.90% 0.72% 8.70% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
50 65 6 4 1 12 138
1921.13%59.28% 2.06% 1.03% 0.52% 14.95% 0.00% 1.03% 0.00%
41 115 4 2 1 29 2 194
2011.96%72.83% 1.09% 2.17% 1.09% 9.78% 0.00% 1.09% 0.00%
11 67 1 2 1 9 1 92
2145.45%40.91% 0.00% 4.55% 0.00% 9.09% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
10 9 1 2 22









Table 9. Indigenous Plain Rims


>o 0 >a3 o
1_ 1 1
X 0
2 X 8 28 1 7 1 1 46
X 46 6 1 53
3 18 6 1 10 1 36
X 7 39 3 1 50
4 X 7 6 1 5 19
X 3 21 24
5 X 8 2 2 9 21
X 13 19 4 1 37
6 10 9 1 1 6 27
X 3 32 2 1 38
7 X 31 20 2 9 2 64
X 11 37 2 1 1 52
8 X 25 27 3 3 9 3 1 71
X 5 53 2 1 1 4 2 68
9 X 23 11 2 1 11 1 2 51
X 11 33 2 1 4 1 52
10 X 28 18 1 15 1 63
X 16 47 1 1 65
11 X 21 17 5 1 1 8 53
X 17 37 2 1 57
12 X 25 24 3 4 4 2 2 64
X 8 41 4 3 1 57
13 X 25 25 4 1 2 9 66
X 13 25 22 1 1 62
15 X 21 20 5 2 11 1 60
X 1 29 3 33
16 X 19 16 1 1 6 1 44
X 11 41 3 2 6 63
17 X 29 23 3 7 62
X 4 25 2 31
18 X 23 14 1 8 46
X 21 24 2 2 1 50
19 X 34 34 1 23 92
X 3 42 2 3 50
20 X 1 9 1 5 1 17
X 5 32 37
21 8 6 2 16
X 2 2 4















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Laurie Rinfret was born in New Haven, Connecticut, and lived at various times in

New Hampshire, Colorado, and New Mexico, but spent most of her life in Vermont.

She attended Greenfield Community College in Greenfield, Massachusetts, and

then Marlboro College, a small progressive liberal arts college in Vermont, earning a

B.A. in anthropology. While at Marlboro College she was fortunate to have the

opportunity to spend a summer with the University of Colorado at Boulder's

archaeological field school in Managua, Nicaragua. That experience led her to a three-

month internship in San Marcos, Nicaragua, where she was in charge of a small

archaeological dig on a coffee plantation. When she made the decision to get her M.A.

degree she knew two things: she wanted to continue her work in archaeology and she

wanted to live someplace warm. This led her to the University of Florida where she is

currently finishing requirements for her M.A. degree.