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The Effect of Brand Placement in Video Games on Adolescents


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THE EFFECT OF BRAND PLACEMENT IN VIDEO GAMES ON ADOLESCENTS By CAMELIA ISLAM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Camelia Islam

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This document is dedicated to the graduate students of the University of Florida.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my committee chairperson, Dr. Cynthia Morton, and my committee members Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jon Morris. Dr. Morton helped me a great deal from the c onceptualization to the completion of this thesis. She was always available to give me encouragement and guidance to help me accomplish this hefty task. Dr. Cho and Dr. Mo rris helped in their particular areas of expertise and generously gave of their time to point me in the right direction. I would like to express my gr atitude to Mr. Dennis Scott for his tremendous help in conducting my experiment. I would like to th ank the faculty, staff, students and parents of Westwood Middle School for their time a nd help. Also, I would like to thank the School Board of Alachua County for allowing me to conduct my experiment. Lastly, I would like to give special thanks to my boyfriend, Ryan Scott, for being the most supportive person I have ever met. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.........6 Brand Placement in Film and Television......................................................................6 Memory Based Studies of Brand Placement................................................................6 Attitude Toward the Ad and Brand Placement.............................................................8 Emotional Response...................................................................................................10 Brand Placement in Video Games..............................................................................11 Research Question......................................................................................................15 3 METHODS................................................................................................................. 16 Research Design.........................................................................................................16 Sample Recruitement and Qualifications...................................................................18 Measurement Instrument............................................................................................19 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................21 Sample........................................................................................................................21 Research Question 1...................................................................................................22 Research Question 2...................................................................................................24 Research Question 3...................................................................................................25 Research Question 4...................................................................................................26 5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION......................................................................2 8 Summary of Results....................................................................................................28 Practical Implications.................................................................................................30 Limitations..................................................................................................................31 Future Research..........................................................................................................31 v

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APPENDIX A ANOVA RESULTS.................................................................................................... 33 B DEMOGRAPHICS AND FREQUENCY TABLES..................................................38 C IRB PROTOCOL AN D CONSENT FORMS............................................................39 D QUESTIONNAIRE....................................................................................................47 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................55 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................................................................58 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Comparison of Means between Groups on Recall and Recognition .....................2 5 A-1 ANOVA Results, AdSAM Table of Means...33 A-2 ANOVA Results for PAD of Brands.....34 A-3 Interaction of Intensity, Total Recall and Number and Prominence of Brands.37 B-1 Gender B-2 Age.38 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising THE EFFECT OF BRAND PLACEMENT IN VIDEO GAMES ON ADOLESCENTS By Camelia Islam December 2005 Chair: Cynthia Morton Major Department: Advertising Marketers now use brand placements in ma ny forms of media as an alternative to reach audiences who are finding more and more ways to avoid traditional advertising. Video games are fast becoming one of Am ericas favorite pastimes. With captive audiences that play for hours at a time, vi deo games have become an attractive medium for brand placements. This study adds to the body of knowledge that exists concerning brand placement advertising, specifically, brand placement in video games, by conducting empirical research to understand the eff ect of brand placement in vide o games on adolescents. This research answers questions about how adolescent audiences are affected by brand placement in video games when the intensity of the gaming experience is raised or lowered. Specifically, this research examined the role intensity of the game plays in levels of recall, recogniti on and emotional response. The findings of this study indicate that adolescents recalled brand placements whether they are playing video games at high or low levels of intensity. This study found viii

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that there is a statistically significant main e ffect of the level of in tensity of video game play on arousal. Results also showed that adolescents found brand placement in video games pleasurable and exciting. Additiona lly, this study found that there is no statistically significant effect on recall or recognition due to levels of intensity of video game play, the prominence of brand placements or the number of time a brand is placed in the gaming context. ix ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION With innovations such as more televisi on channels making audiences more prone to zapping, and inventions like TiVo and Dig ital Video Recorders ( DVRs) that make is easier for television audiences to zip through commercials, advertisers are making an effort to find ways to advertise in new media that allow better expos ure for less cost. To remedy the problem of reaching audiences in a more evasive and credible way practitioners have begun to use hybrid me ssages that incorporate advertising and publicity such as brand placement. Hybrid messages include all paid attempts to influence audiences for commercial bene fit using communication that project noncommercial characters; under these circumstan ces, audience are likely to be unaware of the commercial influence attempt and/or to process the content of such communications differently than they process commercial messages (Balasubramanian, 1994, p. 29). Brand placement and product placement are often used interchangeably by researcher to refer to the compensated inclusion of brande d products or brand identifiers, through audio and /or visual means, with in mass media programming (Karrh, 1998, p. 93). Balasubramanian (1994) de fined brand placement as planned entries of brands into movies or television shows that may infl uence viewers brand beliefs and/or behavior favorably. Ne ither definition specifically ad dresses video games or other types of interactive media, but that is likely due to brand placements delivered via interactive media vehicles, such as Internet and video games, were not as prevalent as they are today. Video games allow for the opportunity to place branded messages similar 1

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2 to those placed in film and television. Furthermore, video games largely use brand messages rather than displaying specific pr oducts. Therefore, for the purposes of this research, the definition of product placements will be adapted to include video games, and the review of, and reference to, product placement theory and application will be referred to as brand placement. In the 1980s the film E.T. showed advertisers the potenti al that existed with brand placements in films when the placement of Reeses Pieces re sulted in a dramatic sales increase following the films release (Karrh, 1998). Although E.T. brought the modern resurgence of product placement, some historians argue that the practi ce began as early as the first films ever to be produced, where ma nufacturers would pay to have films feature their products. In recent years, placements of brands such as BMW, Sony, Lexus, and Nike have appeared in majo r motion pictures such as James Bond Minority Report Spiderman, and I-Robot (Yap, 2004). As far as television is concerned, pro duct placements have shown up on reality shows such as Survivor and The Apprentice The 2005 television season showed a character in the primetime series Desperate Housewives buying a Buick, television show namesake Bernie Mac taking a Rolaids, a character in According to Jim repeatedly wanting Red Lobster for dinner, and an episode of Arrested Development that took place in a Burger King. According to New York Times Magazine at least 6.4 million households now have DVRs, TiVo and video on demand (VOD), another technology consumers use to watch content on their own schedule. About 40% of households are expected to have DVRs by 2009. Advertisers are concerned that it will be more difficult to target

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3 audiences with the popularit y of these ad-skipping de vices. According to the Wall Street Journal American Express has drastically reduced its ad budget for television from 80 percent just a decade ago to less than 35 percent. Pepsi recently relaunched Pepsi One without any TV advertising, and Reebok has also shifted marketing do llars from their TV budget to new media, which include s brand placement opportunities. Brand placement is becoming an increasingl y popular way for advertisers to reach audiences with integrated brand messages in television, films, video games, music and even books. Though much has been studied about brand placement in film and television, there is very limited empirical res earch discussing brand placement in video games. Video games have become a very popular form of entertainment that is growing tremendously each year and many advertiser s are taking advantage of placing brand messages in this thriving medium. In 30 years video games have become a $28 billion industry worldwide according to the Entert ainment Software Association (ESA). Comparatively the film industry stands at a bout $45 billion worldwid e. Furthermore, 54 percent of video game player s report that their passion for video games comes mainly at the expense of television. Price Waterhouse Co opers reported last y ear that video games will eclipse music as the second most popul ar form of entertainment by 2008, with worldwide consumer spending on video games hitting $55 billion compared to $33 billion for recorded music. Companies such as New York based Massive, Inc. have begun to insert ads through online connectio ns into video games while theyre being played. Technology that will adapt the ads to individual players is currently being developed (Freedman, 2005).

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4 The intention of this thesis is to add to the body of know ledge that exists concerning brand placement, specificall y, brand placement in video games, by conducting empirical research to understand th e effect of brand placement in video games on adolescents. The ESAs annual consumer re search reports that 66 percent of gamers between 18 and 25 have been playing games for at least ten years and gamers over 18 have been playing an average of 12 years. Most video game players begin playing in their adolescent years when they also begin to form brand purchase patterns for y ears to come. The effectiveness of brand placement in video games on adolescents will be studied through memory based measures of recall and recogni tion. Emotional Response to brand placements will be studied using the AdSAM scale, a non-verbal measure of em otion using manikins that represent particular emotions that are used to gauge pleasure, dominance and arousal to access emotional response. Chapter 2 examines the research conducted thus far on brand placement, including film and television. Brand placemen t began in film and television and the principles that help in the understanding of brand placement in film and television is relevant to brand placement in video games. Brand placement in video games will also be discussed in depth, with emphasis given to effectiveness measures such as recall and audience perception in the video game contex t. Chapter 2 concludes with the research questions for investigation. Chapter 3 will present the methodology for research, including a thorough discussion of the rese arch procedure, sampling protocol, and measurement criteria. Chapter 4 will presen t the research findings and Chapter 5 will present conclusions, managerial implicatio ns, limitations and suggestions for future

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5 research. The findings of this research wi ll help practitioners understand if it is worthwhile to reach adolescents by placing brand messages in video games as part of the promotional mix.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Video games are a relatively new medium considering that they have only been around for 30 years and brand placements in vi deo games have just begun to be used widely since the last 10 years. There is a li mited amount of research present at this time about brand placement in video games due to it being a new medium. However, brand placements in film and television have b een around much longer and utilize similar principles to brand placemen t in video games. This th esis will include research conducted concerning brand placement in film and television to broaden the amount of fundamental knowledge that will help to assess effectiveness of bra nd placement in video games specifically. Brand placements effectiveness in film and television has been studied through long-term and short-term recall and attitude. Measuring effectiveness creates a way to place a fair value on a particular placement. Effectiveness has been studied through executional variables in the past. Accord ing to Karrh, McKee and Pardun (2003) the executional variables include program-i nduced mood, opportunity to process the appearance of a brand, placement modality, pr iming of the brands appearance, and the degree of an objective link between the placed brand and program characters. Memory Based Studies of Brand Placement There have been many studies that ha ve used memory based measures of effectiveness for brand placement in the pa st (Karrh, 1994; Saberwahl, Pokrywczynski and Griffin, 1994; Babin and Carder, 1996a, 1996b; DAstous and Chartier, 2000). All 6

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7 of the major studies concerning memory based measures of effectiveness have measured short and long-term recall and recognition. Most of the researchers had respondents who largely consisted of college students between the ages of 18 to 24. A study by Morton and Friedman (2002) examined the relationship between brand placement and usage behavior. The re spondents were 18 to 24 year old college students. The findings indicated that even a subtle brands appearance in a movie is enough brand recall to shape impressions and motivate brand usage. The findings from this research support the idea that positive bra nd portrayals in movies can contribute to a consumers decision to use the product wh ile negative portrayals discourage use. A study conducted by Babin and Carder (1996a) examined whether or not viewers can even recognize brands placed within a film. Two films containing multiple product placements were used. The results of the st udy indicated that the s ubjects, who consisted of college students, correctly recognized br ands in movie and could distinguish them correctly from brands not present in the movie. Gupta and Lord (1998) conducted a st udy among 18 to 24 year old undergraduate students to explain recall effect s of various types of brand pl acement in movies relative to one another to traditional comm ercial advertising. The resu lts indicated that prominent brand placement had the highest recall, followed by traditional advertisements, and subtle placement had the least amount of recall. The study included differe nt movies, branded products and recall indicators. The placements represented different sizes, positions on the screen and levels of integration in to the action of the scene. Advertisements proved to have lower levels of processing motiva tion than prominent brand placements even

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8 though they had similar levels of audio-visu al depiction of the branded products in comparison to placements. Researchers, DAstous and Cartier (2000) assessed the impact of objective and subjective characteristics of brand placements on consumer evaluations of memory. The respondents were college students mostly be tween the ages on 18 to 24. This study found that different characteristics of placement have positive, some have negative and some have both positive and negative impact on memory. DAstous and Cartier found that the level of integration of the brand placement in a movie scene is positively linked to liking the brand placement, but negatively linked to the impact on memory. Future research suggested by this study included assessing pr oduct placement in different settings. Attitude towards the Ad and Brand Placement Studies that have measured audience perception of br and placement have used attitude towards the ad as a measure. Lutz (1985) defined attitude towards the ad (Aad) as a predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising or stimulus during particular exposure occasions. Attitude toward the ad influences brand attitude and purchase in tention. Attitude towards brand placement represents audience response to brand placements rather than particular advertisements and also has influence on brand attitude and purchase intention. Major findings indicate that viewers have a pos itive perception of brand placement advertising. Brand placement is cons idered an effective technique as a less obtrusive form of advertising. There have been some questions as to the deceptiveness of this practice due to its ability to blend into the program content (Nebenzahl and Secunda, 1993). In the Nebenzahl and Secunda (1993) st udy, college students between the ages of

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9 18 to 34 who are typically heavy filmgoers larg ely felt that they did not object to product placement, furthermore, they viewed product placement in films to be an effective marketing communications medium. A sma ll minority of subjects opposed to product placements for ethical reasons, but overall th e study found that subjects preferred product placements in films to traditional commercials. There have been some studies that have found differences between attitudes towards the ad across different cultures. A study by Gould, Gupta and Grabner-Krauter (2000) analyzed cross-cultural differences between Austrian, French and American attitude towards brand placement. The re spondents of this study included male and female college students who were for he most part 25 years of age or younger from major universities in France, Austria and the U.S. This study revealed that a framework which considers country, product and individual differe nces and their interactive effects have an influence concerning the acceptance of product placement and the intent to purchase the brand. A study done by McKechnie and Zhou (2003) added to the cross-cultural knowledge by comparing Chinese and American consumers attitudes about brand placement. They studied viewers perception of the ethics and acceptability of brand placement in movies as perceived by an Asia n audience, as well as an American audience to compare attitude towards product placement. The respondents were 18 to 34 year-old college students from china and the U.S. The study revealed that American consumers were more accepting of product placement than Chinese consumers. The study also revealed that ethical products were of concern with both Chinese and American consumers.

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10 Emotional Response Many studies have linked emotional respons e to advertising, specifically arousal, to recall. One such study by Newell, Henders on and Wu (2001) investig ated the effect of pleasure and arousal levels of subjects while watching sports programming and measured the affect on a dvertising recall. The results of this study sugge sted that sports programs that induce strong emotional respon ses inhibit advertising recall. Bennett (1998) studied s hoppers response to advertis ing near checkout counters and found a negative association between the level of emotion and unaided recall. A more recent study by McGrath and Mahood (2004) i nvestigated the impact of television programming arousal on consumer attitude s toward brands with different product involvement levels. This study found that when advertising was placed adjacent to arousing television programming there was a negative impact on recall. This study also found that attitudes toward an ad were positiv ely impacted when advertising was placed adjacent to arousing television programs. AdSAM is the Advertising Self-Assessment Manikin used in measuring emotional response. It is a gr aphic representation of emotion created as an alternative to verbal measures of emotional response (L ang, 1985). According to Lang (1985), many studies have shown that subjects have expressed greater inte rest in AdSAM ratings than for verbal self reports. AdSAM is a well su ited measure of emotional response for this study particularly, because both children as well as adults can identify AdSAM figures and understand that emotional dimensions they represent. AdSAM has been shown to be highly predictive of brand in terest and purchase intenti ons (Morris, Woo, Geason and Kim, 2002). The AdSAM scale has an additiona l advantage for adolescent audiences in

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11 being a short test that typically takes less than 15 seconds to complete causing less subject wear-out than comp arable verbal measures. Early studies by Mehrabian and Russel (1977) proved that emotion can be accurately described in terms of three inde pendent and bipolar dimensions: pleasuredispleasure, degree of arousal, and domi nance-submissiveness. AdSAM utilizes pleasure, arousal and dominance (PAD). PAD is a three-dimensional scale for assessing emotional response and has been used for many y ears in verbal formats such as adjectives checklists and semantic deferential scales to assess emotional response (Morris and Ogan, 1996). AdSAM has been used in numerous psychological studies sin ce its development. The correlations between scores obtained from Mehrabian and Russels semantic differential procedures show th at AdSAM is valid and reliable in measuring emotion with statistically significant pleasure (.94) and arousal (.94) measur es, and it is a smaller but still substantial statistically si gnificant measure for dominance (.66). AdSAM depicts each PAD dimension with a graphic character arrayed along a continuous nine point-scale. For pleasure AdSAM ranges from smiling, happy figure; for arousal, AdSAM ranges from slee py with eyes closed to excited with eyes open. The dominance scale shows AdSAM ranging from a very small figure representing a feeling of be ing controlled or submissive to a very large figure representing in-control or a pow erful feeling (Morris, 1995, p. 66). Brand Placement in Video Games Playing video games has become a very popular form of entertainment among youth audiences. The youth population is projec ted to increase disproportionately to the general population between 2002 and 2007 according to U.S. Census 2002. The annual income of the youth population in the U.S. exceeds $350 billion. Studies by MarketReseach.com indicate that young consum ers reject in-your-f ace marketing opting instead for more subtle promotions.

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12 The potential for engagement in games is jump-starting a wave of brand movements. Brands are moving from passi ve relationships with consumers to relationships that demand constant intera ction. These relations hips require that brands adopt a role, play to it, and provide constant feedback to consumers (Lindstrom, 2005, p. 21). According to the ESA, video game sales between 2003 and 2004 amounted to 6.2 billion dollars. The ESA also reported that 47 percent of Americans plan to purchase one or more video games in 2005. As video ga mes become more and more popular each year, advertisers are using the medium as a wa y to advertise to the coveted and hard to reach youth audience. With in-game ads expected to generate $800 million annually in four years, up from $120 million in 2004, the agency world is paying this medium more attention. In addition to licensing, developers can include bra nds within games in many ways, from passive background pr ops to active forms such as equipment and characters (Nelson 2002, 83). Brand placements have b een included in the background as passing billboards or even particular brand of car or equipment the player chooses. Studying the efficacy of brand placement in video game s will show advertisers whether it is a worthwhile to include brand placement in vide o games as a part of their promotional mix or not. A study by Nelson (2002) was the first to sp ecifically research brand placement in video games. It is also the only study done thus far specifically dealing with brand placement in video games even though according toDouglas Lowenstein, president of the ESA, the U.S. association representing com puter and videogame software publishers, in 2004, video games flew off the shelves as eight titles were sold per second per day

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13 throughout the year, evidence of the c ontinuing vast popularity of games among consumers. This study by Nelson (2002) measured eff ectiveness of brand placement in a car racing videogame by using free-recall to meas ure brand awareness. This research consisted of two exploratory studies that s howed video game players as being able to recall brands that were placed in the game despite time delays, being a first time player and playing a limited amount of time. The results of the Nelson study suggests that brand usage and appearance is important to consider and the more sensory a ppeal the videogame has the better the brand awareness will be. When the brand is an important part of the game itself the player is actively involved and their short-term memory was improved as well. If the brand placed has relevance to the videogame player short-and long-term recall is enhanced. The results also indicated that the brands that were out of place, not related to the game, or were not market leaders stood out in the memory of the subjects. In addition, this study also indicated that the subjects ge nerally had positive feelings ab out brand placement in video games, because they feel that the placements add to the realism of the game. Video games are an interactive medium and brand placements are present in more categories than in film and television. Nels on (2002) classifies brand placements through arousal levels, specifically active use and pa ssive use. Active use, which is also considered prominent placement, are instances of brand sponsorships or cross-selling, use of brands as tools or equipment, use of char acters as branded images and choice of brands for customization. Passive use, which is al so considered non-prominent placement, are instances where brands are used as bac kground scenery, outdoor settings or self

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14 promotion of the game or the game publisher; licensed music and sports commentators in the background are also considered passive use brands. Research Question The research conducted thus far about brand placement in video games suggests that there may be some benefits to using multi-sensory techniques for brand placement rather than using the visual mode alone. Videogame brand placements are considered less deceptive and are accepted more readily than advertisements in other media by the audience. Brand placement in video games ar e for the most part welcomed in certain formats of video games, because it ads to the realism of the game. For example, having advertisement on billboards or sideboards in a virtual racetrack makes it look more like an authentic racetrack. However, there is a limited amount of res earch about the use of brand placements in video games. The research has been exploratory and only college-aged adult were used in samples despite the fact that most video game players begin playing in their adolescent years. This research will a ttempt to answer questions about how younger audiences are affected by brand placement in video games when emotionally aroused by the intensity of the gaming experience. Specifically, the research will examine what effect video game intensity ha ve in influencing players emotional response, recall and recognition toward brands in the gaming cont ext. Furthermore, this study will examine the influence the brand placements level of prominence and number has on recall. Research Question 1: How does the level of intensity of the video game affect emotional response? Research Question 2: How does level of intensity of the video game affect recall? Research Question 3: Is recall impacted by the prom inence of brand placements in the video game?

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15 Research Question 4: Is recall impacted by the number of times a brand is placed throughout the video game?

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CHAPTER 3 METHODS Research Design An experimental design was used to gain understanding of how young audiences are affected by brand placement in vide o games when emotionally aroused by the intensity of the gaming experience. This study attempted to understand the role intensity levels play on audience emotions, recall and recognition of brand placements in videogames. Experimental design was used to do a between group comparison. Two groups were tested with two different types of stimulus. In addi tion, within group pre-measure and post-measure was conducted on both groups to compare emotional response before and after the subjects were exposed to th e stimulus as a manipulation check. The independent variable manipulated was the inte nsity of the game. The intensity of the game is the level of difficulty associated with the game. The de pendent variables are arousal, recall, recognition and emotional re sponse to brand placements. Additional variables include prominence of the placement within the game scenery and the numbers of placements the subjects are exposed to of particular brands. Brand prominence in the video game refers to brands that play a ma jor role such as tools while those of low prominence are of minor importance to the game such as brands in the background of the scenario with in the game. For example, in a racing game the brand of the vehicle is more prominent than the brands present in the virtual billboards a bove the racetrack or road. Statistical tests determ ined whether the brands that have high prominence and the 16

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17 brands that are placed numerous times during game play have a different level of recall then those the are not high in prominence or in number of exposures. Adolescent subjects were randomly assigne d to one of two test conditions (high intensity vs. low intensity). One group of subjects were e xposed to the game at a high intensity while the other group was exposed to a low intensity level of the same game. Subjects were asked to play Need for Speed Underground 2 a car racing game that contains several brand placements for the durat ion of three laps around the track, or about 10 minutes. Three laps allowe d subjects to have the appr opriate opportunity for brand placement exposure. The experiment was conducted in the dur ation of two consecutive weeks. Each parental consent form was numbered and given out in class by the teacher two weeks before the experiment was scheduled to take place. Those students who returned signed parental consent forms were asked to voluntee r for the experiment using a verbal assent script. During different times in the class pe riod the students were asked to come to the designated room and participat e in the experiment. The st udents with even numbered parental consent forms were assigned to Group 1 and those with odd numbered parental consent forms were assigned Group 2. The parental consent form numbering system allowed for the subjects to be randomly assign ed to either group. Group 1 represents the group that was exposed to high intensity stim ulus while Group 2 represents those who were exposed to low intensity stimulus. Two students at a time played in an adjoining room to the classroom, and those assigned to the same group played together with the same stimulus level.

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18 The race track simulates streets and hi ghways complete with simulated traffic that increases or decreases in volume to a ffect the difficulty of the race. The game increases in difficulty with more traffic in the simulated street scenery as the other vehicles on the road create obstacle to avoi d. The stimulus for Group 1 was adjusted to maximum traffic while Group 2 played with no traffic. The raci ng vehicles and the racetrack were predetermined by the researcher to ensure that the subjects were being exposed to the same brand placements. All subjects raced 3 laps around the racetrack. Subjects played the video game for approximate ly 15 minutes. Before the subjects began to play, they completed the short pre-m easure portion of the questionnaire. After completing the pre-measure, they were give n basic instructions of how to steer and accelerate before they began to play. Immediately after they concluded playing, the subjects were asked to answer the post-measure portion of the questionnaire. The students were instructed to complete the remaining questions of the post-measure por tion of the questionnaire for the next 15 minutes. The entire experiment, including pre-measure questions, video game playing time and post-measure questions took approxi mately 30 minutes to complete. At the conclusion of the post-measure questionnaire th e students were instru cted to return to regular classroom activity and not discuss the experiment or the ques tionnaire with their classmates. Sample Recruitment and Qualification The sample of this study was drawn fr om a middle school technology course in the southeast. They elected to take the Technol ogy course with the help of their parents. They have some interest in technology and co mputer related activities. The course is

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19 designed to orient children with using modern technologies such as computers. The Technology teacher was approached due to the subject matter of the course being a great match for this study. These students already ha ve an affinity to technology and are likely to be video game players. These students ar e exposed to video games in the classroom as well. They often play video games in groups when they are done with their schoolwork. The teacher agreed to allow his students to participate in this study. The principal and the school board received required pape rwork and formally approved the study. The parental consent form was passed out in class for each student to take home and show their parents. The students were told that th e parental consent form was for permission to help a UF student write a paper about middle school students and video games. The students were given two weeks to return the parental consent forms. After receiving signed approval forms from the parents the stude nts were asked to raise their hands and volunteer to play a video game a nd then answer some questions. Measurement Instruments The questionnaire was designed to m easure emotional response, recall and recognition. The additional variables of prominence and number of placements were measured through recall questions. There were two portions to the questionnaire. The first portion was a pre-measure that include d AdSAM question (to gauge emotion before exposure to stimulus) and a question regarding the subjects skill in playing video games. The second portion was the post-measure that began with one AdSAM question (to gauge emotion after exposure to the stimulus). Af ter the initial emotiona l response question, recall and recognition questions were asked. After the rec ognition questions were asked,

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20 emotional response questions were asked about specific recognized brands. The questionnaire ended with demographi c questions about age and gender. The questionnaire was four pages long a nd it consolidated adapted versions of recall and emotional response measures of product placement by Russell (2002) and AdSAM. The questionnaire wa s administered in paper a nd pencil. The correlations between scores obtained from Mehrabian and Russells semantic differential procedures show that AdSAM is valid and reliable in measuring emotion with statistically significant pleasure (.94) and arousal (.94) measures, and it is a smaller but still substantial statistically significant m easure for dominance (.66). Recall and recognition of brand placemen t was measured by adapting a valid and reliable instrument that was originally used by Russell (2002) to test modality of presentation to understand the connection between a brand and the content of television shows and the influence on memory and attitude change. There were unaided recall questions (Ex: Do you remember any names of the cars you may have seen in the video game? If you, please write down the names of the cars you remember). Aided recall was tested by asking subjects to indicate which br ands they remembered seeing in the game from a listing of brands.

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS To answer the research questions for this study the Statistica l Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Research Questi on 1, How does the intensity of the game affect emotional response? was answered using AdSAM and the univariate analysis of variance method (ANOVA). Research Questio n 2, How does video game intensity affect recall? was answered using independent sample t-te sts. Research Question 3, What kind of impact does the prominence of brand placement have on recall? and Research Question 4, Is recall impacted by the number of times a brand is placed? were both answered using paired sample t-tests. Sample The subjects of this study were middle school students who were 11 to 14 years old in 6 th through 8 th grade. All subjects were randomly assigned and had an equal chance of being in either Group 1, the high intensity group, or Group 2, the low intensity group. There were 33 males and 27 females in the entire sample. In Group 1, males represented 56.67 percent and females repres ented 43.33 percent. In Group 2 males represented 53.33 percent and females repres ented 46.67 percent. As far as age was concerned, the high intensity group subjec ts were 53.33 percent 11 year-olds, 20.00 percent 12 year-olds, 20.00 percent 13 year-olds and 6.67 percent 14 year-olds. The low intensity group subjects we re 43.33 percent 11 year-olds, 20.00 percent 12 year-olds, 30.00% 13 year-olds and 6.67 percent 14 year olds. 21

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22 The subjects level of skill was measured with a scale of excellent to very bad. Those who answered that they has excelle nt, very good or good skills at playing video games were considered high skilled players and those who answered that they have average, bad or very bad skills at playing video games were considered low skilled players. In Group 1 there were 86.67 percen t high skilled players and 13.33 percent low skilled players. In Group 2 there we re 73.33 percent high sk illed players and 26.67 percent low skilled players. Frequency distribution tables of gender, age and skill are in Appendix B. Research Question 1 To answer the question of whether the inte nsity of game play affected subjects emotional response, the AdSAM scale, a va lid and reliable measure of emotional response using graphic representa tions of feelings was utilize d. Fifty percent (n = 60) of the sample was assigned to the high-intensity condition and the othe r fifty percent (n = 60) was exposed to low-intensity condition. The intensity of the game was manipulated by adjusting the traffic level in the simulate d street. The group that played the high intensity game raced with the maximum amount of traffic in the simulated street while the group that played the low intensity game r aced with no traffic in the simulated street. Using the AdSAM scale, the levels of pleasure, arousal and dominance were tested for each subject before and after play ing the video game. The purpose of the preand post-measure of emotional response was to determine whether or not the manipulation of intensity was effective. The manipulation check was evaluated using a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to examine the mean differences in reported individual arousal before play ing the game with their arousal after playing. The mean

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23 scores of the arousal levels were compared for preand post-measure between the two groups. An Analysis of Variance was conducte d to see if the mean differences were statistically significant. One-way ANOVA is used to test one categ orical independent variable and one continuous dependent variable. Table 1 of th e Appendix A presents a table of means for the preversus post-measures for pleasure dominance, and arousal dimensions by group. The ANOVA results indicated no significant difference between means on the pleasure and dominance dimensions preversus post-pl ay of the video game. However, findings on the arousal dimension suggested that th e manipulation was effective for the high intensity group. The arousal level of those who played the high-intensity game was statistically significantly (p .05) after playing the game, wh ile the arousal level of those who played the low-intensity game was not statistically significant (p .05), therefore, suggesting that the manipulation was successful. While a significant main effect was not found for arousal among the low intensity group ( M pre = 6.90 vs M post = 7.33) the results from the high intensity group ( M pre = 5.47 vs M post = 8.23) showed a statistically significant (p .05) main effect for arousal. See ANOVA results of pleasure, arousal and dominance on Appendix A, Table 1. Next an ANOVA analysis was conducted to explore subjects perception of brands featured in the game. Using Ad SAM, a measure of pleasure, arousal and dominance, the impact intensity of game pl ay had on emotional response to particular brands was determined. Both groups had posit ive and aroused feeli ngs about the brands placed in the game. Their feelings ranged fr om childlike and wholesome to cheerful and victorious. ANOVA tests s howed that there was no st atistically significant (p .05) main

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24 effect of intensity on emotional response to wards any of the brand. See ANOVA results of pleasure arousal and dominance of each brand on Appendix A, Table 2. Research Question 2 To determine how video game intensity affects recall and recognition an independent samples t-test was conducted. An independent samples t-test is a betweengroup t-test used to compare the mean differe nce of one categorical independent variable with two levels and one continuous dependent variable. The categ orical independent variable for this an alysis was Group (i.e. high intensity vs. low intensity) and the dependent variable was recall, which was measured based on aided recall and recognition. Table 4-1 presents a compar ison of means between the high and low intensity group and recall and recognition. All subjects were exposed to 13 brands. The high intensity group recalled all 13 brands they had the opportunity to see, whereas, the low intensity group recalled 11 of the 13 brands they were exposed to. Although the mean sc ores for recall (M high intensity = 2.50, M low intensity = 2.07) and recognition (M high intensity = 5.13, M low intensity = 4.43) for subjects who played the high intensity game was higher then those who played the low intensity game, according to th e between-group t-test there ar e no statistically significant (p .05) mean differences between recall and recognition of the two groups. The mean differences of the recall a nd recognition of the high in tensity group versus the low intensity group support the idea that the level of intensity game affects recall. However, the results show that the level of intensity of the game had no st atistically significant (p 05) influence on players recall or recognition.

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25 Table 4-1: Comparison of Means be tween Groups on Recall and Recognition Variables Group Mean Std. Deviation t P (onetailed) High Intensity 2.5 2.4 0.8 0.21 recall Low Intensity 2.07 1.74 High Intensity 5.13 2.94 1.03 0.15 recognition Low Intensity 4.43 2.28 df = 58, Group 1 N=30, Group 2, N =30, *p .05 Research Question 3 Research Question 3 explored the infl uence of brand placement prominence on recall. A paired sample t-test was run to an alyze within-group mean differences between a subjects percentage of recall for brands that were prominently shown in the game (Prom) and their percentage of recall of the brands that were not prominently shown in the game (nonProm). Prominent brands are those that are used as tools or those that play active role in the game, in this study the prominent brands were the car brands. Brands that are not prominent are characterized by bran ds that are in the background or those that take passive roles in the game. In this study the non-prominent brands were the billboards in the simulated streets. It is im portant to understand if the prominence of the brand has an influence on recall in order to understand if the brand can benefit from being exposed as a tool in the game versus as background scenery. To measure the level of recall demonstrated by subjects for the pr ominent brands in comparison to the non prominent brands, the percentage of promin ent brands recalled were compared to the percentage of non-prominent brands recalled. Pa ired t-tests results i ndicated that there is a statistically significant interaction between recall and recognition and for both the low and high prominent brands for both the high and the low intensity gr oup. The results are inconclusive in determining whether the prominence of the brand affects the recall and

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26 recognition differently in diffe ring intensity situations. See Appendix A, Table 3 for results of the paired sample t-test. Research Question 4 Research Question 4 sought to unders tand the impact frequency of brand placement exposure would have on recall. Burg er King, Nissan and Pontiac had four to six exposure opportunities where as the other nine brands had three or less exposure opportunities. The percentage of recall for bran ds that were shown four to six times was compared to the percentage of recall of brands that were shown one to three times to understand the impact repeated exposure oppor tunities had on r ecall. The paired variables were NumberHi (the percentage of brands recalled that appeared four to six times) and NumberLo (The percentage of br ands recalled that appears three times or less). Paired t-tests results indicated that ther e is a statistically significant interaction between recall and recognition and for both the low and high number of exposure of brands for both the high and the low intensity group. The results are inconclusive in determining whether the number of exposur es of the brand af fects the recall and recognition differently in diffe ring intensity situations. See Appendix A, Table 3 for results of the paired sample t-test. The findings of this study indicate that adolescents recalled brand placements in the video game and found them to be pleas urable and arousing. Using the AdSAM scale and Analysis of Variance this study found that there is a statistic ally significant main effect of intensity levels on arousal. A dditionally this study f ound that there is no statistically significant effect on recall or recognition due to levels of intensity of video

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27 game play, the prominence of brand placements or the number of time a brand is placed in the gaming context.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Results This research was intended to give insi ght to marketers and advertisers about the effects of brand placements in video ga mes on adolescent players by examining the impact of video game intensity on player r ecall, recognition and emotional response. In addition, this study sought to understand the impact prominence of brand placements and number of exposure opportunities has on pl ayers recall. This study found that adolescents between the ages of 11 to 14 recall brand placements in video games regardless of whether they are playing video games at a high level of intensity or low level of intensity and they have very positiv e feelings about the brands placed. This study also found that emotional response to brands, frequency of exposure and prominence of exposure had little influence on recall. The findings of Research Question 1 reve aled that adolescents experienced high levels of pleasure and arousal toward bra nd placements in the video game. Emotions towards brands ranged from childlike and w holesome to cheerful and victorious. The study also found that the inte nsity of video game play has a significant influence on players arousal level. Subjects reported a significantly higher level of arousal after they played the high intensity game compared to th e arousal level they reported before they began to play. Subjects who played the lo w intensity game, however, did not experience a higher level of arousal at the conclusion of their playing experience compared to their arousal before they began to play. Regardless of the level of intensity or arousal a player 28

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29 experienced while playing th e video game they had positive awareness of brand placements. This study examined levels of intensity of the video game in relation to the level of recall reported by the players in Resear ch Question 2. The findings revealed that, although those who played the higher intensity game showed a slightly larger amount of recall and recognition of brand placements in the video game then those who played the lower intensity game, the difference of r ecall and recognition between the two groups were not substantial. Those who played the game at a higher intensity experienced similar levels of recall and r ecognition to those who played th e game at a lower intensity. The results indicate that the intensity level of the video game does not affect the recall of brand placements in a substantial way. In terms of Research Question 3, the st udy attempted to unde rstand the influence prominence of brand placements has on players recall. There was a slightly higher level of recall of more prominent brands then less prominent brands, but the differences were not sizeable. The findings indicated that there is no apparent link between the prominence of the brands placed and the le vel of recall experienced by the player. With Research Question 4, this study exam ined the influence the number of brand placement exposure opportunities had on players recall. Similar to the players response to prominence of brand placements, there was a slightly higher level of recall for those brands that were placed more frequently in the video game then those that were placed more sparingly, but the difference was not sizeable. The number of exposures opportunities the brand placement allows does not have a major impact on players recall.

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30 Practical Implications As audience viewing of traditional media becomes more and more fragmented and as viewers find more ways to skip commercials, marketers and advertising professionals are finding new ways to reach thei r target market. In search of a new media that will reach young audiences, brand placements in video games should not be overlooked. Video games are fast gaining in popularity and many adolescents are playing more video games at the expense of watching television. Video games allow for a captive audience for many hours of play and a marketer has the ch oice of placing their brand in age and demographic specific games to fit their exact target audience. This study justifies that video games are a great marketing tool to reach a large captive adolescent audience to create recall and pos itive emotional response towards the brand. Knowing this information, marketers and advertisers can feel confident that placing their brand in video games in addition to their promotional mix will be a beneficial venture. Marketers and advertisi ng professionals can also lear n from this study that they do not have to worry about their brand placements going unnoticed by the adolescent game players in situations of high game intensity, because the findings of this study indicate that players are aware of brands similarly regardless of the intensity of the game or the level of arous al they feel. Marketers can also understand from this study that their brand will be recalled similarly despite the prominence of the brand placement. Brands will gain similar player awareness being placed in the scenery of the game as they will in the forefront of the game as a tool. This study also shows marketers that young video game players will notice their brand whether they include a la rge number of placements for a particular

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31 brand or only a few. Knowing these findings will not only make the marketer more confident, but also, it will make them savvi er as businesspeople when placing their brands in a video game context. Limitations There are several limitations in this study in generalizing the results. The samples for the study were relatively small. There were some biases associated with the sample as well. Both the high intensity and the lo w intensity groups had a higher ratio of male subjects to female subjects, causing a gende r bias. There was some randomization error in the pre-measure groups. The arousal resu lts of the two groups we re different before the stimulus was administered. There was a slightly higher ratio of high skilled players in the high intensity group then in the low intensity group. The brand placements in the video game were not all relevant to the audience. If the brands present in the video game were more relevant to the players of the game, there may have been deferring levels of recall an d/or emotional response. Lastly, the video game was played for a relatively short period of times compared to how long an adolescent would usually play a game on their own accord. The biases, small sample size, lack of relevance and short length of pl ay issues may have weakened the results of this study. Future Research This is the first empirical study to focus on brand placements in video games. This is also one of the few studies about brand placement that do not use subjects largely consisting of college students. There are ma ny ways to further explore the impact of brand placement in video games. Future st udies relating to this subject could benefit

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32 from the inclusion of a control group. A control group in this study would establish a baseline for recognition, recall and emotiona l response. Studies concerning audience relevance to brand placement and studies conducted over a longer le ngth of time would be very interesting to con duct with young audiences as subjects. Research can also extend to empirical studies of adult audience s and their response to brand placement in video games. Studies can also delve into diffe rent genres of video games. Cross-cultural studies would also be beneficial to investig ate concerning this topic. In a time when video games are fast becoming the medium of the moment researchers should continue to study brand placement in video games in dept h to help marketers understand how this medium can benefit their brand by helpi ng to reach their audience in a new way.

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APPENDIX A ANOVA RESULTS Table A-1: ANOVA Results, AdSAM Means Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation Pre-measure Pleasure Group 1: High Intensity 7.83 1.56 Group 2: Low Intensity 7.57 1.50 Total 7.70 1.52 Pre-measure Arousal Group 1: High Intensity 5.47 1.57 Group 2: Low Intensity 7.33 1.54 Total 6.40 1.81 Pre-measure Dominance Group 1: High Intensity 6.50 2.26 Group 2: Low Intensity 6.47 1.68 Total 6.48 1.97 Post-measure Pleasure Group 1: High Intensity 7.80 1.73 Group 2: Low Intensity 7.80 1.54 Total 7.80 1.62 Post-measure Arousal Group 1: High Intensity 8.23 1.33 Group 2: Low Intensity 6.90 1.84 Total 7.57 1.73 Post-measure Dominace Group 1: High Intensity 6.87 2.18 Group 2: Low Intensity 6.73 2.02 Total 6.80 2.08 33

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34 Table A-2: ANOVA Results for PAD of Brands AdSAM: PAD Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. MitsuP Between Groups 0.03 1 0.03 0.01 0.92 Within Groups 103.85 31 3.35 Total 103.88 32 MitsuA Between Groups 6.34 1 6.34 1.41 0.24 Within Groups 139.53 31 4.50 Total 145.88 32 MitsuD Between Groups 1.98 1 1.98 0.39 0.53 Within Groups 156.02 31 5.03 Total 158.00 32 NissanP Between Groups 0.25 1 0.25 0.11 0.74 Within Groups 93.30 42 2.22 Total 93.55 43 NissanA Between Groups 1.34 1 1.34 0.27 0.60 Within Groups 206.30 42 4.91 Total 207.64 43 NissanD Between Groups 5.09 1 5.09 1.33 0.25 Within Groups 160.63 42 3.82 Total 165.73 43 PontiacP Between Groups 0.58 1 0.58 0.20 0.66 Within Groups 74.42 26 2.86 Total 75.00 27 PontiacA Between Groups 2.86 1 2.86 0.63 0.43 Within Groups 118.10 26 4.54 Total 120.96 27 PontiacD Between Groups 1.31 1 1.31 0.34 0.56 Within Groups 99.94 26 3.84 Total 101.25 27 ToyotaP Between Groups 4.00 1 4.00 0.70 0.41

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35 Table A-2. Continued AdSAM: PAD Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Total 106.95 19 ToyotaA Between Groups 7.89 1 7.89 1.27 0.27 Within Groups 111.86 18 6.21 Total 119.75 19 ToyotaD Between Groups 2.77 1 2.77 0.41 0.53 Within Groups 121.43 18 6.75 Total 124.20 19 HondaP Between Groups 0.80 1 0.80 0.12 0.73 Within Groups 182.16 28 6.51 Total 182.97 29 HondaA Between Groups 0.04 1 0.04 0.01 0.93 Within Groups 166.92 28 5.96 Total 166.97 29 HondaD Between Groups 0.23 1 0.23 0.03 0.87 Within Groups 232.47 28 8.30 Total 232.70 29 FordP Between Groups 1.54 1 1.54 0.21 0.65 Within Groups 172.35 24 7.18 Total 173.88 25 FordA Between Groups 10.88 1 10.88 1.10 0.30 Within Groups 237.27 24 9.89 Total 248.15 25 FordD Between Groups 9.16 1 9.16 2.10 0.16 Within Groups 104.88 24 4.37 Total 114.04 25 CadiP Between Groups 9.00 1 9.00 2.07 0.16 Within Groups 117.21 27 4.34 Total 126.21 28 CadiA Between Groups 9.95 1 9.95 1.59 0.22 Within Groups 169.01 27 6.26 Total 178.97 28

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36 Table A-2. Continued AdSAM: PAD Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. CadiD Between Groups 5.80 1 5.80 0.85 0.36 Within Groups 183.17 27 6.78 Total 188.97 28 MazdaP Between Groups 1.08 1 1.08 0.36 0.56 Within Groups 51.66 17 3.04 Total 52.74 18 MazdaA Between Groups 9.58 1 9.58 2.11 0.16 Within Groups 77.16 17 4.54 Total 86.74 18 MazdaD Between Groups 9.88 1 9.88 2.62 0.12 Within Groups 64.22 17 3.78 Total 74.11 18 PeugeotP Between Groups 0.00 1 0.00 0.00 1.00 Within Groups 45.50 6 7.58 Total 45.50 7 PeugeotA Between Groups 2.00 1 2.00 0.29 0.61 Within Groups 42.00 6 7.00 Total 44.00 7 PeugeotD Between Groups 1.13 1 1.13 0.17 0.69 Within Groups 38.75 6 6.46 Total 39.88 7 BKP Between Groups 1.53 1 1.53 0.33 0.57 Within Groups 138.69 30 4.62 Total 140.22 31 BKA Between Groups 24.50 1 24.50 3.84 0.06 Within Groups 191.50 30 6.38 Total 216.00 31 BKD Between Groups 0.50 1 0.50 0.09 0.76 Within Groups 161.50 30 5.38 Total 162.00 31 n=60, *P .05

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37 Table A-3: Interaction of Intensity, Total Recall and Number and Prominence of Brands Group Paired Variables N Mean Std. Deviation Correlation t Sig. High Intensity Recall+Recog & nonProm 30 -26.12 15.01 0.44 -9.53 0.02 Recall+Recog & Prom 30 -28.66 18.88 0.97 -8.32 0.00 Low Intensity Recall+Recog & nonProm 30 -25.17 15.68 0.10 -8.79 0.61 Recall+Recog & Prom 30 -23.87 15.17 0.95 -8.62 0.00 High Intensity Recall+Recog & NumberHi 30 -26.53 19.15 0.85 -7.59 0.00 Recall+Recog & NumberLo 30 -28.48 13.95 0.94 -11.18 0.00 Low Intensity Recall+Recog & NumberHi 30 -26.00 16.49 0.72 -8.63 0.00 Recall+Recog & NumberLo 30 -23.50 10.70 0.89 -12.03 0.00

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APPENDIX B DEMOGRAPHIC FREQUENCY TABLES Table B-1: Gender Group Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 1 Valid 1 17 56.67 56.67 56.67 2 13 43.33 43.33 100.00 Total 30 100.00 100.00 2 Valid 1 16 53.33 53.33 53.33 2 14 46.67 46.67 100.00 Total 30 100.00 100.00 Table B-2: Age Group Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 1 Valid 11 16 53.33 53.33 53.33 12 6 20.00 20.00 73.33 13 6 20.00 20.00 93.33 14 2 6.67 6.67 100.00 Total 30 100.00 100.00 2 Valid 11 13 43.33 43.33 43.33 12 6 20.00 20.00 63.33 13 9 30.00 30.00 93.33 14 2 6.67 6.67 100.00 Total 30 100.00 100.00 38

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APPENDIX C IRB PROTOCOL AND CONSENT FORMS Institutional Review Board Form for study with adolescents University of Florida Inst itutional Review Board 1. Title of Project: Thesis on Brand Placement in Video Games and Adolescents 2. Principal Investigator: Camelia Islam, Bachelors of Science in Advertising Masters Student, Department of Advertising 2811 SW Archer Rd, Apt Y232 Gainesville, FL-32608 Home: (352) 562-1692 camey@ufl.edu 3. Supervisor: Cynthia R. Morton, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Advertising University of Florida P.O. Box 118400 Gainesville, FL 32611 Office: (352) 3928841; Fax: (352) 846-3015 cmorton@jou.ufl.edu 4. Dates of Proposed Research: October 3 14, 2005 5. Source of Funding for the Protocol: Unfunded 6. Scientific Purpose of the Investigation: The intention of this thesis is to add to the body of know ledge that exists concerning brand placement advertising, specifica lly, brand placement in video games, by conducting empirical research to find out the effect of brand placement in video games on adolescents. This research will attempt to answer questions about how younger audiences are affected by brand placement in video games when the intensity of the gaming experience is raised or lowered. Specificall y, the research will examine what role intensity of the game plays in levels of recall, recognition and emotional response. 7. Describe the Research Methodology: Students in Westwood Middle School in Gainesville, Florida, will be randomly assigned to one of two groups and asked to play a proficiency-based video game that contains 39

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40 brand placements in the context of the game. One group of students will play the game at a lower skill level and the other will play at a higher skill leve l. The different skill levels are expected influence the arousal level of vi deo game play creating results that can be compared to yield an answer to the research question. Subjects will answer questions before and af ter they play in the form of a two part questionnaire. The video game stimulus will be rated E, a rating assigned to video games that are appropriate for all ages. The video game also will be approved by the class instructor before research is implemen ted. The student partic ipants will answer a portion of the questionnaire be fore the gaming experience an d they will answer the remaining portion of the questionnaire following the gaming experience. The questionnaire will determine the individual s level of recall and attitudes concerning brand placement advertisements in a vide o game. The questionnaire will also will evaluate what brand placement advertisements subjects remembered from the video game. A copy of the proposed ques tionnaire is attached for review. 8. Potential Benefits and Anticipated Risks: There are no risks involved to participants. Participants will have no benefit except the enjoyment of playing a video game. 9. Describe How Participants Will Be Recru ited, the Number and Age of Participants, and Proposed Compensation: This study is seeking approximately 60 partic ipants between the ages of 11 and 14 years of age. The participants w ill be recruited form Westwood Middle School in Gainesville, Florida. The subjects will be recruited fr om an elective course called Technology. These students will have chosen this course due to their interest in technology such as computers and video games. These students will be asked to get signed parental consent prior to participation. If the parents agree to consent the student will be asked to read and check the appropriate box indicating their interest in partic ipating. No compensation will be offered, but students may enjoy the opportunity to play the video game. 10. Describe the Informed Consent Process: The informed consent process will consist of the informed consent of the participant s parent or guardian, as well as the verbal assent of the participant. The parents form is in the standard IRB form. The participants verbal consent script is written is in simpler language to ensure that each participant understand s that information. 11. Signatures: Principal Investigator ____________________________________ Date _____________ Supervisor _____________________________________________ Date _____________

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41 I approve this protocol for submission to UFIRB: Department Chair _______________________________________ Date_____________

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42 Parental Informed Consent Dear Parent/Guardian, I am a graduate student in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida, conducting research on adolescen ts perceptions of brand pl acement advertisements in video games. Brand placement advertising is the practice of placing brand names in movies, television programs and video games as a way to advertise. The purpose of this study is to determine if children notice br and placements in video games and to understand how they feel about them. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. If you agree that you would like your child to participate in this study, he/she will be asked to complete a ques tionnaire asking them about their perception of brand placements in video games. The children will play a video games rated E for everyone, for a short period of time. They will answer some questions before and after playing the game. The total time spent for the experiment for each child will be less than 30 minutes. They will be able to make up any class work they miss during the experiment. Nonparticipation of the study will not affect the ch ilds grade in the class. Non-participating students will resume regular classroom activit y. The video game will be approved by the class instructor before the research is im plemented. Approximately 60 participants are being sought for this study. The participants will not be identified in anyway. Individual st udents will be kept confidential to the ex tent provided by law through a numerical coding system. Only group scores will be published. They do not ha ve to answer any questions that they do not wish to answer. They may stop at any ti me without consequence. Your child has the right to withdraw at any time during the study. There are no anticipated risks for completing this study, but their participation w ill be beneficial in providing the academic community with data on childrens perspec tive about brand placement advertisements in video games. There are no direct benefits for the participants associated with this study other than the particip ants enjoyment in playing the video game. If you are interested in more information a bout this study please email Camelia Islam at Camelia_islam@yahoo.com. This study is being supervised by Dr. Cynthia Morton, Associate Professor in the Department of A dvertising at the University of Florida, College of Journalism and communications; she can be reached at (352) 392-8841. If you have any questions or concer ns about the research partic ipants rights, they can be directed to the UFIRB office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; phone number (352) 392-0433. Please check one of the boxes [ ] Voluntarily agree to allow my child, ___________________________________, to participate in a study about brand placement advertisements in video games. [ ] I do not wish for my child, ___________________________________________, to participate in a study about brand placement advertisements in video games.

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43 I have read the procedure described above I voluntarily agree to allow my child, ________________________________________________, to participate in Camelia Islams study about brand placement advertisements in video games, and I have received a copy of this description. Parent/Guardian signature __________________________________ Date ___________ 2 nd Parent/Witness signature _______________________________ Date ___________

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44 Student Verbal Assent Script Hello my name is Camelia. I am a student at the University of Florida writing a paper about middle school students. To write this pape r, I need to have some volunteers play a video game for a few minutes and answer some questions. You can volunteer only if you have your signed permission slip from your parents. You do not have to tell me your name. You do not have to answer a ny questions that you do not want to, and you may leave at any time. This will take about thirty minutes. Please raise your hand if you are interested. Thank you

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45 School Board Approval From APPLICATION FOR RESEARCH IN ALACHUA COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 620 East University Avenue Gainesville, FL 32601 (352) 955-7699 Directions: Complete one application for each reques ted school. Attach IRB approval, if applicable, protocol and 1 copy of any instrument to be used. If research is to be grant-funded, please attach copy of grant. Turn in application to the Department of Re search and Evaluation. You will be notified when action on this application has been completed. Upon completion of your study, send one copy (or Word file) of Abstract to lucasme@sbac.edu Applicant: Camelia Islam ____________ Phone 352-562-1692 Date 10/03/05 Address of Applicant 2811 SW Archer Rd, Apt Y232 Educational Affiliation University of Florida Applicant is: Faculty Doctoral Student Master's Other (specify) Purpose of Research: To learn how video game advertising affect memory and emotional response in adolescents Title of Research Proposal: Brand Placements in Video Games and Adolescents Brief summary of research proposal: The description is on the parental consent form attached Population needs: # of subjects: 60 Grade Level __ 6 th to 8th Sex, age, race. ability level (s) male and female, ages 11 to 14, any race, any ability level School requested: Westwood Middle School Total time per teacher required: 4 hours Total time per student required: 25 minutes Indicate additional school resources needed: None Dates applicant is to be in the school: October 5 th 6 th and 10 th Data needed (list tests, surveys, information needed): Survey

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46 If this application is approved, I agree to observe all legal requirements re garding the use of research and to submit an abstract or short summary of the research re port to the School Board of Alachua County, Research and Evaluation Department. Applicant Signature: ____________________________________ Date: _____________________ Advisor/Dept. Chair: (if applicant is student) \ ____________________________________ ___________________ Date: \ _____________________ SBAC Research Director: _______________________________________________________ Date: _____________________ School use only. This application for research is: Approved: Not Approved: Principal's Signature___________________ Remarks ____________________________________________________________________________________ Contact person in school _______________________________________ Title __________________________

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APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRE AdSAM Instruction Script Look at number 1. The small figures are a way for you to tell me how you feel. Look at Row 1 These pictures show feelings that go from the most happy you can feel to the most sad you can feel. Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel. Look at Row 2 These pictures show feelings that go from lots of energy and active to very bored, calm or not active. Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel. Look at Row 3 These pictures show feelings that go from not being in control or maybe being cared for to having a lot of contro l or being in charge. Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel. Do you understand? So, you'll show your feelings by making one mark on each row. You can either mark a dot directly below a figure, or mark the dot between two figures. Remember, you'll put one mark on each row. Are you ready? Please let me know if you need me to explain this to you again 47

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48 Pre-Measure Questionnaire Read each question carefully, then check the circle for your answer 1. How do you feel right now? 2. How would you rate your skills as a videogame player Excellent Very good Good Average Bad Very bad -----------------------------------STOP

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49 Post-Measure Questionnaire Read each question carefully, then check the circle for your answer 3. How do you feel after playing the video game? 4. Do you remember any names of the cars you may have seen in the video game? Yes No If you checked yes, please write down the name s of the cars you remember: _________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Did you see any brand names in the scenary of the video game while you were racing? Yes No If you checked yes please list the brand names you saw:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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50 6. Which car names, if any, do you remember seeing in the video game? (please check the circles next to a ll of the names you remember seeing) Nissan Toyota Honda Peugeot Mazda Cadillac Ford Pontiac Mitsubishi None of the above Other: ____________________________________ 6a. After playing the video ga me, how do you feel about _________________________? Brand name 7. Which of these brand names, if any, do you remember seeing in the scenary of the game? (please check the circles next to a ll of the names you remember seeing) Burger King Edge Advance Pontiac ING Direct None of the above Other: ___________________________________

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51 7a. After playing the video ga me, how do you feel about _________________________? Brand name 8. Have you played this game before? Yes No 9. How old are you? Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Other: _________________________________________________ 10. What grade are you in? Sixth Seventh Eighth Other: _________________________________________________ 11. What is your gender? Male Female

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52 Questionnaire Code Sheet N = 60 Variable # Variable Name Variable Value 1 Skill 1-6 (good to bad) 2 CarbrdU 0-9 3 NissanU 1-yes, 0-no 4 PeugeotU 1-yes, 0-no 5 FordU 1-yes, 0-no 6 ToyotaU 1-yes, 0-no 7 MazdaU 1-yes, 0-no 8 HondaU 1-yes, 0-no 9 CadiU 1-yes, 0-no 11 PontU 1-yes, 0-no 12 MitsuU 1-yes, 0-no 13 BKU 1-yes, 0-no 14 EdgeU 1-yes, 0-no 15 PontU 1-yes, 0-no 16 INGU 1-yes, 0-no 17 billbrdU 0-4 18 BKbillU 1-yes, 0-no 19 EdgebilU 1-yes, 0-no 20 PontbilU 1-yes, 0-no 21 INGbillU 1-yes, 0-no 21 CarbrdA 0-9 20 NissanA 1-yes, 0-no 23 PeugeotA 1-yes, 0-no 24 FordA 1-yes, 0-no 25 ToyotaA 1-yes, 0-no 26 MazdaA 1-yes, 0-no 27 HondaA 1-yes, 0-no 28 CadiA 1-yes, 0-no 29 PontA 1-yes, 0-no 30 MitsuA 1-yes, 0-no 31 billbrdA 0-4 32 BKbillA 1-yes, 0-no 33 EdgebilA 1-yes, 0-no 34 PontbilA 1-yes, 0-no 35 INGbillA 1-yes, 0-no 36 playedit 1-yes, 0-no 37 Age 11-14 38 Grade 6-8 39 Gender 1-male, 2-female

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53 AdSAM Code Sheet N = 60 Variable # Variable Name Variable Value 1 BeforeP 9-1 2 BeforeA 9-1 3 BeforeD 1-9 4 AfterP 9-1 5 AfterA 9-1 6 AfterD 1-9 7 NissanP 9-1 8 NissanA 9-1 9 NissanD 1-9 10 PeugeotP 9-1 11 PeugeotA 9-1 12 PeugeotD 1-9 13 FordP 9-1 14 FordA 9-1 15 FordD 1-9 16 ToyotaP 9-1 17 ToyotaA 9-1 18 ToyotaD 1-9 19 MazdaP 9-1 20 MazdaA 9-1 21 MazdaD 1-9 22 HondaP 9-1 23 HondaA 9-1 24 HondaD 1-9 25 CadiP 9-1 26 CadiA 9-1 27 CadiD 1-9 28 PontP 9-1 29 PontA 9-1 30 PontD 1-9

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54 31 MitsuP 9-1 30 MitsuA 9-1 33 MitsuD 1-9 34 BKP 9-1 35 BKA 9-1 36 BKD 1-9 37 EdgeP 9-1 38 EdgeA 9-1 39 EdgeD 1-9 43 INGP 9-1 44 INGA 9-1 45 INGD 1-9

PAGE 64

LIST OF REFERENCES 2005 Essential Facts (2005), Homepage Electronic Software Association, (July 21), [http://www.theesa.com/files/2005EssentialFacts.pdf]. Andersen, K. (2002), Universal Advertising Acceptance. New York Times Magazine 152 (52333), pp. 32-35. Babin, L.A. & Carder, S.T. (1996a), Viewe rs Recognition of Brand Placed With in Film. International Journal of Advertising 15 (2), pp. 140-161. Babin, L.A. & Carder, S.T. (1996b), Adve rtising Via the Box Office: Is Product Placement Effective? Journal of Promotion Management, 3 (1/2), pp. 31-51. Balasubramanian, S.K. (1994), Beyond Advertis ing and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues. Journal of Advertising : 23 (4), pp. 29-47. Bennett, R. (1998), Customer Recall of Promotional Displays at Supermarket Checkouts: Arousal, Memory and Waiting in Queues. International Review of Retail, Distribution & Consumer Research 8 (4), pp.383-398. Computer and Videogame Software Sale s Reach Record $7.3 Billion in 2004, (2005), Homepage Electronic Software Association, (July 15), [http://www.theesa.com/archiv es/2005/02/computer_and_vi.php]. DAustous, A. & Chartier, F. (2000), A Study of Factors Affecting Consumer Evaluations and Memory of Product Placement in Movies. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 22 (2), pp.31-40. Freedman, D.H. (2005), The Future of Advertising Is Here. Inc. Magazine 5 (October), pp.72-75. Gould, S.J., Gupta, P.B. & Grabner-Krauter, S. (2000), Product Placements in Movies: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Austrian, French and American consumers Attitude Toward This Emerging International Promotional Medium. Journal of Advertising, 29 (4) pp. 41-53. Gupta, P.B & Lord, K.R. (1998), Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 20 (Spring), pp. 47-59. Hempel, J. & Sager, I. (2005), Cameo. Business Week 39 (23) p.14, 1/4p, 1c. 55

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56 Karrh, J.A. (1994), Effects of Brand Placemen ts in Motion Pictures. In King, K.W. (ed.), Proceedings of the 1995 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Athens, GA: A cademy of Advertising, pp. 90-96. Karrh, J.A. (1998), Brand Placement: A Review. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 20 (2), pp. 31-46. Karrh, J.A., Mckee K.B. & Pardun, C.J. (2003), Practitioners Evolving Views on Product Placement Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 43 (2), pp.138-150. Lang, P.J. (1985), The Cognitive Psychology of Emotion: Anxiety Disorders Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum. Lindstrom, M. (2005), Get a Jump-Start on Playing the New Brand Game. Med ia Asia 39 (5), p.21, 1/2p, 1c. Lutz, R. J. (1985), Affective and Cognitive Antecedents Of Attitude Toward The Ad: A Conceptual Framework. Psychologica l Processes and Advertising Effects: Theory, Research and Application Alwitt & Mitchell eds., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum McGrath, J.M. & Mahood, C. (2004), The Impact of Arousing Programming and Product Involvement on Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising 26 (2), pp.41-52. Mckechnie, S.A. & Zhou, J. (2003), Produc t Placement in Movies: a Comparison of Chinese and American Consumers' Attitudes. International Journal of Advertising, 22 (3), pp.349-361. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. (1977), Eviden ce for Three-Factor Theory of Emotions. Journal of Research in Personality, 11 (1), pp.273-282. Morris, J.D. (1995), Observations: SAM: Th e Self Assessment Manikin an Efficient Cross Cultural Measurement of Emotional Response. Journal of Advertising Research 6 (Winter), pp.63-71. Morris, J., Woo, C.M. & Cho, C.H. (2003), Internet Measures of Advertising Effects: A Global Issue. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 25 (1), pp. 25-34. Morris, J., Woo C.M., Geason, J. and Kim, J. (1998), Predicting Intentions: The Power of Affect. Journal of Advertising Research 43 (May/June), pp.7-15.

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57 Morris, J., M. & Ogan, C. (1996), The Internet as Mass Medium. Journal of computer Mediated Communication 1 (4), (July 21), [http://www.cwis.usc.edu/dept/Anne nberg/vol1/issue4/vol1no4.html]. Morton, C. R., Friedman, M. (2002). I Saw It In The Movies': Exploring the Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising 24 (2) pp. 33-46. Nebenzahl, I. & Secunda E. (1993), Consum ers' Attitudes toward Product Placement in Movies. International Journal of Advertising 12 (1), pp. 1-11. Nelson, M. R. (2002), Recall of Brand Placements in Computer/Videogames. Journal of Advertising Research 42 (2), pp. 80-91. Newell, S. J., Henderson, K.V. and Wu, B. T. (2001), The Effects of Pleasure and Arousal on Recall of Advertisements during the Super Bowl. Psychology & Marketing 18 (11), pp. 1135-1153. Russell, C. A. (2002), Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Moda lity and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude." Journal of Consumer Research, 306 (13), pp. 94105. Saberwahl, S., Pokrywczynski, J. and Griffin R. (1994), Brand Recall for Product Placements in Motion Pictures: A Memory-Based Perspective. Working Paper Presented to AEJMC 1994 Ad Divi sion Research Track, Atlanta, GA. Steinberg, B. & Vranica, S. (2004), The Robot Wore Converses. Wall Street Journal Eastern Edition 244 (45), p. B1, 1c. Vranica, S. (2004), For Big Marketers lik e AmEx, TV Ads Lose Starring Role. Wall Street Journal Eastern Edition 243 (96), p. B1, 1c. U.S. Youth Market : Deciphering the Diverse Life Stages and Subcultures of 15to 24Year-Olds (2003), Homepage MarketReseach, (July 20), [http://academic.marketresearch.com.l p.hscl.ufl.edu/product/display.asp?producti d=853274&curl=&surl=%2Fsearch%2 Fresults%2Easp%3Fprid%3D827557796% 26query%3Dyouth%2Bmarket%26cmdgo%3D%2BGo%2B&prid=827557796]. Yap, J. (2004) Product Placement a Success at Box Office. Media Asia 32(6), p. 6, 1/3p, 1C.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Camelia Islam has lived in the United Stat es since she was 10 years old. She grew up in Boca Raton, Florida. After receiving her Bachelor of Science in Advertising degree from the University of Florida in June 2004 and her Master of Advertising degree in December 2005, she plans to work professionally in the advertising field 58


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THE EFFECT OF BRAND PLACEMENT IN VIDEO GAMES ON ADOLESCENTS


By

CAMELIA ISLAM
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005



























Copyright 2005

by

Camelia Islam



























This document is dedicated to the graduate students of the University of Florida.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my committee chairperson, Dr.

Cynthia Morton, and my committee members Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jon Morris.

Dr. Morton helped me a great deal from the conceptualization to the completion of this

thesis. She was always available to give me encouragement and guidance to help me

accomplish this hefty task. Dr. Cho and Dr. Morris helped in their particular areas of

expertise and generously gave of their time to point me in the right direction.

I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Dennis Scott for his tremendous help in

conducting my experiment. I would like to thank the faculty, staff, students and parents

of Westwood Middle School for their time and help. Also, I would like to thank the

School Board of Alachua County for allowing me to conduct my experiment. Lastly, I

would like to give special thanks to my boyfriend, Ryan Scott, for being the most

supportive person I have ever met.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ...................................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ...................... ........... ........................ ........vii

A B S T R A C T .......................................... .................................................. v iii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 LITERATURE REVIEW............ ...... ................................. ...........6

Brand Placem ent in Film and Television....................................................................6
Memory Based Studies of Brand Placement............... .................................6
Attitude Toward the Ad and Brand Placement.................................. .....................8
Em optional Response ..................................................... .......... .. 10
Brand Placem ent in V ideo G am es...................................... ........................ .......... .11
R research Q question .......................... .............. .. ........ ... .... 15

3 M E T H O D S .......................................................................................................1 6

Research Design ................................................ 16
Sample Recruitement and Qualifications ....................................... ............... 18
M easurem ent Instrum ent .......................................................................... 19

4 F IN D IN G S ................................................................................ 2 1

S a m p le ................................................................2 1
R e search Q u e stio n 1 ...................................................................................................2 2
R e search Q u estio n 2 ...................................................................................................2 4
R e search Q u e stio n 3 ...................................................................................................2 5
R e search Q u estio n 4 ...................................................................................................2 6

5 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION ...........................................28

S u m m ary o f R esu lts ............................................................................................... 2 8
P practical Im p licatio n s ............................................................................................ 3 0
L im station s ................................................................................... . 3 1
Future R research ......................................................... ........... ..3.. 31



v









APPENDIX

A A N O V A R E SU L T S ......................................................................... .....................33

B DEMOGRAPHICS AND FREQUENCY TABLES................................................38

C IRB PROTOCOL AND CONSENT FORMS ............................................39

D Q U E ST IO N N A IR E ....................................................................... .... ...................47

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................... ...............55

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................................... 58
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

4-1 Comparison of Means between Groups on Recall and Recognition ...................25

A-i ANOVA Results, AdSAM Table of Means................... .................... 33

A-2 ANOVA Results for PAD of Brands........... ....................................34

A-3 Interaction of Intensity, Total Recall and Number and Prominence of Brands....37

B- Gender................... ................... .................. .... ......... 38

B -2 A ge ................... ................... .... ............................ ....... 38















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

THE EFFECT OF BRAND PLACEMENT IN VIDEO GAMES ON ADOLESCENTS

By

Camelia Islam

December 2005

Chair: Cynthia Morton
Major Department: Advertising

Marketers now use brand placements in many forms of media as an alternative to

reach audiences who are finding more and more ways to avoid traditional advertising.

Video games are fast becoming one of America's favorite pastimes. With captive

audiences that play for hours at a time, video games have become an attractive medium

for brand placements.

This study adds to the body of knowledge that exists concerning brand placement

advertising, specifically, brand placement in video games, by conducting empirical

research to understand the effect of brand placement in video games on adolescents. This

research answers questions about how adolescent audiences are affected by brand

placement in video games when the intensity of the gaming experience is raised or

lowered. Specifically, this research examined the role intensity of the game plays in

levels of recall, recognition and emotional response.

The findings of this study indicate that adolescents recalled brand placements

whether they are playing video games at high or low levels of intensity. This study found









that there is a statistically significant main effect of the level of intensity of video game

play on arousal. Results also showed that adolescents found brand placement in video

games pleasurable and exciting. Additionally, this study found that there is no

statistically significant effect on recall or recognition due to levels of intensity of video

game play, the prominence of brand placements or the number of time a brand is placed

in the gaming context.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

With innovations such as more television channels making audiences more prone

to zapping, and inventions like TiVo and Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) that make is

easier for television audiences to zip through commercials, advertisers are making an

effort to find ways to advertise in new media that allow better exposure for less cost. To

remedy the problem of reaching audiences in a more evasive and credible way

practitioners have begun to use hybrid messages that incorporate advertising and

publicity such as brand placement. "Hybrid messages include all paid attempts to

influence audiences for commercial benefit using communication that project non-

commercial characters; under these circumstances, audience are likely to be unaware of

the commercial influence attempt and/or to process the content of such communications

differently than they process commercial messages" (Balasubramanian, 1994, p. 29).

Brand placement and product placement are often used interchangeably by

researcher to refer to the "compensated inclusion of branded products or brand

identifiers, through audio and /or visual means, with in mass media programming"

(Karrh, 1998, p. 93). Balasubramanian (1994) defined brand placement as planned entries

of brands into movies or television shows that may influence viewers' brand beliefs

and/or behavior favorably. Neither definition specifically addresses video games or other

types of interactive media, but that is likely due to brand placements delivered via

interactive media vehicles, such as Internet and video games, were not as prevalent as

they are today. Video games allow for the opportunity to place branded messages similar









to those placed in film and television. Furthermore, video games largely use brand

messages rather than displaying specific products. Therefore, for the purposes of this

research, the definition of product placements will be adapted to include video games,

and the review of, and reference to, product placement theory and application will be

referred to as brand placement.

In the 1980s the film E. T showed advertisers the potential that existed with brand

placements in films when the placement of Reese's Pieces resulted in a dramatic sales

increase following the film's release (Karrh, 1998). Although E. T brought the modern

resurgence of product placement, some historians argue that the practice began as early as

the first films ever to be produced, where manufacturers would pay to have films feature

their products. In recent years, placements of brands such as BMW, Sony, Lexus, and

Nike have appeared in major motion pictures such as James Bond, Minority Report,

Spiderman, and I-Robot (Yap, 2004).

As far as television is concerned, product placements have shown up on reality

shows such as Survivor and The Apprentice. The 2005 television season showed a

character in the primetime series Desperate Housewives buying a Buick, television show

namesake Bernie Mac taking a Rolaids, a character in According to Jim repeatedly

wanting Red Lobster for dinner, and an episode of Arrested Development that took place

in a Burger King.

According to New York Times Magazine, at least 6.4 million households now

have DVRs, TiVo and video on demand (VOD), another technology consumers use to

watch content on their own schedule. About 40% of households are expected to have

DVRs by 2009. Advertisers are concerned that it will be more difficult to target









audiences with the popularity of these ad-skipping devices. According to the Wall Street

Journal, American Express has drastically reduced its ad budget for television from 80

percent just a decade ago to less than 35 percent. Pepsi recently relaunched Pepsi One

without any TV advertising, and Reebok has also shifted marketing dollars from their TV

budget to new media, which includes brand placement opportunities.

Brand placement is becoming an increasingly popular way for advertisers to reach

audiences with integrated brand messages in television, films, video games, music and

even books. Though much has been studied about brand placement in film and

television, there is very limited empirical research discussing brand placement in video

games. Video games have become a very popular form of entertainment that is growing

tremendously each year and many advertisers are taking advantage of placing brand

messages in this thriving medium. In 30 years video games have become a $28 billion

industry worldwide according to the Entertainment Software Association (ESA).

Comparatively the film industry stands at about $45 billion worldwide. Furthermore, 54

percent of video game players report that their passion for video games comes mainly at

the expense of television. Price Waterhouse Coopers reported last year that video games

will eclipse music as the second most popular form of entertainment by 2008, with

worldwide consumer spending on video games hitting $55 billion compared to $33

billion for recorded music. Companies such as New York based Massive, Inc. have

begun to insert ads through online connections into video games while they're being

played. Technology that will adapt the ads to individual players is currently being

developed (Freedman, 2005).









The intention of this thesis is to add to the body of knowledge that exists

concerning brand placement, specifically, brand placement in video games, by

conducting empirical research to understand the effect of brand placement in video games

on adolescents. The ESA's annual consumer research reports that 66 percent of gamers

between 18 and 25 have been playing games for at least ten years and gamers over 18

have been playing an average of 12 years.

Most video game players begin playing in their adolescent years when they also

begin to form brand purchase patterns for years to come. The effectiveness of brand

placement in video games on adolescents will be studied through memory based

measures of recall and recognition. Emotional Response to brand placements will be

studied using the AdSAM scale, a non-verbal measure of emotion using manikins that

represent particular emotions that are used to gauge pleasure, dominance and arousal to

access emotional response.

Chapter 2 examines the research conducted thus far on brand placement,

including film and television. Brand placement began in film and television and the

principles that help in the understanding of brand placement in film and television is

relevant to brand placement in video games. Brand placement in video games will also

be discussed in depth, with emphasis given to effectiveness measures such as recall and

audience perception in the video game context. Chapter 2 concludes with the research

questions for investigation. Chapter 3 will present the methodology for research,

including a thorough discussion of the research procedure, sampling protocol, and

measurement criteria. Chapter 4 will present the research findings and Chapter 5 will

present conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and suggestions for future






5


research. The findings of this research will help practitioners understand if it is

worthwhile to reach adolescents by placing brand messages in video games as part of the

promotional mix.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Video games are a relatively new medium considering that they have only been

around for 30 years and brand placements in video games have just begun to be used

widely since the last 10 years. There is a limited amount of research present at this time

about brand placement in video games due to it being a new medium. However, brand

placements in film and television have been around much longer and utilize similar

principles to brand placement in video games. This thesis will include research

conducted concerning brand placement in film and television to broaden the amount of

fundamental knowledge that will help to assess effectiveness of brand placement in video

games specifically.

Brand placement's effectiveness in film and television has been studied through

long-term and short-term recall and attitude. Measuring effectiveness creates a way to

place a fair value on a particular placement. Effectiveness has been studied through

executional variables in the past. According to Karrh, McKee and Pardun (2003) the

executional variables include program-induced mood, opportunity to process the

appearance of a brand, placement modality, priming of the brand's appearance, and the

degree of an objective link between the placed brand and program characters.

Memory Based Studies of Brand Placement

There have been many studies that have used memory based measures of

effectiveness for brand placement in the past (Karrh, 1994; Saberwahl, Pokrywczynski

and Griffin, 1994; Babin and Carder, 1996a, 1996b; D'Astous and Chartier, 2000). All









of the major studies concerning memory based measures of effectiveness have measured

short and long-term recall and recognition. Most of the researchers had respondents who

largely consisted of college students between the ages of 18 to 24.

A study by Morton and Friedman (2002) examined the relationship between

brand placement and usage behavior. The respondents were 18 to 24 year old college

students. The findings indicated that even a subtle brand's appearance in a movie is

enough brand recall to shape impressions and motivate brand usage. The findings from

this research support the idea that positive brand portrayals in movies can contribute to a

consumer's decision to use the product while negative portrayals discourage use.

A study conducted by Babin and Carder (1996a) examined whether or not viewers

can even recognize brands placed within a film. Two films containing multiple product

placements were used. The results of the study indicated that the subjects, who consisted

of college students, correctly recognized brands in movie and could distinguish them

correctly from brands not present in the movie.

Gupta and Lord (1998) conducted a study among 18 to 24 year old undergraduate

students to explain recall effects of various types of brand placement in movies relative to

one another to traditional commercial advertising. The results indicated that prominent

brand placement had the highest recall, followed by traditional advertisements, and subtle

placement had the least amount of recall. The study included different movies, branded

products and recall indicators. The placements represented different sizes, positions on

the screen and levels of integration in to the action of the scene. Advertisements proved

to have lower levels of processing motivation than prominent brand placements even









though they had similar levels of audio-visual depiction of the branded products in

comparison to placements.

Researchers, D'Astous and Cartier (2000) assessed the impact of objective and

subjective characteristics of brand placements on consumer evaluations of memory. The

respondents were college students mostly between the ages on 18 to 24. This study found

that different characteristics of placement have positive, some have negative and some

have both positive and negative impact on memory. D'Astous and Cartier found that the

level of integration of the brand placement in a movie scene is positively linked to liking

the brand placement, but negatively linked to the impact on memory. Future research

suggested by this study included assessing product placement in different settings.

Attitude towards the Ad and Brand Placement

Studies that have measured audience perception of brand placement have used

attitude towards the ad as a measure. Lutz (1985) defined attitude towards the ad (Aad)

as a predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular

advertising or stimulus during particular exposure occasions. Attitude toward the ad

influences brand attitude and purchase intention. Attitude towards brand placement

represents audience response to brand placements rather than particular advertisements

and also has influence on brand attitude and purchase intention.

Major findings indicate that viewers have a positive perception of brand

placement advertising. Brand placement is considered an effective technique as a less

obtrusive form of advertising. There have been some questions as to the deceptiveness of

this practice due to its ability to blend into the program content (Nebenzahl and Secunda,

1993). In the Nebenzahl and Secunda (1993) study, college students between the ages of









18 to 34 who are typically heavy filmgoers largely felt that they did not object to product

placement, furthermore, they viewed product placement in films to be an effective

marketing communications medium. A small minority of subjects opposed to product

placements for ethical reasons, but overall the study found that subjects preferred product

placements in films to traditional commercials.

There have been some studies that have found differences between attitudes

towards the ad across different cultures. A study by Gould, Gupta and Grabner-Krauter

(2000) analyzed cross-cultural differences between Austrian, French and American

attitude towards brand placement. The respondents of this study included male and

female college students who were for he most part 25 years of age or younger from major

universities in France, Austria and the U.S. This study revealed that a framework which

considers country, product and individual differences and their interactive effects have an

influence concerning the acceptance of product placement and the intent to purchase the

brand.

A study done by McKechnie and Zhou (2003) added to the cross-cultural

knowledge by comparing Chinese and American consumers' attitudes about brand

placement. They studied viewers' perception of the ethics and acceptability of brand

placement in movies as perceived by an Asian audience, as well as an American audience

to compare attitude towards product placement. The respondents were 18 to 34 year-old

college students from china and the U.S. The study revealed that American consumers

were more accepting of product placement than Chinese consumers. The study also

revealed that ethical products were of concern with both Chinese and American

consumers.









Emotional Response

Many studies have linked emotional response to advertising, specifically arousal,

to recall. One such study by Newell, Henderson and Wu (2001) investigated the effect of

pleasure and arousal levels of subjects while watching sports programming and measured

the affect on advertising recall. The results of this study suggested that sports programs

that induce strong emotional responses inhibit advertising recall.

Bennett (1998) studied shopper's response to advertising near checkout counters

and found a negative association between the level of emotion and unaided recall. A

more recent study by McGrath and Mahood (2004) investigated the impact of television

programming arousal on consumer attitudes toward brands with different product

involvement levels. This study found that when advertising was placed adjacent to

arousing television programming there was a negative impact on recall. This study also

found that attitudes toward an ad were positively impacted when advertising was placed

adjacent to arousing television programs.

AdSAM is the Advertising Self-Assessment Manikin used in measuring

emotional response. It is a graphic representation of emotion created as an alternative to

verbal measures of emotional response (Lang, 1985). According to Lang (1985), many

studies have shown that subjects have expressed greater interest in AdSAM ratings than

for verbal self reports. AdSAM is a well suited measure of emotional response for this

study particularly, because both children as well as adults can identify AdSAM figures

and understand that emotional dimensions they represent. AdSAM has been shown to be

highly predictive of brand interest and purchase intentions (Morris, Woo, Geason and

Kim, 2002). The AdSAM scale has an additional advantage for adolescent audiences in









being a short test that typically takes less than 15 seconds to complete causing less

subject wear-out than comparable verbal measures.

Early studies by Mehrabian and Russel (1977) proved that emotion can be

accurately described in terms of three independent and bipolar dimensions: pleasure-

displeasure, degree of arousal, and dominance-submissiveness. AdSAM utilizes

pleasure, arousal and dominance (PAD). PAD is a three-dimensional scale for assessing

emotional response and has been used for many years in verbal formats such as adjectives

checklists and semantic deferential scales to assess emotional response (Morris and Ogan,

1996). AdSAM has been used in numerous psychological studies since its development.

The correlations between scores obtained from Mehrabian and Russel's semantic

differential procedures show that AdSAM is valid and reliable in measuring emotion with

statistically significant pleasure (.94) and arousal (.94) measures, and it is a smaller but

still substantial statistically significant measure for dominance (.66).

AdSAM depicts each PAD dimension with a graphic character arrayed along a
continuous nine point-scale. For pleasure AdSAM ranges from smiling, happy
figure; for arousal, AdSAM ranges from sleepy with eyes closed to excited with
eyes open. The dominance scale shows AdSAM ranging from a very small figure
representing a feeling of being controlled or submissive to a very large figure
representing in-control or a powerful feeling (Morris, 1995, p. 66).

Brand Placement in Video Games

Playing video games has become a very popular form of entertainment among

youth audiences. The youth population is projected to increase disproportionately to the

general population between 2002 and 2007 according to U.S. Census 2002. The annual

income of the youth population in the U.S. exceeds $350 billion. Studies by

MarketReseach.com indicate that young consumers reject in-your-face marketing opting

instead for more subtle promotions.









The potential for engagement in games is jump-starting a wave of brand
movements. Brands are moving from passive relationships with consumers to
relationships that demand constant interaction. These relationships require that
brands adopt a role, play to it, and provide constant feedback to consumers
(Lindstrom, 2005, p. 21).

According to the ESA, video game sales between 2003 and 2004 amounted to 6.2

billion dollars. The ESA also reported that 47 percent of Americans plan to purchase one

or more video games in 2005. As video games become more and more popular each

year, advertisers are using the medium as a way to advertise to the coveted and hard to

reach youth audience. With in-game ads expected to generate $800 million annually in

four years, up from $120 million in 2004, the agency world is paying this medium more

attention.

"In addition to licensing, developers can include brands within games in many

ways, from passive background props to active forms such as equipment and characters"

(Nelson 2002, 83). Brand placements have been included in the background as passing

billboards or even particular brand of car or equipment the player chooses. Studying the

efficacy of brand placement in video games will show advertisers whether it is a

worthwhile to include brand placement in video games as a part of their promotional mix

or not.

A study by Nelson (2002) was the first to specifically research brand placement in

video games. It is also the only study done thus far specifically dealing with brand

placement in video games even though according toDouglas Lowenstein, president of the

ESA, the U.S. association representing computer and videogame software publishers, in

2004, video games flew off the shelves as eight titles were sold per second per day









throughout the year, evidence of the continuing vast popularity of games among

consumers.

This study by Nelson (2002) measured effectiveness of brand placement in a car

racing videogame by using free-recall to measure brand awareness. This research

consisted of two exploratory studies that showed video game players as being able to

recall brands that were placed in the game despite time delays, being a first time player

and playing a limited amount of time.

The results of the Nelson study suggests that brand usage and appearance is

important to consider and the more sensory appeal the videogame has the better the brand

awareness will be. When the brand is an important part of the game itself the player is

actively involved and their short-term memory was improved as well. If the brand placed

has relevance to the videogame player short-and long-term recall is enhanced. The results

also indicated that the brands that were out of place, not related to the game, or were not

market leaders stood out in the memory of the subjects. In addition, this study also

indicated that the subjects generally had positive feelings about brand placement in video

games, because they feel that the placements add to the realism of the game.

Video games are an interactive medium and brand placements are present in more

categories than in film and television. Nelson (2002) classifies brand placements through

arousal levels, specifically active use and passive use. Active use, which is also

considered prominent placement, are instances of brand sponsorships or cross-selling, use

of brands as tools or equipment, use of characters as branded images and choice of brands

for customization. Passive use, which is also considered non-prominent placement, are

instances where brands are used as background scenery, outdoor settings or self-









promotion of the game or the game publisher; licensed music and sports commentators in

the background are also considered passive use brands.

Research Question

The research conducted thus far about brand placement in video games suggests

that there may be some benefits to using multi-sensory techniques for brand placement

rather than using the visual mode alone. Videogame brand placements are considered

less deceptive and are accepted more readily than advertisements in other media by the

audience. Brand placement in video games are for the most part welcomed in certain

formats of video games, because it ads to the realism of the game. For example, having

advertisement on billboards or sideboards in a virtual racetrack makes it look more like

an authentic racetrack.

However, there is a limited amount of research about the use of brand placements

in video games. The research has been exploratory and only college-aged adult were

used in samples despite the fact that most video game players begin playing in their

adolescent years. This research will attempt to answer questions about how younger

audiences are affected by brand placement in video games when emotionally aroused by

the intensity of the gaming experience. Specifically, the research will examine what

effect video game intensity have in influencing players' emotional response, recall and

recognition toward brands in the gaming context. Furthermore, this study will examine

the influence the brand placement's level of prominence and number has on recall.

* Research Question 1: How does the level of intensity of the video game affect
emotional response?
* Research Question 2: How does level of intensity of the video game affect recall?
* Research Question 3: Is recall impacted by the prominence of brand placements in
the video game?






15


* Research Question 4: Is recall impacted by the number of times a brand is placed
throughout the video game?














CHAPTER 3
METHODS

Research Design

An experimental design was used to gain understanding of how young audiences

are affected by brand placement in video games when emotionally aroused by the

intensity of the gaming experience. This study attempted to understand the role intensity

levels play on audience emotions, recall and recognition of brand placements in

videogames.

Experimental design was used to do a between group comparison. Two groups

were tested with two different types of stimulus. In addition, within group pre-measure

and post-measure was conducted on both groups to compare emotional response before

and after the subjects were exposed to the stimulus as a manipulation check. The

independent variable manipulated was the intensity of the game. The intensity of the

game is the level of difficulty associated with the game. The dependent variables are

arousal, recall, recognition and emotional response to brand placements. Additional

variables include prominence of the placement within the game scenery and the numbers

of placements the subjects are exposed to of particular brands. Brand prominence in the

video game refers to brands that play a major role such as tools while those of low

prominence are of minor importance to the game such as brands in the background of the

scenario with in the game. For example, in a racing game the brand of the vehicle is

more prominent than the brands present in the virtual billboards above the racetrack or

road. Statistical tests determined whether the brands that have high prominence and the









brands that are placed numerous times during game play have a different level of recall

then those the are not high in prominence or in number of exposures.

Adolescent subjects were randomly assigned to one of two test conditions (high

intensity vs. low intensity). One group of subjects were exposed to the game at a high

intensity while the other group was exposed to a low intensity level of the same game.

Subjects were asked to play Needfor Speed Underground 2, a car racing game that

contains several brand placements for the duration of three laps around the track, or about

10 minutes. Three laps allowed subjects to have the appropriate opportunity for brand

placement exposure.

The experiment was conducted in the duration of two consecutive weeks. Each

parental consent form was numbered and given out in class by the teacher two weeks

before the experiment was scheduled to take place. Those students who returned signed

parental consent forms were asked to volunteer for the experiment using a verbal assent

script. During different times in the class period the students were asked to come to the

designated room and participate in the experiment. The students with even numbered

parental consent forms were assigned to Group 1 and those with odd numbered parental

consent forms were assigned Group 2. The parental consent form numbering system

allowed for the subjects to be randomly assigned to either group. Group 1 represents the

group that was exposed to high intensity stimulus while Group 2 represents those who

were exposed to low intensity stimulus. Two students at a time played in an adjoining

room to the classroom, and those assigned to the same group played together with the

same stimulus level.









The race track simulates streets and highways complete with simulated traffic

that increases or decreases in volume to affect the difficulty of the race. The game

increases in difficulty with more traffic in the simulated street scenery as the other

vehicles on the road create obstacle to avoid. The stimulus for Group 1 was adjusted to

maximum traffic while Group 2 played with no traffic. The racing vehicles and the

racetrack were predetermined by the researcher to ensure that the subjects were being

exposed to the same brand placements. All subjects raced 3 laps around the racetrack.

Subjects played the video game for approximately 15 minutes. Before the subjects began

to play, they completed the short pre-measure portion of the questionnaire. After

completing the pre-measure, they were given basic instructions of how to steer and

accelerate before they began to play.

Immediately after they concluded playing, the subjects were asked to answer the

post-measure portion of the questionnaire. The students were instructed to complete the

remaining questions of the post-measure portion of the questionnaire for the next 15

minutes. The entire experiment, including pre-measure questions, video game playing

time and post-measure questions took approximately 30 minutes to complete. At the

conclusion of the post-measure questionnaire the students were instructed to return to

regular classroom activity and not discuss the experiment or the questionnaire with their

classmates.

Sample Recruitment and Qualification

The sample of this study was drawn from a middle school technology course in

the southeast. They elected to take the Technology course with the help of their parents.

They have some interest in technology and computer related activities. The course is









designed to orient children with using modern technologies such as computers. The

Technology teacher was approached due to the subject matter of the course being a great

match for this study. These students already have an affinity to technology and are likely

to be video game players. These students are exposed to video games in the classroom as

well. They often play video games in groups when they are done with their schoolwork.

The teacher agreed to allow his students to participate in this study. The principal

and the school board received required paperwork and formally approved the study. The

parental consent form was passed out in class for each student to take home and show

their parents. The students were told that the parental consent form was for permission to

help a UF student write a paper about middle school students and video games. The

students were given two weeks to return the parental consent forms. After receiving

signed approval forms from the parents the students were asked to raise their hands and

volunteer to play a video game and then answer some questions.

Measurement Instruments

The questionnaire was designed to measure emotional response, recall and

recognition. The additional variables of prominence and number of placements were

measured through recall questions. There were two portions to the questionnaire. The

first portion was a pre-measure that included AdSAM question (to gauge emotion before

exposure to stimulus) and a question regarding the subjects' skill in playing video games.

The second portion was the post-measure that began with one AdSAM question (to gauge

emotion after exposure to the stimulus). After the initial emotional response question,

recall and recognition questions were asked. After the recognition questions were asked,









emotional response questions were asked about specific recognized brands. The

questionnaire ended with demographic questions about age and gender.

The questionnaire was four pages long and it consolidated adapted versions of

recall and emotional response measures of product placement by Russell (2002) and

AdSAM. The questionnaire was administered in paper and pencil. The correlations

between scores obtained from Mehrabian and Russell's semantic differential procedures

show that AdSAM is valid and reliable in measuring emotion with statistically significant

pleasure (.94) and arousal (.94) measures, and it is a smaller but still substantial

statistically significant measure for dominance (.66).

Recall and recognition of brand placement was measured by adapting a valid and

reliable instrument that was originally used by Russell (2002) to test modality of

presentation to understand the connection between a brand and the content of television

shows and the influence on memory and attitude change. There were unaided recall

questions (Ex: Do you remember any names of the cars you may have seen in the video

game? If you, please write down the names of the cars you remember). Aided recall was

tested by asking subjects to indicate which brands they remembered seeing in the game

from a listing of brands.














CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

To answer the research questions for this study the Statistical Package for Social

Sciences (SPSS) was used. Research Question 1, "How does the intensity of the game

affect emotional response?" was answered using AdSAM and the univariate analysis of

variance method (ANOVA). Research Question 2, "How does video game intensity

affect recall?" was answered using independent sample t-tests. Research Question 3,

"What kind of impact does the prominence of brand placement have on recall?" and

Research Question 4, "Is recall impacted by the number of times a brand is placed?" were

both answered using paired sample t-tests.

Sample

The subjects of this study were middle school students who were 11 to 14 years

old in 6th through 8th grade. All subjects were randomly assigned and had an equal

chance of being in either Group 1, the high intensity group, or Group 2, the low intensity

group. There were 33 males and 27 females in the entire sample. In Group 1, males

represented 56.67 percent and females represented 43.33 percent. In Group 2 males

represented 53.33 percent and females represented 46.67 percent. As far as age was

concerned, the high intensity group subjects were 53.33 percent 11 year-olds, 20.00

percent 12 year-olds, 20.00 percent 13 year-olds and 6.67 percent 14 year-olds. The low

intensity group subjects were 43.33 percent 11 year-olds, 20.00 percent 12 year-olds,

30.00% 13 year-olds and 6.67 percent 14 year olds.









The subject's level of skill was measured with a scale of excellent to very bad.

Those who answered that they has excellent, very good or good skills at playing video

games were considered high skilled players and those who answered that they have

average, bad or very bad skills at playing video games were considered low skilled

players. In Group 1 there were 86.67 percent high skilled players and 13.33 percent low

skilled players. In Group 2 there were 73.33 percent high skilled players and 26.67

percent low skilled players. Frequency distribution tables of gender, age and skill are in

Appendix B.

Research Question 1

To answer the question of whether the intensity of game play affected subjects'

emotional response, the AdSAM scale, a valid and reliable measure of emotional

response using graphic representations of feelings was utilized. Fifty percent (n = 60) of

the sample was assigned to the high-intensity condition and the other fifty percent (n =

60) was exposed to low-intensity condition. The intensity of the game was manipulated

by adjusting the traffic level in the simulated street. The group that played the high

intensity game raced with the maximum amount of traffic in the simulated street while

the group that played the low intensity game raced with no traffic in the simulated street.

Using the AdSAM scale, the levels of pleasure, arousal and dominance were

tested for each subject before and after playing the video game. The purpose of the pre-

and post-measure of emotional response was to determine whether or not the

manipulation of intensity was effective. The manipulation check was evaluated using a

one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to examine the mean differences in reported

individual arousal before playing the game with their arousal after playing. The mean









scores of the arousal levels were compared for pre- and post-measure between the two

groups. An Analysis of Variance was conducted to see if the mean differences were

statistically significant.

One-way ANOVA is used to test one categorical independent variable and one

continuous dependent variable. Table 1 of the Appendix A presents a table of means for

the pre- versus post-measures for pleasure, dominance, and arousal dimensions by group.

The ANOVA results indicated no significant difference between means on the pleasure

and dominance dimensions pre- versus post-play of the video game. However, findings

on the arousal dimension suggested that the manipulation was effective for the high

intensity group. The arousal level of those who played the high-intensity game was

statistically significantly (p < .05) after playing the game, while the arousal level of those

who played the low-intensity game was not statistically significant (p > .05), therefore,

suggesting that the manipulation was successful. While a significant main effect was not

found for arousal among the low intensity group (Mpre = 6.90 vsMpost = 7.33) the results

from the high intensity group (Mpre = 5.47 vs Mos,t = 8.23) showed a statistically

significant (p < .05) main effect for arousal. See ANOVA results of pleasure, arousal and

dominance on Appendix A, Table 1.

Next an ANOVA analysis was conducted to explore subject's perception of

brands featured in the game. Using AdSAM, a measure of pleasure, arousal and

dominance, the impact intensity of game play had on emotional response to particular

brands was determined. Both groups had positive and aroused feelings about the brands

placed in the game. Their feelings ranged from childlike and wholesome to cheerful and

victorious. ANOVA tests showed that there was no statistically significant (p > .05) main









effect of intensity on emotional response towards any of the brand. See ANOVA results

of pleasure arousal and dominance of each brand on Appendix A, Table 2.

Research Question 2

To determine how video game intensity affects recall and recognition an

independent samples t-test was conducted. An independent samples t-test is a between-

group t-test used to compare the mean difference of one categorical independent variable

with two levels and one continuous dependent variable. The categorical independent

variable for this analysis was Group (i.e. high intensity vs. low intensity) and the

dependent variable was recall, which was measured based on aided recall and

recognition. Table 4-1 presents a comparison of means between the high and low

intensity group and recall and recognition.

All subjects were exposed to 13 brands. The high intensity group recalled all 13

brands they had the opportunity to see, whereas, the low intensity group recalled 11 of

the 13 brands they were exposed to. Although the mean scores for recall (Mhigh intensity

2.50, Mlow intensity = 2.07) and recognition (Mhigh intensity = 5.13, Mlow intensity = 4.43) for

subjects who played the high intensity game was higher then those who played the low

intensity game, according to the between-group t-test there are no statistically significant

(p > .05) mean differences between recall and recognition of the two groups. The mean

differences of the recall and recognition of the high intensity group versus the low

intensity group support the idea that the level of intensity game affects recall. However,

the results show that the level of intensity of the game had no statistically significant

(p >. 05) influence on player's recall or recognition.










Table 4-1: Comparison of Means between Groups on Recall and Recognition
Std.
Variables Group Mean atin t P (one- tailed)
Deviation
recall High Intensity 2.5 2.4 0.8 0.21
Low Intensity 2.07 1.74
High Intensity 5.13 2.94 1.03 0.15
recognition
Low Intensity 4.43 2.28
df = 58, Group 1 N=30, Group 2, N =30, *p< .05


Research Question 3

Research Question 3 explored the influence of brand placement prominence on

recall. A paired sample t-test was run to analyze within-group mean differences between

a subject's percentage of recall for brands that were prominently shown in the game

(Prom) and their percentage of recall of the brands that were not prominently shown in

the game (nonProm). Prominent brands are those that are used as tools or those that play

active role in the game, in this study the prominent brands were the car brands. Brands

that are not prominent are characterized by brands that are in the background or those that

take passive roles in the game. In this study the non-prominent brands were the

billboards in the simulated streets. It is important to understand if the prominence of the

brand has an influence on recall in order to understand if the brand can benefit from being

exposed as a tool in the game versus as background scenery. To measure the level of

recall demonstrated by subjects for the prominent brands in comparison to the non

prominent brands, the percentage of prominent brands recalled were compared to the

percentage of non-prominent brands recalled. Paired t-tests results indicated that there is

a statistically significant interaction between recall and recognition and for both the low

and high prominent brands for both the high and the low intensity group. The results are

inconclusive in determining whether the prominence of the brand affects the recall and









recognition differently in differing intensity situations. See Appendix A, Table 3 for

results of the paired sample t-test.

Research Question 4

Research Question 4 sought to understand the impact frequency of brand

placement exposure would have on recall. Burger King, Nissan and Pontiac had four to

six exposure opportunities where as the other nine brands had three or less exposure

opportunities. The percentage of recall for brands that were shown four to six times was

compared to the percentage of recall of brands that were shown one to three times to

understand the impact repeated exposure opportunities had on recall. The paired

variables were NumberHi (the percentage of brands recalled that appeared four to six

times) and NumberLo (The percentage of brands recalled that appears three times or

less).

Paired t-tests results indicated that there is a statistically significant interaction

between recall and recognition and for both the low and high number of exposure of

brands for both the high and the low intensity group. The results are inconclusive in

determining whether the number of exposures of the brand affects the recall and

recognition differently in differing intensity situations. See Appendix A, Table 3 for

results of the paired sample t-test.

The findings of this study indicate that adolescents recalled brand placements in

the video game and found them to be pleasurable and arousing. Using the AdSAM scale

and Analysis of Variance this study found that there is a statistically significant main

effect of intensity levels on arousal. Additionally this study found that there is no

statistically significant effect on recall or recognition due to levels of intensity of video






27


game play, the prominence of brand placements or the number of time a brand is placed

in the gaming context.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Summary of Results

This research was intended to give insight to marketers and advertisers about the

effects of brand placements in video games on adolescent players by examining the

impact of video game intensity on player recall, recognition and emotional response. In

addition, this study sought to understand the impact prominence of brand placements and

number of exposure opportunities has on player's recall. This study found that

adolescents between the ages of 11 to 14 recall brand placements in video games

regardless of whether they are playing video games at a high level of intensity or low

level of intensity and they have very positive feelings about the brands placed. This

study also found that emotional response to brands, frequency of exposure and

prominence of exposure had little influence on recall.

The findings of Research Question 1 revealed that adolescents experienced high

levels of pleasure and arousal toward brand placements in the video game. Emotions

towards brands ranged from childlike and wholesome to cheerful and victorious. The

study also found that the intensity of video game play has a significant influence on

player's arousal level. Subjects reported a significantly higher level of arousal after they

played the high intensity game compared to the arousal level they reported before they

began to play. Subjects who played the low intensity game, however, did not experience

a higher level of arousal at the conclusion of their playing experience compared to their

arousal before they began to play. Regardless of the level of intensity or arousal a player









experienced while playing the video game they had positive awareness of brand

placements.

This study examined levels of intensity of the video game in relation to the level

of recall reported by the players in Research Question 2. The findings revealed that,

although those who played the higher intensity game showed a slightly larger amount of

recall and recognition of brand placements in the video game then those who played the

lower intensity game, the difference of recall and recognition between the two groups

were not substantial. Those who played the game at a higher intensity experienced

similar levels of recall and recognition to those who played the game at a lower intensity.

The results indicate that the intensity level of the video game does not affect the recall of

brand placements in a substantial way.

In terms of Research Question 3, the study attempted to understand the influence

prominence of brand placements has on player's recall. There was a slightly higher level

of recall of more prominent brands then less prominent brands, but the differences were

not sizeable. The findings indicated that there is no apparent link between the

prominence of the brands placed and the level of recall experienced by the player.

With Research Question 4, this study examined the influence the number of brand

placement exposure opportunities had on player's recall. Similar to the player's response

to prominence of brand placements, there was a slightly higher level of recall for those

brands that were placed more frequently in the video game then those that were placed

more sparingly, but the difference was not sizeable. The number of exposures

opportunities the brand placement allows does not have a major impact on player's recall.









Practical Implications

As audience viewing of traditional media becomes more and more fragmented

and as viewers find more ways to skip commercials, marketers and advertising

professionals are finding new ways to reach their target market. In search of a new media

that will reach young audiences, brand placements in video games should not be

overlooked. Video games are fast gaining in popularity and many adolescents are

playing more video games at the expense of watching television. Video games allow for

a captive audience for many hours of play and a marketer has the choice of placing their

brand in age and demographic specific games to fit their exact target audience. This

study justifies that video games are a great marketing tool to reach a large captive

adolescent audience to create recall and positive emotional response towards the brand.

Knowing this information, marketers and advertisers can feel confident that placing their

brand in video games in addition to their promotional mix will be a beneficial venture.

.Marketers and advertising professionals can also learn from this study that they

do not have to worry about their brand placements going unnoticed by the adolescent

game players in situations of high game intensity, because the findings of this study

indicate that players are aware of brands similarly regardless of the intensity of the game

or the level of arousal they feel.

Marketers can also understand from this study that their brand will be recalled

similarly despite the prominence of the brand placement. Brands will gain similar player

awareness being placed in the scenery of the game as they will in the forefront of the

game as a tool. This study also shows marketers that young video game players will

notice their brand whether they include a large number of placements for a particular









brand or only a few. Knowing these findings will not only make the marketer more

confident, but also, it will make them savvier as businesspeople when placing their

brands in a video game context.

Limitations

There are several limitations in this study in generalizing the results. The samples

for the study were relatively small. There were some biases associated with the sample

as well. Both the high intensity and the low intensity groups had a higher ratio of male

subjects to female subjects, causing a gender bias. There was some randomization error

in the pre-measure groups. The arousal results of the two groups were different before

the stimulus was administered. There was a slightly higher ratio of high skilled players in

the high intensity group then in the low intensity group.

The brand placements in the video game were not all relevant to the audience. If

the brands present in the video game were more relevant to the players of the game, there

may have been deferring levels of recall and/or emotional response. Lastly, the video

game was played for a relatively short period of times compared to how long an

adolescent would usually play a game on their own accord. The biases, small sample

size, lack of relevance and short length of play issues may have weakened the results of

this study.

Future Research

This is the first empirical study to focus on brand placements in video games. This

is also one of the few studies about brand placement that do not use subjects largely

consisting of college students. There are many ways to further explore the impact of

brand placement in video games. Future studies relating to this subject could benefit









from the inclusion of a control group. A control group in this study would establish a

baseline for recognition, recall and emotional response. Studies concerning audience

relevance to brand placement and studies conducted over a longer length of time would

be very interesting to conduct with young audiences as subjects. Research can also

extend to empirical studies of adult audiences and their response to brand placement in

video games. Studies can also delve into different genres of video games. Cross-cultural

studies would also be beneficial to investigate concerning this topic. In a time when

video games are fast becoming the medium of the moment researchers should continue to

study brand placement in video games in depth to help marketers understand how this

medium can benefit their brand by helping to reach their audience in a new way.

















APPENDIX A
ANOVA RESULTS


Table A-i: ANOVA Results, AdSAM Means
Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation
Pre-measure Pleasure Group 1: High Intensity 7.83 1.56
Group 2: Low Intensity 7.57 1.50
Total 7.70 1.52
Pre-measure Arousal Group 1: High Intensity 5.47 1.57
Group 2: Low Intensity 7.33 1.54
Total 6.40 1.81
Pre-measure Dominance Group 1: High Intensity 6.50 2.26
Group 2: Low Intensity 6.47 1.68
Total 6.48 1.97
Post-measure Pleasure Group 1: High Intensity 7.80 1.73
Group 2: Low Intensity 7.80 1.54
Total 7.80 1.62
Post-measure Arousal Group 1: High Intensity 8.23 1.33
Group 2: Low Intensity 6.90 1.84
Total 7.57 1.73
Post-measure Dominace Group 1: High Intensity 6.87 2.18
Group 2: Low Intensity 6.73 2.02
Total 6.80 2.08











Table A-2: ANOVA Results for PAD of Brands
Sum of Mean
AdSAM: PAD Squares df Square F Sig.
MitsuP Between Groups 0.03 1 0.03 0.01 0.92
Within Groups 103.85 31 3.35
Total 103.88 32
MitsuA Between Groups 6.34 1 6.34 1.41 0.24
Within Groups 139.53 31 4.50
Total 145.88 32
MitsuD Between Groups 1.98 1 1.98 0.39 0.53
Within Groups 156.02 31 5.03
Total 158.00 32
NissanP Between Groups 0.25 1 0.25 0.11 0.74
Within Groups 93.30 42 2.22
Total 93.55 43
NissanA Between Groups 1.34 1 1.34 0.27 0.60
Within Groups 206.30 42 4.91
Total 207.64 43
NissanD Between Groups 5.09 1 5.09 1.33 0.25
Within Groups 160.63 42 3.82
Total 165.73 43
PontiacP Between Groups 0.58 1 0.58 0.20 0.66
Within Groups 74.42 26 2.86
Total 75.00 27
PontiacA Between Groups 2.86 1 2.86 0.63 0.43
Within Groups 118.10 26 4.54
Total 120.96 27
PontiacD Between Groups 1.31 1 1.31 0.34 0.56
Within Groups 99.94 26 3.84
Total 101.25 27
ToyotaP Between Groups 4.00 1 4.00 0.70 0.41











Table A-2. Continued
AdSAM: Mean
PAD Sum of Squares df Square F Sig.
Total 106.95 19
ToyotaA Between Groups 7.89 1 7.89 1.27 0.27
Within Groups 111.86 18 6.21
Total 119.75 19
ToyotaD Between Groups 2.77 1 2.77 0.41 0.53
Within Groups 121.43 18 6.75
Total 124.20 19
HondaP Between Groups 0.80 1 0.80 0.12 0.73
Within Groups 182.16 28 6.51
Total 182.97 29
HondaA Between Groups 0.04 1 0.04 0.01 0.93
Within Groups 166.92 28 5.96
Total 166.97 29
HondaD Between Groups 0.23 1 0.23 0.03 0.87
Within Groups 232.47 28 8.30
Total 232.70 29
FordP Between Groups 1.54 1 1.54 0.21 0.65
Within Groups 172.35 24 7.18
Total 173.88 25
FordA Between Groups 10.88 1 10.88 1.10 0.30
Within Groups 237.27 24 9.89
Total 248.15 25
FordD Between Groups 9.16 1 9.16 2.10 0.16
Within Groups 104.88 24 4.37
Total 114.04 25
CadiP Between Groups 9.00 1 9.00 2.07 0.16
Within Groups 117.21 27 4.34
Total 126.21 28
CadiA Between Groups 9.95 1 9.95 1.59 0.22
Within Groups 169.01 27 6.26
Total 178.97 28











Table A-2. Continued
AdSAM: Mean
PAD Sum of Squares df Square F Sig.
CadiD Between Groups 5.80 1 5.80 0.85 0.36
Within Groups 183.17 27 6.78
Total 188.97 28
MazdaP Between Groups 1.08 1 1.08 0.36 0.56
Within Groups 51.66 17 3.04
Total 52.74 18
MazdaA Between Groups 9.58 1 9.58 2.11 0.16
Within Groups 77.16 17 4.54
Total 86.74 18
MazdaD Between Groups 9.88 1 9.88 2.62 0.12
Within Groups 64.22 17 3.78
Total 74.11 18
PeugeotP Between Groups 0.00 1 0.00 0.00 1.00
Within Groups 45.50 6 7.58
Total 45.50 7
PeugeotA Between Groups 2.00 1 2.00 0.29 0.61
Within Groups 42.00 6 7.00
Total 44.00 7
PeugeotD Between Groups 1.13 1 1.13 0.17 0.69
Within Groups 38.75 6 6.46
Total 39.88 7
BKP Between Groups 1.53 1 1.53 0.33 0.57
Within Groups 138.69 30 4.62
Total 140.22 31
BKA Between Groups 24.50 1 24.50 3.84 0.06
Within Groups 191.50 30 6.38
Total 216.00 31
BKD Between Groups 0.50 1 0.50 0.09 0.76
Within Groups 161.50 30 5.38
Total 162.00 31
n=60, *P<.05










Table A-3: Interaction of Intensity, Total Recall and Number and Prominence of Brands

Paired
Group Variables N Mean Std. Deviation Correlation t Sig.
High Recall+Recog
Intensity & nonProm 30 -26.12 15.01 0.44 -9.53 0.02
Recall+Recog
& Prom 30 -28.66 18.88 0.97 -8.32 0.00
Low Recall+Recog
Intensity & nonProm 30 -25.17 15.68 0.10 -8.79 0.61
Recall+Recog
_& Prom 30 -23.87 15.17 0.95 -8.62 0.00
High Recall+Recog
Intensity & NumberHi 30 -26.53 19.15 0.85 -7.59 0.00
Recall+Recog
& NumberLo 30 -28.48 13.95 0.94 -11.18 0.00
Low Recall+Recog
Intensity & NumberHi 30 -26.00 16.49 0.72 -8.63 0.00
Recall+Recog
& NumberLo 30 -23.50 10.70 0.89 -12.03 0.00

















APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHIC FREQUENCY TABLES


Table B-l: Gender
Valid
Group Frequency Percent Percent Cumulative Percent
1 Valid 1 17 56.67 56.67 56.67
2 13 43.33 43.33 100.00
Total 30 100.00 100.00
2 Valid 1 16 53.33 53.33 53.33
2 14 46.67 46.67 100.00
Total 30 100.00 100.00




Table B-2: Age
Valid
Group Frequency Percent Pe t Cumulative Percent
Percent
1 Valid 11 16 53.33 53.33 53.33
12 6 20.00 20.00 73.33
13 6 20.00 20.00 93.33
14 2 6.67 6.67 100.00
Total 30 100.00 100.00
2 Valid 11 13 43.33 43.33 43.33
12 6 20.00 20.00 63.33
13 9 30.00 30.00 93.33
14 2 6.67 6.67 100.00
Total 30 100.00 100.00














APPENDIX C
IRB PROTOCOL AND CONSENT FORMS

Institutional Review Board Form for study with adolescents


University of Florida Institutional Review Board

1. Title ofProject: Thesis on Brand Placement in Video Games and Adolescents


2. Principal Investigator:


3. Supervisor:


Camelia Islam, Bachelors of Science in Advertising
Master's Student, Department of Advertising
2811 SW Archer Rd, Apt Y232
Gainesville, FL-32608
Home: (352) 562-1692
camey@ufl.edu


Cynthia R. Morton, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Advertising
University of Florida
P.O. Box 118400
Gainesville, FL 32611
Office: (352) 392-8841; Fax: (352) 846-3015
cmorton@jou.ufl.edu


4. Dates of Proposed Research: October 3 14, 2005

5. Source of Fundingfor the Protocol: Unfunded


6. Scientific Purpose of the Investigation:


The intention of this thesis is to add to the body of knowledge that exists concerning
brand placement advertising, specifically, brand placement in video games, by
conducting empirical research to find out the effect of brand placement in video games on
adolescents. This research will attempt to answer questions about how younger audiences
are affected by brand placement in video games when the intensity of the gaming
experience is raised or lowered. Specifically, the research will examine what role
intensity of the game plays in levels of recall, recognition and emotional response.

7. Describe the Research Methodology:

Students in Westwood Middle School in Gainesville, Florida, will be randomly assigned
to one of two groups and asked to play a proficiency-based video game that contains









brand placements in the context of the game. One group of students will play the game at
a lower skill level and the other will play at a higher skill level. The different skill levels
are expected influence the arousal level of video game play creating results that can be
compared to yield an answer to the research question.
Subjects will answer questions before and after they play in the form of a two part
questionnaire. The video game stimulus will be rated "E," a rating assigned to video
games that are appropriate for all ages. The video game also will be approved by the
class instructor before research is implemented. The student participants will answer a
portion of the questionnaire before the gaming experience and they will answer the
remaining portion of the questionnaire following the gaming experience. The
questionnaire will determine the individual's level of recall and attitudes concerning
brand placement advertisements in a video game. The questionnaire will also will
evaluate what brand placement advertisements subjects remembered from the video
game. A copy of the proposed questionnaire is attached for review.

8. Potential Benefits and Anticipated Risks:

There are no risks involved to participants. Participants will have no benefit except the
enjoyment of playing a video game.

9. Describe How Participants Will Be Recruited, the Number and Age of Participants,
and Proposed Compensation:

This study is seeking approximately 60 participants between the ages of 11 and 14 years
of age. The participants will be recruited form Westwood Middle School in Gainesville,
Florida. The subjects will be recruited from an elective course called Technology. These
students will have chosen this course due to their interest in technology such as
computers and video games. These students will be asked to get signed parental consent
prior to participation. If the parents agree to consent the student will be asked to read and
check the appropriate box indicating their interest in participating. No compensation will
be offered, but students may enjoy the opportunity to play the video game.

10. Describe the Informed Consent Process: The informed consent process will consist
of the informed consent of the participant's parent or guardian, as well as the verbal
assent of the participant. The parent's form is in the standard IRB form. The
participant's verbal consent script is written is in simpler language to ensure that each
participant understands that information.

11. Signatures:

Principal Investigator Date


Supervisor


Date






41


I approve this protocol for submission to UFIRB:

Department Chair Date









Parental Informed Consent
Dear Parent/Guardian,

I am a graduate student in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida,
conducting research on adolescents' perceptions of brand placement advertisements in
video games. Brand placement advertising is the practice of placing brand names in
movies, television programs and video games as a way to advertise. The purpose of this
study is to determine if children notice brand placements in video games and to
understand how they feel about them. With your permission, I would like to ask your
child to volunteer for this research.

If you agree that you would like your child to participate in this study, he/she will be
asked to complete a questionnaire asking them about their perception of brand
placements in video games. The children will play a video games rated "E" for everyone,
for a short period of time. They will answer some questions before and after playing the
game. The total time spent for the experiment for each child will be less than 30 minutes.
They will be able to make up any class work they miss during the experiment. Non-
participation of the study will not affect the child's grade in the class. Non-participating
students will resume regular classroom activity. The video game will be approved by the
class instructor before the research is implemented. Approximately 60 participants are
being sought for this study.

The participants will not be identified in anyway. Individual students will be kept
confidential to the extent provided by law through a numerical coding system. Only
group scores will be published. They do not have to answer any questions that they do
not wish to answer. They may stop at any time without consequence. Your child has the
right to withdraw at any time during the study. There are no anticipated risks for
completing this study, but their participation will be beneficial in providing the academic
community with data on children's perspective about brand placement advertisements in
video games. There are no direct benefits for the participants associated with this study
other than the participant's enjoyment in playing the video game.

If you are interested in more information about this study please email Camelia Islam at
Cameliaislam@yahoo.com. This study is being supervised by Dr. Cynthia Morton,
Associate Professor in the Department of Advertising at the University of Florida,
College of Journalism and communications; she can be reached at (352) 392-8841. If
you have any questions or concerns about the research participants' rights, they can be
directed to the UFIRB office, PO Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611-2250; phone number (352) 392-0433.

Please check one of the boxes
[ ] Voluntarily agree to allow my child,
to participate in a study about brand placement advertisements in video games.

[ ] I do not wish for my child,
to participate in a study about brand placement advertisements in video games.






43


I have read the procedure described above, I voluntarily agree to allow my child,

to participate in Camelia
Islam's study about brand placement advertisements in video games, and I have received
a copy of this description.

Parent/Guardian signature Date

2nd Parent/Witness signature Date






44


Student Verbal Assent Script

Hello my name is Camelia. I am a student at the University of Florida writing a paper
about middle school students. To write this paper, I need to have some volunteers play a
video game for a few minutes and answer some questions.

You can volunteer only if you have your signed permission slip from your parents. You
do not have to tell me your name. You do not have to answer any questions that you do
not want to, and you may leave at any time. This will take about thirty minutes.

Please raise your hand if you are interested.

Thank you







45


School Board Approval From

APPLICATION FOR RESEARCH IN ALACHUA COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS
620 East University Avenue Gainesville, FL 32601 (352) 955-7699

Directions: Complete one application for each requested school. Attach IRB approval, if applicable,
protocol and 1 copy of any instrument to be used. If research is to be grant-funded, please attach copy of
grant. Turn in application to the Department of Research and Evaluation. You will be notified when action
on this application has been completed.

Upon completion of your study, send one copy (or Word file) of Abstract to lucasme@sbac.edu.


Applicant: Camelia Islam Phone 352-562-1692 Date 10/03/05


Address of Applicant 2811 SW Archer Rd, Apt Y232


Educational Affiliation University of Florida


Applicant is: Faculty Doctoral Student Master's Other (specify)


Purpose of Research: To learn how video game advertising affect memory and emotional response in

adolescents


Title of Research Proposal: Brand Placements in Video Games and Adolescents


Brief summary of research proposal: The description is on the parental consent form attached


Population needs: # of subjects: 60 Grade Level 6t to 8th


Sex, age, race. ability level (s) male and female, ages 11 to 14, any race, any ability level


School requested: Westwood Middle School Total time per teacher required: 4 hours


Total time per student required: 25 minutes


Indicate additional school resources needed: None


Dates applicant is to be in the school: October 5t. 6th and 10th


Data needed (list tests, surveys, information needed): Survey







46


If this application is approved, I agree to observe all legal requirements regarding the use of research and to
submit an abstract or short summary and Evaluation Department.


Applicant Signature: Date:

Advisor/Dept. Chair: Date:
(f applicant is student)

SBAC Research Director:
Date:

School use only.

This application for research is: Approved: D Not Approved:D Principal's Signature

Remarks

Contact person in school Title















APPENDIX D
QUESTIONNAIRE

AdSAM Instruction Script

Look at number 1. The small figures are a way for you to tell me how you feel.

Look at Row 1

These pictures show feelings that go from the most happy you can feel to the most sad
you can feel.

Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel.

Look at Row 2

These pictures show feelings that go from lots of energy and active to very bored, calm or
not active.

Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel.

Look at Row 3

These pictures show feelings that go from not being in control or maybe being cared for
to having a lot of control or being in charge.

Fill in the circle nearest the picture that shows how you feel.
Do you understand?

So, you'll show your feelings by making one mark on each row. You can either mark a
dot directly below a figure, or mark the dot between two figures. Remember, you'll put
one mark on each row. Are you ready?

Please let me know if you need me to explain this to you again







Pre-Measure Questionnaire

Read each question carefully, then check the circle for your answer
1. How do you feel right now?


000


2. How would you rate your skills as a videogame player
O Excellent
O Very good
0 Good
O Average
O Bad


0 Very bad




STOP









Post-Measure Questionnaire

Read each question carefully, then check the circle for your answer

3. How do you feel after playing the video game?





000000000


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0




0000 00000



4. Do you remember any names of the cars you may have seen in the video game?

O Yes O No
If you checked yes, please write down the names of the cars you remember:






5. Did you see any brand names in the scenary of the video game while you were racing?

0 Yes 0 No

If you checked yes please list the brand names you
saw:








6. Which car names, if any, do you remember seeing in the video game?
(please check the circles next to all of the names you remember seeing)

O Nissan O Toyota O Honda

O Peugeot 0 Mazda 0 Cadillac

O Ford 0 Pontiac O
Mitsubishi

O None of the above Other:



6a. After playing the video game, how do you feel about
Brand name




00000000 O






0000 0000 0


7. Which of these brand names, if any, do you remember seeing in the scenary of the
game?
(please check the circles next to all of the names you remember seeing)

O Burger King O Edge Advance O Pontiac O ING Direct


0 None of the above


Other:








7a. After playing the video game, how do you feel about




00000000



'obobo 00

00000000 0




8. Have you played this game before?


0 Yes


Brand name


O No


9. How old are you?


0 Twelve


0 Thirteen


0 Fourteen


10. What grade are you in?


0 Sixth


0 Seventh


0 Eighth


Other:


11. What is your gender?


0 Female


0 Eleven


Other:


0 Male









Questionnaire Code Sheet

N= 60

Variable # Variable Name Variable Value

1 Skill 1-6 (good to bad)
2 CarbrdU 0-9
3 NissanU 1-yes, 0-no
4 PeugeotU 1-yes, 0-no
5 FordU 1-yes, 0-no
6 ToyotaU 1-yes, 0-no
7 MazdaU 1-yes, 0-no
8 HondaU 1-yes, 0-no
9 CadiU 1-yes, 0-no
11 PontU 1-yes, 0-no
12 MitsuU 1-yes, 0-no
13 BKU 1-yes, 0-no
14 EdgeU 1-yes, 0-no
15 PontU 1-yes, 0-no
16 INGU 1-yes, 0-no
17 billbrdU 0-4
18 BKbillU 1-yes, 0-no
19 EdgebilU 1-yes, 0-no
20 PontbilU 1-yes, 0-no
21 INGbillU 1-yes, 0-no
21 CarbrdA 0-9
20 NissanA 1-yes, 0-no
23 PeugeotA 1-yes, 0-no
24 FordA 1-yes, 0-no
25 ToyotaA 1-yes, 0-no
26 MazdaA 1-yes, 0-no
27 HondaA 1-yes, 0-no
28 CadiA 1-yes, 0-no
29 PontA 1-yes, 0-no
30 MitsuA 1-yes, 0-no
31 billbrdA 0-4
32 BKbillA 1-yes, 0-no
33 EdgebilA 1-yes, 0-no
34 PontbilA 1-yes, 0-no
35 INGbillA 1-yes, 0-no
36 playedit 1-yes, 0-no
37 Age 11-14
38 Grade 6-8
39 Gender 1-male, 2-female









AdSAM Code Sheet


N= 60


Variable Name


Variable


BeforeP
BeforeA
BeforeD

AfterP
AfterA
AfterD

NissanP
NissanA
NissanD

PeugeotP
PeugeotA
PeugeotD


FordP
FordA
FordD


ToyotaP
ToyotaA
ToyotaD

MazdaP
MazdaA
MazdaD

HondaP
HondaA
HondaD


CadiP
CadiA
CadiD

PontP
PontA
PontD


Variable #
Value











MitsuP
MitsuA
MitsuD


BKP
BKA
BKD


EdgeP
EdgeA
EdgeD

INGP
INGA
INGD














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Camelia Islam has lived in the United States since she was 10 years old. She grew

up in Boca Raton, Florida. After receiving her Bachelor of Science in Advertising degree

from the University of Florida in June 2004 and her Master of Advertising degree in

December 2005, she plans to work professionally in the advertising field