<%BANNER%>

Effects of Oyster Shell Shape and Thickness on Absorption of Electron Beam, Gamma Ray, and X-Ray Irradiation

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101119_AAAADO INGEST_TIME 2010-11-19T21:31:14Z PACKAGE UFE0012241_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 39517 DFID F20101119_AACKNH ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH hurst_a_Page_038.pro GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
07e002a9ec779aafb2cd63cd12c046f4
SHA-1
d485d40171aabd0aeeaef0044233c7d4bc274a91
51079 F20101119_AACKMS hurst_a_Page_021.pro
12495b206b53d34e8a07f829f7d0fb89
fda51e08d2dabc1b2d89039954f5eecdedc28ec3
36891 F20101119_AACKNI hurst_a_Page_039.pro
e0db5dc156cc2b8feb5eac6db1cae0bd
af2ac2a9c4265e91fe04e9ee261aadb970e1dc7b
51987 F20101119_AACKMT hurst_a_Page_022.pro
29c60c3747b206369176820235fb3371
a73117f5e8ef9f6173ec86740f5c57796cd56bb3
50851 F20101119_AACKNJ hurst_a_Page_040.pro
e99835acd7006a4c871bccd292b0ebd2
57cd2b1411ee4e66c5338f818650e7772cae6011
52071 F20101119_AACKMU hurst_a_Page_023.pro
4800bf34d4d3b6be1ec80be5eeb72996
85051bb571cb1beb0f63baf1e28530debbf7a188
42685 F20101119_AACKNK hurst_a_Page_041.pro
ca6e612be45583112a6664c09a5205fd
c8c6fe56ac848d7d99bc7aa8147ee05e378b5f9e
52860 F20101119_AACKMV hurst_a_Page_024.pro
3643dc0beb9231aae73a851917273b20
39815830d54ae742191710814f8c5a4563329dcb
34406 F20101119_AACKNL hurst_a_Page_042.pro
444fbe239a0381a9c501ec06a23f6728
1baec5c11b957ab50741b3a185ab27d47863a7dd
48340 F20101119_AACKMW hurst_a_Page_025.pro
f821df34efea8f7e0c06e453a38e6b53
63292d32d4d4bd3ed2217a88d9186a8cd8d8f9ea
37443 F20101119_AACKOA hurst_a_Page_060.pro
6ffc7938d48305e84991ec178835f4a5
dd30be05ff48c6bf9540c62ca718f7614bc6aafc
37440 F20101119_AACKNM hurst_a_Page_043.pro
fb4c19b4ae1fb83a2a9e08b531a52484
c8540a8e4fa626472b8e89a2938cd8a2704582ca
7775 F20101119_AACKMX hurst_a_Page_026.pro
7e170c93aa6523fed59ae7c8a10364c9
733e6419b40324c2203f71a2ede50b1d54a4fac8
46975 F20101119_AACKOB hurst_a_Page_061.pro
ab6565e49106f6468a2ea61ca89a6d75
c08d255e39af35755db606b31f44bb1eac84664a
42765 F20101119_AACKNN hurst_a_Page_044.pro
e1333b80e743a06835a3a1cf64c61466
4b002e921df8b67d5dfd113dec804bb5c2df46eb
36008 F20101119_AACKMY hurst_a_Page_027.pro
7484a1272a1c17e57bc65bac69585193
eef0fa9dd39b789891f94dec152b645a277fd0b3
42863 F20101119_AACKOC hurst_a_Page_062.pro
c6bd2d6642db5365e0818d015a25f66c
7933e7a2d22e0e209671f039315ca116604ac015
49975 F20101119_AACKNO hurst_a_Page_045.pro
33a74088ea3a82b7df58f94fda3174dc
d51f2dfa0b722b6da61d196943c902a5154890ed
48742 F20101119_AACKMZ hurst_a_Page_028.pro
adbf6fdd3105f3e891b4b5c714816da6
ed42d1fa3888cd91453fc7d286e9b6de1e56fdb5
39953 F20101119_AACKOD hurst_a_Page_063.pro
64fe732c4129a858739858e4234cb269
0ff577f21a216927b36a79d2600c5b51654bbc4b
35280 F20101119_AACKNP hurst_a_Page_046.pro
0d8b5a408ce971c59e806ff51ae51fe5
cf9765e177ebcb4c37056f71e77f7dbac9ce7f6f
35834 F20101119_AACKOE hurst_a_Page_064.pro
2e22e73f6411492bc5d84e0ca071a04f
810a97e4b84932e9d2a80f2ef8788e0d562a5c54
34637 F20101119_AACKNQ hurst_a_Page_047.pro
0c1bb4d5363b9adb58fc49c101697f43
1cec30ce59629d6f254d0cdff5210a15829775f8
37444 F20101119_AACKOF hurst_a_Page_065.pro
248382c78dd029899f9576a29eb30f88
09870f516b8108e4a14cf911c580c51d68d596c5
37441 F20101119_AACKOG hurst_a_Page_066.pro
ddcb2afa218d4bf492fcc0146c6292cd
9104c6420568000be5a982e6b40316370a539fcd
37874 F20101119_AACKNR hurst_a_Page_048.pro
7eaa3533f0a426d19377937c0e831ef6
375bc96d748a39b4c90e7bdc3b341eb19b70730f
44873 F20101119_AACKOH hurst_a_Page_067.pro
3c13b1ac03375cad2510e359fa4af877
12ac82f078bbb8ed99f94fee1536409ab56d28a8
41289 F20101119_AACKNS hurst_a_Page_049.pro
a2f841876d5a79c998b8863f780866ad
ee6a46d540700a2db60ec50d5c45ea23e1676802
40331 F20101119_AACKOI hurst_a_Page_068.pro
7b24ac752aff33b78d2c74faf24d5acd
c0c4f0856233ff59463b555370a5135271f8c5bf
44116 F20101119_AACKNT hurst_a_Page_052.pro
69d715f180686416534e14d98d3d095b
541f30d27c82a116e2cbc653fa9473c87a14eef8
38129 F20101119_AACKOJ hurst_a_Page_069.pro
309ea8a437fc134ee6668f6ef247eeb0
d88ab8e69cc216a9d91a7e3a0ad69badb48f6d37
35161 F20101119_AACKNU hurst_a_Page_053.pro
33c113d8a35337ae1c3f0fb856095d36
2515a92f757a3f440bb47304ba71bd1cc9b7119d
39255 F20101119_AACKOK hurst_a_Page_070.pro
ea5bf4437f4180071e0047a984a8e659
e513602f54e2d624db10c80472f01b6b0a58c9a0
37455 F20101119_AACKNV hurst_a_Page_054.pro
0e0b7ddc95d4e24a90f88ed6ba7f4510
483dbb9bdefeb1c6bbc06149b3e67820b0260ff6
35827 F20101119_AACKOL hurst_a_Page_071.pro
6610bc065cfdea52cb9b66a5b2df409d
0accbb067ad659ee4d0fef9caf15f48363432ae9
37161 F20101119_AACKNW hurst_a_Page_055.pro
ea80ea35374afafcc56d2f6957f89c41
6aa453a9ce20d464d081895de294e468ff780b1f
44750 F20101119_AACKOM hurst_a_Page_072.pro
a403e85fde1922a953457cbeb342ec51
68e7d773284f013ce0e994c0064fa0127015650e
51177 F20101119_AACKNX hurst_a_Page_056.pro
9e690956d3b31b0ba90eddb07097b32d
964772c0a3b1da46ddb6c086a30cd5f98f4517ac
35960 F20101119_AACKPA hurst_a_Page_086.pro
ca30414e807ff3d28606c6248c190811
a93991486a4bbe284e18d82dbdd20e7a136e0b92
32324 F20101119_AACKON hurst_a_Page_073.pro
ab9d2a37c5363c62661ac18b884b73bc
7405e17127f4ea19bdb95a9172b41beac89ef41f
41031 F20101119_AACKNY hurst_a_Page_057.pro
67dd164740d467d8e303f979dd9472db
00882bcfb1c9e2cca257325c63c23e59964f5659
40648 F20101119_AACKPB hurst_a_Page_087.pro
f3813813131e28f11c3507cf553513ca
44063c382916e0441365853f878789880397f7c6
41174 F20101119_AACKOO hurst_a_Page_074.pro
cd1ac38e67500a7e9cb0eb611eba5ac4
8dbe8e58ee8cd7a398d34c53b2c520835807e36d
36713 F20101119_AACKNZ hurst_a_Page_059.pro
8911f8daef234bf4e6bd94f5a07a759a
666cb17a1d6d40f0bf376808803c69f4516ae8b0
41133 F20101119_AACKPC hurst_a_Page_088.pro
dd8aebb730456ffdcce84096bd9eefc0
ef75269e3b33016b1c006480bccef45fd575e7c8
36852 F20101119_AACKOP hurst_a_Page_075.pro
26941d36469fe7cd1f54bcfe9d7fe5ef
cf665733359d2227240389b4a708064dad4e43dd
50806 F20101119_AACKPD hurst_a_Page_089.pro
6be6c751d915466956f8884e7e489a86
9579a596a4708fc3152b7c5eb89b7b109f4b94dd
49681 F20101119_AACKOQ hurst_a_Page_076.pro
7d55cfe01160400606e9fdc21309269e
c816587b905aeb0823dd3dcf274fcad99d1f466a
37882 F20101119_AACKPE hurst_a_Page_090.pro
b0455d842e822f18fb15a4ea9ae66956
2b6d6b49612752d1f60484556e084746ebb054ab
39106 F20101119_AACKOR hurst_a_Page_077.pro
21515ad718a78d2421e5fd29b36c9da6
4dc6a09cf4ac6c378242447e1195c5c1af8de541
17395 F20101119_AACKPF hurst_a_Page_092.pro
e3e232f9c83a00da72ede957a9c31c4f
14bd8abe07a80c2310b07494d95d00c3bd462ac0
45650 F20101119_AACKPG hurst_a_Page_093.pro
91114d648c47f5a30e1ba1069ba81918
01efac6b4bd695d971d3146c8c28df48bbc95a91
34411 F20101119_AACKOS hurst_a_Page_078.pro
63da6d0d79c70b11e4dde6fc91a88cc1
a4d7a92a20c58318c08bb406b1542d8e6b4f2c16
71904 F20101119_AACKPH hurst_a_Page_095.pro
7997574b1f1f7ca6c1924bb4ed64dd87
6c0a8ad9c1261211c74be686db734d1d72b5e142
49718 F20101119_AACKOT hurst_a_Page_079.pro
74870216e1a7f4fcef0887a46cc2ca8c
b7895fc14ffadb9702dd59c9846efb0f9fbe7549
85402 F20101119_AACKPI hurst_a_Page_096.pro
e39b1a5b489dd871f632bcb4453a5af8
abf07af87fdeef7387885f3667650cd1da8425d4
36131 F20101119_AACKOU hurst_a_Page_080.pro
84ad0e4abed8012999282230f412c7cf
e2150f34ab83a00715ce07b872ad1c8dd8930f73
81206 F20101119_AACKPJ hurst_a_Page_097.pro
d23787e5c8f6ea42df575059699a20f6
740ad22ab05bd5dd8b3662c2d33c6cec55cc0e88
37487 F20101119_AACKOV hurst_a_Page_081.pro
d52b282d5dcda6401f4b944f62cee5cd
25de80b253e9e27647e77fcc008804a0e65bf809
79742 F20101119_AACKPK hurst_a_Page_098.pro
6924f6e28a8cec7f0aa9345352b6d560
c91063a0ab544c31322e931b3271d2947f834a03
39373 F20101119_AACKOW hurst_a_Page_082.pro
37128f753f6558f8f7ea2e60b5cacacb
4601556ffdb096367aa5a8b01a87ff450424abf7
87575 F20101119_AACKPL hurst_a_Page_099.pro
70667cf7c8b32af1c23789e307a3d4f7
b9e3cc0ba225aac1342aff199ae906e7ff461237
34797 F20101119_AACKOX hurst_a_Page_083.pro
fbdc4d941e532270bf4dd97467a61265
edb7437e07831892e96acc1d8d6a0a66e2c8a904
63129 F20101119_AACKQA hurst_a_Page_115.pro
3716da79892721bd32814b583d207c20
a40df826859229e9b8fa3052d5035eb45eb376b5
96649 F20101119_AACKPM hurst_a_Page_100.pro
3bf9004ac68ed4d73411e4eb6dbd5674
73212bd49fcb4d08b7d4f34fdb2a10f398180812
48643 F20101119_AACKOY hurst_a_Page_084.pro
84ebf8aae3dcd524766b8d8eeca09190
79914e7d927e6e43845774fae467b102e2fbf48d
68085 F20101119_AACKQB hurst_a_Page_117.pro
97f433c14fa821fc5bc890bd23f3fb9c
887915b5abd3c8b9c03755a8b8d4f6714a114614
83600 F20101119_AACKPN hurst_a_Page_101.pro
3c7f215e62e2e9edc405a996304b033f
3e7be3e4cd91e97bd5f78d6cbd22513ff2bd765d
38847 F20101119_AACKOZ hurst_a_Page_085.pro
29ed150ed0de1905aa0f9691bb663c29
9dc9dc67a70a495ddac0944a3da0ee7a80b3ba6c
62964 F20101119_AACKQC hurst_a_Page_118.pro
257c099deba532e2668ae5bafbc72738
ceba6e04ff3933b0286106af7e87153ed2695362
90644 F20101119_AACKPO hurst_a_Page_102.pro
2d30267d98854d2c19f3803c67b127b6
f0d042814d5677cb6c715310b72fe8ac92b96624
56951 F20101119_AACKQD hurst_a_Page_119.pro
8458fac8d84fa9c0c320e89b0843c498
0bacf27e0ed3622580eeaf0df67805ee4f5ff6c8
84002 F20101119_AACKPP hurst_a_Page_103.pro
2985c3a0f873973306323ae5a65c5ce9
a108134d1fdae39c8930596dac39196f48688410
61178 F20101119_AACKQE hurst_a_Page_120.pro
70059cb7c41ce8c1b6c66fe01e1af72f
4411fe1f789d3da5bc04dc344aba8e7303cf24eb
82192 F20101119_AACKPQ hurst_a_Page_104.pro
68462a7cf8665eb0a0afa07e5fc78b92
3f16507c32cfb874767070c1860c863b0b7ea623
61687 F20101119_AACKQF hurst_a_Page_121.pro
6094be7dc590ebccfb972cf26712ebf7
598792f27225f4b0d89e73b9310eed485647352f
82086 F20101119_AACKPR hurst_a_Page_105.pro
997be15588b3f92f9bc9bc0dd211b2cb
b40a7fbca06280f5e57484d13caac45edc902a92
63429 F20101119_AACKQG hurst_a_Page_122.pro
6d679e6aa22495895dda92ca4af6f981
bf877c15def18a687437b9b5c0eae6ed69a206fe
86348 F20101119_AACKPS hurst_a_Page_106.pro
f4941f867e46be0a9f8344d87a8a6d3e
af82fa788877bc63462ed14290e15473d3e44c01
59313 F20101119_AACKQH hurst_a_Page_123.pro
e1c307493bad8b209687c70f4c5240fc
cf3eb63d89d67fe126fb36072db95741126233cd
62296 F20101119_AACKQI hurst_a_Page_124.pro
61c634fb47085915fcde1fbd5131989f
13a73faed6326ab4b03ea3201817c127d8aa3981
80208 F20101119_AACKPT hurst_a_Page_107.pro
c0a0fd0c99775e433f89e36a91e2f670
eb9dbd87614ecbeab00aff2bd44038ced2de94ad
63926 F20101119_AACKQJ hurst_a_Page_125.pro
d56e04d1305798dcdc27abe2ca34b638
3d34ceed4bf44a823083ea714dcc0965d53f82d0
83936 F20101119_AACKPU hurst_a_Page_108.pro
52911e758913f4b0ae20c12869ab9220
ca5809c651edec35111bc8272c2616e0a3f2f78e
64910 F20101119_AACKQK hurst_a_Page_126.pro
578dc99a00c7aed8f209e6800c73f09f
1bca146af640f82297b28e6fa72591381c1488d7
87186 F20101119_AACKPV hurst_a_Page_110.pro
432a8d2847bb0ec7484425d2e52c24ee
3e507e26477bfa899a58c6416837a4c6f6d978d3
64389 F20101119_AACKQL hurst_a_Page_127.pro
2c694c89b7f385348d9ed8ddf1318e36
2af62864595e52c78c7b02246377795aa7472515
85257 F20101119_AACKPW hurst_a_Page_111.pro
681296d901848b2978f89a0691134566
e9f85d676a2907f5be78f0d58a04fbbcabe1b3d1
3269 F20101119_AACKRA hurst_a_Page_005.txt
4ddedc9388da9f7c55d8bd7d801d9e2d
ea926bf5a1631c057697781fbe7449cbbdc2422c
66113 F20101119_AACKQM hurst_a_Page_128.pro
814eb89674d8f6ad1d70236c58261fe3
bfc7a2629051ba81e69fb97c7b6918311852dc44
93739 F20101119_AACKPX hurst_a_Page_112.pro
b082a8def5ea39fea12e90da2c84280f
aadb5e1d44ce7d217e71319dab8b88f477cdc43c
1782 F20101119_AACKRB hurst_a_Page_006.txt
58263f0f78890f67e3fd08b2f7023ab8
871a399f142d879825e5fa04c8193c09acc61038
61899 F20101119_AACKQN hurst_a_Page_129.pro
d94cf5dc97a5638fbc9798e61887658f
31500a6120d35f41574f750df009d628a85a9fc3
86817 F20101119_AACKPY hurst_a_Page_113.pro
dcb2ba276e7d663246192eef4f7ff016
163fe8a8c6b50475d82cd1a042fa4533ecabd1a4
1999 F20101119_AACKRC hurst_a_Page_007.txt
d4976b76dd8e5cf674ea9e0f8d32475c
c09d6708e8a646d7d2e6e2858e7a398be74ddd7d
64977 F20101119_AACKQO hurst_a_Page_130.pro
accd73c89f6582037928988d8872e92f
ff68163815151cb17955ede62158e6c9de0e4264
61711 F20101119_AACKPZ hurst_a_Page_114.pro
fffde969c56ce33ce657a439dc4aa47d
fb0d42e15e6ec882563aa78fe1ad314229ed2fb8
2518 F20101119_AACKRD hurst_a_Page_008.txt
0311c4d890b8d4ea6a76a9c3828d0523
6a0b6fec1b1d603025bb19293d6d8d9495d5fff2
3577 F20101119_AACKQP hurst_a_Page_132.pro
fc78c542f51e962d1a9007bcd46db031
2bb13a05f4fb2f7e96a9150d9de05e6c25eda1c6
2929 F20101119_AACKRE hurst_a_Page_009.txt
b563fbef6535ae8c13277705df9ae2b2
3421917611ef7bf310eeb834cb354018f5e8a509
2288 F20101119_AACKQQ hurst_a_Page_133.pro
6d5878263f5691193bd038ada53e0247
ee085f42e8f4fb1bc82b3fee334eab2027506ce1
2923 F20101119_AACKRF hurst_a_Page_010.txt
9fbb2576060d361c3f9a7a22d01fc4a0
8c64372b352f945fd1db3d03385fc3a1fa74273c
2340 F20101119_AACKQR hurst_a_Page_134.pro
2f605ae93515026659d4687dda79a1f3
a2ca659faa96fbe0fba7405afbfa5777963cf2d3
302 F20101119_AACKRG hurst_a_Page_011.txt
868c63b3b4cebb213a96e7ecd69f2c8f
40521a788bfbb613458b6c810906ad1c9922626b
49296 F20101119_AACKQS hurst_a_Page_135.pro
dfc4430f2de20c6def8e909175e2d1fa
3b108ddf01b4fb0696ce49761de3b93c99d151a0
1706 F20101119_AACKRH hurst_a_Page_012.txt
ba6082c973cda256961ed484639fa655
fdafff384fb4620220ee95804155bdbc7b2a2646
58642 F20101119_AACKQT hurst_a_Page_136.pro
3defc39e15446f78fdd7add97217e9fe
05f9f1693833cd843eb1f3095e6f6b45d8162758
969 F20101119_AACKRI hurst_a_Page_013.txt
0a0e3c41cd0c0251aa15c4012c3dcdc5
4b215c4c8cf9862ffe702fdb8758f0a9516c81a5
1850 F20101119_AACKRJ hurst_a_Page_014.txt
80806972159a98d0e4762c10268e1ad0
f9a9c6cdfdbc235d59c488983498620716abb5aa
63117 F20101119_AACKQU hurst_a_Page_137.pro
056d59adc66de660850c6c4c665a9048
fd8a25cf93458658178bf2a2b0256127af4ad960
1998 F20101119_AACKRK hurst_a_Page_015.txt
23d75d624a84b7856e72372339843564
58765b4ec494efe677e9a5ced0fdc69fd73865e7
29474 F20101119_AACKQV hurst_a_Page_138.pro
5f60df82e80fdc4d466ec8907c04b5f0
983fabde80f1a45221f1aa23a27357c4b4bdd2b1
1012 F20101119_AACKRL hurst_a_Page_016.txt
fd49a31884100c05587845823034ab4d
5a68013572896ff1772de2b4950e5faa95a1fb52
19740 F20101119_AACKQW hurst_a_Page_139.pro
e35686b0f6e1235de22a2ed3063cf9d7
e59f0aa08a3cda80903e04479041acf7a0641563
1858 F20101119_AACKRM hurst_a_Page_017.txt
89ab5c48688a7b8c1e524c189a36aa01
aa04af7312e83898e0dd57db403d44dd9be0654d
493 F20101119_AACKQX hurst_a_Page_001.txt
4ae4bb90fdc6ce6c4cd04917367217d2
46cf5d144314abed2042bf5353660f30db6e7b9b
1333 F20101119_AACKSA hurst_a_Page_032.txt
774426dc1f420e13b97b36678e26e8c6
1c0f2f529cb29a1e42652445767deed176ad19e4
183 F20101119_AACKQY hurst_a_Page_003.txt
173bf377f4c0233f85e308a38d72cdee
7d026910356e8b215f6e13322ec505a7f7085d08
1978 F20101119_AACKSB hurst_a_Page_033.txt
0f77b51fbf2763eb44f8a002b986547d
8bc0bfca528c6b19ffcc9ade7ab5ea73eeabb3b7
1997 F20101119_AACKRN hurst_a_Page_019.txt
9144a90e07f70974fd59f6c1a5b3e637
ad951a49c01c284b68f22cdbea6614b88e9b4c44
1552 F20101119_AACKQZ hurst_a_Page_004.txt
5abbfb325f94f4c53e76803f0d8706f5
cc2c891e3395730b215549b3b02b00458ffe8535
1679 F20101119_AACKSC hurst_a_Page_034.txt
ee2c28e30877d3446fce4ad906d45d70
8b12a9f870d1a497bdc75a92bdf7775422edf190
2053 F20101119_AACKRO hurst_a_Page_020.txt
44c938a20f9ac3e616cc068d2a03a6a2
08756aba1e8ca0f83a07e24b136d8cf9113fde9c
2223 F20101119_AACKSD hurst_a_Page_035.txt
c957ffdfd72d649a78736029802a0df1
c77b0f8d038495d62e4a88cbb5243ae6743d96ee
2046 F20101119_AACKRP hurst_a_Page_021.txt
271665b3b17a550b354f436feb960063
7f9f00e1bac6c7b2f6d28cec46a94c162e0db216
1640 F20101119_AACKSE hurst_a_Page_036.txt
b42e37164e5be1e01bfb4c0dc7f65b59
b361e53e473e35688924f6ed717a3fae2b07889a
2089 F20101119_AACKRQ hurst_a_Page_022.txt
e06dab07b45cf176e8aee450ef406042
1f33cbced39ce49454ac223a8fb1b816a236bdbd
1676 F20101119_AACKSF hurst_a_Page_037.txt
9f264defa9939a7a8d6cd390bc84304d
35daef3c8f0c53648794775f0bdf8c0ac1632468
2057 F20101119_AACKRR hurst_a_Page_023.txt
491932dbc5bfcbe90511421a44cf4812
cb18c512310273af03748253300f196871c2f596
1753 F20101119_AACKSG hurst_a_Page_038.txt
bd4ebaaed3dea2c9d1b2903cf49aefc8
b0cc0ca4c9ac243d35b631f88b6200b4417bc51b
2113 F20101119_AACKRS hurst_a_Page_024.txt
fd313def7a2f737452d1f1c9bd6609ac
19db9edfdc415e0eb75ffb8c62fc344e753e2b0c
2008 F20101119_AACKSH hurst_a_Page_040.txt
f3e7b7b2fd0268a1343e7d6a0ebe0ff5
08b527fbc953ee26f2291c943dc562bed5bc0e70
1942 F20101119_AACKRT hurst_a_Page_025.txt
5c2df906af5c29196c2b6e153999a1c2
d0a7b53994758bfe91d0b4e6834870817d2769c0
1981 F20101119_AACKSI hurst_a_Page_041.txt
b357357ddcd4ea475dfa5721ed5a910d
88cb25113f16f831c2cf87359011f68d87347791
357 F20101119_AACKRU hurst_a_Page_026.txt
296a808d9a14660f1857a62bf08c9d0e
fc14f220a160fc4c6ece647a10eb69cbabd6a87a
F20101119_AACKSJ hurst_a_Page_042.txt
80bad3fc1558967cd84be9fcc9138787
0cd491107f51f02e8366b5b350a0fe1e28943466
1611 F20101119_AACKSK hurst_a_Page_043.txt
4f1d82dbb5563d322cf68c7255c65d1b
b917575bd1deae0c6ffe38b6d3109c92bc5b4173
1577 F20101119_AACKRV hurst_a_Page_027.txt
9cb1047bfc8c5541eb52ad627f957a8a
2bf990f352cec3d0e8f9c4a3dd54271a63ea195d
2131 F20101119_AACKSL hurst_a_Page_044.txt
6248c1581b3b4669fd33955b22de054b
32996fce542c35d955e421706e6125a9d87c99ea
2003 F20101119_AACKRW hurst_a_Page_028.txt
043408e767811bf3f9e2dadd2c6af0e9
69ec5346bcc53b2d2f105b669455b16978bd3943
1785 F20101119_AACKTA hurst_a_Page_063.txt
69538b2becd74b7c7e78dfb42b5cef88
33acbb02cb830629c20366fa6f05fa0779f1fa8e
F20101119_AACKSM hurst_a_Page_045.txt
65f21640661df8f6a0219f207187cd8e
b28bd11114984baee5fb94eeffb04249480db8fd
1982 F20101119_AACKRX hurst_a_Page_029.txt
e1809846e905fad7c9591586be878361
4321182c2bdc550953e7239aa862a49d46ed12e1
1666 F20101119_AACKTB hurst_a_Page_064.txt
11958963e2d7de7ae4126b5258989780
848e2c34787d385a7ed7163b632daf316e796d67
1513 F20101119_AACKSN hurst_a_Page_047.txt
02f865d735d9014a18aa34851a30f32a
7fea808620e787fff8ff2ab4a55f54bb7157c9a9
1987 F20101119_AACKRY hurst_a_Page_030.txt
4a1116e78e3ba2d428d2e4edb7e9b758
943259f573c8cc547ec12f04443ed91eb207fb7f
1665 F20101119_AACKTC hurst_a_Page_066.txt
c70c1cb97e30b72e27b04c758875a14c
7d1c4895e5cd8cc130f6aab3ac64f1915dea20ea
1644 F20101119_AACKSO hurst_a_Page_048.txt
7b1a8aa4c76358cd608082428448e887
356a1fd70e1d22b9b74891fe2d1d15677fdd8ed2
1273 F20101119_AACKRZ hurst_a_Page_031.txt
e643ffb1e23f2ab3ab15af7693f83c2e
a8ee0b37b1d8ff5821fa03396d9c70f286fab020
1780 F20101119_AACKTD hurst_a_Page_067.txt
720d6348f04e83df19456bfcc9462beb
0b770ef9c9def541686dc8214d49074ba8ff0491
1617 F20101119_AACKSP hurst_a_Page_050.txt
8c5858c23ab1209db6531d848cfc5ddc
4ff4f4fe4cf20694cd665e1a28681e795e7b9707
1774 F20101119_AACKTE hurst_a_Page_068.txt
ac600356dc43adfbf8497fdb5c156656
1a1ac95008e6fd691aecb62ad5eba6d0a42a4639
1965 F20101119_AACKSQ hurst_a_Page_051.txt
14fa3987247ff710b6122675ec0d9b8d
d0894ddab1cec08cf87dc95be2c274961a84f493
F20101119_AACKTF hurst_a_Page_071.txt
7bf11c41f69bf78ef0a65d848f008601
2e3de926e7dc2af9a354ce25f57377dc28149e08
1777 F20101119_AACKSR hurst_a_Page_052.txt
533d0301dbe78e14840fd17527ee6559
04b1bdad34fa7f9ec86f8bf26784560d4a47e493
F20101119_AACKTG hurst_a_Page_072.txt
94b0ffe8937dc64d5b5d2ef95fa0dc00
bd1476a985d68cf1dc6917781fb93b764ab3dcb1
1567 F20101119_AACKSS hurst_a_Page_053.txt
aa502a08999d7cb337dc6c03a6abe9ef
61223fdd4ae897ff91957db51023931e55434a8f
1469 F20101119_AACKTH hurst_a_Page_073.txt
a6069fb0b7e88820bebb491b9e53069d
eb17662d0b6558d97793076792caf19acc443512
1646 F20101119_AACKST hurst_a_Page_054.txt
b0d7255d4541b3b6f738c4cd2ff7c039
bb85674f098008465669aac22f42331f72cf28b9
1819 F20101119_AACKTI hurst_a_Page_074.txt
b7a6cdd04188b45b09f1e76028e12e1b
e5e39779c5961f4119fdc9390bbdec5164afe039
F20101119_AACKSU hurst_a_Page_055.txt
b3090534077e04675f50e01465eb7026
f41c9af75ded34762cacbb2db2f0e7eab5483d5f
1674 F20101119_AACKTJ hurst_a_Page_075.txt
3d152ffa542a9964a8edf0c2edb2a223
938df32bdaa74fc52c8d9ca663373564ac1d76a2
2024 F20101119_AACKSV hurst_a_Page_056.txt
dd12e4ce5cacd30b7207ae12025fc766
0796011ca3946628902647b32230dab79afd7a12
1726 F20101119_AACKTK hurst_a_Page_077.txt
5a2db607fa51ed97be685d4c3985e7f8
29cd8d10a30f4752169cfcc4e39bbe230851658b
1541 F20101119_AACKTL hurst_a_Page_078.txt
0bb46fd9de5e4bc3cee210f638b0751e
1c3d36e95dba1f3db239a95782e211dc035d122d
1862 F20101119_AACKSW hurst_a_Page_057.txt
acd098f6bfac1bfbcdc72b355164db25
d34718e135ab1c09f095def6bd182e905a21c7ed
1964 F20101119_AACKTM hurst_a_Page_079.txt
a34b4c1a47432e4ea4f847ea0216e796
2beb7cf9b1e01af00e4b58ac4909c436d7b45414
1723 F20101119_AACKSX hurst_a_Page_058.txt
ec765589c26fe8944af2e7ae67ad6ff1
732c53d5a9ca6d93ba4133f4f8caeca70878c00d
4412 F20101119_AACKUA hurst_a_Page_096.txt
f2c7d4b5766af40390063d75aeac59ac
de87a3af20f41309f08d6332ed595f146e72a8be
1619 F20101119_AACKTN hurst_a_Page_080.txt
06b59ec96036a87c7773fadffc53c30c
33c938cc42d2b75b2bee40753e37a56d88dfa884
1655 F20101119_AACKSY hurst_a_Page_059.txt
a4dee5b11a5ae559ef4c23fbd916b7f0
ef785fca9e1bbacb18a3cbae33adb241cd0e79cb
4226 F20101119_AACKUB hurst_a_Page_097.txt
feb85f978a1ae888cea1aabecda8eb91
6fc198fe59efaa380ba453125404ccf4a4c8bdc6
1725 F20101119_AACKTO hurst_a_Page_081.txt
56eefb48695cd14824f8a6e2fc249ada
ff448654f3a2cb1677868e10834c4b46ef578eba
1969 F20101119_AACKSZ hurst_a_Page_062.txt
0b5d93def17faaf4f2195979efadfe78
eee0dca5a1cd50d733c4b096b7ef3f902f2a13c2
4322 F20101119_AACKUC hurst_a_Page_098.txt
b9fc7135c4927dbeee148972ebe18a70
236b8ad142e1a00813613dd0e5896f8f05fb8984
1555 F20101119_AACKTP hurst_a_Page_083.txt
a96449866896eb35e0f1f93cce37ea75
ee0914456c738279515adf83050621545ffd7b3a
4321 F20101119_AACKUD hurst_a_Page_099.txt
26c2c006f930fe28bb8c38ee2c820ca5
120ebd3146f4b403fa0a86a30927967490a61c7e
1953 F20101119_AACKTQ hurst_a_Page_084.txt
5d036fefd67f9a07b7d47dec67a4e6b2
efa07d9159d2104e55a094af98812e434101f014
4463 F20101119_AACKUE hurst_a_Page_100.txt
ce9c788a3fb08a76f030381df080b46c
fde9271560dbad48ff1f60e392acc00e4e59667a
20527 F20101119_AACLAA hurst_a_Page_068.QC.jpg
b7a0c5acaa008e4c5cb081b2e92c06f7
51f0c67bb4491fee0e87f0f6d3629cab42304e02
1684 F20101119_AACKTR hurst_a_Page_085.txt
9a32976a719897d9524217a3acda23c6
ef0562c72b5855cbef39fb89ae482cf0f9c7dddf
4312 F20101119_AACKUF hurst_a_Page_101.txt
e4ac21e6325bf4e4beb2fbba8b20f442
85ae10a4eec9b1cb5d5b43c59379e5242e70e492
20565 F20101119_AACLAB hurst_a_Page_069.QC.jpg
1e2af10c5f3e53cff7e258baeeedac62
97c1b9e386fd25ccac60e9e3b52bfad3068c8cfa
F20101119_AACKTS hurst_a_Page_086.txt
00d6c4e0f3f29fcc2bfbdd135e4565e1
93317e902d7195a7a7c36ed4db393e6f5c8180c8
4568 F20101119_AACKUG hurst_a_Page_102.txt
151fc383b887671c61da7e860ca7228e
41f3ef62a47f08f3aa0ee2e4e38cbd1a8d9ac57c
5405 F20101119_AACLAC hurst_a_Page_069thm.jpg
26528342d33dd44d15543e56f952f20a
2f107c58ac7dd80593d1929805de4de3d5f48e3c
1766 F20101119_AACKTT hurst_a_Page_087.txt
fa6a67ccf4b55575bdbccdb94bf5becf
26df6922ebfe0d19ca62386423cfd484ae8a5d9b
4308 F20101119_AACKUH hurst_a_Page_103.txt
6040376ef9211868abdedd1f70efebe1
518eec81086a6b1454ac2d0a62a9c43a1f9d323e
1791 F20101119_AACKTU hurst_a_Page_088.txt
321f7283178070234e9e5310bf60cc8c
6933f5f2719a06376daa6ab179503b84ecdbb9f8
F20101119_AACKUI hurst_a_Page_104.txt
643f05425ae4965da1af7926e72961e1
55b05354dc452cf0a80dc3d278392501ff62b6d7
20841 F20101119_AACLAD hurst_a_Page_070.QC.jpg
392d0db987b04afe86ba565ce75e057e
4878a216fc89034ff3b976bae821f09a9edd04c3
1669 F20101119_AACKTV hurst_a_Page_090.txt
3384bd58791c025a09b45fb44004f3d9
8d7faf24662a5695a4b0e3f04b752022ecd13c9c
4405 F20101119_AACKUJ hurst_a_Page_105.txt
918142b7cfa412b6292345afc30b75af
7ae5eee796d3b5fa62dac92c8072afbb29ce1226
5908 F20101119_AACLAE hurst_a_Page_070thm.jpg
8c32702fd1216c763994d8ff851e9522
4900850afb3f572b0596402752c2395777951d84
2038 F20101119_AACKTW hurst_a_Page_091.txt
bd2c50710d4eb2797a455c55e9f4482d
cb4bb7507459ef3dd1d0c230eee34610086ab6be
4428 F20101119_AACKUK hurst_a_Page_106.txt
a6b3d11bb91d8cfaf6f3d86d6be23f69
c90ccd5e4fd9b89db4a8a8aee205db30628cfc19
19303 F20101119_AACLAF hurst_a_Page_071.QC.jpg
5da064f359ed593b9ba4565402b38916
2d6c936d9b73541d29b9b8ebfba498b4a20f2706
4206 F20101119_AACKUL hurst_a_Page_107.txt
129f15ea375264162cdca78b8d4d7c47
7d7e682b4b4add11087989d8834eeaf7f6d432d3
5383 F20101119_AACLAG hurst_a_Page_071thm.jpg
80992750d752cda5f7488682fc562aa9
af9b97984d41bc3bb46885d8bbf7f61cf2e792d3
692 F20101119_AACKTX hurst_a_Page_092.txt
3c11432c8d49f468d1155dacc239b50f
90db7ed6f298a46f1c6db7b44657647d2be72846
4230 F20101119_AACKVA hurst_a_Page_122.txt
518e8d5cf211bd2931f89dbb48bc655d
dd1240f5ff54a3ed1d66439771478dbad06028b1
4464 F20101119_AACKUM hurst_a_Page_108.txt
3d4347321744e2b12bd025c6694b994d
cea0ceb5637e674b125a32ff0755af1872a3c669
21367 F20101119_AACLAH hurst_a_Page_072.QC.jpg
ac203e12078dace9abe1ab679b98cdef
31bca408861157835b5208ffc2d71caf4f801950
F20101119_AACKTY hurst_a_Page_093.txt
530eaf54da8acf70ef6b2b2c9ba12161
e4a6785cda0b0b2845a052c64ee5622518352bb5
4001 F20101119_AACKVB hurst_a_Page_124.txt
4ae6c01e0fa9aa8a8e5683ebf866793f
dfc73889e44687c0e2659aa20894d468e707f526
4342 F20101119_AACKUN hurst_a_Page_109.txt
f59ad16977ee816a88a006fad287a9ae
19ed586dea935b4f64e0f2d81a4064d7a21993f9
6183 F20101119_AACLAI hurst_a_Page_072thm.jpg
3ae29396abaec9c9951c41fbb98cf3e1
798fa7e90423a1707bd9b6bc90a771f3fbdff0ca
3560 F20101119_AACKTZ hurst_a_Page_095.txt
51fd65de1620609af1ce49864aebb7ca
31b7eb0008f1f7e1253a332c98f8c1afd16cac26
4078 F20101119_AACKVC hurst_a_Page_125.txt
a3cde42a3e6739d30c8c73b484e015dc
48ee4090ab7f548a022cf0f1453e1f63942aecdb
4461 F20101119_AACKUO hurst_a_Page_110.txt
e241d392c4e446d2da008111bcea424c
fb3b8cd15b57a3db8fbc9d9ad9ccef6f32e7c3f0
18753 F20101119_AACLAJ hurst_a_Page_073.QC.jpg
2c57c1da689eaa5a6dea41bcb5cb3455
f6509937823937fe98a0519292a2e8787d984e9d
4022 F20101119_AACKVD hurst_a_Page_126.txt
221293f30b2be3455cf8b77bcbb9ff65
4c56719284526d6cfa6fdaa115ae78d328debe19
4229 F20101119_AACKUP hurst_a_Page_111.txt
df1d8bb207afdd5c728501e0f5935430
9c8fdd58a88e2f0111b15ceec39e42a89e16242f
5037 F20101119_AACLAK hurst_a_Page_073thm.jpg
3ed72229bf3e4b6d7fac4f17ade736bf
3b6f1c7a90ba4501a1461ba9c0416402693ff380
4156 F20101119_AACKVE hurst_a_Page_127.txt
816b46835375b4449c54f08ecf82c87d
cf35a86947a16b7ca723662bceab6be94aa13c8c
3939 F20101119_AACKUQ hurst_a_Page_112.txt
9345c179c6190b43985d69d9c58c308d
50c87807e8476af52b0f3ef0f971587d3d37d2ae
17975 F20101119_AACLBA hurst_a_Page_083.QC.jpg
5cbdf3050a40721b8d0cbfd1a2ab1e92
02877e19233ec141cd7643ff1adb136b29de1e0e
21143 F20101119_AACLAL hurst_a_Page_074.QC.jpg
67ea401f0c42f28f84a05bef29cb952d
15ad5b66d6cfeedab3ba2c53ff2049467a1426a2
4231 F20101119_AACKVF hurst_a_Page_128.txt
85d7aa4eb8a9d6b5f5f956d28822efbc
a33468973364fed83f9c363251f30cf323bc2215
3944 F20101119_AACKUR hurst_a_Page_113.txt
36721e9909bf8fc90bd6f002855dc6f0
e9e5501b64129fa1874d30b06d2ed7f5be8bc933
5190 F20101119_AACLBB hurst_a_Page_083thm.jpg
5e09009335ee3537fc202f16340b5113
7cb987584060655828801d7b699c980fd505ee2e
5785 F20101119_AACLAM hurst_a_Page_074thm.jpg
6625f4d6b053cd994d09988765f28cf3
6ebb473569c7fca5c76d2cb75cc2adc1e4da24e7
4048 F20101119_AACKVG hurst_a_Page_129.txt
781de0d17b59f0c50e88d49ef1e2bfc6
8db16256e33bf4d36353f8ff198a8922496062e7
4261 F20101119_AACKUS hurst_a_Page_114.txt
4dac53f0121c3713b1929b0be277c11a
a894d1739ba2a8b9723e8d760f628f4ddb77509d
22998 F20101119_AACLBC hurst_a_Page_084.QC.jpg
deed044113ded5ec4d72cb1bc965cea0
2d30ec102104825b58c8d2abdd1ab2faded6e35d
5212 F20101119_AACLAN hurst_a_Page_075thm.jpg
4ee4bfcdb0175cef85f35913d099420c
a81a93476efe9ce4c98eb399d69f7da5db118183
4131 F20101119_AACKVH hurst_a_Page_130.txt
d3f48c5820c6b5248106f4d6153ba502
b131ab898b974029c00ac719001390be205b460e
4154 F20101119_AACKUT hurst_a_Page_115.txt
74c67db7f1eb0a390261e8c594aa8d9c
2b82534a019353c6e0753057fbf6c4c89a849873
6415 F20101119_AACLBD hurst_a_Page_084thm.jpg
9ffb6b1c89d522cfdc4e46a28ceb982f
7aef4077d6c0d731443051ff3752ba809aca3ff2
22760 F20101119_AACLAO hurst_a_Page_076.QC.jpg
85c24517c1e22743c23519c3c61bc81a
03c1b61e91fa269ea57ee2e8950236ff2102060f
171 F20101119_AACKVI hurst_a_Page_132.txt
b262face8d27317a198e4e7ad35a4be8
5da2fcc24b1209d2860fd53e6b554e88f0bdd78b
4209 F20101119_AACKUU hurst_a_Page_116.txt
97cc5aad53b560dc9bc08dee5f217970
33c89a752ace1c10514fbb062b73b950eacbeff4
6306 F20101119_AACLAP hurst_a_Page_076thm.jpg
af99caea9f655a1fa656bd980b86b314
bf24b9f5cc1dcd76e2cd5e6cfcd819586de517b8
152 F20101119_AACKVJ hurst_a_Page_133.txt
054d91f7afc2f336b29828ad4283e8f2
2ed61ce7247054c60745a291f0324e60a835a664
4058 F20101119_AACKUV hurst_a_Page_117.txt
6988fd1e23775e20cf85f752bef279fb
51d7089dadd3fb86cc1747abce65ddbf7a6fe72b
20183 F20101119_AACLBE hurst_a_Page_085.QC.jpg
493c904aef65b80b61d435c6e77002c6
c42236552fd3f156e4047994a9c3701403ca384f
19070 F20101119_AACLAQ hurst_a_Page_077.QC.jpg
034903ba87879ae651996d08640994f8
0bf9f6adbee8f8b7fccd73b7dccd99707914b0f9
154 F20101119_AACKVK hurst_a_Page_134.txt
a4d24c016db4037c652d59aa0140591e
2b2bd6a64f9db5a6171bdac18bfccac50c98aef2
F20101119_AACKUW hurst_a_Page_118.txt
4aef1cd87bef120404de1bd4bf8b7f12
f7de0ae782e0693443e5f53a1d819687ff6d0d63
5467 F20101119_AACLBF hurst_a_Page_085thm.jpg
5ad485e5fb5bf1686e70ecabb0b1e69c
72914128f073e917fb0b380e1987cc4a733a6316
5179 F20101119_AACLAR hurst_a_Page_077thm.jpg
18faa43df19d065d1ad7042f1ec38300
c3e31fc9a267fbd664480f236d15dc62107c5700
2011 F20101119_AACKVL hurst_a_Page_135.txt
35007561a1d7b299b1a6abdf4406ddab
572ceb287bc446d01d7b05292ed978baf681a8f8
3889 F20101119_AACKUX hurst_a_Page_119.txt
7c1109a637d775324cbaf10b785195af
14114feefde1eea7f6eed0908a8326572c505c6d
19239 F20101119_AACLBG hurst_a_Page_086.QC.jpg
6297a2975a31fb097e7e169406b1bca1
ca855b824b6df4f32346d77fed6631324ef6c6d7
17305 F20101119_AACLAS hurst_a_Page_078.QC.jpg
981089520fce6da37a0db7913bdc55ac
90c7f224dc1c97cef1099c927a4c6ca7ea70359f
11128 F20101119_AACKWA hurst_a_Page_006.QC.jpg
f802a2e7ee38700c30edba05db8c594b
0fbaf880126d448cd0b208076b71fd64baf05e90
2563 F20101119_AACKVM hurst_a_Page_137.txt
f5f0a7019f0cd3d159cfe305eb42b209
9f95c47b8dfc88da29e0954e082324a6cf7dd50a
5421 F20101119_AACLBH hurst_a_Page_086thm.jpg
9cef76bf5956df4c0e2855805f0fb6bd
b158ad0389d18e8f25925d16862de3de82bbfc37
4918 F20101119_AACLAT hurst_a_Page_078thm.jpg
e6d4d22cd6b65ccf52db6a74673259cf
57355a1166d39737233f1113b3ee8d3f687eaa87
3325 F20101119_AACKWB hurst_a_Page_006thm.jpg
3769687e430422b7bcda19ab3a05648a
c1cfdb73072c465bb4891cab2bea6e08bcfdac3e
1206 F20101119_AACKVN hurst_a_Page_138.txt
2ccc6f0fa08c0559e75a5089699cfb69
85ac5d5d6872fe665342efd954b1c23f6deec7f0
4017 F20101119_AACKUY hurst_a_Page_120.txt
3e66ed69c8cd6fb0ef883e8eb13fcc11
27e15614b1cb3760e886e45ed2c27dae45683039
20458 F20101119_AACLBI hurst_a_Page_087.QC.jpg
503a856337652650024614c88cacdfb8
269a99324b6fe18260acc5780224c3f659ca7062
23387 F20101119_AACLAU hurst_a_Page_079.QC.jpg
337cf724bd00763d19203a34e57a2107
e2a2a12d0981cbf77b93859eb9101ed8ad823106
4727 F20101119_AACKWC hurst_a_Page_007thm.jpg
6f668b896a775dd5aff9973fc49aac40
14725da126faabd89632b6c0860f3328543e9626
831 F20101119_AACKVO hurst_a_Page_139.txt
fa8445ccd344451799eedd974593b93b
996d51e4c711dcf3e7bf137d849f514b098918d4
4106 F20101119_AACKUZ hurst_a_Page_121.txt
f5a63507d9dc324dbbfd9a25495f79f1
6f7bc164cdf5fe188c1177e519eb25c73eeb9ae4
5422 F20101119_AACLBJ hurst_a_Page_087thm.jpg
45553215047e44e9420ed44e4f75fb7e
d2dce5ca6943366801f689751ea837f9339c97d0
6429 F20101119_AACLAV hurst_a_Page_079thm.jpg
4beef5f85bfec48f34858543a10d9e64
872623ee114664db5265e659476efef358e7faf6
25857 F20101119_AACKWD hurst_a_Page_008.QC.jpg
5cb0d77232e6b920b6b26493cba8a790
46652a0a1103452e73b4bdaa0152dcc0913c24a5
F20101119_AACKVP hurst_a_Page_001thm.jpg
27df3f0cb374f8c0c382b2c9ef6df8b4
bc57566f1c733fdfcd606de574eb6f2b65fc95a4
5581 F20101119_AACLBK hurst_a_Page_088thm.jpg
6edc2269e4ac3f7d3afaa4257c8fc157
d28c40a7cab421b842f9a193f5b37fcbc21cb191
18621 F20101119_AACLAW hurst_a_Page_080.QC.jpg
c7c659b36cf6dd4f7f04fbc0f766f9da
18b7df36af7c582e09a1bd93303d4511fca49afc
6580 F20101119_AACKWE hurst_a_Page_008thm.jpg
ebb1ac93bc25e23fde3b809f739e38cd
596dfa2cdf4b7f0ff6ab50763514de927f0b7260
693163 F20101119_AACKVQ hurst_a.pdf
e7b45d6711d7bbb25eb75ef5e7db6c29
59a156f16edb98b4fef4653f69997f22a9079748
27282 F20101119_AACLCA hurst_a_Page_097.QC.jpg
fa58f411f3074ee67aa2df4dd56af222
811b48cfedfe18464eed92957e53e67b662a12e7
23308 F20101119_AACLBL hurst_a_Page_089.QC.jpg
c6bba1d8ca18e16b8ca049ca11ed84e6
ea95806a705dd8c8f07037bc894606e0655276ad
19705 F20101119_AACLAX hurst_a_Page_081.QC.jpg
eb52123691355109f4e3e33bb46c4ac6
5236e6828b1513fd61673693513d0aeec40794d8
30744 F20101119_AACKWF hurst_a_Page_009.QC.jpg
4fb5501196f249b48d20e9af998c4c1b
e8d3de024a6d4ac50de1907e0ee95177863207da
7713 F20101119_AACKVR hurst_a_Page_001.QC.jpg
00b15cab94930949f2149b295c924903
0e6068646d6bb5b5b513b055b010f68969c86a48
27369 F20101119_AACLCB hurst_a_Page_098.QC.jpg
57a157b5c728f137956ac1e59c26af12
1bc4a1934efae98c9269edbd56db25a3d347b5f8
6420 F20101119_AACLBM hurst_a_Page_089thm.jpg
84a080187a882773e7f8411c22c0c7fc
bf0027af5ad6d0f9ebe4f54328d14ca6f43391ef
5370 F20101119_AACLAY hurst_a_Page_081thm.jpg
e12c2f74029a4ecf4adaec17b48d2ce0
cd5738ed95338f41868304600eff39fda00dc763
7467 F20101119_AACKWG hurst_a_Page_009thm.jpg
100183d1815eea527bb6b56c998eac5f
af6958f9a54394687c7118167292c540a7e8d915
3371 F20101119_AACKVS hurst_a_Page_002.QC.jpg
2f19528814ab0df817989ab3735af868
b837ed5a56d901e9a2c2d5cd87795db1c50f618b
6717 F20101119_AACLCC hurst_a_Page_098thm.jpg
22e709ebf4954ea533a18153ac1047be
30c8e23d4339277cb1ae4200ca87fbc74e8435c6
19616 F20101119_AACLBN hurst_a_Page_090.QC.jpg
7499ac7669759c619835982a49c67010
49949c59d9e9cb078c5cb4fc27b8496729905b89
5642 F20101119_AACLAZ hurst_a_Page_082thm.jpg
5e2d1148a10727a516337bf5aaa62fce
bd341a4a92d4feee257a09efc3f1780d28e7adb8
30742 F20101119_AACKWH hurst_a_Page_010.QC.jpg
a24740d715de4539e5a6c748fd441557
bb5766498cd0b97a39d56609773874cd8cd819c7
1394 F20101119_AACKVT hurst_a_Page_002thm.jpg
e1ca17b74e972e3d8f90da8cdfee2809
929f3a253dd088ec79aa973f00aa8fa8b7a93bc0
29450 F20101119_AACLCD hurst_a_Page_099.QC.jpg
76172326b5286d7e9a2d6eef3bb6a1ad
67ea55c23fb7e814f537b6a381b87d86a26c8b41
5408 F20101119_AACLBO hurst_a_Page_090thm.jpg
acd16c4e3d829c09cf2be0d9c2b0cdf7
6bdd5cd00c48b92b92cfc81a7e1e9deeb3f6841f
7521 F20101119_AACKWI hurst_a_Page_010thm.jpg
0aac630a7ef45b39809f0eed5b7c6285
8a3f05ecf3bb5bf2a5e37f5590b5d4e6f3e87540
3645 F20101119_AACKVU hurst_a_Page_003.QC.jpg
fadf8c0012c4b8d17617c3ef93ce4aeb
acba7d3cfd5df519cf0d64a91a126f0a6c24f2cb
7078 F20101119_AACLCE hurst_a_Page_099thm.jpg
f88405d06152550aac31cade6cd3d45f
5604ee74aaa6547326a6896e28351fe7f788fdce
23632 F20101119_AACLBP hurst_a_Page_091.QC.jpg
7671ea27f4f27d862da649c4cfa82d13
b8224c8842b277bb5e635655837a1f633aca6d62
5606 F20101119_AACKWJ hurst_a_Page_011.QC.jpg
323b1a377dce19bd189a0127cf450243
f34fe5a7f322320ab1565600ae23702af7986d04
1519 F20101119_AACKVV hurst_a_Page_003thm.jpg
d167e14ba10f7df3a843266369e5076e
251617af3d1b452643e5a9cc519b03dfd1f55310
9797 F20101119_AACLBQ hurst_a_Page_092.QC.jpg
5c913d1aca15c217aa3406b8b1d54f50
df101a15e2b0a49fb9f9cdca66362abff1f13222
19382 F20101119_AACKVW hurst_a_Page_004.QC.jpg
f62f50f8e4d08dd6199b8a16a63dbe23
4c146ee5c2f43be2bd08f0767cf59e7c1acd1fc1
2052 F20101119_AACKWK hurst_a_Page_011thm.jpg
76d75164236eff6fc49f33c039c21343
4cc031211622f8f110cb8a5315f70604973086c3
30577 F20101119_AACLCF hurst_a_Page_100.QC.jpg
c41c17bc9fae4229ddb873529a34b592
cfc1f9c0adb73b04e5eabde977828fbfb689de53
3084 F20101119_AACLBR hurst_a_Page_092thm.jpg
82f4ea9329bac99eb7837998650e417f
cc480c956b72d702e78965438fe84fde550cbaff
5340 F20101119_AACKVX hurst_a_Page_004thm.jpg
4e944c4789ee7e8d13a6201289902b53
cee719c71b2e578aa686b0faf35e55547ab8f9a2
18906 F20101119_AACKWL hurst_a_Page_012.QC.jpg
fce51101fe342689e143321103c94b3b
e6a43cb07c2089158bc99721f8a2d23488fc8666
7230 F20101119_AACLCG hurst_a_Page_100thm.jpg
ce58eeb846e668c87eaa924acf33f916
74e6a8211d8fca542321076e818b34e3bfe0434a
21627 F20101119_AACLBS hurst_a_Page_093.QC.jpg
dba44d2e8c278c41ac9dd63d38f2ffa6
d24412d92df97c7e7199d16d2cacf0622ef85691
16282 F20101119_AACKVY hurst_a_Page_005.QC.jpg
661eb552d73687c8e8476ee3cf100cb9
2a1da3079e55a2a74ba45b5a697e4f97088b0162
6766 F20101119_AACKXA hurst_a_Page_021thm.jpg
4844f73ad8044ee10d6ca96d4a77e27f
3e23faba6a398a79059093347ec2c2c8fc73d2ce
5479 F20101119_AACKWM hurst_a_Page_012thm.jpg
101af91cf0e121d25c4980ea7e148b5b
46111cce3104b2e93af420d1dd06c715d41a9e4c
28044 F20101119_AACLCH hurst_a_Page_101.QC.jpg
8563ecfc21e9ed26826eadd9e1ea4b6e
6f81ee7855b693824707e8f8355974479a0e499b
6089 F20101119_AACLBT hurst_a_Page_093thm.jpg
13b0acc382e989bb9da9aa754cc4d520
6eb8e984042f3c236e4897c779239e5f5c00b530
24152 F20101119_AACKXB hurst_a_Page_022.QC.jpg
19f5d998cc6860aa6db3f09c0917c4a2
fb3f95b92a136ca04a249746f2f11747cb987065
3820 F20101119_AACKWN hurst_a_Page_013thm.jpg
207604543f4f900472176a69019dde28
dcdc98a02d32896819487a61f12a02b39b99ddf4
6781 F20101119_AACLCI hurst_a_Page_101thm.jpg
ee2b166877c3ff33a96d3fa92a052eaa
0d7670ac78548babc5e37c34cf2e1adf7c696bd6
13620 F20101119_AACLBU hurst_a_Page_094.QC.jpg
365fceabc963a1b4c881bdb4ff34fd6e
720151b660cb5d3f48043e472e5dfb66b5b16eb6
4475 F20101119_AACKVZ hurst_a_Page_005thm.jpg
dd05394f83a3063eb378f482d0ffe4a3
08d9aa12a6f4daf067cb7e1718495c30fb12ce5b
108516 F20101119_AACJUA hurst_a_Page_051.jp2
b0148e7a8ff0c6a684e519f5abba8864
ecf009264ec0f5f93b67d5de79ffc675bcb8b1e7
6742 F20101119_AACKXC hurst_a_Page_022thm.jpg
2157fd99c92e777c9233b44c755b0cc8
df7f1501e1808328bb3c751ffae180687ba72efe
21115 F20101119_AACKWO hurst_a_Page_014.QC.jpg
f9a116b237b2ec6e9fc3cc01f21a390c
8a1b349e7bf5b1df97cb34f67c15235f7db88413
28098 F20101119_AACLCJ hurst_a_Page_102.QC.jpg
fdef8aa04170a60a549df0f09e0ceed2
79854d096798379d02b2dd27eca87cd04522a8a5
3959 F20101119_AACLBV hurst_a_Page_094thm.jpg
c70a66a2f79ceca59398c12c0fd7500e
47ce462934074f39a388ec2bc9b18cfdc198f5eb
1051982 F20101119_AACJUB hurst_a_Page_008.jp2
e4c1048e42d56d8fe0ad90a437b2a211
0f85549cdd2c6f076d20b0ee7536633e3761031c
24422 F20101119_AACKXD hurst_a_Page_023.QC.jpg
ed465eef8dd28bcccbcd5fe4e2df6e71
3ebafe8194479de983386a1f7254caefdc18dc42
5801 F20101119_AACJTN hurst_a_Page_062thm.jpg
acb82eb39df5dd18047996e151df2f94
ba717881092ecc6df1ac78526d87873c8b0dec91
5867 F20101119_AACKWP hurst_a_Page_014thm.jpg
e5bef366f5931defce3cae59e48e1dce
f53d10a6cc5758cd7e3369af4cefe9028c7e1100
6720 F20101119_AACLCK hurst_a_Page_102thm.jpg
5d582d59e7d6900c9ef3d8f638f92b83
a1fc13f22a6f183dbc8712b5b5d63d4751ad7e01
24597 F20101119_AACLBW hurst_a_Page_095.QC.jpg
6c88e0a590dcc2fd45844e998762ff4f
b1ebbd5f47b220a4112e55d5f8218606ba107924
3023 F20101119_AACJUC hurst_a_Page_134thm.jpg
ca9d8b3af1e57a9f5c8786dc3b0c9cb9
20fd06988106f52542f0f4bc3573f946516e5374
6674 F20101119_AACKXE hurst_a_Page_023thm.jpg
293ad83eda4210bbdd8348fd427cfba3
6608314aa54d146d80b4234f15373e5d26f5c18e
63778 F20101119_AACJTO hurst_a_Page_005.jpg
cf356d39ff762c01d59fa435215e6ac2
5a2299a63310cb6d09eb6c2a0d4e633226a1a7d9
13283 F20101119_AACKWQ hurst_a_Page_016.QC.jpg
8c1018564cd976aedbd9c01d5fc2cc69
a99cb385549bf4eaa8689932063aa9c508631c86
6954 F20101119_AACLDA hurst_a_Page_111thm.jpg
8c7c6bd3549ec4c1a4e90866d82afe57
38aa8c4ebbe9497524294028bc33e665ddf1f71f
6663 F20101119_AACLCL hurst_a_Page_103thm.jpg
aaf34f087d832efe391f9e0cf9840a41
59ba793938dbae7adbc581ff4681d108c5bf8803
5879 F20101119_AACLBX hurst_a_Page_095thm.jpg
ffc1459c1b1643cf1feaf6ba477b23be
17279dea1ef863880a5499e6b1f106b5aabdc7f1
25724 F20101119_AACJUD hurst_a_Page_001.jpg
ec30d98bdcc737a7d98712ba350a1235
472a955fa91b786944c24db823c4e15c836703b5
24347 F20101119_AACKXF hurst_a_Page_024.QC.jpg
e0606c9fb9d497ae4220dbac55e7bb79
f1618e6fdc436f76d8b71f0461c1686a2b26a5f3
348289 F20101119_AACJTP hurst_a_Page_011.jp2
692ee141befaba734dd61c0b306ad3d5
1085255260a89a6fb549e111165f2cd8ac14f954
3798 F20101119_AACKWR hurst_a_Page_016thm.jpg
96f170d467b2350232698bb583b80cf4
efc8484c9ba3da0a37ab185ab9b33e967d9297df
34755 F20101119_AACLDB hurst_a_Page_112.QC.jpg
64ef669ee20c0da54adf78edc7f56322
39e2322f0549cdd786d9e6bd3e4db98485860a04
26762 F20101119_AACLCM hurst_a_Page_104.QC.jpg
90cc42c5930cc72c2b71fef536aebd92
e29d4aa911e2f16cff1bf1579f6ab43e59ff8c5d
28295 F20101119_AACLBY hurst_a_Page_096.QC.jpg
a36bb2bd9fdbce8b742f1dbbf180ca34
5fa5ec48bdf80624a5d55d28d01a4d71b3a2990c
1700 F20101119_AACJUE hurst_a_Page_060.txt
d13b9c75b003fd05eec32321ad2bc36f
c63660b33eb019ab14bd59abe5cef5d3f841f6d0
6789 F20101119_AACKXG hurst_a_Page_024thm.jpg
fa5092aa167fc37207b4079ecfa95cf0
b9129dbf0b5dbd48c7a421627672d1602df91106
1053954 F20101119_AACJTQ hurst_a_Page_101.tif
841886f91efb63ee85b7f931470c194f
758a311f43d7c1864a47cce0e7fe2375296449db
20767 F20101119_AACKWS hurst_a_Page_017.QC.jpg
5f392006fa37129efa30db832c457577
07c0bd0fc0f48191c7c5dffa03de8e6116abb84b
7967 F20101119_AACLDC hurst_a_Page_112thm.jpg
c01dd81de5a06da1f85f35f104ff93cf
dc64c43fa2448fcec25cf95882a4f812fca8ff0a
6433 F20101119_AACLCN hurst_a_Page_104thm.jpg
56a34f8ced5d54b33dc5449c149a81fe
9772e258a25ddd54ce8678f97539379fdcd26687
6629 F20101119_AACLBZ hurst_a_Page_096thm.jpg
3d9040dbe9f9edc96a2af916f686a16a
9d1b1ac5ad955f3f174a7f3fe7051aa11b47fc49
12951 F20101119_AACJUF hurst_a_Page_013.QC.jpg
4b939df6a66ad8d9c9e7ce95749553fc
e7af8c47df1809033e1c48f749f7d4cbc7f3abb2
6256 F20101119_AACKXH hurst_a_Page_025thm.jpg
c0690971e116c11ec42620906de6ad8e
86416cc4f42f030e5a45ac979e479227199f9b6a
18563 F20101119_AACJTR hurst_a_Page_075.QC.jpg
646647416e0535e0ce606ceb596dd69e
377a1a1ecf84824d96b653db006e0f4fb9982664
5863 F20101119_AACKWT hurst_a_Page_017thm.jpg
33103d6f4d4a38866305dfda511f9c60
9d4a1a2ff501e9121f9166ef06a5a94bf71c91fc
66418 F20101119_AACKAA hurst_a_Page_068.jpg
693a93660a55915152151bc95ad1771a
eb5e09f8df4be4d27b1f345d54af7b4328b1ec3f
32457 F20101119_AACLDD hurst_a_Page_113.QC.jpg
d24b96be8cbee43c9985aee16e1a0d6e
f3c820b2b5196e3a8feadba39e0c31d95892a75b
28604 F20101119_AACLCO hurst_a_Page_105.QC.jpg
2ac5811a80b5ba1463b0ac87cf87880f
6a2ac52d2fbbeda42b08e30f77913236d4f152d6
104557 F20101119_AACJUG hurst_a_Page_111.jpg
b87c654f2dc9dcf911e7847ab9001a62
ddea8a63eac61fa748703f20485c0a50cea09a54
6117 F20101119_AACKXI hurst_a_Page_026.QC.jpg
484bb4fb8e2babf684fc4590ce3faa10
5c9e14c71ede924572e91eece11ad414f751b5c1
8423998 F20101119_AACJTS hurst_a_Page_048.tif
795861001f55ac4731c0e36acb2e24b7
a80f92fda39f45084b36119afb1286929529bb6e
6385 F20101119_AACKWU hurst_a_Page_018thm.jpg
33f80373509e860603fa266518681036
d9e49663745f743e956761c31b0d5fd0ea0913bf
67555 F20101119_AACKAB hurst_a_Page_069.jpg
e514fcf988e4143895934d219ecbb816
24f51c7005d5776484c8fd53c843084499a6d31c
7675 F20101119_AACLDE hurst_a_Page_113thm.jpg
e4fc5d755280a74f10097c3bcf0ebc17
4a7a0b00549f4372fef8636f8b1e48ab21c96543
6544 F20101119_AACLCP hurst_a_Page_105thm.jpg
7edffade2ab7c4aecca4e43b9649ca5c
dcb468b26f9862f78d9cfae3be25d28280cb48e4
18851 F20101119_AACJUH hurst_a_Page_047.QC.jpg
8fdf99a42b86bdcf531bec10ef9387ba
d36dc5a395711f2adeab9b85a9d4b2b177f72c62
2130 F20101119_AACKXJ hurst_a_Page_026thm.jpg
efd03abdc910f0f983dbba6ce2c0174e
da0018c85aa9c0d777eebc68a8d24eaffe41fe3f
21657 F20101119_AACJTT hurst_a_Page_115.QC.jpg
9229b32697bb13821133b127f81651ba
49be911b1eca2636d06901e9c67a18c32e6b399b
22731 F20101119_AACKWV hurst_a_Page_019.QC.jpg
9a889b2d904b938d51c96416cfa630fe
6a66725a85ec0982f1b0f1e6b03bd6e0e4e0b19b
66274 F20101119_AACKAC hurst_a_Page_070.jpg
47607366df57840096b062a7c5f92046
c2c3f06d9f4965a59ceac35d1433f33475e54a01
21556 F20101119_AACLDF hurst_a_Page_114.QC.jpg
116ca0a826b9bb2d1f321e3d41c4fdf8
ededb4349278dda42b220fd0c37db7bcfb9df013
30646 F20101119_AACLCQ hurst_a_Page_106.QC.jpg
51949bcfcd8b448912d106bf3fc24713
4f4f3a0e157e3feff4cfa3a12982a06623cb8860
F20101119_AACJUI hurst_a_Page_075.tif
99a99398089e5f0f94e20e58d3730041
d63deba795c54cbe4a35646179129420a16dcbfc
5099 F20101119_AACKXK hurst_a_Page_027thm.jpg
513f968ed0d4b2de5148d34141bc97aa
3338125ce124f57868366e3f1a5620d94a3e0d0e
2006 F20101119_AACJTU hurst_a_Page_089.txt
fd662667497a85c95ca1b23cf6cc959d
34083255f398a5dc203251c542eb4ede70f724a6
6561 F20101119_AACKWW hurst_a_Page_019thm.jpg
b555d65014d7956fc0f94945cc977e0d
a7e0be5e2f89ecbbac51563c5d947c72c9a25fe9
61388 F20101119_AACKAD hurst_a_Page_071.jpg
e1e1058d70030e270720251ab81d897b
d118b4f62f04b0948aa5a7003d7a2d51bcb11e71
6874 F20101119_AACLCR hurst_a_Page_106thm.jpg
2b6e3240a7bd5288b233554554215422
bd7888defd6ae10a5ce8ec5919c6492540d44df7
113217 F20101119_AACJUJ hurst_a_Page_023.jp2
67b629ea719d5d29344c1606327555b8
a0618241bc1263ff37c63c4c0adf20696f653f0f
22679 F20101119_AACKXL hurst_a_Page_028.QC.jpg
151793be0da2a6f1d5e5e2f9cf1cfb2f
99346ab1b829dac84594c39697c8a05487ac26aa
49856 F20101119_AACJTV hurst_a_Page_019.pro
67c4b1b3e9ca5df42201318873c898ce
3f81cd7d84f539f8390a4ed274e7b65de289acc2
24205 F20101119_AACKWX hurst_a_Page_020.QC.jpg
9c688a8bcc3660dd4981d3654bf5e73f
11e3e7c6c2e205ea0dd1c00fc0249633f7ba9e8e
5221 F20101119_AACLDG hurst_a_Page_114thm.jpg
0b7026fd41e94e69dd972f3f7eff403c
a236f21622bcf193d86545df0d9920ad3d33d730
6791 F20101119_AACLCS hurst_a_Page_107thm.jpg
f250fe7b084ca8d82cdd741f0024ea6f
d0ed3b1000fd8a50a0aa3c14adaf082c4d400de0
20205 F20101119_AACKYA hurst_a_Page_037.QC.jpg
b902bc26d1beda5e0ada1330e13f426b
05ecfc0397bf6ca64d45a597ef285f2dbbb343d2
F20101119_AACJUK hurst_a_Page_018.tif
a8189c43a5e4f6d659ba70a8df7793eb
1061d3615ff2279e70e1420b779348cf36fb2659
6450 F20101119_AACKXM hurst_a_Page_028thm.jpg
3fe865b0a3e8b6fd416af1c57c1a7384
724d055583edf430c969ada7b7a3161dcfb6db45
F20101119_AACJTW hurst_a_Page_069.txt
6e12016d28a1353c150e9f8b62f661d2
e04e7f10f4a1a6d7af2182e0ecdf6bac44115574
6525 F20101119_AACKWY hurst_a_Page_020thm.jpg
7a8763de842b8c4d25a41144a6f9ff2b
7f203f51b4a933c98e8ec1341652ffc09722a520
65288 F20101119_AACKAE hurst_a_Page_072.jpg
e1561d8ddbda8d8419a271286533a3d4
b05b067ccbe622a9f2816e494b4fb1185967740c
5316 F20101119_AACLDH hurst_a_Page_115thm.jpg
1cd834efbac21dd91733ad8237c526f3
cbe2fab32fe9731984f3b68f89122f6236db9ec9
28145 F20101119_AACLCT hurst_a_Page_108.QC.jpg
424317ba68161331425cc8ee19e45d19
b5d2687fc70578763dc19038795abd0fc8e9a689
6028 F20101119_AACKYB hurst_a_Page_037thm.jpg
214dd53a87fbe9d0d6943676de1b6250
ca41ddff09ff29624f8e8879fe2d6cd354ac4dd0
21513 F20101119_AACJUL hurst_a_Page_122.QC.jpg
5959eb08c2605cd81443c278a4acdb56
b3e373adde65e3d8c9d23e63be298c1cf99e5731
23439 F20101119_AACKXN hurst_a_Page_029.QC.jpg
6374c200ccb793c84399230d0fccb526
cb7944381bd4dfb9ce52e0c7b021e240e3fdee0f
F20101119_AACJTX hurst_a_Page_117.tif
6ae22d6dab8fbf70fbbd48fb12663d66
0fb47c1faf80a82ca5405f09ac06a65c34f04057
23613 F20101119_AACKWZ hurst_a_Page_021.QC.jpg
176e49244d28d9f56712f6ebc0542833
0fda0f542b69c937ae4f5849d1cd9ca84424322e
59610 F20101119_AACKAF hurst_a_Page_073.jpg
b4427db222290039eaa028c89b207588
0c9edf3062a5379cf2117c57b985d52669a77b82
21504 F20101119_AACLDI hurst_a_Page_116.QC.jpg
93254ffae569760fc97ede7e97bd8d44
1d26890794234d5a90dbe8bd8c602db62c3d3f58
6734 F20101119_AACLCU hurst_a_Page_108thm.jpg
7c09c4a7c92ec3f5d4dd17043ec0aca9
36c3432cb531c5554abde19425bc343420815717
19844 F20101119_AACKYC hurst_a_Page_038.QC.jpg
fd55abcba3a836f656e9ee66a3bcf34c
db5ef0eeeef4cf8e156e98dbd4bc1a50f658fbe6
63877 F20101119_AACJVA hurst_a_Page_035.jpg
80b6bbc21202179b5b10f3f6069baa3b
cd55e1d1954dddbf1800ecc1e2dfccff01437f2a
1069 F20101119_AACJUM hurst_a_Page_094.txt
d61794933272e30ef5d5f772f4c4a9a7
b35af79106b161a31e3676c9e1bb1fccc27e83ee
6567 F20101119_AACKXO hurst_a_Page_029thm.jpg
2ef8c8115cbfacc83d37267b9d89a8e7
d1b23a130b08cbf21f993880db7eee26488c1139
70632 F20101119_AACKAG hurst_a_Page_074.jpg
b2346ef8a68b1320c83495cb5e8b8b33
2a68d9fe6943ed69437df49a210d427989038295
5226 F20101119_AACLDJ hurst_a_Page_116thm.jpg
61e78527287acda37c586ea7f2d5ae91
e3d03efd9a35b9a120c034c7ed0b8198dd650e4c
27993 F20101119_AACLCV hurst_a_Page_109.QC.jpg
c57106bab16258992e6506c8a8e53d23
90f650949274ef7a8de3f6b8cb59dadb5ece7bbf
5335 F20101119_AACKYD hurst_a_Page_038thm.jpg
e923cbc0ba126cfcc75f927728352d28
65d0bcf3557c7a7ce412a306039e494613e9deac
17893 F20101119_AACJVB hurst_a_Page_027.QC.jpg
ba55d0830027168215ee434d74cce0d4
b5893a0a0da5d8b7a6e132d8808a1dfa7cd1b27f
66842 F20101119_AACJUN hurst_a_Page_116.pro
0863077245a920839e5510a4b7f36a47
a20ccfba44c189da0319146606d992bb92fa24ec
23823 F20101119_AACKXP hurst_a_Page_030.QC.jpg
0fdc704d1ac17458f0baf56a19607bbb
6f831b0be61612220b9b5b6adb4afbfd9d413124
28800 F20101119_AACJTY hurst_a_Page_107.QC.jpg
b31cf282560926cad25a5f74768f16b6
8ddc469b7cffa049b76dba4eb7a634acf1db5898
60975 F20101119_AACKAH hurst_a_Page_075.jpg
076e86ca99e24d79af940a374022f3d5
9cdf42fd8d45ff46343b1862e0c77cc712a82f2a
21754 F20101119_AACLDK hurst_a_Page_117.QC.jpg
5e90dda78d9d0b5c05c7ee12045a2e90
0c38ea38560c9db9fc1f531def366795ac1055da
6844 F20101119_AACLCW hurst_a_Page_109thm.jpg
e34dfcdc346562beb3754df88c7943ac
9245ee0aff1d47d7dc7a46a76186612c5e974cbc
18932 F20101119_AACKYE hurst_a_Page_039.QC.jpg
68a2c4e6b61d463218a8db89aa2b624e
619fd44608fcce0414c75a159885d4dfd30e3afa
47487 F20101119_AACJVC hurst_a_Page_031.jpg
87c279101393ed825ad2b2586e1403d9
898c8ca966dae4bebcdea36fd9229f70c3fed4e4
5435 F20101119_AACJUO hurst_a_Page_080thm.jpg
27028efac4badb70b40920fcf264d679
604a66a5521b9cfb2ef78b2328941a9fe73e3802
6410 F20101119_AACKXQ hurst_a_Page_030thm.jpg
4c89552b661a1a47d3ef659cbb9338b8
a6319dfe3226a69868d7d297ce881d8de4d3bfba
71040 F20101119_AACJTZ hurst_a_Page_131.jpg
bc93f4d510e39764a6605be0ad4b27f8
8570d73101cd1bc11dc90b677b4721683da99e8b
69993 F20101119_AACKAI hurst_a_Page_076.jpg
7b1229931b4c2905fe7f82e0f2b23647
4202d44215cedc45c74b536060746def1d50c956
5546 F20101119_AACLEA hurst_a_Page_125thm.jpg
6f45bb53322ffb5b613c6862921b7888
1e8febf8c424251822e8e8bd0e52ae52848e9a8f
5283 F20101119_AACLDL hurst_a_Page_117thm.jpg
0fbd57e1019ffc3128640e34ca9ce96c
0dfc8a8931278598bf23820ed6aa398903d3786e
27356 F20101119_AACLCX hurst_a_Page_110.QC.jpg
2bfa85dfe5577b6b699d02735ad9095b
50d266009c293a8c12a29e9d34b93f0d6fa3a259
5176 F20101119_AACKYF hurst_a_Page_039thm.jpg
b60ae55cc71dbef1f5063483b6f7bf52
baaf9b511fe778b34f6de8f9e0f1fe4f0907a30e
1051984 F20101119_AACJVD hurst_a_Page_005.jp2
75aaa9b0fcc82d4ae023b0e313a64b5c
f178d3551f80698c239ad7513b9ed34a727b8330
5770 F20101119_AACJUP hurst_a_Page_034thm.jpg
d80929f90e14b5fb75078421f3205c9f
90863a78133a265efe2bb08d3fc2c84866ac1ce5
15781 F20101119_AACKXR hurst_a_Page_031.QC.jpg
9f6232852d5fe9e910af9dd9e2da0d8e
31f2bedbca9028ada61e44bfafd955eabd2075d4
63073 F20101119_AACKAJ hurst_a_Page_077.jpg
84a4479f7e2e677cef4862826d90667c
775d20244406950c8c1c2b1ef3099a6da3e14968
21668 F20101119_AACLEB hurst_a_Page_126.QC.jpg
8b540e5c68e997db803aae3e01601841
e82984ec954c5d27fbb2a737f1ed3a545fd69a1c
21607 F20101119_AACLDM hurst_a_Page_118.QC.jpg
3581231d3372d72b47e5d734160778cb
20a2c0a0479154289c8af2bb7b78b8ec250aad8a
6630 F20101119_AACLCY hurst_a_Page_110thm.jpg
a02f5cad40caf30b11d3265c8b2a3265
974ad9d34374b12f98f23b1dbaff2a79cc0140b8
24018 F20101119_AACKYG hurst_a_Page_040.QC.jpg
2907bce2a1fd66a9ef12a2c0f23f23da
21223524b1e021d100a62c33ef763f3f448c9d52
F20101119_AACJVE hurst_a_Page_124.tif
81de9fe8632172327ea7384e75e4d22e
6f23075567b523999f9df51864c57ec2c83d8f1d
F20101119_AACJUQ hurst_a_Page_128.tif
efd1e4ff1f09aef8a85e3f3208aacfc6
8aefb9042a220a31aa0165f5014aba5a2790d6da
4689 F20101119_AACKXS hurst_a_Page_031thm.jpg
7f37aadf15cfa07c5077523c198b9e72
1b7abc9b047db402a4735b28d9b439642793cdf0
59078 F20101119_AACKAK hurst_a_Page_078.jpg
1dc242f2177a646721981900363fe2e0
f1ebc84076c14cff8263067eaec0fa26faec5171
5133 F20101119_AACLEC hurst_a_Page_126thm.jpg
3c1f7287b5b89c61ec12c7a756782835
6e9f0b17a1cf808cf841b668d7cc472274387f6e
F20101119_AACLDN hurst_a_Page_118thm.jpg
5e284f9150e4600a744b2802935a4b72
49674ba9cd0aa0e695f573d5d1cf87d3945fd0ba
28461 F20101119_AACLCZ hurst_a_Page_111.QC.jpg
b37b1607e6fe22c540848fd9f9b46955
49c72168de5328840bd3c618e39c4191aa4adf18
6518 F20101119_AACKYH hurst_a_Page_040thm.jpg
a2cbb1ed555ca54fd6288c01d4769d08
6641be7ad47c37cc1ad1e01372aec4e11d36e1b7
16092 F20101119_AACKXT hurst_a_Page_032.QC.jpg
869ecc564221a857995fb12cd9ae39fa
7557f025693fb67bfa8efa04d1c414cbad469596
6588 F20101119_AACJVF hurst_a_Page_091thm.jpg
8c81d52eb2df89f080b632ad7b182df0
dfa58de8b2c2ddd0fbbe326177740189d91fb9f5
20799 F20101119_AACJUR hurst_a_Page_082.QC.jpg
5d7a3925773f175811e9f226aebeca68
d923ddbabb6d279d429218d0a65d01c6013898f6
102204 F20101119_AACKBA hurst_a_Page_096.jpg
334d84d86c010e8f9140606876949b83
65ce1df2cd3357b63e4cca952acc50df444edfde
71418 F20101119_AACKAL hurst_a_Page_079.jpg
673d6051338ed2aab786a6956c862670
59bc88e1adbbd99ea244143a73a391e68bed263a
21743 F20101119_AACLED hurst_a_Page_127.QC.jpg
4584ff4cb4aa966cb8a520847d57720a
454522f7b383cd2023f78d697b4fb2f5863e0a29
20258 F20101119_AACLDO hurst_a_Page_119.QC.jpg
20b4df4bb5cfbcf7081932500b3996a0
99dfd0942c8af59cb2e621a727e0a518b3b46c0f
19908 F20101119_AACKYI hurst_a_Page_041.QC.jpg
a5bc15137d9cc6306d5a9f355c55fbd3
a2360ad8dbd931e7ed88767e84ca8b49fa86a1ff
23723 F20101119_AACKXU hurst_a_Page_033.QC.jpg
86a8916570fd4ade00b9174ea665a5aa
12e6d4974fa46b89214fad52b71bfd98c443e742
F20101119_AACJVG hurst_a_Page_076.tif
baf221d8575315599f4b29398adcfde9
0afef403d04a1d9c21a4cf0a2e9637a0b07bc7f1
23070 F20101119_AACJUS hurst_a_Page_051.QC.jpg
4b5e81d8cf40079d5b3e853409c0ab18
db18373dbdc3f83a0776e3c923f6d32f6eefde72
96652 F20101119_AACKBB hurst_a_Page_097.jpg
5b9177b3776140f296baeb9241aab276
a36e76e6a4ee6aad31e2ef5eec4511487ea2fd12
61132 F20101119_AACKAM hurst_a_Page_080.jpg
63e34d4ad285ff923881878a08052171
c4df432e12197d0c299c1fccc5c4b8d81118b310
5208 F20101119_AACLEE hurst_a_Page_127thm.jpg
a3f62e93aa5fc95452650ed3ebbc4334
8c0f5ef8b239c930f009a1f1cfb1640c89b19685
4911 F20101119_AACLDP hurst_a_Page_119thm.jpg
e76938719503da83ea7a8d3cefe81b30
3c09fd5a265fe55e44dd266b7af7c7fde51dcc27
5768 F20101119_AACKYJ hurst_a_Page_041thm.jpg
d7d4226aed80fadb38c83cbb3d5bcfa6
cd31775e8668982ce12fc2c26517e06b7a256c44
6338 F20101119_AACKXV hurst_a_Page_033thm.jpg
3df5a69775a9dbfb0937728a0eadbc6c
fce4383fd249370c6876712a4b4acce9049cde66
F20101119_AACJVH hurst_a_Page_116.tif
028ef96550fe0fc069c5d02e0f5df3f9
b7e97cbb8ea80a963df062953fcdd60802054ad8
26571 F20101119_AACJUT hurst_a_Page_094.pro
639c00e5692db746ee5b81a19d942b71
136c839c8ca0d84ca5bf05eaaeeb62d5c01ba8bb
96194 F20101119_AACKBC hurst_a_Page_098.jpg
c08048dc1b739c348508fcdeec6cda5c
1f01627267fe467f0cab8c7ececf82442b066ffa
64911 F20101119_AACKAN hurst_a_Page_081.jpg
c671ddcd6a2ce917ee24e2ab19ebffcc
6dfa142d46dcfc6ac0f4270e0c6554be2397d020
21984 F20101119_AACLEF hurst_a_Page_128.QC.jpg
28cfe3237e83bcd4d8ffdf24c79637ab
0e05d206fec6b1c38db524289b94105c09cfff9d
21173 F20101119_AACLDQ hurst_a_Page_120.QC.jpg
2593cc0e14db4ecca9d8194703b2a5a2
a4589e479a9be7568be6abfa5f29b4a8894d04a3
19566 F20101119_AACKYK hurst_a_Page_042.QC.jpg
51334c31bea868552b86c40c76e731b9
ebc97bf7c5bb6586b7ee02ebf645db536e0edad3
21624 F20101119_AACKXW hurst_a_Page_034.QC.jpg
d06babd61cfc6b9779ca9b1ec3e77c35
63d39f36b191a7366b1ec3cdfdb9c3ecda82e501
22821 F20101119_AACJVI hurst_a_Page_018.QC.jpg
eb600533a3af08ee10396dda341b546c
40ec8ede465c78862786f490d8b74da826b89fdc
3998 F20101119_AACJUU hurst_a_Page_131.txt
650a736067048ff4695be3b2aa6cbdc0
9f4cc55264a1f0c0a5cf6773656092d08d4bb817
110475 F20101119_AACKBD hurst_a_Page_099.jpg
47cc135adb1518c4c9122af17340663f
59841d561ed83983690f3ca1c44a1739f953a684
66088 F20101119_AACKAO hurst_a_Page_082.jpg
5cd8ef0addcd0cbafbb5787e72324598
2070f85d0efda049f4847ef76c8f9a359bb02c2a
5334 F20101119_AACLEG hurst_a_Page_128thm.jpg
ab7d718112cda7cda82a349d48e8fa03
5b1af6403a6aeabbd52a7a6c123d6631e4e3ca5c
5045 F20101119_AACLDR hurst_a_Page_120thm.jpg
2425f1cd5e30c75eadc4a20e028cd7bd
7f18fc1efd6c147d0253fe969ee1dd9c1297d6ec
5228 F20101119_AACKYL hurst_a_Page_042thm.jpg
e92cc3f8af5920e37730604eb16a7db4
d05bf48bb0f09841ec2a482bfc94cfc5f1b6ee3a
20363 F20101119_AACKXX hurst_a_Page_035.QC.jpg
d8004cd732bec8423b46fa0774dcc774
51d413de32c081a2913893a44d36fe5e60a1a642
F20101119_AACJVJ hurst_a_Page_027.tif
7df95922a05cd313aa7381867b186306
93f9d99a90acbfe9be6f1fd957869d96d13444c7
67876 F20101119_AACJUV hurst_a_Page_088.jpg
3c7c665209775ea0931a3d563968327f
9647d55876a0d90bd1722b34b998f37b096b2f5c
103853 F20101119_AACKBE hurst_a_Page_101.jpg
1b3192ea186620dca4882777d87858b3
b3e378eba25b0e40530e95a949eb2f683c8df739
58020 F20101119_AACKAP hurst_a_Page_083.jpg
3d2283802998fcf512dd7d35b302db70
0ffb864c6558f898856330e3ff3fcc6539aea0cc
21307 F20101119_AACLDS hurst_a_Page_121.QC.jpg
f3385bfa6b7b3743166a1b9c474de247
4e994b8bf3107e76df1e41d6e5c91d5e7f376251
6372 F20101119_AACKZA hurst_a_Page_051thm.jpg
b663952c329e26461cacf6242b756042
feebd77075a9b19ad4a00ade4a3332d856de9d1a
19868 F20101119_AACKYM hurst_a_Page_043.QC.jpg
f0d91653591b4699d568fe5be1854ad7
8e14d4dafec195f7f74d2ea72738c8e557f1183f
5954 F20101119_AACKXY hurst_a_Page_035thm.jpg
cd87c4737b89c8e4a06a98a9aaa352d2
76860f915b6222fdc3c3f517c7a59e708d7b371d
20673 F20101119_AACJVK hurst_a_Page_062.QC.jpg
3b8c229451130e68bb0b5017110981b9
a280083c5866a47113260fee69c3e8fcacb74fe6
1974 F20101119_AACJUW hurst_a_Page_076.txt
dac7088b0ac045922e1750255f5818f4
cdf63a941635b1b2d34cc462a648eae7a6a33298
70512 F20101119_AACKAQ hurst_a_Page_084.jpg
35bd4a092e53a40ec4da03c3df93c88a
908bd24a4b487f2956a155dd860a354be2a163e4
21275 F20101119_AACLEH hurst_a_Page_129.QC.jpg
ba6828d9830fda0d51829e72d0f9447a
e9cdc11a6b954b130677702016f526d695ead7e6
5183 F20101119_AACLDT hurst_a_Page_121thm.jpg
8339752c02d1760e5f9f862f71d43bf7
024bc3f49eaf7b9f4148fce96e8d25b2e53ef630
21424 F20101119_AACKZB hurst_a_Page_052.QC.jpg
3448994c7df319ca6b5f93bbb1d05f96
09c68b84566732bb269de73b4795049041fb2c78
5806 F20101119_AACKYN hurst_a_Page_043thm.jpg
0eb1617627b070fe84c39d7005f0471c
cc1d2a6fd185143f2de93523bddcabcd982e3826
19554 F20101119_AACKXZ hurst_a_Page_036.QC.jpg
a2cca3e2c886a166f3eb7aac700d7160
a288fe7f0fbb234f81f30b522697b29979ae995b
1760 F20101119_AACJVL hurst_a_Page_082.txt
bedd9e2aea5e61b31e9bc0d2ef41d9c6
4e24a85b7091b0861f46e77c6c82a37b8a937f35
155724 F20101119_AACJUX hurst_a_Page_106.jp2
b898466d3e1a9779b7998bdd104162ad
505f3da0af1452d38296cf7e557d0b9317b40ebc
103262 F20101119_AACKBF hurst_a_Page_102.jpg
52a8c39a07e7c5a970fd449dedf6c7c2
df16c424a9c63ddf9d4df23752963f79e27377a0
64575 F20101119_AACKAR hurst_a_Page_085.jpg
a98c756560bb4f652956b54548f8cb0a
c6d8d87f4d2b24c43dfe4bd129c7ab4a1175785a
5106 F20101119_AACLEI hurst_a_Page_129thm.jpg
5fe4dbac6dcaeb0a61ebba9d20d2f6ed
1ac54a08d7b2deb84b3f3996d2dde465df658edf
5219 F20101119_AACLDU hurst_a_Page_122thm.jpg
f090797db5aaa78b961d6500996dd8ff
768aa24841e429cd3e3f35f473d0efa2edd30e69
6331 F20101119_AACKZC hurst_a_Page_052thm.jpg
0ae8c2fb0d85b8546b991fd3702055d5
63743b49731951e8857d8e42f92e85be3ab9280c
20983 F20101119_AACKYO hurst_a_Page_044.QC.jpg
0573158c3728a6c460d48fc83d727490
c47a1835dfb77df9ff0d190dba5ccf13a2dd483f
27384 F20101119_AACJVM hurst_a_Page_103.QC.jpg
41577a2b86b2c79ece3c3517d294d968
6b4e8e93d7d63066ca3722f3f630fa5569fe7ffb
51813 F20101119_AACJUY hurst_a_Page_091.pro
e7c584098758e31e21cf240a79d76c0e
21192f30a116ba9f1f7d5e409a8ff8d5d58954a0
99177 F20101119_AACKBG hurst_a_Page_103.jpg
5ca39b0a5c89d7db08fe087410ca8ff3
a4e7386fc1780f9112a80c18ff517d4a068da380
23693 F20101119_AACJWA hurst_a_Page_015.QC.jpg
34d8ba2c801cc978834e3bd073e08e5d
15e670a8b11cae8a91b0ec05e86d03f44eac1a3e
62351 F20101119_AACKAS hurst_a_Page_086.jpg
5b188ad2b6e7cd2953ff38dc9730f71d
a2345190295b5c3702987630202114f89ddc64ec
22083 F20101119_AACLEJ hurst_a_Page_130.QC.jpg
debdc501394e02420c31783a6f69b2ce
9ba36fe76b81862271ee9c220e0f35c117a8a8ca
20518 F20101119_AACLDV hurst_a_Page_123.QC.jpg
1c744262263c3d391d43ed837175c3c4
d64fac4bcfe676ffb44c095c86abe9b4367b1b21
18667 F20101119_AACKZD hurst_a_Page_053.QC.jpg
441318da7f69a13d65b9cbafbf12d382
3202590f02532cc2cd21862501ea1d920a0608a6
5940 F20101119_AACKYP hurst_a_Page_044thm.jpg
083f2aef0409a6a6ae733df17f835dd2
dd29062a98fcad94abbd107c31acc09a8b0ca9b9
65975 F20101119_AACJVN hurst_a_Page_093.jpg
697bb6042be995c05faea789fb2039cf
e08f0dca3f4dd1ff7ce4df9daedf90201e7d173f
102660 F20101119_AACKBH hurst_a_Page_105.jpg
349ca5aacdfd8c4c5907432578221ee5
92a11e847f192af795e7251175bf06efe921c027
38400 F20101119_AACJWB hurst_a_Page_058.pro
b07807ec75589b69ec04da72bfd6935f
c807f63842ba158fe8a4919d71195e562c36c2fc
66909 F20101119_AACKAT hurst_a_Page_087.jpg
479ffd5672225710742294ba47110a4d
f53ea22d8eae1094131bbd5509fc1b447c0d21ca
5348 F20101119_AACLEK hurst_a_Page_130thm.jpg
5a53577fd3150318eb38b9f3803e739e
775cb4566140a6a404a90ba053857e18cd564054
5014 F20101119_AACLDW hurst_a_Page_123thm.jpg
360a46867300d1bf96141ab6cb440e2a
f193b3635ccc2e6ac33ce9900250734103e9852c
5272 F20101119_AACKZE hurst_a_Page_053thm.jpg
73a37e8975bf7b56494ef7cd5372f17b
5d6b10dfd61222d879449d39a55711fb2f098bc2
6500 F20101119_AACKYQ hurst_a_Page_045thm.jpg
8e33a28f2f3397af84e3f6c211d94837
2c22615095f261e77862eade805dd7d285399c58
5497 F20101119_AACJVO hurst_a_Page_068thm.jpg
80ca394b77aa5bb64d33bc5d4eabe40e
a9d5f82074728a3e7abe9ce0d4e14e89eb5dca43
18635 F20101119_AACJUZ hurst_a_Page_064.QC.jpg
c543265caf2d8b20fc2cd8ac6306a8c9
7f4abbbd2870009ba00c6aa584d75698e893dd81
113046 F20101119_AACKBI hurst_a_Page_106.jpg
9be3b0aea93f892b05d73378bd7fd228
c6d10a6e5a4c598f188963faf90b5b890a900128
1647 F20101119_AACJWC hurst_a_Page_039.txt
918f6b340c39270bd5f5b0f821968c57
7fc3d3e76b972d35205e1ddd916c5c5eb6a89345
72029 F20101119_AACKAU hurst_a_Page_089.jpg
4fa55225ff5eda54cddfa4fbd910cffe
7110258cf340e47c84e4b1ca0d5824e5a8e6d2c0
11553 F20101119_AACLFA hurst_a_Page_139.QC.jpg
77bd2c87e569b5680e69b835ead3a6f5
74f781c18e53c0b13b1b52f76745efe190c204f6
21221 F20101119_AACLEL hurst_a_Page_131.QC.jpg
4030aa46759e0ef9363b5950a9f89bb0
c5364c0fda0bd7b7657098f257e41485ec757eb8
23456 F20101119_AACLDX hurst_a_Page_124.QC.jpg
702e563a96df77cf700db4f04a48aa34
74d88d6ab3f40c4ab881864dd2760abd6437b82a
20755 F20101119_AACKZF hurst_a_Page_054.QC.jpg
56f8009705ec43b05f61edc37a7660cf
5bd2222146bb9d187a13ca84f334933efc4c4e39
19016 F20101119_AACKYR hurst_a_Page_046.QC.jpg
3100a6de2291dc9b9fe36791e3ff7b3a
d706ad6a8b3e776cc8f968821ff299e365f8ab02
1977 F20101119_AACJVP hurst_a_Page_018.txt
b8c30b2cfdbbab54ab486fce61b49ed0
59c4faed5f9a0dc9ee6eef7fb5c03ad2d125e581
102913 F20101119_AACKBJ hurst_a_Page_107.jpg
77b94386fe36304185f65b3930d3d54a
7d5b4e81dacb0f43f03e502a80671251fa37145e
123 F20101119_AACJWD hurst_a_Page_002.txt
1f07dfc4335c0c23486241b740c18c9a
601fdcdd70a5ac701f1aeb8a986a1dd9a6bb3f51
62489 F20101119_AACKAV hurst_a_Page_090.jpg
c7f171e2eff6f762688f3f6d8dac05d0
a78796ea993ae6ab5d8522ae9845a951514021b9
3503 F20101119_AACLFB hurst_a_Page_139thm.jpg
7d448e46095a21a865a7b228a70b92c4
e9eaefc60e3650ca74a241f3f4e63c54b9750d50
5122 F20101119_AACLEM hurst_a_Page_131thm.jpg
9ce7043782cc87b7d264d002a5fa430e
69347672c2e8100fa8b37f08ed507e44542a469c
5618 F20101119_AACLDY hurst_a_Page_124thm.jpg
ff3d37f8731bd3b72fa48b74244ca45d
0f7bec8d65ffef097621bf206e3ac8f80a06335d
5712 F20101119_AACKZG hurst_a_Page_054thm.jpg
f9bcb123202a8b6dd41e3f628471039d
647a84225e897a9e8d4d815de7ce3e5d02fa4047
5144 F20101119_AACKYS hurst_a_Page_046thm.jpg
501471003f6f5939fe4ccf61d66bcb3d
d52fd132486764faef70da0b9e8ce1f174ad34cf
F20101119_AACJVQ hurst_a_Page_049.txt
0e117f18b2f31131175b47cc9100295c
332588d689c7f8126fa52d1e2fc8f02bd59a0c32
98405 F20101119_AACKBK hurst_a_Page_108.jpg
c014765dcdbb54e4dcb70fa1adab887e
859240bd58abe7acf8c7911dfce4f22765d1442f
5797 F20101119_AACJWE hurst_a_Page_060thm.jpg
872e92002124adc1ee1f4241ab00f329
382bbcee14c69992cf835ac93b4a8a3a0fb97fdd
72743 F20101119_AACKAW hurst_a_Page_091.jpg
6cc089b0827277f42a560a2c60094cab
d353af2b3d1d634e4a68edc4c5cc39467a7e8cf3
160013 F20101119_AACLFC UFE0012241_00001.mets FULL
343cf329a09b33bb4048cd01ad05190c
5fd7cf9949fa697e42963289f23ab7ac25e1bfe6
8457 F20101119_AACLEN hurst_a_Page_132.QC.jpg
78b2afa6d2f6124d89b370c01636a6d5
76f5c3387228ff549bfa0c00e24647ad2d688de3
23208 F20101119_AACLDZ hurst_a_Page_125.QC.jpg
b2766e3aadb8a854d85c11796a29060f
71364d846e5cc418e4fadac358c3b8935600b0e1
19914 F20101119_AACKZH hurst_a_Page_055.QC.jpg
630956c00258251a100b322468827e8b
fcbf492f07b77c5b983d8bdf1f957d18aa7e668e
5250 F20101119_AACKYT hurst_a_Page_047thm.jpg
835d7dc86cedc188226d46e4c4f77e38
d455486a04df07e5c9e314996e872c2e9980d638
97833 F20101119_AACJVR hurst_a_Page_052.jp2
b1b2e2b75f9945cc26165ae00f892984
67df7a7303d4b44728b34a5aba6d35521a9209bd
72156 F20101119_AACKCA hurst_a_Page_126.jpg
2c4bff927b0edaccf2a71793c16480c9
922f6da281d66f9101fab86e5df2846d2602049a
97846 F20101119_AACKBL hurst_a_Page_109.jpg
c030936b2f4764013fcdf436e1979a6c
6c2f11e08a6838308eeca6a2f560dc886256d5ba
64134 F20101119_AACJWF hurst_a_Page_131.pro
7c51877e47fefeb542ee2a6285bdf488
f5766eed34dc3c105ef9a985f4821349e2132c67
29728 F20101119_AACKAX hurst_a_Page_092.jpg
55fe49c5b61ad45d9aa9f0f26e673414
0f8d5d1cc2061af63754096291636da05f6183b7
2994 F20101119_AACLEO hurst_a_Page_132thm.jpg
c722ebaff5963c0aedd707219c554683
87561ece18a20ce2550129f1014cfbe7c00b8e1a
5702 F20101119_AACKZI hurst_a_Page_055thm.jpg
4f88ec4bdc58eecdaae6911babe4afb1
7c7471f9d1b30faa5226bae236842bb3e6bf74aa
20555 F20101119_AACKYU hurst_a_Page_048.QC.jpg
a806719fc7997f6edf8fea103be253f0
f30dca0e2cd7120955cadaa406467fa0048759ca
F20101119_AACJVS hurst_a_Page_125.tif
29d487908bb74ae8af5dd5b98faab2e2
99c9ab71761eaa37fac1f745ba31267887bf0d04
72998 F20101119_AACKCB hurst_a_Page_127.jpg
fab821122657229507460d93ac3b2782
b8474d07def86d951355735c61b24b606e7c5bec
100502 F20101119_AACKBM hurst_a_Page_110.jpg
b6ea70f82cc44e9cf4050e75055d5455
bd52fc7cd3a0bdb3cf00b585d873b6c11bd1bcca
F20101119_AACJWG hurst_a_Page_056.tif
d79aca1dd2a9a30b7f743e39c98d3f3e
596888241844a1d36ce394801dd037d22e768516
41753 F20101119_AACKAY hurst_a_Page_094.jpg
25f235a50784106b8c2a55a669bed792
d6b4fe2cb26e6a1492a5d66e8d486da92a5fe8d5
8224 F20101119_AACLEP hurst_a_Page_133.QC.jpg
f5b8796f10a8cef00d3aa9ba71d47bf6
3066241a1886541b8192fea436de46dcbb2f6902
23490 F20101119_AACKZJ hurst_a_Page_056.QC.jpg
2f0f640049d0d237b75523d8df56e38f
264a7b858d3f546f487b6407d896aca13bf40296
5387 F20101119_AACKYV hurst_a_Page_048thm.jpg
ef25b8fca25fb3ecc69b7870d574400b
a5a6370bfc369fe57682352a50afae725e5382ad
49597 F20101119_AACJVT hurst_a_Page_029.pro
fbe878877430dd04ee1a33296a63aa4a
33af8786e5a022ea63b8a8a637e9a5b41f2adeec
73267 F20101119_AACKCC hurst_a_Page_128.jpg
ef4bae2183ff27b4cd9707ea3f4c43b5
7a1e9e134a21a15c8035ef240170b2b54535de70
136054 F20101119_AACKBN hurst_a_Page_112.jpg
63295c23544afa3049ffab82f87cfc97
8a85008ee7145878e1b9ef359e2ee7dae5ae8d35
22457 F20101119_AACJWH hurst_a_Page_025.QC.jpg
54c7462e7830c3918c1d94fa5982cbb0
db0e486eaedd50236c633aa8dddbd4efb3226412
88377 F20101119_AACKAZ hurst_a_Page_095.jpg
fafd4d74fd63332db2384eeb3adea647
9ae37f6846ae2d116fb8d25ea975816cd738610c
2925 F20101119_AACLEQ hurst_a_Page_133thm.jpg
93e664c3025f2a4ab838e6493fc1cfe4
bce406693ac97d7d367f77cc6e51ae6b6026baca
6594 F20101119_AACKZK hurst_a_Page_056thm.jpg
a11ab641c2264560ec47d6ab1d2ea46d
d45036e8b8d44871e04335125355e3d572b6aa5a
20810 F20101119_AACKYW hurst_a_Page_049.QC.jpg
2e96ffc56f4c6bc73ec7fb54231c9e10
9fa4c3752c936a133432a1d26971aece420ff906
F20101119_AACJVU hurst_a_Page_061.txt
d931ee5069eb4571c0bd5a64f28682ae
8c087d82684f93f15ee3fc600e8ba53c9b35b6ee
70819 F20101119_AACKCD hurst_a_Page_129.jpg
0d4da6519938a3ed5b715ec25f1f3ad4
13f75c65cd11e0cee34661cf7d940baaee14d2fa
124458 F20101119_AACKBO hurst_a_Page_113.jpg
c249091caa0f1a7a1152df2cb19f910a
18fe69ae2c1c4c41c0da84f4e5ac60192702a93b
2378 F20101119_AACJWI hurst_a_Page_136.txt
53abb5ccb1733d3d635353938e9bfa59
675bf29b993ffed99033264b02768e7c26e3d25a
8451 F20101119_AACLER hurst_a_Page_134.QC.jpg
0d1d2b7b114319dcf4ad1bbb6d51f37b
732e3dfaf16fdf885ac38734baded072912f08ec
20129 F20101119_AACKZL hurst_a_Page_057.QC.jpg
114b740172741a09bfe7ea44f3c1d10c
77675769dc06395ef98b328dcdc6b164e36add88
5652 F20101119_AACKYX hurst_a_Page_049thm.jpg
8fbb9453d14c8ea352330ec6a3716247
06264f1633a08e755c18e3c926f264e256ca51cf
42007 F20101119_AACJVV hurst_a_Page_037.pro
02a9a490847eef9a38cbd9f83c2a4608
98ba14bce791f6560f4644b24dc8107d81ffc37f
73735 F20101119_AACKCE hurst_a_Page_130.jpg
f566f0053da6ec2400064c537ca6f34f
897f66fec8b944ea13e45fc5db73d599c06074fe
73379 F20101119_AACKBP hurst_a_Page_114.jpg
c49a71388c06e9659247580d36cf0daa
ce28d7ad13322597e7d22c1824ab6e1c5fb1f724
65895 F20101119_AACJWJ hurst_a_Page_124.jp2
a12c8fc22aea3b2abc42c63d1da8879a
36a105f014e7ea65304784d2f31eb76ee052d095
22274 F20101119_AACLES hurst_a_Page_135.QC.jpg
20329681c3a0da22d05b66f2824a963f
c5ad7a0af429cbe659063017e51e005760ed8da5
5640 F20101119_AACKZM hurst_a_Page_057thm.jpg
a120b54a0827849b004cc0bb6c3af30e
ad6c71e4262db4e66045a843b6f7e0b1f5664640
18947 F20101119_AACKYY hurst_a_Page_050.QC.jpg
4193eb22de50eaf8cf994ecc83cad9ca
4e2aaddd8bfc8496b9a52d3c503b94f2753cb521
5578 F20101119_AACJVW hurst_a_Page_036thm.jpg
80efb1d0fa3bf770993c81b7e4192b2f
1b06cf2c4298ca36343848438db5708ec78fb561
27124 F20101119_AACKCF hurst_a_Page_132.jpg
d0161c7ee33033a809a56aa4d8e4b4d2
ffe052fea464ccc1780fba1d4a08fdb74c6d29e8
74471 F20101119_AACKBQ hurst_a_Page_115.jpg
6ffbc51bbea16d1ec60756666e3da27c
42d3f9160eeeb820b74d14bbe148f04a3c30ec29
21529 F20101119_AACJWK hurst_a_Page_088.QC.jpg
a62673c90b2c651407c9996a3efc21c4
8f8a1304a2b3394fd4ebf1430b109829b3836a52
6180 F20101119_AACLET hurst_a_Page_135thm.jpg
132bf9124c49c36ab5486004f35549cd
fcab5aff4829b63233bd1c3e215cb7431bc62de1
20523 F20101119_AACKZN hurst_a_Page_058.QC.jpg
c821574cdd3f1770c0d3e41298476a0d
d4514188ec2d860397dfea9d3179188070283005
5167 F20101119_AACKYZ hurst_a_Page_050thm.jpg
89a55c96a4f8aad9b72339a84521fe9a
5aba47bfd3bcce93c7d465a4d84bb3349e086305
F20101119_AACJVX hurst_a_Page_003.tif
36f74334cdf04e82007b084ce464a3ea
b25368ad89d5dc129c522816ef47b3f27248c299
75110 F20101119_AACKBR hurst_a_Page_117.jpg
ccb7789dd7d64e310acd8c80e1026162
a51a5297279513975fc24920820e17510bebd340
5621 F20101119_AACJWL hurst_a_Page_066thm.jpg
2f139e86eb7615e1b2f712faffd90a1b
ba54141336c8d1c7f0d3df84d19c8479eba21c63
25118 F20101119_AACLEU hurst_a_Page_136.QC.jpg
612a691edd5e9939660877254c9fbbc7
c1d38457455631e5ccaebc56b6c6e4ca5ace0bae
5539 F20101119_AACKZO hurst_a_Page_058thm.jpg
b267c2bf87191b4ac9f4338769aa6976
41909262f9269d87080288520c7d33672140f9c1
24311 F20101119_AACKCG hurst_a_Page_133.jpg
ca568f373f78017e232d1fcb623a3eaa
0bef33f1dc93234b36db3edfd1f99088130f9b2a
1051977 F20101119_AACJXA hurst_a_Page_009.jp2
246861dab00785753c1f91bab07abff7
02f0b48fc40240362badb4de398e2dd90d0e28ce
73398 F20101119_AACKBS hurst_a_Page_118.jpg
ccfc17dadc7fdf118a9f6225d01d3681
572b69a6717e0c5376277c7d0aa7134b44f1632b
4451 F20101119_AACJWM hurst_a_Page_032thm.jpg
9a170d8c1f9480c7964838b44f128acc
db8b655c5ea1b4db5e50b4944cfde89344ced3d2
1620 F20101119_AACJVY hurst_a_Page_065.txt
d3a32818313fc1f5d76e8e615e8fd2d7
f6747940ce402111009c2460a08810a101c4737d
F20101119_AACLEV hurst_a_Page_136thm.jpg
8fc277214c97aaac0e938bcdf9a0a993
23d1f143c6bc7970221a3e36100ace2a4e2f1451
19650 F20101119_AACKZP hurst_a_Page_059.QC.jpg
9f79b31fd9eb7610d5de7ec952ff872d
3432546767c4a5d80f6fa0d3d3a4fca4f62e3f66
24765 F20101119_AACKCH hurst_a_Page_134.jpg
d3a21bf8b25192d1ea3674c9d79a1019
fc82d552d789470f7d30bb770e6a756f247f6ffa
49577 F20101119_AACJXB hurst_a_Page_051.pro
dd07f711084f035fde3c06465516ee82
9dea89abfb2139b31d68b85a901f7a840a9f925a
69072 F20101119_AACKBT hurst_a_Page_119.jpg
4500c01e5e36902d622deb91087aba45
0d7dcebdb62a06d339c617f2c5784e076f4b5b84
831142 F20101119_AACJWN hurst_a_Page_047.jp2
2c792587a60c52e93cac44d8d8ec03cf
081a4d695c0399322f77be6260c9d0d81910a56d
F20101119_AACJVZ hurst_a_Page_062.tif
fb945e40d759ced736d2a188e97d0745
3bbcb8e5e6627eaf9ceabf67adfb9f146c823154
25309 F20101119_AACLEW hurst_a_Page_137.QC.jpg
8cfac83643d2460311ffdb12e2ad8a89
2bf8c4c25e196dc4fc599074756cf3cf19a54dc0
5425 F20101119_AACKZQ hurst_a_Page_059thm.jpg
533cdd7e4083d5a7b7fdcdca4d56213e
0fe1d89b1d1b63a069ee89a0154577f78fb8d951
76825 F20101119_AACKCI hurst_a_Page_135.jpg
b2efdbbbf99e4a4997359a64ec20245a
34d57dc7f33bc77336629e7f66707e8b2cc57ef4
3999 F20101119_AACJXC hurst_a_Page_123.txt
8cc08fbdafc87d056568f2cec9024249
dce17ed8dd46084ed96dab68ec0daf008b34cfa7
72242 F20101119_AACKBU hurst_a_Page_120.jpg
652328094f08ff90507db204717eb86f
fafc57480e819cdce29af08fb17fd8d7878d641f
F20101119_AACJWO hurst_a_Page_015.tif
b84fdd6448d574db609042e142d07a8d
aa52d02519bf059b0b8392fa7fb7ade42ff01c37
6888 F20101119_AACLEX hurst_a_Page_137thm.jpg
e0211b8cd7e9aa300dae0fe4077ed6e0
18c40332e1f914a93a530712352f32c731d1118f
20892 F20101119_AACKZR hurst_a_Page_060.QC.jpg
4a6994f1f41dba975cb9516b8d66070a
e94bed2467c7dc23fd37ae13025d0fa2c5bea3b6
86442 F20101119_AACKCJ hurst_a_Page_136.jpg
bc83d96e40c96d1e931af1368225224b
a14a06e4ad79848fad653359d6069c32266f8c8d
73451 F20101119_AACJXD hurst_a_Page_116.jpg
4aaf8f63c7c5cccb9684ef0b894f8eae
8245d3ab9a1c5b6f2d2d6affd5f99cc1229ac39b
73080 F20101119_AACKBV hurst_a_Page_121.jpg
95c949f6ad3418bf9ec1c64cc185be2f
6052e27bd599e207ec57253a68bad5a10955e833
23180 F20101119_AACJWP hurst_a_Page_045.QC.jpg
bf30f5508459fe0e726fa1af6e27c90c
58be954ed9e45b1a8473c179ebf69f3ad89e41f0
13959 F20101119_AACLEY hurst_a_Page_138.QC.jpg
16c221fd03866cef8105b0a83e698809
c41a426928b2f8bc64cc77e8e6a00957e7ed8f18
21722 F20101119_AACKZS hurst_a_Page_061.QC.jpg
7ce14ea75283e1ad28aec631679192a1
9900c5264ab550856f2510c66be7107a892da922
91887 F20101119_AACKCK hurst_a_Page_137.jpg
6b1f492a3dd6de5d90e4df0cda100cc6
97e7f8a6d997436a4deec0224c9a90c5ad42c591
1740 F20101119_AACJXE hurst_a_Page_070.txt
e16365e36248fbadfc17e95a7c267cd6
e02bee95cc7e4bab4e69dfe10f54a5e16a061016
73544 F20101119_AACKBW hurst_a_Page_122.jpg
9a94c067efaeb2794c1bc04028828758
db87bc3e0e5b5f304b9b6eece4b1a0443c1ef32f
6756 F20101119_AACJWQ hurst_a_Page_097thm.jpg
09adfd188d5fa43ce46339540c114685
2f40772de2ee6a79c7cf133f8b2633dfaf1d895f
3907 F20101119_AACLEZ hurst_a_Page_138thm.jpg
0af49a2937e8f001cdb2003ae3ac9288
9458c974b2cb0b81bc6cb3c519b28afdce84bab8
6244 F20101119_AACKZT hurst_a_Page_061thm.jpg
edf2cf900c525bb655ef1d48b9e93be2
8cc7e273a6dc15153a3ef6570732bb100d72963a
48034 F20101119_AACKCL hurst_a_Page_138.jpg
0451fed7b04a718056bc8bbd7fa82aae
3201868ae2ab6e9d16302d0180465cc9304e81e1
F20101119_AACJXF hurst_a_Page_024.tif
b66c22b950e70e3358f99019439e2a41
485af911499ab40934afa6c1eb54b793bf4824fd
70960 F20101119_AACKBX hurst_a_Page_123.jpg
acd3b87c48b72b097a7d478ab48bb0d7
63e65731a1261ef06cfd2bdb47d3f7eb7eae0510
57509 F20101119_AACJWR hurst_a_Page_004.jpg
ac91461d48e22e5e0d28f6fac706c9d5
ee79207ea1ad75de0769588ebdc4532a598a5a8d
108948 F20101119_AACKDA hurst_a_Page_018.jp2
b4e46ce6b00500170feed6d440c44264
a64025706726ef32e1711efbc50444a2379f84f2
5669 F20101119_AACKZU hurst_a_Page_063thm.jpg
7d1c1b925c67ca76c6bad2305033fa45
cc314233de105ec53914172c2df65906b62ab604
34639 F20101119_AACKCM hurst_a_Page_139.jpg
75b3d4dc644c81dfaedabfba9ba0126d
1785d5dd10567f4b217a624f6172e555f2b3ba32
84346 F20101119_AACJXG hurst_a_Page_109.pro
5b0ed1751712f3fd3c74059d4b5899b7
958af94b910c334edee79dff1f26b4998a38574e
77756 F20101119_AACKBY hurst_a_Page_124.jpg
a380db16a0a19dc3b1d97905ba2b7c73
fc46be8253d220f9f67e6ad125be38a8b12c1a86
36053 F20101119_AACJWS hurst_a_Page_050.pro
e4658a92f54a44cc118282301a333390
763c4f56d6a3f6afd6e1688ca1c13502d5a0b18b
106693 F20101119_AACKDB hurst_a_Page_019.jp2
0755c08059f2b83d20523375d277c66e
94019c12a10c28cd6919ddc0551a906587ef5e9c
5124 F20101119_AACKZV hurst_a_Page_064thm.jpg
7152881a364f6c1dc4c13254ce713ccf
91fc75951a8cf4f3a243d6e8fdf4bf2b13156821
25842 F20101119_AACKCN hurst_a_Page_001.jp2
271ef6bdce6feeb2c5be77b1f7ace16f
ad9ac34bae8909ab5995ddff53a306d481a41822
20782 F20101119_AACJXH hurst_a_Page_063.QC.jpg
ce4f530b9dfb7eef6bca12782606998e
20657da9163ad305b68a96ca9e9ec12a8187d725
77058 F20101119_AACKBZ hurst_a_Page_125.jpg
5969bb76b38dddbbe07ece65870aa187
2d693bf21a5497407e163ed8d164335dad28c384
95866 F20101119_AACJWT hurst_a_Page_104.jpg
3c74db19c5965c4403e90ea842f1853c
2b78b8fb4f0f1c33394a83c3f72e9725523201bc
112622 F20101119_AACKDC hurst_a_Page_020.jp2
ff9744729acc045c8baeb055b1ed25c0
37e4625c116831e6f0fa47484740301b0f0c1505
5742 F20101119_AACKZW hurst_a_Page_065thm.jpg
8a6dbf6140b0196f22831b63fbbdf2fa
ecaca34a510bc220bbd81aa04b212b6230ca2577
5811 F20101119_AACKCO hurst_a_Page_002.jp2
374fe501e8eb47ba502096a1e22d5a42
a40b68a933a09a78907de3d2222b3fb19b95bd7e
25271604 F20101119_AACJXI hurst_a_Page_008.tif
b2207a1908696a6363469255e43edac7
0f6eba79de3e277ab173592e98a7b54ba7f04931
134253 F20101119_AACJWU hurst_a_Page_101.jp2
a9a642edbd2191157e02a252a88c7d81
1a937885a2daf9ad4a9cfb7ef04dfbccc31362c5
110331 F20101119_AACKDD hurst_a_Page_021.jp2
718741a4b7553af2b8be0b967becf581
1afbcdc4fb6ba771854f7a064ea3a8a797907751
20256 F20101119_AACKZX hurst_a_Page_066.QC.jpg
1f3cd83378a857b08dd08425f9f4f131
a0355fecbcff5808da571b762d1cce656e2d230c
8648 F20101119_AACKCP hurst_a_Page_003.jp2
473036729c04f9df8e25b0d0c58ba495
020973dc956e8aa60955cd766f90186483056ed9
118849 F20101119_AACJXJ hurst_a_Page_100.jpg
90aafc1b90db03366919f34a9e7e0936
16f855292ed7f067ee3b906c4e8dee486396699f
6371 F20101119_AACJWV hurst_a_Page_015thm.jpg
51b061a67f3ee601fecb3bab8033676d
4fe20d12e17991547a802539a1e043f1a514531d
112054 F20101119_AACKDE hurst_a_Page_022.jp2
e1edcf546e2db2b767ea5620295704d3
53fb48fcb4578d5d1400888d344667306ff1bbf5
21160 F20101119_AACKZY hurst_a_Page_067.QC.jpg
38fccfca37b89135ba768a6a3843cba3
b05ee2149e0f1e149b5dc71d719ed9b28eb09cef
82597 F20101119_AACKCQ hurst_a_Page_004.jp2
0016de56dd51541712da68313e778d8a
483ad6abc67a8303714f4b018c98d89b2f552d2e
105589 F20101119_AACJXK hurst_a_Page_025.jp2
55830842fd89d8305b294adbd528dffc
86096d1a33519af645f14077fde2192de6fe193d
17552 F20101119_AACJWW hurst_a_Page_007.QC.jpg
f8a9ef5d7eb1060f9b7776ee87fc4d59
05958f07c0e315858a48efb625723075508dd4b1
112484 F20101119_AACKDF hurst_a_Page_024.jp2
afd1bef346b85484360f49f381a6da40
2f898ac7b6fe9fbdb6d9a57aa4eef45980fdba77
5876 F20101119_AACKZZ hurst_a_Page_067thm.jpg
c5396f738da9eee83d0030fe657890ee
69ffe70f98bd97ad565f3a2a871867d04055cc26
1051912 F20101119_AACKCR hurst_a_Page_006.jp2
27bcd6b755fa3314ff2347f21eca22a5
a6f23dd4593104b254b4fc794ae67e49ff626c7b
F20101119_AACJXL hurst_a_Page_077.tif
211914bdd33632d9d6fcb25523b6079d
e9ff1b4b08489b0ead54e8e23474e594d6a21e55
F20101119_AACJWX hurst_a_Page_103.tif
9bf2a62c85f689d565320393ef99e7e9
2b001780d88c03ba98779690ee70b63d77a2bbb6
20162 F20101119_AACKDG hurst_a_Page_026.jp2
893b23c88a87dee09c8d0f0ea17a907a
5340f3b2b078ae2340b96b2d490c9dcc20cebf6c
1051980 F20101119_AACKCS hurst_a_Page_007.jp2
2208390efd3e943424c36d93bc1b89d1
b1c6477b1a36895e58f0ede1a0076184c75d22ba
62543 F20101119_AACJXM hurst_a_Page_120.jp2
348bf6512cf256556a78fd93a92e7ef3
e95d06a7cacf97fdac5783e19d2d15509c7156fd
60233 F20101119_AACJWY hurst_a_Page_007.jpg
19f7634568debca81d2f2fae0a28515c
915774ab7aa5d04087d3190058b77711d3b433f3
65338 F20101119_AACJYA hurst_a_Page_014.jpg
7e5822bd30400ff53243164f991e1609
00948846678fb0f6f87cc666d476b4bcc1f1e7cc
1051985 F20101119_AACKCT hurst_a_Page_010.jp2
5ab5bccf93321e2a08f41ec9435ec506
16f15cac4ceb570695ca4d54fd36d101674a0f08
1545 F20101119_AACJXN hurst_a_Page_046.txt
fce79f64c18ebd3bd56d62e22ab741f5
40fc7b2529b82a914302a17541befeb7c0c10918
21159 F20101119_AACJWZ hurst_a_Page_065.QC.jpg
cce47323f20e4a84b96f63f6d3141bfe
96a057f593e25a10046394c00f9c1886cd9b60d4
80404 F20101119_AACKDH hurst_a_Page_027.jp2
51abf8ddc5710813fdbae211cc0d4455
7e22ffbf3162cae449f4a599acf86bad68f4129a
72479 F20101119_AACJYB hurst_a_Page_015.jpg
95929d45bb8ca3de69aa61634ef1c592
3d64d4cf4dae3cb4944f6de2d5fc708ec8498f9b
87304 F20101119_AACKCU hurst_a_Page_012.jp2
491f37e99fcf6bd3d26374e196df28a0
4a7ce04230718404ce80ba2e6dc1d3b46d5d2b5c
207103 F20101119_AACJXO UFE0012241_00001.xml
2a1759808f12af8e6761685e7f2ad792
dc2fc749732b618c681f0f2c25f849d974f19be0
105827 F20101119_AACKDI hurst_a_Page_028.jp2
936a8010fb9eed0c9fc2bb8f1acb300d
2fe0c5bec47b729dc7635dde63f20ba294919b36
40216 F20101119_AACJYC hurst_a_Page_016.jpg
6e3fc860c605dd4d96d28975f8ac4db7
ee8a17b9e44cf0243f51cc77bcbcffa559fd2b6b
108147 F20101119_AACKDJ hurst_a_Page_029.jp2
5344bd96d9158181617aed394f38225f
0f0c0acd93aa2a92ceb2c8d5fcec3d0b95ebec0e
64944 F20101119_AACJYD hurst_a_Page_017.jpg
99b8e23a2a7e5e28dad722e1844ced8b
7383574530a0dcb6015fc9d113449fc58b6bb23d
54425 F20101119_AACKCV hurst_a_Page_013.jp2
c9c39bb513fab3dfc79686e76e8d4595
41cf55c6ab67f93e060611fd2646fc17eb84736b
107769 F20101119_AACKDK hurst_a_Page_030.jp2
36330aa9c871d104b69d450608c0b435
dc17db61c36c4894bea3bb08f4ef1d9f05d66b64
70808 F20101119_AACJYE hurst_a_Page_018.jpg
7a4d51cbb1d795a8f2792190aded5252
ef417a78ad9ae5c7f030d14353d5e61467deec6b
97088 F20101119_AACKCW hurst_a_Page_014.jp2
021172b37569cd0b2b34f22b835161a3
6814b9a241df12baf6cab3c6276627d0caf31aee
10494 F20101119_AACJXR hurst_a_Page_002.jpg
ff42def547a651bc6585b0c904b2e80a
339dad3485c8c29e28bc260abc87b2ede2fe0f61
828669 F20101119_AACKEA hurst_a_Page_046.jp2
512727669305d386ca9e55aec57c80a3
90dd221b6f21e21515e62d20a4e00b06d6d286cc
68759 F20101119_AACKDL hurst_a_Page_031.jp2
f311361e16aeece8ed586db1ea3b485b
2af31f02cd1a81036ed17a53f9f219e0131b6d1f
69282 F20101119_AACJYF hurst_a_Page_019.jpg
1386315430521b974507c9ba36276352
03d1499bebcc9c722208f0be7f5858f48a423718
111585 F20101119_AACKCX hurst_a_Page_015.jp2
a922f27161bb245cab6b1c63fa110aca
77dab9339dfe3bf8cbcafa13f65b74d0ba9ba22d
12399 F20101119_AACJXS hurst_a_Page_003.jpg
4c5f7e04127a7f20dc38db1388d4a4aa
8588d1df06450c71ca2b88c91f5a1a414b53b2f7
860635 F20101119_AACKEB hurst_a_Page_048.jp2
3485c305f35105a26daf0c23dfe3054d
765938a36ff73f81543afda5479d88760e6b6491
667207 F20101119_AACKDM hurst_a_Page_032.jp2
3dbadfd9d1e687943ee02c67e1121529
ff6f25484ac0844ee5003cacc3a4ecdf5c07560c
73991 F20101119_AACJYG hurst_a_Page_020.jpg
7b372d8085a86984e6fa43ae01b3fadb
4585263fe41dec7b189e3f73efc00ac578ce6055
56139 F20101119_AACKCY hurst_a_Page_016.jp2
7e8a3729c321c6b18da519c45c1b38ce
47af3c047c6a19b14b38868b35d1af8af99a75f1
46454 F20101119_AACJXT hurst_a_Page_006.jpg
f51851f1adcde08ff586f216b4d70e32
84e9ee6e27b3ff45502191df363e01b832065ec1
931598 F20101119_AACKEC hurst_a_Page_049.jp2
172b8a4d8ee5a082c27ad690e0cc2913
2f911388f567b9d2464613f2ade48be795447274
108230 F20101119_AACKDN hurst_a_Page_033.jp2
9c416e514a29708827a6be4c78b882bd
4a6fd4ff815fca822f2a9f7a72276656d56826a1
73461 F20101119_AACJYH hurst_a_Page_021.jpg
00f46f3ca2fb1c1d7d226c1bcde90305
757c814f0c8a454e5945578491cd019351fa729f
96629 F20101119_AACKCZ hurst_a_Page_017.jp2
3a3098ea278080fee9906bb746ae4ea9
87b1ae2ff91026497ab650b9cffe40ba14eca386
94782 F20101119_AACJXU hurst_a_Page_008.jpg
8569019a9ca4962a74bcc59fce775403
166b04017c743240747d1d1173f1d435cdca4518
819691 F20101119_AACKED hurst_a_Page_050.jp2
e659b107a45a03269bd90a93780ad180
ed6d4f53ac264a8008670f88de8ba5b69c3e2db7
915403 F20101119_AACKDO hurst_a_Page_034.jp2
003d8c6a78fac2158e4bc88f763d440b
386cbf8c86553a26948c85b11ac6c76afb41f4c3
72763 F20101119_AACJYI hurst_a_Page_022.jpg
847cab15f28395ba61d7c1c06e29865f
510ad9f95314a367a79cc373c2835e51c14e21b9
111453 F20101119_AACJXV hurst_a_Page_009.jpg
503a0fbbd2c6816f5f94a1b1abf31dc7
be8c0927978115a4c725844c28be7e76d6166757
820449 F20101119_AACKEE hurst_a_Page_053.jp2
10f5efe78cd87381c458c62d202dd91e
e9bbc4fdc11a20c68b1041564ed460324fb2ec82
866274 F20101119_AACKDP hurst_a_Page_035.jp2
33a5420f8be7a9c873f9c0b6a057f96f
d1290a0915759376c46f401a92e14f12a6c0ae71
74049 F20101119_AACJYJ hurst_a_Page_023.jpg
7407bab2892b36eb4a0f7b953293972a
c27699e9af0ee8c38b84231902dbaa383f345e13
112331 F20101119_AACJXW hurst_a_Page_010.jpg
8002afd350e720738e0ecada9aebb246
c94883987085619a2b60f11da24ef870f59e0fb2
868622 F20101119_AACKEF hurst_a_Page_054.jp2
8857e412fe8fbe6a80d5530d3b3635eb
957827fc7e20af7fe4b3861a458970eeed918111
871977 F20101119_AACKDQ hurst_a_Page_036.jp2
669649ab763caac626aeea673ee0a53a
a38a2601d2468c415115906a14cc5bda57a55443
73475 F20101119_AACJYK hurst_a_Page_024.jpg
814174ab8986365dd5be23fa49af8742
7fde43f56d93e800543fae1ea71de5d2ebc2ffca
18428 F20101119_AACJXX hurst_a_Page_011.jpg
02021bf0bd53b30ede6bf2f1bd1d2f5c
57fad2776b8cfd171dfdbed91d4e81fbebb8fc3d
845530 F20101119_AACKEG hurst_a_Page_055.jp2
09ceb58f996f075157884b5847a6eda5
47be072c2a9232bc1cd60eb31acb25b783c19535
92501 F20101119_AACKDR hurst_a_Page_037.jp2
5eb2f37970a641deedea7528f5364583
e9c9f6f05fcc31ce5fa8b0aa980bdd0ed64a7867
68969 F20101119_AACJYL hurst_a_Page_025.jpg
55ea67936412e879bb6f47becffb53f5
4ea0c5da363e55d3df1c55b98781b47201a822c5
60578 F20101119_AACJXY hurst_a_Page_012.jpg
b8b6da4b6f3125590996dd0087724749
764e85739c0172145736c0f7865813f74a704b0b
109527 F20101119_AACKEH hurst_a_Page_056.jp2
361d854f0eb5ce7dc06366224bb03bd7
1290873376f743f4af55dccfab5b336791fe5eea
62080 F20101119_AACJZA hurst_a_Page_042.jpg
e88ab578668cee394b5322cf90f820b8
8b72b805c1e6a617333db792e5363518f69dff61
894450 F20101119_AACKDS hurst_a_Page_038.jp2
d5068e63adc4fb9d5508e399cbdf8a13
e766b39696fdc968aa4643b02b9308195dcb4631
17959 F20101119_AACJYM hurst_a_Page_026.jpg
5695ae0a914fde4508d663467ae01139
d7c6499d4db9afb0e8355a4c3a20415861a29789
38669 F20101119_AACJXZ hurst_a_Page_013.jpg
e5d187f50fc97981085db82fa5c7868e
ae02f94cc83dafd1452dcfa54d2fbbac9bf12e3e
64735 F20101119_AACJZB hurst_a_Page_043.jpg
b27c84e6807d8e9fc1975c027a0d21c1
fc6fba1f0c6f935f49b242e6adeaa459d0353506
850160 F20101119_AACKDT hurst_a_Page_039.jp2
8bd782711efe6f0f80708f13c58dab30
c5cb5876d76ca257423dc9d97907507d24fe1064
53760 F20101119_AACJYN hurst_a_Page_027.jpg
ef2dd3dfd450542524802e9b108656d0
55cc56e425aea6b2a7099c454d55b76db9caabff
870426 F20101119_AACKEI hurst_a_Page_057.jp2
343764a000c9ee4df2693379cf7830ca
6b7dc61caee16bedea0f57876adeece46de6f0d7
65733 F20101119_AACJZC hurst_a_Page_044.jpg
4d1b249bedabc206130544e33c7a9da0
74d228bfc843ae021f638e3073c2f69f4b6c65f0
110372 F20101119_AACKDU hurst_a_Page_040.jp2
5e10b7cd5552c470a07bfc833c4184a8
9c4a55e8df74e0596fd98c4e77733ada0c8766a0
71594 F20101119_AACJYO hurst_a_Page_028.jpg
d0d03550d06588d53b14da7a6eaede66
74c6b9d0d812459e339602cfd5ecec7795b56b49
891534 F20101119_AACKEJ hurst_a_Page_058.jp2
04fd82d10718d533c2aed897b0543f84
f3073c5aefd8b627d645ff860444926dce7c51f7
71385 F20101119_AACJZD hurst_a_Page_045.jpg
ae5c1b955919397f1569ef6ad74586f5
b744c974f5faff509b9d2a67d51d7ff2bd9cc722
904390 F20101119_AACKDV hurst_a_Page_041.jp2
e3176476d5e2eb4f2c0d8626c7dec98d
f45dabbd1335a8c165c741321de89b70bb796ccb
71498 F20101119_AACJYP hurst_a_Page_029.jpg
a25813ccc20d1178721bcbc7336c8c01
03d988b910d94bbc02ab9d73a87852e52096eb9b
838730 F20101119_AACKEK hurst_a_Page_059.jp2
8b033a655c4b7f206dd903eb9fe0acc9
856312f132004a1141ae678ca958f2bc382991a5
60926 F20101119_AACJZE hurst_a_Page_046.jpg
738816bd38e998029893ab856cc6deb2
2268c495e65b00b4c75b3555c8d6401c0c9d91b7
831336 F20101119_AACKDW hurst_a_Page_042.jp2
34604e0e1a7890214fd419e3ff7f60f7
605d72dfd209872edcc96ae54f31240806098830
72140 F20101119_AACJYQ hurst_a_Page_030.jpg
83ab8e1eea253422ba202158d0f772b3
b44cd4faea6e093dd692beb2369ff957df2d4695
880933 F20101119_AACKEL hurst_a_Page_060.jp2
ff99a6903538ab2170804c46a6ac8b13
95396e21e0b6ec48bed9a81faea739540c842585
61398 F20101119_AACJZF hurst_a_Page_047.jpg
8103f1ab61f8c4bc445a69d77beb0b0a
af2b26c98bab344662cb69aeb3c8f922ce1967a1
873282 F20101119_AACKDX hurst_a_Page_043.jp2
214ba638f3a94dd3a939ea7f1389fe61
9950d11a57e57287329bd45ce667417799132449
53960 F20101119_AACJYR hurst_a_Page_032.jpg
f549dcc13181ab963ac72c1bb23fa0db
c84d7a96775dfa8ca4729c944d6d8ad0ff2c0a38
814957 F20101119_AACKFA hurst_a_Page_075.jp2
4f95d82a68bff8e30d5d61ec4e00b184
6811af78ab05477c3b6ae9be74e6ee9377ef6ed6
102032 F20101119_AACKEM hurst_a_Page_061.jp2
d112a178ab60a362d41a95109d3a4a76
7a37722403d908a2c329af44cb98eb43d86362d2
67253 F20101119_AACJZG hurst_a_Page_048.jpg
2b42a4d31dd9d29fc9f375bbe591357e
ab4f5dbf922222ad5a73750d298b7c287b6f02d7
866511 F20101119_AACKDY hurst_a_Page_044.jp2
62f00d28ffaa7acac3f51f3f04e094f8
1a5f3cea95aba3ba86f0101ae8f5a7b5babe9ef4
72522 F20101119_AACJYS hurst_a_Page_033.jpg
43bc3b9835f3240c4dce61ba8106fc09
7152b957edd235f37e65903dd53a3dbf75e5140b
106950 F20101119_AACKFB hurst_a_Page_076.jp2
032a77747c6071c866b8977403d8560f
ba0fc11d49bb77cca5fc60bcd5564b67f467e9bb
905619 F20101119_AACKEN hurst_a_Page_062.jp2
bd1227ce153e32ccc0309af8c7b01a2a
090067c1735377ade4e690676eb7478491cc38f2
70108 F20101119_AACJZH hurst_a_Page_049.jpg
d950c20aa4aad011ad9ee7fbaaf74738
b19893a4d96cffae90b5ed92cadd987f685ffd9a
108955 F20101119_AACKDZ hurst_a_Page_045.jp2
b6368ed84409c623d8a600fe628b814e
a623b6833b059657e083b4cbcf9c9d5d9ecd576d
67814 F20101119_AACJYT hurst_a_Page_034.jpg
0c6dca48150603988cb18a5624329aa4
7993059260505a25b2139a473a7642dd5479244f
867727 F20101119_AACKFC hurst_a_Page_077.jp2
8f039882fa4b450052ed92f0cf1559ed
6d27a5f4c2dd845acb3f8a7656473cc4206d5587
881177 F20101119_AACKEO hurst_a_Page_063.jp2
c861704ac1de251fdeb11c2e142738b7
3d1730e651a85c5bb4ea2405e38b624e9cd4816a
60909 F20101119_AACJZI hurst_a_Page_050.jpg
9a2fd840cd07f8166c1bbd348d1c02db
c4a3ea2c0516511047f25da8cfa4fbf1c72b9cb3
64383 F20101119_AACJYU hurst_a_Page_036.jpg
02d6f0c72ea7d1c20b5a0bb7ae083a3d
9527c2628d1dc4ca32d966336ee9d472e6b37279
793651 F20101119_AACKFD hurst_a_Page_078.jp2
2aeca6224466e0b8940f0a7766552002
9878a5634407ebf46230c065fb0456b36d3f5ee1
783282 F20101119_AACKEP hurst_a_Page_064.jp2
359f352593f14501e3f5dd6de16f7874
6f17f21e3a7c8aff0211cd4a310a9daf349602e6
71255 F20101119_AACJZJ hurst_a_Page_051.jpg
99e00c5adb818551f5ee43a87abd9bd1
abf9239454b2b81f73418b2efbade66a58e39a7f
61829 F20101119_AACJYV hurst_a_Page_037.jpg
ec192cb0ada392dcf6c0ff856f1815f0
0dddc926e569494be2206392f68dfbdbbb5dbf57
107455 F20101119_AACKFE hurst_a_Page_079.jp2
c94a66fd47d40ed03ea4635c01381e81
94a5537b9c9097805ab11c870207c19e72b5127f
862208 F20101119_AACKEQ hurst_a_Page_065.jp2
644196d0338edaea5bb4bac2ded1aadc
7eac5cf3aa51a3c0d950606c279c018d317cb789
64751 F20101119_AACJZK hurst_a_Page_052.jpg
9d25852979d8c56655f1d1aa2cc0085f
b136b7e2d51fe52830496aa1ba174b438163f9e1
64246 F20101119_AACJYW hurst_a_Page_038.jpg
cee51d113d3c5e1b8c236971a2b021e7
233291517c0c423a0bcf7c03a8a818a8fc233793
826671 F20101119_AACKFF hurst_a_Page_080.jp2
6938b4e766ac8f97c020cbc60aa8982d
7bd0cc8ae2fc6dd6a229ff06968bb71fa2fc45e9
880996 F20101119_AACKER hurst_a_Page_066.jp2
09d3973ff4e53a51fde80248b645f0e0
9d8bc8ec5a6bd8fef1f259433e6cd126396c4fbe
61179 F20101119_AACJZL hurst_a_Page_053.jpg
cf19d79064c1819bfbe892e96f3add55
c22d956566d9a45cf1809bd7ec1e55d48409cad1
62666 F20101119_AACJYX hurst_a_Page_039.jpg
74babfa4036cb58d09c9e7f79d6dee63
ebf9790394029e37106d097f27862aba6133ab59
843584 F20101119_AACKFG hurst_a_Page_081.jp2
18e66b978a399691b690d9028a5a4bda
1c565e0e72c051d53da2740aee5a09f879ec32f3
98154 F20101119_AACKES hurst_a_Page_067.jp2
0c902f9c50666a4b8a18e296064dc56f
ae64a9142284020af191af95921e3fec20ec0060
64681 F20101119_AACJZM hurst_a_Page_054.jpg
7e2cc9dddf9c69d4c655bd96ae01f469
08297df03ed436c049aa4db234b682d4d4b1fb5f
72824 F20101119_AACJYY hurst_a_Page_040.jpg
c1e8ff47abb2a0ce42df80cf53538a61
fcb97f4587f01ff4b5b44c7d47ef989449c96f4c
889329 F20101119_AACKFH hurst_a_Page_082.jp2
a78c64b8394f8a9872c8d57fe9a3912b
bac720cc7001fc368376009224f4120595692242
902734 F20101119_AACKET hurst_a_Page_068.jp2
422fc905dcc2e695aca8b2131579e21f
35ac97b6ed53d0b1a822383b6795eae84a439ab3
65083 F20101119_AACJZN hurst_a_Page_055.jpg
0fbca8da81d9abbedb8e4e742191d6a1
6e8f5a4f23cf7597f4740dfcd927364ee4adfea5
65909 F20101119_AACJYZ hurst_a_Page_041.jpg
5b7db5f31048152cd09abeb9c7e5717e
8cff0037050bb89b1a6153f0561a163377334a3a
777681 F20101119_AACKFI hurst_a_Page_083.jp2
dd3e66bf54f839c67b957763cde69c90
8adb0ac44866f5c564fc12fd4b78becfedd93e9d
858983 F20101119_AACKEU hurst_a_Page_069.jp2
0af64c9080ddc6c6d95921c7d7dd366c
420e452dc90237ad03c2b0e76c751b71894356c5
72650 F20101119_AACJZO hurst_a_Page_056.jpg
a4b65c97d01f1192789529a4fe937832
9156acd38e7f85bce4a4f7dd28f8002890752fcf
888886 F20101119_AACKEV hurst_a_Page_070.jp2
2a55b94440734d544620c71b26daf35a
e38316f5b58c92eff7ba54fc3ed596499521a3f5
65173 F20101119_AACJZP hurst_a_Page_057.jpg
8053d1bc3c62a68b1b1a0048de0a2944
52d4a1ed82ebc0e6f7d1c9b7bf8a28ecc05327c3
105619 F20101119_AACKFJ hurst_a_Page_084.jp2
04721dd02433e2d3f2257e37f06038c8
7206cc4b38e07d1719d2de59b8908d6ef341f173
812705 F20101119_AACKEW hurst_a_Page_071.jp2
b016be6fef4ea705894d8b77be4a66a1
b8051d15a8227ab009c273ba35b447ef559e4641
66476 F20101119_AACJZQ hurst_a_Page_058.jpg
0b1b5451bac353cafeb111626e99acde
8ea7f2a188810fd4c7951d3eb566904733bb9d27
882765 F20101119_AACKFK hurst_a_Page_085.jp2
e3f4ddb1b5c0e986f13874dcf429e248
4760c11d5a8978b6796e3c034b76b54d837c6239
98244 F20101119_AACKEX hurst_a_Page_072.jp2
c57e9592645beb0775f7542d72900e0d
a29f3501543958be1f093f63fbbe9ced0165e7c8
62716 F20101119_AACJZR hurst_a_Page_059.jpg
67a7e6e672993c7002b41867dc7bbb46
3b1d0c2770392c884379921e89ab98bc2027b02a
123619 F20101119_AACKGA hurst_a_Page_102.jp2
dd00f1300ad8fa902470162006c01f5a
c3ff7663fc6b5b2c41e1f0a8dd00ccc26dd942ea
844313 F20101119_AACKFL hurst_a_Page_086.jp2
e8dd213e3e92023402c831a7ab8ff80f
47d1ec69057215e2de2787aeb2ad3a8148180621
778981 F20101119_AACKEY hurst_a_Page_073.jp2
0bf986b577c28642a7a993d3c555340f
450e75e27ff7759af323c422050ed0bbe2eb0366
64461 F20101119_AACJZS hurst_a_Page_060.jpg
69d1979dddcbd66366452f55dccf836f
d257bfd7755df8b7c218210e2c013a946c5d0b7b
117349 F20101119_AACKGB hurst_a_Page_103.jp2
e7222b9d5539c17c1f4b4aa346493544
db7e8bf204472edb932c69ba9766ab657d0ecb71
889464 F20101119_AACKFM hurst_a_Page_087.jp2
a74c364678ce512a715dc8deacade731
ce0f5028875dcf6879ce7b7bee7e3b8e7a80f3f9
934477 F20101119_AACKEZ hurst_a_Page_074.jp2
0bd4ac5ae94d4fa225ede6fe8dcff891
582513c75234b1f8618b5635c06172c2c9efdf4a
67532 F20101119_AACJZT hurst_a_Page_061.jpg
cc736fb8eb7818ecff5ed2a349a62821
2ab715297d91367ab8d59c0ed16446ea8d5f0e1c
113316 F20101119_AACKGC hurst_a_Page_104.jp2
c30779cfa78f3f8e8945e21ca445b846
88d51a7c555b49d3c2b8b4890132e344a39545d1
896546 F20101119_AACKFN hurst_a_Page_088.jp2
015506d4aa5a1b61addaf78063ac39c3
41e8ef795716a4e43cbbeaeb640d36e1bc8a9f52
66904 F20101119_AACJZU hurst_a_Page_062.jpg
96ec6551f793679bb374b1fd2d0d0dfe
9b65b35f17c0d2fcfc9172b507f1878d6548a954
131335 F20101119_AACKGD hurst_a_Page_105.jp2
fdde289d3e3a144654016e816821c3f9
dbe88bddd6259c599ddb5466c71e898a3a1fcb35
109839 F20101119_AACKFO hurst_a_Page_089.jp2
f8c5644595c8d0def0cce82c9a6cb16a
8b532c306a8ad8f0c14ad5985ea255455e5b01dc
66967 F20101119_AACJZV hurst_a_Page_063.jpg
b77c02b01cc2071f3ca2e1dcae841781
da93ef2453332c88f325dc711286d83ee1940731
135454 F20101119_AACKGE hurst_a_Page_107.jp2
f61458c21ab1641b232b5670d7ceed40
a06c829673039074876442e30ef9f5edc8849a71
849061 F20101119_AACKFP hurst_a_Page_090.jp2
9dfa007ddabef3b977c5762288985520
092c734d19001357044c476868630cace9d44689
60395 F20101119_AACJZW hurst_a_Page_064.jpg
9f4d61cd638789d35748acf5ede21cf2
c79edc12cd68b7835285958d01e4ca944252ce47
119366 F20101119_AACKGF hurst_a_Page_108.jp2
e20824d19d0813061cfb3e929fbe5b70
ea00b3b287701a03cb096b59f2cdabce5a5acd3f
111255 F20101119_AACKFQ hurst_a_Page_091.jp2
764d94b4af41a9b96e160132e7b19666
da3d778b2d27133d0b11aebe6ff0566bdcdcd713
65021 F20101119_AACJZX hurst_a_Page_065.jpg
0be498ea149c201d60bcd2cbf025745e
aba6f7123dec13cc8ac40393e4acb58453162feb
122217 F20101119_AACKGG hurst_a_Page_109.jp2
e079e1336381be3cbf0be20abff511b2
ffb9a683a0f85d558cd24aa52dec9bb759e8bcf1
40954 F20101119_AACKFR hurst_a_Page_092.jp2
2bc64d3de9d93f591d1c3a1d5ab0eb70
8a0ac3605924bc618df87e6fe4c112b64f9abcd2
64875 F20101119_AACJZY hurst_a_Page_066.jpg
89e6e8e717ba7739c41d24a053554fb6
9027dbf6cf60d556a59ba014e9ad941db4fa34dd
133699 F20101119_AACKGH hurst_a_Page_110.jp2
d81f858831b7ef3d81118aab22505e5c
dd3c2bb11da09f103caae6d4abfdf1008c0e9de4
101141 F20101119_AACKFS hurst_a_Page_093.jp2
b79177841415c74a56621a06b31fa8d9
e806b63f43973fc1c991b07abdf3dbaaa23c156f
65077 F20101119_AACJZZ hurst_a_Page_067.jpg
9cb835a11044564a14624ce7ad176ef9
44c6de8a5bb6887bcd6e058119625372547fcb43
137068 F20101119_AACKGI hurst_a_Page_111.jp2
3dcf5c6e3684a16b2e173dd9b766b4db
caa0aac6d6baff5add8ad24f29f3adb3fe55ad86
60313 F20101119_AACKFT hurst_a_Page_094.jp2
7f20884dec944a1331c8a7286fac3682
f24799e68517336f21430800d2a481d2a6aa8a18
166920 F20101119_AACKGJ hurst_a_Page_112.jp2
ca027fb5c229db5a88e656e5cdc0ac2f
7eaddff05f1737d75cd8cfe6322e42c173a6ac84
108537 F20101119_AACKFU hurst_a_Page_095.jp2
a3b1ede3d3e8926e0ded2715134daa7b
068d74476ba21dda289a67e2f98580dc34b23231
129005 F20101119_AACKFV hurst_a_Page_096.jp2
03884c063fe698f3c401b321508bda18
1c5fc7ec8f6f63e256ad0a77bf97e675a22adf0f
152284 F20101119_AACKGK hurst_a_Page_113.jp2
46a73dc6e3d9c0d5329e51c79fed7c8c
2bd61af0b995a2f9067947469d08dd61e21db4ee
113736 F20101119_AACKFW hurst_a_Page_097.jp2
3ea3981816d407c6ef092835ae6cad1e
ac3f948731b441a8593b522e937fc3eccfb339f4
59538 F20101119_AACKHA hurst_a_Page_131.jp2
22a4f9651e1042b31b07d90e6a2ce57d
8ca42aafcf2f8fcd355aad198a6091d1d98639af
61546 F20101119_AACKGL hurst_a_Page_114.jp2
2d758207b8738d1926e6f345071bd52c
a7d840053cd58b4a9473d1da10061691faf8a41a
114837 F20101119_AACKFX hurst_a_Page_098.jp2
b7f4f4656b19af7380534e535abc1ee4
a21f4bfe18c134de150ab7527c870abaf3bbc43b
562712 F20101119_AACKHB hurst_a_Page_132.jp2
74a90e0be1a8bc397552be898638c708
da1c5974dc15bfffb92538174be3675896af606a
64617 F20101119_AACKGM hurst_a_Page_115.jp2
e7579fef058e980a429557f964263f48
e9ea532cc103c8645a97e044f0911bfda79c32c3
156389 F20101119_AACKFY hurst_a_Page_099.jp2
69afa30df0e6798d8d506533505ef303
b32272054dae6ebb1dfa21babde49ce8e47fb1ab
458069 F20101119_AACKHC hurst_a_Page_133.jp2
81bc8550144153c787e64328e5a21c1b
7e2abedb338660716b8fc47bcc717fca175ddff3
59667 F20101119_AACKGN hurst_a_Page_116.jp2
d14f14b1a6fccd432ed2e256f4084c4d
c1df74a2fe06759a5b59788dd33133ab1e976bd5
175175 F20101119_AACKFZ hurst_a_Page_100.jp2
b34487cdec2de903fc20b4ad98c61a79
294b5110055778dc18e9377188d7c1e59f4922bc
431980 F20101119_AACKHD hurst_a_Page_134.jp2
a9df6efe2773b31516348bb744585768
98a2d726d978f4b2c1f739f2d9980e4ed5a21d3c
64315 F20101119_AACKGO hurst_a_Page_117.jp2
6e4c3026bf4652a1e2e89b6616d65fc9
41133db03b86469290f2685c4640a0b610ccef46
1051981 F20101119_AACKHE hurst_a_Page_135.jp2
5ed1279c66577a8a17aea610c9cd6a13
b68336bd283836eeec8461b20d2ba17166f6e376
61381 F20101119_AACKGP hurst_a_Page_118.jp2
df0c0e08d63cc3b7390fa2e626ade169
405418d377e9a730cc67b051c3962f472cfe0a43
121710 F20101119_AACKHF hurst_a_Page_136.jp2
bcda3bafe75ac84c1706071e17d82f03
5851e576f99f3e50a81f6069d54d48ea34c6b68f
58352 F20101119_AACKGQ hurst_a_Page_119.jp2
11c2747fd3d08796be92bb6974deb232
8c303ebe2adf40b6494a93045f822a1628f61ad4
128084 F20101119_AACKHG hurst_a_Page_137.jp2
f0f18f2fd2fd90987fa3f81ebd7eea2c
2b1eb2840e5a36d03e6e8b97e010a67491253cb8
60902 F20101119_AACKGR hurst_a_Page_121.jp2
c67e10386578f92db5df0c6b1abc3197
5e0a0128fd4d0fac9d06c5fce3a19708060505e3
61725 F20101119_AACKHH hurst_a_Page_138.jp2
8a42ac6cd686c55a31a904cd7d26df29
6278cdb7d28fa1d61a7cc50f3cdbbbef34c6b7a2
61510 F20101119_AACKGS hurst_a_Page_122.jp2
38a923281456c1d2f7c53df3a813e35b
8b4e0409ecf22d6c0fca7ea123af55771d662e31
46303 F20101119_AACKHI hurst_a_Page_139.jp2
c21c40d195de6e9d30ac81a6699a9dfb
ffbfb36752012309db9e847884b680e557c1a211
59112 F20101119_AACKGT hurst_a_Page_123.jp2
138a823925245ce9a7c89e601493973b
55c8b0e10120d3ff602042de3896de3446ea4842
F20101119_AACKHJ hurst_a_Page_001.tif
03c8d3d1db00eef2b1f733f05d10caad
1bc4ecf310dbfd99738f45057947a04eb527dfc0
65437 F20101119_AACKGU hurst_a_Page_125.jp2
721e61559985199b9c4745eb8264d8e0
aa0beef70eb0ab8bb867ebed7facb1f770c70a64
F20101119_AACKHK hurst_a_Page_002.tif
d47c5864ee5513cbfa4bcb4a25113c14
871cd824159236731de6b9616cf6b3fd1271f224
60793 F20101119_AACKGV hurst_a_Page_126.jp2
bfc8028df62956764f5857abe0f686be
d8c55e0f833e71157b13033cf7210c518e74dbd3
60147 F20101119_AACKGW hurst_a_Page_127.jp2
970ebada62a907c6630a7acdb482ed03
3ba6ea9c314fd3734d78f04bedfaaced609b5928
F20101119_AACKHL hurst_a_Page_004.tif
69bcc1fe200f8c9bd8833c22b3c79d02
8d2ef107ca7f47823072c8f33740416524fb5385
59697 F20101119_AACKGX hurst_a_Page_128.jp2
9c4d1adf1862cab4987ca8e058de713d
e6c04b7899203a63fad5802a67453fcd4541dbe0
F20101119_AACKIA hurst_a_Page_022.tif
de820e293c4b79821a08884044c7ec91
77c3688098f787f282b14d455b6aaa537d6d6315
F20101119_AACKHM hurst_a_Page_005.tif
f94aa1afcd2c17c3ecc71740d37792da
73ec29defe769ba22da3b02c16f8779d19fb96bd
58226 F20101119_AACKGY hurst_a_Page_129.jp2
c43a0bc3b3156637004c3e47c6498d84
3f63bfb26e0a145593f4b3653e197166713640e0
F20101119_AACKIB hurst_a_Page_023.tif
93b06a52e8ff8a22e99dbf86814d4fb8
df74cef0f878d8d6f0f27b0c903989cbd38f566e
F20101119_AACKHN hurst_a_Page_006.tif
dba18bc1edb420f17d5c701b6cac9084
980710847a98015f71bb5d11e058762c59f14896
61395 F20101119_AACKGZ hurst_a_Page_130.jp2
a04604dcf487987fdb663590f8526110
63701536f2907c6bb035d3ab1af9f8fcb314ccec
F20101119_AACKIC hurst_a_Page_025.tif
bfead2778786f9389f5e8d7a77452951
6439796d8af9cbfec84d2cae4a8cdaf9ad2bfef5
F20101119_AACKHO hurst_a_Page_007.tif
84075bef6d910b58277e0f25f6d0cec6
27d356d71c860869129b18c06f9083feab7e0935
F20101119_AACKID hurst_a_Page_026.tif
c55aea1fd7c67e4b4762fe32c4d1a455
79a94d28b53286097f370eb317c201bea83e31a2
F20101119_AACKHP hurst_a_Page_009.tif
1f230caa1c980c24490b2c236f129d92
e9791b06c6b0a79751fb521f597f357eb6fe5482
F20101119_AACKIE hurst_a_Page_028.tif
1c99a72bb59c11753b93930c6fe35cf9
4da689331fb6f6cca7e39301da1327dcece5be83
F20101119_AACKHQ hurst_a_Page_010.tif
ee44efb4699a58541c4d25d9b093e1c5
2a256499ab3c65b1f691adab30dde6320e502939
F20101119_AACKIF hurst_a_Page_029.tif
68bbea5bf182f78d7c50c03f527b114b
7d7d2c584d588c3d616794cb1e7d18c0027f2040
F20101119_AACKHR hurst_a_Page_011.tif
aef7f5dfd001baf337306e64e307dcc3
09c1069155f2c978158f1b1e6a904e939e6b760e
F20101119_AACKIG hurst_a_Page_030.tif
e3f3047527669b7dd4587353f4488786
416afb4945f066b93c410bf64e5cc41cfac87e7f
F20101119_AACKIH hurst_a_Page_031.tif
88bd7d11d7554f38e5376055d71035e3
aada237b38868e25e414aa8d981084c52313fb06
F20101119_AACKHS hurst_a_Page_012.tif
904522222d22882dcb8729b32de0c899
61885840c6cf8493be875c3cc3b6b4979f3f1a3b
F20101119_AACKII hurst_a_Page_032.tif
1f7c2a1477d7e9626c6ba3a2606bab85
37d3a36b75ef389700fb984de8b2616dc4b81612
F20101119_AACKHT hurst_a_Page_013.tif
df598658d6cadfc3f59e937d2f209960
ab767d85dfa2d1a81ef96bca01d8de4a1faba258
F20101119_AACKIJ hurst_a_Page_033.tif
565fe19b073990e97166d6ba580dd96d
5f9c2b450d5a2d5eeddffc5f4aec70b583bb23e7
F20101119_AACKHU hurst_a_Page_014.tif
caf29b07eb4bb8e92c02c6771a642381
58ec8a7f0d0f1559a061edb914cf9b23be91045c
F20101119_AACKIK hurst_a_Page_034.tif
97a1117a98f0861dd75f6b78f8acf07b
e2bcf46b5617a25e357e8c8383ac97f78ff20e50
F20101119_AACKHV hurst_a_Page_016.tif
5ab0ce9d9e4d040a70ad88ab80e5d5ce
df465eb6b891e4af17e62f7d4d3fd1d5ff84ee00
F20101119_AACKIL hurst_a_Page_035.tif
11a900b2890be7772fd2e592546e122d
b999e260d45e0ead93c83654ada48b9a01129b25
F20101119_AACKHW hurst_a_Page_017.tif
4c3fe62c5882eac33b81b3c872d0a681
2980d3c1eb0767dc0a7ca00efc85480707ebe45f
F20101119_AACKJA hurst_a_Page_051.tif
569b81aa84796e104427bb8b6df412b9
9f171fce8b92abf6c36070fcbfc4a3387442f375
F20101119_AACKHX hurst_a_Page_019.tif
a1d738c705e38c61d7790ad54bf7706c
2ae1f14240e2dad1ed42f9f91618c33c9ee01c8b
F20101119_AACKJB hurst_a_Page_052.tif
ddd4a47af750c70e308bf57adc71ad8e
7cd30e84cf75a68c56c24d49f056ed6179bcb4e6
F20101119_AACKIM hurst_a_Page_036.tif
6889368e2d449041a0c4d6b82b37af0c
3462325939275877c1d5aea962569aaccdd33736
F20101119_AACKHY hurst_a_Page_020.tif
291d4f87ae3bb1ee085af53259b57ad3
9e2076b5d4fab7a9bf1253a67e13f2c2b2edcbb7
F20101119_AACKJC hurst_a_Page_053.tif
60e89825dc391a8033bdc2684791d2de
01e2a56f3c52270f4bd6463fe866075dda744ea9
F20101119_AACKIN hurst_a_Page_037.tif
2fafb41eb669a45e79188feaddf35fa0
756a314fa1eb6beffd38f2f132ad75de49dff048
F20101119_AACKHZ hurst_a_Page_021.tif
a792e2738322acd52642c747a771d4a6
a99d795c0331bb0b63762923063bae9eae3637a2
F20101119_AACKJD hurst_a_Page_054.tif
7c6450635acb5624ca9327c5c197c95a
5a655a442ade23364d11bcb4aa5417bbef37c3a0
F20101119_AACKIO hurst_a_Page_038.tif
19763222b9c74ed61296c5fda27728f1
52b898dd1b6bbf72301d8bf84547dd29d755d283
F20101119_AACKJE hurst_a_Page_055.tif
4640bf971cd4b99190245037a4c69ea4
492435bcb772935bc34d4b71b7629f0784802d50
F20101119_AACKIP hurst_a_Page_039.tif
0ae0b4712438a32e4cc2c5a3c0f373d1
2f09f6263bbfedb032493092ee9aacf1ca1774c2
F20101119_AACKJF hurst_a_Page_057.tif
8982e5d5f9fbd80ae2cc32a7bbd5c4be
bd6c4fb7c4ea75867a5d71e8491d8aea0995d66b
F20101119_AACKIQ hurst_a_Page_040.tif
03d95cbfb49f670d21959bf0912a4e11
598c9a51b93eafcb8c58895a2e7bccdeca1a7eb8
F20101119_AACKJG hurst_a_Page_058.tif
c75338cfc20c57bc9fdde92d1179e0f7
1ff0ee3757940a2caa709204b1c3aae5827ed20f
F20101119_AACKIR hurst_a_Page_041.tif
34f71269d71fbee2065f1fc266734ae9
418af7de0662ee68f944f0cfdd55db5eeb3b4a3b
F20101119_AACKJH hurst_a_Page_059.tif
3861235f3df2acf1f6afea34ae0cc7c4
094ae543e6531ec8557aadb7e2ade5fae6f4eacf
F20101119_AACKIS hurst_a_Page_042.tif
10ec3ebc3847d7a9e6d18a6d8b7a9d3c
0ca53aa5829f9a9cda94e74ac60177fb86e875dc
F20101119_AACKJI hurst_a_Page_060.tif
5be485f89abbb8960335ef9200379750
750f08f378bd3dd1f1fddf9b9e48f4f081889073
F20101119_AACKIT hurst_a_Page_043.tif
ead48fcb8c37e4dc8fbdef245ec110b6
3a6d90bd7a5106164f037c4856306d5046a3eb3d
F20101119_AACKJJ hurst_a_Page_061.tif
7082ac15623fe08b3bad73a2d9e92066
765757c89d9e0605422439daced8b6f9821ef589
F20101119_AACKIU hurst_a_Page_044.tif
cf6618d7f4838f5e8f72a59c8e94aff5
0ef7c68a6d7e81c8c09ef583ce8bb7b5a07c5f37
F20101119_AACKJK hurst_a_Page_063.tif
4f19fd3e43b6a4c14754ef13528162a9
eb31a9d7b9a801a8918e5bf5dea2ecc7d17c2b11
F20101119_AACKIV hurst_a_Page_045.tif
e0d682956970c2f23de546cb310d280a
d247517ee0609d38895d8875e11e2501f3b7bb5c
F20101119_AACKJL hurst_a_Page_064.tif
6fced203db01c2c7bd0517edcff8b752
0325747971a1b7615bce2fdb1c4f8863cdee0153
F20101119_AACKIW hurst_a_Page_046.tif
4f6460da41d482da80671fd34873916d
63a13b47620901f381fe68deff6fe8b04430550b
F20101119_AACKJM hurst_a_Page_065.tif
4e7286a666d71c5c237592c64b18901a
87befbf197143fa1d32b33d39897045f1adcce22
F20101119_AACKIX hurst_a_Page_047.tif
2127bfd1de047ef51c4f90f96478a0d9
e0227172900c32120e02f8d37c5cf81b6e5b996f
F20101119_AACKKA hurst_a_Page_082.tif
38f38ac5f23e9a3c5bf780a668e36ce5
c90f1695d3415d2250e943484c814752200c4cee
F20101119_AACKIY hurst_a_Page_049.tif
3f8e917137ed8dda14cc72dc382d786f
90e9c58d3e468ff4849e58c76c3ec07d2f58659f
F20101119_AACKKB hurst_a_Page_083.tif
00b1df2056718b6354eeb0f4ffce3f2c
0c7ac7fb5e04a0e063c7425d70584c90720ed25e
F20101119_AACKJN hurst_a_Page_066.tif
ab5232c61fb558562fe673ca4c221990
f294dffef15c4040d99a252198a1c60e7f51eee2
F20101119_AACKIZ hurst_a_Page_050.tif
8c9549e42992d99a18eed9914054a354
45a0aebe5efa37efab50981aa6ecbdd836449854
F20101119_AACKKC hurst_a_Page_084.tif
90dcf624b95374fd3722150c477bd3a8
73e221017bbed47e816c5e1ad8bfe40c9c05d576
F20101119_AACKJO hurst_a_Page_067.tif
3aeabb740cd5c0743ec4ddf2962b8b97
8c10018c0be0e9e2370f004c4c8cd850b4218880
F20101119_AACKKD hurst_a_Page_085.tif
fa58c5bc843b659a9f323b913bc03e2f
802ce47ce27410ceac56f63599eb85660e00d6de
F20101119_AACKJP hurst_a_Page_068.tif
0d8af67919b0f473ce3a04fc1b167ea4
cd840658fbbbb73c4a5d0c4951f6c4af11003c22
F20101119_AACKKE hurst_a_Page_086.tif
24611673487de7f9c3a8d49e7e10e826
1a5f54b86d30dddc412866f1258997d1c8b042b9
F20101119_AACKJQ hurst_a_Page_069.tif
ee6f0f52152236f32645bc85416fa7bb
0deefdbacb3b8c8847feef7d4eeaf79ef3501fe5
F20101119_AACKKF hurst_a_Page_087.tif
9b61b7a31bc5f324d9623c79f98459a6
756e5388c9c122d9eb70c8c1c8ac13cae6ccc5a3
F20101119_AACKJR hurst_a_Page_070.tif
4e25ed53ec1adad7f99d7e5726460947
b4a69471c211538871278de03fd514c6857c4a33
F20101119_AACKKG hurst_a_Page_088.tif
6a7600a5936f7ff3ea8facce609d6420
aed0b000af4c61ff6d753bef6fb087fc26974216
F20101119_AACKJS hurst_a_Page_071.tif
a1395ec0cae11626220516a948fb50db
a82f8bcce7bcf3913c410cab2a50a268390927c1
F20101119_AACKKH hurst_a_Page_089.tif
d9d04ab1f25c521c23dc173b430758b5
d506c3bea6d596a8b7b42bbfe74dbbc7f6368736
F20101119_AACKJT hurst_a_Page_072.tif
77fe78829737cc7e4e0e847780bfa6d4
d0404a149b5dcbf1fdd99f1ac0af72bd77419cc6
F20101119_AACKKI hurst_a_Page_090.tif
07335c9aac2e2f9ac2370499b8f4cc1a
6b825d374e31325fb6ce01519ce60142f058a210
F20101119_AACKJU hurst_a_Page_073.tif
7863379151e7b614df03059eba5a0c58
ce13699240bd2b0b77cb178b47d0fd4226a7019a
F20101119_AACKKJ hurst_a_Page_091.tif
ae96aaba32704ae069bd5143c0b7741b
e578e35980983619007a967d989b908c2d3f103e
F20101119_AACKJV hurst_a_Page_074.tif
681e927efc629dd2c8c3470745489fa9
cf428ec4e2882e593b956e3677c42ccf21c08286
F20101119_AACKKK hurst_a_Page_092.tif
28e141165073bcf14092d4631833568c
481c17265b1b20b74a3c8a3fb8e4c7ee29adad5b
F20101119_AACKJW hurst_a_Page_078.tif
1c977a9ec5acfcaa23a536f81d41b845
1e06508cb41cc221b3cc6caf0f33865e7a1b8c6e
F20101119_AACKKL hurst_a_Page_093.tif
a31190c6ea9f3099b617f8801461bc7d
e53ff567af94a46af8b767e147f3cf2f438f19af
F20101119_AACKJX hurst_a_Page_079.tif
8472ac2deb226dbcd4a097f3d447da1f
2ada53d77a77dbea023c32a6b706064657e693b0
F20101119_AACKLA hurst_a_Page_110.tif
c6e879adee8e8a1b5740adfb9ba319fc
2a049788f693aa6a95ccbc974693620482b46b81
F20101119_AACKKM hurst_a_Page_094.tif
9ac1abb89fce3cf822b998b8d7f63ecd
38b0cfe83d22c89f5f65daed889c38eab487a61b
F20101119_AACKJY hurst_a_Page_080.tif
e7acb0ee04df1843e27b71be18197e60
f9e31f48c2fdcf2d501537bf97b50af376907e11
F20101119_AACKLB hurst_a_Page_111.tif
128c84e410a9aee5eeb691cca016bd2c
92a1209bef480f7a8e2486267b4fd35e446a9457
F20101119_AACKKN hurst_a_Page_095.tif
0146576d85065b1e2b48b1edf8e46186
ed96a9910442d6b21301c2e00323fab12efc31bc
F20101119_AACKJZ hurst_a_Page_081.tif
a2cf0ad86ce47a30379b26cc4a571169
027e53f5532c8317ae62055bb13c0b0b8eabb7be
F20101119_AACKLC hurst_a_Page_112.tif
2ad1ad1371ca289ade22f2f2557ba755
93bdd57eb0b9187db208f6c9b50e627dceb61135
F20101119_AACKLD hurst_a_Page_113.tif
4223dca4142609b99118ac0527dc6630
e8fb85833dd9473cea3221f8465e148da6e7e74c
F20101119_AACKKO hurst_a_Page_096.tif
2609b2f0d20f5f77a53cf680327e708f
8b114d4c061400488d9ca2ef28839365c0c8c79c
F20101119_AACKLE hurst_a_Page_114.tif
7c133d4213ecb7a7afcc73c0a6fbde93
3bc796b8db67d3b3f128508deedc0e9b8ce1e8dd
F20101119_AACKKP hurst_a_Page_097.tif
98e16e62eeeb273f25e3ff11737d94d0
6425a40793194641b5524b902fb5281974538042
F20101119_AACKLF hurst_a_Page_115.tif
d30b5badfd5b96de455bbf7a8f89eeca
beeb40f29e0310a87e2bc5fff6d3c00ca1b2c94f
F20101119_AACKKQ hurst_a_Page_098.tif
e869d37a02cd95de4ca972377b35368a
f8461f53fcc85427c9ae957beec3a1f75338b625
F20101119_AACKLG hurst_a_Page_118.tif
fe9e2e118a72a651844e1bf59dc8b99f
1b6d0f805b098b1522a260ae066ad2fd08c58d0a
F20101119_AACKKR hurst_a_Page_099.tif
da78ac3ab209ec3cce15109762e22743
e79923044507553df9c39dcae0e3b6f4c2bd338c
F20101119_AACKLH hurst_a_Page_119.tif
36d9d0ea2e79ef2a49b08d31720c8a43
9fe6b5b2fb0494faf0b64cdbbbdd0f4e4c22354a
F20101119_AACKKS hurst_a_Page_100.tif
7b25482a65a4275a121a7c9deab368c2
8f08124af7ed6bfc163276aaea4d933037e81403
F20101119_AACKLI hurst_a_Page_120.tif
760c4f1f7a197cae3480f9fdc530af98
eeaf21368c08cf769975cd23418496f67b17d1dd
F20101119_AACKKT hurst_a_Page_102.tif
529fb73b066eca9e5fb1f55f3392bea9
72b946500ddada904a7fc6c3f97132596aefc668
F20101119_AACKLJ hurst_a_Page_121.tif
aabf8f7e71ddbc46c620d3ae177200c0
98e8050c81c82c0ffcb1a14ffd443c8a9151dee7
F20101119_AACKKU hurst_a_Page_104.tif
53b8402d97255efc98d3ff9cea22e7f0
d960a2b1197342bb29c187928567969a609d18a0
F20101119_AACKLK hurst_a_Page_122.tif
206020330c1d91631bd3f19dfb203bf9
e47a06fbecf632874d58459fa1c45197440cc02e
F20101119_AACKKV hurst_a_Page_105.tif
77215fdd7b2961c4b4ab657716cc6dd2
84f88f05422a189c00d12b751dbb5f4d4628a6d4
F20101119_AACKLL hurst_a_Page_123.tif
2c5c8e811068446d9344f5fa58977c92
4fc37c8c6cae8012c8864ed9647f124ed825db82
F20101119_AACKKW hurst_a_Page_106.tif
ce1fcca8eb3973ed5ddf53d155a9a67d
e43d7bf6a739999ce0e26ed75add5f1f8fa6ee95
1382 F20101119_AACKMA hurst_a_Page_002.pro
f5e6a1227509c786529f3e035c9e1741
6a170de85ea4a011b3b1ef742f06f4f598c34369
F20101119_AACKLM hurst_a_Page_126.tif
5d5d209385f89f4c32a8506a1e3a6b02
f1d5e5c9285c13660336eb20cf3bc31e087401e4
F20101119_AACKKX hurst_a_Page_107.tif
5afaf8fe006459a163b27b83c6ad35df
a01826882c8f12ead70fa1e71c6eedb45d0ef690
2641 F20101119_AACKMB hurst_a_Page_003.pro
90629fcb41d1ad80d633a99a6943bce7
c1b72370ebe5ad2c0b49321089d9bf2dfc492d13
F20101119_AACKLN hurst_a_Page_127.tif
be2632f89b7d69205d583d01ed6658d6
eeb1742e990f3b6ab3f740b43cc9ec4a588b4844
F20101119_AACKKY hurst_a_Page_108.tif
9486271b0fdb5ae1a7c24bbcf2ccd7cb
6f7f37d890c1347e025ab2f33b279352cf509f97
37953 F20101119_AACKMC hurst_a_Page_004.pro
8e2c6b8e6e77e0796e21adc14b42d643
7e3a5d178c0b1a55c83f0fa53a19a6cfcf038f8c
F20101119_AACKLO hurst_a_Page_129.tif
4473d49fcc9afb83f24f5f7d5ace8e9d
72f7587880f815886c0ad7349e9cd2025131bd87
F20101119_AACKKZ hurst_a_Page_109.tif
67d801431212946f114649e196eec5e7
80c813b712c583c1c5d1cbe319a1b1ec54c2bbcb
79417 F20101119_AACKMD hurst_a_Page_005.pro
07610a0e75e8dd5a00ad2535cf6600b4
1c383444163a46285cab4f8df49d119db6848c6a
44471 F20101119_AACKME hurst_a_Page_006.pro
70d6d818781e424bfc3cce5d0b0e183f
af63ba6eaaf03b3fe5fd4702546787237d46c948
F20101119_AACKLP hurst_a_Page_130.tif
b5f6bbd3366f838b0ea2e6a6d50f7aa1
b0ac965af0c2ca9b6fee0f304ba97c312289905f
50111 F20101119_AACKMF hurst_a_Page_007.pro
f99761b3cc2b826a63f2c29f1ddcbb12
8207b7f3d9920acf67a494ab322a3d207a0e9f60
F20101119_AACKLQ hurst_a_Page_131.tif
355e3d52bc83044e914d00a045e5be27
9935c8e02d6a75958e83061118cceecc2f6aefe0
61890 F20101119_AACKMG hurst_a_Page_008.pro
ced43e6313d0932309e97402db6db846
2c96ccb132f5b30e0a8710fb6729e9962b2da815
F20101119_AACKLR hurst_a_Page_132.tif
c8985863525bfde48583498a492a0108
396ec25131696c803a821e80758486d220df9ce3
73226 F20101119_AACKMH hurst_a_Page_009.pro
77e0665d2e82d0bbecb3c89146deeb5e
bef0a6472f5417ac5ad3c9b7d564a6fe91b06787
F20101119_AACKLS hurst_a_Page_133.tif
125ca7660c60629941de455a6b105fde
d64ef4b789f42d3debd4d477f87bfa5c1071e439
73272 F20101119_AACKMI hurst_a_Page_010.pro
ad06059764cbeeda11b39028c1d40cf1
5d5c221e21a93301d2edc73368cee5e0eedf5aa8
F20101119_AACKLT hurst_a_Page_134.tif
bf6b1c3bdcd08d262ec6764bb99c93e2
fc2f4882854175a9e17c8fd2f82add8cde4cc863
7574 F20101119_AACKMJ hurst_a_Page_011.pro
c74d050376f882dba610e7dfb9dc29e6
f1ddd05ab39ce0979e9a71263b058246057a4c75
F20101119_AACKLU hurst_a_Page_135.tif
fa2433f5cf33fd077c759ffae25ce26d
1ed46f5867e18691f5d65addd8d0169aef18e203
38934 F20101119_AACKMK hurst_a_Page_012.pro
4625c7bb59fd3ecdfc038199aa13464f
033b5ab7fe0745b0e99dd8a100cb345ce14a7b38
F20101119_AACKLV hurst_a_Page_136.tif
185f5b21682214f008ea8ff830870145
16fc3240be77ff571749ffef81422f868a7d8722
24190 F20101119_AACKML hurst_a_Page_013.pro
b1b65fa1cc6850ad7dc174a3d0ba3dc3
63251ba1605490576a8f655ca00c0d05dba4c1eb
F20101119_AACKLW hurst_a_Page_137.tif
9772b6fb5dd55327cd7bb19684c401a8
4ee759a66f2af9b8247cb6f8ab746ac2f7be382e
45092 F20101119_AACKMM hurst_a_Page_014.pro
a97a3ee469cfce5dd0b3b186f63055f6
6c232336182affb11057cc8a2467392f51c7e43e
F20101119_AACKLX hurst_a_Page_138.tif
e0c758dd57c308db415a029605102b46
917056aab08bf58e3de147e1a3fa8072629b4933
49831 F20101119_AACKNA hurst_a_Page_030.pro
8296fb154aa304654ebdf4b52ba5b82b
5ca6035636ef0cb22965c310f239543519dc59b1
50733 F20101119_AACKMN hurst_a_Page_015.pro
df6907070265e51f6ea21b905683fd4b
61194dfbb0b5931f31f9a8f1d43fe22aba2a62d5
F20101119_AACKLY hurst_a_Page_139.tif
b5dddd2d9e54fba0756db9de94345734
7eafd68326c428977e2b9fb0129cd9e7003a2f6b
30880 F20101119_AACKNB hurst_a_Page_031.pro
8188f5759a8ef9390afe953e9baa686d
28ef7e1e8ffbe0e21a0f84282df2d526a4030c03
25308 F20101119_AACKMO hurst_a_Page_016.pro
75182ce9c4a6994a3118968e39083a86
6982bc9419660e098d6a7709d8065ce5b9f3b51f
8904 F20101119_AACKLZ hurst_a_Page_001.pro
96daba843ca70ccd22068dfe819f5e24
461c27e4431e97ec43e80bd6ea9e21155214c6a7
27556 F20101119_AACKNC hurst_a_Page_032.pro
cde874fc8aafd76e6da9633efcae3b21
5ad1969742ab19739b40279e64dfc6ef2021fe25
44271 F20101119_AACKMP hurst_a_Page_017.pro
4f9c6add7869d52cc26dff8587edb06f
fda7c74b0429398ba705e13047d16fbeb699a0a4
50088 F20101119_AACKND hurst_a_Page_033.pro
abd37a72fb4ed5c6733e6ffe4a8572b2
2d5407659330d1bbc1cb75ab99ede76f989ed7a5
38504 F20101119_AACKNE hurst_a_Page_034.pro
4d1af6dbc2e98f25da62a95ca5ab6372
ccafb1984589269d96dd375ac1987ddccc8aa10e
50602 F20101119_AACKNF hurst_a_Page_035.pro
77d6e41ed5bd972ea75a93b70de7102f
c9972bc62e7133bbf5d1bcd1670cc28822e17b9f
50212 F20101119_AACKMQ hurst_a_Page_018.pro
88c837595524c2c987685b721d606b31
92ba1ea25c0a8eaf164df755eb4510e3641c4cc7
38087 F20101119_AACKNG hurst_a_Page_036.pro
f1a6d207dee7878e13036c7c155df735
b12d8160e8971f835675e8a9193e16ea23b89a56
51405 F20101119_AACKMR hurst_a_Page_020.pro
b268dba868cae8a49f2d1c2263d2a9c0
cf1238718e2e4c9d9340bea5548fc007e30cad13



PAGE 1

EFFECTS OF OYSTER SHELL SHAPE AND THICKNESS ON ABSORPTION OF ELECTRON BE AM, GAMMA RAY, AND X-RAY IRRADIATION By ARTHUR GRANT HURST, JR. A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by Arthur Grant Hurst, Jr.

PAGE 3

To my wife As hley, my parents, and my family for their continued support and encouragement

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend thanks and gratitu de to my committee chairman and major advisor, Dr. Gary E. Rodrick. Without this guidance his work would not be possible. Thanks are due also to my supervisory co mmittee members, Dr. Ronald Schmidt and Dr. Sally Williams, for all their help and guidance in the completion of this research. I would like to express my appreciation to Carl Gi llis and Florida Accelerator Services and Technology of Gainesville, FL, for providing me the opportunity to perform research at this facility. Thanks are al so due to Food Technology Service, Inc. of Mulberry, FL, for allowing me the opportunity to perform research at its facility. I woul d also like to thank the National Center of Electron Beam Food Research at Texas A & M University of College Station, TX, for aiding us in our research and for the efficiency and consideration of the staff. Bill Leeming and Southern Cross Sea Farms, Inc. of Cedar Key, FL, deserve recognition for always providing top-quality clams. The efforts of fellow masters student Daniel Periu as well as all of my lab mates were invaluable in the completion of this project. In conclusion, I would like to thank my pa rents, Arthur and Darlene Hurst, for all of their love and support. I would also like to thank my wife, Ashley, for all of her love and support. Without her encouragement and support this research would not have been possible

PAGE 5

v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................x ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................4 Vibrio vulnificus...........................................................................................................4 Radiation...................................................................................................................... .6 Radiation Sources.........................................................................................................7 Radiation Dose..............................................................................................................8 Oysters........................................................................................................................ ..9 Clams.......................................................................................................................... 11 Mussels.......................................................................................................................1 2 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................14 Source of Oysters........................................................................................................14 Source of Clams..........................................................................................................14 Sources of Mussels.....................................................................................................15 Dosimeter Source and Reading..................................................................................15 Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol...........................................................15 Electron Beam and X-ray Protocol.............................................................................16 Gamma Irradiation Protocol.......................................................................................17 Statistics..................................................................................................................... .18 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................19 Oyster Irradiation with Electron Beam.......................................................................19 Oyster Irradiation with X-Ray....................................................................................26 Oyster Irradiation with Gamma..................................................................................32 Clam Irradiation with Electron Beam.........................................................................39

PAGE 6

vi Clam Irradiation with X-ray.......................................................................................45 Clam Irradiation with Gamma....................................................................................51 Mussel Irradiation w ith Electron Beam......................................................................58 Mussel Irradiation with X-ray....................................................................................65 Mussel Irradiation with Gamma.................................................................................71 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................80 APPENDIX A OYSTER, CLAM, AND MUSSEL MEASUREMENTS..........................................82 Oyster Measurements.................................................................................................82 Clam Measurements...................................................................................................88 Mussel Measurement..................................................................................................94 Oyster Irradiation Dose Measurements....................................................................100 Clam Irradiated Dose Measurements........................................................................107 Mussel Irradiation Dose Measurements...................................................................113 B OYSTER, CLAM AND MUSSEL PICTURES.......................................................119 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................126

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF TABLES Table page A-1 Oyster Weight Measurements in g (5/1/05).............................................................82 A-2 Oyster Dimension Measurements in cm (5/3/05)....................................................84 A-3 Oyster Thickness Measurements in cm (5/4/05)......................................................86 A-4 Clam Weight Measurements in g (4/29/05).............................................................88 A-5 Clam Dimension Measurement in cm (5/10/05)......................................................90 A-6 Clam Thickness Measurement in cm (5/12/05).......................................................92 A-7 Mussel Weight Measurement in g (5/12/05)............................................................94 A-8 Mussel Dimension Measurement in cm (5/20/05)...................................................96 A-9 Mussel Thickness Measurement in cm (5/22/05)....................................................98 A-10 Electron Beam irradi ated oysters in kGy...............................................................100 A-11 X-ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy.............................................................................102 A-12 Gamma Ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy..................................................................104 A-13 Electron Beam Irradiated Clams in kGy................................................................107 A-14 X-ray Irradiated Clams in kGy...............................................................................109 A-15 Gamma Ray Irradiated Clams in kGy....................................................................111 A-16 Electron Beam irradiated mussels in kGy..............................................................113 A-17 X-ray Irradiated Mussels in kGy............................................................................115 A-18 Gamma Ray Irradiated Mussels in kGy.................................................................117

PAGE 8

viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 The internal absorbed do se oyster shells compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oysters after e xposure to electron beam at 1 kGy.......................19 4-2 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oys ters after exposure at 3 kGy..........................................21 4-3 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to mean thickness of top shell of oysters ir radiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy.......22 4-4 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells as compared to curvature of top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy.......23 4-5 Percent external dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to weight of oyster shells irradiated with electr on beam at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy................25 4-6 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy............................26 4-7 The internal absorbed dose of oyste r shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oys ters after exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy............28 4-8 Percent external shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to thickness of oyster shells i rradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray..........29 4-9 Percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally in oyster shells compared to curvature of oyster shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at......30 4-10 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to weight of top shell of oyst ers irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray....31 4-11 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy.........................33 4-12 The internal absorbed dose of oyste r shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of oyste rs after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy at.....34 4-13 Percent external shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to thickness of oyster shell irra diated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma.......35

PAGE 9

ix 4-14 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to curvature of oyster shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at...36 4-15 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to weight of oyster shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma...........37 4-16 The internal absorbed dose clam she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clams after e xposure to electron beam at 1 kGy at............40 4-17 The internal absorbed dose clam she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clam s after exposure at 3 kGy at........................................41 4-18 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to thickness of clam shells irradiated w ith electron beam at 1kGy and 3 kGy............42 4-19 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to curvature of clam shells irradiated with electron beam at 1kGy and 3 kGy............44 4-20 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to weight of clam shells irradiated at dose s of 1kGy and 3 kGy with electron beam..45 4-21 The internal absorbed dose clam she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clams af ter exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy..............................46 4-22 The internal absorbed dose of clam sh ells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clams af ter exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy..............................47 4-23 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to thickness of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray............49 4-24 Percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally in clam shells as compared to the curvature of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray......50 4-25 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to weight of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray................51 4-26 The internal absorbed dose clam she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clams af ter exposure to gamma at 1 kGy...........................52 4-27 The internal absorbed dose of clam sh ells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of clams af ter exposure to gamma at 3 kGy...........................53 4-28 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to thickness of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma........55 4-29 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to curvature of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at.....56

PAGE 10

x 4-30 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to weight of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma.............57 4-31 The internal absorbed dose mussel she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of mussels afte r exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy.............58 4-32 The internal absorbed dose mussel she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of musse ls after exposure at 3 kGy........................................60 4-33 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to thickness of mussel shells irradiated w ith electron beam 1kGy and 3 kGy.............61 4-34 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to curvature of mussel shells irradiat ed at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy..........................62 4-35 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to weight of mussel shells irradiated at 1kGy and 3 kGy with electron beam.............64 4-36 The internal absorbed dose mussel she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of mussels af ter exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy ..........................65 4-37 The internal absorbed dose of musse l shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of mu ssels after exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy...........67 4-38 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to thickness of mussel shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray.........68 4-39 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to curvature of mussel shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray.........69 4-40 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to weight of mussel shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray.............70 4-41 The internal absorbed dose mussel she lls as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of mussels af ter exposure to gamma at 1 kGy ......................72 4-42 The internal absorbed dose of musse l shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of mu ssels after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy........73 4-43 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to thickness of mussel shells irradiated at 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at...............74 4-44 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to curvature of mussel shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma.....75 4-45 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to weight of mussel shells irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma..........77

PAGE 11

xi B-1 Picture of oysters with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05)...................119 B-2 Picture of clams with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05).....................120 B-3 Picture of mussels with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05).................121

PAGE 12

xii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECTS OF OYSTER SHELL SHAPE AND THICKNESS ON ABSORPTION OF ELECTRON BEAM, GAMMA RAY, AND X-RAY IRRADIATION By Arthur Grant Hurst, Jr. December 2005 Chair: Gary E. Rodrick Major Department: Food Science and Human Nutrition The overall objective of this research wa s to determine the effects of shape and thickness on the absorption of electron beam, gamma ray and x -ray irradiation levels in raw oysters, clams and mussels. Groups of 100 oysters, 100 clams and 100 mussels were shucked of their meats and measured for dime nsions and thickness. Wild Apalachicola oysters, farm raised Cedar Key clams and farm raised mussels from China were used for this research. The oysters, clams and mussels were divided up into groups of 50, attached with 3 film dosimeter strips each and irradiated at doses of 1 kilogray (KGy) and 3 kilograys (KGy). After irradi ation the dosimeters were read using a spectrophotometer to determine the internal and external doses. Electron beam irradiation had the least unifo rm dose of the thre e sources. X-ray irradiation had a more uniform dose than el ectron beam. Gamma ray irradiation had the most uniform dose of the three doses. Oyst ers had a wider range of thicknesses and dimensions than the clams and mussels. Clams had a smaller range of thicknesses and

PAGE 13

xiii dimensions than the oysters, but the mussels had the smallest range of thicknesses and dimensions. The electron beam and x-ray so urces also showed signs of a concentration of irradiation within the she ll. In both of the sources th e internal absorbed dose was greater than the external or given dose. There are statistical differences between th e internal and external doses with all three types of irradiation. Statistical analysis showed differences in the amount of external doses absorbed in ternally between electron beam, x-ray and gamma ray. Observations suggest that the thicknesses, cu rvatures and weights of the shells do not independently have a significant effect on the amount of irradiation absorbed with in the shell. The oysters also had the least unifo rm internal dose absorp tion. Internal clam doses were more uniform than the internal oys ter doses but not as uniform as the internal mussel doses.

PAGE 14

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Oysters, clams and mussels are of great importance to those who work with the shellfish industry and those who consume th em. For many, these bivalve shellfish are a delicacy and for others a source of liveli hood. However, these bivalve shellfish have received much criticism in the past five years for their potential to cause disease and even death. The illnesses and deaths are primar ily due to the marine bacteria genera Vibrio especially V. vulnificus and V. parahemolyticus (Tamplin et al., 1982). Both of these organisms can be fatal, when cons umed by at risk individuals. Vibrio vulnificus is responsible for approximately 85 hospitalizations and approximately 35 deaths per year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). Certain individuals are at higher risk for this disease and likely to become infected from these organisms. At risk individuals include individuals who suffer from a compromised immune system, cirrhosis, diabetes, acqui red immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, hemachromatosis or liver disease (Blake et al ., 1979). This group of at risk individuals makes up a large number of potential victims that has been estimated to be as large as 1015 million in the USA. In light of the morbidity and mortality concerns of these Vibrio diseases transmitted to at risk individuals by c onsuming raw oysters and clams, the shellfish industry is regulated to reduce or eliminat e the public health risk of Vibrio Efforts to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality from raw oyster consumption have led to increased regulation of shellfish waters as well as in creased efforts to inform the public through

PAGE 15

2 public bulletins and mandatory safety warnings in Florida, Louisiana and Texas. Despite the efforts of increased regulation and informa tion, the health concern still persists. This has led regulatory authorities to issue new re gionally specific food safety mandates that pose significant historical changes in oyster commerce. The mandate (Food and Drug Administration [FDA], 2003) calls for imme diate compliance goals before the end of 2004 and additional, more stringent goals before the end of 2006. The goals include implementation of new, innovative post-harvest treatments to reduce specific bacterial loads on raw oyster products. The regulatory expectations call fo r technology that has not been proven both in terms of food safety or market acceptance. Processing aids (e.g., depuration, relaying, freezing, pressure and irra diation) have been investigated with respect to reducing levels of V. vulnificus and V. parahemolyticus (Blogoslowski and Stewart, 1983; Motes and DePaola, 1996; Mest ey and Rodrick, 2003; Be rlin et al., 1996; Dixon, 1992). Irradiation of oysters is a processing technique which has promise for reducing the safety concern of these organisms. While irradiation has not yet been approved for seafood including oysters, irradiation of oysters has been investigated for decades. Vibrio is destroyed by irradiation. K ilgen et al. (1988) assessed shellstock oysters and showed that all Vibrio pathogens were significantly reduced to undetectable levels at a dose of 1 kGy. Although the Vibrio threat can be reduced or el iminated through irradiation many obstacles must be overcome before it can be put into practice. Perhaps the biggest obstacle to overcome is the obstruction and lack of uniformity regarding absorption through th e shell into the meat of the oyster. Dixon (1996) found that dosimeters placed inside oyster shells r eceived approximately half of the calculated

PAGE 16

3 dose that was calculated by the irradiation faci lity. The dose of radi ation absorbed by the meat is affected by the natural physical barrier of the shell. Shells may vary greatly in size, thickness, and shape so abso rption may vary even from oyster to oyster. In order for irradiation to be a viable op tion in the shellfish industry th e differences in oyster shells size, thickness, and shape must be considered. The overall objective of this research was to compare and contrast the percentage of absorption of irradiation from a ga mma ray source, electron beam and x-ray irradiation. The specific objectives of this research were to (1) examine the differences in absorbed dose of irradiation between the external top and internal secti ons of the shells of oysters, clams and mussels; (2) compare and contrast the absorpti on of irradiation in three different types of shellfish; (3) compar e the thickness and curvature of the shells to the internal dose.

PAGE 17

4 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Vibrio vulnificus A public health risk exists for certain high risk individuals who consume raw or undercooked oysters and clams. Crassostrea virginica the American oyster and Mercenaria campechiensis hard-shelled clam have been implicated in several foodborne outbreaks (Blake et al., 1980; Blake, 1983; DuPont, 1986). Many different bacterial and viral agents such as Vibrio Salmonella Shigella Hepatitis virus and Norwalk virus have been isolated from shellfish (Blake et al., 1980). Although all of the organisms can cause problems in oysters and clams Vibrio is the most serious organism in shellfish. V. vulnificus is a Gram negative, halophilic rodshaped bacterium that is found in estuarine and marine environm ents (Blake, 1983; DuPont, 1986). The U.S. Gulf Coast is the most common place to find V. vulnificus (Tamplin et al., 1982), yet V. vulnificus has been isolated from the Atlantic Coast and Pacific Coast (Oliver et al., 1983; Kelly and Stroh, 1988). Both salinity and water temperatur e play a important role in the detection of V. vulnificus Levels of V. vulnificus are much higher during the warmer summer months and lower in waters with salin ities higher than 35 ppt (Kelly, 1982). Vibrio vulnificus is a ubiquitous marine and estuar ine microorganism that can be found throughout the world. This is considered natu rally occurring organi sm whose presence in the environment is not related to fecal pollution (Tamplin et al., 1982). Infection by V. vulnificus arises from the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked oysters or clams or by exposure of wounds to contaminated water. A primary septicemia

PAGE 18

5 results from ingestion of V. vulnificus and is accompanied by gast roenteritis, chills, and fever. Individuals who become infected through a wound show symptoms of rapid swelling erythema around the wound, as well as fever and chills (Blake et al., 1980). Wound infections can also cause myositis, severe cellulites and are like ly to lead to gas gangrene (Klontz et al., 1988). Infections by V. vulnificus are onset rapidly with a median incubation period of approximately 12-16 hours (Blake et al., 1980). Vibrio vulnificus infections can be life threatening. Approximately 50% of patients who develop primary septicemia die (Morris and Black, 1985). In patients developi ng hypotension within 12 hours after hospital admission the mortality rate can be as high as 90% (Klontz et al., 1988). After primary septicemia sets in, many patients begin to de velop secondary lesions on their extremities that can result in necrotizing vasculitis in th e muscles, which often result in amputations (Howard et al., 1986). Several epidemiol ogical studies have been conducted which suggest that a relationship between se veral preexisting conditions and primary septicemia. Cirrhosis, diabetes, hemochromatosi s, kidney failure, liv er and iron disorders and any other immunocompromised conditions may cause individuals to be at risk (Blake et al., 1979; Tacket et al., 1984). The effect of V. vulnificus on at risk individuals has led regulatory authorities and industr y to investigate ways to redu ce or eliminate the impact of this organism on the public. Since 1980, the shellfish regulatory agencies and industry have put forth a strong effort to reduce the health risk related to oysters and clams. Dry cold storage is the current accepted practice for storage and ha ndling of oysters. Oysters are harvested, slightly cleaned, culled and either placed in croaker sacks or wa x boxes and stored at

PAGE 19

6 refrigeration at 34-36F in the dry cold storage method (Dixon, 1996). Bacterial reduction and shelf life extension are not ach ieved by this method. This ineffective method has led industry and regulatory authorit ies to look for innovative methods such as irradiation. Irradiation is an effective method in reducing V. vulnificus in oysters. When a large enough dose of irradiation is applied the bacter ia are reduced. Low doses of irradiation are effective in significantly reducing V. vulnificus in shell stock oysters (Dixon, 1992). The potential for irradiation to reduce V. vulnificus has led irradiation of shellfish to be investigated. Radiation Radiation is the movement of energy fr om a source through matter or space. Sound, light, microwaves, and a wide range of other forms of energy are all forms of radiation. Ionizing and non-ioni zing radiation are the main two irradiation categories of Non-ionizing radiation, such as visible light and microwaves lacks the energy to remove electrons from the orbit of at oms. Ionizing radiation can in teract with atoms and cause electrons to become excited or move from a lower energy level to a higher energy level. When significant ionizing radia tion is present the electron can be ejected from the atom. Electron separation from the atom causes i onization, creating a posit ive or negative ion (Urbain, 1986). Once the elec tron is free from the atom, it can interact with other materials and cause chemical structure change s in the material. In the case of food irradiation, these chemical structure changes occur within the microorganisms present in the food, cause the microorganisms damage and eventually deat h (Elias and Cohen, 1983). Death occurs in microorganisms either by the radiation inter acting directly with cell components or with adjacent molecules in the cell. Radiation damage to the cell can

PAGE 20

7 be caused directly by the ionizing ray or by free radicals,( H a nd OH,) created by the breakdown of water. The radicals, (prima rily OH) creates si ngle strand and double strand DNA breaks in the genetic material Single and double strand breaks in DNA occur due to chemical damage to the pur ine bases, pyrimadine bases and deoxyribose sugar (Farkas, 2001). If the genetic material is not repaired then the cell cannot produce crucial materials from the genetic mate rial and will die (G rez et al., 1983). Radiation Sources Three types of ionizing radi ation, gamma rays, x rays and electrons, are used in food irradiation. The most prev alent form of ionizing radiatio n used in food irradiation is the use of gamma rays. In food irradi ation processing, two sources, Cobalt and Cesium, are used for producing gamma ra ys. Decay of the unstable radioactive nucleus of Cobalt and Cesium cause ga mma rays to be produced (Urbain, 1986). Cobalt produces two gamma rays with en ergy levels of 1.17 million electron volts (MeV) and 1.33 MeV. Cesium produces on ly one gamma ray with an energy level of 0.66 MeV. Neither of these sources have the potential to pr oduce radioactive food. For significant radioactivity to be imparted into food energy levels larger than 15 MeV must be used. The half-life of Cobalt is 5.3 years. Cesium however has a halflife of 30.2 years. Gamma rays produ ced by Cobalt and Cesium have good penetrating power, but can not be turned on and off. They are always producing radiation. Containment and storage to prev ent environmental contamination are a major concern with these two sources. Both Cobalt and Cesium are generally approved by the FDA in food products approved for irradiation (CFR, 1994). Machine source electron beams and X-rays are also used in food irradiation processing, yet these are not as widely used as gamma rays. The energy levels for both

PAGE 21

8 of these sources also are not large enough to convey radioact ivity into the food. Electron beams must have energy levels of less than 10 MeV and X-rays must have energy levels less than 10 MeV to be allowe d in the United States (21CFR 179). Electron beams can be efficiently created in high doses in a shor t amount of time and there is not a constant radioactive source that must be contained. With electr on beam machine sources the radiation can be turned on and off, but electr ons do not penetrate as well as gamma rays. X-rays have greater penetrating power and can be turned on and off therefore contamination is less of an issue. However, production of x-rays is not very efficient. Radiation Dose The nomenclature used to determine radia tion dose have changed over time. In older literature the rad was us ed as the unit for radiation dose delivered to a product or radiation dose absorbed. One rad is equal to 100 ergs of absorbed energy per gram. Current literature mostly uses the Internationa l System of Units (SI) unit of Gray (Gy). One Gray is equal to 100 rads and 1 joul e of energy absorbed per kilogram of food (Urbain, 1986). The Food and Drug Admini stration (FDA) has approved several foods at different doses mostly ra nging from 1 kGy to 7 kGy. Fr esh foods are approved for 1 kGy to delay maturation, all f oods are approved at 1 kGy to prevent insect contamination, Poultry is approved at 3 kGy to reduce pat hogens, fresh red meat is approved at 4.5 kGy and frozen red meat is approved at 7 kGy to reduce pathogens (Henkel, 1998) by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). All of the doses are rather low. The only excep tion is spices which are approved up to 30 kGy (Henkel, 1998). One major concern with oysters, clams, mu ssels and other bivalve shellfish is the lack of uniformity in the dose. The desire d target area for the ra diation, the meat, is

PAGE 22

9 shielded by a shell that may vary greatly in thickness, conformation and shape. This shell may reduce the dose being applied to the food. This lack of uniformity creates a situation where researchers must either choose a ma ximum dose or a minimum dose as the focus (Stein 1995). In this situation the researcher selects a minimum dose (Dmin) based on the amount of radiation needed to achieve desired effects and a maximum dose (Dmax) where no extra undesirable effects ar e created (Stein 1995). The extent of dose absorbed may vary depending on a variety of factors. Di xon (1996) found that the dose calculated by Food Technology Services of Mulberry, FL, a gamma ray food irradiation facility, was twice the dose received by internal dosimete rs. The calculated dose given to the product may vary greatly from the dose that the meat of the product actually receives. Research of irradiation of shellfish is focused around tw o possible advantages. The first major advantage of irradiation is the deduction of pathogens such as Vibrio in the shellfish such as oysters and clams. The second major advantage is the possibility of increasing shelf life of shellfish such as mu ssels. The major disadvantage of irradiating shellfish is the increased cost of the process. Overall th e possibility of increasing the safety of shellfish with only sligh tly increased cost is very promising. Oysters Irradiation is a relatively new form of food processing compared to drying or heating. For nearly a century irradiati on has been studied for processing food. Strawberries were processed with irradiat ion in 1916 (Webb et al., 1987). Many types of food have been irradiated since then. Fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, shellfish as well as many other types of food have been irradiated. Bivalve shellfish, such as oysters, clams a nd mussels are one type of food that is currently being researched as a candidate for irradiation to reduce pa thogens. Irradiation

PAGE 23

10 of oysters has been studied since th e 1950s as a possible method of reducing V. vulnificus and as a method to extend shelf life. Gardne r and Watts (1957) used ionizing radiation to treat oyster meats at low doses of 630 ra ds (0.63 kGy), 830 rads (0.83 kGy) and 3500 rads (3.5 kGy). They observed that undesira ble oxidized and gra ssy odors developed respectively in raw and cooked irradiated oyster meats. Gardner and Watts (1957) concluded that irradiation would not be succ essful in oyster preservation due to the continuation of enzyme action even with dos es of 3500 rads (3.5 kGy) and 5C storage. In 1966, Novak and others irradiated canned oyster meats at 2 kGy. The irradiated and control oysters were stored on ice for 23 days and tested at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 23 days. A trained taste panel was used to determine th at irradiated oyster meats were adequate for up to 28 days and non irradiated oyster meats were acceptable only up to seven days (Novak et al., 1966). Slavin et al. (1966) conc luded that oyster meats optimally irradiated at 2 kGy and stored at 0.6C resulted in shel f life of 21 to 28 days. Metlitskii et al. (1968) showed that oysters irradiated at 5 kG y and stored at 2C have a 60 day shelf life. Liuzzo et al. (1970) studied the optimum dose that would extend shelf life and result in the least altera tion in food components of shucked oyster meats. They determined that a dose of 2.5 kGy would exte nd the shelf life of oyster meat to seven days on ice. Sensory quality of the irradiat ed meats was not signifi cantly different from the non irradiated meats until the seventh day. Liuzzo et al. (1970) also determined that doses above 1 kGy altered the B-vitamin retention, percent moisture, percent ash, glycogen content and soluble suga r content of oyster meats. Kilgen et al. (1988) examined shells tock oysters and showed that all Vibrio pathogens were significantly reduced to undetect able levels at a dose of 1 kGy. Doses of

PAGE 24

11 1 kGy were not lethal to oysters. There we re also no significant sensory changes at a dose of 1 kGy. Mallet et al. ( 1991) irradiated shellstock oys ters from Massachusetts and determined that the survival times of oyste rs through six days was not affected by doses of up to 2.5 kGy. Mallet et al. (1991) concl uded that doses of 2.5 kGy or lower produced a median shelf life of greater than 25 days. Also, Mallett et al. (1991) also used a trained taste panel to determine that oysters irradiated at doses up to 3 kGy were acceptable. Hepatitis A virus and rotavirus SA11 in oysters and clams were also studied by Mallett et al. (1991). A dose of 2 kGy gave a D10 value for hepatitis A virus and a dose of 2.4 kGy gave a D10 value for rotavirus Sa11. In contrast to Kilgen et al. (1988), Dixon (1992) showed that 1 3 kGy doses of gamma radiation stored at 4 C to 6C were not effective in significantly extending the shelf life of Florida shellstock oysters longer than the non irradiated controls. In addition, Rodrick and Dixon (1994) found that the bacterial levels of V vulnificus fecals and overall bacteria were reduced by about 2 logs with doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. But this reduction only lasted a few days before the count s started to rise again to an even greater number than the initial amount. Also, in contrast to previous work, the shelf life for these oysters was not significan tly extended as claimed by Mallet et al. (1991). Clams Clams have also been studied with respect to irradiation as a possible method to reduce V. vulnificus or extend shelf life. Nick erson (1963), studied irradiation of clams and determined that clam meats had a shelf lif e of 28 days with a dos e of 4.5 kGy. Also, at doses up to 8.0 kGy Nickerson (1963) showed that irradiated clam meats stored at 6C for 40 days showed no detectable differences fr om non-irradiated clam meats. Slavin et al. (1963) also found that 4.5 kGy irradiated clam s stored at 6C were equal in quality to

PAGE 25

12 non irradiated clam meats. A taste panel was used by Connors and Steinberg (1964) to determine that clam meats irradiated at 2.5 kGy to 5.5 kGy were not significantly different from non irradiated clam meats. Yamada and Amano (1965) determined the optimum dose range to be 100-450 krads (0.1-0.4 5 kGy) to obtain a shelf life of four weeks at 0C-2C in Venerupis semiddecus sata clams. Carver et al. (1967) determined that shucked surf clam meats, Spisula solidissima air packed in plastic pouches have an optimum dose of 450 krads with a shelf life of 50 days at 0.6C. Non treated clam meats have a shelf life of 10 days at 0.6C. Carver et al. (1967) also determined that clams treated with doses of 100 200 krads have a sh elf life of 40 days at 0.6C. Harewood et al (1994) evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on bacterial and viral loads as well as shelf life in Mercenaria mercenaria hard shell clams. Radiation D10 values were 1.32 kGy for total coliforms, 1.39 kGy for fecal coliforms, 1.54 kGy for E. coli 2.71 kGy for C. perfringens and 13.5 kGy for F-coliphage. Mussels Irradiation of Mussels has been studied as well though to a lesser extent than have clams and oysters. Irradiation of mussels is of concern due to the possibility of increasing shelf life. Lohaharanu et al. (1972) examined shucked mussel meats and determined that the optimum dose of irra diation was 150-250 krads (0.15-0.25 kGy). The shelf life for the irradiated mussels were six weeks at 3 C and the shelf life for the nonirradiated mussels was three weeks at 3 C. Since mussels are not very susceptible to V. vulnificus and are generally eaten cooke d irradiation of mussels has not been researched to the degree that clams and oyste rs have. Extension of shelf life is one possible benefit of irradiating oysters however.

PAGE 26

13 Oysters, clams and mussels only make up a small part of the body of research of food irradiation. However, ir radiation of oysters, clams and mussels may prove to be important in providing a safe way of producing products which are safer for the consumer and have a longer shelf life.

PAGE 27

14 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS This research included examination of oys ters, clams, and mussels for differences and similarities between shape, weight a nd size. The absorption of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation in oys ters, clams, and mussels were compared and contrasted. Also this research included analyzing the sh ape, weight and size of the oysters, clams, and mussels and their shells. Source of Oysters Florida shellstock oysters were used for anal ysis in this research. The source of the oysters used in this analysis was Leavins Seafood, Inc. of Apalachicola, FL. Summer oysters were harvested by Leavins Seafood, Inc. from approved shellfish harvesting waters in the Apalachicola area. Leavins delive red the oysters to us at the Interstate 10 Agricultural Inspection Station in Live Oak, FL via refrigerated truck. The oysters were transported on ice from Live Oak to the Un iversity of Florida in Gainesville, FL. Source of Clams Farm raised Florida hard shell clams were us ed in this research. The source of the clams used in this research was harvested by Southern Cross Sea Farms, Inc. The clams were harvested from approved shellfish harv esting waters in Cedar Key, FL. Southern Cross Sea Farms breads, raises and harvests clams in Cedar Key, FL. The clams were transported in coolers from Cedar Ke y to the University of Florida.

PAGE 28

15 Sources of Mussels Farm raised mussels from China were pur chased from Northwest Seafood, Inc. in Gainesville, FL and transported on ice to the University of Florida. The mussels were imported, frozen and distributed by Beaver Street Fisheries in Jacksonville, FL. Dosimeter Source and Reading FWT 60-00 dosimeter strips produced by Far West Technology Inc. of Goleta, CA were used to examine the dose of irradiation received in the inside and outside of the oyster, clams, and mussel shells. The Florida Accelerator Services Technology (FAST) facilitys dosimetery lab in Gainesville, FL was used to prepare and read all of the dosimeter strips used in this research. Th ese dosimeter strips were determined by Carl Gilus the dosimetry expert for FAST to be th e best fit for our dose, 1KGy to 3KGy, and the spectrophotometer equipment available to us at FAST. All of the FWT 60-00 dosimeter strips were read using the FWT-100 Radiachromic Reader at FASTs dosimetery lab produced by Far West Technology Inc. Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol Oysters, clams and mussels (100 of each) were irradiated and assessed. Each of the oysters, clams and mussels we re all measured following th is protocol. All of the shellstock shellfish were weighed and measured at the University of Florida, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. The meat s were shucked from the shells with a shucking knife, taking care to remove all of the meat. Both meat and shell were weighed, to the nearest tenth of a gram, individually for each shellfish. After weighing the meat was discarded. The top and bottom of the shell were also weighed individually and together. The shells were measured for thic kness, with calipers, at various locations over the shell at a variety of places mapping the shell. Upper and lower shell parts were

PAGE 29

16 compared to each other to determine the di fferences in weight between the upper and lower parts of the shell. Overall shell weight was compared to meat weight. The thickest and thinnest places were compared for each sh ell. Also, the thickness for each shell was averaged. The heights, at the highest part of the shell, of both the upper and lower parts of the shell were measured. In addition, the length of the upper and lower parts of each shell (at the longest part) was measured. The length and height for each shell was compared and contrasted. These comparisons were then used to determine the relative curvature of each shell. Electron Beam and X-ray Protocol The electron beam source for this resear ch was the National Center for Electron Beam Food Research (NCEBFR) facility at Texas A and M University at College Station, TX. The National Center for Electron Beam Food Research uses a 10 MeV Linear Accelerator to irradiate food for research and commercial us es. The accelerator is a linear Varian Accelerator in a Titan designed system. The X-ray source for this research was al so the National Center for Electron Beam Food Research facility (NCEBFR) at Texas A and M University at College Station, TX. The National Center for Electron Beam F ood Research uses a 10 MeV mechanical electron beam generator to produce electrons wh ich are accelerated into a dense metal to produce X-rays. A linear Varian Accelerator in a Titan designed system is focused on to a Tantalum alloy converter sheet to produce the x-rays. Doses of 1 KGy and 3 KGy, divided into th e two same groups as set in the Food Technology Service, Inc. Protoc ol, were also used at the NCEBFR electron beam and xray facility. One hundred oysters, 100 clams and 100 mussels used in this part of the research were shucked and cleaned prior to being sent to the NC EBFR facility. The

PAGE 30

17 oyster, clam and mussel shells were prepar ed with dosimeter envelopes following the same procedure used in the Food Technology Se rvice, Inc. Protocol (see pictures in Appendix B). The dosimetry lab was then used to fill all of the envelopes with dosimeter strips. The shell was then closed with a dr op of Elmers glue to prevent the shell from opening during irradiation. All of the shells were then placed into Ziploc bags and placed into a box with packing paper in -between the bags to protect the shells. The box of shells was then shipped via FedEx to the NCEBFR facility. The shells were then run through the electron beam till the desired dose was achieved as determined by the staff at NCEBFR. After irradiation the shells were boxed up by the staff NCEBFR and shipped via FedEx to the University of Florida. The shells were then taken to the FAST doismetry lab and the dosimeter strips were r ead. The entire procedure was then repeated for x-ray. Gamma Irradiation Protocol The gamma ray source for this research wa s Food Technology Servi ce, Inc. facility in Mulberry, FL. A Cobalt 60 (60Co) source was used at Food Technology to produce gamma rays for large scale commercial i rradiation. Food Technology was chosen over smaller gamma units for its industrial scale becau se it could be used to irradiate all of the oysters, clams and mussels at one time. Two different doses, 1 KGy and 3 KGy were used in this research. These are the doses that are currently being reviewed by the FDA for approval for use in seafood. Oyster, clam and mussel shells (100 of each ) were shucked and measured following the Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol. Three dosimeter envelopes were attached to each of the 300 shells using white carpent ers glue from Elmers Products Inc. of Columbus, OH. One envelope was attached to the outside of each of the upper shell.

PAGE 31

18 Another envelope was attached to the outside of the lower shell. The last envelope was placed in-between the two shells. Each of the envelopes was filled with one dosimeter strip at the FAST dosimetery lab. The she ll was then closed with a drop of white carpenters glue to prevent the shell from openi ng during irradiation. The shells were then equally divided into two boxes. The boxes of sh ells were transplanted to Food Tech and one box was irradiated at 1 KGy and the ot her at 3 KGy. After the desired dose was received the shells were taken back to Gainesville via car a nd read at the FAST dosimetery lab. Statistics All of the statistics for this research we re performed using Microsoft Excel XP. Paired t-test were performed on the entire external and internal dose data. All t-tests were performed with = 0.05. Linear regression models we re used in all of the figures to determine trend. An = 0.05 was also used for all of the linear regression models as well. Multiple linear regression models were performed in Microsoft Excel XP with the addition XLSTAT on all of the data for figures. All of the multiple linear regression models used = 0.05 as well.

PAGE 32

19 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Oyster Irradiation with Electron Beam The initial experiments for this resear ch were performed with electron beam irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested on May 6, 2005 from approved shellfish harvesting waters in Apalachicola, FL and irradiated by electron beam at NCEBFR on June 8, 2005. The oysters were shucked, measured and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiat ion. After irradiation the dosim eter strips that were placed on the top oyster shell, bottom oyster shell a nd in between the oyste r shells were read using spectrophotometery. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.566.57 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-1. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of sh ucked oysters after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.2774x + 1.307 R2 = 0.1814).

PAGE 33

20 Figure 4-1 was created from the data in Table 10 (all Tables are located in Appendix A). Data in Figure 4-1 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiat ed at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The in ternal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.4 kGy to 3 kGy, have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 1.98 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 4.1 kGy, have a median of 2.3 kGy and have a mean of 2.46 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and in ternal dosimeters. In most cases the internal doses are smaller than the doses received by the top of the oys ter shells. However, in six of the thirty eight oysters irradiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.47 kG y larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose. This posit ive relationship is as expected. A higher external dose should produce a higher internal dose. The lin e does not fit the data well with an R2 value of 0.1814. The line only has an 18% fit with R2 values ranging from 0 to 1. External dose and internal dose are st atistically significantly different (P<0.05). Figure 4-2 was created from the data in Table 10. Data in Figure 4-2 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determin ed by the staff of NCEBFR using p0hotometric technique. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.4 kGy to 5.3 kGy, have a median of 3.9 kGy and have a mean of 3.63 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.9 kGy to 6.7 kGy, have a median of 4.3 kGy and have a mean of 4.18 kGy.

PAGE 34

21 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.566.57 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-2. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shuc ked oysters after exposure at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.698x + 0.7163 R2 = 0.5105). The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal dosim eters. In six of the sixty two oysters irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dos e is higher than the ex ternal top absorbed dose. Having internal doses higher than th e applied external doses is a concentration phenomenon seen in both 1 kGy and 3 kGy oyste rs irradiated with electron beam. The cause of this phenomenon is currently not known. External top dose mean is 0.51 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. All of the oysters irradiated with electron beam cover a larger range of doses than was to be expected. The ex ternal doses (applied dose) cover a much larger range than we w ould expect. Not only doe s the internal dose vary, but the external dose varies greatly as we ll. This issue is an undesirable effect of electron beam. The doses in the oysters irradi ated at 3 kGy are much more wide spread than the doses of oysters irradiated at 1 kGy in Figure 4-1. Linear regression of the data

PAGE 35

22 shows a positive relationship be tween internal dose and external dose. The regression line for this data has a R2 value of 0.5105. External dose and internal dose are statistically signifi cantly different (P 0.05). 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Top Dose (%) Figure 4-3. Percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6 /8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.1846x + 0.777 R2 = 0.0226). Figure 4-3 was created from the data in Ta ble 3 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-3 show the percent external top shell dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top she ll of the oysters. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is 90% and the mean is 86.8%. Linear regression of this data shows a positive relationship between external dose absorbed internally and mean shell thickness. It was expected that the percent external top shell dose absorbed intern ally would decrease as the thickness increased, due to the

PAGE 36

23 limited penetration of electron be am irradiation to penetrate th icker material as well as thinner material. The data does not show th is relationship. However, this line does fit the data well with a R2 value of only 0.0226. Multiple linear regression of the data shows no significant relationship between external dose absorbed internally and mean shell thickness (P 0.05). It was expected that thickness would have a significant effect on the internal absorbed dose. This may be a result in the porous nature of the shell. If we were to measure thickness and dose on a microscopic level the results may differ. Also the effects of thickness on dose may be overshadowed by a more important unknown variable. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell Curvature Internal/External Dose Figure 4-4. Percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.2084x + 0.8182 R2 = 0.0117). Figure 4-4 was created from the data in Ta ble 2 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-4 show the percent external top shell dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curv ature of the top shell

PAGE 37

24 the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 a nd mean is 0.24. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is 90% and the mean is 86.8%. The curvature of the oysters evaluated in th is research did not vary as greatly as first thought. The oysters appear to vary greatly in shape and size when examined by hand. The curvatures of the assessed oysters are similar. Linear regression shows a slight positive relationship be tween percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0117. Multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant relationship between curvature and percent of external dose absorbed internally (P 0.05). It was expected that curvature would have some sort of an effect on percentage of external dose absorbed internally. The lack of a significant effect may also be a result of a different variable overshadowing the effects of curvature. Or cu rvature may not have an effect on percentage of external dose bei ng absorbed internally when irradiated with electron beam. Figure 4-5 was created from the data in Ta ble 1 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-5 show the percent external top shell dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of th e oysters. For weight of the top shell the range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is 90% and the mean is 86.8%.

PAGE 38

25 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 051015202530354045 Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-5. Percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradi ated with electron beam at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0032x + 0.9561 R2 = 0.0059). The oysters assessed in this research covere d a range weights. This can be seen in the top shell weights presented in this gra ph. Percentage of external dose absorbed internally is rather evenly dispersed betw een the weights assessed. Linear regression shows a slight negative relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight The line does not have a goo d fit which is evident by the R2 value of 0.0059. Multiple linear regression models show no statistically significant difference between top shell weight and percen tage of external dose absorbed internally (P 0.05). There were no expectations for wei ght, but it was a fact or that we hoped we could use to produce a graphical model or an equation to predict the percentage of external dose absorbed internally. However, for oysters irradiated with electron beam the factors we investigated did not have enough statistical effect to produce a statically significant model or equation.

PAGE 39

26 Oyster Irradiation with X-Ray The second set of experiments for this research was performed with x-ray irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested from approved harvesting waters in Apalachicola, FL on May 6, 2005 and irradi ated with x-ray at NCEBFR on June 26, 2005. The oysters were shucked, measured, ir radiated with electron beam and loaded with dosimeter strips that were placed on th e top oyster shell, botto m oyster shell and in between the oyster shells before irradiation with x-ray. After irradiation with x-ray the dosimeter strips placed on the oysters we re read with using spectrophotometery. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-6. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shuc ked oysters after expos ure to x-ray at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line s hows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.1084x + 1.7874 R2 = 0.0141). Figure 4-6 was created from the data in Table 11. Data in Figure 4-6 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by th e strips range from 1.2 kGy to 2.6 kGy, have a median of

PAGE 40

27 1.5 kGy and have a mean of 1.59 kGy. Extern al top absorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy to 3.0 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.85 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. Yet, the means are closer and the data is more consistent than the data presen ted for electron beam in Figure 4-1. Six of the thirty eight oysters irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy exhibit an internal absorbed dose are higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.26 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a very slight negative relationship between external dose and internal dose. Howe ver, the fit of the line to the data is not good with R2 value for the regression is 0.0041. External dose and internal dose are statistica lly significantly different (P 0.05). It was exp ected that these doses would be different due to xrays lower energy and penetration. Figure 4-7 was created from the data in Table 11. Data in Figure 4-7 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by th e strips range from 1.2 kGy to 6.9 kGy, have a median of 3.8 kGy and have a mean of 3.82 kGy. Extern al top absorbed doses range from 1.4 kGy to 6.9 kGy, have a median of 4.2 kGy and have a mean of 4.12 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal dos es. In eight of the sixty two oysters irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dos e is higher than the ex ternal top absorbed dose. As with electron beam this concentr ation phenomenon is seen at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. External top dose mean is 0.31 kG y larger than the in ternal absorbed dose

PAGE 41

28 mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between internal dose and external dose at a 95% confidence interval and a good da ta fit with a R2 value of 0.6808. The doses in the oysters irradiated at 3 kGy are much more wide spread than the doses of oysters irradiated at 1 kGy. The oyste rs irradiated at 3 kGy with x-ray (Figure 47) and 3 kGy with electron beam (Figure 4-2) are more similar to each other than the oysters irradiated at 1kGy x-ra y (Figure 4-6) and 1 kGy with electron beam (Figure 4-1). External doses and internal doses of oysters irradiated with xray at 3 kGy are statistically significantly different (P<0.05). 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 11.522.533.544.555.566.57 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-7. The internal absorbed dose of shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to xray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). So lid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.9596x 0.1584 R2 = 0.6808). Figure 4-8 was created from the data in Ta ble 3 and Table 11. Data in Figure 4-8 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top she ll of the oysters. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The

PAGE 42

29 percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the median is 90% and the mean is 91%. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%). Figure 4-8. Percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NC EBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0916x + 0.9566 R2 = 0.0041). The data for percentage of external top shell dose absorbed internally is more tightly grouped for oysters irradiated with electron beam (Figure 4-3) than oysters irradiated with x-ray (Figure 4-8). Linear re gression of the data shows a slight negative relationship between the percenta ge of external dose absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. The line for this data does not have a good fit with a R2 value of 0.0041. Multiple linear regr ession models show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between the external doses absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness of oysters treated wi th x-ray. As with electron beam this was not expected.

PAGE 43

30 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell Curvature Internal/External Dose (%). Figure 4-9. Percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.3866x + 1.004 R2 = 0.0297). Figure 4-9 was created from the data in Ta ble 2 and Table 11. Data in Figure 4-9 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curv ature of the top shell the data range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the median is 90% and the mean is 91%. The data from electron beam (Figure 4-4) and x-ray (Figure 4-9) is also very similar for curvature. The data for electron beam appears to be s lightly more tightly grouped than the data for x-ray. A slight negative relationship is shown between percentage of external dose absorbed inte rnally and top shell curvature with linear regression of at a confidence interval of 95%. However, with a R2 value of 0.0297 the line does not fit the data well. Multiple lin ear regression models of this data show no

PAGE 44

31 statistically significant rela tionship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvatur e at a (P<0.05). It was expect ed that there would be some effect of curvature on percentage of exte rnal dose absorbed internally. However, curvature may be overshadowed by another factor or just not have an effect at all. Figure 4-10 was created from the data in Table 1 and Table 11. Data in Figure 410 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of th e oysters. For weight of the top shell the range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the medi an is 90% and the mean is 91%. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 051015202530354045 Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-10. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradi ated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6 /26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0094x + 0.65 R2 = 0.0383). Linear regression models of the data show a slight negative relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top sh ell weight. The line does not

PAGE 45

32 have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0059. No statically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between exte rnal dose absorbed inte rnally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression models. None of the factors assessed for oysters irradiated with x-ray have a statically signi ficant effect on percentage of external dose absorbed internally. Oyster Irradiation with Gamma The third set of experiments for th is research was performed with 60Co gamma irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested on May 6, 2005 from approved harvesting waters in Apalachic ola, irradiated with gamma at Food Technology Inc. on July 6, 2005. The oysters were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam, irradiated with x-ray and loaded with dosimet er strips before irradiation with gamma. After irradiation with gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the top oyster shell, bottom oyster shell and in between the oyster she lls were read using spectrophotometery. Figure 4-11 was created from data in Table 12. Data in Figure 4-11 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology Inc. The internal doses range from 1.2 kGy to 2.3 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.77 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy to 3.1 kGy, have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 1.98 kGy. The range of data for gamma is smaller th an the range for electron beam or x-ray. The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by Food Technology Inc. for both external and intern al dosimeters. For gamma the means are closer and the data is more consistent than the data presented for electron beam (Figure 41) or the data presented for x-ray in (Fi gure 4-6). However, the external doses and

PAGE 46

33 internal doses are statistical ly significantly different (P 0.05). The internal absorbed dose is not higher than the exte rnal top absorbed dose for a ny of the thirty eight oysters irradiated with gamma at 1 kGy. External top dose mean is 0.26 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of this data shows a positive relationship between external doses and internal doses at a 95% confidence interval. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-11. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked oysters after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.6965x + 0.3874 R2 = 0.8077). Figure 4-12 was created from data in Table 12. Data in Figure 4-12 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology Inc. The internal doses absorbed range fr om 1.8 kGy to 5.2 kGy, have a median of 3.9 kGy and have a mean of 3.95 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to 5.5 kGy, have a median of 4.2 kGy and have a mean of 4.13 kGy.

PAGE 47

34 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-12. The internal absorbed dose of shucked oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked oysters after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.9254x + 0.1138 R2 = 0.9372). The data in Figure 4-12 follows the same layout as the electron beam (Figure 4-2) and the x-ray (Figure 4-7), but is more unifo rm and consistent. However, the external doses and internal doses are st atistically significantly different with a confidence level of 95%. Zero of the oysters irradiated with gamma at 3 kGy exhibit a internal absorbed dose higher than the external top absorb ed dose. Gamma does not exhibit the concentration phenomenon that affects electron beam and x-ray. External top dose mean is 0.18 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose. With a R2 value of 0.9372 the regression line is almost a perfect f it. The data for gamma is more tightly grouped than the data for electron beam a nd x-ray. Gamma produces more consistent results than electron beam or x-ray in oysters.

PAGE 48

35 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%). Figure 4-13. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0608x + 0.9641 R2 = 0.0176). Figure 4-13was created from data in Ta ble 3 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-13 show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top she ll of the oysters. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%. The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-13. Data in Figure 4-13. are more tightly grouped than the data for electron be am (Figure 4-3) and the data for x-ray (Figure 4-8). A slight nega tive relationship exist between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness when linear regression models are ran with a 95% c onfidence interval. The line is not a good fit for the data

PAGE 49

36 with a R2 value of only 0.0176. Multip le linear regression models show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between mean top shell thickness and percentage of external dose absorbed internally. It was expected that mean top shell thickness would have a negative relationship to percentage of external dose absorbed internally. The lack of a relationship may be caused by the use of macro measurements instead of micro measurements or thickness may be overshadow ed by other unknown factors. Oyster top shell thickness does not have a statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) to percentage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the three irradi ation sources tested. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell Curvature Internal/External Dose (%). Figure 4-14. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the oysters irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food T echnology Inc. (7/6 /05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0055x + 0.9354 R2 = 6E05). Figure 4-14 was created from data in Tabl e 2 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-14 show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curv ature of the top shell the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 a nd mean is 0.24. The percent external top

PAGE 50

37 shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradi ation range is 74% to 100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%. The data for the gamma (Figure 4-14) is more tightly grouped than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-4) or the data for x -ray (Figure 4-9). Lin ear regression at a 95% confidence interval shows an extremely small negative relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed internal ly and top shell curvatur e. However, the fit of the line is horrible with a R2 value of 0.00006. Multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shel l curvature. As with electron beam and xray, curvature does not have a statistically significant (P 0.05) effect on the percentage of external dose absorbed internally in oysters irradiated with gamma. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 051015202530354045 Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-15. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradi ated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma Food Tec hnology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0024x + 1.0004 R2 = 0.0241).

PAGE 51

38 Figure 4-15 was created from data in Ta ble 1 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-15 show the percent external top shell dose ab sorbed internally in the oyster shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of th e oysters. For weight of the top shell the range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%. Percentage of external dose absorbed inte rnally is rather evenly dispersed between the weights assessed. Linear regression show s a slight negative relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed in ternally and top shel l weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0241. No significant relationship exists betwee n external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression models (P 0.05). Top shell weight does not have a statistically significant (P 0.05) effect on percentage of external dose absorbed internally in any of the thr ee irradiation sources examined. The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different (P<0.05) in oysters irradiated with electr on beam, x-ray and gamma at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. This is to be expected due to the barrier effect of the oyster shell against irradiation. Top shell thickness, curvature a nd weight all have no significant effect on percentage of external dose absorbed internal ly for oysters irradiated at 1 kGy and 3 kGy with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. This was not expected, but as discussed above this may be an effect of macro measuremen t instead of micro m easurements or these factors may be overshadowed by a more impor tant unknown factor. Of the three sources the data for gamma is most tightly grouped. Oysters irradiated with gamma also have

PAGE 52

39 smaller ranges of data than electron beam and x-ray do. Gamma does not exhibit the concentration phenomenon that is seen in el ectron beam and x-ray. Because of these reasons gamma is the most promising irradia tion source for irradiating oysters on a large scale. Further experiments need to be performed. Large scale experime nts with pallets of hundreds of bushels of oysters would provide the data needed to examine how effective gamma is in industrial production. Further e xperiment with electron beam and x-ray are also needed. Electron beam and x-ray may be more promising for half shell oysters. Further research may add to the knowledge and direct how electron beam, x-ray and gamma can be used to efficiently irradiate oysters. Clam Irradiation with Electron Beam Electron beam was used to irradiate cl ams at NCEBFR as well. Clams were harvested on May 11, 2005 from Cedar Key and irradiated with electron beam on June 8, 2005. The clams were shucked, measured and loaded with dosimeter strips during the before irradiation. After irradiation the dos imeter strips placed on the top clam shell, bottom clam shell and in betw een the clam shells were read using spectrophotometery. Figure 4-16 was created using the data in Table 13. Data in Figure 4-16 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range fr om 1.2 kGy to 2 kGy, have a median of 1.7 kGy and have a mean of 1.70 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.5 kGy to 3.1 kGy, have a median of 2.1 kGy and have a mean of 2.12 kGy.

PAGE 53

40 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-16. The internal absorbed dose shucke d clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of sh ucked clams after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0405x + 1.6096 R2 = 0.0061). The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and in ternal dosimeters. In most cases the internal doses are smaller than the doses received by the top of the clam shells. However, in three of the forty five clams irradiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different (P 0.05). External top dose mean is 0.42 kG y larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence in terval shows a very small positive relationship exist between extern al doses and internal doses. However the fit of line to the data is not good with a R2 of 0.0061. The data for clams irradiated with electron beam at 1 kGy are more tightly grouped than the data for oysters irradiated with electron beam at 1 kGy.

PAGE 54

41 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-17. The internal absorbed dose shucke d clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of sh ucked clams after exposure at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line show s linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.9134x + 0.152 R2 = 0.8344). Figure 4-17 was created using the data in Table 13. Data in Figure 4-17 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.5 kG y to 4.2 kGy, have a median of 3.7 kGy and have a mean of 3.50 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to 4.6 kGy, have a median of 3.8 kGy and have a mean of 3.78 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal dos es. In nine of the fifty five clams irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dos e is higher than the ex ternal top absorbed dose. The concentration phenomenon is seen in clams irradiated w ith electron beam as well as oysters. However, the external dos es and internal doses are statistically significantly different (P<0.05). External top dose mean is 0.29 kGy larger than the

PAGE 55

42 internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external doses and internal doses w ith a 95% confidence interval. The line is a good fit with a R2 value of 0.3158. The tighter grouping of data for clams irradiated with electron beam than data for oys ters irradiated with electron beam may be a result of the more uniform shape and structure of the clams. Figure 4-18 was created using the data in Table 6 and Table 13. Data in Figure 418 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top she ll of the clams. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 50% to 125%, the median is 92% and the mean is 88%. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.5Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-18. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the t op shell of the clams irradiated with electron beam at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.217x + 0.8137 R2 = 0.0005).

PAGE 56

43 Linear regression of the data shows a small positive relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed intern ally and the mean top shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the line is not a g ood fit with a R2 value of only 0.0005. The percent of external top shell dose absorb ed internally covers a range of 75%. The percentages of doses received internally from the electron beam are not very uniform. Multiple linear regression models shows no significant relationship between the percent of external top shell dose abso rbed internally and the mean top shell thickness (P<0.05). As with oysters, thickness does not have a statistically significant effect (P 0.05) on the percentage of external dose absorbed intern ally in clams irradiat ed with electron beam. Figure 4-19 was created using the data in Table 5 and Table 13. Data in Figure 419 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of th e top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 and me an is 0.33. The percen t external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 125%, the median is 92% and the mean is 88%. The curvatures of the clams analyzed in this research are very uniform. A negative relationship exists, at confidence interval of 95%, between the per centage of external dose absorbed internally and th e top shell curvature when linear regression is applied to the data. However, with an R2 value of 0.0237 the line is not a good fit. In addition, multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between the percentage of external dos e absorbed internally and the top shell curvature. Like oysters top shell curvature was expected to a signi ficant effect on the percentage of external dose absorbed internal ly. The unexpected resu lt may be an effect

PAGE 57

44 of measuring techniques or a result of other factors overshado wing the effect of curvature on the percentage of external dose absorbed internally. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose(%) Figure 4-19. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the clams irradiated with electron beam at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -1.1461x + 1.2569 R2 = 0.0237). Figure 4-20 was created using the data in Table 7 and Table 13. Data in Figure 420 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 125%, the median is 92% and the mean is 88%. Linear regression shows a positive relati onship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and t op shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0005. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between exte rnal dose absorbed inte rnally and top shell

PAGE 58

45 weight in multiple linear regression models w ith a 95% confidence level. Like thickness and curvature, weight is not a statistically significant factor in determining the percentage of external dose absorbed internally in clam s irradiated with electr on beam. Other factors or thickness, curvature and weight must be examined in order to determine the factors that effect percentage of exte rnal dose absorbed internally. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0123456789101112131415161718192021Top Shell Weight (g)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-20. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with electron beam NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.217x + 0.8137 R2 = 0.0005). Clam Irradiation with X-ray Shucked clams were also i rradiated with x-ray for this research. Clams were harvested on May 11, 2005 from Cedar Key, irra diated with x-ray at NCEBFR on June 26, 2005. The clams were shucked, measured, ir radiated with electron beam and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation w ith x-ray. After irradi ation with x-ray the dosimeter strips placed on the top clam shell, bottom clam shell and in between the clam shells were read using spectrophotometery.

PAGE 59

46 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-21. The internal absorbed dose shucke d clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line s hows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.3976x + 1.0481 R2 = 0.3738). Figure 4-21 was created from the data in Table 14. Data in Figure 4-21 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The doses absorbed internally range from 1.2 kGy to 3.0 kGy, have a median of 1.9 kGy and have a mean of 1.9 kGy. External t op absorbed doses range from 1.2 kGy to 4.2 kGy, have a median of 2.2 kGy and have a mean of 2.23 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and in ternal dosimeters. External doses and internal doses of clams irradiated at 1 kGy with x-ray are stat istically significantly different (P<0.05). In eight of the forty five clams irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose are higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.33 kGy larger

PAGE 60

47 than the internal absorbed dose mean. Ex ternal dose and internal dose have a positive relationship in linear regression models with a R2 value equal to 0.3738. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-22. The internal absorbed dose of shucked clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked clams after exposure to xray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). So lid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.6603x + 1.2588 R2 = 0.5929). Figure 4-22 was created from the data in Table 14. Data in Figure 4-22 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed range from 1.8 kG y to 5.4 kGy, have a median of 4.0 kGy and have a mean of 4.05 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to 6.3 kGy, have a median of 4.3 kGy and have a mean of 4.27 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal doses by more than 1kGy. In nine of the fifty five clams irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. The external doses and in ternal doses are statistically significantly

PAGE 61

48 different (P<0.05). External top dose mean is 0.22 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose at a 95% confidence interval. Data for clams irradiated with x-ray are more tightly grouped than oysters irradiat ed with x-ray. As discussed above the farm raised clams are more uniform shell and are more similar to each other than the wild oysters. Figure 4-23 was created from the data in Table 6 and Table 14. Data in Figure 423 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed intern ally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top she ll of the clams. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 56% to 163%, the median is 94% and the mean is 93%. The data in Figure 4-23 are also very simila r to the data found Figure 4-18. Both xray and electron beam have similar spreads of percentage of external dose absorbed internally. Linear regression of the da ta shows a positive relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed intern ally and the mean top shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the R2 value for this data is only 0.0064 meaning that the line is not a good fit for the data. Multiple li near regression models show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of exte rnal dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness. It was exp ected that thickness would have a negative relationship to percentage of external dose abso rbed internally. The lack of a relationship here may be due to the small range of thicknesses examined.

PAGE 62

49 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.5Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-23. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NC EBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.7114x + 0.7226 R2 = 0.0064v). Figure 4-24 was created from the data in Table 5 and Table 14. Data in Figure 424 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed intern ally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of th e top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 and me an is 0.33. The percen t external top shell dose absorbed internally range from 70% to 117%, have a median of 98% and have a mean of 96%. Curvatures of clam shell examined in th is research are very uniform. The clam shell curvatures are less dive rse than the oyster shells. A negative relationship is shown between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature in linear regression models with a confidence interval of 95% and a R2 value of 0.0006. However, multiple linear regression models show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external dose absorb ed internally and top shell curvature.

PAGE 63

50 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-24. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the clams irradi ated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.1797x + 0.9903 R2 = 0.0006). Figure 4-25 was created from the data in Table 4 and Table 14. Data in Figure 425 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 70% to 117%, the median is 98% and the mean is 96%. Linear regression shows a positive relati onship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and t op shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0064. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between exte rnal dose absorbed inte rnally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression model. As with electron beam irradiated clams, xray irradiated clams are not significantly a ffected by any of the factors we assessed.

PAGE 64

51 Further experiments examining a larger rang e thicknesses, curvatures and weight may provide different results. Measuring the shells microscopically may also provide different results. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0123456789101112131415161718192021Top Shell Weight (g)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-25. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05) Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.7114x + 0.7226 R2 = 0.0064). Clam Irradiation with Gamma A 60Co gamma source was also used in the irradiation of shucked clams. Clams were harvested on May 11, 2005 from Ceda r Key, irradiated with gamma at Food Technology Inc. on July 6, 2005. The clams we re shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam, irradiated with x-ray and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation with gamma. After irradiation with gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the top clam shell, bottom clam shell and in between the clam shells were read using spectrophotometery.

PAGE 65

52 Figure 4-26 was created from the data in Table 15. Data in Figure 4-26 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology Inc.. The internal doses range from 1.4 kG y to 3.1 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.88 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.5 kGy to 3.3 kGy, have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 2.09 kGy. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-26. The internal absorbed dose shucke d clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows lin ear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.6135x + 0.6042 R2 = 0.6179). The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by Food Technology Inc. for both external and in ternal dosimeters. For gamma the means are closer than the means for electron beam or x-ray. The external doses and internal doses are statistically signifi cantly different (P<0.05) for cl ams irradiated at 1 kGy with gammas. For only one of the forty five clams ir radiated with gamma at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external t op absorbed dose. External top dose mean is

PAGE 66

53 0.21 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dos e mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose at a 95% confidence interval. The regression line is also a good fit with a R2 value of 0.6179. Figure 4-27 was created from the data in Table 15. Data in Figure 4-27 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the clam shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology Inc. The internal doses absorbed range fr om 1.5 kGy to 5.1 kGy, have a median of 4.3 kGy and have a mean of 4.24 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to 5.2 kGy, have a median of 4.6 kGy and have a mean of 4.46 kGy. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-27. The internal absorbed dose of shucked clam shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked clams after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.9134x + 0.152 R2 = 0.8344). The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different (P<0.05). None of the clams irradiated with gammas at 3 kGy have a internal dose higher than the external dose. As with oysters gamma does not show the effects of a

PAGE 67

54 concentration phenomenon. The external top dose mean is 0.22 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Data for cl ams irradiated with gamma are more tightly grouped than data for clams irradiated with electron beam and x-ray. A positive relationship between external dose and internal dose is s hown by linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval. The regre ssion line is a good fit to the data with a R2 value equal to 0.8344. Figure 4-28 was created from the data in Table 6 and Table 15. Data in Figure 428 show the percent external t op shell gamma dose absorbed inte rnally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 61% to 112%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%. The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-28. Data in Figure 4-28 are more uniform than the da ta for electron beam (Figure 4-18) and the data for x-ray (Figure 4-23). Linear regression of the data shows a negative relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the fit of the line is not good with a R2 value of 0.0485. Multiple linear regression of this data shows no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness. Thickness does not have a statistically significant effect on percentage of external dose absorbed in ternally for electron beam, x-ray or gamma.

PAGE 68

55 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.5Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-28. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.9988x + 1.2254 R2 = 0.0485). Figure 4-29 was created from the data in Table 5 and Table 15. Data in Figure 429 show the percent external t op shell gamma dose absorbed inte rnally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 a nd mean is 0.33. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradi ation range is 61% to 112%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%. The data for the gamma (Figure 4-29) is more uniform than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-19) and x-ray (Figure 4-24). A very small negative relationship is exhibited with linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval. With a R2 value of 0.0003 the regression line does not fit the data very well however. In addition, multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between the percentage of extern al dose absorbed internally and the

PAGE 69

56 top shell curvature. Curvature is also not a factor in determining the percentage of external dose absorbed internally for electron beam, x-ray or gamma. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-29. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the clams irradi ated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food T echnology Inc. (7/6 /05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0652x + 0.9547 R2 = 0.0003). Figure 4-30 was created from the data in Table 4 and Table 15. Data in Figure 430 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 70% to 117%, the median is 98% and the mean is 96%. Linear regression shows a ne gative relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and t op shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0485. No statistically significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between external dose absorbed intern ally and top shell

PAGE 70

57 weight in multiple linear regression models. Weight does not have a statistically significant relationship to percen tage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the three irradiation sources 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0123456789101112131415161718192021Top Shell Weight (g)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-30. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.9988x + 1.2254 R2 = 0.0485). Clams irradiated with electron beam, x-ray or gamma have statistically significantly different (P<0.05) external doses an d internal doses. Percentage of external dose absorbed internally is not affected by top shell thickness, curv ature or weight in clams irradiated with electron beam, x-ray of gamma. Data for gamma is more tightly grouped than the data for electron beam or x-ray. Gamma also does not exhibit the concentration effect that electron beam and x -ray exhibit. For these reasons gamma is the most promising for irradiating clams industrially. Future experiments on irradiation of clams ar e needed to assess the effectiveness of irradiating clams on a large industrial scale. Experiments examining clams with a larger

PAGE 71

58 range of thicknesses, curvatures and weights could also be pe rformed in order to further validate the results of this research. Thes e experiments would increase the knowledge of irradiation of shellfish. Mussel Irradiation with Electron Beam Electron beam was also used to irradiate mussels. Mussels were purchased on May 12, 2005, irradiated with electron beam at NCEBFR on June 8, 2005. The mussels were shucked, measured and loaded with dosimeter st rips before irradiati on. After irradiation the dosimeter strips placed on the top mussel shell, bottom mussel shell and in between the mussel shells were read using spectrophotometery. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (kGy)Internal Dose (kGy) Figure 4-31. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked mussels after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0271x + 1.6089 R2 = 0.0007). Figure 4-31 was created from the data in Table 16. Data in Figure 4-31 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated at a dose of 1 kGy, as determin ed by the staff of NCEBFR. The doses

PAGE 72

59 absorbed inside the mussel shells range fr om 1.2 kGy to 2.1 kGy, have a median of 1.5 kGy and have a mean of 1.57 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy to 2.3 kGy, have a median of 1.6 kGy and have a mean of 1.63 kGy. The data for mussels irradiated with electr on beam is more tightly grouped than the data for clams and oysters irradiated with el ectron beam. The internal doses and external doses for mussels irradiated at 1 kGy with el ectron beam are not statistically significantly different (P 0.05). Even though the means for extern al dose and internal dose are not significantly different the data is far from ideal and not as tightly grouped as we would like. In eleven of the forty seven mussels ir radiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. The concentration phenomenon is also exhibited in mussels as well as clams and mu ssels. External top dose mean is only 0.06 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose m ean. Linear regression of the data shows a small negative relationship between the extern al and internal doses at a 95% confidence interval. However, the regression line is not a good fit for the data with a R2 value equal to 0.0007. Figure 4-32 was created from the data in Table 16. Data in Figure 4-32 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.3 kG y to 4.1 kGy, have a median of 3.1 kGy and have a mean of 3.00 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to 4.2 kGy, have a median of 3.2 kGy and have a mean of 3.20 kGy.

PAGE 73

60 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-32. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regressi on of data with =0.05 (y = 0.5566x + 1.2022 R2 = 0.1406). The external dose and internal dose are statistically signi ficantly different (P<0.05). The mean dose absorbed internally is 3.00 which is the target dose. Even with this ideal mean there are thirteen of the fifty three mu ssels irradiated at 3 kGy with the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external t op absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.20 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dos e mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the external doses and internal doses at a confidence interval of 95%. The regression line is not a very good fit to the data with a R2 value of 0.1406. Even though the mean is exac tly the dose we wanted the data is not grouped as tightly as we would like to see. The concentration phenomenon also affects 24% of the mussels irradiated with 3 kGy.

PAGE 74

61 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.75Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-33. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated with electron beam at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.2862x + 1.0008 R2 = 0.0179). Figure 4-33 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 16. Data in Figure 433 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top sh ell of the mussels. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.1cm to 0.62 cm, th e median is 0.13 cm and mean is 0.15 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 41% to 150%, the median is 94% and the mean is 96%. The thicknesses of the top shells of the musse ls are very similar. The percentage of external dose absorbed internally covers a la rge rang and is not very uniform. Linear regression of the data shows a negative rela tionship between the perc entage of external dose absorbed internally and mean top she ll thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the linear regression line is not a good fit with a R2 value of 0.0179. A statistically signifi cant relationship (P 0.05) is not shown between percentage of external

PAGE 75

62 dose absorbed internally and mean top sh ell thickness in multiple linear regression models. Percent of external dose absorbed internally is not statistically significantly affected by top shell thickness for mussels irradi ated with electron beam. It was expected that thickness would have a strong negative re lationship to percentage of external dose absorbed internally, as with oysters and clams. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-34. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the mussels irra diated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.6613x + 1.0962 R2 = 0.0248). Figure 4-34 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 16. Data in Figure 434 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.14 to 0.34, the median is 0.20 a nd mean is 0.21. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 41% to 150%, the medi an is 94% and the mean is 96%.

PAGE 76

63 The curvatures of the mussels (Figure 4-34) are more uniform than the curvatures of the oysters (Figure 4-4), but are less uniform than the curvatures of the clams (Figure 4-19). A negative relationship is shown betw een percentage of ex ternal dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature in lin ear regression models performed at a 95% confidence interval. The fit of the line is not good with a R2 value of 0.0248 however. Multiple linear regression models do not s how a statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external dose abso rbed internally and top shell curvature. Figure 4-35 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 16. Data in Figure 435 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and mean is 3.2g. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 41% to 150%, the median is 94% and the mean is 95%. Linear regression shows a small negativ e relationship betwee n percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shel l weight at a 95% conf idence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0013. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between external dos e absorbed internally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression models. The data for mussels irradiated with electr on beam are very similar to the data for oysters and clams irradiated w ith electron beam. All of the external doses and internal doses of shellfish irradiated with electron beam are statistically significantly different (P<0.05) except the mussels irradiated with el ectron beam at 1 kGy. Even with similar means the data is not as tightly grouped as the data for gamma or x-ray. Electron beam

PAGE 77

64 also exhibits the concentration phenomenon in a ll three species of she llfish investigated. Top shell thickness, curvature and weight do not statistically significantly affect the percentage of external dose absorbed intern ally in oysters, clams or mussels irradiated with electron beam. Electron beam does not provide the uniformity of dose that we would like for any of the th ree shellfish investigated. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 012345678Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-35. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the weight of the top she ll of the mussel irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with electron beam NC EBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0074x + 0.9827 R2 = 0.0013). There are numerous future experiments that may help us better understand how to effectively use electron beam irradiation with shellfish. Irradiating shellfish on the half shell may be a viable option for irradiati ng with electron beam. The concentration phenomenon that is seen in electron beam also needs to be further investigated. Experiments with different dosimetery methods such as alanine dosimeters, may provide a better understanding of this phenomenon. Future experiments may help to provide better understanding and uses for electron beam.

PAGE 78

65 Mussel Irradiation with X-ray The second set of experiments for this research was performed with x-ray irradiation of shucked mussels. Mussel s were purchased on May 12, 2005, irradiated with x-ray at NCEBFR on June 26, 2005. The mussels were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam and loaded with dosimeter strips during the period inbetween. After irradiation with x-ray the dosimeter strips placed on the top mussel shell, bottom mussel shell and in between the mussel shells were read using spectrophotometery. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (kGy)Internal Dose (kGy) Figure 4-36. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to xray at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). So lid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0799x + 1.6661 R2 = 0.004). Figure 4-36 was created from the data in Table 17. Data in Figure 4-36 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by th e strips range from 1.5 kGy to 2.2 kGy, have a median of

PAGE 79

66 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.81 kGy. Extern al top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 2.1 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.81 kGy. The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. Both doses at 1 kGy and 3 kGy are the same. The data in Figure 4-36 are much more uniform than the data for electron beam. The external doses and internal doses of mu ssels irradiated at 1 kGy with x-ray are not statistically significantly different (P 0.05). As with mussels irradiated with electron beam at 1 kGy the mean may be similar, but the data is not as tightly grouped as with gamma. Fifteen of the forty seven musse ls irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy have an internal absorbed dose that is higher than the external top absorbed dose. Linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval shows a small positive relationship between external dose and internal dose. With a R2 value of 0.004 the regression line is not a good fit for the data however. Figure 4-37 was created from the data in Table 17. Data in Figure 4-37 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by th e strips range from 1.8 kGy to 5.0 kGy, have a median of 4.4 kGy and have a mean of 4.29 kGy. Extern al top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 5.2 kGy, have a median of 4.4 kGy and have a mean of 4.29 kGy. The means of the internal doses and the external doses are equal. However, in nineteen of the fifty three mussels irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. The concentration phenomenon is also seen in mussels irradiated with x-ray. External dos es and internal doses are not statistically

PAGE 80

67 significantly different (P 0.05). A positive relationship between external dose and internal dose is shown by linea r regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval. The regression line is a good fit to the data with a R2 value of 0.8522. The data for mussels irradiated with x-ray are more tightly grouped than the data fo r oysters or clams irradiated with x-ray. Even though mu ssels irradiated with x-ra y have means that are not statistically signifi cantly different (P 0.05) the data is not as tightly grouped as the data for mussels irradiated with gamma. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-37. The internal absorbed dose of shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to xray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). So lid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.842x + 0.6817 R2 = 0.8522). Figure 4-38 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 17. Data in Figure 438 show the percent external t op shell x-ray dose absorbed in ternally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top sh ell of the mussels. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.1 cm to 0.62 cm, the median is 0.13 cm and mean is 0.15 cm.

PAGE 81

68 The percent external top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 79% to 122%, the median is 100% and the mean is 100%. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.75Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-38. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NC EBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.2194x + 0.9718 R2 = 0.0408). The mussel top shell thicknesses examined in this research did not cover a large range. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the percentage of external doses absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness at a confidence interval of 95%. Yet, th e regression line does not fit th e data very well with a R2 value of 0.0408. Multiple linear regressions of the data do not show a statis tically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external doses absorbed in ternally and the mean top shell thickness. Top shell thickne ss does not have a st atistically significant effect on the percentage of external dose abso rbed internally for oysters, clams or mussels irradiated with x-ray.

PAGE 82

69 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-39. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the mussels irra diated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0654x + 0.9904 R2 = 0.0009). Figure 4-39 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 17. Data in Figure 439 show the percent external t op shell x-ray dose absorbed in ternally in the mussel shells compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.14 to 0.39, the median is 0.20 a nd mean is 0.21. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 79% to 122%, the medi an is 100% and the mean is 100%. The data for curvature are relatively unifo rm covering a small range except for one offset data point. Although, the regr ession line is not a good fit with a R2 value of 0.0009 a positive relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature is seen in linear regression m odels at a 95% confidence interval. Multiple linear regression of the data shows no statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between the percentage of external dose ab sorbed internally and top shell curvature.

PAGE 83

70 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 012345678910 Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-40. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the weight of the top she ll of the mussel irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6 /26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0033x + 0.9933 R2 = 0.001). Figure 4-40 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 17. Data in Figure 440 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and me an is 3.2g. The percen t external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 79% to 122%, the median is 100% and the mean is 100%. Linear regression shows a small negativ e relationship betwee n percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shel l weight at a 95% conf idence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.001. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between external dos e absorbed internally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression models.

PAGE 84

71 Unlike oysters and clams, mussels irradi ated with x-ray are not statistically significantly different (P 0.05). The data for mussels irra diated with x-ray are more tightly grouped than the data for oysters or clams irradiated with x-ray. Top shell thickness, curvature and weight are also not statistically significantly affecting the percentage of external dose absorbed internal ly for any of the three species of shellfish irradiated with x-ray. Although x-ray does exhibit the concentra tion phenomenon in all of the shellfish investigated, x-ray may be a viable option for irradi ating mussels. Future experiments are needed to further expand the knowledge on irradiation of mussels. Experiments with different dosimetry met hods may provide a better understanding of the concentration effect seen in the shellfish irradiated with x-ray. Mussel Irradiation with Gamma A gamma source was also used to irradiat e the oysters. Mussels were purchased on May 12, 2005, irradiated with gamma at F ood Technology Inc. on July 6, 2005. The mussels were shucked, measured, irradiated wi th electron beam, irradiated with x-ray and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradi ation with gamma. After irradiation with gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the t op mussel shell, bottom mussel shell and in between the mussel shells were read using spectrophotometery. Figure 4-41 was created from the data in Table 18. Data in Figure 4-41 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology Inc. The internal doses range from 1.6 kGy to 2.0 kGy, have a median of 1.7 kGy and have a mean of 1.73 kGy. External top ab sorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 2.2 kGy, have a median of 1.9 kGy and have a mean of 1.89 kGy.

PAGE 85

72 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (kGy)Internal Dose (kGy) Figure 4-41. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked mussels after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.4832x + 0.813 R2 = 0.3341). The mean dose absorbed was larger than the 1kGy dose given as determined by Food Technology Inc. for both external and in ternal dosimeters. External doses and internal doses are sta tistically significantly different (P <0.05) for mussels irradiated at 1 kGy with gammas. None of the forty seven mu ssels irradiated with gamma at 1 kGy have an internal absorbed dose higher than the ex ternal top absorbed dose. The gammas do not appear to have the concentration effect w ith in the shell that the electron beam and xrays have. External top dose mean is 0.16 kG y larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose with a R2 value of 0.3341 at a confidence interval of 95%. Figure 4-42 was created from the data in Table 18. Data in Figure 4-42 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the exte rnal top absorbed dose of the mussel shells irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

PAGE 86

73 Inc. The internal doses absorbed range fr om 1.6 kGy to 5.0 kGy, have a median of 4.4 kGy and have a mean of 4.23 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to 5.0 kGy, have a median of 4.5 kGy and have a mean of 4.36 kGy. 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 11.522.533.544.555.56 External Dose (Kgy)Internal Dose (Kgy) Figure 4-42. The internal absorbed dose of shucked mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed dose of the top she ll of shucked mussels after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.9897x 0.0884 R2 = 0.9634). The data for mussels irradiated with gamma are tightly fit along a straight line and clearly show the linear relation between intern al dose and external dose. Zero of the mussels irradiated with gamma at 3 kGy have an internal absorbed dose that is higher than the external top absorbed dose. Extern al top dose mean is 0.13 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Mussels irradiated at 3 kGy with gammas have statistically significantly differe nt (P<0.05) external doses and internal doses. Linear regression of the data shows a positive rela tionship between the external and internal doses at a 95% confidence interval. The regr ession line is almost a perfect fit for this

PAGE 87

74 data with a R2 value of 0.9634. Gamma shows the ti ghtly grouped relationship that we want when irradiating shellfish. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.75Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)Internal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-43. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = -0.0671x + 0.953 R2 = 0.0108). Figure 4-43 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 18. Data in Figure 443 show the percent external top shell gamm a dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels. For mean thickness of the top shell the range is 0.1 cm to 0.62 cm, the median is 0.13 cm and mean is 0.15 cm. The percent extern al top shell dose absorbed in ternally range is 80% to 100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 94%. The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-43. Data in Figure 4-43 are more uniform than the da ta for electron beam (Figure 4-33) and the data for x-ray (Figure 4-38). Linear regr ession of the data sh ows a small negative relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top

PAGE 88

75 shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the regressi on line is not a good fit for the data with a R2 value of 0.0108. Multiple linear regression models do not shows a statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness. None of the three species of shellfish examined in this research show a statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) between top shell thickness and the percenta ge of external dose absorbed internally. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91 Top Shell CurvatureInternal/External Dose (%) Figure 4-44. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the curvature of the top she ll of the mussels irra diated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food T echnology Inc. (7/6 /05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.1562x + 0.9108 R2 = 0.0152). Figure 4-44 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 18. Data in Figure 444 shows the percent external top shell gamm a dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the curvature of the t op shell of the mussels. For curvature of the top shell the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the medi an is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradiation range is 74% to 100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 93%.

PAGE 89

76 The data for the gamma (Figure 4-44) is more uniform than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-34) and x-ray (Figure 4-39). Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the top shell curvature at a 95% confidence level. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) is shown between the percentage of ex ternal dose absorbed internally and the top shell curvature in multiple linear regres sion models. Curvature does not affect the percentage of external dose absorbed internally for oysters, clams or mussels. Figure 4-45 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 18. Data in Figure 445 show the percent external t op shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and me an is 3.2g. The percen t external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the median is 94% and the mean is 93%. Linear regression shows a small negative rela tionship between percen tages of external dose absorbed internally and t op shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0118. No statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) exists between exte rnal dose absorbed inte rnally and top shell weight in multiple linear regression models. Top shell weight does not have a significant affect on the percentage of external dose abso rbed internally for any of the three shellfish examined. The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different for the oysters, clams and mussels irradiated with gamma. However, gamma also provided the most tightly grouped data of all of the three irradia tion sources tested. This is as to be expected due to the higher energy and th erefore the higher pe netration of gamma

PAGE 90

77 irradiation. Top shell thickness, curvatur e and weight do not have a statistically significant relationship (P 0.05) to percentage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the species of shellf ish investigated in this re search. Gamma is the most promising of the three types of irradiation studied for i rradiating oysters, clams, and mussels. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 012345678910 Top Shell Wt (g)Internal/Top Dose Figure 4-45. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as compared to the weight of the top she ll of the mussel irradiated at doses of 1kGy and 3 kGy with gamma Food Tec hnology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with =0.05 (y = 0.0068x + 0.9214 R2 = 0.0118). Oysters have the least tightly grouped data of the three shellfish studied for electron beam, x-ray and gamma. Data for clams ar e not as tightly grouped as data for mussels irradiated with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. This data confirms what we expected. Mussel should have the most uni form irradiation results since they have the thinnest and most uniform shells of the shellfish inves tigated. Irradiation data for clams are less uniform than mussels due to their thicker a nd less uniform shells and oysters have the least uniform irradiation data since their shells are the thickest and least uniform.

PAGE 91

78 However, when the shell geometry and weight ar e investigated for the three shellfish it is determined that shell thickness, curvature and weight do not sta tistically significantly affect the percentage of external dose absorb ed internally in oysters, clams and mussels irradiated with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. It was expected that thickness, curvature and weight would all have an effect on percentage of external dose absorbed internally in oysters, clams and mussels. One reason for this may be another more important factor overshadowing the effects thickness, curvature and weight. Another reason for this unexpected result may be the technique used to measure the shells. The shells were all measured on a macroscopic sc ale, yet the diverse landscape of the shell may yield better results if the shell is examin ed microscopically. These are all possible explanations for the unexpected results in these experiments. Gamma is the most promising of the three sources of irradiation studied. The most tightly grouped data is pr ovided by gamma for oysters, clams and mussels. X-ray provides tighter grouped data th an electron beam does. This is as expected. The energy and penetration of gammas are the highest, x-rays have the next highest energy and penetration and electron beam have the lowest energy and penetration. X-ray and electron beam exhibit the concentration phe nomenon where the intern al dose is higher than the applied external dose. It is for thes e reasons and others that gamma irradiation is the most viable source for irradiating shellfish on a large industrial scale. This research creates questi ons that should be answered by future research. First, different dosimeters could be used to help clar ify the data presented in this research. The use of different dosimetry may also help to clarify the concentration phenomenon that is seen with electron beam and x-ray. Also fu ture experiments should be performed with

PAGE 92

79 microscopic measuring techniques to examin e thickness and curvature. As mentioned above experiments with shellfish on the half shell may be promising for electron beam and x-ray since the shell is not present as a ba rrier. Large scale e xperiments, using tons of shellfish, with gamma i rradiation should also be pe rformed to determine the penetration of dose in pallets of shellfish. Economic expe riments to compare electron beam, x-ray and gamma may also provide valu able information about the practicality of large scale irradiation of shellfish. With the help of experiments such as these irradiation of shellfish may become vi able industrial practice.

PAGE 93

80 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The primary objective of this research was to compare and contrast the percentage of absorption of irradiation in oyster, clam and mussel she lls using gamma, electron beam and x-ray irradiation sources at dosages of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. Oyster, clam and mussel shells were assessed for differences in extern al absorbed dose and internal absorbed dose for electron beam, x-ray and gamma sources. Furthermore, the thickness, weight and curvatures for oyster, clam and mussel shells were assessed with respect to the effect on percentage of applied do se absorbed internally. When clam and oyster shells were irradi ated using gamma, x-ray or electron beam at 1 kGy and 3 kGy, the absorbed internal dose was less than the external dose and was determined to be significantly different (P< 0.05) when compared to the external absorbed shell dose. When mussel shells were irradiat ed using electron beam at 1 kGy or x-ray at 1 kGy and 3 kGy no statistical significant differences (P 0.05) were determined to exist between the external and internal absorbed dose. However, when mussel shells were irradiated with electron beam at 3 kGy and gamma irradiation at 1 kGy and 3 kGy, significant differences (P<0.05) were determ ined to exist between the external and internal absorbed doses. When oyster, clam and mussel shells were irradiated with electron beam and x-ray a concentration phe nomenon, where internal doses were greater than the external doses, was exhibited. Sp ecifically, the concentr ation phenomenon was exhibited in 12% of the oyste r shells, 12% of the clam sh ells and 24% of the mussel shells irradiated with elec tron beam. The concentrati on phenomenon was exhibited in

PAGE 94

81 14% of the oyster shells, 17% of the clam shells and 34% of the mussel shells irradiated with x-ray. When top shell thickness, weight and curvat ure for oyster, clam and mussel shells were statistically compared to the percentage ratio of external/internal absorbed dose, no significant relationship (P 0.05) was revealed. Specificall y, no statistical relationship was demonstrated between the percentage exte rnal dose absorbed in ternally and the top shell thickness, curvature of the shell and we ight of the shell usi ng electron beam, x-ray and gamma at 1 kGy and 3 kGy. Therefore, oyster, clam and mussel shell thickness, shell curvature and shell wei ght did not have a statistical significant relationship or influence on the percentage of external/internal absorb ed dose at 1 kGy and 3 kGy. Reasons for the differences between external and internal absorbed doses and concentration phenomenon are unclear and can not be accounted for by differences in shell thickness, shell wei ght or shell curvature.

PAGE 95

82 APPENDIX A OYSTER, CLAM, AND MUSSEL MEASUREMENTS Oyster Measurements Table A-1. Oyster Weight M easurements in g (5/1/05) Oyster Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 1 84.2 16.1 68.1 47.3 20.8 4.23 2.27 2.94 1.29 2 67.8 6.1 61.7 30.4 31.3 10.11 0.97 4.98 5.13 3 59.1 5.9 53.2 32.1 21.1 9.02 1.52 5.44 3.58 4 55.5 6.8 48.7 29.5 19.2 7.16 1.54 4.34 2.82 5 37.0 4.2 32.8 19.4 13.4 7.81 1.45 4.62 3.19 6 64.1 8.0 56.1 33.3 22.8 7.01 1.46 4.16 2.85 7 41.2 3.6 37.6 20.8 16.8 10.44 1.24 5.78 4.67 8 57.7 4.5 53.2 39.8 13.4 11.82 2.97 8.84 2.98 9 91.8 12.4 79.4 48.3 31.1 6.40 1.55 3.90 2.51 10 72.5 11.8 60.7 37.5 23.2 5.14 1.62 3.18 1.97 11 50.9 8.0 42.9 26.4 16.5 5.36 1.60 3.30 2.06 12 47.1 5.6 41.5 23 18.5 7.41 1.24 4.11 3.30 13 56.3 7.6 48.7 32.6 16.1 6.41 2.02 4.29 2.12 14 45.0 6.0 39.0 23.4 15.6 6.50 1.50 3.90 2.60 15 63.7 9.2 54.5 32.2 22.3 5.92 1.44 3.50 2.42 16 107.8 15.9 91.9 53.7 38.2 5.78 1.41 3.38 2.40 17 105.1 12.6 92.5 49.6 42.9 7.34 1.16 3.94 3.40 18 59.6 7.3 52.3 30.4 21.9 7.16 1.39 4.16 3.00 19 66.7 9.5 57.2 35.8 21.4 6.02 1.67 3.77 2.25 20 64.7 10.0 54.7 33.7 21.0 5.47 1.60 3.37 2.10 21 138.9 17.3 121.6 76.2 45.4 7.03 1.68 4.40 2.62 22 48.9 7.9 41.0 22.9 18.1 5.19 1.27 2.90 2.29 23 57.8 7.9 49.9 31.9 18.0 6.32 1.77 4.04 2.28 24 70.8 9.0 61.8 36.1 25.7 6.87 1.40 4.01 2.86 25 81.9 11.6 70.3 42.2 28.1 6.06 1.50 3.64 2.42 26 41.5 6.2 35.3 18.7 16.6 5.69 1.13 3.02 2.68 27 47.0 7.1 39.9 24.3 15.6 5.62 1.56 3.42 2.20 28 63.0 12.0 51.0 32.7 18.3 4.25 1.79 2.73 1.53 29 83.2 13.9 69.3 47.4 21.9 4.99 2.16 3.41 1.58 30 57.0 9.3 47.7 33.2 14.5 5.13 2.29 3.57 1.56 31 43.6 5.1 38.5 22.2 16.3 7.55 1.36 4.35 3.20 32 81.6 8.7 72.9 45.7 27.2 8.38 1.68 5.25 3.13 33 57.0 6.3 50.7 29.7 21.0 8.05 1.41 4.71 3.33 34 57.7 8.0 49.7 30.9 18.8 6.21 1.64 3.86 2.35 35 58.5 8.4 50.1 32.8 17.3 5.96 1.90 3.90 2.06 36 86.9 11.1 75.8 44.5 31.3 6.83 1.42 4.01 2.82 37 44.5 4.0 40.5 28 12.5 10.13 2.24 7.00 3.13 38 56.1 8.3 47.8 33.5 14.3 5.76 2.34 4.04 1.72 39 59.4 10.2 49.2 29.9 19.3 4.82 1.55 2.93 1.89 40 45.5 9.1 36.4 24.3 12.1 4.00 2.01 2.67 1.33

PAGE 96

83 Table A-1. Continued Oyster Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 41 41.0 6.8 34.2 21.5 12.7 5.03 1.69 3.16 1.87 42 45.4 7.1 38.3 20.1 18.2 5.39 1.10 2.83 2.56 43 54.0 8.8 45.2 26.8 18.4 5.14 1.46 3.05 2.09 44 62.5 6.6 55.9 35.5 20.4 8.47 1.74 5.38 3.09 45 55.6 10.8 44.8 27.8 17.0 4.15 1.64 2.57 1.57 46 39.1 7.0 32.1 19.3 12.8 4.59 1.51 2.76 1.83 47 65.0 14.9 50.1 32.3 17.8 3.36 1.81 2.17 1.19 48 57.0 15.5 41.5 25.9 15.6 2.68 1.66 1.67 1.01 49 83.8 9.2 74.6 48.0 26.6 8.11 1.80 5.22 2.89 50 53.5 11.0 42.5 29.0 13.5 3.86 2.15 2.64 1.23 51 69.2 8.6 60.6 39.1 21.5 7.05 1.82 4.55 2.50 52 54.3 10.7 43.6 27.8 15.8 4.07 1.76 2.60 1.48 53 37.3 5.7 31.6 20.7 10.9 5.54 1.90 3.63 1.91 54 48.9 6.9 42.0 30.0 12.0 6.09 2.50 4.35 1.74 55 48.8 6.2 42.6 24.7 17.9 6.87 1.38 3.98 2.89 56 34.2 5.9 28.3 17.3 11.0 4.80 1.57 2.93 1.86 57 42.2 6.0 36.2 21.0 15.2 6.03 1.38 3.50 2.53 58 66.6 12.7 53.9 34.6 19.3 4.24 1.79 2.72 1.52 59 54.8 4.6 50.2 28.8 21.4 10.91 1.35 6.26 4.65 60 54.0 8.2 45.8 29.1 16.7 5.59 1.74 3.55 2.04 61 63.5 8.8 54.7 29.4 25.3 6.22 1.16 3.34 2.88 62 67.0 6.2 60.8 36.0 24.8 9.81 1.45 5.81 4.00 63 63.7 13.4 50.3 32.5 17.8 3.75 1.83 2.43 1.33 64 129.2 12.5 116.7 69.3 47.4 9.34 1.46 5.54 3.79 65 50.1 6.6 43.5 27.2 16.3 6.59 1.67 4.12 2.47 66 80.7 10.5 70.2 42.7 27.5 6.69 1.55 4.07 2.62 67 48.8 9.0 39.8 22.1 17.7 4.42 1.25 2.46 1.97 68 73.6 9.6 64.0 48.7 15.3 6.67 3.18 5.07 1.59 69 108.3 14.0 94.3 65.6 28.7 6.74 2.29 4.69 2.05 70 87.3 9.2 78.1 46.0 32.1 8.49 1.43 5.00 3.49 71 65.6 10.6 55.0 35.5 19.5 5.19 1.82 3.35 1.84 72 108.6 12.6 96.0 62.0 34.0 7.62 1.82 4.92 2.70 73 51.7 9.8 41.9 25.5 16.4 4.28 1.55 2.60 1.67 74 42.3 8.6 33.7 19.8 13.9 3.92 1.42 2.30 1.62 75 65.5 10.1 55.4 34.7 20.7 5.49 1.68 3.44 2.05 76 60.1 7.6 52.5 27.4 25.1 6.91 1.09 3.61 3.30 77 54.4 6.9 47.5 28.2 19.3 6.88 1.46 4.09 2.80 78 65.9 10.1 55.8 30.6 25.2 5.52 1.21 3.03 2.50 79 136.8 24.4 112.4 71.9 40.5 4.61 1.78 2.95 1.66 80 81.7 9.8 71.9 39.8 32.1 7.34 1.24 4.06 3.28 81 55.0 8.9 46.1 25.3 20.8 5.18 1.22 2.84 2.34 82 64.1 12.0 52.1 30.6 21.5 4.34 1.42 2.55 1.79 83 59.3 7.5 51.8 32.4 19.4 6.91 1.67 4.32 2.59 84 80.6 13.3 67.3 46.1 21.2 5.06 2.17 3.47 1.59 85 70.5 15.3 55.2 29.2 26.0 3.61 1.12 1.91 1.70 86 55.9 10.9 45.0 29.3 15.7 4.13 1.87 2.69 1.44 87 42.9 9.2 33.7 20.1 13.6 3.66 1.48 2.18 1.48 88 96.4 11.1 85.3 45.0 40.3 7.68 1.12 4.05 3.63 89 62.7 9.8 52.9 32.7 20.2 5.40 1.62 3.34 2.06 90 114.7 13.9 100.8 63.1 37.7 7.25 1.67 4.54 2.71

PAGE 97

84 Table A-1. Continued Oyster Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 91 84.3 13.0 71.3 43.9 27.4 5.48 1.60 3.38 2.11 92 52.5 9.6 42.9 22.4 20.5 4.47 1.09 2.33 2.14 93 72.5 8.2 64.3 39.8 24.5 7.84 1.62 4.85 2.99 94 59.3 11.4 47.9 29.5 18.4 4.20 1.60 2.59 1.61 95 38.3 6.9 31.4 18.3 13.1 4.55 1.40 2.65 1.90 96 57.7 10.3 47.4 30.5 16.9 4.60 1.80 2.96 1.64 97 68.7 10.4 58.3 35.2 23.1 5.61 1.52 3.38 2.22 98 55.1 10.7 44.4 28.2 16.2 4.15 1.74 2.64 1.51 99 57.5 9.5 48.0 28.0 20.0 5.05 1.40 2.95 2.11 100 50.4 8.8 41.6 21.8 19.8 4.73 1.10 2.48 2.25 Table A-2. Oyster Dimension Me asurements in cm (5/3/05) Oyster Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 1 10.6 2.2 5.8 8.3 0.65 4.85 10.6 2.85 5.8 2 6.5 1.65 6.1 5.6 1.05 5.3 6.5 2.7 6.1 3 7.3 1.5 4.5 5.05 0.8 3.65 7.3 2.3 4.5 4 6.3 2.1 6.0 4.8 1.0 5.15 6.3 3.1 6.0 5 6.2 1.3 4.1 5.3 0.9 3.6 6.2 2.2 4.1 6 6.75 1.4 4.8 5.7 1.1 3.9 6.75 2.5 4.8 7 5.8 1.55 4.5 5.15 1.0 3.8 5.8 2.55 4.5 8 6.3 1.5 4.0 5.5 1.05 3.7 6.3 2.55 4.0 9 6.5 0.7 4.7 5.5 1.2 3.9 6.5 1.9 4.7 10 9.4 2.0 4.7 7.5 0.65 4.45 9.4 2.65 4.7 11 7.6 1.6 5.2 6.3 0.45 4.45 7.6 2.05 5.2 12 6.6 1.85 4.75 6.05 1.05 4.15 6.6 2.9 4.75 13 8.2 2.0 4.9 6.7 0.7 4.1 8.2 2.7 4.9 14 7.8 1.6 3.7 6.7 0.65 3.5 7.8 2.25 3.7 15 7.7 1.65 3.95 7.15 0.8 4.1 7.7 2.45 3.95 16 8.4 1.75 7.45 7.1 1.45 5.4 8.4 3.2 7.45 17 8.65 1.85 5.2 7.35 1.5 4.65 8.65 3.35 5.2 18 6.3 1.8 5.6 5.8 0.95 5.1 6.3 2.75 5.6 19 8.4 2.3 4.9 7.35 1.0 4.15 8.4 3.3 4.9 20 7.69 2.0 5.2 6.9 0.8 4.6 7.69 2.8 5.2 21 9.0 2.0 5.2 6.9 0.8 4.6 9.0 2.8 5.2 22 4.45 1.9 3.9 5.3 0.6 3.7 5.3 2.5 3.9 23 7.5 2.3 5.3 5.7 0.9 4.45 7.5 3.2 5.3 24 7.0 1.2 4.75 6.1 1.2 4.05 7.0 2.4 4.75 25 8.4 2.3 4.9 7.35 1.0 4.15 8.4 3.3 4.9 26 6.0 1.4 4.4 5.15 0.9 4.2 6.0 2.3 4.4 27 6.75 1.5 4.9 5.95 0.65 3.85 6.75 2.15 4.9 28 8.8 2.2 5.75 6.8 0.65 4.55 8.8 2.85 5.75 29 9.4 2.1 4.1 8.9 1.0 3.4 9.4 3.1 4.1 30 9.2 1.35 3.9 6.85 0.95 3.4 9.2 2.3 3.9 31 9.05 1.45 4.3 7.2 0.6 3.45 9.05 2.05 4.3 32 6.1 1.6 6.15 6.05 1.0 4.75 6.1 2.6 6.15 33 5.8 1.9 4.1 6.0 0.65 4.3 6.0 2.55 4.3 34 7.65 2.1 4.4 6.7 0.6 4.05 7.65 2.7 4.4 35 7.65 2.1 4.4 6.7 0.6 4.05 4.68 2.7 4.4 36 7.8 1.7 5.6 6.5 1.2 4.5 7.8 2.9 5.6

PAGE 98

85 Table A-2. Continued Oyster Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 37 8.3 2.5 4.75 6.2 0.9 3.8 8.3 3.4 4.75 38 7.7 1.9 3.7 6.4 0.6 3.1 7.7 2.5 3.7 39 9.3 1.45 4.8 8.3 0.6 4.15 9.3 2.05 4.8 40 8.8 1.7 4.2 7.15 0.6 3.55 8.8 2.3 4.2 41 7.5 1.7 3.7 6.85 0.3 3.15 7.5 2.0 3.7 42 6.8 1.5 5.1 5.15 1.0 4.1 6.8 2.5 5.1 43 6.95 1.7 5.1 5.75 1.0 4.0 6.95 2.7 5.1 44 8.3 1.75 2.9 6.3 0.7 2.8 8.3 2.45 2.9 45 6.4 2.4 4.5 5.15 0.95 3.55 6.4 3.35 4.5 46 6.9 1.5 4.0 6.2 0.55 3.4 6.9 2.05 4.0 47 8.79 1.9 5.65 7.4 0.5 4.3 8.79 2.4 5.65 48 7.9 1.95 5.5 5.5 0.7 4.1 7.9 2.65 5.5 49 6.15 1.4 5.5 5.95 1.1 4.0 6.15 2.5 5.5 50 8.9 1.6 4.4 7.5 0.5 3.4 8.9 2.1 4.4 51 8.9 2.2 5.6 7.5 .55 4.6 8.9 2.75 5.6 52 8.7 1.9 5.4 6.8 0.45 4.15 8.7 2.35 5.4 53 9.7 1.8 3.8 7.0 0.55 3.0 9.7 2.35 3.8 54 6.65 1.75 3.75 5.3 0.6 3.0 6.65 2.35 3.75 55 5.65 1.6 5.6 4.9 0.75 3.7 5.65 2.35 5.6 56 8.85 1.15 3.65 6.6 0.55 3.3 8.85 1.7 3.65 57 6.3 1.5 4.85 5.2 0.75 3.95 6.3 2.25 4.85 58 8.45 1.7 7.05 6.9 0.75 4.3 8.45 2.45 7.05 59 6.9 1.45 4.5 6.0 1.1 3.9 6.9 2.55 4.5 60 8.75 2.0 4.75 7.1 1.15 2.7 8.75 3.15 4.75 61 8.8 1.35 4.5 7.5 0.75 3.55 8.8 2.1 4.5 62 6.2 1.6 5.1 5.4 1.75 3.9 6.2 3.35 5.1 63 9.85 2.75 5.1 7.75 0.6 4.2 9.85 3.35 5.1 64 8.5 1.6 6.5 7.2 1.2 6.0 8.5 2.8 6.5 65 6.55 1.7 3.6 5.05 0.8 3.1 6.55 2.5 3.6 66 7.1 2.1 5.75 6.1 1.0 4.9 7.1 3.1 5.75 67 7.1 1.6 4.8 5.8 0.6 3.5 7.1 2.2 4.8 68 7.8 2.55 4.8 6.7 0.5 4.2 7.8 3.05 4.8 69 9.35 2.15 6.0 7.5 .85 4.75 9.35 3.0 6.0 70 9.3 1.45 5.3 6.7 70 4.4 9.3 71.45 5.3 71 9.5 1.8 4.4 6.85 0.6 4.0 9.5 2.4 4.4 72 8.85 1.5 5.75 8.25 0.8 4.9 8.85 2.3 5.75 73 9.15 1.3 3.9 7.65 0.5 3.5 9.15 1.8 3.9 74 6.8 1.7 4.6 7.2 0.55 3.7 7.2 2.25 4.6 75 8.85 1.45 4.6 5.65 0.45 3.7 8.85 1.9 4.6 76 6.3 1.45 4.45 5.85 0.9 4.1 6.3 2.35 4.45 77 6.6 1.6 5.15 5.6 0.9 3.7 6.6 2.5 5.15 78 8.75 1.55 4.9 7.4 0.9 3.6 8.75 2.45 4.9 79 8.6 2.6 5.6 7.7 1.8 4.8 8.6 4.4 5.6 80 7.6 1.9 5.2 6.55 1.45 4.4 7.6 3.35 5.2 81 6.9 1.6 5.0 5.8 1.15 4.1 6.9 2.75 5.0 82 8.65 1.9 5.0 7.0 1.7 4.9 8.65 3.6 5.0 83 7.3 2.4 4.45 5.75 0.7 3.9 7.3 3.1 4.45 84 8.8 1.85 4.55 6.5 0.9 4.2 8.8 2.75 4.55 85 10.5 1.6 5.35 10.2 0.5 4.3 10.5 2.1 5.35 86 7.1 1.6 4.4 5.4 0.85 4.0 7.1 2.45 4.4

PAGE 99

86 Table A-2. Continued Oyster Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 87 7.65 1.75 4.4 5.9 0.65 3.9 7.65 2.4 4.4 88 7.4 2.3 5.0 6.8 1.55 4.05 7.4 3.85 5.0 89 7.65 1.55 4.8 6.55 0.55 4.15 7.65 2.1 4.8 90 9.8 2.1 6.3 7.8 0.85 4.75 9.8 2.95 6.3 91 10.35 2.95 5.0 8.75 0.9 4.05 10.35 3.85 5.0 92 8.6 .95 4.7 6.85 0.55 4.3 8.6 1.5 4.7 93 7.95 7.0 6.0 6.3 0.8 4.95 7.95 7.8 6.0 94 8.1 1.9 4.3 6.9 0.5 3.8 8.1 2.4 4.3 95 7.4 1.5 3.5 5.8 0.5 3.25 7.4 2.0 3.5 96 6.9 2.1 4.4 5.6 0.9 4.1 6.9 3.0 4.4 97 9.0 1.9 5.05 6.9 1.0 4.6 9.0 2.9 5.05 98 8.3 2.1 4.3 6.45 0.6 3.85 8.3 2.7 4.3 99 7.9 2.0 4.35 6.6 0.55 3.8 7.9 2.55 4.35 100 5.7 1.75 4.3 5.35 1.75 4.0 5.7 3.5 4.3 Table A-3. Oyster Thickness Measurements in cm (5/4/05) Oyster 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 1 0.231 0.318 0.724 0.533 0.373 0.292 0.277 0.269 0.282 0.470 2 0.445 0.559 0.803 0.658 0.457 0.533 0.302 0.521 0.645 0.287 3 0.221 0.414 0.696 0.635 0.277 0.279 0.566 0.930 0.483 0.343 4 0.787 0.439 0.282 0.292 0.564 0.328 0.254 0.749 0.320 0.523 5 0.538 0.399 0.257 0.368 0.457 0.716 0.211 0.432 0.427 0.193 6 0.625 0.439 0.414 0.340 0.859 0.836 0.381 0.366 0.389 0.686 7 0.343 0.699 0.828 0.305 0.358 0.732 0.427 0.343 0.312 0.320 8 0.356 0.396 0.737 0.445 0.378 0.335 0.505 0.765 0.638 0.696 9 0.792 0.470 0.277 0.533 0.218 0.409 0.668 0.828 0.429 0.892 10 0.513 0.622 0.683 0.457 0.320 0.328 0.353 0.310 0.584 0.546 11 0.180 0.353 0.787 0.536 0.307 0.218 0.417 0.277 0.409 0.292 12 0.645 0.566 0.559 0.406 0.437 0.622 0.790 0.300 0.686 0.335 13 0.536 0.267 0.432 0.551 0.264 0.320 0.414 0.391 0.216 0.434 14 0.201 0.274 0.523 0.325 0.272 0.391 0.267 0.516 0.323 0.450 15 0.262 0.460 0.318 0.295 0.305 0.257 0.282 0.292 0.325 0.259 16 0.635 0.904 0.432 0.620 0.508 0.556 0.810 0.432 0.399 0.528 17 0.389 0.437 0.777 1.064 0.699 0.315 0.561 1.003 0.775 0.704 18 0.765 0.554 0.866 0.526 0.612 0.323 0.544 0.391 0.358 0.447 19 0.312 0.429 0.419 0.584 0.391 0.284 0.401 0.508 0.749 1.092 20 0.386 0.521 0.320 0.401 0.457 0.445 0.508 0.384 0.472 0.584 21 1.019 0.643 0.384 0.493 0.566 0.371 0.643 0.820 0.686 0.318 22 0.328 0.356 0.333 0.282 0.333 0.279 0.333 0.287 0.432 0.414 23 0.765 0.399 0.417 0.559 0.597 0.577 0.414 0.452 0.566 0.338 24 0.551 0.536 0.838 0.622 0.737 0.368 0.445 0.635 1.064 0.356 25 0.142 0.645 1.062 0.749 0.866 0.302 0.409 0.714 0.907 0.483 26 0.361 0.216 0.671 0.267 0.287 0.643 0.445 0.305 0.673 0.312 27 0.381 0.315 0.508 0.528 0.516 0.290 0.305 0.693 0.475 0.503 28 0.305 0.254 0.323 0.521 0.343 0.325 0.394 0.257 0.330 0.526 29 0.411 0.724 1.262 0.513 0.409 0.211 0.483 0.864 0.310 0.409 30 0.218 0.262 0.396 0.536 0.940 0.269 0.401 0.498 0.292 0.500 31 0.127 0.368 0.538 0.211 0.284 0.638 0.493 0.249 0.175 0.287 32 0.599 0.592 0.927 0.681 0.683 0.597 0.531 0.706 0.800 1.105 33 0.300 0.394 0.627 1.240 1.130 0.343 0.361 0.419 0.894 0.785

PAGE 100

87 Table A-3. Continued Oyster 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 34 0.295 0.556 0.851 0.787 0.673 0.742 0.439 0.419 0.267 0.478 35 0.409 1.143 0.345 0.373 0.251 0.292 0.356 0.541 0.295 0.445 36 0.267 0.544 0.498 1.173 0.902 0.467 0.470 0.719 1.016 0.295 37 0.277 1.067 0.399 0.699 0.678 0.208 0.419 0.648 0.335 0.226 38 0.333 0.340 0.112 0.635 0.358 0.318 0.320 0.437 0.757 0.419 39 0.358 0.523 0.434 0.432 0.229 0.439 0.231 0.414 0.246 0.300 40 0.234 0.295 1.087 0.328 0.297 0.305 0.404 0.297 0.274 0.224 41 0.279 0.406 0.229 1.085 0.236 0.216 0.318 0.340 0.348 0.483 42 0.498 0.401 0.556 0.300 0.295 0.353 0.419 0.279 0.754 0.551 43 0.267 0.325 0.544 0.282 0.500 0.300 0.442 0.833 0.366 0.467 44 0.597 0.389 0.508 0.803 0.917 0.401 0.653 0.429 0.335 0.599 45 0.610 0.244 0.638 1.250 0.607 0.617 0.846 0.785 0.241 0.297 46 0.368 0.259 0.295 0.345 0.320 0.310 0.333 0.203 0.419 0.295 47 0.279 0.391 0.345 0.318 0.488 0.264 0.353 0.312 0.284 0.325 48 0.142 0.378 0.437 0.643 0.518 0.287 0.353 0.432 0.432 0.531 49 0.584 0.381 0.864 0.584 0.749 0.813 0.478 0.323 0.343 0.531 50 0.399 0.231 0.330 0.439 0.414 0.152 0.254 0.262 0.315 0.338 51 0.191 0.338 0.521 1.148 0.422 0.226 0.269 0.452 0.414 0.351 52 0.173 0.264 0.447 0.655 0.470 0.185 0.579 0.394 0.617 0.234 53 0.437 0.500 0.348 0.432 0.282 0.234 0.325 0.546 0.523 0.226 54 0.541 0.381 0.439 0.226 0.429 0.394 0.295 0.394 0.622 0.404 55 0.218 0.561 0.960 0.818 0.622 0.277 0.513 0.523 0.724 0.734 56 0.356 0.320 0.178 0.312 0.343 0.160 0.142 0.191 0.300 0.356 57 0.312 0.762 0.264 0.439 0.335 0.330 0.572 0.295 0.615 0.554 58 0.320 0.262 0.292 0.348 0.503 0.457 0.432 0.241 0.445 0.409 59 0.513 1.026 0.328 0.340 0.599 0.325 0.391 0.549 0.759 0.218 60 0.371 0.330 0.244 0.368 0.665 0.216 0.320 0.318 0.203 0.244 61 0.310 0.368 0.493 0.455 0.208 0.361 0.396 0.284 0.051 0.622 62 0.264 0.531 0.861 1.161 0.490 0.292 0.437 0.937 0.630 0.445 63 0.198 0.269 0.632 0.622 0.615 0.170 0.521 0.307 0.338 0.480 64 0.356 0.279 0.904 1.087 0.820 0.284 0.338 0.810 1.090 0.747 65 0.170 0.495 0.843 1.011 0.493 0.206 0.399 0.455 0.625 0.483 66 0.307 0.368 1.143 1.400 0.478 0.259 0.488 0.879 0.521 0.345 67 0.305 0.556 0.295 0.320 0.363 0.417 0.386 0.218 0.267 0.389 68 0.307 0.315 0.208 0.566 1.057 0.226 0.239 0.206 0.442 0.495 69 0.173 0.554 0.785 0.564 0.605 0.282 0.335 0.523 0.663 0.594 70 0.257 0.361 0.279 0.432 0.699 0.231 0.274 0.356 0.358 0.325 71 1.478 0.041 0.030 0.025 0.284 0.297 0.465 0.330 0.546 0.279 72 0.226 0.409 0.742 1.430 0.785 0.297 0.508 0.508 0.673 0.513 73 0.414 0.259 0.274 0.277 0.254 0.203 0.323 0.295 0.719 0.267 74 0.500 0.323 0.488 0.851 0.559 0.246 0.437 0.302 0.323 0.378 75 0.249 0.356 0.488 0.726 0.813 0.267 0.384 0.292 0.470 0.584 76 0.597 0.368 0.528 0.960 0.526 0.483 0.559 0.523 0.785 0.640 77 0.137 0.592 0.881 0.419 0.838 0.300 0.439 0.762 0.467 0.262 78 0.422 0.406 0.330 0.343 0.318 0.417 0.284 0.343 0.399 0.493 79 0.091 0.732 1.173 2.428 0.401 0.244 0.594 1.171 1.356 0.295 80 0.638 0.655 0.262 0.683 0.772 1.151 0.765 0.495 0.381 0.409 81 0.264 0.665 0.262 0.333 0.775 0.605 0.343 0.429 0.516 0.406 82 0.267 0.325 0.508 0.351 0.267 0.267 0.437 0.251 0.394 0.470 83 0.587 0.445 0.241 0.549 0.635 0.323 0.465 0.602 0.640 0.617 84 0.183 0.368 0.635 1.057 1.760 0.292 0.277 0.445 0.475 0.361

PAGE 101

88 Table A-3. Continued Oyster 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 85 0.241 0.404 0.305 0.597 0.345 0.160 0.511 0.330 0.290 0.203 86 0.279 0.292 0.465 0.401 0.406 0.429 0.269 0.432 0.523 0.533 87 0.315 0.610 0.485 0.417 0.378 0.292 0.389 0.292 0.358 0.333 88 0.376 0.612 1.026 0.394 0.625 0.333 0.462 1.039 1.095 0.434 89 0.257 0.432 0.528 0.417 0.373 0.622 0.274 0.384 0.409 0.371 90 0.544 0.536 0.546 0.815 0.521 0.729 0.450 0.457 0.678 0.556 91 0.467 0.396 0.828 0.546 0.269 0.226 0.533 0.574 0.716 0.533 92 0.381 0.356 0.353 0.330 0.211 0.310 0.229 0.305 0.229 0.269 93 0.391 0.445 0.767 0.310 0.546 0.338 0.284 0.262 0.556 0.432 94 0.282 0.216 0.422 0.556 0.427 0.290 0.538 0.290 0.351 0.312 95 0.206 0.282 0.381 0.541 0.274 0.292 0.424 0.274 0.226 0.338 96 0.549 0.582 0.701 0.711 0.366 0.279 0.681 0.361 0.688 0.549 97 0.279 0.193 0.678 0.518 0.264 0.221 0.284 0.579 0.396 0.216 98 0.323 0.231 0.541 0.283 0.726 0.472 0.351 0.320 0.432 0.279 99 0.419 0.429 0.406 0.409 0.640 0.330 0.518 0.462 0.338 0.318 100 0.417 0.465 0.795 0.333 0.371 0.345 0.485 0.683 0.333 0.259 Clam Measurements Table A-4. Clam Weight M easurements in g (4/29/05) Clam Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 1 36.6 8.5 28.1 14.0 14.1 3.31 0.99 1.65 1.66 2 33.5 10.6 22.9 11.4 11.5 2.16 0.99 1.08 1.08 3 40.6 10.6 30.0 15.0 15.0 2.83 1.00 1.42 1.42 4 37.8 9.8 28.0 14.1 13.9 2.86 1.01 1.44 1.42 5 38.4 11.8 26.6 13.3 13.3 2.25 1.00 1.13 1.13 6 33.5 10.3 23.2 11.4 11.8 2.25 0.97 1.11 1.15 7 37.8 11.5 26.3 13.3 13.0 2.29 1.02 1.16 1.13 8 39.5 13.7 25.8 13.0 12.8 1.88 1.02 0.95 0.93 9 47.2 14.3 32.9 16.3 16.6 2.30 0.98 1.14 1.16 10 44.3 15.5 28.8 14.5 14.3 1.86 1.01 0.94 0.92 11 42.8 14.4 28.4 14.3 14.1 1.97 1.01 0.99 0.98 12 46.0 13.9 32.1 16.0 16.1 2.31 0.99 1.15 1.16 13 40.4 13.9 26.5 13.3 13.2 1.91 1.01 0.96 0.95 14 38.7 12.0 26.7 13.4 13.3 2.23 1.01 1.12 1.11 15 30.3 8.6 21.7 11.0 10.7 2.52 1.03 1.28 1.24 16 41.2 13.3 27.9 14.0 13.9 2.10 1.01 1.05 1.05 17 39.7 11.8 27.9 14.0 13.9 2.36 1.01 1.19 1.18 18 40.4 15.1 25.3 12.7 12.6 1.68 1.01 0.84 0.83 19 43.1 12.4 30.7 15.3 15.4 2.48 0.99 1.23 1.24 20 38.4 10.9 27.5 13.9 13.6 2.52 1.02 1.28 1.25 21 49.1 15.1 34.0 17.3 16.7 2.25 1.04 1.15 1.11 22 60.1 18.6 41.5 20.6 20.9 2.23 0.99 1.11 1.12 23 36.3 11.4 24.9 12.4 12.5 2.18 0.99 1.09 1.10 24 35.6 12.5 23.1 11.6 11.5 1.85 1.01 0.93 0.92 25 39.1 11.3 27.8 14.0 13.8 2.46 1.01 1.24 1.22 26 44.9 16.2 28.7 143 14.3 1.77 10.00 8.83 0.88 27 46.0 15.3 30.7 15.4 15.3 2.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 28 35.7 9.6 26.1 13.0 13.1 2.72 0.99 1.35 1.36 29 37.2 10.1 27.1 13.5 13.6 2.68 0.99 1.34 1.35

PAGE 102

89 Table A-4. Continued Clam Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 30 36.5 10.3 26.2 13.0 13.2 2.54 0.98 1.26 1.28 31 36.9 11.6 25.3 12.6 12.7 2.18 0.99 1.09 1.09 32 38.9 12.1 26.8 13.5 13.3 2.21 1.02 1.12 1.10 33 35.0 12.8 22.2 11.2 11.0 1.73 1.02 0.88 0.86 34 42.7 13.8 28.9 14.4 14.5 2.09 0.99 1.04 1.05 35 48.3 16.9 31.4 15.5 15.9 1.86 0.97 0.92 0.94 36 42.8 13.9 28.9 14.3 14.6 2.08 0.98 1.03 1.05 37 36.2 11.8 24.4 12.0 12.4 2.07 0.97 1.02 1.05 38 50.0 15.2 34.8 17.2 17.6 2.29 0.98 1.13 1.16 39 37.1 8.8 28.3 14.2 14.1 3.22 1.01 1.61 1.60 40 39.1 12.6 26.5 13.4 13.1 2.10 1.02 1.06 1.04 41 45.5 13.5 32.0 16.0 16.0 2.37 1.00 1.19 1.19 42 37.3 13.8 23.5 12.0 11.5 1.70 1.04 0.87 0.83 43 48.3 12.0 36.3 18.0 18.3 3.03 0.98 1.50 1.53 44 39.5 12.4 27.1 13.7 13.4 2.19 1.02 1.10 1.08 45 40.2 13.8 26.4 13.0 13.4 1.91 0.97 0.94 0.97 46 34.1 10.5 23.6 11.6 12.0 2.25 0.97 1.10 1.14 47 32.5 11.9 20.6 10.3 10.3 1.73 1.00 0.87 0.87 48 42.9 11.7 31.2 15.4 15.8 2.67 0.97 1.32 1.35 49 33.6 10.6 23.0 11.4 11.6 2.17 0.98 1.08 1.09 50 49.3 16.0 33.3 16.5 16.8 2.08 0.98 1.03 1.05 51 36.0 11.9 24.1 12.0 12.1 2.03 0.99 1.01 1.02 52 37.2 12.3 24.9 12.3 12.6 2.02 0.98 1.00 1.02 53 35.8 11.7 24.1 12.0 12.1 2.06 0.99 1.03 1.03 54 45.7 15.4 30.3 15.2 15.1 1.97 1.01 0.99 0.98 55 44.2 12.9 31.3 15.5 15.8 2.43 0.98 1.20 1.22 56 40.4 12.5 27.9 14.0 13.9 2.23 1.01 1.12 1.11 57 33.9 8.4 25.5 12.8 12.7 3.04 1.01 1.52 1.51 58 37.9 11.0 26.9 13.5 13.4 2.45 1.01 1.23 1.22 59 38.5 10.8 27.7 13.9 13.8 2.56 1.01 1.29 1.28 60 26.9 7.1 19.8 10.0 9.8 2.79 1.02 1.41 1.38 61 38.0 10.4 27.6 13.8 13.8 2.65 1.00 1.33 1.33 62 47.7 14.9 32.8 16.5 16.3 2.20 1.01 1.11 1.09 63 36.2 10.6 25.6 13.0 12.6 2.42 1.03 1.23 1.19 64 34.9 9.4 25.5 12.8 12.7 2.71 1.01 1.36 1.35 65 40.0 11.3 28.7 14.4 14.3 2.54 1.01 1.27 1.27 66 42.5 13.3 29.2 14.7 14.5 2.20 1.01 1.11 1.09 67 35.6 9.9 25.7 12.9 12.8 2.60 1.01 1.30 1.29 68 32.7 11.0 21.7 10.9 10.8 1.97 1.01 0.99 0.98 69 46.2 13.0 33.2 16.7 16.5 2.55 1.01 1.28 1.27 70 47.2 17.0 30.2 15.3 14.9 1.78 1.03 0.90 0.88 71 52.6 16.1 36.5 18.1 18.4 2.27 0.98 1.12 1.14 72 38.6 12.6 26.0 13.3 12.7 2.06 1.05 1.06 1.01 73 41.5 11.9 29.6 15.1 14.5 2.49 1.04 1.27 1.22 74 43.3 13.3 30.0 15.0 15.0 2.26 1.00 1.13 1.13 75 46.0 13.4 32.6 16.2 16.4 2.43 0.99 1.21 1.22 76 42.1 13.2 28.9 14.3 14.6 2.19 0.98 1.08 1.11 77 39.9 14.3 25.6 13.0 12.6 1.79 1.03 0.91 0.88 78 36.0 9.5 26.5 13.3 13.2 2.79 1.01 1.40 1.39 79 41.5 13.4 28.1 14.2 13.9 2.10 1.02 1.06 1.04

PAGE 103

90 Table A-4. Continued Clam Overall wt Meat wt Shell wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 80 39.8 13.3 26.5 13.4 13.1 1.99 1.02 1.01 0.98 81 51.1 14.7 36.4 18.3 18.1 2.48 1.01 1.24 1.23 82 42.8 14.4 28.4 14.4 14.0 1.97 1.03 1.00 0.97 83 44.2 16.1 28.1 14.2 13.9 1.75 1.02 0.88 0.86 84 43.8 13.4 30.4 15.4 15.0 2.27 1.03 1.15 1.12 85 37.9 12.3 25.6 13.0 12.6 2.08 1.03 1.06 1.02 86 47.4 13.9 33.5 17.0 16.5 2.41 1.03 1.22 1.19 87 48.0 16.9 31.1 15.3 15.8 1.84 0.97 0.91 0.93 88 42.6 13.8 28.8 14.2 14.6 2.09 0.97 1.03 1.06 89 51.1 16.8 34.3 17.0 17.3 2.04 0.98 1.01 1.03 90 36.8 13.9 22.9 11.6 11.3 1.65 1.03 0.83 0.81 91 34.1 12.4 21.7 10.9 10.8 1.75 1.01 0.88 0.87 92 32.5 10.8 21.7 10.9 10.8 2.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 93 45.8 14.8 31.0 15.6 15.4 2.09 1.01 1.05 1.04 94 55.1 18.9 36.2 18.0 18.2 1.92 0.99 0.95 0.96 95 35.8 10.5 25.3 12.7 12.6 2.41 1.01 1.21 1.20 96 41.3 12.0 29.3 14.8 14.5 2.44 1.02 1.23 1.21 97 38.8 12.1 26.7 13.1 13.6 2.21 0.96 1.08 1.12 98 39.5 14.2 25.3 12.8 12.5 1.78 1.02 0.90 0.88 99 35.9 9.5 26.4 13.2 13.2 2.78 1.00 1.39 1.39 100 35.4 11.9 23.5 11.8 11.7 1.97 1.01 0.99 0.98 Table A-5. Clam Dimension Measurement in cm (5/10/05) Clam Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 1 4.45 1.45 4.95 4.5 1.4 4.95 4.5 2.85 4.95 2 4.4 1.45 5.0 4.35 1.35 5.0 4.4 2.8 5.0 3 4.6 1.45 5.1 4.55 1.5 5.1 4.6 2.95 5.1 4 4.3 1.5 5.2 4.45 1.45 5.25 4.45 2.95 5.25 5 4.2 1.45 4.9 4.2 1.4 4.8 4.2 2.85 4.9 6 4.0 1.45 4.6 4.15 1.45 4.55 4.15 2.9 4.6 7 4.15 1.35 4.9 4.2 1.45 4.9 4.2 2.8 4.9 8 4.35 1.4 4.85 4.4 1.45 4.85 4.4 2.85 4.85 9 4.4 1.5 5.4 4.5 1.5 5.4 4.5 3.0 5.4 10 4.3 1.45 5.2 4.55 1.45 5.2 4.55 2.9 5.2 11 4.5 1.5 4.95 4.4 1.4 5.0 4.5 2.9 5.0 12 4.4 1.45 5.25 4.3 1.35 5.15 4.4 2.8 5.25 13 4.3 1.45 5.05 4.2 1.5 5.1 4.3 2.95 5.1 14 4.3 1.45 4.8 4.35 1.45 4.85 4.35 2.9 4.85 15 3.8 1.5 4.45 3.8 1.35 4.5 3.8 2.85 4.5 16 4.3 1.35 4.8 4.35 1.4 4.75 4.35 2.75 4.8 17 4.1 1.5 4.9 4.3 1.55 4.9 4.3 3.05 4.9 18 4.0 1.4 4.6 4.0 1.4 4.7 4.0 2.8 4.7 19 4.8 1.4 5.45 4.8 1.3 5.4 4.8 2.7 5.45 20 4.4 1.45 5.1 4.3 1.45 5.05 4.4 2.9 5.1 21 4.75 1.45 5.5 4.75 1.4 5.5 4.75 2.85 5.5 22 4.7 1.5 5.9 4.85 1.6 5.9 4.85 3.1 5.9 23 4.1 1.4 4.9 4.1 1.45 4.85 4.1 2.85 4.9 24 4.4 1.4 4.9 4.3 1.4 4.85 4.4 2.8 4.9 25 4.45 1.4 4.85 4.4 1.45 4.8 4.45 2.85 4.85

PAGE 104

91 Table A-5. Continued Clam Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 26 4.1 1.4 5.15 4.2 1.4 5.1 4.2 2.8 5.15 27 4.35 1.4 5.3 4.3 1.45 5.25 4.35 2.85 5.3 28 4.0 1.4 4.85 4.0 1.35 4.85 4.0 2.75 4.85 29 4.25 1.45 4.7 4.25 1.4 4.7 4.25 2.85 4.7 30 4.15 1.5 4.95 4.35 1.55 5.0 4.35 3.05 5.0 31 4.1 1.45 4.9 4.1 1.3 4.8 4.1 2.75 4.9 32 4.35 1.4 5.05 4.3 1.4 5.05 4.35 2.8 5.05 33 3.95 1.3 4.5 4.0 1.35 4.5 4.0 2.65 4.5 34 4.35 1.3 4.95 4.35 1.5 4.95 4.35 2.8 4.95 35 4.7 1.5 5.2 4.55 1.6 5.2 4.7 3.1 5.2 36 4.55 1.45 5.2 4.6 1.35 5.2 4.6 2.8 5.2 37 4.05 1.4 4.9 4.2 1.4 4.9 4.2 2.8 4.9 38 4.6 1.4 5.4 4.4 1.5 5.25 4.6 2.9 5.4 39 4.15 1.55 4.8 4.25 1.5 4.8 4.25 3.05 4.8 40 4.35 1.4 4.8 4.3 1.4 4.8 4.35 2.8 4.8 41 4.4 1.5 5.1 4.45 1.4 5.2 4.45 2.9 5.2 42 4.5 1.4 5.0 4.4 1.4 4.95 4.5 2.8 5.0 43 4.6 1.45 5.4 4.8 1.4 4.45 4.8 2.85 5.4 44 4.2 1.4 4.8 4.25 1.45 4.8 4.25 2.85 4.8 45 4.15 1.35 4.8 4.3 1.4 4.85 4.3 2.75 4.85 46 4.05 1.45 4.8 4.2 1.3 4.75 4.2 2.75 4.8 47 4.0 1.2 4.4 4.05 1.45 4.45 4.05 2.65 4.45 48 4.35 1.55 5.0 4.35 1.5 5.05 4.35 3.05 5.05 49 4.0 1.4 4.7 4.1 1.2 4.7 4.1 2.6 4.7 50 4.4 1.4 5.4 4.5 1.55 5.35 4.5 2.95 5.4 51 4.0 1.5 4.4 3.95 1.45 4.5 4.0 2.95 4.5 52 4.05 1.4 5.0 4.05 1.4 4.9 4.05 2.8 5.0 53 3.95 1.35 4.9 4.05 1.3 4.9 4.05 2.65 4.9 54 4.35 1.45 5.15 4.55 1.45 5.2 4.55 2.9 5.2 55 4.3 1.55 5.3 4.45 1.5 5.25 4.45 3.05 5.3 56 4.25 1.4 5.05 4.2 1.35 5.05 4.25 2.75 5.05 57 4.3 1.45 4.95 4.1 1.4 4.95 4.3 2.85 4.95 58 4.25 1.4 4.85 4.3 1.4 4.9 4.3 2.8 4.9 59 4.2 1.5 4.75 4.2 1.4 4.75 4.2 2.9 4.75 60 4.0 1.25 4.3 3.95 1.4 4.35 4.0 2.65 4.35 61 4.3 1.4 4.9 4.25 1.55 4.9 4.3 2.95 4.9 62 4.6 1.6 5.1 4.65 1.65 5.15 4.65 3.25 5.15 63 4.1 1.35 4.7 4.2 1.4 4.7 4.2 2.75 4.7 64 4.20 1.4 4.95 4.25 1.3 4.55 4.25 2.7 4.95 65 4.45 1.4 4.9 4.4 1.4 4.9 4.45 2.8 4.9 66 4.3 1.6 4.85 4.4 1.5 5.0 4.4 3.1 5.0 67 4.45 1.4 4.9 4.45 1.45 4.9 4.45 2.85 4.9 68 4.0 1.35 4.5 4.0 1.35 4.5 4.0 2.7 4.5 69 4.5 1.5 5.0 4.55 1.5 5.0 4.55 3.0 5.0 70 4.1 1.4 4.8 4.15 1.45 4.8 4.15 2.85 4.8 71 4.6 1.5 5.25 4.6 1.5 5.3 4.6 3.0 5.3 72 4.6 1.4 5.5 4.6 1.3 5.5 4.6 2.7 5.5 73 4.35 1.3 4.9 4.2 1.35 4.9 4.35 2.65 4.9 74 4.45 1.4 5.0 4.4 1.4 5.0 4.45 2.8 5.0 75 4.3 1.45 5.0 4.35 1.4 5.0 4.35 2.85 5.0

PAGE 105

92 Table A-5. Continued Clam Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 76 4.35 1.3 4.8 4.4 1.25 4.9 4.4 2.55 4.9 77 4.05 1.35 4.85 4.1 1.35 4.85 4.1 2.7 4.85 78 4.0 1.4 4.55 4.05 1.4 4.5 4.05 2.8 4.55 79 4.05 1.3 4.9 4.1 1.35 4.95 4.1 2.65 4.95 80 4.2 1.4 5.0 4.3 1.45 4.95 4.3 2.85 5.0 81 4.5 1.5 5.3 4.9 1.4 5.2 4.9 2.9 5.3 82 4.45 1.35 5.0 4.5 1.45 5.0 4.5 2.8 5.0 83 4.4 1.5 5.0 4.4 1.4 5.05 4.4 2.9 5.05 84 4.15 1.45 4.7 4.2 1.45 4.7 4.2 2.9 4.7 85 4.3 1.5 4.95 4.3 1.4 4.95 4.3 2.9 4.95 86 4.75 1.4 5.4 4.7 1.45 5.4 4.75 2.85 5.4 87 4.4 1.45 5.3 4.5 1.45 5.35 4.5 2.9 5.35 88 4.2 1.35 4.9 4.3 1.35 4.9 4.3 2.7 4.9 89 4.65 1.45 5.4 4.7 1.45 5.4 4.7 2.9 5.4 90 4.15 1.35 4.6 4.03 1.4 4.6 4.15 2.75 4.6 91 4.0 1.2 4.3 4.0 1.45 4.5 4.0 2.65 4.5 92 4.0 1.4 4.65 4.0 1.4 4.65 4.0 2.8 4.65 93 4.7 1.2 5.25 4.55 1.5 5.2 4.7 2.7 4.25 94 4.7 1.45 5.4 4.6 1.5 5.25 4.7 2.95 5.4 95 4.0 1.3 4.55 4.0 1.35 4.5 4.0 2.65 4.55 96 4.2 1.5 4.75 4.2 1.55 4.75 4.2 3.05 4.75 97 4.2 1.35 4.95 4.2 1.4 4.85 4.2 2.75 4.95 98 4.1 1.4 4.8 4.2 1.3 4.8 4.2 2.7 4.8 99 4.3 1.4 4.8 4.75 1.45 4.8 4.75 2.85 4.8 100 4.15 1.4 4.45 4.0 1.3 4.5 4.15 2.7 4.5 Table A-6. Clam Thickness Measurement in cm (5/12/05) Clam 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 1 0.29 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.28 0.37 0.34 0.35 0.30 2 0.24 0.28 0.26 0.32 0.34 0.26 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31 3 0.30 0.29 0.33 0.30 0.34 0.29 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.33 4 0.28 0.30 0.28 0.37 0.36 0.29 0.31 0.30 0.36 0.35 5 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.27 0.26 6 0.27 0.31 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.27 0.31 0.30 0.32 0.31 7 0.27 0.32 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.34 8 0.26 0.30 0.30 0.34 0.34 0.27 0.32 0.30 0.31 0.32 9 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.37 0.34 0.33 0.33 10 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.31 0.32 0.26 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.33 11 0.27 0.30 0.29 0.34 0.30 0.27 0.33 0.31 0.33 0.33 12 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.28 0.35 0.31 0.38 0.38 13 0.29 0.27 0.29 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.34 0.34 14 0.28 0.28 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.35 15 0.26 0.30 0.29 0.33 0.33 0.26 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.32 16 0.29 0.29 0.35 0.36 0.32 0.30 0.38 0.33 0.32 0.37 17 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.36 0.34 0.27 0.32 0.31 0.35 0.36 18 0.28 0.29 0.35 0.32 0.33 0.26 0.34 0.36 0.35 0.35 19 0.24 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.29 20 0.26 0.27 0.32 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.36 0.32 0.28 0.27 21 0.27 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.27 0.27 22 0.29 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.32 0.28 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.32

PAGE 106

93 Table A-6. Continued Clam 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 23 0.27 0.27 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.30 24 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.28 0.29 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.32 0.30 25 0.26 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.31 26 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.32 0.30 0.30 0.33 27 0.28 0.27 0.32 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.37 0.34 0.36 0.35 28 0.26 0.32 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.25 0.31 0.26 0.29 0.29 29 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.32 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.29 0.29 0.28 30 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.33 0.33 31 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.30 0.25 0.25 32 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.27 0.26 33 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 34 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.27 0.31 0.26 0.26 35 0.29 0.29 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.37 36 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.25 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.26 37 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.26 0.26 38 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.31 39 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.28 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.34 40 0.26 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.28 41 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.27 0.27 42 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.00 43 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.27 0.27 44 0.28 0.26 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.28 45 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.28 0.30 46 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.25 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.30 0.29 0.30 47 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.26 0.26 48 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.31 0.30 0.30 49 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.28 0.31 50 0.28 0.34 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.29 51 0.26 0.26 0.33 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.26 0.32 0.26 0.26 52 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.31 0.27 0.27 53 0.26 0.32 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.25 0.31 0.26 0.29 0.29 54 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.28 55 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.31 0.31 0.26 0.27 56 0.26 0.30 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.27 0.28 57 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.29 0.26 0.27 0.31 0.28 0.28 58 0.28 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.30 59 0.26 0.27 0.32 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.31 0.28 0.28 60 0.25 0.31 0.27 0.31 0.30 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.26 61 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.26 0.32 0.26 0.26 62 0.27 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.26 0.31 0.29 0.30 0.30 63 0.25 0.28 0.33 0.31 0.30 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.29 0.29 64 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.27 0.27 65 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.34 0.35 66 0.32 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 67 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.27 0.26 68 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.24 0.27 0.30 0.26 0.27 69 0.26 0.32 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.25 0.31 0.34 0.31 0.31 70 0.29 0.25 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.30 71 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.31 0.32 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 72 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.31 0.31

PAGE 107

94 Table A-6. Continued Clam 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 73 0.31 0.30 0.34 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.37 0.36 74 0.30 0.27 0.32 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.27 0.32 0.30 0.31 75 0.26 0.31 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.30 0.28 0.30 0.30 76 0.27 0.28 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.29 0.29 77 0.26 0.30 0.28 0.35 0.34 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.32 0.32 78 0.25 0.31 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.28 0.30 79 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 80 0.26 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.30 81 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.28 82 0.28 0.27 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.29 83 0.28 0.33 0.32 0.36 0.34 0.27 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 84 0.28 0.29 0.33 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.30 0.30 85 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.28 86 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.31 87 0.23 0.28 0.29 0.28 0.29 0.26 0.27 0.31 0.28 0.28 88 0.30 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.32 0.30 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.31 89 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.27 0.27 90 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.26 0.30 0.27 0.28 0.32 91 0.25 0.29 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.31 92 0.25 0.25 0.28 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.26 0.26 93 0.27 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.32 0.28 0.31 0.33 94 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.32 0.27 0.27 95 0.29 0.32 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.33 0.35 0.34 0.32 96 0.30 0.32 0.32 0.35 0.35 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.35 0.32 97 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.30 0.27 0.27 98 0.28 0.33 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.32 0.31 0.32 0.32 99 0.28 0.33 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31 100 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.30 0.26 0.29 0.30 Mussel Measurement Table A-7. Mussel Weight M easurement in g (5/12/05) Mussel Overall Wt Meat Wt Shell Wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 1 22.9 13.4 9.5 5.0 4.5 0.71 1.11 0.37 0.34 2 19.6 10.7 8.9 4.45 4.45 0.83 1.00 0.42 0.42 3 17 9.2 7.8 3.8 4 0.85 0.95 0.41 0.43 4 10.7 6.6 4.1 2.05 2.05 0.62 1.00 0.31 0.31 5 18.6 12.1 6.5 3.3 3.2 0.54 1.03 0.27 0.26 6 14.2 6.4 7.8 3.7 4.1 1.22 0.90 0.58 0.64 7 10.9 5.0 5.9 3.1 2.8 1.18 1.11 0.62 0.56 8 14.4 8.2 6.2 3.3 2.9 0.76 1.14 0.40 0.35 9 11.7 6.8 4.9 2.5 2.4 0.72 1.04 0.37 0.35 10 15.9 10.0 5.9 3.1 2.8 0.59 1.11 0.31 0.28 11 14.3 7.0 7.3 3.65 3.65 1.04 1.00 0.52 0.52 12 15.3 8.2 7.1 3.4 3.7 0.87 0.92 0.41 0.45 13 23.8 14.5 9.3 4.4 4.9 0.64 0.90 0.30 0.34 14 18.8 10.9 7.9 3.8 4.1 0.72 0.93 0.35 0.38 15 17.2 10.4 6.8 3.6 3.2 0.65 1.13 0.35 0.31 16 15.6 9.1 6.5 3.25 3.25 0.71 1.00 0.36 0.36

PAGE 108

95 Table A-7. Continued Mussel Overall Wt Meat Wt Shell Wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 17 14.3 7.3 7.0 3.0 4 0.96 0.75 0.41 0.55 18 22.1 13.1 9.0 4.2 4.8 0.69 0.88 0.32 0.37 19 12.8 6.6 6.2 3 3.2 0.94 0.94 0.45 0.48 20 15.7 9.7 6.0 3.2 2.8 0.62 1.14 0.33 0.29 21 17.6 11.2 6.4 3.2 3.2 0.57 1.00 0.29 0.29 22 10.3 5.4 4.9 2.6 2.3 0.91 1.13 0.48 0.43 23 18.2 10.3 7.9 3.80 4.1 0.77 0.93 0.37 0.40 24 13.9 8.4 5.5 2.75 2.75 0.65 1.00 0.33 0.33 25 16.8 9.5 7.3 3.8 3.5 0.77 1.09 0.40 0.37 26 8.3 4.0 4.3 2.3 2 1.08 1.15 0.58 0.50 27 27.6 14.6 13.0 6.8 6.2 0.89 1.10 0.47 0.42 28 21.1 11.9 9.2 4.6 4.6 0.77 1.00 0.39 0.39 29 10.1 5.2 4.9 2.6 2.3 0.94 1.13 0.50 0.44 30 15.4 6.6 8.8 4.4 4.4 1.33 1.00 0.67 0.67 31 18.9 11.2 7.7 4.0 3.7 0.69 1.08 0.36 0.33 32 15.4 8.6 6.8 3.6 3.2 0.79 1.13 0.42 0.37 33 15.7 8.0 7.7 4.0 3.7 0.96 1.08 0.50 0.46 34 18.4 7.2 11.2 5.6 5.6 1.56 1.00 0.78 0.78 35 22.7 10.3 12.4 6.0 6.4 1.20 0.94 0.58 0.62 36 12.2 6.1 6.1 3.2 2.9 1.00 1.10 0.52 0.48 37 16.3 8.1 8.2 4.3 3.9 1.01 1.10 0.53 0.48 38 9.1 4.7 4.4 2.5 1.9 0.94 1.32 0.53 0.40 39 10.5 4.8 5.7 2.9 2.8 1.19 1.04 0.60 0.58 40 13.5 6.6 6.9 3.1 3.8 1.05 0.82 0.47 0.58 41 10.8 5.6 5.2 3.0 2.2 0.93 1.36 0.54 0.39 42 13.2 6.0 7.2 3.7 3.5 1.20 1.06 0.62 0.58 43 13.1 6.8 6.3 3.4 2.9 0.93 1.17 0.50 0.43 44 10.4 3.7 6.7 3.5 3.2 1.81 1.09 0.95 0.86 45 13.4 6.7 6.7 3.2 3.5 1.00 0.91 0.48 0.52 46 11.3 4.7 6.6 3.1 3.5 1.40 0.89 0.66 0.74 47 7.6 3.1 4.5 2.2 2.3 1.45 0.96 0.71 0.74 48 8.5 3.0 5.5 2.75 2.75 1.83 1.00 0.92 0.92 49 10.9 4.6 6.3 3.0 3.3 1.37 0.91 0.65 0.72 50 9.2 3.7 5.5 2.9 2.6 1.49 1.12 0.78 0.70 51 12.2 5.9 6.3 3.0 3.3 1.07 0.91 0.51 0.56 52 14.8 8.1 6.7 3.3 3.4 0.83 0.97 0.41 0.42 53 11.6 5.6 6.0 3.1 2.9 1.07 1.07 0.55 0.52 54 12.8 5.8 7.0 3.1 3.9 1.21 0.79 0.53 0.67 55 11.2 6.0 5.2 2.9 2.3 0.87 1.26 0.48 0.38 56 9.3 3.9 5.4 3.0 2.4 1.38 1.25 0.77 0.62 57 16.7 7.9 8.8 4.1 4.7 1.11 0.87 0.52 0.59 58 8.8 3.9 4.9 2.3 2.6 1.26 0.88 0.59 0.67 59 8.3 3.0 5.3 2.65 2.65 1.77 1.00 0.88 0.88 60 9.5 4.5 5.0 2.5 2.5 1.11 1.00 0.56 0.56 61 10.1 5.3 4.8 2.7 2.1 0.91 1.29 0.51 0.40 62 7.6 2.8 4.8 2.0 2.8 1.71 0.71 0.71 1.00 63 9.9 4.4 5.5 2.75 2.75 1.25 1.00 0.63 0.63 64 9.3 4.2 5.1 2.4 2.7 1.21 0.89 0.57 0.64 65 10.4 4.3 6.1 2.9 3.2 1.42 0.91 0.67 0.74 66 11.1 5.3 5.8 3.1 2.7 1.09 1.15 0.58 0.51

PAGE 109

96 Table A-7. Continued Mussel Overall Wt Meat Wt Shell Wt Top Shell wt Bottom Shell wt Shell/ Meat Top/ Bottom Top/ Meat Bottom/ Meat 68 11.3 4.0 7.3 3.6 3.7 1.83 0.97 0.90 0.93 69 8.7 3.5 5.2 2.4 2.8 1.49 0.86 0.69 0.80 70 11.7 4.9 6.8 3.6 3.2 1.39 1.13 0.73 0.65 71 10.8 3.9 6.9 3.3 3.6 1.77 0.92 0.85 0.92 72 8.8 4.2 4.6 2.3 2.3 1.10 1.00 0.55 0.55 73 8.5 3.7 4.8 2.4 2.4 1.30 1.00 0.65 0.65 74 8.2 3.4 4.8 2.5 2.3 1.41 1.09 0.74 0.68 75 11.1 4.6 6.5 3.3 3.2 1.41 1.03 0.72 0.70 76 7.7 3.4 4.3 2.3 2 1.26 1.15 0.68 0.59 77 18.6 9.8 8.8 4.1 4.7 0.90 0.87 0.42 0.48 78 10.4 4.4 6.0 3.2 2.8 1.36 1.14 0.73 0.64 79 9.1 3.0 6.1 3.0 3.1 2.03 0.97 1.00 1.03 80 14.3 8.1 6.2 2.8 3.4 0.77 0.82 0.35 0.42 81 11.4 5.0 6.4 3.2 3.2 1.28 1.00 0.64 0.64 82 9.1 4.3 4.8 2.4 2.4 1.12 1.00 0.56 0.56 83 6.3 2.0 4.3 2.15 2.15 2.15 1.00 1.08 1.08 84 6.7 2.6 4.1 2.2 1.9 1.58 1.16 0.85 0.73 85 7 2.3 4.7 2.2 2.5 2.04 0.88 0.96 1.09 86 8.4 3.5 4.9 2.3 2.6 1.40 0.88 0.66 0.74 87 9.2 3.6 5.6 2.6 3 1.56 0.87 0.72 0.83 88 10.5 4.7 5.8 2.7 3.1 1.23 0.87 0.57 0.66 89 12.3 5.5 6.8 3.1 3.7 1.24 0.84 0.56 0.67 90 10.4 4.1 6.3 3.25 3.05 1.54 1.07 0.79 0.74 91 9.6 4.9 4.7 2.1 2.6 0.96 0.81 0.43 0.53 92 6.3 1.9 4.4 2.0 2.4 2.32 0.83 1.05 1.26 93 13.9 5.4 8.5 4.1 4.4 1.57 0.93 0.76 0.81 94 8.2 2.5 5.7 2.9 2.8 2.28 1.04 1.16 1.12 95 11.6 4.0 7.6 4.0 3.6 1.90 1.11 1.00 0.90 96 12.3 4.0 8.3 4.3 4 2.08 1.08 1.08 1.00 97 8.9 3.8 5.1 2.60 2.5 1.34 1.04 0.68 0.66 98 10.9 4.3 6.6 3.3 3.3 1.53 1.00 0.77 0.77 99 8.8 3.8 5.0 2.8 2.2 1.32 1.27 0.74 0.58 100 12.8 6.7 6.1 3.2 2.9 0.91 1.10 0.48 0.43 Table A-8. Mussel Dimension Me asurement in cm (5/20/05) Mussel Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 1 6.10 2.40 2.80 6.05 2.45 2.85 6.10 4.85 2.85 2 5.50 1.15 2.75 5.50 1.15 2.70 5.50 2.30 2.75 3 6.20 1.10 2.50 6.15 1.05 2.45 6.20 2.15 2.50 4 5.95 1.20 3.45 6.00 1.00 3.45 6.00 2.20 3.45 5 4.90 1.35 3.95 4.90 1.25 3.90 4.90 2.60 3.95 6 6.70 0.95 2.95 6.80 0.95 2.90 6.80 1.90 2.95 7 5.30 1.20 3.50 5.35 1.20 3.50 5.35 2.40 3.50 8 5.25 1.00 3.75 5.25 1.00 3.80 5.25 2.00 3.80 9 5.25 1.15 3.25 5.25 1.20 3.30 5.25 2.35 3.30 10 6.05 1.10 3.15 6.15 1.15 3.15 6.15 2.25 3.15 11 6.30 1.35 2.95 6.35 1.35 2.95 6.35 2.70 2.95 12 5.50 1.45 3.65 5.50 1.45 3.65 5.50 2.90 3.65 13 4.95 1.00 3.00 5.00 1.00 3.05 5.00 2.00 3.05

PAGE 110

97 Table A-8 Continued Mussel Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 14 6.40 1.30 3.35 6.40 1.35 3.30 6.40 2.65 3.35 15 5.80 1.05 3.00 5.80 1.10 3.00 5.80 2.15 3.00 16 6.00 1.20 2.80 6.00 1.25 2.85 6.00 2.45 2.85 17 4.50 1.35 3.40 4.55 1.35 3.40 4.55 2.70 3.40 18 5.85 1.75 3.65 5.85 1.75 3.65 5.85 3.50 3.65 19 5.00 1.45 2.95 5.05 1.50 2.95 5.05 2.95 2.95 20 5.30 1.00 3.00 5.30 0.95 3.00 5.30 1.95 3.00 21 5.45 1.10 2.80 5.50 1.15 2.80 5.50 2.25 2.80 22 5.30 1.00 2.90 5.30 1.00 2.95 5.30 2.00 2.95 23 6.15 1.15 2.60 6.15 1.05 2.60 6.15 2.20 2.60 24 5.80 1.20 3.35 5.85 1.20 3.50 5.85 2.40 3.35 25 6.00 1.10 3.40 6.00 1.10 3.40 6.00 2.20 3.40 26 5.30 1.00 3.00 5.30 0.95 3.10 5.30 1.95 3.10 27 5.95 1.25 3.40 5.90 1.30 3.25 5.95 2.55 3.40 28 5.50 1.20 3.50 5.50 1.20 3.55 5.50 2.40 3.55 29 5.50 1.00 2.90 5.50 0.95 2.90 5.50 1.95 2.90 30 5.95 1.20 3.50 6.00 1.00 3.45 6.00 2.20 3.50 31 6.30 1.35 2.95 6.35 1.35 2.95 6.35 2.70 2.95 32 5.95 0.95 2.95 5.95 1.00 2.90 5.95 1.95 2.95 33 6.15 1.00 3.25 6.10 1.00 3.20 6.15 2.00 3.25 34 4.75 1.10 3.10 4.80 1.10 3.10 4.80 2.20 3.10 35 6.15 1.15 2.60 6.15 1.05 2.65 6.15 2.20 2.65 36 5.30 1.25 3.35 5.25 1.20 3.35 5.30 2.45 3.35 37 4.95 1.00 3.00 5.00 1.00 3.05 5.00 2.00 3.05 38 5.00 1.45 3.10 5.05 1.50 2.95 5.05 2.95 3.10 39 6.70 0.95 2.95 6.80 0.95 2.90 6.80 1.90 2.95 40 4.95 1.05 3.25 5.00 1.10 3.25 5.00 2.15 3.10 41 5.05 1.05 2.95 4.70 1.05 2.90 5.05 2.10 2.95 42 5.05 1.10 3.10 5.05 1.10 3.10 5.05 2.20 3.10 43 6.15 1.15 2.60 6.15 1.05 2.60 6.15 2.20 2.60 44 4.95 1.00 3.00 5.00 1.00 3.05 5.00 2.00 3.05 45 6.15 1.00 3.25 6.10 1.00 3.20 6.15 2.00 3.25 46 5.25 1.15 3.25 5.25 1.20 3.30 5.25 2.35 3.30 47 5.10 1.15 3.05 5.15 1.20 3.00 5.15 2.35 3.05 48 5.95 1.25 2.95 5.95 1.25 3.00 5.95 2.50 3.00 49 5.60 1.10 3.30 5.60 1.10 3.30 5.60 2.20 3.30 50 6.70 1.20 3.40 6.70 1.20 3.40 6.70 2.40 3.40 51 4.95 1.35 3.05 5.00 1.40 3.00 5.00 2.75 3.00 52 5.30 1.25 3.25 5.25 1.20 3.25 5.30 2.45 3.25 53 5.95 1.00 2.95 6.00 1.05 3.00 6.00 2.05 3.00 54 5.90 1.30 3.15 5.90 1.30 3.20 5.90 2.60 3.20 55 5.80 1.00 3.45 5.70 1.05 3.40 5.80 2.05 3.45 56 5.25 1.05 3.05 5.15 1.05 3.00 5.25 2.10 3.00 57 6.65 1.15 3.60 6.60 1.15 3.60 6.65 2.30 3.60 58 5.05 1.10 2.80 5.05 1.05 2.75 5.05 2.15 2.80 59 5.30 1.00 2.90 5.30 1.00 2.90 5.30 2.00 2.90 60 6.15 1.15 2.60 6.15 1.05 2.60 6.15 2.20 2.60 61 5.50 1.10 2.80 5.50 1.10 2.95 5.50 2.20 2.95 62 5.60 1.20 3.10 5.55 1.20 3.10 5.60 2.40 3.10 63 5.20 1.00 2.90 5.20 1.00 2.95 5.20 2.00 2.95

PAGE 111

98 Table A-8. Continued Mussel Top Length Top Height Top Width Bottom Length Bottom Height Bottom Width Total Length Total Height Total Width 64 6.15 1.15 2.60 6.15 1.05 2.60 6.15 2.20 2.60 65 5.85 0.95 2.50 5.80 0.95 2.35 5.85 1.90 2.50 66 6.25 1.25 3.20 6.20 1.15 3.15 6.25 2.40 3.20 67 5.80 1.00 3.45 5.70 1.05 3.40 5.80 2.05 3.45 68 6.70 1.10 3.40 6.70 1.00 3.40 6.70 2.10 3.40 69 5.30 1.00 3.10 5.25 0.95 3.15 5.30 1.95 3.15 70 4.95 0.90 2.75 4.95 0.95 2.75 4.95 1.85 2.75 71 5.05 1.40 3.20 5.00 1.45 3.20 5.05 2.85 3.20 72 6.15 1.25 3.05 6.20 1.25 3.00 6.20 2.50 3.05 73 4.95 1.40 3.00 4.90 1.45 2.80 4.95 2.85 3.00 74 5.10 1.00 2.75 5.10 1.00 2.75 5.10 2.00 2.75 75 5.85 1.05 2.65 5.90 1.10 2.70 5.90 2.15 2.70 76 6.00 1.15 2.60 6.00 1.10 2.55 6.00 2.25 2.60 77 5.05 0.95 2.35 5.10 0.90 2.30 5.10 1.85 2.53 78 4.95 1.05 3.40 5.00 1.10 3.25 5.00 2.15 3.40 79 5.40 1.30 2.50 5.45 1.35 2.50 5.45 2.65 2.50 80 5.50 1.05 3.10 5.55 1.00 3.15 5.55 2.05 3.15 81 5.55 1.45 3.35 5.50 1.40 3.30 5.55 2.85 3.35 82 5.20 1.25 2.90 5.15 1.25 2.90 5.20 2.50 2.90 83 4.90 0.95 3.10 4.90 0.95 2.90 4.90 1.90 3.10 84 5.25 1.10 3.25 5.25 1.10 3.25 5.25 2.20 3.25 85 6.40 1.05 2.90 6.40 1.05 2.90 6.40 2.10 2.90 86 6.20 1.10 3.10 6.20 1.10 3.10 6.20 2.20 3.10 87 6.70 1.10 3.40 6.70 1.00 3.40 6.70 2.10 3.40 88 6.60 1.20 3.40 6.50 1.15 3.30 6.60 2.35 3.40 89 5.00 1.40 3.05 4.95 1.35 3.00 5.00 2.75 3.05 90 5.00 1.45 2.75 5.05 1.50 2.95 5.05 2.95 2.95 91 6.70 0.95 3.00 6.80 0.95 2.90 6.80 1.90 3.00 92 4.95 1.05 3.25 5.00 1.10 3.35 5.00 2.15 3.35 93 5.05 1.05 2.95 4.70 1.05 2.90 5.05 2.10 2.95 94 5.05 1.10 3.10 5.05 1.10 3.10 5.05 2.20 3.10 95 5.10 1.50 3.20 5.15 1.55 3.25 5.15 3.05 3.25 96 6.20 1.20 3.90 6.15 1.15 3.85 6.20 2.35 3.90 97 6.30 1.00 3.50 6.35 1.05 3.55 6.35 2.05 3.55 98 6.05 1.10 3.10 6.00 1.05 3.05 6.05 2.15 3.10 99 5.60 0.95 2.80 5.60 1.00 2.75 5.60 1.95 2.80 100 5.90 1.35 3.15 5.95 1.30 3.15 5.95 2.65 3.15 Table A-9. Mussel Thickness M easurement in cm (5/22/05) Mussel 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 1 0.114 0.079 0.244 0.1500. 1270.1040.1070.211 0.102 0.112 2 0.094 0.124 0.229 0.1140. 1190.0660.1070.231 0.104 0.114 3 0.097 0.109 0.264 0.1300. 1370.0890.1350.284 0.132 0.124 4 0.117 0.124 0.358 0.0860. 0990.1090.1470.221 0.117 0.104 5 0.071 0.094 0.262 0.1270. 1300.1090.1240.236 0.127 0.127 6 0.091 0.109 0.267 0.1300. 1240.0790.1070.254 0.124 0.127 7 0.140 0.109 0.165 0.0810. 0940.1040.1320.170 0.112 0.122 8 0.084 0.132 0.221 0.1240. 1300.0970.1270.244 0.124 0.119 9 0.064 0.094 0.193 0.1020.109 0.0740.0990.201 0.104 0.099

PAGE 112

99 Table A-9 Continued Mussel 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 10 0.089 0.114 2.591 0.0790. 0910.1040.1092.921 0.107 0.099 11 0.104 0.130 0.231 0.1070. 1090.0990.1300.241 0.081 0.081 12 0.109 0.147 0.221 0.1170. 1040.1040.1070.211 0.102 0.112 13 0.107 0.104 0.241 0.1300. 1190.1220.1120.236 0.130 0.130 14 0.079 0.130 0.211 0.1220. 1120.0990.1040.206 0.130 0.132 15 0.079 0.107 0.206 0.0970. 0890.1350.1090.216 0.119 0.109 16 0.089 0.117 0.165 0.1190. 1300.0990.1170.160 0.127 0.124 17 0.102 0.104 0.241 0.1300. 1240.1040.1240.236 0.112 0.130 18 0.104 0.089 0.267 0.1070. 1120.1040.1092.692 0.107 0.099 19 0.109 0.147 0.221 0.1170. 1040.1090.1170.231 0.117 0.114 20 0.094 0.117 0.218 0.1020. 1320.1190.1140.208 0.104 0.127 21 0.079 0.124 0.196 0.0690. 0790.0910.1270.206 0.084 0.089 22 0.064 0.109 0.229 0.1140. 1190.0660.1090.234 0.130 0.122 23 0.089 0.132 0.231 0.1020. 1190.0940.1370.221 0.112 0.122 24 0.071 0.102 0.165 0.0660. 0760.0790.1070.170 0.079 0.107 25 0.074 0.109 0.218 0.1140. 1190.0840.1170.213 0.122 0.102 26 0.074 0.097 0.201 0.1190. 1350.0860.1040.193 0.127 0.137 27 0.097 0.109 0.264 0.1300. 1370.0890.1350.284 0.132 0.124 28 0.130 0.145 0.180 0.0740. 0940.1190.1300.079 0.104 0.114 29 0.071 0.094 0.193 0.1040. 0990.0740.1070.180 0.109 0.099 30 0.079 0.107 0.165 0.0990. 0940.0790.1070.257 0.107 0.117 31 0.079 0.130 0.231 0.1070. 1090.0840.1190.254 0.104 0.117 32 0.104 0.150 0.203 0.0810. 1300.0740.1300.246 0.099 0.094 33 0.064 0.114 0.231 0.1170. 1090.0970.1120.241 0.124 0.127 34 0.089 0.130 0.221 0.1300. 0910.0740.1040.211 0.104 0.117 35 0.104 0.147 0.241 0.1220. 1090.1040.1090.236 0.107 0.097 36 0.079 0.107 0.254 0.1240. 1270.0810.1090.259 0.127 0.127 37 0.104 0.132 0.170 0.1120. 1220.0990.1370.251 0.112 0.130 38 0.097 0.127 0.244 0.1240. 1190.1020.1240.277 0.109 0.124 39 0.089 0.114 2.591 0.0790. 0910.0940.1172.565 0.089 0.097 40 0.104 0.130 0.231 0.1070. 1090.1020.1240.257 0.114 0.117 41 0.117 0.124 0.358 0.0860. 0990.1090.1470.246 0.117 0.104 42 0.079 0.112 0.229 0.1140. 1220.0790.0910.206 0.104 0.107 43 0.089 0.104 0.241 0.1300. 1190.1140.1090.236 0.097 0.099 44 0.071 0.109 0.218 0.1140. 1190.0840.1170.213 0.124 0.102 45 0.104 0.109 2.667 0.1070. 0990.1020.1122.565 0.102 0.104 46 0.099 0.130 0.241 0.0810. 0810.1020.1320.254 0.084 0.099 47 0.117 0.081 0.107 0.1300. 1300.1190.1090.206 0.104 0.097 48 0.079 0.130 0.231 0.1070. 1090.0840.1190.254 0.104 0.117 49 0.064 0.094 0.193 0.1020. 1090.0740.0990.201 0.104 0.114 50 0.097 0.112 0.241 0.1240. 1270.0790.1020.254 0.114 0.124 51 0.102 0.130 0.279 0.0890. 1040.0990.1190.259 0.102 0.089 52 0.099 0.130 0.241 0.0810. 0810.1020.1240.251 0.099 0.104 53 0.104 0.107 0.211 0.1020. 1120.0940.0970.231 0.109 0.109 54 0.091 0.102 0.249 0.1070. 1300.0970.1300.244 0.124 0.119 55 0.079 0.155 0.279 0.1040. 1140.1120.1550.277 0.097 0.104 56 0.107 0.150 0.254 0.0890. 1020.1140.1450.292 0.107 0.117 57 0.096 0.109 0.264 0.1300. 1370.1020.1040.234 0.127 0.119 58 0.105 0.117 0.257 0.1240. 1270.1300.1320.254 0.104 0.132 59 0.097 0.112 0.241 0.1240.127 0.1020.1240.257 0.114 0.117

PAGE 113

100 Table A-9 Continued Mussel 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom 60 0.074 0.104 0.211 0.1040. 1170.1090.1470.246 0.117 0.104 61 0.236 0.086 0.241 0.1170. 1040.0690.1020.231 0.099 0.112 62 0.107 0.132 0.221 0.1470. 1170.1090.1370.218 0.127 0.122 63 0.084 0.104 0.203 0.1240. 0970.1070.0890.201 0.099 0.109 64 0.079 0.094 0.231 0.1170. 1090.0790.1090.208 0.107 0.124 65 0.099 0.112 0.203 0.1020. 1300.0840.1370.206 0.104 0.114 66 0.102 0.130 0.231 0.0690. 1090.0860.1070.234 0.099 0.099 67 0.102 0.132 0.254 0.1140. 0910.0890.1170.221 0.124 0.117 68 0.094 0.104 0.198 0.0940. 1300.1240.1240.173 0.119 0.097 69 0.091 0.102 0.221 0.1400. 1420.1040.1220.130 0.086 0.107 70 0.087 0.104 0.218 0.1270. 1370.1040.1300.231 0.107 0.109 71 0.071 0.107 0.244 0.0790. 0890.0740.1070.236 0.109 0.084 72 0.102 0.124 0.251 0.0990. 1040.0990.1300.241 0.081 0.081 73 0.114 0.109 0.163 0.1320. 1300.1090.1240.160 0.124 0.135 74 0.089 0.097 0.262 0.1270. 1220.0910.1070.257 0.127 0.127 75 0.069 0.094 0.218 0.0860. 0840.0710.1040.089 0.097 0.107 76 0.094 0.097 0.231 0.1090. 1090.1040.0890.267 0.107 0.112 77 0.140 0.109 0.165 0.0810. 0940.1040.1320.170 0.102 0.099 78 0.066 0.107 0.231 0.1040. 1140.0910.1090.267 0.130 0.124 79 0.097 0.119 0.249 0.1170. 0990.1070.1270.244 0.112 0.122 80 0.124 0.124 0.173 0.1190. 0970.0740.1300.246 0.099 0.094 81 0.079 0.155 0.279 0.1040. 1140.0970.1120.241 0.124 0.127 82 0.107 0.150 0.254 0.0890. 1020.0860.1040.218 0.127 0.137 83 0.089 0.114 0.218 0.1190. 0990.1070.0790.213 0.097 0.104 84 0.107 0.104 0.241 0.1040. 0890.1020.0940.272 0.081 0.107 85 0.102 0.127 0.244 0.1300. 1190.1220.1120.236 0.130 0.130 86 0.086 0.114 0.180 0.0860. 1120.0660.1370.257 0.081 0.084 87 0.089 0.130 0.193 0.1270. 0890.0940.1070.218 0.124 0.124 88 0.119 0.107 0.165 0.1300. 1300.0790.1170.201 0.127 0.124 89 0.074 0.124 0.231 0.0810. 1240.0840.1040.208 0.094 0.102 90 0.091 0.102 0.221 0.1400. 1420.1040.1220.130 0.086 0.107 91 0.079 0.130 0.231 0.1070. 1090.0840.1190.254 0.104 0.117 92 0.109 0.081 0.262 0.1040. 1140.0860.1300.254 0.122 0.102 93 0.119 0.130 0.218 0.1300. 1020.0710.1070.170 0.127 0.137 94 0.091 0.094 0.231 0.0860. 0990.1020.1120.244 0.132 0.124 95 0.084 0.119 0.254 0.1040. 1170.0790.1550.279 0.104 0.114 96 0.086 0.107 0.234 0.0990. 0990.1140.1090.163 0.132 0.130 97 0.089 0.117 0.221 0.1240. 1170.0890.0970.262 0.127 0.122 98 0.097 0.102 0.241 0.0910. 0970.1040.0890.267 0.107 0.112 99 0.102 0.124 0.257 0.1140. 1170.1040.1500.231 0.081 0.130 100 0.107 0.150 0.254 0.0890.102 0.1140.1450.292 0.107 0.117 Oyster Irradiation Dose Measurements Table A-10. Electron Beam i rradiated oysters in kGy Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 4.3 4.0 4.3 0.93 2 4.2 4.3 4.1 1.02 3 2.8 1.9 1.6 0.68 4 2.3 1.6 1.4 0.70

PAGE 114

101 Table A-10 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 5 3.8 3.2 3.0 0.84 6 3.0 2.8 2.7 0.93 7 3.1 2.3 2.5 0.74 8 2.2 1.9 2.0 0.86 9 2.6 1.8 2.5 0.69 10 3.6 2.4 2.1 0.67 11 2.9 2.1 2.4 0.72 12 5.4 2.5 4.8 0.46 13 5.0 4.1 4.3 0.82 14 2.8 2.3 2.7 0.82 15 4.3 2.3 2.3 0.53 16 4.9 4.6 4.3 0.94 17 2.8 2.1 2.5 0.75 18 5.2 5.0 4.9 0.96 19 6.7 4.9 5.5 0.73 20 4.2 4.0 3.7 0.95 21 1.7 2.0 1.6 1.18 22 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.11 23 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.86 24 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.00 25 2.3 2.2 2.1 0.96 26 4.4 3.9 4.3 0.89 27 4.3 3.0 3.6 0.70 28 4.1 4.2 3.9 1.02 29 3.9 3.8 3.7 0.97 30 4.1 3.7 4.1 0.90 31 5.1 2.2 3.1 0.43 32 5.0 5.0 4.4 1.00 33 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.00 34 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.05 35 4.9 4.6 3.9 0.94 36 2.2 1.7 1.7 0.77 37 4.9 4.0 3.7 0.82 38 2.6 2.1 2.1 0.81 39 4.4 4.4 4.4 1.00 40 4.2 4.0 4.2 0.95 41 5.0 4.4 3.6 0.88 42 6.0 3.7 3.1 0.62 43 2.1 1.9 1.6 0.90 44 3.3 1.8 1.9 0.55 45 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.94 46 1.9 1.4 1.7 0.74 47 2.0 1.6 1.9 0.80 48 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.83 49 3.1 1.5 2.2 0.48 50 4.1 2.2 2.1 0.54 51 2.9 2.8 2.5 0.97 52 5.3 5.0 4.5 0.94 53 3.1 3.0 3.1 0.97 54 3.2 2.9 3.2 0.91 55 5.3 5.3 5.1 1.00

PAGE 115

102 Table A-10 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 56 4.0 3.7 4.0 0.93 57 4.5 4.3 4.0 0.96 58 4.6 4.2 3.1 0.91 59 6.1 4.4 4.4 0.72 60 2.0 1.8 1.7 0.90 61 2.3 2.1 1.5 0.91 62 2.3 1.8 2.0 0.78 63 3.9 3.9 3.7 1.00 64 4.4 4.4 3.7 1.00 65 3.7 3.7 3.1 1.00 66 2.5 1.4 2.2 0.56 67 1.9 2.5 1.9 1.32 68 2.5 1.9 1.5 0.76 69 3.8 3.2 3.8 0.84 70 2.3 2.1 2.3 0.91 71 4.5 4.1 4.0 0.91 72 4.2 4.5 3.9 1.07 73 4.5 4.0 4.2 0.89 74 4.4 4.0 4.0 0.91 75 2.9 1.8 1.9 0.62 76 4.5 4.4 3.8 0.98 77 2.1 2.0 1.9 0.95 78 2.6 2.6 2.5 1.00 79 2.0 1.9 1.9 0.95 80 4.5 3.3 3.9 0.73 81 3.9 3.7 3.3 0.95 82 4.2 3.9 3.0 0.93 83 4.2 3.7 3.9 0.88 84 3.9 4.0 3.2 1.03 85 5.6 5.0 4.6 0.89 86 4.9 3.8 3.9 0.78 87 2.5 2.2 2.3 0.88 88 2.2 2.3 2.1 1.05 89 2.4 1.5 2.0 0.63 90 3.7 3.7 3.6 1.00 91 3.9 4.6 3.7 1.18 92 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.97 93 1.6 1.4 1.5 0.88 94 2.2 1.6 2.0 0.73 95 4.8 4.0 4.1 0.83 96 4.0 4.2 3.7 1.05 97 4.3 3.6 3.7 0.84 98 3.7 2.4 3.0 0.65 99 2.3 2.0 2.3 0.87 100 1.8 2.0 1.6 1.11 Table A-11. X-ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 3.7 4.2 3.4 1.14 2 4.2 4.1 4.1 0.98 3 2.0 1.4 1.9 0.70

PAGE 116

103 Table A-11 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 4 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.83 5 5.1 5.6 5.1 1.10 6 4.9 3.7 3.9 0.76 7 3.1 2.3 2.5 0.74 8 1.9 1.4 1.6 0.74 9 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.13 10 1.7 1.2 1.5 0.71 11 1.8 1.6 1.5 0.89 12 4.1 4.3 3.6 1.05 13 3.8 3.6 3.7 0.95 14 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.13 15 4.3 2.3 2.3 0.53 16 4.4 4.2 4.2 0.95 17 2.2 1.5 1.5 0.68 18 4.6 3.6 3.7 0.78 19 4.2 3.8 3.8 0.90 20 6.9 5.1 5.0 0.74 21 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.13 22 1.9 1.6 1.8 0.84 23 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.86 24 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.95 25 3.0 1.5 1.4 0.50 26 4.1 4.0 3.6 0.98 27 4.8 4.2 3.8 0.88 28 3.8 3.8 3.6 1.00 29 5.0 6.5 3.7 1.30 30 4.9 4.8 4.6 0.98 31 4.1 3.7 4.1 0.90 32 4.2 4.0 4.0 0.95 33 1.3 1.2 1.3 0.92 34 2.8 1.5 1.5 0.54 35 3.7 3.4 3.7 0.92 36 1.9 1.5 1.2 0.79 37 4.4 4.0 3.9 0.91 38 2.6 2.1 2.1 0.81 39 6.0 6.9 5.2 1.15 40 4.0 3.4 4.0 0.85 41 4.3 3.7 4.2 0.86 42 6.3 5.6 5.7 0.89 43 2.0 1.3 2.0 0.65 44 1.7 2.4 1.5 1.41 45 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.00 46 2.0 1.6 1.9 0.80 47 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.93 48 2.0 2.4 1.4 1.20 49 2.5 1.5 1.8 0.60 50 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.93 51 1.7 1.5 1.5 0.88 52 4.2 4.5 4.1 1.07 53 1.6 1.3 1.2 0.81 54 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94

PAGE 117

104 Table A-11 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 55 4.3 4.0 4.3 0.93 56 4.8 4.1 4.6 0.85 57 4.5 3.8 3.7 0.84 58 5.1 6.4 5.0 1.25 59 4.8 3.4 3.4 0.71 60 2.3 1.2 1.5 0.52 61 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.86 62 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.00 63 4.1 4.1 3.6 1.00 64 3.8 4.0 3.2 1.05 65 4.9 3.9 3.8 0.80 66 2.1 1.5 1.5 0.71 67 1.5 1.2 1.4 0.80 68 2.5 1.9 1.5 0.76 69 4.6 4.8 4.4 1.04 70 2.2 1.4 2.0 0.64 71 3.6 3.4 3.2 0.94 72 4.1 3.4 3.9 0.83 73 4.1 4.0 4.0 0.98 74 5.2 4.1 4.0 0.79 75 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.00 76 4.2 3.7 4.0 0.88 77 2.1 2.0 1.9 0.95 78 2.6 2.6 2.5 1.00 79 3.7 4.0 3.6 1.08 80 4.3 3.8 3.8 0.88 81 3.3 3.6 3.1 1.09 82 4.5 4.5 4.4 1.00 83 4.4 4.8 3.4 1.09 84 3.9 3.4 3.3 0.87 85 5.6 5.5 5.5 0.98 86 4.1 3.8 4.0 0.93 87 2.5 2.2 2.3 0.88 88 1.8 1.3 1.6 0.72 89 1.5 2.6 1.5 1.73 90 4.0 3.6 3.6 0.90 91 3.7 3.7 3.6 1.00 92 3.8 3.7 3.4 0.97 93 2.2 1.5 2.0 0.68 94 1.8 2.2 1.2 1.22 95 6.4 4.3 3.7 0.67 96 3.7 3.2 3.6 0.86 97 3.4 3.4 3.4 1.00 98 1.6 1.4 1.4 0.88 99 1.8 1.5 1.4 0.83 100 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.19 Table A-12. Gamma Ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 3.9 3.8 3.7 0.97 2 4.3 4.3 4.2 1.00

PAGE 118

105 Table A-12 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 3 1.6 1.3 1.5 0.81 4 1.5 1.4 1.4 0.93 5 4.5 4.1 3.9 0.91 6 3.7 3.7 3.4 1.00 7 3.1 3.0 2.9 0.97 8 2.0 1.6 1.6 0.80 9 2.7 2.3 2.1 0.85 10 2.2 1.8 1.7 0.82 11 1.7 1.6 1.3 0.94 12 5.0 4.6 4.6 0.92 13 4.0 3.8 3.7 0.95 14 1.8 1.5 1.4 0.83 15 3.3 2.8 2.5 0.85 16 4.3 4.2 3.9 0.98 17 3.1 2.3 2.1 0.74 18 4.9 4.6 4.5 0.94 19 4.4 4.0 4.0 0.91 20 3.9 3.7 3.7 0.95 21 2.0 1.8 1.7 0.90 22 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.95 23 3.1 2.7 2.7 0.87 24 1.8 1.6 1.4 0.89 25 2.3 2.0 1.8 0.87 26 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.97 27 4.5 4.4 4.4 0.98 28 4.4 4.2 4.1 0.95 29 4.0 3.9 3.8 0.98 30 4.1 3.9 3.8 0.95 31 2.9 2.8 2.8 0.97 32 3.9 3.9 3.8 1.00 33 2.1 1.8 1.8 0.86 34 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.00 35 4.6 4.1 4.0 0.89 36 2.4 1.9 1.7 0.79 37 3.9 3.8 3.3 0.97 38 3.1 2.9 2.8 0.94 39 3.8 3.7 3.4 0.97 40 4.0 3.8 3.4 0.95 41 3.7 3.6 3.4 0.97 42 4.2 3.9 3.7 0.93 43 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.00 44 2.0 1.8 1.7 0.90 45 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.00 46 4.4 4.4 3.4 1.00 47 2.1 1.9 1.7 0.90 48 2.0 1.5 1.5 0.75 49 2.2 2.0 2.0 0.91 50 2.2 2.1 1.9 0.95 51 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 52 4.5 4.5 4.2 1.00 53 2.5 2.2 2.1 0.88

PAGE 119

106 Table A-12 Continued Oysters External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 54 2.0 1.9 1.8 0.95 55 4.6 4.2 4.1 0.91 56 4.6 4.4 4.4 0.96 57 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 58 4.0 3.9 3.7 0.98 59 4.6 4.5 4.0 0.98 60 1.9 1.8 1.6 0.95 61 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.00 62 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.86 63 4.0 3.9 3.7 0.98 64 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 65 4.3 3.8 3.8 0.88 66 2.3 1.9 1.9 0.83 67 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.92 68 4.2 4.1 3.9 0.98 69 5.1 4.9 4.9 0.96 70 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.92 71 5.1 4.9 4.9 0.96 72 5.0 4.6 4.9 0.92 73 4.2 4.2 4.1 1.00 74 4.8 4.2 4.2 0.88 75 2.5 2.1 1.9 0.84 76 4.0 3.8 3.6 0.95 77 3.3 2.9 2.7 0.88 78 2.8 2.8 2.7 1.00 79 4.2 4.2 4.1 1.00 80 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.97 81 5.5 5.2 5.1 0.95 82 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.97 83 4.6 4.6 4.5 1.00 84 4.8 4.6 4.6 0.96 85 3.8 3.8 3.7 1.00 86 4.9 4.6 4.5 0.94 87 3.2 2.8 2.8 0.88 88 1.8 1.6 1.5 0.89 89 1.8 1.7 1.6 0.94 90 4.6 4.6 4.3 1.00 91 4.8 4.6 4.0 0.96 92 4.4 4.1 4.0 0.93 93 2.3 2.1 2.0 0.91 94 2.0 1.7 1.5 0.85 95 4.1 3.9 3.7 0.95 96 3.9 3.8 3.7 0.97 97 4.3 4.2 4.1 0.98 98 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.00 99 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 100 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.00

PAGE 120

107 Clam Irradiated Dose Measurements Table A-13. Electron Beam Irradiated Clams in kGy Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 4.1 3.9 3.4 0.95 2 4.1 3.9 3.2 0.95 3 2.7 1.8 1.5 0.67 4 2.6 1.6 1.5 0.62 5 3.9 3.8 3.9 0.97 6 3.2 1.6 2.6 0.50 7 3.9 3.3 3.8 0.85 8 3.4 3.7 3.3 1.09 9 4.1 3.9 3.4 0.95 10 3.8 3.7 3.6 0.97 11 2.4 1.7 1.6 0.71 12 3.9 3.8 3.2 0.97 13 2.4 1.8 2.3 0.75 14 3.8 3.8 3.8 1.00 15 3.2 3.7 3.2 1.16 16 2.3 1.7 1.7 0.74 17 3.4 3.7 3.2 1.09 18 3.8 2.2 3.6 0.58 19 3.8 3.4 1.5 0.89 20 3.9 3.7 3.6 0.95 21 2.0 1.9 2 0.95 22 3.6 3.6 3.6 1.00 23 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.83 24 2.9 1.7 2.1 0.59 25 4.5 3.7 3.6 0.82 26 3.7 3.4 3.2 0.92 27 4.1 4.2 3.9 1.02 28 3.8 3.8 3.3 1.00 29 4.0 3.8 3.4 0.95 30 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 31 2.1 1.8 1.9 0.86 32 2.2 1.9 1.7 0.86 33 4.6 3.8 4.5 0.83 34 3.4 3.7 3.4 1.09 35 3.8 4.1 3.6 1.08 36 1.9 1.2 1.8 0.63 37 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.12 38 3.3 3.7 3.2 1.12 39 4.3 3.7 4 0.86 40 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.00 41 4.0 4.1 2.9 1.03 42 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.06 43 3.6 3.4 3.4 0.94 44 3.8 3.7 3.6 0.97 45 2.8 1.7 2.3 0.61 46 3.6 3.7 3.3 1.03 47 3.4 3.6 3.3 1.06 48 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 49 2.5 2.0 2 0.80

PAGE 121

108 Table A-13. Continued Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 50 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 51 2.4 1.5 2 0.63 52 2.2 1.8 1.8 0.82 53 2.3 1.7 1.8 0.74 54 1.8 1.7 1.3 0.94 55 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.95 56 4.5 3.3 3.8 0.73 57 1.8 1.7 1.8 0.94 58 3.9 3.2 3.6 0.82 59 2.0 1.8 1.9 0.90 60 4.1 3.4 2 0.83 61 3.8 4.0 3.2 1.05 62 4.0 3.7 2.6 0.93 63 3.7 4.0 3.4 1.08 64 3.6 3.8 3.3 1.06 65 1.7 1.5 1.6 0.88 66 2.3 1.4 1.6 0.61 67 3.8 3.8 3.4 1.00 68 2.4 1.5 1.6 0.63 69 2.3 1.9 1.9 0.83 70 3.8 3.6 3.4 0.95 71 2.2 1.6 1.6 0.73 72 4.1 4.1 3.9 1.00 73 4.2 3.1 3.7 0.74 74 2.0 1.4 1.3 0.70 75 2.1 1.5 1.4 0.71 76 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 77 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.06 78 3.1 1.7 1.6 0.55 79 4.2 3.2 2.9 0.76 80 2.1 1.6 1.7 0.76 81 3.7 3.7 3.2 1.00 82 3.9 2.9 3.9 0.74 83 1.9 1.7 1.8 0.89 84 3.8 3.8 3.8 1.00 85 2.3 1.9 2.1 0.83 86 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.95 87 3.8 3.4 3.4 0.89 88 4.0 3.9 3.8 0.98 89 1.6 2.0 1.3 1.25 90 2.6 1.4 1.7 0.54 91 4.5 4.0 3.7 0.89 92 4.5 3.2 3.8 0.71 93 1.8 1.7 1.6 0.94 94 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.93 95 2.7 1.9 1.8 0.70 96 2.3 1.7 1.8 0.74 97 2.3 2.0 1.7 0.87 98 2.3 1.7 1.6 0.74 99 3.7 3.6 3.3 0.97 100 2.1 1.3 2.1 0.62

PAGE 122

109 Table A-14. X-ray Irradiated Clams in kGy Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 4.3 4.3 3.1 1.00 2 4.0 4.0 2.9 1.00 3 2.7 1.8 1.5 0.67 4 2.6 2.0 2.4 0.77 5 4.2 4.9 3.8 1.17 6 4.3 4.3 4.0 1.00 7 4.4 3.8 3.8 0.86 8 4.0 3.8 4.0 0.95 9 4.4 3.7 3.8 0.84 10 6.3 4.4 6.0 0.70 11 2.4 2.4 2.2 1.00 12 4.5 5.1 4.4 1.13 13 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.00 14 4.2 4.0 4.1 0.95 15 4.1 3.9 3.7 0.95 16 2.5 2.1 2.4 0.84 17 5.4 5.4 4.9 1.00 18 4.0 4.0 3.9 1.00 19 4.3 4.2 4.2 0.98 20 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.97 21 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.13 22 4.0 4.2 4.0 1.05 23 2.4 2.3 2.3 0.96 24 3.1 2.4 2.1 0.77 25 4.0 3.9 3.8 0.98 26 3.8 3.8 3.8 1.00 27 4.9 4.5 3.8 0.92 28 4.2 3.8 3.9 0.90 29 4.3 4.0 4.1 0.93 30 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.84 31 3.9 2.7 2.5 0.69 32 1.7 1.4 1.6 0.82 33 4.5 4.2 4.2 0.93 34 4.9 4.1 4.4 0.84 35 4.2 3.9 4.0 0.93 36 2.3 1.8 1.9 0.78 37 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.00 38 4.2 4.2 3.8 1.00 39 3.9 4.0 3.3 1.03 40 2.4 2.2 2.2 0.92 41 5.0 4.5 4.6 0.90 42 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.14 43 4.8 4.4 3.9 0.92 44 4.6 3.8 4.0 0.83 45 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.06 46 5.1 4.2 4.2 0.82 47 4.6 4.8 4.0 1.04 48 2.5 3.0 1.7 1.20 49 2.1 1.6 1.7 0.76 50 4.2 2.4 2.4 0.57 51 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.00

PAGE 123

110 Table A-14 Continued Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 52 2.1 1.4 2.1 0.67 53 3.4 2.3 2.4 0.68 54 2.7 1.5 2.0 0.56 55 4.0 4.6 3.9 1.15 56 4.2 3.9 4.2 0.93 57 2.4 2.2 2.1 0.92 58 4.5 3.9 4.0 0.87 59 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.94 60 4.4 4.2 3.9 0.95 61 4.0 4.0 3.8 1.00 62 4.3 4.3 4.2 1.00 63 4.2 4.3 3.6 1.02 64 3.7 3.8 3.6 1.03 65 2.2 1.8 2.1 0.82 66 2.5 1.9 2.2 0.76 67 4.8 4.1 3.8 0.85 68 2.4 2.2 2.3 0.92 69 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.19 70 3.8 3.8 3.7 1.00 71 1.6 2.6 1.6 1.63 72 4.5 4.5 4.4 1.00 73 3.8 3.9 2.6 1.03 74 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 75 1.7 1.6 1.4 0.94 76 1.7 2.1 1.6 1.24 77 2.3 2.4 1.4 1.04 78 2.9 2.4 2.6 0.83 79 4.3 3.9 4.0 0.91 80 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.94 81 5.2 5.3 4.6 1.02 82 4.5 4.1 4.3 0.91 83 3.1 2.5 2.4 0.81 84 4.8 4.3 4.4 0.90 85 1.7 1.5 1.4 0.88 86 1.7 1.5 1.3 0.88 87 4.8 4.0 3.3 0.83 88 4.8 4.2 4.8 0.88 89 1.9 1.5 1.4 0.79 90 3.1 1.8 3.1 0.58 91 4.5 3.9 3.9 0.87 92 4.3 4.2 4.2 0.98 93 2.0 1.9 1.6 0.95 94 2.3 2.3 2.1 1.00 95 1.9 1.3 1.3 0.68 96 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.00 97 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.12 98 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.00 99 4.4 3.9 3.6 0.89 100 2.3 2.1 2.2 0.91

PAGE 124

111 Table A-15. Gamma Ray Irradiated Clams in kGy Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 4.8 4.2 4.0 0.88 2 4.4 4.4 4.0 1.00 3 3.3 3.1 2.9 0.94 4 1.6 1.5 1.2 0.94 5 4.5 4.3 4.3 0.96 6 4.5 4.5 4.3 1.00 7 4.9 4.4 4.4 0.90 8 5.1 5.1 4.9 1.00 9 5.0 4.2 4.2 0.84 10 4.6 4.5 4.4 0.98 11 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.00 12 4.5 4.4 4.4 0.98 13 2.2 2.0 1.9 0.91 14 4.2 4.1 3.9 0.98 15 4.3 3.8 4.3 0.88 16 2.4 1.9 2.2 0.79 17 4.9 4.2 4.1 0.86 18 4.2 4.2 3.7 1.00 19 4.6 4.1 4.0 0.89 20 5.2 4.9 5.1 0.94 21 2.1 1.9 1.9 0.90 22 5.1 4.6 4.5 0.90 23 1.9 1.8 1.3 0.95 24 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.00 25 4.6 4.5 4.0 0.98 26 4.6 4.6 4.4 1.00 27 4.6 4.5 4.3 0.98 28 4.3 4.3 4.1 1.00 29 5.1 4.9 5.1 0.96 30 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.00 31 2.3 2.2 2.1 0.96 32 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.86 33 4.5 4.1 4.0 0.91 34 5.1 5.0 4.6 0.98 35 5.0 4.9 4.8 0.98 36 2.9 2.6 2.6 0.90 37 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.94 38 4.7 4.7 4.3 1.00 39 4.5 3.8 4.4 0.84 40 2.0 1.6 1.4 0.80 41 4.4 4.4 4.2 1.00 42 2.0 1.9 1.9 0.95 43 4.6 4.6 4.5 1.00 44 4.4 4.2 4.0 0.95 45 2.3 2.2 2.2 0.96 46 4.8 4.4 4.1 0.92 47 4.3 4.2 3.8 0.98 48 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 49 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.00 50 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.00

PAGE 125

112 Table A-15 Continued Clams External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 51 2.0 1.8 1.2 0.90 52 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.95 53 2.1 2.0 1.8 0.95 54 2.6 2.1 2.1 0.81 55 4.5 4.2 4.0 0.93 56 4.6 4.4 4.2 0.96 57 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 58 4.9 4.8 4.5 0.98 59 2.4 2.3 1.9 0.96 60 4.1 4.0 3.9 0.98 61 4.5 4.2 4.2 0.93 62 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 63 4.6 4.6 4.4 1.00 64 4.8 4.0 3.9 0.83 65 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.00 66 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.93 67 4.2 4.2 4.1 1.00 68 2.0 1.7 1.2 0.85 69 2.3 1.5 1.2 0.65 70 4.6 4.5 4.4 0.98 71 2.1 2.0 2.0 0.95 72 4.8 4.4 3.7 0.92 73 5.0 4.3 4.3 0.86 74 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.00 75 2.1 1.7 1.4 0.81 76 2.1 2.0 1.8 0.95 77 2.4 1.8 1.6 0.75 78 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.95 79 4.1 4.1 3.9 1.00 80 2.6 2.3 2.1 0.88 81 4.6 4.6 3.8 1.00 82 4.8 4.5 4.3 0.94 83 3.3 2.0 1.6 0.61 84 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.00 85 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.12 86 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.00 87 4.3 4.2 4.2 0.98 88 4.3 4.1 4.2 0.95 89 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.83 90 2.3 2.0 1.9 0.87 91 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 92 4.5 4.4 4.2 0.98 93 1.7 1.5 1.4 0.88 94 1.8 1.7 1.6 0.94 95 2.3 2.2 2.2 0.96 96 2.3 2.3 2.1 1.00 97 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.00 98 2.4 2.0 1.9 0.83 99 4.4 4.0 4.0 0.91 100 1.8 1.5 1.4 0.83

PAGE 126

113 Mussel Irradiation Dose Measurements Table A-16. Electron Beam irradiated mussels in kGy Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 2.0 1.6 1.6 0.80 2 3.2 3.2 1.6 1.00 3 2.0 1.4 1.3 0.70 4 1.9 2.1 1.6 1.11 5 3.2 3.0 2.7 0.94 6 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.94 7 3.2 3.1 3.0 0.97 8 3.3 3.2 3.0 0.97 9 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.00 10 3.7 3.4 3.1 0.92 11 1.6 1.2 1.5 0.75 12 3.2 3.3 3.2 1.03 13 2.2 1.4 1.3 0.64 14 3.8 2.9 3.2 0.76 15 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.76 16 3.0 1.3 1.2 0.43 17 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.23 18 3.0 2.7 2.9 0.90 19 1.8 1.5 1.6 0.83 20 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.93 21 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.00 22 3.2 3.1 2.9 0.97 23 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.29 24 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.00 25 1.9 1.8 1.2 0.95 26 2.7 2.8 2.6 1.04 27 3.2 2.8 2.7 0.88 28 1.6 1.5 1.4 0.94 29 1.6 1.5 1.4 0.94 30 1.6 2.1 1.6 1.31 31 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.14 32 1.7 1.6 1.7 0.94 33 3.4 2.9 2.7 0.85 34 3.2 4.1 2.7 1.28 35 3.4 3.4 2.6 1.00 36 3.3 3.2 3.2 0.97 37 3.4 3.7 2.3 1.09 38 3.2 3.0 3.0 0.94 39 1.7 1.5 1.3 0.88 40 1.4 2.0 1.2 1.43 41 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.00 42 3.2 2.8 2.8 0.88 43 3.0 3.1 3.0 1.03 44 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.00 45 1.7 1.3 1.5 0.76 46 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.15 47 2.9 3.7 2.8 1.28 48 3.3 2.9 3.2 0.88 49 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.00

PAGE 127

114 Table A-16 Continued Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 50 2.9 2.7 2.7 0.93 51 2.3 1.5 2.1 0.65 52 3.0 3.1 2.9 1.03 53 1.7 1.6 1.7 0.94 54 3.3 3.1 2.8 0.94 55 3.1 3.0 3.1 0.97 56 3.2 3.4 3.1 1.06 57 3.2 3.0 3.1 0.94 58 2.8 3.0 2.5 1.07 59 3.2 3.0 3.1 0.94 60 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.07 61 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.75 62 1.8 1.4 1.5 0.78 63 3.1 2.6 2.5 0.84 64 2.8 2.7 2.8 0.96 65 3.3 3.2 2.9 0.97 66 3.2 3.4 2.5 1.06 67 3.0 2.3 2.6 0.77 68 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.00 69 1.6 1.2 1.6 0.75 70 1.5 1.4 1.2 0.93 71 1.9 1.6 1.5 0.84 72 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.00 73 4.2 3.1 3.3 0.74 74 3.1 3.1 2.9 1.00 75 3.3 3.2 3.2 0.97 76 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.12 77 3.1 2.8 2.9 0.90 78 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.07 79 3.7 3.4 3.0 0.92 80 1.7 2.1 1.6 1.24 81 3.7 1.5 3.0 0.41 82 3.6 3.2 3.3 0.89 83 3.1 2.8 2.8 0.90 84 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.93 85 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.21 86 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.29 87 3.3 3.6 2.6 1.09 88 1.7 1.4 1.4 0.82 89 1.7 1.4 1.2 0.82 90 1.7 1.4 1.4 0.82 91 3.4 3.1 3.1 0.91 92 3.4 3.1 2.5 0.91 93 2.9 3.2 2.4 1.10 94 1.6 1.4 1.3 0.88 95 3.4 3.1 3.1 0.91 96 3.1 3.0 3.1 0.97 97 1.4 2.1 1.4 1.50 98 3.2 3.3 3.2 1.03 99 3.3 3.0 3.3 0.91 100 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.00

PAGE 128

115 Table A-17. X-ray Irradi ated Mussels in kGy Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 1.7 1.6 1.7 0.94 2 3.9 3.8 3.7 0.97 3 2.0 1.6 1.6 0.80 4 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.05 5 4.5 4.1 4.0 0.91 6 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.19 7 3.9 3.8 3.8 0.97 8 4.0 4.2 3.8 1.05 9 2.0 1.7 1.7 0.85 10 5.0 5.0 4.9 1.00 11 2.0 1.9 1.7 0.95 12 4.6 4.5 4.1 0.98 13 1.8 2.2 1.8 1.22 14 4.8 5.0 4.4 1.04 15 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.12 16 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 17 1.9 1.7 1.6 0.89 18 4.6 4.9 4.5 1.07 19 1.9 2.2 1.7 1.16 20 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 21 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.06 22 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 23 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.84 24 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 25 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.00 26 4.9 4.6 4.3 0.94 27 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.00 28 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.00 29 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.00 30 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 31 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.00 32 1.7 2.0 1.6 1.18 33 4.5 4.6 4.3 1.02 34 3.7 4.0 3.6 1.08 35 3.9 3.8 3.6 0.97 36 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.00 37 4.6 4.4 4.5 0.96 38 4.4 4.4 4.3 1.00 39 1.9 2.1 1.8 1.11 40 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.00 41 1.8 1.6 1.6 0.89 42 4.3 4.3 4.2 1.00 43 4.0 4.1 4.0 1.03 44 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 45 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.19 46 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 47 4.1 4.4 3.9 1.07 48 3.6 3.8 3.6 1.06 49 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.00 50 4.2 4.6 4.2 1.10 51 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.00

PAGE 129

116 Table A-17 Continued Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 52 4.5 4.5 4.3 1.00 53 2.1 1.9 1.7 0.90 54 4.0 4.0 3.9 1.00 55 4.6 4.4 4.3 0.96 56 4.8 4.5 0.0 0.94 57 4.4 4.4 4.2 1.00 58 4.6 4.3 4.1 0.93 59 4.2 4.2 4.2 1.00 60 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.06 61 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.19 62 1.7 2.0 1.6 1.18 63 4.8 5.0 4.8 1.04 64 4.6 4.5 4.5 0.98 65 4.3 4.5 4.1 1.05 66 4.5 4.4 4.3 0.98 67 4.1 4.2 3.9 1.02 68 2.0 1.8 1.6 0.90 69 2.0 1.9 1.7 0.95 70 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.95 71 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.95 72 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.00 73 5.0 4.9 4.9 0.98 74 3.9 3.8 3.6 0.97 75 3.8 3.8 3.4 1.00 76 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.12 77 3.7 3.9 3.4 1.05 78 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.94 79 4.0 4.2 3.9 1.05 80 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 81 4.6 4.9 4.5 1.07 82 4.2 4.4 0.0 1.05 83 4.6 4.4 4.4 0.96 84 1.7 2.0 1.6 1.18 85 1.9 1.5 1.7 0.79 86 1.9 1.7 1.6 0.89 87 5.2 4.5 5.2 0.87 88 1.9 1.7 1.7 0.89 89 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.13 90 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.12 91 4.5 4.5 4.5 1.00 92 3.8 3.4 3.6 0.89 93 3.7 3.8 3.6 1.03 94 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.19 95 4.3 4.4 4.3 1.02 96 4.6 4.5 4.1 0.98 97 1.8 1.7 1.6 0.94 98 4.2 4.3 4.1 1.02 99 4.8 4.9 4.5 1.02 100 4.1 4.0 4.1 0.98

PAGE 130

117 Table A-18. Gamma Ray Irradiated Mussels in kGy Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 1 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.00 2 3.9 3.8 3.7 0.97 3 2.0 1.6 1.6 0.80 4 2.0 1.9 1.9 0.95 5 4.5 4.4 4.3 0.98 6 1.9 1.6 1.5 0.84 7 3.9 3.8 3.8 0.97 8 4.2 4.0 3.8 0.95 9 2.0 1.7 1.7 0.85 10 5.0 5.0 4.9 1.00 11 2.0 1.9 1.7 0.95 12 4.6 4.5 4.1 0.98 13 2.2 1.8 1.8 0.82 14 5.0 4.8 4.4 0.96 15 1.9 1.7 1.6 0.89 16 4.4 4.3 4.2 0.98 17 1.8 1.6 1.6 0.89 18 4.9 4.6 4.5 0.94 19 2.2 1.9 1.7 0.86 20 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 21 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.95 22 4.6 4.5 4.4 0.98 23 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.84 24 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.95 25 1.8 1.6 1.6 0.89 26 4.9 4.6 4.3 0.94 27 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.00 28 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.00 29 2.0 1.8 2.0 0.90 30 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.94 31 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.95 32 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 33 4.6 4.5 4.3 0.98 34 4.0 3.7 3.6 0.93 35 3.9 3.8 3.6 0.97 36 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.00 37 4.6 4.5 4.4 0.98 38 4.4 4.4 4.3 1.00 39 2.1 1.9 1.8 0.90 40 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.00 41 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 42 4.3 4.3 4.2 1.00 43 4.1 4.0 4.0 0.98 44 1.7 1.6 1.6 0.94 45 1.9 1.6 1.5 0.84 46 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.00 47 4.4 4.1 3.9 0.93 48 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.95 49 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.00 50 4.6 4.2 4.2 0.91 51 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.00

PAGE 131

118 Table A-18 Continued Mussels External Top Internal External Bottom Internal/Top 52 4.5 4.5 4.3 1.00 53 2.0 1.9 1.7 0.95 54 4.0 4.0 3.9 1.00 55 4.6 4.4 4.3 0.96 56 4.8 4.6 4.5 0.96 57 4.4 4.4 4.2 1.00 58 4.3 4.1 4.1 0.95 59 4.2 4.2 4.2 1.00 60 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.95 61 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.84 62 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 63 5.0 4.8 4.8 0.96 64 4.6 4.5 4.5 0.98 65 4.5 4.3 4.1 0.96 66 4.5 4.4 4.3 0.98 67 4.2 4.1 3.9 0.98 68 2.0 1.8 1.6 0.90 69 2.0 1.9 1.7 0.95 70 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.00 71 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.95 72 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.00 73 5.0 4.9 4.9 0.98 74 3.9 3.8 3.6 0.97 75 3.8 3.8 3.4 1.00 76 1.9 1.7 1.6 0.89 77 3.9 3.7 3.4 0.95 78 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.94 79 4.2 4.0 3.9 0.95 80 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 81 4.9 4.6 4.5 0.94 82 4.5 4.4 4.2 0.98 83 4.6 4.4 4.4 0.96 84 2.0 1.7 1.6 0.85 85 1.9 1.7 1.5 0.89 86 1.9 1.7 1.6 0.89 87 4.9 4.8 4.5 0.98 88 1.9 1.7 1.7 0.89 89 1.8 1.6 1.6 0.89 90 1.9 1.6 1.7 0.84 91 4.5 4.5 4.5 1.00 92 3.8 3.6 3.4 0.95 93 3.8 3.7 3.6 0.97 94 1.9 1.6 1.6 0.84 95 4.4 4.3 4.3 0.98 96 4.6 4.5 4.1 0.98 97 1.8 1.7 1.6 0.94 98 4.3 4.2 4.1 0.98 99 4.9 4.8 4.5 0.98 100 4.1 4.0 4.1 0.98

PAGE 132

119 APPENDIX B OYSTER, CLAM AND MUSSEL PICTURES Figure B-1. Picture of oysters with dosi meter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05)

PAGE 133

120 Figure B-2. Picture of clams with dosim eter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05)

PAGE 134

121 Figure B-3. Picture of musse ls with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05)

PAGE 135

122 LIST OF REFERENCES Blake, P.A., R. E. Weaver, D. G. Hollis and P.C. Heublein. 1979. Disease caused by Vibrios. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 34:341-367 Blake, P. A. 1983. Vibrios on the half shell: What the walrus and the carpenter didnt know. Ann. Intern. Med. 99:558-559. Blake, P. A., R. E. Weaver and D. G. Ho llis. 1980. Diseases of humans (other than cholera) caused by Vibrios N. E. Jour. Med., 300(1):1-5. Blogoslawski, W.J. and M. E. Stewart. 1983. Depuration and Public Health. J. World Maric. Soc. 14: 535-540. Berlin, D. L., D. S. Herson, D. T. Hicks and D. G. Hoover. 1996. Response of Pathogenic Vibrio Species to High Hydrostatic Pressu re. Appl. And Envir. Micro. 65:27762780. Carver, J. H., T. J. Connors, L. J. Ronsivalli, and J. A. Holston. 1967. Shipboard irradiator studies. Report to USAEC on Contact No. AT(49-11)-1889. Bur. Com. Fish. Tech. Lab., Gloucester, Miss. Centers for Disease Contro l and Prevention [CDC]. 2003. Vibrio vulnificus Technical Information. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/dise aseinfo/vibriovulnificus_g.htm Accessed 2005 January 25. Code of Federal Regulations [CFR]. T itle 21, Part 179. April 1, 1994. Food and Drug Administration, Health and Hu man Services. Washington, DC. Connors, T. J. and M. A. Steinberg. 1964 Pr eservation of fresh unfrozen fishery products by low-level radiation. II. Or ganoleptic studies on radia tion pasteurized soft-shell clam meats. Food Technol. 18(7):113-116. Dixon D. W. 1992. The effect s of gamma radiation (60Co) upon shellstock oysters in terms of shelf life and ba cterial reduction, including Vibrio vulnificus levels. M. S. Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville. Dixon, D. W. 1996. The influence of gamma radiation upon shellstock oysters and culturable and viable but nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville.

PAGE 136

123 Dixon, D. W. and G. E. Rodrick. 1998. Effect of gamma radiation on shellstock oysters. In: Combination Processes for Food Irra diation. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna. 97-110. DuPont, H. L. 1986. Consumption of raw shellf ish: is the risk now unacceptable? N. E. Journ. Med. 314:707-708. Elias, P.S. and A. J. Cohen. 1983. Recent A dvances in Food Irradiation. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier Biomedical Press. Farkas, J. 2001. Physical methods of food preservation. In : Food Microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers. (Eds. M. P. Doyl e, L. R. Beuchat and T. J. Montville) Washington, DC: ASM Press. 580-581. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] and Inte rstate Shellfish Sa nitation Conference [ISSC]. 2003. Vibrio vulnificus risk management of oysters. FDA mandate. Gardner E. A. and Watts B. M. 1957. Effect of ionizing radiation on southern oysters Food Technology. 11:329-332. Grez, N., Rowley, D.B. and Matsuyama, A. 1983, The Action of Radiation on Bacteria and Viruses, in Preservation of Foods by Ionizing Radiation, Vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Harewood, P., S. Rippey and M. Montesalvo. 1 994. Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams ( Mercenaria mercenaria ). Appl. Environ. Micro. 60(7):2666-2670. Henkel, J. 1998. Irradiation: A safe measur e for safer food. FDA Consumer MayJune Publication No (FDA) 98-2320 Howard, R. J., B. Brennaman, and S. Lieb. 1986. Soft-bacteria infections in Florida due to marine Vibrio bacteria. Fla. Med. J. 73:29-34. Kelly, M. T. 1982. Effect of temperature and salinity on Vibrio ( Beneckea ) vulnificus occurrence in a Gulf Coast environmen t. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:820-824. Kelly, M. T., and E. M. Dan Stroh. 1988. O ccurrence of Vibrion aceae in natural and cultivated oyster populations in the Pacific Northwest. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9:1-5. Kilgen, M. B., M. T. Cole and C. R. Hackney. 1988. Shellfish sanitation studies in Louisiana. J. Shellfish Res. 7(3):527-530. Klontz, K. C., S. Lieb, M.Schreiber, H. T. Janowski, L. M. Baldy and R. A. Gunn. 1988. Vibrio vulnificus infections in Florida, 1981-1987: clinical and epidemiological features. Ann. Intern. Med. 109:318-323.

PAGE 137

124 Liuzzo J. A., Novak A. F., Grodner R. M., Rao M. R. 1970. Radiation pasteurization of gulf shellfish, Louisiana State University for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Technical Information Division, Re p. No. ORO-676, Baton Rouge, LA. 42. Lohaharanu, P., C. Prampubesara, K. Kraisorn, and K. Nouchpromool. 1972. Preservation of crabmeat by gamma irradi ation. Thai. AEC-58. Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok.. Mallett, J. C., L. E. Beghian and T. Metcal f. 1991. Potential of irra diation technology for improved shellfish sanitation. In: Mollus can Shellfish Depuration. (Eds. W. S. Otwell, G. E. Rodrick, and R. E. Martin). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. 247258. Mestey, D., G. E. Rodrick. 2003. A Compar ison of cryogenic freezing techniques and their usefulness in reduction of Vibrio Vulnificus in retail oysters. In: Molluscan Shellfish Safety. (Eds. A. Villalba, B Reguera, J. L. Romalde and R. Beiras).Intergov. Oceanograph. Comm. Of UNESCO. 467-474. Metlitskii, L. V., V. N. Rogachev and V. G. Krushchev. 1968. Radiation Processing of Food Products. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Atomic Energy Comission. Morris, J. G. Jr. and R. E. Black. 1985. Chol era and other vibrioses in the United States. N. E. Journ. Med. 312:343-50. Motes, M. L. and A. DePaola. 1996. Offshor e suspension relaying to reduce levels of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters Crassostrea virginica Appl. And Envir. Micro. 62:3875-3877. Nickerson, J. T. R. 1963. The Storage life Ex tension of Refrigerat ed Marine Products by low Dose Radiation Treatment: Explorati on of Future Food Processing Techniques. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Novak, A. F., J. A. Liuzzo, R. M. Grodner and R. T. Lovell. 1966. Radiation pasteurization of Gulf Coas t oysters. Food Technol. 20:201. Oliver, J. D., R. A. Warner and D. R. Cleland. 1983. Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting vibrios in the marine environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:1404-1414. Rodrick, G. E. and Dixon, D. W. 1994 Code of practices for the irradiation of seafoods. Prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Slavin, J. W., J. T. R. Nickerson, S. A. Gol dblith, L. J. Ronsivalli, J. D. Kaylor, J. J. Licciardello. 1966. The quality and wholesom eness of radiation pasteurized marine products with particular reference to fish fillets. Isotopes and Radiation Technology. 2:365.

PAGE 138

125 Slavin, J. W., M. A. Steinberg, and T. J. Connors. 1963. Low level radiation preservation of fishery products. Report to U. S. Atomic Energy Commission on Contract No.AT(49-11)-1889. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Tech. Lab., Gloucester Mass. Stein, M. 1995. Historical perspectives, impor tance and definition of radiation terms. Proceedings from the 1st Annual IFT Short Course on the Practical Aspects of Food Irradiation. Section 4. Tampa, FL. October 16-17, 1995. Tacket, C. O., F. Brenner and P. A. Blake. 1984. Clinical features and an epidemiological study of Vibrio vulnificus infec tions. J. Infect. Dis. 149:558-561. Tamplin, M. L., G. E. Rodrick, N. J. Blake, and T. Cuba. 1982. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio vulnificus from two Florida estuaries. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 1466-1470. Urbain, W. M. 1986. Food Irradiation. Or lando, FL: Academic Press, Inc. Webb, T., T. Lang and K. Tucker. 1987. Food Irradiation: Who Wants It? London: Thorsons. Yamada, K., and K. Amano. 1965. Reduction of coliform numbers in shucked baby clam by gamma irradiation. Bull. Tokai Reg. fish. Res. Lab. No. 43:91-96.

PAGE 139

126 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Arthur Grant Hurst Jr., the older of Art hur and Darlene Hursts two children, was born April 20, 1981, in Picayune, Mississippi. He graduated from Niceville High School in 1999. He was awarded the Bachelor of Scie nce degree from the University of Florida in May, 2003, from the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. He continued at the University of Florida for graduate study, in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, in pursuit of the Master of Sc ience degree under the supervision of Dr. Gary E. Rodrick. He was awarded the Mast er of Science degree in December of 2005. Once graduated, Arthur plans to start a career working in th e food industry sp ecializing in food safety and quality assurance.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012241/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Oyster Shell Shape and Thickness on Absorption of Electron Beam, Gamma Ray, and X-Ray Irradiation
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012241:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012241/00001

Material Information

Title: Effects of Oyster Shell Shape and Thickness on Absorption of Electron Beam, Gamma Ray, and X-Ray Irradiation
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0012241:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












EFFECTS OF OYSTER SHELL SHAPE AND THICKNESS
ON ABSORPTION OF ELECTRON BEAM, GAMMA RAY, AND X-RAY
IRRADIATION















By

ARTHUR GRANT HURST, JR.


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Arthur Grant Hurst, Jr.


































To my wife Ashley, my parents, and my family for their continued support
and encouragement















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend thanks and gratitude to my committee chairman and major

advisor, Dr. Gary E. Rodrick. Without this guidance his work would not be possible.

Thanks are due also to my supervisory committee members, Dr. Ronald Schmidt and Dr.

Sally Williams, for all their help and guidance in the completion of this research. I would

like to express my appreciation to Carl Gillis and Florida Accelerator Services and

Technology of Gainesville, FL, for providing me the opportunity to perform research at

this facility. Thanks are also due to Food Technology Service, Inc. of Mulberry, FL, for

allowing me the opportunity to perform research at its facility. I would also like to thank

the National Center of Electron Beam Food Research at Texas A & M University of

College Station, TX, for aiding us in our research and for the efficiency and consideration

of the staff.

Bill Leeming and Southern Cross Sea Farms, Inc. of Cedar Key, FL, deserve

recognition for always providing top-quality clams. The efforts of fellow master's

student Daniel Periu as well as all of my lab mates were invaluable in the completion of

this project.

In conclusion, I would like to thank my parents, Arthur and Darlene Hurst, for all

of their love and support. I would also like to thank my wife, Ashley, for all of her love

and support. Without her encouragement and support this research would not have been

possible















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .................. .................. ................. ............ .............. vii

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................... ............ .............. .. viii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ........ .......... .......... xii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................ .............4

V ibrio vulnificus ................................................................... ..................
R radiation ...................................... ................................... .................... 6
R radiation Sources ............................................................................ .7
R radiation D ose .................................................... ..................... 8
O y sters ............................................................................ . 9
C lam s ............................................................................. ................ 11
M u s se ls ...............................................................................1 2

3 MATERIALS AND METHODS ........................................... .......................... 14

Source of O y sters ..................................................................................... 14
Source of Clams .................. .................................... .......... .............. 14
Sources of M ussels ............................................... .................... ........... ..... 15
D osim eter Source and R leading .............................................. .......................... 15
Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol.........................................................15
Electron B eam and X -ray Protocol..................................... .......................... ......... 16
G am m a Irradiation Protocol ................................................ ............................. 17
S ta tistic s ................................................................................................................. 1 8

4 RESULTS AND D ISCU SSION ........................................... ............................ 19

Oyster Irradiation with Electron Beam ............................................. ...............19
Oyster Irradiation w ith X -Ray ....................................................... ............. 26
Oyster Irradiation w ith G am m a ......................................................... ............... 32
Clam Irradiation with Electron Beam .......................................................................39



v









C lam Irradiation w ith X -ray ............................................... ................................. 45
Clam Irradiation with Gamma ............... ............... .................... 51
Mussel Irradiation with Electron Beam ....................................... ...............58
M ussel Irradiation w ith X -ray .............................................................. ...............65
M ussel Irradiation w ith G am m a ....................................................... .... ........... 71

5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................80

APPENDIX

A OYSTER, CLAM, AND MUSSEL MEASUREMENTS .......................................82

O y ster M easu rem ents ...................................................................... ....................82
Clam M easurem ents ..................................................... ........ ..... 88
M ussel M easurem ent ................................................... .............. .............. 94
Oyster Irradiation D ose M easurem ents ........................................ .....................100
Clam Irradiated D ose M easurem ents..................................... ....................... 107
Mussel Irradiation Dose Measurements .............. .........................................113

B OYSTER, CLAM AND MUSSEL PICTURES............... .................119

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................... ..................... 122

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................. ............... 126
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

A-i Oyster W eight M easurements in g (5/1/05) .................................. .................82

A-2 Oyster Dimension Measurements in cm (5/3/05) ......................................... 84

A-3 Oyster Thickness Measurements in cm (5/4/05) .............. ....................................86

A-4 Clam W eight M easurements in g (4/29/05).................................. .................88

A-5 Clam Dimension Measurement in cm (5/10/05) .................................................90

A-6 Clam Thickness Measurement in cm (5/12/05) ................................................. 92

A-7 Mussel Weight Measurement in g (5/12/05) .......................................................94

A-8 Mussel Dimension Measurement in cm (5/20/05) ....................................... 96

A-9 Mussel Thickness Measurement in cm (5/22/05) ......................................... 98

A-10 Electron Beam irradiated oysters in kGy .................................... ............... 100

A-11 X-ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy .................................. ............... 102

A-12 Gamma Ray Irradiated Oysters in kGy .................. .............. ...............104

A-13 Electron Beam Irradiated Clam s in kGy ..................................... .................107

A-14 X-ray Irradiated Clams in kGy................................ .......................... 109

A-15 Gamma Ray Irradiated Clams in kGy ................................... ......... ............... 111

A-16 Electron Beam irradiated mussels in kGy ..........................................................113

A-17 X-ray Irradiated M ussels in kGy ............... ............................. ................ 115

A-18 Gamma Ray Irradiated Mussels in kGy .............. ......... ..................... 117















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

4-1 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells compared to the external absorbed dose
of the top shell of oysters after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy .....................19

4-2 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure at 3 kGy.......................................21

4-3 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
mean thickness of top shell of oysters irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy.......22

4-4 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells as compared
to curvature of top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy.......23

4-5 Percent external dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to weight of
oyster shells irradiated with electron beam at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy. ...............25

4-6 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy..........................26

4-7 The internal absorbed dose of oyster shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy. ...........28

4-8 Percent external shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
thickness of oyster shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray. .........29

4-9 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
curvature of oyster shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at......30

4-10 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
weight of top shell of oysters irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray....31

4-11 The internal absorbed dose oyster shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy.......................33

4-12 The internal absorbed dose of oyster shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of oysters after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy at. ....34

4-13 Percent external shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
thickness of oyster shell irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma. ......35









4-14 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
curvature of oyster shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma at...36

4-15 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in oyster shells compared to
weight of oyster shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma...........37

4-16 The internal absorbed dose clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy at...........40

4-17 The internal absorbed dose clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure at 3 kGy at.....................................41

4-18 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
thickness of clam shells irradiated with electron beam at IkGy and 3 kGy. ...........42

4-19 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
curvature of clam shells irradiated with electron beam at IkGy and 3 kGy............44

4-20 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
weight of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with electron beam..45

4-21 The internal absorbed dose clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy............................46

4-22 The internal absorbed dose of clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy ...........................47

4-23 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
thickness of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray. ...........49

4-24 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells as compared to
the curvature of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray......50

4-25 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
weight of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray. ...............51

4-26 The internal absorbed dose clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy.........................52

4-27 The internal absorbed dose of clam shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of clams after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy.........................53

4-28 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
thickness of clam shells irradiated at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma.......55

4-29 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
curvature of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma at.....56









4-30 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in clam shells compared to
weight of clam shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma.............57

4-31 The internal absorbed dose mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure to electron beam at 1 kGy.............58

4-32 The internal absorbed dose mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure at 3 kGy. ....................................60

4-33 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
thickness of mussel shells irradiated with electron beam IkGy and 3 kGy.............61

4-34 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
curvature of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy. .........................62

4-35 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
weight of mussel shells irradiated at IkGy and 3 kGy with electron beam.............64

4-36 The internal absorbed dose mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure to x-ray at 1 kGy ........................65

4-37 The internal absorbed dose of mussel shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure to x-ray at 3 kGy...........67

4-38 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
thickness of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray.........68

4-39 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
curvature of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray.........69

4-40 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
weight of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray ...........70

4-41 The internal absorbed dose mussel shells as compared to the external absorbed
dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure to gamma at 1 kGy ....................72

4-42 The internal absorbed dose of mussel shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of mussels after exposure to gamma at 3 kGy........73

4-43 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
thickness of mussel shells irradiated at 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at...............74

4-44 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
curvature of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma. ....75

4-45 Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in mussel shells compared to
weight of mussel shells irradiated at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma..........77









B-1 Picture of oysters with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05) ...................119

B-2 Picture of clams with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05)...................120

B-3 Picture of mussels with dosimeter envelopes placed on them (6/8/05) ...............121















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EFFECTS OF OYSTER SHELL SHAPE AND THICKNESS ON ABSORPTION OF
ELECTRON BEAM, GAMMA RAY, AND X-RAY IRRADIATION

By

Arthur Grant Hurst, Jr.

December 2005

Chair: Gary E. Rodrick
Major Department: Food Science and Human Nutrition

The overall objective of this research was to determine the effects of shape and

thickness on the absorption of electron beam, gamma ray and x-ray irradiation levels in

raw oysters, clams and mussels. Groups of 100 oysters, 100 clams and 100 mussels were

shucked of their meats and measured for dimensions and thickness. Wild Apalachicola

oysters, farm raised Cedar Key clams and farm raised mussels from China were used for

this research. The oysters, clams and mussels were divided up into groups of 50, attached

with 3 film dosimeter strips each and irradiated at doses of 1 kilogray (KGy) and 3

kilograys (KGy). After irradiation the dosimeters were read using a spectrophotometer to

determine the internal and external doses.

Electron beam irradiation had the least uniform dose of the three sources. X-ray

irradiation had a more uniform dose than electron beam. Gamma ray irradiation had the

most uniform dose of the three doses. Oysters had a wider range of thicknesses and

dimensions than the clams and mussels. Clams had a smaller range of thicknesses and









dimensions than the oysters, but the mussels had the smallest range of thicknesses and

dimensions. The electron beam and x-ray sources also showed signs of a concentration

of irradiation within the shell. In both of the sources the internal absorbed dose was

greater than the external or given dose.

There are statistical differences between the internal and external doses with all

three types of irradiation. Statistical analysis showed differences in the amount of

external doses absorbed internally between electron beam, x-ray and gamma ray.

Observations suggest that the thicknesses, curvatures and weights of the shells do not

independently have a significant effect on the amount of irradiation absorbed with in the

shell. The oysters also had the least uniform internal dose absorption. Internal clam

doses were more uniform than the internal oyster doses but not as uniform as the internal

mussel doses.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Oysters, clams and mussels are of great importance to those who work with the

shellfish industry and those who consume them. For many, these bivalve shellfish are a

delicacy and for others a source of livelihood. However, these bivalve shellfish have

received much criticism in the past five years for their potential to cause disease and even

death. The illnesses and deaths are primarily due to the marine bacteria genera Vibrio

especially V vulnificus and V parahemolyticus (Tamplin et al., 1982). Both of these

organisms can be fatal, when consumed by at risk individuals. Vibrio vulnificus is

responsible for approximately 85 hospitalizations and approximately 35 deaths per year

in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). Certain

individuals are at higher risk for this disease and likely to become infected from these

organisms. At risk individuals include individuals who suffer from a compromised

immune system, cirrhosis, diabetes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer,

hemachromatosis or liver disease (Blake et al., 1979). This group of at risk individuals

makes up a large number of potential victims that has been estimated to be as large as 10-

15 million in the USA.

In light of the morbidity and mortality concerns of these Vibrio diseases transmitted

to at risk individuals by consuming raw oysters and clams, the shellfish industry is

regulated to reduce or eliminate the public health risk of Vibrio. Efforts to reduce the

associated morbidity and mortality from raw oyster consumption have led to increased

regulation of shellfish waters as well as increased efforts to inform the public through









public bulletins and mandatory safety warnings in Florida, Louisiana and Texas. Despite

the efforts of increased regulation and information, the health concern still persists. This

has led regulatory authorities to issue new regionally specific food safety mandates that

pose significant historical changes in oyster commerce. The mandate (Food and Drug

Administration [FDA], 2003) calls for immediate compliance goals before the end of

2004 and additional, more stringent goals before the end of 2006. The goals include

implementation of new, innovative post-harvest treatments to reduce specific bacterial

loads on raw oyster products. The regulatory expectations call for technology that has

not been proven both in terms of food safety or market acceptance. Processing aids (e.g.,

depuration, relaying, freezing, pressure and irradiation) have been investigated with

respect to reducing levels of V. vulnificus and V parahemolyticus (Blogoslowski and

Stewart, 1983; Motes and DePaola, 1996; Mestey and Rodrick, 2003; Berlin et al., 1996;

Dixon, 1992).

Irradiation of oysters is a processing technique which has promise for reducing the

safety concern of these organisms. While irradiation has not yet been approved for

seafood including oysters, irradiation of oysters has been investigated for decades. Vibrio

is destroyed by irradiation. Kilgen et al. (1988) assessed shellstock oysters and showed

that all Vibrio pathogens were significantly reduced to undetectable levels at a dose of 1

kGy. Although the Vibrio threat can be reduced or eliminated through irradiation many

obstacles must be overcome before it can be put into practice.

Perhaps the biggest obstacle to overcome is the obstruction and lack of uniformity

regarding absorption through the shell into the meat of the oyster. Dixon (1996) found

that dosimeters placed inside oyster shells received approximately half of the calculated









dose that was calculated by the irradiation facility. The dose of radiation absorbed by the

meat is affected by the natural physical barrier of the shell. Shells may vary greatly in

size, thickness, and shape so absorption may vary even from oyster to oyster. In order for

irradiation to be a viable option in the shellfish industry the differences in oyster shells

size, thickness, and shape must be considered.

The overall objective of this research was to compare and contrast the percentage

of absorption of irradiation from a gamma ray source, electron beam and x-ray

irradiation. The specific objectives of this research were to (1) examine the differences in

absorbed dose of irradiation between the external top and internal sections of the shells of

oysters, clams and mussels; (2) compare and contrast the absorption of irradiation in

three different types of shellfish; (3) compare the thickness and curvature of the shells to

the internal dose.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Vibrio vulnificus

A public health risk exists for certain high risk individuals who consume raw or

undercooked oysters and clams. Crassostrea virginica, the American oyster and

Mercenaria campechiensis, hard-shelled clam have been implicated in several foodborne

outbreaks (Blake et al., 1980; Blake, 1983; DuPont, 1986). Many different bacterial and

viral agents such as Vibrio, Salmonella, .lNge/llu, Hepatitis virus and Norwalk virus have

been isolated from shellfish (Blake et al., 1980). Although all of the organisms can cause

problems in oysters and clams Vibrio is the most serious organism in shellfish.

V. vulnificus is a Gram negative, halophilic rod-shaped bacterium that is found in

estuarine and marine environments (Blake, 1983; DuPont, 1986). The U.S. Gulf Coast is

the most common place to find V. vulnificus (Tamplin et al., 1982), yet V vulnificus has

been isolated from the Atlantic Coast and Pacific Coast (Oliver et al., 1983; Kelly and

Stroh, 1988). Both salinity and water temperature play a important role in the detection

of V. vulnificus. Levels of V vulnificus are much higher during the warmer summer

months and lower in waters with salinities higher than 35 ppt (Kelly, 1982). Vibrio

vulnificus is a ubiquitous marine and estuarine microorganism that can be found

throughout the world. This is considered naturally occurring organism whose presence in

the environment is not related to fecal pollution (Tamplin et al., 1982).

Infection by V vulnificus arises from the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked

oysters or clams or by exposure of wounds to contaminated water. A primary septicemia









results from ingestion of V vulnificus and is accompanied by gastroenteritis, chills, and

fever. Individuals who become infected through a wound show symptoms of rapid

swelling erythema around the wound, as well as, fever and chills (Blake et al., 1980).

Wound infections can also cause myositis, severe cellulites and are likely to lead to gas

gangrene (Klontz et al., 1988).

Infections by V vulnificus are onset rapidly with a median incubation period of

approximately 12-16 hours (Blake et al., 1980). Vibrio vulnificus infections can be life

threatening. Approximately 50% of patients who develop primary septicemia die (Morris

and Black, 1985). In patients developing hypotension within 12 hours after hospital

admission the mortality rate can be as high as 90% (Klontz et al., 1988). After primary

septicemia sets in, many patients begin to develop secondary lesions on their extremities

that can result in necrotizing vasculitis in the muscles, which often result in amputations

(Howard et al., 1986). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted which

suggest that a relationship between several preexisting conditions and primary

septicemia. Cirrhosis, diabetes, hemochromatosis, kidney failure, liver and iron disorders

and any other immunocompromised conditions may cause individuals to be at risk (Blake

et al., 1979; Tacket et al., 1984). The effect of V. vulnificus on at risk individuals has led

regulatory authorities and industry to investigate ways to reduce or eliminate the impact

of this organism on the public.

Since 1980, the shellfish regulatory agencies and industry have put forth a strong

effort to reduce the health risk related to oysters and clams. Dry cold storage is the

current accepted practice for storage and handling of oysters. Oysters are harvested,

slightly cleaned, culled and either placed in croaker sacks or wax boxes and stored at









refrigeration at 34-360F in the dry cold storage method (Dixon, 1996). Bacterial

reduction and shelf life extension are not achieved by this method. This ineffective

method has led industry and regulatory authorities to look for innovative methods such as

irradiation.

Irradiation is an effective method in reducing V. vulnificus in oysters. When a large

enough dose of irradiation is applied the bacteria are reduced. Low doses of irradiation

are effective in significantly reducing V. vulnificus in shell stock oysters (Dixon, 1992).

The potential for irradiation to reduce V. vulnificus has led irradiation of shellfish to be

investigated.

Radiation

Radiation is the movement of energy from a source through matter or space.

Sound, light, microwaves, and a wide range of other forms of energy are all forms of

radiation. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are the main two irradiation categories of

Non-ionizing radiation, such as visible light and microwaves, lacks the energy to remove

electrons from the orbit of atoms. Ionizing radiation can interact with atoms and cause

electrons to become excited or move from a lower energy level to a higher energy level.

When significant ionizing radiation is present the electron can be ejected from the atom.

Electron separation from the atom causes ionization, creating a positive or negative ion

(Urbain, 1986). Once the electron is free from the atom, it can interact with other

materials and cause chemical structure changes in the material. In the case of food

irradiation, these chemical structure changes occur within the microorganisms present in

the food, cause the microorganisms damage and eventually death (Elias and Cohen,

1983). Death occurs in microorganisms either by the radiation interacting directly with

cell components or with adjacent molecules in the cell. Radiation damage to the cell can









be caused directly by the ionizing ray or by free radicals,( -H and -OH,) created by the

breakdown of water. The radicals, (primarily -OH) creates single strand and double

strand DNA breaks in the genetic material. Single and double strand breaks in DNA

occur due to chemical damage to the purine bases, pyrimadine bases and deoxyribose

sugar (Farkas, 2001). If the genetic material is not repaired then the cell cannot produce

crucial materials from the genetic material and will die (Grez et al., 1983).

Radiation Sources

Three types of ionizing radiation, gamma rays, x rays and electrons, are used in

food irradiation. The most prevalent form of ionizing radiation used in food irradiation is

the use of gamma rays. In food irradiation processing, two sources, Cobalt-60 and

Cesium-137, are used for producing gamma rays. Decay of the unstable radioactive

nucleus of Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 cause gamma rays to be produced (Urbain, 1986).

Cobalt-60 produces two gamma rays with energy levels of 1.17 million electron volts

(MeV) and 1.33 MeV. Cesium-137 produces only one gamma ray with an energy level

of 0.66 MeV. Neither of these sources have the potential to produce radioactive food.

For significant radioactivity to be imparted into food energy levels larger than 15 MeV

must be used. The half-life of Cobalt-60 is 5.3 years. Cesium-137 however has a half-

life of 30.2 years. Gamma rays produced by Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 have good

penetrating power, but can not be turned on and off. They are always producing

radiation. Containment and storage to prevent environmental contamination are a major

concern with these two sources. Both Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 are generally

approved by the FDA in food products approved for irradiation (CFR, 1994).

Machine source electron beams and X-rays are also used in food irradiation

processing, yet these are not as widely used as gamma rays. The energy levels for both









of these sources also are not large enough to convey radioactivity into the food. Electron

beams must have energy levels of less than 10 MeV and X-rays must have energy levels

less than 10 MeV to be allowed in the United States (21CFR179). Electron beams can be

efficiently created in high doses in a short amount of time and there is not a constant

radioactive source that must be contained. With electron beam machine sources the

radiation can be turned on and off, but electrons do not penetrate as well as gamma rays.

X-rays have greater penetrating power and can be turned on and off therefore

contamination is less of an issue. However, production of x-rays is not very efficient.

Radiation Dose

The nomenclature used to determine radiation dose have changed over time. In

older literature the rad was used as the unit for radiation dose delivered to a product or

radiation dose absorbed. One rad is equal to 100 ergs of absorbed energy per gram.

Current literature mostly uses the International System of Units (SI) unit of Gray (Gy).

One Gray is equal to 100 rads and 1 joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of food

(Urbain, 1986). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several foods

at different doses mostly ranging from 1 kGy to 7 kGy. Fresh foods are approved for 1

kGy to delay maturation, all foods are approved at 1 kGy to prevent insect contamination,

Poultry is approved at 3 kGy to reduce pathogens, fresh red meat is approved at 4.5 kGy

and frozen red meat is approved at 7 kGy to reduce pathogens (Henkel, 1998) by the

FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS). All

of the doses are rather low. The only exception is spices which are approved up to 30

kGy (Henkel, 1998).

One major concern with oysters, clams, mussels and other bivalve shellfish is the

lack of uniformity in the dose. The desired target area for the radiation, the meat, is









shielded by a shell that may vary greatly in thickness, conformation and shape. This shell

may reduce the dose being applied to the food. This lack of uniformity creates a situation

where researchers must either choose a maximum dose or a minimum dose as the focus

(Stein 1995). In this situation the researcher selects a minimum dose (Dmin) based on the

amount of radiation needed to achieve desired effects and a maximum dose (Dmax) where

no extra undesirable effects are created (Stein 1995). The extent of dose absorbed may

vary depending on a variety of factors. Dixon (1996) found that the dose calculated by

Food Technology Services of Mulberry, FL, a gamma ray food irradiation facility, was

twice the dose received by internal dosimeters. The calculated dose given to the product

may vary greatly from the dose that the meat of the product actually receives.

Research of irradiation of shellfish is focused around two possible advantages. The

first major advantage of irradiation is the deduction of pathogens such as Vibrio in the

shellfish such as oysters and clams. The second major advantage is the possibility of

increasing shelf life of shellfish such as mussels. The major disadvantage of irradiating

shellfish is the increased cost of the process. Overall the possibility of increasing the

safety of shellfish with only slightly increased cost is very promising.

Oysters

Irradiation is a relatively new form of food processing compared to drying or

heating. For nearly a century irradiation has been studied for processing food.

Strawberries were processed with irradiation in 1916 (Webb et al., 1987). Many types of

food have been irradiated since then. Fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, shellfish as well as

many other types of food have been irradiated.

Bivalve shellfish, such as oysters, clams and mussels are one type of food that is

currently being researched as a candidate for irradiation to reduce pathogens. Irradiation









of oysters has been studied since the 1950s as a possible method of reducing V. vulnificus

and as a method to extend shelf life. Gardner and Watts (1957) used ionizing radiation to

treat oyster meats at low doses of 630 rads (0.63 kGy), 830 rads (0.83 kGy) and 3500

rads (3.5 kGy). They observed that undesirable "oxidized" and "grassy" odors developed

respectively in raw and cooked irradiated oyster meats. Gardner and Watts (1957)

concluded that irradiation would not be successful in oyster preservation due to the

continuation of enzyme action even with doses of 3500 rads (3.5 kGy) and 50C storage.

In 1966, Novak and others irradiated canned oyster meats at 2 kGy. The irradiated

and control oysters were stored on ice for 23 days and tested at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 23 days.

A trained taste panel was used to determine that irradiated oyster meats were adequate for

up to 28 days and non irradiated oyster meats were acceptable only up to seven days

(Novak et al., 1966). Slavin et al. (1966) concluded that oyster meats optimally irradiated

at 2 kGy and stored at 0.60C resulted in shelf life of 21 to 28 days. Metlitskii et al.

(1968) showed that oysters irradiated at 5 kGy and stored at 20C have a 60 day shelf life.

Liuzzo et al. (1970) studied the optimum dose that would extend shelf life and

result in the least alteration in food components of shucked oyster meats. They

determined that a dose of 2.5 kGy would extend the shelf life of oyster meat to seven

days on ice. Sensory quality of the irradiated meats was not significantly different from

the non irradiated meats until the seventh day. Liuzzo et al. (1970) also determined that

doses above 1 kGy altered the B-vitamin retention, percent moisture, percent ash,

glycogen content and soluble sugar content of oyster meats.

Kilgen et al. (1988) examined shellstock oysters and showed that all Vibrio

pathogens were significantly reduced to undetectable levels at a dose of 1 kGy. Doses of









1 kGy were not lethal to oysters. There were also no significant sensory changes at a

dose of 1 kGy. Mallet et al. (1991) irradiated shellstock oysters from Massachusetts and

determined that the survival times of oysters through six days was not affected by doses

of up to 2.5 kGy. Mallet et al. (1991) concluded that doses of 2.5 kGy or lower produced

a median shelf life of greater than 25 days. Also, Mallett et al. (1991) also used a trained

taste panel to determine that oysters irradiated at doses up to 3 kGy were acceptable.

Hepatitis A virus and rotavirus SA11 in oysters and clams were also studied by Mallett et

al. (1991). A dose of 2 kGy gave a Dio value for hepatitis A virus and a dose of 2.4 kGy

gave a Dio value for rotavirus Sal 1.

In contrast to Kilgen et al. (1988), Dixon (1992) showed that 1 3 kGy doses of

gamma radiation stored at 40C to 60C were not effective in significantly extending the

shelf life of Florida shellstock oysters longer than the non irradiated controls. In addition,

Rodrick and Dixon (1994) found that the bacterial levels of V. vulnificus, fecals and

overall bacteria were reduced by about 2 logs with doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. But this

reduction only lasted a few days before the counts started to rise again to an even greater

number than the initial amount. Also, in contrast to previous work, the shelf life for these

oysters was not significantly extended as claimed by Mallet et al. (1991).

Clams

Clams have also been studied with respect to irradiation as a possible method to

reduce V. vulnificus or extend shelf life. Nickerson (1963), studied irradiation of clams

and determined that clam meats had a shelf life of 28 days with a dose of 4.5 kGy. Also,

at doses up to 8.0 kGy Nickerson (1963) showed that irradiated clam meats stored at 60C

for 40 days showed no detectable differences from non-irradiated clam meats. Slavin et

al. (1963) also found that 4.5 kGy irradiated clams stored at 60C were equal in quality to









non irradiated clam meats. A taste panel was used by Connors and Steinberg (1964) to

determine that clam meats irradiated at 2.5 kGy to 5.5 kGy were not significantly

different from non irradiated clam meats. Yamada and Amano (1965) determined the

optimum dose range to be 100-450 krads (0.1-0.45 kGy) to obtain a shelf life of four

weeks at 00C-20C in Venerupis semiddecus sata clams. Carver et al. (1967) determined

that shucked surf clam meats, Spisula solidissima, air packed in plastic pouches have an

optimum dose of 450 krads with a shelf life of 50 days at 0.60C. Non treated clam meats

have a shelf life of 10 days at 0.60C. Carver et al. (1967) also determined that clams

treated with doses of 100 200 krads have a shelf life of 40 days at 0.60C. Harewood et

al (1994) evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on bacterial and viral loads as well as

shelf life in Mercenaria mercenaria hard shell clams. Radiation Dio values were 1.32

kGy for total coliforms, 1.39 kGy for fecal coliforms, 1.54 kGy forE. coli, 2.71 kGy for

C. perfringens and 13.5 kGy for F-coliphage.

Mussels

Irradiation of Mussels has been studied as well though to a lesser extent than have

clams and oysters. Irradiation of mussels is of concern due to the possibility of

increasing shelf life. Lohaharanu et al. (1972) examined shucked mussel meats and

determined that the optimum dose of irradiation was 150-250 krads (0.15-0.25 kGy). The

shelf life for the irradiated mussels were six weeks at 3 C and the shelf life for the

nonirradiated mussels was three weeks at 3C. Since mussels are not very susceptible to

V. vulnificus and are generally eaten cooked irradiation of mussels has not been

researched to the degree that clams and oysters have. Extension of shelf life is one

possible benefit of irradiating oysters however.






13


Oysters, clams and mussels only make up a small part of the body of research of

food irradiation. However, irradiation of oysters, clams and mussels may prove to be

important in providing a safe way of producing products which are safer for the consumer

and have a longer shelf life.














CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS

This research included examination of oysters, clams, and mussels for differences

and similarities between shape, weight and size. The absorption of gamma ray and

electron beam irradiation in oysters, clams, and mussels were compared and contrasted.

Also this research included analyzing the shape, weight and size of the oysters, clams,

and mussels and their shells.

Source of Oysters

Florida shellstock oysters were used for analysis in this research. The source of the

oysters used in this analysis was Leavins Seafood, Inc. of Apalachicola, FL. Summer

oysters were harvested by Leavins Seafood, Inc. from approved shellfish harvesting

waters in the Apalachicola area. Leavins delivered the oysters to us at the Interstate 10

Agricultural Inspection Station in Live Oak, FL via refrigerated truck. The oysters were

transported on ice from Live Oak to the University of Florida in Gainesville, FL.

Source of Clams

Farm raised Florida hard shell clams were used in this research. The source of the

clams used in this research was harvested by Southern Cross Sea Farms, Inc. The clams

were harvested from approved shellfish harvesting waters in Cedar Key, FL. Southern

Cross Sea Farms breads, raises and harvests clams in Cedar Key, FL. The clams were

transported in coolers from Cedar Key to the University of Florida.









Sources of Mussels

Farm raised mussels from China were purchased from Northwest Seafood, Inc. in

Gainesville, FL and transported on ice to the University of Florida. The mussels were

imported, frozen and distributed by Beaver Street Fisheries in Jacksonville, FL.

Dosimeter Source and Reading

FWT 60-00 dosimeter strips produced by Far West Technology Inc. of Goleta, CA

were used to examine the dose of irradiation received in the inside and outside of the

oyster, clams, and mussel shells. The Florida Accelerator Services Technology (FAST)

facility's dosimetery lab in Gainesville, FL was used to prepare and read all of the

dosimeter strips used in this research. These dosimeter strips were determined by Carl

Gilus the dosimetry expert for FAST to be the best fit for our dose, 1KGy to 3KGy, and

the spectrophotometer equipment available to us at FAST. All of the FWT 60-00

dosimeter strips were read using the FWT-100 Radiachromic Reader at FAST's

dosimetery lab produced by Far West Technology Inc.

Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol

Oysters, clams and mussels (100 of each) were irradiated and assessed. Each of the

oysters, clams and mussels were all measured following this protocol. All of the

shellstock shellfish were weighed and measured at the University of Florida, Department

of Food Science and Human Nutrition. The meats were shucked from the shells with a

shucking knife, taking care to remove all of the meat. Both meat and shell were weighed,

to the nearest tenth of a gram, individually for each shellfish. After weighing the meat

was discarded. The top and bottom of the shell were also weighed individually and

together. The shells were measured for thickness, with calipers, at various locations over

the shell at a variety of places mapping the shell. Upper and lower shell parts were









compared to each other to determine the differences in weight between the upper and

lower parts of the shell. Overall shell weight was compared to meat weight. The thickest

and thinnest places were compared for each shell. Also, the thickness for each shell was

averaged. The heights, at the highest part of the shell, of both the upper and lower parts

of the shell were measured. In addition, the length of the upper and lower parts of each

shell (at the longest part) was measured. The length and height for each shell was

compared and contrasted. These comparisons were then used to determine the relative

curvature of each shell.

Electron Beam and X-ray Protocol

The electron beam source for this research was the National Center for Electron

Beam Food Research (NCEBFR) facility at Texas A and M University at College Station,

TX. The National Center for Electron Beam Food Research uses a 10 MeV Linear

Accelerator to irradiate food for research and commercial uses. The accelerator is a

linear Varian Accelerator in a Titan designed system.

The X-ray source for this research was also the National Center for Electron Beam

Food Research facility (NCEBFR) at Texas A and M University at College Station, TX.

The National Center for Electron Beam Food Research uses a 10 MeV mechanical

electron beam generator to produce electrons which are accelerated into a dense metal to

produce X-rays. A linear Varian Accelerator in a Titan designed system is focused on to

a Tantalum alloy converter sheet to produce the x-rays.

Doses of 1 KGy and 3 KGy, divided into the two same groups as set in the Food

Technology Service, Inc. Protocol, were also used at the NCEBFR electron beam and x-

ray facility. One hundred oysters, 100 clams and 100 mussels used in this part of the

research were shucked and cleaned prior to being sent to the NCEBFR facility. The









oyster, clam and mussel shells were prepared with dosimeter envelopes following the

same procedure used in the Food Technology Service, Inc. Protocol (see pictures in

Appendix B). The dosimetry lab was then used to fill all of the envelopes with dosimeter

strips. The shell was then closed with a drop of Elmer's glue to prevent the shell from

opening during irradiation. All of the shells were then placed into Ziploc bags and placed

into a box with packing paper in-between the bags to protect the shells. The box of shells

was then shipped via FedEx to the NCEBFR facility. The shells were then run through

the electron beam till the desired dose was achieved as determined by the staff at

NCEBFR. After irradiation the shells were boxed up by the staff NCEBFR and shipped

via FedEx to the University of Florida. The shells were then taken to the FAST

doismetry lab and the dosimeter strips were read. The entire procedure was then repeated

for x-ray.

Gamma Irradiation Protocol

The gamma ray source for this research was Food Technology Service, Inc. facility

in Mulberry, FL. A Cobalt 60 (60Co) source was used at Food Technology to produce

gamma rays for large scale commercial irradiation. Food Technology was chosen over

smaller gamma units for its industrial scale because it could be used to irradiate all of the

oysters, clams and mussels at one time.

Two different doses, 1 KGy and 3 KGy were used in this research. These are the

doses that are currently being reviewed by the FDA for approval for use in seafood.

Oyster, clam and mussel shells (100 of each) were shucked and measured following the

Oyster, Clam and Mussel Measuring Protocol. Three dosimeter envelopes were attached

to each of the 300 shells using white carpenters glue from Elmer's Products Inc. of

Columbus, OH. One envelope was attached to the outside of each of the upper shell.









Another envelope was attached to the outside of the lower shell. The last envelope was

placed in-between the two shells. Each of the envelopes was filled with one dosimeter

strip at the FAST dosimetery lab. The shell was then closed with a drop of white

carpenters glue to prevent the shell from opening during irradiation. The shells were then

equally divided into two boxes. The boxes of shells were transplanted to Food Tech and

one box was irradiated at 1 KGy and the other at 3 KGy. After the desired dose was

received the shells were taken back to Gainesville via car and read at the FAST

dosimetery lab.

Statistics

All of the statistics for this research were performed using Microsoft Excel XP.

Paired t-test were performed on the entire external and internal dose data. All t-tests were

performed with a = 0.05. Linear regression models were used in all of the figures to

determine trend. An a = 0.05 was also used for all of the linear regression models as

well. Multiple linear regression models were performed in Microsoft Excel XP with the

addition XLSTAT on all of the data for figures. All of the multiple linear regression

models used a = 0.05 as well.















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Oyster Irradiation with Electron Beam

The initial experiments for this research were performed with electron beam

irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested on May 6, 2005 from approved

shellfish harvesting waters in Apalachicola, FL and irradiated by electron beam at

NCEBFR on June 8, 2005. The oysters were shucked, measured and loaded with

dosimeter strips before irradiation. After irradiation the dosimeter strips that were placed

on the top oyster shell, bottom oyster shell and in between the oyster shells were read

using spectrophotometery.

6
5.5
5
o4.5
4
0 3.5


2.5
2
1.5 *,


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-1. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to electron
beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of
data with a=0.05 (y = 0.2774x + 1.307 R2 = 0.1814).









Figure 4-1 was created from the data in Table 10 (all Tables are located in

Appendix A). Data in Figure 4-1 show the internal absorbed dose compared to the

external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells irradiated at a dose of 1 kGy, as

determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range

from 1.4 kGy to 3 kGy, have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 1.98 kGy.

External top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 4.1 kGy, have a median of 2.3 kGy

and have a mean of 2.46 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. In most cases the internal doses are

smaller than the doses received by the top of the oyster shells. However, in six of the

thirty eight oysters irradiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the

external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.47 kGy larger than the internal

absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between

external dose and internal dose. This positive relationship is as expected. A higher

external dose should produce a higher internal dose. The line does not fit the data well

with an R2 value of 0.1814. The line only has an 18% fit with R2 values ranging from 0

to 1. External dose and internal dose are statistically significantly different (P<0.05).

Figure 4-2 was created from the data in Table 10. Data in Figure 4-2 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells

irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR using p0hotometric

technique. The internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.4 kGy to 5.3 kGy, have

a median of 3.9 kGy and have a mean of 3.63 kGy. External top absorbed doses range

from 1.9 kGy to 6.7 kGy, have a median of 4.3 kGy and have a mean of 4.18 kGy.










6
5.5






3*
S2.5 *

2
1.5
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-2. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure at 3 kGy at
NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y =
0.698x + 0.7163 R2 = 0.5105).

The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined

by NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. In six of the sixty two oysters

irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed

dose. Having internal doses higher than the applied external doses is a concentration

phenomenon seen in both 1 kGy and 3 kGy oysters irradiated with electron beam. The

cause of this phenomenon is currently not known. External top dose mean is 0.51 kGy

larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. All of the oysters irradiated with electron

beam cover a larger range of doses than was to be expected. The external doses (applied

dose) cover a much larger range than we would expect. Not only does the internal dose

vary, but the external dose varies greatly as well. This issue is an undesirable effect of

electron beam. The doses in the oysters irradiated at 3 kGy are much more wide spread

than the doses of oysters irradiated at 1 kGy in Figure 4-1. Linear regression of the data










shows a positive relationship between internal dose and external dose. The regression

line for this data has a R2 value of 0.5105. External dose and internal dose are

statistically significantly different (P>0.05).

2
1.8
1.6

o
8 1 .4 -----------------------
a. 1.2 --
0
I-
ra 1









0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-3. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at
doses of lkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
I 0.6 --^ -

= 0.4 *
0.2
0 ---------------------------------------




regression0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0..5 18460.6 0.7 0. 0.0226).

Figure 4-3 was created from the data in Table 3 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-3(cm)

show Figure 4-3. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

~~compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters. For mean thickness of the
doses of IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.1846x + 0.777 R2 = 0.0226).

Figure 4-3 was created from the data in Table 3 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-3

show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters. For mean thickness of the

top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The

percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is

90% and the mean is 86.8%.

Linear regression of this data shows a positive relationship between external dose

absorbed internally and mean shell thickness. It was expected that the percent external

top shell dose absorbed internally would decrease as the thickness increased, due to the









limited penetration of electron beam irradiation to penetrate thicker material as well as

thinner material. The data does not show this relationship. However, this line does fit

the data well with a R2 value of only 0.0226. Multiple linear regression of the data shows

no significant relationship between external dose absorbed internally and mean shell

thickness (P>0.05). It was expected that thickness would have a significant effect on the

internal absorbed dose. This may be a result in the porous nature of the shell. If we were

to measure thickness and dose on a microscopic level the results may differ. Also the

effects of thickness on dose may be overshadowed by a more important unknown

variable.

2
1.8
S1.6
S1.4
S1.2


o 0.8 -
E 06
e- *
-= 0.4 *
0.2

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-4. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = 0.2084x + 0.8182 R2 = 0.0117).

Figure 4-4 was created from the data in Table 2 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-4

show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curvature of the top shell









the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is 90% and the mean is

86.8%.

The curvature of the oysters evaluated in this research did not vary as greatly as

first thought. The oysters appear to vary greatly in shape and size when examined by

hand. The curvatures of the assessed oysters are similar. Linear regression shows a

slight positive relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed internally and

top shell curvature. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only

0.0117. Multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant

relationship between curvature and percent of external dose absorbed internally (P>0.05).

It was expected that curvature would have some sort of an effect on percentage of

external dose absorbed internally. The lack of a significant effect may also be a result of

a different variable overshadowing the effects of curvature. Or curvature may not have

an effect on percentage of external dose being absorbed internally when irradiated with

electron beam.

Figure 4-5 was created from the data in Table 1 and Table 10. Data in Figure 4-5

show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters. For weight of the top shell the

range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally range is 132% to 43%, the median is 90% and the mean is

86.8%.










2
1.8
1.6
1.4
0
0 1.2


E 0.8
o 1 t ,

S0.6 *
0.4
0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-5. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradiated with electron
beam at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0032x + 0.9561 R2 = 0.0059).

The oysters assessed in this research covered a range weights. This can be seen in

the top shell weights presented in this graph. Percentage of external dose absorbed

internally is rather evenly dispersed between the weights assessed. Linear regression

shows a slight negative relationship between percentages of external dose absorbed

internally and top shell weight. The line does not have a good fit which is evident by the

R2 value of 0.0059. Multiple linear regression models show no statistically significant

difference between top shell weight and percentage of external dose absorbed internally

(P>0.05). There were no expectations for weight, but it was a factor that we hoped we

could use to produce a graphical model or an equation to predict the percentage of

external dose absorbed internally. However, for oysters irradiated with electron beam the

factors we investigated did not have enough statistical effect to produce a statically

significant model or equation.










Oyster Irradiation with X-Ray

The second set of experiments for this research was performed with x-ray

irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested from approved harvesting waters

in Apalachicola, FL on May 6, 2005 and irradiated with x-ray at NCEBFR on June 26,

2005. The oysters were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam and loaded

with dosimeter strips that were placed on the top oyster shell, bottom oyster shell and in

between the oyster shells before irradiation with x-ray. After irradiation with x-ray the

dosimeter strips placed on the oysters were read with using spectrophotometery.

6
5.5
5
4.5
S4
o 3.5


S2.5
2 -

1.5 -
1I
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-6. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to x-ray at 1
kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with
a=0.05 (y = -0.1084x + 1.7874 R2 = 0.0141).

Figure 4-6 was created from the data in Table 11. Data in Figure 4-6 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The

internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.2 kGy to 2.6 kGy, have a median of









1.5 kGy and have a mean of 1.59 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy

to 3.0 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.85 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. Yet, the means are closer and the

data is more consistent than the data presented for electron beam in Figure 4-1. Six of the

thirty eight oysters irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy exhibit an internal absorbed dose are

higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.26 kGy larger

than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a very slight

negative relationship between external dose and internal dose. However, the fit of the

line to the data is not good with R2 value for the regression is 0.0041. External dose and

internal dose are statistically significantly different (P>0.05). It was expected that these

doses would be different due to x-ray's lower energy and penetration.

Figure 4-7 was created from the data in Table 11. Data in Figure 4-7 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The

internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.2 kGy to 6.9 kGy, have a median of

3.8 kGy and have a mean of 3.82 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.4 kGy

to 6.9 kGy, have a median of 4.2 kGy and have a mean of 4.12 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined

by NCEBFR for both external and internal doses. In eight of the sixty two oysters

irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed

dose. As with electron beam this concentration phenomenon is seen at doses of 1 kGy

and 3 kGy. External top dose mean is 0.31 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose










mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between internal dose

and external dose at a 95% confidence interval and a good data fit with a R2 value of

0.6808. The doses in the oysters irradiated at 3 kGy are much more wide spread than the

doses of oysters irradiated at 1 kGy. The oysters irradiated at 3 kGy with x-ray (Figure 4-

7) and 3 kGy with electron beam (Figure 4-2) are more similar to each other than the

oysters irradiated at IkGy x-ray (Figure 4-6) and 1 kGy with electron beam (Figure 4-1).

External doses and internal doses of oysters irradiated with x-ray at 3 kGy are statistically

significantly different (P<0.05).


7 A
6.5 5
6 -
5.5
i 5 A
SA A
S4.5
0 tt A
S3.5 A
3
2.5 -
A A

1.5

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-7. The internal absorbed dose of shucked oyster shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to x-
ray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = 0.9596x 0.1584 R2 = 0.6808).

Figure 4-8 was created from the data in Table 3 and Table 11. Data in Figure 4-8

show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters. For mean thickness of the

top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The









percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the median is

90% and the mean is 91%.

2
1.8
1.6
w 1.4
A



0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-8. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at
doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows
linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0916x + 0.9566 R2 = 0.0041).

The data for percentage of external top shell dose absorbed internally is more

tightly grouped for oysters irradiated with electron beam (Figure 4-3) than oysters

irradiated with x-ray (Figure 4-8). Linear regression of the data shows a slight negative

relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and mean top

shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. The line for this data does not have a good

fit with a R2 value of 0.0041. Multiple linear regression models show no statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) between the external doses absorbed internally and

mean top shell thickness of oysters treated with x-ray. As with electron beam this was not

expected.










2
1.8
S1.6
8 1.4





I 0.6 A
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-9. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.3866x + 1.004 R2 = 0.0297).

Figure 4-9 was created from the data in Table 2 and Table 11. Data in Figure 4-9

show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curvature of the top shell

the data range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent external

top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the median is 90% and the

mean is 91%.

The data from electron beam (Figure 4-4) and x-ray (Figure 4-9) is also very

similar for curvature. The data for electron beam appears to be slightly more tightly

grouped than the data for x-ray. A slight negative relationship is shown between

percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature with linear

regression of at a confidence interval of 95%. However, with a R2 value of 0.0297 the

line does not fit the data well. Multiple linear regression models of this data show no










statistically significant relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed

internally and top shell curvature at a (P<0.05). It was expected that there would be some

effect of curvature on percentage of external dose absorbed internally. However,

curvature may be overshadowed by another factor or just not have an effect at all.

Figure 4-10 was created from the data in Table 1 and Table 11. Data in Figure 4-

10 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters. For weight of the top shell the

range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 123%, the median is 90% and the mean is

91%.


2 -
1.8
A
1.6
A 1.4
o A
Qo 1 .2 A
CL t A
0 AAA AA A
1 4A
A AA A A
E 0.8 A A7 A

0.6 A
0.4
0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-10. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.0094x + 0.65 R2 = 0.0383).

Linear regression models of the data show a slight negative relationship between

percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight. The line does not









have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0059. No statically significant

relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top shell

weight in multiple linear regression models. None of the factors assessed for oysters

irradiated with x-ray have a statically significant effect on percentage of external dose

absorbed internally.

Oyster Irradiation with Gamma

The third set of experiments for this research was performed with 60Co gamma

irradiation of shucked oysters. Oysters were harvested on May 6, 2005 from approved

harvesting waters in Apalachicola, irradiated with gamma at Food Technology Inc. on

July 6, 2005. The oysters were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam,

irradiated with x-ray and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation with gamma.

After irradiation with gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the top oyster shell, bottom

oyster shell and in between the oyster shells were read using spectrophotometery.

Figure 4-11 was created from data in Table 12. Data in Figure 4-11 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

Inc. The internal doses range from 1.2 kGy to 2.3 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and

have a mean of 1.77 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy to 3.1 kGy,

have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 1.98 kGy.

The range of data for gamma is smaller than the range for electron beam or x-ray.

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by Food

Technology Inc. for both external and internal dosimeters. For gamma the means are

closer and the data is more consistent than the data presented for electron beam (Figure 4-

1) or the data presented for x-ray in (Figure 4-6). However, the external doses and










internal doses are statistically significantly different (P>0.05). The internal absorbed

dose is not higher than the external top absorbed dose for any of the thirty eight oysters

irradiated with gamma at 1 kGy. External top dose mean is 0.26 kGy larger than the

internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of this data shows a positive relationship

between external doses and internal doses at a 95% confidence interval.

6
5.5
5
c 4.5
4
0 3.5


2.5
2 -
1.5


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-11. The internal absorbed dose shucked oyster shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to
gamma at 1 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.6965x + 0.3874 R2 = 0.8077).

Figure 4-12 was created from data in Table 12. Data in Figure 4-12 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the oyster shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

Inc. The internal doses absorbed range from 1.8 kGy to 5.2 kGy, have a median of 3.9

kGy and have a mean of 3.95 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to

5.5 kGy, have a median of 4.2 kGy and have a mean of 4.13 kGy.










6
5.5
5
S4.5








1.5

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-12. The internal absorbed dose of shucked oyster shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked oysters after exposure to
gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.9254x + 0.1138 R2 = 0.9372).

The data in Figure 4-12 follows the same layout as the electron beam (Figure 4-2)

and the x-ray (Figure 4-7), but is more uniform and consistent. However, the external

doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different with a confidence level of

95%. Zero of the oysters irradiated with gamma at 3 kGy exhibit a internal absorbed

dose higher than the external top absorbed dose. Gamma does not exhibit the

concentration phenomenon that affects electron beam and x-ray. External top dose mean

is 0.18 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data

shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose. With a R2 value of

0.9372 the regression line is almost a perfect fit. The data for gamma is more tightly

grouped than the data for electron beam and x-ray. Gamma produces more consistent

results than electron beam or x-ray in oysters.










2
1.8
0 1.6
? 1.4
o
Q 1.2
E 1
x 0.8 -. *
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-13. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at
doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05).
Solid line shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0608x + 0.9641
R2 0.0176).

Figure 4-13was created from data in Table 3 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-13

show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the oysters. For mean thickness of the

top shell the range is 0.3 cm to 0.97 cm, the median is 0.46 cm and mean is 0.49 cm. The

percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the median is

95% and the mean is 93%.

The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-13. Data

in Figure 4-13. are more tightly grouped than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-3) and

the data for x-ray (Figure 4-8). A slight negative relationship exist between percentage of

external dose absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness when linear regression

models are ran with a 95% confidence interval. The line is not a good fit for the data









with a R2 value of only 0.0176. Multiple linear regression models show no statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) between mean top shell thickness and percentage of

external dose absorbed internally. It was expected that mean top shell thickness would

have a negative relationship to percentage of external dose absorbed internally. The lack

of a relationship may be caused by the use of macro measurements instead of micro

measurements or thickness may be overshadowed by other unknown factors. Oyster top

shell thickness does not have a statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) to percentage

of external dose absorbed internally for any of the three irradiation sources tested.

2
1.8
1.6
0)
0 1.4-
a 1.2

'71







0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
S0.4 .
S0.2 -

0 -
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-14. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of
tkGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0055x + 0.9354 R2 = 6E-
05).

Figure 4-14 was created from data in Table 2 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-14

show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the oysters. For curvature of the top shell

the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent external top










shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradiation range is 74% to 100%, the median is

95% and the mean is 93%.

The data for the gamma (Figure 4-14) is more tightly grouped than the data for

electron beam (Figure 4-4) or the data for x-ray (Figure 4-9). Linear regression at a 95%

confidence interval shows an extremely small negative relationship between the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature. However, the fit

of the line is horrible with a R2 value of 0.00006. Multiple linear regression models of

the data show no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between percentage of

external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature. As with electron beam and x-

ray, curvature does not have a statistically significant (P>0.05) effect on the percentage of

external dose absorbed internally in oysters irradiated with gamma.

2 -
1.8
1.6
a 1.4
1.2
1 .
E 0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-15. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0024x + 1.0004 R2
0.0241).









Figure 4-15 was created from data in Table 1 and Table 12. Data in Figure 4-15

show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the oyster shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the oysters. For weight of the top shell the

range is 19.8g to 41.5g, the median is 27.6g and mean is 27.9g.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the

median is 95% and the mean is 93%.

Percentage of external dose absorbed internally is rather evenly dispersed between

the weights assessed. Linear regression shows a slight negative relationship between

percentages of external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95%

confidence interval. The line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only

0.0241. No significant relationship exists between external dose absorbed internally and

top shell weight in multiple linear regression models (P>0.05). Top shell weight does not

have a statistically significant (P>0.05) effect on percentage of external dose absorbed

internally in any of the three irradiation sources examined.

The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different

(P<0.05) in oysters irradiated with electron beam, x-ray and gamma at doses of 1 kGy

and 3 kGy. This is to be expected due to the barrier effect of the oyster shell against

irradiation. Top shell thickness, curvature and weight all have no significant effect on

percentage of external dose absorbed internally for oysters irradiated at 1 kGy and 3 kGy

with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. This was not expected, but as discussed above

this may be an effect of macro measurement instead of micro measurements or these

factors may be overshadowed by a more important unknown factor. Of the three sources

the data for gamma is most tightly grouped. Oysters irradiated with gamma also have









smaller ranges of data than electron beam and x-ray do. Gamma does not exhibit the

concentration phenomenon that is seen in electron beam and x-ray. Because of these

reasons gamma is the most promising irradiation source for irradiating oysters on a large

scale.

Further experiments need to be performed. Large scale experiments with pallets of

hundreds of bushels of oysters would provide the data needed to examine how effective

gamma is in industrial production. Further experiment with electron beam and x-ray are

also needed. Electron beam and x-ray may be more promising for half shell oysters.

Further research may add to the knowledge and direct how electron beam, x-ray and

gamma can be used to efficiently irradiate oysters.

Clam Irradiation with Electron Beam

Electron beam was used to irradiate clams at NCEBFR as well. Clams were

harvested on May 11, 2005 from Cedar Key and irradiated with electron beam on June 8,

2005. The clams were shucked, measured and loaded with dosimeter strips during the

before irradiation. After irradiation the dosimeter strips placed on the top clam shell,

bottom clam shell and in between the clam shells were read using spectrophotometery.

Figure 4-16 was created using the data in Table 13. Data in Figure 4-16 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses

absorbed by the strips range from 1.2 kGy to 2 kGy, have a median of 1.7 kGy and have a

mean of 1.70 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.5 kGy to 3.1 kGy, have a

median of 2.1 kGy and have a mean of 2.12 kGy.










6
5.5
5
4.5
o 4
o 3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-16. The internal absorbed dose shucked clam shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to electron
beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of
data with a=0.05 (y = 0.0405x + 1.6096 R2 = 0.0061).

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. In most cases the internal doses are

smaller than the doses received by the top of the clam shells. However, in three of the

forty five clams irradiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external

top absorbed dose. The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly

different (P>0.05). External top dose mean is 0.42 kGy larger than the internal absorbed

dose mean. Linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval shows a very

small positive relationship exist between external doses and internal doses. However the

fit of line to the data is not good with a R2 of 0.0061. The data for clams irradiated with

electron beam at 1 kGy are more tightly grouped than the data for oysters irradiated with

electron beam at 1 kGy.










6
5.5
5
i 4.5
4






1.5 *
2-
1.5 -------------------------
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-17. The internal absorbed dose shucked clam shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure at 3 kGy at
NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y
= 0.9134x + 0.152 R2 = 0.8344).

Figure 4-17 was created using the data in Table 13. Data in Figure 4-17 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses

absorbed by the strips range from 1.5 kGy to 4.2 kGy, have a median of 3.7 kGy and

have a mean of 3.50 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to 4.6 kGy,

have a median of 3.8 kGy and have a mean of 3.78 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined

by NCEBFR for both external and internal doses. In nine of the fifty five clams

irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed

dose. The concentration phenomenon is seen in clams irradiated with electron beam as

well as oysters. However, the external doses and internal doses are statistically

significantly different (P<0.05). External top dose mean is 0.29 kGy larger than the










internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship

between external doses and internal doses with a 95% confidence interval. The line is a

good fit with a R2 value of 0.3158. The tighter grouping of data for clams irradiated with

electron beam than data for oysters irradiated with electron beam may be a result of the

more uniform shape and structure of the clams.

Figure 4-18 was created using the data in Table 6 and Table 13. Data in Figure 4-

18 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams. For mean thickness of the

top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 125%, the median

is 92% and the mean is 88%.

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2 -
0 1.1 *
U,
o 1
S0.9
cc
c 0.8
S0.7
wL 0.6 -
S0.5-'
E 0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 -
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-18. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams irradiated with
electron beam at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.217x + 0.8137 R2
0.0005).









Linear regression of the data shows a small positive relationship between the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness at a 95%

confidence interval. However, the line is not a good fit with a R2 value of only 0.0005.

The percent of external top shell dose absorbed internally covers a range of 75%. The

percentages of doses received internally from the electron beam are not very uniform.

Multiple linear regression models shows no significant relationship between the percent

of external top shell dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness (P<0.05).

As with oysters, thickness does not have a statistically significant effect (P>0.05) on the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally in clams irradiated with electron beam.

Figure 4-19 was created using the data in Table 5 and Table 13. Data in Figure 4-

19 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell the

range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 and mean is 0.33. The percent external top shell

dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 125%, the median is 92% and the mean is 88%.

The curvatures of the clams analyzed in this research are very uniform. A negative

relationship exists, at confidence interval of 95%, between the percentage of external

dose absorbed internally and the top shell curvature when linear regression is applied to

the data. However, with an R2 value of 0.0237 the line is not a good fit. In addition,

multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant relationship

(P>0.05) between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the top shell

curvature. Like oysters top shell curvature was expected to a significant effect on the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally. The unexpected result may be an effect







44


of measuring techniques or a result of other factors overshadowing the effect of curvature

on the percentage of external dose absorbed internally.

1.5
1.4
1.3

1.2
0.
08

0 0.9 *
C 0.8
S 0.7
lU 0 .6 ---------S----------------

E 0 .4 ----------------------------
H 0 .3 ----------------------------
0.2
0.1
0 ------------------------------------
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature


Figure 4-19. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams irradiated with electron
beam at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -1.1461x + 1.2569 R2 = 0.0237).

Figure 4-20 was created using the data in Table 7 and Table 13. Data in Figure 4-

20 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 50% to 125%, the

median is 92% and the mean is 88%.

Linear regression shows a positive relationship between percentages of external

dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does

not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0005. No statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top shell










weight in multiple linear regression models with a 95% confidence level. Like thickness

and curvature, weight is not a statistically significant factor in determining the percentage

of external dose absorbed internally in clams irradiated with electron beam. Other factors

or thickness, curvature and weight must be examined in order to determine the factors

that effect percentage of external dose absorbed internally.

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
0 1.1
a 0.9 4

S0.8
S0.7 -
wL 0.6
S0.5-
E 0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Top Shell Weight (g)

Figure 4-20. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of IkGy
and 3 kGy with electron beam NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.217x + 0.8137 R2 = 0.0005).

Clam Irradiation with X-ray

Shucked clams were also irradiated with x-ray for this research. Clams were

harvested on May 11, 2005 from Cedar Key, irradiated with x-ray at NCEBFR on June

26, 2005. The clams were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam and loaded

with dosimeter strips before irradiation with x-ray. After irradiation with x-ray the

dosimeter strips placed on the top clam shell, bottom clam shell and in between the clam

shells were read using spectrophotometery.










6
5.5
5
S4.5
4
S3.5
3
) 2.5 t
C A A A A
2 AA AA A A A
1.5 --A


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-21. The internal absorbed dose shucked clam shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to x-ray at 1
kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with
a=0.05 (y = 0.3976x + 1.0481 R2 = 0.3738).

Figure 4-21 was created from the data in Table 14. Data in Figure 4-21 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The doses

absorbed internally range from 1.2 kGy to 3.0 kGy, have a median of 1.9 kGy and have a

mean of 1.9 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.2 kGy to 4.2 kGy, have a

median of 2.2 kGy and have a mean of 2.23 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. External doses and internal doses of

clams irradiated at 1 kGy with x-ray are statistically significantly different (P<0.05). In

eight of the forty five clams irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose are

higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.33 kGy larger










than the internal absorbed dose mean. External dose and internal dose have a positive

relationship in linear regression models with a R2 value equal to 0.3738.

6 -
5.5 -


i 4.5
A A

o 3.5 -
3 3
S2.5
2
A
1.5
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-22. The internal absorbed dose of shucked clam shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to x-
ray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = 0.6603x + 1.2588 R2 = 0.5929).

Figure 4-22 was created from the data in Table 14. Data in Figure 4-22 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The

internal doses absorbed range from 1.8 kGy to 5.4 kGy, have a median of 4.0 kGy and

have a mean of 4.05 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to 6.3 kGy,

have a median of 4.3 kGy and have a mean of 4.27 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was also larger than the 3 kGy dose given as determined

by NCEBFR for both external and internal doses by more than IkGy. In nine of the fifty

five clams irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher than the external top

absorbed dose. The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly









different (P<0.05). External top dose mean is 0.22 kGy larger than the internal absorbed

dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external

dose and internal dose at a 95% confidence interval. Data for clams irradiated with x-ray

are more tightly grouped than oysters irradiated with x-ray. As discussed above the farm

raised clams are more uniform shell and are more similar to each other than the wild

oysters.

Figure 4-23 was created from the data in Table 6 and Table 14. Data in Figure 4-

23 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams. For mean thickness of the

top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 56% to 163%, the median

is 94% and the mean is 93%.

The data in Figure 4-23 are also very similar to the data found Figure 4-18. Both x-

ray and electron beam have similar spreads of percentage of external dose absorbed

internally. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness at a 95%

confidence interval. However, the R2 value for this data is only 0.0064 meaning that the

line is not a good fit for the data. Multiple linear regression models show no statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally

and the mean top shell thickness. It was expected that thickness would have a negative

relationship to percentage of external dose absorbed internally. The lack of a relationship

here may be due to the small range of thicknesses examined.







49


1.5
1.4
S1.3
1- .2 -A A
1.1
0 1 A ,4.
0.9 A
E 0.8 AIA
0.7 i A
L. 0.6 -A
0.5
E 0.4
0.3
-c 0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-23. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams irradiated at
doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows
linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.7114x + 0.7226 R2 = 0.0064v).

Figure 4-24 was created from the data in Table 5 and Table 14. Data in Figure 4-

24 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell the

range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 and mean is 0.33. The percent external top shell

dose absorbed internally range from 70% to 117%, have a median of 98% and have a

mean of 96%.

Curvatures of clam shell examined in this research are very uniform. The clam

shell curvatures are less diverse than the oyster shells. A negative relationship is shown

between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature in linear

regression models with a confidence interval of 95% and a R2 value of 0.0006. However,

multiple linear regression models show no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05)

between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature.










1.5
1.4
^ 1.3
1.2 -
S1.1 AAA
O 1
0.8
0.9


W 0.6 A-
L, 0.6 -"At
0.5
E 0.4
S0.3-
0.2
0.1
0 -- I i i i i ---I
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-24. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.1797x + 0.9903 R2 = 0.0006).

Figure 4-25 was created from the data in Table 4 and Table 14. Data in Figure 4-

25 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 70% to 117%, the

median is 98% and the mean is 96%.

Linear regression shows a positive relationship between percentages of external

dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does

not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0064. No statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top shell

weight in multiple linear regression model. As with electron beam irradiated clams, x-

ray irradiated clams are not significantly affected by any of the factors we assessed.










Further experiments examining a larger range thicknesses, curvatures and weight may

provide different results. Measuring the shells microscopically may also provide

different results.

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2 -

1 1. 5A 6A I 1 A
S0.9 A A
E 0.8 A
0.7 -- A
LJ 0.6- A A A
0.5
E 0.4
-* 0.3
0.2
0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Top Shell Weight (g)

Figure 4-25. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of IkGy
and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression
of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.7114x + 0.7226 R2 = 0.0064).

Clam Irradiation with Gamma

A 60Co gamma source was also used in the irradiation of shucked clams. Clams

were harvested on May 11, 2005 from Cedar Key, irradiated with gamma at Food

Technology Inc. on July 6, 2005. The clams were shucked, measured, irradiated with

electron beam, irradiated with x-ray and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation

with gamma. After irradiation with gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the top clam

shell, bottom clam shell and in between the clam shells were read using

spectrophotometery.










Figure 4-26 was created from the data in Table 15. Data in Figure 4-26 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

Inc.. The internal doses range from 1.4 kGy to 3.1 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and

have a mean of 1.88 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.5 kGy to 3.3 kGy,

have a median of 2.0 kGy and have a mean of 2.09 kGy.

6
5.5
5
4.5
4
0 3.5
E 3
-S 2.5


1.5


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-26. The internal absorbed dose shucked clam shells as compared to the external
absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to gamma at 1
kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear regression of
data with a=0.05 (y = 0.6135x + 0.6042 R2 = 0.6179).

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

Food Technology Inc. for both external and internal dosimeters. For gamma the means

are closer than the means for electron beam or x-ray. The external doses and internal

doses are statistically significantly different (P<0.05) for clams irradiated at 1 kGy with

gammas. For only one of the forty five clams irradiated with gamma at 1 kGy the internal

absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is






53


0.21 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data

shows a positive relationship between external dose and internal dose at a 95%

confidence interval. The regression line is also a good fit with a R2 value of 0.6179.

Figure 4-27 was created from the data in Table 15. Data in Figure 4-27 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the clam shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

Inc. The internal doses absorbed range from 1.5 kGy to 5.1 kGy, have a median of 4.3

kGy and have a mean of 4.24 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to

5.2 kGy, have a median of 4.6 kGy and have a mean of 4.46 kGy.

6 -
5.5


3.5



I 3 -
S4.5

2 -

1.5
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-27. The internal absorbed dose of shucked clam shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked clams after exposure to
gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.9134x + 0.152 R2 = 0.8344).

The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different

(P<0.05). None of the clams irradiated with gammas at 3 kGy have a internal dose higher

than the external dose. As with oysters gamma does not show the effects of a









concentration phenomenon. The external top dose mean is 0.22 kGy larger than the

internal absorbed dose mean. Data for clams irradiated with gamma are more tightly

grouped than data for clams irradiated with electron beam and x-ray. A positive

relationship between external dose and internal dose is shown by linear regression of the

data at a 95% confidence interval. The regression line is a good fit to the data with a R2

value equal to 0.8344.

Figure 4-28 was created from the data in Table 6 and Table 15. Data in Figure 4-

28 show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the clam shells

as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams. For mean thickness of

the top shell the range is 0.26 cm to 0.33 cm, the median is 0.29 cm and mean is 0.29 cm.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 61% to 112%, the median

is 95% and the mean is 93%.

The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-28. Data

in Figure 4-28 are more uniform than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-18) and the

data for x-ray (Figure 4-23). Linear regression of the data shows a negative relationship

between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness

at a 95% confidence interval. However, the fit of the line is not good with a R2 value of

0.0485. Multiple linear regression of this data shows no statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the

mean top shell thickness. Thickness does not have a statistically significant effect on

percentage of external dose absorbed internally for electron beam, x-ray or gamma.










1.5
1.4
o 1.3
S1.2
1.1
0 1 I
0.9
E 0.8
0 0.7
LU 0.6 -
S0.5
E 0.4
o 0.3
-0 0.2
0.1
0 -
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-28. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the clams irradiated at
doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05).
Solid line shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.9988x + 1.2254
R2 = 0.0485).

Figure 4-29 was created from the data in Table 5 and Table 15. Data in Figure 4-

29 show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the clam shells

as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams. For curvature of the top shell

the range is 0.26 to 0.39, the median is 0.33 and mean is 0.33. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradiation range is 61% to 112%, the median is

95% and the mean is 93%. The data for the gamma (Figure 4-29) is more uniform than

the data for electron beam (Figure 4-19) and x-ray (Figure 4-24). A very small negative

relationship is exhibited with linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval.

With a R2 value of 0.0003 the regression line does not fit the data very well however. In

addition, multiple linear regression models of the data show no statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the










top shell curvature. Curvature is also not a factor in determining the percentage of

external dose absorbed internally for electron beam, x-ray or gamma.

1.5
1.4
1.3
S1.2
1.1
o 1
S0.9
E 0.8
qL--
0 0.7
x
w 0.6 -
0.5
E 0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 -
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature


Figure 4-29. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the clams irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0652x + 0.9547 R2
0.0003).

Figure 4-30 was created from the data in Table 4 and Table 15. Data in Figure 4-

30 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 10.0g to 20.6g, the median is 13.0g and mean is 13.9g.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 70% to 117%, the

median is 98% and the mean is 96%.

Linear regression shows a negative relationship between percentages of external

dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does

not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0485. No statistically significant

relationship (P<0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top shell










weight in multiple linear regression models. Weight does not have a statistically

significant relationship to percentage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the

three irradiation sources

1.5
1.4
S1.3
1.2
1.1

0.9 ;'" "
E 0.48 -
S0.7
Cl 0.6



0.2
0.1
0.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Top Shell Weight (g)

Figure 4-30. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the clam irradiated at doses of IkGy
and 3 kGy with gamma Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows
linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.9988x + 1.2254 R2 = 0.0485).

Clams irradiated with electron beam, x-ray or gamma have statistically

significantly different (P<0.05) external doses and internal doses. Percentage of external

dose absorbed internally is not affected by top shell thickness, curvature or weight in

clams irradiated with electron beam, x-ray of gamma. Data for gamma is more tightly

grouped than the data for electron beam or x-ray. Gamma also does not exhibit the

concentration effect that electron beam and x-ray exhibit. For these reasons gamma is the

most promising for irradiating clams industrially.

Future experiments on irradiation of clams are needed to assess the effectiveness of

irradiating clams on a large industrial scale. Experiments examining clams with a larger










range of thicknesses, curvatures and weights could also be performed in order to further

validate the results of this research. These experiments would increase the knowledge of

irradiation of shellfish.

Mussel Irradiation with Electron Beam

Electron beam was also used to irradiate mussels. Mussels were purchased on May

12, 2005, irradiated with electron beam at NCEBFR on June 8, 2005. The mussels were

shucked, measured and loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation. After irradiation

the dosimeter strips placed on the top mussel shell, bottom mussel shell and in between

the mussel shells were read using spectrophotometery.

6
5.5
5
4 4.5
S4
o 3.5
c 3
S2.5 -
2
1.5 ---
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (kGy)

Figure 4-31. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to
electron beam at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0271x + 1.6089 R2 = 0.0007).

Figure 4-31 was created from the data in Table 16. Data in Figure 4-31 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The doses









absorbed inside the mussel shells range from 1.2 kGy to 2.1 kGy, have a median of 1.5

kGy and have a mean of 1.57 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.3 kGy to

2.3 kGy, have a median of 1.6 kGy and have a mean of 1.63 kGy.

The data for mussels irradiated with electron beam is more tightly grouped than the

data for clams and oysters irradiated with electron beam. The internal doses and external

doses for mussels irradiated at 1 kGy with electron beam are not statistically significantly

different (P>0.05). Even though the means for external dose and internal dose are not

significantly different the data is far from ideal and not as tightly grouped as we would

like. In eleven of the forty seven mussels irradiated at 1 kGy the internal absorbed dose

is higher than the external top absorbed dose. The concentration phenomenon is also

exhibited in mussels as well as clams and mussels. External top dose mean is only 0.06

kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data shows a

small negative relationship between the external and internal doses at a 95% confidence

interval. However, the regression line is not a good fit for the data with a R2 value equal

to 0.0007.

Figure 4-32 was created from the data in Table 16. Data in Figure 4-32 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The internal doses

absorbed by the strips range from 1.3 kGy to 4.1 kGy, have a median of 3.1 kGy and

have a mean of 3.00 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.7 kGy to 4.2 kGy,

have a median of 3.2 kGy and have a mean of 3.20 kGy.






60


6
5.5
5
C 4.5
o 4
0 3.5





1.5,
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-32. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure at 3
kGy at NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data with
a=0.05 (y = 0.5566x + 1.2022 R2 = 0.1406).

The external dose and internal dose are statistically significantly different (P<0.05).

The mean dose absorbed internally is 3.00 which is the target dose. Even with this ideal

mean there are thirteen of the fifty three mussels irradiated at 3 kGy with the internal

absorbed dose is higher than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is

0.20 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose mean. Linear regression of the data

shows a positive relationship between the external doses and internal doses at a

confidence interval of 95%. The regression line is not a very good fit to the data with a

R2 value of 0.1406. Even though the mean is exactly the dose we wanted the data is not

grouped as tightly as we would like to see. The concentration phenomenon also affects

24% of the mussels irradiated with 3 kGy.







61


1.5
1.4
o 1.3 --
1.2
1.1 *
0.9
E 0.8 -
S 0.7 *
L 0.6
0.5
E 0.4
0.3
S0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-33. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated with
electron beam at doses of IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.2862x + 1.0008 R2
0.0179).

Figure 4-33 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 16. Data in Figure 4-

33 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as

compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels. For mean thickness of

the top shell the range is 0.1cm to 0.62 cm, the median is 0.13 cm and mean is 0.15 cm.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 41% to 150%, the median

is 94% and the mean is 96%.

The thicknesses of the top shells of the mussels are very similar. The percentage of

external dose absorbed internally covers a large rang and is not very uniform. Linear

regression of the data shows a negative relationship between the percentage of external

dose absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval.

However, the linear regression line is not a good fit with a R2 value of 0.0179. A

statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) is not shown between percentage of external







62


dose absorbed internally and mean top shell thickness in multiple linear regression

models. Percent of external dose absorbed internally is not statistically significantly

affected by top shell thickness for mussels irradiated with electron beam. It was expected

that thickness would have a strong negative relationship to percentage of external dose

absorbed internally, as with oysters and clams.

1.5 *
1.4 *
1.3 -
1.2 -
0 1.1
U,
0 1
0.9
cc
0.8
0.7 *
l 0.6
S0.5
E 0.4-
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 ------------------------------------
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-34. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = -0.6613x + 1.0962 R2 = 0.0248).

Figure 4-34 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 16. Data in Figure 4-

34 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels. For curvature of the top shell

the range is 0.14 to 0.34, the median is 0.20 and mean is 0.21. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally range is 41% to 150%, the median is 94% and the mean is

96%.









The curvatures of the mussels (Figure 4-34) are more uniform than the curvatures

of the oysters (Figure 4-4), but are less uniform than the curvatures of the clams (Figure

4-19). A negative relationship is shown between percentage of external dose absorbed

internally and top shell curvature in linear regression models performed at a 95%

confidence interval. The fit of the line is not good with a R2 value of 0.0248 however.

Multiple linear regression models do not show a statistically significant relationship

(P>0.05) between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature.

Figure 4-35 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 16. Data in Figure 4-

35 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and mean is 3.2g.

The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 41% to 150%, the

median is 94% and the mean is 95%.

Linear regression shows a small negative relationship between percentages of

external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The

line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0013. No statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top

shell weight in multiple linear regression models.

The data for mussels irradiated with electron beam are very similar to the data for

oysters and clams irradiated with electron beam. All of the external doses and internal

doses of shellfish irradiated with electron beam are statistically significantly different

(P<0.05) except the mussels irradiated with electron beam at 1 kGy. Even with similar

means the data is not as tightly grouped as the data for gamma or x-ray. Electron beam










also exhibits the concentration phenomenon in all three species of shellfish investigated.

Top shell thickness, curvature and weight do not statistically significantly affect the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally in oysters, clams or mussels irradiated

with electron beam. Electron beam does not provide the uniformity of dose that we

would like for any of the three shellfish investigated.

2

1.8

1.6

1.4
0
o 1.2 -
0.
0

E 0.8 -
S0.6

0.4 -
0.2
0 ----------------------------------
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-35. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the mussel irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with electron beam NCEBFR (6/8/05). Solid line shows
linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0074x + 0.9827 R2 = 0.0013).

There are numerous future experiments that may help us better understand how to

effectively use electron beam irradiation with shellfish. Irradiating shellfish on the half

shell may be a viable option for irradiating with electron beam. The concentration

phenomenon that is seen in electron beam also needs to be further investigated.

Experiments with different dosimetery methods, such as alanine dosimeters, may provide

a better understanding of this phenomenon. Future experiments may help to provide

better understanding and uses for electron beam.









Mussel Irradiation with X-ray

The second set of experiments for this research was performed with x-ray

irradiation of shucked mussels. Mussels were purchased on May 12, 2005, irradiated

with x-ray at NCEBFR on June 26, 2005. The mussels were shucked, measured,

irradiated with electron beam and loaded with dosimeter strips during the period in-

between. After irradiation with x-ray the dosimeter strips placed on the top mussel shell,

bottom mussel shell and in between the mussel shells were read using

spectrophotometery.

6
5.5
5
4 4.5
4 4
o 3.5
3 3
S2.5
2 -
1.5 -tt-t


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (kGy)

Figure 4-36. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to x-
ray at 1 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = 0.0799x + 1.6661 R2 = 0.004).

Figure 4-36 was created from the data in Table 17. Data in Figure 4-36 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The

internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.5 kGy to 2.2 kGy, have a median of









1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.81 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy

to 2.1 kGy, have a median of 1.8 kGy and have a mean of 1.81 kGy.

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

NCEBFR for both external and internal dosimeters. Both doses at 1 kGy and 3 kGy are

the same. The data in Figure 4-36 are much more uniform than the data for electron

beam. The external doses and internal doses of mussels irradiated at 1 kGy with x-ray

are not statistically significantly different (P>0.05). As with mussels irradiated with

electron beam at 1 kGy the mean may be similar, but the data is not as tightly grouped as

with gamma. Fifteen of the forty seven mussels irradiated with x-ray at 1 kGy have an

internal absorbed dose that is higher than the external top absorbed dose. Linear

regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval shows a small positive relationship

between external dose and internal dose. With a R2 value of 0.004 the regression line is

not a good fit for the data however.

Figure 4-37 was created from the data in Table 17. Data in Figure 4-37 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated by x-ray at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of NCEBFR. The

internal doses absorbed by the strips range from 1.8 kGy to 5.0 kGy, have a median of

4.4 kGy and have a mean of 4.29 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy

to 5.2 kGy, have a median of 4.4 kGy and have a mean of 4.29 kGy.

The means of the internal doses and the external doses are equal. However, in

nineteen of the fifty three mussels irradiated at 3 kGy the internal absorbed dose is higher

than the external top absorbed dose. The concentration phenomenon is also seen in

mussels irradiated with x-ray. External doses and internal doses are not statistically










significantly different (P>0.05). A positive relationship between external dose and

internal dose is shown by linear regression of the data at a 95% confidence interval. The

regression line is a good fit to the data with a R2 value of 0.8522. The data for mussels

irradiated with x-ray are more tightly grouped than the data for oysters or clams irradiated

with x-ray. Even though mussels irradiated with x-ray have means that are not

statistically significantly different (P>0.05) the data is not as tightly grouped as the data

for mussels irradiated with gamma.


6
5.5

5 -
4 .5 A

4
0 3.5
3
S 2.5
2S

1.5


1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-37. The internal absorbed dose of shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to x-
ray at 3 kGy at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear regression of data
with a=0.05 (y = 0.842x + 0.6817 R2 = 0.8522).

Figure 4-38 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 17. Data in Figure 4-

38 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells

as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels. For mean thickness of

the top shell the range is 0.1 cm to 0.62 cm, the median is 0.13 cm and mean is 0.15 cm.







68


The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 79% to 122%, the median

is 100% and the mean is 100%.


1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2





0.1
1 -
o Afi
a 0.9
0.8 -
S0.7 5 0 0 0 0
X
o 0.6 -
Cr 0.5 -
S0.4 -
0.3 -
0.2 -
0.1 -

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)


Figure 4-38. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at
doses of IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows
linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.2194x + 0.9718 R2 = 0.0408).

The mussel top shell thicknesses examined in this research did not cover a large

range. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the percentage

of external doses absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness at a confidence

interval of 95%. Yet, the regression line does not fit the data very well with a R2 value of

0.0408. Multiple linear regressions of the data do not show a statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) between percentage of external doses absorbed internally and the

mean top shell thickness. Top shell thickness does not have a statistically significant

effect on the percentage of external dose absorbed internally for oysters, clams or mussels

irradiated with x-ray.







69


1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2- iA A
V 1.1 A A


S0.8 -
0.7
lw 0.6
C 0.5
E 0.4
S0.3
0.2
0.1
0 -
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-39. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray at NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.0654x + 0.9904 R2 = 0.0009).

Figure 4-39 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 17. Data in Figure 4-

39 show the percent external top shell x-ray dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells

compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels. For curvature of the top shell

the range is 0.14 to 0.39, the median is 0.20 and mean is 0.21. The percent external top

shell dose absorbed internally range is 79% to 122%, the median is 100% and the mean is

100%.

The data for curvature are relatively uniform covering a small range except for one

offset data point. Although, the regression line is not a good fit with a R2 value of 0.0009

a positive relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top

shell curvature is seen in linear regression models at a 95% confidence interval. Multiple

linear regression of the data shows no statistically significant relationship (P>0.05)

between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and top shell curvature.










2
1.8
1.6
a 1.4



I 0 .8 -------,------------------
0.6

0.4
0






0.2
0 ------------------------------------
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-40. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the mussel irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with x-ray NCEBFR (6/26/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.0033x + 0.9933 R2 = 0.001).

Figure 4-40 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 17. Data in Figure 4-

40 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and mean is 3.2g. The percent external top shell

dose absorbed internally range is 79% to 122%, the median is 100% and the mean is

100%.

Linear regression shows a small negative relationship between percentages of

external dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The

line does not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.001. No statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top

shell weight in multiple linear regression models.









Unlike oysters and clams, mussels irradiated with x-ray are not statistically

significantly different (P>0.05). The data for mussels irradiated with x-ray are more

tightly grouped than the data for oysters or clams irradiated with x-ray. Top shell

thickness, curvature and weight are also not statistically significantly affecting the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the three species of shellfish

irradiated with x-ray. Although x-ray does exhibit the concentration phenomenon in all

of the shellfish investigated, x-ray may be a viable option for irradiating mussels. Future

experiments are needed to further expand the knowledge on irradiation of mussels.

Experiments with different dosimetry methods may provide a better understanding of the

concentration effect seen in the shellfish irradiated with x-ray.

Mussel Irradiation with Gamma

A gamma source was also used to irradiate the oysters. Mussels were purchased on

May 12, 2005, irradiated with gamma at Food Technology Inc. on July 6, 2005. The

mussels were shucked, measured, irradiated with electron beam, irradiated with x-ray and

loaded with dosimeter strips before irradiation with gamma. After irradiation with

gamma the dosimeter strips placed on the top mussel shell, bottom mussel shell and in

between the mussel shells were read using spectrophotometery.

Figure 4-41 was created from the data in Table 18. Data in Figure 4-41 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 1 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology

Inc. The internal doses range from 1.6 kGy to 2.0 kGy, have a median of 1.7 kGy and

have a mean of 1.73 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.6 kGy to 2.2 kGy,

have a median of 1.9 kGy and have a mean of 1.89 kGy.










6
5.5
5
C4.5
^r 4
o 3.5
c 3
S2.5
2 -
1.5
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (kGy)

Figure 4-41. The internal absorbed dose shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to
gamma at 1 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.4832x + 0.813 R2 = 0.3341).

The mean dose absorbed was larger than the IkGy dose given as determined by

Food Technology Inc. for both external and internal dosimeters. External doses and

internal doses are statistically significantly different (P<0.05) for mussels irradiated at 1

kGy with gammas. None of the forty seven mussels irradiated with gamma at 1 kGy have

an internal absorbed dose higher than the external top absorbed dose. The gammas do

not appear to have the concentration effect with in the shell that the electron beam and x-

rays have. External top dose mean is 0.16 kGy larger than the internal absorbed dose

mean. Linear regression of the data shows a positive relationship between external dose

and internal dose with a R2 value of 0.3341 at a confidence interval of 95%.

Figure 4-42 was created from the data in Table 18. Data in Figure 4-42 show the

internal absorbed dose compared to the external top absorbed dose of the mussel shells

irradiated by gamma at a dose of 3 kGy, as determined by the staff of Food Technology










Inc. The internal doses absorbed range from 1.6 kGy to 5.0 kGy, have a median of 4.4

kGy and have a mean of 4.23 kGy. External top absorbed doses range from 1.8 kGy to

5.0 kGy, have a median of 4.5 kGy and have a mean of 4.36 kGy.

6 -
5.5
5
C 4.5
4 4
S3.5
S3
2.5
2 -
1.5 -
1
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
External Dose (Kgy)

Figure 4-42. The internal absorbed dose of shucked mussel shells as compared to the
external absorbed dose of the top shell of shucked mussels after exposure to
gamma at 3 kGy at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line shows linear
regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.9897x 0.0884 R2 = 0.9634).

The data for mussels irradiated with gamma are tightly fit along a straight line and

clearly show the linear relation between internal dose and external dose. Zero of the

mussels irradiated with gamma at 3 kGy have an internal absorbed dose that is higher

than the external top absorbed dose. External top dose mean is 0.13 kGy larger than the

internal absorbed dose mean. Mussels irradiated at 3 kGy with gammas have

statistically significantly different (P<0.05) external doses and internal doses. Linear

regression of the data shows a positive relationship between the external and internal

doses at a 95% confidence interval. The regression line is almost a perfect fit for this










data with a R2 value of 0.9634. Gamma shows the tightly grouped relationship that we

want when irradiating shellfish.

1.5
1.4
^ 1.3
1.2
1.1
5 1 -- I I-----------------
10 ... .
0.9 M-.i-i-
E 0.8
0.7
L 0.6




0.1
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75
Mean Top Shell Thickness (cm)

Figure 4-43. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at
doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05).
Solid line shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = -0.0671x + 0.953
R2 = 0.0108).

Figure 4-43 was created from the data in Table 9 and Table 18. Data in Figure 4-

43 show the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the mussel

shells as compared to the mean thickness of the top shell of the mussels. For mean

thickness of the top shell the range is 0.1 cm to 0.62 cm, the median is 0.13 cm and mean

is 0.15 cm. The percent external top shell dose absorbed internally range is 80% to

100%, the median is 95% and the mean is 94%.

The shell thickness does not appear to affect the dose received in Figure 4-43. Data

in Figure 4-43 are more uniform than the data for electron beam (Figure 4-33) and the

data for x-ray (Figure 4-38). Linear regression of the data shows a small negative

relationship between percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the mean top










shell thickness at a 95% confidence interval. However, the regression line is not a good

fit for the data with a R2 value of 0.0108. Multiple linear regression models do not shows

a statistically significant relationship (P>0.05) between percentage of external dose

absorbed internally and the mean top shell thickness. None of the three species of

shellfish examined in this research show a statistically significant relationship (P>0.05)

between top shell thickness and the percentage of external dose absorbed internally.

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
S1.1
o 1-.
0.9 h
E 0.8
0.7
LW 0.6
S0.5
E 0.4
-* 0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 ------------------------------------
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Top Shell Curvature

Figure 4-44. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma at Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.1562x + 0.9108 R2
0.0152).

Figure 4-44 was created from the data in Table 8 and Table 18. Data in Figure 4-

44 shows the percent external top shell gamma dose absorbed internally in the mussel

shells as compared to the curvature of the top shell of the mussels. For curvature of the

top shell the range is 0.11 to 0.88, the median is 0.23 and mean is 0.24. The percent

external top shell dose absorbed internally for gamma irradiation range is 74% to 100%,

the median is 95% and the mean is 93%.









The data for the gamma (Figure 4-44) is more uniform than the data for electron

beam (Figure 4-34) and x-ray (Figure 4-39). Linear regression of the data shows a

positive relationship between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the

top shell curvature at a 95% confidence level. No statistically significant relationship

(P>0.05) is shown between the percentage of external dose absorbed internally and the

top shell curvature in multiple linear regression models. Curvature does not affect the

percentage of external dose absorbed internally for oysters, clams or mussels.

Figure 4-45 was created from the data in Table 7 and Table 18. Data in Figure 4-

45 show the percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the clam shells as

compared to the weight of the top shell of the clams. For weight of the top shell the

range is 2.0g to 6.8g, the median is 3.1g and mean is 3.2g. The percent external top shell

dose absorbed internally range is 74% to 100%, the median is 94% and the mean is 93%.

Linear regression shows a small negative relationship between percentages of external

dose absorbed internally and top shell weight at a 95% confidence interval. The line does

not have a good fit however the R2 value is only 0.0118. No statistically significant

relationship (P>0.05) exists between external dose absorbed internally and top shell

weight in multiple linear regression models. Top shell weight does not have a significant

affect on the percentage of external dose absorbed internally for any of the three shellfish

examined.

The external doses and internal doses are statistically significantly different for the

oysters, clams and mussels irradiated with gamma. However, gamma also provided the

most tightly grouped data of all of the three irradiation sources tested. This is as to be

expected due to the higher energy and therefore the higher penetration of gamma










irradiation. Top shell thickness, curvature and weight do not have a statistically

significant relationship (P>0.05) to percentage of external dose absorbed internally for

any of the species of shellfish investigated in this research. Gamma is the most

promising of the three types of irradiation studied for irradiating oysters, clams, and

mussels.

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
o
a 1.2

I- 1 ne* *
S0.8
0.6


0
0.2


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Top Shell Wt (g)

Figure 4-45. Percent external top shell dose absorbed internally in the mussel shells as
compared to the weight of the top shell of the mussel irradiated at doses of
IkGy and 3 kGy with gamma Food Technology Inc. (7/6/05). Solid line
shows linear regression of data with a=0.05 (y = 0.0068x + 0.9214 R2
0.0118).

Oysters have the least tightly grouped data of the three shellfish studied for electron

beam, x-ray and gamma. Data for clams are not as tightly grouped as data for mussels

irradiated with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. This data confirms what we expected.

Mussel should have the most uniform irradiation results since they have the thinnest and

most uniform shells of the shellfish investigated. Irradiation data for clams are less

uniform than mussels due to their thicker and less uniform shells and oysters have the

least uniform irradiation data since their shells are the thickest and least uniform.









However, when the shell geometry and weight are investigated for the three shellfish it is

determined that shell thickness, curvature and weight do not statistically significantly

affect the percentage of external dose absorbed internally in oysters, clams and mussels

irradiated with electron beam, x-ray and gamma. It was expected that thickness,

curvature and weight would all have an effect on percentage of external dose absorbed

internally in oysters, clams and mussels. One reason for this may be another more

important factor overshadowing the effects thickness, curvature and weight. Another

reason for this unexpected result may be the technique used to measure the shells. The

shells were all measured on a macroscopic scale, yet the diverse landscape of the shell

may yield better results if the shell is examined microscopically. These are all possible

explanations for the unexpected results in these experiments.

Gamma is the most promising of the three sources of irradiation studied. The most

tightly grouped data is provided by gamma for oysters, clams and mussels. X-ray

provides tighter grouped data than electron beam does. This is as expected. The energy

and penetration of gammas are the highest, x-rays have the next highest energy and

penetration and electron beam have the lowest energy and penetration. X-ray and

electron beam exhibit the concentration phenomenon where the internal dose is higher

than the applied external dose. It is for these reasons and others that gamma irradiation is

the most viable source for irradiating shellfish on a large industrial scale.

This research creates questions that should be answered by future research. First,

different dosimeters could be used to help clarify the data presented in this research. The

use of different dosimetry may also help to clarify the concentration phenomenon that is

seen with electron beam and x-ray. Also future experiments should be performed with









microscopic measuring techniques to examine thickness and curvature. As mentioned

above experiments with shellfish on the half shell may be promising for electron beam

and x-ray since the shell is not present as a barrier. Large scale experiments, using tons

of shellfish, with gamma irradiation should also be performed to determine the

penetration of dose in pallets of shellfish. Economic experiments to compare electron

beam, x-ray and gamma may also provide valuable information about the practicality of

large scale irradiation of shellfish. With the help of experiments such as these irradiation

of shellfish may become viable industrial practice.














CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The primary objective of this research was to compare and contrast the percentage

of absorption of irradiation in oyster, clam and mussel shells using gamma, electron beam

and x-ray irradiation sources at dosages of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. Oyster, clam and mussel

shells were assessed for differences in external absorbed dose and internal absorbed dose

for electron beam, x-ray and gamma sources. Furthermore, the thickness, weight and

curvatures for oyster, clam and mussel shells were assessed with respect to the effect on

percentage of applied dose absorbed internally.

When clam and oyster shells were irradiated using gamma, x-ray or electron beam

at 1 kGy and 3 kGy, the absorbed internal dose was less than the external dose and was

determined to be significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to the external absorbed

shell dose. When mussel shells were irradiated using electron beam at 1 kGy or x-ray at

1 kGy and 3 kGy no statistical significant differences (P>0.05) were determined to exist

between the external and internal absorbed dose. However, when mussel shells were

irradiated with electron beam at 3 kGy and gamma irradiation at 1 kGy and 3 kGy,

significant differences (P<0.05) were determined to exist between the external and

internal absorbed doses. When oyster, clam and mussel shells were irradiated with

electron beam and x-ray a concentration phenomenon, where internal doses were greater

than the external doses, was exhibited. Specifically, the concentration phenomenon was

exhibited in 12% of the oyster shells, 12% of the clam shells and 24% of the mussel

shells irradiated with electron beam. The concentration phenomenon was exhibited in









14% of the oyster shells, 17% of the clam shells and 34% of the mussel shells irradiated

with x-ray.

When top shell thickness, weight and curvature for oyster, clam and mussel shells

were statistically compared to the percentage ratio of external/internal absorbed dose, no

significant relationship (P>0.05) was revealed. Specifically, no statistical relationship

was demonstrated between the percentage external dose absorbed internally and the top

shell thickness, curvature of the shell and weight of the shell using electron beam, x-ray

and gamma at 1 kGy and 3 kGy. Therefore, oyster, clam and mussel shell thickness,

shell curvature and shell weight did not have a statistical significant relationship or

influence on the percentage of external/internal absorbed dose at 1 kGy and 3 kGy.

Reasons for the differences between external and internal absorbed doses and

concentration phenomenon are unclear and can not be accounted for by differences in

shell thickness, shell weight or shell curvature.

















APPENDIX A
OYSTER, CLAM, AND MUSSEL MEASUREMENTS

Oyster Measurements


Table A-1. Oyster Weight Measurements in g (5/1/05)
Oyster Overall Meat Shell Top Bottom Shell/ Top/ Top/ Bottom/
wt wt wt Shell wt Shell wt Meat Bottom Meat Meat
1 84.2 16.1 68.1 47.3 20.8 4.23 2.27 2.94 1.29
2 67.8 6.1 61.7 30.4 31.3 10.11 0.97 4.98 5.13
3 59.1 5.9 53.2 32.1 21.1 9.02 1.52 5.44 3.58
4 55.5 6.8 48.7 29.5 19.2 7.16 1.54 4.34 2.82
5 37.0 4.2 32.8 19.4 13.4 7.81 1.45 4.62 3.19
6 64.1 8.0 56.1 33.3 22.8 7.01 1.46 4.16 2.85
7 41.2 3.6 37.6 20.8 16.8 10.44 1.24 5.78 4.67
8 57.7 4.5 53.2 39.8 13.4 11.82 2.97 8.84 2.98
9 91.8 12.4 79.4 48.3 31.1 6.40 1.55 3.90 2.51
10 72.5 11.8 60.7 37.5 23.2 5.14 1.62 3.18 1.97
11 50.9 8.0 42.9 26.4 16.5 5.36 1.60 3.30 2.06
12 47.1 5.6 41.5 23 18.5 7.41 1.24 4.11 3.30
13 56.3 7.6 48.7 32.6 16.1 6.41 2.02 4.29 2.12
14 45.0 6.0 39.0 23.4 15.6 6.50 1.50 3.90 2.60
15 63.7 9.2 54.5 32.2 22.3 5.92 1.44 3.50 2.42
16 107.8 15.9 91.9 53.7 38.2 5.78 1.41 3.38 2.40
17 105.1 12.6 92.5 49.6 42.9 7.34 1.16 3.94 3.40
18 59.6 7.3 52.3 30.4 21.9 7.16 1.39 4.16 3.00
19 66.7 9.5 57.2 35.8 21.4 6.02 1.67 3.77 2.25
20 64.7 10.0 54.7 33.7 21.0 5.47 1.60 3.37 2.10
21 138.9 17.3 121.6 76.2 45.4 7.03 1.68 4.40 2.62
22 48.9 7.9 41.0 22.9 18.1 5.19 1.27 2.90 2.29
23 57.8 7.9 49.9 31.9 18.0 6.32 1.77 4.04 2.28
24 70.8 9.0 61.8 36.1 25.7 6.87 1.40 4.01 2.86
25 81.9 11.6 70.3 42.2 28.1 6.06 1.50 3.64 2.42
26 41.5 6.2 35.3 18.7 16.6 5.69 1.13 3.02 2.68
27 47.0 7.1 39.9 24.3 15.6 5.62 1.56 3.42 2.20
28 63.0 12.0 51.0 32.7 18.3 4.25 1.79 2.73 1.53
29 83.2 13.9 69.3 47.4 21.9 4.99 2.16 3.41 1.58
30 57.0 9.3 47.7 33.2 14.5 5.13 2.29 3.57 1.56
31 43.6 5.1 38.5 22.2 16.3 7.55 1.36 4.35 3.20
32 81.6 8.7 72.9 45.7 27.2 8.38 1.68 5.25 3.13
33 57.0 6.3 50.7 29.7 21.0 8.05 1.41 4.71 3.33
34 57.7 8.0 49.7 30.9 18.8 6.21 1.64 3.86 2.35
35 58.5 8.4 50.1 32.8 17.3 5.96 1.90 3.90 2.06
36 86.9 11.1 75.8 44.5 31.3 6.83 1.42 4.01 2.82
37 44.5 4.0 40.5 28 12.5 10.13 2.24 7.00 3.13
38 56.1 8.3 47.8 33.5 14.3 5.76 2.34 4.04 1.72
39 59.4 10.2 49.2 29.9 19.3 4.82 1.55 2.93 1.89
40 45.5 9.1 36.4 24.3 12.1 4.00 2.01 2.67 1.33











Table A-1. Continued
Oyster Overall Meat Shell Top Bottom Shell/ Top/ Top/ Bottom/
wt wt wt Shell wt Shell wt Meat Bottom Meat Meat
41 41.0 6.8 34.2 21.5 12.7 5.03 1.69 3.16 1.87
42 45.4 7.1 38.3 20.1 18.2 5.39 1.10 2.83 2.56
43 54.0 8.8 45.2 26.8 18.4 5.14 1.46 3.05 2.09
44 62.5 6.6 55.9 35.5 20.4 8.47 1.74 5.38 3.09
45 55.6 10.8 44.8 27.8 17.0 4.15 1.64 2.57 1.57
46 39.1 7.0 32.1 19.3 12.8 4.59 1.51 2.76 1.83
47 65.0 14.9 50.1 32.3 17.8 3.36 1.81 2.17 1.19
48 57.0 15.5 41.5 25.9 15.6 2.68 1.66 1.67 1.01
49 83.8 9.2 74.6 48.0 26.6 8.11 1.80 5.22 2.89
50 53.5 11.0 42.5 29.0 13.5 3.86 2.15 2.64 1.23
51 69.2 8.6 60.6 39.1 21.5 7.05 1.82 4.55 2.50
52 54.3 10.7 43.6 27.8 15.8 4.07 1.76 2.60 1.48
53 37.3 5.7 31.6 20.7 10.9 5.54 1.90 3.63 1.91
54 48.9 6.9 42.0 30.0 12.0 6.09 2.50 4.35 1.74
55 48.8 6.2 42.6 24.7 17.9 6.87 1.38 3.98 2.89
56 34.2 5.9 28.3 17.3 11.0 4.80 1.57 2.93 1.86
57 42.2 6.0 36.2 21.0 15.2 6.03 1.38 3.50 2.53
58 66.6 12.7 53.9 34.6 19.3 4.24 1.79 2.72 1.52
59 54.8 4.6 50.2 28.8 21.4 10.91 1.35 6.26 4.65
60 54.0 8.2 45.8 29.1 16.7 5.59 1.74 3.55 2.04
61 63.5 8.8 54.7 29.4 25.3 6.22 1.16 3.34 2.88
62 67.0 6.2 60.8 36.0 24.8 9.81 1.45 5.81 4.00
63 63.7 13.4 50.3 32.5 17.8 3.75 1.83 2.43 1.33
64 129.2 12.5 116.7 69.3 47.4 9.34 1.46 5.54 3.79
65 50.1 6.6 43.5 27.2 16.3 6.59 1.67 4.12 2.47
66 80.7 10.5 70.2 42.7 27.5 6.69 1.55 4.07 2.62
67 48.8 9.0 39.8 22.1 17.7 4.42 1.25 2.46 1.97
68 73.6 9.6 64.0 48.7 15.3 6.67 3.18 5.07 1.59
69 108.3 14.0 94.3 65.6 28.7 6.74 2.29 4.69 2.05
70 87.3 9.2 78.1 46.0 32.1 8.49 1.43 5.00 3.49
71 65.6 10.6 55.0 35.5 19.5 5.19 1.82 3.35 1.84
72 108.6 12.6 96.0 62.0 34.0 7.62 1.82 4.92 2.70
73 51.7 9.8 41.9 25.5 16.4 4.28 1.55 2.60 1.67
74 42.3 8.6 33.7 19.8 13.9 3.92 1.42 2.30 1.62
75 65.5 10.1 55.4 34.7 20.7 5.49 1.68 3.44 2.05
76 60.1 7.6 52.5 27.4 25.1 6.91 1.09 3.61 3.30
77 54.4 6.9 47.5 28.2 19.3 6.88 1.46 4.09 2.80
78 65.9 10.1 55.8 30.6 25.2 5.52 1.21 3.03 2.50
79 136.8 24.4 112.4 71.9 40.5 4.61 1.78 2.95 1.66
80 81.7 9.8 71.9 39.8 32.1 7.34 1.24 4.06 3.28
81 55.0 8.9 46.1 25.3 20.8 5.18 1.22 2.84 2.34
82 64.1 12.0 52.1 30.6 21.5 4.34 1.42 2.55 1.79
83 59.3 7.5 51.8 32.4 19.4 6.91 1.67 4.32 2.59
84 80.6 13.3 67.3 46.1 21.2 5.06 2.17 3.47 1.59
85 70.5 15.3 55.2 29.2 26.0 3.61 1.12 1.91 1.70
86 55.9 10.9 45.0 29.3 15.7 4.13 1.87 2.69 1.44
87 42.9 9.2 33.7 20.1 13.6 3.66 1.48 2.18 1.48
88 96.4 11.1 85.3 45.0 40.3 7.68 1.12 4.05 3.63
89 62.7 9.8 52.9 32.7 20.2 5.40 1.62 3.34 2.06
90 114.7 13.9 100.8 63.1 37.7 7.25 1.67 4.54 2.71











Table A-1. Continued
Oyster Overall Meat Shell Top Bottom Shell/ Top/ Top/ Bottom/
wt wt wt Shell wt Shell wt Meat Bottom Meat Meat
91 84.3 13.0 71.3 43.9 27.4 5.48 1.60 3.38 2.11
92 52.5 9.6 42.9 22.4 20.5 4.47 1.09 2.33 2.14
93 72.5 8.2 64.3 39.8 24.5 7.84 1.62 4.85 2.99
94 59.3 11.4 47.9 29.5 18.4 4.20 1.60 2.59 1.61
95 38.3 6.9 31.4 18.3 13.1 4.55 1.40 2.65 1.90
96 57.7 10.3 47.4 30.5 16.9 4.60 1.80 2.96 1.64
97 68.7 10.4 58.3 35.2 23.1 5.61 1.52 3.38 2.22
98 55.1 10.7 44.4 28.2 16.2 4.15 1.74 2.64 1.51
99 57.5 9.5 48.0 28.0 20.0 5.05 1.40 2.95 2.11
100 50.4 8.8 41.6 21.8 19.8 4.73 1.10 2.48 2.25


Table A-2. Oyster Dimension Measurements in cm 5/3/05
Oyster Top Top Top Bottom Bottom Bottom Total Total Total
Length Height Width Length Height Width Length Height Width
1 10.6 2.2 5.8 8.3 0.65 4.85 10.6 2.85 5.8
2 6.5 1.65 6.1 5.6 1.05 5.3 6.5 2.7 6.1
3 7.3 1.5 4.5 5.05 0.8 3.65 7.3 2.3 4.5
4 6.3 2.1 6.0 4.8 1.0 5.15 6.3 3.1 6.0
5 6.2 1.3 4.1 5.3 0.9 3.6 6.2 2.2 4.1
6 6.75 1.4 4.8 5.7 1.1 3.9 6.75 2.5 4.8
7 5.8 1.55 4.5 5.15 1.0 3.8 5.8 2.55 4.5
8 6.3 1.5 4.0 5.5 1.05 3.7 6.3 2.55 4.0
9 6.5 0.7 4.7 5.5 1.2 3.9 6.5 1.9 4.7
10 9.4 2.0 4.7 7.5 0.65 4.45 9.4 2.65 4.7
11 7.6 1.6 5.2 6.3 0.45 4.45 7.6 2.05 5.2
12 6.6 1.85 4.75 6.05 1.05 4.15 6.6 2.9 4.75
13 8.2 2.0 4.9 6.7 0.7 4.1 8.2 2.7 4.9
14 7.8 1.6 3.7 6.7 0.65 3.5 7.8 2.25 3.7
15 7.7 1.65 3.95 7.15 0.8 4.1 7.7 2.45 3.95
16 8.4 1.75 7.45 7.1 1.45 5.4 8.4 3.2 7.45
17 8.65 1.85 5.2 7.35 1.5 4.65 8.65 3.35 5.2
18 6.3 1.8 5.6 5.8 0.95 5.1 6.3 2.75 5.6
19 8.4 2.3 4.9 7.35 1.0 4.15 8.4 3.3 4.9
20 7.69 2.0 5.2 6.9 0.8 4.6 7.69 2.8 5.2
21 9.0 2.0 5.2 6.9 0.8 4.6 9.0 2.8 5.2
22 4.45 1.9 3.9 5.3 0.6 3.7 5.3 2.5 3.9
23 7.5 2.3 5.3 5.7 0.9 4.45 7.5 3.2 5.3
24 7.0 1.2 4.75 6.1 1.2 4.05 7.0 2.4 4.75
25 8.4 2.3 4.9 7.35 1.0 4.15 8.4 3.3 4.9
26 6.0 1.4 4.4 5.15 0.9 4.2 6.0 2.3 4.4
27 6.75 1.5 4.9 5.95 0.65 3.85 6.75 2.15 4.9
28 8.8 2.2 5.75 6.8 0.65 4.55 8.8 2.85 5.75
29 9.4 2.1 4.1 8.9 1.0 3.4 9.4 3.1 4.1
30 9.2 1.35 3.9 6.85 0.95 3.4 9.2 2.3 3.9
31 9.05 1.45 4.3 7.2 0.6 3.45 9.05 2.05 4.3
32 6.1 1.6 6.15 6.05 1.0 4.75 6.1 2.6 6.15
33 5.8 1.9 4.1 6.0 0.65 4.3 6.0 2.55 4.3
34 7.65 2.1 4.4 6.7 0.6 4.05 7.65 2.7 4.4
35 7.65 2.1 4.4 6.7 0.6 4.05 4.68 2.7 4.4
36 7.8 1.7 5.6 6.5 1.2 4.5 7.8 2.9 5.6











Table A-2. Continued
Oyster Top Top Top Bottom Bottom Bottom Total Total Total
Length Height Width Length Height Width Length Height Width
37 8.3 2.5 4.75 6.2 0.9 3.8 8.3 3.4 4.75
38 7.7 1.9 3.7 6.4 0.6 3.1 7.7 2.5 3.7
39 9.3 1.45 4.8 8.3 0.6 4.15 9.3 2.05 4.8
40 8.8 1.7 4.2 7.15 0.6 3.55 8.8 2.3 4.2
41 7.5 1.7 3.7 6.85 0.3 3.15 7.5 2.0 3.7
42 6.8 1.5 5.1 5.15 1.0 4.1 6.8 2.5 5.1
43 6.95 1.7 5.1 5.75 1.0 4.0 6.95 2.7 5.1
44 8.3 1.75 2.9 6.3 0.7 2.8 8.3 2.45 2.9
45 6.4 2.4 4.5 5.15 0.95 3.55 6.4 3.35 4.5
46 6.9 1.5 4.0 6.2 0.55 3.4 6.9 2.05 4.0
47 8.79 1.9 5.65 7.4 0.5 4.3 8.79 2.4 5.65
48 7.9 1.95 5.5 5.5 0.7 4.1 7.9 2.65 5.5
49 6.15 1.4 5.5 5.95 1.1 4.0 6.15 2.5 5.5
50 8.9 1.6 4.4 7.5 0.5 3.4 8.9 2.1 4.4
51 8.9 2.2 5.6 7.5 .55 4.6 8.9 2.75 5.6
52 8.7 1.9 5.4 6.8 0.45 4.15 8.7 2.35 5.4
53 9.7 1.8 3.8 7.0 0.55 3.0 9.7 2.35 3.8
54 6.65 1.75 3.75 5.3 0.6 3.0 6.65 2.35 3.75
55 5.65 1.6 5.6 4.9 0.75 3.7 5.65 2.35 5.6
56 8.85 1.15 3.65 6.6 0.55 3.3 8.85 1.7 3.65
57 6.3 1.5 4.85 5.2 0.75 3.95 6.3 2.25 4.85
58 8.45 1.7 7.05 6.9 0.75 4.3 8.45 2.45 7.05
59 6.9 1.45 4.5 6.0 1.1 3.9 6.9 2.55 4.5
60 8.75 2.0 4.75 7.1 1.15 2.7 8.75 3.15 4.75
61 8.8 1.35 4.5 7.5 0.75 3.55 8.8 2.1 4.5
62 6.2 1.6 5.1 5.4 1.75 3.9 6.2 3.35 5.1
63 9.85 2.75 5.1 7.75 0.6 4.2 9.85 3.35 5.1
64 8.5 1.6 6.5 7.2 1.2 6.0 8.5 2.8 6.5
65 6.55 1.7 3.6 5.05 0.8 3.1 6.55 2.5 3.6
66 7.1 2.1 5.75 6.1 1.0 4.9 7.1 3.1 5.75
67 7.1 1.6 4.8 5.8 0.6 3.5 7.1 2.2 4.8
68 7.8 2.55 4.8 6.7 0.5 4.2 7.8 3.05 4.8
69 9.35 2.15 6.0 7.5 .85 4.75 9.35 3.0 6.0
70 9.3 1.45 5.3 6.7 70 4.4 9.3 71.45 5.3
71 9.5 1.8 4.4 6.85 0.6 4.0 9.5 2.4 4.4
72 8.85 1.5 5.75 8.25 0.8 4.9 8.85 2.3 5.75
73 9.15 1.3 3.9 7.65 0.5 3.5 9.15 1.8 3.9
74 6.8 1.7 4.6 7.2 0.55 3.7 7.2 2.25 4.6
75 8.85 1.45 4.6 5.65 0.45 3.7 8.85 1.9 4.6
76 6.3 1.45 4.45 5.85 0.9 4.1 6.3 2.35 4.45
77 6.6 1.6 5.15 5.6 0.9 3.7 6.6 2.5 5.15
78 8.75 1.55 4.9 7.4 0.9 3.6 8.75 2.45 4.9
79 8.6 2.6 5.6 7.7 1.8 4.8 8.6 4.4 5.6
80 7.6 1.9 5.2 6.55 1.45 4.4 7.6 3.35 5.2
81 6.9 1.6 5.0 5.8 1.15 4.1 6.9 2.75 5.0
82 8.65 1.9 5.0 7.0 1.7 4.9 8.65 3.6 5.0
83 7.3 2.4 4.45 5.75 0.7 3.9 7.3 3.1 4.45
84 8.8 1.85 4.55 6.5 0.9 4.2 8.8 2.75 4.55
85 10.5 1.6 5.35 10.2 0.5 4.3 10.5 2.1 5.35
86 7.1 1.6 4.4 5.4 0.85 4.0 7.1 2.45 4.4











Table A-2. Continued
Oyster Top Top Top Bottom Bottom Bottom Total Total Total
Length Height Width Length Height Width Length Height Width
87 7.65 1.75 4.4 5.9 0.65 3.9 7.65 2.4 4.4
88 7.4 2.3 5.0 6.8 1.55 4.05 7.4 3.85 5.0
89 7.65 1.55 4.8 6.55 0.55 4.15 7.65 2.1 4.8
90 9.8 2.1 6.3 7.8 0.85 4.75 9.8 2.95 6.3
91 10.35 2.95 5.0 8.75 0.9 4.05 10.35 3.85 5.0
92 8.6 .95 4.7 6.85 0.55 4.3 8.6 1.5 4.7
93 7.95 7.0 6.0 6.3 0.8 4.95 7.95 7.8 6.0
94 8.1 1.9 4.3 6.9 0.5 3.8 8.1 2.4 4.3
95 7.4 1.5 3.5 5.8 0.5 3.25 7.4 2.0 3.5
96 6.9 2.1 4.4 5.6 0.9 4.1 6.9 3.0 4.4
97 9.0 1.9 5.05 6.9 1.0 4.6 9.0 2.9 5.05
98 8.3 2.1 4.3 6.45 0.6 3.85 8.3 2.7 4.3
99 7.9 2.0 4.35 6.6 0.55 3.8 7.9 2.55 4.35
100 5.7 1.75 4.3 5.35 1.75 4.0 5.7 3.5 4.3

Table A-3. Oyster Thickness Measurements in cm (5/4/05)
Oyster 1Top 2Tp 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom
1 0.231 0.318 0.724 0.533 0.373 0.292 0.277 0.269 0.282 0.470
2 0.445 0.559 0.803 0.658 0.457 0.533 0.302 0.521 0.645 0.287
3 0.221 0.414 0.696 0.635 0.277 0.279 0.566 0.930 0.483 0.343
4 0.787 0.439 0.282 0.292 0.564 0.328 0.254 0.749 0.320 0.523
5 0.538 0.399 0.257 0.368 0.457 0.716 0.211 0.432 0.427 0.193
6 0.625 0.439 0.414 0.340 0.859 0.836 0.381 0.366 0.389 0.686
7 0.343 0.699 0.828 0.305 0.358 0.732 0.427 0.343 0.312 0.320
8 0.356 0.396 0.737 0.445 0.378 0.335 0.505 0.765 0.638 0.696
9 0.792 0.470 0.277 0.533 0.218 0.409 0.668 0.828 0.429 0.892
10 0.513 0.622 0.683 0.457 0.320 0.328 0.353 0.310 0.584 0.546
11 0.180 0.353 0.787 0.536 0.307 0.218 0.417 0.277 0.409 0.292
12 0.645 0.566 0.559 0.406 0.437 0.622 0.790 0.300 0.686 0.335
13 0.536 0.267 0.432 0.551 0.264 0.320 0.414 0.391 0.216 0.434
14 0.201 0.274 0.523 0.325 0.272 0.391 0.267 0.516 0.323 0.450
15 0.262 0.460 0.318 0.295 0.305 0.257 0.282 0.292 0.325 0.259
16 0.635 0.904 0.432 0.620 0.508 0.556 0.810 0.432 0.399 0.528
17 0.389 0.437 0.777 1.064 0.699 0.315 0.561 1.003 0.775 0.704
18 0.765 0.554 0.866 0.526 0.612 0.323 0.544 0.391 0.358 0.447
19 0.312 0.429 0.419 0.584 0.391 0.284 0.401 0.508 0.749 1.092
20 0.386 0.521 0.320 0.401 0.457 0.445 0.508 0.384 0.472 0.584
21 1.019 0.643 0.384 0.493 0.566 0.371 0.643 0.820 0.686 0.318
22 0.328 0.356 0.333 0.282 0.333 0.279 0.333 0.287 0.432 0.414
23 0.765 0.399 0.417 0.559 0.597 0.577 0.414 0.452 0.566 0.338
24 0.551 0.536 0.838 0.622 0.737 0.368 0.445 0.635 1.064 0.356
25 0.142 0.645 1.062 0.749 0.866 0.302 0.409 0.714 0.907 0.483
26 0.361 0.216 0.671 0.267 0.287 0.643 0.445 0.305 0.673 0.312
27 0.381 0.315 0.508 0.528 0.516 0.290 0.305 0.693 0.475 0.503
28 0.305 0.254 0.323 0.521 0.343 0.325 0.394 0.257 0.330 0.526
29 0.411 0.724 1.262 0.513 0.409 0.211 0.483 0.864 0.310 0.409
30 0.218 0.262 0.396 0.536 0.940 0.269 0.401 0.498 0.292 0.500
31 0.127 0.368 0.538 0.211 0.284 0.638 0.493 0.249 0.175 0.287
32 0.599 0.592 0.927 0.681 0.683 0.597 0.531 0.706 0.800 1.105
33 0.300 0.394 0.627 1.240 1.130 0.343 0.361 0.419 0.894 0.785











Table A-3. Continued
Oyster 1Top 2Top 3Top 4Top 5Top 1Bottom 2Bottom 3Bottom 4Bottom 5Bottom
34 0.295 0.556 0.851 0.787 0.673 0.742 0.439 0.419 0.267 0.478
35 0.409 1.143 0.345 0.373 0.251 0.292 0.356 0.541 0.295 0.445
36 0.267 0.544 0.498 1.173 0.902 0.467 0.470 0.719 1.016 0.295
37 0.277 1.067 0.399 0.699 0.678 0.208 0.419 0.648 0.335 0.226
38 0.333 0.340 0.112 0.635 0.358 0.318 0.320 0.437 0.757 0.419
39 0.358 0.523 0.434 0.432 0.229 0.439 0.231 0.414 0.246 0.300
40 0.234 0.295 1.087 0.328 0.297 0.305 0.404 0.297 0.274 0.224
41 0.279 0.406 0.229 1.085 0.236 0.216 0.318 0.340 0.348 0.483
42 0.498 0.401 0.556 0.300 0.295 0.353 0.419 0.279 0.754 0.551
43 0.267 0.325 0.544 0.282 0.500 0.300 0.442 0.833 0.366 0.467
44 0.597 0.389 0.508 0.803 0.917 0.401 0.653 0.429 0.335 0.599
45 0.610 0.244 0.638 1.250 0.607 0.617 0.846 0.785 0.241 0.297
46 0.368 0.259 0.295 0.345 0.320 0.310 0.333 0.203 0.419 0.295
47 0.279 0.391 0.345 0.318 0.488 0.264 0.353 0.312 0.284 0.325
48 0.142 0.378 0.437 0.643 0.518 0.287 0.353 0.432 0.432 0.531
49 0.584 0.381 0.864 0.584 0.749 0.813 0.478 0.323 0.343 0.531
50 0.399 0.231 0.330 0.439 0.414 0.152 0.254 0.262 0.315 0.338
51 0.191 0.338 0.521 1.148 0.422 0.226 0.269 0.452 0.414 0.351
52 0.173 0.264 0.447 0.655 0.470 0.185 0.579 0.394 0.617 0.234
53 0.437 0.500 0.348 0.432 0.282 0.234 0.325 0.546 0.523 0.226
54 0.541 0.381 0.439 0.226 0.429 0.394 0.295 0.394 0.622 0.404
55 0.218 0.561 0.960 0.818 0.622 0.277 0.513 0.523 0.724 0.734
56 0.356 0.320 0.178 0.312 0.343 0.160 0.142 0.191 0.300 0.356
57 0.312 0.762 0.264 0.439 0.335 0.330 0.572 0.295 0.615 0.554
58 0.320 0.262 0.292 0.348 0.503 0.457 0.432 0.241 0.445 0.409
59 0.513 1.026 0.328 0.340 0.599 0.325 0.391 0.549 0.759 0.218
60 0.371 0.330 0.244 0.368 0.665 0.216 0.320 0.318 0.203 0.244
61 0.310 0.368 0.493 0.455 0.208 0.361 0.396 0.284 0.051 0.622
62 0.264 0.531 0.861 1.161 0.490 0.292 0.437 0.937 0.630 0.445
63 0.198 0.269 0.632 0.622 0.615 0.170 0.521 0.307 0.338 0.480
64 0.356 0.279 0.904 1.087 0.820 0.284 0.338 0.810 1.090 0.747
65 0.170 0.495 0.843 1.011 0.493 0.206 0.399 0.455 0.625 0.483
66 0.307 0.368 1.143 1.400 0.478 0.259 0.488 0.879 0.521 0.345
67 0.305 0.556 0.295 0.320 0.363 0.417 0.386 0.218 0.267 0.389
68 0.307 0.315 0.208 0.566 1.057 0.226 0.239 0.206 0.442 0.495
69 0.173 0.554 0.785 0.564 0.605 0.282 0.335 0.523 0.663 0.594
70 0.257 0.361 0.279 0.432 0.699 0.231 0.274 0.356 0.358 0.325
71 1.478 0.041 0.030 0.025 0.284 0.297 0.465 0.330 0.546 0.279
72 0.226 0.409 0.742 1.430 0.785 0.297 0.508 0.508 0.673 0.513
73 0.414 0.259 0.274 0.277 0.254 0.203 0.323 0.295 0.719 0.267
74 0.500 0.323 0.488 0.851 0.559 0.246 0.437 0.302 0.323 0.378
75 0.249 0.356 0.488 0.726 0.813 0.267 0.384 0.292 0.470 0.584
76 0.597 0.368 0.528 0.960 0.526 0.483 0.559 0.523 0.785 0.640
77 0.137 0.592 0.881 0.419 0.838 0.300 0.439 0.762 0.467 0.262
78 0.422 0.406 0.330 0.343 0.318 0.417 0.284 0.343 0.399 0.493
79 0.091 0.732 1.173 2.428 0.401 0.244 0.594 1.171 1.356 0.295
80 0.638 0.655 0.262 0.683 0.772 1.151 0.765 0.495 0.381 0.409
81 0.264 0.665 0.262 0.333 0.775 0.605 0.343 0.429 0.516 0.406
82 0.267 0.325 0.508 0.351 0.267 0.267 0.437 0.251 0.394 0.470
83 0.587 0.445 0.241 0.549 0.635 0.323 0.465 0.602 0.640 0.617
84 0.183 0.368 0.635 1.057 1.760 0.292 0.277 0.445 0.475 0.361