<%BANNER%>

Julius Watkins and the Evolution of the Jazz French Horn Genre

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110330_AAAAMD INGEST_TIME 2011-03-30T18:58:24Z PACKAGE UFE0012940_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 1347 DFID F20110330_AABSUK ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH smith_p_Page_120.txt GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
edd2fce2d88fbf0ea7136b4e78a8281d
SHA-1
188b5a45480a61464aecc519dbeb284c8eddbc1b
16943 F20110330_AABTRE smith_p_Page_132.QC.jpg
5f6e91c033f6c544cc79f85a6a872b0c
876df0a1897afdc68de5fc76172695fd5c75a230
1037 F20110330_AABSUL smith_p_Page_121.txt
8ba940a7ae6cee17ed513cbb84823907
10c0b169edd8901691cb7696276b1d8c2bb0f2a4
74166 F20110330_AABTRF smith_p_Page_133.jpg
67affa0d5bce2381e56386cd2d86f603
2ecb28938b6997cce9842edaf487905d0eea3bba
1563 F20110330_AABSUM smith_p_Page_122.txt
92cacc923b570d261926c7b629125517
7f82684cf452c5657e82ee68af5d432a01d69d35
20112 F20110330_AABTRG smith_p_Page_133.QC.jpg
c55c52770a3720856ac1b7971a9728a1
be0e08c2436fc5b4172e2e11f4eb2dc3fa47958c
358364 F20110330_AABSHC UFE0012940_00001.xml FULL
8252df72ef2970e0cd870d9586649f23
f9e5ca880977e90ac11434c22f789521a846110d
1817 F20110330_AABSUN smith_p_Page_123.txt
0d3bdb77a3a5dcb07970361ffa71474f
c23f9ec0eec6bb8d4da702dcdc8ab149b743c9a2
64019 F20110330_AABTRH smith_p_Page_134.jpg
a9a186862b3e38eb9e68e7250914e6e2
2149d08e08a80531b76e82760a68140965ae64cf
6473 F20110330_AABUOA smith_p_Page_186thm.jpg
b776d571b5b2fe7a095444ebc64f6c37
874cdd25a704b2ceb09bb27d8d687eb25318d664
1759 F20110330_AABSUO smith_p_Page_124.txt
633d2b6f6ca715045f42810052d6f00b
aede705cb46f81272d6757462a8627ec31ffe774
17474 F20110330_AABTRI smith_p_Page_134.QC.jpg
2234c9d3278b69ec91f52270b0a0292c
864eeb1be517967e9880f3990d1fad364e64e7e7
6362 F20110330_AABUOB smith_p_Page_187thm.jpg
40e0bedf03ff3d751b480a26000d77cc
749f901fa15fa361ff2c6fbc19c74d8568caf5f5
1586 F20110330_AABSUP smith_p_Page_125.txt
5fe35d8d8eca5985b103c353add27879
c488f452581fa0a8776440dad6bee3a4fd39545e
54900 F20110330_AABTRJ smith_p_Page_135.jpg
dac88a5e5eb453c9fa75d0ba6c1aba30
2886316ee48ddd4f8c03124ec947def3d8f010a3
6359 F20110330_AABUOC smith_p_Page_188thm.jpg
050cd607f0a3de933acf3839ffe9f34d
6ea36bd7cd0afe6c8e8950e9b6c1fb195fdf770d
1053954 F20110330_AABSHF smith_p_Page_001.tif
eff7437686ec4cfe249a6c28d7c0c139
68fa21f76b3d43e63ee3f92898b039b5b1c79745
F20110330_AABSUQ smith_p_Page_126.txt
5ce6aca2d5488dc263ff6c120730c673
22c9d016e6d33ace4ca56ec0ff3b8b5cd21aab83
15122 F20110330_AABTRK smith_p_Page_135.QC.jpg
ae118728f596e3494bdd99adfde31a87
2e528fe53b6fd61965a334864eba30a186612458
5766 F20110330_AABUOD smith_p_Page_189thm.jpg
89e2e6ee6f269c9ff958439703a7c8ee
3c8bfda4cc94c0d89a316deca987bfe01876d8c0
F20110330_AABSHG smith_p_Page_002.tif
5f9c78ee4f9dda211cbc84f144ea6160
50f7c9563d3866412f9779731b4e1df4a0bd7e7f
1454 F20110330_AABSUR smith_p_Page_127.txt
2ca91578d9b065363bd34afbfad2f6be
436ea96149e7a950a2ff8ca7c05a8456e9c8604b
36899 F20110330_AABTRL smith_p_Page_136.jpg
27759f54312ed5a8af8119518f2c426d
42e81a6bb8bb9002e766a6ddc1fa6753eb77ab7b
5628 F20110330_AABUOE smith_p_Page_190thm.jpg
75d47c24b551e084bfb4a6c67c3e5888
3a2a385c6f9b8b85d23dcb1248511c440ea6252e
F20110330_AABSHH smith_p_Page_003.tif
0929cf10a12aa44f1f25dc0f77a9c03b
5259acae687e9ef3247febbe604a6c06db912285
40043 F20110330_AABTEA smith_p_Page_146.pro
3f756d605178665e0166e02e6671dab2
6ae4c1fc5d5641608c087ec0a386178673ae3430
1295 F20110330_AABSUS smith_p_Page_128.txt
a1dd09a8c2483f357231d61e66383c8a
46aef6e44c4a5835453eeb6af5a66f0959ebec83
9962 F20110330_AABTRM smith_p_Page_136.QC.jpg
7f4067c3f89e41d818f4969fbdc02ecb
0b4a30499cb4316648362d6991a7a004fb5424f7
5697 F20110330_AABUOF smith_p_Page_191thm.jpg
bb9e71626624178abc86096040ad821b
4fb8ded78f8bd08ddfa9c0416ed29fed0962ab72
F20110330_AABSHI smith_p_Page_004.tif
f9a4ae0708ea6471cd650e281ad07627
cf28cd254a530612eca1581314391284f0710c25
38942 F20110330_AABTEB smith_p_Page_147.pro
a13ec3f2697c03b29b044cda14730498
96e289f8b78192707f97a894727597cdcd9e0873
1609 F20110330_AABSUT smith_p_Page_129.txt
23e95824ac11fb1e412a1a869fa3453c
4a3bf74e6ef45953a18b16c9731a8900812348de
79931 F20110330_AABTRN smith_p_Page_137.jpg
9e9afdbed1fbea55ebb2ae6f42e3b0f8
fd5272b3201661e6f17ca989302c8a83ee7180ef
6268 F20110330_AABUOG smith_p_Page_192thm.jpg
43099316d958c84e542461fcdc9b2275
28166ac65f9384d070f7a2a06f0e90772b21f0f1
F20110330_AABSHJ smith_p_Page_005.tif
c29b459ced892b0fac40e7fc04b6723c
b07b9d921bca8f3db80869f4258c8bc342293fe0
35725 F20110330_AABTEC smith_p_Page_148.pro
ecad73188d56d2af2bfda253356c9a14
b23b05f232534e3a60dd7363d14b14e12a848861
F20110330_AABSUU smith_p_Page_130.txt
3ddc9bcd636916ba8563c53a07ed6889
54bffedd47c768cd8f03830da74e732d5e1b9814
21545 F20110330_AABTRO smith_p_Page_137.QC.jpg
f6ec1362ff8f76758c36bbfbddae3b1a
457330b789c7a072eda91fa7521311f481a192a9
6426 F20110330_AABUOH smith_p_Page_193thm.jpg
edea66180e688b41208ee17a560b0231
bf58348d79cd2edb1a54cf96ce5120bb4c2b3c62
F20110330_AABSHK smith_p_Page_006.tif
8167da51aba022bef922fac164ba1dd2
5ebbac8d548802059fabcb56f067f66ba7c58918
29771 F20110330_AABTED smith_p_Page_149.pro
0e4e33e5cd65fc8ae82c0565f0d90522
d2bbf74798544193108a528fa2196d2e60e3b690
1409 F20110330_AABSUV smith_p_Page_131.txt
d58d48d3118a11bf781b82c459157602
4f1267c87bffed3d71ed9691a535903e940dffcc
76324 F20110330_AABTRP smith_p_Page_138.jpg
94856d6b2fda6a8df56fdc23f0a25ce2
11e388851bd091020dd1ba9bc4aa5d9e0c6c80bb
5689 F20110330_AABUOI smith_p_Page_194thm.jpg
e80ac6b8d07587733253a415164fb739
d3fda16e98760faedd1dd3a78e8b6b4cf793bee5
25271604 F20110330_AABSHL smith_p_Page_007.tif
c5f329d3e6151e341e909e2abfe4b382
fcdba30c4fb9a971988a3c361b15dcdcb0b71da3
31805 F20110330_AABTEE smith_p_Page_150.pro
96521ab33b6137925307f7aadc2128fd
374dcf4bdffdf6ec20fb240cc8150ebe73a627cc
1463 F20110330_AABSUW smith_p_Page_132.txt
7d281684004aa5e65612477963c7a335
b9c87065a83c4b5329ec62e2efe3965cfeab91d1
20551 F20110330_AABTRQ smith_p_Page_138.QC.jpg
54f01770afb85f1f847ab3a685a29423
0ca4f53eb4f98dd1695bc91cae5f1d014642c87b
5964 F20110330_AABUOJ smith_p_Page_195thm.jpg
5e8c51b94502a487d79d51c4e98ee21f
b5715e19e72bde762229bca163862704cd5705a4
F20110330_AABSHM smith_p_Page_008.tif
01cd47be45d8662ec88a74920d356d7e
9d292a337c83b35207c1adf9b419cb216fe1a227
37090 F20110330_AABTEF smith_p_Page_151.pro
835864518fd80c66b55b1cae0dc7f624
be9d25d15c5ec00d20aa0f9998fcb135a5a6c3f2
1798 F20110330_AABSUX smith_p_Page_133.txt
2da55e0ab536bb8b1bb3cf347d3e40ba
b2911df6034e91066c333a97fdd68291f911453e
77384 F20110330_AABTRR smith_p_Page_139.jpg
2f562da2824117c3e6652e27cbe235a0
f889be8ad6e9f720d99d30175ee835797b72335d
6837 F20110330_AABUOK smith_p_Page_196thm.jpg
204aafe8c72419c14e6e819801274502
f10bc2e48b3f1b497a43ed972b975c293d88c42c
F20110330_AABSHN smith_p_Page_009.tif
49fc29f8b1207cba47dbeafe097c34e5
d5df65ce1111756e2119e86cc891ab83e6db8bc0
36472 F20110330_AABTEG smith_p_Page_152.pro
9afad067147f62cb008c9b4e1b5ceb32
ef00b1a7214cd9a60152f09bf620a1379318e5c2
1529 F20110330_AABSUY smith_p_Page_134.txt
b00ede3498072ead6ba67003d55c64ab
c43df43ddfa37e61bdf289a5d239b08bccf162ab
98815 F20110330_AABUBA smith_p_Page_072.jp2
dfe80d5da441333d1e3c6fab3671dbf4
c647d0973c434f1a9b243b877a7dbcea99541bce
20876 F20110330_AABTRS smith_p_Page_139.QC.jpg
9310d3cf4d61bcd30048c10f1b0c6038
02f190b4e0c215bd50bef961f80d7c3877622ced
6686 F20110330_AABUOL smith_p_Page_197thm.jpg
472d3ac9eb3615b6bfca863c16e08dec
10d2f8e65a58fc1e9343e2d4b8ac1040943fbca5
F20110330_AABSHO smith_p_Page_010.tif
1a232fb16264dd071460ef79bc520842
9ee37fe21658a0c46bdea543274b3ae7f7493f6c
44167 F20110330_AABTEH smith_p_Page_153.pro
994a5b3018921dc2d1abc02dd2f33c2c
dc135e16e7905e1bc70575ace7c64253150afbdd
1263 F20110330_AABSUZ smith_p_Page_135.txt
118ba50d3aad1d7235380df3debe7434
b39bade60c1f923121a3afe7d698ed3a85996c1e
110533 F20110330_AABUBB smith_p_Page_073.jp2
2bb67f9b558ada31da0b672213429472
a027a54ef7f63cba4a3091a5eb3b8dcf9109807f
64709 F20110330_AABTRT smith_p_Page_140.jpg
1125557a7e207e7166d478eba7f189ad
55e26fbd7c8e3ff2739fdf8cbd1deecebc95a00c
6415 F20110330_AABUOM smith_p_Page_198thm.jpg
5ebb1d55b336adc6f066850155b10be3
dd58d544f985794ab715346a34a1c56fa2a6a533
F20110330_AABSHP smith_p_Page_011.tif
59ca2b5910428e02e691796895c8b0ce
f0b16b8cc0df55912663c7a6c37a349d5509e9b8
42636 F20110330_AABTEI smith_p_Page_154.pro
e334ed0e9bc96666a670e9ae51777c68
610e1546d9a92860ffd555acaedd42f716885f4c
966609 F20110330_AABUBC smith_p_Page_074.jp2
2e3c419561b4a8e0eb1a775e1d72bea4
df1e9abafa155b3729bfd21154d223c848acd984
17638 F20110330_AABTRU smith_p_Page_140.QC.jpg
d54698dd2742401fff70508f725d8ae8
0e6f91b256826ea2e6a386e62cd5bf1de927aa68
6480 F20110330_AABUON smith_p_Page_199thm.jpg
39bf3f5cae137520ebca17332497595c
acbd32c42ec44fbb0a049c38c747c8b637ab09c7
F20110330_AABSHQ smith_p_Page_012.tif
8224b991dd1f4d121b971de53a33fcff
2319d805a740e7f9e3a9faa8c9634b8a65d0a02b
61218 F20110330_AABTEJ smith_p_Page_155.pro
646e45e76c20382fea7086a121fd363c
86650be97c30a8d94b6ab6885bf8e3e48e4be286
114006 F20110330_AABUBD smith_p_Page_075.jp2
c7e898cab691eacc88a75d44ecbaaf72
01a75a39efb793f2bf0bdece8879e6f8699b209e
52136 F20110330_AABTRV smith_p_Page_141.jpg
dd319bc37686fc8823c8710bfd63b81f
a49128b83416fe41eb5df12d4dd6fd08802a9257
6672 F20110330_AABUOO smith_p_Page_200thm.jpg
8513cbeff67371e5dbf26becddf2f0a4
fc16ed000b68ccbfd579b8ba2d2077e99fe12616
F20110330_AABSHR smith_p_Page_013.tif
5b622dd435fadc0f884691d17b32b139
69c0ae8db42bff3e4a14ae9726040db27b616567
37484 F20110330_AABTEK smith_p_Page_156.pro
5c8136b51620c1737d81b10cb560420e
f9daea2637c4a48f29dd6c4f3ba107b46d067f80
106915 F20110330_AABUBE smith_p_Page_076.jp2
567baae5efeb5dc08a59123d10b8ca03
cbac4a7e7328ac1cee6f763bf239558f7eb15aa3
14945 F20110330_AABTRW smith_p_Page_141.QC.jpg
00c7366979a503610b01332cd0b24ca9
31941a1b26e18d9f7203e67069f0ebae0860d257
6029 F20110330_AABUOP smith_p_Page_201thm.jpg
16e1c3bb8c39c99ea9ea321df7e9360f
7d9b861a6eb04bec2be778a7bebb06fd62beab0b
F20110330_AABSHS smith_p_Page_014.tif
10191d68403ab060bf6025e963debc09
1838e94b4dae0c82aaa9b54630610e94deb02e81
31436 F20110330_AABTEL smith_p_Page_157.pro
ba8c62fcd7921c351b220b1b9c834e96
1d94cd2ad98eea7a4d994fbdb33ef17e40f1dec7
95052 F20110330_AABUBF smith_p_Page_077.jp2
dfe19da490954486d50fea3a5043a2f7
abcad8e22a91d462c26127eb7a160267fe5eb067
50659 F20110330_AABTRX smith_p_Page_142.jpg
7eb0c865079c4fa56955620aab2123a9
0ec18d9de324483d30e60a772e644392179ae2b5
6797 F20110330_AABUOQ smith_p_Page_202thm.jpg
6735edee846766d678b096b21a741297
e10aa86e78751317d3bdb095a9d23a0c18cdee54
F20110330_AABSHT smith_p_Page_015.tif
67598044a77c8df99ad93a13e4c52dd5
d49067412b3f3f097513d9607491ab6ea28131b1
41368 F20110330_AABTEM smith_p_Page_158.pro
0049f2e82c831e46b53b589e2d12f48f
073f4be669b56c23b4ceeca255dacf4ee1cdce47
111248 F20110330_AABUBG smith_p_Page_078.jp2
f6708b8ffda5eabdd98c87878c1e4d0f
8f0d44a80fc489bfd407057cdb5a38af79188058
14585 F20110330_AABTRY smith_p_Page_142.QC.jpg
7a9c0e77b45ce3788348ccf63b4b1cd5
3c6d5e5965f103c19888d5883dd7d8649839dca3
6243 F20110330_AABUOR smith_p_Page_203thm.jpg
65d536e4435523df1038b40a44080cef
ebc4970a11690530e9a604e36d9f5a9d8329c836
F20110330_AABSHU smith_p_Page_016.tif
d885b1106451325fb17fcc2e94365153
b1d0c64dce2236566b4632e47cbadf4a281fe49e
37447 F20110330_AABTEN smith_p_Page_159.pro
8210fa4c55a970db4b09de0fc4f7d9ab
637fd6dbede1b026085e1e80689e8cbfa13d60de
96399 F20110330_AABUBH smith_p_Page_079.jp2
fe4f0aeaafa05d2bf6a37a8f594961eb
13c8c408b79af548d21cebb55eed8842ad8f43e9
63562 F20110330_AABTRZ smith_p_Page_143.jpg
96daf5404fcbebf5fc32078136045de5
a9c375fe32beddd8c127df28177b6b7b44e70040
6173 F20110330_AABUOS smith_p_Page_204thm.jpg
e73b7948553f4ede761bc3ac0d879427
f20e8e4f64fc4dc1f2f1b2d44b7821578c38a824
F20110330_AABSHV smith_p_Page_017.tif
1792275b3d0c813d776bbabf451f5a6f
f0caa47fe03383f86869a6ed4129a4fee0481aeb
32440 F20110330_AABTEO smith_p_Page_160.pro
6054fd60de3d00e2b4fa754f8f352d96
8da125826393bb40b7c742a3ddfc9ad34f8d83b4
108552 F20110330_AABUBI smith_p_Page_080.jp2
1c4d1d1e017411afebf7e36316806341
88d70bff1e9e6a2c582c59d6eaacc75204179b3a
5038 F20110330_AABUOT smith_p_Page_205thm.jpg
bcfabac96caed1a08ed94e9b2e2ad5e9
f4a69c6d1c95da067b7b5c62c1220da6dd69cfe9
F20110330_AABSHW smith_p_Page_018.tif
bb685106ebb55e9a97f4e023018e79e0
d29399d25d760f1cdf4880b951b7eb8428544395
27192 F20110330_AABTEP smith_p_Page_161.pro
7b63a10fbcc2bbbd5170605e9a272d22
b38962a769ba80aea15c0de3d7938891b2719f76
105689 F20110330_AABUBJ smith_p_Page_081.jp2
c8384f8faeca512cefa5208d8ccd8490
16021c9fb7826287482080ba5152ae4af2e3db85
6154 F20110330_AABUOU smith_p_Page_206thm.jpg
470e03bcbcc343f43024e91cee178005
48da31ae0fca1aa8521769a2e6484dea6686604c
F20110330_AABSHX smith_p_Page_019.tif
f131ba514fbaf878d0057741296bc22c
2a11a4c4b5348f7c069beff1de71b32e2eedd169
45958 F20110330_AABTEQ smith_p_Page_162.pro
dbbeccb02c35608295912b627da35a31
46c03674fcc393dd8676a7faa4077258c851f35e
840538 F20110330_AABUBK smith_p_Page_082.jp2
6b57ea7f65d12695576c2bc0d87beb89
3b12aaf515a1dbe5c922806c8941ac7a10f29ab9
6474 F20110330_AABUOV smith_p_Page_207thm.jpg
965f5b76d3924e4fb391e87c9cb8ba3f
59be5f0e69365a2ad07dfee31fd36f14b46357f2
F20110330_AABSHY smith_p_Page_020.tif
a647260a4cd89908b7719f249d42640d
6cab1f3ef4b24a807b8a35300735063c4aa0d8b1
25723 F20110330_AABTER smith_p_Page_163.pro
742b2c7901d0f4d963c83a9e7b75041c
719404956dbe15624e376b49b4862c3471f06af0
1051969 F20110330_AABUBL smith_p_Page_083.jp2
397c3532457a868f9a2c2130a1f8a84c
3cf3b44a908c1097d3858a52d612e776e79d8be3
3875 F20110330_AABUOW smith_p_Page_208thm.jpg
f59c516e0d3c13b2c5db65b824a48b0b
cb561dae14844b1d8c3862723b2b643024e34a11
F20110330_AABSHZ smith_p_Page_021.tif
f6096e7fdb2b40c4975868655f64d69c
4e1c802c1dfcd3fe9ae593340922bcf55361214c
38306 F20110330_AABTES smith_p_Page_164.pro
ba5f03b9e906941722a49cb77f4157ed
3c3acf6bc9d5b5d66117f4fbfd3d253625b25eca
114494 F20110330_AABUBM smith_p_Page_084.jp2
a8edd66672f408a55d55f95e53faf9c0
2b533dde52258282e64d3030264c239f9a3fe461
6076 F20110330_AABUOX smith_p_Page_209thm.jpg
3c12e781eb366ff717e76174faa113df
969136c2e1da85d66eca97f63fe0f82d1e409333
45829 F20110330_AABTET smith_p_Page_165.pro
2123912c4d49c7491701ef0c73156dd8
9b3011cbf6ec52110f2d288ca149ab0899d673bb
77816 F20110330_AABUBN smith_p_Page_085.jp2
93325ae3547b795f06c30e3de141a2a4
c00c8362ec1460693eec6802746791875279da98
5801 F20110330_AABUOY smith_p_Page_210thm.jpg
0250964984851d085b98f0271fd3e525
bd0bb19a97d25632d8b0f7862629e9223e7d0dd8
25698 F20110330_AABTEU smith_p_Page_166.pro
c342945cdeb4ef654a61a4fd8e2707b5
696815dc2a91f6d19e17dd9dc6afe73cef43d42f
6241 F20110330_AABUOZ smith_p_Page_211thm.jpg
5a5ac6b9c3b7eba58e30248268485fae
744574e4cc6922952680f61f3494769be6413efe
31274 F20110330_AABTEV smith_p_Page_167.pro
522735b2aecb3ae3f1d3619f6916d2e3
1ef73bde81eea7dc338f2a87fb6d2e3ed5ee0cca
97739 F20110330_AABUBO smith_p_Page_086.jp2
7b29f22a02af1e034a9e4e6947505d27
8b256147b1a159b26c13c545845ff1c469f3608c
38669 F20110330_AABTEW smith_p_Page_168.pro
edd199d6cade6913dadd74597c030c32
fad22e6ea34a74073bfd8663d733d29917e887a9
964282 F20110330_AABUBP smith_p_Page_087.jp2
dd88ce0449bb9dceddf500259c967197
32a00ddedaa14da2e1cc2787f1159c47243f0f5c
15014 F20110330_AABTXA smith_p_Page_208.QC.jpg
edd955b5f701cfbc2f473a833b68c459
855a93868d28849ace1ff8b0fbf343464f7536a5
105034 F20110330_AABUBQ smith_p_Page_088.jp2
e4e480c8e9d9764f0bea31f94af58e50
a5dd5b169fe319a8fa93015db8b95190ec35fab4
47802 F20110330_AABTEX smith_p_Page_169.pro
383594e3525517589b1879741d881584
ba20ad4d11e5f38af441347602e22f396c05b4ba
79240 F20110330_AABTXB smith_p_Page_209.jpg
4081114506d45b7560862465d783b19e
9928fa5ce497397abe17c071eb561b5f81147ad4
108793 F20110330_AABUBR smith_p_Page_089.jp2
5283413af56049a46283fd20f5ec35df
10c65d966ff6c5c6005ce483cc0183a38e236d33
38007 F20110330_AABTEY smith_p_Page_170.pro
55af3166112db741b61f52757304e8d6
5da7d19701bc13146b55145e76aefcc6bc2d4c67
24481 F20110330_AABTXC smith_p_Page_209.QC.jpg
3a5fde884c78dafb01723b0950a36335
a7e2bfc55714d28a2ae9886b944d365715ad53e6
1038403 F20110330_AABUBS smith_p_Page_090.jp2
d60b129668c6586101a070fcef739c1f
b0eee6ae3a602e7c77935befd82c2d4059947431
45216 F20110330_AABTEZ smith_p_Page_171.pro
3b4728a004aa290cc3c7917f0cdbe682
064ddcc80db4606ca7bc8fac848c920e0671ef77
72733 F20110330_AABTXD smith_p_Page_210.jpg
1a6fa6c41937b1e7e5c683d00c1c8606
7b4b0bc425405a5c2ed5d6641fc51f58795d6ac4
F20110330_AABSNA smith_p_Page_152.tif
017691d30817685b3018c82d38d1dccd
9e6cc9bc7b264e57b54a9a51fce139a1972c5e6e
23087 F20110330_AABTXE smith_p_Page_210.QC.jpg
4673bb7f8cadb12af4d908acb7ef442f
40e098ac0eb93db47e73ed7c704ac5afcb713c58
113552 F20110330_AABUBT smith_p_Page_091.jp2
229ff5ac50e563bafb2bbac1f492ea20
a9caac70c10ca5f6e11526bed11d722c810651a4
78798 F20110330_AABTXF smith_p_Page_211.jpg
decd35248b685f065cb0ceba3b195ff5
307ace4d821ddef3e0af8da212b6124150d5bb55
114974 F20110330_AABUBU smith_p_Page_092.jp2
0e519d59c0330b6a38a02113e093ce5f
49e892489b308abaf12c41a807892a8fc529eb41
F20110330_AABSNB smith_p_Page_153.tif
7089b031cd83083006d4717f83e24867
b20be9538483a4583bd487f6d9a12c97e75b4a1f
24929 F20110330_AABTXG smith_p_Page_211.QC.jpg
fad62f35e2ec53690f0c62c01ee49a2a
3381c0b0198d95a096d29e7b1c249f5040c6a889
112066 F20110330_AABUBV smith_p_Page_093.jp2
da70ca6e2a1aa025e1f38faab319f4aa
43f6a07bf3cacbe0b48c5bbdc7f42ac90ce3f284
F20110330_AABSNC smith_p_Page_154.tif
ae2a0db505f14ceecc8faa94b5d010f0
79c06504d62484b3d6a7a67e3cabb25f692cbf3c
87068 F20110330_AABTXH smith_p_Page_212.jpg
caa0dddb26e02e08460475aa61877595
4aae11bf7de6f5c8aee34a5a6359b5ec518e372d
105634 F20110330_AABUBW smith_p_Page_094.jp2
c524fcba51144fab96569c3e3a783aba
e339b17655f3917e3eaff06d13616cce1d65f0a5
F20110330_AABSND smith_p_Page_155.tif
d00f1d14a508b350e62a2e76d0400756
4f344177198747314cee4a02be47bc9da6a97bde
27262 F20110330_AABTXI smith_p_Page_212.QC.jpg
8cb9470bdfc4f2519c99cbbe5096a234
036e469c004a17a5dac8844454967718997e794a
1051960 F20110330_AABUBX smith_p_Page_095.jp2
6b8eaaaf7672f61aab395f787af179fa
943a1f78fd2933a5fc0822035b7dc9a729a35131
F20110330_AABSNE smith_p_Page_156.tif
8887ea11819a26564d4dd2323fe80c2c
6a65a574e5fff878b3eb1df562ed8e539631a658
84955 F20110330_AABTXJ smith_p_Page_213.jpg
abe92d5b61e5c0c295f17da0e76c9a74
61ee35171bef51c2187fee9a6ec42dd206e240a0
876716 F20110330_AABUBY smith_p_Page_096.jp2
1cfa4ffd4af68a59d40c134fa4d8eafe
4a3987f994651125d4fdd93074c5b02552b67638
F20110330_AABSNF smith_p_Page_157.tif
1a10f7b3a4dd3d0963eb80ed90856ff9
4e1012ecebf7bb8496b210a814d1fc6d7c039f71
102070 F20110330_AABUBZ smith_p_Page_097.jp2
b13fefb96a9183241401b1c084aca321
7bf2f17d6f591044b5ccef765db9788b3b3e1ae3
F20110330_AABSNG smith_p_Page_158.tif
64f418cc272d23ad2d85d4e280209796
c80ec25871be0db684035b32a28220866b1d6012
26684 F20110330_AABTXK smith_p_Page_213.QC.jpg
751e38ef060febf2efac3a5cb2b6c608
c2f0493f2d7229cf997cc201533b3c6da15f135a
F20110330_AABSNH smith_p_Page_159.tif
0be2491bacb213a4d0ab495af396bc92
4ede13a1d1913b56a5c1e4a120477d67a3776a0f
22228 F20110330_AABTKA smith_p_Page_039.QC.jpg
0576fea498d4f416fd39241176f9587a
4f87165bc03f49b1f53e59de784e72327aa11311
81300 F20110330_AABTXL smith_p_Page_214.jpg
b700b921bce191f37e26214ff99ede8f
b2e78bed5a9cb54703760bc9f9b5eaf33a4de977
F20110330_AABSNI smith_p_Page_160.tif
cbc45d83e2d4a38c073bfc2c24e7e1d6
c486a46e75561269c8b5ba807be0dd28e22670e0
76758 F20110330_AABTKB smith_p_Page_040.jpg
b594ad196a8caee5be0644ee37c9a760
cf1db7341fc89fbf09733efdc0b278fbcf5f4f4f
25252 F20110330_AABTXM smith_p_Page_214.QC.jpg
92bcf65c01da9addd7971debeb4f7de6
61114a92f7d59ede426ff4fb68affa6c35d72a70
F20110330_AABSNJ smith_p_Page_161.tif
4d2984f1179a509f4861a07897d741e6
ddf1ce16f1cf94c87627883ffb76d159f7b80009
24429 F20110330_AABTKC smith_p_Page_040.QC.jpg
977ebd7ddc78f66a51853a6c371a8898
1dec2d70efaa24c2aceb6098e9a34fa0f022a986
86174 F20110330_AABTXN smith_p_Page_215.jpg
449d97330828c5ee38f8ada4a803a33b
633518018d9dddc09d57838d4615110fd8056072
F20110330_AABSNK smith_p_Page_162.tif
96a448fad20d2eb731c710db62b4a235
92794bf7cc34656303ba538fc1f0fb109849326d
67887 F20110330_AABTKD smith_p_Page_041.jpg
847d917f49e5c51b98eab4b6a70f2ad5
47da0e21eb7c5f943efe53d1aebcf79b0f598640
27165 F20110330_AABTXO smith_p_Page_215.QC.jpg
60c249612f995f5be21438e4d54d530d
a87c8936d6e94e06d7b9598679d874e0e4c63c65
F20110330_AABSNL smith_p_Page_163.tif
abd60d170a1483bea4d5a5de486099ea
41d0d4d4d875f4c43d032ab55184534cafa86737
20931 F20110330_AABTKE smith_p_Page_041.QC.jpg
8979aae065fe685bea517433c83409a6
7a15dc16b744eb34bbdfd95a4ce4153ff7c7f74f
8044 F20110330_AABTXP smith_p_Page_216.jpg
9e5cad17f3becf5c0da70d83a64484aa
576cf9d2703086279c85f73a175d8f683812cb5b
F20110330_AABSNM smith_p_Page_164.tif
75120bf3dc52d765467882c075ce2630
05ab994a7b00f61e6a8ded9de1044ce126c92cf9
95070 F20110330_AABTKF smith_p_Page_042.jpg
8b29a5d62712eedc4e113611aee1b763
4600523b1665446fc48b277864def53871bdc868
2923 F20110330_AABTXQ smith_p_Page_216.QC.jpg
686cb53e2d56a3aae80b946d5cc00325
0e5685774867f443a90062e734f8af28117cf140
F20110330_AABSNN smith_p_Page_165.tif
6cb5155e9dd79dc4ef763b3b8bfa434f
67ec32775dd82dc81ee73f18bf7b5d4d77c8349f
27309 F20110330_AABTKG smith_p_Page_042.QC.jpg
ca3537a22cb049ce8b62a6339f1cde58
a09a6069aa176a604f3f142996cdc8f4a191f2ba
76556 F20110330_AABTXR smith_p_Page_217.jpg
53f03579209edb851117331f07e96e2f
b34455e522d4831a930975b5d23279c12a2e26da
F20110330_AABSNO smith_p_Page_166.tif
27ccec48869552039a16e5f919899c23
9a79d5dd57404d0301f62c419fb89bae33d83c01
89242 F20110330_AABTKH smith_p_Page_043.jpg
1c001470a36bfb6bd73d6c1c51121c21
35e75f7042d4bd99d53e8a427515164e1de68670
5434 F20110330_AABUHA smith_p_Page_004thm.jpg
b626212f0ad50eeef0ad11d6f775e12c
27d2613fe8c97e0b15091d880eb070ea2078aa19
22478 F20110330_AABTXS smith_p_Page_217.QC.jpg
cc31997f6dc8563e634599ea2069e92e
a937b097aa080b96807fda7a1963681340fe7742
F20110330_AABSNP smith_p_Page_167.tif
32cd0dde7802565fb279692f12bf5656
dde1e783de20484fb248abad093ec9c5222ce198
27962 F20110330_AABTKI smith_p_Page_043.QC.jpg
67e270b41d6951104acfd2c6411a9924
02665daf4604a5fbeb7f56ca8c9c2519a77fc55b
6841 F20110330_AABUHB smith_p_Page_005thm.jpg
c34810f93a1fd0d5d77940ba37843979
d333f3b3ed1eb958434701768bf3d38a45ddbf4a
84471 F20110330_AABTXT smith_p_Page_218.jpg
88e9daec3704b435d4b1c0a4d254aaa9
63912bbc41a82d37db119b3d459f343c8a5c1b7e
F20110330_AABSNQ smith_p_Page_168.tif
4b9d845f677399647ed6a80f0835df5d
7220386fd62250103836942a5ffc120e77a714fe
77171 F20110330_AABTKJ smith_p_Page_044.jpg
48bdac651b0bd715dd9b913025947629
0a2ace50f8a16d83daecad4779978ba9e4643d65
1323 F20110330_AABUHC smith_p_Page_006thm.jpg
471e58263600e1c29b593582cbab1297
9c9091935d4b89c174c028b91d390d7d264af973
25266 F20110330_AABTXU smith_p_Page_218.QC.jpg
dc557905f170297f0bbbeda135499b29
215991eb476012a97c24041594679825f072fa5f
F20110330_AABSNR smith_p_Page_169.tif
a684dd2c60b4967bb904ca3026d793ab
d0cd282cef82d0819dae172554c2165dc46d9bd8
23300 F20110330_AABTKK smith_p_Page_044.QC.jpg
7bd83c7958c8d4fc4e3ec94f9d2ee058
e28478170cf5554e68ac8bbecfcb682a76c0ed69
4962 F20110330_AABUHD smith_p_Page_007thm.jpg
813614172587a6cca41e8ecaf789c85e
952439be5bed00278569d92dd190a8967d13b1dd
78953 F20110330_AABTXV smith_p_Page_219.jpg
0f7a751b7fec324428d3cddecacc78d7
40ef3a3d369afc5e75c3a5c569322b4a2c3bc6e4
F20110330_AABSNS smith_p_Page_170.tif
a6d4487de915612bd9f889d5fda7d7e4
7f32823f375d00f0ca28cd8ec6c019fb307ebbf2
89375 F20110330_AABTKL smith_p_Page_045.jpg
5dfcf61b2cafbfbbf6beed10b338a1c7
1b37e4ab3c34bb7bc46a83afb6ec081a6835f85c
2086 F20110330_AABUHE smith_p_Page_008thm.jpg
7fd5d285a48af0852fc8e02c6687f0c1
97e4ae6f2f68104eeb6a62f0471777e1f2839d8a
24286 F20110330_AABTXW smith_p_Page_219.QC.jpg
1a449776995a03faafb138cff6afe811
d8b0e6a054c6ae89c1b8b89e2ef861e6e585e08f
F20110330_AABSNT smith_p_Page_171.tif
bb02bd4f8d289995105a0742bc7d0ecb
7a73db098f0929271ef6cfbb55342bfa28c342c4
27639 F20110330_AABTKM smith_p_Page_045.QC.jpg
e92468019e7095114031d98408c7970d
17f25067e496f49db6b305b1bc089cdcee2c3c46
5596 F20110330_AABUHF smith_p_Page_009thm.jpg
e30e20873dfe64a93a488d2d47392a11
c2843d73777c266e8a8af6aa0291c53d4e9963c4
105626 F20110330_AABTXX smith_p_Page_220.jpg
f32666cafc4744f9fcebb2b068f2f48a
6fdff17b684dcc37b87b6d5aac3fe10bbcd18396
F20110330_AABSNU smith_p_Page_172.tif
d8bb55e0e94736ea4d6fab6f644219d8
9dc7ca52707f063790abcaa766fe0b219d2a78ed
84723 F20110330_AABTKN smith_p_Page_046.jpg
bf2d4d2bb7d0b3eedc3893792f73c272
0503cae9e1a10bcd4c22ce5b4c1a27af6e5759da
986 F20110330_AABUHG smith_p_Page_010thm.jpg
d65570a29372a9c90719514be89b73cd
ddd866ce65ce8d711a72f980af6673e1ba197390
28634 F20110330_AABTXY smith_p_Page_220.QC.jpg
693e45818433923564efc82464fc215d
eb1478f17b11d1c4466c4fc2cc69fa8291acd417
F20110330_AABSNV smith_p_Page_173.tif
05621227d6effa3a99d2ce20e16aea75
ebcfdca1d52db7be406fe44bec9f60d5e5dd5f7b
26370 F20110330_AABTKO smith_p_Page_046.QC.jpg
29b6c991090c1c6d1bc6ce375b0b42e4
023cb1398f59974768997b78783578628194a880
4445 F20110330_AABUHH smith_p_Page_011thm.jpg
c8318a844104dacf79e0b28d207c06bc
5f5852d84fa70d6293a545010d29955ea95ce68d
77664 F20110330_AABTXZ smith_p_Page_221.jpg
9506c330e765264a24b852001ed2dd5c
1c890e8bf09b918ecc8a622f2b831773a5f76cb5
F20110330_AABSNW smith_p_Page_174.tif
9037091aa6be4f882a69bd6add69ef88
f6e414b8dada5528430d0e9ca36484362e679e36
90476 F20110330_AABTKP smith_p_Page_047.jpg
e1113f69be6faa55ce8fa50cb284c83a
2b673c05897053ae21579c17b4670df81246b6de
5629 F20110330_AABUHI smith_p_Page_012thm.jpg
b860f7568792b8d55461d6be3955c6ea
f0a919b3017df851f2851fa22c69638d80797217
F20110330_AABSNX smith_p_Page_175.tif
9abeea48e9cb3271004f65187179055d
48009edb30c9b4f3337e9f7d9138af1537fdf385
27785 F20110330_AABTKQ smith_p_Page_047.QC.jpg
20020043d82d0f170d47afd70ecb113b
502bb177150d8a58d11ae40dba8d60be8b3d4548
6316 F20110330_AABUHJ smith_p_Page_013thm.jpg
3c12ec9ca78b4fb28a5dfe8ce0389302
eab201f60a27fab8cd7e4d255bf229c2fb5f30c5
F20110330_AABSNY smith_p_Page_176.tif
3cbc7656ae89ff6139ad825a59aef8d8
e5c86b470d2910c57fba558c479533a6d9089939
95376 F20110330_AABTKR smith_p_Page_048.jpg
473dfa87c9e01dfd3b50c9e04190b026
86c395f5eca8316e7f232aae39f1eccc12f6d704
6119 F20110330_AABUHK smith_p_Page_014thm.jpg
a7938c8b60ad73b43bfa5c58e7f78d0d
96aede47dc9c0b1c53659cce25c217cc904a9177
F20110330_AABSNZ smith_p_Page_177.tif
e9582e1917b5e9cabfb3b35852a4d9cc
de6aa4b9d2cc0415d484110a6293d05e8a2eb00f
28394 F20110330_AABTKS smith_p_Page_048.QC.jpg
2a406e2fc22a4d6558120e8824531e39
bd76042b197a8435601893d4f3e5419e600b0d27
6235 F20110330_AABUHL smith_p_Page_015thm.jpg
c91523f0782f9794324f28d13d15c200
8acb719bdcb185cb374c3b2c9e0931c2daf8d0fc
89563 F20110330_AABTKT smith_p_Page_049.jpg
da6764ae99b9a0663931bc6da1697460
ff0645ff76ab50145324cd1dbce19a2bd50112ac
6095 F20110330_AABUHM smith_p_Page_016thm.jpg
0d6676d798db5ccbe6486bea40b6a773
1b9f8e031f32e625d31b7c5ed67bbf9e9ff38211
26463 F20110330_AABTKU smith_p_Page_049.QC.jpg
fdc86877dbb9a7b0f6c3a56d8c012100
d9d4b04aae84f63d2c760a954b4263c143ad84b0
6086 F20110330_AABUHN smith_p_Page_017thm.jpg
301a36012fdea7768f4dab6bf2dacc6c
6379cd5e93ffabc50ba856c2ea0f128753575610
88949 F20110330_AABTKV smith_p_Page_050.jpg
94d9e29238cb47dc66fba2f0dd54efdc
00f0546a03afcea09852ee2288eb2271eb5c75fe
5991 F20110330_AABUHO smith_p_Page_018thm.jpg
2dd7e5589e6c6e2c27e9c2ef90067713
31231617117089b01a63e2536de55991e9ccf5f8
27502 F20110330_AABTKW smith_p_Page_050.QC.jpg
8a6ff3ea1c9cf171b9fda364d2e871e3
08ce5103fd5aca250ae898e3950d6417a9cde213
6181 F20110330_AABUHP smith_p_Page_019thm.jpg
59c909d325e09b8ee3dd48eacbc29150
0fba962ce44d8a39ce38d642a13fe487caea5295
86530 F20110330_AABTKX smith_p_Page_051.jpg
7e96e8a444c29f23cd496ef233a0115e
99662b00d0e563f80a966c1b0f6004f944dc22dc
6253 F20110330_AABUHQ smith_p_Page_020thm.jpg
bcf8bf7e2162abe72685cad6e8764bf8
56a36c74c6660b762ee60b12d3c268b02e13f41c
26527 F20110330_AABTKY smith_p_Page_051.QC.jpg
3e3efd24a70fc69c9279fb09fd2a59e3
7e305106d80045b68db7c8621e8982fbe40a98f6
6010 F20110330_AABUHR smith_p_Page_021thm.jpg
d2e32f5821475e61b4c59805b9e4fab8
8458b6a67c94e1950c5b7997782aed2efdedf020
70147 F20110330_AABTKZ smith_p_Page_052.jpg
d2d7dca32642278f1f9ee22e459152ea
aa1aad82bc2c06c55fd21fb3a9571a2d7ac646ec
5894 F20110330_AABUHS smith_p_Page_022thm.jpg
cedea3031806df2d9b17458dff928cfe
163ca5bfe12c356a141d232cca23cd94e351b1ee
5990 F20110330_AABUHT smith_p_Page_023thm.jpg
472f03a33bc37b948f161cfa37563ab8
05ff12aba3172762dbaba22585f22f35de8f285c
2240 F20110330_AABSTA smith_p_Page_084.txt
16a7d15f593df7c0993c9d41e38f5e57
9d88398d889c3fdf59286f14a64eaf8b5d1d9b14
6146 F20110330_AABUHU smith_p_Page_024thm.jpg
b49f487d6c0538414e472a0c5c45db5c
6ca98880a3a7186261fb277e167fd9afceb6ab4c
1414 F20110330_AABSTB smith_p_Page_085.txt
6efed626d57a210c5f317e22d46975ab
e83a84956de0e9d3781ee071ad48e434700be234
6189 F20110330_AABUHV smith_p_Page_025thm.jpg
5323f369e14d0f8938582e2deeeb3750
ea0adf175445390dfe75ce13bd2b277ecdb93784
1845 F20110330_AABSTC smith_p_Page_086.txt
8a4d7d723d9d63cb8ca45f9c54c50f77
a003ee0852935aa8bec5215492700c3c48c33836
5721 F20110330_AABUHW smith_p_Page_026thm.jpg
b34789a8ba57f8a3f950cdbdb871dd3d
37e9877432071461738e2c4176929a9145a47e57
1528 F20110330_AABSTD smith_p_Page_087.txt
c86739216e2ba2c87d6a1213f92dedda
34e6510a32f70d139e612d9e7555d721883f0599
6071 F20110330_AABUHX smith_p_Page_027thm.jpg
72a5b33bc89010d7d26e456a37c9f02e
a6ceefbf0a97a2d37e0fc30ce784238c5314a536
1959 F20110330_AABSTE smith_p_Page_088.txt
b8c0cfd8f87d90526d1e4c20fb3b33d5
1740c9a4543c57f2693cf696f97b23d419d9ef46
5768 F20110330_AABUHY smith_p_Page_028thm.jpg
23885b094656b6c47e72db40c55cd7f6
6be91024e8b8b1469b67b048998c6da117b45866
2021 F20110330_AABSTF smith_p_Page_089.txt
be8167d42a55269e0fbb7da095f12921
2ae7f390fb4f9c0e7a544b35cbada4e4aef1ccaf
6540 F20110330_AABUHZ smith_p_Page_029thm.jpg
a91ecc253d70e57e09491bbfbb20f6fb
ebd751799390bdb118ccf9cdddec4eb0d94e643f
1235 F20110330_AABSTG smith_p_Page_090.txt
b4a4d0cfa94131ce5cdfa3c80f57693b
d1d87abca242f79ea53a64aa295fc1d3ad27431b
8944 F20110330_AABTQA smith_p_Page_117.QC.jpg
e0662b120170ab47daae84a60f842b23
85212c5fef230205df6cff7c4745d3231f96889e
63534 F20110330_AABTQB smith_p_Page_118.jpg
cdf776f266360933163b324590dc51a2
ba5568a3594636f5a5057a3b306fe4f757462154
2074 F20110330_AABSTH smith_p_Page_091.txt
cdc63318cddea1a0e1b4ceb332e4e833
3040b0615e5bd9e326a752c6428594b38b32621f
17339 F20110330_AABTQC smith_p_Page_118.QC.jpg
0cf116ee3be8fc8a3507c871e0f0aede
4486d7d8c5b9340d6e81347464f63f66992d488f
2085 F20110330_AABSTI smith_p_Page_092.txt
9e11d6597d9938be74fac293e6aedd18
7453ef0f6d78c5a45821341d2eb5c3414f83264a
2092 F20110330_AABSTJ smith_p_Page_093.txt
132d0c69dc9813738ccd5bb9c9eb90b8
f60294769689e080c685155c0a8575b7d749cb25
52537 F20110330_AABTQD smith_p_Page_119.jpg
ebbdd0f106cbf9ba1f7859a61ec4dce3
52e606d44be05f4bddc83dfbfb4984f9149fce25
1953 F20110330_AABSTK smith_p_Page_094.txt
e01799cd5c509a9be2c06e1cb9c921e5
e0ffe85cbb492e89a97a5ca2679830cca24cbc91
14735 F20110330_AABTQE smith_p_Page_119.QC.jpg
888bcec398a4b90cbb7c8fceab10de4b
8726944e16f3cb8de6c4fa9d9117a5edaf4403f6
1309 F20110330_AABSTL smith_p_Page_095.txt
4f15fa4491e155f208aaa81db25fdd05
b8a6a5d66afd0e38976ec939c70d342d93bcfb32
56314 F20110330_AABTQF smith_p_Page_120.jpg
afbf6b314f31be69ed98a7d8bcc40b50
4e42228f6179f9255ccb7359a62e115a651fc13b
1230 F20110330_AABSTM smith_p_Page_096.txt
920fa5f859c56f76c425f8b772fc45ec
55bbe1c1043bfbe655e1f0f47b4e1a5e16a5cbc9
14900 F20110330_AABTQG smith_p_Page_120.QC.jpg
b791dd5a78ef8eed5a7e6c106669bbf4
b31f1ddb00c37b069b64b772960dad30db4c146e
1935 F20110330_AABSTN smith_p_Page_097.txt
a2a3f62f3f79c4293488c8eeaba0afed
ffbd12e50be239347acd33a71760f1a77da5bcca
47776 F20110330_AABTQH smith_p_Page_121.jpg
4dee63849fa06cec9803d6560369681b
506f57d56159755b508097b8d60c49836a0ce3ed
3994 F20110330_AABUNA smith_p_Page_160thm.jpg
9d32191f4cbf1f541023ad42370047c0
7020dddfe8d623dfc4c94608fc9fc96aecf2666c
1970 F20110330_AABSTO smith_p_Page_098.txt
da7399157a61ab4fb7e7ee0cf66c5e2c
7930f87a5eb21b4fd3774182db8530661ef5e9bb
13097 F20110330_AABTQI smith_p_Page_121.QC.jpg
50665c932a61490e455b8ef768b3894f
994ac2478b4447b91bb4713dfecae1b0b1b9bff6
3858 F20110330_AABUNB smith_p_Page_161thm.jpg
24c01e144cc806969fb7743dfa9b3266
a7b8ef8d76caad9222890a8839a69ac9f4014b58
2013 F20110330_AABSTP smith_p_Page_099.txt
5f7678bbfd32f50e127bcff0cb47153f
303f87dfc1a1adf9a67cf7763b8994721fa8cc70
61417 F20110330_AABTQJ smith_p_Page_122.jpg
57a55b30fb9596a925734bf6c1fdb7b8
9fbdace60d89ec243769f0eff6b360eee9ecc83e
5042 F20110330_AABUNC smith_p_Page_162thm.jpg
6a6c715baee8e403d63a1291143b1b7b
a5f388277bfc0c107c82e7c947500688ea426ceb
1434 F20110330_AABSTQ smith_p_Page_100.txt
aee4d8e5b0cedb6600c39faca589df89
f64331b179607f20f130663d7a807409cf2c8111
17531 F20110330_AABTQK smith_p_Page_122.QC.jpg
5dead2b4ffc5eca6bb13d2724a4ee5f7
7d64959c0d297ab481e0d94154852bf595dee10d
3464 F20110330_AABUND smith_p_Page_163thm.jpg
995ece4120ed0d17b3ed30d097b9ea34
7ff849ce25db9fdc1a5fc0bc832e9f6773153c40
F20110330_AABSTR smith_p_Page_101.txt
795eb44207e5da25192c4b06cb397540
1e39bc080df0d2f7ff7d251301971d1b39174283
74565 F20110330_AABTQL smith_p_Page_123.jpg
82e84b9e63c2f7f032fb35beef0f2b3c
fcb7112d76d5eab9cf635907ec9546e9f4cb5116
4556 F20110330_AABUNE smith_p_Page_164thm.jpg
89f76c86122263414371fc877fca05b0
0685f5e8035944accdf22bb08ca1abdd2152811d
31004 F20110330_AABTDA smith_p_Page_120.pro
b8a20e3fe6045b3778d34b16d73ed570
438bbbf41ff83f9f72ddadca5725d899d33dd47a
1339 F20110330_AABSTS smith_p_Page_102.txt
20266e315d726c103a04ff23985bbbf6
6c5c4bfe2e66d64a371407947e1b7f0cca578a9e
20051 F20110330_AABTQM smith_p_Page_123.QC.jpg
542a5a44305d060f6331083a86819fd3
d834eeccb341c74fca1c92ff528866d8686541e4
4955 F20110330_AABUNF smith_p_Page_165thm.jpg
df8de2dd0b1c16863e2888256690feab
ab4df8f112749a6334af6d8a0d566bb7209ce049
24476 F20110330_AABTDB smith_p_Page_121.pro
e6e707643769042764b2ab859b5660e5
5dec366f413812efb1173abb1abcff8fcca2d938
2031 F20110330_AABSTT smith_p_Page_103.txt
437c8524eb278b2a43e439d8308c542f
4371f8c55e532615d4e6ebfdfb8a0bfc4bad5ec2
79554 F20110330_AABTQN smith_p_Page_124.jpg
6c49093cc5bda26f82eeebccc7af2368
5d47ef8f3f71e88caa4ebe836263bb3db6f541d0
3528 F20110330_AABUNG smith_p_Page_166thm.jpg
80a7e81ef532037ae680f5dd30d6fc46
098b548b4e35bf217966190854488605bdfe3354
34873 F20110330_AABTDC smith_p_Page_122.pro
9be311bd91f75aebaf5712a023a0296a
dadaa874bb6751be1b3f38d1741684455c92e91c
2286 F20110330_AABSTU smith_p_Page_104.txt
5309316625514ded6d0726a0b7c25dcf
a9dc7040bfe18e2fc3ddcb0e735e111fe338682c
21682 F20110330_AABTQO smith_p_Page_124.QC.jpg
c4cf631d6ee5ad12f0a82c49d2ae629b
520869d1e03f5694085092523635fa4d7b17086e
3773 F20110330_AABUNH smith_p_Page_167thm.jpg
905b88623d9456409648decf18e5d32a
0a91769029d683f04368e82c912de199e6c33b2a
42194 F20110330_AABTDD smith_p_Page_123.pro
a09b19ec4c013b91bb752568435ca82b
53f9b5074c8a0110c82f41c16e4d69e10e08cef7
1860 F20110330_AABSTV smith_p_Page_105.txt
7ead253c62910b96978b54979fe0b3f4
e799897a8046fe90ef37eb2e10777d9a7610c257
65114 F20110330_AABTQP smith_p_Page_125.jpg
a2c5d24de093e44b88c60d32c50523b6
376b7df593fbbbab1f069d2bc4fdf24a8b6fe525
4365 F20110330_AABUNI smith_p_Page_168thm.jpg
6113e54adf6f065ab7934171bb4fa7be
5ed5a3250cc54d4441e86623d496f2994bcfe848
43934 F20110330_AABTDE smith_p_Page_124.pro
16c2e894d35309cdfa575a693b5c1eae
4f5b14b506262152be283455af75097d2a55b00e
1343 F20110330_AABSTW smith_p_Page_106.txt
279f7fb887eb209accf950e736cb72c0
4d9278e50e2ea9715ba603a932d9eef53d250b16
17848 F20110330_AABTQQ smith_p_Page_125.QC.jpg
77a734ee48573db59307e7569812f7e7
b717276723caf05ca5acb8fad0f13ed0ce2eda6d
4604 F20110330_AABUNJ smith_p_Page_169thm.jpg
6670c6058180c55ac6bbd4a85ce8c45f
8277b519192b3af1207077c1e44b0b22ac039b8b
37157 F20110330_AABTDF smith_p_Page_125.pro
154bfa4d15787a2462c457e8d9c6f95b
5613f47819d8e2c8aa08bda1faa5f9c1bbf175f3
2035 F20110330_AABSTX smith_p_Page_107.txt
ed449995f5cbd018d2ce7f76571dbcb2
03e0e315174c731300cf77b1a2ca08a24b77a7a0
62685 F20110330_AABTQR smith_p_Page_126.jpg
9095a75258de0bf907f3843bb7298469
e959f0ea02d053ef92b586ce43e8ebf11ab88b6b
5372 F20110330_AABUNK smith_p_Page_170thm.jpg
c45ccd636ec08fb94b73e9cf7848238a
9239a255f2d16813dc608b39bbe185c2f407d8d4
34757 F20110330_AABTDG smith_p_Page_126.pro
99a04656deb3d88ca60ef380c52bc496
6fdb316c101c9e23e4a28aa59647365767913ec9
1948 F20110330_AABSTY smith_p_Page_108.txt
86461f5c63c8d47f388a1b7bb4850e9d
c087382890fcfc3cb448a8a070703ee59bfa9080
107871 F20110330_AABUAA smith_p_Page_046.jp2
a63efe73616b6b6a16dfb2d479e2e7ab
c5618ff0a5cd99b146436d4b42195e8705a82d30
16689 F20110330_AABTQS smith_p_Page_126.QC.jpg
31b7cdf9d6b6740ea6fe05ecaea70f47
78317717ac84206d2473f74d9bb087482b036b92
5867 F20110330_AABUNL smith_p_Page_171thm.jpg
48b3c99a44e448f3c19d89f2bab9d1ff
a2ec97a86edac1e26f8986e1ba23ef75f9e67fd0
33184 F20110330_AABTDH smith_p_Page_127.pro
4a1461189602310321760c0a274ae291
aea98f9dce9ae2bd55f5227a2ac0f5218d8d2b58
1089 F20110330_AABSTZ smith_p_Page_109.txt
ffffd57bf59884aff7467396a33d35fc
cb8528ffcbafd8118557c874cb626cd30eafbccb
117897 F20110330_AABUAB smith_p_Page_047.jp2
f8aa05329cd58e513db8bdcc70bd0bf6
366e7a1050b3ff1c211ba799d01aae76a9ec5803
59256 F20110330_AABTQT smith_p_Page_127.jpg
84d8f95bbb00da3a33b427c55b91254d
1c17e919b27ba210d2cc285780866b4ee97d9266
5995 F20110330_AABUNM smith_p_Page_172thm.jpg
921d4d07876f5ed3a82f3356a344343a
2f6c07a32c4caab09c81a6b275a2e3dea32246bc
29784 F20110330_AABTDI smith_p_Page_128.pro
e978871cd76eaa9c1283ac2e7e7b14d5
166e85a3c976e019a7cb3531c3b998d6c734061e
126982 F20110330_AABUAC smith_p_Page_048.jp2
c95cb23c6d8d39ff8a5597c00eb0e094
4ed7ca05f8e42e6234aa8530fefb4c416bc97b39
16224 F20110330_AABTQU smith_p_Page_127.QC.jpg
04ee6d8cac14447889a730c32c9b75ed
a590734ed9b5d14c2c2b4b991f1112a6626f16e6
5841 F20110330_AABUNN smith_p_Page_173thm.jpg
f9e3b28025868ba9cd3aae494003cfce
002e1a42884c6023a52b6876323369a9d5472665
37375 F20110330_AABTDJ smith_p_Page_129.pro
5318390c8d4685056bbc4a54df9466b6
52314155e4ed720082639e87eb75cb2c95daeee9
117434 F20110330_AABUAD smith_p_Page_049.jp2
1c3b6d0439f17346b60d54f34efae806
63b3b4629dcbdded73e30859b4ffe9899e290799
53891 F20110330_AABTQV smith_p_Page_128.jpg
182810473859e530c5ecfd537179c8b9
c496080c2fc6f826e63f369b7c83b7c47c81d13e
6319 F20110330_AABUNO smith_p_Page_174thm.jpg
835fc63c5521eddbb46354268946b7cc
8479cd7cc81387e04eeb7757f42e2489be9c811f
31121 F20110330_AABTDK smith_p_Page_130.pro
a8f1ad62ee9537a65e901e9bf126af8f
705998972656e12033f16ac8f8bfd2d1d12b1705
114801 F20110330_AABUAE smith_p_Page_050.jp2
b75ef8a49c61390e8d98c9d049dcd0b4
6c1da7502fdd91bd39db65e708e8eaf6eb6bf411
15108 F20110330_AABTQW smith_p_Page_128.QC.jpg
7c4499bba01b0107c8b7e8edd5ecb8a1
0b4236fd44f4fb3d6a9ee06d6a441af97db92f9f
2338 F20110330_AABUNP smith_p_Page_175thm.jpg
51c4c66aa9b70bf0ac32fb5b94006d6d
0e565574aa0d69f35fba1960e24d7eee302b2219
32937 F20110330_AABTDL smith_p_Page_131.pro
37f950ce0d68225b95afc139058c1d18
ef09fcd1854445cecb3f127a768cf68ef590e20c
113304 F20110330_AABUAF smith_p_Page_051.jp2
75dee2c91727e09bb98bfff2e306c604
91becf40e21ad30ea218448aafb54cd863e9c1c5
65317 F20110330_AABTQX smith_p_Page_129.jpg
344e5e110b6f3ac8f524883bbf004e39
2dde8734434f357d345f987aed7895230044de45
5532 F20110330_AABUNQ smith_p_Page_176thm.jpg
91ca5981207cbbfa788c612ba699f3c3
56460baef1aa51097ea6e7ea204f7e8101a4c491
35390 F20110330_AABTDM smith_p_Page_132.pro
2e215769f8053bf849fdadd96b919e58
425e7006b74d3fa4454f9f3e0cffd5198b422899
955006 F20110330_AABUAG smith_p_Page_052.jp2
b5be00a9fa8073e93b9a558f624687d4
508160d16c372946c82e93bc3827b77fc5d032cd
17787 F20110330_AABTQY smith_p_Page_129.QC.jpg
0c5a909b27246d4096ab2a302414790f
2a89a45e81730891c6d6f5706f8e8e30d6b169c9
6722 F20110330_AABUNR smith_p_Page_177thm.jpg
526662e5e4ee8bdb519bc075cc358234
366dc207fdb63dd99608d42df2b4260c04f98bf3
42800 F20110330_AABTDN smith_p_Page_133.pro
0b53021e9e9a7f95781cf3d182245194
a103d52c8f00b87c1628f256ab3ce7602afc3573
119610 F20110330_AABUAH smith_p_Page_053.jp2
fae181503d6700b3014659d67d589e08
17fe3c3376b5b4b588e33ab85eaafd592f8a74a3
57601 F20110330_AABTQZ smith_p_Page_130.jpg
3bcb932ebc2cd4be4be75f83d71bdee9
25c45d1ee01bc6b739071997e1a315cf27f5587d
6514 F20110330_AABUNS smith_p_Page_178thm.jpg
5e3c3907dbf800047bf417e877bd643f
54934e58abb33e1e978e95b76d03614da6cee3a3
35655 F20110330_AABTDO smith_p_Page_134.pro
9912cceb9f3ca0b18733c80237738552
f666ea187d2af0e845f9a912cff9967e01df3d2b
108865 F20110330_AABUAI smith_p_Page_054.jp2
ab35c976e29daf3816a3431e684e6c58
734b063edaa9a3d52eafa348e2bd21e96d25af30
6060 F20110330_AABUNT smith_p_Page_179thm.jpg
28233a2bb5640e7984b1e4ea41a7c8c1
77cff511168729df101e24cb9bbb8a52cd13713a
30374 F20110330_AABTDP smith_p_Page_135.pro
0236de87761d00ee70daf3c22e42160a
61a75850e9d944c8b1fe033d9551f94a042b9ef2
1051971 F20110330_AABUAJ smith_p_Page_055.jp2
b3055fde7112f095e0792362bdc40646
6cbbf9dc5d50160e11c6e2cae420619300372c72
5987 F20110330_AABUNU smith_p_Page_180thm.jpg
b729b93b1f40cddb0ed4bb3c733f5233
7a655a6e801df301f6d38a8ad5e444a6c0797ac0
48444 F20110330_AABSZA smith_p_Page_016.pro
9f2803dbc9efdde25e6ecc7d0fe5a9ee
48cacec579e4b0ebcb073cc6e5f88d30d396ab64
19707 F20110330_AABTDQ smith_p_Page_136.pro
a368d0cf8b4e93ec935529a041b44ac6
0555c4cfcb843fad6aff6bf576e727287dffd506
118611 F20110330_AABUAK smith_p_Page_056.jp2
98103628f386916a2ee537a0671144f0
63234e2c61c6a7b879f4f7104722822d278cb946
6739 F20110330_AABUNV smith_p_Page_181thm.jpg
2cab8b6ad196eb91c1f508aaac6ae5a8
68bc908fb6696a13f52564c569f417954e3aa6c9
46758 F20110330_AABSZB smith_p_Page_017.pro
e131c23f4ff4b0812404417556c579ae
309bcf6522ed8156f32807e93a07e3c6e78fdefe
46614 F20110330_AABTDR smith_p_Page_137.pro
0ad9d1b85106c4f758cc0851807d63c2
a79867ca9a9939681dc3a9f5e1850a6af8395ff0
124899 F20110330_AABUAL smith_p_Page_057.jp2
4f1d2d82dfba9d7fe2c5e2a072062712
00c5100199b79a15cc10bda9a388d6ff0166c805
6254 F20110330_AABUNW smith_p_Page_182thm.jpg
887d327223aac7f2340b44b226f5e5ac
f8fcb3a95c84a22881ba369eb862814df328feae
46631 F20110330_AABSZC smith_p_Page_018.pro
172fd610f4f8a7ee7fc6f7eec359174c
73aef1a4191bccf46550c0e7913b6093da3c7b46
43985 F20110330_AABTDS smith_p_Page_138.pro
671de793df8675de9fdb446870ea7ef8
c554504105d402992005fa546a54a00502e35aa1
103080 F20110330_AABUAM smith_p_Page_058.jp2
7ab8761dc57378196d4f7d3557cee484
8b27e967fe06766acf69b357e6365e058bc6ac8a
6660 F20110330_AABUNX smith_p_Page_183thm.jpg
52c3596fdd0da3714f2d4c27e6361299
4b7841269d9ea290769584bd05a44eeded525406
49122 F20110330_AABSZD smith_p_Page_019.pro
9f60a5096982a6c85ebdc7fc37f65a33
afa808fbe91b9e6655c390a8d2e8ae1fa577bc5e
45246 F20110330_AABTDT smith_p_Page_139.pro
26f70fcfec4705d75f17d7d968828953
91dd26b8924ef97746c607bbf95b4625ea259edf
122642 F20110330_AABUAN smith_p_Page_059.jp2
b063aeb5753bf449941242306dc60200
69e26ea190ac9250ce373ca4a18be594a66b074f
5304 F20110330_AABUNY smith_p_Page_184thm.jpg
1b230e13274d3088b482f2a872ad399e
6d6a2a521a3d2e383541cda6da2d2c19d786f31b
49564 F20110330_AABSZE smith_p_Page_020.pro
4ec526e2139311f76e1cf7bbf6296e21
edb2387d2d9b9fafab135d4c9f43408c49b3a785
36188 F20110330_AABTDU smith_p_Page_140.pro
d5fb80cf26b94f264b7f2f735ebca83b
a6c230c343f93121a43cb2af260ed97fa2048ba0
114900 F20110330_AABUAO smith_p_Page_060.jp2
6681379714bd1b8beb467bdb64de802e
08ee6c17bd3daf7bf252c4204cacb95e0c22960b
6476 F20110330_AABUNZ smith_p_Page_185thm.jpg
88415ae8ef11a2baf078e0ce59a1a08b
0ae17ecae75c444bfde6cb18b9754a685afe5711
48046 F20110330_AABSZF smith_p_Page_021.pro
82672afb6d1fe81a8b79152c9cfbd7c9
b36c53e0a4805f5c3cd661111e13c1455a345c39
28188 F20110330_AABTDV smith_p_Page_141.pro
f3226d132c2a9f29b2e4b27248407023
5b49d0e23553bd83f9417854767916d77b4a0b1c
1051985 F20110330_AABUAP smith_p_Page_061.jp2
ac06d7ab72480e98cbf667bc35ebdc8b
9671c0105f58e9019f47e744002f7c0a84dbb772
49106 F20110330_AABSZG smith_p_Page_022.pro
ed6c3bc2bad0188ec9b803aac619c2c4
8799165667d54a81c31dec6db704c0a9046cd44d
23256 F20110330_AABTWA smith_p_Page_195.QC.jpg
429dc725f716b5e8fa869432aacff4a4
e3c1751cdde05ce69382f84b1bc712631ff91b8e
115139 F20110330_AABUAQ smith_p_Page_062.jp2
678ee504a038c6ac65f141f4789d2546
48eb0e0e9cfa9fe16d605b02aff3e26a84fc7874
48761 F20110330_AABSZH smith_p_Page_023.pro
44c955026328bf19b343a330c89a9b76
ef6eb8c73f77007ef013bdb745104b63a3db1d0b
27175 F20110330_AABTDW smith_p_Page_142.pro
4ced05d18c470056ca0166602af9d575
168b90f1875368482539af422d6577cbf3ed4136
88672 F20110330_AABTWB smith_p_Page_196.jpg
f8e869f5060ade30632daec6b840110c
938743444522663e0e4b8127799907843e71cd9b
120040 F20110330_AABUAR smith_p_Page_063.jp2
7086c733eaec29cb0254830bf01adc6f
23075ee9ae2e9f18b3421d4caef2f38e4a751bce
50556 F20110330_AABSZI smith_p_Page_024.pro
db5e3a2fb48a0fd8b47b2538b7c7f79d
8215b1eb4c2e762ec534b0138009c11115fdfda6
36073 F20110330_AABTDX smith_p_Page_143.pro
1088e1f45d3550b889ad6be1f5c219af
9977e73bd822a07fe06a77084882e09653649a00
27964 F20110330_AABTWC smith_p_Page_196.QC.jpg
3867711c4af797c53b3f1f408fac8d25
6be6757bc0cce109090c1ff31f1a5db54d36f078
48626 F20110330_AABSZJ smith_p_Page_025.pro
72b8f3512278f32eae43586362957459
2c983a3a4458e99564fef0037fde47d946ed70be
39895 F20110330_AABTDY smith_p_Page_144.pro
d9244dbea2c2c66472d18f5acbbd2823
a1535a14e30af08d6f402a10568dc92a05a88775
85929 F20110330_AABTWD smith_p_Page_197.jpg
8787b66b2cd83eff348ee9f43c37cabb
024b52ea5805671235f902e7da4e6274c90816e5
107671 F20110330_AABUAS smith_p_Page_064.jp2
8fdc3fc3a11ff59e2b69192dc47f9962
68524f9e1dfd94f8c835d5485deaf069c7800c06
46271 F20110330_AABSZK smith_p_Page_026.pro
f511e843161913c0764bffb93f80afac
934fb43d1ea1003232f931a5b3420f8f65ef4a8d
36901 F20110330_AABTDZ smith_p_Page_145.pro
a3d25ca4213d71a742d68df740dedd87
4178192426b019749c97446e88de88c6035f69ba
26827 F20110330_AABTWE smith_p_Page_197.QC.jpg
54d529a32724917206efff11602a717d
3fbec5c31e674a5d5ce2e5d7ad0da8702a9177db
1051982 F20110330_AABUAT smith_p_Page_065.jp2
04d817535608e83f8ff865f0efda966a
805f83bc39ce0e063730c79b36cd47dadf6e800a
48385 F20110330_AABSZL smith_p_Page_027.pro
bb7676afc2c9f6b90c04ae0c51d48605
a79a8dc1c39298d50622fe2c4c46131fd200d516
78265 F20110330_AABTWF smith_p_Page_198.jpg
05f686f413329a5421c8c3f1ae196d03
b8ce0584f59d1906a44c177532c94174d34d03c6
F20110330_AABUAU smith_p_Page_066.jp2
26f09d622b88c1ee7e83e74f6632798d
5623ea66748f2b2e3a745ab4da208ca6a16ee1b4
F20110330_AABSMA smith_p_Page_126.tif
5717c37ad8fffc7a9b2abd82129b051e
f0e7b0df370f562e20ea76fa5e8fb5c014275003
45619 F20110330_AABSZM smith_p_Page_028.pro
ea7ffb380bc7f6c34134f113c5f7e829
eb628ab83f742097c4c0a3189cde81f4e2aef976
24650 F20110330_AABTWG smith_p_Page_198.QC.jpg
5e5ad57c0ef753b17c8abbf2a4a9474e
c655842c8b7fe11b0113c43c99460eec38f4ea11
130750 F20110330_AABUAV smith_p_Page_067.jp2
fbb8854b4da3a35a92e90a9409438adb
159da96a9c0efee8ea35a85edf7b99fefee47a6e
F20110330_AABSMB smith_p_Page_127.tif
db935aee4ec4371ee1985fb04436e979
0789b88d4bc1d36a1173f8c93a32ca59e64cf4c0
81983 F20110330_AABTWH smith_p_Page_199.jpg
3313917f1ff564e2cfbad56d1727ed18
a5d3283002d23833b794d4eb8236cab6c5b8fa84
120364 F20110330_AABUAW smith_p_Page_068.jp2
f4f6d34cda9f9be6811bd06d5da0239d
7605ab338d6b434498b53c3de7f777550c03fb10
F20110330_AABSMC smith_p_Page_128.tif
905d89ae88b6e2f5126300f0b0d5c4ba
dd133fdcf8add6eb6a5a78457d71b5ebfd96e069
48799 F20110330_AABSZN smith_p_Page_029.pro
139e11f579d19df2296a901e1f213fe5
8fbbff78b4f021e2e84a5579c6e8696a16ff3039
1051802 F20110330_AABUAX smith_p_Page_069.jp2
150ec3c0e4076c704e57c3eb48a71c07
5361a91bd3b4fb3181620ff934daa907faa2b1fa
F20110330_AABSMD smith_p_Page_129.tif
852e8e9d7b47c5bffdd432ec549610f7
c4cc2438960a10c0bed4d86e38923ac0da4b615a
44071 F20110330_AABSZO smith_p_Page_030.pro
2f867fb008664ad84e876ce34e9cd9f0
91e797a5153a6c195eb57ad48f0ec83927e3e778
25944 F20110330_AABTWI smith_p_Page_199.QC.jpg
6b606e75db2111adcbf0973c2ab76b2d
8435c99b45812a3563844f19513d04804f6b7f1e
1051920 F20110330_AABUAY smith_p_Page_070.jp2
0fb1b08506bcf3a1101368ffaad00788
ff392fcd84063b229403c2b957d78fe4912370d3
F20110330_AABSME smith_p_Page_130.tif
3ae43daadc4d4caa5b0eb5c9c22dbb63
89e845a4784a34f33117f63218ce9b2ee69d7e49
47855 F20110330_AABSZP smith_p_Page_031.pro
d511f1c82100482616c0876541db4926
b3caaab2cbbd5abe1afe25b5037ff70999d184e2
F20110330_AABSMF smith_p_Page_131.tif
42001fe2acb8046a8df69e94e796580e
29eea16d419f0f26309d43b7c2941258b711e27f
44002 F20110330_AABSZQ smith_p_Page_032.pro
1e964fab5527051ad19cc808ea711a33
e35b134483a49f325ed77f3c391a29a1e117e2b0
86655 F20110330_AABTWJ smith_p_Page_200.jpg
a3fcc0c29e9f01da810b9613183ff55c
12f4810e4c85be760a44ff2bcdb4ff59f11da47c
61145 F20110330_AABUAZ smith_p_Page_071.jp2
2bbd71835fe30469640d40abb0b586d7
b4c0530974e2f964130663df37205031b13bf2b5
F20110330_AABSMG smith_p_Page_132.tif
59028337336a49f17fb8f7e2d722b9c3
745f272759bdbbf40c950b696db6b0ba67b7c777
50406 F20110330_AABSZR smith_p_Page_033.pro
3606c641a8c7888119cb68fffd78119b
f0a9eb26ca9f2e0af065575e10196ef5d953be99
27285 F20110330_AABTWK smith_p_Page_200.QC.jpg
bca728d276ed94406785b59d6406721c
3a6edd69a4cccbed3388baf1eb5bb2f150f1c02b
F20110330_AABSMH smith_p_Page_133.tif
a298278aa2c42e1c85737ff23fb896c5
ab93a1ee06ba95cdc68ad41587bd0516b7bb9d78
24011 F20110330_AABTJA smith_p_Page_026.QC.jpg
b78dbd3dd67bcdccaa778da1a0aa6df9
790c519bd8140e9b7c90c0e3d1e48b86c5c383cd
41448 F20110330_AABSZS smith_p_Page_034.pro
07a28c245839b277d8545d0604e3f725
9fb62b2906e8478287d20792bc6a4bf467ac2993
78033 F20110330_AABTWL smith_p_Page_201.jpg
78aa8799304c40b83b204a414f9eeecb
20c49eb318ba28c26b199a49ef1d0a8005afd093
F20110330_AABSMI smith_p_Page_134.tif
44e0b575381f033e2cbb8a951164c915
063d1abd47c3e343b9aba7f81e929edc63d51392
80229 F20110330_AABTJB smith_p_Page_027.jpg
ad68ca497b68828fdf5497954c6ecf11
eec33737831cb4cd62beb0f82f53a558f8e74f0a
40778 F20110330_AABSZT smith_p_Page_035.pro
98536cc4e73aa10e9a02978517a50581
512784d6bc6a4ca2d4cb7b4b20e0a152bce15a8a
24172 F20110330_AABTWM smith_p_Page_201.QC.jpg
0278ddcab226126e6be16f5c5460abbd
890ea8a6ab76baed7690a6692296de134fb23207
F20110330_AABSMJ smith_p_Page_135.tif
037d6e6f98706977d4a2e2d76dac245c
cb2e55698c9fbd1c6c56788259b4a264c685a2bc
25237 F20110330_AABTJC smith_p_Page_027.QC.jpg
30e474eaf78f376e728e041e7a952b48
da69c10eaa0cc728691bcd25abf076487b37e9a3
40285 F20110330_AABSZU smith_p_Page_036.pro
063b4407422f2a55da8b7a4063e28eab
813ed4efe23f87e50e004648b1a850bc774b0bbf
87554 F20110330_AABTWN smith_p_Page_202.jpg
8c90802d96bd7e8989f862fc41cf1632
b63162006006e840c413c59c7fe68e9ac830ab57
F20110330_AABSMK smith_p_Page_136.tif
bc44df7465272ae93b43cff41ce3c164
a8e196680ca6411ddb3951f9128f843ec45d844c
76001 F20110330_AABTJD smith_p_Page_028.jpg
f3f2501060b1044087c90d1d26686a7c
fa8772a15854d8fedf8a0840c6b2e24b09911a0a
42704 F20110330_AABSZV smith_p_Page_037.pro
a74a09363c0665c0a11f5c98a94ae535
e438fa8943b0a880efdbbf39c86a6538c863900d
27601 F20110330_AABTWO smith_p_Page_202.QC.jpg
37e6d44a160187f94cdf3981c6f48f6d
5bb5f4a55c99113f16137700518d13dc62978586
F20110330_AABSML smith_p_Page_137.tif
81c04990f0abdc25d30b7c707e1148f7
9e8deffa2c05b5be0c476550dbd54c2ec9392f28
23958 F20110330_AABTJE smith_p_Page_028.QC.jpg
4573d73a9a2b74928803f3ddcaafa1c3
540f612f2d29391d106574b8db826a944a589076
48272 F20110330_AABSZW smith_p_Page_038.pro
da5892bd55b33b0a12cbc06827c08fdb
42d5b67221326d7211c21360b643c000744bb93e
78543 F20110330_AABTWP smith_p_Page_203.jpg
f048ffccc3fd6190e93626f3305ef819
435226383dd7457a6bf7615a1ce9d2ec3a3bb995
F20110330_AABSMM smith_p_Page_138.tif
961de207f6ad3a93d58f2f95acb516d5
99df828939b349abae643c9aa851ce34d62b1cd7
82591 F20110330_AABTJF smith_p_Page_029.jpg
9239079b85d4b4bc0ed1ae5804c03f67
22365495e8ca9c92bd8af73ea373d07443f13932
42060 F20110330_AABSZX smith_p_Page_039.pro
81e3ecbfb3f7771ee267b00b652a32f6
b14cb3c396ecf4448271795b4a7f701cf1139003
24824 F20110330_AABTWQ smith_p_Page_203.QC.jpg
cab42478e30212a8d7af2844095767c2
858f607d5f2c662754eada3859bb9e5d23f96ecc
F20110330_AABSMN smith_p_Page_139.tif
c71436e0fa961d741f59f38f11d06109
5aadbe974b605b9b58d38f48db5c458ca785ce63
25747 F20110330_AABTJG smith_p_Page_029.QC.jpg
c590505930ca67a88b278fb183860dc7
61ef47f48fe2e279f3ff59ba8f3a3aa12773b5db
46911 F20110330_AABSZY smith_p_Page_040.pro
6336b73643906564bde721bd2fd3456f
2e3458ebfd4a2120216393bec8ec72761c7138b4
76352 F20110330_AABTWR smith_p_Page_204.jpg
e24bd9397614fafdb306609c732366ea
84d0595710d0cf58504fc8c910121ede538d640b
F20110330_AABSMO smith_p_Page_140.tif
143a88c75e908c2f672428aeaad5469f
af9909007453c6a0553ebb39ebc0f8edee1b3391
72544 F20110330_AABTJH smith_p_Page_030.jpg
c61c6c1364e5e1c78b76ab1a0ca52190
71f32ec9b9dbb2b37da59a79ae7ca26d1c336fc8
40172 F20110330_AABSZZ smith_p_Page_041.pro
f740e158741563436dd2b9ebf404721a
ed54995fb1e140ecef3afd8b1d9c92cca672bcfd
110827 F20110330_AABUGA smith_p_Page_202.jp2
b8a36472bac8a1dc0458523b7841fac8
f5fae639e34cef1d8e72fb5ac60209dc03b7597d
23881 F20110330_AABTWS smith_p_Page_204.QC.jpg
4975ae855dd597616e754638520a9c02
904dc31757da8f3dc11fa60ed56af7f1b1792ab2
F20110330_AABSMP smith_p_Page_141.tif
093d5be489a74a54fd5e845d1b3f29c4
86e16d1a9c61c7ee180cfc03fa830d8aa38207b9
22618 F20110330_AABTJI smith_p_Page_030.QC.jpg
5b6ad560594a91b972366cb5b28b5023
758d8f2c82ce0b0c9a8a5ad9ab0260265aba9cd2
99933 F20110330_AABUGB smith_p_Page_203.jp2
8737b3f005427806a6bd1dcc5555923a
e0322ac597831f37b253e5a72255902e29a5546a
59594 F20110330_AABTWT smith_p_Page_205.jpg
699fc6efb71a86f46b70b4ca716765a9
455dc60dd1a582f3d1c02a051b3883df58b16b14
F20110330_AABSMQ smith_p_Page_142.tif
8d064f4db29b551d818b77e39e37b4b6
9cf56f85fcc4238b63ae97bc56b4812b2372fa0c
78540 F20110330_AABTJJ smith_p_Page_031.jpg
be907235b95e8f917865883ae572261d
153789422a0e11bcb27e6657e855c649a513b0d9
97667 F20110330_AABUGC smith_p_Page_204.jp2
5ff22ad42d59b8de212c8d5871f2eb32
0efed57bca7fa00c206bcae6d6329958a928976d
19218 F20110330_AABTWU smith_p_Page_205.QC.jpg
ff41dae84973e3727ec4cd7739972092
0bd72083aeeead2ba5fb814994afe1db45366730
F20110330_AABSMR smith_p_Page_143.tif
d3a6fdc532855ca7a1d074aa5dddb6f7
4e225f59cd414918d526f139ecea8771e0a3e83c
23970 F20110330_AABTJK smith_p_Page_031.QC.jpg
c015eccf887594cdd1ae1ee2c365e88d
7ebd3ef656b597cc2eacaf5516359cbb36575859
74411 F20110330_AABUGD smith_p_Page_205.jp2
50661271bf12e75f367715a4cd1f68a9
c8887376fc29f4830f0d080936042b55b9810768
75698 F20110330_AABTWV smith_p_Page_206.jpg
3dbac7ebc4f6fd5f8f43a3790f405bd2
1c50f451ee927e88249731828017a2a2a0c8ab6e
F20110330_AABSMS smith_p_Page_144.tif
51583e7b014ddacffb8b26ad1ed113bf
17cff28f2ec770cc316d3ccdda4143de12cbb2eb
72874 F20110330_AABTJL smith_p_Page_032.jpg
ef8524afd11838733c8b4686d9efa949
692a911f0776c08f3c7d954715ab3e8d0ae5f8d3
98048 F20110330_AABUGE smith_p_Page_206.jp2
c77c549e31302e585e30afd16f64c95a
4888c8ca6b0ef1b29e93c873aae9dc493e00487b
24672 F20110330_AABTWW smith_p_Page_206.QC.jpg
2e35a0a05de3b36a38b0e6cd599abf02
0b17f52c909c0c135a650f80d8275afb85767201
F20110330_AABSMT smith_p_Page_145.tif
13a412d79ab1b52d1605c9f8d56ac061
8e5c083a5566852d3f8abdcfccb6999db1610ef9
22855 F20110330_AABTJM smith_p_Page_032.QC.jpg
f7135776020f27c051c4c5e6711a0cf7
323a3e0910f8bd2994dc251bd23200be61e9636a
103287 F20110330_AABUGF smith_p_Page_207.jp2
e0b4d1883415d8dbb805c2357e3de16f
9bcc1a3fff13c38932245677386f68bc66dd626b
81285 F20110330_AABTWX smith_p_Page_207.jpg
81e50b9e3b24006b1a2f5be2f2ad515b
7e12827a10756dff0248b48acb303115e63c5fb2
F20110330_AABSMU smith_p_Page_146.tif
3f1203cf6f3e79dfa3ece87892d098a0
73b4c3773e7bea66a44f40fd9362d8352642934d
82988 F20110330_AABTJN smith_p_Page_033.jpg
232d0ed460b1f2bfa5dbe3fdf6c818f5
bc50c6e3c76c3bab1033bfcd9b03481a7c2828ec
61025 F20110330_AABUGG smith_p_Page_208.jp2
d4b1a425bc909544ae1610591b4849a7
80fccc04fe40ad2619c82ee1e5abbbf5d1417adb
25545 F20110330_AABTWY smith_p_Page_207.QC.jpg
a183f373bb62164831a7c88c6338687d
6a5194795bcab400807087d1723c6571246b6710
F20110330_AABSMV smith_p_Page_147.tif
f80a53b5716c58ddef5e14a0792825d5
b159f25b4e9b276decea8cfd4ab75959aab126ca
25989 F20110330_AABTJO smith_p_Page_033.QC.jpg
796a1a24cde307481bcca8f17e35485b
f120627451d48d7fd40c1cf0420febb563096d2c
97232 F20110330_AABUGH smith_p_Page_209.jp2
7d2b9b97e76ca8b5f8cf4143543c4c0f
99679e2eb82626af094435ba52caa0cd5515e7ac
47917 F20110330_AABTWZ smith_p_Page_208.jpg
091c5aab24a86e2c15e30090c558d174
7e0eb15446923f3800dbf916cde0976407fd8d5d
F20110330_AABSMW smith_p_Page_148.tif
b5d91abcf4ed7ceb4f5ab86dedc76fc0
dd2c079bf3d9ba17e1c7b877275343626e49dd44
71608 F20110330_AABTJP smith_p_Page_034.jpg
716e97d61b2b2ea3b7f05926977cb236
740f912551fa9b10cacef38f29bd305707d7307e
93434 F20110330_AABUGI smith_p_Page_210.jp2
2e080aa603ad89677922dc57a0a45ab8
808f84336bfb69168b7469724fef179d5967c2c7
F20110330_AABSMX smith_p_Page_149.tif
af6f975a0ef2c0cbcb46c2a3ae18fa4e
0beed2d3af22fda3dae72214b3ba0f41db78d845
21887 F20110330_AABTJQ smith_p_Page_034.QC.jpg
20d674df2549b760c2e058966c6d14dc
f1f22e5d68e0aa215b08aa86317e1785e08d4578
101976 F20110330_AABUGJ smith_p_Page_211.jp2
bb66222d8dbad6f2926b99f872d0756c
1be7ac6c57f3e371822764ced8ce089b02c20a77
F20110330_AABSMY smith_p_Page_150.tif
385ea421c7d3c6700552dc7959549a32
bd9435dc8348968479bab1731e4801cb5e62adba
68628 F20110330_AABTJR smith_p_Page_035.jpg
ebdba9a308c749b60a20a9e2e20170e4
33381885885a0f4bf063ed2cddb7df0e1e8708a5
111971 F20110330_AABUGK smith_p_Page_212.jp2
26dec658e13e4cc0426f79263a883396
bc8c7119eef1b81357bc7098fbf87cf46dd5ad6d
F20110330_AABSMZ smith_p_Page_151.tif
4dd02359218e6b4dd10b114ad11ec0ef
938979afff61e6e0c2a89abd45df3e9a6c4d691b
20903 F20110330_AABTJS smith_p_Page_035.QC.jpg
5350aa790b5391e0bcec394b2cd79e97
4d55850107f6f7f46681482cf9f18770d48883e8
108578 F20110330_AABUGL smith_p_Page_213.jp2
904f8e2c2169fb5b9d26256fbb564de0
4f4578a230598c79cd11df2d08d739bc61867083
67981 F20110330_AABTJT smith_p_Page_036.jpg
094868da04e8a80643a489c0c27a5934
b5d0a9cbc8ca877729065656190e3faad1a182f5
104931 F20110330_AABUGM smith_p_Page_214.jp2
d70a20105366b8d6f02eb0062a977d77
3625dddb4a60d447c213138b6279c723c0d1355d
21029 F20110330_AABTJU smith_p_Page_036.QC.jpg
7f775cf003c7229e7d1d925302eac778
1f31c57904787aab4f2c8c5a31688ec7a2f42d88
109121 F20110330_AABUGN smith_p_Page_215.jp2
abda13546677940b02a39090f73a96a4
ab198698ecffcbb54111f553942bc8376744ca7a
72506 F20110330_AABTJV smith_p_Page_037.jpg
73aef18df269d631b5df72c569a8663b
4e4dc4efc615de59dcb6300de31857b09d47684b
10604 F20110330_AABUGO smith_p_Page_216.jp2
867d86e502e4adeb31a070e32506fbd9
e08e33ad9b1200f7ab966f2ba5758c993f146f47
21620 F20110330_AABTJW smith_p_Page_037.QC.jpg
2912fac6469dc57f96c1d127b5ce75bf
96dc5f3d46005ec3988184f985834448ae9e3381
97819 F20110330_AABUGP smith_p_Page_217.jp2
9e7fc8ec123cb130c3865399bacfdf63
cc2ecbf2b8696a64ab6dfdf382cf1b2a2921471d
79785 F20110330_AABTJX smith_p_Page_038.jpg
441d16de4252eb3915d19897ff8c8697
1578a5ea8da831b73963799f2c6ccbb5d587523b
111054 F20110330_AABUGQ smith_p_Page_218.jp2
03ae4f7702d09e999e3908015b5bd653
55c346d3f27180647259a65cbaf71b87bf908bda
25393 F20110330_AABTJY smith_p_Page_038.QC.jpg
a1f432dfe56fd287ca7ef6c68715b866
af9e8792f0beca10702e784cb6f6e0c28d4ed97c
104476 F20110330_AABUGR smith_p_Page_219.jp2
78eddd7e96e90d52e35c4055a2ee603a
ec6dacca2552b27ad4dcca4437053df7848e461f
70971 F20110330_AABTJZ smith_p_Page_039.jpg
25ae5cd2cd0d5e99901b5a987a439cd8
5d73105605ed479835903322b96cd58d254f4f90
1051961 F20110330_AABUGS smith_p_Page_220.jp2
5154ba7977ae01d0483f179c1b9796a4
f51d8208ca2b822bf5d1411ff0435ecb94d69949
1012729 F20110330_AABUGT smith_p_Page_221.jp2
bfa981745521891928818ae4b2c2f6ab
37303daa2835c6248fc6ff709c77abc7c88f0501
1906 F20110330_AABSSA smith_p_Page_058.txt
a316cfa5735d27b92a8e8f7c98d89c82
a7d759e5d592d026231e9fdbf349e728b905dbd5
1051966 F20110330_AABUGU smith_p_Page_222.jp2
d2d49be5bfce7481a8ac0d677d390d36
d6335d7180b0b4e6d7d632134cf0428caec65d93
2311 F20110330_AABSSB smith_p_Page_059.txt
6e9802cbc3c6288c55fa1122938c791c
ff77a2cf341ad6931257de8d15414911f9ebe56a
34535 F20110330_AABUGV smith_p_Page_223.jp2
36e7b5b9de1378608f78969f6162d6b7
8ac945d88949748b539f0b4aadbea2fd71f8e377
2244 F20110330_AABSSC smith_p_Page_060.txt
123cadcb75ec8fb7575bf2f900152a69
7723e3beb3bee25b7527b2e3a71952fdfa74e03e
89691 F20110330_AABUGW smith_p_Page_224.jp2
5ede5e34e341923e3141bd024b2105ef
f29d1b893c25d2d4165200d5815bb3d23ee742c4
1333 F20110330_AABSSD smith_p_Page_061.txt
6f663d9f2159f9030c0abdd2d56f611e
72002e73b0fc3d55d2629fd9f886d627af28cd83
1700 F20110330_AABUGX smith_p_Page_001thm.jpg
1912d591440a9c78a56ebe42f2a73474
5c7cb9364ecff6fdb4d3c53c73a9c58e402e2323
2246 F20110330_AABSSE smith_p_Page_062.txt
d14a8d513fce301e3637aef030f19968
12061093947a998c6555c7b938c99a6416064306
2461 F20110330_AABSSF smith_p_Page_063.txt
4e1b36fbbeabf5817da37bebe8c9f710
94583d3de79c3e4330a3689ba55f9e57657227db
554 F20110330_AABUGY smith_p_Page_002thm.jpg
3ac7fef4e7c6cd977c0732a33dd92cb5
e8ccbbd1313253a1b45700c5eee48c86a17abbe5
595 F20110330_AABUGZ smith_p_Page_003thm.jpg
1124d59ee4f63b429da3bd1f97021e22
7e1f13a79803daf887c6c6c2654c88f963743c13
2028 F20110330_AABSSG smith_p_Page_064.txt
4eb9b6a88c10afec9b6a413ac08004cf
654053acfa5cbeb930a82260082c35322b6b6498
27122 F20110330_AABTPA smith_p_Page_104.QC.jpg
70a97a7fd2a3d5cd8001db37d4c6e1ca
3395424572002c3fa8ae78ff88ca726e1a431fcb
1495 F20110330_AABSSH smith_p_Page_065.txt
ee2a99bcec41c04646caf0188a096e95
e6cfa3f7c85fd21144ddc3e544d39f1d456aa60f
77000 F20110330_AABTPB smith_p_Page_105.jpg
21053f23c29523b045343058869f0beb
b32d8e349fcf23055991040b9f13ccdf95592977
1329 F20110330_AABSSI smith_p_Page_066.txt
f0096b715899552de2757485e01d8e79
daa7bde3d2dc9a8797729e61e690723ec3dea201
2639 F20110330_AABSSJ smith_p_Page_067.txt
6cd8909783ce7fd1960d429310c3dcc7
77cb3d7f950a5e99571afd7bc6d25beb9dae2475
23754 F20110330_AABTPC smith_p_Page_105.QC.jpg
e71a78205c246b3bb06b6057609c1a96
4af454f15d8768a1c3d372f186ca77aff65777d2
2428 F20110330_AABSSK smith_p_Page_068.txt
7d088c8e3ad09062a207258b89e961b3
697aa154a5a47b17277329e5142e2f52a385791e
71926 F20110330_AABTPD smith_p_Page_106.jpg
9714c4a6074ae7e0b072b5eae3cea2ea
ca6b404e639799abde017388882adb8caaccd5ca
694 F20110330_AABSSL smith_p_Page_069.txt
80afd32549d2729141854a6a5e503d7e
d6ff7c2dee2928c5c154cd47cd7c111bb9505700
23033 F20110330_AABTPE smith_p_Page_106.QC.jpg
4ab106d2857512835269fe1feb96ef65
913f2065e227d3e3330ffb1549acc9b6c653901c
1509 F20110330_AABSSM smith_p_Page_070.txt
ed7c20f024b5f814a40e4027b1d61700
8c0f79e702538827b05d7dda213f3f165f41a792
83925 F20110330_AABTPF smith_p_Page_107.jpg
8dd89fa9864e12cc2d3c7d240cce7f59
cbbcae84b475906c3bdaca66693c7e2986c133ec
1098 F20110330_AABSSN smith_p_Page_071.txt
1c467c273697e227367e7fcca9d5c109
c23c693d30499a042a926820d0a701b9dd5fd7a1
26280 F20110330_AABTPG smith_p_Page_107.QC.jpg
c7bb3856a1fde683f251216e42c18a96
b1629f395e2bf301c7c3f496a6c68597f642a545
1883 F20110330_AABSSO smith_p_Page_072.txt
dd9ab4b25b720cbd6ec86a82eaac2ae0
ae9dcd6665c98e750921f4534b3a9df97f33fee6
81473 F20110330_AABTPH smith_p_Page_108.jpg
08a4121fc152c3eaa73a44302236354e
702af0b5396cd1803f513c0d3be051157f90ff71
4421 F20110330_AABUMA smith_p_Page_134thm.jpg
d323e1e8383ad1fbbc62ec9fbd364764
2fb5511267007810e79a9ec9c7c46febe76d55b5
2011 F20110330_AABSSP smith_p_Page_073.txt
0ddc7d507be0fe38f89f756d910f951a
9ae48648686dde1e005f12064cd31d282b2d6bfa
25511 F20110330_AABTPI smith_p_Page_108.QC.jpg
462bfe3f20c23990bdcf810b7fdcdeba
4dc13d194d529b882bc3de175d22c9fec43711fc
4048 F20110330_AABUMB smith_p_Page_135thm.jpg
b5147a3b7d1170f56fcbadea7adf58f4
aba112cbfa91bb69dd93509791c2e80ca60d39c6
1483 F20110330_AABSSQ smith_p_Page_074.txt
72a98e55d366b0b1c76195779dbde24c
e86889f022738dab7190d501d02014a00e5bc51c
46537 F20110330_AABTPJ smith_p_Page_109.jpg
e71dd7bd1cf836863a1b1eb5bcdb91ae
508d1305d89d581f8b21fb5f98b10bd63d8586ed
2569 F20110330_AABUMC smith_p_Page_136thm.jpg
da013c12917a759102e8a71560f1120f
579f11f8644b07fb504ab40b42149d35f79a9857
14728 F20110330_AABTPK smith_p_Page_109.QC.jpg
db38d965206a9ec944e12b3a40f15ae3
e60133d45f4077d55a0771d3b81ef12525dbd57b
5279 F20110330_AABUMD smith_p_Page_137thm.jpg
9bad51c0166c2e03696c085e403ef155
7ca0c3507e27e495570848cd49757cd3a8f5a568
2132 F20110330_AABSSR smith_p_Page_075.txt
ab9d1d449672199aeda0ca0817249616
f02a6a7790cf5a31275c7e074a48b1bf8083f46c
75599 F20110330_AABTPL smith_p_Page_110.jpg
19ba350888781f8cea94baa9cc2f9cb7
7ed25fbd3be14c9d6b3be74ee7a0007bf3b35d33
5002 F20110330_AABUME smith_p_Page_138thm.jpg
9421c938c7730973424037ceb76f97aa
61fae8752770e14a3f79f3887f56935e5e55e41b
49507 F20110330_AABTCA smith_p_Page_094.pro
3bd008dc02d361b087ba45b5e96c1b33
3794160e1847e1822a1907e2ecf8f2ee4a6352ea
1934 F20110330_AABSSS smith_p_Page_076.txt
453d168b67b94c5c71eab9abf6632ef8
df632afe6062226bf6e747391924adcd5dc4efe2
23270 F20110330_AABTPM smith_p_Page_110.QC.jpg
9a384e1943b96de233e1f862583503c1
1f88766807c9b274d4f092c24120ed39e09fbfbd
5133 F20110330_AABUMF smith_p_Page_139thm.jpg
25fc6b2edd305b78f1479365809f865d
e29e1bc815c9fbdb550bef80c8ce059cc8b20307
31956 F20110330_AABTCB smith_p_Page_095.pro
e2d0d852707ad4a88e375848bb1949f3
65646a18f88f2dadd7c9ae6fa8c36c6ef3791486
1733 F20110330_AABSST smith_p_Page_077.txt
7585dc67615b588cae5b2f788dfc2298
95ab2ded5289404830fcfcd1e375a6cf58b5069f
78483 F20110330_AABTPN smith_p_Page_111.jpg
5e309b9230222a6ab2d38881a26bf728
97d26d473b3b5671fc2d90068c7146e3d636e75e
4424 F20110330_AABUMG smith_p_Page_140thm.jpg
48a1f72d6762c340bc0e7e2f613f00ab
340e47a96e4d8a060b59d402c3d5c6a7df7fb016
30203 F20110330_AABTCC smith_p_Page_096.pro
4047910a7df5bf769c13d6fa749adebb
f802dfc4374f97442c3285ca818c74c29b1b14f6
2088 F20110330_AABSSU smith_p_Page_078.txt
c2cd10827fe00318291b831f7a15af96
d7f21732701091500e50628498d4ea86c40d4403
23965 F20110330_AABTPO smith_p_Page_111.QC.jpg
8a48e0db42795927c60a311b770bd9f0
38a2bc1de2200546509c8357d61ff6cfef29b5d3
3799 F20110330_AABUMH smith_p_Page_141thm.jpg
c3aeeae2edf469a6834605f1ccaffb47
ea532dac6820a5b992b166f565840c2ac3ff80b8
48845 F20110330_AABTCD smith_p_Page_097.pro
e7da4cc9c03b861cf87a75c5e622ce0b
316b9e33823e75fedfce257c5f5d312f29181233
1877 F20110330_AABSSV smith_p_Page_079.txt
e8e5dc40f89c76287337996b6ebfb80a
c279990a3238782b2d0db029705b0b82b8cd1173
85957 F20110330_AABTPP smith_p_Page_112.jpg
e7e54492270450cca5768f4596fcc760
1508489d0a8861f52807ec465d14bb04398ba47c
3662 F20110330_AABUMI smith_p_Page_142thm.jpg
f37a7374006a40f4cda8128e182741c2
0fc9805fcb19d09d3dbf555562a1ced47500265c
49755 F20110330_AABTCE smith_p_Page_098.pro
b501be605b7d77ed12cec078cff82d62
9e9d3b8ea0c0c928edd7472f0549e54d53849b3e
2068 F20110330_AABSSW smith_p_Page_080.txt
154aa8d71bfb8750e1d73d3812e83b2f
fe7489425ee39425d5113795140cfb188095c695
27085 F20110330_AABTPQ smith_p_Page_112.QC.jpg
4bdfacbe55d2ee31825257fe07e965b5
e94e1e1db280284eaf316a55462055e478bbaec4
4272 F20110330_AABUMJ smith_p_Page_143thm.jpg
a58c1436d051a984fcf8b231d8c45efb
eb952a7496b033b4afd46e627d2d98990f1c04dc
51159 F20110330_AABTCF smith_p_Page_099.pro
dc2053c20081ec18e5b1a25e908a4060
735a9f03ddd0e146be9eed78658b515616c169a2
1967 F20110330_AABSSX smith_p_Page_081.txt
d825a4247fc964afb180a0634aa7eea2
2623061c43d024435c07596d7d142b1dd3dc2491
85009 F20110330_AABTPR smith_p_Page_113.jpg
073d13482b81f8c9b2439fdeeeb96b44
38ca2e063e75042b5cd1cb47f6db260f7c8bf4b1
4498 F20110330_AABUMK smith_p_Page_144thm.jpg
b2915d41877b282b2b6e25f6a6acc82d
1f4cbb69d5a35dcd9e92ed4f749bfa9df8dba300
35313 F20110330_AABTCG smith_p_Page_100.pro
dc01ac28ada9424e4f1feae2ea43da5d
71fe432bccf8dd66b13136240fa8fd99be90915b
1056 F20110330_AABSSY smith_p_Page_082.txt
95e084ca2407eb59eb6cdcc7de014a15
8ac50f4c64b971c53d573f11a022097d584eeeae
25433 F20110330_AABTPS smith_p_Page_113.QC.jpg
5c2f64875463ed33e2a9cdaee96a3791
c45c5b012d8a0ac89f180d4148075cdfe0fbe8fd
4538 F20110330_AABUML smith_p_Page_145thm.jpg
2d6846b962f747f7f186450f2f9e2d5b
823727540dc0da7d5d032a7b53a274e067798352
51442 F20110330_AABTCH smith_p_Page_101.pro
f6a196df2056284036ee11d768d6afad
b08bd79fc10ed71dc9bc5996097330da56c187bb
1730 F20110330_AABSSZ smith_p_Page_083.txt
6887658f0479e5d9c455b9478630fe13
d403e99388991b72ca9286382981eaeba367ee98
80042 F20110330_AABTPT smith_p_Page_114.jpg
9b97fe584fa660d89dc3f2856ec0db6d
78bb5b8354fc034f4784b2c31911aeec02245873
4494 F20110330_AABUMM smith_p_Page_146thm.jpg
f1f384718c3ace16696d83d2c64a961a
f775540863001f3707bdf60459d565afeda593ba
32962 F20110330_AABTCI smith_p_Page_102.pro
a583f8bfac6a052edaf167913d0de298
fea371d069b182c30a8c4dc981a34064e04b33e2
24541 F20110330_AABTPU smith_p_Page_114.QC.jpg
246f6cf87374059a2ac83223849d1318
aa8b5a9e6d2c4ab123c8be36acdb90e017aa1522
4574 F20110330_AABUMN smith_p_Page_147thm.jpg
4331c9f879358db22bcedeaabacf8790
3254543d05587bc2aa0de098c70ebd701b4679e0
50383 F20110330_AABTCJ smith_p_Page_103.pro
ab2b0e0e658014c8f0f1f2a13ae7210b
32f65f3707e8c62b0ab50ef4706f02be6e5f4e05
62511 F20110330_AABTPV smith_p_Page_115.jpg
b34802bf518b51886776578f31c2a8bf
53dcacda26360922ceacca1ada73cac2af732428
4306 F20110330_AABUMO smith_p_Page_148thm.jpg
d9ca1dc1b7c15fa7dd6acfbec8aa3ae2
25c2e10bcdc2d587adbe3e6a7f65e4733216723f
57554 F20110330_AABTCK smith_p_Page_104.pro
6352a4031d370bbbdca57f909b8f6496
e0ade053276e28607a7e7a609589c91049627ca1
16256 F20110330_AABTPW smith_p_Page_115.QC.jpg
57695e4c414310d704c7cdbb9008faf2
ad6b58582642e00f05162a1745cdb74360feb035
3758 F20110330_AABUMP smith_p_Page_149thm.jpg
2fc05f016634ba88ef0474addd832487
7ffcd4cc4d24eabc96dbf8ef607b14484acf923c
46945 F20110330_AABTCL smith_p_Page_105.pro
d41f81b3d7f78d399f1b1ca8a0c7a2f0
cee12da21a445500682a72220611a861dd8a7f6e
57223 F20110330_AABTPX smith_p_Page_116.jpg
133bf170da6ae4b3910524b3bb41ffcd
85eaa421c2171ac1d4356d74c7b5ef92ab93f546
3944 F20110330_AABUMQ smith_p_Page_150thm.jpg
0c92b59da99bf4749949cd58c4b7aff2
7d96a283cac66c5dace066fd48d31df4615858e6
32969 F20110330_AABTCM smith_p_Page_106.pro
e59e37769a3b2cf607633f2c3ad556a0
c1fb8af8780d6fd6cf95fa71ba74254ef022872c
15669 F20110330_AABTPY smith_p_Page_116.QC.jpg
52ce9218aa85d8ffe8411405ae33b245
746ca89fccde340d640b5485072e6e7c7bacafa3
4387 F20110330_AABUMR smith_p_Page_151thm.jpg
000e8cb1fffdc277f426724b7f7f7ca5
3b6417afc6dfae4f4e48962382c93c7f3768c3f5
51895 F20110330_AABTCN smith_p_Page_107.pro
307275ce3d70203d76980c45dc882886
66d9fc734f0e68788f50d42a14f80b97bca6b07b
31396 F20110330_AABTPZ smith_p_Page_117.jpg
1fdd9fd64d9b2eb32b3633ba6e1d83c9
fee1b7884565dbcfcf3ed08c9210fc4874f3e713
4453 F20110330_AABUMS smith_p_Page_152thm.jpg
b3871e7c2c6788d5c9182da312545266
417beec2d151387d6bb0630a85546b71d7769ed0
49283 F20110330_AABTCO smith_p_Page_108.pro
af24afe9d0bfbc3352f51c27d1a95e60
68b552351530e56bce8b8a1bc9b929898952da43
4953 F20110330_AABUMT smith_p_Page_153thm.jpg
13b9b9e9ae3cb74e472ba21456b0db66
3ae967936f90ec42365edf8f29640c32e6e4bd75
27310 F20110330_AABTCP smith_p_Page_109.pro
1679e775cc2186886fe8aa00cd136b2a
5eba31b017421c8ea89b469bdf17bb8fe933e4ca
4837 F20110330_AABUMU smith_p_Page_154thm.jpg
019c098ff96f9f34e995eb54a18fdfbd
b93d77cf876a5a7bb84f301b268eb1051d826264
F20110330_AABSYA smith_p_Page_214.txt
4e72d77bdc83dd2e6783a330cd35b60d
edea08773b8136a1fdaabc094c0940e2841400fa
45476 F20110330_AABTCQ smith_p_Page_110.pro
2bc55553e2b60d17ac33ed6d1b2819b7
6879817e477fcc0a17481d94e007367a5a808c0b
6193 F20110330_AABUMV smith_p_Page_155thm.jpg
c5046187f3be423aba05024769988e5c
94256b06e3b3f001f6018b93770417dbabaf6d7f
2052 F20110330_AABSYB smith_p_Page_215.txt
8729760782939c11a948ac4c5323ff92
6b27687f306da2f9f5b4f9a346ed54a60810e161
46453 F20110330_AABTCR smith_p_Page_111.pro
764a8d37b3a9df48143cccc5f200347e
41d9a1112b205582591261dd95a4b31da7a17189
4692 F20110330_AABUMW smith_p_Page_156thm.jpg
e805dee433c3a02a1480da3c5c312297
81fbecefced75223a6da487952ef87877128eb33
176 F20110330_AABSYC smith_p_Page_216.txt
db2f19020e66fab88b5d0ca4db42b0aa
e7769b01f8f079bdeaf0d1b666c58776c826bc86
52884 F20110330_AABTCS smith_p_Page_112.pro
af1dd91f0bf83ab3f9205bb77b8bc300
427d5df7774f18a5d27c5f1380560e937ba4518d
4042 F20110330_AABUMX smith_p_Page_157thm.jpg
bb63268c5f4efb0217bfdada3cf047ec
e81cb5ce9e63edf527649853231149e04bffca5b
1829 F20110330_AABSYD smith_p_Page_217.txt
449374bcab99064de69c6b007993c036
92d533765c2b3b4e76c11252de7840ff0d7ca905
52383 F20110330_AABTCT smith_p_Page_113.pro
0984ac74ae99aa22644d647aaa7e5fa4
50102ab938b7d07a67348094d7e1ceefea138c1b
4944 F20110330_AABUMY smith_p_Page_158thm.jpg
88fc03d79380ef69e2f7b8479d168b96
2f8bef68d8498b8c63a447116cd8c6c704215031
2049 F20110330_AABSYE smith_p_Page_218.txt
b73982090aae4e5a8da568f519073c0a
d480057fbd634fac70aa0b4121a0da043ce5588d
48151 F20110330_AABTCU smith_p_Page_114.pro
656c5a18efa58027c6dc4a6fd23462f9
457c37fec0a5bc33f50a9afffba517b82e035bed
4516 F20110330_AABUMZ smith_p_Page_159thm.jpg
94ce2a3f4b137e9ab658570adac7ca43
e388687f8da83e5fe446ef42ec9527bbe3cee029
1899 F20110330_AABSYF smith_p_Page_219.txt
0073b9bf72457bea8bb11d48875c4662
b053ad4963799b6e6cfba71f60c197c3ce106be4
2636 F20110330_AABSYG smith_p_Page_220.txt
8f702f1b6db0da95167c51a7db297c14
64a6b9fd321230c3e2a49109a5106e97d52ebc4e
39454 F20110330_AABTCV smith_p_Page_115.pro
4a310fe8c2d9c1385d7de7a803e77ac7
a42af04813713671a12064147eee5dd13414e537
25621 F20110330_AABTVA smith_p_Page_182.QC.jpg
c1f003141f4da0947d6bf07ee297a64b
d987eac39dc1ae2a65d127791eadb176346dced0
1835 F20110330_AABSYH smith_p_Page_221.txt
280c7a025869db811eccadf9ea316be0
2f8787df15a56c8b40ba7b10cc2e94095b2da8d4
30973 F20110330_AABTCW smith_p_Page_116.pro
ad765acb30e5ab727db056845b102065
596f656d43376080028d2f97382f56246e82bf25
86663 F20110330_AABTVB smith_p_Page_183.jpg
39ad4803d07d2b453146c9967a543f20
06d35fb40c8c8d4b06db46a0b6ad882fbef66a3b
1982 F20110330_AABSYI smith_p_Page_222.txt
d7ef78e756b7d98297d9125ae88487f2
19948c5209171dc861669d5b2d58cca872b696af
16068 F20110330_AABTCX smith_p_Page_117.pro
673b3f8b4187ebecb015b543033a4ddb
d9bd7bfa4169dca42e09cb7a21b3acddfafcc96a
27263 F20110330_AABTVC smith_p_Page_183.QC.jpg
c9afb5b3a94ba080a50e831d2b481adb
e159d67ebfd1f7d310da58afff9ed847a47fba51
623 F20110330_AABSYJ smith_p_Page_223.txt
677844d52c135834151dcff728af4875
a07d66cc98dc39b32f8af2c0d8318ed7b6b7bbbc
34790 F20110330_AABTCY smith_p_Page_118.pro
1f5dc6c64cb1a0049460d7e3ef53de49
d99af2a732700b94b018877dfb075a1945bc979c
63760 F20110330_AABTVD smith_p_Page_184.jpg
be7713d1e257e3e84c8eb08041315661
8141da2a87edbfe8148adeca48c8e7b6c57e2c6b
1641 F20110330_AABSYK smith_p_Page_224.txt
bbb28721a0b9069ae5eb7eae29a26c36
83bd3163ac4242d59699823f7442efc7ba64ac53
27847 F20110330_AABTCZ smith_p_Page_119.pro
58802724d65e196f06b22657ca15b3e6
e33cdec8c1ccccf2721a19463059503b94bc7500
20457 F20110330_AABTVE smith_p_Page_184.QC.jpg
f98167feb7771795533228b4a9c7684b
c02a324ec12ce46ead13851aefb368608686888f
8013 F20110330_AABSYL smith_p_Page_001.pro
2e231eb440547f21626c557de2c898c8
cae93b710540c62c3eadb1dbe6cf1c27bb768edb
81058 F20110330_AABTVF smith_p_Page_185.jpg
85bd904bd7dfbc0b44168c5aa80a2c57
ed8d65a51bac02aec724e0ce6f2352de8634eb85
F20110330_AABSLA smith_p_Page_100.tif
5bc49a5dc1858b57a527a729ee0df543
8486e7a71ff445c51a5b9f4dbc0fa886135ab4b6
25438 F20110330_AABTVG smith_p_Page_185.QC.jpg
30c4f48367a49c9f6be87eabaac8235e
b3d75f348690bef4d44e35f37b7c8353574df4c5
F20110330_AABSLB smith_p_Page_101.tif
6f0bee53619a479c5e009d20a2743a82
37304a59060fabb89578112b9f2799df97086452
1330 F20110330_AABSYM smith_p_Page_002.pro
26afdece173ab07c37cb67f81ecd3bd3
a93b0ccb857ff6b609c583396deed58e70d6cd4e
83155 F20110330_AABTVH smith_p_Page_186.jpg
515a8231786a96442067c1b444c9678b
5e84d2b3fd61ccd732b69a5a92356b74ab568e21
F20110330_AABSLC smith_p_Page_102.tif
bb28a397e986eaa9bd0b30c0c0fb2a92
9bf71469ef18a3713c165ec2762f99669190a3e8
2314 F20110330_AABSYN smith_p_Page_003.pro
e268a447db6e56a2842baf2877d29045
b3342b3e85e0386f1073ba9d0030344a5684a38a
F20110330_AABSLD smith_p_Page_103.tif
7c2dbac4681c8c5a28c23aa72ec3a4db
43f4dd1c0cd19ccc070497b9c64d0958b170c914
38904 F20110330_AABSYO smith_p_Page_004.pro
e45de9e4b1fdb8c41506fe5605809a02
d93f203b2d9b33a075c2623d73b3855dad2de65a
26327 F20110330_AABTVI smith_p_Page_186.QC.jpg
a3563e0651e8c68841369371f1f04400
5492575f4b39e6cdea09e96e96c7ac697345f6c5
F20110330_AABSLE smith_p_Page_104.tif
f787857c14c0ee5c7a48aef2393b5426
8989be93181fa60a817ed2816d8064b23bae8be1
51257 F20110330_AABSYP smith_p_Page_005.pro
90a4028a67b8fd5092dffb4b215a372a
e5c03c75fef85ad01d22b4b85e99d9b87ef11caf
83245 F20110330_AABTVJ smith_p_Page_187.jpg
5ecd7c92253180da20ccb427cdb0f063
12c679baa5ab4dd5b5bb1e1775609b76651d7a35
F20110330_AABSLF smith_p_Page_105.tif
104836f70f426a3699dc723e51530014
868fd7bac5253244c9a8b1a5ce6d54d8c829ccf5
6322 F20110330_AABSYQ smith_p_Page_006.pro
ae548b109a60f9f85e8fa837dea1916f
ec736d50a66375b1c13555f8163ad4e6fa62524e
25625 F20110330_AABTVK smith_p_Page_187.QC.jpg
05c41bdcaedf5bc64b64306b3d40d6af
2ed659924efc62437be9ab238123de19b50fe4d0
F20110330_AABSLG smith_p_Page_106.tif
dd92df504e03dd474c169371faa02a04
62d93de67e12ce19fbf2b8e4bddd2e037ccc9f71
53951 F20110330_AABSYR smith_p_Page_007.pro
81420cdc660eeff9de8ac69bb0b59731
cafd3b28f3e290ca73b69e73f9427edc24cc02a9
80178 F20110330_AABTVL smith_p_Page_188.jpg
cea8e41e9fb807d8b9ef9386bb6a72bc
d35250a5745ac35eea72b63be2bdc989ceb044a4
F20110330_AABSLH smith_p_Page_107.tif
d70e37afed8f2816c74896c3734258fe
2e293835caa631132cde3f4c2fac1b270a00feaf
26744 F20110330_AABTIA smith_p_Page_013.QC.jpg
9ab362d5cd07f012bb5a806fe72c1790
3b821c92714a9628ea5537f61a2e831c552638c7
26795 F20110330_AABSYS smith_p_Page_008.pro
1f592dbaf08f538f9e594b88147b6934
fe2257e40b0b2315707f6b759f9c43e7aa5d7155
25071 F20110330_AABTVM smith_p_Page_188.QC.jpg
d2b706b7c489409c2f4d6e3371b461f0
1d64917fe40c61cef473c4af6718a358f1198735
F20110330_AABSLI smith_p_Page_108.tif
9d7eb0e77f7364afe6bc3b6db7fb93bc
5b914d6bdc2be31b0af5951815e3d9ba99ba6938
80159 F20110330_AABTIB smith_p_Page_014.jpg
24b6716c6ab27a9b7fe8a29ba328f783
a4bedeafd5fe740aa55321a000ce3e25c8f12770
56522 F20110330_AABSYT smith_p_Page_009.pro
759a6f883175eb4f0b78c6e2ac41599f
2df0ce3ca108e008031f1987534ee535a335afd7
72826 F20110330_AABTVN smith_p_Page_189.jpg
5e7dbd855a27d284816253d6e5bba83b
9188ced9c314c5558380de0ed40f378dd4f6f8be
F20110330_AABSLJ smith_p_Page_109.tif
4c898aa2620e5e21a5663cc6e93fdaca
89a2d73266fb1b14edabc5f854c96f8a2d556c09
25212 F20110330_AABTIC smith_p_Page_014.QC.jpg
8cdd13ac45633aec0749d75992839563
9adb6eb40dba8dee098d84a7c3342b0eb597cb7e
5151 F20110330_AABSYU smith_p_Page_010.pro
25d3ab68ed6d6aea043af451e1096c85
fc10b9ab062f5476083596529d58eec0ac41806b
22957 F20110330_AABTVO smith_p_Page_189.QC.jpg
57a4075ff33cfdeacdec5b41e7c7727e
6ca356f932f3dac2731b93282df288a55de3f260
F20110330_AABSLK smith_p_Page_110.tif
58c31622371420a3adb566336f691d40
bee00137a9b517b6334e6edff6c0607036bc8012
79619 F20110330_AABTID smith_p_Page_015.jpg
cde6db286b381babad870fd178963fca
06293312fe40686c0e8282a43a1a0dc3232fc9d2
34042 F20110330_AABSYV smith_p_Page_011.pro
ce34f35347c7b1188aacd88f1b27c9ec
f3fd6ec747418c64858b11ba7521f139d300c52f
69710 F20110330_AABTVP smith_p_Page_190.jpg
605250e71c6691214527707110de3f5d
69a7662230cb54587df292df336ec3c9f657ed5c
F20110330_AABSLL smith_p_Page_111.tif
db50287ee9e78dd335e6a2789865b33a
f83cbe0690c1000039c67753c364fedc0c3ac14c
25191 F20110330_AABTIE smith_p_Page_015.QC.jpg
5a8737c15aff8954d72085a5f9ae827d
d2d50a4cd52cefeee4d9e1d27aa24233b3651238
44656 F20110330_AABSYW smith_p_Page_012.pro
a3c3d1b4026f1fd391cb936027177eb3
27c116c5578a19d5aefdd086f3b823265ae45f7d
21980 F20110330_AABTVQ smith_p_Page_190.QC.jpg
9476001fa480d87d3c607e0153a3b0d4
6cfeb4e11c6d36b91b426512b913f890b76c379e
F20110330_AABSLM smith_p_Page_112.tif
af92430f24332630edfeb1a87ed31701
1f2ea3b6ac87e41b0d3f25fce25387a75554bb23
81853 F20110330_AABTIF smith_p_Page_016.jpg
7469cbb1b192fa54945393906f6937ad
6183f9c3a80843ef026e0c3974989c4961a49fbc
50738 F20110330_AABSYX smith_p_Page_013.pro
7082d0835a5f75efa48d259ab3dec758
c1db247cc2a502fa7d6ef3b837eb9d643b5c7640
72827 F20110330_AABTVR smith_p_Page_191.jpg
94821c5d0c62f6c8f0961eb2e4891767
fabeea8d6607a71897edb9021d1bc0fda34ae55b
F20110330_AABSLN smith_p_Page_113.tif
96def58519f0343bc2529617e6eebac9
4aff97abbfcde84a0d5d0cd21dcbc344a393077a
25175 F20110330_AABTIG smith_p_Page_016.QC.jpg
4762fb73a6d7e9fa8df8484083e017fb
207fe98a0d341051e3b74a453c077a5ff4c66434
48312 F20110330_AABSYY smith_p_Page_014.pro
794f95d8179e47d9f4d583db3d9dc03d
66b4b52c39cec1f1a2f3d047b9389553424f7408
23156 F20110330_AABTVS smith_p_Page_191.QC.jpg
b4ef8b4d69aafad6cfeb33afc508028d
a3520507158ebbf3172429f7b42311c24b4d0f52
F20110330_AABSLO smith_p_Page_114.tif
529ac19b9bff68cdb248cc8337805349
a86a5d0d34b59fa3daa1a4c8c0d05a1f479896f3
76892 F20110330_AABTIH smith_p_Page_017.jpg
641a4ed0848f768d88901816b1763859
918afa1d0d136f3658457b4616fa6be389ac1e6f
48450 F20110330_AABSYZ smith_p_Page_015.pro
da685f6b48c3c8a221848c6af4f8e763
d494267897779930742c080805c2eb898c2dfe36
87473 F20110330_AABUFA smith_p_Page_176.jp2
22585029e897ac04b6947aad1a383aef
1b084445e10511e8c23663d363d3888d38ec38b8
F20110330_AABSLP smith_p_Page_115.tif
ee88c5720f80b1f5ded5e5a4900b17ca
b76e7ee89b0c4f29f9c55d063e0c95512b5a33a9
24254 F20110330_AABTII smith_p_Page_017.QC.jpg
a930b650b8ba796d94489c52293285e0
8136d7386fe62d1c9a0a9dedc81a9fb4e75324b6
107490 F20110330_AABUFB smith_p_Page_177.jp2
94f8396ca01a1712c3deb6b9f782e3de
acfc456a315880c2d6c3f9be4acb0d8f34792dd1
76000 F20110330_AABTVT smith_p_Page_192.jpg
08f2c9c7bf3f57491fef0f992470c9f1
1124514600a2795430759728af65994437e651c3
F20110330_AABSLQ smith_p_Page_116.tif
3dfdae68591c3763ceca18fe54bb2646
03e5439cf4532df6305e8595e78fe9293dab352d
78132 F20110330_AABTIJ smith_p_Page_018.jpg
2b66b487b3fe09d456526a73a2635e57
2ca0e51c10298b22127d77da8e99ac58f4b5370f
107432 F20110330_AABUFC smith_p_Page_178.jp2
5db9ec31888ed64f9c4f76a136691a0c
d9919e528b4921fa5fac2e00ecb01f2a50fbffa9
24213 F20110330_AABTVU smith_p_Page_192.QC.jpg
77369301e3a589b290cff122af75a71a
94abb7ede8db249db884ce341e32dc853739a4a6
F20110330_AABSLR smith_p_Page_117.tif
49dfcde99c483c4d2b5f3fb7f049c953
409cb087e5edb18f8f8d773343d589d77c5e3b9c
24977 F20110330_AABTIK smith_p_Page_018.QC.jpg
10d7f06d80609c99ce11afde3643bbb8
74af80e4d99cccc1ec162005c9310b1c81c668ea
98597 F20110330_AABUFD smith_p_Page_179.jp2
49fc12eaa9bb443d56f185c18b7c1bbf
96a1534e45967251be12f254d27c890b296d87f4
79995 F20110330_AABTVV smith_p_Page_193.jpg
bbb5f37a1da415ec734c66b26f76917c
8960a98cb811489e81fe3866c3871fa701da480e
F20110330_AABSLS smith_p_Page_118.tif
a67b78d37311df124cc898fdce73c766
e3e2bc57e3cd660ecf5145256de8c3ae2ce5a9e3
81171 F20110330_AABTIL smith_p_Page_019.jpg
d1c62bda2c3e0c380dcf1d2ed1a649fc
e9b524886340e616dbe28313bc2bb7902aa6cdad
96218 F20110330_AABUFE smith_p_Page_180.jp2
88c32dee7c235012386d4402bfee7ef4
e5e5e5c784b44013681d075db2dc1692806211fb
25403 F20110330_AABTVW smith_p_Page_193.QC.jpg
f86dde067b91726c2afc753375055f80
57274a89d0b26071d97921623d42bede28e9d26d
F20110330_AABSLT smith_p_Page_119.tif
df0c898f4e2a1569e5f70ce21724b961
5e594371cdf715f66de0059d37ed03e41b7b8912
25146 F20110330_AABTIM smith_p_Page_019.QC.jpg
50993c8ef9a2146cb51f5053c97f01ee
52985fa7ec3c1d1969d7b6a59f492c73eaab439f
113007 F20110330_AABUFF smith_p_Page_181.jp2
e83b18f990801bba23b20c2e69a8d258
71790e715bdd5e91dd4d9ab8b874ef13a33b3b34
72474 F20110330_AABTVX smith_p_Page_194.jpg
ac5bdcb93230956e13b5b9290d21b598
9df2cabe525bf7d6147f3536f63e1253a12f87da
F20110330_AABSLU smith_p_Page_120.tif
f421a8772af32d174d32e6e206042883
d1556584271f64282415c1ffaa64f484103853a3
85599 F20110330_AABTIN smith_p_Page_020.jpg
8f3ed25652bc29cd4259d1ebbc4868c3
b7d1882bcff6bffcace27e5b3beba087d3258295
104957 F20110330_AABUFG smith_p_Page_182.jp2
688e2b0475c4549bcaa92c0ded630097
cd4486469803a7c5111e3a69e6d1261afa36dd27
23386 F20110330_AABTVY smith_p_Page_194.QC.jpg
a86b7d8844d2742d96c4e1fceb17546d
647eb0a784087164660de592f9f3cbe20c9d23d3
F20110330_AABSLV smith_p_Page_121.tif
85845d314aa6f91e1a913ac861daf05e
b5c31e20c3f122a597a71e6a28f2bf3f4e104195
25894 F20110330_AABTIO smith_p_Page_020.QC.jpg
b0e3e43d9b2dda57ab304e0a00d519dc
a5dfcd9e0012c561789ac00b1221e121dcc36b5b
109332 F20110330_AABUFH smith_p_Page_183.jp2
0a22ddcaa60cb5e5af3d492dcb0bb481
0b89b3906bc17271b7e65f862561ed62cfb23d56
76665 F20110330_AABTVZ smith_p_Page_195.jpg
ccff14bdf93c650a8293ceb0407524fb
29a529085fc6e9ee22a02bcf5caf05e9bcd96673
F20110330_AABSLW smith_p_Page_122.tif
f62ac27186285628624b7587e3d78dd2
030063e3db9f98650d3aa3b5105e6820ef1e67db
79420 F20110330_AABTIP smith_p_Page_021.jpg
7e966e0098ee5e8027544be685225333
733284719e8a8a23d72fab6a8d1d180c3a079486
83491 F20110330_AABUFI smith_p_Page_184.jp2
cd96737dea7639c81af93d281ad532e7
5f762db9688d3dda246d81eee0a64a36cf0ff1e3
F20110330_AABSLX smith_p_Page_123.tif
d59cec5c5d0ef7b47df92f2a59b3bda0
bcf7773a464f9e6c640ceecd32b3332cbe7314cc
24716 F20110330_AABTIQ smith_p_Page_021.QC.jpg
6d1e8692d7eb3bfa939e867285d3c8ce
a5c29442e147589fdba614346b2b4480b86e698a
105827 F20110330_AABUFJ smith_p_Page_185.jp2
013dd4d417cb586596265dbb52f19f0a
74eb1bff1e5d818ffaa6f4f16b1cb91acbd45a0a
F20110330_AABSLY smith_p_Page_124.tif
d80ec05a479a6225ee4a88e7fece948c
20d017ac754f1dd1044a352b93c5808c0bd19a4e
81187 F20110330_AABTIR smith_p_Page_022.jpg
051e2e8534af98cf7a331b0d09fcd0cc
31551b9b62348ed56b8506b2bf00878684d3c222
107640 F20110330_AABUFK smith_p_Page_186.jp2
13d0c7c9cb388027bc38b748bf810c4c
83934c67d030c7043e498bd0324e4f5d36703493
F20110330_AABSLZ smith_p_Page_125.tif
368c728b43d4f2febec6e9df84f5ab8d
a0a8bf8aee83e45ded40624d8cb1f98981d18ba9
25486 F20110330_AABTIS smith_p_Page_022.QC.jpg
9f71870ebd16c0f0b5f982a839e17e34
a9a531df490a5cb1512c53233e11513f4c795f6f
106441 F20110330_AABUFL smith_p_Page_187.jp2
17a522bb5d884108566295512dd74752
291cd711e67a2c8bcfe0debd61ba42898b22bb04
79686 F20110330_AABTIT smith_p_Page_023.jpg
b8a1f5dd49ae4d6dd536d6776e5e8c47
30ebad2cb86dc7edbebe2a2c6e27ef8cba18e588
103872 F20110330_AABUFM smith_p_Page_188.jp2
53b7bf3a4875814b0aacffad95b33403
960abce2f1b339b66925e0b0020e6129cb820e24
25548 F20110330_AABTIU smith_p_Page_023.QC.jpg
c0d5b078ff78d00eeb9fa39f3d5a5baf
05b4fae73f3532274ed3e0c3792cda89520162d7
91458 F20110330_AABUFN smith_p_Page_189.jp2
4e25031b84eaf06f1e6d5a22498f99a4
d6d7ff8d8f03edfd3a2818bc818dedfbe7f488fc
82930 F20110330_AABTIV smith_p_Page_024.jpg
598a0b045c625ccde6d2f44945b8e6d5
fc09934d8606c3e1d4fd54e4cd1cff9d6f5dea24
90844 F20110330_AABUFO smith_p_Page_190.jp2
85ec95b05b50ea233dd5539f16ace114
5d13d2bfb6237dd82988ad89697958f55a9d0927
25906 F20110330_AABTIW smith_p_Page_024.QC.jpg
abf01295526138283788e59ba1b28105
2328360c86526509657b540eafb02d0d4d30124c
92278 F20110330_AABUFP smith_p_Page_191.jp2
321599db21fdc07c695cf3bfe719344b
4f844650172a117ba8270ec0b3f578ed0865e96f
79316 F20110330_AABTIX smith_p_Page_025.jpg
2b477f441b4c2b1c9fc532281a764394
8796c0644071f15c3fad4556261e05caf6c83b58
99286 F20110330_AABUFQ smith_p_Page_192.jp2
bdead0a71cf23ffd44ea39a87c105774
8f91488cae010738d27220379ce5d485069cea87
25202 F20110330_AABTIY smith_p_Page_025.QC.jpg
6d94534302113e103ab19dee92e630c6
62facade395c2113038da5238fda1ecab980f749
102712 F20110330_AABUFR smith_p_Page_193.jp2
8749fa65927134a06eec6084a3800342
d890083b08b44e4bc3f4fd558f020ba56d9de02a
76709 F20110330_AABTIZ smith_p_Page_026.jpg
5b75900ce11c65af3c9412166929a558
34621cfb535c69d7b1f9906c240d2b135bc5165b
92624 F20110330_AABUFS smith_p_Page_194.jp2
b18f4b7b575456a507a2c0577b738203
e99ffd7a1fa02e5091a63560dec87363a1476fe6
93546 F20110330_AABUFT smith_p_Page_195.jp2
58a56b569da5238d3e5b8d7e64ee74e7
23c252bfe6e77acd0721412f31a3ed389062f617
1753 F20110330_AABSRA smith_p_Page_032.txt
478acd707642c3b11c3ad44267c4367e
c0772e9112a91131ac32d07f32623d32a7c3ed91
112788 F20110330_AABUFU smith_p_Page_196.jp2
b06ade78d0e102f97a1d25a1280d794c
143150ccf809bf9ca93978c7126c454213cd6eb1
1992 F20110330_AABSRB smith_p_Page_033.txt
fb4db890943a31baad5dbade166c2063
8f62a9289fec14ad6827362e20cb31e68cce87ff
109563 F20110330_AABUFV smith_p_Page_197.jp2
136ff3483c9de9c4f9c8c1faa6bd0e2e
a3f23852da2ae68a5e3e24dbc1e2d517703727f0
1668 F20110330_AABSRC smith_p_Page_034.txt
513c7d680200ab97d0cb15f325c3ee4b
8ed1e6a023d308f0d773a4d3a3314410321c0c97
100260 F20110330_AABUFW smith_p_Page_198.jp2
0b20a5faa2b39942755604fc45e18c9c
35983f5dba603ade00c49207934670aa907ea463
F20110330_AABSRD smith_p_Page_035.txt
fdde2a21ee16f0efb3c159088347da93
14db309aa0085e597c761b4c5047b023154226d7
1623 F20110330_AABSRE smith_p_Page_036.txt
ffb6e9d28bf68fc639b03c2393efd5c2
1d8efbb428df1ff968c757b72209ee03e594ab2b
104196 F20110330_AABUFX smith_p_Page_199.jp2
cd55e8a3804472954dc5e834c2cc6080
4a14715c08f6e9c814f6fbc92fd11bf8c6d17677
110275 F20110330_AABUFY smith_p_Page_200.jp2
40c566a94bf093d8a10de4cb83ae6ec0
7ed3300e05c67f8a0d5898268546b8920dc1b73a
1712 F20110330_AABSRF smith_p_Page_037.txt
677e3548e8327ded942a4a69908ef76c
f2bfc72e1d614a255bc5ec304c561ffcf383d228
98834 F20110330_AABUFZ smith_p_Page_201.jp2
2a7b4905dd8c1cd024750a1cfd0f6ad5
13e55ad32c65a96064313b56abd7352d120423b0
1910 F20110330_AABSRG smith_p_Page_038.txt
f66836696dabb761bafce1e4be02b744
acd29fcb7068658dfe2b9b62129a62b3997b0a78
26671 F20110330_AABTOA smith_p_Page_091.QC.jpg
347f0260681b6d2a8c9abc6c5ebd23e5
dd1804aee0d7d6079619f2aa1fa372aad07d2ed6
1678 F20110330_AABSRH smith_p_Page_039.txt
72efb8965e9826bb0f37cf73f5c0d404
2bcaffe23e9fecf39e0c54e62049cdf6ee24ffa1
1865 F20110330_AABSRI smith_p_Page_040.txt
a8485f656c52084866252f9fee32d512
81c2eca32a4362157168f37d4b1745717642bf2a
87625 F20110330_AABTOB smith_p_Page_092.jpg
075280d3725ac65bc883085df2277d6d
8f91cc6e69f244cff35f8b436625b9aa65c6fefe
1664 F20110330_AABSRJ smith_p_Page_041.txt
909b59806dda4c3654ea38796014c01f
487c00e77a421b94fd508ee333437887c7267356
27348 F20110330_AABTOC smith_p_Page_092.QC.jpg
7c8998efa7535ee673b97ee453ee67aa
a71f8978fcbcd05e561a55ae5a90c3a19b80d853
2510 F20110330_AABSRK smith_p_Page_042.txt
c951fb907400beb1b3524f5699b3be29
68dfeecc641b5023701d16a50559d7fd6109a063
85047 F20110330_AABTOD smith_p_Page_093.jpg
4e65e770a2384522ecdb869277cda79d
2058e626dce80e46bd3b2a62b46b8828cb3829df
2239 F20110330_AABSRL smith_p_Page_043.txt
82aed4fa349d1880b1f73cf89c837b09
5310bed5039a8e910aa9e3e9ef822a1c4cf3eeb5
26380 F20110330_AABTOE smith_p_Page_093.QC.jpg
6efaae7329f5878dd97848a0316501a4
f5665e31f1b68ba70b6e99a48af18ad7aefecf3f
1608 F20110330_AABSRM smith_p_Page_044.txt
9684dc6136b6558c710987e2726dd700
526e8543460b4665912d04eb761bf42410416eab
81385 F20110330_AABTOF smith_p_Page_094.jpg
67cbb4be57d46f34986125ee504c8d56
46714691fd5b184364af00ef45d7d2ee41579543
2199 F20110330_AABSRN smith_p_Page_045.txt
898e7a81c87a5a9ce449bdc03cc3981e
67b47c1c672218554e6f125cee5232dddbc41d4b
25233 F20110330_AABTOG smith_p_Page_094.QC.jpg
5063ae00f0c947f418c2753875450cde
fa7f3d3974cc9e70580747babd38bcb3c87a8c60
2029 F20110330_AABSRO smith_p_Page_046.txt
c9b3986df00040754fd4bdd63c87b7f3
e78cc0b2c3ea235005263acb0ec5312d83036ada
82564 F20110330_AABTOH smith_p_Page_095.jpg
7a6d7e5d90a7116388d5036dadbb2a63
156f8f20d29323516b88f2a601ffc705b29390f2
6083 F20110330_AABULA smith_p_Page_108thm.jpg
7614a2cb869e816389dc59ed7a579318
9a97a098952da0dd87a5ad8911749272fee862de
2317 F20110330_AABSRP smith_p_Page_047.txt
a66f3f054f228a535fd58dd40bc2cbd7
5be4fb188cf1b62a7983a6ebc6248f4a73ac90fb
25943 F20110330_AABTOI smith_p_Page_095.QC.jpg
64f123bf714c08485206c4aaabde50fb
90cf79321010d8b2e84a7f195f4157272cff87ba
F20110330_AABULB smith_p_Page_109thm.jpg
24609e100fe2387a5b60d98337175986
59233625e24daa63118e360b379860f7a312b5d8
2593 F20110330_AABSRQ smith_p_Page_048.txt
34b6e4da2eb4bd35353a9c1a6335e745
5b796edc0d89c7250d2b6ff1edd2cd8c314aa128
62243 F20110330_AABTOJ smith_p_Page_096.jpg
1017a394fac43acf59f995d5cd275719
e351075de203fc81e4c365f604668f8e0cd2e3f9
5548 F20110330_AABULC smith_p_Page_110thm.jpg
1fdd906c2e5b4ae155a91978e5625d91
fedda57559399f7c510b88992ff36a809b178f71
2301 F20110330_AABSRR smith_p_Page_049.txt
d2586d52941ba2dde8aa1490fc75c26a
eb344236c8565dbb627f1f7febe38aaa29d88b06
20038 F20110330_AABTOK smith_p_Page_096.QC.jpg
12db5f3afd7f666f2104afaadbdf72c2
0755cc2f7a2945a3df314125a02a2d8a7e92074d
5842 F20110330_AABULD smith_p_Page_111thm.jpg
2b9c53dee117724bc1a2fb092cdfdb85
94ef0f9821fbf664380b301dd6210297f506e9cc
2134 F20110330_AABSRS smith_p_Page_050.txt
339ffdbbd4ca4e0d1aff4b68b4b07253
b34ae06a464a3fb13d3b6e165a710d437bdc0efa
78904 F20110330_AABTOL smith_p_Page_097.jpg
f485e3741aeaa396d9840b65087c38ca
04f0a9b3050f8ee011deedf143beee8449cc9eb3
6466 F20110330_AABULE smith_p_Page_112thm.jpg
7ecb700fb63a4cb3a5a0dda63797d24d
48cbe29edd0ed6d4ade010d2557760efad7d7768
60673 F20110330_AABTBA smith_p_Page_068.pro
dde47d76a9ec446139177125957b96e4
c56a6c3717dfbad8e5647ed070cf85b07aa39d12
2173 F20110330_AABSRT smith_p_Page_051.txt
863bea7aa07b2dbf79c5444aa42028ab
5b997327053d9198d6e2ad6b1792b53be90204ad
24724 F20110330_AABTOM smith_p_Page_097.QC.jpg
65bcd3f49bf119f80cc4b8952cb8ba79
781b9e7806d13a1a5807ea9cb91681968779f3b7
6074 F20110330_AABULF smith_p_Page_113thm.jpg
ccfd58bf6a2e97530c3f6f8edd3bbc0f
ba9ecbf168f55772ce9b00b5ab2ff9cb5b178828
17561 F20110330_AABTBB smith_p_Page_069.pro
813103ad0f4575f3df7a1e075dbdb125
4c001254e367928d43f7177c2d18abb91559f27e
1387 F20110330_AABSRU smith_p_Page_052.txt
dbc9f372abc2683c5932900f7dcb8266
8e6cd10322564cdd6b745b995a186bba2b74bbec
82753 F20110330_AABTON smith_p_Page_098.jpg
34b5bef20711cbdc6198cee9c86e035e
2ef1de3663f622db8abe6cb6888eefc987782396
5931 F20110330_AABULG smith_p_Page_114thm.jpg
83f833e1ce68ff71510df73d4de24473
67414988febc3178b07a7c075d9c1b4243924a69
37964 F20110330_AABTBC smith_p_Page_070.pro
c66e0928f1e9f2859e3dd5321388c959
ba1b0a7483a8af07ab7a4df48301e356fc0cb27b
2306 F20110330_AABSRV smith_p_Page_053.txt
d00e097d56a6c7deb1878d63a68da3a9
416b214a151c103dbd9ec4ebb08bbc3c3ece50f4
25762 F20110330_AABTOO smith_p_Page_098.QC.jpg
956121667cbbc2b6f01914c08999d087
791d4c83e60a56289d5489fb55ce83a25db57f15
4292 F20110330_AABULH smith_p_Page_115thm.jpg
03e5b9029bfea3eed1de5b831b03abeb
9259e43341577a875e232736e37bb937090597eb
27481 F20110330_AABTBD smith_p_Page_071.pro
2743d3b966682d1abb40480f035b0a25
2c6a0d806c01957cf091526224020926b5dd9bf5
2008 F20110330_AABSRW smith_p_Page_054.txt
4186811c21986e4b83b45990a48db18a
49b82d51410fdb331da2c3223ef606341619a742
85841 F20110330_AABTOP smith_p_Page_099.jpg
8d0532c638ef6fd89b666889c30267f1
8b483dadc0028cc52ce4e82442e07b345706bef6
3892 F20110330_AABULI smith_p_Page_116thm.jpg
a6a732621843794426afb9a4c915e648
7f4390f77581b374419c1b3604c2efc907565110
46198 F20110330_AABTBE smith_p_Page_072.pro
1b3370e2ac64689f80a53db9fbae1daa
d9cc0ce12bed7f6168ccf83c4c38b51acf5673f9
1144 F20110330_AABSRX smith_p_Page_055.txt
86b8f875cc8be3c8a06cd296e9a13f4d
b20dfac88ff0ae2c09196e1141a2552420a73063
26523 F20110330_AABTOQ smith_p_Page_099.QC.jpg
c5b66acad4f77581c8a54af2f6298b16
fe0bd264536df2772306aad7403a75963cb63d89
2468 F20110330_AABULJ smith_p_Page_117thm.jpg
6a93945d8bd6a6cd7bd96b71c882a385
6aad4aaed09de9b99adb61545ffe3500ae7adf62
50984 F20110330_AABTBF smith_p_Page_073.pro
aa848817ba21118c410ccd420ed9650c
4d9b98afdce4a9d14bbc6af6d0799315a36efc93
2229 F20110330_AABSRY smith_p_Page_056.txt
f643a8cb5d74d91e2c19f018f7026bc2
2302db0b427fa4d30728c9582e7a184998647895
81961 F20110330_AABTOR smith_p_Page_100.jpg
3ac75b6c4f7a5aefce7a3d20ff53f8c1
e105069d1102560957d68a95bf4a504b57a58530
4364 F20110330_AABULK smith_p_Page_118thm.jpg
10be239672cab15cbb580c445a450cf2
d7ffe9e151b285403f28ff8044f3ec6c8e71de8c
36790 F20110330_AABTBG smith_p_Page_074.pro
72b1dca0012a1d2b4a628994dbb8eff4
ffec5741b2c311e431437fdf2f08e7dc8141c6b1
2409 F20110330_AABSRZ smith_p_Page_057.txt
9a8d3dca85dc4ab7bb6e8999112e35d6
8fd19e97a237009ec87d0296266b69a11618d037
24421 F20110330_AABTOS smith_p_Page_100.QC.jpg
5c6eede20d4c8e8b842dc058a1366463
cbabf07c956e941d9195c4c5229ea8a39bdc5678
3687 F20110330_AABULL smith_p_Page_119thm.jpg
9ea12fe89d7497e4e34602734f036956
c1e6f5956232341d100802d0fa7814051263d5cb
54290 F20110330_AABTBH smith_p_Page_075.pro
0f7216117c1c6dca9fe6a33bff22ebe7
a2e0af953c56bcdad498553f3952fcfb5d01ebcb
83932 F20110330_AABTOT smith_p_Page_101.jpg
5e57842bb15cc4dbfa5a695090e6cfbf
c2f8c3f076f0634107cfd76230f9b20505091a4b
3916 F20110330_AABULM smith_p_Page_120thm.jpg
d70c092d515cece24a8bec616a6ee861
3fef7a54519b053520312be982a7d96f191422b6
49144 F20110330_AABTBI smith_p_Page_076.pro
c1fc80e0239947eb02d0d5d3b3c6e91a
61369835428267edb78c46ea36117778c5a64bf4
26444 F20110330_AABTOU smith_p_Page_101.QC.jpg
c9e5ea4753fc6f74375304e71af7ade4
cad7b3b3366dcbbd2807bd1be4b41e43c6820de2
3410 F20110330_AABULN smith_p_Page_121thm.jpg
2013e7b008ecbf74749674783daa749c
cd7140d2ed641fe74dfdb6dcf655fa64e0097f54
43355 F20110330_AABTBJ smith_p_Page_077.pro
980214716c2c5a986bfff214a7f1d498
fa4cd239bab7b45a0746365a6ce1222d1c64438d
66789 F20110330_AABTOV smith_p_Page_102.jpg
92d8ca65a59bae2c390210a5d22cf555
7a1e99823d63a616f6f4f5ca5e6c564b9b5dc56c
4323 F20110330_AABULO smith_p_Page_122thm.jpg
4e1d63ecba9b3c0b7d6a9dd15ed8fb77
ccb5cac18fa0a38840a91e1c606f03b074c24d8c
53099 F20110330_AABTBK smith_p_Page_078.pro
ee8e168edc2e8586760fd2b385c1e0ef
5da7657d56d501b1b0ed08853e408abab788bebd
20696 F20110330_AABTOW smith_p_Page_102.QC.jpg
7154b3d0ed7a6611ac6fedfdef2586da
05850e9e8a7734fe62c35f5a9e39d9fea64c0056
4882 F20110330_AABULP smith_p_Page_123thm.jpg
50269277f385753d733874789248f811
3b459a166e3d01d48e5826a4f0ea2d1fe5aaa286
45431 F20110330_AABTBL smith_p_Page_079.pro
12e70075788da9703b568a0fbfdd738d
b8a070a0d8830d2d06f8d43bbb24e580747554a2
81946 F20110330_AABTOX smith_p_Page_103.jpg
790762212ca8623581d9c379c3af98ba
db304f6a37a06cf27da67cfdca160d0564d79e24
5340 F20110330_AABULQ smith_p_Page_124thm.jpg
296cf0aa62c12ecf3aa42fb0e58ced30
8b20f34a476f0f4bb580c5e83188c3efc3ffb235
52818 F20110330_AABTBM smith_p_Page_080.pro
f5038f1997c027db7a61cfa352306d97
7dd7a24c79ca98b1bcfbd451f2b2236d315953b2
24189 F20110330_AABTOY smith_p_Page_103.QC.jpg
8eca517cfa6eb5fca677e8d34330fe70
b4e2ac270f323fb1487c3657b5c96ecfbe9f506b
4622 F20110330_AABULR smith_p_Page_125thm.jpg
232bf3d4c0b5c4e7a9429e03c0560515
75d306f889b76872b1caf2282bfa5c5a32b15be5
49893 F20110330_AABTBN smith_p_Page_081.pro
be68ac2dfd47d1bce3f155b1b89771e4
76b0583ac3ee3a2d7aac35a727fb97b679f6a510
93881 F20110330_AABTOZ smith_p_Page_104.jpg
ec007ae94cde357e26186a106faab890
b5224cf5a349f76829b4059c8b551f8747dd92c5
4448 F20110330_AABULS smith_p_Page_126thm.jpg
1a0ef8485e89684e5de2beacb97ef6ab
f47841020b09edbeb9b609d34a195dcca9762f72
25288 F20110330_AABTBO smith_p_Page_082.pro
c87a8bb49b84c4cdac14532cf9053d14
cb15c01af14d178091a06cdaab83e15526c16f00
4155 F20110330_AABULT smith_p_Page_127thm.jpg
eb452694b4c1093b2109eaf1735072f5
29037bcff163fc8eb43191bda84ad3a10798147c
42355 F20110330_AABTBP smith_p_Page_083.pro
1c20025d2a0ddf86fb9212d7e42ed16a
4bb91caeb47b2096441088e1cb5c7b88af975c04
3915 F20110330_AABULU smith_p_Page_128thm.jpg
03219e64bbc5e07734f312e07ce3548f
1d0c1b363c1a70340f20e7488ad48bf1bbaf3374
1936 F20110330_AABSXA smith_p_Page_188.txt
f3595baf0c40a312c1fd41bdaec35521
7ddaf8316ae848bcf0d16e7ca9ee7e6a537c1cd0
56399 F20110330_AABTBQ smith_p_Page_084.pro
8a9aaea23f5db7969911702561296932
973096cb41527d9fa74fa37a8910578d2bc2adaf
4713 F20110330_AABULV smith_p_Page_129thm.jpg
c0a52ba8c3e31411f87655a5006a6af1
7645b56e56808dee5bed7e6d36ec856998c3d3d6
1715 F20110330_AABSXB smith_p_Page_189.txt
d16f73673f94efe5bbd6b218066f7547
47e269aff9f231997c6ad5a742b78dcd0139e0c8
35289 F20110330_AABTBR smith_p_Page_085.pro
61bc7af31a29b93882bef9938832b7e4
28d93338258bf61ccee574041ae5ec304d7e31e9
4219 F20110330_AABULW smith_p_Page_130thm.jpg
e418b5dea0c21a6d34c89518d4143b1d
2620043e11397d223756a60ccb1e3238bb2d06f9
1698 F20110330_AABSXC smith_p_Page_190.txt
0b2d64e3cf299ebf398fc2735ae77b88
cd2cdc6a7862e0b1f11662fa5812010d80097193
45357 F20110330_AABTBS smith_p_Page_086.pro
f3fe70a0f864ac5eaf61f4c1b4f269fd
b44ea5ba5d4b761f7576d99be6f5befe9ebd666c
4034 F20110330_AABULX smith_p_Page_131thm.jpg
51315a680ba010960d0816acb46a10e5
3da34bf16147d41713fb4ce798c32775dc8c1c9d
1743 F20110330_AABSXD smith_p_Page_191.txt
7251a8c10f6fec86fd80078835220f08
85638bd632ca8e0eca47fbf902ce7082c94969c6
38331 F20110330_AABTBT smith_p_Page_087.pro
851c137010dcae2be804bd72bc353c19
1bd0785c7dccda0580ac9f2435167a94dece16da
4185 F20110330_AABULY smith_p_Page_132thm.jpg
b8097b398743993531fc36260d95beb9
eb6c46a8fd0d775cc811898c7215bb1be15a80f2
1855 F20110330_AABSXE smith_p_Page_192.txt
1ae4ed7cfb1a8153a151cfc1a5f2d19f
796b11dd0b186d66a0c4bb76744c3bba123cdf5b
5054 F20110330_AABULZ smith_p_Page_133thm.jpg
c982c1372325f9096366bbc7112d86d4
9a2c37448723b818eba2d1ee3f76173bc9377095
1930 F20110330_AABSXF smith_p_Page_193.txt
604a163eada827f4855c7fbddece4d55
301100b671c19413d043ff0b771dd87792c4873d
49671 F20110330_AABTBU smith_p_Page_088.pro
87ed526acdba4f845c89375b352d7a96
ae37664633399eea5ceed06c92aa254ea0c5b221
1728 F20110330_AABSXG smith_p_Page_194.txt
568da5ee5c4a064dfd6fc05156b371dd
e6cc11d76266e404bdfddae485845cf62a87834c
51353 F20110330_AABTBV smith_p_Page_089.pro
a055e6dfea8efcc6303d94969de5f162
0deea72208ba2e63cf4bb9aafb15cc4329d82016
18701 F20110330_AABTUA smith_p_Page_169.QC.jpg
7769428b9ea8ea7f1dbfb22d4fafaad4
bd1551f881adc878707faff586f30bfae8344912
1822 F20110330_AABSXH smith_p_Page_195.txt
5ac21a7b5e12512372affe0dc2d177f1
39df2f0a209022bd05d7828abe7e7d72f3eba53b
30157 F20110330_AABTBW smith_p_Page_090.pro
77e97bcfbebc55bcb2e6ccd5b0296f57
638a36e2ec8cfd4b9f5ced870b55c7ce14f86c38
67005 F20110330_AABTUB smith_p_Page_170.jpg
2e21c51faf4c8c412e93975ad094c678
b56cbab1b204d952a01340b97b1e1b64370a7b07
2128 F20110330_AABSXI smith_p_Page_196.txt
f53d4e09de25e674762799c48686bc61
479affe1b21f174a36dfc4490c2d6380655a948e
52792 F20110330_AABTBX smith_p_Page_091.pro
43ef2ed97e5803796143ded1ac641764
ce70a9705abc311ccbda89e6409782d5bccaa2e8
20378 F20110330_AABTUC smith_p_Page_170.QC.jpg
7736c154306ace550a2302a3ca49797b
834c055b809de0f6fb40c2f3d3fcf1846dc4f420
2043 F20110330_AABSXJ smith_p_Page_197.txt
b2536069ebae171c7a8d24320edcb1d9
27e925560a9030fd53eecfb85e0250d0f7830505
53168 F20110330_AABTBY smith_p_Page_092.pro
4cddac8eeb22318df62a770d538c3c35
cc7137e85fa0b83304b67931cfa1afac127c9cbe
74640 F20110330_AABTUD smith_p_Page_171.jpg
db62c8e109ee8a3299df0172dabbf218
7fa288aef6c3f3dd8870bb6d9ddc531c86faeb9f
1884 F20110330_AABSXK smith_p_Page_198.txt
369bd30a4531d956a3776a5a4069502d
48552b1d8ce8911b9b5b3f6c53ed59b0c19611eb
53255 F20110330_AABTBZ smith_p_Page_093.pro
29306278de8ffb481b0e87eea2d6aebe
e055d1bae38acc2ba376597f896a22e84b520c66
23407 F20110330_AABTUE smith_p_Page_171.QC.jpg
6a8f1b37befa1f3a244c31f127b099ba
a144bc73e22faf609d9b43cb2541f0c25546663d
73325 F20110330_AABTUF smith_p_Page_172.jpg
ef4a254b2e8d977d2b2be57c8b199fe7
27bca2dcd3cc25722da04e1ab019b19f1e32c228
F20110330_AABSKA smith_p_Page_074.tif
e319cbf95a2cc6307adef2e6ef5ef6ed
35d40d9049aa7625fe7658a0131d4483e7c427b0
1968 F20110330_AABSXL smith_p_Page_199.txt
a9c82df505560c60b158be7692cbcb31
09b126eadc0864bf78f5b603f3d3e7b19e96318e
23218 F20110330_AABTUG smith_p_Page_172.QC.jpg
f6b9f64e4f62e6b0920a0ff0b8048732
99b92ca5927351187edabf0eb8edb72e071088ae
F20110330_AABSKB smith_p_Page_075.tif
a3c6bbdf7fb9374134991164def9d5ee
fccebfc4668beaf3ab2529fc2d84ce2cdcdb0377
2069 F20110330_AABSXM smith_p_Page_200.txt
8e54d2214f5341156973f3422db43989
0136da2375d7ffcac9498662f01bcb5f6cd8b7f4
F20110330_AABSKC smith_p_Page_076.tif
52593f17f7f27472ecb0889b5c97fa19
744a7b6a0ebf876596e21fe344faa753b184c86a
1833 F20110330_AABSXN smith_p_Page_201.txt
67c0be1f8dabbe305980a227b95a2294
fe2481002d3258753bfa2a8cd35af699394e09e2
74329 F20110330_AABTUH smith_p_Page_173.jpg
1d8a9d598b20de3264529b7986ac03f4
da00f85f9bce57892d6e0b7b64209472c8718b44
F20110330_AABSKD smith_p_Page_077.tif
486656db0749c21bd55cf5b8ddb53486
bc80a8db798a1e3d3d6f245868501e8e0406b557
F20110330_AABSXO smith_p_Page_202.txt
640632f0eab9ed6a9f6330b67eab10a0
dc6a3dda6684eb6736f38062c075d94345c8717d
22782 F20110330_AABTUI smith_p_Page_173.QC.jpg
8d86f9a1b9fb38e9600b17862c074dae
f320e3d23e2709b9d53b1ef9f92cbb6af00a712d
F20110330_AABSKE smith_p_Page_078.tif
85130530be21f02d1c0cf4ccd17a0aae
e4ff4059b3e2e1981e89ea64847ece46fb7186fa
1908 F20110330_AABSXP smith_p_Page_203.txt
83eb25a1b227a194aa4823b80128f307
f3f0862eda0c98aae47939a75306df0592f13572
78441 F20110330_AABTUJ smith_p_Page_174.jpg
e6bb5c8d8beee5c2ec95dc9a0d4dd96b
8e3db5bfe94ea1933f777ae592a99022a351d7eb
F20110330_AABSKF smith_p_Page_079.tif
039a295973872bd18c57a2c5a7c65b65
2953394152464cf4e25adaa7508a37a04b21faa3
1844 F20110330_AABSXQ smith_p_Page_204.txt
e02d42a088b6323b8fd23974919e8ee9
c253b2705aede03109dd72ed286b059ed97c296c
24577 F20110330_AABTUK smith_p_Page_174.QC.jpg
c1a9362c37838b19275e615690bd737f
dc68136cab38acf7523bc65fbeb5b6156046fcef
F20110330_AABSKG smith_p_Page_080.tif
c8f614dd6e6f161b19c36dae15371aaf
e76b4de88ff2ad66c77ddc67dce7bb1cefd9edc4
1442 F20110330_AABSXR smith_p_Page_205.txt
65f644c7c3ad7793fdf426f38309d62d
d026d6d8c2d3cbdbf2aa166651772856e3f15b15
28236 F20110330_AABTUL smith_p_Page_175.jpg
54bcca66f63dece81dc0c76a73729670
9a876c7718a4503aafdac6dfa1c06e93f280255e
F20110330_AABSKH smith_p_Page_081.tif
9a803d7e462eb47df88b90b888b3f98d
5e44d74574a962d3247469f9f188e7b1ec1ab1d2
40620 F20110330_AABTHA smith_p_Page_224.pro
3782ebcd36b738fe68aafbc7dee64cf3
92e887890824ceab05e03d9ac9c6f4cd4c97bc59
1811 F20110330_AABSXS smith_p_Page_206.txt
a2e05586da4d58c2afab72f4eeb2825d
3e6b1bab40e10608702b3b6bd7e58fd7abbe9a88
9017 F20110330_AABTUM smith_p_Page_175.QC.jpg
83200e8bf28ad5f797b6e0c79df7a768
f6842852f470ae75291433cb5a32a0cb35726ab6
F20110330_AABSKI smith_p_Page_082.tif
9dabccf9d7b635b9b3ca3847bad05d3f
b953579fb31ebc042d990905dca51b6376ad8642
20854 F20110330_AABTHB smith_p_Page_001.jpg
8cb14448066ff85dbde132dc9acaf21f
21ebc2b57c288d36c2b5653f1ca187cabd788c8f
1945 F20110330_AABSXT smith_p_Page_207.txt
03110a2195c51fcf3729d0885133d2eb
a71a4e87133c55568231d6754772aa560f85277f
69741 F20110330_AABTUN smith_p_Page_176.jpg
fa089c0849c7aad8b1b1a83465776c64
3e6115cfcf36458ded1d08dd4cdc831b5e306685
F20110330_AABSKJ smith_p_Page_083.tif
58bae648745605de25d01c72c6fece68
adb66858eda8a6b3cee8c415466be813460f1942
6626 F20110330_AABTHC smith_p_Page_001.QC.jpg
a4c60def21f5d714a6db62a6eec76cd1
fc28460c7e3fec6e19cce44e29c5482f555f45e7
1127 F20110330_AABSXU smith_p_Page_208.txt
0994a32a424ab221848e69127cd06d2e
a81f9abcd80ee3140b578e6ab36d8d31e8b97aa3
21208 F20110330_AABTUO smith_p_Page_176.QC.jpg
4ad0fc67fcc33e14f76c4303ec437737
2cebcbdc29fa035ed4c404a45c6c69f2a7c9646b
F20110330_AABSKK smith_p_Page_084.tif
63e9edd9ad0ad516a75d8d50316590f5
5209438446c0e79f6c1af67dad5fccabe332ca3b
4573 F20110330_AABTHD smith_p_Page_002.jpg
9f976d9aaa3e5c700a0cd16cb28b357b
0abc3fe03238e6d3563b04f5a9f7f341b6337a55
1875 F20110330_AABSXV smith_p_Page_209.txt
9505eee25b9b87834a83290aa9e4e462
dafcb0643ebf89bc2bf13c0bdc65404edc1c460b
85107 F20110330_AABTUP smith_p_Page_177.jpg
5086393d02d54540fe1918f4c8618254
72c96d0bcbc9d8c65962a28423a596735c620dc1
F20110330_AABSKL smith_p_Page_085.tif
d5c6e5d77bb87ea942a542b426e0a33e
8e1f7cc859756de92958589ea5f87c4e1b9846bf
1512 F20110330_AABTHE smith_p_Page_002.QC.jpg
d3da6eff8ec1c7d5edf8c504efce50b4
e0d2b3f0ff7be37dbda045d7aa1f9a256b3ec29e
1769 F20110330_AABSXW smith_p_Page_210.txt
2e4303ec72cb9bc82be0ca4314c629cc
75f07bff955418478bd7510b07c49e1bdfb39e63
26811 F20110330_AABTUQ smith_p_Page_177.QC.jpg
bfed3c9b3c5a33e76a4d56cdd0a09567
71db9fdaec55a6cf971a7d297daa62c528756307
F20110330_AABSKM smith_p_Page_086.tif
5ff140105e01566222396bb749238686
da9f7c1b44a41513e646e391710f9a3b251252e9
6450 F20110330_AABTHF smith_p_Page_003.jpg
9638db1596e1fd55e4d587e456056284
04b14fb8def73dae5ae49e72fc6515c378bec434
1924 F20110330_AABSXX smith_p_Page_211.txt
fba8b2a6715643c4bc5f8ffdf7acfacc
fc5e2da218c94174f6a6db001c2d1e9b218f1822
82612 F20110330_AABTUR smith_p_Page_178.jpg
99b8eca266261da9da2a2730327728dd
7a23b0462efd607b577a924995e2819524abae0d
F20110330_AABSKN smith_p_Page_087.tif
5cc1f5ae3fdf0eeee27db3a24857ab19
aae42349931f2d61bb3d725a5e8e8612bc06559f
1624 F20110330_AABTHG smith_p_Page_003.QC.jpg
3feb3902d75e649c0cd5eb51ee6510ab
c64f2374c1958e145da99d6d2884687fc09f26cf
2082 F20110330_AABSXY smith_p_Page_212.txt
7fddcff2361ca1098224b053e7674f39
4e7333a080c615e4b6db617c10cb481244d77080
26173 F20110330_AABTUS smith_p_Page_178.QC.jpg
840c9dfecaa8f5900cd2399a177206c6
8d10048bf9e03441d62e47bce2055e6636eb2876
F20110330_AABSKO smith_p_Page_088.tif
571fe347962d294c3a46eff5c39390c4
0c42a98a3b79acf41ee49803b1e57e4af5231a10
67198 F20110330_AABTHH smith_p_Page_004.jpg
ee09c18c160aad3c7dccf40e2cb7a313
3838f0b1b45fbd5bd2dcc76aa7139a215fa4b5b1
2038 F20110330_AABSXZ smith_p_Page_213.txt
90560ccb50478ea34bbc05cbc60c88e0
b44b5e2ed581b4157f664db167a6567840dcf277
71486 F20110330_AABUEA smith_p_Page_150.jp2
08fbfcaac0e36a68dfdbd18715c1ea60
3bbe00a374bf18565eae466782f895456e0e106c
77368 F20110330_AABTUT smith_p_Page_179.jpg
779a2dfc91becd5946ea76cf594c9fdd
8417790f70438f5f3001ecf0058ac9ec02fe0172
F20110330_AABSKP smith_p_Page_089.tif
d82787158913baeb65cd8650495469b2
1ab345491390443698bd50b3b94b31f490ef5034
21464 F20110330_AABTHI smith_p_Page_004.QC.jpg
41a7d975d0c489676c1ba5bae75d3b65
838f7cdcc0a349f60e67a52bb7e0200179367159
81393 F20110330_AABUEB smith_p_Page_151.jp2
5b51cf9411b7d90cf9f26960f1106c94
64b06d4697f78498598bc87ebbba3307e3a88bbe
23698 F20110330_AABTUU smith_p_Page_179.QC.jpg
411f59e2dac79ddf9155884aee531747
17a59cde7af3fcbf98850def8e4a23796c9752da
F20110330_AABSKQ smith_p_Page_090.tif
82ab131035dc8cfbb90264dfbcd1ca4d
fc3c2713ba113778718e16f5a3e94d064f2a4d8e
87156 F20110330_AABTHJ smith_p_Page_005.jpg
32a0c8be13379c7552c713047d134a27
04e466baed1598745d33bce007a1f2f705851647
79112 F20110330_AABUEC smith_p_Page_152.jp2
adffd83b46fc6cedb07531485132dc69
10871e323b636fe44c7ca222deb6840bfcafb150
75103 F20110330_AABTUV smith_p_Page_180.jpg
1cd73de3c3d0a45d78923a68a93e5533
26b19119017e3d50ac6616a42f9e7c47745e063d
F20110330_AABSKR smith_p_Page_091.tif
e1d7d26957ffe941e39414aba769527f
83343f260fa60bc7f9ff2c1000714dbc7ef1174f
F20110330_AABTHK smith_p_Page_005.QC.jpg
12b7049dff7e1c1b7c2360117cbc0af5
1d01e3a4c28b2ad3dff62f0d19b2d139cf372b2c
95758 F20110330_AABUED smith_p_Page_153.jp2
69175429787739feda23740ddd04d829
cd48859aeec1dbfd8a308604b7aa7bb5a2437f9c
23528 F20110330_AABTUW smith_p_Page_180.QC.jpg
b63da90686db31b145d2fcd55fb6cf18
375b5e0196ba3c16f7f585fd76504113f5b567a6
F20110330_AABSKS smith_p_Page_092.tif
04183ecc056e7b02208c1a0f9f794746
1523ef5b03b175a2fc49dbfee3fedade60c1071f
13768 F20110330_AABTHL smith_p_Page_006.jpg
e4ca218bd4924f45f52e4692e2f241dd
780cf49324503fd6bc26adc88f23cb83bb8e3c86
91221 F20110330_AABUEE smith_p_Page_154.jp2
6cb653259f4d159e18859b2930a7070c
8d2a5f71d1277230c4f78d8ed72d1193e55bd60b
88049 F20110330_AABTUX smith_p_Page_181.jpg
5b0f1a854e8acc0d9c69f33dcd201250
9a31cb16217dad11d37b0b713f0a9d44aadc3c0a
F20110330_AABSKT smith_p_Page_093.tif
419716629d503c0c718b69afeadfc748
60a61389f6f91130cba033921855bd1970633070
4736 F20110330_AABTHM smith_p_Page_006.QC.jpg
9614142a749fef86cf9941d7fe2694b0
017bd8e44168b21b5e9e77eb667733da0e7cfe45
129686 F20110330_AABUEF smith_p_Page_155.jp2
3e1f491f2dc8fdd614d2ceeed762d16b
8e7e32f61824f8a4bfac2d262e010f607d89d494
27547 F20110330_AABTUY smith_p_Page_181.QC.jpg
62c02c95802fc4057243438cf17bcba8
6f4bb1ed348451906c73319a54c361aab520063d
F20110330_AABSKU smith_p_Page_094.tif
68e96fb141502a0da870555b580a18cb
e404e44e1cb2ab4d1c486521d95141144326d8ee
78442 F20110330_AABTHN smith_p_Page_007.jpg
9b92ee38d6c38220ce7009876e7d568c
68b6ff076a7ff061e4beb3951b16fd8349e2cc8a
82072 F20110330_AABUEG smith_p_Page_156.jp2
66e476ad26e0bfea0b6f909e7c628d2f
7c946e18c617cb91bce7fc4711338a7ce7520f3d
82620 F20110330_AABTUZ smith_p_Page_182.jpg
24e6f4a5157c29b6f014f223fdef41b0
9c1b98c907877a179497e1f9b377a7892ad63c2e
F20110330_AABSKV smith_p_Page_095.tif
94df0562f0a2ace560014b69dc528f85
89c735dfcbe24fce6b8e8ba905b6137687714da0
19717 F20110330_AABTHO smith_p_Page_007.QC.jpg
37afd36fb49972d594f982d1845d49a1
44a161908d7a740baf4812e7e4c087ba0ab80361
72044 F20110330_AABUEH smith_p_Page_157.jp2
03a8054311ff7071b2d7cae67eb16102
87c453d99bbf1f3a5e193fac49ab20e43e178f1f
F20110330_AABSKW smith_p_Page_096.tif
975fb8ec66c94c148ed98891f37c3835
970e42058069644d354e2d30538cea8cef55ce4a
35945 F20110330_AABTHP smith_p_Page_008.jpg
14b6516d4ef987573a8165189a829960
b034e6ff416f2162c4791c47f5c839deb7e84fa8
90420 F20110330_AABUEI smith_p_Page_158.jp2
59dd427e3204e028d92e19a1f129bb60
7e129e3af0f2a05bbc034f3ff6aa04d7c629abe0
F20110330_AABSKX smith_p_Page_097.tif
c2f0439e92e50584c10a6d7ec039bd20
c9605f8c34d283a89c13bac44cff75a823e0ea8b
8416 F20110330_AABTHQ smith_p_Page_008.QC.jpg
b7f8f09447c5f87824ca200c757dbe25
8ac739a77a198503c93d06f57719e84db8567b7d
82749 F20110330_AABUEJ smith_p_Page_159.jp2
35da155b06ca9ca11ea6301fd17acb75
ba246975fbee2e0554a1cc2cc3112c8319ee7ee2
F20110330_AABSKY smith_p_Page_098.tif
6ba04736dee03bb03ef863c1982a91eb
4703181436462cca92a41c4e1c15a20745688a8e
86246 F20110330_AABTHR smith_p_Page_009.jpg
86a08407ad79edf3801c4f9ee29236b7
e2986c7e19265c49e4c863335b24117a6cadb74e
72771 F20110330_AABUEK smith_p_Page_160.jp2
c181a498cf40ed81b46fd5f2baad82e0
d8869cec07a8a6f8a620cdd6364c84ca4ffba73b
F20110330_AABSKZ smith_p_Page_099.tif
f614894fae702fa339bd6d2ca2e6441f
8fa11c9fe4a91cea9067bdb7bd3692ee9e8e1b97
23935 F20110330_AABTHS smith_p_Page_009.QC.jpg
ecd99d09f95ec0c111fc719a6f7a8166
4e4b32e015ac7731c319c69ae7e8084664ffd9f7
61363 F20110330_AABUEL smith_p_Page_161.jp2
16e1bc1670c4dc281b1f230c93e6f0fc
bebb859ee851af12c7c4d2ead63e2984ce80a698
10327 F20110330_AABTHT smith_p_Page_010.jpg
3368fb103a055e6d5f9ba6cad80082af
1321708ce44b78faf0d6a7a3c6f54371e0d23380
98884 F20110330_AABUEM smith_p_Page_162.jp2
b16e9e44d85a81c3e6765ca975dd98a1
172150d42ce233f71c8dc778062fe96eb6134fcb
3214 F20110330_AABTHU smith_p_Page_010.QC.jpg
03c4bde755eb924feaccb5b077b64ec2
60214e14238c535a8c0021878a807c7661a050ab
58969 F20110330_AABUEN smith_p_Page_163.jp2
ac31e1dcd5452a7b093c08271db58183
1fc4a2513e8edc987ce2da67f6275f12f9968aca
59466 F20110330_AABTHV smith_p_Page_011.jpg
84a9422cdc5ced2c0f89245e52ef82e2
0571b06928804a6ab169a2a36626b0295ed29040
84038 F20110330_AABUEO smith_p_Page_164.jp2
9fefc91507d404616a829773c5363816
24f06e31978de2adc649ba388d6d1dd63e72bad9
17544 F20110330_AABTHW smith_p_Page_011.QC.jpg
d4491bcdc2f879af2cf8b7d84334abc7
ff2db9cbcc3ac35a8ac4e22a5b825333b02799ce
99428 F20110330_AABUEP smith_p_Page_165.jp2
7ececb998de98783ac9f8bb3380e3244
a9c286645ac2c14dc0caf94ae8eb37d33a32fa21
74401 F20110330_AABTHX smith_p_Page_012.jpg
62780ef890f57829d4faca709144b351
29acd1d0d5c49922ae9ffe8bca8f952f4fac20b9
59694 F20110330_AABUEQ smith_p_Page_166.jp2
bffecc74fb27f7c6b9e93801076d03d7
ea90d2fba8625a9dfcb8084ed7328b11abf84445
22995 F20110330_AABTHY smith_p_Page_012.QC.jpg
ccbc1b6fd713a937efa357c90360ad14
c0fb3aff6531da6e85c00dd86256802879628d11
71399 F20110330_AABUER smith_p_Page_167.jp2
a045bd72332f25b617bd18b5e0719d1f
8186510c4e719bb5963d381ccdbc7a9a1bc12c7f
84019 F20110330_AABTHZ smith_p_Page_013.jpg
37942107947cf005b0701d7e35d5525c
b111243993d55b1621e335ec55a18c10e7ef4000
84339 F20110330_AABUES smith_p_Page_168.jp2
e7f7b10c5f361451e3911caf0a02b8be
1f3e809767f82d5d54a5bc641f578241fafc3112
93832 F20110330_AABUET smith_p_Page_169.jp2
633723528194c403832b60121056c147
da542d0b87452d3c4dc445c0ca48e959be3e101e
254 F20110330_AABSQA smith_p_Page_006.txt
7c72fa7f2e8415b8d5bac0f562d2efeb
bf6b24c11d47c1969ac42281da48dd160e0a30e6
84012 F20110330_AABUEU smith_p_Page_170.jp2
716e2b9f1b921c9a1e032016efdf3a44
4ef6536e09aceedecd626dc178264b0cdc822a8b
2203 F20110330_AABSQB smith_p_Page_007.txt
c16d18d8c3dcf6cadf71e0cc0b713ca8
59c56dda52b1aeabf008614031cfd2fb33feb0df
96676 F20110330_AABUEV smith_p_Page_171.jp2
3c5c3ac25eb4cc4d87a110a94793e732
97857a01d3813d6cc6641914c5e52c94a8a95668
1080 F20110330_AABSQC smith_p_Page_008.txt
1760acdf3bb2135357bd50eac3389817
d403d528b4565a07a18f0074a213a65ece706a40
F20110330_AABSQD smith_p_Page_009.txt
efb0d605f0f13027ffb4a8318e50b4b3
50a29a6178ca347fcc0e8a8782a90857cea6b0ea
94754 F20110330_AABUEW smith_p_Page_172.jp2
c6881a96ec75882d7d2352d05200326a
a41ddc2ad8444e86982864914ad97074d08658bb
96352 F20110330_AABUEX smith_p_Page_173.jp2
31a4629e448a0ed69a4fece2055475d0
c32d4fb7a31fd0f4df7332ac924b9fc3e35c7f63
211 F20110330_AABSQE smith_p_Page_010.txt
bd45dff4a4020bfa634dc0e38529f80c
1477fbd2ca4ec0f94619b0d09d3cff251d47bc36
100873 F20110330_AABUEY smith_p_Page_174.jp2
9e47cd12327cf4930b762f5778ee0546
e99e171d33790411bd55d8f2b059f653eed1b260
1514 F20110330_AABSQF smith_p_Page_011.txt
05a03c46ed3540ab732f9e52a06d0209
f1caa34b299eeecec304aee1d1fda904bc9a2a9c
36850 F20110330_AABUEZ smith_p_Page_175.jp2
d899f1bf733c653bb6dedc4001b04a8a
1a9271ced6b029463372a00a1b8e50f7b59e80b1
F20110330_AABSQG smith_p_Page_012.txt
3a34e9261df57dd0dce9a21eae2842af
1679d3164f7d77bc4909d33438cf9d6cc9fa49c8
F20110330_AABSQH smith_p_Page_013.txt
be0d482f25c55ccd8822e5f765b623ea
eae09e5df145d4b5c4873b126eb08bf9ed93e179
26528 F20110330_AABTNA smith_p_Page_078.QC.jpg
d7b042f117550b8a91f78dd9ee669b23
f4be5af7bc3e8df3919b1ce9933d3a5f1c4fe7cb
1972 F20110330_AABSQI smith_p_Page_014.txt
ab56078d9df701f1268dee64a0b08843
d352ab9704dc5ffda1dc1618acd07807ab3341a4
74840 F20110330_AABTNB smith_p_Page_079.jpg
fe0205eceeb000e96c1ca4dedeef33ee
2e3bd1957e88d92c1cb4796499c11bcdacfc27ae
1921 F20110330_AABSQJ smith_p_Page_015.txt
51db95b569fb5d96ae3046acd91da966
6d26eed5e43b4cdec6c5f100fdfee8beb11b4b3a
23607 F20110330_AABTNC smith_p_Page_079.QC.jpg
9fd179f2f67d8fb6f57d6d443563eda2
56f2e6cc5e23528edf72c12f24e06d4fd0a6fb0b
F20110330_AABSQK smith_p_Page_016.txt
aee0a6741ba2bfc0884c7d6a625289c7
796ee8057f3a94bf02625632103bfec14020130c
84028 F20110330_AABTND smith_p_Page_080.jpg
91a4404f934711d7e8d06f98f7f545de
a0c3c2dd1a599615dd858357cf812fbceea20b2f
1857 F20110330_AABSQL smith_p_Page_017.txt
58cd6d5c5ca9bf3c2a7d3bacd96aa44f
b3dbea732ae3ba53b09ad8eb25eaae40a54ab960
25748 F20110330_AABTNE smith_p_Page_080.QC.jpg
fb7ea09b3f26f52a5b186760b0d4afb3
dda82d44b8f86ef66ea42ded958037b33257ce91
1841 F20110330_AABSQM smith_p_Page_018.txt
36f3860fe5d4fb6ba509999bb6d5f98b
219c6315eb746cc6966c5cea2ad4dc0b63ba3a9e
81898 F20110330_AABTNF smith_p_Page_081.jpg
fc95fc868ed5b46cfbfad132dcc0f17a
a397748b8d8229c5e940f384d954c1c92a080148
F20110330_AABSQN smith_p_Page_019.txt
c694841bab01720d0dbfef2646895a1a
eeec1bbc7fd19b895f20c289922e15147f074df5
25820 F20110330_AABTNG smith_p_Page_081.QC.jpg
3c07fcea50d60c8beddafdcaa92d5a78
8fef0aaa02c8aa3146eb1d346949d62809f13c50
1971 F20110330_AABSQO smith_p_Page_020.txt
a7dd7ad3ad8fa773eb59edf4314147f8
6ad52255dcf98f8d8d523e471eb47e78bfa2ed53
60208 F20110330_AABTNH smith_p_Page_082.jpg
1a99645ac74072c544b6f6c38d902461
9e01b4a9fced9b5e2062697a066303d7aee6ae7f
5229 F20110330_AABUKA smith_p_Page_082thm.jpg
411764057be736454395a326f7392d9f
71a9b8f3ec8da8d67dda9157392573a363626748
1900 F20110330_AABSQP smith_p_Page_021.txt
b00e5618c8891dbde7642299d37f0713
526ddb173ec1a18b0806e18047190a03adc96c5a
18879 F20110330_AABTNI smith_p_Page_082.QC.jpg
a11eb47ffd09d916567c0fc6b3667ac0
9cf213804796d24a11b8a5ade1c3fa1a8f6e0a0a
6827 F20110330_AABUKB smith_p_Page_083thm.jpg
6666c1ad4b6015e3d250589ac4cb45f4
c8bb7507ae53cd5a5185000609a5e1ea35b12c63
1941 F20110330_AABSQQ smith_p_Page_022.txt
4ccec10f72df15e3f891af1b47a278b7
dc569f7e3622837cef2d0bf2c80bc6afcec511a4
89522 F20110330_AABTNJ smith_p_Page_083.jpg
84d86fefe90b0e588c61c0a29dd88d98
ce45a5e97a4334d64fa4e227622b42f887a6fbfc
6127 F20110330_AABUKC smith_p_Page_084thm.jpg
d907f3d802be3522315b0d6f8e952ea2
0f5d7263298766d581b3ee732ea80441c6636c26
1922 F20110330_AABSQR smith_p_Page_023.txt
71d7e1527a61ff0a0310bab5b891c4db
6cd1e89f1d02e2d94faf379a5a0c8aa04080362f
26545 F20110330_AABTNK smith_p_Page_083.QC.jpg
ea628ef2bcc0b33f31d3c7cd7fde5fc1
b6d888ed97241a27e9ade07385464749c450b7b8
4624 F20110330_AABUKD smith_p_Page_085thm.jpg
331016129fa4518625fa41dd4a5863b3
5377ada1126a741a025fade6326917aa46bef113
1996 F20110330_AABSQS smith_p_Page_024.txt
81e25f46ef1f5c3d214f877b04e042ed
82145a10d009bd83a217f80af0d5667a8d18185b
89564 F20110330_AABTNL smith_p_Page_084.jpg
10c436189501099c443f0e257c643187
f048056406702fae7f03fc2c159511d6dd11b9fe
5675 F20110330_AABUKE smith_p_Page_086thm.jpg
024b996b79025f14c5f1d64dff63687e
278944fcc0cc838e38366c9645231ce61f40227d
65170 F20110330_AABTAA smith_p_Page_042.pro
ecfffdb09328ac70e509f4b0d2a82a4a
12e3a7fb010f8e20825393dff0f57eb0b130a3ce
1927 F20110330_AABSQT smith_p_Page_025.txt
79d9ad90ba21b1dc1ae6833b4bb0d14b
bf9201eea498d7db13a0b7e5d5a7ebf873af3145
26603 F20110330_AABTNM smith_p_Page_084.QC.jpg
a39c851ac4cd05fd6ff5b90638d60836
787c965bd47aeb5710f0ea1326beb5d8e61d3dfc
5651 F20110330_AABUKF smith_p_Page_087thm.jpg
28340326b406dd56734ff2172acdb57d
2a74570504a3e91c98c8d58d0606174e97b4ca64
57248 F20110330_AABTAB smith_p_Page_043.pro
89b7fc4da904d89bd6d467119c680d3c
8ee7d03d8843646eb6233bc413bfff138313c325
1834 F20110330_AABSQU smith_p_Page_026.txt
40c2cb7319ebde89a862324c8d408be3
c7184e9d7b1645d59cf6968c947f280079cc1c58
58913 F20110330_AABTNN smith_p_Page_085.jpg
9cc7ff9fe8308eb265e98e6572d7b96d
65d3dba1692ffb52fc5f8e1604668d93d47d0eaa
6026 F20110330_AABUKG smith_p_Page_088thm.jpg
4beb50e05d5be7d0a4b5f6aa70e50ef7
3bb84cb6590e871909fc4210d2d155af60037c93
40603 F20110330_AABTAC smith_p_Page_044.pro
75d2fefbb4e8f6840b89c460d1669fae
7f3635df16363d06dc027ad3dbbddfa58bcfb1cd
1915 F20110330_AABSQV smith_p_Page_027.txt
40eab698fe3948285d77b7cb6a326afd
f3161c866991a2dd97b236d4f9811979c4f12d2e
19001 F20110330_AABTNO smith_p_Page_085.QC.jpg
129a3a52eed74713abb7dc9eb6daa03e
3bee9ff94eeaa10b529d64471bc4caa44aca8d5c
6438 F20110330_AABUKH smith_p_Page_089thm.jpg
dc3999c462825cd9d2eb4c29e35895d0
bef9e935304e1cb1f55ba967a90eab484e86dacd
56121 F20110330_AABTAD smith_p_Page_045.pro
abd5acd1fc448042400d5d8971d89f5d
561ce0d1d1b4841854b630da5b83b690e1727c17
F20110330_AABSQW smith_p_Page_028.txt
96b233ea73951dbc647acb03dabd9154
463c0944dcb959a92c40c06e79172cc470495b00
76807 F20110330_AABTNP smith_p_Page_086.jpg
5ad59f11c5ec6af116953b5d221ba3a4
9f3c48727aad4cc9c508587da97fa0049d10ad42
5984 F20110330_AABUKI smith_p_Page_090thm.jpg
f2bcb6decefd9a8abb68e7c2a5e94d4b
d5cdf6abf8e44af6798db8087e575c125c0dfa7b
51505 F20110330_AABTAE smith_p_Page_046.pro
2d1e05144d9d335ef9b12a9760a46bea
31e128dfa4123f763aad94ceac942591b0899348
F20110330_AABSQX smith_p_Page_029.txt
d4132f1f93176a138f560001338d763c
08dbd8c47bb3706b477a0f2cefc035aafb5319e6
24349 F20110330_AABTNQ smith_p_Page_086.QC.jpg
6d92040b12b261ec509244be5f63af0b
04597848d4e4bdfa7d840b8f3566db472d3e0e13
6394 F20110330_AABUKJ smith_p_Page_091thm.jpg
a6b87711cdff7ed9e49fdb6b89e8cd4b
1c3ebdf16fef8b4fc509690600172ab5f6b6a64d
59842 F20110330_AABTAF smith_p_Page_047.pro
f07acf9e59c61615edcd3432a6466d78
6126ad1772c7574b4a88a077e49cf55d1633939d
1757 F20110330_AABSQY smith_p_Page_030.txt
d310b96365d6e1cb5c7ddbe4aed5099e
1a5ee9759fd5c86aaca54d53b05d4a7731edbd19
70383 F20110330_AABTNR smith_p_Page_087.jpg
e294a0aef8843727ed4c316aadde2606
ae80841500d75ed20c7f033991202639cf9dbb26
6582 F20110330_AABUKK smith_p_Page_092thm.jpg
cf8b7fa1627797cb84c86025166a1a23
5ac700f6bdb26b6b1dadae203549d9dbc3b3d6f8
67365 F20110330_AABTAG smith_p_Page_048.pro
185cdb8597732aff00c7595e4c5f322e
64de0cb3296ca8304b0bb3fc5896d524fd4442d6
F20110330_AABSQZ smith_p_Page_031.txt
eefba7c5794863f55948e7eb2b2f1d39
3ee5ea447b4c3a08264ab951d293fe2764ec2cce
21727 F20110330_AABTNS smith_p_Page_087.QC.jpg
1316a9058d9c87738402acdc3fb88ac4
11ce01991cdabf53d8bc18fa4f011cc203fe5b44
6328 F20110330_AABUKL smith_p_Page_093thm.jpg
591d3d7f316ba3f9226434e1a6418a24
5facd7724cf57ee2caf244dfcd9c7eccb8f74b60
58979 F20110330_AABTAH smith_p_Page_049.pro
76da8e31aaf600b0f31a27e934520b34
b84c68ca04ee0f8cea322b1c4de372fbfec1e437
81767 F20110330_AABTNT smith_p_Page_088.jpg
63de79b43ab9f1ee6d392e8e89e0e362
9e38e6bfc8414f086a8462e40be4e7aa28bfb71a
6247 F20110330_AABUKM smith_p_Page_094thm.jpg
ac247a6b24cf298c5ff8f8589f3fc509
b4bcd8feb54335693207534f3e5886acfec45b73
54628 F20110330_AABTAI smith_p_Page_050.pro
fa4f130ff4bfdeefa11bae3213f8d80b
13c7b9cf72c706aebd1dde27e1b6f75ed68069bb
25622 F20110330_AABTNU smith_p_Page_088.QC.jpg
7646ad811e331baf5e0509edf0d3d5fd
d735ec8ef64a28aed0b1a203d2b1422ed3714bc0
7034 F20110330_AABUKN smith_p_Page_095thm.jpg
9d3ff0bdf0d2877cef788483f1990075
cdadc1e383e88c47147118bc5cb3f87ea36ae85d
55591 F20110330_AABTAJ smith_p_Page_051.pro
284e2badf18b4c2e7c225f6105dd0312
05280eb4bb97e732413bd6379240e4a1b0f89b9a
85484 F20110330_AABTNV smith_p_Page_089.jpg
32c97e1f0a0eb093cf0abb163cc374ec
4598544b7bcd99fd9da5e25b3048c1a9c2e3a28e
5006 F20110330_AABUKO smith_p_Page_096thm.jpg
c344ead7f74b0f0d9d516ee5fe10fd9b
4df9bc65925b932951d1e893c29ec15aa7dabd58
34165 F20110330_AABTAK smith_p_Page_052.pro
9cf2a627bd2254d0390e95d42edf01ce
c6dc09965327683a23c64fa5b325e9d5502d6938
26157 F20110330_AABTNW smith_p_Page_089.QC.jpg
e997f948b4bd8f7889a5d5bc620125b1
2e0561cfca3d1d9320c4d9bbfc069625b4659b35
5929 F20110330_AABUKP smith_p_Page_097thm.jpg
ed6191fd792eb816ab07d3ab2fee43f6
e184ed6bb061180a6e080f5f27c284ddf5d886f0
57865 F20110330_AABTAL smith_p_Page_053.pro
844c6118e68350e945b148f325509b5d
a8b2a9c94c3a2003be662706fb8ac264f5c6c8c0
70531 F20110330_AABTNX smith_p_Page_090.jpg
5a3932d74c1cc5e0e0dffc6be66e03a6
a4b3d9e74cdd8e45c6468667dd399660070ff2e1
6239 F20110330_AABUKQ smith_p_Page_098thm.jpg
68ef5fda4c2d8d2f060b7b232907e815
6e49dbffdf55577a84760b1c13d0ae3f5bf211fa
50992 F20110330_AABTAM smith_p_Page_054.pro
6d9a82effd3539bb140f4d41a883c699
daff6680d90267a5d39b1e42b3619fb83950e242
22742 F20110330_AABTNY smith_p_Page_090.QC.jpg
78f62102f6fc7067543a14dbeebd4ce0
5df8c7d1485c77f5741c6bf2f625008810597abc
F20110330_AABUKR smith_p_Page_099thm.jpg
c99c7a501ddc0e87a94d66901d6068a6
9a106512e75cd617e16ec24a6392e0232811bfdc
27777 F20110330_AABTAN smith_p_Page_055.pro
1088680c33f9f52ee29841e983be94c3
6fede7c02ca7e6956ab34b6e614dfbe2e5d0ad57
87272 F20110330_AABTNZ smith_p_Page_091.jpg
6b98f65b7b2adbc63ade17a0e48ff1f5
836233b6f9adfcad76fec46078625872b4be9f3c
6637 F20110330_AABUKS smith_p_Page_100thm.jpg
07dad5942b2808b3b4d41013e9e48eca
cec9a26703be7fa970e5b8f5615b2724f935ba4b
57193 F20110330_AABTAO smith_p_Page_056.pro
b53d92c3e8399ac0500e8029da98b77d
51a0de6daf8dc5ae0237acc0568517cd5ea008de
6452 F20110330_AABUKT smith_p_Page_101thm.jpg
c45cd303766704243cc37049ba34d5da
73ae33d58313bd03b8c2d8ff83e6ce8684a41e52
60199 F20110330_AABTAP smith_p_Page_057.pro
3414e48256915f11861004f6d6ddd712
17e2224c3bd36807a1fe5d4131c2746b3339af78
5602 F20110330_AABUKU smith_p_Page_102thm.jpg
bb10d33b2dd380bfaf9f0d9d2916aef3
095dc2239b80f7760e2976164d235758891e36cb
1952 F20110330_AABSWA smith_p_Page_162.txt
4a5587f65fae1c2987633b144f0bef96
8798d47de9f9d0f133996a2c30da36df5f5dcbaf
48070 F20110330_AABTAQ smith_p_Page_058.pro
17ee4dc16d17a6fd43c9559bb28f4760
8db5da506a91bfeab4e65ace0b0e329fe66c8524
F20110330_AABUKV smith_p_Page_103thm.jpg
096c1c692e04a62f4eb42b030c6ba6ea
ee6519dae8efba2b70696fa01659d8ae0b9b1582
1060 F20110330_AABSWB smith_p_Page_163.txt
c2354323ca980fb04f9f3d27b4fda975
3deefb1dd9dfa2d6d9a0676de813860a30b1f0f0
57920 F20110330_AABTAR smith_p_Page_059.pro
bfa33910534aef426be1c027d3668462
6763b01a38f2d61c311bc51d6f8d348b0358b871
6363 F20110330_AABUKW smith_p_Page_104thm.jpg
eac361918be8ea4ee004cce24f67e161
dc1bcc7aaf4d6f2291412fcc887f209699c01687
1616 F20110330_AABSWC smith_p_Page_164.txt
00d265c79c8545b1674408ea01ec3659
d10f1440fa9f2aee121959fd6ca8fc5885dfc15d
56734 F20110330_AABTAS smith_p_Page_060.pro
2861ec0389e7abe4fcb01ee307d50cda
e7b44dc9f6766ecf7b2f0a02a007be9d5d4e61b4
5709 F20110330_AABUKX smith_p_Page_105thm.jpg
6b7397abc8682115e569ff1f6f70d84a
5f83becf04e6337546cc99aa6cca9e6f317ac42b
1830 F20110330_AABSWD smith_p_Page_165.txt
4795ea5016fb6a7a9540534dc047c19c
a48944c5672ce71c3e1fb55620d6781ff3231b3b
6050 F20110330_AABUKY smith_p_Page_106thm.jpg
c9be0208de781fde1c75bd3c8c6ad99e
97f203c551bfc64e323a0e1704cf67925418d5ca
1076 F20110330_AABSWE smith_p_Page_166.txt
63a86d8382c0a96817b2aa6053ad841d
494cf009d0697fdeb76360a596e540bb6b540598
32538 F20110330_AABTAT smith_p_Page_061.pro
8d95bed3acf6c370abec127102fd2e69
5d29d59edb0eaf890df24c6ef4732f140ab5ebb7
6420 F20110330_AABUKZ smith_p_Page_107thm.jpg
0a4ca90ca0a43a4c4b7086024da54302
1484b217edb6ea70e7c893766313445f26fe0f90
1288 F20110330_AABSWF smith_p_Page_167.txt
3c635f1194e5427eb97040f3e80f5de3
b436742e096eedfba446b781b56139b33b6ad505
56140 F20110330_AABTAU smith_p_Page_062.pro
aa76f1f24f6aefa57aa8221e5107e4df
57edf39464054cc62c3a2fb5f2d5a676a989df02
1580 F20110330_AABSWG smith_p_Page_168.txt
c4876cfb4dc191353683e8f26f3a5281
49e6123258c45eb4f3e327d73a04cdc41ada6035
62100 F20110330_AABTAV smith_p_Page_063.pro
66e58fe1f891f47fcc7b620cee607721
5459e152311d24948586dbda467137cf33c8376b
17879 F20110330_AABTTA smith_p_Page_156.QC.jpg
3a312a69a491e354e8eb5b13271e3f73
0bb194b6d5384691598cf2a36f2292d54f2315d0
2034 F20110330_AABSWH smith_p_Page_169.txt
b16fa45bf8419f4a55de2887f04dc399
b5cbbacdb485a481bf42e4c3f686eaf6cae2c9da
51571 F20110330_AABTAW smith_p_Page_064.pro
426cf85f5ac47f44683e1f159564bb54
c3ed031e61410cf8758baf12e4b40ab033fca0b4
58247 F20110330_AABTTB smith_p_Page_157.jpg
0338dab91bd3704b12fdd0353105f1d2
62d626a2ca17103130184b0f6c105d13273a8f1b
F20110330_AABSWI smith_p_Page_170.txt
538c51a5ab2fca34a40995f4c289336d
bf119c2e2c49a113f8b92c4ad5d101bd35df97d3
37368 F20110330_AABTAX smith_p_Page_065.pro
4dbd72e2fd7c4114d883a2e7e8b13b2f
52c898e75c9e55d22c298f442b180bbf0de48782
16232 F20110330_AABTTC smith_p_Page_157.QC.jpg
7110fd0bc00cb17c7fb215a6fe16a38f
77739a53c007bbbbea4910a584e81f4629e72060
1799 F20110330_AABSWJ smith_p_Page_171.txt
ce8f772811fea3eb44464e042da9adba
4c8a87209d8e3d927fdabdca47589a544f717df0
32558 F20110330_AABTAY smith_p_Page_066.pro
3b1f9b553644fe1024eb71419e84e12b
76cbbc42725ffe57951d71caecc6387399bf46c6
73651 F20110330_AABTTD smith_p_Page_158.jpg
e7c4ae1c9d6d18a688309c33e13f6221
9b6bce30a9967b259835ed2781f4299fe5208c6b
65209 F20110330_AABTAZ smith_p_Page_067.pro
ae2546e8de51f0043965e3fa637ac0a0
8c66b23c721c25dbf7ba7f63ae9710c75b290bd3
19986 F20110330_AABTTE smith_p_Page_158.QC.jpg
8cf72d0837232e0f3f70397dbc488a6f
fe6e3c25fb898d5516abfb9b650caff63de2fff9
1752 F20110330_AABSWK smith_p_Page_172.txt
abe17612efcbe3b061e4f06ef8ab2b3b
1a5a3bb523672019831e9d0b3d00d0f2400c26ba
66399 F20110330_AABTTF smith_p_Page_159.jpg
9ef3ab0d58f9eaa567bca0e9a297fb5c
4d943d9a46e4852646e7b49b80a10f0f26e1a567
F20110330_AABSJA smith_p_Page_048.tif
0c49cff2100dc81abadbd243458426be
fce4722a411e5fcd34267d65bce77979a40d61de
1790 F20110330_AABSWL smith_p_Page_173.txt
bbcb9f7abe9968786aa0f3a49efc3ab8
aea7aec77911975165ca1243f301addebe093e03
F20110330_AABSJB smith_p_Page_049.tif
5e7cd88f7117a5444dfb3dd0d98d0ff5
1cb5a938531d441db64b0f70aebbd0c76128ec5b
1879 F20110330_AABSWM smith_p_Page_174.txt
685f50a50023816322d3dd4c5ef716dc
2760e3e3327f9c0e18c7007258630a701f474416
18261 F20110330_AABTTG smith_p_Page_159.QC.jpg
844957fd3feb60aa1bff48e1b26f5686
1a17f29147616149545114d4724d8a462dc5eaed
F20110330_AABSJC smith_p_Page_050.tif
86cf87349fb66f65f66e1863e83eca32
0c4d373ae4b714afd75b2deed459a4e84747f33e
636 F20110330_AABSWN smith_p_Page_175.txt
0e4a0220e833478b015a38c4cc82a51c
f440acd1cef4b3906d59f843196abb37d689ebba
57861 F20110330_AABTTH smith_p_Page_160.jpg
64e1209011682b81e2c5b9442e1bde0d
8655119bade9296c32b3e9b84c138ce6e8b4f905
F20110330_AABSJD smith_p_Page_051.tif
7d394a61549349985e8ec05912f43981
4a608e610fe5dfcdc8fd5fc4c0d581a597df5a5a
1662 F20110330_AABSWO smith_p_Page_176.txt
8a372a4f829babdc654184e17b00dd73
0d13c82ae4a6aa051ce70e4e90531c2f39f9b3c6
16404 F20110330_AABTTI smith_p_Page_160.QC.jpg
ebdc173e6b91bf2c8c310bf460af5505
5eb351a0caa4080ca6b694ba87ab9e07a25b02d9
F20110330_AABSJE smith_p_Page_052.tif
ce6dfe99fde905d3fc13146ec7144fc3
41297754e80e1748302097bc48da1e1e725e6899
2017 F20110330_AABSWP smith_p_Page_177.txt
0c8c681171017dd69dea8f5df9082d3c
5ace549dc0661d427b68371db89e8b401f83d5ce
50121 F20110330_AABTTJ smith_p_Page_161.jpg
483bd4234a5f01d84ba29725189036f9
2cd01ffe84676643adf9e6e42dcd06464b7d9f53
F20110330_AABSJF smith_p_Page_053.tif
89f6bdfb4e4e8242186863cfd36ee0e0
3ff929dc2ae8df5e7c813cc4380b813b5caba9d5
2003 F20110330_AABSWQ smith_p_Page_178.txt
fee6a5a74e933c1c899a179f087a568b
dd4de9f71b5a60907665105629ebc5e070075285
14340 F20110330_AABTTK smith_p_Page_161.QC.jpg
c5c6bf347734fa93f39ac030e1419752
7d36a6d090f3d2e7599d30f68894fcf59ca6b4fb
F20110330_AABSJG smith_p_Page_054.tif
ed82420bdb8f1b43a7f30fc191f0a4d7
dc7a5f25a91add6656f561bb8624cfa12f17c220
1800 F20110330_AABSWR smith_p_Page_179.txt
b59dbbe4b02a13b0566fbbe7a2ab4c16
0064212c46fa72af3686fa6a9a43da5a6f453cf6
79452 F20110330_AABTTL smith_p_Page_162.jpg
01886cefd3be08a2eb12ae1ed2c13605
d4ea9dd000fb05e703e269d035ee77b18549e3e2
F20110330_AABSJH smith_p_Page_055.tif
a1d7ed95dd5d85177128156756578f8f
c73b7e342f0cd80a26adc0d5fdbd0fec3b0f9e50
47612 F20110330_AABTGA smith_p_Page_198.pro
55eb39d33293162ea4f75106e174b98f
900497d1b8fc6e6d97afd7316d7c257e819e3f72
1807 F20110330_AABSWS smith_p_Page_180.txt
35636a26234a818c0fb4714fdd07f841
422b19767828c86dd6a1b1c7daadb4fc9bcb1768
21445 F20110330_AABTTM smith_p_Page_162.QC.jpg
be8b031cd65289d5400ea7ac0ce381f2
8619ae60253230447d61ddf4c90988cc9be9c70a
F20110330_AABSJI smith_p_Page_056.tif
9d4248c4c1670baf9743ca1a2b5302e9
b2bd0424a8995757c20c7b24d881fd720754fa89
49844 F20110330_AABTGB smith_p_Page_199.pro
82eebcf04b01d7d95f12018dab268fe1
8947f5800adeebe78ab1589f1edc96e2800fd7cc
2110 F20110330_AABSWT smith_p_Page_181.txt
65b247518a918a06cc25af4ffb3e1125
a5c26db895ae57134410c5630718560dfe26f581
47289 F20110330_AABTTN smith_p_Page_163.jpg
f0881908e27c8ddf11d3d030d04fe9c2
bbe27b2b43f99c2e608a1169f508023fbe6b6718
F20110330_AABSJJ smith_p_Page_057.tif
69edb82b0176093c89c3cc1a27f89c1c
307bd87e533fdaec84c9d71f5d3156f45d88b33e
52789 F20110330_AABTGC smith_p_Page_200.pro
265f3478357a88d5665b09e95172916b
49fa99515638c33ff51c15a32be0639a7ce2e21e
1985 F20110330_AABSWU smith_p_Page_182.txt
f92783025525a9d0794e198d390cc6d3
6bf305a83c4cb14326ffd7e74e58afb8c6503748
13503 F20110330_AABTTO smith_p_Page_163.QC.jpg
238f064e897b7b37de4ef344dbbac9ad
3fd2c9493641f35c37f81be90027e39c9802ebe6
F20110330_AABSJK smith_p_Page_058.tif
f29e93d228c9123be24a9544e2636aa3
467943d53aecfd1e289a1f165e14785a62af078a
46314 F20110330_AABTGD smith_p_Page_201.pro
aa80f3cc6e4a14c793a980ca48f03388
725e95a8bc33b555e4fc56512bdb545db985c17d
2091 F20110330_AABSWV smith_p_Page_183.txt
c85e26818bca9caa01bdd148e99d41d2
742359aa0c00f63208f9e63209c8567b01651c18
67719 F20110330_AABTTP smith_p_Page_164.jpg
122838b4fd0839d79c636268b886bea6
32af23d8484fdf3a1de1d4e4f94c0951b5dee411
F20110330_AABSJL smith_p_Page_059.tif
f1737a89cfedcb1aa1c6af6f9b9fb8e0
782de93782e02c4119983f60e5bce25380a5820d
53242 F20110330_AABTGE smith_p_Page_202.pro
484e9280c1d1034194b340020a57bdce
bd536c6a962302ad37267177e38d697e51445808
1551 F20110330_AABSWW smith_p_Page_184.txt
f50fa99cbae0ce32abfecaf8e87b1876
0e6b6d5b59d5407e1c700b41871f9fd47e35e47a
18279 F20110330_AABTTQ smith_p_Page_164.QC.jpg
80629b72c34c944a4ad6a0b07416eb6b
c6b1ca20772f35ee6be044b7a3271fe8d37947ac
F20110330_AABSJM smith_p_Page_060.tif
9bce41ebc11834e45e844775e998882a
ad17924c410cc97a3c468c617b33e6c134129760
47889 F20110330_AABTGF smith_p_Page_203.pro
744b3f2e3559f592eb9b56110150d0ea
9a349789ef20146b9b8ca302e67c2001d6dd03fa
1956 F20110330_AABSWX smith_p_Page_185.txt
bc1ac57635cdf936ef27d1d8642e6678
d071efe1f4c857c85f737c54c88901155aa47938
79959 F20110330_AABTTR smith_p_Page_165.jpg
0967e3c0efeca8d0cc9105a927e63ee5
b460f66962a4826874a872157464ad52a852adcd
F20110330_AABSJN smith_p_Page_061.tif
cf1ebe6ff99286f9a537c1a3ae561f25
d20594f6806b6022b30abf621a894b483b49ec2c
46111 F20110330_AABTGG smith_p_Page_204.pro
52884179cdef1627480feff341d85700
3906e94593d409bd345f351ac4ec64e5af3b3c5e
1993 F20110330_AABSWY smith_p_Page_186.txt
ff01ecb8f44bc8c285334a4f91ebfc7e
6d3bfdf6a4268eed620f97f9c794136a76396212
20953 F20110330_AABTTS smith_p_Page_165.QC.jpg
1b61bbfff382ac10a7711d7cdf725496
35629c087cb152d45aed3e05a5ce3522031c7560
F20110330_AABSJO smith_p_Page_062.tif
7cf2e7595a541ba8f467f03e8795b50a
e6b571c7c0e4c7cbe2f6e7b2eec4dcd630fe3fa6
34416 F20110330_AABTGH smith_p_Page_205.pro
0e1a57572d2c5811125b5372bc918238
2d5643cf7903ae94712b2e5f5f81d07af03ed8fc
1991 F20110330_AABSWZ smith_p_Page_187.txt
46ca9d6a921674c11a0208f63faaaf5b
d57f991a0fafa3038a9d94668228f385545f5b56
97339 F20110330_AABUDA smith_p_Page_124.jp2
d482058dfcc077b8ab63eeb7e658a354
5d7c263a13c2c8627b5fcd9a37d60d58d34a72b6
48527 F20110330_AABTTT smith_p_Page_166.jpg
65e190799d4ae72afe9f8e46decadc7d
f75c4b867d23c78edb4fcfdb2d29003f9336fc01
F20110330_AABSJP smith_p_Page_063.tif
2721c3c096d3148d54973abd1817b5e7
7b0508105537031a656e462bcaa14bb5986ddc85
45331 F20110330_AABTGI smith_p_Page_206.pro
8a1b120963d460711270979da7b75ebe
3a77fe9da8edae21d451ee2f7bdbb4e76236a173
81768 F20110330_AABUDB smith_p_Page_125.jp2
991af0446666c58c6d5d5fe14e960d00
dcae352e4a49c6aec313bafd16131f259f39e734
13193 F20110330_AABTTU smith_p_Page_166.QC.jpg
b2c21b32c9a3ead2f62901ed32c84b86
3a8ccd04d091645ebf13c566c1e352780f2d5f88
F20110330_AABSJQ smith_p_Page_064.tif
0cc89faa711db2dce013c2a6fcfbc9e1
e78988dad7fa0d6219dba00a895738fe378b9ad4
48875 F20110330_AABTGJ smith_p_Page_207.pro
1c2716a03ea9ebee09e260341654afd1
331b715084767bf0480b24a729233635fa6de71a
76194 F20110330_AABUDC smith_p_Page_126.jp2
d774498eed7a91e1d8e35712f2b3929e
3f3f8fdc790eda4177e4aa83d3e7af5d125c540f
57424 F20110330_AABTTV smith_p_Page_167.jpg
8f0ba07584a864328f3eabd7452c36ce
3debb8714dbc11675926b942a58c1b2ed08de2f0
F20110330_AABSJR smith_p_Page_065.tif
d3a00b3b7ea6be28432525582fa64b12
fa319672e1df9a3900f2e67b681b1bb7e717e149
27912 F20110330_AABTGK smith_p_Page_208.pro
e4db9dce02c51d37ef09255d6ba1a1ea
c84ab889da2f279530cfa9160a36b38ea5001428
73686 F20110330_AABUDD smith_p_Page_127.jp2
0f46c3770d4ba5af78c6a722f5b35d0a
a7095eb763da5acd1251572006ac0cb5939cd426
15654 F20110330_AABTTW smith_p_Page_167.QC.jpg
6cd6cf9d1734ce4347204cfd390ff024
0f6e49e8466563e5e40e943e3688eae96feeb40d
F20110330_AABSJS smith_p_Page_066.tif
26a53e573afc1fdc4282bd191305f6c3
a673377c4ca755d7340d9e86b39488455c1af3be
45914 F20110330_AABTGL smith_p_Page_209.pro
6705ee09da587f4274045355c3158ab0
bccfce123247077bb1cf75cd71eda7f9da1b5727
66930 F20110330_AABUDE smith_p_Page_128.jp2
b2eae7d2f374a2e12d98748b9de43b39
89b5292558528f0b8b7f87173e7b9a25bf33ced2
68012 F20110330_AABTTX smith_p_Page_168.jpg
643e9248cb56977e6d22b3f26acc1772
2c9f6149e9b1586071062c1a9268e47036de106b
F20110330_AABSJT smith_p_Page_067.tif
1592f4d7c27bd0d2b3ce7c9936ac8620
c83461d90cf2ebb8e464628dc959fdc33d547698
44417 F20110330_AABTGM smith_p_Page_210.pro
f2b1a15d3fcd082a79cb54cdcc0dce11
e037a544800c627042f37385c75db3a668244aa5
82370 F20110330_AABUDF smith_p_Page_129.jp2
4bd0cde2c11fdb4a5afb3437f248266c
36926d62238fb8eea7372b6ad43ceeec71b0d907
17773 F20110330_AABTTY smith_p_Page_168.QC.jpg
699bf684acdf5f5578a86afbecbf2b2e
9cd27f733be4ec745f9d32560feb696a6f4c39a0
F20110330_AABSJU smith_p_Page_068.tif
c7c7cc2cc81afd5ed3c4e7a1346edc2d
8fd5bab8b30a812189a452eaf8ed62233d9a31b8
48455 F20110330_AABTGN smith_p_Page_211.pro
7e4f10303de0b07f4d937348142edad5
41d6e99ab15dc0b239029521cee808576a4c9b54
70945 F20110330_AABUDG smith_p_Page_130.jp2
6b382fd9b65f4f12978954e5ee1379b3
957d12bedb66261f44b263f9496cdba44db75b27
71793 F20110330_AABTTZ smith_p_Page_169.jpg
d88e97e3e5e655716111c4ab6443c281
faaa31da7b4d4d508728f7f7d97adf98f9704bf9
F20110330_AABSJV smith_p_Page_069.tif
2bc40a93d9dea7ae4f925f76fd8133e5
cf9f22367a12f997323d1baca2fb0462f2ff9040
53261 F20110330_AABTGO smith_p_Page_212.pro
13503960e948c225c3aea017f14b771f
e55dd317e1357bf1fc885cd7819c405ef2a71254
73249 F20110330_AABUDH smith_p_Page_131.jp2
79413e3c2ae3f236f930edc4b7154fb8
729bf6b058bfdbc95a19dcf315d81073bc94ba32
F20110330_AABSJW smith_p_Page_070.tif
73e58c0fc51cadb7d7ac1c183fd65d9f
ffeb2266647a9c1a9f82eb602879ce33f703d459
51922 F20110330_AABTGP smith_p_Page_213.pro
9b8136fbfc30d9bca2d13381805fd393
1db8b280672f2bd1842e7e9368b977315bc786c2
78387 F20110330_AABUDI smith_p_Page_132.jp2
5a63ae90ae517f02728e28c6a6acf304
25827259103fa8eff070492b0c16508be5987403
F20110330_AABSJX smith_p_Page_071.tif
f979a1fc340458ba9674db963b160396
e2aed4d58ab042b02e10f85359fa6e56d9f054fd
49790 F20110330_AABTGQ smith_p_Page_214.pro
ad47f6a8985da5d0b9da312d8b2b48bb
e5de7622bda445b49d96428d1d74a677c11b859f
91342 F20110330_AABUDJ smith_p_Page_133.jp2
224c1084c8b833f8f8bd09e497bf5f8a
144b938d5ebee32c937d92a5a89a845870c7b702
F20110330_AABSJY smith_p_Page_072.tif
704eee9b50efcdd10a42aa5adf1d1a96
a9f7fa202a6085ef086741509eca22f1f9fda1fc
52174 F20110330_AABTGR smith_p_Page_215.pro
6d9f74c4c0dae4b19e93af503ec9a158
00c025ce8b544e71326df01932af45104111a29c
79075 F20110330_AABUDK smith_p_Page_134.jp2
849ed71461dd4c2038354d77ae50be90
8f044dd1e3f8dbb60ab4ea93f6184a3f0bc37c99
F20110330_AABSJZ smith_p_Page_073.tif
e42d3ca56fe875bbd7942495e64b0bd1
5f6f43f960badaebcbbabbdd2360abd2087d0b3a
3375 F20110330_AABTGS smith_p_Page_216.pro
10406363d1df703906a315bcabd6321e
3203dc95ccd20cfa6b870c4afa3db1379eaafb2b
68203 F20110330_AABUDL smith_p_Page_135.jp2
27818d8cc7b26db7b66b788048db40ae
d85456776a2a7a036af5b1612fd9a6bf84cae1a2
43461 F20110330_AABTGT smith_p_Page_217.pro
2a0c094a60276ad098fbb9f57572d5b2
3650cc471cb15c8964bf6d957aa5e0606f743142
44778 F20110330_AABUDM smith_p_Page_136.jp2
25939e14effae1110eeb570c73b4bda7
da90e3e44257d11a46cf4164ec41ecaa36ff8499
49559 F20110330_AABTGU smith_p_Page_218.pro
4f99050df4cd2f79db28a4b4c6c8936a
a61d31f0691a49a2080e1f097571276c768b6f84
98095 F20110330_AABUDN smith_p_Page_137.jp2
c09d15133de4273b46874b0316eb24f4
75b36ea82f2ef84b9abee711332b5fba38ad08f2
45066 F20110330_AABTGV smith_p_Page_219.pro
073424e65b946dda9a0e8301bb85c010
c6ccadd35ec7a0c17c9fe7e98aeec3e2dbd5f0ec
94030 F20110330_AABUDO smith_p_Page_138.jp2
09d6dbbf8e3e9515d5a5ff0d3dca8884
bb91c9be72a34192ce8051bc6e85615aceb386f9
64268 F20110330_AABTGW smith_p_Page_220.pro
05847ea9249d466befd2c86f08787e6f
32ec24a6280320e71f5c6a654af049fafd79ea31
97021 F20110330_AABUDP smith_p_Page_139.jp2
3bdd8c918279930c81398b480030e5a2
6777d53b00f3421dd733532eb70b57aeffdfc76b
44018 F20110330_AABTGX smith_p_Page_221.pro
9147c30c65058f7c5fe4fc54248de9f1
10aeb9909abf32f48f74dda7026e885c3e1e2e80
1051956 F20110330_AABTZA smith_p_Page_020.jp2
dd7e438c8bf45080c4a96ff5c0904a26
c41f9c4b38ed72945d1f7afc71611bb030ceba44
79565 F20110330_AABUDQ smith_p_Page_140.jp2
38ae1b8063bd0d5cdf451ad286e13196
ec38baf2e4d455cdbf7deeea88b796a260e1c3a3
48453 F20110330_AABTGY smith_p_Page_222.pro
48722b487ba38c383df735f880ce53b4
c720ca04b870c0016022d3db006d63ab4b1dd467
104284 F20110330_AABTZB smith_p_Page_021.jp2
ec0f087edef5679e249400eb6c13885a
a8b3e595dc2fc78973abee187c820b84912d58fb
64767 F20110330_AABUDR smith_p_Page_141.jp2
56c44875b27b48cf5f44a961b332ff0c
f3b66dce530141150c30cb51c73500549d9f8ed3
106473 F20110330_AABTZC smith_p_Page_022.jp2
2ecab0022ef5864ebcb46a52f02ce1f9
fefbe66d821a10beb7368c1ad8edd00c478d2f96
62813 F20110330_AABUDS smith_p_Page_142.jp2
86cd1c7a6bcaf24a827dac05e6b1859e
dea63fa56d3ddc631a79eddba09e621e7e48600d
14255 F20110330_AABTGZ smith_p_Page_223.pro
91efab76c46557b962379e4659451020
182e398ae2fbf2da150cf99770e1a3c40b4c1afa
105169 F20110330_AABTZD smith_p_Page_023.jp2
d749537267e99323ea83f5b846b7f8a0
909c1bb48e9d6ed7035ab2787bc772668913b2fd
78183 F20110330_AABUDT smith_p_Page_143.jp2
b5d2f854065df990555c65b2008256bb
ec38aa23669c3485e39611650de7c2207365644a
F20110330_AABSPA smith_p_Page_204.tif
ffabb41029d9548f99db86b14ad4e60f
5db258f1bac61f6bb6b5ecc33ba41a19ab2538c5
107972 F20110330_AABTZE smith_p_Page_024.jp2
58798b7daf8d72f84b542c0e21d4c75e
353a441215dd05d17e605f80b5859fdffda0c418
86894 F20110330_AABUDU smith_p_Page_144.jp2
766e5312b4875d55b9e4e39e85543071
1a46fb11e72814fa1ccbb6a5aca6704b6b04ea4f
F20110330_AABSPB smith_p_Page_205.tif
c8e8a2d85f02a230f859fe40433c05ac
5b689599b0d87020541cbdd2372901e908f9ce17
105050 F20110330_AABTZF smith_p_Page_025.jp2
54c352546c6732e1548efa51475cba20
f5cb3e4a678b1e7eb7fd565d60596dda706f2479
F20110330_AABSPC smith_p_Page_206.tif
706cea051c466044f31d4e2e15d3e5ea
be6c28d73192497628915a8cef2e3eaa032690f4
101297 F20110330_AABTZG smith_p_Page_026.jp2
fec00472134fece193888bd1bc4f967a
fd352a4e435971eb5947f456999d6be93da0352c
81780 F20110330_AABUDV smith_p_Page_145.jp2
21faabc1ac852356fd1ba8ff1d8803b4
ac7579e70e8bf6315f88a0e9533889f1c5288715
103604 F20110330_AABTZH smith_p_Page_027.jp2
4007c6983f90d933e8050ddb1b2289f3
18eb73d550229e18fba2a467be42c7832d6b9e45
86500 F20110330_AABUDW smith_p_Page_146.jp2
c70034bf59d6880393e28b5cc8d0b392
78e50842bde59eb397e9799ded6ae14a999859c4
F20110330_AABSPD smith_p_Page_207.tif
4e1d9848c39f691c788002e8d80ae027
688592f0a16a2965a999e694934d7feea24f58fd
99974 F20110330_AABTZI smith_p_Page_028.jp2
947496b2a5ffbca53df52b09c130c2c3
f5b0e3f45e3d9860287ccec0eb536ad39588aaa0
85539 F20110330_AABUDX smith_p_Page_147.jp2
185402e98599026fd38825dbee584fbf
ddb0ece30912f55e3e69c71052fffc6bf35b8720
F20110330_AABSPE smith_p_Page_208.tif
f5a97de583d53639bb534c01e3eeb718
3ca1902c3db58f14b417d2a172172be733eaaf61
F20110330_AABTZJ smith_p_Page_029.jp2
914ca2640e7f0d2f71781a5af850484d
c20850d8ae36fe5baa9f2fa9c4dc47b9fdf6382a
77779 F20110330_AABUDY smith_p_Page_148.jp2
653718010139687a432891b1e42da4fd
fd147223bf68d7dca942a13bdf2871f814ca5e3f
F20110330_AABSPF smith_p_Page_209.tif
ea67be837515741f0ca0dc2ce42d69c7
3a228751ce4a98c17e1089a3f3b303de1160b1e3
96545 F20110330_AABTZK smith_p_Page_030.jp2
8ccd556d01675aaa00c05a626e98cb48
a1156b93566b44260f759f082dfc0c44da43704a
67570 F20110330_AABUDZ smith_p_Page_149.jp2
dd843170a403258e0661f69dc6d73b5e
20807fef23f7dde5631376d60bf6a37de87d6bc1
F20110330_AABSPG smith_p_Page_210.tif
69ea00fa76e2d00bbdb312f2911b6ae4
23bbcddac007a986482472a85cd80946d3550dd3
105461 F20110330_AABTZL smith_p_Page_031.jp2
02d55bccb3dd1bc617d5df6beb835dd8
3d4df9efcee810d91a24cae0306b65d04d855d43
F20110330_AABSPH smith_p_Page_211.tif
f28d8fcb93c70969173adcda91010910
2ea7b616ab0f5a1c64a9ef5be73086b8589238b6
24789 F20110330_AABTMA smith_p_Page_065.QC.jpg
048c82784620aad27ff6ff445777a5b1
e4a08f869062901087142ba63f9e7c6745034105
F20110330_AABSPI smith_p_Page_212.tif
da9e9948dcb80f0128e1ae6cab59aa3e
88f397c61a3db120a27c0fb9d5f5d5b616406db0
77973 F20110330_AABTMB smith_p_Page_066.jpg
8b2d59c9e832a522043ce9344b42c608
2bb2ce314691f68de8a28fe2a64dee81820cb43a
96766 F20110330_AABTZM smith_p_Page_032.jp2
ae65d10e0c2bb39e1978d41db5d17e06
450416a5e3d7cfeefbf114ba1e9010adcbf3f2df
F20110330_AABSPJ smith_p_Page_213.tif
97cea6c3d3476d74992b963e3e9a6b48
d0a6ef2de5f2db3ef7875db7217022f9e1fe6085
24044 F20110330_AABTMC smith_p_Page_066.QC.jpg
d38220c075f1bce6384335872881a179
df093cf35127331b3ae589641238b4d2bfcda775
106257 F20110330_AABTZN smith_p_Page_033.jp2
f5c4064a104bbc6fbd5a14d121429714
12c002bedda83c8fe745523a5f6441a9c9c0d2b3
F20110330_AABSPK smith_p_Page_214.tif
2e7b8fa0655686920de87ee1fd4e9ef9
50e8161e5aeb90c32313636d1918aee382795cc9
101625 F20110330_AABTMD smith_p_Page_067.jpg
d4e07720b95a8f848dafc7cdbaee2db7
bda877b1ff713e024b0ef2e8f8b140ac8df20cf3
91012 F20110330_AABTZO smith_p_Page_034.jp2
025e29d5897e43b8a64bc8055ab404e4
fd2432c08da806009de6161810073030c77154ce
F20110330_AABSPL smith_p_Page_215.tif
aa4f903105bf38485477c8cdcc93e75d
94bad50ef21f0438b09d9ecff2baff1473c585e0
27423 F20110330_AABTME smith_p_Page_067.QC.jpg
1d05a6730e5c99d58537916e85b7d953
20abd3057aac3dde783964eca9a9abf0a8663843
89347 F20110330_AABTZP smith_p_Page_035.jp2
51bccca18d392115be4f7812c7ddaa86
c7da24d08d889d51168f2f1623dbed1fb4cbb8fd
F20110330_AABSPM smith_p_Page_216.tif
73cd58528d11074ef43d828203691b8a
54281d129a8f95fc00f088a71db21041a965b345
95019 F20110330_AABTMF smith_p_Page_068.jpg
4fff352a3eca9cc279e66a9f21ae8c2f
2b8be9dc4e89e3025ae30eb93648861de939fc5e
88573 F20110330_AABTZQ smith_p_Page_036.jp2
5e9947a14d1ac7cdc4776c501e0b0f10
0e30f5b7a2be866ade956599192d1054a6d4cd22
F20110330_AABSPN smith_p_Page_217.tif
87f09682d985d6ba4c957a449574251d
68eb5c508c11f76f88a8952b325f6d4fa41d55e0
26761 F20110330_AABTMG smith_p_Page_068.QC.jpg
6c4ba3fcaf92b5a79cc34ed50aac7b14
6ecaf611a98014d79b044a1d4ff8c7f5aa0fd558
94000 F20110330_AABTZR smith_p_Page_037.jp2
90ef808491ee409c01ee68765db8dae0
e2d64beba60d3953078e0feff14916b736165199
F20110330_AABSPO smith_p_Page_218.tif
66224fc69eab5ac4bded45534042bab8
628efb93239286b74284b33eee49344bb9f41a36
75733 F20110330_AABTMH smith_p_Page_069.jpg
73bd00e430410f7ace70450e41dea09c
1d1aaf1ad23f34db2c086c6352708b76ca0c48e7
F20110330_AABUJA smith_p_Page_056thm.jpg
263f26feba0a9303db1d542990c6cc8e
fdd7ea6f4e654430497ea57003b66be81ee86653
105405 F20110330_AABTZS smith_p_Page_038.jp2
284f6d0aaad9d07ad0bec24f714036be
b03a94fea3f1d27d0c26e2257497077fa581b4ff
F20110330_AABSPP smith_p_Page_219.tif
f8a6707c36d51d3ddf9cd0ea20225ea5
b9e795e4ee62e88da58fc22c5cf1cf8182f2cdc6
22134 F20110330_AABTMI smith_p_Page_069.QC.jpg
5500b8690864753e4b3a79e942b6b17d
a83dbf8f331b666e1076ff49391be360f4cb8a65
6499 F20110330_AABUJB smith_p_Page_057thm.jpg
93270a3b4119cd282befec7b11e0e0b0
8dd6b959afa711effb23a38a16fb9ace9c7118c4
92502 F20110330_AABTZT smith_p_Page_039.jp2
234975c10c07dec3dd6a48fb9d8b0bb4
57c1b2dddb467254321e7bef49eb2b000cbc8bc2
F20110330_AABSPQ smith_p_Page_220.tif
255fbe6a515bd9f08deaa0f8ba239e9c
527c9c8f85780069d0d6e2845a665007ecc33f90
76744 F20110330_AABTMJ smith_p_Page_070.jpg
660c44606815adf23f0c5845da2d5964
39ac08ae1a595711d3762a88659927541cdf87aa
F20110330_AABUJC smith_p_Page_058thm.jpg
e1d97153916f1cd60c21b34685fd0b1d
f294baf8abfb1c2e22bd31fb0fe1c502cc5df0ed
101235 F20110330_AABTZU smith_p_Page_040.jp2
9e96c00225669fcd7e8148b9ea384f4d
60d1d1aa3965f7a50d410e6e0dcaf025226079e2
F20110330_AABSPR smith_p_Page_221.tif
70504391798bb775eba33e12965672c7
edb84ab94ca9b348caa0d0d6405cb5af1a1e2ae8
22132 F20110330_AABTMK smith_p_Page_070.QC.jpg
8e1360d8640512d47f1705975b3d6c56
26080c18edf1535ad6238ce4364cc7e97302ce1d
F20110330_AABUJD smith_p_Page_059thm.jpg
037fd73b9e0d4fba329d13aadb9e2c67
1f8e29615d83478968a216613153b1393353b06f
87267 F20110330_AABTZV smith_p_Page_041.jp2
8b2448b2ea487d3d3e018c961adb6d19
9d36bf08a5b096bb08b760c20dbeed2a45598121
F20110330_AABSPS smith_p_Page_222.tif
73454d479cbc1626b226d14af6c5f0c6
6cdcd8e308e882e9ff16d2aad124bceea7554280
47597 F20110330_AABTML smith_p_Page_071.jpg
53d0beeef08c07699d64a53660216b46
f500b52dae4aff58643ba8f4584ca6e2ec425720
6158 F20110330_AABUJE smith_p_Page_060thm.jpg
1de00d87d77bacff04688220f1e198a1
b536ef1f5e568b641d473bfda1fbb8118be66739
122891 F20110330_AABTZW smith_p_Page_042.jp2
a1b79267fb2e5c9a1139fe55726c189d
7890bc648e575b4dff8626ca443c899b796c0597
F20110330_AABSPT smith_p_Page_223.tif
7c505a7829b8ea6bf0d4ca03d3624134
eb6f8204d1a534697676bb44ab466eb3ab73aa0f
14948 F20110330_AABTMM smith_p_Page_071.QC.jpg
6b7e4ca79a8d4bcb0a4e2b313fb0f3a3
b94ecef7d725dfa6238ea8bfb073523d222ba122
7743 F20110330_AABUJF smith_p_Page_061thm.jpg
c8a465eefc47790356fc687968e59684
4785061a792719f360981866a3de0ba83147c55a
115893 F20110330_AABTZX smith_p_Page_043.jp2
02c6317bf14ce3e08a8b4c827f2b8efd
60e71ed4dfcd238e1823798b71ad2f02502f796c
F20110330_AABSPU smith_p_Page_224.tif
6566355deb10b51deaedd19a9dfe341e
91742f84b8fcac948b1bdae3f581f83da2014ef0
76829 F20110330_AABTMN smith_p_Page_072.jpg
088f321935e78391814205291bbd8e21
bd48cddbd67c775398827772712780278754b110
6167 F20110330_AABUJG smith_p_Page_062thm.jpg
c83868db1719731600dff83b98b1f07b
b63fb451269a4691e54a1e7f7fd2715a503fa91e
F20110330_AABTZY smith_p_Page_044.jp2
195eec8c379850d050c7c3057fc67f64
45bb4de4a2b072a0118d795f56d94372aa354861
424 F20110330_AABSPV smith_p_Page_001.txt
084a6d28b404e49118e423f723f5fe4b
9a0cb35d1ac0f71734f8dc47c7d03dbfab71cafc
23537 F20110330_AABTMO smith_p_Page_072.QC.jpg
08386d135f502b4a915fcff272b4f514
4d83dcc6baec051ce469b8cf7b63ba6bc420fc74
6132 F20110330_AABUJH smith_p_Page_063thm.jpg
be49b715f3a126e8314c905266a1662b
154e1cf19f9b0f7423dc7af37bc7d5930025652c
114738 F20110330_AABTZZ smith_p_Page_045.jp2
53ac52d6d64cabf2ed1f0adb7b55c6b2
f5a0dce45dd1be2cddf9fe1315931d092a44e1d1
122 F20110330_AABSPW smith_p_Page_002.txt
d47fc8422b112b4a44fda2caff4da463
30db21fed2c47a802ef4057c9247bcfe765a58f2
83659 F20110330_AABTMP smith_p_Page_073.jpg
87822ed4e8c74366c84dc0df06fc2fcb
dc30928ea20efcc553e539d25e8092226bb8f372
6172 F20110330_AABUJI smith_p_Page_064thm.jpg
1536987904d7084009fe26b3d71de90c
91530ac7cf6a3a1b82af9fe40221b595cd038c9d
143 F20110330_AABSPX smith_p_Page_003.txt
c9ffd0e57e68ad95f69b758efe12ed56
4376b46f8e67c2624ff1fdc67dec370b8684f33d
25742 F20110330_AABTMQ smith_p_Page_073.QC.jpg
622c89b00bcd427ed723c8a56081dc8b
01dd177933cc77317889dcfe3752db4b481ba4a0
6436 F20110330_AABUJJ smith_p_Page_065thm.jpg
e6fd9fb6fa711962851aacf8ac052d42
712f6c60ba074754341157260fb5484c73f0ecd3
1590 F20110330_AABSPY smith_p_Page_004.txt
79cb87816e6936df1cf1371fd0766b76
0c58eebf737d4f231081468310ff170c3d103f9e
71956 F20110330_AABTMR smith_p_Page_074.jpg
d2ad767ae625d012b054fb634130dfac
7a64b85ead7011f109d620525857391a1d9554c0
6163 F20110330_AABUJK smith_p_Page_066thm.jpg
e6e3b10a44c94968300a7efb5e1c0b7a
53189959a5cbf796a902c4e80254198164785d02
2026 F20110330_AABSPZ smith_p_Page_005.txt
fafa6f23238954405018fb9cfa103eec
4b6babed0e8cf0a4cc3061f86463ecca66929b73
22573 F20110330_AABTMS smith_p_Page_074.QC.jpg
514fa06770bf4098c14635b7a7f54e49
2edf71477be076de9ecb98c25f20b9a291afe21c
6168 F20110330_AABUJL smith_p_Page_067thm.jpg
f2b06a9d0984c2d93f22a2362518330f
574462486d2385b5ab2cc9bf1fb922e8a734fa6a
88564 F20110330_AABTMT smith_p_Page_075.jpg
45a56d5ccaba9f0808a55ebb59d85d8f
ae30348b5d0f733ee463c195da6c1f1c9e6934ff
6089 F20110330_AABUJM smith_p_Page_068thm.jpg
19a0fb6ac7b0d233a3f8c1e8cabbd403
13ff8e274a94f1e56b799f74d23e7195116c53b7
27009 F20110330_AABTMU smith_p_Page_075.QC.jpg
dc26434872d90c034815602f3e980bd0
6345ca4da5c0e993b22c73481ac4d78d6951c4ea
5667 F20110330_AABUJN smith_p_Page_069thm.jpg
f416ab1ff0c2e48e318e4664f2e27854
29528b5609051d3ff0927091d3d3a953283650d6
81353 F20110330_AABTMV smith_p_Page_076.jpg
a10e839532f723bab39d31d2d36178ab
0f1a925e7b2265658f9c201a25b9be7a3b51d2d0
5778 F20110330_AABUJO smith_p_Page_070thm.jpg
3073419fd17b0481249b9d0791d06085
cfc0001c58d6395a41e89ada9347e5c0d887a779
25494 F20110330_AABTMW smith_p_Page_076.QC.jpg
3f31a9aa76be96660c4c69f4ea8b2095
2f473d599fd52bc4aa11eab2fc3bed370fc07965
3592 F20110330_AABUJP smith_p_Page_071thm.jpg
ac3db3a50b4b36b6b950fd62642dc92b
56d0e0b437c25934d9c4dd5bba3eb2a5b3b81bbb
73033 F20110330_AABTMX smith_p_Page_077.jpg
6186287384856283053d529aee384e4e
c27ee2bc720e89ea26948c41e506ed044c274092
5735 F20110330_AABUJQ smith_p_Page_072thm.jpg
3d618a8894ca72ada7028934dab3ccbe
ad7776cfef39b18d300f1ba5a3bd7dfb922926c6
22956 F20110330_AABTMY smith_p_Page_077.QC.jpg
f06cc750cf8fb90054f9856e6d2f63c9
54c8c94597efe1fa769858364c9146a21f45c123
6250 F20110330_AABUJR smith_p_Page_073thm.jpg
567671653c0a12722d7f4f2166fe924e
b43aa6458149109ed4c5aa4c8df1c46681a04d59
84075 F20110330_AABTMZ smith_p_Page_078.jpg
aeecc25adb80e0de97c13497e99c4f11
715b7af51c738bfe0a7d631dffbef8ac2953d3b9
5698 F20110330_AABUJS smith_p_Page_074thm.jpg
97bb446dbd1d681d8ecc92d7e56d44e9
adfa55efe10792f2c11ebad887e563e6533909a4
6590 F20110330_AABUJT smith_p_Page_075thm.jpg
19e8ded7730844cdb5a6541bfdea09f6
eb173b490b13e2dcecd8c14b43a56ae1a6258339
6376 F20110330_AABUJU smith_p_Page_076thm.jpg
b609167c611c6f6a6f8ac99544ed3375
58fc179d75f7659f79571d134e5fe20fc8f67770
844 F20110330_AABSVA smith_p_Page_136.txt
aa2e37739026ac4c0dd84d2362d4c545
e4a9aaeef9ea6f1eb12b0229177047068f1249df
5638 F20110330_AABUJV smith_p_Page_077thm.jpg
51ef91f2e27359c471c2c2651baac947
910149493c53df3709db49ad5d2170aaf74a0afa
1984 F20110330_AABSVB smith_p_Page_137.txt
78967cd45ec23395b57ac0111f285ed6
52eb1163f4e9a36b16a4d16e04f2b827b7888c83
6192 F20110330_AABUJW smith_p_Page_078thm.jpg
9957b62516651dac2f15f58bb7049e13
0303478cc11c98e4c04f693e042c54da524eb7e1
1863 F20110330_AABSVC smith_p_Page_138.txt
2ab4dceb3348c3d332af876f2b267238
22b5cac8637a777c89998a8603f5398a6db6102e
6088 F20110330_AABUJX smith_p_Page_079thm.jpg
d905a166ff39a0d8408112c7e140ab16
0e1f8bbea86f9a6a296c50d6de6e770c1264684a
1859 F20110330_AABSVD smith_p_Page_139.txt
9e8440c40ee95f545719e7cbd1938ade
517f4b22a4f77cdaf5fbf3c0231f5938a4e913f3
6443 F20110330_AABUJY smith_p_Page_080thm.jpg
33b6efda5e1f6853e01fdaf6065966b7
576b3d092cf60162e0a9074cc9365fb541bbfff9
1546 F20110330_AABSVE smith_p_Page_140.txt
b166fd41a0e1c07901ec2884d85ab9ac
76d997ada66a27306408448d01f57394b1f517a8
6148 F20110330_AABUJZ smith_p_Page_081thm.jpg
80e738750f10de860bac0fc72fb5d667
c890e6278453dd8fbd530f50a10b76e0d32123c6
1222 F20110330_AABSVF smith_p_Page_141.txt
ade37a88b2a250cb46e5d46da338ccd3
73e2b81afddfce83dba7d4b4614054ba996d4ae6
1173 F20110330_AABSVG smith_p_Page_142.txt
3e4b913fef62754a62e9e53cccf45922
79c6ba3f35722ba2786808777041b8c7d8bab0e9
17591 F20110330_AABTSA smith_p_Page_143.QC.jpg
03ba96731c85cac1383250243ab9b4b2
95afce1876aa4ceae5ca663c88389ec832b9f08b
1556 F20110330_AABSVH smith_p_Page_143.txt
551122d11a2e1f99fde65d1a7efdedfd
8ebc61b12fd19f4a955602c2d89259a1ae7bdaf9
69896 F20110330_AABTSB smith_p_Page_144.jpg
bd0de67e9ff1078d41a4355b8c195a20
61829164361f6e699b1c183162a133641c7f552d
1680 F20110330_AABSVI smith_p_Page_144.txt
89c10d4bce485b538f7fdd29c605c228
3b02c90efc19ead75d875b044f870ab278adf5a6
18991 F20110330_AABTSC smith_p_Page_144.QC.jpg
8f407f89f5ca8ce9ce886475ccc6cc1d
4408d76794532ca2a371413ccd16c406abfb37b9
66207 F20110330_AABTSD smith_p_Page_145.jpg
e8924245eb872f76b6f010cc29898c67
e6b8b7bc1911a38c3adf0fa444dd9a164220bcbc
1581 F20110330_AABSVJ smith_p_Page_145.txt
5fa14be41e1902df9b09e02ad33dcf75
906590a1ba4382d1db4f59abb12a6e3e12c8b073
18177 F20110330_AABTSE smith_p_Page_145.QC.jpg
0215e8218237394c45a247d769c94547
71467fc937f923941f0a4bc1b5bd332a4e90a0b5
1687 F20110330_AABSVK smith_p_Page_146.txt
6e270444248476177426b73fb679aa25
dacbf1f261b844d61bb644723a6e221da142054f
F20110330_AABSIA smith_p_Page_022.tif
8d3396b8afeffad3526ba84761bd6854
36b05357d1dd6b3a6ac8e47170ae9de32e6ad5f1
1644 F20110330_AABSVL smith_p_Page_147.txt
6bb0572e87a31ebe83ef307cf969a558
f6ee18fec17fd713c3b668d3401880dd410aaf98
70336 F20110330_AABTSF smith_p_Page_146.jpg
3224f7a691071afc256c038831ed571d
ed826870931628a953cda34d9b8d64305d47b5c0
F20110330_AABSIB smith_p_Page_023.tif
5d3b410644eea46934f35ad709cfe1fd
c0b9a124b65def6c6c7d9d8b7397f6f3c612ff7f
1508 F20110330_AABSVM smith_p_Page_148.txt
e9d3e29901a1de24872d9cf447b6ecbd
a58ee75dc504d90f9fae546fb8b8591378eedf52
18802 F20110330_AABTSG smith_p_Page_146.QC.jpg
4096fe27474fed82e70dd0de811fb173
af8e0141190775d8135ba22b9b901d6cd02386e2
6630 F20110330_AABUPA smith_p_Page_212thm.jpg
eb9b788bbda8c48e81231ba17455dd49
30d242a051724e3553244243957690a7650bc59f
F20110330_AABSIC smith_p_Page_024.tif
8a2d242391d100a404aaa72220e35249
077b63b24cd026ca18afecb339600df3c4775a83
1281 F20110330_AABSVN smith_p_Page_149.txt
074b822f46bbd841035316cf1c88becc
99b627cb3941b1086eb523301ef8ca715b0bdbae
69167 F20110330_AABTSH smith_p_Page_147.jpg
11fa96b0cf8255d2ab3c530365392da6
e387f57443a7e7ecab5fe945fe79a2d132e99fb1
F20110330_AABSID smith_p_Page_025.tif
08ad6f4bd721999b133674f1c6f985a8
0695676fce6898b2c1970dcad30beb8170df02e3
1365 F20110330_AABSVO smith_p_Page_150.txt
0cb2f660ed870a604b5a949ab219196a
67b4880cffad1995c4721b974ddfb0011ec1b568
18497 F20110330_AABTSI smith_p_Page_147.QC.jpg
9bc49970318070340db5f996d2c2b3e4
a6307c3b0598656792ff03fd567128b7005568ce
6631 F20110330_AABUPB smith_p_Page_213thm.jpg
7b9284622aed48d7d45be4b13f89d549
796002d554611c05823899e3cb0dd7ff6e838f28
F20110330_AABSIE smith_p_Page_026.tif
235a7b740b4ecedb59791d4474cb386a
85076d1f8f60ee38ca1689f442962961b61bf9d6
1567 F20110330_AABSVP smith_p_Page_151.txt
db4583e5752a5dbc3e3a1393356168ca
3a74015a326cc301e91f993444d2bbcc3fc91e79
64420 F20110330_AABTSJ smith_p_Page_148.jpg
dff46f112de3ac264cfc782ac808b5b8
dda9ed61e49d47c59688ce2034aa0a1620f1b448
6325 F20110330_AABUPC smith_p_Page_214thm.jpg
ce0759eebeeae79e52461b92a0a7c319
2a24f9b4f2b87280a51b85e002a0a826ed453ae1
F20110330_AABSIF smith_p_Page_027.tif
d2e87d031c4738fce9831a481439b870
7e7317afacb42d3a2a39b80fa575a2fafdc7f845
1552 F20110330_AABSVQ smith_p_Page_152.txt
2562793418779b34bfff5c91f91e08b5
7e4190c6d2b5fbcc6dda13d62afa574bdfc91d43
17743 F20110330_AABTSK smith_p_Page_148.QC.jpg
c1746bd2fe7f07893c5a204947df0b7d
323d5374ff480c0098cd1b8553c9ab6bfb5f8d0a
6691 F20110330_AABUPD smith_p_Page_215thm.jpg
e8c99189a49cffd2470b949db9535fb1
1eac8e965214a046f80bb457cf49e1219c5afd8e
F20110330_AABSIG smith_p_Page_028.tif
53dc7e408bbd5664b02e92a2319d5e55
77fbc34ffb7b7cf33d7164cd289dc73bb54120ca
1842 F20110330_AABSVR smith_p_Page_153.txt
7451a6c8d7bcc2fabbbbcd1b038cbdc3
b638a01b418cd7300138bcddee539367a197b882
54194 F20110330_AABTSL smith_p_Page_149.jpg
accc83b4c11d30fbef5bed8a177351b3
44ea59e758ac587228593c8c3a9fd57692c6c2ec
855 F20110330_AABUPE smith_p_Page_216thm.jpg
cd3c4bb9d2cd2c4563b534c46b1aeb56
75864cfd2a50824186e255f27d6407a7bce0526f
F20110330_AABSIH smith_p_Page_029.tif
7a9c5b768bb348532995f51df9a699ff
2bfb22e4b65ef26db1b9767cbf13a2dc1b140633
43454 F20110330_AABTFA smith_p_Page_172.pro
949f1d6a1f38a476176c350d0d251ca2
fb0124e496fa50ccd4395dfab63b5a9f5cbd25cd
F20110330_AABSVS smith_p_Page_154.txt
b99729c894803c21b0d07ec09cf31cb4
f44e03a77369e743eb42c4c7fd0684c16f2aca93
14867 F20110330_AABTSM smith_p_Page_149.QC.jpg
8abbbc99797dd55ba9fa77b22136e057
4f7dd550e5c9791d4fe3755bf3ce98058b02829f
5489 F20110330_AABUPF smith_p_Page_217thm.jpg
224e39cb48f5af51fc7538ac20957911
b9899542cec29d5e2b3ea65a5d05891299677f00
F20110330_AABSII smith_p_Page_030.tif
0cae9fa3c60986fdba710d34b6611857
27383f287c42e5144fd67b4991668a4a83c13268
44796 F20110330_AABTFB smith_p_Page_173.pro
975d78b3ecb0b6b4511c90824fb0a734
0353b6ee5004e1296adaf480a6c6e6092d3887cf
2454 F20110330_AABSVT smith_p_Page_155.txt
f1aa6857e7e6fba162e6a89e0de9fed5
3b45ebcd7996460a8d9cd6366f1921f81ff14c29
58304 F20110330_AABTSN smith_p_Page_150.jpg
a224e81b29b79fbd2cca4ae719450478
2d9a7986bb9bff8c8854a9cdf6503d29cea525b2
6620 F20110330_AABUPG smith_p_Page_218thm.jpg
7a151fb8c74c592764ae20d8f1216a5c
8e3ca159948dd48fef5f01295be0902e082a8aea
F20110330_AABSIJ smith_p_Page_031.tif
eb809a19505478fc8eb4428f29fe1608
ee213d20789443ffb3d0ed5c4d7555cd90c7a544
46917 F20110330_AABTFC smith_p_Page_174.pro
a7daab2f06e5227aff409c010772ac17
8daad6e70774cb4bca1f89e4acf169d1fd8a50f3
1582 F20110330_AABSVU smith_p_Page_156.txt
9dc9b024a50af4bf90f4216c6b1673f4
9046a91b8ab1c967006b9341a0d1c5657b78d944
15978 F20110330_AABTSO smith_p_Page_150.QC.jpg
6f25e91f4a74e96b98e178311347d059
1ed53c623a1c610e62a0e7e6c3e2de7f04bc2861
6209 F20110330_AABUPH smith_p_Page_219thm.jpg
4d36c036e0a57e3f32399167a89948fc
8671363675593b9a35468355bf5a5a913ad154e4
F20110330_AABSIK smith_p_Page_032.tif
0c374529fb6f89d67a3a94aee39ff1a9
d92ef14ed87dbaf3b12be7caf430bb4bff8ae1e5
15783 F20110330_AABTFD smith_p_Page_175.pro
6aa320e04ef8897ae7ae21d63a1c58b1
ab83caa4f6959edfec125c458491572f1966a083
1325 F20110330_AABSVV smith_p_Page_157.txt
72697fab2524a0764d4180efdbb86937
dc922c46fbaae8e4cb75a8fdcb1835378bb9d7fa
67120 F20110330_AABTSP smith_p_Page_151.jpg
104b9ae1bbaab648737c787190d6e574
7e7858e67d712603e25735584971f63eeb8ada20
6914 F20110330_AABUPI smith_p_Page_220thm.jpg
c3f690ec0cd3c3124bbb19d81717fbc8
f4ecfd7b72b492e25819405b1d779dd48807099d
F20110330_AABSIL smith_p_Page_033.tif
a50f02cc8a3581fcc8435186a671ce82
64254cd3bdc697117ce43b7a921efe21fab3dcac
39494 F20110330_AABTFE smith_p_Page_176.pro
6eafbb4876fb80545441a7aa7e598353
50caa91825a9c903dd94ae9e01a9100741b145c4
1772 F20110330_AABSVW smith_p_Page_158.txt
a71998d8ab6893aea727c49f5d6c6f59
3a228d1aa91bfed47830722ffdf57812d93e9c28
18026 F20110330_AABTSQ smith_p_Page_151.QC.jpg
1946867fe775ea6d0f56f98c7fd44119
a351c34420bc7a8f2246a79f48455f012b2b3284
F20110330_AABUPJ smith_p_Page_221thm.jpg
c4093e33b73ae911b5cb65d464ca35e8
034783d78045ccc936df29f6d621e36e219624a9
F20110330_AABSIM smith_p_Page_034.tif
2ffb69ba7de25d11a81cd85fc5a912c9
cf268f6acbaeadd5113c68b5c7cada970e0e6e59
51310 F20110330_AABTFF smith_p_Page_177.pro
772441e89afcbf5c63a6174c358c7d0c
8185e48beaa50ef8759ab577dbd355781d22055c
1596 F20110330_AABSVX smith_p_Page_159.txt
c9c5a268efc79ef044c25191c54c9d05
0c3b20616c26b5850c2bed20556a448645855812
64740 F20110330_AABTSR smith_p_Page_152.jpg
41805f21bfdd6f21ea621a1b85a7ab1d
7ccd17695e71339065ad057ca71931e86d741c1a
6657 F20110330_AABUPK smith_p_Page_222thm.jpg
9fbbc376de3abcc9d672ec7bfe1dfcc2
badc0b320b8848a0d5809afa49d0cda74b5a3959
F20110330_AABSIN smith_p_Page_035.tif
8e8e0b27559ca13221b8eaca619d138c
35bd09e6bd3c37b320976b1c279cabc2846ace5d
50836 F20110330_AABTFG smith_p_Page_178.pro
434ec3e20ad2b4ac71682edd538cac0e
0c8adf5288f9cdc1792121deb350d5297d3182fe
1357 F20110330_AABSVY smith_p_Page_160.txt
489bcd5008cafc88c5026561e6184fa2
4506dc08e5061429b9838bb38d66d31d6758977e
106712 F20110330_AABUCA smith_p_Page_098.jp2
d30cf263882fa467e9f382d038c923ac
68c93ce5f0deb58a56b8b58c36bceb5ae9cef995
17827 F20110330_AABTSS smith_p_Page_152.QC.jpg
5f5ee651cc9405d3857786e57b52c20b
ca4ab501194dab09d1537e5a52abbbc096e063f7
2010 F20110330_AABUPL smith_p_Page_223thm.jpg
55e0255e66c71c7ec659af3a44a8dd5e
4e38b6f2eda32e8f595d82d903ac6c760f5786d1
F20110330_AABSIO smith_p_Page_036.tif
cb8646750405ebcbde98d676d232bbc6
d838000b4693e5822a405db766eba0f0ba7520a5
45421 F20110330_AABTFH smith_p_Page_179.pro
fc3e15b6bc5f535b4481fb45c1b54e0a
e3456686149e9e5dba48332380a2e275dc94b059
1161 F20110330_AABSVZ smith_p_Page_161.txt
51e8d20c20b9736377cad8cb33907b70
f8c85ded4c688007d957dabddb72e4cc1fc5b705
111683 F20110330_AABUCB smith_p_Page_099.jp2
8c1d2d57dd3c3afd2854dffb641a8fbc
688f8da34c93400aafcb55d8837cac8970dd296b
76887 F20110330_AABTST smith_p_Page_153.jpg
0ec9134b52d2f63dede6b0af23c0da2a
9211fb506d6f7566615f8fdb0ed1633c8a43d804
5439 F20110330_AABUPM smith_p_Page_224thm.jpg
be8dff86d16a24a0e0238a4bb4a59685
0773d481a28a0a0d7989a2ec72dd05a03d7078a7
F20110330_AABSIP smith_p_Page_037.tif
eb5c73df2ae96313881a45fa2e6b93f8
601cf5aecf057a9be24b87a1b1881787b754a4b5
45290 F20110330_AABTFI smith_p_Page_180.pro
51dceaa18e5c3c570215a9e952f74e83
8ef894e8f155f6c33f979a20c2402f4091c0ae06
20118 F20110330_AABTSU smith_p_Page_153.QC.jpg
5bade5a675825ee204310da4c65b4a99
32c9b7530e4376ff2b272d69ef38a9d1e502a86b
259964 F20110330_AABUPN UFE0012940_00001.mets
f8dc2b11afc2529baaf348068d85f15d
b6d3dd89e27a5903e7ff4d523227b533f24a592e
F20110330_AABSIQ smith_p_Page_038.tif
215f2cc570cdb05aa9b177272d3ba0c4
983d7a559c5b90a5793beb09f8b670b928d301dd
53856 F20110330_AABTFJ smith_p_Page_181.pro
95834f218e8a981c420203aef3398a6e
d3aed6ae678e316f887f6022ee6b71a705f199be
1051957 F20110330_AABUCC smith_p_Page_100.jp2
edec369c965b50f63f69e0e3690c0418
a820947c9725dc66d76b44158116f46a78a3670e
74320 F20110330_AABTSV smith_p_Page_154.jpg
5e5bfb82dd82f4b05de79eb8e76a4ec3
f79789f312b1d52b8b1552fad1e5cf4efd091ad7
1631967 F20110330_AABUPO smith_p.pdf
950dd20cab136008cb0d8354b7e1ca52
5d38dcc334922e2927fb1e63ba42487c827f662d
BROKEN_LINK
www.allaboutjazz.com
www.gmrecordings.com
www.hornplanet.com
www.hmmusic.com
www.omnitone.com/swimming
www.tomvarnermusic.com
www.vincentchancey.com
F20110330_AABSIR smith_p_Page_039.tif
d4f6e5c91c5789ade3e498de3e346ae8
3a63efa9675e80a614403c59f42ac246eacc0442
50203 F20110330_AABTFK smith_p_Page_182.pro
c98d0a59ee80321be37ea87eb2c0eefb
aadccf19546a49074cdc81cd51bdc07cceec791d
109357 F20110330_AABUCD smith_p_Page_101.jp2
c61a853a3524dc3d6460598b42386e44
d978b3a73477df356ad7d5e5a82d35fdf3e5481d
19844 F20110330_AABTSW smith_p_Page_154.QC.jpg
97220bc7c548bb2bdaab83953b04fe66
b8ce9dea7fc6ed30ea5ce0307af141ba5e042877
F20110330_AABSIS smith_p_Page_040.tif
7ad33b5a2a64e2e778e4823117fe5956
1dc13ce5905eaebb5227762e05398fed079d5609
53060 F20110330_AABTFL smith_p_Page_183.pro
a9165dec7de3eec7a977388f179491e8
f96b4b165b64d1230b659e0a2258d494d3340bdf
892794 F20110330_AABUCE smith_p_Page_102.jp2
2d75008c7c097d50e55ba7fc894e25e7
bc14075f1ca89f798f9a5617b845c648200faa77
104322 F20110330_AABTSX smith_p_Page_155.jpg
4ed9e2ba157f6ef99d423cfc86597c6d
7943836038033b510d232492dd3503027dd55ec8
F20110330_AABSIT smith_p_Page_041.tif
14771086815cb2f288cd6c20ab0b6020
6e556de1903fe5bdb783281b4a2b45fa9df1d5ec
38170 F20110330_AABTFM smith_p_Page_184.pro
1a5e0b1c1a524802cf101e2603a84490
338ba9439579e6a87ef05e491382b3295f8ffcb3
107034 F20110330_AABUCF smith_p_Page_103.jp2
c72111dd68233019e664f6dcec23f867
cddfdff1d17a2e702f3d1390584f3512c4ee38f1
26692 F20110330_AABTSY smith_p_Page_155.QC.jpg
bd07c12b9593ae86a35337980a8d248f
415c670b0204fbdee3d08dddb3211339fa2a17d2
F20110330_AABSIU smith_p_Page_042.tif
af316e801f1d07b8cf26e1ab0759a2f1
b8389976e070f4b4e9e43b4e731b37f3668bea1f
49518 F20110330_AABTFN smith_p_Page_185.pro
76e0ffed7994a15534ecc172d8edc379
0b215ab7b5daa035d4627848ef14d18ac4decd83
119379 F20110330_AABUCG smith_p_Page_104.jp2
96e7c46ac73c6eb47655176d0ad14082
b733de918062f904d70c2f45e5108a3f6d8006cd
66563 F20110330_AABTSZ smith_p_Page_156.jpg
2e179146ae7da89798e33ad4bcc75149
5dbb08e4e9010a14b673a38eca7a4d3932113dba
F20110330_AABSIV smith_p_Page_043.tif
287de28af69c2602d86e98fc189c55dd
a758e9bfafdc9e4904e04a61d85954191f1f3d69
50602 F20110330_AABTFO smith_p_Page_186.pro
21f95f76cadb5397ebd41707c19df293
ad936146bd0bc0173a29758cb1499a2f3af0c318
101462 F20110330_AABUCH smith_p_Page_105.jp2
9b50a3a14d9aabecb9d8935960f7790e
0ba5c4871d78708346df27a97ac52a7d11a07e24
F20110330_AABSIW smith_p_Page_044.tif
a8d36b1261dbba3d1891cb409be5d34d
46c14cc6c19a0bde5c9c73ca1a23aab57ecb6418
50613 F20110330_AABTFP smith_p_Page_187.pro
caf42dbdf2eefcf03814e74709d8a8e3
0506dd264b8585898a923bb5d1830b8a2e2175f6
1011496 F20110330_AABUCI smith_p_Page_106.jp2
8f3506b8d3c22ea5c8ce9ab4a6f51b19
3e2ce8751fdf2ea0c9d0f2537e50ce5257148eca
F20110330_AABSIX smith_p_Page_045.tif
80ea6d6ca3b4ebca5d55342512993898
fa61d6078e5533471e90eccebda3558f1a522a54
48854 F20110330_AABTFQ smith_p_Page_188.pro
7554634d04691da84238c9a491160673
cdf0d686294133016793c0ecaade448e90de79b6
108989 F20110330_AABUCJ smith_p_Page_107.jp2
6cf336427426aebf8a71e392f06326f8
5e930e56a5bae19b138cf7be2162b991f56257da
F20110330_AABSIY smith_p_Page_046.tif
60c5cc6ffae5981e4476bfeff2910923
f3f6076ed4e1049faebded957665906d4177edb9
42724 F20110330_AABTFR smith_p_Page_189.pro
a448829de31c058ce0d2436a401d0b49
ec1c82796e13a80b2be4252be8d666f293d6e508
105447 F20110330_AABUCK smith_p_Page_108.jp2
c1aaa374f1d4662bc44b53df3ff0d313
9be6bd312043eef38caba390a352eb6b2ca243d5
F20110330_AABSIZ smith_p_Page_047.tif
5ca60233be5eec9416a70bba92bcf39d
329e2c686b15bbc69fb2decc75173881a6af0e36
41952 F20110330_AABTFS smith_p_Page_190.pro
546c8ba7b40abfc9a81e444513ed4204
ca75797d5a36a7fe4821754fdc0e10c04a314d5a
60619 F20110330_AABUCL smith_p_Page_109.jp2
6e06c65201c2407de7192f139d1e14eb
ae6fc1de6b649afdcb21028a550745fc8931dd32
43576 F20110330_AABTFT smith_p_Page_191.pro
1fa176d2300eba7598aeccffacbf6ea9
f5c89334c57736741e559a3bd9040a756c9e3337
97685 F20110330_AABUCM smith_p_Page_110.jp2
0add989c9437e40fb8911a33803106c1
6f3f4b0b9320a73121a0f02e08d4e0abc3281138
46716 F20110330_AABTFU smith_p_Page_192.pro
12f0a1e3f28dca6f1853e5d0fbf8a0e1
fb75396ff99c047663a702a01e0d836db82ca61b
100001 F20110330_AABUCN smith_p_Page_111.jp2
c3251d535205633a7c04b861e8d7b8fb
233523477f9ac29a18f870699fa2bf65fe91eb10
49041 F20110330_AABTFV smith_p_Page_193.pro
2a5b00ded762d602e779d0b61f1fbbad
d9329faddbe6f9f48622aac077e402fbfbc88c76
109867 F20110330_AABUCO smith_p_Page_112.jp2
83036d6ab3f2a9540f848dea3654a46c
ff25d21c0327ae2d1cbe066cbf63553763d017b2
43232 F20110330_AABTFW smith_p_Page_194.pro
3c746a9047c3a3f840c0721cdaa4f72a
fd7bde6e70f08bbe66267e729633fd98c69cf4dd
107944 F20110330_AABUCP smith_p_Page_113.jp2
69e9122ef3fc8c78de7fc2617f60c6ea
d3bbbdb0b59aa3f9d39546d71b0edd03652256f9
44118 F20110330_AABTFX smith_p_Page_195.pro
d796ebd39b2667385a6e3f5c80b0be7a
a5cc12bdbf94ffe6b513a6368799661c77ba565b
23159 F20110330_AABTYA smith_p_Page_221.QC.jpg
37bbd1c979bcaa8494e0de7bd7ef84e8
4df31c327deffd8bbe80e8904d12361bbb8ea0fd
101896 F20110330_AABUCQ smith_p_Page_114.jp2
9e7c60c30ed1d84350e9bb7c46499389
05394dd924727108a92fd644248806c5042f4748
86334 F20110330_AABTYB smith_p_Page_222.jpg
2e334414934e3841f35090687927d0c3
859c2bf3da3fd6150690a779cbf774b20e5d43ad
80417 F20110330_AABUCR smith_p_Page_115.jp2
300682c6ac363b2afe216b158e69d206
24896a7ecfadd3d625cb963a8ea417fd67253531
54332 F20110330_AABTFY smith_p_Page_196.pro
53fe72cfb3d3152a45d8d1d407fc6d25
53d1b57e3de1c7d7e1ed04e02a413b1efb5a6922
26201 F20110330_AABTYC smith_p_Page_222.QC.jpg
f76b3148651b111ae2105f04fd7c013e
5a12c29a574fe4418e3ac793f8d3f9b8b01c6ba6
70510 F20110330_AABUCS smith_p_Page_116.jp2
d676e2ae40343e5992d5b888aa70f856
78c99652a84fbbd0b408af43e7b0fc144a12f007
51792 F20110330_AABTFZ smith_p_Page_197.pro
1c24cb8d2b6ff622f64a07dd30d65317
f525a416796d47b4a25ab9c06421717ed1f617a6
28653 F20110330_AABTYD smith_p_Page_223.jpg
fca7c64855e203d572ee72a48ca9c36b
4e97e6093746220ac2315da7c31b8e70a7ecc77a
38227 F20110330_AABUCT smith_p_Page_117.jp2
6703cf1d7ec1149ff9100d35ee4a35ed
898bdeb68262fcc47c77368e3d0b67618a392192
F20110330_AABSOA smith_p_Page_178.tif
f309d9ec6edfade2ffe5b37e8ee12cfa
150abf57aa971992697c82b95bdde118b1512aaf
7839 F20110330_AABTYE smith_p_Page_223.QC.jpg
2aa16c7dd63953be70f17d578c96aa88
d23e22f2a45d1c4f7093e5f0040729aa303cd426
F20110330_AABSOB smith_p_Page_179.tif
a2a6bb7ecdb38fbba7fd60a94022bb86
56f3a4cd275831749552956e813587c2e1bfe4b1
70846 F20110330_AABTYF smith_p_Page_224.jpg
29107348dea911f82d7a911bed0374fe
269c544680a870d6ccc4633ea16dbff2f1232433
79901 F20110330_AABUCU smith_p_Page_118.jp2
a54895be8b6d563580116f4349fef21a
ac48141ea55601e3a5f53caee226f7f604295191
21958 F20110330_AABTYG smith_p_Page_224.QC.jpg
f6e4a7f4bd509782570f75cb13fb0ab1
8341343c5685b9ddc8de33000b33e03ec385f7f0
64976 F20110330_AABUCV smith_p_Page_119.jp2
7bb3c70390e20259278adecacd574c62
0a4ddd701854dfa3184dae00cbe6541b8d207baf
F20110330_AABSOC smith_p_Page_180.tif
32eaa385b15b7f171b87682b25758f55
478cc9053cacf568c58258209974cbca1b0efda6
23694 F20110330_AABTYH smith_p_Page_001.jp2
37be309abfbc24a166129caaa5d9f523
bf36474d19ed4c5f195a913397378b6b6c029d3d
68513 F20110330_AABUCW smith_p_Page_120.jp2
6b35d1a27a54cb7a957cf5ea4e93bb2b
2a15e48eb8c643e476d47add8c81903fe089f482
F20110330_AABSOD smith_p_Page_181.tif
6f4eaafd9c40a0d6c93c5f0e27c5b525
96c8c6ecd2714d48a3ac3bc677485d1f04bb8889
6030 F20110330_AABTYI smith_p_Page_002.jp2
a737e49a89322bd29783b312414a3b10
b75f5cde69bf29d2ff4955c748e39db6c3b4db6c
58373 F20110330_AABUCX smith_p_Page_121.jp2
8d1f6cd05ba2f18d73cfe455245fbef7
a45a820c11469635f6898766a136b0a48ed378ae
F20110330_AABSOE smith_p_Page_182.tif
ca716a75d8153aa5ff588886afed6938
53a837283ffe7c3e83e9929559a6cf875735316d
8200 F20110330_AABTYJ smith_p_Page_003.jp2
2cecba5e4f9781cdcd5f2666262217b7
ae250aab174e094fef3187a48489563d5a84743a
76403 F20110330_AABUCY smith_p_Page_122.jp2
63ce8fadd02a49288adae80721d664c2
f6371cc7b5841e435448e25161dc68236d39b88c
F20110330_AABSOF smith_p_Page_183.tif
81f51dad17384d5ad0ae48c7ed9a5235
47b400fa9b284fd9607df5ebd8ddf15359e73aa8
85982 F20110330_AABTYK smith_p_Page_004.jp2
d9925f4e9661bbf25dea4e3d12c00cdd
d4c3d612e3a2cf34931c097b4a861e11d3ac04be
91136 F20110330_AABUCZ smith_p_Page_123.jp2
c4990ff973f529e26358468b7a116583
a6a5be249314e149a1aca806edbb7f07a223f3d1
F20110330_AABSOG smith_p_Page_184.tif
588de132eb72a360e1aff39b9514c618
3e299ff2a742902179b390177b77f1f011dcc5ad
F20110330_AABSOH smith_p_Page_185.tif
f80ec5019e8e2208a7d9a0feeb8f2597
a4dbfa9a5639d50f85a463569f6576c65c6b7da6
21363 F20110330_AABTLA smith_p_Page_052.QC.jpg
f310ca3a12c522bba4f9ad7f43b21ed1
0b5369fddc120f24e247ff956de3bc9c5ddb409d
109743 F20110330_AABTYL smith_p_Page_005.jp2
fa8c426953ffc374924a1dc71db7d6e8
7eb88626ffd005f750220b4c59fbeab1f3980b21
F20110330_AABSOI smith_p_Page_186.tif
bac78a80ddff7228f84994f980af3d14
f079b85b16c56a04b047eedc9a7f2603c0708342
F20110330_AABTLB smith_p_Page_053.jpg
d4fa057232a8af5cdde8000f4e1028a5
c6796fd006f3cd9b3ca07806a89d4080e8372ad3
17402 F20110330_AABTYM smith_p_Page_006.jp2
d1a2ae83f232154d8d707fe24876d73f
713dfe423079303291f72ee3d5a7c6eb97128925
F20110330_AABSOJ smith_p_Page_187.tif
680cced0043a9d9cf51a0f95684d0cbf
7967a4dd8930a39ecefc9b5635512a42028ef302
27213 F20110330_AABTLC smith_p_Page_053.QC.jpg
71e7296dff802c83273f921ee0858eae
8eacb023d73c3abf55bc5f1be3f2d25523c8eba1
1051967 F20110330_AABTYN smith_p_Page_007.jp2
cf4f39a04d937856b7d0b0ed9b815ccc
9ad49aee3a65c8d818c259cf8e04b2bdd4bd0d97
F20110330_AABSOK smith_p_Page_188.tif
7e0c606748c320963bc9e7a4bfbfece7
1da641a65309b03a17ae0d0d6b9b89fe4dcac885
84217 F20110330_AABTLD smith_p_Page_054.jpg
1cfcb4604097be32c0b26f592ee4bb59
b8dceedfd7a5d61d2a2dbe8fddf4bcc24d313323
774210 F20110330_AABTYO smith_p_Page_008.jp2
a8958194a95224ddf2680a3fcde5a583
d2690dd60b64cd79c84e789656669a01e835b6d0
F20110330_AABSOL smith_p_Page_189.tif
7a855b72959327932cbf6250c7c943f7
237886a63cd15b23069c50ca22eeae4cc654ce40
25703 F20110330_AABTLE smith_p_Page_054.QC.jpg
307b5e80b11f4f9b876701f133767f48
da8853f24a1b0a780497afab1aa1491606307942
1051977 F20110330_AABTYP smith_p_Page_009.jp2
2ff375a34c986c29a671effbd2bd65b7
f6832d649349dd6a1f7915d0c9778c3af957990d
F20110330_AABSOM smith_p_Page_190.tif
b8daf995d4c249b69805fac11acae8a2
b17d424146d820f0d063fb1b65918710accada7b
86482 F20110330_AABTLF smith_p_Page_055.jpg
df72a0d79b6f5cc39e2e993fcb3ea61c
84e1eef75c53488e70a82a47a663e98db9eae150
174654 F20110330_AABTYQ smith_p_Page_010.jp2
e05bbfb5227a2f19f2d1216f2bf98511
a4c15ce96b3a2c16c80588109014f3875637f1f8
F20110330_AABSON smith_p_Page_191.tif
ab3256b409de6294f20451c2a0781811
fe1f5defca734ab824a89ad022e8dd63584f94b6
23787 F20110330_AABTLG smith_p_Page_055.QC.jpg
00d9a3a9060f995cba98c653f32f0467
e08076a48f5a50346510ab234671c72f0c304e45
75543 F20110330_AABTYR smith_p_Page_011.jp2
9f4b564b4e9fe4875736f3d7f4f7d630
e3dce3c4f26543372e11837da544f6871d50a81c
F20110330_AABSOO smith_p_Page_192.tif
77f9666449e9bec506020e8c44b6459b
92557117d38a3d2dd387effadc79a334210de37c
89932 F20110330_AABTLH smith_p_Page_056.jpg
9f03cb0040a5acc73973a036e37649a1
0319b3c5bd91481ec8c2b2153d9dac7dbd002d91
5706 F20110330_AABUIA smith_p_Page_030thm.jpg
984b8f86179e5a9ba0f8f204a69b7b3d
e8c9ad9829087c8ed637af74a47b242121ac1736
95754 F20110330_AABTYS smith_p_Page_012.jp2
8d0b724386c25fa6fe22f7d672daa29a
acbdfc0adda244de8545892eb9c7be098cd59692
F20110330_AABSOP smith_p_Page_193.tif
e07a41579961143feb804ff86b741b64
5965c991fae620d8f6f97f7825c25afdf064e658
27658 F20110330_AABTLI smith_p_Page_056.QC.jpg
0a07141f942afbf8bb4c6bf78df0c3f4
bec93befb80b741c2c7f0b4cfed757ec2ccbbad6
5994 F20110330_AABUIB smith_p_Page_031thm.jpg
5fd3258f5fe77e99e0fd578a258e8e14
c91ad954599ea0dacfd7ab9ac65c93513e72cc4b
108678 F20110330_AABTYT smith_p_Page_013.jp2
47cf22f17ef55597b172c83d3499f6ec
064f7d013c640f57d5d7418bcebc5ee15a311753
F20110330_AABSOQ smith_p_Page_194.tif
e67ba8e9f71aff043b2860c54a200641
ec0c0cbacc80582c4dfb652bb2d2f8616df33cf8
F20110330_AABTLJ smith_p_Page_057.jpg
65473a84418e31e2d822744503e237b1
5ca151640f89d6c6a881093f7cc34ab6608159e1
5416 F20110330_AABUIC smith_p_Page_032thm.jpg
eacbc1d59a752239cee758c6604a2666
d8ab02c556e1ee8de30181bc7a56c0e28043dca9
104306 F20110330_AABTYU smith_p_Page_014.jp2
2dee374b5dd7135528eea06f98da4cee
ab64339f7176c07c4138b1abe4dab59d415fb388
F20110330_AABSOR smith_p_Page_195.tif
c563cedc0661b88f1331bb5482d3d5d0
5bd8ac27339972a51592150a9fc99d0316caecaf
28436 F20110330_AABTLK smith_p_Page_057.QC.jpg
2978bddbcab5542847de3ed672227b89
0d1994ce256bb5bacd3a1369b2f3ee5c9fedcac3
F20110330_AABUID smith_p_Page_033thm.jpg
4761e992c1653dcf35c42dd2fff3587d
9252751e035fb1740b34c892e90223c896a6b3ec
104720 F20110330_AABTYV smith_p_Page_015.jp2
4b718072f97667a343e676cdd8fed09e
faefab02e4ab47fd786ed87302df26485a5a36b0
F20110330_AABSOS smith_p_Page_196.tif
ceefb3d3715aa3bb37bbf7cc1bebc6e9
461a489cae7081c0ce84ff9c6b1a0a4aaa993d44
80423 F20110330_AABTLL smith_p_Page_058.jpg
95a4e42f4a999fac50ea741d03fe6598
39714459215cd939686efc9b948a22995414bf3c
5275 F20110330_AABUIE smith_p_Page_034thm.jpg
ec998d6c856eee49170a743f776a809b
c4ccae9a5c10086c954cd34e97a99d19c966c69c
105024 F20110330_AABTYW smith_p_Page_016.jp2
766454fa2c6fdc85411a837f50f3fdec
626a01d8b8a0977174330d25a164aed0fa60e7fc
F20110330_AABSOT smith_p_Page_197.tif
d11261618bc310a4e51f938aaf39340f
266e543b9ba565b99d6defbf35887119251926c7
25110 F20110330_AABTLM smith_p_Page_058.QC.jpg
cc5382078eebe3c4303da769483344d7
b28c60b009454290e4fa5c1a8d95f8170b78b299
5369 F20110330_AABUIF smith_p_Page_035thm.jpg
43d27293f1a813dfb41450d5eaee601d
bfb7d1339e178a4dab7c05d61da4c5223dca1d21
102640 F20110330_AABTYX smith_p_Page_017.jp2
5d4077ba0c96029557c68ca8c01c8e1f
1f2ba0a770ba8e1fb37bdaabb72984ba33ffb6fa
F20110330_AABSOU smith_p_Page_198.tif
68165afce7b81b7506eb49dbff2676f4
102359ea1815b6fefacea90887b533397e86aaf6
95654 F20110330_AABTLN smith_p_Page_059.jpg
de18e34219a2d46ea017b882d25a4491
158f4cabc1eed334f8b3728f8d9009d82fdf10eb
5055 F20110330_AABUIG smith_p_Page_036thm.jpg
11755ca6a578354ba169115800c9fdf9
6f9e200370574e30ec2ba4fd2c73c0b8f10e605c
102991 F20110330_AABTYY smith_p_Page_018.jp2
a02ed6d14ce76e596f8966161abf40d6
e7b6376a276a71ddcef509ca4bff08e49ecc2f12
F20110330_AABSOV smith_p_Page_199.tif
96facbd65650e8c7cc8518b89f6f7d7d
92eec6bb9c90ce29871fa071a2733207103d388b
28274 F20110330_AABTLO smith_p_Page_059.QC.jpg
be4874c7be6e4c1d29c1f2993c4edf81
a056b36375392d371f063e2c5cde2a1ebbc5cc87
5450 F20110330_AABUIH smith_p_Page_037thm.jpg
ec57466db1e21667a33a839043961ecb
4819f3788a9e58aac4db2c81fa9b5b6b3263ebd5
106591 F20110330_AABTYZ smith_p_Page_019.jp2
2af5d802bed13053cca819d0bf9d2bf1
60ea4505534fde8bd064fbcff848cd13f131999d
F20110330_AABSOW smith_p_Page_200.tif
ead2c6ddc2ebda8f1afe499cba1a7b01
52ccda74535480e867eabd27d41ebde0971df43c
87430 F20110330_AABTLP smith_p_Page_060.jpg
c9a72e3f9a4178ed0a12d6e2f822900f
ea76748fea6af56f2fdcb67fd016259570559aff
6122 F20110330_AABUII smith_p_Page_038thm.jpg
8b403a21fb807cd4cd660a164cb4dc4b
e9fbbb468b171f30c1b4694ec113d58a6a02622f
F20110330_AABSOX smith_p_Page_201.tif
d9ebb0e6b461864ab641366c8ff58559
62bbe1c76871fbd18c7f4dd7ec5f39648dd1aa6f
26554 F20110330_AABTLQ smith_p_Page_060.QC.jpg
4ab9b47753c2c7183007d5de9a0d598d
5c8f741c092a534ab8a682b0ab23801cb6e0b066
5469 F20110330_AABUIJ smith_p_Page_039thm.jpg
df5b755924747245cf426bb865133315
bcc14160eccf3993954269e3664792f46f4b9c69
F20110330_AABSOY smith_p_Page_202.tif
8f1ff0a88e8873be0ad30eda0cf5e630
901c2105985cc4cd019106539fc934a2244bf3fb
96201 F20110330_AABTLR smith_p_Page_061.jpg
bc5bf5537433bdb224e86673964b08de
86da45b428a131a06cf233fd0d0b501054e383ca
5997 F20110330_AABUIK smith_p_Page_040thm.jpg
ffbbcb28398e5e39fe3d36661f29d92c
8fa1e657223bc27bd9d98be2b1228f889b1487fe
F20110330_AABSOZ smith_p_Page_203.tif
a1c382b1c2b21c4d93b5f2c75fdc6a62
4b107c6ee4002f7baa8d720d34610960a62d7fd5
29834 F20110330_AABTLS smith_p_Page_061.QC.jpg
476f839f2faa2908bc8b77f868ddc938
427338e09587d1853cf0fb5b3368f2519e090479
5296 F20110330_AABUIL smith_p_Page_041thm.jpg
9f75b43e454a010a37e139cc011dd13e
fc2d20770e461e9bc2868a5629b9bc0306cf429c
88042 F20110330_AABTLT smith_p_Page_062.jpg
65d27d904e7626611fcde3c4e0648b93
8128593b9da97d2ad47006195208f359e108ce29
6403 F20110330_AABUIM smith_p_Page_042thm.jpg
487a1644dbd0694f2bc1b2b058ab3ffa
bf121db514c8900f8726b14563666968a3e6b86a
25997 F20110330_AABTLU smith_p_Page_062.QC.jpg
a0e9def23cf852216bf9488e6733fc46
d77e83e9dc6434c6ea17e650b25827e89cc6b555
6591 F20110330_AABUIN smith_p_Page_043thm.jpg
4e365296b2d0cd77b5a428280be35635
87f7f2be4ee0099c429012c9a30c56dee8b5fb3d
91968 F20110330_AABTLV smith_p_Page_063.jpg
23df6e10cef98d9cd82ae62b2804cc39
38856ec3bef0bafbba764a3ff22fa9c223aa103e
5820 F20110330_AABUIO smith_p_Page_044thm.jpg
1aeb3947d1e0d66b11d84e386b85f4be
6cfdbbf2ae27aadfee793152231f5d0279e6b9b6
25531 F20110330_AABTLW smith_p_Page_063.QC.jpg
218bdeb2cc3f0cff58c952b3fdf1c791
d6b124efce015612a941345979e9fd901626439b
6511 F20110330_AABUIP smith_p_Page_045thm.jpg
304a33d476ac1099fbf6a31d48edd1af
3e438ab5ddc08c0d7bd38095c78152dddaf9d9cb
84604 F20110330_AABTLX smith_p_Page_064.jpg
8bec6128b02f869a64d44d40abae45e8
1a1e1ddd94855dafcd2bbcec651bf693cba08fd2
6451 F20110330_AABUIQ smith_p_Page_046thm.jpg
a27ec787d658d51ee4107b2fe80b1aac
938da17d635333996e046df16c970a3fac8cd842
25656 F20110330_AABTLY smith_p_Page_064.QC.jpg
eb7ac3d0e1118c7ed2ca911fc51b9961
285d92890687107151cb4931eae8aaa06dd0dfc3
6559 F20110330_AABUIR smith_p_Page_047thm.jpg
300495d3a315ca6ab2130ff3736d657a
ee87056b2afe8e956ab828197e94ddfe04fc597b
82253 F20110330_AABTLZ smith_p_Page_065.jpg
d37b484841e0917e3570b8c132e73af5
c7871c78ebfd45bb75608727904073da9f006ae1
6703 F20110330_AABUIS smith_p_Page_048thm.jpg
7c58453c98df8eb8d39ee2a4d3e3cba8
c6e8b2ac18499079cf9acf7d855e2a343674b41e
6349 F20110330_AABUIT smith_p_Page_049thm.jpg
e76b1a217b363cdab3deb5f5bbfd323b
3daf4ac9521f7da2bccb2dc047007411cd3ba465
6629 F20110330_AABUIU smith_p_Page_050thm.jpg
26bd8da83c8b9909f75abc0c3ed101ec
1185adb6540b479b91e4187070cd556e60cf630a
1864 F20110330_AABSUA smith_p_Page_110.txt
469f02fc4936e5e122a1793a51199b78
f6a295bdd7c04f41db7ebbda7434ecf330c58fd0
6506 F20110330_AABUIV smith_p_Page_051thm.jpg
c13899977addc140848001208c31b2d7
ea9c8e35378e14571e4d50fbb4bf969645c08f13
1839 F20110330_AABSUB smith_p_Page_111.txt
59ec7a0952628c6a3e68dc425494516b
a837d34947a7d12d0d3b9f765b9fee6975e4c7d5
5886 F20110330_AABUIW smith_p_Page_052thm.jpg
e6059fe890b228c5327623e5de51a3be
28ec38c8dc44abcca18fad47487d14787f1aee8a
F20110330_AABSUC smith_p_Page_112.txt
1eb40d66679cbe8d3eddda4802a5b2d1
61baee45d0a64fb896e5800530461184854e7391
6419 F20110330_AABUIX smith_p_Page_053thm.jpg
7d9b2c8110f24812d12fe6c778f62013
4948ebc647636904fca3038ec2c63779635c6dd9
2078 F20110330_AABSUD smith_p_Page_113.txt
ba964f7156fa21929a9a5a4cd24c28c0
93708e9551e901422fd8e8e1aabf6d677ffe894f
6397 F20110330_AABUIY smith_p_Page_054thm.jpg
9699a36994eb4ed1f44ac043780f6b99
12fa63cc960ff0e749b423f11977a2d3fc19408e
1903 F20110330_AABSUE smith_p_Page_114.txt
43509fdc550ea9572dbc4391dc60a2f7
ac7e176f0e870ff7d89adaeae797173b76949056
5666 F20110330_AABUIZ smith_p_Page_055thm.jpg
4ffe17ec2e3ceb70c78a1cc3235e820a
73941c583c6faf3951a096999c017f64697defdb
1602 F20110330_AABSUF smith_p_Page_115.txt
f093b09846ce37816123e3f7eb25cf0b
a8f1a4b3f49bef58831e9cd7e10bcbab9ba548f7
1420 F20110330_AABSUG smith_p_Page_116.txt
79c7fc305b672b6147e8e7e887f5f6af
0f021e40fe51df20a43733b1629f9d209c278e6e
15598 F20110330_AABTRA smith_p_Page_130.QC.jpg
42370e2ee82c715f1cbe2778eea9b54f
dfbb049a7b87f14dc2c02bcae819dded2242aeac
745 F20110330_AABSUH smith_p_Page_117.txt
6e6b536052198152c64463a63382075f
43957797f2819ff7845dacb4e3ad3d448d261c38
60758 F20110330_AABTRB smith_p_Page_131.jpg
ea5f5144a8598c8b0e3dc49966c90eb0
1710563866d3d85ea8efa67dea755346563ad38b
15921 F20110330_AABTRC smith_p_Page_131.QC.jpg
f811867d1987962972c42b57c739ed9d
ae12eff30e6832dfdc909ba569878f586c1327bc
1422 F20110330_AABSUI smith_p_Page_118.txt
20aa095d826b0ae2f8724c716511d3ce
59e81d4bfc67c9d11f1bc8e80c34a76858f8ded6
62392 F20110330_AABTRD smith_p_Page_132.jpg
9e644ade1bf112caecd4544e1cd0a93f
aa5eb25a3fd9fad4196101f8ac5c21ea133fbf81
1141 F20110330_AABSUJ smith_p_Page_119.txt
e54df77b78aac013d62e7388417b3a11
969f565c580418319956f6bcba4ffdd28db28442



PAGE 1

JULIUS WATKINS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE By PATRICK GREGORY SMITH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by Patrick Gregory Smith

PAGE 3

This dissertation is dedicated to the me mory of Donald A. Carlson (1948-2001).

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In my efforts to channel Julius I have had support and guidance from numerous individuals who deserve my heartfelt thanks and personal gratitude. I cannot overstate my appreciation for my degree supervisor, Dr. David Z. Kushner. With his enthusiasm, teachings, and inspiration, he has helped to increase my passion for music history and, in turn, made me a more competent educator. Throughout my dissertation writing period, he provided support, sound advice, good company and plentiful commentary. I would have been lost without him. I would like to thank Dr. Paul Basler for his guidance, mentorship, empathy and musicality. His encouragement for the performance of non-traditional repertoire for our instrument has caused a significant broadening in my own musical tastes. He has been a teacher and a colleague, and because of him, I am a better horn player and, ultimately, a better person. I would like to thank the other members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Art Jennings, Dr. Leslie Odom, and Dr. Eldon Turner, for their individual help and insightful teachings over the previous semesters. I am grateful to Dr. John Duff whose endless encouragement and generosity in supporting my musicological endeavors has been most appreciated. I am also indebted to Dr. David Waybright, who has been unwavering in his dedication to help me become more adequately prepared for a career in higher education and the professional music world. iv

PAGE 5

I would like to thank all of those in New York who offered assistance with this endeavor. I thank Tom Varner for his endless encouragement and unquenchable enthusiasm of this project, WIS Smith and Vincent Chancey for their openness in sharing memories of Julius with a total stranger, Peter Hirsch and Mark Taylor for their valuable insights, and Dolores Beck-Schwartz for her love and support to ensure that Julius story was finally told. Also, I would like to offer my sincere thanks to Linda Aginian and Philip Zoellner, registrars in the admissions office at the Manhattan School of Music, for their cooperation and assistance. I am eternally grateful for the love and support of my parents who have been at my side through every tumultuous step over the past year. Their financial assistance, compassion, encouragement and (brotherly) love have been integral items which have helped to propel me forward along this journey. I thank my entire family, aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, and especially my son, Riley, for endless prayers, patience and understanding. Finally, I thank my own Harriette Davison, Kristin, who has not only been literally at my side through the course of my research, but more importantly has been the wind in my sails, my lifesaver, and a living example of unconditional love. Over the past eighteen months, I have immersed myself in the life details of Julius Burton Watkins. At times, I have felt as though he was with me on this journey; guiding me to seek answers to the countless questions surrounding his mysterious time spent on Earth. I feel as though something or someone, perhaps Julius himself, guided me to the Woody Home for Services to meet director John Lee, to the Manhattan School of Music Admissions Office and to the United Memorial Gardens outside of Detroit. The presence which I felt at Julius grave in Plymouth, Michigan, remains to this day one of the most v

PAGE 6

unforgettable moments of my life. I would like to thank Julius posthumously for breaking new ground in the world of music, promoting awareness for new styles of musical appreciation, and inspiring me to become a better human being. vi

PAGE 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES ...........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Purpose of Study...........................................................................................................2 Methodology.................................................................................................................3 Review of Literature.....................................................................................................3 2 THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC............................................................................30 3 THE MUSIC BEHIND THE MAN............................................................................61 4 THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE SINCE 1977..........75 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................99 APPENDIX A CHRONOLOGICAL DISCOGRAPHY OF ALL ALBUMS FEATURING JULIUS WATKINS..................................................................................................104 B A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF JULIUS WATKINS AND CHARLES ROUSE, CO-LEADERS OF THE JAZZ MODES, BY GARY KRAMER OF ATLANTIC RECORDS...........................................................................................159 C A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF WARREN WIS SMITH, PERCUSSIONIST, AND FRIEND OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004..............................................................................................165 D A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF TOM VARNER, JAZZ HORN PLAYER AND STUDENT OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004..............................................................................................184 vii

PAGE 8

E EXCERPTS FROM A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF PETER HIRSCH, JOURNALIST, HORN PLAYER AND COLLEAGUE OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004................................198 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................206 Articles......................................................................................................................206 Books........................................................................................................................208 Electronic Sources....................................................................................................209 Interviews.................................................................................................................210 Liner Notes...............................................................................................................210 Photographs..............................................................................................................211 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................213 viii

PAGE 9

LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Cass Technical High School....................................................................................33 2-2 Julius Watkins, from his Sextet vol. 2 session, March 20, 1955. Photo taken from Blue Note Jazz Photography of Francis Wolff, p. 145, .................................41 2-3 Undated photograph of Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse......................................44 2-4 Quincy Jones Big Band on the set of Free and Easy at the Paris Alhambra, 1959..........................................................................................................................50 2-5 Apartment of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 136 Lincoln Street #A-10, Montclair, NJ............................................................................................................54 2-6 Home of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 20 Nishuane Road, Montclair, NJ.............55 2-7 Headstone of Julius Burton Watkins with horn of Patrick G. Smith.......................58 2-8 Undated photo of Julius Watkins with his Miraphone brand French horn..............59 3-1 Julius Watkins and Les Spann during the 1960 Gemini recording session.............63 3-2 Julius Watkins performing on his Miraphone French horn. Note the extra-large bell and body of the instrument................................................................................71 3-3 Examples of Julius Watkins embouchure in live performances............................72 4-1 Photo of Tom Bacon, courtesy of the artist and his photographer, Michael Schwartz...................................................................................................................76 4-2 New York based jazz horn player, Vince Chancey..................................................79 4-3 Pictured from left to right are jazz horn players Marshall Sealy, Tom Varner and Vince Chancey.........................................................................................................84 4-4 Contemporary jazz horn soloist Tom Varner...........................................................85 4-5 Ken Wiley (right) with Jim Patterson, Eldon Matlick and Bill Bernatis.................89 4-6 Russian jazz horn player, Arkady Shilkloper, performing with alphorn..................91 ix

PAGE 10

4-7 Mark Taylor performing selections from his Circle Squared album in Calgary, Alberta......................................................................................................................95 x

PAGE 11

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy JULIUS WATKINS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE By Patrick Gregory Smith December 2005 Chair: David Z. Kushner Major Department: Music Julius Watkins was the first prominent jazz French horn player in the history of American music. Although his performance capabilities were comparable to those of other significant performers of traditional horn repertoire, Watkins has received little attention from music scholars, jazz artists, and other performers of his instrument since his death in 1977. The purpose of this study is threefold: to document his complete life story for the first time in biographical form, to determine his performance characteristics within chamber jazz ensembles of various instrumental combinations, and to explore the development of the jazz French horn genre from 1977 to 2005. In writing this dissertation, it is my goal to create not only an awareness for this style of French horn playing, but to educate other musicians and potential audience members about Julius Watkins, his professional accomplishments and performance style, and this rare artistic form. xi

PAGE 12

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The French horn has often been stereotyped as an instrument incapable of playing jazz. This common misconception is due primarily to the instruments heritage and frequent use in symphonic orchestral venues. In the early portion of the 20 th Century, this instrument had no place in any jazz forum and students of the horn could only pursue orchestral careers. By 1940, as jazz music grew increasingly popular, a need for new styles and instrumentation became evident. Within a decade, jazz musicians had adopted instruments not traditionally associated with the genre, and the French horn appeared among them. This instrument was frequently used by several arrangers of big band repertoire, including Gil Evans and Stan Kenton, and although the horn was rarely featured as a lead solo instrument in these ensembles, use of the horn in jazz settings occurred regularly. When traditional orchestral horn players learned of this new artistic movement, some chose to abandon their symphonic lifestyle to pursue careers as jazz horn soloists. The first of these was John Graas who left his appointment with the Indianapolis Symphony in the late 1940s, moved to California, and began recording solo jazz albums of his own. Graas never achieved jazz fame and was criticized for not performing proper jazz with regard to articulation, tone, and performance style. It seemed as though Graas efforts to prove that his instrument was worthy of a soloistic jazz reputation had failed, and the jazz world would never see the day when the French horn would become the lead instrument in chamber jazz ensembles. This notion changed when Julius Watkins, an 1

PAGE 13

2 unassuming, yet dignified and determined, young African-American teenager from Detroit, chose to abandon his high school education in order to pursue a career as a French horn playing jazz soloist. Julius Watkins is often referred to as the founding father of jazz horn playing not because he was the first to play jazz on the instrument, but because he brought to it an extraordinary virtuosity. He was to the realm of jazz horn playing what Joseph Leutgeb, Franz Strauss and Dennis Brain were to the traditional realm. Simply put, he was the superior performer of his instrument in his specialized field of performance. While printed information regarding Leutgeb and Brain is plentiful, the opposite can be said for Julius Watkins. Rarely does his name appear in a jazz encyclopedia or journal article. When Watkins accomplishments appear in such sources, they receive no more than a scant paragraph. Press clippings regarding Julius Watkins are just as scarce. There exists little biographical data and no complete biography of Julius Watkins. Despite over one hundred recordings to his credit, a chronological discography is nonexistent. Likewise, neither a clear written description of his performance style nor any rendition of his ideas regarding instrumentation within chamber jazz settings exists. Inattention to his accomplishments among Classically trained horn players is all the more surprising, as few have ever heard of his existence. Many horn players and jazz musicians reference Watkins style and instrumentation in their own playing. Yet, they hardly realize that in their playing, they bring to their audiences Watkins vision for a musical world featuring solo jazz music on the horn has been realized. Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to create a complete biographical documentation of Watkins life, to pinpoint specific performance characteristics which made him

PAGE 14

3 comparable to other virtuosos on his instrument, to determine scope of variety in instrumentation which Watkins favored in chamber jazz ensembles, and to trace his impact on the development of the jazz French horn genre from 1977 to 2005. Methodology The methodology used in the biographical portion of this study was grounded in the analysis of journal and magazine articles, newspaper stories, and material contained in the liner notes of sound recordings featuring Julius Watkins. Seven interviews were conducted with persons who worked or studied with Watkins, or knew him in some other sort of capacity. These personal interviews were vital in order to fully understand the personal side of this artist. Sound recordings of The Jazz Modes and The Julius Watkins Sextet served as the foundation for stylistic analysis in addition to recordings which featured Julius Watkins in nontraditional instrumental ensembles with fewer than ten performers. Artists who receive attention in chapter three were selected based on their prominence as a jazz horn soloist, dedication to teaching jazz or non-traditional horn repertoire, and possession of an international reputation. Review of Literature The Review of Literature is composed as an annotated bibliography. Each entry contains the complete bibliographic citation along with a synopsis of the material presented in the source as it relates to professional career of Julius Watkins. Some articles contain a great deal of biographical data while others simply place Julius at a particular location at a certain time. Some articles do nothing more than place Julius in the company of other prominent artists, and these articles are included to help determine the level of prominence Julius enjoyed as a jazz French horn performer. Articles regarding particular

PAGE 15

4 shows and performance engagements in which Watkins performed are also included, regardless if the article makes any mention of Watkins or not. Agrell, Jeffrey. Jazz Clinic: Therell Be Some Changes Made. The Horn Call, vol. 18 no. 2, 1988, pp. 39-42. This is a pedagogical article in two parts. In part one, the author presents an introductory tutorial on how to play through chord changes through particular patterns. Two methodologies are presented: (1) playing vertically through the changes, and (2) playing horizontally. Agrell clarifies the differences between vertical and horizontal patterns and presents actual music notation to reinforce these concepts. Graphs and charts are also included to offer the reader a visual connection to the two methodologies. Part two contains the biographies of three lesser-known jazz horn players from the year of publication: Matt Shevrin, Claudio Pontiggia and Arkadi Shilkloper. In addition to the short biographical section, Agrell includes specific data on the performance style of each of these personalities, a discography and performance characteristics which differentiate these three individuals from other jazz French horn notables and each other. Jeffrey Agrell is currently Professor of Horn at the University of Iowa. Agrell, Jeffrey. Jazz Clinic: The Art of Noise. The Horn Call, vol. 21 no. 1, 1990, pp. 61-62. In a further effort to teach non-jazz playing French horn artists about proper stylistic interpretations of a jazz work, Agrell presents a lexicon of descriptive noises for brass players in this pedagogical contribution. The sounds listed herein include the many effects which jazz artists, specifically those playing brass instruments, create in live performances. Two problematic issues involving these sounds are (1) how to define each

PAGE 16

5 sound with a term and definition, and (2) how to musically notate these sounds on the staff. Agrell attempts to resolve both of these topics in this article. He presents a total of seventeen different terms. Each entry includes a definition of the sound, a how-to guide on methods of sound production, and notated musical symbols from actual jazz pieces. The finished product presents beginning jazz musicians with both written and visual answers to that never-ending question, how do I do that? Anonymous. Concert at Carnegie Hall. Downbeat Magazine [on-line]. June 2, 1961. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=reviews&subsect=review_detail&rid=12 ; internet; accessed 4 March, 2004. The author recalls a jazz concert attended at Carnegie Hall on the evening of March 4, 1961. The concert featured Dizzy Gillespie and Clark Terry as the headlining soloists and a long line of supporting artists, including French horn players Gunther Schuller, Jim Buffington, John Barrows and Richard Berg. The unknown author offers great praise for the soloists and is quite complimentary of many aspects of the concert, including the French horn playing. Conversely, criticism is offered regarding problems occurring when French horns were used in Big Bands during the1960s, specifically in this concert. Examples of criticism include the mentioning of problems with ensemble balance, clarity of the actual horn parts, articulations and wrong notes. The author also gives reasoning for the inclusion and exclusion of the French horn in a Big Band setting. Anonymous. Ex-Hampton Ace Records for MGM. The Carolinian, 11 February, 1950. This is a brief, yet powerfully supportive article informing the general public of the upcoming release of a new album by Milt Buckner, and it is particularly relevant to a

PAGE 17

6 study of Watkins. This album, Milt Buckner and His Orchestra, featured Julius Watkins as both sideman and soloist. Moreover, it earned him widespread acclaim for one solo performance, the tune Yesterdays. Although Watkins name, along with other musicians, does not appear in the article, his musical contribution is noteworthy and important to a study of his influence Anonymous. Julius Watkins, 55, Played Jazz on the French Horn and was Music Teacher. The New York Times, 8 April, 1977. This eight-paragraph obituary appeared in The New York Times four days after the death of Julius Watkins. In what may be a surprise to many, it serves as an excellent starting point for anyone conducting research on this artistic figure. The article lists Watkins place of residence in New York City and place of death, Montclaire, New Jersey. It also includes a brief biography, mentions teaching and performing engagements, and contains the names of survivors. There are discrepancies in the spellings of numerous people in this obituary, errors which have caused great confusion regarding next of kin up to the present day. Nonetheless, this article goes well beyond the average scope of an obituary and lends credence to the importance of Julius Watkins as he was viewed by his contemporaries during the late 1970s. Anonymous. Liner notes from Smart Jazz for the Smart Set. Seeco Records, CELP-466, 1957. Contained on the back of this album are words of praise and support for what was, at the time, a budding new jazz group with a great deal of promise: The Jazz Modes. A brief synopsis of the ensembles conception combines with background information on the Watkins and Rouse duo to create a majority of the data on the jacket cover. There are

PAGE 18

7 no photos of the ensemble; however, there is a great deal of commentary regarding instrumentation, chamber-like jazz, assisting artists and short program notes. A complete playlist is included along with a list of other jazz records produced by Seeco, some of which include Watkins and Rouse. Anonymous. Milt Buckner in Quaker City. Baltimore Afro-American, 9 July, 1949. Julius Watkins first big break as a jazz artist occurred when he joined Milt Buckners band in 1949. This quasi-review of a Milt Buckner concert places this artist and the famous ensemble, including Watkins, which toured during the summer of 1949. The article recounts a concert which took place on July 4, 1949 at the 421 Club in Philadelphia, Pa. Praise is given to many of the tunes, including Buckners arrangement of Jerome Kerns Yesterdays, which featured Julius Watkins on a sweepingly lyrical solo. The article also mentions future radio show appearances which featured Buckners ensemble. Although brief, this article lends credibility to the impressive performance ability of Buckners group. Moreover, it provides insight into Watkins own abilities (and his good fortune) in that he had landed his first job among such a renowned collection of jazz musicians. Chancey, Vincent. Liner notes from Next Mode. DIW Records, DIW-914, 1996. Released almost twenty years after the death of Julius Watkins, Chanceys Next Mode recording features an ensemble which bears a striking resemblance to Watkins Jazz Modes. In these liner notes, Chancey describes the formation of this new ensemble and the specific effect that Julius Watkins has had on his career. He provides a brief autobiography before diving into program notes regarding the works on this compact

PAGE 19

8 disc. Six of Chanceys original compositions are included on this album in addition to Linda Delia, a work originally composed and recorded by Julius Watkins. The specific program notes include references to the people and events which inspired the conception of these works and are helpful in understanding a personal view of this artist. Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. pp. 408-420. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978. Despite its date of publication, 1978, this text is widely recognized as one of the best jazz histories in print. This overview of jazz history traces the genre from its origins through the mid-1960s. Collier combines historical and social aspects with academic, musical, literary and psychological perspectives to create this unbiased timeline of jazz history. Of particular interest are the pages related to Bop music and the performance of this art by musicians known as boppers. This section on Bop allows the reader to firmly understand and comprehend the details of this genre. Moreover, the information on Bop helps connect Watkins with the art style, and it thus fills out a significant aspect of his own development. To understand the performance style of Julius Watkins as a soloist, one must understand Bop music and the styles which evolved into Bop. This history will assist in the achievement of that goal. Ephland, John. Bio: Julius Watkins. Downbeat Magazine [on-line]. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/artists/artists_main.asp?sect=&aid=348&aname=Julius+Watkins ; internet accessed 23 July, 2002. Ephland offers a brief and basic summary of the life achievements regarding Julius Watkins. Although by no means a complete and accurate list, this biography does offer assistance to someone intending to pursue further study of this jazz French horn icon.

PAGE 20

9 This biography contains very broad generalizations and a summary of this artists life while offering birth and death dates, early jobs, a brief mention of Les Jazz Modes, and other performance opportunities. Surprisingly, this biography of one of the greatest jazz musicians, featured in one of the leading magazines regarding jazz music, is less than one-half page in length. Of course, such a brief summary is necessarily incomplete, and it cannot give Watkins due credit for a lifetime of significant achievements. Evans, Gil. The Birth of Cool. Downbeat Magazine [on-line], 2 May, 1957. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect-stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=279 ; internet accessed 12 April, 2005 French horns began to appear in jazz bands in the 1940s during what became known as the Cool Era. One of the foremost arrangers of jazz at that time was Gil Evans, the Canadian native and founder of the famous Gil Evans Orchestra. In this article, Evans reminisces about his jazz inspirations and memories of the Cool Era and discusses specific items regarding the use of the French horn in Cool Jazz orchestras. Topics include the use of the horn in the Claude Thornhill Band, the horn as a soloistic instrument in this ensemble, tone colors and sonorities of the group before and during the incorporation of the horn in the ensemble, and other pertinent historical data. Feather, Leonard. The Book of Jazz: A Guide to the Complete Field, pp. 142-143. New York: Horizon Publishers, 1957. In this general overview of jazz styles, eras and instrumentation, the author presents an eye-witness account of the jazz world from his perspective in 1957. What this text lacks in scholarly writing, it makes up for with detailed information regarding a wide spectrum of topics in a manner easily understood by the average reader. Specifically

PAGE 21

10 regarding the topic of jazz French horn lore, Feather provides a focused view of the jazz horn scene in the mid-1950s by mentioning the names of jazz horn artists, arrangers, and bands which featured the instrument. Included here, but left out of many other sources, is commentary regarding the use of the Mellophone in jazz ensembles. Feather offers reasoning for including the mellophone instead of the traditional horn, and gives evidence of the instruments success along with praise for the mellophone by many prominent band leaders from this era. The author also mentions the establishment of many other unusual instruments as regular members of jazz ensembles. Feather, Leonard. Liner notes from John Graas! Mercury Records, SR 80020, 1957. These are the original liner notes from the first long-play record featuring John Graas exclusively as a jazz horn soloist. The notes are split into two sections. The first is a biographical sketch of John Graas including birth information, schooling and pre-jazz professional engagements. : It includes a list of Grass teaches, along with commentary regarding his duties while an enlisted man in the United States Army. Part two features program notes on the eight works on this recording. In some cases, a brief analysis of the work may be presented. Included in these analyses are descriptions of rhythm patterns, chord progressions, and instrumentation. Feather, Leonard and Michael Cuscuna. Liner notes from Julius Watkins Sextet, vols. 1 &2. Blue Note Records, BLP 5053 and 5064, 1954 and 1955. Originally appearing as two separate recordings, these two albums were re-released on one compact disc in 1998 by Capitol Records. The liner notes of this disc include original commentary by Feather in addition to supporting commentary by Cuscuna.

PAGE 22

11 Feathers writings describe Watkins early career and include some biographical material including birth date, early horn studies and public schooling. Following this short summary of Watkins life up through 1954, Feather offers critical insight into the nine works which appeared on the two original recordings and offers criticism for four selections: Linda Delia, Perpetuation, Leete, and I Have Known. A list of contributing artists is included along with two black and white photographs taken of Watkins during the recording sessions for these two volumes. Frey, Kevin. Jazz Horn Interaction. The Horn Call, vol. 22 no. 2, 1992, pp. 57-59. Freys submission appears as part of the Jazz Clinic, a column appearing in the Horn Call periodically during the 1980s and 90s. In an attempt to reach pre-professional horn players, the author stresses that this instrument has crossed over many boundaries between different musical genres and that todays performers of the horn must be prepared for any type of performance style. Specifically in regard to jazz, Frey offers a list of advising tips for jazz horn novices who are looking to interact with this increasingly popular genre. Suggestions include ways to familiarize oneself with basic fundamentals of jazz, practicing strategies, standard repertoire, performing outlets and other resources. A bibliography of Jazz Clinic columns appearing in the Horn Call from 1982 through 1992 is also included. Gioia, Ted. West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960, pp. 176-179. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998. On the whole, this text offers a detailed glimpse into the West Coast Jazz scene during the mid-1900s. This overview is important due to the changes in style and instrumentation which took place. In the mentioned pages, Gioia provides specific

PAGE 23

12 information regarding Gil Evans, John Graas, the inclusion of the French horn in a jazz orchestra and reactions to such an inclusion from other jazz artists. This overview is vital to the understanding of jazz French horn usage and repertoire and the progression of the horn as a jazz-playing instrument. Numerous names of bands and band leaders are provided along with a chronological chain of events which led to the inclusion of so many instruments with Classical foundations. Girard, Paulette. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957. In what appears to be more a newspaper article than a list of traditional liner notes, Girard presents a wealth of information to the reader/listener in a highly pedagogical manner. These notes are not broken into historical and programmatic sections as is the case with many other albums. Rather, Girard intertwines numerous aspects of history and program detail into one complete story. The article does offer a glimpse into the Watkins/Rouse duo and features a black and white photograph of the two men playing side-by-side. A playlist featuring composer and publisher information is included as are brief biographical details concerning the sidemen appearing on this album. Gottfried, Martin. Raisin. Womens Wear Daily, 19 October, 1973. This racially charged diatribe focuses on many negatives which surrounded the shows production. It is obvious from the articles first sentence that Gottfried was less than enthusiastic about practically every aspect regarding the performance. He offers harsh criticism of almost every part of the production, including the set design, costuming, song structure, and overall mood present in the production. Gottfried goes so far as to criticize the show for not being black enough and even accuses the composer,

PAGE 24

13 Judd Woldin, of writing white jazz instead of black jazz. The ramifications of these accusatory remarks are enormous when considering the strides that had been made since the Equal Rights Movement of the 1960s. Gottfried calls the show embarrassing to those of African descent, due to the lack of black rhythms and moods. Amid all of this negativity, no mention is given to the pit orchestra. There is neither criticism nor praise for the instrumentalists. Nonetheless, this article allows the reader a glimpse into the heated battle of the races which lingered well into the late 20 th century artistic world. Graas, John. The French Horn Has Won a Place in Jazz. Downbeat Magazine, 2 December, 1953, p. 34. John Graas was a classically trained French horn player who performed with the Indianapolis Symphony and the Cleveland Orchestra in the 1940s before moving to California to pursue a career in the jazz idiom. He was the first documented jazz French horn artist and made numerous attempts to include his instrument in jazz settings on a permanent basis; however, his career never achieved the greatness which he initially envisioned and his life came to a tragically suicidal end. In this article, Graas argues that by 1953 the French horn had successfully become an instrument accepted by performers in jazz circles. He makes numerous references to the warmth of sound possessed by the instrument and the willingness of certain jazz arrangers, specifically Claude Thornhill and Stan Kenton, to feature the instrument permanently in their orchestras. Graas give a great deal of attention to the use of the horn in chamber jazz settings and references are made to the use of the horn as a woodwind-type instrument. In addition, Graas argues that the instrument is capable of performing fast technical jazz music in addition to just being featured in ballads, thereby concluding

PAGE 25

14 that the instrument is just as well rounded and suited for the genre as any other traditional jazz instrument. However, he makes no reference to how concert-going audiences reacted to the inclusion of the horn in these ensembles. Henahan, Donal. Music: Black Composers Vocal Works. The New York Times, 2 September, 1977, p. 52. Few American orchestras have programmed concerts which feature only the music of black composers. Although this idea has received increasing attention in recent years, it was a source of social division in the 1970s. Nonetheless, the New York Philharmonic performed a week-long concert series featuring the music of numerous black composers in May of 1977. Although Henahans article documents the specifics of the weeks events, including location and performance venue, it does not provide a complete list of the composers whose work the orchestra performed. Even so, it pays special attention to the social reactions to various concerts, in that he emphasizes the demographics and attire of the audiences. Similarly, he criticizes some aspects of the bill, rather than assessing the quality of the whole. Of particular note is the mentioning of works composed by Harriette Davison. Davison was a violinist and composer in New York and was married to Julius Watkins from 1971 until his death in April of 1977. This article confirms her status as an active composer in the New York scene during the mid-late 1970s. Jack, Gordon. CD Review: Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse. Jazz Journal International, 1 September, 2001, pp. 42-43. This is a review of two albums which were re-released on compact discs. The two discs both feature the famous quintet founded by Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse: Les Modes (known later as Les Jazz Modes and The Jazz Modes). The article gives a brief

PAGE 26

15 synopsis of the groups brief existence and comments specifically on the performance style of Julius Watkins. Included are comments regarding Julius five-octave range, lyrical playing style and improvisational achievements. A complete track list is included for the two reviewed discs, Mood In Scarlet and Les Jazz Modes, and the names of some prominent sidemen are included. This jazz review frequently references other classically trained musicians and horn players, and is an interesting review which begins to bridge the classical and jazz worlds. Jones, Quincy. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. 412 pp. New York: Broadway Books, 2001. Over the past sixty years, Quincy Jones has led one of the most inspiring of musical lives in America. This book allows the reader to gain valuable insight into the world of Quincy Jones through the actual recollections given by the author and chapters written by numerous other individuals. The novel begins with Jones recalling his childhood years in Chicago, descriptions of his family life and household, his teenage years in Seattle, his first trumpet, and countless other stories up through the turn of the century. This book is deeply personal: it presents the life of Quincy Jones not as an untouchable icon of the music world, but as a genuine human being. Specifically in regard to Julius Watkins, this autobiography is of the utmost importance. Watkins was a member of Jones orchestra for the European tour of the musical, Free and Easy. An entire chapter is devoted to this tour and provides the reader with an almost daily log of events from that escapade. Amongst the numerous photos in this book is one taken of this very pit orchestra. Members, including Watkins, are dressed

PAGE 27

16 in full costume and each has their instrument in hand. In all, Jones makes seven references to Julius Phantom Watkins ranging from professional to personal. Keepnews, Orrin. Liner notes from Gemini: Les Spann. Jazzland Records, JLP 935S, 1960. Gemini was the name of a small jazz ensemble led by the multi-talented artist, Les Spann. The notes from this recording offer a glimpse into Spanns world of performing in chamber-like jazz ensembles which often featured less than traditional instrumentation. In addition to a brief biography of Spann, the liner notes contain numerous references to Julius Watkins who performed on four of the eight featured tracks. The topic of astrology is discussed which is important due to the mystical beliefs possessed by this artistic duo. Insight into Spann and Watkins previous collaboration with Quincy Jones is also provided. One of the great highlights of the album jacket is a black and white photograph of Watkins performing alongside Spann in a recording studio. Pictures such as this help to breathe life into the history of jazz artists who have long been forgotten. Koral, Burt. Liner notes from The Jazz Modes. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1306, 1959. Data presented on the jacket of this album are broken into two parts. The first half contains detailed and accurate biographical information regarding the performance career of Julius Watkins up until 1959. The liner notes make references to information taken from interview with Watkins in addition to historical records of recording dates and tour engagements. Part two is a personal commentary by Koral regarding the ensembles performance style. As this was the first recording featuring The Jazz Modes, the notes carry a pedagogical tone in an attempt to educate a new jazz audience about the abilities

PAGE 28

17 and styles of the ensemble. A playlist is included with timings of the eight tunes and names of publishing companies who had rights to the specific works. Kramer, Gary. Jacket notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1280, 1958. Jazz artists frequently arranged tunes from Broadway musicals and released these newer renditions on albums of their own. Such is the case with this recording which features nine selections from 1957 production. The notes feature a track list with timings of the performances in addition to scene references from the original Broadway show. A personnel list is also included. The inclusion of an interview with Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse is what makes these jacket notes so valuable. Watkins and Rouse answer numerous questions about the art of making jazz arrangements from Broadway tunes, in addition to answering many questions regarding the formation of their ensemble, The Jazz Modes. Watkins offers his own perspective on the inclusion of the French horn in jazz ensembles and reminisces about the early days in his own playing career. Liebman, David and Tom Varner. Liner notes from Tom Varner: Jazz French Horn. Soul Note Records, 12176-2, 2000. This album was originally released in 1985 and contains a plethora of information from both authors. The initial words from Liebman include a brief history of Varners career in addition to a very personal statement regarding Liebmans respect and admiration for the artist. A short description of Varners Bebop style separates the introductory comments from a paragraph of heaping positive criticism for Varner and his ensemble. The playlist includes composer and publisher information along with

PAGE 29

18 commentary from Varner for each selection. Concluding the notes are links to internet websites for numerous jazz French horn artist and record numbers for other recordings. Line, Les. Blue Note 10 Rarities. 52 nd Street Review, Available from http://www.52ndstreet.com/reviews/reissues/bluenote_rarities.html ; internet accessed 23 July, 2002. Les Line informs his readers about numerous 10 long play records which were schedule to be re-released by Blue Note Records. One of those albums was a 2-record set featuring the Julius Watkins Sextet. The article features a brief review of the record, an incomplete song list, an extremely brief biography of Watkins, and an abbreviated list of artists with whom Watkins performed. A color photograph of the record jacket cover is also included. This picture shows Watkins and Rouse playing side-by-side. The photo itself is priceless. Attention in the article is given to the modern wave of jazz French horn players who were inspired by Watkins; specifically, John Clark and Tom Varner. Lopes, Paul. The Rise of a Jazz Art World pp. 242-251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. This book offers a unique glimpse into the development of jazz during the 20 th Century. Through analysis of representative works and reviewing of numerous primary source materials, Lopes depicts how musicians and listeners helped to transform the jazz world over the course of the century. Numerous aspects of social reaction are examined, including cultural politics, social diversity, the ongoing feud between high art and popular art cultures, racial stereotyping, segregation, and changes in the jazz world that helped to influence or were influenced by changes in the social climate. This book is just as much a social history of American culture as it is a history of American jazz, and

PAGE 30

19 includes valuable insight from specific musicians, critics, producers and audience members. Magelssen, Nels H. A Study of the French Horn in Jazz Through an Analysis of the Playing Style of Julius Watkins. 41pp. University of Maryland, 1984 Although the title of this paper indicates an enormous scope of study, Magelssen is actually offering a pedagogical guide for jazz band directors and French horn players on how to make the instrument more apt for participation in jazz settings. The paper does not trace a history of the French horn use in jazz, nor does it thoroughly examine the performance career of Julius Watkins. This paper does, however, give a thorough analysis of the mechanical and technical limitations possessed by the instrument in addition to paraphrasing the interview of Julius Watkins which appeared in Downbeat Magazine in 1957. Meadows, Eddie S. Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology and Musical Identity. pp. 250-261. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Jazz scholar Eddie Meadows follows the cultural and ideological events that inspired Bebop and eventually led to the establishment of the Cool Era. Attention is given to many of the more notable jazz musicians from the 1920s and 30s, including Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Thelonius Monk. Special attention is given to the inclusion of the French horn in the pages listed here. Hornist John Graas is mentioned at great length as are the arrangers and leaders who welcomed the instrument into their orchestras. Portions of interviews with John Graas are also included. Connections are made between societal changes and the inclusion of the French horn and other

PAGE 31

20 instruments, along with social reactions to performances featuring this newer instrumentation. Ormsby, Verle Alvin. John Jacob Graas, Jr.: Jazz Horn Performer, Jazz Composer and Arranger. 119pp. D.A. Dissertation, Ball State University, 1988. This paper documents the life of John Graas and provides special insights into his career as a jazz French horn artist, composer of jazz French horn literature and arranger of jazz band music. The work is divided into two large sections or parts. Part one outlines the life and career of this artist primarily through an examination of the contents found in the John Graas Memorabilia and Memorial Library. Most of the specimens found therein are photo albums, newspaper clippings, records, tapes, some original compositions by the artist and some written correspondence between Graas and his co-workers. Part two focuses on and analyzes some of Graas original compositions for the jazz horn and larger ensembles. Compositional growth and development are traced by analyzing the increasing complexity of melodies found in some selected works. Ormsby offers a detailed account of Graas life, a glossary of pertinent musical terms relating to the paper, and a comprehensive bibliography for further research on Graas, West Coast Jazz and Jazz Horn performance. Schaughency, Steven Michael. The Original Jazz Compositions of Julius Watkins. 88pp. D.A. Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, 1994. This paper deals with Julius Watkins compositional contributions to the jazz horn repertoire and focuses primarily on his compositional style and characteristics. This 38-page discussion creates an understanding of the artists jazz writing techniques and highlights elements from his traditional Classical music education which appear in

PAGE 32

21 Watkins jazz compositions. The author pinpoints specific traits within each examined work, including the development of motivic material, contrapuntal writing, Romantic Era harmonic movement, unusual tone colors, mood variations and rhythmic accompaniment. This paper does not include biographical data regarding Julius Watkins, but does include fourteen transcriptions of the composers original works for a chamber-like jazz setting, a discography containing many recordings which feature Watkins performing improvised solos, a glossary of jazz terms and a bibliography for further study. Tanner, Paul O. A Study of Jazz, 2 nd Edition, pp. 92-95. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1974. This chapter allows the reader to grasp an understanding for the Cool Era. This pedagogical summation details the events and styles which influenced this new jazz era and traces these styles through their existence in the jazz world from 1949 through 1955. Special attention is given to tonal concepts, new ideas in tonality, softer sounds, chamber-like jazz settings and other concepts which led to a softer form of this musical genre. Tanner mentions numerous jazz figures who played significant roles in the eras establishment including arrangers, conductors and soloists. Of particular interest is the authors description of how certain traditionally non-jazz instruments worked their way into jazz settings during this time. Tanner describes these events in regard to the flute, tuba, flugelhorn and French horn and lists the names of some of the more prominent artists on those instruments. Black and white photographs are included of some of these individuals.

PAGE 33

22 Varner, Tom. Jazz Horn: Post Julius Watkins. The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 2, 1989, pp. 43-45. In a follow-up to his previous article on Julius Watkins, Varner describes the growth in the jazz French horn scene since Watkins death in 1977. Varner focuses on jazz horn players living in the United States; however, he does mention the contributions of three internationally acclaimed artists. The remainder of the article contains biographical information on four prominent New York based performers of the jazz horn: Vincent Chancey, Sharon Freeman, Alex Brofsky and Peter Gordon. A discography of selected jazz horn artists is also included. Recordings featuring Brofsky, Chancey, Clark, Gordon and Freeman are listed in addition to those by other jazz horn artists. Discography items are separated depending on the artists role as a leader or a sideman. Varner, Tom. Julius Watkins: Jazz Pioneer. The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 1, 1988, p. 21. Varner is one of the leading authorities on jazz French horn history and repertoire. Although somewhat outdated and incomplete, this article offers an introductory glimpse at the founding father of jazz French horn playing. Special attention given to biographical data includes birth and death information, record dates, performances with bands, the Jazz Modes, the Watkins-Rouse relationship, and other prominent historical events in the artists life. Presented here, for the first time in print, is a transcription of an original work by Julius Watkins, allowing scholars and jazz musicians alike to witness a physical testimony to the significance of this often glossed-over figure. A partial discography appears at the conclusion of the article. While this article is by no means complete, it serves as the foundation for further research into the life of Julius Watkins and the completion of a void in the history of Jazz music in America.

PAGE 34

23 Watrous, Peter. A One-Night French Horn Festival. The New York Times 27 January, 1994, p. C-20. Watrous offers readers an account of the First Julius Watkins Jazz French Horn Festival. This concert was the first of its kind and featured four artists, three of whom had studied with Watkins himself. The performances of Mark Taylor, John Clark, Vincent Chancey and Tom Varner, the festival organizer, are reviewed and the titles of some works are included. Criticism is offered on the performances of the four artists as are photographs of some of the nights events. Surprisingly there is hardly any mentioning of the festivals namesake. This jazz review is written in a way which assumes that the reader holds knowledge and appreciation of Watkins musical achievements. Watrous, Peter. Charlie Rouse, 64, a Saxophonist Known for Work in Monk Quartet. The New York Times, 2 December, 1988, p. D-16. The life of Charlie Rouse is thoroughly recounted in this obituary by Watrous. This lengthy article is much more significant in length and content than that of Julius Watkins and ads further speculation as to why the obituary of the Rouses partner is significantly lackluster. Rouses obituary is separated into two sections: his early career up through 1950 and his career from 1950-1988. A brief synopsis of his partnership with Julius Watkins is mentioned, along with documentation of Rouses great career with Thelonious Monk, Count Basie and many other well known jazz personalities. The obituary includes a black and white photograph of Rouse taken in 1983.

PAGE 35

24 Watt, Douglas. Raisin: A Black Period Musical, Brings Back Raisin in the Sun. New York Daily News, 19 October, 1973. This is a critical review of a performance of Raisin which occurred on the evening of October 18, 1973. The musical was a re-make of the 1959 novel, A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry and followed the original version quite closely. After offering a brief plot summary, Watt offers great praise to the cast and the pit musicians. A complete cast list is presented, however the names of the pit musicians is omitted. It has been confirmed that Julius Watkins performed in this pit orchestra and that this was his last professional engagement. Thus, Watts comments regarding a first-rate cast and outstanding orchestra reaffirm the level of performance maintained by Watkins later in his life. Wilson, Edwin. Putting Miss Hansberrys Play to Music. The Wall Street Journal, 22 October, 1973. Similar to the review by Watt, this article paints a favorable image of the new musical show for the reading audience. In addition to offering numerous positive statements about the show, including the praise of the score, lyrics and overall production, Wilson provides a short history regarding the status of Black Musicals. These shows were written, produced and predominantly performed by African-American artists. This article mentions not a single cast member directly (other than the producer and musical directors), but further establishes the nature of racial segregation in the fine arts during the mid-1970s.

PAGE 36

25 Wilson, John S. Asadata Dafora Dancers Seen with Les Jazz Modes Quintet. The New York Times, 24 January, 1959, p. 12. Wilson describes a rare mixture of two artist media types. A program called Afra Ghan Jazz featured Watkins Les Jazz Modes providing the musical accompaniment for the primitive dancers in the troupe. The short article highlights the strengths possessed by the two groups and describes the extreme differences in style between the ensembles. Brief descriptions about the dance troupe and quintet are provided alone with commentary regarding the musical selections. Wilson includes the names of some jazz sidemen; however, the names of dancers are omitted. Wilson, John S. Jazz Ensembles Sound Seasonal Note With an Easter Festival at Town Hall. The New York Times, 31 March, 1956, p. 13. This is a detailed account of an all-star jazz concert taking place on March 30, 1956. Highlights of the evening included performances by the Oscar Pettiford Orchestra, Thelonius Monk and Art Farmer and commentary is provided on the featured selections performed by each of these artists. Wilson offers much positive criticism for Pettifords ensemble; an orchestra which featured two French horns. Wilson mentions that Julius Watkins was one of the hornists, but the name of the other performer is not included. This article lends further credibility to the prominence of Julius Watkins as a jazz artist, places Watkins in a high-profile type of venue and helps to fill in the voids in the timeline of this artist.

PAGE 37

26 Wilson, John S. Liner notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958. Popular jazz columnist, John Wilson, authored this list of historical and program notes this unusual type of jazz horn album. A brief history of the horn in jazz begins the article and includes some interesting data regarding the identity of the first performer of jazz on this instrument. Wilson also offers insight into the origins of this album and the individuals associated with the albums creation. Following this historical section, a complete playlist is presented along with program notes for each of the nine featured works. Composer and arranger names are presented along with short biographies of some of the contributing artists. Wilson, John S. Milt Jackson Gets Big-Sound Backing. The New York Times, 3 September, 1966, p. 12. John Wilson presents an extremely positive review of a Milt Buckner concert which took place on September 2, 1965. Not only is credit given to Buckner himself, but praise is heaped upon specific members of his 15-person band, including Julius Watkins, whose performance is described as splendid. Wilson provides a detailed account of the evenings activities and captures the mood and atmosphere of the concert surroundings in this article. What is particularly noteworthy about this newspaper clipping is the fact that Watkins was still in demand by some of the great headliners of the 1960s and still had a positive working relationship with Buckner seventeen years after the vibraphonist gave his horn-blowing apprentice his first professional touring engagement.

PAGE 38

27 Wilson, John S. New Jazz Group Full of Promise. The New York Times, 6 April, 1970. In this review of a new jazz sextet, Wilson documents the return of Julius Watkins to the active jazz scene following a three-year hiatus. Wilson mentions that the Phantom returned from three-year teaching engagement; however, no mention of an actual school or institution is provided. In this performance at the famous Village Vanguard, Watkins appeared along side drummer Keno Duke, saxophonists George Coleman and Clifford Jordan and other members of the Jazz Contemporaries. Wilson remarks at the fascinating voicings produced by the ensemble and mentions one solo in particular featuring Watkins on French horn. The author mentions the ensembles future dates at the Vanguard in addition to highlighting the strengths and weaknesses possessed by this new ensemble. Wilson, John S. Opera Explores Racial Questions. The New York Times, 23 May, 1971, p. 58. Wilson presents a review of All Cats Turn Grey When the Sun Goes down; an opera which received three performances in the Spring of 1971. The opera, dedicated to the great jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker, seems to be a source of confusion for Wilson who describes the work as having little or no connection to the life of that artist. The author does not give much detail regarding the actual music from this opera. Instead, he explores the racial tension between a pair of black gravediggers and their interaction with two white lovers, a white family on a picnic, white tourists, and two white teenage adolescents. What is particularly valuable in this article is the concept that artists, specifically theatrical personalities, were exploring racial stereotyping, conflict and misrepresentation in the early 1970s. The article concludes with the surprising

PAGE 39

28 mentioning of two members of the opera orchestra: Jimmy Owens on trumpet, and Julius Watkins on horn. Therefore, proof exists that Watkins was performing in at least some classical music venues later in his life and remained an active performer of all types of music throughout his life. Wilson, John S. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, 17 September, 1959, pp. 37-38. This article is, in reality, an interview with Julius Watkins and provides a rare glimpse into the personal life and professional career of the artist up through date of publication. This comprehensive insight into the early career of Julius Watkins firmly establishes Wilsons work as groundbreaking and Earth-shattering since there exists no other written documentation of Watkins life up through the present day. Wilson predominantly focuses on Watkins professional career from 1939-59, mentioning tour after tour with various ensembles featuring prominent headliners. In doing so, Wilson presents a chronological list of events from Watkins life and allows the reader to visualize a progressive timeline through the artists own words. More important, he answers several questions that a student of jazz history would ask. These range in importance from biographical information on Watkins choice of the French horn to why he pursued a career in jazz and how he formed his important relationship with Charlie Rouse. Equally valuable, Wilson moved from the past to the future by asking Wilson this revealing question: What is your [Watkins] vision for the future of the jazz French Horn and its sound?

PAGE 40

29 Wilson, John S. Trumpeter Serving Many. The New York Times, 14 January, 1962, p. X-14. The biography of trumpeter Clark Terry is featured in this article by John Wilson. The article does not offer traditional biographical material such as birth date, education, teachers, etc. Rather, Wilson divides the article into four sub-sections, each devoted to a certain aspect of the career of the renowned trumpeter: Freelancer, Recent Recordings, Theatre Scores and Supporting Accent. Wilson makes two connections between Terry and Julius Watkins in this article by mentioning their work together on the Free and Easy tour in 1959 and their combined efforts on a Terry album, Color Changes. Attention is given to the use of different tonal combinations on this album and the addition of some newer instruments such as flugelhorn, flute and the French horn. The article serves as a source of further credibility establishing Watkins as an equal when compared to other jazz greats. Woods, Phil and Nat Hentoff. Liner notes for The Rights of Swing. Candid Records, CCD-79016, 1961/1989. The words contained in these liner notes give incredibly detailed insight into the creation and performance of Phil Woods first large-scale composition. The notes are divided into two sections. The first, authored by Hentoff, traces the development of Woods style and details the performers vision for creating this work. Part two, authored by Woods, is split into two sub-sections. Section one contains a personal reflection on the work, the works creation and conception. Section two is a brief analysis of the works six movements including references to key, meter, instrumentation, form and tempo. In all, these notes provide a Classical review of a classical jazz work.

PAGE 41

CHAPTER 2 THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC To trace the story of this relatively unknown musician, one must begin in Detroit. This town which had given birth to so many great jazz figures of enormous prominence was the very location for the beginning of a career which has been overlooked and underappreciated for the past twenty-eight years. The artist was Julius Watkins, his instrument was the French horn, and his love was jazz. Over the course of his thirty-four year career, Watkins toured throughout the world, performed on over one-hundred recordings, played in Broadway shows, and was the founder of two unique musical ensembles. He was a son, a brother, a father and a husband. He was a teacher and friend. Most importantly, he served as an inspiration to those who heard him play. Credentials such as these would often earn the individual numerous awards and great fame; however, this was not the case with Julius Watkins. He was a carefree man with a free and easy outlook on life, and his personality mirrored the same qualities which have drawn audiences to the very instrument on which he performed. He was calm, peaceful, and full of warmth. We are a special group of people, said the renowned jazz hornist Vincent Chancey. We dont choose the horn, the horn chooses us. 1 As rewarding and significant as Watkins career became, it had an unsuspecting start in an unassuming place. The horn did choose him, and it happened in the Motor City. 1 Personal interview with Vincent Chancey, March 11, 2004. 30

PAGE 42

31 Julius Burton Watkins was born on October 10, 1921, and was the second of four children. His father, Lucius, was originally from Illinois and worked in Detroit as an electrician. His mother, Mattie, was a Georgia native whose only occupation was that of a housewife. 2 They lived in a large, three-story house located at 6037 Scotten Avenue on west side of Detroit. The neighborhood was, and still is, dominated by blue-collar citizens with strong family values. 3 By 1930, the Watkins house was bursting at the seams. Lucius and Mattie resided with their four children: Lucius, Jr (b. 1920), Julius, Olivia (b. 1925) and Janice (b. 1926), along with any number of roomers or boarders. 4 The 1930 United States Census named four of these individuals as Andrew Wilson, Howard Patterson, Harold Marshall, and Maxine Prentess. These three men were employed by a motor assembly factory, while Prentess worked as a stenographer in a law office. 5 All four of the Watkins children attended neighborhood schools and it was in the public school system that Julius came into contact with the instrument which possessed him for the remainder of his life. Julius was nine years old when the horn 6 lured him away from the saxophones, trumpets and drums; instruments which were significantly more popular than the horn amongst beginning bandsmen. He was considering tutelage on the guitar or trumpet when Francis Hellstein, Principal Horn in the Detroit Symphony, presented a guest 2 Taken from family data listed on Julius Watkins 1950 application to the Manhattan School of Music. 3 Personal interview with Henry Jackson, resident of Scotten Ave, in April, 2004. 4 There is no written record of any income generated by the letting of rooms to boarders in the Watkins household. There is speculation that the presence of extra roomers in the house would have produced some added financial assistance for the family and compensated Mattie Watkins for her services as a house manager or proprietor. 5 Information taken from the US Census of Wayne County, MI, April 2, 1930. There is no data regarding their length of stay in the Watkins home and it is not known whether or not these individuals are still living. 6 In 1990, the International Horn Society officially dropped the French connotation from the instruments title. For the remainder of this discourse, this same instrument will be referred to simply as horn.

PAGE 43

32 performance at Julius school. He finalized his decision upon hearing the horns call. I liked the sound, said Watkins. I dont know exactly why, and I still cant explain it satisfactorily. But I fell in love with the sound and with the instrument. 7 He attended McMichael Junior High School on Linwood Street from 1933 to 1936 and was a dedicated member of the school band which, at the time, was under the direction of William Filbee. 8 Although little is known of Julius personal life during this time, it is known that the romance he shared with his instrument was quite robust. Each day, young Julius made a 15-minute walk to school with books in one hand, and horn case in the other. I was very small, and the case was very heavy, recounted the once-novice player. I used to drag it along the ground. I mustve worn holes through a couple of em at least! 9 This peripatetic routine continued for three years, and his performance ability grew at astronomical proportions as a result of daily practice and dedication. In 1936, after completing his Junior High School education, Julius opted not to attend the neighborhood high school with his classmates and, instead, applied and was accepted into the Cass Technical High School in downtown Detroit. Cass Tech at that time was a place that offered more than just the average technical education. Cass offered a wide variety of technical types of courses, said Cass Technical High School Music Teacher, Ms. Pat-Terry Ross. 10 Sure you could come here to learn electronics or engineering, but you could also specialize in other areas (such as) music, art, law, and medicine. All of these were options for study at Cass. It was a specialty school for people with a wide variety of specialty areas, including music. 7 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15. 8 William Filbee, Band Teacher, appears in the faculty listing of the 1936 McMichael Jr. High Yearbook, p. 38. 9 Paulette Girard. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet: The Jazz Modes. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957. 10 Personal interview with Ms. Pat-Terry Ross on April 25, 2004.

PAGE 44

33 Figure 2-1 Cass Technical High School. Photo Courtesy of the Detroit Public Schools Watkins spent the 1936-37 and 1937-38 school years at Cass Tech and immersed himself in the college-preparatory style of education. He took courses in harmony, music appreciation and piano, sang in the chorus, and played horn in the orchestra. Ironically, he received traditional orchestral horn training from Francis Hellstein and also took courses in English literature, world history, and algebra. 11 Students were allowed to specialize in one area of study; however, basic core curricula were required of all students. Watkins first semester at Cass was somewhat successful academically and musically. He earned average grades in the core curriculum and above-average marks for the music classes, but despite his success, Julius was not satisfied with the direction in which his studies were taking him. As a sixteen-year old African-American horn player in the 1930s, his chances of earning a position in a symphony orchestra were effectively nil. 12 The repertoire for the solo horn at that time was not nearly as diversified as it is presently. Certainly Julius was familiar with Mozarts four horn concerti along with 11 Data taken from the student record of Julius Burton Watkins, released by the Detroit Public Schools. 12 Warren Smith commented in a personal interview on March 11, 2004, that African-American musicians at that time were denied membership in professional symphony orchestras because of their race.

PAGE 45

34 Richard Strauss First Concerto. He was undoubtedly instructed in other significant solo and chamber works featuring the horn, but the repertoire was much more limited than it is today. By the summer of 1937, Julius had determined that his musical career path would be different from that of any other performer of his instrument up until that time. I wanted to be a soloist, said Watkins in an interview with Downbeat Magazine. There is very little repertoire in Classical music for solo horn. So, I learned to jazz. 13 Known for being a stubborn individual, 14 Julius was obsessed with becoming the first great jazz horn soloist ever. His thirst for listening to jazz and playing jazz was unquenchable. His grade report for the 1937-38 school year bears evidence that his focus was not on scholastic excellence. His tenure at Cass Tech was forfeited as a result of this academic debacle, and Julius was encouraged to transfer to neighboring Northwestern High School. Julius refused and devoted himself even more strongly to the pursuit of a career in jazz. Soloing was so important to me that I didnt get my high school diploma because of it. At (what would have been) my graduation, my big moment came when I got up and played my solo. While I was doing this, everybody else marched up and received their diplomas, but I forgot all about mine. I never did bother to go back and get it. 15 According to his transcript, Julius Watkins remained in school only through the 10 th Grade and dropped out during the summer of 1938. For many individuals, the act of quitting school marks the beginning of an unpromising life. For Julius, the end of his academic career served as the catalyst for great success. One mans trash certainly was, in this case, another mans treasure. 13 John S. Wilson The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15. 14 Warren Smith stated that Julius Watkins was the most stubborn individual he had ever known. Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004. 15 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15.

PAGE 46

35 By the summer of 1939, Watkins found himself in quite a conundrum. He was an immensely talented horn player in a city with strong jazz roots, but there were no models on which he could teach himself how to play jazz on his instrument, nor were there parts for him to play if he desired to join a band on his own. After listening to a number of jazz trumpeters and saxophonists, including Chu Berry and Buster Baker, Julius began the slow journey towards jazz stardom. He began performing with a neighborhood band and, since no horn parts existed, he transposed trombone or saxophone parts. He could read any part in any key correctly the first time through, said Julius longtime friend, Warren Smith. It was remarkable! He had something in his mind that just clicked in regard to anything musical. You could give him a trombone part, sure. An E-flat part, bass clef, treble clef, it just didnt matter. He could do it all. He knew these relationships and knew everything about the parts. 16 Later in 1939, Watkins joined and toured with Ernie Fields band. Although Julius did take his horn on the tour, he found himself playing a trumpet and was relegated to playing extra trumpet parts as needed while his horn remained in its case night after night. His eyes were opened to the realities of life on the road as a jazz musician as the band toured across Texas and Oklahoma that year. Many of the jobs on that tour were one-nighters; concerts every night in different towns, different bars, different clubs, and the whole time, Julius was stuck playing an instrument other than his horn. He gradually became bitter and incensed as did many of his colleagues. They were frustrated in having excessive time off from playing during long layovers in strange towns in between gigs. Julius needed an outlet. When youre laying off in a strange place, you seek any outlet 16 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.

PAGE 47

36 you can get, said Julius. Usually it turns out to be some form of dissipation. So sometimes there was that, and other times Id lie in bed all night, practicing (my horn) until 7 oclock in the morning. At times I thought I was turning into a genuine maniac. 17 Watkins spent three years touring with Ernie Fields before returning to Detroit in 1942. His homecoming was uneventful, although his family must have been elated to see him and hear about his musical journey. From all written accounts, Julius was the only member of his family with any musical ability, although the headstone on the grave of his brother, Lucius Jr., does bear an embronzed set of drums similar to those found in jazz bands. 18 Julius desired to remain in Detroit for an unspecified amount of time and hoped to form dance bands with his old cronies. Dance bands usually played jazz, but were more accurately described as bands with a rich voice. These were lush dance bands that veered toward the sweet side and a steady stream of jazzmen ran through it. 19 Upon discovering that his musical contacts were no longer living in Detroit, Julius set his sights on Denver, CO and moved there in 1942 with the hopes of playing his horn in a jazz dance band. He moved to Denver and celebrated in his first successful endeavor. Julius joined a six-member band 20 and played his horn on numerous occasions. During the year spent in Denver, Julius gradually became the groups leader, at least in his own eyes. He was content performing his horn in a congenial group; however, relations within the group eventually led to the disbanding of the ensemble. It was a young group, said 17 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 37. 18 Lucius Watkins, Jr. is buried in the United Memorial Gardens, Garden of the Masonic, Plot 105, space D3, Plymouth, Michigan. 19 John S. Wilson. Liner notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958. 20 Numerous references mention this band in Denver; however, not a single one provides an actual name for the group. More research is needed in this area to determine the identity of this ensemble and names of other musicians who performed in the group.

PAGE 48

37 Watkins. The fellows got interested in girls, they became lazy about rehearsals and Im nutty about rehearsals, about starting on time and being strictly business. 21 The lack of dedication from other band members enraged Julius, and, in 1943, the group dissolved. Once again, Julius returned home to Detroit. Ironically, the following three years were a mixture of girl(s) and business for Watkins. He fell in love and married his first wife, Ella, 22 who gave birth to fraternal twins, Julie and Julius, Jr. 23 on December 6, 1943. The financial pressures of parenthood undoubtedly forced Papa-Julius to re-examine his career choice as a freelance traveling jazz musician. He joined the United States Naval Reserve in May of 1944 in an effort to be a devoted husband with a physical presence in the household and to provide steady income for his family. After receiving his training at the United States Naval Training Center in Great Lakes, Michigan, Seaman 2 nd Class Watkins was assigned to the reserve station in Detroit. Two Navy medals were awarded to Julius; however, his experience was short-lived due to unspecified events and Watkins was discharged after just three months of service. 24 Frustrated, yet undeterred in the pursuit of his ultimate goal, Julius continued to practice his horn and play in occasional dance bands with the hope that a profitable career as a jazz artist would materialize. In the early months of 1946, fellow Detroiter Milt Buckner phoned Julius and asked him to join his big band. Watkins accepted and, in doing so, found himself 21 John S. Wilson. The Horn that Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 15, 1959, p. 37. 22 There is no mention of Ellas complete name in any located documentation. She is the only family member not buried in the family plot in Plymouth, MI. More research is needed to determine her exact identity. 23 There exists no data regarding the lives of these two children, other than their birth and death dates. Efforts were made to obtain obituaries, school records, and other data to no avail. Questions were posed to Chancey, Varner, and Smith during personal interviews and all three had no knowledge of the childrens existence. More research is needed to determine the relationship which Julius, Sr., had with his children. 24 This information was released to the author by the United States Navy under the Freedom of Information Act of 1974. The United States Navy would not cite the reasoning for or type of discharge.

PAGE 49

38 suddenly transformed to the center of the jazz universe. Instantly, Julius and his horn were in great demand. He began performing on record dates with Buckners big band and also with Milt Jacksons small group. Julius prominence was magnified soon thereafter when he recorded his first featured solo in the tune Yesterdays with Buckners band on the MGM label. 25 For the next three years, Watkins continued to perform and tour with Buckners ensemble, The Beale Street Gang, performing on horn, trumpet, and trombone. 26 As elated as he must have been to finally have made a significant breakthrough in the jazz world, Julius was not entirely pleased with the manner in which his instrument blended with the rest of the ensemble and, more specifically, with the big-business of jazz recording. He surmised, It seemed too alone, as though it wasnt integrated properly into his (Bruckners) arrangements. Maybe it was because I had a bad horn or was playing out of tune. I dont know. I got disgusted with the whole business and went to school. 27 Watkins set his sights on New York City as did many others who took part in that great migration. 28 By August of 1950, Julius Watkins had relocated to the upper west side of Manhattan and established a residence at 195 St. Nicholas Avenue. On the 30 th day of that month and year, Julius submitted an application to study at the Manhattan School of Music. His acceptance was based on three items of criteria. First and most obviously, he was a talented horn player whose foundation of musical knowledge and repertoire came 25 The record, MGM 10632, was recorded in New York City at WMGM Studio B, June 3, 1949 26 Savoy 731 features Watkins on trumpet, while Savoy 840 and 848 feature Watkins on trombone. 27 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 37. 28 Tom Varner discussed what he called the Great Migration during a personal interview on March 10, 2004. The migration to which he referred was the movement of hundreds of jazz musicians to New York City in order to pursue careers in music. New York was, and still is, referred to as the land of opportunity for many aspiring young artists.

PAGE 50

39 from one of the most respected Principal Horn players in America. Second, he applied for and was accepted as a special student. This status allowed him to take the same courses as the music majors at the Manhattan School, but with the understanding that no degree would be conferred. Third, the Manhattan School of Music was one of two music schools in New York City, outside of the universities, qualified by the government to accept returning veterans both under the G.I. Bill of Rights and the Veterans Vocational Rehabilitation Law. 29 Due to his three months spent in the Naval Reserve, Watkins was basically guaranteed a place in one of Americas finest music schools. Studying music at the Manhattan School had numerous benefits. One of the most significant was the fact that students were not penalized for missing classes due to professional musical engagements. Warren Smith commented on this issue and said, All of the jazz players would go to study at the Manhattan School of Music because Manhattan would let you miss classes to go do a job and Juilliard would not. Most of the people who were actually working would favor Manhattan over Juilliard. I guess that was the case with him too. 30 An energized Watkins took the Manhattan School of Music by storm and earned a 4.0 grade point average during the Spring Semester of 1951. Julius immersed himself in courses such as Diction, Sight Singing, Orchestration, Music Theory, Music Literature, and private horn lessons with Robert Schultz, Third Horn in the New York Philharmonic. Julius was a charming man, recounted Dolores Beck-Schwartz, a horn player and teacher in White Plains, NY, who attended the Manhattan School of Music as a classmate of Julius Watkins. He was such a positive person. He 29 This data was found in Watkins application for admission to the Manhattan School of Music, released to the author by Linda Aginian and Philip Zoellner, registrars at the Manhattan School of Music, on March 9, 2004. 30 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.

PAGE 51

40 always smiled and always tried to help his fellow students, even though they were earning degrees and he was not. He wanted to make everybody around him better; musically and personally. He was the kindest person Ive ever met and a darn good musician too! Nobody could play the way that he could. 31 Julius studies at the Manhattan School of Music concluded in May of 1953. He failed to maintain the same level of academic progress with which he began and he simply did not have the financial support required to remain affiliated with the school. It is speculated that these financial constraints also led to the demise of his marriage to Ella; however, more research is needed to confirm reasons behind their separation and divorce which occurred around that same time. 32 1954 marked the beginning of a new phase in Watkins life. It was in that year that he joined and toured with Pete Rugolos band and recorded with Thelonius Monk. Julius was quickly gaining a very positive reputation as a jazz horn player amongst his peers and was in high demand as a sideman. As much as he enjoyed this new-found fame, Julius desired something else; a new type of chamber jazz which possessed the same intimacy found in more traditional classical chamber ensembles. His lifelong goal of creating such a group was realized in July of that year with the formation of The Julius Watkins Sextet. The Julius Watkins Sextet consisted of Frank Foster on tenor saxophone, Perry Lopez on guitar, George Butcher on piano, Oscar Pettiford on bass, Kenny Clarke on drums, and the ensembles namesake on horn. The members had known each other from 31 Personal interview with Dolores Beck-Schwartz, May 14, 2004. 32 Interviews with Smith, Varner, Chancey and Beck-Schwartz indicate that Julius lived alone following this marital separation. Julius never discussed issues regarding his children with his colleagues. It is speculated that Ella won custody of the children and returned to Detroit; however, more research is needed to determine the exact details surrounding this situation.

PAGE 52

41 numerous jobs and experiences. For example, Watkins and Butcher were students together at the Manhattan School of Music and had played in Oscar Pettifords Sextet sporadically since 1953. The Julius Watkins Sextet recorded two albums featuring a total of nine tracks, six of which (Perpetuation, I Have Known, Leete, Garden Delights, Julie Ann, and Sparkling Burgandy) were original Watkins compositions. Figure 2-2 Julius Watkins, from his Sextet vol. 2 session, March 20, 1955. Photo taken from Blue Note Jazz Photography of Francis Wolff, p. 145, Universe Publishing, 2000. Great enthusiasm was generated as a result and an awareness of the French horn as a jazz instrument was beginning to take shape. Further, Julius was beginning to make a name for himself as one of the greatest horn players of all time. Numerous personalities, including music critics Leonard Feather and John Wilson, remarked at his pure tone and authoritative command of the instruments range, while other professional horn players were taking note of Julius accomplishments. There were other French horn players in town who were doing a lot of record dates and various other things, said Warren Smith. One of them was named Ray Allonge. He was working for the musicians union. Ray

PAGE 53

42 told me that Julius could easily play an octa ve above what Ray could play. This really was saying something in a number of ways because Ray was the first call Caucasian French horn player who got all of the gigs. But even the French horn players in that elevated level of money-making thats why Im making that designation knew that Julius had these capabilities.33 One of the more noteworthy st atements in this excerpt is in regard to the tessitura of Julius instrument. Allonge and other professional players undoubtedly could play up to the written C above treble clef. Anythi ng above this pitch pushes the threshold for note clarity and accu racy. Being able to produce a tone above that C is a feat in itself, let alone being able to play an entire octave above this pitch. By 1955, Julius Watkins was just as talented, if not more so, than his fellow hornists in symphonic and jazz ensembles, and was being recognized for such achievements by his professional colleagues, many of whom were Caucasians. The establishment of a chamber jazz group f eaturing a solo horn in the 1950s was revolutionary, but not rare. The anonymous figure who authored the jacket notes for Watkins Smart Jazz for the Smart Set album stated the following: 1955 was one of the most productive years in jazz history and for the first time in its 60-year lifespan, jazz had an audience. A real-live ticket-buying, record-buying, listening learning and believing audience. Ne w talent turned up on all sides, and many newcomers served notice on the reigning giants that no leader is secure in Jazzville unless he can improve constantly. From gin mills and Juilliard they came, young guys steeped in the tradition of j azz and also in the techniques of the European masters.34 Julius Watkins was no different than many others in his field, including Allonge, who had originally received a Classical musi c education and later pur sued a career in an alternate musical realm. To be successful in jazz, an artist ha d to adapt quickly to changes 33 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004. 34 Anonymous. Liner notes from Smart Jazz for the Smart Set. Seeco Records, CELP-466, 1957.

PAGE 54

43 in the field and could not take a lackadaisical approach to a performance career. Change was a necessity for survival, and changing is what Julius did best. During the post-Julius Watkins Sextet existence of 1955, Watkins performed with Oscar Pettifords Sextet. He adapted to the new sounds of this group and was a perfect fit, personally and musically, for the ensemble. Another member of this sextet was tenor-saxophonist, Charlie Rouse. Originally from Washington D.C., Rouse had studied clarinet before switching to tenor sax a few years prior. In the closing months of 1955, Rouse and Watkins met for coffee one evening and realized that they both shared an unbridled enthusiasm over the possibility for a jazz group featuring a tenor saxophone and horn in the front line. The two would frequently meet at Watkins apartment and have informal jam sessions during the wee hours of the morning. We played very softly, Watkins said. There were no drums, no bass, nothing else. Just the two of us. Playing very fast and very soft is ideal for me. Our horns blended so well that Charlie and I began to talk about a group. 35 The duo created a new ensemble called Les Modes; later known as Les Jazz Modes. Watkins began practicing and perfecting his art with a newfound level of vigor and intensity. He increased the speed and fluency on an instrument that is usually devoted to playing widely-spaced longer tones. Rouse was impressed with Watkins dedication and incredible technical abilities along with the actual colors of sound Julius could produce. Rouse once said, Most people associate a mysterioso sound quality that far-away Alpine horn sound with the French horn. But thats just one of the sounds that Julius gets from it. His horn has all the virility and hard masculine quality of the trumpet and 35 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.

PAGE 55

44 trombone. There is so much more in the French horn than the symphony orchestra players ever realized, and Julius is the person who has made everybody aware of this. 36 Figure 2-3 Undated photograph of Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse. Photo contributed by Peter Hirsch. Watkins and Rouse recruited three other members to join Les Modes: pianist Gildo Mahones, bassist Martin Rivera and drummer Ron Jefferson. With the frequent addition of Eileen Gilberts soprano voice 37 Les Modes took the American jazz circuit by storm. In a review of one of their performances, Paulette Girard commented, The creators of Les Modes have an outstanding flair for original design. Their musical offering is identified at once by the sound of the French horn and tenor sax interwoven in an endless array of patterns, and the unique manner in which Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse 36 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38. 37 Gilbert and Watkins were classmates at the Manhattan School of Music.

PAGE 56

45 fashion their jazz. 38 The group performed on Steve Allens television show and gave a short concert tour of their own. Finally, on January 3, 1957, the Les Modes Quintet performed nightly for one week at Birdland; a jazz venue equivalent to Classical musics Carnegie Hall. Newspapers and magazines praised the quintet on a wide variety of topics. The New York Times reported, The Rouse-Watkins group makes this event memorable. Billboard Magazine wrote that the group featured, a hamper full of under-exposed talent. Some of the most brilliant examples of jazz French horn ever put to use, reported High Fidelity Magazine. Finally, Downbeat ran the following clip: The French horn is very much a flexible jazz instrument in Watkins hands. Rouses tenor is strong and swinging. Quills Parkerized solos are heatedly impressive. 39 This week of performances, coupled with the engagements that followed, suggested that the new ensemble was off to a fabulously successful start. The group recorded four new albums over the course of that year: Mood in Scarlet, The Jazz Modes, Smart Jazz for the Smart Set, and a jazz transcription of Frank Loessers musical, The Most Happy Fella. 40 Record sales were slow, but people were talking about this new jazz sensation. One issue which puzzled many listeners was the groups name. Instead of a title bearing the name of the lead performer, Watkins and Rouse chose a programmatic title for their band. At the advice of their personnel manager, Princess Orelia Benskina, the Watkins-Rouse duo added the word jazz to their heading and became Les Jazz Modes shortly after their debut at Birdland. When asked about the groups name, Charlie Rouse stated: 38 Paulette Girard. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957. 39 Excerpts from the original newspaper advertisement for Les Modes one-week engagement at Birdland. 40 The production of jazz recordings of Broadway shows were common during the mid-1950s. A compilation of jazz interpretations of show or movie scores by Will Friedwald in 1997 contained 169 entries including this recording by Les Jazz Modes.

PAGE 57

46 For a time we were known as Les Jazz Modes. We used the French title because the word mode in French has several meanings and connotations, all of which apply to our work. It means current and stylish, fashionable. We are in the modern vanguard, in touch with modern trends, though we dont go for anything that is only faddish or sensational. Mode also is a technical musical term, referring either to a method of arranging tones or to a kind of rhythmic scheme. And in French, mode can mean mood. Modes, used in the plural, conveys the idea of a variety of moods and musical subject matter. 41 Watkins also commented on this issue. We thought of calling ourselves the Moods, but that sounded like one of those little singing groups. We hit on Les Modes because we thought it was French for the Moods. Later on, we found out that it really means fashions, but it was too late to change it. 42 Les Jazz Modes continued to perform throughout 1958 and featured all of the original members except for Eileen Gilbert. The soprano was replaced by Orelia Benskina who sang with the quintet on occasional concert dates. Despite their overwhelmingly strong start in 1956, support for Les Jazz Modes began to dwindle until finally the doors closed on yet another opportunity for Watkins. Les Jazz Modes performed with the avant-guard Asadata Dafora Dancers in a program titled Afra-Ghan Jazz on the evening of January 23, 1959 in New Yorks Town Hall. The shockingly primitive dances of the troupe had little in common with the hard-bop sounds of the quintet and the end result left many in attendance pondering what exactly had just occurred on the stage. Even New York Times jazz columnist, John S. Wilson, a long-time supporter of Watkins and Les Jazz Modes, was perplexed at what transpired that evening. In his article the following day, Wilson wrote, The only common ground that the two groups found was that of sophistication. Mr. Daforas dancers were genial, loose-limbed and smoothly rhythmic, but scarcely representative of the primitive rhythms from which 41 Gary Kramer. Liner notes from notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1280, 1958. 42 John S. Wilson. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.

PAGE 58

47 jazz is asserted to have sprung. Les Jazz Modes, in their best moments, reached into areas that have only the dimmest connections with these rhythms. The audience that night was left bewildered and confused, and with little support from other sponsors, Les Jazz Modes had no choice but to cease their existence as an ensemble. The usually unflappable Watkins clearly was frustrated with the demise of yet another chamber jazz group which centered around the horn. When asked about the groups unhappy ending, Watkins said, I believe its likeable music that we play. The problem is to get club owners and people in the concert field to think the same thing. 43 Unfortunately for Julius Watkins, club owners and people in the concert field did not concur, and although he continued to perform exclusively as a sideman with occasional solos, Watkins would never again initiate the creation of a chamber jazz ensemble. The post-Jazz Modes years proved to be extremely beneficial professionally for Julius. In 1958, he recorded twelve albums as a sideman with Johnny Richards, Gil Evans and Miles Davis. Work was steady and Julius was still playing his horn in jazz groups, continuing his mission of exposing new audiences to the possibilities of including the horn in jazz settings. He formed a relationship with Quincy Jones in 1959; a relationship which saw the creation of seven albums over the course of that year and a spot in the orchestra for a touring production of Free and Easy; a jazzy musical recreation of the play, St. Louis Woman. This tour would be one of the defining moments in Julius life and one which would ultimately initiate the chain of events which would lead to his death some eighteen years later. 43 John S. Wilson The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.

PAGE 59

48 Quincy Jones was asked to form a band featuring the best players on every jazz instrument, including horn, to perform the musical selections for this touring production. Jones immediately called the biggest names in the jazz recording industry and quickly formed what he referred to as the United Nations. Jones commented on that band in his book, Q! The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. It was the best band Id ever had. Two beautiful and gifted women, Melba Liston on trombone and Patti Brown on piano; a skai brother, Ake Persson, Billy Byers, Jimmy Cleveland, Clark Terry and Quentin Jackson; Benny Bailey; Julius Phantom Watkins, the first-ever jazz French horn player; and saxophonists Phil Woods, Jerome Richardson, Budd Johnson, Porter Kilbert and Sahib Shihab. This was a super band. They sounded so good that when Basie dropped by our rehearsal in Paris he graciously pulled me aside and, kidding on the square, he said, Quincy, dont you even think about bringing your band back to the states; youre fixin to mess up my thing, you hear? 44 The band finished recording the famous record, Birth of a Band, and was receiving superb reviews. They were in Paris and the production of Free and Easy had lasted six weeks. From all accounts, the members were enjoying the show and had the opportunity to perform on stage in costumes along with the vocal cast. They were two weeks away from moving onto London, then back to the United States for performances on Broadway. Jones met with producer Stanley Chase on a Thursday evening and was stunned when Chase informed him that the show was closing and the entire band was to be on a plane to New York the following Saturday or risk being stranded in Paris during the middle of the infamous Algerian crisis. Jones and the band voted to remain in France, performing club dates at whatever venue would host them. The entire theatrical cast returned to New York, leaving Jones and the band stranded. The band toured Europe for ten months on a shoe-string budget, but the bonds formed between the members of the group were 44 Quincy Jones. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, p. 137

PAGE 60

49 stronger than those found in most nuclear families. 45 On the tour, musicians passed the time laughing, fighting, arguing, and drinking. They also teased each other about their peculiarities. Julius once left his mouthpiece atop the Eiffel Tower in Paris just minutes before a concert, requiring the stage manager to run back to the top to get it. 46 Money was really tight, said Jones. Sometimes, the proprietors at our concert venues were broke too. So they paid us with pot, or as we called it, sweet wheat. 47 Financial and living conditions were so deplorable that some band members renamed the tour Free and Sleazy. Some members received nicknames, as was the case with Julius Watkins, who was given the nickname Phantom because he was so quiet and performed backstage more quietly than a whisper. Tom Varner elaborated on the mysterious nickname: People always thought that it was because of his sound, like he could come in with this mysteriously soft high note. Others said it was because he wouldnt show up to gigs. Other times, youre sitting around talking and you look around, and he was gone. It was like, where did Julius go? It is a nickname with numerous connections. 48 Whatever the reason, the nickname stuck with Julius for the rest of his life, as did his fondness for the consumption of alcoholic beverages. 49 Negative connotations aside, the Free and Easy tour was highly beneficial for Julius Watkins in that he was able to firmly establish himself as the premier artist of the jazz horn world-wide. The connections he made on that trip would lead to more record deals in years to come and personal relationships with other artists with whom future musical collaborations would be made. 45 Quincy Jones. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, p. 141. 46 Ibid, p. 142 47 Ibid, p. 142 48 Personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004. 49 Warren Smith and Tom Varner mentioned that Julius, although not necessarily an alcoholic, continued to drink liquor regularly up until the time of his death, despite orders from his physician to cease such activity.

PAGE 61

50 Figure 2-4 Quincy Jones Big Band on the set of Free and Easy at the Paris Alhambra, 1959. Photo courtesy of Q, The Autobiography of Quincy Jones, p. 112 Harlem Moon Publishers, 2001. During the 1960s, Julius performed almost exclusively as a sideman and was featured in dozens of recordings with his European touring cohorts. He recorded with the flute and guitar virtuoso, Les Spann, and saxophonist, Phil Woods in 1960 and 1961 respectively. He played with Cal Massey, Jimmy Heath, John Coltrane and numerous other jazz greats. He traveled to California in September of 1965 as a member of Charles Mingus famous Music for Monterrey festival. While in California, Watkins recorded with Gil Evans who had long been a fan of jazz horn inclusion. In 1966, The Phantom returned to New York for performances with the man who helped launch his career, Milt Jackson. John S. Wilson reviewed the concert, which took place at Town Hall, and remarked at the splendid group of musicians on stage with Mr. Jackson. 50 Watkins was in such high demand as a player, he even began to receive orchestral appointments. 50 John S. Wilson. Milt Jackson Gets Big-Sound Backing. The New York Times, September 3, 1966, p. 12

PAGE 62

51 According to his obituary, Watkins was frequently performing in summer symphony concerts with the New York Municipal Orchestra. He seemed to have had it all: steady employment, respect from his peers, reliable income; however, reality and perception were at odds at this point in The Phantoms life and, unbeknownst to him, he had only one decade more to live. He was a proud man, always dressed with a jacket and tie, and could perform any type of music anywhere at anytime. 51 But as proud a man as he was, Julius Watkins did not keep himself in the best of health. Warren Smith stated the following: Around 1968, Julius had dental problems. I had a studio, and in this studio I had a lot of friends who came through. Max Roach had a friend who was a doctor and a dentist at that. I forget his name, but he was interested in musicians. I think that he had played trumpet at some point in his life. He would walk around and find musicians that were having embouchure problems because of teeth, and Julius was one of those. This guy fixed Julius mouth up for free because he was so fond of him. Julius told me personally that after he got his teeth fixed that that increased his range by another octave (upwards). 52 Dental problems were just the tip of the iceberg in regard to Watkins personal and psychological wellbeing. The kidney and liver problems which he endured beginning in the late 1960s were further complicated with the onslaught of diabetes. He rarely allowed others to see the physical pain with which he dealt on a daily basis. But despite his efforts to conceal the truth, these dilapidating conditions negatively affected Julius performance ability and caused great concern among his peers. In 1968, his record production dropped significantly. 53 He disappeared and nobody seemed to know where he was. 51 Based on conversations with Warren Smith and Dolores Beck-Schwartz. 52 Excerpt from a personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004. 53 The chronological discography of recording engagements indicates that Julius Watkins was involved with only three albums in that year.

PAGE 63

52 Julius didnt seem to know where he was either. He was a captain without a ship. Julius Watkins, sadly, was homeless. Warren Smith recounted the following in regard to this traumatic era in Watkins life: Julius came to this record date and I gave him the new information about the other record date and he said, Ok. Ill do it. I asked him where he was staying and he said, Well, Im riding the subway at night. I said to him, Youre doing what? I knew he had a studio somewhere uptown up there. Well, he had lost the studio and lost his place to live. I told him to meet me at this address (of my studio) around 5 or 6 oclock in the evening, just as soon as I could get down there after we finished that days session. I ran down there and waited for him and he came. He had his horn with him. I said, Cmon. Youre going to live here. He lived with me there for about eighteen months after that time. During this time he managed to straighten himself out. 54 The Phantom had resurfaced, and the following eighteen months witnessed a resurgence of energy in Watkins professional and personal life. Word of Julius new residence spread quickly amongst jazz arrangers and producers who were elated that the Joachim of the Jazz Horn 55 had returned. In 1969, Gil Evans recorded Blues in Orbit and contracted Julius to play in the band. That same year, Watkins recorded with Pharoh Sanders and Mary Lou Williams. In Manhattan, the New World Symphony 56 was formed and Julius was often hired to play in the horn section. He formed new relationships with others in his field and was reunited with some fellow musicians whom he had neither seen nor heard from in years. The most important relationship formed by Julius at this 54 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004. 55 Hans von Blow called Franz Strauss "the Joachim of the horn because of his extraordinary performance ability and his reputation as the best orchestral horn player of the 19 th Century. Julius Watkins was equally prominent as a jazz French horn soloist and is being referred under this guise by the author for the first time. 56 The New World Symphony was a professional symphony orchestra in New York City and devoted itself to playing music by black composers and hiring an ensemble containing primarily black musicians.

PAGE 64

53 time in his life was not with a jazz musician. Rather, it was a physical, emotional, and spiritual bond that was formed with a New Jersey librarian 57 named Harriette Davison. Harriette Davison was the salvation which Julius needed so desperately at this point in his life. He needed someone to take care of him since he rarely took care of himself, and Harriette was that someone. They met not by chance, but through common interests and people, specifically Warren Smith. Harriette was a violinist and a composer who frequently performed in professional and semi-professional musical groups around New York City. She was a regular member of the New World Symphonys violin section and there is speculation that she first met Julius in a rehearsal with that ensemble. Warren Smith, when questioned, indicated that she and Watkins had known each other prior to Julius relocation to Smiths studio, but that the romance definitely soared soon thereafter. Julius and Harriette had much more in common than just a passion for making music. They had both been married previously and each had a son and a daughter. They were both African-American musicians struggling to make a career for themselves at times in the Classical music business which tried to exclude women and racial minorities at whatever the cost. Most importantly, they were both at a stage in their lives where they wanted and needed to care for another human being in a loving and monogamous relationship. Julius and Harriette were married in 1970 and lived in a ground-floor garden apartment located at 136 Lincoln Street, #A-10 in Montclair, New Jersey. 58 In recalling a visit to this apartment, Warren Smith stated, They had a garden apartment. I remember 57 The 1968 telephone book from Montclair, NJ lists Harriette Davisons occupation as that of a librarian at the Union County Library. 58 According to the 1970 and 1971 telephone books for Montclair, NJ.

PAGE 65

54 being out there one day and looking out the window around dusk and seeing a family of raccoons. One would walk up to their front door and stand on his tiptoes. Id say, Julius! You have raccoons! Hed say, Oh yeh, theyre here all the time. They live in that tree right over there. He knew all about them. It was a nice place. Figure 2-5 Apartment of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 136 Lincoln Street #A-10, Montclair, NJ. Photo taken by Patrick G. Smith, March 14, 2004 Montclair and the surrounding areas of Orange and East Orange, New Jersey were swarming with jazz artists at that time. This place was crawling with jazz greats, some known, some unknown, said John Lee, director of Woodys Home for Services in East Orange, NJ. 59 You could walk out here on any one of these street corners and start shouting, I want to start a band! Any takers? And I guarantee you, in fifteen minutes, youd have a quartet, or a quintet or whatever you wanted. Thats how many jazzers there were here and still are. 60 What made the area of Montclair particularly appealing to Julius was that being a jazz artist there was like being an electrician or factory worker in 59 Julius Watkins funeral took place on April 7, 1977 at Woodys Home for Services. John Lee was the director of this funeral home at the time of Julius death. 60 Personal interview with John S. Lee, March 14, 2004.

PAGE 66

55 Detroit. Everybody did it. And for the first time in twenty-two years, Julius was living in an environment where he could truly feel at home, unthreatened and secure. Figure 2-6 Home of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 20 Nishuane Road, Montclair, NJ. Photo taken by Patrick G. Smith, March 14, 2004 On June 22, 1972, Mr. and Mrs. Watkins purchased the house located at 20 Nishuane Road in Montclair for the sum of twenty-eight thousand dollars. 61 It was from this location that Julius began to teach private lessons to students who wished to learn how to play jazz on the horn. It was in this house where he taught Tom Varner and Vincent Chancey, two of the foremost jazz horn players on the modern stage. It was in this house where Julius spent the last five years of his life. Between the years 1972 and 1977, Julius continued to play in jazz groups, symphony orchestras and Broadway shows. He played with the New World Symphony and was a member of the pit orchestra for the production of Dan Jaffes All Cats Turn Grey When the Sun Goes Down; an opera dedicated to saxophonist, Charlie Parker. In 61 Data taken from the original house deed, dated June 22, 1972 provided by the Essex County Records Office.

PAGE 67

56 1973, he joined the pit orchestra for Raisin, a musical rendition of Lorraine Hansberrys play, A Raisin in the Sun, and remained a member of the orchestra cast for at least three years. Jazz record contracts were slow but steady, as Julius recorded seven albums during his last seven years of life. Despite his persistent activity in musical endeavors during the 1970s, Julius Watkins was not a well man and his level of performance slipped at an astonishing rate. Hornist and librarian, Peter Hirsch, recalled the following details involving a performance with the New World Symphony in 1972. I was playing there, at least once, and I clearly remember playing Brahms Second Symphony. Julius was playing 3 rd horn and I was either playing 4 th or 2 nd horn. I dont remember which, but I do remember that I was sitting next to him. It was interesting because I heard the name and here he is next to me playing classical music. He came in and warmed up. He sat down and took the horn out and his register where he would start warming up was like a fourth above my highest note. I was normally a low horn player so that made it even more depressing. Heres this guy screaming up there and I was just trying to get a second-line G to get focused. Thats the way he played his jazz solos: screaming high stuff almost all the time. But anyways, he didnt seem to be totally comfortable playing in that sort of a classical setting. He didnt really play with any confidence which was so surprising to me. Here was someone who could sit down and play in front of a crowd without music and he was having trouble looking at and reading the part. I would have panicked to have been in the situations that he was in day-in and day-out. So, it was like, really sad because he didnt really play all that well either. He missed a lot of notes. It was just (pause) I dont want to say he was unfamiliar with the Brahms Second Symphony, but it sure as heck sounded like it. He didnt really quite know when to come in and when he did he missed notes. It was really too bad. 62 The likelihood that a musician of Julius stature, with his training, would be unfamiliar with the Brahms Second Symphony is quite slim. The reality surrounding the issue of the decline in his performance ability involved the heightened status of his diabetes and, unfortunately, his unwillingness to cease the consumption of alcohol. 62 Personal interview with Peter Hirsch, March 12, 2004.

PAGE 68

57 Warren Smith stated that Julius had received orders from his physician to stop drinking, but the stubborn Julius refused to comply. The doctors told him not to drink there near the end, but when wed go into the pit of the theatre everybody had a locker. He always took a little nip from there, if you know what I mean. I went up to him one time and said, Hey, man, you know the doctor said you shouldnt do that. Hed say, Aw, man, cmon now. Hed take his little nip before the show and after the show. Nothing was going to stop him from the lifestyle he wanted to live. He could be very comical and very secretive about those things, but you could see where it was going to take him. He just simply would not change his lifestyle for anyone or anything. He had everything going for him at the end: he was working, he had a good wife who loved him, he had a good place to live, and he was making that commute back to Jersey. But whatever lifestyle he had established, he was going to keep living it whether it was detrimental or not. 63 He continued to rage war against his diabetes. Still, the proud Julius tried to shield those around him from witnessing his internal struggle. Vincent Chancey said, I remember in a lesson one time at his house, he just started shaking. I mean, he was shaking really badly. He literally fell out of his chair. I tried to help him back up, but he refused. He got up on his own, struggled around the corner, took a shot of his insulin and came back a few minutes later. Sorry about that, he said to me. Now, where were we? 64 His health not only affected his reliability to play at a certain high level, it affected his reliability to simply show up to rehearsals and performances. I should tell you this: when he got too sick to play, the conductor and all of us liked Julius so much that we covered for him. Eventually somebody at the union caught up with us. We just wouldnt say anything if he didnt show up or arrived to the gig late or whatever. 65 This statement serves as testimony to the level at which Julius was respected, admired, and loved by his 63 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004. 64 Personal interview with Vincent Chaney, March 12, 2004 65 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.

PAGE 69

58 peers. Those who worked so closely with Julius, those whose lives were touched by his angelic personality, were the very personalities who were willing to risk their own reputations and career status to protect the dignity of a dying giant. On April 4, 1977, Julius Burton Watkins suffered a massive heart attack and died at the St. Barnabas Hospital in Short Hills, NJ. At the time, he was survived by his two children, his father, brother, and two sisters. 66 Figure 2-7 Headstone of Julius Burton Watkins with horn of Patrick G. Smith. Photo taken by Patrick G. Smith, April 28, 2004. 66 Mattie Watkins, his mother, died in September, 1975

PAGE 70

59 He was a grandfather of five, but was more special to none other than his beloved wife, Harriette. She took care of him, but when he began to fail, her nervous system broke down. She literally lost her hair worrying about him. I cant say that these things are psychosomatic, but she eventually succumbed herself to some kind of debilitating disease that took her. But man, oh man, did she love him. They were perfect together. 67 Memorial services for Julius were held at the David D. Woody Memorial Home 68 at 11 oclock in the morning on April 8, 1977. Following the service, Watkins remains were transported back to Detroit, Michigan. He was and remains buried in the family plot at United Memorial Gardens, Garden of the Masonic, Plot 119, space A-4, in Plymouth, MI. 69 Figure 2-8 Undated photo of Julius Watkins with his Miraphone brand French horn. Photo supplied by Peter Hirsch. 67 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004 68 This funeral home is now known as Woodys Home for Services. 69 The only remaining survivor in Julius Watkins immediate family is his sister, Janice. Lucius, Mattie, Lucius, Jr., Olivia, Julius, Julius Jr., Julie, and numerous aunts and uncles are all buried in the family plot or in neighboring plots at United Memorial Gardens. Exhausting research was unable to determine the whereabouts of remains for Ella Watkins and Harriette D. Watkins.

PAGE 71

60 Julius Watkins was an unflappable man. His optimism and passion for his art caused him to achieve the status which he enjoyed as the leading performer of jazz French horn music. He was a man of honor and integrity who believed in that old-school philosophy of conveying a positive impression regardless of any physical or mental turmoil occurring within. His witty personality and sense of humor would, at times, hysterically infuriate those with whom he worked. He was a man of complex peculiarities. He sought neither fame nor glory, he avoided the spotlight and rarely drew unnecessary attention to himself. He loved jazz and the horn and quietly went about his life in an unassuming manner. Its not a profitable life, but I like it, said Watkins. He was loved by many with whom he worked and inspired countless others in his field to achieve recognized greatness. Despite the disheartening events surrounding the final years of his existence, his career was arguably the most successful in the history of the jazz French horn genre.

PAGE 72

CHAPTER 3 THE MUSIC BEHIND THE MAN A musicians performance style is as unique as a fingerprint. Regardless of similarities in musical traits, every individual has their own inimitable sound. Julius Watkins performance characteristics and preferences were, by far, some of the most interesting ever to be heard by jazz and classical audiences. The sounds which he created in his chamber jazz ensembles were exceptionally different from those produced by others who worked within this genre. Although Watkins was not the first horn player to bring jazz music to the French horn, he is nevertheless regarded as the founding father of this genre. Why this is so forms an interesting and telling question. Simply put, his musical thumbprint includes a unique set of musical ideas and practices. First, he brought the experience of chamber jazz ensemble playing to his jazz performance. Second, he structured a unique combination of instrumental preferences. Finally, as an individual component, Watkins himself created unique performance characteristics that influenced the genre. But before these items can be explored, one must first gain an understanding for the conditions which preceded Watkins arrival on the jazz stage. Bebop was a musical style which consumed the American jazz culture in the decade following World War II. With the inception of this new form, jazz earned a new artistic status and lost its aura of low-brow music. More changes occurred with the formation of bebop than at any other time in the history of jazz, specifically in the areas of harmonic construction, melodic activity, theoretical expertise, and ensemble instrumentation. These changes occurred, primarily, as a result of the World War II 61

PAGE 73

62 military draft. Swing Jazz players became soldiers and musical instruments were replaced with a variety of weaponry. With so many artists being removed from the American musical culture, society as a whole in the United States was left without a musical identity. As a result, a wave of new, young talent was thrust to the forefront and an entirely new group of musicians were able to obtain regional and national exposure. Substantial changes were made in performance techniques. These alterations caused a shift in the attitudes of performers and audiences of jazz. Bebop was a type of jazz which encouraged audiences to listen more and dance less. As a consequence of this shift, new repertoire was created for this new genre. Smaller combos replaced larger big bands, and ensembles of varying instrumentation began to emerge literally overnight. Players in these new combos developed a greater sense of chord recognition, stronger theoretical skills, and improvised in ways that were faster and more complex than their predecessors. During the eleven years in which Bop dominated the American jazz world, musicians began to place artistic jazz music ahead of commercial goals. They favored change over uniformity, and made significant efforts to move forward artistically rather than to practice an outdated and nostalgic form of music. Contrary to critics of Bebop, these artists were not seeking audiences comprised of academicians and artistic elitists. Their desire was to educate and expose Americans to a new kind of North American Art Music and to establish an appreciation of jazz for its own sake and not for its potential for commercial gain. By 1950, the stage was set for Julius Watkins who excelled in this new realm of artistic innovation. Clearly, through an analysis of his professional achievements, it can be concluded that Julius was one of the unique and successful members of this cultivated

PAGE 74

63 artistic realm. But to say that Watkins only mark of individuality was that of a jazz musician playing the French horn would be an erroneous miscalculation. There were many pieces to the puzzle which comprised the overall musician within the man. When these parts are examined individually, they provide a detailed analysis of The Phantoms musical blueprint. Instrumentation within chamber jazz ensembles was one of these pieces. Certainly the inclusion of a tenor saxophone, drums, and bass within the Julius Watkins Sextet and Les Jazz Modes was not uncommon. But in adhering to the unwritten guidelines for bebop performance and the advancement of this art, Julius often incorporated instruments not traditionally associated with jazz performance. It was not uncommon to hear a harp or an accordion in performance with Watkins, who also performed frequently with the flute and guitar jazz virtuoso, Les Spann. Figure 3-1 Julius Watkins and Les Spann during the 1960 Gemini recording session. Photo courtesy of Concord Records. Some of these instances of instrumental inclusion suggest that the classically trained Watkins was attempting to create a fusion between the worlds of Jazz and Classical music, or at the least was greatly inspired by the Classical chamber works which he studied in his youth and during his studies at the Manhattan School of Music,

PAGE 75

64 chamber music pieces which would feature the horn in a woodwind or brass quintet, sextet or octet. 70 An exploration into some of these ensembles and compositions will help to illustrate this kaleidoscopic approach to instrumentation. In February of 1961, Watkins was a member of an unusual quintet which released an album called Change of Pace. In addition to Julius horn, the quintet featured tenor saxophonist, Johnny Griffin, drummer, Ben Riley, and was completed with the addition of not one, but two string bass players, Bill Lee and Larry Gales. The resulting sounds produced by this ensemble were nothing short of extraordinary. Works on this album, such as Soft and Furry, feature bizarre instrumental combinations such as a string bass duet accompanied by drums, a horn and bass duet accompanied by tenor saxophone, and a string bass duet accompanied only by tenor saxophone. The solemn vibrations of the bass strings create a heavy and weighted mood which is alleviated by the addition of a saxophone or horn solo. The initial measures of the albums seventh track, Nocturne, illustrate this specific effect. Near the end of track eight, Why Not, the basses perform a rhythmic ostinato accompaniment to one of Julius most profound solos. The sounds produced by the two basses, tenor saxophone, and horn, are surprisingly similar to those produced by a quartet of instruments from the same family in that all four of these instruments blend impeccably well together. Griffins saxophone and Watkins horn each share a warmth of sound which anchor the overall aesthetic quality possessed by this rare consort. It can be understood that Watkins was fond of this type of instrumental combination because he was able to mimic the sounds of a string quartet or a woodwind quintet in a jazz ensemble. He probably would have heard and 70 Examples of larger ensemble works which Julius would have known include the Horn Quintet, K. 407 by W. A. Mozart, the Sextet in E-flat, op. 81b by Beethoven, and Schuberts Octet, D. 803.

PAGE 76

65 studied chamber music repertoire during his years at the Manhattan School of Music. As a pioneer of new musical concoctions, it is arguable that he desired to perform in jazz ensembles which contained aesthetic qualities similar to those found in Classical chamber music settings. Watkins never again recorded an album with an ensemble of this exact instrumentation, but he did continue to seek out and organize groups which favored new sounds and styles over those considered to be the norm. In an effort to modernize the traditional Bebop combo, Watkins often included textless parts for a female soprano voice in his compositions. Two examples of this sort of vocal inclusion can be heard in -2-3-4-0 In Syncopation and Princess; two original Julius Watkins compositions which were featured on his 1959 Les Jazz Modes recording. The use of a soprano voice was also a commodity on the ensembles 1958 album, The Most Happy Fella. In these works, the soprano voice is treated as though it were an alto saxophone, trumpet, or other instrument capable of projecting a melody over an ensemble. The use of vibrato is frequent as the singers, Princess Orelia Benskina and Eileen Gilbert, project through the group with their array of vowel sounds. Watkins treatment of the human voice in this manner was influenced by one of two scenarios. First, as a member of numerous dance bands in Detroit, he undoubtedly heard a multitude of female vocalists and desired to incorporate a soprano part in his chamber music which would be reminiscent of this earlier style. The second scenario is grounded in the tradition of rebellious Romantic Era composers like Richard Wagner. Wagner frequently used human voices as instruments in many orchestral works. For example, in his Overture to Die Walkre, a chorus of sopranos sings textless syllables as

PAGE 77

66 they double the melodic lines played by the strings and high brass. Benskina and Gilberts use of operatic quality vibrato combined with the textures and colors of sound produced by Les Jazz Modes, leads one to favor the influence of the latter scenario over the former. The most significant example of Classical music influencing the jazz style of Julius Watkins chamber jazz can be found on his 1958 record, Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. The horn quartet, as a performance genre, has been in existence since the mid-17 th Century, and hundreds of works have been written for the genre by many of the great composers from previous musical eras. Being a student who absorbed anything musical at Cass Tech and the Manhattan School, Watkins most likely would have participated in quartet reading sessions and rehearsals and would have become familiar with the repertoire for such an ensemble. 71 Four French Horns and Rhythm was the brainchild of Mat Mathews, a prominent set drummer and founder of the Mat Mathews Quintet during the mid-1950s. Mathews contacted Watkins and asked him to play principal horn in the recording session. This was an invitation which Julius enthusiastically accepted. To dispel any insecurity he might have had regarding the formation of a jazz playing horn quartet, Mathews sought after the three other prominent jazz horn players: David Amram, Fred Klein, and Tony Miranda. Amram had performed with Oscar Pettiford and Charlie Mingus in addition to 71 Dolores Beck-Schwartz indicated that she and Julius frequently read horn quartets with other members of the Manhattan School of Music French horn studio.

PAGE 78

67 numerous other recording artists. Fred Klein was a member of the CBS Symphony 72 while Tony Miranda was one of New York Citys most prolific Caucasian sidemen. 73 The idea for an album such as this was unquestionably novel. Mathews decision for creating this album was not for financial gain resulting from some sort of circus-type sideshow. Rather, He has always been attracted to the sound of the horn in Classical music. The horn is clearer than the trumpet and not as bogged down as the trombone. He chose the four horns because of the opportunities for harmony and unison work that this afforded him. 74 Jazz horn quartets, use of soprano female voices, and stupefying instrumentation. These were the foremost examples of Julius Watkins taste for chamber jazz ensembles during the middle portion of the 20 th century. Julius fondness for seeking out new colors of sound produced by unusual combinations of instruments caused him to be highly sought after by the creators of new chamber jazz ensembles. Many of the ensembles in which Julius performed contained instrumental combinations which were similar to those more commonly associated with Classical chamber music. This being said, a conceptualized view of a neo-bop world was just one aspect which separated Julius from his colleagues. There were specific performance practice qualities of which Julius had total and complete command. These qualities helped to further elevate Watkins to a higher level within his own artistic world. Julius was, by far, one of the greatest high-horn players ever to play the instrument. Where most professional players have a range from the written C above 72 Bill Crow. Bill Crows Band Room. Local 802 News, Publication and Press Release. September, 1999. 73 Jeff Silberschlag. Interview with James Chambers. Accessible online at www.osmun.com/reference/bios_interviews/chambers.htm 74 John S. Wilson. Jacket notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958.

PAGE 79

68 treble clef to the C four octaves below, Julius could easily play within the octave above this acclivous boundary. Some of the more significant examples of excessive high range playing include the following: A 1961 recording of Phil Woods The Rights of Swing which features Julius playing nine high D-flats and two high D-naturals without an ounce of difficulty or change in tone quality. 75 A solo in Why Not? on the 1961 album, Change of Pace, features a slur up to an F an octave above the top line of the treble clef. A performance of Lets Call This with Thelonius Monks band in which Julius plays countless pitches between the G and C above treble clef within rapid sixteenth-note patterns. The performance of Worthington Valley from the Four French Horns Plus Rhythm album in which Julius soars above three other horn players, a piano, and an accordion as he performs a hunting motif endlessly in this excessively high range. A recording of Julie Ann from his 1955 Julius Watkins Sextet vol.2 album features Julius holding a high C before slowing descending to a third-space B-flat. A 64-bar solo in the 1972 recording of Think of One at the Village Vanguard features just three measures of solo activity below the third-space treble clef C. Reading about these solistic instances does not suffice in attempting to grasp the level of performance which Julius possessed. A hearing of these examples best exemplifies the mastery with which Julius could play and the efforts he made to preserve the pure, warm, 75 Magelssen, Nels H. A Study of the French Horn in Jazz Through an Analysis of the Playing Style of Julius Watkins. University of Maryland, 1984, p. 17.

PAGE 80

69 mellow sound which has made the instrument so audibly desirable. Rarely in these recordings did he ever chip a note and he never missed one entirely. 76 Muscular endurance was not an issue which seemed to hinder his performance. Two questions must be answered in regard to this virtuosic style of performance. First, why did Julius spend an overwhelming majority of his performance life playing in the instruments highest range? Second, how did he accomplish such a command of that range? Julius Watkins admitted that he always wanted to be a soloist, and soloists want to be heard. Due to restrictions caused by the horns overtone series, Watkins would have experienced great difficulty in projecting through and above the other voices with which he was performing if he were to play in the normal performance range on his instrument, that is, from the third-line F in the bass clef to the G atop the treble clef. Certainly his volume could have been enhanced through the use of a microphone, but such a manipulation could distort the tone and pitch of the instrument. As Julius desired to preserve the natural purity of the horns sound, his only option was to play in the high range on his instrument, a range where the notes would project and the melody would be heard. The answer to the second question, regarding how Julius produced high notes with effortless clarity, can be found at the source of tone production on all brass instruments: the embouchure. It is common for horn players who frequently play in the high range for significant periods of time to use what are known as descant horns. These instruments are pitched in the keys of B-flat and High-F, and possess smaller bore sizes; this allows for 76 Chipped notes occur when the actual attack of the note is not precise and pure, and the note above or below the desired pitch can be heard in addition to the correct pitch. Instead of a clear attack described as dah, a chipped note would sound bah-dah.

PAGE 81

70 greater ease for high range production. Julius did not use a descant horn. In fact, the horn which Julius used would probably be the last choice for most horn players in his situation. Julius Watkins played a horn made by the Miraphone company and was commonly referred to as a Miraphone horn. 77 A Miraphone? I played one of those as a kid, recalled Nashville Symphony Principal Hornist, Leslie Norton. It was big and bulky and I could hardly get a sound out of the thing. My teacher told me that they made great orchestral horns with big sounds, but wow, I had a lot of problems making mine sound good. I finally had to switch to something easier. 78 Miraphones were large-bore double horns manufactured for use in professional symphony orchestras. Playing this type of instrument was quite beneficial for those who desired an exceptionally dark, warm sound. But as warm and glorious a sound as Miraphone horns could produce, these instruments did have some limitations, the most significant of which was the range in which the instrument could affectively function. Playing on a horn with a large bore size will allow the player a great deal of fluidity and ease through the instruments lower and mid-ranges. But as the player breaks into the upper range and beyond, as did Julius, the player could encounter less than desirable results such as pitch inconsistency and problems with note accuracy. It seems that Julius was not only fighting to promote awareness for the instrument in jazz, but was doing so on a horn which was mechanically working against him. Nonetheless, Julius developed a type of embouchure which allowed him to pass beyond the normal tonal 77 Information regarding the instrument on which Julius Watkins performed was discussed in a personal interview with Vincent Chancey on March 12, 2004. 78 Personal interview with Leslie Norton, July 13, 2004.

PAGE 82

71 boundaries of his instrument and play in a high range with fluidity and ease while still preserving a natural beauty of sound. Figure 3-2 Julius Watkins performing on his Miraphone French horn. Note the extra-large bell and body of the instrument. Photo courtesy of Capital Records. There exist two principal methods for embouchure formation in the realm of horn pedagogy. The first is commonly referred to as the puckering method; a manner in which the player speaks the syllable, tew, while forming the lips as if to blow through a straw or to whistle. This style of embouchure formation usually results in the production of a warm, full sound with dark aesthetic qualities so often utilized by professional symphony horn players and the students under their instruction. While it would seem likely that Julius would have learned this method and used it to create his unforgettable timbres, he defied the odds and utilized the secondary strategy.

PAGE 83

72 Figure 3-3 Examples of Julius Watkins embouchure in live performances. [Left] Julius Watkins during the Julius Watkins Sextet recording sessions. Note the smiling type of embouchure and the position of the mouthpiece on the lips. Photo courtesy of Atlantic Records. [Right] Julius Watkins in a live performances in 1959. Note his smiling embouchure and almost total lack of upper lip usage. Photo courtesy of Downbeat Magazine. This second method of embouchure formation is referred to as the smiling method; a manner in which the player retracts the corners of the mouth, thereby stretching the lips over the front teeth. Like a stretched rubber band, the lips under these conditions would be able to vibrate very quickly at a high pitch frequency, thus allowing the player greater maneuverability in the upper register. Perhaps Julius dental problems allowed him some extra flexibility or space to produce a dark vowel sound in the mouth to compensate the bright eee sound which should have been produced as an outcome resulting from this type of embouchure. Photographic evidence, however, clearly shows Julius Watkins performing with the smiling embouchure during his most prolific years of performance: 1956 and 1959. In addition to his mastery of the horns upper register, Julius Watkins possessed other playing characteristics which added to his uniqueness. His sense of articulation is particularly worthy of discussion. While most of the melodies in his ballads such as Julie Ann feature a slurred style with cashmere smoothness, Julius rapid articulation skills

PAGE 84

73 were exemplary. Tonguing is often a challenge for horn players and brass players in general. If the tongue is place too far forward in the mouth, the initial attack will have a harsh tah quality. Conversely, if the tongue falls towards the back of the mouth, a lack of articulor clarity could be the end result. Julius articulation method was one of clarity and sensitivity which can be replicated by saying the syllables doh and dah. Although he never divulged his secret recipe to his students, 79 his former understudies were able to decipher an acceptable strategy which they have, in turn, used and passed on to their own students. Julius soloing style was another trait for which he gained admirable recognition, and the method in which he performed melodies was particularly notable. Julius was a master improviser. Certainly he had a great deal of experience in this skill from his earliest days playing in bands without horn parts. Watkins loved different colors of sound. And just as he was constantly in search of ensembles with varying instrumentation, he frequently sought new ways of manipulating sounds on his horn when he played. During a solo, Watkins would often manipulate the pitch with his hand. Tom Varner recalled the following events from one of his lessons with Watkins in 1976. Another thing he showed me was he would sometimes do this right-hand technique that wasnt stopped, but he would split the inside of the bell into two compartments. His hand would be very flat as if you were making the sound come out in two opposite ways. This made it have more of a piercing sound approximating the sound of a harmon mute except youre doing it with your hand. Thats the best I can come up with. The sound would change from an ahhhhhh to an awwwww in color. It was a little more piercing. 80 79 Tom Varner and Vincent Chancey both stated that Julius rarely gave technical advice during lessons. Rather, he taught by modeling solos in lessons and asked his students mimic or copy the manner in which he played. 80 Excerpt from a personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004.

PAGE 85

74 This fondness for tonal manipulation remained with Watkins late into his life. From the 1972 album, Reasons in Tonality, critical listeners can hear numerous types of manipulative methodologies at work. These include hand stopping, half-stopping, use of half-valves, and oral manipulations. Whether these manipulations were done intentionally or were the result of on-the-spot experimentation, we simply do not know. What is important is that Julius Watkins never accepted the status quo as an artist. Rather Julius was constantly in search of new performance opportunities and ways for expanding the role of his instrument in a musical culture with a growing acceptance for new and progressive artistic classifications. The end result from this combination of elements was a man with a revolutionary outlook regarding how chamber jazz music should in the United States. He allowed his listeners an opportunity to experience jazz not as a venue of entertainment, but as an artistic art form. His ability to broaden the expressive range of the horn as a jazz instrument has opened the door to new generations of artists in this medium. Julius Watkins performed in a manner which has frequently been emulated, but never successfully duplicated. This should come as no surprise, for an artistic thumbprint is unquestionably a one-of-a-kind.

PAGE 86

CHAPTER 4 THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE SINCE 1977 Since the middle of the twentieth century when Julius Watkins transported the horn from the symphonic stage to that of the jazz band, the broadened use of the instrument in jazz has become more widely accepted throughout the world. During the 1960s and early 70s, solo jazz horn playing took a backseat to chamber jazz groups of all sizes. Artists of the instrument were not featured as headlining soloists. Rather, they were often cast into supporting roles, playing back-up to pop musicians, rock stars and prominent jazz recording artists. The environment changed somewhat during the mid-1970s when a dormant breed of jazz horn playing became revitalized. This was a style that featured the instrument not in a supporting role, but rather, as the lead instrument in a middle-brow culture. Nevertheless, Julius Watkins vision of solo jazz horn playing was re-born. Despite the seemingly low number of active international jazz horn performers, the interest in this art is not dwindling. Traditionalists in jazz and classical realms tend to be unsupportive of this unique performance genre. Julius Watkins vision of a jazz style which embraces this chameleonic wind instrument as a solo voice is being realized by an intimate group of horn artists with a wide assortment of backgrounds and modus operandi. Tom Bacon is widely regarded as one of the most prominent figures in the modern day horn world. Born in Chicago in 1946, Bacon achieved early recognition for his capabilities on the horn when he was appointed to the Principal Horn position in the Chicago Civic Orchestra at age 18. This early success was complimented with 75

PAGE 87

76 Figure 4-1 Photo of Tom Bacon, courtesy of the artist and his photographer, Michael Schwartz. subsequent Principal Horn positions in numerous ensembles nationwide, including the Syracuse and Grant Park Orchestras. In the years preceding his orchestral appointments, Bacon followed a traditional approach in his horn studies with private lessons and chamber music coaching session from four icons of brass pedagogy: Arnold Jacobs, Dale Clevenger, Max Pottag and Verne Reynolds. 81 Despite his love and passion for orchestral and chamber music horn performances, Bacon has interests in more progressive musical facets and often performs on other instruments. From 1969 to 1974, he was a member of Metamorphosis, a rock group comprised of Detroit Symphony musicians. As a member of this group, he performed on horn, trumpet, piano, organ, percussion and harmonica in addition to composing and arranging for the ensemble. Bacon has established himself as a leading performer of avant-guard chamber and solo repertoire. More than fifty works have been dedicated to 81 Arnold Jacobs was the former Principal Tuba player of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1944-1988. Dale Clevenger is the current Principal Horn Player of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Max Pottag was a member of the Chicago Symphony Horn Section from 1907-1944. Verne Reynolds was the Professor of Horn at the Eastman School of Music from 1959-95.

PAGE 88

77 and premiered by this artist, including Arthur Gottschalks Concerto for Tom and T. Rex by Mark Schultz. An established composer in his own right, Bacon has numerous titles to his credit, including a number of jazz works for horn and piano. Bacons colorful and multi-talented approach to horn playing and performance practice has helped to establish him as one of the preeminent hornists worldwide; his efforts have been appropriately recognized. Reporting for the Houston Chronicle in 1997, writer Charles Ward commented on Bacon's multitude of talents. "Thomas Bacon has long had a different musical point of view. Music can be serious and must be taken seriously. It doesn't have to be deadly." 82 Ward's references to deadly musical ideas refer to those with a limited view which constrict and restrain a musician into playing one and only one type of music for years on end. Bacon's idea of creating a well-rounded musician, one who can perform in any style, is what sets him aside from so many others in his field. Although not trained in jazz performance during his collegiate tutelage 83 the "20th Century's most influential and prominent brass soloist" 84 performed for and was inspired by numerous jazz greats including Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald and Glenn Miller. In the realm of jazz horn music, Bacon's contributions to the field lie primarily in the recording and publishing sectors in addition to his own live jazz performances on solo recitals. With numerous solo recordings to his credit, The Flipside is the album which consists entirely of solo jazz horn literature. This CD contains seven works written exclusively for Tom, including two works by the artist himself. 82 www.hornplanet.com. 83 Bacon studied at various collegiate institutions including the Eastman School, Syracuse University, and Oakland University. 84 www.hornplanet.com

PAGE 89

78 The disc opens with the aforementioned Concerto for Tom, a work which combines elements of big band and blues with a traditional concerto for horn and jazz orchestra. Gottschalks piece features three jazzy movements in the fast-slow-fast pattern expected in a Classical era concerto. Other works of interest on this album include two pedagogical jazz studies for horn and piano by Bacon himself: Listen Up! and Lorna Doin'. Listen Up! is an athletic challenge for the player and contains a tempo marking of "Real Fast quarter note = 190." To ensure a quality performance of this tune, the soloist must have a strong command of the instrument's range and masterful technical abilities. Lorna Doin' is a bit more relaxed and laid-back compared to its exhilarating counterpart. With the tempo marking "lazy swing dotted quarter note = 112" the performer has numerous opportunities to "blues it up" by adding effects such as wah-wahs and scoops. One of the highpoints of this bluesy tune occurs at measure marking A4 where the composer quotes the famous (or infamous) leitmotif from Richard Strauss' own symphonic foolery, Till Eulenspiegels Merry Pranks. Bacon's inclusion of this quote in the score is not coincidental, for he himself is famous for a witty and empathic sense of fun. 85 Through publications 86 performance and teaching, Tom Bacon has firmly established himself as a musician who is comfortable performing any style of music. Despite his capabilities as a horn player in traditional orchestral and chamber music venues, Bacon feels most at home with the non-traditional genres including jazz. He encourages improvisation and spontaneous creativity from his students and continues to teach his "think outside the box" approach to those under his instruction. Undoubtedly, 85 www.hornplanet.com 86 Tom Bacon is the editor of Jazz Cafe; a two-volume collection of printed works for horn and piano.

PAGE 90

79 by thinking outside the box, the tradition of jazz horn playing has a considerable opportunity to grow and prosper in the years to come. Although Bacon has employed a versatile methodology to his art, others in his field have accepted a more specialized and focused approach to performing strictly jazz. This is not to say that they are any less of a musician or are lacking in talent whatsoever. For some artists, the perfection of one particular field or genre has proven to be a successful professional strategy. Such is the case for Chicago-born and New York-based Vincent Chancey, a man whose career development has taken on a striking resemblance to that of Julius Watkins. Figure 4-2 New York based jazz horn player, Vince Chancey. Photo contributed by Vincent Chancey. Upon joining the school band in his pre-teen years, Chancey initially played the cornet, trumpet and flugelhorn; however, upon hearing horn players during band rehearsals, he succumbed to the horn's call and abandoned piston-valved instruments all together. During his high school and collegiate years, he found himself in what he called

PAGE 91

80 a state of musical schizophrenia. Although playing and studying the traditional classical repertoire for the horn, he developed a great fondness for jazz. After completing undergraduate studies at Southern Illinois University in 1973, Chancey relocated to New York City in order to receive jazz horn instruction from Watkins himself. Chancey earned no degree from his private studies with Watkins and actually secured financial support for this endeavor through a grant provided by the National Endowment for the Arts. Vincent successfully turned his focus of study from classical music to jazz, and was hired as a horn player for the Sun Ra Arkestra. This ensemble is still in existence today and is renowned for its efforts in promoting the free-jazz movement. During the twenty years that followed, Chancey made countless recordings with Sun Ra, the Carla Bley Band, Bowie's Brass Fantasy, and other groups associated with more progressive styles of avantpop and free jazz. By 1992 or 93, I began to feel the cool breezes of change sweeping over my performance life and career, said Chancey in a 2004 interview. I had established myself as a horn player capable of performing jazz with numerous ensembles, but I desired a different outlet in which I could express artistic ideas on my own terms. It was like, so long, sideman. Hello jazz horn soloist. 87 Since 1993 he has released two solo jazz horn recordings: Welcome Mr. Chancey (1993) and Vincent Chancey and Next Mode (1996). 88 Having organized many jazz groups of his own, Vincent has toured Europe every year since 1976 promoting the cause and awareness of jazz horn playing. Critics and audiences seem to have been moved by numerous aspects of the artist's performing abilities, mainly tone color, improvisatory skill and expressive, emotional playing. Neil 87 Excerpt from a personal interview with Vincent Chancey, March 12, 2004. 88 Chancey dedicated this recording to Julius Watkins and The Jazz Modes.

PAGE 92

81 Tesser of the Chicago Reader wrote, Vincent Chancey's tone, strong and comparatively rough, dovetails with his swingy control of the instruments tough fingering system, while his respect for the horn's idiosyncrasies lets him play pure jazz. Peter Watrous of The New York Times said of Chancey, He was a dramatic improviser with big interval leaps and silences underscoring his ideas. While tone and skill are two important aspects of instrumental music performance, many in the field will argue that true musicality occurs when the performer adds his or her own emotions to the performance. A review of Chancey by Cadence Magazine's Steven Loewy praises the artist for that very achievement. Chancey maneuvers his ax in a wonderful relaxed way. He plays naturally, as though the horn were simply a vessel through which his thoughts and feelings are expressed. 89 Comments such as these from critics have helped to fan the flames of Chancey's burning desire to promote a wider recognition for the horn as a jazz instrument. One chart from Chancey's first solo jazz album, The Man Say Something, best exemplifies the critics' opinions and adds credibility and reliability to their reviews. Another prominent jazz horn artist on the modern stage is Rick Todd. A native of Salem, Oregon, Todd is often referred to as a "star among the present generation of jazz hornists." 90 Like so many others, Todd's background lies firmly in the classical horn playing tradition, but with a few extra twists. Following performance engagements with the New Orleans and Utah Symphonies, Rick returned to his collegiate stomping grounds in Los Angeles where he has become one of the most sought after freelance musicians in Hollywood television and film studios. With over seven hundred film performances to his credit, including blockbusters such as Men in Black, Mission Impossible, Jurassic Park, 89 www.vincentchancey.com 90 Gunther Schuller. Liner notes from Rickter Scale. GM records, 3015cd, 1989.

PAGE 93

82 and Independence Day, one might wonder why such an accomplished and successful musician would venture outside the traditional playing field in search of new performance venues. Simply put, Todd has been badly bitten by the jazz bug. 91 As a sideman, Todd has performed with Barbara Streisand, Michael Jackson, Madonna, Woody Herman, Clark Terry and a multitude of other pop and jazz artists. In 1984, he released his first jazz recording, New Ideas, which featured classical and jazz tunes combined into one setting. Works by Gunther Schuller and Jean Francaix were contrasted with charts by Charlie Parker and Kurt Weil. The disc was followed by Rickter Scale, an all-jazz horn recording released in 1989. Despite Todd's efforts to promote the awareness of his newfound passion, he was still significantly under-appreciated for this style of playing well into the following decade. This perception changed at the 25th International Horn Symposium hosted by Florida State University in the summer of 1993. After a full day of traditional classical concerts, recitals and the like featuring some of the world's most acclaimed solo and orchestral figures, Todd presented an outdoor jazz horn jam-session to a rousing audience of his own peers. He wowed those in attendance with his performance of Chick Corea's Got a Match, the initial track from Rickter Scale. The work features chromatic runs at supersonic speeds, mastery of articulation, and fluidity of harmonic motion. Shock and awe had an entirely different meaning a decade ago. 92 For Todd, technique and style are not problematic issues when it comes to performing jazz. Although critics are divided over his three jazz albums, most recognize 91 J. Robert Bragonier. A review of Todd's With a Twist which appears at www.gmrecordings.com. 92 The author was an undergraduate sophomore and attended Todds session at this workshop. It was his first time witnessing an international symposium and a jazz performance featuring the horn.

PAGE 94

83 Todd for his spectacular feats of high register playing, clear articulation, and a strong grasp of jazz improvisation. Some jazz critics, who attempt to squash the potential uprising of this new breed, criticize Todd for playing with an unconventional horn sound and writing tunes which sound somber and weighted. Nonetheless, Rick has promoted the awareness of jazz horn artistry through his recordings and teaching activities. Currently on the faculties of the University of Southern California and the Henry Mancini Institute, Todd leads his students by example and precept. He has demonstrated that, if nothing else, it is possible to perform in a virtuosic jazz style on this beast of all musical instruments. 93 Horn players are often looked upon as being different or unusual in some manner. Theirs is the only instrument in the orchestra which points backwards, has the highest frequency of missed notes, and is the only brass family member in a woodwind quintet. To be an accomplished jazz horn player in the 21st Century, one must be unique. This term is no stranger to an individual who is arguably the most renowned jazz horn player on todays international stage, Tom Varner. Tom knew he was different early on in his approach to musical performance when, in elementary school, he chose the horn from a photo rather than from those found in his elementary music classroom. Being different does not a horn player make, and Varner knew that, in order to differentiate and distinguish himself from the others in his field, he had to become a virtuoso. Thus, he took appropriate measures to realize such a goal. Tom received a bachelor's degree from the New England Conservatory where he studied horn with Thomas Newell and jazz composition with Ran Blake, George Russell, 93 Gunther Schuller. Liner notes for Rickter Scale. GM records, 3015cd, 1989.

PAGE 95

84 and Jaki Byard. Such a variety of influential teachers helps to explain the eclectic character of Varner's music, which thrives on the blending of numerous jazz styles. Throw private horn lessons with Julius Watkins into the mix and you have the perfect recipe for Tom's musical souffl. 94 With such a diverse array of stylistic influences, it is no wonder that Varner's compositions and performing styles have proven to be some of the most flavorful and enlightening on the circuit. Figure 4-3 Pictured from left to right are jazz horn players Marshall Sealy, Tom Varner and Vince Chancey. Mark Taylor is seated behind Varner to the right. Photo courtesy of Vince Chancey. Toms performance abilities on the horn are unquestionably virtuosic to the enth degree. One needs only to listen to the title track from his 1999 release, Swimming, to experience his mastery of the instrument. What separates Varner from his fellow musical athletes in the tour de cor is his dedication to composing for jazz horn and restricting his performances to such a medium. For Tom, there is no balancing act between classical 94 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone CD-11903, 1999.

PAGE 96

85 and jazz careers; no trips to Hollywood recording studios or sound stages. Varner's life revolves solely around his horn and the world of jazz. As a composer, Tom has sought inspiration from some of the most unlikely sources. "Biblical themes and spirituality, science and sci-fi, mythology and folklore, down-home Americana and urban kitsch, James Brown and twentieth-century music are frequent threads in the colorful, cinematic Tom Varner weave." 95 Figure 4-4 Contemporary jazz horn soloist Tom Varner. Photo contributed by Terri Constant. The title track of Swimming was composed in the summer of 1998 at the Blue Mountain Center, a famous artistic getaway located deep in the Adirondack Mountains. On vacation from his normally hectic life in the big city, Varner spent a month in higher elevation and immersed himself in a variety of rest and relaxation techniques. I practiced. I composed. I read a lot. And the lake, wow, the lake. It was just spectacular, said Varner. "It was Heaven. Every day I swam in this beautiful lake, and every day I 95 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone CD-11903, 1999.

PAGE 97

86 wrote new music. 'Swimming' grew out of that. In fact, so did most of the album." 96 Upon listening to a portion of this track, one can instantly hear a style of jazz different from any other for this instrument. This type of small-group jazz presents the listener with a variety of sounds and tastes which could leave the listeners scratching their heads as to the true identity of this music. It is fairly complex stuff, said Tom. It has hints of Webern and Berg, a little bit of Monk, and other influences too. 97 It would come as no surprise if audience reactions to this music were as different as the artist himself, for in differentiation, there lies distinction. Some members of the current solo jazz horn scene are pushing the boundaries for the inclusion of their instrument in this medium. Two artists in particular, Ken Wiley and Arkady Shilkloper, have taken the instrument to performance realms never before deemed possible. Although both of these artists possess unique performance and compositional styles, Wiley and Shilkloper have combined traditional horn tonal concepts with 21 st Century electronic media to produce an entirely new sub-genre of chamber jazz horn performance. The career path of Los Angeles hornist, Ken Wiley, bears numerous similarities to that of the late phantom. For Wiley, the horn became his instrument of choice, but only after the introduction of that instrument from a second party. Recalling his early days on the horn, this native of St. Joseph, Missouri said, When I was in sixth grade at Mark Twain, I thought I wanted to play the drums. But, the director said he had too many drummers and he sent a French horn over to the house that sat under the piano most of 96 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone 11903, 1999. 97 Personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004.

PAGE 98

87 the summer. 98 Like Julius, Wiley held little interest in playing the horn until he heard its warm, mellow sounds. In Kens case, the sounds came from a record player in his childhood home rather than from a guest performance by a symphony player at his school. He began playing the horn in the school band at Bliss Junior High and continued during his studies at Central High School in his hometown. After high school, Wiley attended the Manhattan School of Music before setting out on a jazz career of his own. Wileys defense for choosing to play jazz on the horn sounds remarkably similar to that of Julius Watkins. There is not a lot of music written for the French horn, said Wiley. I have always had to create my own and have striven to showcase the natural beauty possessed within this instrument. 99 From listening to selections from his solo albums, Visage and Highbridge Park, one can easily grasp the artists concept for natural beauty, as practically each work features haunting colors of sound, soaring melodies, and transcendental rhythmic and harmonic qualities. Kens early jazz career placed him as a soloist and sideman with some of the great figures in American jazz lore. He has appeared with bassist Charlie Hadens Liberation Music Orchestra and has also performed with bassists John Patitucci and Jimmy Johnson, guitarists Mike Miller and Grant Geissman, and, perhaps most notably, with Julius former partner, saxophonist Charlie Rouse: a connection which links Wiley in a deeply personal manner to the founding father of jazz horn playing. There is a great deal of complexity surrounding the style in which Wiley plays. Album reviewers have labeled him as a champion of generic, new-agey, fusion jazz, 100 without specifically pigeonholing Kens music into one particular genre. Most people 98 www.krugparkmusic.com 99 Ibid. 100 Ibid.

PAGE 99

88 who listen to his music, however, have agreed that his unique compositions featuring the horn possess jazz, new-age, rock, Afro-pop and world music influences. His album, Highbridge Park, released in 2002, offers an overview of this performers eclectic style. Tracks on this album are dominated by the use of electro-acoustic instruments, ethnic percussive instruments such as rainsticks, congas and djambes, new-age sonorities similar to those used by the German band, Tangerine Dream, and, of course, the hauntingly reverberated sounds of Wileys instrument. Ken has been an active clinician and educator and has been promoting awareness for jazz capabilities on the horn for the past twenty years. In February of 2005, Wiley released Kens Jazz Lounge; a book of twelve easy solos for beginning jazz horn players. The book comes with a CD which contains the accompaniment tracks performed by a jazz combo, allowing novices in this style the ability to perform in a complete medium. One of the most notable of his educational outreach sessions occurred during the 2004 Western Horn Symposium in Las Vegas, NV. At this workshop, sponsored by the International Horn Society, Wiley gave a masterclass on jazz horn improvisation and performed with the University of Nevada at Las Vegas Jazz Trio. Joining Wiley on stage that evening were Bill Bernatis (Assistant Professor of Horn, UNLV), Eldon Matlick (Professor of Horn, University of Oklahoma) and Jim Patterson (Owner of Patterson Hornworks). This quartet of pedagogues performed a number of jazz horn selections including Clare Fischers Morning and Charlie Parkers Nows the Time. What made this occasion particularly noteworthy was the invitation by the International Horn Society to include a prominent jazz artist in one of their sponsored workshops. Although this organization waves the banner for furthering the cause for all activities which include the

PAGE 100

89 horn, the focus of this organization tends to highlight artists steeped in the traditional orchestral and soloistic approaches to horn playing. Rarely are jazz artists included in official I.H.S. events; however, Kens art has earned him praise from the organization. John Dressler, a frequent reviewer for The Horn Call wrote the following about Wileys Visage album: This CD was a very enjoyable listening experience. Ken Wileys music sounds like a blend of many different influences and hearing it has caused me to listen to this CD in two ways. Play it while youre doing some chore that needs doing, and the job will be less trouble. Then later, play it with no other sounds interfering, simply letting the music work on you. Each time I listen to this CD, I find a different favorite tune, and I like that. I dont find this music deeply profound, but some really good music that is very enjoyable to hear again and again. Wiley should be encouraged to continue writing and recording similar discs. 101 Figure 4-5 Ken Wiley (right) with Jim Patterson, Eldon Matlick and Bill Bernatis. Photo contributed by Ken Wiley. Ken Wiley has assisted in the advancement of jazz horn playing by including the instrument in his own compositions and by reaching out to new listening audiences. His 101 www.krugparkmusic.com

PAGE 101

90 ability to create new music which fuses together so many different forms of media makes him even more unique in an already rare environment. His relationship with his horn and his music has been a life-long event, a love-affair of sorts, and one very similar to that of Julius Watkins. Russian born horn artist Arkady Shilkloper has become one of the most talked-about and distinguished performers of modern jazz horn repertoire. A native of Moscow, Russia, Arkady began playing the horn at age eleven upon his entrance into the Moscow Military Music School. There, he studied the horn and other brass instruments including flugelhorn and alto horn and began to develop into one of the most diversified brass performing artists in recent history. At age 22, Shilkloper became a member of the Bolshoi Theatre and the Bolshoi Brass Quintet, and was later employed by the Moscow Philharmonic. In addition to his symphonic duties, Shilkloper began playing traditional jazz with bassist, Mikhail Karetnikov, and tinkered with other avant-guard ensembles. His numerous world-wide concert tours earned him great fame from international audiences; however, his performances of jazz music were the source of persecution from the then Soviet government. In a 2003 interview with The Horn Call, Arkady discussed this very situation. They thought that since I was performing music of a western country, and a democratic one at that, that I was some sort of traitor to my country, said Shilkloper. I was no longer called to perform with the Philharmonic and I was forced to look for other ways to make a living as a musician. 102 He turned to jazz for personal satisfaction and financial survival and, like Watkins, used any and all resources available to achieve these personal and professional goals. 102 Jeffrey Snedeker. Music From the Heart: an Interview with Arkady Shilkloper. The Horn Call, vol. 29 no. 4, August, 1999, pp. 39-44.

PAGE 102

91 Figure 4-6 Russian jazz horn player, Arkady Shilkloper, performing with alphorn. Photo contributed by Arkady Shilkloper. Since the fall of Communist Russia, Arkady has worked in numerous solo and chamber jazz settings. In 1991, he formed the Moscow Art Trio and has been a regular sideman with Lionel Hampton, Elvin Jones, and Herb Ellis. In addition to performing jazz on flugelhorn and a traditional French horn, Arkady has made a lasting impression on international audiences with his jazz alphorn performances. As if performing jazz on a French horn were not difficult enough, Shilkloper has gone a step further in choosing an instrument with no valves, slides or other mechanical devices used to chromatically alter pitch. Like the 18 th Century natural horn, alphorns are restricted to performing in the overtone series of the key in which they are pitched; however, the method in which Shilkloper performs creates an acoustic illusion of a valved instrument. He has two solo alphorn albums to his credit: Hornology from 1995 and Pilatus from 2000. 103 103 In addition to these two solo albums, Arkady has also recorded as a sideman and co-soloist on eight other albums produced by Boheme Music, his primary record label.

PAGE 103

92 Like Wiley, Shilklopers style of jazz is more of a conglomeration of moods rather than coherence to one specific genre. Arkady relies heavily upon electro-acoustic accompaniment and multi-track recording techniques to produce his polyphonic works, and avoids the use of any traditional percussion instruments in his music. Instead, rhythmic sections are produced by using self-recorded tonal and beat-box style rhythm tracks played on a traditional horn, alphorn or mouthpiece. These sampled recordings are looped and layered with harmonic accompaniment and soloistic melodies, thus creating a virtual jazz horn ensemble. Jazz rips and prestissimo articulated runs frequent his compositions while a velvety warmth of sound emanates from the instrument at Shilklopers command. Arkady has earned the praise of numerous international critics and jazz audiences. In a 1990 review of a jazz festival in Moscow, Idaho, Los Angeles Times music critic Leonard Feather, wrote the following: It is a long trip from Moscow to Moscow, but for Arkady Shilkloper it was worth the effort. The Soviet French horn virtuoso was one of four jazzmen from the Soviet Union who arrived here last week to take part in the 23 rd annual University of Idaho Jazz Festival at his home towns namesake city. On his first visit to the United States, Arkady was the artistic sensation of the four-day event. His control of the instrument and his blowing creativity have set a new standard. Even Julius Watkins, his idol never produced such results. 104 Jazz audiences, however, are not alone in applauding Shilklopers efforts. In a review of a 1988 concert featuring Arkadys jazz horn and alphorn performances, International Horn Society jazz horn pedagogue, Jeffrey Agrell, offered the following colorful enthusiasm: 104 Leonard Feather. University of Idaho Jazz Festival Review. Los Angeles Time, November 26, 1990.

PAGE 104

93 Shilkloper and his bass player swing like nobodys business. He rips and riffs and goes places that the horn players arent supposed to go without a net, map, seatbelt, crash helmet, overhead air support, and a note from their mothers. And, he does so with extraordinary ease and musicality. I think maybe nobody ever told him that playing jazz on the horn is difficult, and probably not natural. Perhaps these phrases do not translate into Russian. Nonetheless, Id walk a camel a mile to hear this guy play. 105 The always entertaining Shilkloper has been in high demand as an artist and clinician over the past fifteen years and despite his prowess as a jazz artist, he is widely sought after by classical music venues. In March 2004, Arkady was one of the judges for the Solo Horn Competition at the Southeast Horn Workshop in Tallahassee, Florida. His efforts to share his passion for music with younger players is one of his most admirable qualities. And, like Julius Watkins, Arkady has refused to allow public perception and stereotyping to affect his will to become an icon of jazz performance on his instruments. He is, and continues to be, an influential force for many horn players, and his work to advance the art of horn playing in non-traditional formats places him atop his fellow comrades. Mark Taylor is one of the younger members in the new wave of jazz horn performing artists. A native of Chattanooga, Tennessee, Mark began to develop his passion for free-style jazz playing in the 1980s during his studies at the New England Conservatory. While in Boston, Mark assisted in the formation of, what was at the time, a radically new type of chamber ensemble. The group was known as the Ebony Brass Quintet and they quickly earned a reputation as being one of the most unique of performing ensembles along the Eastern Seaboard. 106 It was during an Ebony Brass recording session when critics first began to take note of Marks unique free-jazz horn 105 Jeffrey Agrell. Jazz Clinic: Therell Be Some Changes Made. The Horn Call, vol. 18 no. 2, 1988, pp. 86-89. 106 Pierre Sprey. Liner notes from Quiet Land. Mapleshade Records, CD-05232 1997.

PAGE 105

94 playing. The first day of the session, Mark took a solo on A Child is Born that knocked my socks off, said Taylors longtime friend, Pierre Sprey. He can play as limpidly as the flute and as gnarly as the alto. 107 Jazz legend, Max Roach, commented on Marks horn mastery in saying, There is no one dealing with the French horn the way he is. 108 Upon hearing Taylor in live or recorded performances, one can instantly notice his superb mastery of his horn, his passions for playing free-jazz, and his devotion to promoting an awareness for the genre. Taylors diverse musical career has included many performing and arranging engagements. He has recorded as a sideman with numerous free-jazz greats such as Max Roach, McCoy Tyner, Muhal Abram, and Henry Threadgill. Following in the footsteps of Vince Chancey, Mark performed with Bowies Brass Fantasy and has given frequent tours in Europe and the Middle East. An active composer, Taylor has received commissions from a wide assortment of venues including the So What Brass Quintet, the Dollface Productions feature film, The Girl, and a recent documentary, String of Pearls, by the African-American sculpting artist, Camille Billops. In addition to these accomplishments, Mark also manages a hectic solo career and is a regular performer in some of New York Citys biggest jazz clubs including Birdland and The Village Vanguard. With two solo CDs to his credit 109 he has firmly established himself as one of the premier Watkins disciples. 107 Pierre Sprey. Liner notes from Quiet Land. Mapleshade Records, CD-05232 1997. 108 www.angelfire.com/jazz/marktaylormusic/biopage.html 109 His solo albums, Quiet Land (Angelfire CD-05232)and Circle Squared (MTCD-122002), were released in 1995 and 2002 respectively.

PAGE 106

95 Figure 4-7 Mark Taylor performing selections from his Circle Squared album in Calgary, Alberta. Photo contributed by Mark Taylor. In regards to his jazz inspirations, Taylor claimed that he first idolized trumpeter Woody Shaw which was in interesting choice for a horn player due to Shaws murky, heartrending sound. But when asked about his jazz horn playing inspirations, Taylor immediately gave credit to the founding father of this style. Julius defiantly got me going, said Taylor. I was too young to have known him personally and I was just a kid when he died. But, I listened to lots of his records with the Jazz Modes and some of the (Quincy) Jones recordings and said to myself, if this guy can do it, I can too. So I began to tinker around with it all and today I am where I am. I dont know if I wouldve ever gone into jazz horn playing had it not been for Julius efforts years before me. 110 Overall similarities between Taylor and Watkins are quite significant. Along the lines of chamber jazz, the ensemble used by Taylor on a majority of his club dates is comparable to that used by his mentor. Obviously there is the use of a horn, piano, bass 110 Personal interview with Mark Taylor, March 12, 2004.

PAGE 107

96 and drums, but Marks instrument is accompanied sans saxophone. The soprano voice is also a common trait in many of his original chamber jazz works. For Julius, it was the voice of Eileen Gilbert. For Mark, it is the voice of his wife, Karen. When utilized, both vocalists sing romantically inspired and textless lines which dominate the melodic activity in those selections. One other bond which exists between Taylor and Watkins is their common friend, Warren Smith. Many of Taylors avant-guard jazz charts require not only set drums, but other malleted percussion instruments such as marimbas and vibraphones, and Smith, the dean of the New York percussion scene, 111 is often the individual upon whom Taylor calls to fill the ranks of his clubbing and recording chamber jazz groups. This being said, there are great differences between Watkins performance style and that of Taylor. While Mark is an accomplished performer of bebop jazz, 112 the style featured exclusively in his recordings is that of the complex and confusing free-jazz realm. A prime example of this avant-guard and practically serialistic form of music can be heard in the tune, Osmium Zamindar and the Fire Demons of Praethor, an original composition by Taylor and the first track on his 2002 Circle Squared recording. The Webernesque piano solos are mixed with seemingly unrelated percussive rhythms from the drums and horn parts which feature muted and hand-stopping techniques. The work in itself sounds completely chaotic, yet this is exactly the style which defines Mark Taylors musical taste. Commenting on this piece, Taylor admitted, duos, trios, solos and it never stops. Just like life. Solos become quartets become a song (or a piece of one 111 Pierre Sprey. Liner notes for Quiet Land. Mapleshade Records, 05232, 1998. 112 This author attended club performance featuring Mark Taylor, Jazz Horn, on March 14, 2004, at the New York Jazz Club, Detours.

PAGE 108

97 anyway) becomes collective improvisation. Its beautiful and terrible and free and ugly and structured and unpredictable, completely under control and utterly ridiculous. 113 Although there exist many differences in style between Watkins and Taylor, there are characteristics which enable them to be musically related. Both African-American performers feature chamber jazz settings which feature the horn. Both incorporate the soprano female voice and both envisioned a futuristic jazz world in which the horn would be a regular commodity. Im not sure what the future holds for jazz horn playing, said Taylor. I certainly believe that the instrument has a worthy place in jazz and audiences are becoming more and more aware of this. Education is the most important element in continuing the tradition which Julius started for us; Education for audiences, horn players and other musicians. We can do this. More importantly, we should do this. The future of jazz horn playing is not crystal clear. Many artists have made significant strides to promote awareness for new possibilities in this art form through their recordings, concerts, masterclasses, and printed publishings. John Clark, professor of horn at State University of New York at Purchase, published Jazz Exercises for French Horn in 1993. This etude book serves as a "how-to" guide for hornists looking to expand their knowledge of jazz horn playing along with suppressing their fears of playing in a style which is so foreign to many in this realm. Doug Hill, Professor of Horn at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, has composed a number of jazzy and jazz-inspired works. One of these, Song Suite in a Jazz Style for Horn and Piano, features five separate movements, each with its own unique jazz personality. 113 Taylor, Mark. Liner notes from Circle Squared. Taymons Music, 2002.

PAGE 109

98 Educators and performers are doing a great deal to promote the cause of this new musical concoction; however, an adequate awareness about this musical style and an acceptance for including horns in jazz settings is seriously lacking. In general, the massed audience simply does not understand that jazz is an expression, a feeling and a passion rather than just a piece of music for trumpets, trombones, saxophones, pianos and basses. Music critics will play a significant role in promoting this awareness if the genre is to succeed. Francis Davis, a reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer wrote, "(the horn is) an instrument that is finally winning some credibility in jazz." 114 Although many horn players and musicians in the New York and Los Angeles areas are familiar with jazz horn playing, a vast majority of the musical public relies on the printed word to guide them into new listening realms. Jazz artists can only do so much to promote their cause. Perhaps the pen is mightier than the horn. 114 www.vincentchancey.com

PAGE 110

99 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Julius Burton Watkins was the most significant performer of jazz French horn repertoire prior to 1977. His performance talent, virtuosic technique, and passion for pursuing a career in a previously uncharted area have all contributed to his historical significance as an American performing artist. Numerous personal and professional obstacles were overcome by Watkins as he relentlessly proceeded on a steady course to transform his instrument from a jazz rarity to a jazz commodity. He is often remembered as being a man of dignity and charm, and his ability to include the horn in chamber jazz settings was a specialized gift which few artists have been able to emulate. Julius accomplishments have helped to inspire a new wave of artistic activity in the realm of jazz French horn performance. Since his death in 1977, there has been a 2000% increase in the number of soloists who are actively taking part in this genre. While statistically impressive, the actual number of artists performing in this manner is somewhat of a concern, as only twenty jazz horn soloists worldwide are actively contributing to this genre. Nonetheless, the spirit of solo jazz horn playing is alive and well, and a promising future exists for the genre. Julius enjoyed great fame and popularity during his lifetime; however, the same cannot be said in connection to the twenty-eight years following his death. Since April 4, 1977, Watkins has received little attention from literary sources, including magazines, journals, books, and jazz encyclopedias. Some jazz artists have taken it upon themselves to teach others about Julius and help educate audiences about his professional

PAGE 111

100 accomplishments. In 1993, a group of jazz horn players met in New York City to perform in the first Julius Watkins Jazz Horn Festival. The festival became an annual event and featured performances by Tom Varner, Vincent Chancey, John Clark, and Dolores Beck-Schwartz. The festival ceased to exist after 1997 due to organizational and financial problems, but after an eight year hiatus, there is a rekindled energy for the program as the Fifth Annual Julius Watkins Jazz Horn Festival is scheduled to occur in the spring of 2006. Many record albums featuring Julius Watkins as a soloist or sideman have been re-released in recent years. As a result, new listeners of jazz music have been exposed to the flurry of jazz horn playing made famous by Watkins in the 1950s and 60s. Artists such as Ken Wiley, John Clarke, and Doug Hill continue to publish etudes, solos, and method books for beginning jazz horn players. They do so in an effort to provide the horn world with new repertoire and eliminate the you cant play jazz on the horn stereotype which still unfortunately exists. Jazz horn playing is also receiving attention from internationally acclaimed professional organizations. For example, the International Horn Societys 38 th International Horn Symposium will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, in the summer of 2006. Symposium coordinator, Steve Horwood has announced that this symposium will differ from previous meetings in that both lecture sessions and concerts will feature jazz horn performances. An all new jazz session will include a jazz big band from Cape Town, and a number of jazz horn artists from around the world are scheduled to perform. It is obvious that the Watkins dream is still a living and breathing reality.

PAGE 112

101 Much more is known regarding the life and accomplishments of Julius Watkins; however, his performance ability and preferences, and his impact on the development of this genre, there exists a great need for further research into many aspects of his personal life. In regard to his childhood, it is not known whether Julius was the only member of his family in possession of musical ability. There is speculation that his brother, Lucius Jr., was a percussionist, as the headstone on his grave contains an embronzed drum set. Significant questions exist regarding the identity of Julius first wife, Ella. Efforts were made to contact the public records office in Detroit, Michigan, with the hopes of obtaining the couples marriage record. As of August, 2005, no such record has become available. Similar attempts were made to contact City Hall in New York City with the hope of finding marriage and/or divorce records for Julius and either of his wives. These efforts also proved to be unsuccessful. If documents such as these are located, they might provide further insight regarding Julius personal life. A number of questions exist regarding Julius and Ellas two children, Julie and Julius, Jr. It is not known if either of the children were musically inclined, finished school, or sought out a professional career. Julius was a grandfather of five, but the identities of those grandchildren are still unknown. Further, nothing is known about the type of relationship the children had with their father in the years which followed Julius and Ellas separation and divorce. I had hoped to locate and interview Julie and Julius Jr. in order to learn more about their father, as their answers would have undoubtedly provided a substantial amount of interesting and worthwhile information. Sadly, both children passed away well-prior to this research activity. My efforts were nullified when I learned that Julius Jr. and Julie were both deceased. Julius Jr. died in 1987 while Julie

PAGE 113

102 passed in 1995. They are both buried in the family plot at the United Memorial Gardens in Plymouth, Michigan. The Phantom nickname has recently taken on a new identity. Whereas Julius often disappeared before and after shows, his entire family seems to have vanished from existence. His parents, Mattie and Lucius Sr., passed away in 1986 and 1975 respectively, Lucius Jr. died in 1991 and his sister, Olivia, is also deceased. His other sister, Janice (Watkins) Estill, may still be alive in the Detroit area. David Ensign, an employee at the United Memorial Gardens, informed me that Janice Estill arranged and organized Julius funeral and burial in 1977. Efforts were made to contact Mrs. Estill by phone and courier, but phone calls and written correspondence were never returned. Attempts were also made to contact Mrs. Estills children, Karen and Russell Estill, but they also proved to be unsuccessful. To further complicate the issue of locating family members, Harriette Watkins passed away in 1978, one year after Julius death, and it is believed that Ella is also deceased. The location of their remains is yet another mystery in this complex puzzle. Neither of them are buried in the Watkins plot in Plymouth, Michigan, and while this may not be a surprise in regard to Ella, it is startling when considering the impact Harriette had on Julius life. When meeting with John Lee at Woodys Home for Services, he recalled the following details regarding Harriettes funeral: It was a small service. We didnt have it here. It was over at Coles Funeral Home. They were one of three funeral homes which were in operation back then. Her funeral was lovely. There was a string quartet that played and her funeral program was printed on stationery with musical notes all over it. I have no idea where she is buried. Give Coles a call. They should know since they handled the funeral. 115 115 Personal interview with John Lee, March 14, 2004.

PAGE 114

103 The phantomic curse impacted this issue as well. Coles Funeral Home was bequeathed to the owners two children following his death in the late 1980s. In 1993, Mr. Coles son started his own funeral home and took some of his fathers funeral records with him. Phone calls were placed to both funeral homes and neither one could find any record of a funeral for Harriette Davison or Harriette Watkins. Furthermore, attempts were made to contact cemeteries in and around Montclaire, New Jersey, to locate her final resting place. These efforts proved to be fruitless as representatives from each cemetery were unable to confirm her burial location. Failed efforts were also made to locate Paul Augustine, Harriettes son from her previous marriage. It is an eerie reality that the entire Watkins family has disappeared before our very eyes and vanished from existence, taking with them any hope of being eventually discovered. Hopefully with continued research efforts, more can be learned about the Watkins family as a whole, and in doing so, bring closure to these open-ended issues. Julius Watkins served as a model for all musicians. As performers, we are drawn to our instruments by an unknown force, driving us to perfect the art of creating aural aesthetic beauty. We follow in Julius footsteps to pursue a life void of financial wealth, but full of emotional satisfaction. Ella Fitzgerald once said, Just dont give up trying to do what you really want to do. Where theres love and inspiration, I dont think you can go wrong. Julius Watkins never lost sight of his ultimate desire and he overcame many significant obstacles in realizing his goal. He loved his horn. He loved life. He loved humanity as a whole. And despite all of the adversity, struggle, and contretemps, Julius only went right.

PAGE 115

APPENDIX A CHRONOLOGICAL DISCOGRAPHY OF ALL ALBUMS FEATURING JULIUS WATKINS 116 Album Title: The Beale Street Gang with Milt Buckner Recording date/location: July 11, 1948, New York Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): 731 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Milt Buckner Personnel: Julius Watkins (tpt), Billy Mitchell (ts), Bernie MacKay (gt), Milt Buckner (pn), Bruce Lawrence (b), Eddie Grant (dr) Tracks: 1. Back Alley Blues 2. Raising the Roof 3. Lazy Joe 4. Fat Stuff Boogie Album Title: Bebop Professors Recording date/location: January 20, 1949, New York City Recording Label(s): Capitol Records Label number(s): ECJ-50073 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Babs Gonzales Personnel: Bennie Green, J.J. Johnson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jordan Fordin (as), Sonny Rollins (ts), Linton Garner (pn), Art Phipps (b), Jack Parker (dr), Babs Gonzales (vcl) Tracks: 1. Sid's Delight 2. Casbah 3. John's Delight 116 Although a discography of recordings featuring Julius Watkins is included in Steven Schaughencys dissertation, The Orginial Jazz Compositions of Julius Watkins, it is not in chronological order and does not include complete track lists. Further, numerous recordings have been re-released since its publication. This appendix features an updated discography additionally highlighting re-release information and complete track listings, all in chronological order from the earliest recording date. 104

PAGE 116

105 4. What's New 5. Heaven's Door Are Wide Open 6. Focus 7. St. Louis Blues* 8. Prelude to A Nightmare* 9. Capitolizing*** 10. Professor Bop*** -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Roll'em Bags Recording date/location: January 25, 1949, New York City Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): Savoy MG 12042, Savoy 110 Release date: 1949, re-released June 15, 1994 Principal Artist: Milt Jackson Personnel: Kenny Dorham (tpt, pn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Billy Mitchell (ts), Milt Jackson (vib, pn), Curley Russell (b), Kenny Clarke (dr) Tracks: 1. Conglomeration *** 2. Bruz*** 3. You Go To My Head* 4. Roll'em Bags*** 5. Faultless 6. Hey Frenchy*** 7. Come Rain or Come Shine 8. Fred's Mood 9. Wild Man Album Title: Meet Milt Recording date/location: February 23, 1949, New York City Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): 12061, Savoy Jazz 172 Release date: 1949, re-released June 15, 1994 Principal Artist: Milt Jackson Personnel: Bill Massey (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Billy Mitchell (ts), Milt Jackson (vib), Walter Bishop, Jr. (pn), Nelson Boyd (b), Roy Haynes (dr) Tracks: 1. They Can't Take That Away from Me 2. Soulful 3. Flamingo 4. Telefunken Blues

PAGE 117

106 5. I've Lost Your Love 6. Hearing Bells*** 7. Bubu*** 8. Junior*** 9. Bluesology* 10. Bluesology (alternate take)* Album Title: Bands for Bonds Recording date/location: March 1, 1949, New York City Recording Label(s): private recording for broadcast Label number(s): n/a Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Milt Buckner Personnel: Leonard Hawkins (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Bill Graham (as), Billy Mitchell, Paul Quinichette (ts), Milt Buckner (pn, vib), Bernie MacKay (gt, voc) Tracks: 1. Introduction* 2. Buck's Bop* 3. Bewildered* 4. Milt's Boogie* 5. Fiesta de Amor 6. Baby, All the Time

PAGE 118

107 Album Title: Milt Buckner and His Orchestra Recording date/location: March 10, 1949, WMGM Studio C, New York City Recording Label(s): MGM Label number(s): 10410, 10504 Release date: May 6, 1949 Principal Artist: Milt Buckner Personnel: Leonard Hawkins, Dave Page, Johnny Letman, Talib Daawud (tpt), Michael Wood, Henderson Chambers, Leon Comegys (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Rudy Powell, Bill Graham (as), Paul Quinichette, Billy Mitchell (ts), Charlie Fowlkes (bars), Milt Buckner (pn, vib), Bernie MacKay (gt), Ted Sturgis (b), Edward Grant (dr) Tracks: 1. Buck's Bob*** 2. Milt's Boogie* 3. Oo-be-doop*** 4. M.B. Blues* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Milt Buckner and His Orchestra Recording date/location: June 3, 1949, WMGM Studio B, New York City Recording Label(s): MGM Label number(s): Test Pressing, 10632, 10632-B Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Milt Buckner Personnel: Mustafa Daleel (Alphonso Barrymore), Leonard Hawkins, Johnny Letman, Talib Daawud (tpt), Michael Wood, Henderson Chambers, Leon Comegys (tb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Rudy Powell, Charlie Holmes (as), Alva McCain, Billy Mitchell (ts), Charlie Fowlkes (bars), Milt Buckner (p, vib, vcl, cond), Bernie MacKay (gt), Ted Sturgis (b), Timothy Kennedy (dr) Tracks: 1. Who Shot John?*** 2. Don't Tell Your Papa* 3. Buck-a-boo*** 4. Yesterdays***

PAGE 119

108 Album Title: The Three Flames with Milt Buckner Recording date/location: January 25, 1950, WOR Studio, New York City Recording Label(s): MGM Label number(s): 10853, 10741 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: The Three Flames Personnel: Three Flames (George "Tiger" Haynes, Roy Testamark, Bill (Averill?) Pollard (vcl), Lamar Wright, Talib Daawud (tpt), Al Hayse (tb), Julius Watkins (fhn), George Dorsey (as), John Hartzfield (ts), Charlie Fowlkes (bars), Milt Buckner (pn), Percy Heath (b), Tim Kennedy (dr) Tracks: 1. I Don't Want to Take That Chance* 2. (Good Bye) Cornelia Jones* 3. Chewing Gum Mama* 4. Suffer* ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Slowly Goin' Crazy c/w Good Lovin' Recording date/location: December 12, 1951, New York City Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): 830 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: H-Bomb Ferguson Personnel: J. Hawkins (tpt), Julius Watkins (tb), Pinky Williams (as), Purvis Henson (ts), Kelly Owens (pn), Leon Spann (b), Jack Parker (dr), H-Bomb Ferguson (vcl) Tracks: 1. Slowly Goin' Crazy* 2. Good Lovin'*

PAGE 120

109 Album Title: Life is Hard Recording date/location: December 12, 1951, New York City Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): SJL1176 Release date: 1952 Principal Artist: Bob "H-bomb" Ferguson Personnel: Julius Watkins (tbn), Pinky Williams (ts), Purvis Henson (bars), Kelly Owens (pn), Leon Spann (b), Jack Parker (dr), Bob "H-Bomb" Ferguson (vcl) Tracks: 1. New Way Blues 13. Big City Blues 2. Life is Hard 14. Bookie's Blues 3. Hot Kisses 15. My Frame Baby 4. My Baby's Blues 5. I Need You Baby 6. Double Crossing Daddy 7. Tortured Love 8. Slowly Goin' Crazy* 9. Preachin' the Blues* 10. Sundown Blues* 11. Good Lovin* 12. Give It Up Album Title: Preachin' the Blues c/w Hot Kisses Recording date/location: December 12, 1951, New York City Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): 848 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: H-Bomb Ferguson Personnel: J. Hawkins (tpt), Julius Watkins, Leon Comegys (tbn), Pinky Williams (as), Purvis Henson and Count Hastings (ts), Kelly Owens and James Neeley (pn), Leon Spann and Lavern Baker (b), Jack Parker (d), H-Bomb Ferguson (vcl) Tracks: 1. Preachin' the Blues* 2. Hot Kisses*

PAGE 121

110 Album Title: Monk Recording date/location: November 13, 1953, New York City Recording Label(s): Prestige, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): PRLP7053, OJCCD-0162 Release date: 1954, re-released 1991 Principal Artist: Thelonious Monk Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Sonny Rollins (ts), Thelonious Monk (pn), Percy Heath (b), Willie Jones (dr) Tracks: 1. Let's Call This*** 2. Think of One*** 3. Think of One (alternate take)*** -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Thelonious Monk/Sonny Rollins Recording date/location: November 13, 1953, New York City Recording Label(s): Prestige, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): PRLP-7075, OJCCD-0692 Release date: 1954, re-released July 1, 1991 Principal Artist: Thelonious Monk Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Sonny Rollins (ts), Thelonious Monk (pn), Percy Heath (b), Willie Jones (dr) Tracks: 1. The Way You Look Tonight 2. I Want to be Happy 3. Work 4. Nutty 5. Friday the 13th***

PAGE 122

111 Album Title: The New Oscar Pettiford Sextet Recording date/location: December 29,1953, New York City Recording Label(s): Debut, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): DLP-8, OJCCD-1926 Release date: 1954, re-released November 30, 1999 Principal Artist: Oscar Pettiford Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Urso (ts), Walter Bishop, Jr. (pn), Oscar Pettiford (cello), Charles Mingus (b), Percy Brice (dr) Tracks: 1. The Pendulum at Falcon's Lair*** 2. Tamalpais Love Song*** 3. Jack the Fieldstalker*** 4. Fru Bruel 5. Stockholm Sweetin'*** 6. Low and Behold* 7. I Succumb to Temptation 8. Chickasaw 9. Bop Scotch 10. The Most 11. Chasin' the Bass Album Title: Bass by Pettiford Recording date/location: September 9, 1954, New York City Recording Label(s): Bethlehem, Rhino Label number(s): BCP-6, Rhino 75820 Release date: 1954, re-released November 2, 1999 Principal Artist: Oscar Pettiford Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Duke Jordan (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b, cello), Ron Jefferson (dr) Tracks: 1. Sextette* 13. On the Alamo 2. The Golden Touch* 14. Honeysuckle Rose 3. Cable Car*** 4. Tricotism* 5. Edge of Love* 6. Oscar Rides Again*** 7. The Continental 8. For All We Know 9. Yesterdays 10. Imagination 11. Time Out 12. Softly as in the Morning Sunrise

PAGE 123

112 Album Title: Rugolomania Recording date/location: October 11, 1954, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia, Collectables Label number(s): CL-689, Collectables 6092 Release date: 1954, re-released November 9, 1999 Principal Artist: Pete Rugolo Personnel: Larry Fain, Leon Meriam, Doug Mettome, John Wilson (tpt), Eddie Bert, Milt Gold, Frank Rehak, Kai Winding (tbn), Stan Paley, Julius Watkins (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Dave Schildkraut, Chaset Dean (as), Joe Megro (ts, bars), Herbie Mann (flt, ts), Marty Flax (bars), Gordon ell (pn), Perry Lopez (gt), Whitey Mitchell (b), Teddy Sommer, Jerry Segal (perc) Tracks: 1. Gone With the Wind* 13. Shave and a Haircut 2. In a Sentimental Mood 14. Latin Nocturne 3. Bobbin' with Bob 15. When Your Lover Has Gone* 4. Four Twenty A.M. 5. Little White Lies 6. Me Next 7. Bongo Dance 8. Intermezzo 9. Montevideo 10. I've Had My Moments 11. Everything I Have is Yours* 12. Hornorama*** Album Title: Julius Watkins Sextet, vols. 1 and 2 Recording date/location: August 8, 1954 March 19,1955, Hackensack, NJ and New York City Recording Label(s): Blue Note Label number(s): BLP-5053, BLP-5064, BCD-95749 Release date: 1954, 1955, re-released October 20, 1998 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Frank Foste, Hank Mobley (ts), George Butcher, Duke Jordan (pn), Perry Lopez (gt), Oscar Pettiford (b), Kenny Clarke (dr) Tracks: 1. Linda Delia*** 9. Jordu*** 2. Perpetuation*** 3. I Have Known*** 4. Leete*** 5. Garden Delights*** 6. Julie Ann*** 7. Sparkling Burgandy*** 8. B and B***

PAGE 124

113 Album Title: Signals Recording date/location: October 22, 1955, Hackensack, NJ Recording Label(s): Savoy Label number(s): SLJ 2231 Release date: 1955 Principal Artist: Gigi Gryce Personnel: Art Farmer (tpt), Eddie Bert (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Gigi Gryce (as), Cecil Payne (bars), Horace Silver (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b), Art Blakey (dr), Ernestine Anderson (vcl) Tracks: 1. Social Call* 2. (You'll Always Be) The One I Love* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: The Modern Art of Jazz, vol.2 Recording date/location: February 3,1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Dawn Label number(s): DLP1104, B0000254Q1 Release date: 1956, re-released November 16, 2004 Principal Artist: Mat Mathews Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Mat Mathews (acd), Joe Puma (gt), Oscar Pettiford (b), Kenny Clarke (dr) Tracks: 1. As Time Goes By*** 2. I Only Have Eyes for You*** 3. Later on* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Come Swing with Me Recording date/location: May 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Roost; Toshiba Label number(s): RLP2212, 56583716 Release date: 1956, re-released 2003 Principal Artist: Beverly Kenny Personnel: Nick Travis (tpt), Urbie Green (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Sam Marowitz (as), Al Epstein (cl), George Berg, Danny Banks (as, ts), Janet Putman (hp), Moe Wechsler (pn), Billy Bauer, Barry Galbraith (gt), Milt Hinton (b), Don Lamond, Ted Sommer (dr), Beverly Kenny (vcl) Tracks: 1. Give Me the Simple Life* 6. If I Were a Bell* 2. Guess I'll Hang My Tears Out to Dry* 7. Why Try to Change Me Now 3. The Trolley Song* 8. Swingin On A Star* 4. Violets for My Furs* 9. You Go To My Head* 5. This Can't be Love*

PAGE 125

114 Album Title: Cuban Fire Recording date/location: May 22 24, 1956, Capitol Studios, New York City Recording Label(s): Capitol Label number(s): T731, CDP 7962602 Release date: 1957, re-issued 1991 Principal Artist: Stan Kenton Personnel: Ed Leddy, Sam Noto, Lee Katzman, Phil Gilbert, Al Mattaliano (tpt), Vinnie Tanno (tpt, flhn), Bob Fitzpatrick, Carl Fontana, Kent Larsen (tbn), Don Kelly (btb), Irving Rosenthal, Julius Watkins (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Lennie Niehaus (as), Bill Perkins, Lucky Thompson (ts), Billy Root (bars), Stan Kenton (pn), Ralph Blaze (gt), Curtis Counce (b), Mel Lewis (dr), Saul Gubin, George Gaber (timp), Willie Rodriguez (bgo), Tommy Lopez (cga), George Laguna (timb), Roger Mozian (claves), Mario Alvarez (maracas) Tracks: 1. Fuego Cubano* 2. El Congo Valiente* 3. Recuerdos* 4. Quien Sabe?* 5. La Guera Baila* 6. La Suerte de los Tontos* 7. Tres Corazones* Album Title: Jazzville, vol. 1 Recording date/location: June 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Dawn Label number(s): DLP-1101 Release date: 1956 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn) Paul West (b), Art Taylor (dr) Tracks: 1. Dancing on the Ceiling*** 2. Legend*** 3. Temptation*** 4. Episode*** 5. Dancing in the Dark*** 6. Goodbye*** 7. Blues for the Camels 8. Loverman 9. Achilles' Heel 10. Everything Happens to Me

PAGE 126

115 Album Title: Smart Jazz for the Smart Set Recording date/location: June 12, 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Seeco Label number(s): CELP-466 Release date: 1956 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b), Ron Jefferson (dr), Janet Putnam (hp), Eileen Gilbert (vcl) Tracks: 1. Town and Country*** 2. When the Blues Come On*** 3. Blue Modes*** 4. You Are Too Beautiful*** 5. So Far*** 6. Idle Evening*** 7. Garden Delights*** 8. Strange Tale*** 9. Two Songs*** Album Title: Les Jazz Modes Recording date/location: June 12, 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Dawn, Blue Moon Label number(s): DLP-1108, Blue Moon DCD-104 Release date: 1956, re-released 1998 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b), Ron Jefferson (dr), Janet Putnam (hp), Eileen Gilbert (vcl) Tracks: 1. Dancing on the Ceiling*** 13. Garden Delights*** 2. Legend*** 14. Strange Tale*** 3. Temptation*** 15. Two Songs*** 4. Episode*** 16. Stallion*** 5. Dancing in the Dark*** 6. Goodbye*** 7. Town and Country*** 8. When the Blues Come On*** 9. Blue Modes*** 10. You Are Too Beautiful*** 11. So Far*** 12. Idle Evening***

PAGE 127

116 Album Title: Oscar Pettiford Orchestra in Hi-Fi Recording date/location: June 11-19, 1956, ABC Studios, New York City Recording Label(s): ABC-Paramount Label number(s): ABC 135 Release date: 1956 Principal Artist: Oscar Pettiford Personnel: Ernie Royal, Art Farmer (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Julius Watkins, David Amram (fhn), Gigi Gryce (as), Lucky Thompson (ts), Jerome Richardson (ts, flt), Danny Bank (bars), Tommy Flanagan (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b), Osie Johnson (dr), Janet Putnam (hp) Tracks: 1. Nica's Tempo* 2. Deep Passion* 3. Sunrise-Sunset* 4. Perdido* 5. Two French Fries*** 6. Smoke Signals* 7. Speculation* 8. The Pendulum at Falcon's Lair* 9. The Gentle Art of Love* 10. Not So Sleepy* Album Title: Gil's Guests Recording date/location: August 10, 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Prestige, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): PRLP7063, OJCCD1753 Release date: 1956, re-released July 1, 1991 Principal Artist: Gil Melle Personnel: Art Farmer (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Hal McKusick (as, flt), Gil Melle (bars), Joe Cinderella (gt), Vinne Burke (b), Ed Thigpen (dr) Tracks: 1. Soudan*** 2. Tomorrow* 3. Block Island*** 4. Sixpence 5. Still Life 6. Ghengis 7. Funk for Star People 8. Golden Age 9. Herbie

PAGE 128

117 Album Title: Mood in Scarlet Recording date/location: December 4, 1956, New York City Recording Label(s): Dawn Label number(s): DLP-1117, CD-105 Release date: 1957, re-released November 16,2004 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn), Martin Rivera (b), Ron Jefferson (dr), Chino Pozo (bgo, cga), Janet Putnam (hp), Eileen Gilbert (vcl) Tracks: 1. Baubles, Bangles, and Beads*** 2. Autumn Leaves*** 3. The Golden Chariot*** 4. Let's Try*** 5. Bohemia*** 6. Catch Her*** 7. Hoo Tai*** 8. Mood in Scarlet*** 9. Linda Delia*** Album Title: Curtis Fuller and Hampton Hawes with French Horns Recording date/location: May 18, 1957, Hackensack, NJ Recording Label(s): Prestige, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): LP16-6, OJC 1942 Release date: 1963, re-released December 26, 2000 Principal Artist: Curtis Fuller Personnel: Curtis Fuller (tbn), David Amram, Julius Watkins (fhn), Sahib Shihab (as), Hampton Hawes (pn), Addison Farmer (b), Jerry Segal (dr) Tracks: 1. Ronnie's Tune* 2. Roc and Troll* 3. A-Drift* 4. Five Spot* 5. Lyriste* 6. No Crooks*

PAGE 129

118 Album Title: Modern Jazz Perspective Recording date/location: September 5, 1957, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia, Phillips Label number(s): Columbia 36810, CL 1058, KG 32482, PhillipsBBL7244 Release date: re-released October 20, 1995 Principal Artist: Donald Byrd Personnel: Donald Byrd (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland (tb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Gigi Gryce (as), Sahib Shihab (bars), Wynton Kelly (pn), Wendell Marshall (b), Art Taylor (dr) Tracks: 1. Speculation* 13. An Evening in Casablanca 2. Over the Rainbow 14. Satellite 3. Nica's Tempo* 4. Blue Concept 5. Little Niles* 6. Sans Souci 7. I Remember Clifford* 8. Early Morning Blues 9. Elegy 10. Stablemates* 11. Steppin' Out* 12. Social Call Album Title: Oscar Pettiford Orchestra in Hi-Fi, vol. 2 Recording date/location: August 23September 6, 1957, ABC Studios, New York City Recording Label(s): ABC-Paramount Label number(s): ABC 227 Release date: 1957 Principal Artist: Oscar Pettiford Personnel: Ray Copeland, Art Farmer (tpt), Al Grey (tbn), Julius Watkins, David Amram (fhn), Gigi Gryce (as), Benny Golson (ts), Jerome Richardson (ts, flt), Sahib Shihab (bars), Dick Katz (pn), Oscar Pettiford (b, cello), Whitey Mitchell (b), Gus Johnson (dr), Betty Glamann (hp) Tracks: 1. Now You See How You Are* 2. Aw! Come On* 3. I Remember Clifford* 4. Laura* 5. Somewhere* 6. Seabreeze* 7. Little Niles*

PAGE 130

119 Album Title: New York Scene Recording date/location: October 14-17, 1957, New York City Recording Label(s): Contemporary, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): C3552, OJCCD-164-2 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Benny Golson Personnel: Art Farmer (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Gigi Gryce (as), Benny Golson (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Wynton Kelly (pn), Paul Chambers (b), Charles Persip (dr) Tracks: 1. Something in B-flat 2. Whisper Not* 3. Just By Myself*** 4. Blues It* 5. You're Mine, You 6. Capri*** 7. B.G.'s Holiday* Album Title: The Most Happy Fella Recording date/location: November 7-11, 1957, New York City Recording Label(s): Atlantic, Koch Label number(s): ASD-1280, KOCCD-8507 Release date: 1958, re-released 1998 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn), Martin Rivera (b), Ron Jefferson (dr), Eileen Gilbert (vcl) Tracks: 1. Standing on the Corner*** 2. Joey, Joey, Joey*** 3. Warm All Over*** 4. Happy to Make Your Acquaintance*** 5. My Heart Is So Full Of You*** 6. The Most Happy Fella*** 7. Don't Cry* 8. Like a Woman* 9. Somebody Somewhere*

PAGE 131

120 Album Title: Four French Horns Plus Rhythm Recording date/location: 1958, New York City Recording Label(s): Elektra, Savoy Label number(s): EKL-134, Savoy CD-0214 Release date: 1958, re-released October 26, 1993 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins, David Amram, Fred Klein, Tony Miranda (fhn), Mat Mathews (acd), Joe Puma (gt), Milt Hinton (b), Osie Johnson (dr) Tracks: 1. Four Men on a Horn*** 2. Come Rain or Come Shine* 3. On the Alamo*** 4. Blues for Milt* 5. Lobo Nocho*** 6. Moods in Motion*** 7. I Want to be Happy*** 8. Wilhemine* 9. Worthington Valley*** Album Title: Experiments in Sound Recording date/location: January 14-16, 1958, New York Recording Label(s): Capitol Label number(s): T981 Release date: 1958 Principal Artist: Johnny Richards Personnel: Ray Copeland, Burt Collins, Al Stewart, John Bello (tpt), Billy Byers, Jim Dahl, Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Gene Quill (as), Frank Socolow (ts), Bill Slapin (bars, pic), Shelly Gold (bss), Bob Pancoast (pn), Chet Amsterdam (b), Jimmy Campbell (dr), Joe Venuto (xyl, perc) Tracks: 1. How are Things in Glocca Morra* 2. Estoy Cansado* 3. Tersichore* 4. Omo Ado* 5. What is There to Say* 6. Je Vous Adore*

PAGE 132

121 Album Title: The Rites of Diablo Recording date/location: April 17, 1958, New York City Recording Label(s): Roulette Label number(s): RS-52008 Release date: 1958 Principal Artist: Johnny Richards Personnel: Al Stewart, Charlie Shavers, Burt Collins, Ray Copeland (tpt), Frank Rehak, Jim Dahl, Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Gene Quill (as), Bill Slapin (pic, ts), Frank Socolow (ts), Shelly Gold (bss), Hank Jones (pn), Chet Amsterdam (b), Jimmy Campbell (dr), Joe Venuto (timp), Pete Terrace, Raymond Rodriguez (perc), Al Epstein (cga), Sol Gubin (maracas), Carlos Valdes (cga) Tracks: 1. La Pecadora* 2. Ofo* Album Title: New Bottle, Old Wine Recording date/location: April 9 May 26, 1958, New York City Recording Label(s): World Pacific, EMI Label number(s): WP1246, EMI 7468552 Release date: June 1958, re-released 1998 Principal Artist: Gil Evans Personnel: Johnny Coles, Louis Mucci, Ernie Royal (tpt), Joe Bennett, Frank Rehak, Tom Mitchell (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Harvey Phillips (tba), Julia Adderley (as), Jerry Sanfino (reeds), Gil Evans (arr, pn), Chuck Wayne (gt), Paul Chambers (b), Art Blakey (dr) Tracks: 1. St. Louis Blues* 2. King Porter Stomp* 3. Willow Tree* 4. Struttin; With Some Barbecue* 5. Lester Leaps In* 6. 'Round Midnight* 7. Manteca* 8. Bird Feathers*

PAGE 133

122 Album Title: Porgy and Bess Recording date/location: July 22, 1958, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia Label number(s): CL 1274 Release date: September 1958, re-released March 25, 1997 Principal Artist: Miles Davis Personnel: Miles Davis (tpt, flhn), Johnny Coles, Bernie Glow, Ernie Royal, Louis Mucci (tpt), Joe Bennett, Frank Rehak, Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Richard Hixon (btb), Willie Ruff, Julius Watkins, Gunther Schuller (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Julian Adderley (as), Phil Bodner, Romeo Penque (flt), Danny Banks (bcl), Paul Chambers (b), Philly Joe Jones (d), Gil Evans (arr) Tracks: 1. The Buzzard Song* 13. There's a Boat That's Leaving Soon 2. Bess, You Is My Woman Now* 14. I Loves You, Porgy (alt. version)* 3. Gone* 15. Gone (alternate take)* 4. Gone, Gone, Gone* 5. Summertime* 6. Oh Bess, Oh Where's My Bess* 7. Prayer (Oh Doctor Jesus)* 8. Fishermen, Strawberry and Devil Crab* 9. My Man's Gone Now* 10. It Ain't Necessarily So* 11. Here Come de Honey Man 12. I Loves You, Porgy* Album Title: Johnny Richards Big Band Live in Hi-Fi Stereo Recording date/location: August 2, 1958, New York City Recording Label(s): Jazz Hour Label number(s): JH-1010 Release date: 1958 Principal Artist: Johnny Richards Personnel: Doug Mettome, John Bello, Burt Collins (tpt), Jim Dahl, Jimmy Cleveland, Billy Byers (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Gene Quill (as), Frank Socolow (ts), Bill Slapin (bars, picc), Shelly Gold (bss), Bob Pancoast (pn), Chet Amsterdam (b), Charlie Persip (dr) Tracks: 1. Band Aide, No. 2* 2. What is There to Say* 3. Ofo* 4. Dimples, No. 2*

PAGE 134

123 Album Title: The Jazz Modes Recording date/location: October 28 November 20, 1958, New York Recording Label(s): Atlantic, Koch Label number(s): ASD-1306, KOCCD-8503 Release date: 1959, re-released 1999 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Charlie Rouse (ts), Gildo Mahones (pn), Paul Chambers (b), Ron Jefferson (dr), Chino Pozo (bgo), Eileen Gilbert (vcl) Tracks: 1. The Oblong*** 2. 1-2-3-4-0 In Syncopation*** 3. Blue Flame*** 4. Mood in Motion*** 5. Knittin'*** 6. This 'n' That*** 7. Glad That I Found You*** 8. Princess*** Album Title: The Robert Herridge Theatre Show Recording date/location: April 2, 1959, CBS Studios 61, New York City Recording Label(s): Beppo Records Label number(s): BEP 502 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Miles Davis Personnel: Miles Davis (tpt, flhn), Ernie Royal, Clyde Reasinger, Louis Mucci, Johnny Coles, Emmet Berry (tpt), Frank Rehak, Jimmy Cleveland, Bill Elton (tbn), Rod Leavitt (btb), Julius Watkins, Bob Northern (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Romeo Penque, Eddie Caine (ob, flt), Danny Banks (bcl), John Coltrane (ts), Paul Chambers (b), Jimmy Cobb (dr), anonymous (hp) Tracks: 1. So What 2. Unknown Title 3. Unknown Title/So What 4. The Duke* 5. Blues for Pablo* 6. New Rhumba* 7. So What (alternate version) 8. So What (alternate version) 9. So What

PAGE 135

124 Album Title: Brass Shout Recording date/location: May 1959, New York Recording Label(s): United Artists Label number(s): UAS 5047 Release date: June 1959 Principal Artist: Art Farmer Personnel: Art Farmer, Lee Morgan, Ernie Royal (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Curtis Fuller (tbn), James Haughton (bars), Julius Watkins (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Percy Heath (b), Philly Joe Jones (dr), Benny Golson (arr) Tracks: 1. Minor Vamp*** 2. Five Spot After Dark*** 3. Nica's Dream* 4. Autumn Leaves*** 5. Stella by Starlight* Album Title: Walk Softly/Run Wild Recording date/location: May 12 14, 1959, New York City Recording Label(s): Coral Label number(s): CRL-57304 Release date: 1959 Principal Artist: Johnny Richards Personnel: Burt Collins, Jerry Kail, John Bello, Ray Copeland (tpt), Billy Byers, Jimmy Cleveland, Jim Dahl (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Gene Quill (as), Frank Socolow (ts), Bill Slapin (bars, pic), Shelly Russell (bss), John Knapp (pn), Chet Amsterdam (b), Ed Shaughnessy (dr), Warren Smith (perc), Johnny Richards (arr) Tracks: 1. Laura* 2. Three Cornered Hat* 3. Walk Softly* 4. The Way You Look Tonight*

PAGE 136

125 Album Title: Birth of a Band Recording date/location: May 27 June 16, 1959, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury, Universal Label number(s): MG20444 Release date: 1959, re-released March 31, 2003 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Joe Newman, Ernie Royal, Joe Wilder, Clark Terry (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Urbie Green, Quentin Jackson, Melba Liston (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods, Frank Wess (as), Benny Golson, Zoot Sims (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Kenny Burrell (gt), Milt Hinton (b), Sam Woodyard (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Happy Faces* 2. Along Came Betty* 3. I Remember Clifford* 4. Whisper Not* 5. The Gypsy* 6. Tickle-Toe* 7. Daylie Double*** 8. Birth of a Band* 9. A Change of Pace*

PAGE 137

126 Album Title: Satin Brass Recording date/location: October 1959, New York City Recording Label(s): Capitol, EMI Label number(s): ST-1326, 1391792 Release date: 1959, re-released March 12, 2002 Principal Artist: George Shearing Personnel: Dan Little, Cal Massey, Ben Ventura, Lamar Wright (tpt), Dick Brace, Chuck Maxon, Larry Wilson, Hale Rood (tbn), Bob Northern, Julius Watkins (fhn), Zuke Zarcher (tba), George Shearing (pn), Dick Garcia (gt), Hyatt Reuther (b), Lawrence Marable, Percy Brice (dr), Armando Perazza (cga), Emil Richards (vib), Toots Thielmans (gt, hca) Tracks: 1. Memories of You 13. Deep Night* 2. Lulu's Back in Town 14. In the Blue of the Evening* 3. If You Were Mine 15. I Could Write a Book* 4. Burnished Brass 16. Sleepy Manhattan* 5. These Things You Left Me 17. If I Had You* 6. Mine 18. Just Plain Bill* 7. Beautiful Love 19. First Floor Please* 8. Cuckoo In the Clock 20. Chelsea Bridge* 9. Sometimes I Feel Like 21. Like a Ship Without a Sail* 10. Cheek to Cheek 22. Stairway to the Stars* 11. Blame It On My Youth 23. You Look Like Someone* 12. Basie's Masement 24. Night Flight* Album Title: Guys and Dolls Recording date/location: November 4, 1959, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia Label number(s): CL 1426 Release date: 1960 Principal Artist: Manhattan Jazz All-Stars Personnel: Bob Brookmeyer (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Zoot Sims (ts), Teddy Charles (vib), Charles Thompson (pn), Addison Farmer (b), Ed Shaughnessy (dr) Tracks: 1. My Time of Day*** 10. Havana 2. I've Never Been in Love Before 11. Ill Know 3. A Bushel and a Peck 4. Fugue for Tinhorns 5. Luck be a Lady* 6. The Oldest Established 7. Guys and Dolls 8. If I Were a Bell 9. Follow the Fold***

PAGE 138

127 Album Title: Live at the Alhambra '60 Recording date/location: February 14, 1960, Paris, France Recording Label(s): Jazz Music Yesterday, Qwest Records Label number(s): JMY 1004-2, 946190-2 Release date: 1960, re-released 1996 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Clark Terry, Benny Bailey, Lonnie Johnson, Floyd Standifer (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Ake Persson, Melba Liston, Quentin Jackson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Porter Filbert, Phil Woods (as), Jerome Richardson, Bud Johnson (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Les Spann (gt, flt), Buddy Catlett (b), Hoe Harris (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. The Birth of a Band* 2. Everybody's Blues*** 3. Moanin'* 4. Tickle-Toe 5. Stockholm Sweetnin'* 6. I Remember Clifford* 7. Walkin'* Album Title: Birth of a Band, vol. 2 Recording date/location: February 29, 1960, Paris, France Recording Label(s): Mercury, Verve Label number(s): 822-611-2 Release date: 1960, re-released November 30, 2004 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Harry Edison, Ernie Royal, Joe Royal, Clark Terry (tpt), Billy Byers, Jimmy Cleveland, Urbie Green, Tom Mitchell (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Jerome Richardson (as, flt, ts), Bud Johnson, Sam Taylor (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Kenny Burrell (gt), Milt Hinton (b), Sam Woodyard (dr), Jimmy Crawford (perc) Tracks: 1. Syncopated Clock 13. A Parisian Thoroughfare* 2. Choo Choo Ch'Boogie* 14. G'wan Train 3. The Hucklebuck* 4. The Midnight Sun Will Never Set* 5. The Preacher* 6. Marchin' the Blues* 7. Blues in the Night* 8. After Hours* 9. Moanin'* 10. Happy Faces 11. Daylie Double 12. Pleasingly Plump***

PAGE 139

128 Album Title: I Dig Dancers Recording date/location: February 27 October 19, 1960, Paris and New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): MG 20612 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Lonnie Johnson, Bennie Bailey, Clark Terry, Floyd Standifer (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Ake Persson, Melba Liston, Quentin Jackson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Porter Kilbert, Phil Woods (as), Jerome Richardson, Bud Johnson (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Les Spann (gt, flt), Buddy Catlett (b), Joe Harris (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Love is Here to Stay* 2. Moonglow* 3. Trouble in Mind*** 4. Chinese Checkers* 5. Pleasingly Plump*** 6. A Parisian Thoroughfare* 7. A Sunday Kind of Love* 8. The Midnight Sun Will Never Set* 9. G'wan Train*** 10. You Turned the Tables on Me*** 11. Tone Poem* Album Title: Uhuru Afrika Recording date/location: November, 1960, New York City Recording Label(s): Roulette Label number(s): R65001, RCDP7945102 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Randy Weston Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt, flhn), Benny Bailey, Richard Williams, Freddie Hubbard (tpt), Slide Hampton, Jimmy Cleveland, Quentin Jackson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Gigi Gryce (as, flt), Yusef Lateef (ts, flt, ob), Budd Johnson (ts, clt), Sahib Shihab (as, bars), Jerome Richardson (bars, pic), Cecil Payne (bars), Randy Weston (pn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Kenny Burrell (gt), George Devivier, Ron Carter (b), Max Roach, Charlie Persip, G.T. Hogan (dr), Babatunde Olatunji (perc), Armando Perrazza (bgo), Candido (cga), Martha Flowers, Brock Peters (vcl), Tentemenke Sanga (narr) Tracks: 1. Uhuru Afrika* 2. African Lady* 3. Banto* 4. Kucheza Blues*

PAGE 140

129 Album Title: Gillespiana Recording date/location: November 14-15, 1960, New York City Recording Label(s): Verve, Polygram Label number(s): Verve 8394, Polygram 19809 Release date: re-released October 19, 1993 Principal Artist: Dizzy Gillespie Personnel: Dizzy Gillespie, Clark Terry, Ernie Royal, Joe Wilder, John Frosk (tpt), Urbie Green, Britt Woodman, Frank Rehak (tbn), Paul Faulise (btb), Julius Watkins, Gunther Schuller, Jimmy Buffington, Al Richman, Morris Seacon, William Lister (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Leo Wright (as, flt), Lalo Schifrin (pn), Chuck Lampkin (dr), Candido (cga), Willie Rodriguez (timb, timp), Jack del Rio (bgo) Tracks: 1. Prelude* 2. Blues* 3. Pan Americana* 4. Africana* 5. Toccata* 6. Manteca 7. This is the Way 8. Ool Ya Koo 9. Kush 10. Tunisian Fantasy Album Title: Color Changes Recording date/location: November 19, 1960, New York City Recording Label(s): Candid Label number(s): CJM-8009, CD-9009 Release date: 1961, re-released October, 2000 Principal Artist: Clark Terry Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt, flhn), Jimmy Knepper (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Yusef Lateef (ts, flt, ob, eng), Seldon Powell (ts, flt), Tommy Flanagan (pn), Joe Benjamin (b), Ed Shaughnessy (dr) Tracks: 1. Blue Waltz*** 2. Brother Terry* 3. Flutin' and Fluglin*** 4. No Problem* 5. La Rive Gauche*** 6. Nashtye Blues* 7. Chat qui Peche***

PAGE 141

130 Album Title: Big Brass Recording date/location: November 25, 1960, New York City Recording Label(s): Candid Label number(s): CJM 8011, CJS 9011, CDD79011 Release date: 1961, re-released October, 1987 Principal Artist: Benny Bailey Personnel: Benny Bailey (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as, bcl), Tommy Flanagan (pn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Buddy Catlett (b), Art Taylor (dr) Tracks: 1. Hard Sock Dance*** 2. Alison 3. Tipsey 4. Please Say Yes*** 5. A Kiss to Build a Dream On* 6. Maud's Mood*** Album Title: Gemini Recording date/location: December 8 16, 1960, New York City Recording Label(s): Jazzland, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): JLP-935S, OJCCD-19482 Release date: 1961, re-released October 2, 2001 Principal Artist: Les Spann Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Tommy Flanagan (pn), Percy Heath (b), Louis Hayes (dr) Tracks: 1. Smile*** 2. Con Alma*** 3. Q's Dues Blues*** 4. It Might As Well Be Spring*** 5. Stockholm Sweetin'*** 6. Blues for Gemini*** 7. Afterthought*** 8. There is No Greater Love***

PAGE 142

131 Album Title: Cal Massey: Blues to Coltrane Recording date/location: January 13, 1961, Nola Penthouse Sound Studios, New York Recording Label(s): Candid Label number(s): CM8019, CD9029 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Cal Massey Personnel: Cal Massey (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Hugh Brodie (ts), Patti Brown (pn), Jimmy Garrison (b), G.T. Hogan (dr) Tracks: 1. Blues for Coltrane*** 2. What's Wrong?* 3. Bakai* 4. These are Soulful Days*** 5. Father and Son*** Album Title: The Rights of Swing Recording date/location: January 6 February 10, 1961, Nola Penthouse Studios, New York City Recording Label(s): Candid Label number(s): CJM8016, CCD-79016 Release date: 1961, re-released 1989 Principal Artist: Phil Woods Personnel: Benny Bailey (tpt), Curtis Fuller (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Sahib Shihab (bars), Tommy Flanagan (p), Buddy Catlett (b), Osie Johnson (dr), Tracks: 1. Prelude and Part I*** 2. Part II (Ballad)*** 3. Part III (Waltz)*** 4. Part IV (Scherzo)*** 5. Part V (Presto)***

PAGE 143

132 Album Title: Change of Pace Recording date/location: February 16, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP 368, OJCCD 1922-2 Release date: 1961, re-released January 24, 2002 Principal Artist: Johnny Griffin Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Johnny Griffin (ts), Bill Lee, Larry Gayles (b), Ben Riley (dr) Tracks: 1. Soft and Furry 2. In the Still of the Night* 3. The Last of the Fat Pants* 4. Same to You* 5. Connie's Bounce* 6. Situation* 7. Nocturne 8. Why Not?*** 9. As We All Know Album Title: Around the World with Quincy Jones Recording date/location: January 24 February 27, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): PPS 20141 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Benny Bailey, Clark Terry, Ernie Royal (tpt), Curtis Fuller (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Jerome Richardson, Eric Dixon (flt, ts), Sahib Shihab (flt, bars), Patti Brown (pn), Don Arnone (gt), Stu Martin, Jimmy Crawford (dr), Tito Puente, Potato Valdez, Mike Olatunji (perc), Don Elliott (vib, xyl), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Hot Sake* 11. Danny Boy* 2. Strike Up the Band* 12. Rico Vacilon* 3. Africana* 4. Meadowlands* 5. Under Paris Skies* 6. Mack the Knife* 7. Manolete de Espana* 8. Baia* 9. Come Back to Sorrento* 10. Swedish Warmland*

PAGE 144

133 Album Title: The Great Wide World of Quincy Jones, Live! Recording date/location: March 10, 1961, Zurich, Switzerland Recording Label(s): Mercury, Verve Label number(s): MG 20561 Release date: 1960, re-released November 30, 2004 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Ernie Royal, Art Farmer, Jimmy Maxwell, Lee Morgan, Nick Travis, Lonnie Johnson (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Frank Rehak, Urbie Green, Billy Byers (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods, Porter Kilbert (as), Jerome Richardson (flt, ts, pic), Budd Johnson (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Buddy Catlett (b), Don Lamond (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Lester Leaps In* 2. Ghana* 3. Caravan* 4. Everybody's Blues*** 5. Cherokee*** 6. Air Mail Special* 7. They Say It's Wonderful* 8. Chant of the Weed* 9. I Never Has Seen Snow* 10. Eesom*** Album Title: The Great Wide World of Quincy Jones Live! Recording date/location: March 10, 1961, Zurich, Switzerland Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): 195J-32 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Benny Bailey, Freddie Hubbard, Rolf Ericson, Paul Cohen (tpt), Curtis Fuller, Melba Liston, Ake Perrson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods, Joe Lopez (as), Eric Dixon, Budd Johnson (ts), Sahib Shihab (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Buddy Catlett (b), Stu Martin (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Air Mail Special* 2. Banjaluka*** 3. Bess You is My Woman Now* 4. Solitude* 5. Stolen Moments* 6. Moanin*

PAGE 145

134 Album Title: The Quota Recording date/location: March 14 20, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP372, OJCCD 1871-2 Release date: 1961, re-released June 15, 1995 Principal Artist: Jimmy Heath Personnel: Freddie Hubbard (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jimmy Heath (ts), Cedar Walton (pn), Percy Heath (b), Albert Heath (dr) Tracks: 1. The Quota*** 2. Lowland Lullaby*** 3. Thinking of You*** 4. Bells and Horns*** 5. Downshift*** 6. When Sonny Gets Blue* 7. Funny Time*** Album Title: Miles Davis at Carnegie Hall Recording date/location: May 19, 1961, Carnegie Hall, New York Recording Label(s): Columbia, Sony Label number(s): CL 1812, Sony 65027 Release date: June 1961; re-released March 31, 1998 Principal Artist: Miles Davis Personnel: Miles Davis, Ernie Royal, Bernie Glow, Johnny Coles, Louis Mucci (tpt), Jimmy Knepper, Richard Hixon, Frank Rehak (tb), Julius Watkins, Paul Ingraham, Robert Swisshelm (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Romeo Penque, Jerome Richardson, Eddie Caine, BobTriscario, Danny Bank (reeds), Janet Putnam (hp), Paul Chambers (b), Jimmy Cobb (dr), Bobby Rosengarden (perc), Gil Evans (arr) Tracks: 1. So What* 2. Spring Is Here* 3. Teo 4. Walkin 5. The Meaning of the Blues/Lament* 6. new Rhumba 7. Someday My Prince Will Come* 8. Oleo 9. No Blues 10. I Thought About You 11. En Aranjuez Con Tu Amor*

PAGE 146

135 Album Title: Africa Brass, Vols. 1 and 2 Recording date/location: May 23, 1961, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Recording Label(s): Impulse Label number(s): MCAD 2001 Release date: 1961; re-released October 10, 1995 Principal Artist: John Coltrane Personnel: Booker Little, Freddie Hubbard (tpt), Julian Priester (tb), Charles Greenlee (euph), Julius Watkins, Donald Corrado, Bob Northern, Jimmy Buffington, Robert Swisshel (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Eric Dolphy (as, flt, bcl), Garvin Bushell (reeds), Laurdine Patrick (bars), John Coltrane (ts, sop), McCoy Turner (pn), Reggie Workman (b), Elvin Jones (dr) Tracks: 1. Greensleeves* 2. Song of the Underground Railroad* 3. Greensleeves (alternate take)* 4. The Damned Don't Cry* 5. Africa (first version)* 6. Blues Minor 7. Africa (alternate take)* 8. Africa* Album Title: Quincy Jones and His Orchestra at Newport: 1961 Recording date/location: July 3, 1961, Newport, RI Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): MG 20653 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Jimmy Maxwell, Jimmy Nottingham, Joe Newman, John Bello (tpt), Curtis Fuller, Britt Woodman, Melba Liston, Paul Faulise (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Joe Lopez, Phil Woods (as), Eric Dixon, Jerome Richardson (ts), Pat Patrick (bars), Patti Brown (pn), Les Spann (flt, gt), Art Davis (b), Stu Martin (dr), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Meet Benny Bailey* 2. Boy in a Tree* 3. Evening in Paris* 4. Air Mail Special* 5. Lester Leaps In* 6. G'wan Train*** 7. Banja Luka* 8. Ghana

PAGE 147

136 Album Title: Kwamina Recording date/location: September 12 14, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): MG-20654 Release date: 1961 Principal Artist: Billy Taylor Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt, flhn), Jimmy Cleveland (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Phil Woods (as), Frank Wess (ts), Jerome Richardson (bars), Billy Taylor (pn), Les Spann (gt), George Devivier (b), Osie Johnson (dr), Jimmie Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Something Big* 2. I'm Seeing Rainbows* 3. Ordinary People* 4. The Cocoa Bean Song* 5. What's Wrong With Me* 6. Nothing More To Look Forward To* 7. Another Time, Another Place* 8. Happy is the Cricket* 9. The Sun is Beginning to Crow* Album Title: Afro-American Sketches Recording date/location: September 29, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Prestige, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): PRLP-7225, OJCCD-18192 Release date: 1961, re-released August 20, 1993 Principal Artist: Oliver Nelson Personnel: Ernie Royal, Joe Newman, Jerry Kail, Joe Wilder (tpt), Urbie Green, Britt Woodman, Paul Faulise (tbn), Julius Watkins, Ray Alonge, Jimmy Buffington (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Oliver Nelson (as, ts, arr), Jerry Dodgion (as, flt), Bob Ashton (ts, flt, clt), Charles McCracken, Pete Makis (cello), Art Davis (b), Ed Shaughnessy (dr), Ray Barretto (cga, bgo) Tracks: 1. Message* 2. Jungleaire* 3. Emancipation Blues 4. There's a Yearnin'* 5. Goin Up North 6. Disillusioned 7. Freedom Dance

PAGE 148

137 Album Title: At Basin Street East Recording date/location: October 1, 1961, Basin Street East, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury, Polygram Label number(s): MG 20674, Polygram 32592 Release date: 1961, re-released 1990 Principal Artist: Billy Ecketine Personnel: Joe Newman, John Bello, Jimmy Maxwell, Jimmy Nottingham (tpt), Curtis Fuller, Britt Woodman, Melba Liston, Paul Faulise (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Joe Lopez, Phil Woods (as), Jerome Richardson, Eric Dixon (ts), Patti Brown (p), Les Spann (flt, gt), Art Davis (b), Stu Martin (d), Billy Eckstein (vcl) Tracks: 1. All Right, Okay, You Win* 2. Medley: I'm Falling for You, Fool That I 3. In the Still of the Night* 4. Ellington Medley* 5. Work Song* 6. Ma (She's Making Eyes At Me* Album Title: A Jazz Version of Kean Recording date/location: October 31 November 1, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside Label number(s): RLP-397 Release date: 1962 Principal Artist: Riverside Jazz All-Stars Personnel: Blue Mitchell (tpt), Clark Terry (flhn), Julius Watkins (fhn), George Dorsey (as), Jimmy Heath (ts), Arthur Clarke (bars), Bobby Timmons (pn), Ron Carter (b), Al heath (dr), Ernie Wilkins (arr) Tracks: 1. Sweet Danger* 2. Chime In* 3. To Look Upon My Love*** 4. The Frog and the Grog* 5. Elena* 6. Inevitable* 7. Penny Plain* 8. Willow, Willow, Willow*

PAGE 149

138 Album Title: French Horns for My Lady Recording date/location: December, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Phillips Label number(s): PHM 200-001 Release date: 1962 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Roger "King" Mozian (tpt), Julius Watkins, Gunther Schuller, Bob Northern, Jimmy Buffington, John Barrows (fhn), Jay McAllister (tba), Eddie Costa (pn, vib), George Devivier (b), Ray Barretto (cga), Martha Zena Flowers (vcl), Billy Byers, Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Temptation*** 2. Claire de Lune* 3. September Song*** 4. Catana*** 5. I'm a Fool to Want You* 6. Speak Low*** 7. Nauges* 8. The Boy Next Door*** 9. Mood Indigo*** 10. Home*** Album Title: no title Recording date/location: December 14, 1961, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Recording Label(s): Blue Note Label number(s): n/a Release date: not released Principal Artist: Tadd Dameron Personnel: Donald Byrd (tpt), Curtis Fuller (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Sam Rivers (as), Cecil Payne (bars), Tadd Dameron (pn, arr), Paul Chambers (b), Philly Joe Jones (dr) Tracks: 1. The Elder Speaks 2. Bevan Beeps 3. Lament for the Livery 4. Aloof Spoof

PAGE 150

139 Album Title: The Quintessence Recording date/location: November 29 December 22, 1961, New York City Recording Label(s): Impulse, Universal Label number(s): AS11, B000024HSJ Release date: 1962, re-released March 11, 1997 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Jerry Kail, Clyde Reasinger, Clark Tery, Joe Newman (tpt), Billy Byers, Melba Liston, Paul Faulise (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Eric Dixon, Jerome Richardson (ts), Bobby Scott (pn), Buddy Catlett (b), Stu Martin (dr), Quincy Jones (arr), and others Tracks: 1. Quintessence* 2. Robot Portrait* 3. Little Karen* 4. Straight, No Chaser* 5. For Lena and Lennie* 6. Hard Sock Dance* 7. Invitation* 8. The Twitch* Album Title: Triple Threat Recording date/location: January 4, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP400, OJCCD 1909 Release date: 1962, re-released May 6, 1998 Principal Artist: Jimmy Heath Personnel: Freddie Hubbard (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jimmy Heath (ts), Cedar Walton (pn), Percy Heath (b), Albert Heath (dr) Tracks: 1. Gemini*** 2. Bruh' Slim* 3. Goodbye* 4. Dew and Mud*** 5. Make Someone Happy 6. The More I See You 7. Prospecting*

PAGE 151

140 Album Title: Duke: Impressions of Duke Ellington Recording date/location: January 5, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury Label number(s): MG 2028, SR 6028 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Billy Byers Personnel: Ernie Royal, Doc Severinson, Joe Newman, Clark Terry, Al DeRisi (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Melba Liston, Jack Rains, Tony Studd (tb), Jimmy Buffington, Ray Alonge, Julius Watkins, Bob Northern (fhn), Harvey Phillips (tba), Jerry Dodgion (as, clt, flt), Spencer Sinatra, Eric Dixon (ts), Sol Schlinger (bars, bcl), Patti (pn), Milt Hinton (b), Osie Johnson, Ed Shaughnessy (dr), Eddie Costa (perc) Tracks: 1. Caravan* 2. Don't Get Around Much Anymore* 3. Chelsea Bridge* 4. I'm Beginning to See the Light* 5. Sophisticated Lady* 6. Take the A Train* Album Title: Jazz Goes to the Movies Recording date/location: February 12, 1962, New York Recording Label(s): Impulse Label number(s): A19 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Manny Albam Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt, flhn), Nick Travis (tpt), Bob Brookmeyer (vtb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Harvey Phillips (tba), Gene Quill (as), Oliver Nelson (ts), Gene Allen (bars), Eddie Costa (pn, vib), Jimmy Raney (gt), Bill Crow (b), Gus Johnson (dr) Tracks: 1. Exodus 2. High Noon (Do Not Forsake Me)* 3. Paris Blues 4. La Dolce Vita* 5. Majority of One 6. Green Leaves of Summer 7. Guns of Navarone* 8. El Cid 9. Slowly*

PAGE 152

141 Album Title: The Magic Touch Recording date/location: February 27, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP 419, OJCCD 142-3 Release date: 1962, re-released February 12, 1996 Principal Artist: Tadd Dameron Personnel: Joe Wilder, Clark Terry, Ernie Royal (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Britt Woodman (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Leo Wright, Jerry Dodgion (as, flt), Jerome Richardson (ts), Tate Houston (bars), Bill Evans (pn), George Duviver (b), Philly Joe Jones (dr), Tadd Dameron (arr) Tracks: 1. Our Delight*** 2. Our Delight (alternate take)*** 3. Dial "B" for Beauty* 4. Bevan's Birthday* 5. On a Misty Night* 6. On a Misty Night (alternate take)* 7. Fontainebleau* 8. Just Plain Talkin' 9. Just Plain Talkin' (alternate take) Album Title: A Sure Thing Recording date/location: March 7, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP414, OJCCD837 Release date: 1962, re-released January 25, 1995 Principal Artist: Blue Mitchell Personnel: Blue Mitchell, Clark Terry (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Jerome Richardson (as, flt), Jimmy Heath (ts), Pepper Adams, Pat Patrick (bars), Wynton Kelly (pn), Sam Jones (b), Al Heath (dr) Tracks: 1. West Coast Blues* 2. I Can't Get Started* 3. Blue on Blue* 4. A Sure Thing* 5. Hootie Blues* 6. Hip to it* 7. Gone with the Wind*

PAGE 153

142 Album Title: Bursting Out Recording date/location: June 13 24, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Verve Label number(s): MG8476 Release date: 1962 Principal Artist: Oscar Peterson Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt, flhn), Ernie Royal, Roy Eldridge, Snooky Young, Jimmy Nottingham (tpt), Nat Adderley (as), Pat Brotherly (cnt), Jimmy Cleveland, Melba Liston, Paul Faulise, Slide Hampton, Britt Woodman (tbn), Willie Ruff, Ray Alonge, Julius Watkins, Morris Secon, Jimmy Buffington (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Julian Adderley (as), Jerome Richardson, James Moody (ts), Seldon Powell, George Dorsey (bars), Oscar Peterson (pn), Ray (b), Ed Thigpen (dr) Tracks: 1. Blues for Big Scotia* 2. West Coast Blues* 3. Here's That Rainy Day* 4. I Love You* 5. Daahoud* 6. Tricotism* 7. I'm Old Fashioned* 8. Young and Foolish* 9. Manteca* Album Title: Quiet Nights Recording date/location: July 27, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia, Sony Label number(s): CL 2106, Sony 65293 Release date: 1963, re-released September 23, 1997 Principal Artist: Miles Davis Personnel: Miles Davis, Ernie Royal, Bernie Glow, Johnny Coles, Louis Mucci (tpt), Jimmy Knepper, Richard Hixon, Frank Rehak (tb), Julius Watkins, Paul Ingraham, Robert Swisshelm (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Romeo Penque, Jerome Richardson, Eddie Caine, Bob Triscario, Danny Bank (reeds), Steve Lacy (sop), Janet Putnam (hp), Paul Chambers (b), Jimmy Cobb (dr), Bobby Rosengarden (perc), Gil Evans (arr) Tracks: 1. Song No. 2 8. The Time of the Barracudas 2. Once Upon a Summertime 3. Aos Pes Daz Cruz* 4. Song No. 1* 5. Wait till You See Her* 6. Corcovado* 7. Summer Night

PAGE 154

143 Album Title: Big Band Bossa Nova Recording date/location: August 13 September 12, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Mercury, Polygram Label number(s): MG20751, 557913 Release date: 1962, re-released November 3, 1998 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Clark Terry (tpt), Julius Watkins (fhn), Phil Woods (as), Roland Kirk (flt, ts), Lalo Schifrin (pn), Jim Hall (gt), Chis White (b), Rudy Collins (dr), Jose Paula, Carlos Gomez, Jack del Rio (perc), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Soul Bosa Nova* 2. Boogie Bossa Nova* 3. Desifinado* 4. Carnival* 5. Se e Tarde Me Pardoa* 6. On the Street Where You Live* 7. Samba de una Nota So* 8. Lalo Bossa Nova* 9. Serenata* 10. Chega de Saudade* Album Title: Michel LeGrand Plays Richard Rodgers Recording date/location: December 6, 1962, New York City Recording Label(s): Phillips Label number(s): PHM200 Release date: 1963 Principal Artist: Michel LeGrand Personnel: Clark Terry, Snooky Young, Ernie Royal, Al DeRisi (tpt), Bob Brookmeyer, Wayne Andre, Bill Elton, Urbie Green Tom Mitchell (tbn), Julius Watkins, Bob Northern, Ray Alonge, Earl Chapin (fhn), Jerry Dodgion (as), Phil Woods (as, flt, clt), Paul Gonsalves, Al Klink (ts), Danny Banks (bars), Tommy Flanagan (pn), Milt Hinton (b), Sol Gubin (dr), Michel LeGrand (arr) Tracks: 1. Falling in Love with Love 9. Getting to Know You 2. People Say We're In Love 10. Miss Funny Valentine 3. Bali Ha'I 11. The Lady is a Tramp* 4. Have You Met Ms. Jones* 5. It Might As Well Be Spring 6. This Can't Be Love* 7. Some Enchanted Evening 8. There's a Small Hotel

PAGE 155

144 Album Title: Gil Evans Orchestra, Kenny Burrell and Phil Woods Recording date/location: 1962-63, New York City Recording Label(s): MGM Verve Label number(s): V-8838 Release date: 1973 Principal Artist: Gil Evans, Kenny Burrell, Phil Woods Personnel: Johnny Coles, Louis Mucci, Bernie Glow, Thad Jones (tpt), Jimmy Knepper, Jimmy Cleveland, Tony Studd (tbn), Julius Watkins, Ray Alonge (fhn), Billy Barber (tba), Andy Fitzgerald, George Magre, Bob Tricarico (reeds), Steve Lacy (sop), Phil Woods (as), Wayne Shorter (ts), Gil Evans (pn), Kenny Burrell, Barry Galbraith, (gt), Paul Chambers, Richard Davis, Milt Hinton, Gary Peacock, Ron Carter, Bob Crenshaw (b), Elvin Jones, Charlie Persip (dr), Harry Lookofsky (vln) Tracks: 1. Cheryl (Blues in Orbit)* 2. Spoonful* 3. Concorde* 4. The Underdog (Isabel)* 5. General Assembly (Barracuda)*___________________________________ Album Title: Quincy Jones Plays Hip Hits Recording date/location: June 15, 1962 April 11, 1963, A & R Studios, New York Recording Label(s): Mercury, Verve Label number(s): MG 20799 Release date: 1963, re-released December 21, 2004 Principal Artist: Quincy Jones Personnel: Joe Newman, Clark Terry, Ernie Royal, Snooky Young, Jimmy Nottingham, Al DeRisi (tpt), Billy Byers, Paul Faulise, Jimmy Cleveland, Quentin Jackson, Kai Winding, Tom Mitchell, Santo Russo, Melba Liston (tbn), Julius Watkins, Jimmy Buffington, Ray Alonge, Bob Northern, Earl Chapin, Paul Ingraham, Fred Klein, Willie Ruff (fhn), Bill Stanley, Jay McAllister (tba), Phil Woods, Zoot Sims, Roland Kirk, James Moody, Walt Levinsky, Frank Wess, Al Cohn, Romeo Penque, Bud Johnson, Seldon Powell, Jerome Richardson (reeds), Lalo Schifrin, Bobby Scott, Patti Brown (pno, org), Kenny Burrell, Jim Hall, Wayne Wright, Sam Hermann (gt), Milt Hinton, Art Davis, George Devivier, Ben Tucker, Major Holley, Chris White (b), Rudy Collins, Osie Johnson, Ed Shaughnessy (dr), Charles McCoy (har, timp), James Johnson (timp), Charles Gomez, Jack del Rio, Jose Paula, Bill Costa, George Devins (perc), Quincy Jones (arr) Tracks: 1. Comin' Home Baby* 8. Jive Samba* 2. Gravy Waltz* 9. Take Five* 3. Desafinado* 10. Walk on the Wild Side* 4. Exodus* 11. Watermelon Man* 5. Cast Your Fate to the Wind* 12. Bossa Nova USA* 6. A Taste of Honey* 13. Im a Woman (unissued) 7. Back at the Chicken Shack

PAGE 156

145 Album Title: no title Recording date/location: April 11-12, 1963, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Recording Label(s): Blue-Note Label number(s): n/a Release date: not released Principal Artist: Horace Silver Personnel: Blue Mitchell, Kenny Dorham (tpt), Grachan Moncur III (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Junior Cook, Jimmy Heath (ts), Charles Davis (bars), Horace Silver (pn), Gene Taylor (b), Roy Brooks (dr) Tracks: 1. Silver's Serenade* 2. Sweet Sweetie Dee* 3. Nineteen Bars* 4. Next Time I Fall In Love* 5. The Dragon Lady* 6. Let's Go to the Nitty Gritty* ________________________________________________________________________ Album Title: Body and Soul Recording date/location: March 8 May 2, 1963, Englewood Cliffs, NJ; New York City Recording Label(s): Impulse, GRP Records Label number(s): AS38, GRP183 Release date: 1963, re-released September 24, 1996 Principal Artist: Freddie Hubbard Personnel: Freddie Hubbard, Ed Amour, Richard Williams (tpt), Melba Liston, Curtis Fuller (tbn), Bob Northern, Julius Watkins (fhn), Eric Dolphy (as,flt), Jerome Richardson (bars), Cedar Walton (pn), Reggie Workman (b), Philly Joe Jones (dr), Harry Cykman, Morris Stonzek, Arnold Eidus, Sol Shapiro, Charles McCracken, Harry Katzman, Harry Lookofsky, Gene Orloff, Julius Held, Raoul Poliakin (strings), Wayne Shorter (arr) Tracks: 1. Body and Soul 2. Carnival 3. Chocolate Shake* 4. Dedicated to You 5. Clarence's Place 6. Aries 7. Skylark* 8. I Got it Bad (And That Ain't Good)* 9. Thermo

PAGE 157

146 Album Title: Swamp Seed Recording date/location: March 11 May 28, 1963, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RLP465, OJCCD 1904 Release date: 1963, re-released December 24, 1997 Principal Artist: Jimmy Heath Personnel: Donald Byrd (tpt), Julius Watkins, Jimmy Buffington (fhn), Don Butterfield (tba), Jimmy Heath (ts), Percy Heath (b), Harold Mabern, Herbie Hancock (pn), Albert Heath, Connie Kay (dr) Tracks: 1. Six Steps* 2. Nutty* 3. More Than You Know* 4. Swamp Seed* 5. D Waltz* 6. Just in Time* 7. Wall to Wall*** _______________________________________________________________________ Album Title: Highlife: Music From the New African Nations Recording date/location: August, 1963, New York City Recording Label(s): Colpix, Roulette Label number(s): CPS-456, RCDP7945102 Release date: 1963 Principal Artist: Randy Weston Personnel: Ray Copeland (tpt, flhn), Jimmy Cleveland, Quentin Jackson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Aaron Bell (tba), Budd Johnson (sop, ts), Booker Ervin (ts), Randy Weston (pn), Peck Morrison (b), Charlie Persip (dr), Archie Lee (cga), Frankie Dunlop, George Young (perc) Tracks: 1. Caban Bamboo Highlife* 2. Niger Mambo 3. Zulu*** 4. In Memory Of* 5. Congolese Children*

PAGE 158

147 Album Title: For Someone I Love Recording date/location: March 18 August 5, 1963, New York City Recording Label(s): Riverside, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): RM478, OJCCD404 Release date: 1963, re-released July 1, 1991 Principal Artist: Milt Jackson Personnel: Clark Terry, Dave Burns, Snooky Young, Thad Jones, Bill Berry, Elmo Wright (tpt), John Rains, Quentin Jackson, Jimmy Cleveland, Tom McIntosh (tbn), Julius Watkins, Ray Alonge, Willie Ruff, Paul Ingraham (fhn), Major Holly (tba), Milt Jackson (vib), Hank Jones, Jimmy Jones (pn), Richard Davis, Charlie Persip (b), Melba Liston (arr) Tracks: 1. Days of Wine and Roses* 2. For Someone I Love*** 3. Morning Glory* 4. Save Your Love for Me* 5. Extraordinary Blues* 6. Flamingo* 7. Chelsea Bridge* 8. Just Waiting for You* 9. Bossa Bags* Album Title: The Individualism of Gil Evans Recording date/location: September, 1963 July 9, 1964, New York City, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Recording Label(s): Verve, Polygram Label number(s): MGV8555, 33804 Release date: 1964, re-released October 25, 1990 Principal Artist: Gil Evans Personnel: Jimmy Cleveland, Gil Cohen (tbn), Don Corrado, Julius Watkins (fhn), Steve Lacy (sop), Al Block (flt), Eric Dolphy (flt, bcl), Bob Tricarico (reeds), Margret Ross (hp), Gil Evans (pn, arr), Barry Galbraith (gt), Paul Chambers, Ben Tucker, Richard Davis (b), Elvin Jones (dr) Tracks: 1. The Time of The Baracudas 2. The Barbara Song* 3. Las Vegas Tango 4. Flute Song/Hotel Me* 5. El Toreador 6. Proclomation 7. Nothing Like You 8. Concorde 9. Spoonful

PAGE 159

148 Album Title: Selections from the Film Golden Boy Recording date/location: October 1, 1964, New York City Recording Label(s): Colpix Label number(s): 9003, CP 478 Release date: unknown Principal Artist: Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers Personnel: Art Blakey (dr), Lee Morgan (tpt), Freddie Hubbard (tpt), Curtis Fuller (tb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), James Spaulding (as), Wayne Shorter (ts), Charlie Davis (bars), Cedar Walton (pn), Reggie Workman (b) Tracks: 1. Theme from Golden Boy* 2. Yes I Can* 3. Lorna's Here* 4. This is the Life* 5. There's a Party* 6. I Want to Be With You* Album Title: Guitar Forms Recording date/location: December 4, 1964, Van Gelder Studios, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Recording Label(s): Verve Label number(s): Verve POCJ-1821 Release date: 1965, re-released May 20, 1997 Principal Artist: Kenny Burrell Personnel: Gil Evans (arr, cond), Johnny Coles, Louis Mucci (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Jimmy Knepper (tb), Julius Watkins, Ray Alonge (fhn), Bill Barber (tba), Andy Fitzgerald, George Marge, Ray Beckenstein (fl, eng), Steve Lacy (sop), Lee Konitz (as), Richie Kamuca (ts, ob), Bob Tricarico (bsn, flt, ts), Kenny Burrell (gt), Ron Carter (b), Elvin Jones, Charlie Persip (dr). Tracks: 1. Downstairs 2. Lotus Land* 3. Terrace Theme 4. Excerpt from Prelude No. 2 5. Moon and Sand* 6. Loie* 7. Greensleeves* 8. Last Night when We Were Young* 9. Breadwinner

PAGE 160

149 Album Title: Recorded Live at the Monterey Jazz Festival Recording date/location: September 18, 1965, Monterey, CA Recording Label(s): East Coasting Label number(s): ECEP1 Release date: 1965 Principal Artist: Charles Mingus Personnel: Lonnie Hillyer, Hobart Dotson (tpt), Jimmy Owens (tpt, flhn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Howard Johnson (tba), Charles McPherson (as), Charles Mingus (b, pn), Dannie Richmond (dr) Tracks: 1. They Trespass the Land of the Sacred Sioux, pt. 1* 2. They Trespass the Land of the Sacred Sioux, pt. 2* ________________________________________________________________________ Album Title: Music Written for Monterey, 1965, Not Heard. Recording date/location: September 25, 1965, Royce Hall, UCLA Campus, Los Angeles, CA Recording Label(s): C.M.E. Label number(s): JWS 0013 Release date: 1965 Principal Artist: Charles Mingus Personnel: Lonnie Hillyer, Hobart Dotson (tpt), Jimmy Owens (tpt, flhn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Howard Johnson (tba), Charles McPherson (as), Charles Mingus (b, pn, narr), Dannie Richmond (dr) Tracks: 1. Meditation on Inner Peace*** 2. Once Upon a Time, There was 3. They Trespass the Land of the Sacred Sioux* 4. The Arts of Tatum and Freddy Webster* 5. Dont be Afraid the Clown's Afraid Too* 6. Muskrat Ramble* 7. Don't Let it Happen Here*

PAGE 161

150 Album Title: Live at the Half Note Recording date/location: January 18, 1966, New York City Recording Label(s): Ozone Label number(s): 19 Release date: 1966 Principal Artist: Charles Mingus Personnel: Lonnie Hillyer (tpt), Jimmy Owens, Hobart Dotson (tpt, flhn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Howard Johnson (tba), Charles McPherson (as), Charles Mingus (b, pn), Dannie Richmond (dr) Tracks: 1. Majonet* 2. Dont Let it Happen Here* Album Title: Nine Flags Recording date/location: November 10 11, 1966, New York City Recording Label(s): Impulse Label number(s): AS-9135 Release date: 1967 Principal Artist: Chico O'Farrill Personnel: Art Farmer, Clark Terry (tpt), J.J. Johnson (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Joe Firrantello, Seldon Powell (reeds), Pat Rebillot (pn), George Devivier (b), Mel Lewis (dr), Carl Hard (perc), Chico O'Farrill (arr), and others Tracks: 1. Live Oak* 2. Patcham* 3. Aromatic Tabac* 4. Dry Citrus 5. Royal Saddle* 6. Panache* 7. Green Moss 8. Manzanilla* 9. Clear Spruce 10. The Lady from Nine Flags*

PAGE 162

151 Album Title: Left and Right Recording date/location: June 18, 1968, New York City Recording Label(s): Atlantic, Collectables Label number(s): SD1518, B00006GF96 Release date: 1968, re-released August 13, 2002 Principal Artist: Roland Kirk Personnel: Jimmy Buffington, Julius Watkins (fhn), Frank Wess (reeds), Roland Kirk (ts, flt, clt, org), Sanford Allen, Julian Barber, Alfred Selwart Clarke, Winston Collymore, Noel DaCosta, Richard Elias, Harold Furmansky, Leo Kruczek, Joseph Malignagg, Charles McCracken, George Ockner, Gene Orloff, Matthew Raimondi, Anthony Sophos (strings), Ron Burton (pn), Vernon Martin (b), Roy Haynes (dr), Warren Smith (perc), Gil Fuller (arr) Tracks: 1. Black Mystery has Been Revealed 2. Lady's Blues* 3. IX Love* 4. Hot Cha* 5. Quintessence* 6. I Waited for You* 7. A Flower is a Lovesome Thing* Album Title: The Many Facets of David Newman Recording date/location: December 2 4, 1968, New York City Recording Label(s): Atlantic, Rhino Label number(s): SD-1524, Rhino-71453 Release date: 1969, re-released November 2, 1993 Principal Artist: David "Fathead" Newman Personnel: Ernie Royal, Melvin Lastie (tpt), Benny Powell (tbn), Julius Watkins, Paul Ingraham (fhn), David Newman (as, ts, flt, sop), Jack Knitzer (ob), Joe Zawinul (pn), Richard Davis (b), Bruno Carr (dr), Omar Clay (perc), Selwart Clarke, Gene Orloff, Emanual Green, Julius Schachter, Sanford Allen, Alfred Kermit Moore (strings) Tracks: 1. Yesterday 13. Sylvia 2. I Love Her 14. Chained No More* 3. The 13th Floor 4. Ain't That Good News 5. A Change is Gonna Come 6. For Sylvia 7. Shiloh 8. We're A Winner 9. Children of Abraham* 10. Headstart 11. That's All* 12. The Funky Way to Treat Somebody

PAGE 163

152 Album Title: Interfaith Chorus and Ensemble Recording date/location: 1969, New York City Recording Label(s): Avant Garde Label number(s): AVS 103 Release date: 1969 Principal Artist: Mary Lou Williams Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Mary Lou Williams (pn, arr), Bill Salters (b), Percy Brice (dr), Ralph MacDonald (cga), Honey Gordon, Leon Thomas (vcl), chorus Tracks: 1. Thank You Jesus* 2. Our Father* 3. Praise the Lord* ________________________________________________________________________ Album Title: Pharoh Sanders Recording date/location: February 14 19, 1969, New York City Recording Label(s): Impulse, GRP Records Label number(s): A9181, Grp-153 Release date: 1969, re-released 11/7/1995 Principal Artist: Pharoh Sanders Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Pharoh Sanders (ts), James Spaulding (flt), Lonnie Liston Smith (pn), Reggie Workman, Richard Davis (b), Billy Hart (dr), Nat Bettis (perc), Leon Thomas (vcl, perc) Tracks: 1. The Creator Has a Master Plan, pt. 1*** 2. The Creator Has a Master Plan, pt. 2*** 3. Colors*

PAGE 164

153 Album Title: Consummation Recording date/location: January 20, 1970, New York City Recording Label(s): Blue Note Label number(s): BST84356, B0000647MJ Release date: 1970, re-released April 23, 2002 Principal Artist: Thad Jones Personnel: Danny Moore, Al Porcino, Marvin Stamm, Snooky Young (tpt), Thad Jones (flhn), Eddie Bert, Jimmy Knepper, Benny Powell (tbn), Cliff Heather (btb), Dick Berg, Jimmy Buffington, Earl Chapin, Julius Watkins (fhn), Howard Johnson (tba), Jerome Richardson (as, flt, sop), Jerry Dodgion (flt, as, clt), Eddie Daniels (flt, clt, ts), Billy Harper (flt, ts), Richie Kamuca (bars), Roland Hanna (pn, ep), Roland Davis (b, eb), Mel Lewis (dr) Tracks: 1. Dedication* 2. It Only Happens Every Time 3. Tiptoe 4. A Child is Born 5. Us 6. Ahunk Ahunk 7. Fingers 8. Consummation* Album Title: Blues in Orbit Recording date/location: 1969-71, New York City Recording Label(s): Inner City, Enja Label number(s): IC 3041, ENJ 30692 Release date: 1969, re-released 1985 Principal Artist: Gil Evans Personnel: Snooky Young, Mike Lawrence (tpt), Jimmy Cleveland, Jimmy Knepper (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Howard Johnson (tba), Hubert Laws (flt), Billy Harper (ts), Gil Evans (pn, ep), Joe Beck (gt), Herb Bushler (b), Alphonse Mouson (dr), Donald McDonald (perc) Tracks: 1. Thoroughbred* 2. Spaced* 3. Love in the Open* 4. Variation on The Misery* 5. Blues in Orbit* 6. Proclamation* 7. General Assembly* 8. So Long*

PAGE 165

154 Album Title: Let My Children Hear Music Recording date/location: September 23 November 18, 1971, New York City Recording Label(s): Columbia, Sony Label number(s): KC31039, 48910 Release date: 1972, re-released April 21, 1992 Principal Artist: Charles Mingus Personnel: Lonnie Hillyer, Al DeRisi, Snooky Young, Howard Johnson, Ernie Royal, Jimmy Nottingham, Joe Wilder, Marvin Stamm (tpt), Eddie Bert, Warren Covington, Jimmy Knepper (tbn), Julius Watkins, Paul Ingraham, Brooks Tillotson, Jimmy Buffington (fhn), Bob Stewart, Jack Jennings (tba), Hubert Laws (flt), Teo Macero (as), Charles McPherson, Bobby Jones, James Moody, Harvey Estrin, Danny Bank, Joe Temperley, Seymour Press, Albert Regni, Hank Freeman, Daniel Trimboli, Ray Beckenstein, Hal McKusick, John Leone (saxes), Jerry Dodgion, Romeo Penque, Wallace Shapiro, George Marge (reeds), John Foster, Roland Hanna, Patti Brown (pn), Bucky Pizzarelli (gt), Charles Mingus, Homer Mensch, Ken Fricker, John Schaeffer, Francis Savarese, Sonny (b), Dannie Richmond (dr), Phil Kraus, Warren Smith (perc), Charles McCracken (cello), Sy Johnson (arr) Tracks: 1. The Shoes of the Fisherman's Wife* 6. The Chill of Death* 2. Adagio ma non tropo* 7. The I of Hurricane Sue* 3. Don't Be Afraid, the Clown's Afraid Too* 4. Taurus in the Arena of Life* 5. Hobo Ho* _______________________________________________________________________ Album Title: Mary Lou's Mass Recording date/location: January, 1972, New York City Recording Label(s): Mary Records Label number(s): M102 Release date: 1972 Principal Artist: Mary Lou Williams Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), Mary Lou Williams (pn), Leon Atkinson (gt), Milton Suggs (b), David Parker (dr), Ralph MacDonald (cga), Peter Whitehead (vcl), chorus Tracks: 1. Praise the Lord (Come Holy Spirit)***

PAGE 166

155 Album Title: Reasons in Tonality Recording date/location: February 23, 1972, Village Vanguard, New York City Recording Label(s): Strata-East Label number(s): SES 1972-2 Release date: 1972 Principal Artist: Julius Watkins Personnel: Julius Watkins (fhn), George Coleman, Clifford Jordan (ts), Harold Mabern (pn), Larry Ridley (b), Keno Duke (dr) Tracks: 1. Reasons in Tonality*** 2. 3-M.B.*** Album Title: Composer's Workshop Ensemble Recording date/location: June 1, 1972, New York City Recording Label(s): Strata-East Label number(s): SES 1972-3 Release date: unknown, re-released January 1, 1995 Principal Artist: Warren Smith, composer Personnel: Johnny Coles (tpt), Jack Jeffers (btb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Al Gibbons (ts), Howard Johnson (barh, tba), Bross Townsend (pn), Herb Bushler (b), Warren Smith (dr) Tracks: 1. Hello Julius*** 2. Sub Structure* 3. Introduction to the Blues* 4. Blues by Monk* 5. Blues for E.L.C.* 6. Lament (What Does it All Mean?)***

PAGE 167

156 Album Title: Today's Man Recording date/location: 1973, New York City Recording Label(s): Mainstream Label number(s): MRL 395 Release date: 1973 Principal Artist: Charles McPherson Personnel: Cecil Bridgewater, Richard Williams (tpt, flhn), Garnett (tbn), Julius Watkins (fhn), Charles McPherson (as), Frank Wess (ts, flt), Chris Woods (barh, flt), Barry Harris (pn), Lawrence Evans (b), Billy Higgins (dr), Ernie Wilkins (arr) Tracks: 1. Charisma* 2. Invitation* 3. Naima* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Album Title: Song of the New World Recording date/location: April 9, 1973, New York City Recording Label(s): Milestone, Original Jazz Classics Label number(s): MSP-9049, OJCCD-6182 Release date: 1973, re-released July, 1999 Principal Artist: McCoy Tyner Personnel: Virgil Jones, Cecil Bridgewater, Jon Faddis (tpt), Garnett (tbn), Dick Griffin (tbn, btb), Kiani Zawadi (euph), Julius Watkins, Willie Ruff, William Warnick III (fhn), Bob Stewart (tba), Hubert Laws (flt, pic), Sonny Fortune (flt, as, sop), McCoy Tyner (pn), Jooney Booth (b), Alphonse Mouzon (dr), Sonny Morgan (cga), Winston Collymore (vln) Tracks: 1. Afro Blue* 2. Little Brother* 3. Divine Love 4. Some Day* 5. Song of the New World*

PAGE 168

157 Album Title: Tanjah Recording date/location: May 21 23, 1973, New York City Recording Label(s): Polydor Label number(s): PD5055 Release date: 1973 Principal Artist: Randy Weston Personnel: Ernie Royal, Ray Copeland, Jon Faddis (tpt, flhn), Al Grey (tbn), Jack Jeffers (btb), Julius Watkins (fhn), Norris Turnkey (as, pic), Budd Johnson (ts, sop, clt), Billy Harper (ts, flt), Danny Bank (bars, bcl, flt), Randy Weston (pn, ep), Ron Carter (b, eb), Rudy Collins (dr), Azzedin Weston (cga, kakabar), Candido (cga), Omar Clay (marimba, timp),Taiwo Yusve Divall (ashiko), Earl Williams (perc), Ahmed-Abdul Malik (vcl) Tracks: 1. Hi-Fly* 2. In Memory Of* 3. Sweet Meat* 4. Jamaica East* 5. Tanjah* 6. The Last Day* Album Title: Suite for Pops Recording date/location: January 25 September 1, 1975, New York City Recording Label(s): Horizon Label number(s): SP701 Release date: 1975 Principal Artist: Thad Jones Personnel: Jim Bossy, Cecil Bridgewater, Jon Faddis, Steve Furtado, Lew Soloff (tpt), Thad Jones (flhn), Billy Campbell, Earl McIntyre, Janice Robinson (tbn), Dave Taylor (btb), Ray Alonge, Earl Chapin, Peter Gordon, Julius Watkins (fhn), Jerry Dodgion, Ed Xiques (as), Lou Marini (clt, ts), Greg Herbert (ts), Pepper Adams (barh), Roland Hanna (ep), Steve Gilmore (b), Mel Lewis (dr), Leonard Gibbs (cga) Tracks: 1. The Farewell* 2. Greetings and Salutations (unissued)* 3. Forever Lasting (unissued)* 4. Love to One is One to Love (unissued)*

PAGE 169

158 Album Title: New Life Recording date/location: December 16, 1975 January 8, 1976, New York City Recording Label(s): Horizon, A & M Label number(s): SP707, A&MCD0810 Release date: 1976, re-released October 25, 1990 Principal Artist: Thad Jones Personnel: Sinclair Acey, Cecil Bridgwater, Al Porcino, Waymon Reed (tpt), Thad Jones (flhn), Billy Campbell, Earl McIntyre, John Mosca, Janice Robinson (tbn), Ray Alonge, Jimmy Buffington, Peter Gordon, Julius Watkins (fhn), Jerry Dodgion (as, flt), Ed Xiques (sop, flt), Greg Herbert (aflt), Frank Foster (ts), Pepper Adams (barh), Lou Marini (clt), Roland Hanna (ep), Barry Finnerty (gt), George Mraz (b), Mel Lewis (dr), Leonard Gibbs (cga) Tracks: 1. Greetings and Salutations* 2. Little Rascal on a Rock 3. Forever Lasting 4. Love is One and One to Love 5. Cherry Juice 6. Love and Harmony 7. Thank You Album Title: Mr. Flute Recording date/location: 1977, New York Recording Label(s): Atlantic Label number(s): ASD-18212 Release date: 1977 Principal Artist: Art Webb Personnel: Burt Collins, Virgil Jones, Jimmy Owens, Alan Raph, Waymon Reed (tpt), Paul Faulise, Hale Rood (tbn), Julius Watkins, Don Corrado (fhn), George Berg, Arthur Clarke (reeds), Patrick Adams, Dwight Brewster (kbd), Jerry Friedman, Stan Lucas, Lance Quinn (gt), Bob Babbit (b), Jimmy Young (dr), Ted Sommers (vib), Phil Kraus (perc), Carlos Martin (cga), Ann Barak, Al Harold Coletta, Noel DaCosta, Leo Kahn, Kathryn Keinke, Harold Kohon, Harry Lookofsky, Joe Malin, Yoko Matsuo, Guy Lumia, Gene Orloff, Richard Sortomme, Harry Zaratzian, David Nadien (vln), Julian Barber, Selwart Clarke (vla), Jesse Levy, Charles McCracken, Kermit Moore (cello), John Cooksey, Venus Dodson, Patrick Adams, Leroy Burgess, Fay Hauser, Debbie Resto, Sylvia Striplin, Christine Wiltshire (vcl)

PAGE 170

APPENDIX B A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF JULIUS WATKINS AND CHARLES ROUSE, CO-LEADERS OF THE JAZZ MODES, BY GARY KRAMER OF ATLANTIC RECORDS117 Gary Kramer: If you dont mind, Id like to ask you a few questions about your recording of The Most Happy Fella. Ive got the tape recorder on and with your permission Id like to transcribe excerpts from our conversation and use them as the liner notes for your album. Julius Watkins: Okay, Gary. Charles Rouse: This wont be too much like a Mike Wallace interview, I hope. G.K.: No, man. But let me lead off with a provocative question anyway. Ever since Shelley Mannes fabulously successful My Fair Lady album came on the scene, the romance between jazz and Broadway has been going hot and heavy. In the last months there have been some complaints. Ruby Braff wrote recently in the Saturday Review, The fad for recording numbers from a hit show has grown out of all proportion to its worth. Now what do you think of this criticism? C.R.: There is a lot of truth in that; much of this is strictly opportunistic. However, I dont think that that applies to this album. The Most Happy Fella closed in December 1957 after 678 performances at the Imperial Theatre so there is no direct commercial tie-in possible now anymore. In Frank Loessers score, however, there are quite a few 117 Kramer, Gary. Liner notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1280, 1958. 159

PAGE 171

160 worthwhile tunes that lend themselves to jazz treatment, and it makes sense musically to use them as the basis of an LP. J.W.: I dont think we can overlook the fact that a show tune album can present some big problems for a jazz group, particularly for one as modest in size as The Jazz Modes. Many tunes just cannot be translated from their Broadway idiom to jazz. In some songs, the vocal is all but indispensable; you soon see that without the lyric, you dont have much to work with. G.K.: Well come back to Broadway. Tell me something about the origin of The Jazz Modes. J.W.: My instrument, as you know, is the French horn. In a jazz context it is still unusual and ten years ago a complete novelty. I played in some big bands but I realized a long time ago that I would have to work with a small group specially tailored from the subtleties of the French horn in order to develop the potential of this instrument for jazz. Charlie Rouse and I were friends. I admired his work and had been on some record dates with him. In the spring of 1956 we organized a quintet that is now known as The Jazz Modes. We still have all the original members with the exception of our bass player. Martin Rivera, our present bassist, however, has been with us for a long time, too. G.K.: The name of your group intrigues me. How did you come to call yourselves The Jazz Modes? C.R.: For a time we were known as Les Jazz Modes. We used the French title because the word mode in French has several meanings and connotations, all of which apply to our work. It means current and stylish, fashionable. We are in the modern vanguard, in touch with modern trends, though we dont go for anything that is only

PAGE 172

161 faddish or sensational. Mode also is a technical musical term, referring either to a method of arranging tones or to a kind of rhythmic scheme. And in French, mode can mean mood. Modes, used in the plural, conveys the idea of a variety of moods and musical subject matter, we hope. J.W.: But within the set style we have devised for our group. G.K.: Do you consider the instrumentation of The Jazz Modes to be a fixed thing? J.W.: We want to keep our basic sound and style. It was difficult to achieve the kind of blend that we have now. We havent thought of applying our ideas to a big group, but we have been experimenting with the possibility of adding extra color. Charlie has been playing bass clarinet with us occasionally. G.K.: How about The Most Happy Fella? How did you find it worked out as source material for a jazz album? J.W.: I believed, as did Charlie, that in general the score was full of things that would come out swinging. However, we did omit several numbers from the show that did not come off too well from a jazz point of view. In some that are included here we had to sweat a long time before we found the key. G.K.: Could you give me an example? J.W.: Yes. One would be Like A Woman. A very pretty tune in which the lyric is very important. It has a 4/4 beat and a kind of construction that seem a little stiff to a jazz arranger. In working this over I found a way of alternating meter: 5/4, 4/4 and 7/8 and adding certain color and percussion effects in a jazz vein. Now I think that the piece has considerable rhythmic interest. Rapidly changing tempos spice up the tune The Most Happy Fella, also.

PAGE 173

162 G.K.: Charlie, were there any selections in this show that you feel were naturals for jazz? C.R.: Joey, Joey certainly is. This, incidentally, has been a favorite of audiences to whom we have played it. Also Happy to Make Your Acquaintance. And practically all the ballads. The important point is the melodic strength of Frank Loessers score. The complicated melodic line of so much modern jazz, especially the hard boppers, makes many people think that melody is not so important in modern jazz as compared to the harmony, for example. But that is wrong. A musician still thinks in melodic terms and without a basically good melody he builds a house of cards. You cannot make exciting music without a strong melody. J.W.: That is one reason again why a lot of Broadway shows really are not good material for jazz albums. With their few and rather simple chord changes, you are bound to get a monotonous album if you are confined to them. Harmonic richness is rare in a Broadway show. Without lyrics, without the visual effects of the settings and costumes, youre really up against it. G.K.: Why is it that the French horn has been used so little in jazz? Outside of yourself, John Graas, David Amram and Jim Buffington, it doesnt exist in jazz. J.W.: the French horn does not have the easy maneuverability of most jazz solo instruments. Its hard to play a lot of notes, to phrase and accent long lines when you have the wind problem you do on this instrument. Its particular sound also presents a problem; it must have the right setting, since it is easily overpowered. Against other horns that have a sharp, piercing tone or too much vibrato, the French horn doesnt stand a

PAGE 174

163 chance. On the plus side, the French horn has warmth that is extremely good for ballads. And then it has its special coloristic effects. C.R.: I want to interrupt right there and explain that it is just in that last respect that Julius has made an important contribution. Most people associate a mysterioso sound quality you know that far-away Alpine horn sound used by classical composers like Wagner and Mahler with the French horn. That is just one of the sounds that Julius gets from it. He makes the French horn take on a much more color than that. In Standing On the Corner and The Most Happy Fella, his horn has all the virility and hard masculine quality of the trumpet and trombone. There is so much more in the French horn than the symphony orchestra players ever realized, and Julius is the person who has made everybody aware of this. And dont let him kid you. He can play plenty of notes too! G.K.: What is your typical repertoire when you play clubs and concert dates? J.W.: Usually we confine ourselves to original material written by our pianist Gildo Mahones or by myself. Charlie has been doing more and more writing recently. He did a good job arranging Standing On The Corner in this LP. G.K.: Who did the other arrangements for this LP? J.W.: Gildo did Joey, Joey, Warm All Over and The Most Happy Fella. I arranged all the others. G.K.: Charlie, what are your and Julius future plans for the group? C.R.: We have played many important jazz clubs like The Modern Jazz Room in Cleveland, the Blue Note in Chicago, the Bohemia in New York, and of course we are at Birdland a lot. We hope to do more work in all of them but we also would like to be heard more in non-jazz clubs. If we have been successful, we have developed a kind of

PAGE 175

164 music that is good listening and not avant-garde in the forbidding sense. Take a piece like Dont Cry in this LP. You can see that underneath it all we have is a kind of old-timey feeling. We always strive for a clean, clear lyric idea and a very fundamental sort of rhythm. We think that all this is appreciated by all people who like music and not the jazz audiences alone. I hope that well get more opportunities to be heard by the general public. G.K.: In light of the fine work you and the other members of The Jazz Modes have done on this LP, I think you can look forward to just that.

PAGE 176

APPENDIX C A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF WARREN WIS SMITH, PERCUSSIONIST, AND FRIEND OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004 Patrick Smith: Warren, thank you so much for agreeing to talk with me today about Julius Watkins. In my research of this man, Ive found that he has been underappreciated in his performance abilities and for helping to promote this new genre of music. Warren Smith: Certainly! And yes, Julius definitely has been underappreciated since his death in 1977. PS: Could you start by just giving me some of your general impressions of Julius as you reflect on your experiences together? WIS: Julius Watkins was the best French horn player Ive ever heard in my life. He was under very dire circumstances. I had known him before I came to New York in 1957 or known about him. Did you ever hear of a group called The Jazz Modes ? PS: Yes I have. WIS: Well you may or may not have seen these. (offers P.S. compact disc copies of Warren Smiths 1977 Composers Workshop recordings featuring Julius Watkins as the solo jazz French horn player) These are my own. Thy are out of print, but I offer them to you. The pieces that feature Julius are Hello Julius and What Does it All Mean. PS: I assume that the piece, Hello Julius, was composed specifically for Watkins. WIS: Actually, no. I first composed that piece for a trombone player named Joe Orange. It was called Hello Joe. It had a lot of articulation in it that could be done 165

PAGE 177

166 better on a French horn than on a trombone. When I gave it to Julius, he sight-read it and played it so well that I gave it to him and called it Hello Julius. He really did! I mean, he really tore it up. PS: How well known was Julius when you came to New York? WIS: Julius Watkins was one of the first-call French horn players in the city and he had a studio (residence) somewhere uptown. Julius was a very self-effacing person. He would play brilliantly and youd go to compliment him and hed say, Oh man, I just didnt do it right. I made so many mistakes! Nobody, of course, would know except for Julius when he would make these mistakes that he talked about. There were other French horn players in town who were doing a lot of record dates and various other things. One of them was named Ray Allonge. Im not even sure if Ray is still alive. He was working for the musicians union, but he got sick. Anyways, Ray told me that Julius could easily play an octave above what Ray could play. This really was saying something in a number of ways because Ray was the first call Caucasian French horn player who got all of the gigs. But even the French horn players in that elevated level of money-making thats why Im making that designation knew that Julius had these capabilities. In all of this time, Julius had dental problems. I had a studio (residence) which Ill tell you about a little bit later, but in this studio I had a lot of friends who came through. Max Roach had a friend who was a doctor and a dentist at that. I just saw a video of some people who were up in Marthas Vineyard and this guy, I forget his name, was a dentist and he was interested in musicians. I think that he had played trumpet at some point in his life. He would walk around and find musicians that were having embouchure problems because of teeth, and Julius was one of those. This guy fixed Julius mouth up for free because he

PAGE 178

167 was so fond of him (Julius). Julius told me personally that after he got his teeth fixed that that increased his range by another octave (upwards). I was talking to a friend of mine who just passed two days ago, a brilliant conductor, and we were talking about the time we did Strauss Till Eulenspiegel. Something happened to the first horn player he couldnt do it. Julius was in the orchestra and we asked him to play the part. Julius was so self-effacing that he just would not budge from his seat and move to the first chair. Finally, the conductor ordered him to play the part at the very last minute because there was nobody else. Julius reluctantly agreed and played the part just perfectly, I mean he didnt miss a note! Now at the same time, youd get Julius in a rehearsal and hed miss an entrance or hed stop counting bars. His mind would just wander like that, you know? They called him the Phantom because he had some bladder problems. Hed be sitting in the middle of a crowd doing things, and then someone would say, Wheres Julius? Hed be gone like a ghost off to the bathroom. Hed come right back, but he always knew where the bathroom was just in case he had to make a quick exit. There were all kinds of crazy idiosyncrasies about this man, but he really was one of the most lovely people youd ever want to meet. (He was) just so nice to everybody, so self-effacing and really a brilliant musician. PS: I know that although Julius was not the first jazz French horn player, he was the first to make great strides in promoting this instrument in jazz circles. Who else was playing jazz French horn at this time (mid to late 1950s)? WIS: There was a fellow down in Washington D.C. who went by the name of Brother Ah. His given Christian name was Robert Northern. He was probably the second best French horn player in jazz circles. Now he plays world instruments and does some

PAGE 179

168 conducting of world music ensemble. I dont think he plays horn that much anymore. There is also a gentleman who teaches at Yale by the name of Willie Ruff. He too was and still is a jazz French horn performer. PS: In reflecting on your earlier comment about Till Eulenspiegel, I was not aware that Julius was still performing Classical music in New York City. Could you expand upon just how well he wore both jazz and classical hats? WIS: Well, we were not getting many chances as black musicians to play symphonic music. When I came to New York in 1957 there was a breakthrough. One of my classmates got into the Boston Symphony, Ortiz Walton, a string bass player. After that, there was a rash of (black) people getting symphonic jobs. Of course, the (New York) Philharmonic has Jerome Ashby as a member of its horn section. Richard Davis was hired as a bass player with the Philharmonic but he was so busy with other jobs that he turned that job down. Hubert Laws played flute with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. I did some subbing with the Philharmonic as a percussionist, but I couldnt make that a permanent thing. What happens is you get so busy doing jazz jobs and record dates that it becomes impractical to turn those down in favor of a full-time orchestral career. A lot of the black jazz players simply would not take the orchestral jobs (if they were offered) for that very reason. With all of the studio work, record dates, club dates and what have you, we could certainly make as much money, if not more money, and made our lives much more interesting than if we had taken symphonic positions. So, there certainly were reasons other than racism why more black players were doing one or

PAGE 180

169 the other. Julius did more jazz than orchestral playing, but he did do some orchestral playing. That cannot be ignored. PS: How did your friendship with Julius develop? WIS: I first got close to Julius because I was working with Gil Evans and some different other jazz bands and orchestras that he had played with. I would see him at those record dates, recording sessions, studio jobs, etc. One day I was doing some contracting and somebody called me to do some contracting for a new recording. I needed a French horn player, but I didnt have a telephone number for Julius. Nobody knew where he was. He had disappeared. So I put the word on the grapevine and I was doing another record date and he came up. I had a studio down on 21 st Street between 6 th and 7 th Avenues. I lived out on Long Island with my family and I used that studio to do all of my rehearsing and teaching. Julius came to this record date and I gave him the new information about the other record date and he said, Ok. Ill do it. I asked him where he was staying and he said, Well, Im riding the subway at night. I said to him, Youre doing what? PS: Approximately when was this? WIS: This was about 1968. PS: So this is after the time that he lived on St. Nicholas Avenue then. WIS: Yes. I knew he had a studio somewhere uptown up there. Well, he had lost the studio and lost his place to live. I told him to me at this address (of my studio) around 5 or 6 oclock in the evening, just as soon as I could get down there after we finished that days session. I ran down there and waited for him and he came. He had his horn with him. I said, Cmon. Youre going to live here. He lived with me there for about

PAGE 181

170 eighteen months after that time. During this time he managed to straighten himself out. He was getting jobs, he was working and he had a secure place to stay. He found a woman who was very interested in him. Her name was Harriette Davison. She was good violist and she was working in a lot of pick-up symphony orchestras at that time. She was working and fairly independent. After that eighteen months, she and Julius were married and they moved out to her apartment in New Jersey. They lived together until Julius died. During that time we worked any number of musical jobs, record dates, all kinds of stuff. Certain pick-up orchestras, like that one that Harriette was involved with the Symphony of the New World which was a group that had an emphasis on having black conductors and black musicians were full of very capable, very well qualified black musicians. Julius and I worked some jobs with that group. The last job that I worked with him was a show called Raisin. It was based on Lorraine Hansberry's book but set with an all black cast and a score by a black composer as well. He played that until he got too sick to play. I should tell you this: when he got too sick to play, the conductor and all of us like Julius so much that we covered for him. Eventually somebody at the union caught up with us. We just wouldnt say anything if he didnt show up or arrived to the gig late or whatever. He was suffering from kidney failure by that point, but played that job with Raisin until he passed away. When he got too sick to play, he died shortly thereafter. This being said, I cant think of anybody who was more of a musical genius than Julius. I had this ensemble that you can hear on those cds I gave you. Julius would come in (to the recording sessions) and would read parts other than those for the horn. Once he came in and I said, Damn it! The tenor sax player isnt here. Julius would say, Here, give me that part, and hed snatch it away from me and sight-read the part perfectly not just in

PAGE 182

171 the right style or whatnot, but he could sight-read the transpositions! He could read any part in any key correctly the first time through! It was remarkable. He had something in his mind that just clicked in regard to anything musical. You could give him a trombone part, sure. An E-flat part, bass clef, treble clef, it just didnt matter. He could do it all. He knew these relationships and knew everything about the parts. And his range!!! I mean, he could play over an octave above what the horn should be able to play according to all of the music books. Obviously some horn players are talented enough to do a little extra range-wise here and there. But what Julius could do was really special and he did it consistently. Wed write things for him and get another French horn player to play it and theyd say, Man, this is impossible! You mustve written this for Julius! We just took it for granted that he was that good. It was funny though: Julius was never satisfied with himself. For years I had saved some (of his) music that finally got trashed after I moved out of my studio. He was actively writing music and not just jazz. He had symphonies that he had written that nobody had ever heard. He had a whole philosophy of taking you as an individual, finding out what your astrological sign was and finding that one note or pitch that connected you to the atmosphere. We all have a tone that is part of our chi part of our system. Julius was the first person that I had ever heard this from. It has been confirmed by several sources since then. He had a lot of this philosophical knowledge and you couldnt understand it half the time because it was just so far above where we all were 25 or 30 years ago. PS: Did Julius ever show a mean or a bad side? It seems as though he was always a positive person no matter how bad his personal or professional life might have been.

PAGE 183

172 WIS: As nice a fellow as Julius was, this was one stubborn individual! Guys would see him out in the nightclubs at night and hed be drinking a little bit. Theyd say to him, Julius, have you had anything to eat today? Hed say, Nah, I didnt feel like eating today. Theyd say, Cmon man! You gotta eat something! Hed say, Nope. I dont want to eat so Im not going to eat. Id even buy a plate of food and set it in front of him. Nope, hed say. Im not going to eat it. I tried to force feed him once. (I) got the fork up to his mouth. Hed press his lips together and shake his head no. If he made up his mind that he wasnt going to do something, then forget about it! It wouldnt happen. He had a lot of idiosyncrasies. Julius worked on his own time system; he was habitually five or ten minutes late for things. Once he got there, it was no problem. Getting him there now that was the problem sometimes! I remember one time I tried purposefully to get him to a job on time and he was still late! One day when he was living with me we were doing a job for Gil Evans. I was responsible for Julius because I was the contractor for the job! Julius insisted that he wanted to go uptown to go to the musicians union to do some business. I knew he couldnt do that and come back and get his horn and then get to the job on time. I told him, Julius, take your horn with you. He said, Nope. Im gonna go up there and do my business, then come back down here. Finally, I took his horn. I said, Look, you dont need to come all the way back here. Ill take your horn along with all of my drums and shit. I took his horn and got to the date and he still found a way to come in ten minutes late! Everybody else was there, but nobody would say anything because we all knew that this was one special person. PS: Some musicians have a carefree attitude about their own personal appearance. I know many performers who are tremendous artists who are some of the sloppiest dressers

PAGE 184

173 with bad habits. Was Julius like this or did he fall into the Im going to look great and play great category? WIS: Julius was one beautiful person. He was always dressed impeccably. His hair was combed. His shirt and tie were pressed. He would not step out of the house unless he felt that good about himself. You never saw this man unkept. Whatever you could say good about a person, this is what Julius personified. We just really miss him. PS: I know that Julius was married twice. WIS: Im not sure about the name of a previous wife, but I do remember that he had children from a previous marriage. PS: Are you aware of any connection between when he lost that studio on St. Nicholas Avenue and when this first marriage dissolved? WIS: You know, that very likely could be the case, but he never made any comment about that to me. PS: I know his first wifes name was Ella, according to his application to the Manhattan School of Music. WIS: Oh, ok. Wow! I didnt know he went there. I went there too but he was out of there before I got started. PS: He was there from 1950 to 53. WIS: Yeah, and I was there from 57 to 58. I got a masters degree there. I met him right around that time and I knew that he knew a lot of people around Manhattan, so that seems logical. All of the jazz players would go to (study) at Manhattan because Manhattan would let you miss classes to go do a job and Julliard would not. Most of the

PAGE 185

174 people who were actually working would favor Manhattan over Julliard. I guess that was the case with him too. PS: What was it like being an African-American musician at the Manhattan School of Music at that time? WIS: The Manhattan School was pretty cool! There were a lot of jazz players at Manhattan for the reasons I just mentioned to you. There werent any jazz programs at any college in the 50s or the 60s. In fact, a student named John LaPorta was going to school then. He was a graduate student like I was and was a couple of years older than me. He started the first jazz program at the Manhattan School of Music. Julliard didnt have a program then. They had these funny rules too at many places, even black colleges like Howard University. You could be fined for playing jazz in the practice rooms of these places. Sometimes they would simply kick you out of the practice room and scold you too. Donald Byrd went down there to start the jazz program at Howard University and ran into one hell of a mess with the resistance that he got from people who just didnt want that (jazz programs) to happen. This was interesting because all of the great black (jazz) orchestras came out of the black colleges. Many of these schools had long histories and great marching bands and all of that stuff, but the establishment of a jazz program met a great deal of resistance in many places. The word jazz had a bad reputation in many academic circles. I helped start a program at the State University of New York in 1970 and 71 with Ken McIntyre. That was the first that the whole state system had and, you know, there are 68 different colleges in New York State and still, there may be only four or five with jazz programs. Some would offer classes in jazz history, but as far as a full fledged jazz program these were and still are very rare. Julius

PAGE 186

175 always had a few students who would seek him out like what you would have done. People wanted to see where he was and to learn from him. He always had a few students and not just jazz students or French horn players. He would teach anyone who wanted to learn about music. Of course, horn players who studied with him learned a great deal about the horn and the lifestyle you must live to stay healthy (physically and mentally), to stay in shape, what you should and shouldnt do. This was a time when things were changing and in some instances I even benefited by being an African-American because they were looking for this one person to integrate this or that situation. Wed wind up doing various Broadway shows by that stroke of luck. In Manhattan a lot of us went on picket lines until they passed laws saying that you had to have a certain percentage of minority personnel. Of course, that was slightly circumvented by adding women and certain other ethnicities to the list, so now it doesnt benefit African-Americans but all minorities. They were resistant in Broadway to hire women because they didnt want a woman to miss a show job because of a menstrual period or other such bullshit as that. I actually heard contractors articulate that. We always thought that New York was the place of opportunity and in many cases, it was. If you came from a place like Chicago or like Julius, Detroit, it certainly was. Thats how a lot of us wound up collecting in New York in such great numbers. PS: Do you think that race helped or hindered Julius career at all? WIS: Oh it definitely hindered his career because had it not been for racial problems, he wouldve been in somebodys symphony orchestra. He certainly could have been in the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. They didnt have that great of a symphony orchestra where someone of his capabilities would not have been in it. Im sure that it

PAGE 187

176 (race) hurt him in many ways because no matter how good you were, you were still judged by a stricter standard. The fact that he would not be punctual at times prevented him from getting record dates in certain instances with certain contractors. Broadway shows were definitely hard to come by unless there was somebody who was sympathetic. Once he got in the show, of course, everybody realized how good he was and they didnt mess with him. That initial thing, that initial getting in the door certainly affected Julius. I am positive that he should have been teaching on someones college faculty. He was that type of a person. He loved people. Yes he did drink, but I wouldnt label him an alcoholic. He would get into his cups and get, you know, a bit out sometimes, but everybody did that back then and, to a certain extent, they still do today. There were white alcoholics all over the musicians union who were working incessantly and would be excused from contracts or socially embraced no matter what their habits were. But alcoholism was just another way to exclude black people. Those things certainly did affect him. PS: Was he an active member of the musicians union? WIS: Oh yeah, definitely. Local 802, right here in Manhattan. He had to be to do the record dates and stuff like that. I mean, you could probably still do the record dates but you wouldnt get paid because the checks were sent from the musicians union office. Its what they call a closed shop. Independent musicians of any genre now find that it may be easy to circumvent the union like the hip-hop field or rock-n-roll at one time. There is also a lot of work that goes under the radar. If you are fortunate enough to be involved in that or you have a lucrative connection, you dont need the union. Most of us, though, are not in that position. The union gives you social benefits. I am living partially

PAGE 188

177 on a retirement pension from the union. The retirement is very well worked out. We didnt get it until the very late 60s or early 70s. When it started it was very good, you know? Musicians get it based on the amount of work that they do. Julius didnt do enough of that kind of work, which is record dates, Broadway shows, symphony orchestras, television, to build up a retirement supplement. That reminds me of another thing. In those days they had maybe four different vehicles for television staff orchestras: NBC, CBS, ABC and there was one local station, WRTV channel 11 had its own staff. These people were on call and played whenever the television station needed them. You got a pension just from that staff. Eventually they abolished the staff orchestras a lot of that work moved out to California and some of the musicians did too. Many of us, though, stayed put. This meant that there was a lot more competition for record dates and stuff like that, so many musicians lost out on that end of the deal too. Julius was never even on a staff orchestra in those days and he really should have been. All the people who were on the staff orchestras, the horn players in particular, knew about Julius and acknowledged the fact that he was a superior player to most of them. PS: Is race what held him back from these jobs? WIS: To a great extent, yes. These guys made a lot of money doing the staff orchestra thing. PS: Was Julius paid the same as his Caucasian colleagues? WIS: Oh yeah, sure. There was no discrimination on that front. Once you got hired that was no problem. Getting hired was the tough part for black musicians. There were a lot of dates that were in need of larger orchestras the R and B dates for example and you would see Julius on a lot of those sorts of orchestral jobs. Of course all of the jazz

PAGE 189

178 bands hired him that used the French horn: Johnny Richards orchestra, Gil Evans orchestra, Quincy Jones and others. He went on tour with Quincy Jones in the production of a Broadway show called Free and Easy. If you look in Quincys biography, you will see pictures of the orchestra in costume, including Julius, on the stage because all of the pit musicians were on stage. This was an orchestra I think this happened between 1958 and 60 that was the best of the best jazz bands. Quincy literally hocked everything that he had to take this entire band to Europe with him. If you look in this book, Quincy talks about Julius many times. Quincy was another one who was very fond of Julius and could have kept Julius working. The problem was that Julius just disappeared. You couldnt call him when he was living on the train. When I found him and got him out of that situation, he could use the phone and his work picked up just by the fact that he had someplace to be. Before that, though, it was hard to get him and Im sure that he lost at least six months of work. Im not sure how long he was in that predicament. PS: It sounds as though that was a real changing point in his life as well as your life when you found him and took him into your studio. WIS: Oh yes it was. PS: It also sounds as though Harriette had a fairly profound impact on his life. Did you ever get to meet her? WIS: Oh yeah, because she would come up and visit while he was staying with me. I also knew her from pickup orchestras that we were both in. Im not sure how she and Julius actually met. PS: What type of person was she?

PAGE 190

179 WIS: She was also very nice. The two of them were the type of people who left a lot of stuff in. She was pretty stable. She was a good business woman. She had her own home. She took care of him, but when he began to fail, her nervous system broke down. She literally lost her hair worrying about him. I cant say that these things are psychosomatic, but she eventually succumbed herself to some kind of debilitating disease that took her. PS: She died about one year after he did, didnt she? WIS: Yes, something like that. They were really good for each other. A lot of people fail when they lose that loved one that they are so attached to. My grandparents experienced this. PS: Mine also. Was Harriette a composer also? I seem to recall seeing her name attached to some concert programs. WIS: Yes, she was a composer. PS: Is it possible that she was a dancer too? I remember seeing the name of a touring dance troupe that performed with The Jazz Modes on a number of concerts. WIS: No, she was not. (pause) Well, I cant say for sure that she wasnt. If her troupe and his quintet were in the same place at the same time, that is a real possibility. I cant say that they knew each other before Julius was living with me. I know that their romantic interest began when he was living in my studio. PS: What was he like outside of rehearsals? Did he have a good sense of humor? Was he the life of the party? WIS: Oh yes, he had a great sense of humor. He could tell jokes and tell stories really well. He was really quiet too. He wouldnt talk to people that he was not

PAGE 191

180 comfortable around. Charlie Rouse was his best friend of course, and they had a lifelong friendship. PS: Did he ever talk about his family? Were there any other musicians in his family? I know that his father was an electrician and his mother was a housewife. WIS: As far as I know he was the only one. I didnt hear him talk about his family much and rarely about his parents. I did hear him talk about a daughter. Im not sure if he had any other children or who they were. PS: He did have two children with his first wife: a son, Julius, Jr. and a daughter, Julie Terry. WIS: I was pretty sure that there was at least one child and I assumed that there were probably others. I didnt actually meet them. The only family member he ever talked about was Harriette and that was after they met in my studio. They were married probably in 1970 or 71. PS: What did Julius like to do besides playing music? Did he have any hobbies? WIS: Well, dont recall any hobbies. He liked to compose and he was working on some writings as well. I dont remember him having any hobbies. It was (and still is) so easy for us jazz musicians to get so wrapped up in our work that we spend all of our time in jobs, hanging out in clubs with other players, you know how it is. Youre a musician too. A lot of people were very one-sided in their own little world. Julius didnt have many interests outside of music and people. He liked people a lot. He was always going around trying to help people, doing what he could. He liked to read a lot. I do remember that. He did a lot of reading. He kept up with current events, particularly political and social

PAGE 192

181 affairs. He didnt like seeing injustices or people being mistreated by society or the government. He could get a little riled up about that sometimes. PS: I was just about to ask you about his pet peeves. Did you ever see him really get angry? WIS: Yes, but he usually got upset about the things that were happening to somebody else. You couldnt get him angry about things you were trying to do to him. It was always something that would happen to somebody else that would piss him off. He had the ability to absorb things that were directed towards him. It didnt seem to come out in a way that was detrimental to his character. I never heard him being bitter about the fact that he wasnt playing in this group or that group, this orchestra or that orchestra. That wasnt in him. We would get angry, but not him. I got really pissed off when I heard he was riding the subway at night. What?! Youre riding the train? No! Youre going to live with me. That just infuriated me to learn that. I would have done anything for that man. Sometimes you come out of a depression and you have an elevated sense of social consciousness about what other people are going through. I really regret that people are sometimes so isolated and so nuclear in their relationships that everything and everyone else is excluded. PS: Was he a fairly religious man? I know you had mentioned something about the spirituality aspect. WIS: Yes, he was religious. I dont remember him going to church on a regular basis. After he and Harriette were married he did go on a regular basis. Im sure that during his early childhood, religion played a major role. I will say that he had a great deal of respect for religion and anything like that. I dont know if there was a

PAGE 193

182 denomination that he favored, but I did sense that he had a respect for religion as an entity. PS: Do you have a favorite or a funniest Julius moment that you can recall? Practical jokes? WIS: No, but there were so many idiosyncrasies, you know? For example, the doctors told him not to drink there near, but when wed go into the pit of the theatre everybody had a locker. He always took a little nip from there, if you know what I mean. I went up to him one time and said, Hey, man, you know the doctor said you shouldnt do that. Hed say, Aw, man, cmon now. Hed take his little nip before the show and after the show. Nothing was going to stop him from the lifestyle he wanted to live. He could be very comical and very secretive about those things, but you could see where it was going to take him. He just simply would not change his lifestyle for anyone or anything. He had everything going for him at the end: he was working, he had a good wife who loved him, he had a good place to live, he was making that commute back to Jersey. But whatever lifestyle he had established, he was going to keep living it whether it was detrimental or not. Musicians are very accepting of people with behaviors that are detrimental or not. You see people involved with various kinds of drugs and it doesnt affect the way you feel about them or the way you treat them. You try to stop them, but you dont beat them over the head about it. He was so stubborn. Refusing to eat that was funny. Thats the way he was. Harriette had a huge impact on him of course. She got him up and out of a terrible depression. That was one thing he did have a tendency to get depressed and he would hold it in. Music could bring him out of it and certain personnel could as well. Harriette really had the ability to lift him up and out of that hole

PAGE 194

183 into a better type of lifestyle. She was really good for him as he was good for her. She needed somebody too. That was a highlight in his later life. PS: Did you ever visit his home in New Jersey? WIS: No, I didnt. (pause) Wait! Yes I did, in Montclaire. They had a garden apartment. I remember being out there one day and looking out the window around dusk and seeing a family of raccoons. One would walk up to their front door and stand on his tiptoes. Id say, Julius! You have raccoons! Hed say, Oh yeah, theyre here all the time. They live in that tree right over there. He knew all about them. It was a nice place. He was pretty happy. When he died, we didnt feel sad about it. We knew that it was coming. We knew where he had come from and all that he had overcome and survived. He had lived a good life and we felt good about that. The music that he produced, theres no reason to even discuss that. When I wrote those pieces for the cds I gave you, one of them was in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Julius had the unique ability to convey a certain mood through his instrument. I told Julius what I had in mind before we recorded these and the outcome was better than anything I could have ever imagined. He was sensitive enough that he could put that emotion through his horn. He was a very special and emotional person. PS: Thank you so much for taking the time to share these experiences with me. I really appreciate all that you have offered today. WIS: Youre very welcome. Julius would be honored and humbled that you are doing what youre doing for him. Keep up the good work!

PAGE 195

APPENDIX D A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF TOM VARNER, JAZZ HORN PLAYER AND STUDENT OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004 Patrick Smith: Tom, its a pleasure to meet with you today to talk about Julius and the impact he had your jazz horn playing career. Do you mind if I make a recording of this discussion? Tom Varner: No, no. Not at all. This is for a very good cause. I am so glad youre doing this. This is so cool! PS: Why dont you start by telling me about your early horn playing experiences and how they grew to include Julius either through influence or teaching. TV: I played the horn in the New Jersey Public Schools, suburbs in New Jersey during the mid-1960s. I started playing in the fourth grade and didnt take it too seriously. I played in the normal general music public school band starting on French horn. During my freshman year of high school, I began to take private lessons and by my sophomore year I was taking the horn a lot more seriously. I started getting into classical horn playing and was listening to more classical music in general. During the early 1970s (1971, 72 and 73) I had a group of friends who really got me into jazz listening to Miles Davis and this new sort of fusion that was coming out at that time: Chick Corea stuff, you know? At this point in my life, I was really getting into jazz but I said to myself, I guess Ill just have to always listen to jazz. Ill never be able to play it because of my instrument. As a sixteen-year old I was thinking to myself that I could never change instruments. It was too late, right?! Finally, I had a next door neighbor who was a 184

PAGE 196

185 lawyer who liked jazz and he said, Have you ever heard this Thelonius Monk record I have? Its with a French horn player and he actually takes a solo. I must have been sixteen or seventeen, seventeen probably. It was that famous date with Sonny Rollins where they do Friday the 13 th and Think of One. Hearing that recording was like this huge light bulb going off in my mind. I was like, Oh my God! For me, it was like this wonderful sense of, well maybe I can do this too. So I listened to that and tried to find other things that he (Julius) played on, but hearing that solo on that record and realizing that I was not the only one really boosted my spirits. I played in the South Orange (New Jersey) Symphony which is a little community orchestra and I knew a bunch of the players and they started talking about a number of other jazz French horn players: John Clark in Boston for example. I heard that they were using French horns in Don Ellis Big Band in L.A. I should mention also that I was playing horn in my high school big band. I asked the director, Please? May I please play with the band? He was a jazz saxophonist and he said, Yeh, yeh. Wed love it. So I played second trombone parts and transposed the parts at sight. The charts we played included no specific horn parts. So I was listening a lot, learning to play a little bit in that field, playing a lot of classical music and starting to take the horn a lot more seriously and playing in community orchestras and stuff. As a college freshman, right out of high school, I went to Oberlin College. This was fall 1975. Now, I need to clarify that I was in the college, not in the conservatory. So it was sort of a mixed bag. It was a wonderful place in many ways, but I was not allowed to take lessons. So it was extremely frustrating at the same time. I played immediately in small jazz groups and it was at this time when I started to realize that I could probably play jazz. I knew and understood what a 12-bar blues was and that was about it. I realized

PAGE 197

186 that I knew nothing really about jazz. What I was, though, was this crazy 18-year old who knew that there was Julius Watkins, knew that this was somehow possible and had developed a passion for a very wide spectrum of music. There was free jazz in addition to Charlie Parker and Clifford Brown. I was listening to all of these guys all at once. To make a connection with classical music, imagine listening to Palestrina and Elliot Carte and Wagner and Schoenberg and Bach all at once and loving all of it in its own way. At Oberlin they allowed us to do a special project in January and February, then come back to classes in February or March. In the meantime, I had found out that Julius Watkins lived in Montclaire, NJ, which is just a few towns away. I was in Milburn, NJ. It was very close, just a fifteen or twenty minute car ride away. PS: Do you recall how you found out he was there or who had told you this? TV: Who did I hear this from? Maybe I asked (pause) I dont know. The summer of 1974, the summer between my junior and senior high school years I should backtrack. I played in this funny little traveling wind ensemble. It was like college kids, high school kids, high school teachers, led by Mr. Wilhelm. I forget his first name, but his son, Chris Wilhelm, is a horn player and taught at Montclaire State University for many years. It was the summer of and we were in Denmark. We ran across the Gil Evans Orchestra/Big Band playing at this little jazz festival in a small town. There I met Peter Gordon who was playing French horn in the orchestra that summer. They were doing the music of Jimi Hendrix for big band and it was great! I might have gotten Peter Gordons number at that point. In that band were Peter Gordon, Luss Olaf and a guy named Peter Levin who was a hornist who also played synthesizer. Pete stayed with Gil Evans and he gradually played horn less and less and played keyboards more and more.

PAGE 198

187 But I was so excited to see not one, but three horn players in that band! I had some small contact with Peter Gordon and at one point he gave me Julius Watkins number and yes, he lived in Montclaire. So I called Julius and asked him if I could come out and take some lessons with him. He said, Yeh. Sure, why not! Come on over! He seemed a bit surprised that someone was calling him for jazz French horn lessons but was more than willing to take me on and help me out. This would have been January 1976 and he had already given a few lessons to Vince Chancey. He might have known John Clark too. The point is that although he was a bit surprised that (me) this young kid was interested in taking jazz horn lessons, there were some other younger folks who were also interested in this art form. PS: Was he excited that there was this potential new wave of jazz horn players that were interested in diving into this practically unknown world? TV: Well, maybe. He rarely ever showed any extreme happiness or sadness. He was always just this sweet, nice, gentle, wonderful man. At that point he wasnt playing in quite so many straight-ahead jazz groups. He was doing some Broadway stuff and I think he was already starting to have health issues, which I didnt realize. He died in March or April of PS: Do you know how he died? TV: I think it was kidney problems or kidney disease. I think he drank a lot. I dont know if there were periods of his life when he drank a lot or if he drank all of his life, but I think the alcohol did a number on his kidneys. I dont know that for sure. I do remember in my first lesson with him here I am, this excited nave 18-year old in the presence of my hero, in his basement in Montclaire and I can ask him a million questions and he

PAGE 199

188 said to me, Oh kid, watch out for those Broadway pits. Sometimes I have to play these jobs and Broadway shows to make a living. You get really bored and you start drinking. You just have to start drinking when youre playing down in those pits playing the same thing over and over again. He was sort of telling me, If you can avoid it, dont do it. Ive thought many times about pursuing a Broadway career now that I have a kid and Id like to have that sort of security. But in the back of my mind, I hear this little voice screaming, No! Dont do it! I know many people who play in the pits and its a great way to support a family, but I just dont think I can do it. Maybe its Julius voice telling me not to. January of 1976, I think I took four or five lessons and that was it. I had to go back to college. That (lessons with Julius) was my project for the winter term; to really get a jump on trying to learn more and more about playing the jazz on the horn. PS: What were lessons like with Julius? Did he teach in a structured way or was he pretty free-and-easy going? TV: Julius didnt have anything specific worked out or planned in lessons. He had no specific advice. He had no, Ok, this is what you do, insight. He was just sort of taught by answering whatever questions you had and I asked a lot of questions. How do you do this? How do you get through the difficulties of our instrument in order to be a fluent jazz player? How do you get through the technical difficulties of playing one note so you can play a line of so many notes as we have to do in jazz? He had no magic answers. Hed say, Well, lets see. It was interesting because he had to think about it himself, because nobody every told him or taught him much about jazz. I know he had a lot of classical teaching as a boy in Detroit. I also know that when it was really bad hed

PAGE 200

189 switch to trumpet at times, earlier in his career. He didnt really like it (switching to trumpet) because it wasnt his main instrument. Trumpet wasnt his love. I would also ask him questions like, How do you make the horn cut through? The horn is such a soft instrument and if theres drums and bass and a piano going, its so easy to get lost. I do remember a couple of things with that which I laugh about now. He said (very matter of fact), Well, one of the things I do to get around that problem is sometimes I will play in the extreme high range. And I was like, Ok? If you listen to him play, its true. He had these chops where he could go up to a G above high-C. He could do that and sometimes hed do that in his solos. Another thing he showed me was he would sometimes do this right-hand technique that wasnt stopped, but he would split the inside of the bell into two compartments. His hand would be very flat as if you were making the sound come out in two opposite ways. This made it have more of a piercing sound approximating the sound of a harmon mute except youre doing it with your hand. Thats the best I can come up with. The sound would change from an ahhhhhh to an awwwww in color. It was a little more piercing. When I asked him, How do you get the horn to swing, there were no answers. I just kept asking him questions though. I do remember asking him, What was your favorite musical experience as a listener? Whats the greatest thing you ever heard? He said, Id have to say it was hearing Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker at their prime, at their peak, when they were together in the mid-late 1940s when they were unbelievably good. Theyd match each other in phrasing and articulation perfectly. Im trying to remember what some of his favorite things were as a player and I cannot remember. Certainly, he loved the group he had with Charlie Rouse, but he played in so many different bands I think it would have been hard for

PAGE 201

190 him to come up with one single best memory as a performer. I mean, he played with Mingus, Quincy Jones and so many others. Phil Woods, the great sax player who is still going strong today, played together many times. Julius played on a record of Phil Woods on the Candid label, called Rights of Swing. They did jazzed up versions of the Stravinsky stuff with a septet or octet. PS: What types of things would you work on in lessons with Julius? Etudes? Solos? TV: I do remember that we worked on a couple of standards and a couple of new things. I remember (pause) wow, this is all coming back to me. I remember asking him, May I play for you and you tell me what you think? I played for him a tune by Charlie Parker and then improvised on a 12-bar blues. I cannot remember what he said. I think he smiled and said something like, Hey, thats not too bad! Pretty good. Specifically, I cannot remember him saying anything definite like try this, try that. I just dont remember. I think that in the general sense, he was just sort of encouraging. The value of those lessons wasnt him giving technical advice. It was just hanging out with him, asking him questions, and realizing that if he could do this, I could do this. Ive been playing since the fourth grade. I love jazz. He can do it. Maybe I can too, no matter how hard this is. This is not impossible. The contact with that man (Julius) is what helped me to realize that playing jazz on the horn was and is possible. That is what was valuable in those lessons. I was a crazy, head-strong romantic 18-year old. When youre 18 and you fall in love with something, especially like jazz, youre just going crazy! WOW, Miles Davis! WOW, Charlie Parker! Wow! If only I could do that!

PAGE 202

191 Julius did help me with some interpretation issues. One time he said, Why dont we look at the tune Cherokee. Thats a really standard tune, not an easy one but a good one. You should learn that. Its an AABA tune where the A sections are not very difficult at all, but the B sections are very difficult because youre having to do all of these ii-V-I progressions. For example, the A sections are in C. The ii-V-I progressions, you have to go from G#-minor to C7 to F#-major. The fingers just dont want to go to F# anything! From there you go from F# minor to B7 to E-major. From there its E-minor to A7 to D-major. Then its not so bad as you noodle your way back to C. But he was pointing out that I should work on Cherokee and later that semester at Oberlin I had a group and we played the tune. That was good! In the terms of the legato phrasing, how do you get the French horn to play accurately like a trumpet or sax without having to articulate every note and play fluidly? This was a big challenge for me. He didnt have any answers for that, but that following spring I would practice along with a metronome and Charlie Parker solos and slowly, after two years, slowly it came. I was finally starting to get over this hump of playing swung notes dit da-dit da-dit da-dit da-dit, really choppy and come out sounding like a scat-singer dab-a doo-ba dib-a dee-ba and choose whether or not you wanted to tongue that note or not. It took me two years to learn that. I had two years at Oberlin College, then transferred to the New England Conservatory where I had two years there. By the time I was a junior at NEC, I certainly had a long way to go, but I was over the hump in certain ways by being able to phrase in a smoother legato way. At that point, John Clark could do that. Dave Amram could do that, although he was more into composing by then. And that was about it. There werent too many people who could do that. Julius too, obviously. We were the folks who could

PAGE 203

192 get a jazz horn to articulate the way a tenor sax could. Its so funny to hear hornists who think they play jazz, theyll phrase something in a very classical style rather than really digging into the jazz style. Many folks just cant do it. Looking back on that lesson with Julius, there was no magic answer, no easy answer, no solution. But, he gave me the inspiration to keep going and keep working. I felt so horrible a year later. I kept telling myself to write him a letter telling him that Im working on it and Im still going. Then, my parents saw his obituary in the local paper and they sent it to me and I didnt know that he had died. He was only 55. That was so terrible. I really wanted to let him know that I was still working at it. PS: Ive read a dissertation on John Graas and found that, like Julius, he also died at an early age. He had gone out drinking with some friends one night and had a massive heart attack after returning home. Numerous pill bottles were found scattered around the place as well. His seems like another sad story of a horn player who tried to make strides in the jazz realm. TV: He was quite big on the west coast and was a very interesting character. Ive heard a few things of his and I think its like, give the guy an A for effort. He never quite got the swing feel together. But, he had some interesting ideas and he really wanted to put the horn in a new place. Give credit where credit is due there. He got the ball rolling for Julius, albeit on the opposite side of the country. I think he was a really good classical player and a really good all around studio player. PS: This is true. He played with the orchestras in Indianapolis and Cleveland along with summers in Tanglewood. TV: Wow, what a loss for us. Was he only in his 30s when he died?

PAGE 204

193 PS: I want to say he lived into his late 40s or early 50s. He was younger than Julius when he died. TV: Edwin London, a hornist who played with Julius with Oscar Pettiford mini-big band might be a good person to talk to. Hes a composer now and teaches more composition at Cleveland State which seems to have a very good jazz and composition area. I know that Gunther Schuller, jazz hornist and composer, also knows about Julius and Edwin. Anyways, as I look back on it, I feel really fortunate and blessed that I had that one month with Julius to experience the man behind the music. I wish that I had more time. I wish that he had more time and that I had contacted him more. PS: Did you ever hear Julius play live? TV: I dont think so. I mean, he played a little bit for me in those lessons and he showed me a few things. By then he also had false teeth and I know he was playing a lot of that high stuff on false teeth. Howard Johnson, the jazz tuba player, might be able to tell you about that. For a while he played with either no teeth or really bad, falling apart teeth. Someone told him, You know, you really need to get this together. This he did, and almost immediately he was back and playing better than ever. Im not sure exactly when that was, maybe mid-60s. PS: I was reading somewhere, perhaps in your article, that he returned from a three-year hiatus to teaching and playing. Perhaps this was the time he got his new teeth? TV: Maybe! Maybe it was the teeth thing and no teeth, no play! Because by the time I met him he was back to doing the Broadway show thing and playing reviews and stuff. I think he was in the pit for things like Raisin. Anyways, that was the extent of my personal contact with him.

PAGE 205

194 PS: Did you meet his wife? TV: I didnt. I think she was (pause) What was her name? PS: Her name was Harriette Davison. TV: Thats so sad, because I was always going to write her and say, Im so sorry that Julius died, but I want you to know that he was one of my biggest heroes and Im still doing jazz horn playing. And then she died. I think she was a string player, maybe a violinist or something? PS: Yes, a violinist and a composer as well. Ive seen her name come up as a composer who died in 1978. TV: Yes, thats her. Harriette. She died the very next year after Julius. Ive never looked her up. I know they had kids, but I dont know what ever came of them. PS: Do you know if he was married more than once? TV: I think he might have been. I think Harriette was his second wife. PS: On his application to the Manhattan School of Music, he lists a wifes name of Ella. I figured that, unless Harriet went by the nickname Ella that were talking about two different people. TV: I think so. I think, wow, good for you for looking into that. Did you tell the people at MSM what youre doing? PS: Yes, and they gave me Julius original application to MSM. TV: They gave it to you? (very excitedly) Can I see it?!?! PS: Sure. Here it is. TV: Wow. This is an original or a copy?

PAGE 206

195 PS: This is the original. I was there yesterday and told them what I was doing. They gave me these things and said they were about to be destroyed, probably later this week. They said there were probably other items in the file that have already been destroyed because this file is so incredibly old. TV: What? Oh my God! (pause) This is so cool. Father electrician, Detroit. Wow! Admitted as a special student I wonder if that was the racial thing. Maybe black students werent allowed to be normal students, or he had (pause) I dont know. Summer of 51. (long pause) I wonder if Dolores (Beck) knew him. She must have known him when she was at Manhattan. Performance experience: only dance band experience. You know why. Because he was black. (pause) Wow, thats really heavy. PS: From all I can gather, the race issue is what prevented him from achieving great heights as an orchestral player, but helped to advance his jazz career. Do you agree with this? TV: (ten second pause, then emotionally) Id think so because, um, (pause) those were the only gigs, you know? Dance bands were the only sorts of ensembles that would hire black musicians. Wow. He doubled on trumpet a lot early on just to get gigs in the big bands and stuff. He would then work it out with people that he could play horn. This is so heavy. PS: Do you have any idea where his children are? Did you ever meet them or hear him talk about them during lessons? I know of two children: Julius, Jr. and Julie Terry. Both were children with his first wife, Ella. TV: I dont know. He never spoke of them. Maybe they moved back to Detroit. You should talk to Marcus Belgrave. He is a jazz trumpet player who grew up in Detroit

PAGE 207

196 and stayed there. Lots of jazz guys came out of Detroit and moved to New York, but not Marcus. Detroit was a heavy music scene at that point, heavy into bebop. Marcus might have some info about what it was like to be in high school at Cass Technical. His classmates were some of the greatest jazz musicians we have today. I think that this was a really serious jazz scene going on. PS: Julius had the nickname of Phantom. How did he get this name? TV: People always thought that it was because of his sound, like he could come in with this mysteriously soft high note. Others said it was because he wouldnt show up to gigs. Other times, youre sitting around talking and you look around, and he was gone. It was like, where did Julius go? It is a nickname with numerous connections. PS: I know that in some of his recordings, his high register is just really spooky. TV: Yes, it is. So its sort of a two-fold name. Someone told me that in the Quincy Jones Big band was playing in Paris. They actually stayed in Paris doing a show or something. They were all set to play and he realized that he left his mouthpiece on this little rail on the observation deck of the Eiffel Tower. He had to run back and get it all the way up the top. Phil Woods would be able to confirm if that story is true. There are other people in that band who were still alive who could tell you about that. Mustve been around I think Jerome Richardson was in that band, but he just died. That band is quite well documented and their cds are back in print now. If you know the theme at the beginning of the Austin Powers movies, thats the Quincy Jones Big band playing, 1965. Julius might be playing in that. Quincy has this new autobiography out and he might talk about that period. PS: What do you see happening to the future of jazz horn playing?

PAGE 208

197 TV: Well, I think it is still very much under-appreciated and not a popular genre. I dont know what will become of it. Whats nice is that were all such different individuals: myself, Mark Taylor, Vincent (Chancey), John Clark, Rick Todd, a couple of guys in Norway are quite good. The nice thing is there arent just two or three of us. No, there are more than just one or two even though there are less than twenty-five. Alex Brofsky is another one. Were a small group, but we are growing. There are a few really great teachers out there who encourage their students to think beyond the classical borders. Doug Hill for example. I think that by educating horn players that there is another world of playing out there will help to keep this tradition going. Also, educating audiences will be critical in creating audiences who will buy recordings and concert and club tickets. PS: Tom, I cant thank you enough for all of your information today. Lets keep in touch and I will let you know what I continue to find. TV: Absolutely. Best of luck to you.

PAGE 209

APPENDIX E EXCERPTS FROM A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF PETER HIRSCH, JOURNALIST, HORN PLAYER AND COLLEAGUE OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004 Patrick Smith: Peter, I want to thank you for meeting with me today to discuss your recollections of Julius Watkins. Ive realized recently that there is so much to know about this man, yet so little material which is really accessible to us. Peter Hirsch: It is tough to get a whole lot without actually talking to people who knew him. Part of the problem with finding material about Julius lies in the fact that Julius himself led a very soft-spoken, quiet life. He lived most of his life below the radar. People recognized who he was, but being a jazz French horn player, especially in the 50s and 60s, it wasnt a real high status in either the jazz or the horn world. Its not like he was Barry Tuckwell, you know? Its not like he was Maynard Ferguson either. PS: Could you please start by telling me a little about yourself and your performing background? PH: Sure. Heres who I am. My first private teacher was Eric von Schmutzig. I studied with him from around sixth grade until high school. I took some lessons with Arthur Byrd. I went to the Manhattan School of Music where I studied with van Norman, first horn in the Met at the time. I was at MSM from 68-72. I was a big Conn player and had very structured lessons rooted in the strict classical traditions of the New York Philharmonic. I then did some freelancing for a while. Only about twelve years ago I made the decision to do more archiving work and things in the library and found that I could make a decent living doing it. I did play with the Goldman Band and I feel that I 198

PAGE 210

199 have done a lot of different things in a number of professional capacities. I play with a Gilbert and Sullivan group. Im not looking for a professional high-pressure gig. That just isnt for me. I really enjoy these other things on the side though. I went to school at the same time as David Jolley and I though about taking lessons with him for a while. We did meet a few times and he helped me to get focused on a few things. From day one of playing the horn, I was a kid who had a pile of music. I didnt get the Mozart concerti and the Kopprasch etudes and just started to collect stuff. I wasnt going to be the best horn player in the galaxy, but I thought that I should know as much stuff about the horn as I could regarding literature, people, recordings, etc. When I was in camp as a kid, one of my bunkmates played the trumpet. I said to him, I want to start playing the French horn. I am a musician. I am a horn player. I think that as a musician, I should not just play music, but I should know as much about music as I can. PS: Thats a very interesting point of view, to make those sorts of comparisons. Ive felt for some time now that Julius is and was very much underappreciated for the work that he did. PH: Let me give you what I can. Fortunately, since I work at the library, I have access to a copy machine and here are some copies of things that are probably the most relevant. PS: Thank you very much. I see you have included here an article about John Graas. Of course, Julius was the first really prominent jazz horn player, but John Graas was the first to even tinker with the idea of playing jazz on the horn in a professional setting, right?

PAGE 211

200 PH: Yes, there are names: Junior Collins, David Amram, Gunther Schuller, and other people who appeared on jazz albums in the 40s. They were sort of predecessors of what Julius tried to do and did do. I have quite a lot of Graas recordings, but his was a different story. Graas capabilities as a jazz player didnt match those of Julius, especially his high range. Some of his solos are just amazing. Even compared to some of todays jazz horn players, they just cant touch what Julius did. One very interesting aspect regarding Julius early career here in New York centers around his personnel manager, Princess Orelia Benskina. Ive done a lot of research, fruitlessly, on just who the heck she was and she is a real mystery. I know people who have said, Yeh, Ive seen the name but have no real hard data on who she was. I know some folks who were really big into the Harlem jazz scene, and if you can find out something concrete about her, you might get to more information about him. Julius didnt leave a huge trail by any stretch of the imagination. PS: No, he really didnt. I mean, as Im sure you know, he was homeless for at least one portion of his life. PH: Yeh, you know, he had all sorts of problems: health problems, financial problems, practically whatever you could imagine. PS: I am amazed at the amount of networking that is going into this project. One of the really exciting things for me to hear is the mentioning of new names of people who knew Julius who are still alive. In what capacity did you know Julius? PH: I didnt play with him on Broadway, but I did play with him. This isnt a really big story but it is interesting. It was an organization; let me think of the timeframe, this was after I got out of school in but not long after. There was a group called Symphony

PAGE 212

201 of the New World. This has nothing to do with the group in Miami, FL with Michael Tilson Thomas. It was intended to be a group of mainly minority players. In that time, Im not really sure what minority meant; probably more with black (musicians) than Asian or Hispanic that we think of today. It was a symphonic organization that played classical music. It mainly brought in conductors like Leon Thompson who were African-American. It was designed to be an orchestra of opportunity for mostly black musicians who could not get other professional orchestral work or, as was frequently the case, not allowed to take part in professional orchestral ensembles like the (New York) Philharmonic. They played at Avery Fisher Hall and it turned out to be a very diversified group. It was not mainly black as the initial intent might have been. I got to play. I knew the contractor. I was playing there, at least once, and I clearly remember playing Brahms Second Symphony. Julius was playing 3 rd horn and I was either playing 4 th or 2 nd horn. I dont remember which, but I do remember that I was sitting next to him. It was interesting because I heard the name and here he is next to me playing classical music. He came in and warmed up. He sat down and took the horn out and his register where he would start warming up was like a fourth above my highest note. I was normally a low horn player so that made it even more depressing. Heres this guy screaming up there and I was just trying to get a second-line G to get focused. Thats the way he played his jazz solos: screaming high stuff almost all the time. But anyways, he didnt seem to be totally comfortable playing in that sort of a classical setting. He didnt really play with any confidence which was so surprising to me. Here was someone who could sit down and play in front of a crowd without music and he was having trouble looking and reading the part. I would have panicked to have been in the situations that he was in day-in and day

PAGE 213

202 out. So, it was like, really sad because he didnt really play all that well either. He missed a lot of notes. It was just (pause) I dont want to say he was unfamiliar with the Brahms Second (symphony) but it sure as heck sounded like it. He didnt really quite know when to come in and when he did he missed notes. It was really too bad. He was such a fine player. This is not a question! He could play Broadway charts and he could play all of that jazz stuff documented here. I dont know of any other instances when he played in classical settings. He was such a sweet, quiet and nice person. Not the sort of person who walks around dropping names and gossiping. I mean, he worked with Quincy Jones and Monk and he certainly could have walked around bragging about all that he had done, but he didnt. Other than being introduced to him once or twice, that was the one time I remember actually performing with him. I remember there was a horn player named Stu Butterfield who was taking lessons. We were in school together. He was having some major chop issues and couldnt play very well in the high register. Somebody told him, Why dont you go take some lessons with Julius? So I saw Julius with Stu a few times. Julius was, at least, a known factor still in the early 70s in classical settings. PS: What were some of the challenges facing black musicians at that time? I know that it would have been just about impossible for him to have pursued a full time orchestral job due to his ethnicity. PH: My consciousness of the professional orchestra scene starts in the late 1960s. I was born in 1950. I got out of high school in Id go to hear the Philharmonic and other groups. There definitely was the situation that if you saw any African-American player on any instrument it was noteworthy. I dont think there were any in the major symphonies and it is still this way today. At least today, though, it is a situation that

PAGE 214

203 people are aware of. But back then, people thought, Well, how can they be trained in classical music? The attitudes were certainly different and had been set since the previous decades. There really was very little effort to integrate the professional symphony orchestra scene. So, in the 1970s when I heard about this guy name Bob Watt and a couple of other people who were starting to cross the line into professional symphony orchestras. It certainly wasnt a problem in the pop-music world at all. I mean, just think about it! The color line issues in pop music had been settled by the 1960s. There were groups starting up in my time and I played in a lot of them because my friends were in them. Nothing was set up for minorities, but nothing was set up to discriminate against them. I knew many professionally trained musicians who really had nowhere to go because society could not envision minorities, especially blacks, in traditionally Caucasian ensembles. For Julius I think it was too little, too late. I would think that for Julius, he probably envisioned himself playing horn in an orchestra somewhere as a child. But this just didnt happen for him. Willie Ruff, he teaches horn at Yale, has made a number of parallels to Julius life. Willie played in one of the military orchestras and thats about it for his orchestral experience. His capabilities were very good. He was not a jazz player like Julius, but he was a good player. PS: I know that Julius was really big into the record dates and club scene in New York during the 60s. What was your perception of this scene being a student around that time? PH: It was definitely different. There were lots of clubs, lots of places to play. Sometimes they would even have reading bands for people like Stan Kinton which featured four horn books. I know a lot of times, they would not be able to pay the

PAGE 215

204 musicians with cash, and, in fact, supplied the players with drugs as compensation. I got to play in bands like that thats where I met people like Vince Chancey. There was a fairly large scene at that point. Once you got in on one of these rehearsal reading bands, you were set. Youd get calls all the time. So thats how I got into that setting. I was never a jazzer, but, I did get to see and play things that I wouldnt have been able to experience otherwise. I did scope out the circle of people who were involved in that sort of thing. For someone of his age, I dont think that there was really another person like him. Jim Buffington had a reputation for being somewhat of a jazz player, David Amram too. But these were white musicians. They could go and do whatever they wanted. Julius was very unique. Had it not been for Julius, there might never have been horns in jazz. PS: Perhaps it was hard for you to gain this information, but did you learn anything about his family life? PH: Well, he did have a drinking problem. Around the point that I was talking about earlier, when I played the Brahms with him, I think he had been through a lengthy period when he was working at the post office, when he was able to work at all. I dont know how to say it, but there was a lot of drinking going on in the New York music scene back then. The culture, especially the brass players, embraced alcoholicism. It was almost like you could say, Well of course he drinks. Hes a brass player. People would drink before, during and after the gigs. I dont know if he even tried to dry out, but he definitely was a favor of the drink. Im not saying people dont today, but it was different then. He was playing a show called Bubbling Brown Sugar or maybe it was Raisin. He was so excited because he finally got a show! This helped to stabilize him because he finally had stable work. People watched out for him. They didnt talk about him behind his back.

PAGE 216

205 They supported him. People loved him. Nobody begrudged him any success at that point when he finally got that gig.

PAGE 217

LIST OF REFERENCES Articles Agrell, Jeffrey. Jazz Clinic: Therell Be Some Changes Made. The Horn Call, vol. 18 no. 2, 1988. pp. 86-89. Agrell, Jeffrey. Jazz Clinic: The Art of Noise. The Horn Call, vol. 21 no. 1, 1990. pp. 61-62. Albertson, Chris. Review of John Clarks I Will. Stereo Review, November 1997. Anonymous. Concert at Carnegie Hall. Downbeat Magazine [on-line]. June 2, 1961. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=reviews&subsect=review_detail&rid=12 ; internet; accessed 4 March, 2004. Anonymous. Ex-Hampton Ace Records for MGM. The Carolinian, 11 February, 1950. Anonymous. Julius Watkins, 55, Played Jazz on the French Horn and was Music Teacher. New York Times, 8 April, 1977. Anonymous. Milt Buckner in Quaker City. Baltimore Afro-American, 9 July, 1949 Anonymous. Review of John Clarks I Will. Billboard Magazine, June 7, 1997. Crow, Bill. Bill Crows Band Room. Local 802 News, Publication and Press Release. September, 1999. Ephland, John. Bio: Julius Watkins. Downbeat Magazine [on-line]. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/artists/artists_main.asp?sect=&aid=348&aname=Julius+Watkins ; internet accessed 23 July, 2002. Evans, Gil. The Birth of Cool. Downbeat Magazine [on-line], 2 May, 1957. Available from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect-stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=279 ; internet accessed 12 April, 2005 Frey, Kevin. Jazz Horn Interaction. The Horn Call, vol. 22 no. 2, 1992. pp. 57-59. Gottfried, Martin. Raisin. Womens Wear Daily, 19 October, 1973 Graas, John. The French Horn Has Won a Place in Jazz. Downbeat Magazine, 2 December, 1953. 206

PAGE 218

207 Henahan, Donal. Music: Black Composers Vocal Works. The New York Times, 2 September, 1977. p. 52. Jack, Gordon. CD Review: Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse. Jazz Journal International, 1 September, 2001. pp. 42-43. Line, Les. Blue Note 10 Rarities. 52 nd Street Review, Available from http://www.52ndstreet.com/reviews/reissues/bluenote_rarities.html ; internet accessed 23 July, 2002. Snedeker, Jeffrey. Music From the Heart: an Interview with Arkady Shilkloper. The Horn Call, vol. 29 no. 4, August, 1999, pp. 39-44. Varner, Tom. Jazz Horn Post Julius Watkins. The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 2, 1989. pp. 43-45. Varner, Tom. Julius Watkins: Jazz Pioneer. The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 1, 1988. p. 21. Ward, Charles. Recital review of Tom Bacon and James Grabner. The Houston Chronicle, May 7, 1997. Watrous, Peter. A One-Night French Horn Festival. The New York Times 27 January, 1994. p. C-20. Watrous, Peter. Charlie Rouse, 64, a Saxophonist Known for Work in Monk Quartet. The New York Times, 2 December, 1988. p. D-16. Watt, Douglas. Raisin: A Black Period Musical, Brings Back Raisin in the Sun. New York Daily News, 19 October, 1973. Wilson, Edwin. Putting Miss Hansberrys Play to Music. The Wall Street Journal, 22 October, 1973. Wilson, John S. Asadata Dafora Dancers Seen with Les Jazz Modes Quintet. The New York Times, 24 January, 1959. p. 12. Wilson, John S. Jazz Ensembles Sound Seasonal Note With an Easter Festival at Town Hall. The New York Times 31 March, 1956. p. 13. Wilson, John S. Milt Jackson Gets Big-Sound Backing. The New York Times, 3 September, 1966. p. 12. Wilson, John S. New Jazz Group Full of Promise. The New York Times, 6 April, 1970 Wilson, John S. Opera Explores Racial Questions. The New York Times, 23 May, 1971. p. 58. Wilson, John S. The Horn Nobody Wants. Downbeat Magazine, 17 September, 1959. pp. 15, 37-38.

PAGE 219

208 Wilson, John S. Trumpeter Serving Many. The New York Times, 14 January, 1962. p. X-14. Wolf, Carlo. Interview with John Clark. Jazziz Magazine, September, 1997. Books Bacon, Thomas. Jazz Cafe. San Antonio, TX, Southern Music Publishing, 2000. Baines, Anthony. Brass Instruments: Their History and Development. London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1976. Clark, John. Exercises for Jazz Horn. New York, Hidden Meaning Music, 1993. Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978. Cuscuna, Michael, Charlie Lourie and Oscar Schnider. Blue Note: Jazz Photographs of Francis Wolff. New York: Universe Publishing, 2000. Fako, Nancy Jordan. Philip Farkas and His Horn. Elmhurst, IL: Crescent Park Music, 1998. Feather, Leonard. The Book of Jazz: A Guide to the Complete Field. New York: Horizon Publishers, 1957. Gioia, Ted. West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998. Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction, 4 th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Janetzky, Kurt. The Horn. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1998. Jones, Quincy. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. New York: Broadway Books, 2001. Kaslow, David M. Living Dangerously with the Horn. Bloomington, Birdalone Books, 1996. Lopes, Paul. The Rise of a Jazz Art World Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Magelssen, Nels H. A Study of the French Horn in Jazz Through an Analysis of the Playing Style of Julius Watkins. University of Maryland, 1984. Meadows, Eddie S. Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology and Musical Identity.Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

PAGE 220

209 Ormsby, Verle Alvin. John Jacob Graas, Jr.: Jazz Horn Performer, Jazz Composer and Arranger. D.A. Dissertation., Ball State University, 1988. Pegge, R. Morley. The French Horn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962. Schaughency, Steven Michael. The Original Jazz Compositions of Julius Watkins. D.A. Dissertation., University of Northern Colorado, 1994. Tanner, Paul O. A Study of Jazz, 2 nd Edition. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1974. Tuckwell, Barry. Horn. New York, Schirmer Books, 1983. Electronic Sources www.allaboutjazz.com an internet web source for jazz recordings, articles on jazz performances, reviews and many other aspects of jazz performance. Of note, the web site features a review of Richard Todds most recent recording With a Twist, written by Dave Nathan in 2002. www.gmrecordings.com the official web site for GM Records. The site features cd reviews of their recent record releases including those by Richard Todd (New Ideas and Rickterscale). No author information is given for the reviews. www.hornplanet.com Tom Bacons personal web site for the advancement and promotion of the horn. The site contains Bacons biography, discography, teaching positions, chat rooms for students, booking and personal contact information and links to other web sites related to the horn. www.hmmusic.com John Clarks personal web site. Biographical data, press quotes and other pertinent information related to his career are included in this site. www.jazz.ru/eng/pages/shilkloper A web site dedicated to the career of Arkady Shilkloper. Originally printed in Russian, this page has been translated to English and contains a brief biography of the artist. The site also contains record information, press releases and links to other jazz horn sites. www.krugsparkmusic.com Ken Wileys personal and professional web site. This electronic source contains a brief and incomplete biography, reviews, pictures, news, and publications by the artist. www.omnitone.com/swimming a subsidiary web site for omnitone records, this site features an interview of Tom Varner by Frank Tafuri, the recording publisher. www.tomvarnermusic.com the official web site for the hornist and composer Tom Varner. The site includes biographical data, press releases, critic reviews, recording information, tour information for the Tom Varner Quartet, and many other aspects related to the artist.

PAGE 221

210 www.vincentchancey.com the official web site for the hornist and composer Vincent Chancey. In addition to biographical material, press quotes, reviews, and discography, the site also contains sound bites from Chanceys recordings and contact information for booking and teaching engagements. Interviews Beck-Schwartz, Dolores. Personal interview. May 14, 2004. Chancey, Vincent. Personal interview. March 11, 2004. Hirsch, Peter. Personal interview. March 12, 2004. Lee, John S. Personal interview. March 14, 2004. Norton, Leslie. Personal interview. July 13, 2004. Ross, Pat-Terry. Personal interview. April 28, 2004. Smith, Warren. Personal interview. March 11, 2004. Taylor, Mark. Personal interview. March 12, 2004. Varner, Tom. Personal interview. March 11, 2004. Liner Notes Anonymous. Liner notes from Smart Jazz for the Smart Set. Seeco Records, CELP-466, 1957. Chancey, Vincent. Liner notes from Next Mode. DIW Records, DIW-914, 1996. Feather, Leonard. Liner notes from John Graas! Mercury Records, SR 80020, 1957. Feather, Leonard, and Michael Cuscuna. Liner notes from Julius Watkins Sextet, vols. 1 &2. Blue Note Records, BLP 5053 and 5064, 1954 and 1955. Girard, Paulette. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957. Keepnews, Orrin. Liner notes from Gemini: Les Spann. Jazzland Records, JLP 935S, 1960. Koral, Burt. Liner notes from The Jazz Modes. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1306, 1959. Kramer, Gary. Jacket notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1280, 1958. Liebman, David, and Tom Varner. Liner notes from Tom Varner: Jazz French Horn. Soul Note Records, 12176-2, 2000.

PAGE 222

211 Schuller, Gunther. Liner notes from Rickterscale. GM records, 3015cd, 1989. Sprey, Pierre. Liner notes for Quiet Land. Mapleshade Records, 05232, 1998. Tafuri, Frank. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone 11903, 1999. Ward, Charles. Recital review of Tom Bacon and James Grabner. The Houston Chronicle, May 7, 1997. Wilson, John S. Liner notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958. Wolf, Carlo. Interview with John Clark Jazziz Magazine, September, 1997. Woods, Phil and Nat Hentoff. Liner notes for The Rights of Swing. Candid Records, CCD-79016, 1961/1989. Photographs Anonymous. Cass Technical High School. JPEG. Detroit Public Schools Website, 2000, http://schools.detroit.k12.mi.us/jsp/index.jsp?Cass Anonymous. Julius Watkins in a Live Performance. Black and white photograph. Downbeat Magazine, 17 September, 1959, p. 15. Anonymous. Ken Wiley with Jim Patterson, Eldon Matlick, and Bill Bernatis. JPEG. Ken Wiley Website, 2005, www.krugsparkmusic.com Anonymous. Mark Taylor in Calgary. JPEG. Mark Taylor Website, 2005, www.mark-taylor.biz Anonymous. Vincent Chancey. JPEG. Vincent Chancey Website, 2005, www.vincentchancey.com Anonymous. Vincent Chancey, Tom Varner, and Marshall Sealy. JPEG. Vincent Chancey Website, 2005, www.vincentchancey.com Constant, Terri. Tom Varner. JPEG. Omnitone Website, 2002, www.omnitone.com/support. Leloir, Jean-Pierre. Quincy Jones Big Band on the Set of Free and Easy. Black and white photograph. Q, The Autobiography of Quincy Jones, 2001, p. 112. Schwartz, Michael. Tom Bacon. Jpeg. Tom Bacon personal website, 2004, http://hornplanet.com/tbinfo/bio.html Shustak, Lawrence N.. Julius Watkins and Les Spann During the Gemini Recording Session. Black and white photograph. Jazzland Records, JLP 935S, 1960.

PAGE 223

212 Wolff, Francis. Julius Watkins Performing on his Miraphone. Black and White photograph. Julius Watkins Sextet, vols. 1 &2. Blue Note Records, BLP 5053 and 5064, 1954 and 1955. Wolff, Francis. Julius Watkins During the Julius Watkins Sextet Recording Sessions. Black and white photograph. Julius Watkins Sextet, vols. 1 &2. Blue Note Records, BLP 5053 and 5064, 1954 and 1955. Wolff, Francis. Julius Watkins from his Sextet vol. 2 Session. Black and white photograph. Blue Note Jazz Photography of Francis Wolff, 2000, p. 145

PAGE 224

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Patrick Smith has been an active professional horn player and music educator throughout the eastern United States. He earned a Bachelor of Music Education degree and Performer's Certificate from the University of Florida, and the Master of Music degree in horn performance from the Hartt School of Music at the University of Hartford. His primary horn teachers include David Jolley, Paul Basler and Bruce Atwell. As a musicologist, Dr. Smith has contributed regularly to the Musicology Lecture Series at the University of Florida, and has presented papers at a variety of international conferences. His musicological mentors include David Z. Kushner and Kenneth Nott. An alumnus of the Brevard and Aspen Music Festivals, Dr. Smith has performed with numerous professional ensembles including the North Carolina, Tallahassee, Brevard, Gainesville, Southwest Florida, Florida West Coast, Valdosta, Ridgefield and Lynchburg Symphony Orchestras. He has performed with the Emerson String Quartet, the Hartford Brass Quintet, the Carolina Wind Quintet, and was recently featured as a contributing artist at the 2005 International Horn Symposium. Dr. Smith was the winner of the 1996 Southeast Horn Workshop Solo Competition and First Runner Up in the 1997 Farkas International Solo Horn Competition. He has served on the faculties of the Eastern Music Festival, the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, and currently is the Assistant Professor of Horn and Music History at Virginia Commonwealth University. 213


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012940/00001

Material Information

Title: Julius Watkins and the Evolution of the Jazz French Horn Genre
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012940:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012940/00001

Material Information

Title: Julius Watkins and the Evolution of the Jazz French Horn Genre
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012940:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












JULIUS WATKINS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE


By

PATRICK GREGORY SMITH
















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Patrick Gregory Smith

































This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of Donald A. Carlson (1948-2001).















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

In my efforts to "channel Julius" I have had support and guidance from numerous

individuals who deserve my heartfelt thanks and personal gratitude. I cannot overstate my

appreciation for my degree supervisor, Dr. David Z. Kushner. With his enthusiasm,

teachings, and inspiration, he has helped to increase my passion for music history and, in

turn, made me a more competent educator. Throughout my dissertation writing period, he

provided support, sound advice, good company and plentiful commentary. I would have

been lost without him.

I would like to thank Dr. Paul Basler for his guidance, mentorship, empathy and

musicality. His encouragement for the performance of non-traditional repertoire for our

instrument has caused a significant broadening in my own musical tastes. He has been a

teacher and a colleague, and because of him, I am a better horn player and, ultimately, a

better person.

I would like to thank the other members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Art

Jennings, Dr. Leslie Odom, and Dr. Eldon Turner, for their individual help and insightful

teachings over the previous semesters. I am grateful to Dr. John Duff whose endless

encouragement and generosity in supporting my musicological endeavors has been most

appreciated. I am also indebted to Dr. David Waybright, who has been unwavering in his

dedication to help me become more adequately prepared for a career in higher education

and the professional music world.









I would like to thank all of those in New York who offered assistance with this

endeavor. I thank Tom Varner for his endless encouragement and unquenchable

enthusiasm of this project, "WIS" Smith and Vincent Chancey for their openness in

sharing memories of Julius with a total stranger, Peter Hirsch and Mark Taylor for their

valuable insights, and Dolores Beck-Schwartz for her love and support to ensure that

Julius' story was finally told. Also, I would like to offer my sincere thanks to Linda

Aginian and Philip Zoellner, registrars in the admissions office at the Manhattan School

of Music, for their cooperation and assistance.

I am eternally grateful for the love and support of my parents who have been at

my side through every tumultuous step over the past year. Their financial assistance,

compassion, encouragement and (brotherly) love have been integral items which have

helped to propel me forward along this journey. I thank my entire family, aunts, uncles,

cousins, grandparents, and especially my son, Riley, for endless prayers, patience and

understanding. Finally, I thank my own "Harriette Davison," Kristin, who has not only

been literally at my side through the course of my research, but more importantly has

been the wind in my sails, my lifesaver, and a living example of unconditional love.

Over the past eighteen months, I have immersed myself in the life details of Julius

Burton Watkins. At times, I have felt as though he was with me on this journey; guiding

me to seek answers to the countless questions surrounding his mysterious time spent on

Earth. I feel as though something or someone, perhaps Julius himself, guided me to the

Woody Home for Services to meet director John Lee, to the Manhattan School of Music

Admissions Office and to the United Memorial Gardens outside of Detroit. The presence

which I felt at Julius' grave in Plymouth, Michigan, remains to this day one of the most









unforgettable moments of my life. I would like to thank Julius posthumously for breaking

new ground in the world of music, promoting awareness for new styles of musical

appreciation, and inspiring me to become a better human being.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST O F FIG U R E S .... ...................................................... .. ....... ............... ix

ABSTRACT .............. .................. .......... .............. xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

P purpose of Study .................................................................. ............................ . 2
M methodology .................................................................................................. 3
R review of Literature .................. .................................. .......................3

2 THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC................................ ......................... ........ 30

3 THE M U SIC BEH IND THE M AN ................................................. .....................61

4 THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE SINCE 1977 ..........75

5 SUM M ARY AND CON CLU SION S ........................................................................99

APPENDIX

A CHRONOLOGICAL DISCOGRAPHY OF ALL ALBUMS FEATURING
JU LIU S W A TK IN S ............................................................. .. ............... 104

B A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF JULIUS WATKINS AND CHARLES
ROUSE, CO-LEADERS OF THE JAZZ MODES, BY GARY KRAMER OF
ATLANTIC RECORDS ............. .... ................................. 159

C A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF WARREN "WIS" SMITH, PERCUSSIONIST,
AND FRIEND OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED
O N M A R C H 11, 2004 ......... .. ............ ......................................................... 165

D A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF TOM VARNER, JAZZ HORN PLAYER
AND STUDENT OF JULIUS WATKINS, BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED
O N M A R C H 11, 2004 ......... .. ............ ......................................................... 184









E EXCERPTS FROM A RECORDED INTERVIEW OF PETER HIRSCH,
JOURNALIST, HORN PLAYER AND COLLEAGUE OF JULIUS WATKINS,
BY PATRICK SMITH, RECORDED ON MARCH 11, 2004 ...............................198

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................... ..............206

A article s ...................................... ..................................................... 2 0 6
B o o k s ............................................................................ 2 0 8
E electronic Sources ...................... ...................... ... .................. 209
Interv iew s ...........................................................................2 10
L in er N otes .............................................................. 2 10
P h o to g ra p h s ....................................................................................................2 1 1

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................ .............. 213
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figurege

2-1 Cass Technical H igh School .............................................................................. 33

2-2 Julius Watkins, from his Sextet vol. 2 session, March 20, 1955. Photo taken
from Blue Note Jazz Photography of Francis Wolff, p. 145, ...............................41

2-3 Undated photograph of Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse...............................44

2-4 Quincy Jones' Big Band on the set of Free and Easy at the Paris Alhambra,
1 9 5 9 ........................................................................... 5 0

2-5 Apartment of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 136 Lincoln Street #A-10,
M o n tclair, N J ..................................................................... .. 54

2-6 Home of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 20 Nishuane Road, Montclair, NJ ............55

2-7 Headstone of Julius Burton Watkins with horn of Patrick G. Smith ..................58

2-8 Undated photo of Julius Watkins with his Miraphone brand French horn ..............59

3-1 Julius Watkins and Les Spann during the 1960 Gemini recording session. ............63

3-2 Julius Watkins performing on his Miraphone French horn. Note the extra-large
bell and body of the instrument......... ............ ................ .............. .... 71

3-3 Examples of Julius Watkins' embouchure in live performances ..........................72

4-1 Photo of Tom Bacon, courtesy of the artist and his photographer, Michael
Schw artz. ............................................................................76

4-2 New York based jazz horn player, Vince Chancey............... ....... .........79

4-3 Pictured from left to right are jazz horn players Marshall Sealy, Tom Varner and
V in ce C h an cey ..................................................... ................ 84

4-4 Contemporary jazz horn soloist Tom Varner................................... ... ..................85

4-5 Ken Wiley (right) with Jim Patterson, Eldon Matlick and Bill Bernatis .................89

4-6 Russian jazz horn player, Arkady Shilkloper, performing with alphorn..................91









4-7 Mark Taylor performing selections from his Circle Squared album in Calgary,
A lb erta ...................................... ......................................................9 5















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

JULIUS WATKINS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE

By

Patrick Gregory Smith

December 2005

Chair: David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Music

Julius Watkins was the first prominent jazz French horn player in the history of

American music. Although his performance capabilities were comparable to those of

other significant performers of traditional horn repertoire, Watkins has received little

attention from music scholars, jazz artists, and other performers of his instrument since

his death in 1977. The purpose of this study is threefold: to document his complete life

story for the first time in biographical form, to determine his performance characteristics

within chamber jazz ensembles of various instrumental combinations, and to explore the

development of the jazz French horn genre from 1977 to 2005. In writing this

dissertation, it is my goal to create not only an awareness for this style of French horn

playing, but to educate other musicians and potential audience members about Julius

Watkins, his professional accomplishments and performance style, and this rare artistic

form.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The French horn has often been stereotyped as an instrument incapable of playing

jazz. This common misconception is due primarily to the instrument's heritage and

frequent use in symphonic orchestral venues. In the early portion of the 20th Century, this

instrument had no place in any jazz forum and students of the horn could only pursue

orchestral careers. By 1940, as jazz music grew increasingly popular, a need for new

styles and instrumentation became evident. Within a decade, jazz musicians had adopted

instruments not traditionally associated with the genre, and the French horn appeared

among them. This instrument was frequently used by several arrangers of big band

repertoire, including Gil Evans and Stan Kenton, and although the horn was rarely

featured as a lead solo instrument in these ensembles, use of the horn in jazz settings

occurred regularly.

When traditional orchestral horn players learned of this new artistic movement,

some chose to abandon their symphonic lifestyle to pursue careers as jazz horn soloists.

The first of these was John Graas who left his appointment with the Indianapolis

Symphony in the late 1940s, moved to California, and began recording solo jazz albums

of his own. Graas never achieved jazz fame and was criticized for not performing proper

jazz with regard to articulation, tone, and performance style. It seemed as though Graas'

efforts to prove that his instrument was worthy of a soloistic jazz reputation had failed,

and the jazz world would never see the day when the French horn would become the lead

instrument in chamber jazz ensembles. This notion changed when Julius Watkins, an









unassuming, yet dignified and determined, young African-American teenager from

Detroit, chose to abandon his high school education in order to pursue a career as a

French horn playing jazz soloist.

Julius Watkins is often referred to as the founding father of jazz horn playing not

because he was the first to play jazz on the instrument, but because he brought to it an

extraordinary virtuosity. He was to the realm of jazz horn playing what Joseph Leutgeb,

Franz Strauss and Dennis Brain were to the traditional realm. Simply put, he was the

superior performer of his instrument in his specialized field of performance. While

printed information regarding Leutgeb and Brain is plentiful, the opposite can be said for

Julius Watkins. Rarely does his name appear in a jazz encyclopedia or journal article.

When Watkins' accomplishments appear in such sources, they receive no more than a

scant paragraph. Press clippings regarding Julius Watkins are just as scarce. There exists

little biographical data and no complete biography of Julius Watkins. Despite over one

hundred recordings to his credit, a chronological discography is nonexistent. Likewise,

neither a clear written description of his performance style nor any rendition of his ideas

regarding instrumentation within chamber jazz settings exists. Inattention to his

accomplishments among "Classically" trained horn players is all the more surprising, as

few have ever heard of his existence. Many horn players and jazz musicians reference

Watkins' style and instrumentation in their own playing. Yet, they hardly realize that in

their playing, they bring to their audiences Watkins' vision for a musical world featuring

solo jazz music on the horn has been realized.

Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to create a complete biographical documentation of

Watkins' life, to pinpoint specific performance characteristics which made him









comparable to other virtuosos on his instrument, to determine scope of variety in

instrumentation which Watkins favored in chamber jazz ensembles, and to trace his

impact on the development of the jazz French horn genre from 1977 to 2005.

Methodology

The methodology used in the biographical portion of this study was grounded in the

analysis of journal and magazine articles, newspaper stories, and material contained in

the liner notes of sound recordings featuring Julius Watkins. Seven interviews were

conducted with persons who worked or studied with Watkins, or knew him in some other

sort of capacity. These personal interviews were vital in order to fully understand the

personal side of this artist. Sound recordings of The Jazz Modes and The Julius Wlu kii\

Sextet served as the foundation for stylistic analysis in addition to recordings which

featured Julius Watkins in nontraditional instrumental ensembles with fewer than ten

performers. Artists who receive attention in chapter three were selected based on their

prominence as a jazz horn soloist, dedication to teaching jazz or non-traditional horn

repertoire, and possession of an international reputation.

Review of Literature

The Review ofLiterature is composed as an annotated bibliography. Each entry

contains the complete bibliographic citation along with a synopsis of the material

presented in the source as it relates to professional career of Julius Watkins. Some articles

contain a great deal of biographical data while others simply place Julius at a particular

location at a certain time. Some articles do nothing more than place Julius in the company

of other prominent artists, and these articles are included to help determine the level of

prominence Julius enjoyed as a jazz French horn performer. Articles regarding particular









shows and performance engagements in which Watkins performed are also included,

regardless if the article makes any mention of Watkins or not.


Agrell, Jeffrey. "Jazz Clinic: There'll Be Some Changes Made." The Horn Call, vol. 18
no. 2, 1988, pp. 39-42.

This is a pedagogical article in two parts. In part one, the author presents an

introductory tutorial on how to play through chord changes through particular patterns.

Two methodologies are presented: (1) playing vertically through the changes, and (2)

playing horizontally. Agrell clarifies the differences between vertical and horizontal

patterns and presents actual music notation to reinforce these concepts. Graphs and charts

are also included to offer the reader a visual connection to the two methodologies. Part

two contains the biographies of three lesser-known jazz horn players from the year of

publication: Matt Shevrin, Claudio Pontiggia and Arkadi Shilkloper. In addition to the

short biographical section, Agrell includes specific data on the performance style of each

of these personalities, a discography and performance characteristics which differentiate

these three individuals from other jazz French horn notables and each other. Jeffrey

Agrell is currently Professor of Horn at the University of Iowa.



Agrell, Jeffrey. "Jazz Clinic: The Art of Noise." The Horn Call, vol. 21 no. 1, 1990, pp.
61-62.

In a further effort to teach non-jazz playing French horn artists about proper

stylistic interpretations of a jazz work, Agrell presents a lexicon of descriptive noises for

brass players in this pedagogical contribution. The sounds listed herein include the many

effects which jazz artists, specifically those playing brass instruments, create in live

performances. Two problematic issues involving these sounds are (1) how to define each









sound with a term and definition, and (2) how to musically notate these sounds on the

staff. Agrell attempts to resolve both of these topics in this article. He presents a total of

seventeen different terms. Each entry includes a definition of the sound, a "how-to" guide

on methods of sound production, and notated musical symbols from actual jazz pieces.

The finished product presents beginning jazz musicians with both written and visual

answers to that never-ending question, "how do I do that?"



Anonymous. "Concert at Carnegie Hall." Downbeat Magazine [on-line]._June 2, 1961.
Available from
http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=reviews&subsect=reviewdetail&rid=
12; internet; accessed 4 March, 2004.

The author recalls a jazz concert attended at Carnegie Hall on the evening of March

4, 1961. The concert featured Dizzy Gillespie and Clark Terry as the headlining soloists

and a long line of supporting artists, including French horn players Gunther Schuller, Jim

Buffington, John Barrows and Richard Berg. The unknown author offers great praise for

the soloists and is quite complimentary of many aspects of the concert, including the

French horn playing. Conversely, criticism is offered regarding problems occurring when

French horns were used in Big Bands during the1960s, specifically in this concert.

Examples of criticism include the mentioning of problems with ensemble balance, clarity

of the actual horn parts, articulations and wrong notes. The author also gives reasoning

for the inclusion and exclusion of the French horn in a Big Band setting.



Anonymous. "Ex-Hampton Ace Records for MGM." The Carolinian, 11 February, 1950.

This is a brief, yet powerfully supportive article informing the general public of the

upcoming release of a new album by Milt Buckner, and it is particularly relevant to a









study of Watkins. This album, Milt Buckner and His Orchestra," featured Julius

Watkins as both sideman and soloist. Moreover, it earned him widespread acclaim for

one solo performance, the tune "Yesterdays." Although Watkins name, along with other

musicians', does not appear in the article, his musical contribution is noteworthy and

important to a study of his influence



Anonymous. "Julius Watkins, 55, Played Jazz on the French Horn and was Music
Teacher." The New York Times, 8 April, 1977.

This eight-paragraph obituary appeared in The New York Times four days after the

death of Julius Watkins. In what may be a surprise to many, it serves as an excellent

starting point for anyone conducting research on this artistic figure. The article lists

Watkins' place of residence in New York City and place of death, Montclaire, New

Jersey. It also includes a brief biography, mentions teaching and performing

engagements, and contains the names of survivors. There are discrepancies in the

spellings of numerous people in this obituary, errors which have caused great confusion

regarding next of kin up to the present day. Nonetheless, this article goes well beyond the

average scope of an obituary and lends credence to the importance of Julius Watkins as

he was viewed by his contemporaries during the late 1970s.



Anonymous. Liner notes from Smart Jazz for the Smart Set. Seeco Records, CELP-466,
1957.

Contained on the back of this album are words of praise and support for what was,

at the time, a budding new jazz group with a great deal of promise: The Jazz Modes. A

brief synopsis of the ensemble's conception combines with background information on

the Watkins and Rouse duo to create a majority of the data on the jacket cover. There are









no photos of the ensemble; however, there is a great deal of commentary regarding

instrumentation, chamber-like jazz, assisting artists and short program notes. A complete

playlist is included along with a list of other jazz records produced by Seeco, some of

which include Watkins and Rouse.



Anonymous. "Milt Buckner in Quaker City." Baltimore Afro-American, 9 July, 1949.

Julius Watkins' first 'big break' as a jazz artist occurred when he joined Milt

Buckner's band in 1949. This quasi-review of a Milt Buckner concert places this artist

and the famous ensemble, including Watkins, which toured during the summer of 1949.

The article recounts a concert which took place on July 4, 1949 at the 421 Club in

Philadelphia, Pa. Praise is given to many of the tunes, including Buckner's arrangement

of Jerome Kern's Yesterdays, which featured Julius Watkins on a sweepingly lyrical solo.

The article also mentions future radio show appearances which featured Buckner's

ensemble. Although brief, this article lends credibility to the impressive performance

ability of Buckner's group. Moreover, it provides insight into Watkins own abilities (and

his good fortune) in that he had landed his first job among such a renowned collection of

jazz musicians.



Chancey, Vincent. Liner notes from Next Mode. DIW Records, DIW-914, 1996.

Released almost twenty years after the death of Julius Watkins, Chancey's Next

Mode recording features an ensemble which bears a striking resemblance to Watkins'

Jazz Modes. In these liner notes, Chancey describes the formation of this new ensemble

and the specific effect that Julius Watkins has had on his career. He provides a brief

autobiography before diving into program notes regarding the works on this compact









disc. Six of Chancey's original compositions are included on this album in addition to

Linda Delia, a work originally composed and recorded by Julius Watkins. The specific

program notes include references to the people and events which inspired the conception

of these works and are helpful in understanding a personal view of this artist.



Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. pp. 408-420.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978.

Despite its date of publication, 1978, this text is widely recognized as one of the

best jazz histories in print. This overview of jazz history traces the genre from its origins

through the mid-1960s. Collier combines historical and social aspects with academic,

musical, literary and psychological perspectives to create this unbiased timeline of jazz

history. Of particular interest are the pages related to Bop music and the performance of

this art by musicians known as boppers. This section on Bop allows the reader to firmly

understand and comprehend the details of this genre. Moreover, the information on Bop

helps connect Watkins with the art style, and it thus fills out a significant aspect of his

own development. To understand the performance style of Julius Watkins as a soloist,

one must understand Bop music and the styles which evolved into Bop. This history will

assist in the achievement of that goal.



Ephland, John. "Bio: Julius Watkins." Downbeat Magazine [on-line]. Available from
http://www.downbeat.com/artists/artistsmain.asp?sect=&aid=348&aname=Julius+
Watkins; internet accessed 23 July, 2002.

Ephland offers a brief and basic summary of the life achievements regarding Julius

Watkins. Although by no means a complete and accurate list, this biography does offer

assistance to someone intending to pursue further study of this jazz French horn icon.









This biography contains very broad generalizations and a summary of this artist's life

while offering birth and death dates, early jobs, a brief mention of Les Jazz Modes, and

other performance opportunities. Surprisingly, this biography of one of the greatest jazz

musicians, featured in one of the leading magazines regarding jazz music, is less than

one-half page in length. Of course, such a brief summary is necessarily incomplete, and it

cannot give Watkins due credit for a lifetime of significant achievements.



Evans, Gil. "The Birth of Cool." Downbeat Magazine [on-line], 2 May, 1957. Available
from http://www.downbeat.com/default. asp? sect-
stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=279; internet accessed 12 April, 2005

French horns began to appear in jazz bands in the 1940s during what became

known as the Cool Era. One of the foremost arrangers of jazz at that time was Gil Evans,

the Canadian native and founder of the famous Gil Evans Orchestra. In this article, Evans

reminisces about his jazz inspirations and memories of the Cool Era and discusses

specific items regarding the use of the French horn in Cool Jazz orchestras. Topics

include the use of the horn in the Claude Thornhill Band, the horn as a soloistic

instrument in this ensemble, tone colors and sonorities of the group before and during the

incorporation of the horn in the ensemble, and other pertinent historical data.



Feather, Leonard. The Book ofJazz: A Guide to the Complete Field, pp. 142-143. New
York: Horizon Publishers, 1957.

In this general overview of jazz styles, eras and instrumentation, the author presents

an eye-witness account of the jazz world from his perspective in 1957. What this text

lacks in scholarly writing, it makes up for with detailed information regarding a wide

spectrum of topics in a manner easily understood by the average reader. Specifically









regarding the topic of jazz French horn lore, Feather provides a focused view of the jazz

horn scene in the mid-1950s by mentioning the names of jazz horn artists, arrangers, and

bands which featured the instrument. Included here, but left out of many other sources, is

commentary regarding the use of the Mellophone in jazz ensembles. Feather offers

reasoning for including the mellophone instead of the traditional horn, and gives evidence

of the instrument's success along with praise for the mellophone by many prominent

band leaders from this era. The author also mentions the establishment of many other

unusual instruments as regular members of jazz ensembles.



Feather, Leonard. Liner notes from John Graas! Mercury Records, SR 80020, 1957.

These are the original liner notes from the first long-play record featuring John

Graas exclusively as ajazz horn soloist. The notes are split into two sections. The first is

a biographical sketch of John Graas including birth information, schooling and pre-jazz

professional engagements. : It includes a list of Grass' teaches, along with commentary

regarding his duties while an enlisted man in the United States Army. Part two features

program notes on the eight works on this recording. In some cases, a brief analysis of the

work may be presented. Included in these analyses are descriptions of rhythm patterns,

chord progressions, and instrumentation.



Feather, Leonard and Michael Cuscuna. Liner notes from Julius Wuikini Sextet, vols. 1
&2. Blue Note Records, BLP 5053 and 5064, 1954 and 1955.

Originally appearing as two separate recordings, these two albums were re-released

on one compact disc in 1998 by Capitol Records. The liner notes of this disc include

original commentary by Feather in addition to supporting commentary by Cuscuna.









Feather's writings describe Watkins' early career and include some biographical material

including birth date, early horn studies and public schooling. Following this short

summary of Watkins' life up through 1954, Feather offers critical insight into the nine

works which appeared on the two original recordings and offers criticism for four

selections: "Linda Delia, Perpetuation, Leete," and "I Have Known." A list of

contributing artists is included along with two black and white photographs taken of

Watkins during the recording sessions for these two volumes.



Frey, Kevin. "Jazz Horn Interaction." The Horn Call, vol. 22 no. 2, 1992, pp. 57-59.

Frey's submission appears as part of the Jazz Clinic, a column appearing in the

Horn Call periodically during the 1980s and 90s. In an attempt to reach pre-professional

horn players, the author stresses that this instrument has crossed over many boundaries

between different musical genres and that today's performers of the horn must be

prepared for any type of performance style. Specifically in regard to jazz, Frey offers a

list of advising tips for jazz horn novices who are looking to interact with this

increasingly popular genre. Suggestions include ways to familiarize oneself with basic

fundamentals of jazz, practicing strategies, standard repertoire, performing outlets and

other resources. A bibliography of Jazz Clinic columns appearing in the Horn Call from

1982 through 1992 is also included.


Gioia, Ted. West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960, pp. 176-179.
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998.

On the whole, this text offers a detailed glimpse into the West Coast Jazz scene

during the mid-1900s. This overview is important due to the changes in style and

instrumentation which took place. In the mentioned pages, Gioia provides specific









information regarding Gil Evans, John Graas, the inclusion of the French horn in a jazz

orchestra and reactions to such an inclusion from other jazz artists. This overview is vital

to the understanding of jazz French horn usage and repertoire and the progression of the

horn as a jazz-playing instrument. Numerous names of bands and band leaders are

provided along with a chronological chain of events which led to the inclusion of so

many instruments with Classical foundations.



Girard, Paulette. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957.

In what appears to be more a newspaper article than a list of traditional liner notes,

Girard presents a wealth of information to the reader/listener in a highly pedagogical

manner. These notes are not broken into historical and programmatic sections as is the

case with many other albums. Rather, Girard intertwines numerous aspects of history and

program detail into one complete story. The article does offer a glimpse into the

Watkins/Rouse duo and features a black and white photograph of the two men playing

side-by-side. A playlist featuring composer and publisher information is included as are

brief biographical details concerning the sidemen appearing on this album.



Gottfried, Martin. "Raisin." Women's Wear Daily, 19 October, 1973.

This racially charged diatribe focuses on many negatives which surrounded the

show's production. It is obvious from the article's first sentence that Gottfried was less

than enthusiastic about practically every aspect regarding the performance. He offers

harsh criticism of almost every part of the production, including the set design,

costuming, song structure, and overall mood present in the production. Gottfried goes so

far as to criticize the show for not being 'black' enough and even accuses the composer,









Judd Woldin, of writing 'white jazz' instead of 'black jazz.' The ramifications of these

accusatory remarks are enormous when considering the strides that had been made since

the Equal Rights Movement of the 1960s. Gottfried calls the show "embarrassing to those

of African descent," due to the lack of "black rhythms and moods." Amid all of this

negativity, no mention is given to the pit orchestra. There is neither criticism nor praise

for the instrumentalists. Nonetheless, this article allows the reader a glimpse into the

heated battle of the races which lingered well into the late 20th century artistic world.



Graas, John. "The French Horn Has Won a Place in Jazz." Downbeat Magazine, 2
December, 1953, p. 34.

John Graas was a classically trained French horn player who performed with the

Indianapolis Symphony and the Cleveland Orchestra in the 1940s before moving to

California to pursue a career in the jazz idiom. He was the first documented jazz French

horn artist and made numerous attempts to include his instrument in jazz settings on a

permanent basis; however, his career never achieved the greatness which he initially

envisioned and his life came to a tragically suicidal end.

In this article, Graas argues that by 1953 the French horn had successfully become

an instrument accepted by performers in jazz circles. He makes numerous references to

the warmth of sound possessed by the instrument and the willingness of certain jazz

arrangers, specifically Claude Thornhill and Stan Kenton, to feature the instrument

permanently in their orchestras. Graas give a great deal of attention to the use of the horn

in chamber jazz settings and references are made to the use of the horn as a woodwind-

type instrument. In addition, Graas argues that the instrument is capable of performing

fast technical jazz music in addition to just being featured in ballads, thereby concluding









that the instrument is just as well rounded and suited for the genre as any other

'traditional' jazz instrument. However, he makes no reference to how concert-going

audiences reacted to the inclusion of the horn in these ensembles.



Henahan, Donal. "Music: Black Composers' Vocal Works." The New York Times, 2
September, 1977, p. 52.

Few American orchestras have programmed concerts which feature only the music

of black composers. Although this idea has received increasing attention in recent years,

it was a source of social division in the 1970s. Nonetheless, the New York Philharmonic

performed a week-long concert series featuring the music of numerous black composers

in May of 1977. Although Henahan's article documents the specifics of the week's

events, including location and performance venue, it does not provide a complete list of

the composers whose work the orchestra performed. Even so, it pays special attention to

the social reactions to various concerts, in that he emphasizes the demographics and attire

of the audiences. Similarly, he criticizes some aspects of the bill, rather than assessing the

quality of the whole. Of particular note is the mentioning of works composed by Harriette

Davison. Davison was a violinist and composer in New York and was married to Julius

Watkins from 1971 until his death in April of 1977. This article confirms her status as an

active composer in the New York scene during the mid-late 1970s.



Jack, Gordon. "CD Review: Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse." Jazz Journal
International, 1 September, 2001, pp. 42-43.

This is a review of two albums which were re-released on compact discs. The two

discs both feature the famous quintet founded by Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse: Les

Modes (known later as Les Jazz Modes and The Jazz Modes). The article gives a brief









synopsis of the group's brief existence and comments specifically on the performance

style of Julius Watkins. Included are comments regarding Julius' five-octave range,

lyrical playing style and improvisational achievements. A complete track list is included

for the two reviewed discs, MoodIn Scarlet and Les Jazz Modes, and the names of some

prominent sidemen are included. This jazz review frequently references other classically

trained musicians and horn players, and is an interesting review which begins to bridge

the classical and jazz worlds.



Jones, Quincy. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. 412 pp. New York: Broadway
Books, 2001.

Over the past sixty years, Quincy Jones has led one of the most inspiring of musical

lives in America. This book allows the reader to gain valuable insight into the world of

Quincy Jones through the actual recollections given by the author and chapters written by

numerous other individuals. The novel begins with Jones recalling his childhood years in

Chicago, descriptions of his family life and household, his teenage years in Seattle, his

first trumpet, and countless other stories up through the turn of the century. This book is

deeply personal: it presents the life of Quincy Jones not as an untouchable icon of the

music world, but as a genuine human being.

Specifically in regard to Julius Watkins, this autobiography is of the utmost

importance. Watkins was a member of Jones' orchestra for the European tour of the

musical, Free and Eay. An entire chapter is devoted to this tour and provides the reader

with an almost daily log of events from that escapade. Amongst the numerous photos in

this book is one taken of this very pit orchestra. Members, including Watkins, are dressed









in full costume and each has their instrument in hand. In all, Jones makes seven

references to Julius "Phantom" Watkins ranging from professional to personal.



Keepnews, Orrin. Liner notes from Gemini: Les Spann. Jazzland Records, JLP 935S,
1960.

Gemini was the name of a small jazz ensemble led by the multi-talented artist, Les

Spann. The notes from this recording offer a glimpse into Spann's world of performing in

chamber-like jazz ensembles which often featured less than traditional instrumentation.

In addition to a brief biography of Spann, the liner notes contain numerous references to

Julius Watkins who performed on four of the eight featured tracks. The topic of astrology

is discussed which is important due to the mystical beliefs possessed by this artistic duo.

Insight into Spann and Watkins' previous collaboration with Quincy Jones is also

provided. One of the great highlights of the album jacket is a black and white photograph

of Watkins performing alongside Spann in a recording studio. Pictures such as this help

to breathe life into the history of jazz artists who have long been forgotten.



Koral, Burt. Liner notes from The Jazz Modes. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1306, 1959.

Data presented on the jacket of this album are broken into two parts. The first half

contains detailed and accurate biographical information regarding the performance career

of Julius Watkins up until 1959. The liner notes make references to information taken

from interview with Watkins in addition to historical records of recording dates and tour

engagements. Part two is a personal commentary by Koral regarding the ensemble's

performance style. As this was the first recording featuring The Jazz Modes, the notes

carry a pedagogical tone in an attempt to educate a new jazz audience about the abilities









and styles of the ensemble. A playlist is included with timings of the eight tunes and

names of publishing companies who had rights to the specific works.



Kramer, Gary. Jacket notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP
1280, 1958.

Jazz artists frequently arranged tunes from Broadway musicals and released these

newer renditions on albums of their own. Such is the case with this recording which

features nine selections from 1957 production. The notes feature a track list with timings

of the performances in addition to scene references from the original Broadway show. A

personnel list is also included. The inclusion of an interview with Julius Watkins and

Charlie Rouse is what makes these jacket notes so valuable. Watkins and Rouse answer

numerous questions about the art of making jazz arrangements from Broadway tunes, in

addition to answering many questions regarding the formation of their ensemble, The

Jazz Modes. Watkins offers his own perspective on the inclusion of the French horn in

jazz ensembles and reminisces about the early days in his own playing career.



Liebman, David and Tom Varner. Liner notes from Tom Varner: Jazz French Horn. Soul
Note Records, 12176-2, 2000.

This album was originally released in 1985 and contains a plethora of information

from both authors. The initial words from Liebman include a brief history of Varner's

career in addition to a very personal statement regarding Liebman's respect and

admiration for the artist. A short description of Varner's Bebop style separates the

introductory comments from a paragraph of heaping positive criticism for Varner and his

ensemble. The playlist includes composer and publisher information along with









commentary from Varner for each selection. Concluding the notes are links to internet

websites for numerous jazz French horn artist and record numbers for other recordings.



Line, Les. "Blue Note 10" Rarities." 52nd Street Review, Available from
http://www.52ndstreet.com/reviews/reissues/bluenoterarities.html; internet
accessed 23 July, 2002.

Les Line informs his readers about numerous 10" long play records which were

schedule to be re-released by Blue Note Records. One of those albums was a 2-record set

featuring the Julius Watkins Sextet. The article features a brief review of the record, an

incomplete song list, an extremely brief biography of Watkins, and an abbreviated list of

artists with whom Watkins performed. A color photograph of the record jacket cover is

also included. This picture shows Watkins and Rouse playing side-by-side. The photo

itself is priceless. Attention in the article is given to the modern wave of jazz French horn

players who were inspired by Watkins; specifically, John Clark and Tom Varner.



Lopes, Paul. The Rise of a Jazz Art World. pp. 242-251. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2002.

This book offers a unique glimpse into the development of jazz during the 20th

Century. Through analysis of representative works and reviewing of numerous primary

source materials, Lopes depicts how musicians and listeners helped to transform the jazz

world over the course of the century. Numerous aspects of social reaction are examined,

including cultural politics, social diversity, the ongoing feud between high art and

popular art cultures, racial stereotyping, segregation, and changes in the jazz world that

helped to influence or were influenced by changes in the social climate. This book is just

as much a social history of American culture as it is a history of American jazz, and









includes valuable insight from specific musicians, critics, producers and audience

members.



Magelssen, Nels H. A Study of the French Horn in Jazz Through an Analysis of the
Playing Style of Julius Watkins. 41pp. University of Maryland, 1984

Although the title of this paper indicates an enormous scope of study, Magelssen is

actually offering a pedagogical guide for jazz band directors and French horn players on

how to make the instrument more apt for participation in jazz settings. The paper does not

trace a history of the French horn use in jazz, nor does it thoroughly examine the

performance career of Julius Watkins. This paper does, however, give a thorough

analysis of the mechanical and technical limitations possessed by the instrument in

addition to paraphrasing the interview of Julius Watkins which appeared in Downbeat

Magazine in 1957.



Meadows, Eddie S. Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology and Musical Identity. pp. 250-261.
Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Jazz scholar Eddie Meadows follows the cultural and ideological events that

inspired Bebop and eventually led to the establishment of the Cool Era. Attention is given

to many of the more notable jazz musicians from the 1920s and 30s, including Miles

Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Thelonius Monk. Special attention is given to

the inclusion of the French horn in the pages listed here. Hornist John Graas is mentioned

at great length as are the arrangers and leaders who welcomed the instrument into their

orchestras. Portions of interviews with John Graas are also included. Connections are

made between societal changes and the inclusion of the French horn and other









instruments, along with social reactions to performances featuring this newer

instrumentation.



Ormsby, Verle Alvin. John Jacob Graas, Jr.: Jazz Horn Performer, Jazz Composer and
Arranger. 119pp. D.A. Dissertation, Ball State University, 1988.

This paper documents the life of John Graas and provides special insights into his

career as a jazz French horn artist, composer of jazz French horn literature and arranger

of jazz band music. The work is divided into two large sections or parts. Part one outlines

the life and career of this artist primarily through an examination of the contents found in

the John Graas Memorabilia and Memorial Library. Most of the specimens found

therein are photo albums, newspaper clippings, records, tapes, some original

compositions by the artist and some written correspondence between Graas and his co-

workers. Part two focuses on and analyzes some of Graas' original compositions for the

jazz horn and larger ensembles. Compositional growth and development are traced by

analyzing the increasing complexity of melodies found in some selected works. Ormsby

offers a detailed account of Graas' life, a glossary of pertinent musical terms relating to

the paper, and a comprehensive bibliography for further research on Graas, West Coast

Jazz and Jazz Horn performance.



Schaughency, Steven Michael. The Original Jazz Compositions ofJulius W1alklin\ 88pp.
D.A. Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, 1994.

This paper deals with Julius Watkins' compositional contributions to the jazz horn

repertoire and focuses primarily on his compositional style and characteristics. This 38-

page discussion creates an understanding of the artist's jazz writing techniques and

highlights elements from his traditional Classical music education which appear in









Watkins' jazz compositions. The author pinpoints specific traits within each examined

work, including the development of motivic material, contrapuntal writing, Romantic Era

harmonic movement, unusual tone colors, mood variations and rhythmic accompaniment.

This paper does not include biographical data regarding Julius Watkins, but does include

fourteen transcriptions of the composer's original works for a chamber-like jazz setting, a

discography containing many recordings which feature Watkins performing improvised

solos, a glossary of jazz terms and a bibliography for further study.



Tanner, Paul O. A Study ofJazz, 2nd Edition, pp. 92-95. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown
Publishers, 1974.

This chapter allows the reader to grasp an understanding for the Cool Era. This

pedagogical summation details the events and styles which influenced this new jazz era

and traces these styles through their existence in the jazz world from 1949 through 1955.

Special attention is given to tonal concepts, new ideas in tonality, softer sounds, chamber-

like jazz settings and other concepts which led to a softer form of this musical genre.

Tanner mentions numerous jazz figures who played significant roles in the era's

establishment including arrangers, conductors and soloists. Of particular interest is the

author's description of how certain traditionally non-jazz instruments worked their way

into jazz settings during this time. Tanner describes these events in regard to the flute,

tuba, flugelhorn and French horn and lists the names of some of the more prominent

artists on those instruments. Black and white photographs are included of some of these

individuals.









Varner, Tom. "Jazz Horn: Post Julius Watkins." The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 2, 1989, pp.
43-45.

In a follow-up to his previous article on Julius Watkins, Varner describes the

growth in the jazz French horn scene since Watkins' death in 1977. Varner focuses on

jazz horn players living in the United States; however, he does mention the contributions

of three internationally acclaimed artists. The remainder of the article contains

biographical information on four prominent New York based performers of the jazz horn:

Vincent Chancey, Sharon Freeman, Alex Brofsky and Peter Gordon. A discography of

selected jazz horn artists is also included. Recordings featuring Brofsky, Chancey, Clark,

Gordon and Freeman are listed in addition to those by other jazz horn artists.

Discography items are separated depending on the artist's role as a leader or a sideman.



Varner, Tom. "Julius Watkins: Jazz Pioneer." The Horn Call, vol. 19 no. 1, 1988, p. 21.

Varner is one of the leading authorities on jazz French horn history and repertoire.

Although somewhat outdated and incomplete, this article offers an introductory glimpse

at the founding father of jazz French horn playing. Special attention given to biographical

data includes birth and death information, record dates, performances with bands, the

Jazz Modes, the Watkins-Rouse relationship, and other prominent historical events in the

artist's life. Presented here, for the first time in print, is a transcription of an original work

by Julius Watkins, allowing scholars and jazz musicians alike to witness a physical

testimony to the significance of this often glossed-over figure. A partial discography

appears at the conclusion of the article. While this article is by no means complete, it

serves as the foundation for further research into the life of Julius Watkins and the

completion of a void in the history of Jazz music in America.









Watrous, Peter. "A One-Night French Horn Festival." The New York Times_ 27 January,
1994, p. C-20.

Watrous offers readers an account of the First Julius Watkins Jazz French Horn

Festival. This concert was the first of its kind and featured four artists, three of whom had

studied with Watkins himself. The performances of Mark Taylor, John Clark, Vincent

Chancey and Tom Varner, the festival organizer, are reviewed and the titles of some

works are included. Criticism is offered on the performances of the four artists as are

photographs of some of the night's events. Surprisingly there is hardly any mentioning of

the festival's namesake. This jazz review is written in a way which assumes that the

reader holds knowledge and appreciation of Watkins' musical achievements.



Watrous, Peter. "Charlie Rouse, 64, a Saxophonist Known for Work in Monk Quartet."
The New York Times, 2 December, 1988, p. D-16.

The life of Charlie Rouse is thoroughly recounted in this obituary by Watrous. This

lengthy article is much more significant in length and content than that of Julius Watkins

and ads further speculation as to why the obituary of the Rouse's partner is significantly

lackluster. Rouse's obituary is separated into two sections: his early career up through

1950 and his career from 1950-1988. A brief synopsis of his partnership with Julius

Watkins is mentioned, along with documentation of Rouse's great career with Thelonious

Monk, Count Basie and many other well known jazz personalities. The obituary includes

a black and white photograph of Rouse taken in 1983.









Watt, Douglas. "Raisin: A Black Period Musical, Brings Back Raisin in the Sun." New
York Daily News, 19 October, 1973.

This is a critical review of a performance of Raisin which occurred on the evening

of October 18, 1973. The musical was a re-make of the 1959 novel, A Raisin in the Sun,

by Lorraine Hansberry and followed the original version quite closely. After offering a

brief plot summary, Watt offers great praise to the cast and the pit musicians. A complete

cast list is presented, however the names of the pit musicians is omitted. It has been

confirmed that Julius Watkins performed in this pit orchestra and that this was his last

professional engagement. Thus, Watt's comments regarding a first-rate cast and

outstanding orchestra reaffirm the level of performance maintained by Watkins later in

his life.



Wilson, Edwin. "Putting Miss Hansberry's Play to Music." The Wall Street Journal, 22
October, 1973.

Similar to the review by Watt, this article paints a favorable image of the new

musical show for the reading audience. In addition to offering numerous positive

statements about the show, including the praise of the score, lyrics and overall

production, Wilson provides a short history regarding the status of "Black Musicals."

These shows were written, produced and predominantly performed by African-American

artists. This article mentions not a single cast member directly (other than the producer

and musical directors), but further establishes the nature of racial segregation in the fine

arts during the mid-1970s.









Wilson, John S. "Asadata Dafora Dancers Seen with Les Jazz Modes Quintet." The New
York Times, 24 January, 1959, p. 12.

Wilson describes a rare mixture of two artist media types. A program called "Afra

Ghan Jazz" featured Watkins' Les Jazz Modes providing the musical accompaniment for

the primitive dancers in the troupe. The short article highlights the strengths possessed by

the two groups and describes the extreme differences in style between the ensembles.

Brief descriptions about the dance troupe and quintet are provided alone with

commentary regarding the musical selections. Wilson includes the names of some jazz

sidemen; however, the names of dancers are omitted.



Wilson, John S. "Jazz Ensembles Sound Seasonal Note With an Easter Festival at Town
Hall." The New York Times, 31 March, 1956, p. 13.

This is a detailed account of an all-star jazz concert taking place on March 30,

1956. Highlights of the evening included performances by the Oscar Pettiford Orchestra,

Thelonius Monk and Art Farmer and commentary is provided on the featured selections

performed by each of these artists. Wilson offers much positive criticism for Pettiford's

ensemble; an orchestra which featured two French horns. Wilson mentions that Julius

Watkins was one of the hornists, but the name of the other performer is not included. This

article lends further credibility to the prominence of Julius Watkins as a jazz artist, places

Watkins in a high-profile type of venue and helps to fill in the voids in the timeline of this

artist.









Wilson, John S. Liner notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records,
EKL-234-X, 1958.

Popular jazz columnist, John Wilson, authored this list of historical and program

notes this unusual type of jazz horn album. A brief history of the horn in jazz begins the

article and includes some interesting data regarding the identity of the first performer of

jazz on this instrument. Wilson also offers insight into the origins of this album and the

individuals associated with the album's creation. Following this historical section, a

complete playlist is presented along with program notes for each of the nine featured

works. Composer and arranger names are presented along with short biographies of some

of the contributing artists.



Wilson, John S. "Milt Jackson Gets Big-Sound Backing." The New York Times, 3
September, 1966, p. 12.

John Wilson presents an extremely positive review of a Milt Buckner concert

which took place on September 2, 1965. Not only is credit given to Buckner himself, but

praise is heaped upon specific members of his 15-person band, including Julius Watkins,

whose performance is described as "splendid." Wilson provides a detailed account of the

evening's activities and captures the mood and atmosphere of the concert surroundings in

this article. What is particularly noteworthy about this newspaper clipping is the fact that

Watkins was still in demand by some of the great headliners of the 1960s and still had a

positive working relationship with Buckner seventeen years after the vibraphonist gave

his horn-blowing apprentice his first professional touring engagement.









Wilson, John S. "New Jazz Group Full of Promise." The New York Times, 6 April, 1970.

In this review of a new jazz sextet, Wilson documents the return of Julius Watkins

to the active jazz scene following a three-year hiatus. Wilson mentions that "the

Phantom" returned from three-year teaching engagement; however, no mention of an

actual school or institution is provided. In this performance at the famous Village

Vanguard, Watkins appeared along side drummer Keno Duke, saxophonists George

Coleman and Clifford Jordan and other members of the Jazz Contemporaries. Wilson

remarks at the fascinating voicings produced by the ensemble and mentions one solo in

particular featuring Watkins on French horn. The author mentions the ensemble's future

dates at the Vanguard in addition to highlighting the strengths and weaknesses possessed

by this new ensemble.



Wilson, John S. "Opera Explores Racial Questions." The New York Times, 23 May, 1971,
p. 58.

Wilson presents a review of All Cats Turn Grey When the Sun Goes down; an opera

which received three performances in the Spring of 1971. The opera, dedicated to the

great jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker, seems to be a source of confusion for Wilson who

describes the work as having little or no connection to the life of that artist. The author

does not give much detail regarding the actual music from this opera. Instead, he explores

the racial tension between a pair of black gravediggers and their interaction with two

white lovers, a white family on a picnic, white tourists, and two white teenage

adolescents. What is particularly valuable in this article is the concept that artists,

specifically theatrical personalities, were exploring racial stereotyping, conflict and

misrepresentation in the early 1970s. The article concludes with the surprising









mentioning of two members of the opera orchestra: Jimmy Owens on trumpet, and Julius

Watkins on horn. Therefore, proof exists that Watkins was performing in at least some

classical music venues later in his life and remained an active performer of all types of

music throughout his life.



Wilson, John S. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, 17 September, 1959,
pp. 37-38.

This article is, in reality, an interview with Julius Watkins and provides a rare

glimpse into the personal life and professional career of the artist up through date of

publication. This comprehensive insight into the early career of Julius Watkins firmly

establishes Wilson's work as groundbreaking and Earth-shattering since there exists no

other written documentation of Watkins' life up through the present day. Wilson

predominantly focuses on Watkins' professional career from 1939-59, mentioning tour

after tour with various ensembles featuring prominent headliners. In doing so, Wilson

presents a chronological list of events from Watkins' life and allows the reader to

visualize a progressive timeline through the artist's own words. More important, he

answers several questions that a student of jazz history would ask. These range in

importance from biographical information on Watkins choice of the French horn to why

he pursued a career in jazz and how he formed his important relationship with Charlie

Rouse. Equally valuable, Wilson moved from the past to the future by asking Wilson this

revealing question: What is your [Watkins'] vision for the future of the jazz French Horn

and its sound?









Wilson, John S. "Trumpeter Serving Many." The New York Times, 14 January, 1962, p.
X-14.

The biography of trumpeter Clark Terry is featured in this article by John Wilson.

The article does not offer traditional biographical material such as birth date, education,

teachers, etc. Rather, Wilson divides the article into four sub-sections, each devoted to a

certain aspect of the career of the renowned trumpeter: Freelancer, Recent Recordings,

Theatre Scores and Supporting Accent. Wilson makes two connections between Terry

and Julius Watkins in this article by mentioning their work together on the Free andEasy

tour in 1959 and their combined efforts on a Terry album, Color Changes. Attention is

given to the use of different tonal combinations on this album and the addition of some

newer instruments such as flugelhorn, flute and the French horn. The article serves as a

source of further credibility establishing Watkins as an equal when compared to other

jazz greats.



Woods, Phil and Nat Hentoff. Liner notes for The Rights of Swing. Candid Records,
CCD-79016, 1961/1989.

The words contained in these liner notes give incredibly detailed insight into the

creation and performance of Phil Woods' first large-scale composition. The notes are

divided into two sections. The first, authored by Hentoff, traces the development of

Woods' style and details the performer's vision for creating this work. Part two, authored

by Woods, is split into two sub-sections. Section one contains a personal reflection on the

work, the work's creation and conception. Section two is a brief analysis of the work's

six movements including references to key, meter, instrumentation, form and tempo. In

all, these notes provide a Classical review of a classical jazz work.














CHAPTER 2
THE MAN BEHIND THE MUSIC

To trace the story of this relatively unknown musician, one must begin in Detroit.

This town which had given birth to so many great jazz figures of enormous prominence

was the very location for the beginning of a career which has been overlooked and

underappreciated for the past twenty-eight years. The artist was Julius Watkins, his

instrument was the French horn, and his love was jazz. Over the course of his thirty-four

year career, Watkins toured throughout the world, performed on over one-hundred

recordings, played in Broadway shows, and was the founder of two unique musical

ensembles. He was a son, a brother, a father and a husband. He was a teacher and friend.

Most importantly, he served as an inspiration to those who heard him play. Credentials

such as these would often earn the individual numerous awards and great fame; however,

this was not the case with Julius Watkins. He was a carefree man with a free and easy

outlook on life, and his personality mirrored the same qualities which have drawn

audiences to the very instrument on which he performed. He was calm, peaceful, and full

of warmth. "We are a special group of people," said the renowned jazz hornist Vincent

Chancey. "We don't choose the horn, the horn chooses us."1 As rewarding and significant

as Watkins' career became, it had an unsuspecting start in an unassuming place. The horn

did choose him, and it happened in the Motor City.





1 Personal interview with Vincent Chancey, March 11, 2004.










Julius Burton Watkins was born on October 10, 1921, and was the second of four

children. His father, Lucius, was originally from Illinois and worked in Detroit as an

electrician. His mother, Mattie, was a Georgia native whose only occupation was that of a

housewife.2 They lived in a large, three-story house located at 6037 Scotten Avenue on

west side of Detroit. The neighborhood was, and still is, dominated by blue-collar citizens

with strong family values.3 By 1930, the Watkins' house was bursting at the seams.

Lucius and Mattie resided with their four children: Lucius, Jr (b. 1920), Julius, Olivia (b.

1925) and Janice (b. 1926), along with any number of "roomers" or boarders.4 The 1930

United States Census named four of these individuals as Andrew Wilson, Howard

Patterson, Harold Marshall, and Maxine Prentess. These three men were employed by a

motor assembly factory, while Prentess worked as a stenographer in a law office.5 All

four of the Watkins' children attended neighborhood schools and it was in the public

school system that Julius came into contact with the instrument which possessed him for

the remainder of his life.

Julius was nine years old when the horn6 lured him away from the saxophones,

trumpets and drums; instruments which were significantly more popular than the horn

amongst beginning bandsmen. He was considering tutelage on the guitar or trumpet when

Francis Hellstein, Principal Horn in the Detroit Symphony, presented a guest



2 Taken from family data listed on Julius Watkins' 1950 application to the Manhattan School of Music.
3 Personal interview with Henry Jackson, resident of Scotten Ave, in April, 2004.
4 There is no written record of any income generated by the letting of rooms to boarders in the Watkins
household. There is speculation that the presence of extra roomers in the house would have produced some
added financial assistance for the family and compensated Mattie Watkins for her services as a house
manager or proprietor.
5 Information taken from the US Census of Wayne County, MI, April 2, 1930. There is no data regarding
their length of stay in the Watkins' home and it is not known whether or not these individuals are still
living.
6 In 1990, the International Horn Society officially dropped the "French" connotation from the instrument's
title. For the remainder of this discourse, this same instrument will be referred to simply as "horn."









performance at Julius' school. He finalized his decision upon hearing the horn's call. "I

liked the sound," said Watkins. "I don't know exactly why, and I still can't explain it

satisfactorily. But I fell in love with the sound and with the instrument."7

He attended McMichael Junior High School on Linwood Street from 1933 to 1936

and was a dedicated member of the school band which, at the time, was under the

direction of William Filbee.8 Although little is known of Julius' personal life during this

time, it is known that the romance he shared with his instrument was quite robust. Each

day, young Julius made a 15-minute walk to school with books in one hand, and horn

case in the other. "I was very small, and the case was very heavy," recounted the once-

novice player. "I used to drag it along the ground. I must've worn holes through a couple

of 'em at least!"9 This peripatetic routine continued for three years, and his performance

ability grew at astronomical proportions as a result of daily practice and dedication.

In 1936, after completing his Junior High School education, Julius opted not to

attend the neighborhood high school with his classmates and, instead, applied and was

accepted into the Cass Technical High School in downtown Detroit. Cass Tech at that

time was a place that offered more than just the average technical education. "Cass

offered a wide variety of technical types of courses," said Cass Technical High School

Music Teacher, Ms. Pat-Terry Ross.10 "Sure you could come here to learn electronics or

engineering, but you could also specialize in other areas (such as) music, art, law, and

medicine. All of these were options for study at Cass. It was a specialty school for people

with a wide variety of specialty areas, including music."


SJohn S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15.
8 William Filbee, Band Teacher, appears in the faculty listing of the 1936 McMichael Jr. High Yearbook, p.
38.
9 Paulette Girard. Liner notes from Mood in Scarlet: The Jazz Modes. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957.
10 Personal interview with Ms. Pat-Terry Ross on April 25, 2004.

























Figure 2-1 Cass Technical High School. Photo Courtesy of the Detroit Public Schools

Watkins spent the 1936-37 and 1937-38 school years at Cass Tech and immersed

himself in the college-preparatory style of education. He took courses in harmony, music

appreciation and piano, sang in the chorus, and played horn in the orchestra. Ironically,

he received traditional orchestral horn training from Francis Hellstein and also took

courses in English literature, world history, and algebra." Students were allowed to

specialize in one area of study; however, basic core curricula were required of all

students. Watkins' first semester at Cass was somewhat successful academically and

musically. He earned average grades in the core curriculum and above-average marks for

the music classes, but despite his success, Julius was not satisfied with the direction in

which his studies were taking him. As a sixteen-year old African-American horn player

in the 1930s, his chances of earning a position in a symphony orchestra were effectively

nil.12 The repertoire for the solo horn at that time was not nearly as diversified as it is

presently. Certainly Julius was familiar with Mozart's four horn concert along with



1 Data taken from the student record of Julius Burton Watkins, released by the Detroit Public Schools.
12 Warren Smith commented in a personal interview on March 11, 2004, that African-American musicians
at that time were denied membership in professional symphony orchestras because of their race.









Richard Strauss' "First Concerto." He was undoubtedly instructed in other significant

solo and chamber works featuring the horn, but the repertoire was much more limited

than it is today. By the summer of 1937, Julius had determined that his musical career

path would be different from that of any other performer of his instrument up until that

time. "I wanted to be a soloist," said Watkins in an interview with Downbeat Magazine.

"There is very little repertoire in Classical music for solo horn. So, I learned to jazz."13

Known for being a stubborn individual,14 Julius was obsessed with becoming the

first great jazz horn soloist ever. His thirst for listening to jazz and playing jazz was

unquenchable. His grade report for the 1937-38 school year bears evidence that his focus

was not on scholastic excellence. His tenure at Cass Tech was forfeited as a result of this

academic debacle, and Julius was encouraged to transfer to neighboring Northwestern

High School. Julius refused and devoted himself even more strongly to the pursuit of a

career in jazz. "Soloing was so important to me that I didn't get my high school diploma

because of it. At (what would have been) my graduation, my big moment came when I

got up and played my solo. While I was doing this, everybody else marched up and

received their diplomas, but I forgot all about mine. I never did bother to go back and get

it."15 According to his transcript, Julius Watkins remained in school only through the 10th

Grade and dropped out during the summer of 1938. For many individuals, the act of

quitting school marks the beginning of an unpromising life. For Julius, the end of his

academic career served as the catalyst for great success. One man's trash certainly was, in

this case, another man's treasure.



13 John S. Wilson "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15.
14 Warren Smith stated that Julius Watkins was the most stubborn individual he had ever known. Personal
interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.
15 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 15.









By the summer of 1939, Watkins found himself in quite a conundrum. He was an

immensely talented horn player in a city with strong jazz roots, but there were no models

on which he could teach himself how to play jazz on his instrument, nor were there parts

for him to play if he desired to join a band on his own. After listening to a number of jazz

trumpeters and saxophonists, including Chu Berry and Buster Baker, Julius began the

slow journey towards jazz stardom. He began performing with a neighborhood band and,

since no horn parts existed, he transposed trombone or saxophone parts. "He could read

any part in any key correctly the first time through," said Julius' longtime friend, Warren

Smith. "It was remarkable! He had something in his mind that just clicked in regard to

anything musical. You could give him a trombone part, sure. An E-flat part, bass clef,

treble clef, it just didn't matter. He could do it all. He knew these relationships and knew

everything about the parts."16

Later in 1939, Watkins joined and toured with Ernie Fields' band. Although Julius

did take his horn on the tour, he found himself playing a trumpet and was relegated to

playing extra trumpet parts "as needed" while his horn remained in its case night after

night. His eyes were opened to the realities of life on the road as a jazz musician as the

band toured across Texas and Oklahoma that year. Many of the jobs on that tour were

"one-nighters"; concerts every night in different towns, different bars, different clubs, and

the whole time, Julius was stuck playing an instrument other than his horn. He gradually

became bitter and incensed as did many of his colleagues. They were frustrated in having

excessive time off from playing during long layovers in strange towns in between gigs.

Julius needed an outlet. "When you're laying off in a strange place, you seek any outlet


16 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.









you can get," said Julius. "Usually it turns out to be some form of dissipation. So

sometimes there was that, and other times I'd lie in bed all night, practicing (my horn)

until 7 o'clock in the morning. At times I thought I was turning into a genuine maniac."17

Watkins spent three years touring with Ernie Fields before returning to Detroit in 1942.

His homecoming was uneventful, although his family must have been elated to see him

and hear about his musical journey. From all written accounts, Julius was the only

member of his family with any musical ability, although the headstone on the grave of his

brother, Lucius Jr., does bear an embronzed set of drums similar to those found in jazz

bands.18

Julius desired to remain in Detroit for an unspecified amount of time and hoped to

form dance bands with his old cronies. Dance bands usually played jazz, but were more

accurately described as "...bands with a rich voice. These were lush dance bands that

veered toward the sweet side and a steady stream ofjazzmen ran through it."19 Upon

discovering that his musical contacts were no longer living in Detroit, Julius set his sights

on Denver, CO and moved there in 1942 with the hopes of playing his horn in a jazz

dance band. He moved to Denver and celebrated in his first successful endeavor. Julius

joined a six-member band20 and played his horn on numerous occasions. During the year

spent in Denver, Julius gradually became the group's leader, at least in his own eyes. He

was content performing his horn in a congenial group; however, relations within the

group eventually led to the disbanding of the ensemble. "It was a young group," said


17 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 37.
18 Lucius Watkins, Jr. is buried in the United Memorial Gardens, Garden of the Masonic, Plot 105, space
D3, Plymouth, Michigan.
19 John S. Wilson. Liner notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958.
20 Numerous references mention this band in Denver; however, not a single one provides an actual name for
the group. More research is needed in this area to determine the identity of this ensemble and names of
other musicians who performed in the group.









Watkins. "The fellows got interested in girls, they became lazy about rehearsals and I'm

nutty about rehearsals, about starting on time and being strictly business."21 The lack of

dedication from other band members enraged Julius, and, in 1943, the group dissolved.

Once again, Julius returned home to Detroit.

Ironically, the following three years were a mixture of girl(s) and business for

Watkins. He fell in love and married his first wife, Ella,22 who gave birth to fraternal

twins, Julie and Julius, Jr.23, on December 6, 1943. The financial pressures of parenthood

undoubtedly forced "Papa-Julius" to re-examine his career choice as a freelance traveling

jazz musician. He joined the United States Naval Reserve in May of 1944 in an effort to

be a devoted husband with a physical presence in the household and to provide steady

income for his family. After receiving his training at the United States Naval Training

Center in Great Lakes, Michigan, Seaman 2nd Class Watkins was assigned to the reserve

station in Detroit. Two Navy medals were awarded to Julius; however, his experience

was short-lived due to unspecified events and Watkins was discharged after just three

months of service.24 Frustrated, yet undeterred in the pursuit of his ultimate goal, Julius

continued to practice his horn and play in occasional dance bands with the hope that a

profitable career as ajazz artist would materialize.

In the early months of 1946, fellow Detroiter Milt Buckner phoned Julius and

asked him to join his big band. Watkins accepted and, in doing so, found himself

21 John S. Wilson. "The Horn that Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 15, 1959, p. 37.
22 There is no mention of Ella's complete name in any located documentation. She is the only family
member not buried in the family plot in Plymouth, MI. More research is needed to determine her exact
identity.
23 There exists no data regarding the lives of these two children, other than their birth and death dates.
Efforts were made to obtain obituaries, school records, and other data to no avail. Questions were posed to
Chancey, Varner, and Smith during personal interviews and all three had no knowledge of the children's
existence. More research is needed to determine the relationship which Julius, Sr., had with his children.
24 This information was released to the author by the United States Navy under the Freedom of Information
Act of 1974. The United States Navy would not cite the reasoning for or type of discharge.










suddenly transformed to the center of the jazz universe. Instantly, Julius and his horn

were in great demand. He began performing on record dates with Buckner's big band and

also with Milt Jackson's small group. Julius' prominence was magnified soon thereafter

when he recorded his first featured solo in the tune "Yesterdays" with Buckner's band on

the MGM label.25 For the next three years, Watkins continued to perform and tour with

Buckner's ensemble, The Beale Street Gang, performing on horn, trumpet, and

trombone.26

As elated as he must have been to finally have made a significant breakthrough in

the jazz world, Julius was not entirely pleased with the manner in which his instrument

blended with the rest of the ensemble and, more specifically, with the big-business of jazz

recording. He surmised, "It seemed too alone, as though it wasn't integrated properly into

his (Bruckner's) arrangements. Maybe it was because I had a bad horn or was playing out

of tune. I don't know. I got disgusted with the whole business and went to school."27

Watkins set his sights on New York City as did many others who took part in that great

28
migration.28

By August of 1950, Julius Watkins had relocated to the upper west side of

Manhattan and established a residence at 195 St. Nicholas Avenue. On the 30th day of

that month and year, Julius submitted an application to study at the Manhattan School of

Music. His acceptance was based on three items of criteria. First and most obviously, he

was a talented horn player whose foundation of musical knowledge and repertoire came


25 The record, MGM 10632, was recorded in New York City at WMGM Studio B, June 3, 1949
26 Savoy 731 features Watkins on trumpet, while Savoy 840 and 848 feature Watkins on trombone.
27 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 37.
28 Tom Varner discussed what he called the Great Migration during a personal interview on March 10,
2004. The migration to which he referred was the movement of hundreds of jazz musicians to New York
City in order to pursue careers in music. New York was, and still is, referred to as the land of opportunity
for many aspiring young artists.









from one of the most respected Principal Horn players in America. Second, he applied for

and was accepted as a "special student." This status allowed him to take the same courses

as the music majors at the Manhattan School, but with the understanding that no degree

would be conferred. Third, the Manhattan School of Music was one of two music schools

in New York City, outside of the universities, qualified by the government to accept

returning veterans both under the G.I. Bill of Rights and the Veterans Vocational

Rehabilitation Law.29 Due to his three months spent in the Naval Reserve, Watkins was

basically guaranteed a place in one of America's finest music schools.

Studying music at the Manhattan School had numerous benefits. One of the most

significant was the fact that students were not penalized for missing classes due to

professional musical engagements. Warren Smith commented on this issue and said, "All

of the jazz players would go to study at the Manhattan School of Music because

Manhattan would let you miss classes to go do a job and Juilliard would not. Most of the

people who were actually working would favor Manhattan over Juilliard. I guess that was

the case with him too."30 An energized Watkins took the Manhattan School of Music by

storm and earned a 4.0 grade point average during the Spring Semester of 1951. Julius

immersed himself in courses such as Diction, Sight Singing, Orchestration, Music

Theory, Music Literature, and private horn lessons with Robert Schultz, Third Horn in

the New York Philharmonic. "Julius was a charming man," recounted Dolores Beck-

Schwartz, a horn player and teacher in White Plains, NY, who attended the Manhattan

School of Music as a classmate of Julius Watkins. "He was such a positive person. He


29 This data was found in Watkins' application for admission to the Manhattan School of Music, released to
the author by Linda Aginian and Philip Zoellner, registrars at the Manhattan School of Music, on March 9,
2004.
30 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.









always smiled and always tried to help his fellow students, even though they were

earning degrees and he was not. He wanted to make everybody around him better;

musically and personally. He was the kindest person I've ever met and a dar good

musician too! Nobody could play the way that he could."31

Julius' studies at the Manhattan School of Music concluded in May of 1953. He

failed to maintain the same level of academic progress with which he began and he

simply did not have the financial support required to remain affiliated with the school. It

is speculated that these financial constraints also led to the demise of his marriage to Ella;

however, more research is needed to confirm reasons behind their separation and divorce

which occurred around that same time.32

1954 marked the beginning of a new phase in Watkins' life. It was in that year

that he joined and toured with Pete Rugolo's band and recorded with Thelonius Monk.

Julius was quickly gaining a very positive reputation as a jazz horn player amongst his

peers and was in high demand as a sideman. As much as he enjoyed this new-found fame,

Julius desired something else; a new type of chamber jazz which possessed the same

intimacy found in more traditional "classical" chamber ensembles. His lifelong goal of

creating such a group was realized in July of that year with the formation of The Julius

Watkins Sextet.

The Julius Watkins Sextet consisted of Frank Foster on tenor saxophone, Perry

Lopez on guitar, George Butcher on piano, Oscar Pettiford on bass, Kenny Clarke on

drums, and the ensemble's namesake on horn. The members had known each other from


31 Personal interview with Dolores Beck-Schwartz, May 14, 2004.
32 Interviews with Smith, Varner, Chancey and Beck-Schwartz indicate that Julius lived alone following
this marital separation. Julius never discussed issues regarding his children with his colleagues. It is
speculated that Ella won custody of the children and returned to Detroit; however, more research is needed
to determine the exact details surrounding this situation.









numerous jobs and experiences. For example, Watkins and Butcher were students

together at the Manhattan School of Music and had played in Oscar Pettiford's Sextet

sporadically since 1953. The Julius Watkins Sextet recorded two albums featuring a total

of nine tracks, six of which ("Perpetuation, I Have Known, Leete, Garden Delights, Julie

Ann," and "Sparkling Burgandy") were original Watkins compositions.



















Figure 2-2 Julius Watkins, from his Sextet vol. 2 session, March 20, 1955. Photo taken
from Blue Note Jazz Photography of Francis Wolff, p. 145, Universe
Publishing, 2000.

Great enthusiasm was generated as a result and an awareness of the French horn as

a jazz instrument was beginning to take shape. Further, Julius was beginning to make a

name for himself as one of the greatest horn players of all time. Numerous personalities,

including music critics Leonard Feather and John Wilson, remarked at his pure tone and

authoritative command of the instrument's range, while other professional horn players

were taking note of Julius' accomplishments. "There were other French horn players in

town who were doing a lot of record dates and various other things," said Warren Smith.

"One of them was named Ray Allonge. He was working for the musician's union. Ray









told me that Julius could easily play an octave above what Ray could play. This really

was saying something in a number of ways because Ray was the first call Caucasian

French horn player who got all of the gigs. But even the French horn players in that

elevated level of money-making that's why I'm making that designation knew that

Julius had these capabilities."33 One of the more noteworthy statements in this excerpt is

in regard to the tessitura of Julius' instrument. Allonge and other professional players

undoubtedly could play up to the written C above treble clef. Anything above this pitch

pushes the threshold for note clarity and accuracy. Being able to produce a tone above

that C is a feat in itself, let alone being able to play an entire octave above this pitch. By

1955, Julius Watkins was just as talented, if not more so, than his fellow hoists in

symphonic and jazz ensembles, and was being recognized for such achievements by his

professional colleagues, many of whom were Caucasians.

The establishment of a chamber jazz group featuring a solo horn in the 1950s was

revolutionary, but not rare. The anonymous figure who authored the jacket notes for

Watkins' Smart Jazz for the Smart Set album stated the following:

1955 was one of the most productive years in jazz history and for the first time in
its 60-year lifespan, jazz had an audience. A real-live ticket-buying, record-buying,
listening learning and believing audience. New talent turned up on all sides, and
many newcomers served notice on the reigning giants that no leader is secure in
Jazzville unless he can improve constantly. From gin mills and Juilliard they came,
young guys steeped in the tradition of jazz and also in the techniques of the
European masters.34

Julius Watkins was no different than many others in his field, including Allonge,

who had originally received a Classical music education and later pursued a career in an

alternate musical realm. To be successful in jazz, an artist had to adapt quickly to changes


33 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.
34 Anonymous. Liner notes from Smart Jazz for the Smart Set. Seeco Records, CELP-466, 1957.









in the field and could not take a lackadaisical approach to a performance career. Change

was a necessity for survival, and changing is what Julius did best.

During the post-Julius Watkins Sextet existence of 1955, Watkins performed with

Oscar Pettiford's Sextet. He adapted to the new sounds of this group and was a perfect fit,

personally and musically, for the ensemble. Another member of this sextet was tenor-

saxophonist, Charlie Rouse. Originally from Washington D.C., Rouse had studied

clarinet before switching to tenor sax a few years prior. In the closing months of 1955,

Rouse and Watkins met for coffee one evening and realized that they both shared an

unbridled enthusiasm over the possibility for a jazz group featuring a tenor saxophone

and horn in the front line. The two would frequently meet at Watkins' apartment and

have informal "jam sessions" during the wee hours of the morning. "We played very

softly," Watkins said. "There were no drums, no bass, nothing else. Just the two of us.

Playing very fast and very soft is ideal for me. Our horns blended so well that Charlie and

I began to talk about a group."35 The duo created a new ensemble called Les Modes; later

known as Les Jazz Modes.

Watkins began practicing and perfecting his art with a newfound level of vigor and

intensity. He increased the speed and fluency on an instrument that is usually devoted to

playing widely-spaced longer tones. Rouse was impressed with Watkins' dedication and

incredible technical abilities along with the actual colors of sound Julius could produce.

Rouse once said, "Most people associate a mysterioso sound quality that far-away

Alpine horn sound with the French horn. But that's just one of the sounds that Julius

gets from it. His horn has all the virility and hard masculine quality of the trumpet and


35 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.









trombone. There is so much more in the French horn than the symphony orchestra

players ever realized, and Julius is the person who has made everybody aware of this. 36

























Figure 2-3 Undated photograph of Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse. Photo contributed
by Peter Hirsch.

Watkins and Rouse recruited three other members to join Les Modes: pianist Gildo

Mahones, bassist Martin Rivera and drummer Ron Jefferson. With the frequent addition

of Eileen Gilbert's soprano voice37, Les Modes took the American jazz circuit by storm.

In a review of one of their performances, Paulette Girard commented, "The creators of

Les Modes have an outstanding flair for original design. Their musical offering is

identified at once by the sound of the French horn and tenor sax interwoven in an endless

array of patterns, and the unique manner in which Julius Watkins and Charlie Rouse



36 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.
37 Gilbert and Watkins were classmates at the Manhattan School of Music.









fashion their jazz."38 The group performed on Steve Allen's television show and gave a

short concert tour of their own. Finally, on January 3, 1957, the Les Modes Quintet

performed nightly for one week at Birdland; a jazz venue equivalent to Classical music's

Carnegie Hall. Newspapers and magazines praised the quintet on a wide variety of topics.

The New York Times reported, "The Rouse-Watkins group makes this event memorable."

Billboard Magazine wrote that the group featured, "... a hamper full of under-exposed

talent." "... Some of the most brilliant examples of jazz French horn ever put to use,"

reported High Fidelity Magazine. Finally, Downbeat ran the following clip: "The French

horn is very much a flexible jazz instrument in Watkins' hands. Rouse's tenor is strong

and swinging. Quill's Parkerized solos are heatedly impressive."39 This week of

performances, coupled with the engagements that followed, suggested that the new

ensemble was off to a fabulously successful start.

The group recorded four new albums over the course of that year: Mood in Scarlet,

The Jazz Modes, Smart Jazz for the Smart Set, and a jazz transcription of Frank Loesser's

musical, The Most Happy Fella.40 Record sales were slow, but people were talking about

this new jazz sensation. One issue which puzzled many listeners was the group's name.

Instead of a title bearing the name of the lead performer, Watkins and Rouse chose a

programmatic title for their band. At the advice of their personnel manager, Princess

Orelia Benskina, the Watkins-Rouse duo added the word "jazz" to their heading and

became Les Jazz Modes shortly after their debut at Birdland. When asked about the

group's name, Charlie Rouse stated:


38 Paulette Girard. Liner notes fromMood in Scarlet. Seeco Records, DLP-1117, 1957.
39 Excerpts from the original newspaper advertisement for Les Modes' one-week engagement at Birdland.
40 The production of jazz recordings of Broadway shows were common during the mid-1950s. A
compilation of jazz interpretations of show or movie scores by Will Friedwald in 1997 contained 169
entries including this recording by Les Jazz Modes.









For a time we were known as Les Jazz Modes. We used the French title because the
word mode in French has several meanings and connotations, all of which apply to
our work. It means current and stylish, fashionable. We are in the modern
vanguard, in touch with modern trends, though we don't go for anything that is
only faddish or sensational. Mode also is a technical musical term, referring either
to a method of arranging tones or to a kind of rhythmic scheme. And in French,
mode can mean mood. Modes, used in the plural, conveys the idea of a variety of
moods and musical subject matter.41

Watkins also commented on this issue.

We thought of calling ourselves the Moods, but that sounded like one of those little
singing groups. We hit on Les Modes because we thought it was French for the
Moods. Later on, we found out that it really means 'fashions,' but it was too late to
change it.42

Les Jazz Modes continued to perform throughout 1958 and featured all of the

original members except for Eileen Gilbert. The soprano was replaced by Orelia

Benskina who sang with the quintet on occasional concert dates. Despite their

overwhelmingly strong start in 1956, support for Les Jazz Modes began to dwindle until

finally the doors closed on yet another opportunity for Watkins. Les Jazz Modes

performed with the avant-guard Asadata Dafora Dancers in a program titled "Afra-Ghan

Jazz" on the evening of January 23, 1959 in New York's Town Hall. The shockingly

primitive dances of the troupe had little in common with the hard-bop sounds of the

quintet and the end result left many in attendance pondering what exactly had just

occurred on the stage. Even New York Times jazz columnist, John S. Wilson, a long-time

supporter of Watkins and Les Jazz Modes, was perplexed at what transpired that evening.

In his article the following day, Wilson wrote, "The only common ground that the two

groups found was that of sophistication. Mr. Dafora's dancers were genial, loose-limbed

and smoothly rhythmic, but scarcely representative of the primitive rhythms from which

41 Gary Kramer. Liner notes from notes from The Most Happy Fella. Atlantic Records, Atlantic LP 1280,
1958.
42 John S. Wilson. "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.









jazz is asserted to have sprung. Les Jazz Modes, in their best moments, reached into areas

that have only the dimmest connections with these rhythms.

The audience that night was left bewildered and confused, and with little support

from other sponsors, Les Jazz Modes had no choice but to cease their existence as an

ensemble. The usually unflappable Watkins clearly was frustrated with the demise of yet

another chamber jazz group which centered around the horn. When asked about the

group's unhappy ending, Watkins said, "I believe it's likeable music that we play. The

problem is to get club owners and people in the concert field to think the same thing."43

Unfortunately for Julius Watkins, club owners and people in the concert field did not

concur, and although he continued to perform exclusively as a sideman with occasional

solos, Watkins would never again initiate the creation of a chamber jazz ensemble.

The post-Jazz Modes years proved to be extremely beneficial professionally for

Julius. In 1958, he recorded twelve albums as a sideman with Johnny Richards, Gil Evans

and Miles Davis. Work was steady and Julius was still playing his horn in jazz groups,

continuing his mission of exposing new audiences to the possibilities of including the

horn in jazz settings. He formed a relationship with Quincy Jones in 1959; a relationship

which saw the creation of seven albums over the course of that year and a spot in the

orchestra for a touring production of Free and Easy; a jazzy musical recreation of the

play, St. Louis Woman. This tour would be one of the defining moments in Julius' life

and one which would ultimately initiate the chain of events which would lead to his death

some eighteen years later.


43 John S. Wilson "The Horn Nobody Wants." Downbeat Magazine, September 17, 1959, p. 38.









Quincy Jones was asked to form a band featuring the best players on every jazz

instrument, including horn, to perform the musical selections for this touring production.

Jones immediately called the biggest names in the jazz recording industry and quickly

formed what he referred to as "the United Nations." Jones commented on that band in his

book, Q! The Autobiography of Quincy Jones.

It was the best band I'd ever had. Two beautiful and gifted women, Melba Liston
on trombone and Patti Brown on piano; a "skai' brother, Ake Persson, Billy Byers,
Jimmy Cleveland, Clark Terry and Quentin Jackson; Benny Bailey; Julius
'Phantom' Watkins, the first-ever jazz French horn player; and saxophonists Phil
Woods, Jerome Richardson, Budd Johnson, Porter Kilbert and Sahib Shihab. This
was a super band. They sounded so good that when Basie dropped by our rehearsal
in Paris he graciously pulled me aside and, kidding on the square, he said, "Quincy,
don't you even think about bringing your band back to the states; you're fixin' to
mess up my thing, you hear?"44

The band finished recording the famous record, Birth of a Band, and was receiving

superb reviews.

They were in Paris and the production of Free andEasy had lasted six weeks. From

all accounts, the members were enjoying the show and had the opportunity to perform on

stage in costumes along with the vocal cast. They were two weeks away from moving

onto London, then back to the United States for performances on Broadway. Jones met

with producer Stanley Chase on a Thursday evening and was stunned when Chase

informed him that the show was closing and the entire band was to be on a plane to New

York the following Saturday or risk being stranded in Paris during the middle of the

infamous Algerian crisis. Jones and the band voted to remain in France, performing club

dates at whatever venue would host them. The entire theatrical cast returned to New

York, leaving Jones and the band stranded. The band toured Europe for ten months on a

shoe-string budget, but the bonds formed between the members of the group were

44Quincy Jones. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, p. 137









stronger than those found in most nuclear families.45 On the tour, musicians passed the

time laughing, fighting, arguing, and drinking. They also teased each other about their

peculiarities. Julius once left his mouthpiece atop the Eiffel Tower in Paris just minutes

before a concert, requiring the stage manager to run back to the top to get it.46 "Money

was really tight," said Jones. "Sometimes, the proprietors at our concert venues were

broke too. So they paid us with pot, or as we called it, 'sweet wheat. ,,47 Financial and

living conditions were so deplorable that some band members renamed the tour "Free and

Sleazy."

Some members received nicknames, as was the case with Julius Watkins, who was

given the nickname "Phantom" because he was so quiet and performed backstage more

quietly than a whisper. Tom Varner elaborated on the mysterious nickname:

People always thought that it was because of his sound, like he could come in with
this mysteriously soft high note. Others said it was because he wouldn't show up to
gigs. Other times, you're sitting around talking and you look around, and he was
gone. It was like, 'where did Julius go?' It is a nickname with numerous
connections.48

Whatever the reason, the nickname stuck with Julius for the rest of his life, as did

his fondness for the consumption of alcoholic beverages.49 Negative connotations aside,

the Free andEasy tour was highly beneficial for Julius Watkins in that he was able to

firmly establish himself as the premier artist of the jazz horn world-wide. The

connections he made on that trip would lead to more record deals in years to come and

personal relationships with other artists with whom future musical collaborations would

be made.

45Quincy Jones. Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, p. 141.
46 Ibid, p. 142
47 Ibid, p. 142
48 Personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004.
49 Warren Smith and Tom Varner mentioned that Julius, although not necessarily an alcoholic, continued to
drink liquor regularly up until the time of his death, despite orders from his physician to cease such activity.






























Figure 2-4 Quincy Jones' Big Band on the set of Free and Easy at the Paris Alhambra,
1959. Photo courtesy of Q, The Autobiography of Quincy Jones, p. 112
Harlem Moon Publishers, 2001.

During the 1960s, Julius performed almost exclusively as a sideman and was

featured in dozens of recordings with his European touring cohorts. He recorded with the

flute and guitar virtuoso, Les Spann, and saxophonist, Phil Woods in 1960 and 1961

respectively. He played with Cal Massey, Jimmy Heath, John Coltrane and numerous

other jazz greats. He traveled to California in September of 1965 as a member of Charles

Mingus' famous Music for Monterrey festival. While in California, Watkins recorded

with Gil Evans who had long been a fan of jazz horn inclusion. In 1966, "The Phantom"

returned to New York for performances with the man who helped launch his career, Milt

Jackson. John S. Wilson reviewed the concert, which took place at Town Hall, and

remarked at the "splendid group of musicians on stage with Mr. Jackson."so Watkins was

in such high demand as a player, he even began to receive orchestral appointments.


50 John S. Wilson. "Milt Jackson Gets Big-Sound Backing." The New York Times, September 3, 1966, p. 12









According to his obituary, Watkins was frequently performing in summer symphony

concerts with the New York Municipal Orchestra. He seemed to have had it all: steady

employment, respect from his peers, reliable income; however, reality and perception

were at odds at this point in "The Phantom's" life and, unbeknownst to him, he had only

one decade more to live.

He was a proud man, always dressed with jacket and tie, and could perform any

type of music anywhere at anytime.51 But as proud a man as he was, Julius Watkins did

not keep himself in the best of health. Warren Smith stated the following:

Around 1968, "...Julius had dental problems. I had a studio, and in this studio
I had a lot of friends who came through. Max Roach had a friend who was a
doctor and a dentist at that. I forget his name, but he was interested in
musicians. I think that he had played trumpet at some point in his life. He
would walk around and find musicians that were having embouchure
problems because of teeth, and Julius was one of those. This guy fixed Julius'
mouth up for free because he was so fond of him. Julius told me personally
that after he got his teeth fixed that that increased his range by another octave
(upwards).52

Dental problems were just the tip of the iceberg in regard to Watkins' personal and

psychological wellbeing. The kidney and liver problems which he endured beginning in

the late 1960s were further complicated with the onslaught of diabetes. He rarely allowed

others to see the physical pain with which he dealt on a daily basis. But despite his efforts

to conceal the truth, these dilapidating conditions negatively affected Julius' performance

ability and caused great concern among his peers. In 1968, his record production

dropped significantly.53 He disappeared and nobody seemed to know where he was.





51 Based on conversations with Warren Smith and Dolores Beck-Schwartz.
52 Excerpt from a personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.
53 The chronological discography of recording engagements indicates that Julius Watkins was involved
with only three albums in that year.









Julius didn't seem to know where he was either. He was a captain without a ship. Julius

Watkins, sadly, was homeless.

Warren Smith recounted the following in regard to this traumatic era in Watkins'

life:

Julius came to this record date and I gave him the new information about the
other record date and he said, 'Ok. I'll do it.' I asked him where he was
staying and he said, 'Well, I'm riding the subway at night.' I said to him,
'You're doing what?' I knew he had a studio somewhere uptown up there.
Well, he had lost the studio and lost his place to live. I told him to meet me at
this address (of my studio) around 5 or 6 o'clock in the evening, just as soon
as I could get down there after we finished that day's session. I ran down there
and waited for him and he came. He had his horn with him. I said, 'C'mon.
You're going to live here.' He lived with me there for about eighteen months
after that time. During this time he managed to straighten himself out.54

"The Phantom" had resurfaced, and the following eighteen months witnessed a

resurgence of energy in Watkins' professional and personal life. Word of Julius' new

residence spread quickly amongst jazz arrangers and producers who were elated that the

"Joachim of the Jazz Horn"55 had returned. In 1969, Gil Evans recorded Blues in Orbit

and contracted Julius to play in the band. That same year, Watkins recorded with Pharoh

Sanders and Mary Lou Williams. In Manhattan, the New World Symphony56 was formed

and Julius was often hired to play in the horn section. He formed new relationships with

others in his field and was reunited with some fellow musicians whom he had neither

seen nor heard from in years. The most important relationship formed by Julius at this






54 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.
55 Hans von Bilow called Franz Strauss "the Joachim of the horn" because of his extraordinary
performance ability and his reputation as the best orchestral horn player of the 19h Century. Julius Watkins
was equally prominent as a jazz French horn soloist and is being referred under this guise by the author for
the first time.
56 The New World Symphony was a professional symphony orchestra in New York City and devoted itself
to playing music by black composers and hiring an ensemble containing primarily black musicians.









time in his life was not with a jazz musician. Rather, it was a physical, emotional, and

spiritual bond that was formed with a New Jersey librarian57 named Harriette Davison.

Harriette Davison was the salvation which Julius needed so desperately at this point

in his life. He needed someone to take care of him since he rarely took care of himself,

and Harriette was that someone. They met not by chance, but through common interests

and people, specifically Warren Smith. Harriette was a violinist and a composer who

frequently performed in professional and semi-professional musical groups around New

York City. She was a regular member of the New World Symphony's violin section and

there is speculation that she first met Julius in a rehearsal with that ensemble. Warren

Smith, when questioned, indicated that she and Watkins had known each other prior to

Julius' relocation to Smith's studio, but that the romance definitely soared soon

thereafter.

Julius and Harriette had much more in common than just a passion for making

music. They had both been married previously and each had a son and a daughter. They

were both African-American musicians struggling to make a career for themselves at

times in the Classical music business which tried to exclude women and racial minorities

at whatever the cost. Most importantly, they were both at a stage in their lives where they

wanted and needed to care for another human being in a loving and monogamous

relationship.

Julius and Harriette were married in 1970 and lived in a ground-floor garden

apartment located at 136 Lincoln Street, #A-10 in Montclair, New Jersey.58 In recalling a

visit to this apartment, Warren Smith stated, "They had a garden apartment. I remember

57 The 1968 telephone book from Montclair, NJ lists Harriette Davison's occupation as that of a librarian at
the Union County Library.
58 According to the 1970 and 1971 telephone books for Montclair, NJ.









being out there one day and looking out the window around dusk and seeing a family of

raccoons. One would walk up to their front door and stand on his tiptoes. I'd say, 'Julius!

You have raccoons!' He'd say, "Oh yeh, they're here all the time. They live in that tree

right over there." He knew all about them. It was a nice place.




















Figure 2-5 Apartment of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 136 Lincoln Street #A-10,
Montclair, NJ. Photo taken by Patrick G. Smith, March 14, 2004

Montclair and the surrounding areas of Orange and East Orange, New Jersey were

swarming with jazz artists at that time. "This place was crawling with jazz greats, some

known, some unknown," said John Lee, director of Woody's Home for Services in East

Orange, NJ.59 "You could walk out here on any one of these street corners and start

shouting, 'I want to start a band! Any takers?' And I guarantee you, in fifteen minutes,

you'd have a quartet, or a quintet or whatever you wanted. That's how many jazzers there

were here and still are."60 What made the area of Montclair particularly appealing to

Julius was that being a jazz artist there was like being an electrician or factory worker in

59 Julius Watkins' funeral took place on April 7, 1977 at Woody's Home for Services. John Lee was the
director of this funeral home at the time of Julius' death.
60 Personal interview with John S. Lee, March 14, 2004.









Detroit. Everybody did it. And for the first time in twenty-two years, Julius was living in

an environment where he could truly feel "at home," unthreatened and secure.




















Figure 2-6 Home of Julius and Harriette Watkins, 20 Nishuane Road, Montclair, NJ.
Photo taken by Patrick G. Smith, March 14, 2004

On June 22, 1972, Mr. and Mrs. Watkins purchased the house located at 20

Nishuane Road in Montclair for the sum of twenty-eight thousand dollars.61 It was from

this location that Julius began to teach private lessons to students who wished to learn

how to play jazz on the horn. It was in this house where he taught Tom Varner and

Vincent Chancey, two of the foremost jazz horn players on the modern stage. It was in

this house where Julius spent the last five years of his life.

Between the years 1972 and 1977, Julius continued to play in jazz groups,

symphony orchestras and Broadway shows. He played with the New World Symphony

and was a member of the pit orchestra for the production of Dan Jaffe's All Cats Turn

Grey When the Sun Goes Down; an opera dedicated to saxophonist, Charlie Parker. In


61 Data taken from the original house deed, dated June 22, 1972 provided by the Essex County Records
Office.









1973, he joined the pit orchestra for Raisin, a musical rendition of Lorraine Hansberry's

play, A Raisin in the Sun, and remained a member of the orchestra cast for at least three

years. Jazz record contracts were slow but steady, as Julius recorded seven albums during

his last seven years of life.

Despite his persistent activity in musical endeavors during the 1970s, Julius

Watkins was not a well man and his level of performance slipped at an astonishing rate.

Hornist and librarian, Peter Hirsch, recalled the following details involving a

performance with the New World Symphony in 1972.

I was playing there, at least once, and I clearly remember playing Brahms'
Second Symphony. Julius was playing 3rd horn and I was either playing 4th or
2nd horn. I don't remember which, but I do remember that I was sitting next to
him. It was interesting because I heard the name and here he is next to me
playing classical music. He came in and warmed up. He sat down and took the
horn out and his register where he would start warming up was like a fourth
above my highest note. I was normally a low horn player so that made it even
more depressing. Here's this guy screaming up there and I was just trying to
get a second-line G to get focused. That's the way he played his jazz solos:
screaming high stuff almost all the time. But anyways, he didn't seem to be
totally comfortable playing in that sort of a classical setting. He didn't really
play with any confidence which was so surprising to me. Here was someone
who could sit down and play in front of a crowd without music and he was
having trouble looking at and reading the part. I would have panicked to have
been in the situations that he was in day-in and day-out. So, it was like, really
sad because he didn't really play all that well either. He missed a lot of notes.
It was just (pause) I don't want to say he was unfamiliar with the Brahms
Second Symphony, but it sure as heck sounded like it. He didn't really quite
know when to come in and when he did he missed notes. It was really too
bad.62

The likelihood that a musician of Julius' stature, with his training, would be

unfamiliar with the Brahms' Second Symphony is quite slim. The reality surrounding the

issue of the decline in his performance ability involved the heightened status of his

diabetes and, unfortunately, his unwillingness to cease the consumption of alcohol.


62 Personal interview with Peter Hirsch, March 12, 2004.









Warren Smith stated that Julius had received orders from his physician to stop drinking,

but the stubborn Julius refused to comply.

The doctor's told him not to drink there near the end, but when we'd go into
the pit of the theatre everybody had a locker. He always took a little nip from
there, if you know what I mean. I went up to him one time and said, "Hey,
man, you know the doctor said you shouldn't do that." He'd say, "Aw, man,
c'mon now." He'd take his little nip before the show and after the show.
Nothing was going to stop him from the lifestyle he wanted to live. He could
be very comical and very secretive about those things, but you could see
where it was going to take him. He just simply would not change his lifestyle
for anyone or anything. He had everything going for him at the end: he was
working, he had a good wife who loved him, he had a good place to live, and
he was making that commute back to Jersey. But whatever lifestyle he had
established, he was going to keep living it whether it was detrimental or not.63

He continued to rage war against his diabetes. Still, the proud Julius tried to shield

those around him from witnessing his internal struggle. Vincent Chancey said, "I

remember in a lesson one time at his house, he just started shaking. I mean, he was

shaking really badly. He literally fell out of his chair. I tried to help him back up, but he

refused. He got up on his own, struggled around the corner, took a shot of his insulin and

came back a few minutes later. 'Sorry about that,' he said to me. 'Now, where were

we? '"64

His health not only affected his reliability to play at a certain high level, it affected

his reliability to simply show up to rehearsals and performances. "I should tell you this:

when he got too sick to play, the conductor and all of us liked Julius so much that we

covered for him. Eventually somebody at the union caught up with us. We just wouldn't

say anything if he didn't show up or arrived to the gig late or whatever."65 This statement

serves as testimony to the level at which Julius was respected, admired, and loved by his

63 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.
64 Personal interview with Vincent Chaney, March 12, 2004
65 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004.









peers. Those who worked so closely with Julius, those whose lives were touched by his

angelic personality, were the very personalities who were willing to risk their own

reputations and career status to protect the dignity of a dying giant. On April 4, 1977,

Julius Burton Watkins suffered a massive heart attack and died at the St. Barnabas

Hospital in Short Hills, NJ. At the time, he was survived by his two children, his father,

brother, and two sisters.66


Figure 2-7 Headstone of Julius Burton Watkins with horn of Patrick G. Smith. Photo
taken by Patrick G. Smith, April 28, 2004.


66 Mattie Watkins, his mother, died in September, 1975









He was a grandfather of five, but was more special to none other than his beloved

wife, Harriette. "She took care of him, but when he began to fail, her nervous system

broke down. She literally lost her hair worrying about him. I can't say that these things

are psychosomatic, but she eventually succumbed herself to some kind of debilitating

disease that took her. But man, oh man, did she love him. They were perfect together."67

Memorial services for Julius were held at the David D. Woody Memorial Home68 at 11

o'clock in the morning on April 8, 1977. Following the service, Watkins' remains were

transported back to Detroit, Michigan. He was and remains buried in the family plot at

United Memorial Gardens, Garden of the Masonic, Plot 119, space A-4, in Plymouth,

MI.69























Figure 2-8 Undated photo of Julius Watkins with his Miraphone brand French horn.
Photo supplied by Peter Hirsch.

67 Personal interview with Warren Smith, March 11, 2004
68 This funeral home is now known as Woody's Home for Services.
69 The only remaining survivor in Julius Watkins' immediate family is his sister, Janice. Lucius, Mattie,
Lucius, Jr., Olivia, Julius, Julius Jr., Julie, and numerous aunts and uncles are all buried in the family plot
or in neighboring plots at United Memorial Gardens. Exhausting research was unable to determine the
whereabouts of remains for Ella Watkins and Harriette D. Watkins.









Julius Watkins was an unflappable man. His optimism and passion for his art

caused him to achieve the status which he enjoyed as the leading performer of jazz

French horn music. He was a man of honor and integrity who believed in that old-school

philosophy of conveying a positive impression regardless of any physical or mental

turmoil occurring within. His witty personality and sense of humor would, at times,

hysterically infuriate those with whom he worked. He was a man of complex

peculiarities. He sought neither fame nor glory, he avoided the spotlight and rarely drew

unnecessary attention to himself. He loved jazz and the horn and quietly went about his

life in an unassuming manner. "It's not a profitable life, but I like it," said Watkins. He

was loved by many with whom he worked and inspired countless others in his field to

achieve recognized greatness. Despite the disheartening events surrounding the final

years of his existence, his career was arguably the most successful in the history of the

jazz French horn genre.














CHAPTER 3
THE MUSIC BEHIND THE MAN

A musician's performance style is as unique as a fingerprint. Regardless of

similarities in musical traits, every individual has their own inimitable sound. Julius

Watkins' performance characteristics and preferences were, by far, some of the most

interesting ever to be heard by jazz and classical audiences. The sounds which he created

in his chamber jazz ensembles were exceptionally different from those produced by

others who worked within this genre. Although Watkins was not the first horn player to

bring jazz music to the French horn, he is nevertheless regarded as the founding father of

this genre. Why this is so forms an interesting and telling question. Simply put, his

musical thumbprint includes a unique set of musical ideas and practices. First, he brought

the experience of chamber jazz ensemble playing to his jazz performance. Second, he

structured a unique combination of instrumental preferences. Finally, as an individual

component, Watkins himself created unique performance characteristics that influenced

the genre. But before these items can be explored, one must first gain an understanding

for the conditions which preceded Watkins' arrival on the jazz stage.

Bebop was a musical style which consumed the American jazz culture in the

decade following World War II. With the inception of this new form, jazz earned a new

artistic status and lost its aura of low-brow music. More changes occurred with the

formation of bebop than at any other time in the history of jazz, specifically in the areas

of harmonic construction, melodic activity, theoretical expertise, and ensemble

instrumentation. These changes occurred, primarily, as a result of the World War II









military draft. Swing Jazz players became soldiers and musical instruments were replaced

with a variety of weaponry. With so many artists being removed from the American

musical culture, society as a whole in the United States was left without a musical

identity. As a result, a wave of new, young talent was thrust to the forefront and an

entirely new group of musicians were able to obtain regional and national exposure.

Substantial changes were made in performance techniques. These alterations

caused a shift in the attitudes of performers and audiences of jazz. Bebop was a type of

jazz which encouraged audiences to listen more and dance less. As a consequence of this

shift, new repertoire was created for this new genre. Smaller combos replaced larger big

bands, and ensembles of varying instrumentation began to emerge literally overnight.

Players in these new combos developed a greater sense of chord recognition, stronger

theoretical skills, and improvised in ways that were faster and more complex than their

predecessors. During the eleven years in which Bop dominated the American jazz world,

musicians began to place artistic jazz music ahead of commercial goals. They favored

change over uniformity, and made significant efforts to move forward artistically rather

than to practice an outdated and nostalgic form of music. Contrary to critics of Bebop,

these artists were not seeking audiences comprised of academicians and artistic elitists.

Their desire was to educate and expose Americans to a new kind of North American Art

Music and to establish an appreciation of jazz for its own sake and not for its potential for

commercial gain.

By 1950, the stage was set for Julius Watkins who excelled in this new realm of

artistic innovation. Clearly, through an analysis of his professional achievements, it can

be concluded that Julius was one of the unique and successful members of this cultivated









artistic realm. But to say that Watkins' only mark of individuality was that of a jazz

musician playing the French horn would be an erroneous miscalculation. There were

many pieces to the puzzle which comprised the overall musician within the man. When

these parts are examined individually, they provide a detailed analysis of "The

Phantom's" musical blueprint.

Instrumentation within chamber jazz ensembles was one of these pieces. Certainly

the inclusion of a tenor saxophone, drums, and bass within the Julius Watkins Sextet and

Les Jazz Modes was not uncommon. But in adhering to the unwritten guidelines for

bebop performance and the advancement of this art, Julius often incorporated instruments

not traditionally associated with jazz performance. It was not uncommon to hear a harp or

an accordion in performance with Watkins, who also performed frequently with the flute

and guitar jazz virtuoso, Les Spann.















Figure 3-1 Julius Watkins and Les Spann during the 1960 Gemini recording session.
Photo courtesy of Concord Records.

Some of these instances of instrumental inclusion suggest that the "classically"

trained Watkins was attempting to create a fusion between the worlds of Jazz and

Classical music, or at the least was greatly inspired by the Classical chamber works

which he studied in his youth and during his studies at the Manhattan School of Music,









chamber music pieces which would feature the horn in a woodwind or brass quintet,

sextet or octet.70 An exploration into some of these ensembles and compositions will help

to illustrate this kaleidoscopic approach to instrumentation.

In February of 1961, Watkins was a member of an unusual quintet which released

an album called Change ofPace. In addition to Julius' horn, the quintet featured tenor

saxophonist, Johnny Griffin, drummer, Ben Riley, and was completed with the addition

of not one, but two string bass players, Bill Lee and Larry Gales. The resulting sounds

produced by this ensemble were nothing short of extraordinary. Works on this album,

such as "Soft and Furry," feature bizarre instrumental combinations such as a string bass

duet accompanied by drums, a horn and bass duet accompanied by tenor saxophone, and

a string bass duet accompanied only by tenor saxophone. The solemn vibrations of the

bass' strings create a heavy and weighted mood which is alleviated by the addition of a

saxophone or horn solo. The initial measures of the album's seventh track, "Nocturne,"

illustrate this specific effect. Near the end of track eight, "Why Not," the basses perform

a rhythmic ostinato accompaniment to one of Julius' most profound solos.

The sounds produced by the two basses, tenor saxophone, and horn, are

surprisingly similar to those produced by a quartet of instruments from the same family in

that all four of these instruments blend impeccably well together. Griffin's saxophone

and Watkins' horn each share a warmth of sound which anchor the overall aesthetic

quality possessed by this rare consort. It can be understood that Watkins was fond of this

type of instrumental combination because he was able to mimic the sounds of a string

quartet or a woodwind quintet in ajazz ensemble. He probably would have heard and

70 Examples of larger ensemble works which Julius would have known include the Horn Quintet, K. 407 by
W. A. Mozart, the Sextet in E-flat, op. 81b by Beethoven, and Schubert's Octet, D. 803.









studied chamber music repertoire during his years at the Manhattan School of Music. As

a pioneer of new musical concoctions, it is arguable that he desired to perform in jazz

ensembles which contained aesthetic qualities similar to those found in Classical chamber

music settings.

Watkins never again recorded an album with an ensemble of this exact

instrumentation, but he did continue to seek out and organize groups which favored new

sounds and styles over those considered to be the norm. In an effort to modernize the

traditional Bebop combo, Watkins often included textless parts for a female soprano

voice in his compositions. Two examples of this sort of vocal inclusion can be heard in

"1-2-3-4-0 In Syncopation" and "Princess"; two original Julius Watkins compositions

which were featured on his 1959 Les Jazz Modes recording. The use of a soprano voice

was also a commodity on the ensemble's 1958 album, The Most Happy Fella. In these

works, the soprano voice is treated as though it were an alto saxophone, trumpet, or other

instrument capable of projecting a melody over an ensemble. The use of vibrato is

frequent as the singers, Princess Orelia Benskina and Eileen Gilbert, project through the

group with their array of vowel sounds.

Watkins' treatment of the human voice in this manner was influenced by one of

two scenarios. First, as a member of numerous dance bands in Detroit, he undoubtedly

heard a multitude of female vocalists and desired to incorporate a soprano part in his

chamber music which would be reminiscent of this earlier style. The second scenario is

grounded in the tradition of rebellious Romantic Era composers like Richard Wagner.

Wagner frequently used human voices as instruments in many orchestral works. For

example, in his Overture to Die Walk/ire, a chorus of sopranos sings textless syllables as









they double the melodic lines played by the strings and high brass. Benskina and

Gilbert's use of operatic quality vibrato combined with the textures and colors of sound

produced by Les Jazz Modes, leads one to favor the influence of the latter scenario over

the former.

The most significant example of Classical music influencing the jazz style of Julius

Watkins' chamber jazz can be found on his 1958 record, Four French Horns Plus

Rhythm. The horn quartet, as a performance genre, has been in existence since the mid-

17th Century, and hundreds of works have been written for the genre by many of the great

composers from previous musical eras. Being a student who absorbed anything musical

at Cass Tech and the Manhattan School, Watkins most likely would have participated in

quartet reading sessions and rehearsals and would have become familiar with the

repertoire for such an ensemble.7

Four French Horns and Rhythm was the brainchild of Mat Mathews, a prominent

set drummer and founder of the Mat Mathews Quintet during the mid-1950s. Mathews

contacted Watkins and asked him to play principal horn in the recording session. This

was an invitation which Julius enthusiastically accepted. To dispel any insecurity he

might have had regarding the formation of a jazz playing horn quartet, Mathews sought

after the three other prominent jazz horn players: David Amram, Fred Klein, and Tony

Miranda. Amram had performed with Oscar Pettiford and Charlie Mingus in addition to








1 Dolores Beck-Schwartz indicated that she and Julius frequently read horn quartets with other members of
the Manhattan School of Music French horn studio.









numerous other recording artists. Fred Klein was a member of the CBS Symphony72

while Tony Miranda was one of New York City's most prolific Caucasian sidemen.73

The idea for an album such as this was unquestionably novel. Mathews' decision

for creating this album was not for financial gain resulting from some sort of circus-type

sideshow. Rather, "He has always been attracted to the sound of the horn in Classical

music. The horn is clearer than the trumpet and not as bogged down as the trombone. He

chose the four horns because of the opportunities for harmony and unison work that this

afforded him."74

Jazz horn quartets, use of soprano female voices, and stupefying instrumentation.

These were the foremost examples of Julius Watkins' taste for chamber jazz ensembles

during the middle portion of the 20th century. Julius' fondness for seeking out new colors

of sound produced by unusual combinations of instruments caused him to be highly

sought after by the creators of new chamber jazz ensembles. Many of the ensembles in

which Julius performed contained instrumental combinations which were similar to those

more commonly associated with Classical chamber music. This being said, a

conceptualized view of a neo-bop world was just one aspect which separated Julius from

his colleagues. There were specific performance practice qualities of which Julius had

total and complete command. These qualities helped to further elevate Watkins to a

higher level within his own artistic world.

Julius was, by far, one of the greatest "high-horn" players ever to play the

instrument. Where most professional players have a range from the written C above

72 Bill Crow. "Bill Crow's Band Room" Local 802 News, Publication and Press Release. September, 1999.
73 Jeff Silberschlag. Interview with James ( hlon.!,. Accessible online at
www.osmun.com/reference/bios interviews/chambers.htm
74 John S. Wilson. Jacket notes from Four French Horns Plus Rhythm. Elektra Records, EKL-234-X, 1958.









treble clef to the C four octaves below, Julius could easily play within the octave above

this acclivous boundary. Some of the more significant examples of excessive high range

playing include the following:

A 1961 recording of Phil Woods' The Rights of Swing which features Julius

playing nine high D-flats and two high D-naturals without an ounce of difficulty

or change in tone quality.7

A solo in "Why Not?" on the 1961 album, Change ofPace, features a slur up to

an F an octave above the top line of the treble clef.

A performance of "Let's Call This" with Thelonius Monk's band in which Julius

plays countless pitches between the G and C above treble clef within rapid

sixteenth-note patterns.

The performance of "Worthington Valley" from the Four French Horns Plus

Rhythm album in which Julius soars above three other horn players, a piano, and

an accordion as he performs a hunting motif endlessly in this excessively high

range.

A recording of"Julie Ann" from his 1955 Julius Walkini Sextet vol.2 album

features Julius holding a high C before slowing descending to a third-space B-flat.

A 64-bar solo in the 1972 recording of "Think of One" at the Village Vanguard

features just three measures of solo activity below the third-space treble clef C.

Reading about these solistic instances does not suffice in attempting to grasp the level

of performance which Julius possessed. A hearing of these examples best exemplifies the

mastery with which Julius could play and the efforts he made to preserve the pure, warm,


75 Magelssen, Nels H. A Study of the French Horn in Jazz Through an Analysis of the Playing Style of
Julius Watkins. University of Maryland, 1984, p. 17.









mellow sound which has made the instrument so audibly desirable. Rarely in these

recordings did he ever chip a note and he never missed one entirely.7 Muscular

endurance was not an issue which seemed to hinder his performance. Two questions must

be answered in regard to this virtuosic style of performance. First, why did Julius spend

an overwhelming majority of his performance life playing in the instrument's highest

range? Second, how did he accomplish such a command of that range?

Julius Watkins admitted that he always wanted to be a soloist, and soloists want to

be heard. Due to restrictions caused by the horn's overtone series, Watkins would have

experienced great difficulty in projecting through and above the other voices with which

he was performing if he were to play in the normal performance range on his instrument,

that is, from the third-line F in the bass clef to the G atop the treble clef. Certainly his

volume could have been enhanced through the use of a microphone, but such a

manipulation could distort the tone and pitch of the instrument. As Julius desired to

preserve the natural purity of the horn's sound, his only option was to play in the high

range on his instrument, a range where the notes would project and the melody would be

heard.

The answer to the second question, regarding how Julius produced high notes with

effortless clarity, can be found at the source of tone production on all brass instruments:

the embouchure. It is common for horn players who frequently play in the high range for

significant periods of time to use what are known as descant horns. These instruments are

pitched in the keys of B-flat and High-F, and possess smaller bore sizes; this allows for


76 Chipped notes occur when the actual attack of the note is not precise and pure, and the note above or
below the desired pitch can be heard in addition to the correct pitch. Instead of a clear attack described as
"dah," a chipped note would sound "bah-dah."









greater ease for high range production. Julius did not use a descant horn. In fact, the horn

which Julius used would probably be the last choice for most horn players in his

situation. Julius Watkins played a horn made by the Miraphone company and was

commonly referred to as a "Miraphone" horn.

"A Miraphone? I played one of those as a kid," recalled Nashville Symphony

Principal Hornist, Leslie Norton. "It was big and bulky and I could hardly get a sound out

of the thing. My teacher told me that they made great orchestral horns with big sounds,

but wow, I had a lot of problems making mine sound good. I finally had to switch to

something easier."78 Miraphones were large-bore double horns manufactured for use in

professional symphony orchestras. Playing this type of instrument was quite beneficial

for those who desired an exceptionally dark, warm sound. But as warm and glorious a

sound as Miraphone horns could produce, these instruments did have some limitations,

the most significant of which was the range in which the instrument could effectively

function. Playing on a horn with a large bore size will allow the player a great deal of

fluidity and ease through the instrument's lower and mid-ranges. But as the player breaks

into the upper range and beyond, as did Julius, the player could encounter less than

desirable results such as pitch inconsistency and problems with note accuracy. It seems

that Julius was not only fighting to promote awareness for the instrument in jazz, but was

doing so on a horn which was mechanically working against him. Nonetheless, Julius

developed a type of embouchure which allowed him to pass beyond the normal tonal




7 Information regarding the instrument on which Julius Watkins performed was discussed in a personal
interview with Vincent Chancey on March 12, 2004.

8 Personal interview with Leslie Norton, July 13, 2004.









boundaries of his instrument and play in a high range with fluidity and ease while still

preserving a natural beauty of sound.





















Figure 3-2 Julius Watkins performing on his Miraphone French horn. Note the extra-
large bell and body of the instrument. Photo courtesy of Capital Records.

There exist two principal methods for embouchure formation in the realm of horn

pedagogy. The first is commonly referred to as the puckering method; a manner in which

the player speaks the syllable, "tew," while forming the lips as if to blow through a straw

or to whistle. This style of embouchure formation usually results in the production of a

warm, full sound with dark aesthetic qualities so often utilized by professional symphony

horn players and the students under their instruction. While it would seem likely that

Julius would have learned this method and used it to create his unforgettable timbres, he

defied the odds and utilized the secondary strategy.





















Figure 3-3 Examples of Julius Watkins' embouchure in live performances. [Left] Julius
Watkins during the Julius Wulkiiin Sextet recording sessions. Note the smiling
type of embouchure and the position of the mouthpiece on the lips. Photo
courtesy of Atlantic Records. [Right] Julius Watkins in a live performances in
1959. Note his "smiling" embouchure and almost total lack of upper lip usage.
Photo courtesy of Downbeat Magazine.

This second method of embouchure formation is referred to as the smiling method;

a manner in which the player retracts the corners of the mouth, thereby stretching the lips

over the front teeth. Like a stretched rubber band, the lips under these conditions would

be able to vibrate very quickly at a high pitch frequency, thus allowing the player greater

maneuverability in the upper register. Perhaps Julius' dental problems allowed him some

extra flexibility or space to produce a dark vowel sound in the mouth to compensate the

bright "eee" sound which should have been produced as an outcome resulting from this

type of embouchure. Photographic evidence, however, clearly shows Julius Watkins

performing with the smiling embouchure during his most prolific years of performance:

1956 and 1959.

In addition to his mastery of the horn's upper register, Julius Watkins possessed

other playing characteristics which added to his uniqueness. His sense of articulation is

particularly worthy of discussion. While most of the melodies in his ballads such as Julie

Ann feature a slurred style with cashmere smoothness, Julius' rapid articulation skills









were exemplary. Tonguing is often a challenge for horn players and brass players in

general. If the tongue is place too far forward in the mouth, the initial attack will have a

harsh "tah" quality. Conversely, if the tongue falls towards the back of the mouth, a lack

of articulor clarity could be the end result. Julius' articulation method was one of clarity

and sensitivity which can be replicated by saying the syllables "doh" and "dah."

Although he never divulged his "secret recipe" to his students,79 his former understudies

were able to decipher an acceptable strategy which they have, in turn, used and passed on

to their own students.

Julius' soloing style was another trait for which he gained admirable recognition,

and the method in which he performed melodies was particularly notable. Julius was a

master improviser. Certainly he had a great deal of experience in this skill from his

earliest days playing in bands without horn parts. Watkins loved different colors of

sound. And just as he was constantly in search of ensembles with varying

instrumentation, he frequently sought new ways of manipulating sounds on his horn

when he played. During a solo, Watkins would often manipulate the pitch with his hand.

Tom Varner recalled the following events from one of his lessons with Watkins in 1976.

Another thing he showed me was he would sometimes do this right-hand
technique that wasn't stopped, but he would split the inside of the bell into
two compartments. His hand would be very flat as if you were making the
sound come out in two opposite ways. This made it have more of a piercing
sound approximating the sound of a harmon mute except you're doing it
with your hand. That's the best I can come up with. The sound would change
from an "ahhhhhh" to an "awwwww" in color. It was a little more piercing.80



79 Tom Varner and Vincent Chancey both stated that Julius rarely gave technical advice during lessons.
Rather, he taught by modeling solos in lessons and asked his students mimic or copy the manner in which
he played.

80 Excerpt from a personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004.









This fondness for tonal manipulation remained with Watkins late into his life. From

the 1972 album, Reasons in Tonality, critical listeners can hear numerous types of

manipulative methodologies at work. These include hand stopping, half-stopping, use of

half-valves, and oral manipulations. Whether these manipulations were done intentionally

or were the result of on-the-spot experimentation, we simply do not know. What is

important is that Julius Watkins never accepted the status quo as an artist. Rather Julius

was constantly in search of new performance opportunities and ways for expanding the

role of his instrument in a musical culture with a growing acceptance for new and

progressive artistic classifications.

The end result from this combination of elements was a man with a revolutionary

outlook regarding how chamber jazz music should in the United States. He allowed his

listeners an opportunity to experience jazz not as a venue of entertainment, but as an

artistic art form. His ability to broaden the expressive range of the horn as a jazz

instrument has opened the door to new generations of artists in this medium. Julius

Watkins performed in a manner which has frequently been emulated, but never

successfully duplicated. This should come as no surprise, for an artistic thumbprint is

unquestionably a one-of-a-kind.














CHAPTER 4
THE EVOLUTION OF THE JAZZ FRENCH HORN GENRE SINCE 1977

Since the middle of the twentieth century when Julius Watkins transported the horn

from the symphonic stage to that of the jazz band, the broadened use of the instrument in

jazz has become more widely accepted throughout the world. During the 1960s and early

70s, solo jazz horn playing took a backseat to chamber jazz groups of all sizes. Artists of

the instrument were not featured as headlining soloists. Rather, they were often cast into

supporting roles, playing back-up to pop musicians, rock stars and prominent jazz

recording artists. The environment changed somewhat during the mid-1970s when a

dormant breed of jazz horn playing became revitalized. This was a style that featured the

instrument not in a supporting role, but rather, as the lead instrument in a middle-brow

culture. Nevertheless, Julius Watkins' vision of solo jazz horn playing was re-born.

Despite the seemingly low number of active international jazz horn performers, the

interest in this art is not dwindling. Traditionalists in jazz and classical realms tend to be

unsupportive of this unique performance genre. Julius Watkins' vision of a jazz style

which embraces this chameleonic wind instrument as a solo voice is being realized by an

intimate group of horn artists with a wide assortment of backgrounds and modus

operandi.

Tom Bacon is widely regarded as one of the most prominent figures in the modern

day horn world. Born in Chicago in 1946, Bacon achieved early recognition for his

capabilities on the horn when he was appointed to the Principal Horn position in the

Chicago Civic Orchestra at age 18. This early success was complimented with



























Figure 4-1 Photo of Tom Bacon, courtesy of the artist and his photographer, Michael
Schwartz.

subsequent Principal Horn positions in numerous ensembles nationwide, including the

Syracuse and Grant Park Orchestras. In the years preceding his orchestral appointments,

Bacon followed a traditional approach in his horn studies with private lessons and

chamber music coaching session from four icons of brass pedagogy: Arnold Jacobs, Dale

Clevenger, Max Pottag and Verne Reynolds.81

Despite his love and passion for orchestral and chamber music horn performances,

Bacon has interests in more progressive musical facets and often performs on other

instruments. From 1969 to 1974, he was a member of Metamorphosis, a rock group

comprised of Detroit Symphony musicians. As a member of this group, he performed on

horn, trumpet, piano, organ, percussion and harmonica in addition to composing and

arranging for the ensemble. Bacon has established himself as a leading performer of

avant-guard chamber and solo repertoire. More than fifty works have been dedicated to


81 Arnold Jacobs was the former Principal Tuba player of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1944-
1988. Dale Clevenger is the current Principal Horn Player of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Max Pottag
was a member of the Chicago Symphony Horn Section from 1907-1944. Verne Reynolds was the Professor
of Horn at the Eastman School of Music from 1959-95.









and premiered by this artist, including Arthur Gottschalk's "Concerto for Tom" and "T.

Rex" by Mark Schultz. An established composer in his own right, Bacon has numerous

titles to his credit, including a number of jazz works for horn and piano.

Bacon's colorful and multi-talented approach to horn playing and performance

practice has helped to establish him as one of the preeminent hoists worldwide; his

efforts have been appropriately recognized. Reporting for the Houston Chronicle in 1997,

writer Charles Ward commented on Bacon's multitude of talents. "Thomas Bacon has

long had a different musical point of view. Music can be serious and must be taken

seriously. It doesn't have to be deadly."82 Ward's references to deadly musical ideas refer

to those with a limited view which constrict and restrain a musician into playing one and

only one type of music for years on end. Bacon's idea of creating a well-rounded

musician, one who can perform in any style, is what sets him aside from so many others

in his field.

Although not trained in jazz performance during his collegiate tutelage83, the "20th

Century's most influential and prominent brass soloist"84 performed for and was inspired

by numerous jazz greats including Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald and Glenn Miller. In

the realm of jazz horn music, Bacon's contributions to the field lie primarily in the

recording and publishing sectors in addition to his own live jazz performances on solo

recitals. With numerous solo recordings to his credit, The Flipside is the album which

consists entirely of solo jazz horn literature. This CD contains seven works written

exclusively for Tom, including two works by the artist himself.


82 www.homplanet.com.
83 Bacon studied at various collegiate institutions including the Eastman School, Syracuse University, and
Oakland University.
84 www.homplanet.com









The disc opens with the aforementioned "Concerto for Tom," a work which

combines elements of big band and blues with a traditional concerto for horn and jazz

orchestra. Gottschalk's piece features three jazzy movements in the fast-slow-fast pattern

expected in a Classical era concerto. Other works of interest on this album include two

pedagogical jazz studies for horn and piano by Bacon himself: "Listen Up!" and "Lorna

Doin'." "Listen Up!" is an athletic challenge for the player and contains a tempo marking

of "Real Fast quarter note = 190." To ensure a quality performance of this tune, the

soloist must have a strong command of the instrument's range and masterful technical

abilities. "Lorna Doin"' is a bit more relaxed and laid-back compared to its exhilarating

counterpart. With the tempo marking "lazy swing dotted quarter note = 112" the

performer has numerous opportunities to "blues it up" by adding effects such as wah-

wahs and scoops. One of the highpoints of this bluesy tune occurs at measure marking A4

where the composer quotes the famous (or infamous) leitmotif from Richard Strauss' own

symphonic foolery, "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks." Bacon's inclusion of this quote

in the score is not coincidental, for he himself is famous for a witty and empathic sense of

fun.85

Through publications86, performance and teaching, Tom Bacon has firmly

established himself as a musician who is comfortable performing any style of music.

Despite his capabilities as a horn player in traditional orchestral and chamber music

venues, Bacon feels most at home with the non-traditional genres including jazz. He

encourages improvisation and spontaneous creativity from his students and continues to

teach his "think outside the box" approach to those under his instruction. Undoubtedly,


85 www.homplanet.com
86 Tom Bacon is the editor of Jazz Cafe; a two-volume collection of printed works for horn and piano.









by thinking outside the box, the tradition of jazz horn playing has a considerable

opportunity to grow and prosper in the years to come.

Although Bacon has employed a versatile methodology to his art, others in his field

have accepted a more specialized and focused approach to performing strictly jazz. This

is not to say that they are any less of a musician or are lacking in talent whatsoever. For

some artists, the perfection of one particular field or genre has proven to be a successful

professional strategy. Such is the case for Chicago-born and New York-based Vincent

Chancey, a man whose career development has taken on a striking resemblance to that of

Julius Watkins.






















Figure 4-2 New York based jazz horn player, Vince Chancey. Photo contributed by
Vincent Chancey.

Upon joining the school band in his pre-teen years, Chancey initially played the

cornet, trumpet and flugelhorn; however, upon hearing horn players during band

rehearsals, he succumbed to the horn's call and abandoned piston-valved instruments all

together. During his high school and collegiate years, he found himself in what he called









a state of "musical schizophrenia." Although playing and studying the traditional

classical repertoire for the horn, he developed a great fondness for jazz. After completing

undergraduate studies at Southern Illinois University in 1973, Chancey relocated to New

York City in order to receive jazz horn instruction from Watkins himself. Chancey earned

no degree from his private studies with Watkins and actually secured financial support

for this endeavor through a grant provided by the National Endowment for the Arts.

Vincent successfully turned his focus of study from classical music to jazz, and was hired

as a horn player for the Sun Ra Arkestra. This ensemble is still in existence today and is

renowned for its efforts in promoting the free-jazz movement. During the twenty years

that followed, Chancey made countless recordings with Sun Ra, the Carla Bley Band,

Bowie's Brass Fantasy, and other groups associated with more progressive styles of

avant- pop and free jazz.

"By 1992 or 93, I began to feel the cool breezes of change sweeping over my

performance life and career," said Chancey in a 2004 interview. "I had established myself

as a horn player capable of performing jazz with numerous ensembles, but I desired a

different outlet in which I could express artistic ideas on my own terms. It was like, 'so

long, sideman. Hello jazz horn soloist.'"87 Since 1993 he has released two solo jazz horn

recordings: Welcome Mr. Chancey (1993) and Vincent Chancey and Next Mode (1996). 8

Having organized many jazz groups of his own, Vincent has toured Europe every

year since 1976 promoting the cause and awareness of jazz horn playing. Critics and

audiences seem to have been moved by numerous aspects of the artist's performing

abilities, mainly tone color, improvisatory skill and expressive, emotional playing. Neil


8 Excerpt from a personal interview with Vincent Chancey, March 12, 2004.
88 Chancey dedicated this recording to Julius Watkins and The Jazz Modes.









Tesser of the Chicago Reader wrote, "Vincent Chancey's tone, strong and comparatively

rough, dovetails with his swingy control of the instrument's tough fingering system,

while his respect for the horn's idiosyncrasies lets him play pure jazz." Peter Watrous of

The New York Times said of Chancey, "He was a dramatic improviser with big interval

leaps and silences underscoring his ideas." While tone and skill are two important aspects

of instrumental music performance, many in the field will argue that true musicality

occurs when the performer adds his or her own emotions to the performance. A review of

Chancey by Cadence Magazine's Steven Loewy praises the artist for that very

achievement. "Chancey maneuvers his ax in a wonderful relaxed way. He plays

naturally, as though the horn were simply a vessel through which his thoughts and

feelings are expressed."89 Comments such as these from critics have helped to fan the

flames of Chancey's burning desire to promote a wider recognition for the horn as a jazz

instrument. One chart from Chancey's first solo jazz album, "The Man Say Something,"

best exemplifies the critics' opinions and adds credibility and reliability to their reviews.

Another prominent jazz horn artist on the modern stage is Rick Todd. A native of

Salem, Oregon, Todd is often referred to as a "star among the present generation of jazz

hornists."90 Like so many others, Todd's background lies firmly in the classical horn

playing tradition, but with a few extra twists. Following performance engagements with

the New Orleans and Utah Symphonies, Rick returned to his collegiate stomping grounds

in Los Angeles where he has become one of the most sought after freelance musicians in

Hollywood television and film studios. With over seven hundred film performances to his

credit, including blockbusters such as Men in Black, Mission Impossible, Jurassic Park,


89 www.vincentchancey.com
90 Gunther Schuller. Liner notes from Rickter Scale. GM records, 3015cd, 1989.









and Independence Day, one might wonder why such an accomplished and successful

musician would venture outside the traditional playing field in search of new

performance venues. Simply put, Todd has been badly bitten by the jazz bug.91

As a sideman, Todd has performed with Barbara Streisand, Michael Jackson,

Madonna, Woody Herman, Clark Terry and a multitude of other pop and jazz artists. In

1984, he released his first jazz recording, New Ideas, which featured classical and jazz

tunes combined into one setting. Works by Gunther Schuller and Jean Francaix were

contrasted with charts by Charlie Parker and Kurt Weil. The disc was followed by Rickter

Scale, an all-jazz horn recording released in 1989.

Despite Todd's efforts to promote the awareness of his newfound passion, he was

still significantly under-appreciated for this style of playing well into the following

decade. This perception changed at the 25th International Horn Symposium hosted by

Florida State University in the summer of 1993. After a full day of traditional classical

concerts, recitals and the like featuring some of the world's most acclaimed solo and

orchestral figures, Todd presented an outdoor jazz horn jam-session to a rousing audience

of his own peers. He wowed those in attendance with his performance of Chick Corea's

"Got a Match," the initial track from Rickter Scale. The work features chromatic runs at

supersonic speeds, mastery of articulation, and fluidity of harmonic motion. "Shock and

awe" had an entirely different meaning a decade ago.92

For Todd, technique and style are not problematic issues when it comes to

performing jazz. Although critics are divided over his three jazz albums, most recognize


91 J. Robert Bragonier. A review of Todd's With a Twist which appears at www.gmrecordings.com.
92 The author was an undergraduate sophomore and attended Todd's session at this workshop. It was his
first time witnessing an international symposium and ajazz performance featuring the horn.









Todd for his spectacular feats of high register playing, clear articulation, and a strong

grasp of jazz improvisation. Some jazz critics, who attempt to squash the potential

uprising of this new breed, criticize Todd for playing with an unconventional horn sound

and writing tunes which sound somber and weighted. Nonetheless, Rick has promoted the

awareness of jazz horn artistry through his recordings and teaching activities. Currently

on the faculties of the University of Southern California and the Henry Mancini Institute,

Todd leads his students by example and precept. He has demonstrated that, if nothing

else, it is possible to perform in a virtuosic jazz style on this beast of all musical

instruments.93

Horn players are often looked upon as being different or unusual in some manner.

Theirs is the only instrument in the orchestra which points backwards, has the highest

frequency of missed notes, and is the only brass family member in a woodwind quintet.

To be an accomplished jazz horn player in the 21st Century, one must be unique. This

term is no stranger to an individual who is arguably the most renowned jazz horn player

on today's international stage, Tom Vamer. Tom knew he was different early on in his

approach to musical performance when, in elementary school, he chose the horn from a

photo rather than from those found in his elementary music classroom. Being different

does not a horn player make, and Varner knew that, in order to differentiate and

distinguish himself from the others in his field, he had to become a virtuoso. Thus, he

took appropriate measures to realize such a goal.

Tom received a bachelor's degree from the New England Conservatory where he

studied horn with Thomas Newell and jazz composition with Ran Blake, George Russell,


93 Gunther Schuller. Liner notes forRickter Scale. GM records, 3015cd, 1989.









and Jaki Byard. Such a variety of influential teachers helps to explain the eclectic

character of Varner's music, which thrives on the blending of numerous jazz styles.

Throw private horn lessons with Julius Watkins into the mix and you have the perfect

recipe for Tom's musical souffle.94 With such a diverse array of stylistic influences, it is

no wonder that Varner's compositions and performing styles have proven to be some of

the most flavorful and enlightening on the circuit.






















Figure 4-3 Pictured from left to right are jazz horn players Marshall Sealy, Tom Varner
and Vince Chancey. Mark Taylor is seated behind Varner to the right. Photo
courtesy of Vince Chancey.

Tom's performance abilities on the horn are unquestionably virtuosic to the "enth"

degree. One needs only to listen to the title track from his 1999 release, S. illining. to

experience his mastery of the instrument. What separates Varner from his fellow musical

athletes in the "tour de cor" is his dedication to composing for jazz horn and restricting

his performances to such a medium. For Tom, there is no balancing act between classical

94 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone CD-11903, 1999.









and jazz careers; no trips to Hollywood recording studios or sound stages. Varner's life

revolves solely around his horn and the world of jazz. As a composer, Tom has sought

inspiration from some of the most unlikely sources. "Biblical themes and spirituality,

science and sci-fi, mythology and folklore, down-home Americana and urban kitsch,

James Brown and twentieth-century music are frequent threads in the colorful, cinematic

Tom Varner weave."95


















Figure 4-4 Contemporary jazz horn soloist Tom Varner. Photo contributed by Terri
Constant.

The title track of Swimming was composed in the summer of 1998 at the Blue

Mountain Center, a famous artistic getaway located deep in the Adirondack Mountains.

On vacation from his normally hectic life in the big city, Varner spent a month in higher

elevation and immersed himself in a variety of rest and relaxation techniques. "I

practiced. I composed. I read a lot. And the lake, wow, the lake. It was just spectacular,"

said Varner. "It was Heaven. Every day I swam in this beautiful lake, and every day I


95 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone CD-11903, 1999.









wrote new music. 'Swimming' grew out of that. In fact, so did most of the album."96 Upon

listening to a portion of this track, one can instantly hear a style of jazz different from any

other for this instrument. This type of small-group jazz presents the listener with a variety

of sounds and tastes which could leave the listeners scratching their heads as to the true

identity of this music. "It is fairly complex stuff," said Tom. "It has hints of Webern and

Berg, a little bit of Monk, and other influences too."97 It would come as no surprise if

audience reactions to this music were as different as the artist himself, for in

differentiation, there lies distinction.

Some members of the current solo jazz horn scene are pushing the boundaries for

the inclusion of their instrument in this medium. Two artists in particular, Ken Wiley and

Arkady Shilkloper, have taken the instrument to performance realms never before

deemed possible. Although both of these artists possess unique performance and

compositional styles, Wiley and Shilkloper have combined traditional horn tonal

concepts with 21st Century electronic media to produce an entirely new sub-genre of

chamber jazz horn performance.

The career path of Los Angeles hornist, Ken Wiley, bears numerous similarities to

that of the late phantom. For Wiley, the horn became his instrument of choice, but only

after the introduction of that instrument from a second party. Recalling his early days on

the horn, this native of St. Joseph, Missouri said, "When I was in sixth grade at Mark

Twain, I thought I wanted to play the drums. But, the director said he had too many

drummers and he sent a French horn over to the house that sat under the piano most of




96 Frank Tafuri. Liner notes from Swimming. Omnitone 11903, 1999.
97 Personal interview with Tom Varner, March 11, 2004.









the summer."98 Like Julius, Wiley held little interest in playing the horn until he heard its

warm, mellow sounds. In Ken's case, the sounds came from a record player in his

childhood home rather than from a guest performance by a symphony player at his

school. He began playing the horn in the school band at Bliss Junior High and continued

during his studies at Central High School in his hometown. After high school, Wiley

attended the Manhattan School of Music before setting out on a jazz career of his own.

Wiley's defense for choosing to play jazz on the horn sounds remarkably similar to

that of Julius Watkins. "There is not a lot of music written for the French horn, "said

Wiley. "I have always had to create my own and have striven to showcase the natural

beauty possessed within this instrument."99 From listening to selections from his solo

albums, Visage and Highbridge Park, one can easily grasp the artist's concept for natural

beauty, as practically each work features haunting colors of sound, soaring melodies, and

transcendental rhythmic and harmonic qualities.

Ken's early jazz career placed him as a soloist and sideman with some of the great

figures in American jazz lore. He has appeared with bassist Charlie Haden's Liberation

Music Orchestra and has also performed with bassists John Patitucci and Jimmy Johnson,

guitarists Mike Miller and Grant Geissman, and, perhaps most notably, with Julius'

former partner, saxophonist Charlie Rouse: a connection which links Wiley in a deeply

personal manner to the founding father of jazz horn playing.

There is a great deal of complexity surrounding the style in which Wiley plays.

Album reviewers have labeled him as a champion of "generic, new-agey, fusion jazz,"'10

without specifically pigeonholing Ken's music into one particular genre. Most people


98 www.krugparkmusic.com
99 Ibid.
100 Ibid.









who listen to his music, however, have agreed that his unique compositions featuring the

horn possess jazz, new-age, rock, Afro-pop and world music influences. His album,

Highbridge Park, released in 2002, offers an overview of this performer's eclectic style.

Tracks on this album are dominated by the use of electro-acoustic instruments, ethnic

percussive instruments such as rainsticks, congas and djambes, new-age sonorities similar

to those used by the German band, Tangerine Dream, and, of course, the hauntingly

reverberated sounds of Wiley's instrument.

Ken has been an active clinician and educator and has been promoting awareness

for jazz capabilities on the horn for the past twenty years. In February of 2005, Wiley

released Ken's Jazz Lounge; a book of twelve easy solos for beginning jazz horn players.

The book comes with a CD which contains the accompaniment tracks performed by a

jazz combo, allowing novices in this style the ability to perform in a complete medium.

One of the most notable of his educational outreach sessions occurred during the

2004 Western Horn Symposium in Las Vegas, NV. At this workshop, sponsored by the

International Horn Society, Wiley gave a masterclass on jazz horn improvisation and

performed with the University of Nevada at Las Vegas Jazz Trio. Joining Wiley on stage

that evening were Bill Bematis (Assistant Professor of Horn, UNLV), Eldon Matlick

(Professor of Horn, University of Oklahoma) and Jim Patterson (Owner of Patterson

Hornworks). This quartet of pedagogues performed a number of jazz horn selections

including Clare Fischer's "Morning" and Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time." What made

this occasion particularly noteworthy was the invitation by the International Horn Society

to include a prominent jazz artist in one of their sponsored workshops. Although this

organization waves the banner for furthering the cause for all activities which include the









horn, the focus of this organization tends to highlight artists steeped in the traditional

orchestral and soloistic approaches to horn playing. Rarely are jazz artists included in

official I.H.S. events; however, Ken's art has earned him praise from the organization.

John Dressier, a frequent reviewer for The Horn Call wrote the following about Wiley's

Visage album:

This CD was a very enjoyable listening experience. Ken Wiley's music
sounds like a blend of many different influences and hearing it has caused me
to listen to this CD in two ways. Play it while you're doing some chore that
needs doing, and the job will be less trouble. Then later, play it with no other
sounds interfering, simply letting the music work on you. Each time I listen to
this CD, I find a different favorite tune, and I like that. I don't find this music
deeply profound, but some really good music that is very enjoyable to hear
again and again. Wiley should be encouraged to continue writing and
recording similar discs.101


Figure 4-5 Ken Wiley (right) with Jim Patterson, Eldon Matlick and Bill Bernatis. Photo
contributed by Ken Wiley.

Ken Wiley has assisted in the advancement of jazz horn playing by including the

instrument in his own compositions and by reaching out to new listening audiences. His


101 www.krugparkmusic.com