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Development of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale to Identify Family Resilience Constructs

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012882/00001

Material Information

Title: Development of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale to Identify Family Resilience Constructs
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012882:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012882/00001

Material Information

Title: Development of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale to Identify Family Resilience Constructs
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012882:00001

Full Text











DEVELOPMENT OF THE FAMILY RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT SCALE TO
IDENTIFY FAMILY RESILIENCE CONSTRUCTS















By

MEGGEN TUCKER SIXBEY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005
































Copyright 2005

by

Meggen Tucker Sixbey















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to thank all of the individuals who took the time to participate

in this research study. Without their willingness, this study would not have been

possible.

I had the honor of working with several amazing individuals on my journey

towards this degree. First, I thank Dr. Peter Sherrard, my chairperson. Throughout the

course of my graduate studies, he has been able to challenge me to become a better

therapist, researcher, and person while always being patient with me when I did not

understand things. I have also had the fortune of working with Dr. Ellen Amatea. Her

wisdom and excitement kept me motivated and inspired when things seemed

overwhelming. I am thankful for the charismatic personality and supportive nature of

Dr. Marshall Knudson who always checked in on my progress whenever I saw him. I am

grateful to Dr. Wayne Griffin for his willingness to listen and support my professional

development while I was in graduate school. Finally, I am grateful to have had the

opportunity to work with Dr. Linda Shaw who was always able to provide helpful

feedback and a fresh perspective.

I also wish to thank my family and friends, especially my best friend and

husband, John Sixbey. I am not sure if he anticipated the length or nature of this journey

when we met 7 years ago. Nonetheless, he continued to support and encourage me at

times when the light at the end of the tunnel seemed faint. Additionally, I would like to









thank my 6-month old daughter, Alex, whose smile kept me smiling and remembering

what is truly important in life.

I am eternally grateful to my parents, Chuck and Laurie Tucker, who taught me

the value of balance in life. Without their love and support, I would not be where I am

today. My siblings, Mary and Seth Tucker, were able to detect when times were

becoming overwhelming and provided many mental health retreats to locations around

Florida.

Life is the connections we make. For that reason, it would be impossible to thank

everyone individually for their never ending support. Therefore, I would like to thank

my in-laws, Betsy Pearman, Crisis Center friends, Counselor Education friends, Meridian

friends, Department of Housing friends, and other life-long friends.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ............... .................. ........... iii

LIST OF TABLES ....... ....................................... vii

ABSTRACT ............... ............................... .......i. ix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ........ ..........................................1

Theoretical Framework ................. ............................ 3
Need for the Study ........ .......................................... 4
Purpose of the Study .............................................. 4
Research Questions .................................................. 5
Definition of Terms ................................................ 5
Overview of the Remainder of the Study .................................. 7

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................... 8

R eview ing R esilience ............... .............. .............. 8
Resilience Research .......... ...................... ........... 13
Theories of Resilience ......... ................................. 22
Measurement Difficulties ......... ................................ 42
Summary ......... ....................... ........... ........ 48

3 METHODOLOGY ................................. .......... 49

Statement of Purpose ............................................ 49
Subjects and Sampling ................. ......................... 50
Research Design ................. ............................. 53
Instrumentation .................. ............................... 53
Data Collection Procedures ........................................... 70
Research Hypotheses ............................................ 71
Methodological Limitations .................. ..................... 73

4 RESULTS ................. .................................. 75

Pilot Discussion ................ .............................. 75
Sample Demographics ................. ......................... 76









Research Questions and Hypotheses Analysis ............................. 79
Responses to Open-Ended Question ................................... 93
Summary of Results ............................................... 95

5 DISCUSSION ........ ............................................ 97

Limitations ................ ...................................... 97
Research Questions and Hypotheses .................................. 100
Implications ............................................105
Recommendations for Further Study ................ ................. 108
Summary ....... ................................................ 110

APPENDIX

A INFORMED CONSENT LETTER .............. ................. 112

B DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE ............................ 116

C FAMILY RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT SCALE ......................... 118

D PERSONAL MEANING INDEX ......... ....................... 125

E SORTING PROTOCOL ............................................ 128

F SORTING PROCESS RESULTS ................. ................. 130

G CREATED ITEMS AND ITEM RANKINGS FOR SUB-CONSTRUCTS:
MAKING MEANING OF ADVERSITY, FLEXIBILITY, AND CLARITY .... 134

H SUMMARY OF PILOT STUDY FINDINGS ............................. 136

I THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTION OF ITEMS ON THE FRAS ............. 144

J SIX FACTOR SUBSCALE: ITEMS, FACTOR LOADING, SCORING, AND
ITME-SUBSCALE CORRELATION ............................... 147

K RESPONSES TO OPEN ENDED QUESTION ON FRAS .................. 151

L MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF SUBSCALE SCORES AND
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY TABLES ..................... 157

REFERENCES .................................. ............. 164

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. .......................... 171















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

4-1 Respondents' age groups ................ ......................... 77

4-2 Respondents' gender ............................................... 77

4-3 Respondents' ethnic backgrounds ................................. 78

4-4 Respondents' educational backgrounds .............................. 78

4-5 Respondents' income levels ............... ....................... 78

4-6 Adverse event intensity level ..................................... 79

4-7 Family connection ................ ............................. 79

4-8 Reliability FRAS nine factor solution .................................. 82

4-9 Variance accounted by six factors ................................... 83

4-10 Shortened FRAS total and subscale psychometric properties ................ 84

4-11 FRAS interfactor correlation ..................................... 84

4-12 Subscale scores by age ........................................... 90

4-13 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by age .............. 90

4-14 Family Assessment Device 1 (FAD1) factor correlation .................. 93

4-15 Family Assessment Device 2 (FAD2) factor correlation .................. 93

4-16 Personal Meaning Index (PMI) factor correlation ................. ....... 93

H-1 Pilot study respondents' background characteristics ................... .. 136

H-2 Pilot study item responses, means, and standard deviations ................. 138









H-3 Pilot Study respondents' response to "Could you please provide any feedback
regarding this survey that you feel is of importance. ................... ... 142

L-1 Subscale scores by gender ................ ....................... 157

L-2 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by gender ........... 157

L-3 Subscale scores by ethnic identity-Collapsed categories ................... 158

L-4 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by collapsed ethnic
identity categories ................................................ 158

L-5 Subscale Scores by educational level ................ ............... 159

L-6 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by educational level ... 160

L-7 Subscale scores by income ....................................... 161

L-8 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by income .......... 162

L-9 Subscale scores by intensity level ................................. 162

L-10 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by event intensity
level ....... ..... ........................ .. ........ 162

L-11 Subscale scores by family connection ............................... 163

L-12 Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by family connection 163















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FAMILY RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT SCALE TO
IDENTIFY FAMILY RESILIENCE CONSTRUCTS

By

Meggen Tucker Sixbey

December 2005

Chair: Peter A. D. Sherrard
Major Department: Counselor Education

All too often conceptual models are promoted and described in the literature with

little or no empirical evidence to support the beliefs. As there are multiple conceptual

models, there is also a plethora of more than 1,000 marriage and family measures

available for use in research and by therapists. However, finding a well-designed scale

addressing specific constructs is difficult due to a multitude of circumstances.

One such conceptual model is the model of family resilience. This model

proposes three-pronged approach to family resilience involving three over-arching

constructs with each of the three major constructs having three sub-constructs. This

study attempted to develop a valid and reliable instrument capable of measuring the

model of family resilience.

This study involved a survey of a sample of 418 participants. Of the participants,

76.08% were female, 85.65% were Caucasian, and 37.80% held a bachelor's degree. A

survey instrument, the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS), was developed to









aid in understanding how families deal and cope with adversity and provide therapists

with an assessment tool identifying resilience concepts.

After extensive statistical analyses, the findings demonstrate that a six factor

structure most appropriately represents the construct of family resilience. This study

found women, older adults, white individuals, and higher educated individuals to have

statistically significant levels of family resilience on certain subscales. Additionally,

individuals who believed their family connection to become closer after experiencing an

adverse event showed statically significant results on all subscales and the total scale

score.

Based on the findings of this study, future studies should continue empirical

investigations on the FRAS, its psychometric properties, and validation instruments.

Both significant findings and nonsignificant findings should be further investigated to

lend to the credibility of the FRAS. Future studies may also wish to analyze the open-

ended response question's answers as that process was beyond the scope of this study.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Studying the family presents researchers with a variety of challenges. There are a

number of different theoretical or conceptual models underpinning current and past study

of the family such as family sociology, systems theory, family development theory,

ecological psychology, social learning theory, biological, and relationship models.

Carlson (1995) has noted these multiple approaches to study of the family have given rise

to the existence of multiple theories about the family. All too often, conceptual models

or theories are promoted and described in the literature with little or no empirical

evidence to support the beliefs or theories. As there are multiple theories or conceptual

models, there is also a plethora of more than 1,000 marriage and family measures

available for use in research and by therapists (Snyder & Rice, 1996). However, finding

a well-designed scale addressing specific constructs is difficult because of the multitude

of sometimes poorly developed and defined constructs addressed by these instruments.

The lack of a unifying family therapy theory has contributed to the lack of measuring

instruments with acceptable psychometric properties (Grotevant & Carlson, 1989). The

development of a psychometrically sound instrument takes time, investment, ample

sample size to generalize to the population, criterion related evidence, and adequate

statistical skills to analyze the instrument. Many of these skills or tools are not available

to clinicians and researchers (Snyder & Rice, 1996). If the field of family therapy is to

be viewed as worthwhile, it is of the utmost importance for valid and reliable







2

measurement tools to be available to the field to assist those providing services to

individuals and families.

Psychology began with a lens focusing on an individual's deficits, shortcomings,

problems, and pathology. However, a growing body of literature has begun to

conceptually explore how individuals and families overcome adversity and display

resilience. Many of these conceptual theories of individual and family resilience have

yet to be empirically tested. Walsh (1998) speaks of a conceptual model of family

resilience; however, there is no empirical evidence supporting this conceptual model.

Walsh speaks of an approach or a lens for viewing the family and uses the qualitative

paradigm for developing her ideas about the family. While Walsh's ideas or framework

may be very appropriate for studying the family, qualitative research is often perceived to

lack the rigor of quantitative research methods providing little evidence of the validity of

these ideas. Typically when a theory or conceptual model is proposed, the next step is to

test the theory or conceptual model quantitatively. This study tested Walsh's conceptual

theory of family resilience by developing a measurement tool using a quantitative

methodology.

Walsh (1998) proposes a three-pronged approach to family resilience involving

three over-arching constructs with each of the three major constructs having three sub-

constructs. Thus, there are a total of nine underlying constructs to Walsh's conceptual

model. This study developed an instrument measuring Walsh's conceptual model and

tested this model through the use of factor analysis as well as tested the psychometric

properties of the new instrument. The confirmatory factor analysis identified whether the

predicted pattern of the constructs based on theory was valid (DeVellis, 2003). This









study also explored whether the new instrument discriminates between different sub-

groups of the population.

Theoretical Framework

Initial studies on invulnerable or invincible children have led to the study of

resiliency in families (Anthony & Cohler, 1987; Anthony & Koupernik, 1974). Bowlby

(1980) felt the distress or depression after a stressful event was a pathological denial,

avoidance response or the individual was cold and emotionally distant. However, this

has been challenged through studies of resilient children, those who seem to thrive

despite hardships. Resiliency studies of children have been expanded into many different

areas including studying the resilience of the family unit.

Walsh (1998, 2003) has built upon earlier developments of competence-based and

strength-oriented family paradigms to gain an understanding of how families display

resilience when faced with adversity and now conceptualizes family resilience as the

ability recover from adversity stronger and more resourceful. Walsh (2002) further

expanded this conceptualization of family resilience as involving more than just being

able to manage and survive a stressful event but also using adversity to forge

transformative personal and relationship growth. Walsh's (1998) conceptual model

consists of three over-arching constructs with additional constructs contained in each of

the three over-arching constructs. The first over-arching construct Walsh proposes is

Belief Systems. This construct consists of making meaning of adversity, positive

outlook, and transcendence and spirituality. The second major construct Walsh proposes

is Organizational Patterns. This construct consists of flexibility, connectedness, and

social support. Lastly, Walsh proposes Communication/Problem Solving as an over-

arching construct. This last construct consists of clarity of communication, open









emotional expression, and collaborative problem solving. Each of these constructs may

stand on its own or be subservient to the over-arching construct or idea. If these are

indeed the underlying, abstract ideas of family resilience, then it would be beneficial to

the field of family therapy to develop a measure tapping into these constructs to assist

families and provide better services to families.

Need for the Study

In developing and testing a measure of family resilience based on Walsh's (1998)

conceptual model, empirical evidence will benefit clients as well as researchers and

service providers. Researchers will be able to measure family resilience and continue to

pursue research in family resilience while adding to the body of knowledge and literature

on the topic. Having a valid and reliable measure of family resilience will aid in

understanding how families deal and cope with adversity (Walsh, 1998) while

transcending it (Walsh, 2002). Therapists will benefit from the use of this instrument as

it will allow for a quick assessment of clients' current familial resilience. Additionally, if

resilience is a compilation of learnable and teachable skills, behaviors, and concepts

(Reivich & Shatte, 2002; Wolin & Wolin, 1993), having a measure to identify these

concepts will aid therapists in developing a focus and plan for therapy. Using a positive

context focus will enhance clients' lives and aid families in their use of resilience when

faced with adversity.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument capable of

measuring Walsh's (1998) conceptual model of family resilience. Using the eight-step

process for instrument development advocated by DeVellis (2003), the Family Resilience

Assessment Scale (FRAS) was developed to assess Walsh's model. While Walsh and









other theorists have promoted definitions and frameworks of individual and family

resilience, there is little empirical evidence supporting the theories. It was important to

the theory and practice of strength-based family therapy to develop a valid and reliable

instrument for measuring family resilience that will enable family therapists to identify

family strengths quickly. This instrument provided quantitative evidence regarding the

efficacy of Walsh's theory of family resilience. There was also a need to determine

whether one of the three over-arching constructs or the nine subconstructs proposed by

Walsh was more important or discriminated resilient from nonresilient families. The

study sample for this study attempted to represent the adult population demographics of

the United States as cited in the 2000 Census (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004) and were over

the age of 18. A convenience sampling procedure was used and volunteers and existing

groups will be included across the country.

Research Questions

This study addresses the following research questions:

RQi: What is the factor structure of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS)?
Does the factor structure support Walsh's (1998) model of family resilience? Are
the subscales of the FRAS unique independent constructs?

RQ2: What is the reliability of identified total scale and subscales of the Family
Resilience Assessment Scale?

RQ3: Are there differences in age group responses to the FRAS total scale and subscales?

RQ4: What is the relationship between the FRAS total and subscales and the instruments
selected for this study to validate the FRAS total and subscales (Family Assessment
Device and Personal Meaning Index)?

Definition of Terms

Adversity/stressful event. An adverse or stressful event can also be identified as

a crisis experience in an individual or family's life. This experience is one that is









typically unforeseen and cannot be solved with customary problem-solving resources.

These events are self-defined and may be developmental or situational in nature.

Developmental crises are normal, transitional phases that are expected as people move

from one stage of life to another whereas situational crises are uncommon and

extraordinary events that an individual has no way of forecasting or controlling (Hoff,

2001).

Family. Family has often been defined as two or more individuals who are

related by blood, marriage, or adoption. However, the American family is becoming

more diverse and a more comprehensive definition of the term "family" should be

utilized. For the purposes of this study, family is defined by whom the members the

family choose to include in their definition of family after considering the totality of

relationships, dedication, caring, and self-sacrifice (Stacey, 1996).

Family member. A family member is one individual member of a family unit as

defined by that individual.

Family resilience. This term refers to the family's ability to actively "bounce

back" after experiencing a crisis or challenge, strengthened and more resourceful to meet

the challenges of life. Families who are strengthened and more resourceful after a crisis

or challenge are not simply surviving or managing but growing and thriving (Walsh,

2002). The total scale score from the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS)

measured family resilience.

Measurement. Measurement is a tool used to identify and collect information on

particular features of a phenomenon for the purposes of quantifying information

(Carlson, 1995).









Perception. Perception is the way in which one understands, has knowledge,

intuition, or insight regarding an event, situation, or circumstance.

Resilience. Resilience literally means the ability to "bounce or jump back." It

refers to the ability to actively "bounce back" after experiencing a crisis or challenge,

strengthened and more resourceful to meet the challenges of life.

Overview of the Remainder of the Study

The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters. Chapter 2 is a review

of the literature relevant to the study. Chapter 3 describes the research methodology,

while in Chapter 4 the results of the data analysis are presented. Chapter 5 includes

discussion, implications, limitations, suggestions, and future recommendations for

assisting families after experiencing adversities.















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Psychology began with a lens focusing on individuals' deficits, shortcomings,

problems and pathology. However, a growing body of literature has begun conceptually

exploring how individuals and families overcome adversity and display resilience, yet

has not empirically supported these theories. In this chapter, literature examining studies

and theories of resilience within individuals and families will be reviewed. Additionally,

difficulties in empirically measuring families, resilience, and adverse experiences will be

discussed.

Reviewing Resilience

Absence of prolonged distress or depression following the death of a loved one

(or other adversity) was viewed as a pathological denial or avoidance response (Bonanno,

2004). Bowlby (1980) believed distress or depression after a stressful event was caused

by pathological denial, avoidance response, or the individual's being cold and

emotionally distant. Moreover, it was believed that individuals who did not show

prolonged grief and despair following the death of a loved one (or other adversity) were

viewed as cold and emotionally distant people (Bowlby, 1980). This view of a

pathological "absent grief" has been challenged through more recent literature which

reports that chronic depression and distress tend to occur in only 10 to 15% of bereaved

individuals (Bonanno & Kaltman, 2001). Thus, the absence of prolonged distress or

depression is actually the norm as opposed to the previously held beliefs that individuals

and families who experienced trauma or crises would be forever dammed (Vaillant,

1987).









Although many individuals still hold a deficit-based lens of individuals

experiencing diversity, others have begun shifting from this lens to one affirming the

potential for growth and repair. This perspective has come to be known as "resilience."

Multiple conceptualizations of resilience currently exist. Werner and Smith (1982) use

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary's definition of resilience for their longitudinal

study indicating that resilience is the "capability of a strained body to recover its size and

shape after deformation caused especially by compressive stress." They translate this

definition into a conceptualization for the purposes of this study where resilience is "an

ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change." Other researchers

conceptualize resilience as the "individual's capacity for adapting successfully and

functioning competently despite experiencing chronic stress or adversity, or following

exposure to prolonged or severe trauma" (Cicchetti, Rogosch, Lynch, & Holt, 1993).

This ability to successfully adapt and function despite experiencing adversity is

what differentiates resilience from recovery. Recovery indicates that an individual is

returning to preadversity functioning after experiencing some form of pathology which

has lasted several months or even a few years (Bonanno, 2004). Resilience differs

because functioning despite adversity, and oftentimes prospering from it, reflects the

ability to maintain relatively stable, healthy levels of psychological and physical

functioning (Bonanno, 2004).

By definition, resilience is a process and should therefore be distinguished from

"resiliency" which has been used to refer to an individual trait or static-like condition

(Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997; Patterson, 2002). In addition, if resilience is a process as

opposed to a trait, then it would follow that individuals would not be resilient all of the

time, under all circumstances. Rather, individuals may be resilient in responding to one









form of significant stress whereas when new circumstances emerge, their ability to

remain resilient could diminish (Cicchetti et al., 1993; Patterson, 2002). Therefore it is

important to look at the process of when one displays resilience as opposed to

"resiliency" or being "resilient." By identifying individuals who display resilience when

confronted with adversity, researchers and therapists can begin to understand what

dynamic self-righting tendencies are used.

History of "Resilience"

Although it has been suggested the term "resilience" is relatively new in family

literature, the concept itself is not. Literature focusing on family strengths during crisis

times dates back to the 1930s (Lavee, 1995). The current study of resilience, expanding

on family strengths, began to be an area of interest for researchers during the 1970s.

During this time, research was conducted on individual children who developed well

despite the at-risk nature of their lives or the diversity in which they lived. These early

studies on children displaying resilience to adversities took the approach that there was

something remarkable or special about them, describing them as invulnerable or

invincible (Anthony & Cohler, 1987; Anthony & Koupernik, 1974). These terms were

misleading as they implied risk evasion was absolute and unchanging (Luthar, Chicchetti

& Becker, 2000). It additionally implied resilience was inborn or acquired on one's own

rather than as an "interplay of risk and protective processes" (Walsh, 2002) or something

to be learned or enhanced (Reivich & Shatte, 2002; Wolin & Wolin, 1993).

Exploratory research conducted during the 1970s investigated the resilience of

individuals with schizophrenia or individuals growing up with a schizophrenic mother

(Luthar et al., 2000). Individuals with schizophrenia were found to have relative

competence at work, social relations, marriage and a capacity to fulfill responsibility









(Garmezy, 1970; Zigler & Glick, 1986). Although these individuals' behavior may not

have been defined as resilience at that time, when viewed by today's conceptualization of

resilience as being an ability to bounce back and prosper in the face of adversity, their

behavior may be viewed as displaying resilience (Luthar et al., 2000). In addition,

children of schizophrenic mothers were shown to thrive despite their at-risk status, again

showing an ability toward resilience when it is defined as the ability to rebound from

adversity stronger and more resourceful. After these initial studies on children's abilities

to thrive despite hardships, resilience research began to be expanded in the areas of

socioeconomic disadvantage and associated risks (Garmezy, 1991; Werner & Smith,

1982, 1992), parental mental illness (Masten & Coatsworth, 1995), maltreatment

(Beeghly & Cicchetti, 1994; Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997), urban poverty and community

violence (Luthar, 1999), chronic illness and catastrophic life events (O'Dougherty-

Wright, Masten, Northwood, & Hubbard, 1997).

Family Resilience

As an understanding of individual childhood resilience emerged, family systems

researchers began investigating the idea of a family unit's resilience. This occurred in

conjunction with family systems therapists redefining a "normal" and healthy family as

one that is problem free to one that is able to cope and utilize problem-solving skills

(Walsh, 1998). This redefining of a "normal," healthy family was also congruent with

the shift in the problem focused, deficit-based lens that organized the field of psychology

for decades (Bowlby, 1980). Conceptualizing family resilience builds on these

developments of a competence-based and strength-oriented family paradigm to help gain

an understanding of how families display resilience when challenged by adversity

(Walsh, 1998, 2003).







12

Just as "resilience" has been conceptualized on an individual level, so has it been

conceptualized with regards to the family unit. Walsh (1998) conceptualizes family

resilience as the ability to recover from adversity stronger and more resourceful. Walsh

(2002) expands on this conceptualization of family resilience as involving more than just

being able to manage and survive a stressful event but also using adversity to forge

transformative personal and relational growth. This conceptualization recognizes the

potential for personal and relational transformation and growth that can be forged out of

adversity. Family resilience as conceptualized by McCubbin and McCubbin (1996) is

the family's ability to utilize behavioral patterns and functional competence to negotiate,

cope, and even thrive through hardships and crises. Hawley and DeHann (1996)

conceptualize family resilience as a path followed as families adapt and prosper in the

face of stress, both in the present and over time. They believe resilient families respond

positively to stressful conditions in unique ways, depending on factors such as

developmental level, the combination of risk and protective factors, and the family's

shared outlook. Several years later, Patterson (2002) also conceptualized family

resilience as the adaptive process families utilize to adapt and function competently

following exposure to significant adversity or crises. Although these conceptualizations

have many similarities, the main constructs of each hold different amounts of importance

as identified by the developers.

Just as conceptualizing individual resilience, when conceptualizing family

resilience, attention is focused on family strengths under stress rather than on pathology.

Resilience also assesses family functioning in context, relative to values, structure,

resources, and life challenges (Walsh, 1998, 2002). This nonpathological







13

conceptualization of families may aid in the seeking out of mental health services without

fear of being judged or blamed for the adversity or methods of recovery (Walsh, 1995).

Resilience Research

Resilience research has taken many different forms, used many means of

assessment throughout, and shown many different key concepts to be of importance.

Variations in the source of participant information, type of information obtained, and

number of assessments used have also been shown to affect the proportion of individuals

classified as resilient in studies (Kaufman, Cook, Amy, Jones, & Pittinsky, 1994; Luthar,

1993). Resilience has been assessed through observable behavior, meeting major societal

or cultural expectations, the absence of psychopathology, the presence of academic or

social achievements, or both presence and absence of these variables (Masten, 2001).

Despite flaws in early resilience studies, recent studies continue to corroborate the

importance of similar factors such as connections to competent and caring adults in the

family and community, cognitive and self-regulation skills, positive views of self, and

motivation to be effective in the environment (Masten, 2001). Therefore, it is important

to review previous research on resilience to search for themes and common factors to

establish and guide both conceptual theories and subsequent studies.

Werner and Smith

Potentially the "founding fathers" of resilience research, E. E. Werner and R.S.

Smith (1977), began an impressive longitudinal study in 1955 with 698 babies born that

year on Kauai, HI. This study is unique in that Werner and Smith were able to begin

their study with all pregnancies and births in an entire community. Initially this study

began by looking at the children's vulnerability or susceptibility to negative

developmental outcomes after exposure to serious risk factors such as prenatal stress,







14

poverty, parental psychopathology, and disruption of their family unit (Werner & Smith).

However, as their study progressed over the next 32 years, they began looking at the

roots of resiliency in children who successfully coped with risk factors to determine what

factors aided in the recovery of troubled children as they moved from childhood, to

adolescence, and finally into adulthood. Resilient children are able to elicit

predominantly positive responses from their environment and were found to be stress-

resistant whereas vulnerable children elicited negative responses from the environment

even in the absence of biological stress or financial constraints (Werner & Smith).

Werner and Smith's (1982, 1992) methodology was extensive throughout their

longitudinal study with each assessment year consisting of multiple data collection

methods. They began by attaining a preperinatal stress score from the expectant

mothers' physicians. This included an evaluation of events during labor, delivery, and

neonatal periods. After one year of life, stressful life events, mother's coping sills,

mother's perception of the infant's temperamental characteristics, a review of social

service records, and a home interview conducted by a public health nurse were all

assessed.

At 20 months of age, several developmental examinations were conducted by

psychologists including the Cattell Infant Intelligence Quotient, Vineland Social Maturity

Scale, an assessment of the child's behavior patterns, an assessment of quality of parent-

child interaction, and a rating of the child's psychological status. A pediatrician also

rated the physical status of the child while an interview was again conducted with the

primary caretaker regarding stressful life events. Social service records were again

reviewed.









At the 10-year mark, researchers collected medical and mental health records to

assess for medical problems, acquired physical handicaps and behavior problems.

Achievement tests, grades, and school behavior problems were reviewed through

attainment of kindergarten through fifth grade school records. A 10-year home interview

was conducted to assess for stressful life events, just as had been done at the previous

two data collection periods. Clinical psychologists rated children on educational

stimulation and emotional support provided by the home environment. A needs

assessment was completed by a panel consisting of a pediatrician, psychologist and

public health nurse to assess for long-term remedial education, special class placement,

long-term mental health care, and medical care. Children also took Primary Mental

Abilities test and Bender-Gestalt group tests while a teacher provided researchers with a

classroom behavior check list (Werner & Smith, 1982).

At 18 years, researchers reviewed police and family court records to determine

repeated or serious delinquency. Hospital and mental heath records were reviewed to

assess for teenage pregnancy, abortion, and mental health problems. Cooperative School

and College Ability Tests (SCAT) and Sequential Tests of Educational Progress (STEP)

school exams were reviewed while students also completed California Psychological

Inventory (CPI) and Locus of Control group tests. Social service records were reviewed

while the teenagers were given a biographical questionnaire to assess for stressful life

events. An individual interview was also held with the teenager (Werner & Smith,

1982).

Researchers reviewed the State of Hawaii's mental heath register to assess for any

documented mental health problems at age 24. At age 31/32, a structured interview and

questionnaire were again given to participants inquiring about work, marriage, and









family life. Participants completed the Life Event Checklist, the EAS Temperament

Survey for Adults and the Rotter Locus of Control Scale (Werner & Smith, 1992).

After extensive analyses, Werner and Smith (1982, 1992) found between 37 to 45

variables distinguishing "resilient" individuals from those who were vulnerable or

"problem" groups. Many of the 37 to 45 variables found were specific such as the

amount of attention given to the child during the first year of life, the quality of the

parent-child relationship observed during the assessment by the psychologist, or the

absence of parental mental heath problems during childhood and adolescence. In sum,

regardless of stress, deprivation, or disadvantage, chances for resilience were greater if

children were reared by mothers with more education, if their temperamental

characteristics elicited positive responses from the mother, if they received plenty of

attention from their primary caregivers during the first year of life, and if they had age-

appropriate perceptual-motor, communication, and reasoning skills at age 2 and 10 years.

More than 50% of the significant variables were present from the first 2 years of life,

approximately 33% from the period between ages 2 and 10, and less than 20% came from

the adolescent period (Werner & Smith, 1982).

After determining variables for resilience, the 698 participants were divided into

low-risk and high-risk categories (Werner & Smith, 1982). They reported inclusion in

the low-risk category to mean individuals led lives that were not unusually stressful,

grew up in a supportive care-giving environment where parents were potentially

educated, and coped successfully in childhood and adolescence (n = 497). Included in

the high-risk category were individuals who were reporting exposure to chronic poverty,

higher-than-average rates of perinatal risk, disordered family environments while

providing little or no support, and stressful life events (n = 201). Results found 72 of the







17

201 high-risk children to be resilient despite their exposure to poverty, perinatal risk, and

stressful life events. They were able to draw upon a number of factors in themselves and

in their care-giving environment leading to successful outcomes. Although the

remaining 129 high-risk children did develop serious and persistent coping problems in

childhood and adolescence, Werner and Smith's (1982) research does show that

individuals are able to cope and reorganize after experiencing stressful life events.

Werner and Smith (1992) were interested in determining how the resilient high-

risk individuals were faring in adulthood. Upon follow up of the 72 resilient high-risk

individuals at age 31/32, 63 were located. Their unemployment was 5% below the

national average as were their marriage rates. They were law-abiding citizens with none

of the resilient individuals having criminal records. None of the resilient high-risk

individuals had been referred for psychiatric care or sought mental health services. In

addition, involvement in church activities and a strong faith provided meaning to the

adult lives of many these individuals (Werner, 1993). They also reported feeling

confident that they could overcome the odds of their difficult upbringing, displaying

hopefulness and a sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem (Werner, 1993). These

individuals did indicate the need for detachment from their family of origin where

domestic and emotional problems still threatened to consume them (Werner & Smith,

1992). This detachment from potentially consuming family members may have been an

aid in resilience, enabling them to seek out and know individuals who could provide an

emotionally supportive environment such as grandparents, caring neighbors, teachers,

ministers, or youth workers (Werner, 1993).

Cicchetti and Rogosch

Although resilience research exists investigating areas such as whether abused

children become abusive parents (Kaufman & Zigler, 1987) or resiliency among









disadvantaged African American youth (Garmezy, 1991), research by Cicchetti and

Rogosch (1997) contributes to the understanding of resilience research on a much

broader level. Just as Werner and Smith (1977, 1982, 1992) did not utilize a guiding

resilience model for their research, neither did Cicchetti and Rogosch (1997). Rather,

this study began by looking at 213 maltreated and nonmaltreated children from low-

income families over a period of 3 years, guided by literature supporting a poor outcome

for children hailing from low-income families. These outcomes include an increased

likelihood of academic failure, emotional distress and mental disorders, and unwanted

pregnancies (Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997).

Children in this study were exposed to a variety of risks including single

parenting, relationship instability, limited maternal education, family unemployment,

persistent poverty, dependency on the state for financial assistance, minority status, and

parental psychopathology (Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997). The 133 children who were

classified as "maltreated" were those individuals identified by the Child Protective

Services personnel as having been neglected or abused, either sexually, physically,

emotionally, or a combination of the three. In addition to the presence of abuse in these

children's lives, they were also receiving governmental financial assistance. The

remaining 80 children who were "nonmaltreated" were receiving governmental financial

assistance. Researchers also checked Child Protective Service records to determine the

absence of any record of child maltreatment for the "non-maltreated" group. All children

attended a week long summer camp during 1993, 1994, and 1995 where measurements

were completed each year upon parental approval.

Similarly to Werner and Smith (1982, 1992), researchers in this study utilized a

battery of measurements. However, this study differed in that the same battery of







19

assessments was given to the children for 3 consecutive years (with the exception of two

measurements added in the final year of investigation: the children's self-report and

counselors' rating of the quality of their relationship with children) as opposed to

different measurements over the span of the study. Measurements included child self-

reports, peer reports, counselor reports and observations, and school functioning data.

Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Self-Esteem Inventory

(SEI), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Relatedness Scales developed by

Wellborn and Connell (1987) to assess children's perceptions of their relationship with

their mothers. The children's peers completed peer nominations where children

nominated their peers for liked most, liked least, cooperative, leader, shy, disruptive, and

fighter. Counselors completed several measurements including the Teacher Report form

of the Child Behavior Checklist, behavior ratings, the Pupil Evaluation Inventory, the

California Child Q-Set, and the Student-Teacher Relationship. Lastly, school functioning

data was gathered for all children from the child's school district prior to the child

attending camp. Five areas of data were gathered from schools to attain a school risk

index score: attendance problems (excessive absences or tardiness), poor performance

on standardized achievements tests (enough to make the child eligible for special services

or remediation), failing grades in 50% of academic subjects, and being 2 or more years

below age level in grade placement.

Cicchetti and Rogosch (1997) found maltreated children to exhibit significantly

more externalizing symptoms, less prosocial behavior, more difficulty in their school

adjustment, more disruptive social interactions, higher levels of depression, and greater

deficits in their adaptive functioning. These results, however, do not speak to the

resilience of maltreated children who did not exhibit these behaviors.. Therefore,









Cicchetti and Rogosch (1997) wanted to come up with a way to determine if, over time,

these children were in fact able to rebound from lives of poverty that may or may not

have been accompanied by abuse. It was determined that assigning children to different

categories would allow for this information. The method used to assign children to

categories was more extensive than Werner and Smith's (1982, 1992). Using the

multiple measurements, researchers developed seven indicators of competent adaptation,

combining information from the child, peers, counselors, and the school records. Three

composite indicators of social competence, the school risk index, the child's self-report

of depression, aggregate counselor assessments of internalizing behavior problems, and

aggregate counselor assessments of externalizing behavior problems comprised the seven

adaptive areas investigated. Researchers set criteria for selecting children with the most

competent functioning and were then able to assign children with a score of 1 if the

criterion on the indicator was met, or 0 if it were not met. By summing the scores,

children could receive scores ranging from 0 to 7. Children were then assigned to groups

reflecting their levels of functioning across the 3 years of assessment: low (scoring 0 to 1

in each year of assessment), medium (scoring 2 to 4 in each year of assessment), high

(scores of 5 or higher each year), improve (level of functioning increased over time),

decline (level of functioning decreased over time), and unstable (patterns fluctuated).

Regardless of the definition of resilience used (level of functioning category),

fewer maltreated than nonmaltreated children could be considered resilient by this

study's account. If one were to define resilience as inclusion in the high category, 10%

of nonmaltreated as opposed to 1.5% of maltreated children would be considered

resilient. If resilience is defined as inclusion in either the high or improve categories,

26.3% of the nonmaltreated and 12% of the maltreated children would be considered









resilient. Finally, if a very broad definition of resilience was used where inclusion in

either high, improve, or medium groups defined resilience, then 61.3% of nonmaltreated

children and 37.6% of maltreated children would be considered resilient (Cicchetti &

Rogosch, 1997).

Although the proportion of resilient nonmaltreated children is significantly higher

than resilient maltreated children, these results again show individuals do rebound after

adverse situations. In a previous study, Cicchetti et al. (1993) examined factors

explaining and aiding in adaptive functioning over time. These seven factors are ego-

resilience, ego-undercontrol, intelligence, self-esteem, maternal emotional availability,

desire for maternal closeness, and relationship with counselor. Factors accounting for

resilience in nonmaltreated children were perceived emotional availability of the mother,

positive relationships with the camp counselor, and ego-resilience (Cicchetti & Rogosch,

1997). For maltreated children, these factors were ego-resilience, ego-overcontrol, and

positive self-esteem. These findings suggest external relationship factors are more

important for children who have not experience abuse, whereas internal characteristics

are important for children who have (Cicchetti & Rogosch).

Both Werner and Smith's (1982, 1992) and Cicchetti and Rogosch's (1997)

longitudinal studies show relationships with others to have a significant impact on the

presence or absence of resilience. Positive attention from primary caregivers was shown

by both studies to be of importance in the acquisition of resilience. These studies also

show similarities in the need for individuals to detach from consuming or abusing family

members to aid in growth, development, and resilience. Werner and Smith (1992) report

that individuals verbally indicated this need to detach from consuming family members,

whereas this phenomenon was evident in the three predictors of resilient functioning







22

(ego-resilience, ego-overcontrol, and positive self-esteem) utilized by maltreated children

as evidenced by Cicchetti and Rogosch (1997). Factors found in these two extensive

longitudinal provide current resilience researchers and theory developers with a guiding

framework in considering which areas are important in resilience.

Theories of Resilience

After years of a deficit-based lens of psychology, interest arose around what made

it possible for individuals and families to recover and adapt after a crisis or adversity.

Utilizing information obtained from studies such as Werner and Smith's (1982, 1992),

Cicchetti and Rogosch's (1993) or Cicchetti, Rogosch, Lynch & Holt's (1997), theorists

were able to identify constructs believed to be of primary importance to the process of

resilience, or bouncing back after an adversity. Both theories of individual (Wolin &

Wolin, 1993) and family resilience (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996; Walsh, 1998)

emerged with similarities and differences in the perspective taken towards family

resilience. These varying perspectives also led to the varying use of terminology of main

constructs as well as the identification of their ideas as a theory or model.

Wolin and Wolin: Model of Individual Resilience

Wolin and Wolin (1993) have been contributors to the resilience literature since

they began investigating the impact of alcoholism and substance abuse within families.

Throughout their research, Wolin and Wolin have interviewed individuals who have

overcome such tragedies as violence, drug abuse, racism, poverty, divorce, abuse, and

neglect. They also viewed this "overcoming" as a form of resilience and define it as a

"process of persisting in the face of adversity." Through initial qualitative analyses of

these interviews, Wolin and Wolin discovered specific skills, behaviors, and

competencies encompassing individuals who display resilience. These skills, behaviors,







23

and competencies are viewed by Wolin and Wolin to be both internal to the individual as

well as external factors such as caring adults, high expectations, and opportunities (Wolin

& Wolin). They believe resilience develops as both internal and external factors interact.

These interactions lead to specific behaviors or "resiliencies" which individuals utilize to

overcome adversity. Additionally "resiliencies" are believed to be behaviors, that can be

taught, learned, and modeled (Wolin & Wolin).

This conceptual theory of individual resilience proposes seven clearly

conceptualized constructs of "resiliencies" to serve as guidelines for individuals to utilize

when attempting to overcome adversity at different phases of life: (a) insight, (b)

independence, (c) relationships, (d) initiative, (e) humor, (f) creativity, and (g) mortality.

These resiliencies are conceptualized for three developmental phases (childhood,

adolescence, and adulthood) and mature as the individual matures (Wolin & Wolin,

1993).

Insight is conceptualized as "asking tough questions" and takes the form of

sensing in childhood, knowing in adolescence, and understanding in adulthood. For

children, sensing is a preverbal form of insight that something in the world is wrong. As

an adolescent, insight becomes more acute and is a form of knowing where the

adolescent systematically is aware of the problem and able to articulate it. In adulthood,

insight matures into understanding. This form of insight is more empathic, complex, and

understanding of ambiguity of both oneself and the world.

Independence is conceptualized as the emotional and physical distancing from the

sources of trouble in one's life and takes the form of straying in childhood,

disengagement in adolescence, and separating in adulthood. For children, independence

begins when the child strays, or wanders away when trouble is suspected. As an









adolescent, the individual begins to disengage or detach from situations where trouble

may occur, while in adulthood independence takes form in separating and taking control

over one's pain.

Relationship is conceptualized as making fulfilling connections with others and

takes the form of contacting in childhood, recruiting in adolescence, and attaching in

adulthood. For children, relationships begin with making brief contact with others who

present to the child as emotionally available, whereas adolescents tend to recruit

individuals for relationships whom they feel are helpful and supportive. Adults tend to

attach to others in mutually satisfying relationships with others.

Initiative is conceptualized as taking charge of problems and consists of exploring

in childhood, working in adolescence, and generating in adulthood. For children, the

world is a physical place to explore. Initiative is taken through this exploration whereas

in adolescence, initiative becomes a working process where problems are solved and

goals are strived for. As an adult, initiative is seen as taking on new challenges and

generating new outcomes and opportunities.

Creativity Humor is conceptualized as using one's imagination and consists of

playing in childhood, shaping in adolescence, and a combination of composing and

laughing in adulthood. Children are able to use play to both confirm their beliefs about

the world and also to create their beliefs about the world. As an adolescent, the world is

changing and shaping in one where art, comedy, and beauty inspire personal meaning,

whereas in adulthood, creativity matures into composing and laughing. This is the ability

to take on artistic projects as they may be interpreted by the adult individual while being

able to laugh at and make something out of nothing.









Wolin and Wolin's (1993) final "resiliency" is morality. Morality is

conceptualized as "acting on the basis of informed conscience" and consists of judging in

childhood, valuing in adolescence, and serving in adulthood. For children, conscience is

not yet well-defined and consists of making good-bad/black-white judgments regarding

situations or people. In adolescence, this capacity matures and functions as a value

system where the individual has ethics or morals and uses these to behave and act

accordingly. However, in adulthood morality is seen as a form of serving where the

individual feels a sense of obligation to contribute to the well-being of others (Wolin &

Wolin, 1993).

Wolin and Wolin (1993) have identified a valuable framework consisting of

seven constructs believed to be important for individual resilience. This framework has

not been empirically tested to support the seven main constructs. However, Biscoe and

Harris (1994) developed the "Resiliency Attitudes Scale" where items were developed in

attempt to tap attitudes reflecting Wolin and Wolin's (1993) seven resiliencies. An

additional scale was added to assess general resiliency which is defined as persistence at

working through difficulties, and belief that one can survive and make things better

(Biscoe & Harris, 1994). The Resilience Attitudes Scale consists of 72 items where

participants respond using a 5-point Likert scale of Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree.

Items such as "I am good at sizing people up," "I almost always stand up for underdogs,"

"When life gives me lemons, I make lemonade," and "It's a dog eat dog world out there

and one has to do what it takes to get by." Although this measurement is available for

viewing and completion on the Internet (Resiliency Attitudes Scale, 2005;

http://dataguru.org/ras/data.asp) and a current sample size of 1,222 is reported, there is no

published literature available regarding this measurement (B. Biscoe, personal









correspondence, January 5, 2005). Although three dissertations report utilizing this

measurement in conjunction with others, there are still many major inherent problems

with it.

Because there is no published literature regarding its development, one does not

know if sufficient steps were taken when developing the measurement to support Wolin

and Wolin's (1993) conceptual theory of individual resilience (DeVellis, 2003).

Ultimately, the items are the core of the measurement (Alreck & Settle, 1995). However

it does not appear the appropriate rigor was utilized on this very important portion of

measurement development. How and by whom was it decided which items would

represent which one of Wolin and Wolin's seven constructs? Were these items reviewed

by a panel of experts for clarity, conciseness, or to confirm their representation of the

said construct? Many of the items are unclear in their meaning and focus, making it

additionally difficult to understand how the question relates to the construct. It is also

unclear whether a pilot group was sampled, or if that is the current goal of the

developer's website. The website does report that data is currently being collected for

measurement validation, leading one to believe that no item or factor analyses has been

completed on the measurement to support individual items, construct scales, or the

conceptual theory.

Lastly an additional concern stems from the three developmental phases

described (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood) in each individual construct (Wolin &

Wolin, 1993). Biscoe and Harris (1994) do not assess the developmental phases within

each resiliency but rather identifies the three developmental resiliencies as "basic

resiliency skills" comprising each main construct, and reports to survey accordingly

(Resiliency Attitudes Scale, 2005). This is misleading as Wolin and Wolin (1993) do not







27

intend for the developmental resiliencies contained in each resiliency to represent "basic

resiliency skills" but rather to serve as a developmental understanding in the progression

of resilience.

McCubbin and McCubbin: Model of Family Resilience

McCubbin and McCubbin (1996) have been investigating family stress and

coping since the early 1980s. Over the past decade, McCubbin and McCubbin have

expanded their lens of stress and coping into one looking at family resilience. Family

resilience is conceptualized as the family's ability to utilize behavioral patterns and

functional competence to negotiate, cope, and even thrive through hardships and crises

(McCubbin & McCubbin). Their work and the work of others have let them to develop

the Resiliency Model of Family Adjustment and Adaptation, a systemic and ecological

theory of family resilience. This theory evolved from three major theories regarding

family stress theory: (a) the ABCX model (Hill, 1949), which focuses on precrisis

factors that facilitate adjustment and recovery from adversity; (b) the Double ABCX

model (McCubbin & Patterson, 1983a, 1983b) and the Family Adjustment and

Adaptation Response Model (Lavee, McCubbin & Olson, 1983; McCubbin & Patterson,

1983a), which focus on both a family's precrisis and postcrisis factors that facilitate

adjustment and recovery form adversity; and (c) the Typology Model of Family

Adjustment and Adaptation (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1987), which focuses on precrisis

and postcrisis states as well as emphasizes the role family patterns have in functioning,

recovering, and adapting in the face of adversity. The Resiliency Model of Family

Adjustment and Adaptation is an extension of these theories, placing an emphasis on

discovering and testing the resiliency factor possessed in families. It attempts to isolate









the processes that interact and shape the course of family behavior over time and in

response to a wide range of stressful situations (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996).

This model is ecological and extensive in nature, consisting of two major

integrated components: the Adjustment Phase and the Adaptation Phase. The

Adjustment Phase in family resilience is the process a family goes through in an attempt

to achieve balance and harmony. Whether a family's adjustment is successful or

unsuccessful depends on a number of interacting components. Family systems initially

face a stressor (A). This stressor can range in its severity, placing a real or perceived

threat on the family while disrupting family functioning. Demands may be placed on the

family, depleting resources and capabilities. Family systems are then vulnerable (V).

Vulnerability is shaped by the pile-up of family stresses, transitions, and strains occurring

in the same time period as the stressor. Families function through previously established

patterns or typologies (T). These previously established typologies aid families in

negotiating through adversities, transitions, and strains. After an initial stressor, family

systems rely on their resistant resources (B). These resources are capabilities and

strengths evident in individual members that the family utilizes to address and manage

both the stressor and new demands placed on the family (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996).

During the Adjustment Phase, family systems must complete an appraisal process

ranging from broad appraisal to specific. Here families must not only appraise

themselves as a family unit but the stressor as well. This appraisal process involves five

fundamental levels. At the broadest level (5), Family Schema (CCCCC) emerges.

Families must create and adapt their own set of values and beliefs to guide them through

the stressor. Families are able to process and evaluate behaviors utilized when facing the

stressor as they have existing values and beliefs. Through the appraisal process of









Family Coherence (CCCC), level 4, families transform potential resources into actual

resources to assist with change, coping, and well-being. This transformation of resources

aid families in viewing the world as understandable and meaningful. Family Paradigms

(CCC), level 3, are a set of shared expectations and rules utilized to guide families in

using or developing new patterns of functioning after a stressor. Families must appraise

these paradigms to determine if current patterns of functioning are still effective. During

Situational Appraisal (CC), level 2, the family appraises the relationship between what

they are able to handle and the new demands placed on them by the stressful event. At

the most specific level (1), Stressor Appraisal (C), families must appraise the seriousness

of the stressor and new demands that will be placed on the family. If families are able to

successfully appraise their family system's schema, coherence, and paradigms, while also

appraising the situation and stressor, the likelihood of positive adaptation will be greater

(McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996).

The last process families go through in the Adaptation Phase in an attempt to

achieve harmony and balance is Family Problem Solving and Coping (PSC). During this

phase of adaptation, families must locate, acquire, and utilize resources to aid in

management of the stressor and new demands placed on the family system due to the

stressor. Here, families must also evaluate, reduce, and eliminate resources placing

additional demands on the family system (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996).

The second phase of the Resiliency Model of Family Adjustment and Adaptation

is the Adaptation Phase (XX). This phase explores a family's ability to adapt after a

stressful event. While A is the stressor in the Adjustment Phase, AA is the pile-up of

demands and additional stressors resulting from the initial stressor. Adaptation to these

new and additional stressors is vital to a family's resilience. Families all enter a stressful







30

situation with an initial family typology (T), but must adapt and develop a new pattern of

functioning (TT) after a stressful event. This new pattern may be a modification of an old

pattern, maintenance or revitalization of a preestablished pattern of functioning. Lastly

in the Adaptation Phase, family systems again rely on their resistant resources (B).

However, during this phase, these resources extend beyond the individual family

members, into the family system working together as a unit (BB) and the

community/social support (BBB) (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996).

McCubbin and McCubbin (1996) have identified a valuable theory of family

resilience. Because of the ecological and extensive nature of the Resiliency Model of

Family Adjustment and Adaptation, it is difficult to consider all, or even most, of the

model's constructs in a single study or measurement. However, validity and reliability of

the theory have been demonstrated through studies designed to include several critical

constructs or variables of the theory. While it is beyond the scope of this study to review

these studies and measurements, studies have considered such relationships as family's

adaptation (XX) to system resources (BB), family coherence (CCCC) to social support

(BB), family problem solving (PSC) to family coherence (CCCC), and family schema

(CCCCC) to community support (BBB) (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1996). Measurements

such as, but not limited to, the Family Inventory for Life Events and Changes

(McCubbin, Patterson, & Wilson, 1983), Family Hardiness Index (McCubbin,

McCubbin, & Thompson, 1986), Family Inventory of Resources for Management

(McCubbin, Comeau, & Harkins, 1981), and Coping-Health Inventory for Parents

(McCubbin, McCubbin, Nevin, & Cauble, 1981) have been used in dozens of studies on

family resilience investigating this theory's concepts.









Walsh: Model of Family Resilience

Froma Walsh (1998) has made numerous contributions to the family therapy

literature and to that of family resilience (Walsh, 1993, 1995, 1998). Through her

research, Walsh (1998) proposes a three-pronged approach to family resilience involving

three over-arching constructs with each of the three major constructs having three sub-

constructs. Thus there are a total of nine underlying constructs to Walsh's conceptual

theory. The first over-arching construct Walsh proposes is Belief Systems (A). This

construct consists of making meaning of adversity (Al), positive outlook (A2), and

transcendence and spirituality (A3). The second major construct Walsh labels

Organizational Patterns (B) consisting of flexibility (B 1), connectedness (B2), and social

support (B3). Lastly, Walsh proposes Communication/Problem Solving (C) as an

overarching construct. This last construct consists of clarity of communication (Cl),

open emotional expression (C2), and collaborative problem solving (C3).

Walsh (1998) presents these overarching concepts and subconstructs in a

mutually exclusive fashion. However, many components of the concepts to family

resilience can be related to one another. Additionally, these keys to resilience have been

evident throughout the resilience literature addressing those with socioeconomic

disadvantage and associated risks (Garmezy, 1991; Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992),

parental mental illness (Masten & Coatsworth, 1995), maltreatment (Beeghly &

Ciccghetti, 1994; Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997), urban poverty and community violence

(Luthar, 1999), chronic illness and catastrophic life events (O'Dougherty-Wright et al.,

1997). Although Walsh's (1998) concepts of family resilience have not been empirically

supported, her conceptual theory of family resilience is well supported through literature.









Construct A: Family belief systems

Belief systems encompass values, concerns, attitudes, biases, and assumptions

(Walsh, 1998). Facilitative beliefs increase options for problem resolution, healing, and

growth, whereas constraining beliefs perpetuate problems and restrict options. Because

one does not live in a social vacuum and subsequently must be influenced by one's

surroundings, belief systems are socially constructed and exist within individuals and

family units. They are passed down from generation to generation through narratives,

rituals and other actions.

Individuals and families have been using the various components of "belief

systems" to make sense of adverse situations for years. Mothers Against Drunk Driving

was formed after a mother lost her child to a drunk driver. John Walsh started America's

Most Wanted after his son was murdered. Rape victims have started sexual assault

support groups while suicide survivors have started suicide support groups. In Memory's

Kitchen (DeSilva, 1996) was a collection of recipes, poems, and stories written by

women starving in concentration camps as an effort to endure their situation and

encourage one other. Many survivors of the events of September 11, 2001, have had to

access all components of their "belief systems" to make sense and meaning of the events,

maintain a positive outlook, and find inspiration through the tragedy. War veterans often

return from war and tell stories of their experiences to families and friends in attempt to

find meaning from the war or to confirm meaning for themselves. Other individuals,

such as those high-risk youths from the Kauai longitudinal study (Werner & Smith, 1982,

1992), found themselves actively involved in a church or religious community helped to

provide meaning to their lives. Additionally, these individuals were found to have a

positive outlook and held the belief that they could overcome their at-risk odds.









Three sub-constructs to the overarching construct of Family Belief Systems,

facilitating family resilience are making meaning of adversity, positive outlook, and

transcendent beliefs (Walsh, 1998). To understand how belief systems are organized and

influence the family system, it is important to understand each subconstruct.

Subconstruct Al: Making meaning of adversity. Whenever an adversity or

crisis situation occurs within a family system, the bedrock upon which that family unit is

built is rocked. The event is something that is outside of a family's normal realm of

experiences (Hoff, 2001). Finding a way to make sense of the experience as a family

system can influence a family's reconstruction and healing. This is crucial for resilience.

When making meaning of adversity, these families are also able to "normalize and

contextualize distress," by enlarging their perspectives and are able to "see their reactions

and difficulties as understandable in light of a painful loss or daunting obstacle" (Walsh,

1998). The tendency for blame, shame, and pathologizing is reduced by viewing a

family's complicated feelings and dilemmas as "normal" (Walsh, 2003). In addition to

normalizing their crises reactions, resilient families also are able to gain a "sense of

coherence." When this is done, families are able to view the adverse situation as

meaningful, comprehensible, and manageable. These individuals may again reflect on

past adversities and determine that because they were able to survive in the past, they

will survive again. Families also attempt to make sense of their adversities through

"explanatory attributions." In an attempt to do this, family members may ask "how" this

event could have happened, "why" this event happened, and now "what" can be done?

Subconstruct A2: Positive outlook. Resilient families must have a sense of

hope for the future, regardless of how bleak their current situation may be. During the

process of resilience, families are able to hold an optimistic view as opposed to a









pessimistic view that they will overcome the adverse situation that they are currently in.

Without this hopeful, optimistic viewpoint, families will feel hopeless that their situation

cannot improve, robbing them of meaning and purpose. However, families must be

reinforced by successful experiences and a nurturing community context to sustain a

hopeful, optimistic viewpoint (Walsh, 1998). This reinforcement may come from one's

personal courage or through encouragement given by others. When others witness one's

courage, their own sense of courage may be inspired, facilitating a previously absent

optimistic and hopeful view. In addition, through encouraging others, supportive

relationships can be built, which help the unit to sustain courage through the adverse

event. Encouraging relationships will also help build confidence in the members, aiding

in the belief that each member will do his or her best through the situation. This builds

relational resilience as it reinforces individual efforts (Walsh, 1998).

Having a positive outlook does not simply occur, however. In addition to courage

and encouragement, family resilience requires families to take an "active initiative and

perseverance." This refers to an individual and family continually assessing their

situation and then focusing on making the most of their options. This does not imply that

the realities of crisis situations are not acknowledged and families live in denial. Rather,

families actively chose to believe odds can be overcome and persevered, maximizing

their chances of success. This active initiative and perseverance is balanced by families

with acknowledgment and acceptance of the realities of their lives. The limits of their

situation are recognized and acknowledged, while the best efforts are put into what is

possible to change. This key is illustrated when family members of terminally ill

individuals choose to engage in care-giving, relieving suffering, preparing for death, and

comforting one another while awaiting loss (Walsh, 1998).









Subconstruct A3: Transcendence and spirituality. Transcendent beliefs

provide meaning and purpose beyond oneself, one's family, and one's adversities. When

larger values begin to emerge for individuals and families, a sense of purpose is often

found. This larger value system helps individuals to view their adverse situation from a

larger perspective, often providing hope and understanding of the painful events.

Religion and spirituality are also often found in family resilience (Walsh, 1998). This

does not mean that one must participate in religious or spiritual events but rather possess

a guiding belief system. This may be found through an experience with nature, a ritual

such as a funeral service, or a gathering of individuals holding similar guiding belief

systems. Resilient families are often creative in the ways that new possibilities are

envisioned or social action is taken. A new way to be guided by religion or spirituality

may be found, inspired by the basic beliefs of the larger guiding belief system. This

creative inspiration may enable resilient individuals and families to transform their

systems through learning from adversity, thus changing and growing. Oftentimes a

stronger sense of purpose in life and dedication to values emerges after an adverse event

(Walsh, 1998).

Construct B: Family organizational patterns

In addition to family belief systems, families use their "organizational patterns" to

find ways to continue to persevere through adversity. Families must always organize

themselves in one fashion or another to carry out day-to-day tasks. Organization may be

attained from past relationships, current relationships, values, expectations, or even

through cultural norms. This need for organization multiplies when families are faced

with adverse situations. Many of the ways families use belief systems are also ways in

which they access a sense of organization for themselves. Groups such as Mothers









Against Drunk Driving, rape support groups, suicide support groups, and religious

organizations are also ways that individuals and families can become flexible, connected,

and access social and economic resources (Walsh, 1998).

For children, school can also provide this organizational pattern. Resilient

children have been found to use support outside of their families and in the school setting

(Garmezy, 1991; Werner, 1993). This setting provided them with several, close friends,

informal network of kin, peers, elders, and oftentimes a favorite teacher. The school

setting also provides stability through an adversity by providing the continuity,

dependability, and follow-through that the children were accustomed to. In addition, this

need for an "organizational pattern" may also be met through extracurricular activities

and hobbies where emotional support is given. Such activities may include being

involved with the YMCA, sports team or youth church camp (Garmezy, 1991; Werner,

1993).

Three subconstructs to the overarching construct of Family Organization Patterns,

facilitating family resilience are flexibility, connectedness, and social and economic

resources (Walsh, 1998). To understand how organizational patterns influence the family

system, it is important to understand each subconstruct.

Subconstruct Bl: Flexibility. Flexibility is a necessity in any system to ensure

that the system does not "snap" when faced with adverse situations. Flexibility is known

in the family therapy literature as the capacity to change when necessary (Becvar &

Becvar, 2000). Flexibility within a family system does not imply a sense of "bouncing

back" but rather a reorganization to help the individual or family meet new challenges by

navigating new terrain. It is also important to note that flexibility does not mean that a

family should not have any structure. Structure is important for a family's stability







37

through an adverse event. Stability helps ensure that continuity and dependability are felt

by all members of the family as it provides predictable, consistent rules, roles, and

patterns of interaction. This allows all members to know what is to be expected of them.

Structure and stability may be carried out through an authoritative leadership style

(Becvar & Becvar, 2000). This leadership style promotes flexibility through structure

while delivering nurturance, protection, and guidance to family members as it is not a

rigid leadership style but rather one that is balanced by the ability to adapt to changing

circumstances. Family members who receive this form of structure are likely to feel this

nurturance and partnership through the structure (Walsh, 1998).

Subconstruct B2: Connectedness. Connectedness is the difficult balance of

unity, mutual support, and collaboration within the family unit while still respecting the

separateness and autonomy of the individual (Walsh, 1998). Mutual support,

collaboration, and commitments are necessary for individuals and their families to

survive adversity, while still respecting individual needs, differences, and boundaries.

Families do not always have the same levels of connectedness as they move through the

lifecycle. Thus, at the time of an adverse situation, it is important for families to assess

their current level of connectedness to ensure their needs are met accordingly. In

addition to the stage the family is in the family lifecycle, physical and emotional

proximity, and hierarchy may impact the family's connectedness. If these connections

are burdened at the time of an adversity, families displaying resilience often seek to

reconnect with each other and reconcile the wounded relationships. This reconnection

enables the members to utilize the constructs of resilience, helping all members to

overcome the event (Walsh, 1998).









Subconstruct B3: Social and economic resources. Families who are able to

access their family members and community networks find that they are accessing vital

lifelines during times of adversity. "These networks provide both practical assistance

and vital community connection. They provide information, concrete services, support,

companionship, and respite. They also provide a sense of security and solidarity"

(Walsh, 1998). Additionally, when displaying family resilience, models and mentors are

sought out when families realize that they are unable to solve problems on their own with

their usual coping mechanisms. Family resilience is also impacted by economic strain.

Economic resources should not be overlooked when considering a family's resilience as

adverse situations often affect a family's economic base (Walsh, 1998). For example, if

the sole breadwinner of a family becomes ill, the family may not be able to meet

economic demands, losing homes, vehicles, and life as they once knew it. Scarcity of

resources compounds with the adversity, burdening the family and impacting resilience.

Construct C: Family communication processes.

Effective communication is necessary in daily family functioning. This necessity

becomes magnified during an adversity. Communication has two functions a "content"

aspect, conveying factual information, opinions, or feelings; and a "relationship" aspect

that defines the nature of the relationship (Walsh, 1998).

Families communicate in a variety of ways. Sometimes this communication is

effective while other times it is not. It has been found that when displaying resilience,

individuals send and receive clear and consistent messages, use more open emotional

expression, and use a collaborative problem solving approach than do individuals not

displaying resilience (Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992). Resilient children who have found

an organizational pattern in their school setting have also been found to receive clear









consistent messages by their adult mentors during the 15,000 hours they are in school

from age 5 until graduation (Garmezy, 1991). Additionally, relationships resulting in a

sense of connectedness by individuals can facilitate open emotional expression and a

collaborative problem-solving approach.

Therefore, three subconstructs to the overarching construct of Family

Communication/Problem Solving, facilitating family resilience are clarity, open

emotional expression, and collaborative problem solving (Walsh, 1998). To understand

how Organizational patterns influence the family system, it is important to understand

each sub-construct.

Subconstruct Cl: Clarity. Clear, consistent messages are invaluable in the

family communication process. With this delivery of a clear, consistent message also

comes importance of clarifying ambiguous information through both speaking the truth

and seeking the truth. Walsh (2003) conceptualizes this sub-construct process best by

stating:

Clarity and congruence in messages facilitate effective family functioning. Family
members may have different bits and pieces of information or hearsay and fill in the
blanks, often with their worst fears. Clarifying and sharing crucial information
about crisis situations and future expectations, such as a medical prognosis,
facilitate meaning-making, authentic relating, and informed decision-making,
whereas ambiguity or secrecy can block understanding, closeness, and mastery.
Shared acknowledgment of the reality and circumstances of a painful loss fosters
healing whereas denial and cover-up, especially in stigmatized circumstances such
as suicide, can impede recovery and lead to estrangement. (p. 12)

Subconstuct C2: Open emotional expression. Resilient families are able to

both share and tolerate a range of feelings. These emotions can range from joy and pain

to hopes and fears surrounding an adversity. When sharing a range of feelings during

times of resilience, families demonstrate a sense of mutual empathy and tolerance for

individual differences (Walsh, 1998). One member of a family may be saddened by the









death of a parent, while another may use humor to get through the loss. Both members

will empathize with the pain the other is in while still understanding that they are coping

with the same loss in different ways. Different emotions may surface at different times

and in different ways for different individuals. Through mutual understanding and

empathizing with other members' emotional differences, one also takes responsibility for

his or her own feelings, behaviors while avoiding blaming other members (Walsh, 1998).

Additionally, open expression of positive feelings is vital to counterbalance

negative interactions. Oftentimes during an adverse situation, positive feelings become

secondary or may bring about feelings of guilt. Therefore, during times of resilience,

families find a way to foster a positive interaction, whether it be watching a sporting

event together or holding a barbeque. Positive interactions can help families to transcend

their immediate distress and draw strength for coping. This can also be done through the

use of sharing humor in a caring way. Humor can help family members to deescalate

threatening situations, assist in conversation, while expressing feelings of warmth and

affection. Humor can also decrease anxiety and point out mistakes while reducing

tensions and putting members at ease. Humor can ease defenses raised through

confrontation and reduce defensive reactions (Walsh, 1998).

Subconstuct C3: Collaborative problem-solving. Families are not conflict

free. What helps defines an effective family is their ability to manage problems well.

This includes a family's ability to recognize that a conflict exists prior to any attempt to

solve the problem. Resilient families show an ability to brainstorm with involved

members regarding potential ways to approach a problem (Walsh, 1998). Here, all

members' ideas are heard, encouraged, and respected as valuable. In this same way,

families make shared-decisions while negotiating differences with fairness so that family









members accommodate to one another. This process involves airing and accepting

differences while working towards a common goal. It is common for conflicts to arise

when negotiating is taking place. Family resilience is evident when these conflicts are

short-term in nature and expected (Walsh, 1998). Conflicts do not result in long-term

problems for the family. When families collaborate to solve problems, it is essential that

they take concrete steps towards their goal while building on their successes and learning

from failures. Just as it is common for conflicts to arise, it is common for failures to

occur. It is essential that there is an allowance for mistakes where family members do

not feel like a failure, attacked or defined as inadequate. Finally, when displaying

resilience, families face their problems in a proactive way, preventing problems if

possible, averting crises and preparing for future challenges.

Supporting Measurement

Walsh speaks of an approach or a lens for viewing the family and uses the

qualitative paradigm for developing her ideas about the family. While Walsh's ideas or

framework may be very appropriate for studying the family, qualitative research is often

perceived to lack the rigor of quantitative research methods providing little evidence of

the validity of these ideas. Typically when a theory or conceptual model is proposed, the

next step is to attempt to quantitatively test the theory or conceptual model quantitatively.

However, this has not been done for Walsh's (1998) theory of family resilience. It is

important to the theory and practice of family therapy to develop a valid and reliable

instrument for measuring family resilience to assist in provision of services to these

people in crisis. There is a need to determine through quantitative evidence whether

Walsh's theory is appropriate for family resilience or whether the theory needs to be

modified. There is also a need to determine whether one of the three overarching









constructs or the nine subconstructs proposed by Walsh is more important or

discriminates resilient from non-resilient families.

In developing and testing a measure of family resilience based on Walsh's (1998)

conceptual theory, empirical evidence will benefit clients as well as researchers and

service providers. Researchers will be able to measure family resilience and continue to

pursue research in family resilience while adding to the body of knowledge and literature

on the topic. Having a valid and reliable measure of family resilience will aid in

understanding how families deal and cope with adversity (Walsh, 1998) while growing

out of adversity (Walsh, 2002) using a competence based and strength oriented paradigm.

Therapists will benefit from the use of this instrument in their practice as it will allow

them to assess their clients' current resilience in context relative to the values, structure,

resources, and life challenges the family faces (Walsh, 1998, 2002). Additionally, if it is

true that conceptualizations of resilience can identify specific teachable and learnable

skills, behaviors, and concepts, having a measure identifying these concepts will aid

therapists in developing a focus and plan for therapy (Reivich & Shatte, 2002; Wolin &

Wolin, 1993). Using a positive context focus will enhance clients' lives and aid families

in their use of resilience when faced with adversity.

Measurement Difficulties

As there are multiple theories or conceptual models, there is also a plethora of

more than 1,000 marriage and family measures available for use in research and by

therapists (Snyder & Rice, 1996). However, finding a well-designed scale addressing

specific constructs is difficult because of the multitude of sometimes poorly developed

and defined constructs addressed by these instruments. The lack of a unifying family

therapy theory has contributed to the lack of measurements with acceptable psychometric







43

properties (Grotevant & Carlson, 1989). Additionally, the development of individual and

family measurements is impacted by the varying interpretations of key measurement

variables. In developing a measurement tool to measure Walsh's (1998) conceptual

theory of family resilience, identifying families, resilience, and adversities or crises will

be of key importance. However, as will be shown, these variables can often be difficult

to define.

Assessing Families

Since the conception of family therapy, researchers have had difficulties in

assessing the family system. Perhaps the most basic of all reasons is in the problematic

nature of defining "family," the unit of measurement. The United States Census Bureau

(2000) defines "family" as a group of two or more persons who are related by birth,

marriage, or adoption and residing together in the same household. This definition

excludes many groups that might consider themselves families but do not meet this

criteria. For example, are gay and lesbian couples considered a family? Are individuals

who live together but are not married yet share a child a family? By this definition, a

child whose parents are separated and the father lives away from home, the father would

not be considered a member of this family. Because of the increasing diversity of the

American culture and its family unit, a more inclusive definition of the term "family"

should be evaluated. American families are constantly evolving and changed form

dramatically over the past 60 years (Doherty, Boss, LaRossa, Schumm, & Steinmetz,

1993; Stacey, 1996; Walsh, 1998). Families have moved away from the "traditional"

family consisting of two heterosexual individuals, married, living together with children

(Greenstein, 2001). One way this can be accomplished is to allow the family members to

define whom they wish to include in their definition of "family." It is the totality of the









relationship, evidenced by caring, self-sacrifice, shared values, and commitment over

time that should control the definition of "family" (Stacey, 1996).

In addition to the difficulty in defining the family unit, family researchers also are

faced with the dilemma of multiple roles being occupied by the same individual. At any

given time, one individual may be a wife, sister, daughter, mother, niece, grandmother,

and so on. This problem complicates family measurements wishing to assess dynamics

such as the family of origin, the extended family, the marital dyad, or the parent-child

dyad as perceptions change from role to role and dynamic to dynamic. These changes in

perceptions due to multiple role occupation can influence the responses to survey items,

subsequently influencing results. Researchers must not only clearly define the family

unit to be measured, but also which role the participant is to occupy at the time of the

participation (Greenstein, 2001).

Theoretically, there are a number of different theories underpinning current and

past study of the family. As there are multiple theories, there is also a plethora of more

than 1,000 marriage and family measures available for use in research and by therapists

(Snyder & Rice, 1996). These different measures are assessing many constructs,

indicating that there is really no consensus as to what are the most important constructs to

assess regarding family dynamics (Halverson, 1995). The existence of multiple measures

measuring multiple constructs leads measurement developers to use sample sizes which

are too small, resulting in validity, reliability, and generalizability problems (Halverson).

Family researchers could benefit from identifying and agreeing upon the most important

constructs involved in assessing families and focus on developing valid, reliable, and

generalizable measurements.









Assessing Resilience

Just as family researchers have had difficulties, so have resilience researchers. In

fact, resilience research has encountered many of the same obstacles facing family

researchers. Just as family researchers have difficulty in defining "family," resilience

researchers have difficulty in defining "resilience" and its main constructs. Previous

definitions and conceptualization of resilience implied that resilience was a trait

individuals either possessed or lacked whereas other definitions discussed the dynamic,

non-static nature of resilience. However, it is agreed upon that resilience occurs in the

face of a challenge, threat, or adverse situation, yet empirical research on resilience has

varied in how "adversity" or "stressful events" are defined and measured. Research

ranges from an exposure to a single stressful event or multiple events to war exposure or

mass disaster (Luthar et al., 2000). The varying of definitions and range of "adversity" is

not necessarily a bad thing, rather it is currently aiding researchers in identifying

correlates of resilience, using varying measurements with varying adversities (Luthar et

al., 2000). Researchers do need to continually consolidate findings, identifying themes

so that testable hypotheses may be made.

Consensus of terms is also lacking in the resilience literature. This can be

problematic to individuals wishing to conduct resilience research as multiple terms are

used for varying factors in inconsistent ways. For example, the differences in the term

"protective" as used throughout resilience literature (Luthar et al., 2000). This term was

initially used for effects involving interactions when discussing individuals who were

unaffected by high or low levels of adversity. However, Werner and Smith (1982) began

using this term to discuss direct effects beneficial to the individual that distinguished

between high-functioning children at risk from those who developed serious problems.









This lack of consensus in terms is evidenced again in how "positive adaptation" is

defined (Luthar et al., 2000). Researchers indicate that one component of resilience is an

individual or family's ability to "bounce back," or "positively adapt" after an adverse

situation. However, this varies across the lifespan and can be defined and measured in a

variety of ways (Luthar et al.). Also, meeting levels of "positive adaptation" to attain a

label of resilience again is influenced by the adverse event. For example, maintaining

average or near-average functioning should suffice for individuals who experienced a

large level disaster whereas superior functioning would be expected for individuals who

experienced a more moderate adversity (Luthar et al.).

It is imperative to find a consensus in terminology in the resilience literature.

Through clear and consistent definitions, identification of important constructs, defining

adverse situations, researchers may be able to operationalize criteria which can be

utilized by researchers, therapists, and clients (Luthar et al., 2000).

Assessing Adversity, Stressors, and Crises

Implicit within the definition of resilience is the condition that exposure to a

severe adversity, significant stressor, or crisis situation must have occurred in addition to

the achievement of positive adaptation or "bouncing back" (Luthar et al., 2000).

However, what is meant by a significant threat or severe adversity if often left up to the

individual or family experiencing the event. Resilience literature often has difficulties in

defining this variable as evidenced in studies investigating the events spanning from

divorce to war-torn families. Adversities or crises are self-defined and experienced when

an event occurs which cannot be escaped or solved with customary problem-solving

resources (Hoff, 2001). Crisis has also been defined as "more than a temporary state of

upset; it is an inability to function effectively as a consequence of the emotional turmoil"









(James & Gilliland, 2001, p. 10). These time-limited crises states, or periods of

psychological disequilibrium, span a wide spectrum of intensity and occur daily in our

own lives, cutting across race, gender, age, and social class.

Crisis interventionists identify two types of crises, developmental and situational

(Hoff, 2001). Developmental crises are defined as normal, transitional phases that are

expected as people move from one stage of life to another. One may experience a

developmental crisis when a child moves away for college or a loved one dies.

Situational crises are crises that occur when uncommon and extraordinary events occur

that an individual has no way of forecasting or controlling. One may have experienced a

situational crises with the events of September, 11, 2001, or the Oklahoma City bombing.

(Hoff, 2001; Kanel, 2001). Difficulty still exists in classifying developmental and

situational crises within the family system. For example, although death of an elderly

family member is expected and apart of the developmental cycle of life, it may be

experienced as a situational crisis by other members.

Individuals do not operate in a vacuum and one person's crisis often becomes a

crisis for the family (Greenstone & Leviton, 2002). Therefore researchers should address

the systemic nature of crisis of when working with a family. Most crises have a primary

victim, but also impact those affected through the primary victim (Greenstone &

Leviton). These individuals are known as secondary victims. Secondary victims are

traditionally family members or the family unit and often experience their own crisis as

they attempt to fit what has happened into their schema of life as they know it. It is very

important that researchers do not overlook secondary victims and the family unit as they

often experience their own crisis with equal or greater intensity than that of the primary

victim (Greenstone & Leviton).









Summary

The literature reviewed in this chapter indicates that while psychology began with

a lens focusing on individual and family shortcomings, research on resilience has led to a

shift in this focus where strengths and perseverance are recognized. Resilience research

has taken many forms, assessed many populations, and used many means of

measurement. Through discoveries made from these discoveries, main constructs have

been discovered. These constructs have been used by theorists to aid in the development

of conceptual individual and family resilience theories. These conceptual theories

subsequently aid in the understanding of main constructs of resilience for therapists and

clients. Additionally, if it is true that conceptualizations of resilience can identify

specific teachable and learnable skills, behaviors, and concepts, having a measure

identifying these concepts will aid therapists in developing a focus and plan for therapy.

This will allow therapists to assess their clients' current resilience in context relative to

the values, structure, resources, and life challenges the family faces.

Within this framework, this study aims to develop a valid and reliable

measurement tool based on Walsh's (1998) conceptual theory of family resilience. In

developing and testing a measure of family resilience based on Walsh's conceptual

theory, empirical evidence will benefit clients as well as researchers and service

providers. Researchers will be able to measure family resilience and continue to pursue

research in family resilience while adding to the body of knowledge and literature on the

topic. Having a valid and reliable measure of family resilience will aid in understanding

how families deal and cope with adversity (Walsh, 1998) while growing out of adversity

(Walsh, 2002) using a competence based and strength oriented paradigm.















CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument measuring Froma Walsh's

(1998) conceptual model of family resilience, establish the psychometric properties of

this instrument through a factor analysis procedure, and determine whether the

instrument discriminated among various groups of respondents. The factor analysis

identified patterns of relationships and predicted pattern on the basis of Walsh's theory

(DeVellis, 2003). Walsh, along with other theorists, has offered definitions and

conceptual frameworks of both individual and family resilience. Although these

frameworks are promoted in the professional literature and theory, little empirical

evidence exists supporting the frameworks/theories themselves. Therefore, it was

important to the theory and practice of family therapy to develop a valid and reliable

measurement tool to assist those providing services to individuals and families in

identifying, supporting, and enhancing family resilience in the midst of crises.

This chapter presents the methodology to be used in this study. First the subjects

and sampling methods are discussed along with the procedures to be used to ensure the

confidentiality of the data. Next, the development process of the instrument to be used in

measuring Walsh's theory is discussed followed by a discussion of the instruments to be

used for establishing validity are presented. Following the discussion of the instruments

used in this study, the research design is presented along with the study's protocols and







50

procedures. Each research question and its corresponding hypothesis is then stated along

with the data analysis to be used for each question followed by a summary of the

methodology to be used in this study.

Subjects and Sampling

Subjects

The target population for this study was adults between the ages of 18 and 65

living in the United States. The respondents to this survey met certain criteria. All

respondents were 18 or older in age, lived in the United States, and were proficient

English speakers and readers. This study sought to obtain the broadest group of

respondents in age, socio-economic status, ethnic identification, gender, and background.

Sampling Procedures

This study utilized a convenience sampling procedure to select potential

participants for this study. Convenience sampling describes a sampling process in which

respondents are selected due to their availability and access by the researcher. The two

major examples of convenience sampling are volunteers and the use of existing groups

(Gay & Airasian, 2000). In using a convenience sample, it will be necessary to provide a

careful and complete description of the participants in order to understand whether and

how the results might be generalized to other people. Convenience sampling is a

nonprobability type of sample since it is not possible to calculate every person's chance

of being in the sample. The researcher selects a sample based on the purpose of the study

and one that is convenient and accessible. Sometimes it is necessary to use a

convenience sample because the study cannot be completed any other way (Gall, Borg, &

Gall, 1996). The sample for this study of family resilience was carefully conceptualized









and participants recruited from as broad a representation of the adult U.S. population as

is possible.

It is difficult to find consensus on how large the sample size should be for a study

utilizing survey research methodology. There are risks in using too few participants and

few benefits to including too many participants. If too few participants are used,

covariation among items may not be stable and/or the sample may not represent the

population for which the scale is intended (DeVellis, 2003). Although a larger sample

size lowers the sampling error, the maximum practical size of a sample has nothing to do

with the size of the population if it is many times greater than the sample (Alreck &

Settle, 1995). Alreck and Settle indicate for populations of 10,000 or more, most

experienced researchers would probably consider a sample size between about 200 and

1,000 respondents whereas Gay and Airasian (2000) indicate beyond a population of

5,000, a sample size of 400 is adequate. For survey research, Sudman (1976) suggests a

minimum of 100 subjects for each major subgroup of the sample and 20 to 50 in each

minor subgroup. The major subgroups of this sample are age group and gender. Minor

subgroups included educational attainment level, socio-economic status, and ethnic group

identification. Another guideline for sample size would be the "rule of thumb" in factor

analysis of 5 to 10 subjects per item. With these guidelines, the sample size for this study

of a family resilience measure targeted 400 to 600 respondents.

Study participants were solicited through a variety of methods. One method was

through contact with crisis (suicide, death, substance abuse, etc.) support groups across

the United States. These groups were identified through professional network

connections from the American Association of Suicidology, as well as through posting a

request for participants on various Internet chat rooms and bulletin boards. Professional







52

network connections were also be utilized to recruit participants utilizing substance abuse

services such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Alonon.

Additionally, agencies with an interest in the subject of family resilience were contacted

and asked if their clients would like to participate. University, community, and state

entities were also be solicited for participants. After obtaining permission from

instructors, University of Florida undergraduate students were asked to participate, as

were faculty. University counseling centers, community mental health agencies (such as

Meridian Behavioral Healthcare in Gainesville, Florida, and Vista Pavilion in

Gainesville, Florida), and local therapy clinics were also asked to participate through

departmental newsletters and Internet postings. Individuals under 65 years of age were

also asked to participate through community senior centers and assisted living facilities.

Personal contact was also made with local state and national branches of organizations

such as the American Red Cross and Salvation Army to request recruitment of

participants.

When recruiting participants from various organizations and community agencies,

anonymity was maintained. Organizational leaders, group facilitators, and community

therapists were all asked to distribute research packets to potential participants or place

them in a public location where participants may participate if they wished. Contained

within the packets was an informed consent letter, research measurements along with a

stamped, return-addressed envelope. This envelope allowed participants to complete the

survey in privacy and return it directly to the researcher at their convenience, allowing

for participant anonymity to be maintained from both the researcher and the community

agency. In addition to these contents in the packet, a flyer was also placed in the packet

as well as given to agencies for posting and distribution. This flyer contained the survey







53

Internet address should participants wish to participate online as opposed to completing a

paper survey.

Research Design

This study investigated and tested Walsh's (1998) conceptual ideas about family

resilience. Using a cross-sectional nonprobability convenience sample, this study used

survey research methodology as the design and method of collecting data. In cross-

sectional research, data are obtained at one point in time from respondents of different

ages or in different states of development. Not only was this study cross-sectional in

nature, it was also descriptive in that it described and explored respondent's attitudes and

perceptions about family resilience as proposed by Walsh (1998). Quantitative survey

data was collected to investigate, describe, and test Walsh's (1998) model and to answer

questions about relationships between variables pertinent to the study. Surveys or

questionnaires allow for fairly easy collection of data from a wide variety of sources in a

timely and concise manner (Dillman, 2000). Various methods of survey data collection

include personal interviews, telephone interviews, Internet, mailed questionnaires, and

directly administered questionnaires (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 2002). Regardless of the

method chosen, the six basic steps involved in conducting survey design research are

planning, defining the population, sampling, constructing the instrument, conducting the

survey, and processing the data (Ary et al., 2002).

Instrumentation

The purpose of this study was to use a rigorous development process to create an

instrument measuring family resilience based on Walsh's conceptual model. The study

also used several other instruments to test the validity of this family resilience measure as

well as collected demographic data on study participants. Each instrument is discussed







54

separately and related to its purpose in this study. First the development and preliminary

testing of the new family resilience measure will be presented followed by the three

instruments being used for validity purposes and the demographic instrument. The

measures being used for validity purposes include measures of family belief systems,

family organization patterns, and family communication/problem solving.

Resilience Definitions

The primary goal of this study was to develop a measurement modeled on Froma

Walsh' (1998) conceptual model of family resilience and test this model. The literature

on resilience was investigated and several definitions of resilience and family resilience

were identified. Walsh has identified two prominent definitions of family resilience in

her work. The initial definition of family resilience is viewed as the ability to cope

successfully with adversity and emerge with more resources and strength. Resilience is

an active process of growth, self-improvement, and persistence in response to crisis and

challenge (Walsh, 1998). Walsh (2002) further expanded this definition by noting family

resilience is more than just coping with and managing adversity but presents a time for

personal transformation and growth.

Hawley and DeHann (1996) felt family resilience was a positive response to

family adversity and stress as members adapt and prosper during stressful times.

Resilient families will respond positively and in unique ways to these conditions in

unique ways depending on risk and protective factors, shared perspective, context, and

development. Patterson (2002) further identified family resilience the way families adapt

and function in response to adversity or crisis and Bonanno (2004) felt family resilience

was the ability to maintain healthy functioning (physically and psychological) in









response to stress or crisis. This study utilized the definition and framework of family

resilience developed by Walsh (1998).

Walsh Resilience Framework

Walsh's resilience framework is comprised of three overarching main ideas or

constructs. Contained within each overarching idea in the framework exists three

subconstructs. This results in three major overarching constructs with a total of nine

subconstructs. A construct is an abstract idea, one that is not directly observable or

measurable. A construct has to be inferred from commonalities among observable

phenomena, and the underlying construct is used to explain those observed phenomena

(Gall et al., 1996). Walsh's constructs are latent variables and it is hypothesized the

latent variable underlies the measured variable (Gall et al., 1996). Latent variables are

internal to the individual such as strength, fortitude, or problem solving, and some aspect

of the latent variable changes (DeVellis, 2003). A latent variable is also regarded as a

source of the item score and is presumed to cause an item (or set of items) to take on a

certain value (DeVellis). DeVellis notes there is an empirical relationship between latent

variables and measurement scores, and there is a correlation between item values and the

latent variable. While it is not possible to directly measure latent variables because they

are internal to the individual, it is possible to correlate items and examine relationships

between variables presumed to be measuring the latent variable.

Many steps were taken in developing and confirming a pattern of relationships to

measure family resilience on the basis of Walsh's (1998) family resilience theory.

DeVellis (2003) proposes an eight step guideline for scale development which was

completed prior to administration of the instrument. These include the following:

* Determine clearly what it is you want to measure.
* Generate an item pool.
* Determine the format for measurement.









S Have the initial item pool reviewed by experts.
* Consider inclusion of validation items.
S Administer items to a development sample.
* Evaluate the items.
S Optimize scale length.

DeVellis' (2003) process for the development of a measuring scale was used in the

creation of an instrument to measure family resilience. Each step in the process is

presented and discussed.

Step 1: Determine Clearly What Is to Be Measured

The latent constructs have been defined in detail in an attempt to aid in the

process of developing an instrument with items identifying a causal relationship between

the latent variables and resilience as defined by Walsh's (1998) constructs. Definitions of

each of Walsh's constructs are presented. The three overarching constructs are Belief

Systems, Organizational Patterns, and Communication/problem solving. Belief systems

provide a way for families to organize their experiences and enable members to make

sense of situations, events, and behaviors in their world. These belief systems help

families orientate themselves to gain an understanding of one another and for

approaching situations. They are socially constructed and passed down through

narratives, rituals, and other actions within individual and families.

The second overarching construct addresses Organizational Patterns. These

patterns provide a way for families to organize themselves to carry out day-to-day tasks.

Patterns are maintained by external and internal norms, reinforced by cultural and family

belief systems. The third overarching construct to be defined is Communication/

problem-Solving. Communication/problem-Solving involves the exchange of

information to convey factual information, opinions or feelings. Effective









communication involves speaking for oneself and not for others, listening empathically

and attentively, and sharing about oneself and the relationship.

Belief systems subconstructs. Just as each of the overarching construct

proposed by Walsh (1998) need to be defined so, too, do the subconstructs. According to

Walsh's model (1998), the first overarching construct, Belief Systems, consists of three

subconstructs. The first subconstruct, Making Meaning of Adversity, can be defined as a

family's ability to normalize and contextualize distress by enlarging their perspectives

and incorporating the event into their lives. Families are able to see their reactions and

difficulties as understandable in light of a painful loss or daunting obstacle. The second

subconstruct, Positive Outlook, can be defined as a family's ability to accept that a

distressing event has occurred while maintaining hope for the future and persevering in

the face of adversity. Families are able to encourage themselves and others, continually

assess their situation, and focus on making the most of their options. The third

subconstruct in the Belief Systems addressed, Transcendence and Spirituality, is defined

as a family's use of a larger or transcendent value/belief system to provide a guiding

belief system and help to define lives as meaningful and significant. This is most

commonly found through spiritual faith, cultural heritage and/or ideological views.

Organizational pattern subconstruct definitions. The second overarching

construct proposed by Walsh (1998), Organizational Patterns, consists of three

subconstructs addressing Flexibility, Connectedness, and Social and Economic

Resources. Flexibility involves a family's ability to adapt to developmental, situational,

and environmental demands. Families are able to reorganize when necessary to help an

individual or family unit meet new challenges. Flexibility does not mean structureless

but rather an understanding of balancing stability with adaptation through nurturing,









protecting, and guiding members while being tolerant and nonjudgmental. The second

construct of the Organizational Patterns overarching ideas is Connectedness. This is a

family's ability to emotionally bond or pull together for support and unity while still

respecting individual needs and differences. This connection may vary at different stages

of the family life cycle and must be assessed and reassessed at different points. The third

subconstruct, Social and Economic Resources, involves a family's ability to seek out,

access, and mobilize helpful relatives, community networks, and economic resources.

Communication/problem solving subconstruct definitions. The third

overarching construct included in Walsh's theory (1998) is Communication/Problem

Solving and includes Clarity, Open Emotional Expression, and Collaborative Problem

Solving. Clarity is a family's ability to send clear, direct, specific, honest, consistent, and

congruent messages through words and actions, while Open Emotional Expression is

defined as a family's ability to show and tolerate a wide range of feelings through honest

and open sharing of emotions and painful feelings.

The Collaborative Problem-Solving subconstruct is defined as a family's ability

to recognize a problem and brainstorm possible options, resources, and constraints while

deciding on a plan with those involved. After recognizing and brainstorming, a family is

able to initiate and carry out action while continually monitoring and evaluating their

success.

The three overarching constructs and the nine subconstructs have all been defined

according to Walsh's (1998) conceptualization of family resilience. These definitions of

the nine subconstructs and three overarching constructs now serve as the basis for the

development of an instrument to measure family resilience. These definitions were used

to guide the selection and writing of items and guided the preliminary analysis of items







59

for inclusion in the family resilience measure. The next step in DeVellis (2003) process

for instrument development is the generation of items to measure each of the defined

constructs and subconstructs.

Step 2: Generate an Item Pool

After these three overarching constructs and nine subconstructs were defined,

items from various instruments were reviewed to determine whether they measured the

above constructs. Instruments found to have valuable items included Family Attachment

and Changeability Index (McCubbin, Thompson & Elver, 1995), Family Coping

Coherence Index (McCubbin, Larsen & Olson, 1982), Family Coping Inventory

(McCubbin, Boss, Wilson & Dahl, 1981), Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation

Scale (McCubbin, Olson & Larsen, 1981), Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos,

1986), Family Problem Solving Communications (McCubbin, McCubbin & Thompson,

1988), and The Social Support Index (McCubbin, Patterson & Glynn, 1982). Item ideas

were extracted from these various instruments to represent the various constructs. The

items were then modified to keep them family focused and to specifically associate with

the constructs. Additionally, some items from previous instruments were believed to be

asking two questions and these items were separated into two questions. Questions

negatively worded were changed to be less confusing for the participants. DeVellis

(2003) states reversals in item polarity (positively and negatively worded items) may be

confusing to respondents, especially when completing a long questionnaire and changing

the single word "not," can dramatically improve performance. Items were then listed

under the proposed overarching construct they were believed to be associated with. For

example, "We attend church/synagogue/mosque services" was placed under Belief

Systems as it is believed to associate with the subconstruct of Transcendence and







60

Spirituality. A total of 76 items were initially proposed for all three constructs and nine

subconstructs.

Step 3: Determine the Format for Measurement

The Likert scale is one of the most widely used methods of measuring attitudes

(Likert, 1932). A Likert scale assesses attitudes about a topic by presenting statements

about the topic and asking respondents to indicate whether they strongly agree, agree,

disagree, or strongly disagree. The agree/disagree responses are assigned a numeric

value and a total scale or subscale scores is obtained by summing across the numeric

responses given to each item by each respondents. This score then represents an

individual's attitude toward the topic or in the case of this study the latent variables

included in the family resilience scale and subscales (Ary et al., 2002). It was believed a

4-point Likert Scale of strongly agree to strongly disagree would be the most appropriate

for this scale. This format is also often preferred over a "true-false" format by

respondents, as they often do not like the dichotomous nature of this format.

Additionally, dichotomous items present special difficulties in correlational procedures

and should not be used if factor-analytical scale construction is anticipated (Snyder &

Rice, 1996).

A Likert scale involves using a declarative sentence followed by response options

indicating varying degrees of agreement. Typically response options range from 4-point

to as many as 9-point (or more). A greater number of response options will generally

permit greater variance but will also increase the item complexity, time required per item,

and potentially the ability to sample as broadly throughout the construction domain

(Snyder & Rice, 1996). Even and odd response options were both considered and

although there are advantages and disadvantages of each, neither format is superior









(DeVellis, 2003). An even numbered 4-point response pattern was chosen because it

forces the participant to make at least a commitment in the direction of one or the other

extreme as opposed to allowing for equivocation due to the removal of a "neutral" point.

A response of 1 will indicate that the participant believes an item to "strongly disagree"

with perceptions of the family, whereas a response of 4 will indicate that the participant

believes an item to "strongly agree."

Step 4: Have the Initial Item Pool Reviewed by Experts

Once an initial item pool was developed and the measurement format determined,

items must be grouped into scales. This step serves multiple purposes: confirming or

invalidating definitions of the phenomenon by asking how relevant the reviewer thinks

each item is to the construct it is intended to measure, evaluating the items' clarity and

conciseness, and identifying ways of measuring the phenomenon that have not been

included (DeVellis, 2003). There are several approaches that can be taken to group

items: deductive, inductive and external (Burisch, 1984).

Deductive and inductive approaches are most appropriate for this type of scale

development and are discussed briefly. Deductive item-grouping technique is where

items are grouped according to the defined construct. Items can be grouped by the scale

developer's personal or intuitive understanding of the construct or by experts in the

appropriate field. Scales developed using this method are more likely to possess high

content validity however are still limited by the scale developer's understanding of the

construct, and the adequacy of the theory linking the construct to explicit indicators

reflected in the item content (Snyder & Rice, 1996). Inductive techniques group items on

their statistical relationship to each other as opposed to apparent item content. Factor

analyses and confirmatory factor analyses are frequently used when this approach is









taken. Scales developed using this method are generally high in internal consistency,

revealing scales' interrelationships and possible hierarchical organization. However, the

results rest entirely on the adequacy of construct representation in the initial item pool

(Snyder & Rice).

Although no single strategy has been shown to be superior in terms of validity or

predictive effectiveness, utilizing a mixed approach to scale derivation can be most

productive as it will allow for the scale to be reviewed from multiple angles. Below, the

deductive item-grouping technique for this study is discussed. The inductive technique

will be discussed at a later time as it is necessary to administer a pilot of the instrument to

determine statistical relationships between items.

As mentioned in Step 2, items were initially grouped by the scale developer's

personal understanding of the construct. Seven experts were also asked to participate in

reviewing all 76 items. Experts consisted of six practicing psychologists, mental health

clinicians and/or marriage and family therapists holding doctoral degrees. Of these six

experts, one is a full-time counselor educator and three are adjunct faculty members in a

counselor education department. The seventh expert is also a mental health counselor

and a doctoral candidate.

A modified Q-sort procedure was used to evaluate experts' perceptions of what an

individual item is measuring. In this instance, experts were provided with sorting

instructions and definitions of all nine constructs. Each item was provided to the expert

on an individual slip of paper. The experts were asked to place the item with the

construct they believed it most highly associated with. They were then asked to identify

how strong they believed this association to be: strong, medium, or weak. If they did not

believe the item associated with any construct, they were given a "not applicable" option.









Experts were also asked to provide any specific feedback on items or item wording,

general feedback for the scale, as well as blank slips where they were asked to write

additional items should they believe a pertinent item was missing. Please see Appendix E

for the sorting protocol.

The results of the sorting process by the seven experts provided valuable insight

into the items, Walsh's overall conceptual model, and the construction of this scale.

Sorting in a Q-sort can take many forms. In this instance an informal method of analysis

was used. From the pool of 76 items, criteria were established for including items in the

scale. The first criteria established was the inclusion of all items on which the sorters

agreed on both the overarching construct and the subconstruct would to be included.

There were 23 items on which all seven of the sorters agreed on both the overarching and

subconstruct, these items were placed in the group of items selected for this instrument.

The second criteria was sorter agreement on the applicability of the items in both the

overarching constructs and subconstructs by six out of the seven sorters. This added an

additional 16 items for inclusion in the family resilience measure. Finally, items where

five out of the seven sorters agreed on both the overarching and subconstructs were

included. This added an additional 10 items to the family resilience measure. Therefore,

out of the original 76 items generated for this scale, the sorting process left 49 for

inclusion in the family resilience scale. Please see Appendix F for the results of the

sorting process.

However, the sorting process did not uphold the subconstructs of Making

Meaning of Adversity, Flexibility, or Clarity. Only two items were sorted by the experts

into the sub-construct Making Meaning of Adversity, none into the Flexibility

subconstruct, and one into the subconstruct of Clarity. Therefore, the definitions for









these constructs were revisited, and the definitions seemed clear and the items

appropriate, but the distinctions drawn by these three constructs may have been

subsumed into other constructs. Because the purpose of this study was to develop an

instrument capable of measuring Walsh's conceptual model of family resilience, it was

important that all nine subconstructs be represented in the initial phase of scale

development. Therefore, in order to elicit a new and unbiased perspective, three

additional credentialed experts were contacted and asked to participate in the

development of items to specifically represent these three subconstructs. The three

brought freshness to the task and could create items that may have been selected or

discarded by the initial sorting. Experts were given all nine construct definitions with

examples of an item identified through the modified Q-sort to represent each

subconstruct. A total of 14 items were created for subconstruct Making Meaning of

Adversity, 16 for Flexibility, and 16 for Clarity. The scale developer and an additional

expert, whom had not been involved with the scale development process, rank-ordered

their top 10 choices of newly created item in the specified subconstruct to determine

which items should be included in the scale. Items ranked in the top three by each

individual were chosen for inclusion. When an item was identified by both individuals to

be one of the top three, the next highly ranked item was additionally chosen, for a total of

six to seven items for these subconstructs. This process resulted in an addition of 17

items to the current 49, for a total of 66 items. See Appendix G for created items and

results of the ranking process.

Step 5: Consider Inclusion of Validation Items

Validation can be accomplished through the inclusion of an entire scale to detect

flaws or problems (such as social desirability) or through using measures of relevant









constructs. Two instruments were selected to lend validity to the three overarching

constructs (Belief systems, Organizational Patterns, and Communication/Problem

Solving) and were thought to be most helpful in validating the instrument. This is

because overarching constructs identified by the validation instruments are similar to

those proposed by Walsh. Validation instruments are used help to support newly

constructed instruments.

The Personal Meaning Index (PMI) was chosen to validate the overarching

construct of belief systems. The PMI is used to assess the existential belief that life is

meaningful. This measure is comprised of the Purpose and Coherence subscales of the

multidimensional Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R: Reker, 1992). This instrument

was chosen as a validation instrument because the constructs of the Purpose and

Coherence subscales are similar to Walsh's (1998) Belief Systems subconstructs of

Positive Outlook and Transcendence and Spirituality. Purpose has been defined by

Reker (1992) as having life goals, a mission in life, a feeling of worth, and a sense of

direction from the past, present, and towards the future. Coherence has been defined by

Reker (1992) as having a logically integrated and consistent analytical and intuitive

understanding of self, others, and life in general. Individuals who possess a sense of

coherence also possess a sense of order and reason for existence, a clear sense of personal

identity, and greater social consciousness. Walsh's (1998) conceptualizations of Positive

Outlook is defined as a family's ability to accept that a distressing event has occurred

while maintaining hope for the future and persevering in the face of adversity. Families

are able to encourage themselves and others, continually assess their situation, and focus

on making the most of their options. Transcendence and Spirituality is defined as a

family's use of a larger or transcendent value/ belief system to provide a guiding belief









system and help to define lives as meaningful and significant. This is most commonly

found through spiritual faith, cultural heritage and/or ideological views.

The Personal Meaning Index (PMI) is a 16-item, 7-point scale ranging from

strongly agree to strongly disagree. Scores can range from 16 to 112, where a high score

reflects a strong sense of having achieved life goals, having a mission in life, having a

sense of direction, having a sense of order and reason for existence, and having a

logically integrated and consistent understanding of self, others, and life in general

(Reker, 2003, 2005). Internal consistency and 4-6 week temporal stability coefficients

are reported by Reker (2003, 2005) to be 0.91 and 0.90. Construct validity of the

measurement was assessed through measures including the Purpose of Life test

(Crumbaugh & Maholic, 1969), the Life Regard Index (Battista & Almond, 1973), and

the Sense of Coherence scale (Antonovsky, 1987). The PMI correlates significantly with

a number of related variables including psychological and physical well-being, physical

health, ego integrity, internal locus of control, life satisfaction, self-transcendent values,

and the absence of feelings of depression and alienation (Reker, 1992, 2003, 2005).

Additionally, the overall reliability of the PMI is 0.91 for younger adults and 0.97 for

older adults (Reker, 2005). For the purposes of this measurement's use as a validation

instrument, first-person pronouns (Eg. "I," "me," or "mine") were changed to second-

person pronouns (Eg. "We, "us," or "ours") to reflect the family nature of the study.

The Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) was

chosen to validate the over-arching constructs of Organizational Patterns, and

Communication/Problem Solving and is reported to be one of the most researched family

assessment tools available (Ridenour, Daley, & Reich, 1999). This instrument was

chosen because it contains a total of seven subscales measuring different dimensions of







67

family functioning: Problem Solving, Communication, Roles, Affective Responsiveness,

Affective Involvement, Behavior Control, and General Functioning. Individual subscales

are statistically able to stand alone when the General Functioning subscale is removed.

Therefore, this instrument was chosen as a validation instrument because its constructs of

the subscales Affective Responsiveness and Affective Involvement are similar to

Walsh's (1998) Organizational Patterns subconstructs of Connectedness and Social and

Economic Resources. Epstein, Baldwin, and Bishop (1983) define Affective

Responsiveness as individual family members' ability to experience appropriate affect

over a range of stimuli, whereas Affective Involvement is defined as family members'

interest in and value of each other's activities and concerns. Similarly, Walsh's (1998),

conceptualization of Connectedness is defined for purposes of this study as family's

ability to emotionally bond or pull together for support and unity while still respecting

individual needs and differences. Social and Economic Resources is defined as a family's

ability to seek out, access, and mobilize helpful relatives, community networks and

economic resources.

Additionally, the constructs of the FAD's subscales Problem Solving and

Communication are similar to Walsh's (1998) Communication/Problem-Solving

subconstructs of Open Emotional Expression and Collaborative Problem-Solving.

Epstein et al. (1983) define Problem Solving as the family's ability to resolve issues that

threaten the integrity and functional capacity of the family at a level that maintains

effective family functioning. Communication is defined as the exchange of information

among family members in a clear, direct, respectful manner (Epstein et al.). Similarly,

Walsh's (1998) conceptualization of Open Emotional Expression is defined for the







68

purposes of this study as a family's ability to show and tolerate a wide range of feelings

through honest and open sharing of emotions and painful feelings.

Collaborative Problem-Solving is defined as a family's ability to recognize a

problem and brainstorm possible options, resources and constraints while deciding on a

plan with those involved.

The Family Assessment Device (FAD) is a 60-item, 4-point scale ranging from

strongly agree to strongly disagree. Scores for the total scale can range from 60 to 240,

where low scores indicate healthier family functioning. The FAD was initially developed

using responses of 503 individuals, some of whom had psychiatric disabilities, medical

rehabilitation needs, or were college students. Results were statistically significant when

comparing the groups (p< .001). Additional validation studies have been completed on

geriatric individuals, the FAD moderately correlated with the Locke-Wallace Marital

Satisfaction Scale (Locke & Wallace, 1959) and Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale

(Lawton, 1975). It has also been correlated with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion

Evaluation Scales (FACESIII). The FAD demonstrates good internal consistency, with

subscale scores ranging from 0.72 to 0.92. The subscales to be utilized in this study

range from 0.74 to 0.83 (Affective Responsiveness, 0.83; Affective Involvement, 0.78;

Problem Solving, 0.74; Communication, 0.75). Because the FAD was explicitly

developed according to the "rational-theoretical approach," researchers did not use an

internal consistency or factor analytic method in development (Miller, Ryan, Keitner,

Bishop, and Epstein, 2000).

Step 6: Administer [Pilot] Items to a Development Sample

Many times, it is individuals who have built up a "reserve" of resilience on a

daily basis who are able to display the most resilience should an adverse situation arise.







69

It was also important for this sample to be representative of different ages, races, genders,

income levels, and education levels. By evaluating in which demographic attributes this

phenomena was displayed, one may gain a clearer understanding of how and why

resilience occurs.

Although DeVellis (2003) does not cite a pilot phase in his scale development

model, step six was the administration of the scale to a small pilot sample (30-50

individuals), steps seven and eight were completed and a ninth step was added. Piloting

the instrument not only aided in determining the scale's readability, formatting, and

language level but also assisted in the conduction of an initial item analysis. Use of a

pilot study of the instrument developed for this study allowed determination of item

variability through dispersion, evaluating item means, and allow for evaluation of items

(Step 7). The pilot study results allowed for modification, elimination, and addition of

items as necessary (Step 8).

Step 9: Administer Items to a Development Sample

The family resilience measure was administered to between 418 individuals

recruited from a variety of sources to obtain as representative sample as was possible.

After final administration was completed, an item analysis, factor analysis, reliability,

and validity analysis was conducted. The validity analysis was conducted by correlating

the family resilience items with the validation scales proposed in Step 5. These analyses

determined which items truly do correlate to the instrument, with each other, as well as

with the established instruments. Based on the results of these analyses, items were

again evaluated for their relevance to the scale and the remainder of Walsh's (1998)

theory of family resilience. All of these steps and their subsequent analyses provided

empirical evidence to confirm or disprove Walsh's theory on family resilience.









Data Collection Procedures

Upon receipt of Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, organizations and

participants were contacted through the university system as well as community and state

organizations. Individuals who participated were given the option of taking a paper-

based survey or participating on the web-based survey.

Each participant in the sample who agreed to voluntarily participate was provided

with a separate survey. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of the three

selected instruments for validation purposes. One-third of the total population took the

Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS) plus a Belief Systems instrument, one-third

took the FRAS plus a Organizational Patterns instrument, and one-third took the FRAS

plus a Communication/Problem-Solving instrument. This allowed the Family Resilience

Assessment Scale to be correlated to the additional scale, aiding in establishing validity

on the FRAS. Survey packets were prepared (paper or electronic) and included a letter to

the participant and informed consent (Appendix A), demographic information (Appendix B),

the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (Appendix C), and one validation instrument

(Personal Meaning Index, Family Assessment Device-subscales Affective

Responsiveness and Affective Involvement; or Family Assessment Device-subscales

Problem Solving and Communication). Both paper-based and web-based surveys took

approximately 30 minutes to complete.

In compliance with the research protocol established by the Institutional Review

Board, participants were notified of the potential benefits and risks they may incur as a

result of participation in this study. Through the web-based survey, participants read

their informed consent as the first screen of the survey. In this situation, participants were

not be able to progress to the remainder of the study without indicating that they have









read and understood the informed consent. Additionally, in order to increase the

truthfulness of the results and in an attempt to increase the response rate, all responses to

both the mail delivered survey and web-based survey were anonymous. This was also

explained to participants in the informed consent. The confidentiality of the data were

maintained at all times. Signed consent forms were kept separately from the data and

were stored in a locked file in the researcher's home. Paper surveys were numbered

when they were returned and the consent form was separated from the actual survey.

Research Hypotheses

The following research questions and their corresponding null hypotheses were

posed for this study. In order to create total FRAS scale scores and subscale scores,

responses were summed across the items in the identified subscales and total scale. Each

research question and its hypothesis is presented followed by the statistical analysis used

to answer the question.

RQ, What is the factor structure of the Family Resilience Assessment Survey (FRAS)?
Does the factor structure support Walsh's (1998) model of family resilience? Are
the subscales of the FRAS unique independent constructs?

In order to answer Research Question 1, a principal components factor analysis

was conducted. The eigenvalues and variance account was inspected and varimax and

promax rotations were used to reduce the 66 items in the FRAS to meaningful and useful

subscales.

RQ2 What is the reliability of identified total scale and subscales of the Family
Resilience Assessment Scale?

In order to respond to Research Question 2, a Cronbach alpha reliability

coefficient was calculated for each identified scale and subscale of the FRAS. Item to







72

total correlations were inspected to determine whether any of the items need to be reverse

coded.

RQ3 Are there differences in age group responses to the FRAS total scale and subscales?

HO3 There will be no differences in the mean scores on the FRAS total and subscale
scores of older, middle, and younger participants.

Research Question 3 required separating the group of respondents into three

groups based upon their reported age. It was anticipated this might be 18 to 33, 34 to 49,

and 50 to 65. The exact age grouping was determined after the data was collected and

the range of participants' ages is known. Comparisons of the age groups were

accomplished using analysis of variance with a p = .05 level of probability. A Scheffe

post hoc comparison test was used to determine how groups differ from each other.

RQ4 What is the relationship between the FRAS total and subscales and the instruments
selected for this study to validate the FRAS total and subscales.

HO4 There will be no relationship between the FRAS total and subscale scores and the
selected validity instruments.

Research Question 4 used correlation coefficients to determine the strength of the

relationship between the three instruments selected to establish validity for the FRAS

total scale and subscales. If the subscales of the FRAS and the individual instruments

used to establish validity are indeed measuring the same constructs, it was expected the

correlation coefficients will be fairly high, in the range of .75 and up, perhaps. If the two

scales or subscales are measuring different constructs, it was anticipated the correlation

coefficients will be lower. While statistical programs typically provide the probability of

achieving a particular correlation coefficient these probabilities may be misleading, it is

the strength of the relationship that is important rather than the probability of getting the

coefficient.









Methodological Limitations

Although great care has been utilized when creating this instrument to empirically

test Walsh's (1998) conceptual model of family resilience, limitations to the study still

exist. First, although the sample of this population attempted to reflect the general adult

demographics of the United States, this was not possible. Second, family research has

always been plagued with what defines a "family." This study, as does Walsh (1998),

approached the family unit as one defined by the individuals the family chooses to

include in their definition of family as opposed to whom the researcher believes it to be.

Therefore, anyone may be included in a family's definition of "family" and need not be

blood or marriage related. This can be viewed as a limitation because it would imply that

the family unit is potentially always evolving, thus continually effecting family

resilience. Third, as many family instruments do, the Family Resilience Assessment

Scale asks an individual to give his/her perception of the family as opposed to sampling

many members of the family and attaining a score based on multiple perspectives. This

single-viewpoint can be problematic as it may not be completely representative of the

family unit as a whole, but rather just one perspective. Fourth, because crises are self-

defined and can be developmental or situational in nature, individual perceptions of what

defines crises may vary from family member to family member. For example, one

member may view the death of an elderly family member as traumatic and situational,

yet as developmental and natural by another. However, since just one family member

completed the assessments, this variable may be viewed differently. Lastly, when

attempting to empirically test a conceptual model, many limitations may occur in item

creation, item inclusion/exclusion, and scale/subscale/item analyses. However, many







74

steps were meticulously followed to minimize the empirical complications that can occur

during scale development.















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

In this chapter, the results of the administration of the Family Resilience

Assessment Scale (FRAS) are presented. First, the pilot testing of the FRAS is presented

followed by a discussion of the respondents participating in this study. A discussion of

the psychometric properties and analysis of the FRAS follows along with the results of

the analysis of each research question. Last, the responses to the open-ended questions

on the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS) are described along with a summary

of the chapter.

Pilot Discussion

Prior to conducting the Family Resilience Assessment Scale study, a small pilot

study was conducted to aid in determining the scale's readability, formatting, and

language level as well as assist in conducting an initial item analysis. This pilot study

was administered to a nonrandom sample of 43 individuals. Pilot participants were not

included in the final study analysis and were drawn from the same population as the

sample in the study. All pilot study participants were asked to complete the web-based

survey, although they had the option to complete a paper-based survey if desired.

Additionally, pilot participants were asked to provide any feedback the participant felt

was of importance such as unclear questions or overall length of survey. Of the 43

individuals participating in the pilot study, 17 individuals provided suggestions for

improving the survey items and structure. Each of the responses were carefully

considered and incorporated into the final version of the FRAS when possible. See









Appendix H for a summary of the pilot study findings, including demographics of the

participants, item responses, item means, standard deviations, and feedback responses.

Results from the pilot study provided an estimate of response patterns to the

FRAS survey instrument. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients were calculated for the

overall internal consistency of the instrument. Based on the pilot study data, the

Cronbach's alpha for the total pilot instrument was a = 0.95 indicating the total scale has

a high level of internal consistency for the pilot study. Results of the pilot study were

reviewed and minor revisions were made. The primary revision included placing the

demographic section first so participants could identify the adverse event for themselves

as well as impact on family members. Before completing the FRAS, due to the small

number of respondents for the pilot study it was not possible to conduct a preliminary

factor analysis to determine whether any of the items needed to be removed. Therefore,

all items included in the pilot remained for the large sample administration of the FRAS.

The decision was made to make the primary change as suggested by pilot participants

and conduct reliability and factor analysis on the full study data.

Sample Demographics

A total of 418 participants completed the FRAS. In addition to the FRAS, each of

the 418 participants answered an additional validity instrument (the Family Assessment

Device 1, the Family Assessment Device 2, or the Personal Meaning Index). Participants

were randomly assigned to one of the validity instruments. It was of interest to determine

whether the three groups essentially were the same or different. The chi-square test of

independence was used to determine if differences in the demographic characteristics

(nominal or categorical data) were significant. Analysis of variance was used to test for

differences among the three groups of participants on continuous or interval level of









measurement variables. The chi-square tests revealed there were no significant

differences in any of the following demographic characteristics: four age categories [(1-

25 years, 26-31 years, 32-46 years, and 47 years of age and older); X2(6) = 3.77, p = 0.71]

and six categories of annual household income [($3,000-$25,000, $26,000-$40,000,

$41,000-$60,000, 65,000-$80,000, $81,000-120,000 and $125,000 and above); X2(10)=

11.47, p = 0.32]. However, significant differences were found in the following

demographic characteristics: gender [2 (2) = 8.97, p = 0.01], ethnic identity [X2(8)=

41.92, p = <0.00], and educational level [2(10) = 25.90, p =< 0.00].

Participants ranged in age from 16 to 77, and the average age of respondents was

36.24 years (SD = 13.00, Table 4-1). The median age of the total group of respondents

was 42.5 years of age where the mode was 26 years of age. Males comprised 24% of the

total sample, and 76% of the respondents were women (Table 4-2). Participants

represented diverse ethnic backgrounds. However, the majority of the sample was

Caucasian (85.65%). Additionally, the majority of participants from each validation

instrument were also Caucasian (Table 4-3).

Table 4-1. Respondents' age groups
Age Group Total% FAD 1% FAD2% PMI%
1-25 23.44 24.09 26.76 19.42
26-31 24.88 22.63 23.24 28.78
32-46 24.88 27.74 23.24 23.74
47+ 26.79 25.55 26.76 28.06
*Chi square differences are significant at p = 0.05 or less

Table 4-2. Respondents' gender
Gender Total% FAD 1% FAD2% PMI%
Male 23.92 32.85 19.01 20.14
Female 76.08 67.15 80.99 79.86
*Chi square differences are significant at p = 0.05 or less









Table 4-3. Respondents' ethnic backgrounds
Ethnic Background* Total % FAD1% FAD2% PMI%
African American 8.61 18.98 7.04 0.00
Asian/Pacific 1.91 2.19 0.07 2.88
Islander
Caucasian 85.65 73.72 87.32 95.68
Hispanic 3.35 5.11 3.52 1.44
Other 0.48 0.00 1.41 0.00
*Chi square differences are significant at p=0.05 or less

Respondents varied in their educational backgrounds (Table 4-4) and income

levels (Table 4-5). The largest number of participants had completed a bachelor's degree

(37.8%), while 23.68% had completed a master's degree. Respondents' annual income

was spread equally between groups. However, 18.64% of individuals reported to earn an

annual household income of $41,000-60,000 (Table 4-6).

Table 4-4. Respondents' educational backgrounds
Educational Background* Total % FAD1% FAD2% PMI%
High school, diploma or less 15.31 21.71 14.79 10.07
Associate's/Vocational degree 12.20 10.95 16.20 9.35
Bachelor's degree 37.80 41.61 30.28 41.73
Master's degree 23.68 16.79 29.58 24.46
Specialist's degree 5.74 8.03 3.52 5.76
Doctorate degree 5.26 1.46 5.63 8.63
*Chi square differences are significant at p = 0.05 or less

Table 4-5. Respondents' income levels
Income Level* Total% FAD1% FAD2% PMI%
$3,000-25,000 17.38 15.20 24.26 12.50
$26,000-40,000 17.13 20.80 13.24 17.65
$41,000-60,000 18.64 19.20 19.85 16.91
$65,000-80,000 17.38 16.80 17.65 17.65
$81,000-120,000 17.38 17.60 14.71 19.85
$125,000+ 12.09 10.40 10.29 15.44
*Chi square differences are significant at p = 0.05 or less

Participants were also asked to indicate on a scale of 1-10 what level of intensity

the recalled adverse event had on their family. These intensity levels were grouped for

statistical purposes: 1-4, 5-7, and 8-10, where a one indicates little to no intensity and a









10 indicates high intensity. The largest number of participants indicated the recalled

event had an intensity of eight to ten out often (63.40%), while 27.27% indicated an

intensity level of 5 to 7 out of 10 (Table 4-6). Chi-square tests revealed that there were

no significant differences in participants' reported intensity level: intensity [3 categories

(1-4, 5-7, and 8-10); 2 (4) = 3.72, p = 0.45]. Additionally participants were asked to

indicate if they believed their family's connection grew distant, remained the same, or

grew closer after the event. Over half of the participants (52.63%) indicated their

family's connection grew closer, 26.79% indicated the connection remained the same,

while 20.57% indicated a more distant connection following the adverse event

(Table 4-7). Chi-square tests again revealed there to be no significant differences in

participants' family connection following the adverse event: event (grew distant,

remained the same, or grew closer); X2(4) = 1.87, p = 0.76.

Table 4-6. Adverse event intensity level
Level Total% FAD1% FAD2% PMI%
1-4 9.33 10.95 11.27 5.67
5-7 27.27 27.01 24.65 30.22
8-10 63.40 62.04 64.08 64.03
*Chi square differences are significant at p=0.05 or less

Table 4-7. Family connection
Connection Total% FAD 1% FAD2% PMI%
Grew distant 20.57 24.09 18.31 19.42
Same 26.79 26.28 26.06 28.06
Grew closer 52.63 49.64 55.63 52.52
*Chi square differences are significant at p=0.05 or less

Research Questions and Hypotheses Analysis

The first and second questions posed by this study addressed the factor structure

and reliability of the FRAS. The research questions are as follows:







80

RQ1 What is the factor structure of the Family Resilience Assessment Survey (FRAS)?
Does the factor structure support Walsh's (1998) model of family resilience? Are
the subscales of the FRAS unique independent constructs?

RQ2 What is the reliability of identified total scale and subscales of the Family
Resilience Assessment Scale?

Since factor and reliability analysis are an iterative process, the results of the

analysis for these two questions will be presented together. The intention of this study

was to develop and test an instrument measuring family resilience. The first and second

research questions asked about the factor structure and reliability of the instrument

developed and tested for this study, the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS).

Factor analysis was used to test whether Walsh's constructs (Making Meaning of

Adversity, Positive Outlook, Transcendence and Spirituality, Flexibility, Connectedness,

Social and Economic Resources, Clarity, Open Emotional Communication, and

Collaborative Problem-Solving) would emerge from the factor analysis procedure.

Reliability analysis using a Cronbach alpha was used to test for the internal consistency

and reliability of the constructs and total FRAS scale. The factor analysis and reliability

were an iterative process requiring a number of different solutions to identify the best

combination of items with identifiable underlying constructs with acceptable or high

reliability and internal consistency. The objective of this procedure was to identify the

best possible combination of items for the underlying constructs, ascertain the reliability

of the identified subscales, and reduce the number of items to make the FRAS a shorter

more viable instrument.

The 66 items on the FRAS were submitted to a principal components factor

analysis using both varimax and promax rotations to identify useful and meaningful

subscales contained in the instrument. The 66 items on the FRAS had been developed







81

for this scale and were reviewed and sorted into groups by experts in the field. However,

this was a new scale and testing of the scale was necessary to determine whether the

underlying subscales and constructs did indeed emerge from the analysis. All of the items

on the FRAS were initially scored as Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Agree (3), and

Strongly Agree (4). The item-to-total correlation in the reliability analysis was inspected

and those items with a negative correlation were then reverse scored as follows: Strongly

Disagree (4), Disagree (3), Agree (2), and Strongly Agree (1). This process was used

with the total scale and then again with each of the identified subscales until the factor

analysis produced meaningful and useful subscales and all items were positively

correlated to the total for the subscales and total scale.

It was hypothesized there would be nine subscales contained within the FRAS

consisting of Making Meaning of Adversity, Positive Outlook, Transcendence and

Spirituality, Flexibility, Connectedness, Social and Economic Resources, Clarity, Open

Emotional Communication, and Collaborative Problem-Solving. However, the first

factor analysis indicated there were thirteen subscales contained within the FRAS. The

majority of the items (n=33) loaded on the first subscale with eight of the subscales

containing between one and three items. Eigenvalues, scree plot, and variance explained

by each factor were inspected and the variance began to drop lower beyond six subscales.

Reliability analysis indicated there were six items needing to be reversed in coding. The

total reliability for the 66 items with the six items reversed was calculated to be a =0 .95.

While this is high, reliability is a factor of the number of items (N=66) and the method

used to calculate reliability. This thirteen factor analysis might have been acceptable but

the number of identified subscales with very few items along with the eigenvalues and

variance accounted for suggested this was not an acceptable solution.









The items were reversed and a nine factor solution was attempted to determine

whether the items would factor into the nine subscales proposed by Walsh. All 66 of the

items on the FRAS were used in this analysis. (See Appendix I for theoretical

construction of items on the FRAS). Some of the individual item factor loadings for the

nine factor solution were below 0.30 across the nine subscales and inspection of

eigenvalues, scree plot, and variance accounted for continued to indicate a six factor

solution of the FRAS. Table 4-8 illustrates the reliability coefficients for the nine factor

solution. The items also did not load on the factors predicted and again the majority of

the items loaded on the first factor.

Table 4-8. Reliability FRAS nine factor solution
Scale Cronbach Alpha
Subscale A: Family Belief Systems 0.82
Al: Making Meaning of Adversity 0.74
A2: Positive Outlook 0.58
A3: Transcendence and Spirituality 0.62
Subscale B: Family Organizational Patterns 0.88
B : Flexibility 0.43
B2: Connectedness 0.60
B3: Social and Economic Resources 0.83
Subscale C: Communication/Problem-Solving 0.90
Cl: Clarity 0.66
C2: Open Emotional Expression 0.74
C3: Collaborative Problem Solving 0.80
FRAS Total 0.95

The nine factor solution was not effective. The identified factors did not confirm

Walsh's (1998) conceptualization of family resilience, and the items in the subscales also

did not make sense and were not meaningful or useful. While the reliability analysis was

satisfactory, it should be remembered reliability is a function of the number of items used

in the analysis and the method of determining reliability. However, the underlying

constructs as identified by the factor analysis did not confirm Walsh and it was time to

consider the FRAS as measuring other constructs.









In order to identify new subscales and their underlying constructs, a six factor

solution was tried based on the previous analysis using the variance accounted for, scree

plot, and eigenvalues. Each of the 66 items loaded on one and only one factor, however,

some of the loadings were below expectations and when reliability analysis was

completed there were a number of items failing to add to the reliability of its subscale.

Since one of the objectives was to trim down the FRAS, items not loading satisfactorily

(0.30 or higher) or failing to meet expectations for reliability were now deleted from the

total and subscale. As each item was deleted, factor and reliability were run again to

ensure deleting the item improved the scale properties. A total of 12 items were deleted

from the FRAS (items 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 14, 15, 20, 37, 44, 45, and 53). The shortened FRAS

accounted for 30.06% of the variance and had reliability coefficients of between a = 0.96

and a = 0.70. Table 4-9 presents the variance accounted information for by each

subscale. The total FRAS scale reliability (a = 0.96) indicates as a total the FRAS has a

very high level of internal consistency and reliability. The total scale score can range

from 66 to 188 with a mean scale score of 157.48 and a standard deviation of 17.36.

Table 4-10 presents the basic psychometric properties of the FRAS total and subscales.

Table 4-9. Variance accounted by six factors
Factor Variance

Factor 1 18.64
Factor 2 3.92
Factor 3 2.34
Factor 4 1.96
Factor 5 1.79
Factor 6 1.41
Total 30.06









Table 4-10. Shortened FRAS total and subscale psychometric properties

No of Reliability Items Scale range
Scale items coefficient reversed SD SA
FRAS Total 54 .96 4 66 188
Factor 27 .96 0 27 104
Factor 2 8 .85 0 8 32
Factor 3 6 .86 0 6 12
Factor 4 6 .70 4 18 12
Factor 5 4 .88 0 4 16
Factor 6 3 .74 0 3 12

The promax rotation of the shortened FRAS scale also identified the same factors

with the same items. Additionally, promax provides an interfactor correlation as an

indicator of the "relatedness" of the factors identified. As can be seen from Table 4-11,

the correlations are fairly low, although factor 1 is more strongly related to factors 3, 5,

and 6 and the other correlations are not related. The argument could be made for

treating each of the subscales as unique measures rather than part of a whole; however,

this study will continue to treat the FRAS as a total scale score and subscale scores.

Appendix J presents each item in its subscale, the factor loading, scoring, and item-

subscale correlation.

Table 4-11. FRAS interfactor correlation
Ftr 1 Ftr 2 Ftr 3 Ftr 4 Ftr 5 Ftr 6
Ftrl 1.00
Ftr 2 0.32 1.00
Ftr 3 0.48 0.28 1.00
Ftr 4 0.28 0.32 0.22 1.00
Ftr 5 0.41 0.27 0.35 0.21 1.00
Ftr 6 0.45 0.23 0.27 0.14 0.26 1.00

The initial factor analysis of the FRAS identified 13 subscales but a number of

them contained only one to three items and were not deemed to be a viable measure of

family resilience. A secondary factor analysis of the FRAS also failed to confirm the









originally planned nine subscales with three overarching scales. The reliability was

computed and acceptable but a number of the items failed to add to the subscales through

factor analysis or reliability. Based on the eigenvalues and variance accounted for a six

factor solution was tried and found to present viable subscales with high reliability and

high factor loadings. (The six factor solution included deleting 12 items from the

original FRAS.)

The six factor FRAS can be concluded a valid and reliable measure of family

resilience based on subscale reliability coefficients between a = 0.96 and a = 0.70, a total

scale reliability coefficient of a = 0.96, and individual item factor loading at 0.30 or

higher on only one subscale. Each of the subscales will now be presented, the construct

defined, with a sample of items illustrating the subscale.

Family Communication and Problem Solving (FCPS)

The first subscale to emerge from the factor analysis addresses Family

Communication and Problem Solving, which is defined as a family's ability to convey

information, feelings, and facts clearly and openly while recognizing problems and

carrying out solutions. This subscale consisted of 27 items with a calculated Cronbach

alpha of 0.96 indicating the subscale had a high level of internal consistency and

reliability. Examples of the 27 items in this subscale are we define problems positively

to solve them, we can talk about the way we communicate in our family, wefeel free to

express our opinions, and we discuss problems and feel good about the solutions. None

of the items in this subscale were reverse scored. The scores for this subscale ranged

from 27 to 108 (M = 78.56, SD = 11.11). If a respondent answered Strongly Disagree to

each of the items in this subscale, the score would have 27 while responding Strongly









Agree to each of the items in this subscale would have resulted in a score of 108. Thus,

the higher score indicated a higher level of agreement with the items in the subscale.

Utilizing Social and Economic Resources (USER)

The second subscale identified by the factor analysis procedure addresses the

construct identified as Utilizing Social and Economic Resources, which is defined as

those external and internal norms allowing a family to carry out day-to-day tasks by

identifying and utilizing resources (such as helpful family members, community systems,

or neighbors). This subscale consisted of eight items with a calculated Cronbach alpha of

0.85 and exhibited a high level of internal consistency and reliability. Examples of items

in this subscale are we ask neighbors for help and assistance, we feel people in this

community are willing to help in an emergency, and we know we are important to our

friends. There were no reverse scored items in this subscale. Scores for this subscale

ranged between 8 and 32 (M = 23.26, SD = 3.71). If a respondent answered Strongly

Disagree to each item in the subscale, the score would have been 8 whereas answering

Strongly Agree to each item would have led to a score of 32.

Maintaining a Positive Outlook (MPO)

The third subscale identified by the factor analysis procedure addresses

Maintaining a Positive Outlook, which is defined as a family's ability to organize around

a distressing event with the belief that there is hope for the future and persevering to

make the most out of their options. This subscale consisted of six items and had an

acceptable Cronbach alpha of 0.86. No items in this subscale were reverse scored and

scores ranged from 6 to 24 (M = 19.45, SD = 2.53). If a respondent answered Strongly

Disagree to each of the items in this subscale, the score would have been 6. A score of

24 would have indicated a respondent answered Strongly Agree to all six items.









Examples of items in this subscale are we can survive if another problem comes up, we

have \'i ength to solve our problems, and we trust thing\ will work out even in difficult

times.

Family Connectedness (FC)

The fourth subscale to emerge from the factor analytic procedure addresses

Family Connectedness, which is defined as a family's ability to organize and bond

together for support while still recognizing individual differences. There were six items

in this subscale and the subscale had a calculated Cronbach alpha of 0.70. While the

alpha for this subscale is not quite as high as the previous subscales, the Cronbach alpha

is acceptable for this type of resilience scale. There were 4 reversed items and scores for

this subscale could range from 18 to 12 (M = 14.97; SD = 1.70). If a respondent

answered Strongly Disagree to all six items in this subscale, the score would have been

18, whereas if a respondent answered Strongly Agree to each of the six items in the

subscale, the score would have been 12. Examples of items in this subscale are we feel

taken for granted by family members, we show love and affection for family members,

and we keep our feelings to ourselves.

Family Spirituality (FS)

The fifth subscale identified by the factor analysis procedure has been named

Family Spirituality, which is defined as a family's use of a larger belief system to provide

a guiding system and help to define lives as meaningful and significant. This subscale

consisted of four items with a calculated Cronbach alpha of 0.88. Like the first three

subscales, this subscale had a high level of internal consistency and reliability. There

were no reverse scored items and scores for this subscale could range from between 4

and 16 (M = 9.87, SD = 1.39). If a respondent had answered Strongly Disagree to each







88

item in the subscale, the score would have been 4 and if a respondent answered Strongly

Agree to each item in the subscale, the score would have been 16. Examples of items in

this subscale include we attend church/synagogue/mosque services, we have faith in a

supreme being, and we seek advice from religious advisors.

Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity (AMMA)

The sixth and final subscale to emerge from the factor analytic procedure

addresses the concept of a family's Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity, which is

defined as a family's ability incorporate the adverse event into their lives while seeing

their reactions as understandable in relation to the event. There were three items in this

subscale with a calculated Cronbach alpha of 0.74, indicating the subscale had an

acceptable level of internal consistency and reliability for this type of instrument. There

were again no reversed items in the subscale and scores for this subscale could range

between 3 and 12 (M = 9.87, SD = 1.39). If a respondent answered Strongly Disagree to

each of the items in this subscale, the score would have been 3, while if a respondent

answered Strongly Agree to each of the three items in this subscale, the score would have

been 12. Examples of items in this subscale include: we accept stressful events as apart

of life, we accept that problems occur unexpectedly, and the things we do for each other

make us feel apart of the family.

The third research question posed by this study addressed the differences in age

group responses. The third research question is as follows:

RQ3 Are there differences in age group responses to the FRAS total scale and
subscales?

HO3 There will be no differences in the mean scores on the FRAS total and subscale
scores of older, middle, and younger participants.









Research Question 3 required separating the group of respondents into four

groups based upon their reported age. Although it was anticipated this might be 18 to 33,

34 to 49, and 50 to 65, the range of participants' ages differed. The exact age grouping

was determined to be 1 to 25 years, 26 to 31 years, 32 to 46 years, and 47 years and

above. Comparisons of the age groups were accomplished using analysis of variance

with a p =0.05 level of probability. A Scheffe post hoc comparison test was used to

determine how groups differed from each other. The results of each of these analyses are

presented here. For each of the tables below, the subscales are represented by the

following abbreviations: Family Communication and Problem Solving (FCPS), Utilizing

Social and Economic Resources (USER), Maintaining a Positive Outlook (MPO), Family

Connectedness (FC), Family Spirituality (FS), and Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity

(AMMA). Table 4-12 presents the means and standard deviations of subscale scores for

age. The ANOVA summary table (Table 4-13) indicates that there were statistically

significant differences for the variable of age group in the Utilizing Social and Economic

Resources and Family Connectedness subscales as well as the total scale. These results

showed the older age categories to indicate higher levels of resilience. Therefore, the

null hypothesis [HO3] is rejected for these subscales and the total scale, and there is a

difference in the mean scores of the two subscales and total scale based on age.

However, the null hypothesis [H03] is not rejected for the following subscales: Family

Communication and Problem Solving, Maintaining a Positive Outlook, Family

Spirituality, and Making Meaning of Adversity. There is no difference in the mean

scores for these subscales based on age.









Table 4-12. Subscale scores by age
1-25 (n=98) 26-31 (n=104) 32-46 (n=104) 47+ (n=l 11)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
FCPS 79.14 12.46 82.12 10.57 82.20 11.48 82.53 11.53
USER 22.41 4.38 23.01 3.20 23.33 3.72 24.19 3.35
MPO 19.21 2.56 19.61 2.59 19.20 2.51 19.74 2.46
FC 18.00 2.61 18.69 2.31 18.44 2.44 18.50 2.22
FS 10.64 1.41 10.25 2.93 11.08 3.05 11.96 3.23
AMMA 9.64 1.41 9.87 1.44 9.86 1.37 10.10 1.34
Total scale 159.03 20.86 163.54 17.54 164.01 18.22 168.11 20.03

Table 4-13. Analysis of variance summary table of subscale scores, by age
Subscale SS df MS F p
FCPS 846.52 3 282.17 2.31 0.08
Error 50540.05 413 122.37
USER 173.93 3 57.98 4.30 0.05*
Error 5574.58 413 13.50
MPO 23.62 3 7.87 1.23 0.30
Error 2637.52 413 6.38
FC 28.54 3 9.51 1.66 0.18
Error 2355.39 411 5.73
FS 175.48 3 58.50 6.13 0.05*
Error 3939.52 413 9.54
AMMA 10.91 3 3.64 1.89 0.13
Error 795.37 414 1.92
Total scale 4205.99 3 1402.00 3.96 0.05*
Error 145583.23 411 354.22
*p< 0.05

Although the third research question only addressed the variable of age group

responses to the FRAS total scale and subscales, analyses of variance were also

conducted on the following demographic variables: gender, ethnicity, educational level,

annual household income, event intensity level, and family connection (grew distant,

remained the same, or grew closer after the event). ANOVA revealed that, in general,

respondent demographic variables did not influence FRAS total scale or subscales. The

relationships found to be significant were respondents' gender, educational level, and

ethnic identity in relationship to the Utilizing Social and Economic Resources (USER)

and Family Connectedness (FC) subscales. Women were found to have higher mean