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Florida's State Agricultural Response Team

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012783/00001

Material Information

Title: Florida's State Agricultural Response Team
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012783:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012783/00001

Material Information

Title: Florida's State Agricultural Response Team
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012783:00001

Full Text












FLORIDA'S STATE AGRICULTURAL RESPONSE TEAM


By

ELIZABETH ALEXANDRA WANG
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Elizabeth Alexandra Wang















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

It is with humility that I would like to take this opportunity to express my

appreciation to the numerous people who have assisted me in this endeavor. These words

are so few with respect to the impact that each person has had on my life; to each, a part

of this work is dedicated.

First, I would like to thank my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Louis and Katherine Serca,

for all of their love and support through the years. I am thankful to my husband, Mr.

David Wang, for his encouragement, patience and impeccable chauffeur abilities.

I would like to express appreciation to Dr. Carol Lehtola for her role as chair of my

committee and extend special thanks to my two other committee members, Drs. James

Leary and Shannon Washburn, for their guidance and support of this research. Thanks go

out to Mr. Charles Brown for his assistance and wit.

Appreciation is extended to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer

Services (FDACS), a major supporter of the State Agricultural Response Team (SART)

program. Special thanks extend to several FDACS employees: Dr. Tom Holt, state

veterinarian and Director of the Division of Animal Industry; Dr. Greg Christy, state

ESF-17 coordinator and administrator of the SART program, for his cooperation and

support of this project; Mr. David Perry, Mr. Victor Crews and Mr. Gary Painter, in

recognition for their assistance, kindness and friendship. Appreciation is also extended to

Dr. Joan Dusky and the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural

Sciences (UF-IFAS), Mrs. Martha Wagaman and Mr. Tim Manning and the United States









Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its agencies, and all the other organizations who

have pledged their support to SART.

Thanks also extends to all SART members in the state who participated in this

study by completing questionnaires at the training events without your participance,

this work would not have been possible. It is my sincere hope that the results of this study

will improve the SART program to which you have each committed yourselves to

supporting.

Lastly, I would like to warmly acknowledge the "Safety Stable" for their support,

humor and friendship Jodi DeGraw, my closest friend; Ed Drannbauer; Bill Todd; and

Brian Peddie.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

LIST OF TABLES .................................................... ........ .. .............. viii

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ ix

A B ST R A C T .......... ..... ...................................................................................... x

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

T h e P ro b le m ............................................................................................1
T h e N e ed ................................................................................................... . 3
Purpose and O bjectives.................................... .................. ..............................
D ata Sources and A analysis Procedure ........................................ ....... ............... 5
Operational Definitions and Abbreviations .............. .............................................5
Chapter Sum m ary ....................... .... .............. .............................. .6

2 LITERA TURE REVIEW .......................................................... ..............7

D defining D disaster ................................. ................................ ..............
A agriculture in Florida ...................... ....................................... ... .. .............
D isasters Threatening Florida A agriculture ................................................................11
H hurricanes and Tropical Storm s................................... .................... ............... 11
F lo o d s ...................................................................................................... 1 6
W ild fire s .....................................................................................................1 7
D brought ....................................... ... .............. ..........18
Human-Introduced, Transmitted, and/or Created Agents .................................20
D disaster Preparedness ................. .. ..................... .. ...... .......... .......... ......... 21
Barriers Encountered During Preparedness and Response Operations ......................23
Disaster Education/Training Programs .............................................. ...............26
State Animal Response Team Programs................................27
Other Agricultural and/or Animal Emergency-Response Teams.............................28
Disaster Education/Training Program Evaluations .......................................... 29
About Florida's State Agricultural Response Team .............................................33
C u rricu lu m ...................................... .............................................. 37
T raining E vents ........................................39


v


v









W eb Site ................................................................... 4 0
Chapter Summary ..................................... .............. ......... 40

3 M ETHODS AND PROCEDURES ........................................ ........................ 42

P u rp o se .............................................................................4 2
O b j e ctiv e s .............................................................................................4 2
2 D ata S o u rc e s ............................................................................................................... 4 3
Q u estion n aire D esig n ............................................................................................ 4 3
P ilo t T e st ......... ..................................... ............................4 7
Procedures ..................... ..... ...................... 48
C h ap ter S u m m ary ................................................................................................. 4 9

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................. 50

P u rp o se .............................................................................5 0
O bjectiv es .................................................................. ............................. 5 0
Results and Discussion ...... .................. ......... .........51
C h ap ter S u m m ary ................................................................................................. 6 1

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ................................................................63

Study Objective 1: Describe the Need for Agricultural Disaster Education ..............63
Study Objective 2: Identify Similar Programs to the Florida SART Program .......64
Study Objective 3: Describe Florida's SART Program .................... ..............66
Study Objective 4: Identify Participant Perceptions of SART Training Program
Strengths and Weaknesses ............................... ........68
Study Objective 5: Recommend Specific Program Improvements ........................... 73
C h apter Su m m ary .............................................................................. .. .. ..74

6 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................. ................. ............75

S u m m a ry ............. .. ............... ................. ............................................................ 7 5
Recommendations........................................... 77
Future Training Events and Workshops ......................................................77
Future Research ......................... ...................78
N ear-Future D decisions .......... ............ ................. ..... .. .... ........... 79

APPENDIX

A UF INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL ........................................84

B FIN AL Q U E STION N A IRE ................................................................................. 85

C INFORM ED CON SEN T SCRIPT ......................................................................... .. 96

D STUDY INFORMATION HANDOUT FOR PARTICIPANTS ..............................97











E SURVEY W RITE-IN COM M EN TS ................................................ ....................98

F TRAINING EVENT AGENDA .......................................................... ........... 104

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......................................................................... ................... 110

BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ........................................................................116
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Saffir-Sim p son scale ....................................................................... ...................12

2-2 Keetch-Byram Drought Index .............. ................................ 18

2-3 Residents' views on bushfire preparedness information............. ................30

3-1 Pilot test Cronbach's alpha coefficients...................................... ....................... 48

4-1 Respondent opinions of SART PowerPoint presentations.................................52

4-2 Respondent opinions of SART participant workbooks.......................... .........52

4-3 Respondent opinions of all workshops at the training event..............................53

4-4 Respondent opinions of training event ............................................ ...............55

4-5 How respondents heard about the training event ............................................. 56

4-6 Preparedness and response activity within, outside of, and in addition to the
animal and agriculture industries for respondents...............................58

4-7 Monthly average of respondent volunteer work ....................... .....................59

4-8 Organizations supported or participated in by respondents ...................................60

4-9 Highest level of education attained by respondents.............................................. 61

4-10 Respondents' computer-usage demographics .................................. ............... 61

6-1 M ost frequently cited future workshop topics............................... ............... 78
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2-1 Percent Florida cash receipts 2002............................. ..................... 10

2-2 D brought M monitor sam ple report......................................... ........................... 19















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

FLORIDA'S STATE AGRICULTURAL RESPONSE TEAM

By

Elizabeth Alexandra Wang

December 2005

Chair: Carol J. Lehtola
Major Department: Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Florida is at risk for many natural disasters, such as hurricanes, wildfire, flood and

drought. In addition to these natural disasters, Florida is at heightened risk for disasters

due to intentional and unintentional acts of man such as agroterrorism and radiological

incidents. These disaster threats affect not only Florida residents, but animals and

agriculture as well.

Florida's animal and agriculture industries have experienced several of these

disasters in recent years and have learned that many factors can inhibit effective

preparedness and response. Among the most important of these factors are poor

communication between agencies, poor mutual knowledge between agencies of their

responsibilities and capabilities, poor understanding on the part of producers and the

general public about what agencies will do and how they will do it, and poor awareness

of available resources. In response to these deficiencies, the State Agricultural Response









Team (SART) was created. SART's mission is to empower Floridians through training

and resources to enhance animal and agricultural disaster response.

Several national-model SARTs exist; North Carolina and Colorado are the most

established, with New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Kansas in the planning

phases of development. No research has been published on these programs. Moreover, no

research has, to this point, been published regarding Florida's SART. Due to the newness

of such a program, research is needed.

A study of SART training event participants has therefore been conducted to

determine participants' opinions of the SART training materials and training event.

Demographic data and disaster perceptions, volunteer commitments and computer usage

data were also obtained. All data were gathered via a questionnaire. This questionnaire

was piloted at the first training event in Kissimmee and subsequently administered to

training event participants at Belle Glade and Tallahassee during the final workshop of

each training event. A total of 172 questionnaires were completed at these two training

events.

The data revealed favorable ratings of the training materials, workshops and

training event and no specific strengths nor weaknesses. SART training materials, such as

slide presentations and participant workbooks, were determined to be useful and

effective. The workshops fulfilled respondents' expectations, and the training event was

rated a high quality, professional event. Conclusions and general recommendations for

the SART program and future research, based on the data gathered from the survey and

from extensive literature review, are discussed as well.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The Problem

Florida is at risk for many natural disasters, such as hurricanes, wildfire, flood and

drought. The state's peninsular location and tropical climate predispose it to these natural

occurrences. In addition to natural disasters, Florida is at heightened risk for disasters due

to man. Nuclear radiation and pest and disease introductions are all risks posed by

intentional and unintentional human activities. Considering that tourism brings in nearly

75 million people annually and "commercial and general aviation airports alone transport

nearly 120 million passengers per year," it is no wonder that Florida is considered an

agricultural sentinel state (Christy, Wang, Lehtola & Brown, 2005, p. 8). If a foreign

animal disease, pest introduction or agroterrorist event were to occur, it could very well

occur first in Florida (Christy et al., 2005). These disasters put animals and agriculture, in

addition to the residents and visitors of the state, at risk.

Florida has experienced several of these events in recent years and has learned

many factors can inhibit effective preparedness and response with respect to animals and

agriculture. Among the most important of these factors are poor communication between

agencies, poor mutual knowledge between agencies of their responsibilities and

capabilities, poor understanding on the part of producers and the general public about

what agencies will do and how they will do it, and poor awareness of available resources

(Christy et al., 2005). Comfort and Cahill confirm that "no single organization can meet

the massive, urgent demands of a disaster" (1988, p. 180). Once a disaster occurs and









"the locus of decision-making shifts among jurisdictional levels," communication and

leadership become strained thereby magnifying these issues (Comfort & Cahill, 1988, p.

180). Therefore, overcoming these obstacles before a disaster strikes is critical.

In response to these deficiencies, the Florida State Agricultural Response Team

(SART) was created. SART's mission is to empower Floridians through training and

resources to enhance animal and agricultural disaster response. Initial program goals

included 1) promoting the establishment of a coordinator in each county responsible for

all animal and agricultural related incidents (the Emergency Support Function in Florida

for animal protection and agriculture is number 17 per the Florida Comprehensive

Emergency Management Plan (2004, Appendix XVII, p. 1)), 2) providing assistance in

the development and writing of county Emergency Support Function (ESF) plans for

animals and agriculture, 3) promoting the establishment of a county SART for all Florida

counties, 4) providing annual training for all SART and agriculturally-related personnel,

5) identifying county resources available for an emergency or disaster and 6) promoting

counties to work at a regional level for mutual aid.

To achieve the training required for all SART members, a curriculum is under

development. The curriculum has been broken into general subject areas called modules.

Preliminary module topics include the core SART topics of Incident Command System,

Aquaculture, Pets & Disasters, Plant Pathology, Livestock & Horses, Insect & Arthropod

Issues, Agroterrorism Threats in Florida, and Biosecurity. Additional module topics are

being identified on a regular basis. Each module consists of more specific topics of

interest within the subject area called units. An example of a unit is Foreign Animal

Disease Recognition from the Livestock & Horses module. Each unit consists of a lesson









plan and participant workbook. The curriculum is intended to be used during training

events and in other outreach and training activities.

The Need

Agriculture has an annual impact of $62-billion on Florida's economy; this

economic contribution is second in the state only to tourism. Considering the stability

agriculture contributes to the economy, a dedicated mechanism should be in place to

prepare for and assist in the response to and recovery from natural and man-made

disasters. Florida's State Agricultural Response Team was formed in 2003 in response to

the need to assist animals and agriculture.

In addition to Florida's SART, several SART programs exist nationally. These

other SARTs are State Animal Response Teams. These SARTs, by name, only provide

preparedness, response, and recovery services to animals involved in disasters and

emergencies. The Florida SART program is a progressive attempt to better plan for and

respond to emergencies and disasters affecting animals and agriculture. Due to the

novelty of the animal and agriculture response team programs, no evaluations of any

SART or their training media have been conducted. To better plan for, further develop,

and establish continuity for the Florida SART program, research is warranted to identify

areas of improvement within the program. Such research should focus on describing the

need for agricultural disaster education programs such as SART, identify and describe

any similar programs, provide a description of SART, determine the perceived

effectiveness of the training events and training media, and ultimately recommend

specific program improvements.

This study conducted by the principle investigator, and approved by the University

of Florida Institutional Review Board, identified areas of improvement for the SART









training media and training event based on perceptions that training event participants

reported on a questionnaire administered at two 2005 training events. Data gathered from

these questionnaires and identified during the literature review is then used to make

specific recommendations for the SART program and its training curriculum.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this study was to identify areas of improvement within the Florida

State Agricultural Response Team (SART) training media and training event utilizing

data obtained from participant questionnaires and to thereby recommend specific

improvements to enhance the effectiveness of the program.

The objectives of this study were to:

Study Objective 1-1: Describe the need for agricultural disaster education.

Study Objective 1-2: Identify similar programs to the Florida SART program.

Study Objective 1-3: Describe Florida's SART program.

Study Objective 1-4: Identify participant perceptions of SART training program strengths
and weaknesses.

Study Objective 1-5: Recommend specific program improvements.

The objectives of the survey were to:

Survey Objective 1-1: Determine whether participants attended at least one of five
specific workshops.

Survey Objective 1-2: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the slide
presentations utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 1-3: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the SART
Participant Workbooks utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 1-4: Identify respondent perceptions of all, not just the five previously
specified, workshops held over the duration of the training event.

Survey Objective 1-5: Identify respondents' overall impressions of the training event.

Survey Objective 1-6: Obtain respondents' disaster perceptions and demographics.









Data Sources and Analysis Procedure

Data for this study were obtained from SART training event participants at two

regional events held in Belle Glade and Tallahassee, Florida. SART training event

participants were chosen as the convenience sample for this census study because of their

recent experience with the training media and event. This experience provides the data

needed to evaluate the published SART training media and training event.

Data were obtained via administration of an anonymous questionnaire previously

pilot tested at the first training event held at Kissimmee, Florida to test its face and

construct validity. Participants completed the 60-question questionnaires after being

provided directions by the principle investigator during a dedicated workshop at the close

of the training event. Questions were constructed to determine participants' perceptions

of the slide presentations, the participant workbooks, all the workshops and the training

event overall. A final section of questions assessed disaster perceptions and demographic

qualities of the sample population.

Operational Definitions and Abbreviations

* BG: Belle Glade

* County SART: a consortium of SART members at the county/local level that act
as liaisons among various groups for animal and agriculture disaster planning and
response.

* Disasters: "nonroutine events in societies or their larger subsystems (e.g., regions,
communities) that involve social disruption and physical harm. Among the key
defining properties of such events are (1) length of forewarning, (2) magnitude of
impact, (3) scope of impact, and (4) duration of impact" (Kreps, 1998, p. 34).

* ESF: the acronym for Emergency Support Function. This is a group of agencies,
headed by a lead agency, which provides a specific type of assistance during an
emergency. The Emergency Support Function in Florida for animal protection and
agriculture is currently number 17 per the Comprehensive Emergency Management
Plan (2004, Appendix XVII, p. 1).









* Module: general topic areas for SART training media; an example of a module is
Aquaculture.

* SART is the acronym for State Agricultural Response Team; an interagency effort
to improve communication between government and private agencies with vested
interest in animal and agriculture disaster planning and response.

* TL: Tallahassee.

* Training event: a multi-day event comprised of workshops on state industry and
disaster preparedness and response topics. Some workshops utilize the SART
training media produced.

* Units: more specific topics within the module on which a lesson is based; an
example of a unit is Aquatic Animal Diseases.

Chapter Summary

Agriculture has a annual $62-billion impact on Florida's economy. It is threatened

by various natural and man-made disasters. Previous multiorganizational response to

disasters affecting Florida animals and agriculture have revealed that deficiencies exist

thereby preventing effective action. The State Agricultural Response Team (SART) was

created in an effort to overcome these deficiencies. In order, to train SART members, a

curriculum is under development. The SART concept is progressive and dynamic and in

need of research. A survey of training event participants has been conducted in order to

obtain data to be used to formulate program recommendations.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Defining Disaster

As introduced in Chapter 1, a disaster is an event that has many aspects. In order to

better understand these aspects and how to prepare for, respond to and recover from

them, a definition of a disaster should be established. For several decades,

multidisciplinary research has been conducted on the how, where, why, when and who of

disasters. Entire essays, books and papers have been written in an attempt to define the

term. Yet a universally accepted definition is still elusive. Quarantelli (1998, p. 234)

summarizes the attempts to define disaster by stating: "The basic assumption in this form

of philosophical realism is that there exists an elephant (i.e., a disaster) out there whose

parts and whole can be eventually pieced together."

Lewis (1988) simplistically defines disaster as a term to "describe events that have

resulted in extensive negative consequences" (p. 164). Lewis proceeds to name and

discuss a comprehensive list of the emergency event characteristics. These include risk,

uncertainty, fluidity, competition/conflict, action orientation, timing, communications,

data/information and consequences (Lewis, 1988, p. 167-168).

Webster's Dictionary (Neufeldt & Guralnik, 1997) defines disaster as "any

happening that causes great harm or damage; serious or sudden misfortune; calamity" (p.

390).

An additional basic definition is found in The Governor 's Disaster Planning and

Response Review Committee Final Report (1993); this work reports on the findings of a









committee formed by then-Governor Lawton Chiles after Hurricane Andrew slammed

into Florida. Disaster, as written by the Committee (1993), "means any natural,

technological, or civil emergency that results in a declaration of a state of emergency by a

county, by the Governor, or by the President" (p. 5).

In What is a Disaster?, the title question is posed by editor E. L. Quarantelli and

contributing authors are asked to respond. In their essays, the authors discuss the social

contexts and disruptions that occur around so-called disasters. Dynes provides an

interpretation of the essayists' views. "In spite of their differing national and disciplinary

backgrounds," Dynes (1998, p. 110) concludes, "the authors seem to agree that disasters

are social in origin; that agent determinism should be avoided; [and] that social disruption

should be the focus." Despite plentiful discussion of disasters overall, there is a lack of

definitions in What is a Disaster?. However, Kreps offers two for consideration.

Kreps (1998, p. 32) points out that "serious attempts to define disasters are usually

traced back to Fritz's 1961 definition" which he paraphrases as follows

A disaster is an event concentrated in time and space, in which a society or one of
its subdivisions undergoes physical harm and social disruption, such that all or
some essential functions of the society or subdivision are impaired.

In his closing summary, Kreps (1998) analyzes the 1985 Mexico City earthquake and the

1986 Chernobyl incident as case studies and presents a modified version of Fritz's

definition. He follows his continuing interpretation of disasters as systemic events and

social catalysts by stating

Disasters are: nonroutine events in societies or their larger subsystems (e.g. regions,
communities) that involve social disruption and physical harm. Among the key
defining properties of such events are (1) length of forewarning, (2) magnitude of
impact, (3) scope of impact, and (4) duration of impact. (p. 34)









This definition of disaster shall be used for the purposes of this publication and has

therefore been listed as an operational definition in Chapter 1.

Agriculture in Florida

Florida's large, diverse agricultural industry is the second largest contributor to the

state's economy at over $62 billion annually. According to the 2004 Florida Agriculture

Statistical Directory, there were 44,000 commercial farms using 10.2 million acres of

land to produce agricultural commodities. In 2002, Florida's cash receipts ranked

(Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services [FDACS], 2004a, p. 6)

* Eighth in the nation with total cash receipts from farm marketing of over $6.8
billion

* First in citrus, peppers, snap beans, cucumbers, sweet corn, squash, and sugarcane

* Second in sales of greenhouse and nursery products, tomatoes, strawberries, and
watermelon

* Fourth in honey sales.

Although the industry is diverse, there are five agriculture areas that command

substantial percentages of industry receipts as a whole; these areas are citrus, vegetables

and melons, field crops, livestock and livestock products, and foliage and floriculture.

Figure 2-1 is adapted from the 2004 Florida Agriculture Statistical Directory (FDACS,

2004a, p. 11).

Citrus growers produced 251 million boxes of fruit by the close of the 2002-2003

season with a statewide on-tree value of all citrus an estimated $815.9 million (FDACS,

2004a, p. 18-19). The highest producing counties included Polk and Highlands followed

by Hendry, DeSoto, St. Lucie, Hardee, and Indian River counties. Citrus produced in

Florida is used to produce juice and supply ready-to-eat fresh fruit for consumers.

Seventy-one percent of national cash receipts for grapefruit, 68% of oranges and 67% of









tangerine receipts were from Florida operations, in addition to 100% of tangelo and

temple oranges (FDACS, 2004b, p. 4). In terms of citrus exports, "Canada accounts for

the most receipts of Florida oranges and specialty fruit while Japan receives the most

grapefruit" (FDACS, 2004a, p. 19).


21.4% U Citrus


0 Vegetables & Melons
22.9%
15.6% 0 Field Crops


Foliage & Floriculture


Livestock & Livestock
Products
18.1%
12.8% U Other Fruits, Nuts,
Crops & Products

Figure 2-1. Percent Florida cash receipts 2002

"Harvested acreage of vegetables, berries and melons, including miscellaneous

vegetables, totaled 284,600 acres during the 2002-03 season" (FDACS, 2004a, p. 78).

Snap beans, blueberries, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, lettuces, bell peppers, potatoes,

radishes, squash, strawberries, tomatoes, and watermelon are just a sample of the fresh

fruits and vegetables produced by Florida farmers. Nationally, Florida accounted for the

production of 37% of peppers, 27% of tomatoes, and 24% of cucumbers (FDACS, 2004a,

p. 6).

The field crop commodities included hay, peanuts, cotton and cottonseed, tobacco,

corn, pecans, soybeans, and wheat. The total value of production in 2003 for these crops

was $200,111,000 (FDACS, 2004a, p. 31). Sugarcane is also considered a field crop.









The 2002 sugarcane crop was valued at $559,600,000; "Florida ranks number one in the

production of sugarcane nationwide and makes sugarcane the fourth leading commodity

of cash receipts in the State exceeded only by greenhouse and nursery, oranges, and

tomatoes" (FDACS, 2004a, p. 32).

Livestock and livestock products are produced by and from beef and dairy cattle,

poultry, and swine operations across the state constituting 18.1% of cash receipts. In

2003, dairies produced 2.16 billion pounds of milk using an average of 142,000 dairy

cattle (FDACS, 2004a); Okeechobee County leads in the number of dairy cattle with

30,000 head. For beef cattle, Florida ranks twelfth "nationally and third among States east

of the Mississippi River" (FDACS, 2004a, p. 47). In addition to cattle, Florida is home to

a poultry industry that produces eggs and broilers and a commercial hog slaughter

industry.

"The total output impact of the Florida environmental horticulture industry in year

2000 was estimated at $9.16 billion" (Hodges & Haydu, 2002, p. 3). Miami-Dade,

Orange, and Palm Beach counties have the highest total output impacts. Consequently,

"retail sales of plant products and related horticultural goods in Florida included $1.18

billion (32 percent) for plants, $799 million (22 percent) for horticultural supplies, $359

million (10 percent) for lawn and garden hard goods, and $1.30 billion (36 percent) for

other types of goods" (Hodges & Haydu, 2002, p. 3).

Disasters Threatening Florida Agriculture

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

"A tropical cyclone is a large-scale, warm-core, low-pressure storm that develops

not along a front, but over tropical or subtropical waters and that has a definite organized

circulation" (Williams & Duedall, 2002, p. 1). Tropical cyclone is the proper









meteorological term for what residents of Florida and the southeastern United States call

a hurricane. Each year, June 1 marks the beginning of the Atlantic hurricane season

which continues through November 30 after peaking in September (Pacific Disaster

Center, 2005).

Hurricanes can vary in size and intensity. "Because of the difficulty in relating the

different and varying factors of characteristics of hurricane to the destruction, the

Saffir/Simpson Scale was conceived in 1972 and introduced to the public in 1975"

(Williams & Duedall, 2002, p. 4). An adaptation of the Saffir-Simpson scale from

Williams and Duedall's (2002, p. 85) is shown in Table 2-1.

Table 2-1. Saffir-Simpson scale
Pressure Winds
Category Damage
Category (millibars) (miles per hour) Da
1 980 74 95 Minimal
2 965 979 96 110 Moderate
3 945 964 111- 130 Extensive
4 920 944 131 155 Extreme
5 <920 >155 Catastrophic

Florida is no stranger to being struck by hurricanes and tropical storms. "From

1871 through 2001, over 1000 tropical cyclones have occurred in the North Atlantic,

Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Of this total, about 200 have reached Florida, with

75 of these known to have had hurricane force winds (wind speed 74 mph or greater) and

83 known to have had winds of tropical storm force (39 73 mph)" (Williams &

Duedall, 2002, p. 6). The most memorable tropical events in recent hurricane history for

Floridians would be Hurricane Andrew, in 1992, and Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan,

and Jeanne in 2004.

On the morning of August 24, 1992, with sustained winds of 145 miles per hour,

Hurricane Andrew made landfall in south Florida. It was classified as a category four









storm when it made landfall, but was changed years later to a category five due to the

damage assessed using the Fujita Tornado Scale (Williams & Duedall, 2002). In addition

to the staggering numbers of homes destroyed and residents without electric, "32,900

acres of farmland were damaged" (The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response

Review Committee, 1993, p. 1). "Damage to agriculture [was] estimated at $1 billion,

with permanent income loss of $250 million and $580 million in damage to structures"

(The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee, 1993, p. 2). The

estimate computed by Lenze and West (1993) concurs with the Disaster Planning and

Response Review Committee's at $0.91 billion total losses to agriculture; Lenze and

West (1993) further estimate that approximately half, or $0.455 billion, of the losses were

insured.

In addition to catastrophic structural and agricultural damage, animals, including

pets and horses, faired poorly after Andrew, too. The mantra in 1992 was that people

should leave pets at home when they evacuate (Bevan, 2005). Pets left in homes after

owners evacuated resulted in over "600 lost, foster or owner-give-up animals taken in"

and "approximately 2,000 seen by emergency vets" for injuries sustained (Bevan, 2005,

slide 7).

The 2004 hurricane season brought with it four hurricanes which wreaked havoc on

the entire state. Hurricane Charley surprised many when it veered from its anticipated

path into Tampa Bay and stormed into the Punta Gorda/Port Charlotte area of southern

Florida on August 13, 2004 as a category four hurricane. In a letter dated September 1,

2004, Florida Agriculture Commissioner Charles Bronson asked Governor Jeb Bush to









contact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to request a Secretarial

Agricultural Disaster Declaration for thirteen counties (McElroy, 2004 September 1).

Hurricane Frances followed Charley by striking Florida on September 5, 2004.

Frances's heavy rainfall, large size, and slow forward motion resulted in damages across

the state. Charles Bronson estimated "that Florida agriculture [had] sustained at least $2.1

billion in damages, including lost crops and structural damages to industry facilities"

(McElroy, 2004 September 24). A breakdown of the estimates are "about $600 million to

the nursery industry, $400 million to citrus, $150 million to timber, $100 million to

livestock, $50 million to vegetables, and $40 million to sugar" (McElroy, 2004

September 24; Ag Institute, 2004). Compton (2004 September 10) quoted Bronson as

saying, "these losses are unprecedented in the state's history and will be devastating to

Florida's economy given that agriculture is second only to tourism as a top industry in

this state" (p. 1).

On September 16, 2004, Hurricane Ivan struck the Gulf Shores, Alabama/Florida

panhandle area "with winds of 131 to 154 miles per hour. Ivan was the most powerful

hurricane to strike the U.S. Gulf Coast since Hurricane Camille in 1969" ("U.S. coast

blown away by deadly storms," 2004, p. 2). Hurricane Jeanne soon followed making

landfall "into Stuart, Florida, about 10 miles from where Frances hit Labor Day

weekend" on September 25, 2004 (Isidore, 2004, p. 1). Jeanne's damage estimates were

projected to be anywhere between $4 and $9 billion dollars where "even if Jeanne's

insured losses are at the low end of estimates, it is to be either the fifth or sixth most

expensive storm in U.S. history. There are still no damage estimates available for

Hurricane Ivan" (Isidore, 2004, p. 3).









By the close of the 2004 hurricane season, several Florida agriculture industries

were pummeled from the storms that literally criss-crossed the state including the

nursery, citrus, timber, vegetables, and sugar (McElroy, 2004 September 24; Ag Institute,

2004). In addition to the snapped citrus trees, toppled sugar cane, and wind-whipped

horticulture products, animal industries like dairy suffered considerable losses as well.

Total statewide losses for dairy production "topped $50 million" (McGovney, 2004, p. 1).

Livestock deaths from hurricanes are not always a direct result of the storm. In

some instances, animals shelter under or in barns and strong winds subsequently collapse

the barns, the animals may become trapped underneath the debris (McGovney, 2004). In

the case of dairy cattle, lack of power prevents fans from blowing to cool the animals

during the summer heat; power outages also prevent dairies from milking which is

necessary for maintaining herd health (McGovney, 2004). These secondary effects from a

tropical system are capable of causing extreme stress resulting in natural death or the

necessary destruction of the animal.

After Hurricane Andrew came through, few Florida residents believed a deadly

storm anything like it could ever happen again. Williams and Duedall (2002) stated in

their book that Andrew would not be the last hurricane to cause massive destruction;

likewise, the Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee (1993) said

that "it would be erroneous and dangerous to assume that another storm the size of

Andrew may not hit Florida again in the near future" (p. 2). Twelve years later, the

storms of 2004 and a brush with catastrophic Hurricane Katrina in 2005 proved these

predictions correct. "Taken as a whole, Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne

caused far more deaths, damaged far more housing units and forced far more people from









their homes than Hurricane Andrew" (Smith & McCarty, 2005, p. 8). And although these

hurricanes are expensive memories now, one cannot assume that more storms will not

follow.

Floods

"Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human

hardship and economic losses ... most communities in the United States can experience

some kind of flooding" (National Disaster Education Coalition [NDEC], 2004, p. 63).

"Flooding resulting from severe storms and other causes [were] the most frequently

declared type of disaster [in the nineties], with more than $7.3 billion committed by

FEMA in response and recovery funding" (Federal Emergency Management Agency,

2004). Although flooding can occur from melting ice and debris jams in waterways,

Florida is impacted with floods as a result of tropical cyclones' storm surge and excessive

rainfall. Flooding occurs according to several factors, including rainfall intensity and

duration, topography, soil conditions and ground cover (NDEC, 2004, p. 64).

Prolonged flooding can devastate crops by contributing to disease spread,

promoting and exacerbating root rot and spreading contaminates onto the crop.

Generally, when any one of these items occurs, the crop is not salvageable. Animals can

be affected by flooded conditions as well. Hoof rot, stress, drowning, and snake bites are

four examples of hazards posed to animals standing in flood water with no escape to

higher ground; "the potential economic impact of non-infectious hazards" like those

previously noted, "may be greater than the economic impact of infectious hazards"

(United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,

Veterinary Services, 2002, p. i).









Wildfires

Three classes of wildfires are known to occur. A surface fire is the most common

type and burns along the floor of a forest, but has varying behavior; a ground fire, ignited

by lightning or surface fires, bums on or below the forest floor fueled by dense fuels like

muck and peat; and crown, or canopy, fires that spread rapidly by wind, move quickly

and are difficult to suppress for these reasons (NDEC, 2004; Florida Department of

Community Affairs [FDCA] & FDACS 2004). Wildfires know no boundaries and they

quickly burn anything in their path once ignited. "Once a fire has started, weather, fuel

type, and topography are the three major factors that shape fire behavior. Weather is

perhaps the most important of these in Florida" (FDCA & FDACS, 2004, p. 8). Fire

control officials utilize the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) to gauge the potential

for fire outbreaks; table 2-2, created from the United States Forest Service Web site

(2002), illustrates the values associated with varying stages of dryness.

Florida is no stranger to wildfire. "Fire has been present since the peninsula known

as Florida emerged from the sea" (FDCA & FDACS, 2004, p. 6). In fact, many of the

state's ecological systems depend on fire to restore the balance of the system by clearing

underbrush and other undesirable growth. However, the urban/nature interface has caused

wildfires to become a significant danger. In 1998, wildfires ripped across Flagler, St.

Johns, Volusia and Brevard counties, among others, ultimately burning 499,477 acres

(FDCA & FDACS, 2004, p. 11). Even the small town of Waldo, in Alachua County, was

affected by wildfire in 1998 with approximately 7,000 acres burned; the town was spared

major damage due to previous prescribed burns on the land where the fire ended (FDCA

& FDACS, 2004, p. 12).









Table 2-2. Keetch-Byram Drought Index
KBDI Units

0 -200


Description of Condition

Soil moisture and large class fuel moistures
are high and do not contribute much to fire
intensity. Typical of spring dormant season
following winter precipitation.


200 400 Typical of late spring, early growing
season. Lower litter and duff layers are
drying and beginning to contribute to fire
intensity.
400- 600 Typical of late summer, early fall. Lower
litter and duff layers actively contribute to
fire intensity and will burn actively.
600 800 Often associated with more severe drought
with increased wildfire occurrence. Intense
deep burning fires with significant
downwind spotting can be expected. Live
fuels can also be expected to bur actively
at these levels.

Drought

"Drought is a recurring phenomena that has plagued civilization throughout

history" (Heim, 2002, p. 1149). There are four different definitions of drought used based

on the areas that it affects; there is meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and

socioeconomic drought. "A measure of departure of precipitation from normal" is

meteorological drought whereas the "situation where the amount of moisture in the soil

no longer meets the needs of a particular crop" is agricultural drought (National Weather

Service [NWS], n.d.). Hydrological drought "occurs when surface and subsurface water

supplies are below normal" and socioeconomic drought "refers to the situation that

occurs when physical water shortages begin to affect people" (NWS, n.d.).

Several indices have been used in the past to measure moisture levels indicative of

drought. A recent collaborative effort produced the Drought Monitor. "Key parameters

[of the Drought monitor] include the PDI, CMI, soil moisture model percentiles, daily









stream flow percentiles, percent of normal precipitation, topsoil moisture ... generated by

the USDA, and a satellite-based Vegetation Health Index" (Heim, 2002, p. 1162). The

figure below illustrates the drought intensity levels and the national level map, which

includes an intensity key, drought impact types, the author of the report, and date of

release.


July 12, 2005
U.S. Drought Monitor Vd a 1.005












-QQ


nr]g Dnrouchm Imy act Tyt-es:
0 DO Abnormally Dry r' Delineates dominant impacts
[ D1 Drought Moderate A Agricultural (crops, pastures, -"
D2 Drought Severe grasslands)
D3 Drougnr Extreme H = Hydrological (water)
SD04 Drought Exceptional (No type = Both impacts) U
USDA ,
The Drought Monitor focuses on broad-scale conditions. f ........
Local conditions may vary. See accompanying text summary
for forecast statements. Released Thursday, July 14, 2005
http:lldrought.unl.eduldm Autho: Richard Tinker, NOAAINWS/NCEP/CPC
Figure 2-2. Drought Monitor sample report

Drought conditions following periods of increased vegetation growth are often

associated with increased wildfire incidents. In addition to potential destruction from fire,

drought conditions adversely affect agricultural production operations. Agricultural

drought conditions tend to cause more damage to crops than livestock. Crops like grains

and horticulture products depend on an uninterrupted water supply. During drought









conditions, irrigation water becomes a premium and many growers lose that year's crop

or elect to graze livestock on it (Fannin, 2002). In a recent drought affecting Texas, the

mid-June estimate of wheat, cotton, corn, sorghum and hay losses was at $316 million

(Fannin, 2002). Two years earlier, when the Rolling Plains region of the state received a

mere nine percent of normal rainfall, agricultural losses exceeded $1 billion (Fannin,

2000).

Human-Introduced, Transmitted, and/or Created Agents

Agroterrorism is "the use, or threatened use, of biological (to include toxins),

chemical, or radiological agents against some component of agriculture in such a way as

to adversely impact the agriculture industry or any component thereof, the economy, or

the consuming public" (Iowa State University, 2004). Many different agents can be

included under this definition.

Zoonotic agents like anthrax can infect livestock and humans, while fast-moving

foot and mouth disease rapidly infects cattle, sheep and hogs. Anthrax, though naturally

occurring, can be introduced intentionally by any human wishing to do harm or invoke a

fear response as the anthrax mailings after September 11th showed. Foot and mouth

disease could be introduced intentionally; however, it is also a threat through

unintentional introduction. Visitors to an area where foot and mouth disease is endemic

may not realize the disease's presence, come in contact with it and carry it back on their

footwear and/or clothing subsequently exposing naive livestock populations. Individuals

using bioterrorist agents to create widespread panic may be domestic such as a

disgruntled worker, or foreign, as in the case of Al Qaeda.

"Since 9/11 the nature and number of risks that the U. S. faces has increased" with

the resurfacing of chemical and biological weapon use (Rubin, 2004). The best line of









defense against agroterrorism is the diligent observation of the farm or ranch facility by

the operator. But as DeGraw's (2005) study of Florida beef cattle producers showed,

operators are not prepared to do this as they feel they do not have access to materials to

instruct them how to practice biosecurity on their farms and ranches and also feel that

there is only a small likelihood of an agroterrorism incident occurring on their operation.

Disaster Preparedness

"Since the 11 September attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in the

United States, there has been much concern worldwide with levels of community

emergency preparedness" (Perry & Lindell, 2003, p. 336). Perry and Lindell (2003) go on

to define emergency preparedness as:

Referring] to the readiness of a political jurisdiction to react constructively to
threats from the environment in a way that minimises the negative consequences of
impact for the health and safety of individuals and the integrity and functioning of
physical structures and systems (p. 338).

Planning can be elaborate or simple and depends on community size and/or the

frequency with which hazards strike (Perry & Lindell, 2003). As Perry and Lindell

(2003) point out, "there are many criteria which one could use to identify guidelines ...

Quarantelli (1982) used 10 such principles, as did Alexander (2003) and Lindell and

Perry (1992), while Rockett (1994) proposed 19" (p. 340). Some guidelines with

particular relevance to agricultural disaster preparedness include 1) the importance of

interorganizational coordination, 2) planning and management are two different functions

and 3) inclusion of a training component in disaster plans (Perry & Lindell, 2003).

With the increased emphasis placed on disaster preparedness, more agencies and

organizations have been brought into the disaster planning process, thus emphasizing the

need for coordination of their efforts (Perry & Lindell, 2003). Even in one area like









agriculture, several agencies handle the multitude of tasks associated with disaster

preparedness, response, and recovery. For example, Homeland Security Presidential

Directive Nine (2004) establishes a national policy to defend the agriculture and food

system against terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies" (p. 1). In order to

carry out this directive, a multitude of agencies are named that must mobilize to prepare,

respond and aid in recovery from a disaster of national significance. "To accomplish the

full range of emergency response functions requires that organizations be aware of each

other's missions, structures and styles of operation, the capabilities and limitations of the

communication system, and the mechanisms for coordinating the allocation of scarce

resources to different functional areas of the emergency response" (Perry & Lindell,

2003, p. 343). The planning phase of preparedness is the most convenient and desirable

time for developing and testing the organizational coordination needed.

The two functions of planning and management of disasters are, indeed, two

separate functions. "Confusing the two functions," Perry and Lindell (2003, p. 347) warn,

"leads to the poor performance of both." Perry and Lindell (2003) offer the following

distinction:

Planning is part of preparedness it requires identifying hazards to which the
community is vulnerable, the nature of the impacts that could occur, and the
geographical areas at risk... [and] also requires identifying the demands that a
disaster would impose upon emergency response organizations and the resources
(personnel, facilities, equipment and materials) that are needed by those
organizations in order to meet the emergency demands.

Management of the emergency response, on the other hand, involves performance
meeting the emergency demands by implementing the assessment, corrective,
protective and coordinating actions identified in the planning stage (p. 347).









Barriers Encountered During Preparedness and Response Operations

"Functionally, disaster preparedness ... includes a number of ... activities involved

in implementing and testing emergency plans and preparing for disaster response"

(Waugh, 1988, p. 113). Many issues may act as a barrier towards preparing for an as yet

unknown, but foreseeable disaster. These issues lie in both the public and organizational

domains. Varying knowledge levels, disproportionate resource dedication, lack of support

for preparedness programs, and general infrequency of disaster events are a few examples

of barriers to preparedness.

In a recent Mason-Dixon Polling and Research, Inc. (2005) telephone interview,

adults living in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal areas were asked a series of knowledge

based questions regarding hurricanes and hurricane preparedness. Considering the

number of people affected by the 2004 hurricane season and the intense amount of media

coverage surrounding the hurricanes, the interview results were staggering. "Overall,

89% failed the test" and "only 2% got a 'C' grade or better by answering 14 or more

correct" (Mason-Dixon Polling and Research, Inc., 2005, p. 1). Although there is

abundant planning information available in metropolitan newspapers and on the Web,

"only 53% of households say they have a plan if their home is threatened by a serious

hurricane" and "only 43% say they feel vulnerable to hurricanes or hurricane related

damage" (Mason-Dixon Polling and Research, Inc., 2005, p. 2).

In 2004, an eight-question survey was electronically administered to all Florida

Cooperative Extension Directors to survey the safety practices on Florida animal

production operations; one private producer was contacted (DeGraw, 2004). Of the nine

counties that responded to the survey, only seven provided answers for the disaster

preparedness questions. The answers indicated that Union, Marion, and Jackson counties









had no county disaster plans for livestock; others indicated that preparedness plans

existed for the equine and dairy sectors of their county's livestock industries. "It was

apparent that most counties in Florida did not have a disaster preparedness plan or have

the resources available to assist public livestock owners in a time of devastation"

(DeGraw, 2004, Conclusion).

Resource dedication is another barrier that affects citizens and organizations in

preparing for disasters. The term resource can be used to collectively refer to money,

time, manpower, and other inputs that citizens and organizations may utilize for disaster

preparedness. Waugh points out that "citizens and officials are more responsive to

programs that require only passive participation and do not have obvious economic costs"

and that "lack of fiscal resources" is one of "the largest impediments to effective state

and local efforts" (1988, p. 117, 123-124).

Lack of support and interest are additional factors which threaten disaster

preparedness. "'Hundred-year' floods and other infrequent occurrences do not excite

enough interest in planning efforts or encourage the commitment of public resources to

preparedness" (Waugh, 1988, p. 117). Moreover, disaster preparedness may not be

viewed comparatively with right-to-die or environmental pollution issues in the eyes of

political figures. Politicians have relatively short tenures in office and make decisions

based on what they believe their constituents will approve of; "thus they may not be

willing to commit scarce political and fiscal resources to programs that may or may not

be needed during their terms of office" (Waugh, 1988, p. 117).

Responding to a disaster and providing recovery efforts is a multiorganizational

effort. Preparing for a disaster should take a multiorganizational approach, too; however,









many governmental agencies often take supplemental roles rather than assume their lead

agency position and do "not provide necessary guidance and leadership" (Waugh, 1988,

p. 121). Local, state, and federal agencies may provide personnel and resources in

response to disasters depending on the disaster's scope, magnitude and duration of

impact. Many times during these response efforts, relations and communication between

the agencies and the agencies and the public become strained. "Vertical fragmentation

due to the division of powers between the federal and state governments and the limited

powers given local governments by states make decision making and program

coordination awkward at best and ineffective at worst. Horizontal fragmentation due to

the jurisdictional prerogatives of a multitude of agencies adds to the difficulties" (Waugh,

1988, p. 118).

Certain steps can be taken to resolve these disaster preparedness and response

barriers. Comfort and Cahill (1988) state four factors that can increase the capacity for

interorganizational problem-solving as

* Open and continual flow of information within and between organizations

* Interpersonal communication and trust between individuals across organizational
and jurisdictional lines

* Articulation and acknowledgement of professional values, goals, and norms used
by participating organizations to select, assess, and interpret information from the
disaster environment

* Reflection and feedback among the participating organizations to detect and correct
error and to adjust performance due to the changing demands of the disaster
environment. (p. 183)

Similarly, The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee

Final Report published four key solutions that were recommended for implementation in









reaction to repeated failures during the Hurricane Andrew response (Governor's Disaster

Planning and Response Review Committee, 1993, p. 3):

* Improve communications at, and among, all levels of government;
* Strengthen plans for evacuation, shelter, and post-disaster response and recovery;
* Enhance intergovernmental coordination; and
* Improve training

The aforementioned solutions could be summarized as collaboration.

"Collaboration is the process whereby several groups, agencies, or organizations make a

formal commitment to work together to accomplish a common mission [which] requires a

commitment to shared decision-making and allocation of resources related to activities

responding to mutually identified needs" (Bowenkamp, 2000, p. 208).

Disaster Education/Training Programs

One disaster planning guideline proposed by Perry and Lindell (2003) is that a

training component should exist as part of preparedness. Failure is likely when

organization members do not have knowledge of policies or procedures or how to operate

equipment; even basic functions require some formal or informal training. "Such training

would not only give direction to the individual role responsibilities, but should also give

some assistance in writing and updating a community's disaster plans" (Fischer, 1996, p.

214). "Training is consequently an integral part of the disaster planning process, and

when carefully attended to, is likely to yield high dividends in terms of the effectiveness

of emergency response" (Perry & Lindell, 2003, p. 346). However, "both preparedness

and mitigation have burgeoned at a rate that has outstripped the growth of training

programs, and hence demand for them has burgeoned more rapidly than it can be

satisfied" (Alexander, 2000, p. 89).









"The need for good education has been demonstrated by both the inability of

emergency organizations to respond during a disaster, and the tardiness of many people

in preparing early and adequately for the hazard" (King, 2000, p. 228). Federal, state, and

local emergency management organizations publish various preparedness materials for

residents, but many organizations do not provide adequate training for their disaster and

emergency personnel. "Preparedness and emergency planning for all forms of hazards

requires a detailed knowledge of risk assessment and the emergency planning process and

is not, as many believe, just the process of allocating human and material resources

through the use of various checklists" (Moseley, 2004, p. 29).

State Animal Response Team Programs

The State Animal Response Team (SART) concept was founded in North Carolina

after Hurricane Floyd (Davis, 2004). This animal-SART organization "manages the

combined efforts of government agencies, veterinary organizations, animal industry and

humane groups to more efficiently respond to animal emergencies, such as diseases and

natural disasters or incidences of terror" and "is considered a national leader in

implementing the Incident Command System (ICS) as a way to manage animal

emergencies during disasters" (Davis, 2004, p. 36). Last year, the United States

Department of Agriculture (USDA) "awarded the State Animal Response Team a

$250,000 grant to reproduce its model of animal emergency response in other states"

(Davis, 2004, p. 36). North Carolina's SART has a Web page on which it has posted

training registration information, county links, its organizational chart and its quarterly

newsletter, The Carrier Pigeon; the site is accessible at .

Colorado's State Animal Response Team, upon establishment in 2003, was the

second SART in the nation (Davis, 2004). "Colorado already has four agencies dealing









with emergency issues but the groups weren't extremely well-connected, until SART was

established" (Davis, 2004, p. 36). Colorado "is progressing well at the County (CART)

level after a year of facilitating training" although it "is struggling a little" due to

funding issues according to Scott Cotton (personal communication, July 5, 2005), an

Extension Disaster Education Network contact at Colorado State University. Colorado

also has a SART Web page set up which houses the same information as North

Carolina's; it is located at the following Web address, .

In addition to the SART program, Colorado has also begun development of

Agricultural Disaster Response Teams. These teams are a cooperative development effort

between the Colorado Department of Agriculture and Colorado State University (S.

Cotton, personal communication, July 5, 2005). Details on the number, personnel

composition and purpose of these teams were not found.

Additional states with animal response teams in development include Pennsylvania,

New York, Connecticut and Kansas. Pennsylvania was to have received funding from the

$250,000 USDA grant in 2004 (Davis, 2004). In 2005, PETsMART Charities granted

SART $40,000 "to be matched with state funds to develop two new state emergency

response programs using the SART model;" these funds were subsequently awarded to

Connecticut and New York (Trachtman, 2005, p. 1). Stafford (2004) reported that Kansas

was looking to expand the state's animal disaster plan by modeling North Carolina's

SART, although at the time of the report many details were not finalized.

Other Agricultural and/or Animal Emergency-Response Teams

The United States is not the only country concerned with better preparation in the

event that a disaster affects animals and/or agriculture. Australia has a Rapid Response

Team (RRT) that was formed in 2003 in response to recommendations made after the









completion of Exercise Minotaur, a simulation of a foot and mouth disease outbreak

(Thomas, 2004, p. 61). The RRT is composed of "members from all jurisdictions who

were to be trained and available at short notice to establish disease control centres

anywhere in Australia" (Thomas, 2004, p. 61). These teams are primarily made up of

veterinarians who can travel to specific areas in the country that may need to be

quarantined for an animal disease outbreak; these teams do not operate for other

agricultural emergencies, only animal disease outbreaks. "It is clear that most

jurisdictions support the [RRT] concept in principle, but pivotal issues affecting its

continuation, such as longer term funding arrangements, remain" (Callan & Flaherty,

2004, p. 39).

The Large Animal Response Team, or LART, concept was founded in South

Carolina. LART exists to aid in the rescue of large animals such as cattle and horses. "An

important function of the Large Animal Emergency Response Team [is] to assist other

county agencies (Sheriff, EOD, Fire Department, Animal Control, etc.) with any

emergencies involving large animals" ("Large Animal Emergency Rescue," 2002). These

rescue operations are life-saving when a horse and rider fall over a cliff, cattle get stuck

in deep mud or any other situation where a large animal needs assistance to survive.

Disaster Education/Training Program Evaluations

What materials or program types can be expected, at least preliminarily, to provide

an adequate, interesting educational experience for participants in order to effectively

educate personnel in the basic knowledge, expectations, duties, and responsibilities

needed for preparedness and response? Very few evaluations of training materials or the

knowledge gained from disaster or emergency education programs have been published.

Two evaluations, one on bushfire preparedness materials and the other on knowledge









gained from a New York City nurse training program, are two examples found to be

relevant. Aside from these examples, training simulations have been identified as being

effective in disaster and emergency training.

Rohrmann (2000) conducted an empirical evaluation of the Community Fireguard

program in Victoria, Australia in order to determine how the materials used for the

program were perceived by residents. A survey was conducted in addition to focus

groups. Table 2-3 is adapted from a full table of results presented by Rohrmann (2000).

Table 2-3. Residents' views on bushfire preparedness information

Brochures: Content & length Information should be factual, concise,
presented in point form or ordered lists
and be relevant to the specific target
audience
Suggestion of a booklet of detachable
brochures on different issues so
residents can keep relevant ones and
discard others
Preference for compact, brief brochures

Presentation/layout/style of brochure Illustrations very important; colored
illustrated brochures preferred
Pictures essential to add tone and attract
attention
Diagrams and drawings often more
instructive than photos
Lists to check and fill-in liked, but not
utilized much

Information from the Internet/ Residents not yet connected cannot
World Wide Web imagine the potential; little enthusiasm
for seeking bushfire information on the
World Wide Web
Residents connected not very familiar
with possibilities; skepticism regarding
relevance; accessibility in emergency
situations questioned









Overall, the print material and videos that residents were asked to evaluate were rated

favorably. In his conclusions, Rohrmann (2000) states that "while print material is

reasonably well-researched, future investigations should pay increased attention to newer

means such as CD-ROM's and explore the feasibility and efficiency of improving

disaster preparedness via InterNet/WWW use (where both text and audio-visual material

can be presented)" (p. 19).

In 2001, an evaluation of the emergency preparedness training program for New

York City public health school nurses was conducted to assess whether the training

program significantly increased the nurses' knowledge of emergency preparedness and

whether the program affected their attitudes and intentions (Qureshi, Gershon, Merrill,

Calero-Breckheimer, Murrman, Gebbie, Moskin, May, Morse & Sherman, 2004). To do

this, a pre-test with immediate post-test was utilized. A repeat post-test was conducted

one month later. The training program was conducted in two four-hour sessions and

participants received 1) a copy of the program slides, 2) a letter from the health

commissioner outlining the NYC-DOHMN policy on employee responsiveness during

emergencies, 3) a brochure on public health worker emergency preparedness

competencies, 4) a copy of the American Nurses' Association Scope and Standards of

Public Health Nursing Practice, 5) a sample of a personal emergency plan, and 6) the

ARC brochure on family emergency planning (Qureshi et al., 2004, p. 244).

After data analysis, the pre-, post- and repeat post-test results were compared

revealing that the nurses scored highly in the knowledge areas. In reporting their attitudes

and intentions, nurses "reported that they considered public health preparedness to be a

high priority" and subsequently showed marked improvement in the post-tests (Qureshi









et al., 2004, p. 245). Repeat post-test results were significantly higher than the immediate

post-test likely due in part to the World Trade Center attacks and the anthrax mailings

(Qureshi et al., 2004). In addition to the tests, an evaluation was also provided to

randomly selected participants. Respondents rated the training program highly in terms of

clarity, organization, learning experience value, and the reinforcement of knowledge.

Qureshi et al. (2004) concludes that "the significant improvements that occurred between

Tl and T2 on the overall knowledge score and attitudinal parameters suggest that training

programs on emergency preparedness can result in knowledge gains and shift in

attitudes" (p. 249).

In addition to an educational program itself being effective, the parts that constitute

the program should possess some degree of effectiveness as well. Simulations, also

known as table-top exercises, table-top simulations, scenarios, and drills, have been used

positively in training disaster personnel and educating residents beyond what training

materials alone provide (Simpson, 2002; Payne, 1999; Alexander, 2000; Lehtola, Brown

& Wang, 2005). Simulations can be live, staged events, acted out events in a smaller-

scale venue, or a table-top, paper-based activity held in the classroom. Through a

simulation, participants can gain experience using the language, procedures, and

equipment required for actual disaster response without the expense or time needed for

live simulations. Simulations are "a versatile means of training emergency personnel, as

[they] bridge the gap between classroom instruction in the abstract and practical training

during real disasters" (Alexander, 2000, p. 89).

"A typical scenario requires a context of hazard, vulnerability and risk, all of which

must be considered in terms of both their intensities and their expression in geographical









space" (Alexander, 2000, p. 89). For example, Exercise Teiliy% was a simulation in

Australia completed in an operational environment that required participants to perform

their roles' functions although field operations, communication with other countries and

disease control center establishment was not done (Scott & East, 2004).

"It is no good having a plan unless there is confidence that it is both feasible and

will work on the day [needed]" (Payne, 1999, p. 111). Thus, a simulation is an exemplary

way to test an organization's current plan. A number of people should be involved,

namely all that would potentially be called upon to carry out the mission. This includes

the overall command team, leaders of associated teams, members of associated teams,

communications staff, logistic support staff, any specialist services, media spokespeople,

and acting liaison officers for other agencies (Payne, 1999). Simpson (2002) points out

that there are problems that are associated with simulations, such as

* It is difficult to simulate large-scale chaos.

* In drills, all agency representatives are there to staff the EOC, while, in a real
earthquake [or similar disaster], some will be unable to get to the site.

* The local response system is usually not strained to the breaking-point as would
happen in a real event (i.e. most drills have manageable scenarios).

* The drills rarely involve neighbourhood or community residents, except in the form
of volunteers that may show up at the EOC. (p. 61)

About Florida's State Agricultural Response Team

After its initial formation in 2003, Florida's State Agricultural Response Team

(SART) began to plan out its mission and goals according to Dr. Gregory Christy,

Florida's State ESF-17 Coordinator with the Department of Agriculture and Consumer

Services (personal communication, April 26, 2005). It was decided that Florida's SART

would not follow the plan of the national animal response team model implemented in









North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Colorado, and New York. Florida intended on taking all

facets of agriculture, not just animals, into consideration.

SART operates at the state, regional, and county levels with the support of the

following agencies (Christy, Wang, Lehtola & Brown, 2005, p. 11):

* Florida Departments of: Agriculture and Consumer Services' Divisions of Animal
Industry (FDACS-DAI), Plant Industry (FDACS-DPI), Agriculture and
Environmental Services (FDACS-AES) and Dairy (FDACS-DoD); Community
Affairs' Division of Emergency Management (FDCA-DEM)

* USDA: Farm Service Agency (USDA-FSA); Natural Resources Conservation
Service (USDA-NRCS); Rural Development (USDA-RD); Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services (USDA-APHIS-VS)

* University of Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS);
College of Veterinary Medicine(UF-CVM); Department of Plant Pathology

* Florida Veterinary Medical Association (FVMA)

* Florida Animal Control Association (FACA)

* Southeast Regional Office of the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)

* Florida Cattlemen's Association (FCA)

* Florida Sunshine Horse Council (FSHC)

* Florida Farm Bureau (FFB)

The State Agricultural Response Team has gained commitments from these

participating agencies to promote the sharing of information and resources, as applicable,

provide personnel to help accomplish the goals of SART and promote SART among their

organization and other organizations that may benefit at all levels of operation.

Regional boundaries are determined by the FDCA Division of Emergency

Management's seven disaster response regions. Functional regional operations have yet

to be enacted. Local level involvement is through county SARTs. Rather than assign an









exclusive name like County Agriculture Response Team, or CART, it was decided that

everyone is a SART member and should be referred to as such.

A pilot program to encourage creation of county SARTs commenced in 2005.

Through the pilot program, participating counties will use the Creating a County SART

manual and provide feedback on its usefulness. The manual will then be revised and

included as part of the package being sent to all Florida counties in 2006. Counties

committed to participate as pilots include Santa Rosa, Bradford, Marion, Hernando,

Pinellas, Collier, Jackson, and Okeechobee.

Official formation of a recognized Advisory Board took place in November 2005.

Board members are representatives from the various agencies and organizations

committed to SART, as listed above. The Board meets quarterly to discuss recent and

upcoming SART business such as Web site updates, new training material suggestions

and issues affecting SART.

During the 2004 hurricane season, the newly formed state team was able to perform

hurricane response efforts utilizing SART for the first time. "SART supported the [EOC]

as well as field activities" like "participating agencies helping] get people and supplies

where they were needed... connecting] University of Florida veterinary staff and

students with animal shelters in hurricane-hit areas... [and] finding] foster homes for

pets across the state" (Eversole, 2005, p. 1). SART also "made hundreds of producer

assessments;.., provided emergency feed and water to livestock and small animal shelters;

and coordinated receipt and distribution of small and large animal feed, animal crates,

fencing, and animal health supplies in the impacted areas" (Compton, 2004 September

22, p. 1). Eversole (2005) quoted Dr. Greg Christy, Florida's state ESF-17 Coordinator as









saying, "SART had an impact, and we learned many lessons that will help us be more

effective in the future" (p. 1).

In 2005, SART was again called to action; this time in response to Hurricane

Dennis. Operating out of the Defuniak Springs UF-IFAS Extension Office under the

direction of state emergency operations center ESF-17 Alternate Coordinator, Dr. Sam

Lamb, and field Incident Commander, Mr. David Perry, the response team "worked

effectively within the Incident Command System structure with the numerous SART

agency participants" (Christy & Perry, 2005). "Eleven damage assessment and response

teams made 141 facility site visits on Tuesday, July 12, and 135 visits on Wednesday,

July 13" (Christy & Perry, 2005). As a result of their hard work, "within 72 hours post-

impact, all needs that were requested by county ESF-17 coordinators were met, and

damage assessments were completed" (Christy & Perry, 2005).

County and state SART members may participate in a variety of activities. These

activities have been classified into four areas: training, outreach, response, and

networking. Training activities include attending SART-sanctioned training events and

presenting a SART training unit at a county SART member meeting. Participation in

additional training opportunities separate from the SART organization is encouraged as

well. Outreach activities include conference or county fair participation with a SART

display and marketing materials or a meeting with a local organization who participates

in disaster response to solicit their cooperation with SART. Response activities are

exactly as they sound; when a disaster strikes and affects animals and/or agriculture,

SART members will be called upon to provide personnel and resources to begin recovery









efforts. Networking is omnipresent in all training, outreach, and response activities and is

a founding SART principle.

In 2005, federal fund availability and inclusion in the state Strategic Plan provided

SART the opportunity to purchase additional equipment for use in response and recovery

operations and marketing appearances as needed (G. Christy, personal communication,

August 26, 2005). This equipment is intended to be used by SART personnel to carry out

SART directives for a situation. A sample of new SART equipment includes

* Enclosed tandem axel trailers and flat bed trailers

o Mobile vet unit, companion animal trailers, Incident Command Post (ICP)
equipment trailer, flat bed for hauling fence panels and others

o Some have generators and air conditioning units

* ICP equipment such as laminators, global positioning system (GPS) units, printers,
paper and digital cameras

* Field equipment such as water tanks, livestock fence panels, disinfection
equipment, Tyvek coveralls, gloves and generators

* Comfort equipment for responders such as tables, chairs, sleeping bags and ice
chests.

Curriculum

With its mission "to empower Floridians through training and resources to enhance

animal and agricultural disaster response" and its goals stated, the SART organization

was ready to look at the development of training materials that its members could utilize

(Christy et al., 2005, p. 4). A list of potential topics was identified and a contract secured

with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS) to

develop and write the training media. Subject matter specialists were contacted by state

SART members to draft notes and/or slide presentations of the material requested.









The structure of the curriculum was developed with consideration given to the

materials' intended use. Writers had to assume that the instructors presenting the material

to the county SARTs, and other groups, were not experts on the subject matter; all

language had to be in nonscientific, common terminology.

Broad subject areas, called modules, constitute the first curriculum layer. The

current modules under development include ("SART curriculum," n.d.):

* Pets & Disasters
* Livestock & Horses
* Aquaculture
* Plant Issues
* Pest Issues
* Coordination & Law Enforcement
* Climate-Based Decision Tools

Within the modules, there are more specific topics called units. Several units can be

available for a module. For example, Aquatic Animal Diseases, Emergency Management

and Quarantine ofAquaculture Facilities, and Emergency Management and Quarantine

ofAquaculture Facilities: Table-Top Simulation are all examples of units within the

aquaculture module. Each unit consists of a lesson plan and a participant workbook.

"The lesson plan provides step-by-step guidance for the instructor to prepare for the

workshop, learn the material, teach the material, test the participants and have the

participants evaluate the program" (Wang, Lehtola & Brown, 2005, p. 4). An

introduction, session outline, specific learning objectives, learning environment/aids,

before the workshop, beginning the lesson, resources and summary and wrap-up part are

standard on every lesson plan. The subject matter determines the number and length of

the remaining parts in between these standard sections.









In June 2005, a newsletter was started to aid in the communication of news to

Florida's SART members. The monthly newsletter, The Sentinel, is currently sent out

electronically to all training event participants and the Florida SART member list-serv on

the Web site. The newsletter, while not necessarily a part of the curriculum, reports on

updates to the training media to the membership, provides monthly tips from the training

units, and current events. In addition, The Sentinel delivers short articles on topics

relevant to the membership which includes research papers, conference announcements,

safety tips, and helpful resources, among other disaster-related topics.

Training Events

After being cancelled in 2004, and subsequently postponed due to Tropical Storm

Bonnie and Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne, the first regional SART

training events were rescheduled and conducted in 2005. The first training event was held

in Kissimmee at the UF-IFAS Extension Office located in the Osceola Heritage Park

Complex March 2 through 4, 2005. South Florida's training event was held at the UF-

IFAS Everglades Research and Education Center in Belle Glade April 20 through 22,

2005. The triad of training events was wrapped up with the final event in Tallahassee at

the Connor Administration Building's Eyster Auditorium May 18 through 20, 2005.

The training events shared common agendas filled with workshops and break-out

sessions for more in-depth learning opportunities. A networking session was sponsored

by a SART-supporting organization at each, as well, to promote interaction between

participants. An agenda booklet detailing the schedule of workshops from a training

event is located in the appendices.









Web Site

The State Agricultural Response Team maintains a home page located at

. The Web site allows SART members to look up information and

contact other SART members, among other functions. A members-only area is accessed

with a log-in and password. The members-only area is under development; current

members-only benefits include list-serv enrollment, access to a veterinary database, the

ability to view all members' profiles, subscription to the monthly SART newsletter, The

Sentinel, and the ability to post events to the calendar.

Training event registration was handled via the Web site; new member sign-up is

also coordinated there. Archives of news articles and The Sentinel have their own pages

on the site. SART training media lesson plans, participant workbooks and slide

presentations are available for download from the site, as well. A photo gallery is

maintained featuring hurricane damage photos taken by SART assessment team members

and training event photos.

Chapter Summary

Florida's agriculture industry is diverse with significant contributions from citrus,

vegetables and melons, field crops, foliage and floriculture, and livestock and livestock

products. Several types of disasters threaten each of these sectors: hurricanes and tropical

storms, floods, wildfires, drought, pest and disease introductions, and agroterrorism.

Preparedness for any one of these disasters is a function of planning for them. However,

barriers exist and are encountered during planning in addition to response. One way to

overcome and remedy these barriers, in addition to others, is to have a training

component as part of the disaster planning phase.









Several national-model State Animal Response Teams exist; North Carolina and

Colorado are the most established with New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and

Kansas in the planning phases of development. No research is published on these

programs. Florida's State Agricultural Response Team was established in 2003 and began

work on securing agency and organization support, writing curriculum, developing a

Web site, and related tasks. Since its establishment, Florida SART has held three training

events, purchased equipment, responded to several hurricanes, installed an Advisory

Board, and completed several training units as part of its curriculum.














CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to identify areas of improvement within the Florida

State Agricultural Response Team (SART) training media and training event utilizing

data obtained from participant questionnaires and to thereby recommend specific

improvements to enhance the effectiveness of the program.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to:

Study Objective 3-1: Describe the need for agricultural disaster education.

Study Objective 3-2: Identify similar programs to the Florida SART program.

Study Objective 3-3: Describe Florida's SART program.

Study Objective 3-4: Identify participant perceptions of SART training program strengths
and weaknesses.

Study Objective 3-5: Recommend specific program improvements.

The objectives of the survey were to:

Survey Objective 3-1: Determine whether participants attended at least one of five
specific workshops.

Survey Objective 3-2: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the slide
presentations utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 3-3: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the SART
Participant Workbooks utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 3-4: Identify respondent perceptions of all, not just the five previously
specified, workshops held over the duration of the training event.









Survey Objective 3-5: Identify respondents' overall impressions of the training event.

Survey Objective 3-6: Obtain respondents' disaster perceptions and demographics.

Data Sources

Data for this study came from SART training event participants at two separate,

regional events. SART training event participants were chosen as the sample population

because of their recent experience with the training media and event; these two samples

are being used to make statements about the defined population of Florida SART

members. This experience provides the data needed to evaluate the training media

produced for the SART program and its training event.

The events were held on April 20-22, 2005 and May 18-20, 2005 in Belle Glade

and Tallahassee, Florida, respectively. There were 84 individuals that attended the Belle

Glade SART Training Event from which 72 survey responses were garnered, a response

rate of 85.7%. The 20 presenters in attendance were not provided questionnaires to

complete and are not included in the sample total of 84. There were 136 individuals that

attended the Tallahassee SART Training Event from which 100 survey responses were

garnered, a response rate of 73.5%. Again, presenters, even if they had attended the entire

event, were not provided questionnaires to complete due to their insight regarding the

proceedings and inevitable bias; there were 21 presenters in Tallahassee.

Questionnaire Design

Questionnaire design was undertaken with consideration given to Dillman's (2000)

tailored design methods in order to produce a highly effective instrument that satisfied

the objectives set forth. A copy of the questionnaire is provided in Appendix B. The

instrument consists of 60 questions divided among six sections. Each section is









constructed around the following topics to satisfy the six aforementioned survey

objectives:

* Questions 1-5 Participation in workshop sessions
* Questions 6-11 SART PowerPoint slide presentations
* Questions 12-19 SART Participant Workbooks
* Questions 20-30 Workshop effectiveness
* Questions 31-42 Training event overall impressions
* Questions 43-60 General disaster perceptions and demographics

The purpose of the first five questions was to determine whether or not the

respondent had attended at least one of the five listed workshops to satisfy Survey

Objective 3-1. These workshops were the ones that utilized SART training media

participant workbooks and slide presentations. In order to determine respondents'

perceptions about the training media utilized, they must have attended the workshop that

utilized the media. If a respondent had not attended at least one of the five workshops,

they were directed to skip to Question 20. Only one respondent answered no to all; this

respondent correctly proceeded to Question 20.

A specific set of training media were used at each of the training events. This

decision was made to provide respondents a consistent group of media from which to

base their opinion of the training media when surveyed; each sample was asked to

evaluate the same five training units. Additionally, these training units were not altered

between events. The training units utilized during the training event and evaluated by

respondents include:

* Introducing SART
* Introducing Florida Aquaculture
* Aquatic Animal Diseases
* Emergency Management and Quarantine of Aquaculture Facilities
* Pets & Disasters: Personal Planning









The next construct, addressed with six questions, related to respondents'

perceptions regarding the slide presentations designed and used for the five workshops

listed above; respondents were asked if the slides were easy to understand, contained

enough information, were a valuable tool and, most importantly, would they use the slide

presentations if they were to train a county SART. These slide presentations have a

specific visual background, layout and inclusion of learning objectives and resources.

The presentations were designed to complement the lesson plans and participant

workbooks. These questions were guided by Survey Objective 3-2.

Eight questions comprised the construct related to respondents' opinions of the

participant workbooks provided for the five workshops. In order to determine an overall

opinion of the workbooks, respondents answered questions asking about the workbooks'

organization, printing, usefulness as a reference and whether or not they would utilize the

workbook to train a county SART. This construct's questions intend to satisfy Survey

Objective 3-3.

Eleven questions focused on workshop effectiveness. The questions asked about

the knowledge level of the presenters, the learning objectives, level of difficulty, and the

time it took to complete the workshop, among other items. In addition, Question 29 asked

if the workshops fulfilled the respondents' reasons for attending. These eleven questions

intend to satisfy Survey Objective 3-4.

Twelve questions asked respondents to rate their overall experience at the training

event in order to satisfy Survey Objective 3-5. These questions asked about the

objectives, whether the activities supported the objectives and whether it was a









motivational experience. Additional questions asked about the facility and services

provided.

The final eighteen questions, to fulfill Survey Objective 3-6, focused on gathering

perceptions on Florida's risk for disasters, SART's role, and professional effectiveness

gained as a result of attending the training event. Seven questions focus on the

participant's volunteer work levels and organizations they support. Finally, the

educational level is asked to be reported and Internet use reflected upon and reported as

well.

For ease of completion and increased response rate, the questions are in a booklet

format and printed on light green paper. The paper used was 11 inches by 14 inches,

folded and stapled along the spine. Questions are listed in single columns with some in

shaded tables to allow for easier navigation of the questionnaire. Answer choices for the

questions include "Strongly Agree=5/Agree=4/Neither Agree Nor

Disagree=3/Disagree=2/Strongly Disagree=l" scales, "Yes or No," "Check only one"

and "Mark all that apply." One open-ended question and three open-ended answer

choices were included as well.

Answers from all items, other than open-ended questions, were measured using

Likert-type scales for the purpose of analysis. Questions disregarded or marked

incorrectly by respondents were coded and treated as missing when inputting the data

into the statistical software. For Question 30, which was open-ended, anything written on

the lines provided was coded a one and recorded; if nothing was written, a zero was

recorded during data entry. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version

11.5 software was used to generate frequencies, mean response figures and post-hoc









Cronbach's alpha coefficients for individual questions and construct sections of the

questionnaire.

Pilot Test

To test the validity of the instrument and its effectiveness, the instrument was pilot

tested at the Kissimmee SART Training Event held March 2-4, 2005. A total of 83

questionnaires were completed by those in attendance the final day of the training event.

A precise count of all participants in attendance was not obtained due to no formal

registration at the training event; therefore, no response rate can be stated. This issue was

corrected for the Belle Glade and Tallahassee training events. Results from the pilot were

reviewed by the principle investigator and a graduate research committee member to

determine whether instrument corrections or modifications were warranted.

The problem occurring most frequently was the selection of more than one answer

for questions. To correct this, the phrase "CHECK ONLY ONE" was added to the

existing specification directing them to select the best answer. The second issue identified

by pilot test responses, was the use of acronyms in answers written by the respondents.

This was particularly apparent in question 55, but occurred elsewhere as well. Many

organizations can share the same acronym and any speculation as to what each stands for

could be misleading. In order to prevent excessive acronym usage, the directive, "Please

specify with full names (no abbreviations or acronyms)" was written in the final survey

instrument. Formatting adjustments were completed to some of the demographic

questions to clarify the answer choices and provide better flow to the instrument.

Post-hoc Cronbach's alpha coefficients on the pilot test exhibited a highly reliable

instrument. As a result of this reliability, the two data sets acquired from respondent









questionnaires from the Belle Glade and Tallahassee training events were combined to

form one aggregate data set. The coefficients for each construct are as follows:

Table 3-1. Pilot test Cronbach's alpha coefficients
Post-Hoc Cronbach's Alpha
Construct Focus Coefficient
Participation in workshop sessions 0.50
SART PowerPoint slide presentations 0.88
SART Participant Workbooks 0.89
Workshop effectiveness 0.84
Training event overall impressions 0.78
General disaster perceptions and demographics 0.39

Procedures

Questionnaires were completed by SART training event participants (event

aggregate N=220, n=172) during a predetermined time slot during the final workshop at

the Belle Glade and Tallahassee training events. The time slot on the agenda was

designated as "SART Action Plan." The questionnaire administration was preceded by a

scripted speech which introduced the participants to the study and explained the survey

instrument, the survey purpose and their rights as research participants. This scripted

speech was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (UFIRB); a

copy of the script is included as Appendix C. After the completion of the speech, the

principle investigator, assisted by Dr. Greg Christy, Mr. David Perry, Mr. Victor Crews

and Mr. Gary Painter, distributed the questionnaires to participants.

Participants were provided 15 uninterrupted minutes to complete the

questionnaires. Attached to their surveys, as a token of appreciation, was one magnet

emblazoned with the SART emblem. Participants placed the completed questionnaires

into marked boxes as they exited the event venue. If 50% or more of the 60 questions









were refused, then the questionnaire was not included in the analysis and results

reporting; no questionnaires had this percentage of questions refused.

Chapter Summary

As part of the methods and procedures, the study's purpose and objectives were

recounted. Data were obtained from two data sets consisting of SART training event

participants who filled out the 60-question questionnaire designed for this study. The

questionnaire was pilot tested to determine construct validity at the Kissimmee training

event. No areas of the questionnaire had critically high refusal. Minor adjustments were

completed on the questionnaire prior to administration at the Belle Glade and Tallahassee

training events. After a scripted introductory speech, respondents were provided with 15

minutes to complete the questionnaires. Questionnaire booklets were turned in by the

respondents upon leaving the event venue.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to identify areas of improvement within the Florida

State Agricultural Response Team (SART) training media and training event utilizing

data obtained from participant questionnaires and to thereby recommend specific

improvements to enhance the effectiveness of the program.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to:

Study Objective 4-1: Describe the need for agricultural disaster education.

Study Objective 4-2: Identify similar programs to the Florida SART program.

Study Objective 4-3: Describe Florida's SART program.

Study Objective 4-4: Identify participant perceptions of SART training program strengths
and weaknesses.

Study Objective 4-5: Recommend specific program improvements.

The objectives of the survey were to:

Survey Objective 4-1: Determine whether participants attended at least one of five
specific workshops.

Survey Objective 4-2: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the slide
presentations utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 4-3: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the SART
Participant Workbooks utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 4-4: Identify respondent perceptions of all, not just the five previously
specified, workshops held over the duration of the training event.









Survey Objective 4-5: Identify respondents' overall impressions of the training event.

Survey Objective 4-6: Obtain respondents' disaster perceptions and demographics.

Results and Discussion

The first questionnaire construct asked respondents which of five specific

workshops they attended; these workshops were the ones conducted with SART training

media slide presentations. Nearly all (97.7%, N=168) respondents indicated that they had

attended the Introducing SART workshop, the first general workshop for the training

event. One hundred thirty-six respondents (79.1%) attended Introducing Florida

Aquaculture. One hundred twenty-four respondents (72.1%) indicated that they had

attended the Pets and Disasters: Personal Planning workshop. A total of 120

respondents (69.8%) reported attending the Emergency Management and Quarantine of

Aquaculture Facilities workshop. One hundred and two respondents (59.3%) affirmed

that they had attended the break-out workshops entitled Aquatic Animal Diseases.

Respondents were required to indicate that they attended at least one of these workshops

to complete Questions 6 through 19. All respondents indicated having attended at least

one of the five listed workshops. The post-hoc Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this first

construct was calculated at 0.51.

Respondents' feelings regarding the slide presentations utilized in the indicated

workshops were addressed in the next construct. Table 4-1 illustrates the means and

standard deviations for each question. The summated mean for the construct was 4.24

with a standard deviation of 0.66. The post-hoc Cronbach's alpha for the construct was

0.87. Each question had answer choices that were Likert-type scale from "Strongly

Agree=5" to "Strongly Disagree=1." The summated mean lies within the Agree range of

the Likert-type scale used.









Table 4-1. Respondent opinions of SART PowerPoint presentations
Std.
N Mean Deviation
The content of the PowerPoint presentations) 169 4.33 0.53
169 4.33 0.53
was easy to understand
The PowerPoint presentations) contained enough
information to sufficiently explain the topic being 169 4.22 0.62
discussed
The formatting of the PowerPoint presentations) 168 4.27 0.60
168 4.27 0.60
was clear and easy to read
The PowerPoint presentations) are a valuable
166 4.33 0.70
tool in conducting the workshop
If I were to train a county SART, I would use the
167 4.24 0.69
SART PowerPoint presentations
In comparing workshops WITH and WITHOUT
official SART PowerPoint presentations,
workshops with official SART PowerPoint 163 4.03 0.84
presentations were more effective than those
without
Summated values 4.24 0.66

The third construct addressed the respondents' perceptions about the participant

workbook used for each workshop they indicated they had attended. Table 4-2 illustrates

the means and standard deviations for each question. The summated mean for the

construct was 4.11 with a standard deviation of 0.75. The post-hoc Cronbach's alpha for

this construct was 0.88. Answer choices were again "Strongly Agree=5" to "Strongly

Disagree=l." This summated mean is in the Agree range of the Likert-type scale used.

Table 4-2. Respondent opinions of SART participant workbooks
Std.
N Mean Deviation
The Participant Workbook was organized in a
168 3.97 0.75
logical manner
The Workbook will be a useful reference after the
169 4.14 0.72
training event
Reproductions of the PowerPoint presentation
slides, with space for taking notes, was helpful
The slide reproductions were easy to read
167 3.87 0.92









Table 4-2. Continued.
Adequate room for note-taking was provided in
the wob166 4.31 0.67
the workbook
The Participant Workbooks are a valuable tool in
168 4.23 0.66
the workshop sessions
If I were to train a county SART, I would use the
168 4.18 0.73
SART Participant Workbooks
In comparing workshops WITH and WITHOUT
official SART Participant Workbooks, workshops 164 4.05 0.81
with official SART Participant Workbooks were
more effective than those without
Summated values 4.11 0.75

Respondents' feelings regarding every workshop composing the entire training

event, not just the workshops they previously indicated they had attended, were the focus

of the next construct. Table 4-3 illustrates the means and standard deviations for each

question. The summated mean for the construct was 4.07 with a standard deviation of

0.72. The post-hoc Cronbach's alpha calculated for this construct was 0.81. Answer

choices for these questions were the "Strongly Agree=5" to "Strongly Disagree=l" scale.

The summated mean is in the Agree range of the Likert-type scale used.

When asked if the workshops fulfilled their reasons for attending, 62.2% (N=107)

participants said yes, while 27.3% (N=47) said yes, but not to the full extent. Only 7.6%

(N=13) said the workshops did not fulfill their reasons for attending the training event.

No answer or an invalid answer selection was recorded for just 2.9% (N=5) of responses.

Table 4-3. Respondent opinions of all workshops at the training event
Std.
N Mean Deviation
The workshops' learning objectives were clear
171 4.04 0.74

The workshop procedures and assignments 167 4.11 0.62
167 4.11 0.62
supported the learning objectives
The presenters were knowledgeable on the topics 171 4.49 0.63
they171 4.49 0.63presented
they presented









Table 4-3. Continued.
The level of difficulty of the material was in line
i170 3.95 0.76
with my expectations
The information presented was useful for disaster
169 4.04 0.72
planning and response
The information presented was useful in
168 3.98 0.80
improving my professional effectiveness
Discussion of the topics was encouraged 168 4.06 0.76
168 4.06 0.76
Learning objectives were achieved by the end of
h w o 171 4.01 0.67
the workshop
The time it took to complete each workshop was
a a 169 3.95 0.75
adequate
Overall section values 4.07 0.72

When prompted to recommend any topics for future training event workshops, 60

participants (34.9%) wrote in a suggestion. If nothing was written, the answer was

coded as a missing during data entry. Appendix E lists, verbatim, the answers written

by respondents on the lines provided on the questionnaire. While some write-ins were

not actual topic ideas, there were some valid suggestions. Ten requests for more hands-

on scenario practice were provided. This also includes a specific request to practice

incident command system. The second most frequently requested topic, with six

requests, was to learn what to expect if called on to respond. Four people also indicated

that they had no suggestions for additional workshop topics. Three people stated the

desire to learn how to start a county SART. There were also three requests to have

information on captive wildlife issues. Other topics suggested include contact phone

numbers and addresses of resources, information on hurricanes, details on chemical and

oil spills, post response procedures, handling large animals and more on law

enforcement.

Respondents' opinions about the entire training event were addressed. Answer

choices were the same scale as before, "Strongly Agree=5" to "Strongly Disagree=1."









Table 4-4 illustrates the means and standard deviations for each question. The summated

mean for the construct was 4.05 with a standard deviation of 0.72. Calculation of the

post-hoc Cronbach's alpha for this construct yielded 0.80. This construct's mean is in the

Agree range of the Likert-type scale used.

Table 4-4. Respondent opinions of training event
Std.
N Mean Deviation
The Training Event objectives were clear
172 4.08 0.65
The Training Event procedures and assignments 172 4.10 0.60
supported the learning objectives
The Training Event format was appropriate to 172 4.02 0.67
*172 4.02 0.67
achieve its goal of educating participants
The Training Event was a motivational experience 170 3.77 0.88
170 3.77 0.88
The facility hosting the Training Event was
satisfactory in terms of overall quality and needed 171 4.06 0.86
amenities
Workshop sessions contributed to the overall
170 4.07 0.65
quality of the Training Event
The food and beverage provided was satisfactory 172 4.18 0.76
172 4.18 0.76
The Training Event was a professional, high 170 4.23 0.64
quality event
The duration of the Training Event was sufficient
171 3.95 0.77
to accomplish its goal of educating participants
Summated values 4.05 0.72

When asked to provide the one statement that best described the reason the

participant attended the training event, the highest frequency (34.3%, N=59) said it was

to "enhance an existing preparedness and/or response plan operated by me and/or my

organization." "Learn more about the organizations that respond to agricultural disasters"

was the second most frequently chosen answer with 30.2% (N=52) having selected this

answer. Enhancing existing communication between their organizations and the other

organizations that respond to agricultural disasters was the reason for attending the









training event for 19.8% (N=34) respondents. Eleven respondents (6.4%) selected the

"Other" choice. Answers were not provided by 9.3% (N=16) of respondents.

The next question asked respondents to "place a checkmark in the box by the

statement that indicates how you heard about this training event;" respondents were

directed to mark all answers that applied. Table 4-5 summarizes the frequency and

percentages of respondent answers. A significant percentage (61%, N=105) of

respondents indicated that their supervisors had informed them of the training event.

Fifty-one people (29.7%) were informed by email followed by 26 (15.1%) who were told

by coworkers, friends or family members. Less than 10% of respondents heard of the

training events from the official SART Web site (8.1%, N=14) and other ways (9.3%,

N=16). Eleven percent (N=19) of respondents learned of the event from a flyer. Only one

respondent (0.6%) did not answer the question. Participants found out about the SART

training event many additional ways as indicated by question 41's write-in answers for

the "Other" category. These places ranged from the "IFAS website for CEUs" to a Farm

Bureau meeting and the FACA conference. The verbatim answers provided by

respondents are listed in Appendix E.

Table 4-5. How respondents heard about the training event

Frequency Percent
Flyer in Mail 19 11
E-mail 51 29.7
Official SART Web site 14 8.1
Recommended by supervisor 105 61
Recommended by coworker/friend/family 26 15.1
Other: Please specify 16 9.3
Blank/Refused 1 0.6

Respondents were then asked if they were the ones who made the decision to attend

the training event. A total of 51.2% of respondents (N=88) indicated that they were the









ones who decided whether they would attend the training event. A nearly-equal large

percentage (47.7%, N=82) stated that their organizations had sent them. Two respondents

(1.2%) left the question blank.

The general disaster and audience demographic questions were the final questions

on the questionnaire. The post-hoc Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this construct was

0.62. Respondents agreed that Florida is at heightened risk for natural incidents and man-

made or caused incidents with means of 4.63 (N=171) and 4.42 (N=171) and standard

deviations of 0.53 and 0.65, respectively. Additionally, respondents agreed with the

statements that "the State Agricultural Response Team (SART) has a beneficial role in

emergency preparedness" and that establishing their own county SARTs were important

with means of 4.54 (N=171) and 4.35 (N=171) and standard deviations of 0.57 and 0.66.

Respondents also agreed that they had learned more about the organizations that deal

with animal and agriculture disaster preparedness and response as a result of attending

the training event with a mean response of 4.44 (N=171) and standard deviation of 0.66.

Finally, respondents agreed with the statement that each had improved effectiveness as a

professional in animal and agricultural disaster preparedness and response with a mean

response equaling 4.21 (N=170) and standard deviation of 0.69. All of these means are

within the Agree range of the Likert-type scale used to measure the responses.

Five questions asked whether or not the respondent had job- or volunteer-related

involvement in the animal and/or agriculture industries. The majority (91.3%, N=157)

reported that they did have current involvement in the animal and/or agriculture

industries. Nearly equal percentages of respondents reported that they participated in

preparedness and response activities within the animal and/or agriculture industries at









79.1% (N=137) and 77.9% (N=134). When asked if they participate in preparedness

activities in industries in addition to or outside of animals and agriculture, 43% (N=74)

reported yes. When asked if they participate in response activities in industries in addition

to or outside of animals and agriculture, 44.2% (N=76) reported yes. Table 4-6

summarizes the frequencies of respondent answers for these questions.

Table 4-6. Preparedness and response activity within, outside of, and in addition to the
animal and agriculture industries for respondents

Answer Frequency Percent
Currently have job- or volunteer-related No 12 7
involvement in the animal and/or Yes 157 91.3
agriculture industries Blank/Refused 3 1.7
Participate in PREPAREDNESS No 32 18.6
activities WITHIN the animal and/or Yes 136 79.1
agriculture industries Blank/Refused 4 2.3
Participate in RESPONSE activities No 32 18.6
WITHIN the animal and/or agriculture Yes 134 77.9
industries Blank/Refused 6 3.5
Participate in PREPAREDNESS No 93 54.1
activities IN ADDITION TO OR Yes 74 43
OUTSIDE OF the animal and/or
agriculture industries Blank/Refused 5 2.9
Participate in RESPONSE activities IN No 91 52.9
ADDITION TO OR OUTSIDE OF the Yes 76 44.2
animal and/or agriculture industries Blank/Refused 5 2.9

The next question looked to determine how many hours per month on average

respondents spent on all volunteer work. The highest frequency (52.9%, N=91) indicated

1 to 5 hours per month on average. The next highest frequency (7.6%, N=13) indicated 6

to 10 hours per month followed by 5.2% (N=9) with 11 to 14 average hours per month

and 4.7% (N=8) with 21+ average hours of volunteer work per month. A total of 4.1%

(N=7) volunteer 15 to 20 average hours per month. Forty-four respondents (25.6%) did

not mark an answer for the question. Table 4-7 summarizes the frequencies of respondent

answers for this question.









Table 4-7. Monthly average of respondent volunteer work
Frequency Percent
1 to 5 average hours per month 91 52.9
6 to 10 average hours per month 13 7.6
11 to 14 average hours per month 9 5.2
15 to 20 average hours per month 7 4.1
21+ average hours per month 8 4.7
Blank/Refused 44 25.6
Total (N) 172 100.1

What organizations do SART participants also support or participate in?

Respondents were directed to mark all that applied. The answer choices listed were:

"Disaster Animal Response Team (DART)," "Youth organizations like 4H and/or FFA,"

"Master Gardener/Master Naturalist programs," "Cattlemen's/Cattlewomen's

Association," "Commodity organizations (i.e. aquaculture, strawberries, citrus)," and

"Other: Please specify with full names (no abbreviations or acronyms)." The highest

frequency (35.5%, N= 61) of respondents indicated that they supported or participated in

other organizations. The next highest percentage of respondents (27.3%, N=47) indicated

supporting or participating in Cattlemen's/Cattlewomen's Association(s). Forty-three

respondents (25%) support the Disaster Animal Response Team (DART). Thirty-nine

respondents (22.7%) reported that they supported 4H and/or FFA, as well. Only 12

people (7%) support the Master Gardener/Master Naturalist programs and 20 people

(11.6%) indicated some involvement with commodity organizations. A summary of the

response frequencies is located in Table 4-8.

Respondents indicated several additional organizations that they were involved in.

These include: Palm Beach County Horse Industry Council, Florida Animal Control

Association, humane societies (both national and local organizations) and the Florida

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Other organizations mentioned









include, among others, a community emergency response team, the Florida Fish and

Wildlife Conservation Commission, the American Zoo Association, local sheriffs offices

and Hendry County emergency management. Appendix E lists the verbatim answers

listed by respondents.

Table 4-8. Organizations supported or participated in by respondents

Frequency Percent
Disaster Animal Response Team (DART) 43 25
Youth organizations like 4H and/or FFA 39 22.7
Master Gardener/Master Naturalist
12 7
programs
Cattleman's/Cattlewomen's Association 47 27.3
Commodity organizations (i.e. aquaculture, 20 11.6
strawberries, citrus)
Other: Please specify 61 35.5

Respondents were asked to mark the one statement that best described their highest

level of education. Just over 25% of respondents (25.6%, N=44) reported having

receiving only their high school diploma. Nearly equal percentages of respondents

completed trade-technical (7%, N=12) and Associate degrees (7.6%, N=13). A fifth of

respondents (20.9%, N=36) reported completion of a bachelor's degree. Only 15

respondents (8.7%) reported completing some post-graduate work, while 39 (22.1%)

reported having completed graduate/professional degrees. Only 14 (8.1%) respondents

failed to report an answer. Table 4-9 summarizes the frequencies associated with this

question.

When asked, "do you have access to a computer with Internet connection?" a total

of 91.9% (N=158) indicated they had access to a computer with Internet connection,

while eight (4.7%) answered no. Six respondents (3.5%) failed to provide an answer for









the question. Respondents answering yes, were directed to continue to questions 58

through 60. Those answering no, were directed to turn in the questionnaire.

Table 4-9. Highest level of education attained by respondents
Frequency Percent
Completed high school 44 25.6
Completed trade-technical degree 12 7
Earned Associate degree 13 7.6
Earned Bachelor's degree 36 20.9
Some post-graduate work 15 8.7
Completed graduate/professional school 38 22.1
Blank/Refused 14 8.1
Total (N) 172 100.0

The final three questions asked respondents about file download time, their use of

the Internet, and whether or not they thought Web sites were efficient ways of

disseminating information. Respondents agreed with each of the statements posed. The

mean answers for each question were between the Agree and Strongly Agree numbers on

the Likert-type scale used. A summary of the questions and respective means and

standard deviations is located in Table 4-10.

Table 4-10. Respondents' computer usage demographics
Std.
N Mean Deviation
I download large documents and files in a
reasonable amount of time on the Internet- 157 4.07 0.98
connected computer I have access to
I regularly use the Internet to check for updates,
post information or obtain resources 157 4.36 0.86

Web sites are an efficient way to disseminate
information to a large audience 156 4.49 0.69


Chapter Summary

Due to the Kissimmee survey having been the pilot test, no statistical data were

compiled. Belle Glade and Tallahassee hosted the second and third training events and






62


comprise the aggregate set of statistical data. Respondents rated the PowerPoint

presentations, participant workbooks, all the workshops, and the training event as

effective. Majority of mean responses were between the Agree and Strongly Agree

numbers on the Likert-type scale used. Results also show that respondents participate in

volunteer work and support a diverse group of organizations as part of their volunteer

efforts.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

Given the review of relevant literature and the Florida State Agricultural Response

Team (SART) program background discussed in Chapter 2, and the results discussed in

Chapter 4, the following conclusions can be drawn against the study's five objectives.

Study Objective 1: Describe the Need for Agricultural Disaster Education

Knowledge is one of the significant barriers to effective and efficient disaster

planning and response. Fortunately, this barrier is correctable as Qureshi et al.'s (2004)

study has shown. By instituting an educational component to the disaster planning phase,

personnel learn about the disasters, what to expect from various situations, how to

communicate more effectively and may have the opportunity to practice needed skills.

Educating the public about what agencies will do during a disaster, and how they will do

it, is also a critical part of any education program. Since September 11, 2001, more

awareness and educational materials are being produced and the demand for educational

programs has burgeoned beyond availability (Alexander, 2000).

Agriculture has an established record of special treatment. That it receives special

considerations for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery should be no surprise. In

Florida, agriculture accounts for a $62 billion annual economic impact. Protecting this

valuable industry is extremely important. Educating responders and the public through a

program like SART is an easy, effective plan.

The supply of agricultural disaster and emergency education programs is in even

shorter supply. Only Florida's SART has embarked on creating an extensive training









material library. The national SART program offers a very limited amount of original

training.

SART's having a training component already in place to address the need for

responder education and producer and animal owner preparedness is positive. The

preliminary modules under development were presented in Chapter 2 include ("SART

curriculum," n.d.):

* Pets & Disasters
* Livestock & Horses
* Aquaculture
* Plant Issues
* Pest Issues
* Coordination & Law Enforcement
* Climate-Based Decision Tools

Developing table-top simulations for these modules is encouraged as survey

respondents indicated practice (of ICS) was important to them. These table-tops'

scenarios could be used in rotation for the training event incident command system

simulations. Some topics suggested by respondents may not be appropriate for an entire

workshop, lesson plan or table-top, but may be acceptable for a section in one of these

activities.

Study Objective 2: Identify Similar Programs to the Florida SART Program

Several SART programs coexist nationally with Florida's SART. The most

established of these is North Carolina, from whom the national model was developed,

and Colorado. States like New York, Connecticut, Kansas, and Pennsylvania are in the

initial phases of development and are not yet operative. These SARTs are State Animal

Response Teams, not State Agricultural Response Teams. As such, their focus is less









broad; these teams concentrate on animal issues only. Moreover, in terms of program

characteristics, there are additional similarities and dissimilarities as detailed below.

* Partnerships with varying agencies important to the animal industries in the home
state are a common link between Florida and the national-model SARTs.

* Florida's county level organizations are county SARTs, not County Animal
Response Teams (CARTs). Florida did not want to create any feelings of exclusion
by using terms like SART and CART to distinguish between the state and county
organizations and members.

* The national SART is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation. Florida SART is
currently only grant-funded.

* Florida SART's training events are longer and more comprehensive when
compared to North Carolina's. North Carolina simply covers basic incident
command system, an overview of disasters, hazardous material information and a
simulation. It is anticipated that the other national-model SART states will follow
the same training event format as North Carolina.

* The state and national veterinary medical associations are the lead agencies for the
national-model SARTs in North Carolina, Colorado and Connecticut. Florida's
SART is spearheaded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services (FDACS) as FDACS is the lead agency for the emergency support
function concerned with animals and agriculture. Similarly, New York's
Department of Agriculture and Markets is the lead agency for their SART
organization (Trachtman, 2005, p. 1).

Other animal and agriculture response teams like the Large Animal Rescue Team

(LART) from South Carolina, show no resemblance to Florida's SART. Australia's

Rapid Response Team is for animal disease outbreaks only. Colorado's Agriculture

Disaster Response Teams could end up being similar to Florida's concept; once they are

instituted, one will be better able to draw comparisons.

Florida's SART is a comprehensive agricultural emergency planning and response

approach that has proven effective thus far for the state. Other states with substantial

agriculture industries like California and Texas would benefit from a disaster program









like that of Florida's SART. Florida should expect to be contacted by other states without

SARTs to find out more on how to set-up an agricultural response team.

Study Objective 3: Describe Florida's SART Program

Since initial formation in 2003, Florida's SART has advanced its cause and

program with purpose and determination. A Web development team at the University of

Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS) has developed a

working, frequently visited home page for SART. A technical writing team, also at UF-

IFAS, has been developing training materials that, as evidenced by this study, are

appropriate and well-regarded. Additional funding made the purchase of response

equipment possible in 2005. Four segments of program activities have been identified

and participated in including training, outreach, networking and response.

Several aspects of the training segment have been instituted. A curriculum is under

development with units already published. Some of these units were available and used

during the training events. The intent is that the training materials will be used by county

SARTs. Uses may include training personnel and increasing disaster and Florida

agriculture knowledge among personnel and the public through community outreach.

Three regional training events were held in 2005. Favorable reviews were received

judging by the data collected from respondents' surveys from the Belle Glade and

Tallahassee events. These events were well attended, over 300 participants, with

representation from each supporting organization. The favorable review of the materials

and training event should be encouraging. While improvements can always be made,

similar formats and topics should be used in future training events' workshops.

Extensive networking has been established as a result of the training material

development and training events, in addition to the recent hurricane response efforts.









Through the training events, county contacts were made, thus opening a door for the pilot

program for county SART development. Faces associated with animal and agriculture

disaster response had the opportunity to meet with those less familiar with the hands-on

aspects of response, but with intense interest in the process. This interest does not appear

to be subsiding.

Outreach does not appear to have developed as rapidly as the other aspects,

however. Some promotion of SART by SART members has been done at various

conferences, including the Governor's Hurricane Conference, the National Institute for

Farm Safety Conference, and the Extension Disaster Education Network Conference.

Outreach opportunities are anticipated to be adopted easily by the county SARTs.

Educating the community and getting the word out about SART is ideal for the county

organizations in building a presence, community, and statewide. Education through

outreach aids in resolving the barriers between organizations and the public thus enabling

organizations to operate soundly and efficiently.

SART's disaster response abilities have already been tested several times. The

hurricanes of 2004 provided the organization a crash course in testing the underdeveloped

communication and networks that had only been in place for a short time. By the time

Hurricane Dennis rolled into the Panhandle in July 2005, SART was already working on

the state level and produced an effective, well-managed response for the animal and

agricultural community. Further training and networking will only serve to strengthen

future response efforts.

The addition of the county SART component to SART's organizational structure

will certainly increase the demand for manpower to manage the work created by such









expansion. That SART is no official entity on its own makes finding the right solution a

call for creativity. This need for creativity falls upon the shoulders of the Administrator

and Advisory Board for consideration.

Study Objective 4: Identify Participant Perceptions of SART Training Program
Strengths and Weaknesses

In order to satisfy this study objective, six survey objectives were constructed,

which helped to frame the survey constructs. Each construct reflected the survey

objective for which it was created. Chapter 4 details the results for each of the constructs.

When asked about their feelings regarding the PowerPoint presentations used,

respondents agreed that the PowerPoint presentations were high quality and of value as

evidenced by a summated construct mean of 4.24 and standard deviation of 0.66. Data

reliability from this construct's questions is high with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of

0.86 and is in line with the pilot test's alpha coefficient of 0.88. Respondents agreed that

the content was easy to understand and that the formatting was clear and easy to read,

both basic requirements that the presentations needed to meet. Respondents also agreed

that the presentations were valuable tools and to further attest to this, both samples agreed

that if they were to train a county SART, they would use the presentations. This is very

positive as using the training units for training county SARTs and outreach activities was

the main intent of the training segment of SART. Overall, respondents agreed that when

compared, workshops with SART PowerPoint presentations were more effective than

those without.

The next construct asked the respondents about their feelings regarding the

participant workbook provided for the specified workshops. Respondents agreed that the

participant workbooks were useful references and valuable tools as evidenced by a









summated construct mean of 4.11 and standard deviation of 0.75. Respondents agreed

that the workbook was organized logically and that it would make a useful reference after

the training event's conclusion. The lowest means recorded for this set of questions were

in response to question 15 which determined whether or not the slide reproductions were

easy to read. Data reliability from this construct's questions is high with a Cronbach's

alpha coefficient of 0.88, which is in line with the pilot test's alpha of 0.89.

Respondents agreed overall that if they were to train a county SART, they would use the

participant workbooks. This is very positive that, in addition to agreeing to use the SART

PowerPoints, respondents also agree to use the workbooks because using this pair of

items as part of training is the intent. Overall, respondents agreed that when compared,

workshops with SART workbooks were more effective than those without workbooks.

When considering all the workshops they attended during the training event, not

just the five they had to previously consider, respondents agreed that the workshops were

effective as evidenced by a summated construct mean of 4.07. Data reliability from this

construct's questions is high with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.81 compared to the

pilot test's alpha of 0.84. Respondents agreed that the workshops' learning objectives

were clear and that procedures and assignments supported these objectives. The expected

level of difficulty the material possessed and its usefulness was in line with their

expectations. The time established for each workshop was adequate so that learning

objectives could be achieved. No questions have noticeably low mean response values. A

profusion of workshop topic recommendations were provided by respondents; such a

volume of recommendations benefits SART as it provides many potential workshop

topics and training unit topics and sections.









In considering all these highly rated aspects, majority (62.2%, N=107) of

respondents said that the workshops fulfilled their reasons for attending the training

event. A fraction of respondents (27.3%) said the workshops only partially fulfilled their

expectations, while an even smaller fraction (7.6%) said the workshops did not fulfill

their expectations at all. Overall, participants gained what they expected.

Respondents were then questioned about how they viewed the entire training event.

The training event was rated favorably, as with the slide presentations, participant

workbooks and workshops, with a summated mean response of 4.05. Data reliability

from this construct's questions is higher than the pilot test's (alpha=0.78) with a

Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80. The question that asked whether the training event

was a motivational experience received a noticeably lower mean response than the other

questions in the section at 3.77. Perhaps the lack of air conditioning the first two days of

the Tallahassee event dampened the spirits of those respondents, as well as the crowded

room, thus resulting in a lower mean value. The other mean response values for this set of

questions is favorable, so how respondents arrived to such an unmotivated state is

puzzling.

Why did respondents attend the training events? About a third of the sample said it

was to "enhance an existing preparedness and/or response plan operated by me and/or my

organization." Another third said it was to "learn more about the organizations that

respond to agricultural disasters" and approximately 20% chose the statement "enhance

existing communication between my organization and other organizations that respond to

agricultural disasters." Approximately 6% of respondents in both samples chose to write

in another reason for attending. It is positive that 90% of the responses were for the three









provided answers as these answer choices were developed because they best reflected the

goals and purpose of SART and its training events.

Participants attended for a reason, but how did they find out about the training

event in the first place? Limited marketing was performed for the first-ever training

events. More than half (61%, N=105) were recommended to go by their supervisor,

indicating strong agency and organization support for SART. The second highest (29.7%,

N=51) mode of notification was email(s) to respondents. After finding out about the

training event, about half of all respondents made the decision to attend while the other

half were directed by the organization to attend, again indicating strong agency and

organization support of the SART program.

The final questions were varied and included general disaster perceptions,

volunteer work, education and computer access questions. As expected, these

respondents strongly agreed that Florida was at heightened risk for natural and man-made

disasters with mean response values of 4.63 and 4.42, respectively. As a demonstration of

understanding that Florida faces such risks and recognition of there being a need for

agricultural disaster preparedness and response, respondents also agreed that SART had a

beneficial role and, subsequently, that establishing county SARTs in their home counties

was important. Agreeing with both these statements means the training events achieved

buy-in of the concept with the potential county members and state members alike, a

difficult task with new programs to be sure. Thus, it is no wonder there was no difficulty

in recruiting pilot SART counties.

As a result of attending the training events, respondents reported a better

understanding of the organizations that deal with agriculture and animal disaster









preparedness and response. Moreover, respondents perceived an improved effectiveness

in their abilities as a professional in animal and agriculture disaster preparedness and

response, thus illustrating that an increase in knowledge occurred.

The SART program is for animal and agriculture disaster preparedness and

response. As such, it needed to be determined that participants who attended the training

event had job or volunteer involvement in the animal and/or agriculture industries. Over

90% of respondents were involved in the animal and/or agriculture industries. The

majority of the sample also indicated they were involved in preparedness and response

activities for animal and/or agriculture disasters. This indicates that the proper audience

was targeted and reached by the training events. Slightly less than half of the sample was

also involved in disaster preparedness and response activities outside of the animal and

agriculture industries, showing that there is a tendency in disaster preparedness and

response to overlap between work in one area and work in another.

SART, for some members, is a volunteer endeavor, as are many preparedness and

response efforts. It was thought that those involved with one volunteer organization

would be involved in others. Expanding on this volunteer work, it was desired to know

what other organizations these people were supporting or participating in. Knowing this

could aid marketing efforts. One quarter of the sample reported being involved with

Disaster Animal Response Teams (DARTs) and another quarter reported affiliation with

the Cattlemen's/Cattlewomen's associations. Many other organizations were also

reported under the "other" category showing that the SART training event participants

bring with them a variety of experiences and interests.









The educational profile of a training event participant was anticipated to be highly

educated, meaning majority of participants were expected to have completed college

degrees and minimally hold high school diplomas. While the results do not solidly

support the earned Bachelor's degree part of this hypothesis, high school diplomas being

held is supported with over 25% of respondents reported having, at a minimum,

completed their high school diplomas; the remaining percentage composes

trade/technical and higher earned degrees, which require having earned a high school

diploma or general equivalency diploma (GED).

The final part of this demographic/general questions section was to determine

whether respondents had access to a computer with Internet connection. Development of

the Florida SART Web site and ideas for future Web use weigh on whether or not SART

members have access to the Internet and how that Internet-connected computer is

utilized. Respondents agreed that they could download large documents in a self-

determined, reasonable amount of time and that they regularly use the Internet to check

for updates and research resources. They also agreed, with a mean response value of 4.49,

that Web sites are an efficient way to disseminate information. Knowing that large files

can be downloaded by a large percentage of respondents means that the posting of

training units, which are sizeable files, for download on the Web site is acceptable and

download time will not be a barrier to access. In addition, the high percentage of

respondents with access to the Internet means Web site usage will not be restricted due to

members not having Internet access.

Study Objective 5: Recommend Specific Program Improvements

Data collected from the questionnaire showed no weaknesses with the SART

training program from which specific recommendations for improvement can be made.









However, general program recommendations from the literature review and data can be

stated. These recommendations are presented in Chapter 6.

Chapter Summary

Conclusions based on the literature review and data collected were discussed in this

chapter. All conclusions are organized and discussed according to the study objective

they satisfy. The need for agricultural disaster education programs, similar programs to

Florida SART, description of Florida SART and data collected from training event

participant surveys are the four study objectives' conclusions presented. The fifth study

objective regarding program recommendations is addressed in Chapter 6.














CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

Florida's $62-billion animal and agriculture industries face risk from disasters such

as floods, drought, hurricanes, wildfire, and agroterrorism each year. Agricultural losses

from the 2004 hurricane season alone are estimated at several billion dollars. In order to

better prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters affecting animals and

agriculture, the State Agricultural Response Team (SART) for Florida was created.

The Florida SART program is a unique concept aimed at improving interagency

communication before, during and after a disaster affects Florida's animal and/or

agriculture industries. The program is composed of training, response, networking, and

outreach opportunities. The training events and training media comprise the training

segment, but can be utilized in outreach. Training media are arranged in units within

modules like Aquatic Animal Diseases in Aquaculture. Due to the newness of the

program, no research or program evaluation had yet been conducted. Therefore, the

program was without citable evidence of participant satisfaction with the training events

and training media, both sizable components of the SART program.

The purpose of this study was to identify areas of improvement within the Florida

SART training media and training event utilizing data obtained from participant

questionnaires and to thereby recommend specific improvements to enhance the

effectiveness of the program.









The objectives of this study were:

Study Objective 6-1: Describe the need for agricultural disaster education.

Study Objective 6-2: Identify similar programs to the Florida SART program.

Study Objective 6-3: Describe Florida's SART program.

Study Objective 6-4: Identify participant perceptions of SART training program strengths
and weaknesses.

Study Objective 6-5: Recommend specific program improvements.

The objectives of the survey were to:

Survey Objective 6-1: Determine whether participants attended at least one of five
specific workshops.

Survey Objective 6-2: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the slide
presentations utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 6-3: Identify respondent perceptions of the effectiveness of the SART
Participant Workbooks utilized in five specific workshops.

Survey Objective 6-4: Identify respondent perceptions of all, not just the five previously
specified, workshops held over the duration of the training event.

Survey Objective 6-5: Identify respondents' overall impressions of the training event.

Survey Objective 6-6: Obtain respondents' disaster perceptions and demographics.

A survey, pilot tested at the Kissimmee SART training event and administered to

participants at the Belle Glade and Tallahassee SART training events, revealed the

following significant facts about the population:

* SART PowerPoint presentations and participant workbooks are favorably-rated and
respondents indicated they would be used to train county SARTs.

* All the training event workshops were favorably rated by respondents and more
than 50% of respondents said the workshops fulfilled their reasons for attending the
training event.

* The entire training events were highly rated in addition to the SART training
materials and workshops.









* Respondents recognize that Florida is at heightened risk for both natural and man-
made disasters that affect animals and agriculture.

* Respondents agree that SART plays a beneficial role in disaster preparedness and
response for animals and agriculture.

* Establishing county SARTs was also important to the respondents.

No strengths or weaknesses with the SART training program were revealed by the

data collected. To this end, no recommendations for specific program improvements are

made, only general program recommendations.

Recommendations

Future Training Events and Workshops

Many suggestions were written by respondents when asked to provide any topics

they would like to see for future training event workshops as evidenced in Appendix E.

The topics suggested in this appendix, and Table 6-1, are all acceptable choices for future

workshops. The topics listed in Table 6-1 are recommended for the next training event as

they appeared four or more times across two sample populations. The overall highest

requested topic suggested for future training event workshops was incident command

system (ICS) practice. In addition to providing instruction for ICS-100, and possibly

higher levels of ICS, future training should also have a scheduled time for all event

participants to take part in a simulation.

Also, during further development of the training units, the workshop topic

suggestion tables presented herein should be referenced, as these topics show what SART

members want and need to know. Some of the topics suggested by survey respondents for

workshops may not be appropriate for an entire workshop, but may be useful as a section

within a training unit or table-top.









Table 6-1. Most frequently cited future workshop topics
Workshop Topic Frequency
Previous teams' experience, what to
expect/do initially, what to expect in future
Hands-on scenario practice/ICS practice 10
Start County SART 3
Captive wildlife issues 3

Facilities and equipment utilized for the 2005 training events varied substantially.

Technical issues such as poor projector quality and slide advancement issues plagued

both Kissimmee and Tallahassee's training events. A small auditorium and lack of air

conditioning (which could not be prevented at the time of the event) were other major

issues that surfaced in Tallahassee. Future training events, or one statewide conference,

should have appropriately sized facilities and thoroughly checked and tested computer

and projection equipment.

Future Research

Future research is needed on what Drabek (1997) coins emergent

multiorganizational systems like SART. Although this study aided in the evaluation of

Florida SART after implementation of the program, an ideal study would be to survey

and analyze the disaster response efforts of a state looking to implement a SART program

prior to program implementation. After program implementation, a follow-up survey

should be conducted. The results of such a research study should provide specific insight

into multiorganizational systems and agricultural disaster response teams in order to

determine their usefulness. This type of study would quantify the value a program like

SART possesses.

An additional research possibility came to light after reviewing the results from the

2005 hurricane preparedness interview conducted by Mason-Dixon Polling and Research,









Inc. and DeGraw's 2004 and 2005 studies. There is an apparent need to determine the

actual disaster and disaster preparedness knowledge possessed by the agricultural

community. A survey should be conducted of all industry producers to test the hypothesis

that disaster knowledge and preparedness within the agricultural community is

considerably low. Additionally, a section of questions should be dedicated to determining

how the agricultural community perceives the agencies and organizations responding to

agricultural disasters; in other words, what do the respondents know about what the

agencies will do and how they will do it.

Ideally, the survey should be wholly inclusive of all disasters that are threats to

Florida animals and agriculture. Sectors such as ornamental horticulture, citrus, beef and

dairy cattle, equine, and fresh fruits and vegetable producers should be included in the

survey. The survey should be designed so that it could be administered to agricultural

producers in other southeastern states with minimal revision as well. Results from a study

like this would provide SART, the University of Florida IFAS Cooperative Extension

Service, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and state and

local emergency management officials, a basis for creating and improving agricultural

disaster preparedness materials and training programs.

Near-Future Decisions

Promotion of interagency communication has been stated to be one of the founding

principles of SART. To this end, state SART and the SART Advisory Board should adopt

guidelines that can contribute to the development and fostering of effective interagency

communication and collaboration. Certain steps to overcome barriers such as poor

interagency communication were previously identified by disaster researchers and a

governmental committee assigned to review response efforts from a benchmark event in









Florida history, Hurricane Andrew (Comfort & Cahill, 1988; Governor's Disaster

Planning and Response Review Committee, 1993). Some steps identified by both the

researchers and the governmental committee can be summarized as follows: information

should flow freely between members, there should be trust between members and their

organizations, and "reflection and feedback among the participating organizations to

detect and correct error and to adjust performance to the changing demands" (Comfort &

Cahill, 1988, p. 183). These steps should be referenced during development of any

interagency communication guidelines.

During the implementation process of the aforementioned factors, the SART

Advisory Board should consider hosting member forums to gather SART member input

and reflections, especially post-disaster. The county members, as first responders to

disaster events, will have first-hand knowledge of the issues and factors that helped or

impaired the missions. Their input is indispensable and bears consideration in addition to

administrator and advisory input. Forums may be scheduled post-event for immediate

reporting to the state SART Advisory Board or held at regional or annual training events

as a roundtable discussion to share ideas between county SARTs.

Moreover, effort should be actively directed to get local governments involved as

much as possible in forming county SARTs. "It is recognized that while a top-down

policy is needed, it is really the local-level bottom-up policy that provides the impetus for

the implementation of mitigation strategies and a successful disaster management

process" (Pearce, 2003, p. 212). Multiorganizational preparedness and response efforts,

like SART, work best when the local government has active input. "They possess a

detailed and intimate knowledge of the community they serve on a day-to-day basis and









of the environment in which they operate" (Eggleston & Koob, 2004, p. 29). This may

prove to be difficult, but if successful, will be rewarding not only for SART, but for the

communities as well.

Implementation of the county SART pilot plan should occur as quickly as possible.

The process will undoubtedly be quicker for some counties to get through versus others.

Momentum and motivation built from the training events should not be lost. Whether or

not the full Creating a County SART package is complete yet, should not deter from the

implementation of the pilot. After all, it is a pilot; pilots are meant to test out procedures

and further refine any materials used.

With work already commenced to develop county SARTs, the need to

accommodate program growth is apparent. Expansion of the program may eventually

require an official office. Such an office, already coined by many as the State SART

Office, would operate under the direction of the SART Administrator and be supported

with guidance from the SART Advisory Board. It is foreseeable that this office would be

led by a director/coordinator. A support person like an administrative assistant is not a

necessity at these early stages considering the director/coordinator will more than likely

be operating through electronic means of cell phone and email; moreover, requiring the

director/coordinator to manage 67 contacts is not an excessive requirement for such a

position. Facility and equipment requirements are minimal; a simple office with room for

a desk, phone and cell phone, fax, computer with Internet connection, printer, and filing

cabinets) would suffice. These requirements can be easily met by nearly any

organization that supports SART or could be set up out of a home office for minimal

cost.









The director/coordinator of the State SART Office would act as a liaison between

the SART Advisory Board, the program administratorss, and the county SARTs. The

director/coordinator would be responsible for recruiting new county SARTs and their

respective leaders, assisting in the development of the county SARTs and coordinating

new membership applications and new county organizations. Planning and arranging

regional and/or annual training events would also be a responsibility of the

director/coordinator. Travel to counties, training events and meetings is expected; travel

to other conferences and meetings for professional training, program promotion and

research presentation is anticipated as well.

The national State Animal Response Team model is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit

corporation. Florida SART is currently grant-funded only, scrambling for money as it

becomes available. Becoming a not-for-profit corporation may be a viable course to look

at due to the growth the program is slated to experience by 2005's end. Of course there

are pros and cons associated with either course of action. The SART Administrator and

Advisory Board should seriously consider all options available to better anticipate the

path SART is taking and create a written plan of action. A written plan of action is

recommended as written plans and goals are more likely to be attained than those simply

talked about. This should be one of the first charges handed to the Advisory Board to

develop in collaboration with the SART Administrator.

It is important to recall Perry and Lindell's (2003) discussion on disaster planning

as a part of preparedness. "...Effective planning is...made up of elements that are not

realized in hardware and are difficult to document on paper...like the development of

managers' knowledge of the resources of governmental and private organizations [and]









the sharpening of their conceptual skills in anticipating emergency demands..." (Perry &

Lindell, 2003, p. 347). SART partner agencies need to keep this in mind when evaluating

the status and accomplishments of the program. Intangible benefits may be worth more in

the long run than documents produced. To put this in another perspective, the number of

SART training materials produced is only one factor that contributes to the success of the

program; the interorganizational communication that evolved from holding the training

events in 2005 yielded intangible results that are immeasurable.

Homeland Security Presidential Directive Nine "establishes a national policy to

defend the agriculture and food system against terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other

emergencies" (Bush, 2004, p. 1). With this policy, the government has charged many

agencies with assessing and preparing agriculture and its associated industries for

potential disasters. In mandating this, "the federal government must do more to ensure

that state and local governments and first responder groups have the tools...that will

allow them to discharge their homeland security responsibilities effectively and

efficiently [as] ultimately, much of the success of domestic security depends on the work

of front line individuals at the state and local levels" (Caruson, 2004, p. 18). The SART

program is recommended to utilize the results of this study to seek further federal funds

to maintain and build the program in order to achieve all program goals.



















APPENDIX A
UF INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD APPROVAL





UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA


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DATE: March 31, 2005

TO: Elizabeth Wang
PO Box 110570
Campus

FROM: Ira S. Fischler, Ph.D., Chairi
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02

SUBJECT: Approval of Protocol #2005-U-0378

TITLE. An Evaluative Analysis of Flonda State Agriculture Response Team Program
SPONSOR: None


I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review Board has recommended
approval of this protocol. Based on its review, the UF1RB determined that this research presents no
more than minimal risk to participants, and based on -5 CFR 46.117(c), authorizes you to administer
the informed consent process as specified in the protocol.

If you wish to make any changes to this protocol, including the need to increase the number of
participants authorized, you must disclose your plans before you implement them so that the Board
can assess their impact on your protocol. In addition, you must report to the Board any unexpected
complications that affect your participants.

If you have not completed this protocol by March 29, 2006, please telephone our office (392-0433),
and we will discuss the renewal process with you. It is important that you keep your Department Chair
informed about the status of this research protocol.


ISF dl


Inslilulional ResieA Board


Eii *l,',i -.r r, IT., pi.I.,.: \ 1, 1. IAr..I.luI ir.












APPENDIX B
FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE


Participant Evaluation

Florida's State Agricultural Response Team
Training Program













j.* UNIVERSITY OF
W'FLORIDA
IFAS







86


The questions on this page assess your experience with the official SART training media
developed for the SART program. Only certain workshops utilized these media.

Please recall the following workshops sessions you may have attended:

Introducing SART
Introducing Florida Aquaculture
Aquatic Animal Diseases
Emergency Management and Quarantine of Aquaculture Facilities
Pets and Disasters: Personal Planning

Indicate below whether you have attended any of the five workshops listed above by circling Yes
or No.


1. Did you attend the Introducing SART workshop? Yes No


2. Did you attend the Introducing Florida Aquaculture workshop? Yes No


3. Did you attend the Aquatic Animal Diseases workshop? Yes No


4. Did you attend the Emergency Management and Quarantine of Yes No
Aquaculture Facilities workshop?

5. Did you attend the Pets and Disaster: Personal Planning Yes No
workshop?



If you have answered YES to ANY of questions 1 through 5, please PROCEED to question 6 and
ANSWER questions 6 through 19.


If you answered NO to ALL questions 1 through 5, SKIP to question 20.










The questions on this page are about the POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS used in the
following workshops:


Introducing SART
Introducing Florida Aquaculture
Aquatic Animal Diseases
Emergency Management and Quarantine of Aquaculture Facilities
Pets and Disasters: Personal Planning


Previously you indicated that you attended one or more of these workshops. Please reference
ONLY the workshops from the above list when answering the following questions. Circle the
number that best represents your feelings towards each of the statements from Strongly Agree = 5
to Strongly Disagree = 1.


0 o







6 The content of the PowerPoint presentations) was
C) 1 C)






easy to understand. 5 4 3 2 1

7 The PowerPoint presentations) contained enough
information to sufficiently explain the topic being 5 4 3 2 1
discussed.
6 The formattingntent of the PowerPoint presentations) was
easy to und easy to read.and. 5 4 3 2 1

7 The PowerPoint presentations) contare a valuable toolenough
informanduction to sufficiently explain the topic being 5 4 3 2 1




10 If I were to train a county SART, I would use the
discussed.
8 The formatting of the PowerPoint presentations)
was clear and easy to read. 5 4 3 2 1

9 The PowerPoint presentations) are a valuable tool
in conducting the workshop. 5 4 3 2 1

10 If I were to train a county SART, I would use the
SART PowerPoint presentations. 5 4 3 2 1

11 In comparing workshops WITH and WITHOUT
official SART PowerPoint presentations,
workshops with official SART PowerPoint 5 4 3 2 1
presentations were more effective than those
without.










The questions on this page are about the PARTICIPANT WORKBOOKS used in the following
workshops:


Introducing SART
Introducing Florida Aquaculture
Aquatic Animal Diseases
Emergency Management and Quarantine of Aquaculture Facilities
Pets and Disasters: Personal Planning


Please reference ONLY the workshops from the above list when answering the following
questions. Circle the number that best represents your feelings towards each of the statements
from Strongly Agree = 5 to Strongly Disagree = 1.










12 The Participant Workbook was organized in a logical 5 4 3 2 1
manner.
13 The Workbook will be a useful reference after the
Training Event.

14 Reproductions of the PowerPoint presentation slides, 5 4 3 2 1
with space for taking notes, was helpful.
15 The slide reproductions were easy to read. 5 4 3 2 1

16 Adequate room for note-taking was provided in the 5 4 3 2 1

workbook.
12 The Participant Workbook was organized in a logical 5 4 3 2






5 4 3 2
manner.
13 The Workbook will be a useful reference after the











SART Participant Workbooks.
19 In comparing workshops WITH and WITHOUTEvent.
14 Reproductions of the PowerPoint presentation slides, 4 3 2 1
with space for taking notes, was helpful.
15 The slide reproductions were easy to read. 4 3 2 1

16 Adequate room for note-taking was provided in the 4 3 2 1
workbook.
17 The Participant Workbooks are a valuable tool in the 4 3 2 1
workshop sessions.
18 If I were to train a county SART, I would use the 4 3 2 1
SART Participant Workbooks.
19 In comparing workshops WITH and WITHOUT
official SART Participant Workbooks, workshops 5 4 3 2 1
with official SART Participant Workbooks were
more effective than those without.







89


The questions on this page are about ALL WORKSHOPS you have attended during the course of
the SART Training Event.

Circle the number that best represents your feelings towards each of the statements from Strongly
Agree = 5 to Strongly Disagree = 1.






Z 6



20 The workshops' learning objectives were clear.
5 4 3 2 1

21 The workshop procedures and assignments supported
the learning objectives. 5 4 3 2 1

22 The presenters were knowledgeable on the topics
they presented. 5 4 3 2 1

23 The level of difficulty of the material was in line
with my expectations. 5 4 3 2 1

24 The information presented was useful for disaster
planning and response. 5 4 3 2 1

25 The information presented was useful in improving
my professional effectiveness. 5 4 3 2 1

26 Discussion of the topics was encouraged.
5 4 3 2 1

27 Learning objectives were achieved by the end of the
workshop. 5 4 3 2 1

28 The time it took to complete each workshop was
adequate. 5 4 3 2 1


29. Did the workshops fulfill your reasons for Yes, but not
attending? to full extent

30. What other topics do you recommend for future SART Training Event workshops?