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Culture and Classroom Management: Grounded Theory from a High Poverty Predominantly African American Elementary School

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CULTURE AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT : GROUNDED THEORY FROM A HIGH POVERTY PREDOMINATELY AFRICAN AMERICAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL By DIANE B. MARKS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Diane B. Marks

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Maxwell and Caroline Marks who began the dr eam. Joseph Marks who provided for the dream. Susan Marks who supported the dream. This is for you.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must admit that the doctoral program and the process of creating this dissertation have changed my life and the way I understand the world around me. My life as a doctoral student has been filled with excitement, awe, anxiety, sadness, and a great deal of satisfaction. There have been many people along the way who shared these feelings with me and who I hope are aware of the impact they have had on my life. As I complete this chapter of my life and move on to a new one, I want to thank them all one more time. First I would like to thank Dr. Dorene Ross who has played a large part in my experiences at UF. As my professor, she always inspired me to push to the next level and never accept the status quo. As my mentor with the Lastinger Fellows she was incredibly generous with her time and expertise. I learned so much from those long discussions we had nearly every week for two years. As my chairperson, she helped me fashion a doctoral program that was meaningful to me while at the same time encouraged me to try new things. Throughout the dissertation process, she was invaluable as a teacher, mentor, editor, and friend. Her continued support and unwavering belief in my abilities have meant so much as I faced each new challenge. I would like to thank Dr. Ross for inviting me to play. I would like to thank my other committee members for their unique contributions to my success. I thank Dr. Pringle, who showed me how one can walk the walk and not just talk the talk. She is an inspiration. I thank Dr. Bondy, the world of critical theory was exciting to explore and discuss. It changed my life. I thank Dr. Correa, every time we iv

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talked I learned to see the issue from a new perspective. Her help and guidance with my first attempts at research were greatly appreciated. Finally, I thank Dr. George, from whom I learned so much. His generosity in allowing me to share his Core Classroom Management class last spring was greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank the three brave teachers who opened their classrooms to me for the first three months of the school year. I learned so much from observing their practice and discussing teaching with them. Their commitment to providing quality education to their students is inspirational to educators everywhere. Along the way there have been friends and family who have had to rearrange plans or adjust to less visit time with me. They never complained and always supported my commitment to this project. Cynthia, without her calming common sense perspective I would be lost. Cindy, who is always ready to cut loose and forget about worries, Brenda, who is only a phone call away. And my nephews, Andrew and Anthony I thank them for understanding even when we celebrated their birthdays three weeks late. I am grateful to my friends and family all for their love and support. My parents, Nanny, and Sandy (my fan club) were always there for me no matter what and celebrated the good times while supporting me through the tough times. And finally, I thank Sneakers, my cat, whose warm furry body and comforting purrs kept me company those many days and nights I was away from home. v

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................1 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................3 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................5 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE..............................................................................6 Classroom Management...............................................................................................7 Towards a Definition.............................................................................................7 What is it that Successful Classroom Managers Do?............................................9 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy................................................................................17 Toward an Inclusive Environment......................................................................19 Culturally Responsive Instruction.......................................................................19 Caring in a Culturally Diverse Classroom...........................................................21 Culturally Responsive Classroom Management.........................................................23 Recognition of Ones Own Ethnocentrism and Biases.......................................24 Understanding of the Broader Social, Economic, and Political Context of Our Educational System..........................................................................................25 Knowledge of Students Cultural Backgrounds and Ability and Willingness to Use Culturally Appropriate Classroom Management Strategies.................25 Commitment to Building Caring Classroom Communities................................27 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY....................................31 Theoretical Perspective...............................................................................................31 Interpretivism......................................................................................................32 Grounded Theory.................................................................................................33 Methodology...............................................................................................................34 Research Questions.............................................................................................34 vi

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Context of the Study............................................................................................35 Participants..........................................................................................................36 Description of Participants..................................................................................38 Data Collection....................................................................................................39 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................43 Trustworthiness of the Study......................................................................................45 Conventions of the Language..............................................................................48 Presentation of Findings......................................................................................48 4 KATHY: THE MAESTRO.......................................................................................50 Relationships...............................................................................................................51 Belief in Students................................................................................................52 Community of Respect and Care.........................................................................54 Being Accessible to Students Both Inside and Outside of School......................55 Rules, Procedures, and Routines................................................................................59 Explicit Instruction..............................................................................................59 Remind, Remind, Remind...................................................................................61 Positive Reinforcement.......................................................................................62 Curriculum and Instruction.........................................................................................64 Encourage and Motivate Students.......................................................................64 Active Learning...................................................................................................67 Active Teaching...................................................................................................70 Misbehavior and Discipline........................................................................................71 Ignore Misbehavior.............................................................................................72 Prompt/Redirect...................................................................................................72 Momma Mode.....................................................................................................74 Consequences......................................................................................................77 5 LUCY: PART OF THE FAMILY..............................................................................80 Relationships...............................................................................................................83 Connecting with Students....................................................................................84 Being Human.......................................................................................................86 Believe in Students..............................................................................................88 Rules, Procedures, and Routines................................................................................91 Practicing Routines..............................................................................................91 Praise and Positive Reinforcement......................................................................92 External Rewards.................................................................................................93 Curriculum and Instruction.........................................................................................94 Encourage/Motivate............................................................................................95 Active Learning...................................................................................................98 Active Teaching.................................................................................................100 Misbehavior and Discipline......................................................................................102 Nip in the Bud...................................................................................................103 Prompt/Redirect.................................................................................................105 Momma Mode...................................................................................................106 vii

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Consequences....................................................................................................107 6 SUSIE:MOTHER DUCK.........................................................................................110 Relationships.............................................................................................................112 Caring................................................................................................................112 Building a Community......................................................................................113 Rules, Procedures, and Routines..............................................................................115 Practicing Routines............................................................................................116 Praise and Reinforcement..................................................................................117 External Rewards...............................................................................................118 Curriculum and Instruction.......................................................................................119 Active Learning.................................................................................................119 Active Teaching.................................................................................................122 Encouraging Students........................................................................................124 Misbehavior and Discipline......................................................................................127 Ignore Behavior.................................................................................................127 Prompt...............................................................................................................128 Warning.............................................................................................................129 Consequences....................................................................................................130 7 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS...............................................................132 Extending the Theoretical Framework for Classroom Management: The Centrality of Relationships..................................................................................136 Relationships.....................................................................................................136 Creating a Climate Where Academic Goals Are a Priority...............................139 Approaches to Inappropriate Behavior..............................................................143 Implications..............................................................................................................148 Implications for Preservice and Inservice Teacher Educators..........................149 Implications for Further Research.....................................................................152 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT..........................................................................................155 B DATA MANAGEMENT LOG................................................................................157 C INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS....................................................................................159 D PERSONAL ASSUMPTIONS.................................................................................162 E EXAMPLES OF RAW DATA AND CODING PROCESS....................................164 F KATHY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES..................................................................175 G LUCY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES.....................................................................177 viii

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H SUSIE: OBSERVATIONAL CODES....................................................................180 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................191 ix

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Observational time spent with participants and pages transcribed from observations..............................................................................................................40 2 Interview time spent with participants and pages transcribed from interviews.......42 x

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CULTURE AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: GROUNDED THEORY FROM A HIGH POVERTY PREDOMINATELY AFRICAN AMERICAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL By Diane B. Marks December 2005 Chair: Dorene Ross Cochair: Rose Pringle Major Department: Teaching and Learning In public schools today, teachers and students alike are experiencing a great deal of frustration and failure. Classrooms are becoming increasingly diverse while teacher populations remain predominately white, middle class and female. The cultural disconnect between teacher and student often results in behavioral problems. Teachers report that their number one concern in classrooms today is classroom management. The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs, understandings, and pedagogy of teachers who were considered effective classroom managers. The guiding questions for this research were: Research Question 1. How do effective teachers working in a low SES, predominantly African American school context: Define classroom management Establish classroom culture (community, rules procedures, etc.) Define misbehavior xi

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Address misbehavior Research Question 2. What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon? Grounded theory research methodology was used to study three teachers during the first three months of the 2004-2005 school year. Data sources for the participants consisted of observations and interviews. From these data, three cases were constructed to describe the participants practice and their understandings in relation to classroom management. Each case showed the teachers had unique ways of managing their classes but one abiding theory emerged in all three cases: Student-teacher relationships were at the center of all pedagogy and teacher decisions. The teachers did not subscribe to a one size fits all theory of classroom management. Instead, they used the understandings they had gained from their relationships with students to best engage and deal with student misbehavior. Preservice and inservice teacher educators can help novice teachers be more effective managers in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms in four ways: connect theory to practice, be a warm demander in university courses, model culturally responsive pedagogy, and cultivate communities of learners who examine their practice and seek to learn about themselves and their students. With skillful scaffolding, preservice and inservice teachers can learn to create caring relationships that provide all students with an equal opportunity to learn. xii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Teacher Shortage! Emergency Certification Needed! No Teachers to Fill Classrooms! Local newspapers and magazines report teacher shortages with increasing fever. What is going on? Are we in the midst of an educational crisis, as the media would have us think? Who will be teaching our children? These are but a few of the questions I am asked when people learn that I am a teacher. As I am often in a social situation, my response is brief (and often found to be confusing) when I say that the answer is both yes and no. As with many other matters in America where there is famine in one household, others are feasting. In some areas (often suburban), there are waiting lists for teachers to find employment. However, in other areas (usually urban and poor), schools struggle to fill classrooms with any available warm body. The warm bodies found to fill these very challenging positions are often novice teachers with provisional credentials and high ideals for their first real teaching experience (Darling-Hammond, 2003). When novice teachers are hired at high poverty urban schools, they find that their image of the context and the reality of that context are very different indeed (Feiman-Nemser, 2003). Novice teachers are often given a full teaching load, are expected to take part in several committee groups, and are measured for efficacy with the same ruler as veteran teachers (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Renard, 2003). These are high expectations for novice teachers and little support is given to help them achieve these lofty goals. 1

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2 Inexperienced teachers are often left to sink or swim (Feiman-Nemser, 2003; Renard, 2003). According to attrition studies, about one-third of new teachers leave the profession within the first five years (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Wilkins-Canter, Edwards, Young, Ramanathan, & McDougle, 2000) with teacher turnover in high poverty schools 50% higher than in low poverty schools (Ingersoll, 2001). The continuous influx of novice teachers does not allow expertise to develop and in the end greatly reduces overall educational productivity. As Darling-Hammond (2003) succinctly stated, The education system never gets a long-term payoff from its investment in novices who leave (p. 7). The move from the teacher education program to a classroom in a high poverty elementary school comes with a steep learning curve. As they begin their journey into the world of teaching, novice teachers must simultaneously tackle issues of curriculum, instruction, assessment, management, school culture and the larger community (Feiman-Nemser, 2003). Often, novice teachers in high poverty schools experience more stresses and more demanding workloads than their counterparts in middle class schools (Feiman-Nemser, 2003; Renard, 2003). Working conditions in low-wealth schools are more difficult than in schools with middle to upper class populations and teachers in high poverty schools have less influence over school decisions. As if these challenges are not enough, many novice teachers have limited experiences with diverse cultures and struggle to make sense of their classroom experiences (Feiman-Nemser, 2003). While novice teachers struggle (often alone) to master the many new skills their teaching assignments require, they are being evaluated and assessed with the same criteria as the veteran teachers who have had years to develop these skills (Huberman, 1989). The

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3 novice teacher feels alone, isolated and overwhelmed. These feelings of failure and frustration drive some of the brightest and best teaching candidates from the field and continue the cycle of teacher induction in high poverty schools (Ladson-Billings, 2001). The constant churning from novice teachers entering the teaching pool is catching students in an undercurrent of inexperience and professional naivet. Classroom management is one of the novice teachers greatest concerns (Jones, 1996; Ladson-Billings, 2001; Renard, 2003). About one half of novice teachers report that their teacher education program did a fair or a poor job of preparing them to deal effectively with student discipline (Ladson-Billings, 2001). In their study of 17 novice teachers, Mastrilli and Sardo-Brown (2002) found that 12 of the 17 novice teachers solved their management dilemmas with behavioral strategies. These included the combination of positive reinforcement, individual behavior modification plans, ignoring negative student behavior, individual reward charts, and changing the setting of the classroom. In discussions about the chosen solutions, nearly half of the teachers who chose to employ behavioral solutions indicated that they were unsuccessful. Research is needed to examine what is happening in culturally diverse, high poverty classrooms where teachers report success with classroom management. Merely describing what is happening is not enough. Some explanation for why and how it is working in these situations is needed so teacher educators can help preservice teachers understand not just the strategies but the underlying theory that drives successful classroom management in high poverty schools. Purpose of the Study In public education today, novice teachers are often placed in the most challenging contexts with little or no support. They are given a great deal of responsibility and are

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4 expected to succeed at veteran levels as they enter the field. As novice teachers struggle to make sense of their experiences, they feel isolated, overwhelmed, and frustrated. Classroom management is a main concern for novice teachers who understand that without successful management, learning cannot occur in the classroom. Management is based on the teachers assumptions and understandings about what is normal and often reflects the mainstream perspective. In classrooms today where cultural and linguistic diversity accounts for an average of half the student body and in some areas 70% to 90%, novice assumptions about behavior and management can cause cultural misunderstandings and exacerbate management problems. Novice teachers are at a loss as to how to manage culturally and linguistically diverse students successfully. In the end, teachers leave the field and students turn off to school. In teacher education programs across the country, preservice teachers are enrolled in classroom management courses where they are taught a variety of ways to prevent and react to student misbehavior. Students are often provided with numerous theories and practical applications for research-based practice and given opportunities to work with cooperating teachers to observe management strategies in action. With this preparation, teachers are still struggling to manage students and engage them in learning. What is it that effective managers can teach us about classroom management in culturally diverse contexts? This study was designed to look closely at effective managers working in low SES, predominately African American contexts. The following questions were explored: Question 1: How do effective teachers working in a low SES predominately African American school context:

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5 Define classroom management Establish classroom culture (community, rules, and procedures, etc.) Deal with misbehaviors What is defined as misbehavior? What approaches or strategies are used to remedy misbehavior? Question 2: What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon? Definition of Terms The definitions given here are not definitive or considered the only way to understand the concepts. The definitions are given to clarify for readers what is meant in this study by the terms used. Effective classroom managers are defined as teachers who demonstrate a variety of knowledge and skills that allow them to structure the physical class environment effectively, establish rules and procedures, develop relationships with children, and maintain attention and engagement in academic activities (LePage, Darling-Hammond, Akar, Gutierrez, Jenkins-Gunn & Rosebrock, 2005, p. 330). Culture is used to describe certain beliefs, customs, practices and social behavior held by particular groups or group of people. The terms Routines and procedures are often used in this study together. Routine is defined as a prescribed, detailed course of action to be followed regularly; a standard procedure and a procedure is defined as a particular way of accomplishing or of acting (Merriam-Webster, 2005).

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to examine how novice teachers working in a high poverty, predominately African American elementary school utilized a variety of strategies to successfully manage their classrooms. Specifically, teacher actions and the motivations, assumptions, and understandings behind these actions were explored as the novice teachers began the year and implemented their management plans. To better interpret and understand the collected data, a review of the literature was conducted before, during and after the data collection process. On bookshelves today, there is a plethora of literature concerning classroom management. One can find everything from top-selling texts like Ron Clarks Essential 55 to Cottons 2001 meta-analysis of 60 studies focused on school-wide discipline and management. Unfortunately, much of the literature provides recipe style how to manuals giving readers rules to follow, tricks to try, and reward systems that range from a simple ticket system to highly complex systems with levels of rewards and numerous procedures for earning them. These self-help manuals have some useful ideas that may or may not work in a specific context but give little insight into the research or theoretical base that supports each practice. This literature review focuses on frequently cited, research-based studies around the constructs of classroom management, culturally relevant pedagogy, and culturally relevant classroom management. The classroom management literature suggests the core components of well-managed classrooms. Literature on culturally relevant pedagogy and culturally relevant classroom management provide additional 6

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7 insights about the ways that culture can be systematically addressed in classrooms in order to motivate and engage culturally and linguistically diverse students. This literature review provides a multi-dimensional picture of successful classroom management understandings to date. Classroom Management To begin the journey into classroom management, let us begin with the following questions: What is classroom management? Is classroom management concerned with preventing misconduct or punishing it? Classroom management means different things to different people. Is a well-managed classroom one where students are silent for much of the day (including lunch) and sit in their seats completing work assigned by the teacher? Or is a well-managed classroom one where students are working cooperatively, discussing opinions, and asking thoughtful questions? These are questions one must address in reading the research about classroom management because what can seem to be a well-managed classroom to one person can seem stifling or disordered to another. Much depends on ones beliefs and perspectives about teaching, learning, social justice, and discipline. Towards a Definition As discussed above, defining classroom management is not simple because ones definition is based on a theoretical perspective. In the 1960s and early 1970s the focus in psychology and management was centered on understanding students problems and helping them understand their problems and work to develop more productive behaviors. Another perspective in the mid-1970s found that adults were more concerned with controlling the disruptive misbehavior of students and teachers and were instructed to use more behavioristic management strategies to control students (Canter, 1976; Jones,

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8 1987). Behaviorists believed that discipline is external and controlled by the teacher and is characterized by operant conditioning and behavior modification. Yet Kounin (1970) found another perspective. He found that there was a definite relationship between teachers management and instructional actions and students classroom behaviors. Interestingly, in this study, thousands of hours of well-managed classrooms were videotaped and subsequently analyzed to see how teachers reacted when students misbehaved. No differences were noted. However, significant differences were found in how teachers acted prior to student misbehavior. These findings turned the classroom management focus from the student to the teacher and from teacher reaction to teacher action. Brophy (1988) defined classroom management as actions taken to create and maintain a learning environment conductive to attainment of the goals of instruction (arranging the physical environment of the classroom, establishing rules and procedures, maintaining attention to lessons, and engagement in academic activities). (p. 2) Subsequent research found that creating and maintaining a learning environment conductive to the attainment of instructional goals includes more than arranging the physical environment or establishing rules and routines. Charney (2002) who wrote from her experiences teaching for 30 years explained that a learning environment must include empathy as well as structure. This empathy will help teachers to know their students more thoroughly, to understand their perspectives, and in the end to meet their needs betteras a learner. Marzano (2003) supported the importance of empathy in classroom management. In this meta-analysis of more than 100 studies, high quality teacher-student relationships were found to be the foundation for successful classroom management. They define high quality relationships in terms of teacher behaviors that are characterized by the following: appropriate levels of dominance, appropriate levels of cooperation, and

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9 an awareness of high-needs students. Teachers who demonstrated these behaviors and had quality relationships with their students had 31% fewer discipline problems over a years time than their counterparts who did not have quality relationships with their students. It is clear that current research supports the claim that classroom management is more than reacting to student misbehavior or providing external incentives to promote compliant behavior. In todays schools, successfully managed classrooms are created and maintained by teachers who have a variety of knowledge and skills that allow them to structure the physical class environment effectively, establish rules and procedures, develop relationships with children, and maintain attention and engagement in academic activities (LePage, Darling-Hammond, Akar, Gutierrez, Jenkins-Gunn & Rosebrock, 2005, p. 330). What is it that Successful Classroom Managers Do? In the past three decades, several landmark research studies provided critical insight into the differences between well-managed and poorly managed classrooms. Kounin (1970) began with several studies including college students, kindergarten students, boys in summer camp, high school students, and a video-taped study of 30 elementary classrooms from middle-class suburbs. While he was looking for information on desist techniques he found evidence that changed the way classroom management was understood. Most importantly, Kounin found that it was not what the more effective teachers did to address misbehavior (desist techniques) but that effective teachers worked to prevent misbehaviors. Kounin found that effective managers used overlapping, and had what he called withitness where the teacher was able to communicate to the student by her actual behavior that she knew what the children were doing. In addition, effective

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10 managers were skillful in managing movement in their classrooms by keeping the momentum up and transitions smooth. Ten years later, Emmer, Evertson and Anderson (1980) conducted a study with 27 third grade teachers in eight elementary schools (four of which were Title 1 and the other four served populations from upper-lower to lower-middle class students). This study focused on what effective and ineffective managers did in the beginning of the school year to set up rules and classroom procedures. Results were consistent with previous research and Emmer et al. (1980) found that effective managers were leaders who assertively managed behavior and instruction, planned for student concerns and were skillful in dealing with constraints. In the first days of school, effective teachers had a workable system of rules and procedures that they taught to their students and carefully monitored students as they worked to master the new rules and routines. Misbehavior was stopped sooner than in ineffectively managed classrooms, and consequences were clear and applied consistently in effectively managed classrooms. Bohn, Roehrig, and Pressley (2004) extended this line of research when they observed the practice of six primary school teachers (all white) in five schools (upper middle class to middle class) during the first few weeks of school. Of the six teachers observed, Bohn et al. found that two were effective managers while the others were considerably less effective. Findings from this study were consistent with Emmer et al. (1980) in that effective teachers were clear in communicating classroom routines so that students could learn them, closely monitored students and responded to their needs, provided many opportunities for students to succeed, rewarded them often, and provided a positive environment with less criticism and punishment. In addition to these findings

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11 that concur with previous studies, Bohn et al. found that the effective teachers in their study also showed a great deal of enthusiasm for teaching and learning, provided a great deal of both teacher and student modeling, encouraged self-regulation, and explicitly taught routines and procedures to students. In the sections that follow, the principles of strong classroom management reported by these researchers and supported by subsequent research are described. Research provides evidence that it is the teacher who creates and maintains an environment where students are well behaved and successful but what does this look like? Are there some general themes or components in what successful teachers do to promote an environment where students demonstrate desired behaviors? In the past two decades researchers examined this question and found that effective classroom managers create an environment conducive to academic learning, provide challenging and interesting instruction, and build strong teacher-student relationships. Classroom environment When one first begins discussing the classroom environment within the context of classroom management, room set up comes to mind. Indeed room set up is crucial to classroom management and successful managers know that it is important to keep traffic areas clear, make materials and supplies accessible, and to keep instructional and work areas clear so both students and teachers are able to see each other (Everston, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003). Classrooms also need to reflect and facilitate the types of instruction used most often. Teachers who use small group learning circles, provide inquiry-based science or math activities, or use learning centers need specific physical accommodations within their classrooms (Randolph & Everston, 1994).

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12 Beyond the physical accommodations, teachers must think of the ways in which students will interact within the classroom. Will students sit in their seats quietly and wait for materials to be distributed or will students get their own materials? How are bathroom and drink breaks to be performed? Will students hand in their homework and folders or will the teacher or student collect them each day? There is no one right way to answer these questions and successful managers implement many different rules and routines for students to follow. What is common among successful managers is that they spend a great deal of time at the beginning of the year explicitly teaching, practicing, and reinforcing classroom rules and routines (Bohn Roehrig, & Pressley, 2004; Emmer Evertson, & Anderson, 1980; Sanford, Emmer, & Clements, 1983). Rules and routines must be explicitly taught to students, and simply telling them the rules and routines is not enough. Students will be more able to perform expected behaviors when they understand the rule or routine and are given some time to practice the new routine before consequences are implemented (Everston, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003). Knowing how long to reinforce and practice rules and routines before consequences are used is one part of what Kounin (1970) called withitness. In his study, Kounin defined this term as the teacher knowing what is going on in the classroom and with the students and the ability to communicate this knowledge to the students. Teachers who are successful managers know that to stay with it they must continuously monitor their students and respond to their needs and concerns. In their observational study of six primary teachers (all white) from five schools (upper middle class), contrasting effective managers with ineffective managers, Bohn et al. (2004) found that teachers spent a great deal of their time monitoring their students and often used the

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13 information gathered from monitoring to direct instruction, change rules and procedures, or to redirect students. Emmer et al. (1980) found that successful teachers perceived how students felt about the classroom and this knowledge was used to make decisions about which rules and procedures they would teach first in order to set in place a sense of safety and order. In responding to perceived student needs, teachers who are effective managers are less likely to punish or criticize students and more likely to praise positive behaviors, remind and redirect students who are off task (Cotton, 2001). This is not to say that students who are misbehaving are ignored. Effective managers enforce classroom rules promptly, consistently, and equitably (Brophy, 1983; Doyle, 1989). They are credible and perceived as the authority in the classroom. These teachers are not authoritarian in a negative sense (forceful control or command over others) but are skillful in providing clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both behavior and academics (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). Instruction In the current environment of high stakes testing it is apparent that academic achievement is often considered the ultimate goal of education and students must be engaged and on task in order to reach this goal. The connection between instructional strategies and classroom management often was perceived as linear with well-behaved students attending to instruction. But in fact, the connection between instruction and classroom management is cyclical with engaging and appropriate pedagogy creating an environment where students time on task is high and behavior problems are low (Evertson, & Harris, 1992).

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14 Emmer et al. (1980) found that more effective teachers communicated clear directions and instructions more skillfully to their students, used more effective materials, and kept the pace of the classroom brisk with smooth transitions and little time wasted. In Cottons 2001 meta analysis of 60 documents she found that effective management was linked to smoothness and momentum in lessons and also found that stimulating seatwork that provided students with a variety of challenging activities was an important component in successful management. Evertson et al. (2003) concurred that the majority of behavior problems arose while students were working individually at their seats. When the work was too easy or boring or the work was too hard, students became disengaged and behavior issues ensued. Similarly, in a study of fifth-and sixth-grade science classes, Blumenfeld, Puro, and Mergendoller (1992) found that cognitive motivation was higher when teachers focused lessons on development of understanding and moved students forward with feedback, participation, and scaffolding. Appropriately leveled, varied, and stimulating instruction is the key to keeping students engaged and on task in the classroom. Teacher affect is also important in instruction. Bohn et al. (2004) found that the teachers who were most effective in engaging and managing students were enthusiastic about teaching and managed to skillfully build enthusiasm for lessons in their students. This was done by clearly communicating to students the exciting and interesting purpose of the lesson to be taught. Brophy (1987) listed 33 motivational strategies and among these are 4 related to modeling an interest and excitement about learning. Brophy advocated that teachers (1) model interest in learning and motivation to learn, (2) project

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15 intensity, (3) project enthusiasm, and (4) model task-related thinking and problem solving. Morse (1987) concluded, If school is not inviting, if the tasks are not clear, interesting, and at an appropriate level, how can we expect pupils to be on task? Adverse student reactions should be expected when classes are dull, teaching is uninspired, and failure is built in. Their oppositional behavior is a sign of personal health and integrity. (p. 5) Student-teacher relationships As teachers feel more and more pressure to have students perform well on high-stakes tests, many focus more on instruction and student behavior and less on student-teacher relationships. By the end of seventh grade, more than half of the students believe that teachers and principals are their adversaries (Glasser, 1990). Yet, there is a significant body of research that indicates that academic achievement and student behavior are influenced by the quality of the teacher-student relationship (Jones & Jones, 1998; Marzano, 2003). What are the characteristics of a quality student-teacher relationship? Is this where students and teachers are friends? Can quality relationships only be formed if the teacher is charismatic and popular with students? In fact, none of these factors are part of successful student teacher relationships rather successful relationships are formed when teachers exhibit appropriate levels of dominance, appropriate levels of cooperation, and are aware of high-needs students (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). There is a difference among teachers who are passive, aggressive, and assertive. Emmer Evertson, and Worsham (2003) defined assertive behavior as the ability to stand up for ones legitimate rights in ways that make it less likely that others will ignore or circumvent them (p. 146). In their study, Emmer and colleagues found that assertive behavior is a balance where the teacher uses body language that is insistent and serious but not threatening to the students, uses an appropriate tone of voice, and insists on

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16 appropriate behaviors (not ignoring inappropriate behaviors). This would include erect posture and eye contact but not leaning over the student or otherwise trying to intimidate the student, speaking clearly and deliberately in a slightly elevated tone of voice, and listening to legitimate explanations and not being diverted by arguing or denying. Jones and Jones (2003) concurred that teachers who create and maintain effective relationships with their students find ways to blend warmth, concern, and firmness. Even though the teacher must be perceived as assertive she cannot be a dictator. In quality student-teacher relationships, teachers work as a team with students in appropriate levels of cooperation. Teachers begin developing relationships by taking a personal interest in their students. There are numerous ways that teachers can make personal connections with their students. McCombs and Whisler (1997) listed several easy and quick ways to promote personal connections: Talk informally with students, have lunch with a few students each day or once a week, be aware of and comment on important events in students lives, and compliment students on important achievements both in and outside of school. Caring about students is certainly one way to form quality relationships. Emmer et al. (1980) found that an important part of a successful teachers management plans was to accommodate students concerns. Effective teachers were more skillful in using students interests and background knowledge in class than ineffective teachers. Bohn et al. (2004) found that effective managers consistently listened to students thoughts and needs and responded compassionately. In addition, they emphasized democracy and self-regulation in the classroom. In these successfully managed classrooms, students felt that they were cared for and that their concerns and thoughts mattered.

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17 Believing and showing that every student matters is important in creating quality relationships with students. In most classrooms today, 12% to 22% of students have special emotional, behavioral, medical, or academic needs and up to 18% of students have extraordinary needs (Marzano, 2003). Though regular classroom teachers may not be in a position to address directly more severe issues, successful managers have a repertoire of specific techniques for meeting students needs in the classroom. Successful managers know that fair and equitable treatment of students does not mean treating all students the same. Brophy (1996) and Brophy and McCaslin (1992) found that the most effective teachers were sensitive to student needs and employed different strategies for different students based on these understandings. For teachers to be sensitive and understanding of all students needs, they must take the time to build a relationship with those students and keep lines of communication open so needs and concerns can be addressed as they emerge. Research on classroom management shows that effective classroom managers provide a safe and stimulating haven where students are cared for and encouraged to succeed both academically and behaviorally. Teachers are assertive and insist that students demonstrate appropriate behaviors while working to meet the individual needs of all of the students. Kohn (1991) succinctly stated, Preceding and underlying specific techniques for encouraging particular behaviors is the practice of nesting all kinds of discipline and instruction in the context of a warm, nurturant, and empathetic relationship with students (p. 503). Culturally Responsive Pedagogy If teachers are to create supportive and challenging environments for students, utilize appropriate and motivating pedagogy, and foster quality relationships with

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18 students then they must know and respect their students. Who are the students in public schools today and who are their teachers? Student enrollment statistics showed that culturally and linguistically diverse students comprised nearly 50% of elementary school enrollment in 2004 with 33% living in low-income or poverty environments. On the other hand, teachers remained predominately white, middle class, monolingual, and female (NCES, 2005). Many teachers working with predominately culturally and linguistically diverse students have limited experiences with diversity and have little knowledge of their students lives outside the classroom (Van Hook, 2002). The cultural incongruence between teacher and student is at the center of many academic and behavioral issues. Teachers often come to school with assumptions and biases about their students that can lead to lowered expectations and lower achievement levels in their students (Neito, 2000; Weiner, 2003). Behavior is affected when students perceive teacher biases or when teachers misinterpret student behaviors and inadvertently create an environment of resistance (Howard, 2001; Kaplan, Gheen & Midgley, 2002; Weiner, 2003). Teachers today want to be effective and help their students to achieve but many are at a loss as to how to go about creating a learning environment, developing engaging and stimulating lessons, and fostering quality student-teacher relationships with students who seem so completely different from everything they know and understand. Advocates for culturally responsive pedagogy argue that we must bring culture from under the rug and into the fabric of the classroom. Gay (2000) defined culturally responsive pedagogy as teaching that uses the cultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more effectively (p. 106). Culturally responsive pedagogy is based on the assumption that

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19 when students school experiences are situated within their lived lives and cultural understandings, motivation and academic success are increased and behavior problems are decreased (Gay, 2000). Toward an Inclusive Environment Culturally responsive teaching is multidimensional and should be reflected in the classroom environment. Toward the goal of creating an environment where students feel accepted, comfortable, and valued, teachers need to set up a room where diversity is apparent and imbedded in the classroom environment. In her vignette about a multicultural kindergarten classroom, Gay (2000) described a classroom environment filled with visual examples representative of the students cultural lives. Bulletin boards reflected students varied languages, occupations, native countries, and cultural rites of passage (marriage, adulthood, baptism). One of the most interesting uses of cultural visual imagery is a multicultural alphabet streamer where different ethnic groups and contributions are associated with each letter. For example the words Japanese American, Jazz, and Jamaican are listed under the letter J. With this vignette, one can begin to understand the importance of providing more than a colorful, well-organized, classroom where students and teachers can see each other and move freely through the room. Culturally Responsive Instruction Instructional strategies are the cornerstone in the culturally responsive pedagogy literature. Students must experience academic success (Ladson-Billings, 1995). Academic success begins with high expectations. Teachers must believe in their students, accept nothing less than high levels of success, and work diligently to achieve these goals (Gay, 2002). Howard (2001) interviewed 17 elementary school students about

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20 their experiences in a culturally responsive classroom and found that students attributed much of their academic success to teachers who pushed and challenged them. A key to successful instruction is to link it to students lives and experiences. In her study of six successful teachers of African American students, Ladson-Billings (1994) found that teachers taught concepts like algebra and grammar by linking them to students interests such as rap music and the African origins of algebra. In these classrooms, motivation and engagement levels were high with little off-task behavior. When teachers link students interests to instruction it makes for stimulating and fun activities. Many African American students come from homes that accommodate large numbers of family members, with lots of stimulation, noise, and activity (often surrounding physical movement) (Boykin, 1986). In a study by Howard (2001) some students described engaging teachers who use theatrics to portray stories with different voices, and actions. Other students in the same study mentioned how exciting it was when their teacher used their names in stories. Successful teachers also communicate effectively with their students. Students need to know and understand the instructions for their lessons. This seems to be a simple concept but within diverse classrooms there are many discourse patterns, cultural norms, and linguistic understandings that can impede understanding between teacher and student. Many African American families use more directive modes of communication while Caucasian families use more indirect styles of communication (Delpit, 1995, 2002; Villegas, 1991). This difference in communication styles can result in behavior problems when students are perceived as not following directions, surly, or uncooperative (King, 1994).

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21 One type of African American discourse, call and response, is active rather then passive with more fluid and interchangeable roles between speaker and listener than more common passive discourse found in mainstream communication (Delpit, 1995; Gay, 2000). The effective teachers observed and interviewed in Ladson-Billings 1994 study, The Dreemkeepers, consistently used both directives and call/response strategies in successfully teaching their predominately African American students. However it is important to stress that there is no one best way to teach culturally and linguistically diverse students. Although there is research that advocates direct instruction (Delpit, 1995), cooperative learning (Putnam, 1997), afro-centric centered curriculum (Hale-Benson, 1986) and many other types of instruction, most research suggests that teachers who are successful use a variety of strategies to meet the needs of their students (Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994). Although there are many different ways to teach multicultural students, there are some similarities in the practices of multicultural teachers. These teachers are all interactive teachers, have extremely high expectations for their students, scaffold and support them as needed, maximize learning time, balance choice and structure, use culturally congruent materials and pedagogy, keep a brisk pace with varied activities, and show students they care about them (Banks, Cochran-Smith, Moll, Richert, Zeichner, LePage, Darling-Hammond, Duffy, & McDonald, 2005; Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990; Knapp & Shields, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Noddings, 1992). Caring in a Culturally Diverse Classroom Many teachers struggle to make connections with their students. Often students modes of dress, speech, entertainment, and behavior are unfamiliar to teachers and no common ground is apparent from which to build a relationship, but build a relationship

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22 they must. Research tells teachers that caring is one of the key characteristics in being effective in urban diverse schools (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Gordon, 1999) and that students who have caring relationships with their teachers are motivated to perform at higher academic levels than students who are not (Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990). Teachers cannot care for their students from a distance; they must become detectives and seek out information about their students in order to bring them closer together (Villegas & Lucas, 2002). Effective teachers in both Delpit (1995) and Howard (2001) not only learned about their students but also shared their own lives and emotions with them. Students, who have quality relationships with their teachers, reported that they knew their teacher cared about them because she shared stories and pictures about her own family and frequently showed emotions like humor, disappointment, and sadness. Caring is also demonstrated by actions that communicate respect and unconditional acceptance. This type of caring is often called empathy where teachers take on the perspectives of another culture and are with the student in a non-judgmental way (Goleman, 1998; Noddings, 1984). When teachers have empathy for their students, they are more likely to modify curricula and pedagogy to meet diverse student needs (McAllister, 2002). There is some research that questions the role of empathy in working with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Rosenberg (1988) found that in white preservice teachers empathy could provide a false sense of involvement where the teachers felt that they knew and understood their students well but in reality they may have had only a superficial understanding of the students (p. 8). When teachers feel that they really know students they may equate their own experiences with the other persons

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23 experiences and essentially erase the distinction between the two experiences (Spelman, 1995). In light of these studies, teachers must be cautious in assuming they know and understand their students and must keep lines of communication and acceptance open as they seek to learn continually about and nurture quality relationships with their students. Culturally responsive pedagogy is based on the premise that culture is an important and deciding factor in schools today and that teachers who are successful in teaching culturally and linguistically diverse students use their knowledge of students lived lives to create environments, teach lessons, and build relationships with their students in culturally congruent ways. Culturally Responsive Classroom Management The literature on culturally responsive pedagogy addresses several components of management but primarily focuses on instruction. Is there a framework that focuses on the intersection of culture and classroom management? The past five years have seen the emergence of a framework that connects ideas of culture and classroom management. Culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) is consistent with the findings from current classroom management research that advocate prevention strategies and promote an approach that where students behave not out of fear or a desire for rewards but out of a sense of personal responsibility (Weinstein Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran, 2004). CRCM is consistent with assumptions of culturally responsive pedagogy in its explicit acknowledgment and use of cultural understandings to work effectively with students. Understandings from both classroom management and culturally responsive pedagogy literature bases are used to create a framework for classroom management that is focused on meeting the needs of both teachers and students in 21st century classrooms.

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24 CRCM is not a recipe to be followed for successful classroom management rather it is a frame of mind for teachers to use. Weinstein et al. (2004) proposed a set of five components essential to CRCM: (a) recognition of ones own ethnocentrism and biases; (b) knowledge of students cultural backgrounds; (c) understanding of the broader social, economic, and political context of our educational system; (d) ability and willingness to use culturally appropriate classroom management strategies; and (e) commitment to building caring classroom communities (p. 27). Unapologetically, CRCM is political and its goal is not to have control over compliant students but to promote a style of management that will be equitable for all students. The focus is one of social justice where all students have equal opportunities to learn (Weinstein et al., 2004). Recognition of Ones Own Ethnocentrism and Biases To achieve equitable management for all students, one must begin by recognizing ones own ethnocentrism and biases. Most teachers are not blatant racists, rather they are cultural hegemonists (Gay, 2000). Novice teachers who have few experiences with cultures other than their own perceive all behavior based on their own standards of normalcy. In this situation, students who are outside the mainstream of expectations and assumptions are often perceived as behavior problems (Sheets, 1996). Teachers often blame students for the misbehavior rather than looking at the role culture might play in the situation. Successful resolution of problems is more likely when teachers understand that they inadvertently might have caused a problem because of their own cultural assumptions, seek out the problem and solutions, and adapt their practice to accommodate the student. Weinstein et al. (2004) described a teacher who was having difficulty managing her predominately Haitian preschool class. She observed effective teachers managing the same group and realized her communication style was incongruent

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25 with those of the students. She made some changes in her own pedagogy and found the new strategies to be much more effective. This sounds like a simple task, but, in fact, there is a plethora of literature documenting the difficulties in teachers from the dominant class experience in gaining the insight they need to examine their understandings and assumptions from another perspective (McItyre, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Richardson, 1996; Zeichner & Hoeft, 1996). Understanding of the Broader Social, Economic, and Political Context of Our Educational System Education is moral and political (Neito, 2000; Tom, 1997), and teachers will be more successful with classroom management when they understand and use this knowledge in their practice. One of the most common issues documented in urban schools is student resistance. Teachers often respond with increased control that in turn causes behavior problems to escalate. Research suggests that student resistance is a response to a system that does not value their culture, thoughts, interests, or emotions (Munns & McFadden, 2000); that is, when students act out, when they perceive this as the only way to be seen and heard (Macedo & Bartholome, 2000). Hernandez and Sheets (1996) interviewed 16 students about this very topic and found that many of them felt that their teachers did not care about their perspectives, and problems between teachers and students escalated because teachers did not bother to listen to them when they wanted to explain. Teachers who are successful in overcoming student resistance listen to their students and consider their perspectives (Valenzuela, 1999). Knowledge of Students Cultural Backgrounds and Ability and Willingness to Use Culturally Appropriate Classroom Management Strategies Just as teachers who wish to increase student academic achievement must use culturally appropriate strategies, teachers who wish to be successful managers must be

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26 willing to identify when something is not working, to abandon it, and use another strategy that is more appropriate for the students. Teachers who take the time to learn about their students as individuals will be better able to use this knowledge to intertwine skillfully culturally responsive methods that will be congruent with students lives outside the classroom. As teachers learn more about their students they must remember that all students are individuals and be careful not to make broad generalizations or to propagate stereotypes (Cazden, 1999; McLaren, 1995). When teachers gain more knowledge about themselves, their students, and the surrounding socio-political environment, they are in a position to create and use strategies that will promote equal access to learning. There is no onebest way to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students. In fact, one of the difficulties teachers face in trying to meet the needs of their students is in their attempts to homogenize classroom management and student behavior according to school norms and expectations (Sleeter, 2001). However, there is research to recommend certain management strategies that are effective in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. In his study of 13 K-12 teachers in seven U.S. cities, Brown (2002, 2003) found that successful management strategies included caring for students, the use of authority, and congruent communication patterns to create a productive learning environment. In addition to these findings, Weinstein Curran, and Tomlinson-Clarke (2003) advocated high expectations, working with families, and dealing with problem behaviors. Many educators might question the idea of culture affecting how one determines what is misbehavior and how to respond to the behavior. It would seem that either students are behaving (on task, following rules) or they are not. As with most

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27 educational issues the subject is not nearly as clear-cut as it seems. For example, African American students perceive authority as a function of personal actions based in strength and assertiveness (Delpit, 1995; Irvine, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994). With this perspective, students are more likely to challenge teachers rather than to give them the response they expect due to their position in the school hierarchy. Teachers not understanding this cultural norm will perceive the student as disrespectful and disruptive. Punishment will ensue, and the student and teacher will feel disrespected and misunderstood. Instead, a teacher who understands his/her students culture may choose to take the time to explain and discuss the classroom rules or may even find the intensity and passion with which the student is responding is acceptable in the classroom, thus broadening the teachers own definition of acceptable behaviors (Weinstein et al., 2003). Commitment to Building Caring Classroom Communities As discussed earlier in this review, teachers must care for their students. They must care for them in more than a warm and fuzzy way. Culturally and linguistically diverse students need teachers who are warm demanders (Kleinfeld, 1975;Vasquez, 1988). The most successful teachers push their students to achieve and will accept nothing less than success. However, it is not enough to build successful student-teacher relationships teachers must build caring communities of learners. Part of the challenge in establishing caring communities in culturally diverse classrooms is with student-student relationships. It is imperative that teachers provide and encourage classrooms where students are valued, accepted, heard, and where opportunities for student interaction are provided in many different forms (Gay, 2000; Noddings, 1992). Cooperative learning is one way that students can build relationships with each other. In fact, many culturally diverse students prefer this dynamic and social

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28 way to learn (Losey, 1997). Students who participated in cooperative learning environments, showed among other effects, positive interethnic group social interactions and friendships (Slavin, 1995; Stevens & Slavin, 1995). It makes sense that as students form friendships and come to understand and value each other, the instances of student-student misbehavior (fights, name calling, stealing, etc.) decrease and positive classroom behaviors increase. Culturally relevant communities are often like extended families for African American students. Ladson-Billings (1994) documented how one of her teachers, Hilliard, used the idea of family as a theme throughout the year. Students were encouraged to care and support their brothers and sisters and were responsible for each others academic success (p. 69). This idea is consistent with the African American cultural norm where the individual is seen within the context of the group. Caring communities are hard to construct and maintain in an environment where there is little enough time to teach academic subjects and focus is often on test scores and individualized learning. Successful classroom managers make the time and exert the effort because they know that their students will learn more and demonstrate positive behavior when they are part of a caring community of learners (Battistich, Watson, Solomon, Lewis, & Schaps, 1999). Many culturally and linguistically diverse learners do not ever experience CRCM and are left alone to struggle through minefields of culturally incongruent management strategies. In her text, Black Students and School Failure, Irvine (1990) profiled African American students school experiences with chilling statistics that show the following: Black students (males in particular) as three times more likely to be in lower track or special education classes, more likely to receive controlling statements and qualified

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29 praise, more likely to be labeled deviant and described more negatively than white males, more likely to be sent to the principals office for challenging the teacher, and more likely to be judged inaccurately by teachers. With these statistics and others that show novice teachers working in urban schools using the majority of their instructional time addressing management problems, there is an obvious need for research about new, and more culturally congruent, strategies for classroom management. Currently, there is a lack of research examining the connection between classroom management and culture. Much of the past research was connected to instruction (Delpit, 1995; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1995) rather than classroom management. The recent interest in CRCM from Weinstein et al. (2003, 2004) is theoretical in nature rather than researched based. However, Brown (2002, 2003) conducted a study of 13 urban teachers (1st th grade) from seven U.S. cities. Brown used an extensive interview to gain insight into how the teachers effectively managed their culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms in mostly low income, urban schools. Browns research was linked to culturally responsive pedagogy literature (his research preceded Weinstein et al. [2003] CRCM framework) and examined what teachers said they were doing to manage their classrooms successfully. Results from this study showed that the 13 teachers interviewed said they cared about their students and their success, acted with authority and assertiveness, and used congruent communication patterns with their students. Browns research incorporated many of the components of CRCM but only went so far as to describe what teachers said they did. Brown had no observational data to back these claims, and neither does the interview data show what these strategies looked like in the different classrooms.

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30 Currently, we know what Weinstein et al. (2003, 2004) proposed as necessary components for CRCM and we know that 13 successful teachers from Brown (2002, 2003) said they were caring, assertive, and used culturally congruent communication with their students, but we do not have a clear picture of what this looks like in different classrooms. My research of 3 elementary teachers in predominantly African American classrooms utilized both observational and interview data to add insight into the strategies used by teachers who were effective managers in predominately African American, high poverty classrooms.

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs, understandings, and pedagogy of novice teachers who were considered to be effective classroom managers in high poverty, predominately African American classrooms. Specifically, how did these novice teachers define classroom management and establish classroom community, routines, and procedures, define misbehaviors and address misbehavior in the classroom? Last, what part, if any, does culture play in successful classroom management in the context of a low SES, mostly African American student body? Understanding more about successful classroom management in low SES, culturally diverse contexts can help novice teachers working in these contexts and teacher educators who are preparing new teachers to take on these very challenging positions. In addition, this research added to the relatively small body of research literature that examined the intersection of culture and classroom management. Theoretical Perspective My purpose for this study was to gain a deeper understanding of effective novice teachers definitions of, beliefs about, and strategies for classroom management. I also was seeking to understand what role, if any; culture played in their success with classroom management in a high poverty school. My interest in these components was framed using interpretivism and grounded theory. These two perspectives can be found throughout the study from design to analysis and finally in the presentation of the 31

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32 findings. Interpretivism and grounded theory as they relate to this study are briefly explained in the following sections. Interpretivism Interpretivism is connected with the human sciences where researchers are concerned with understanding (Verstehen). Interpretivists believe that human actions (especially social actions) are inherently meaningful, and to understand them, one must grasp the meanings that constitute that action (Schwandt, 2000). In this study, I sought to understand effective practice in low SES culturally diverse contexts. I wanted to understand the meaning of their actions and how these actions fit into their larger systems of meanings. Verstehen (understanding) has different meanings depending upon which perspective one subscribes to. In this study the process of interpreting or achieving verstehen was connected to empathetic identification where the researcher gets inside the head of the actor to understand what he or she is up to in terms of motives, beliefs, desires, thoughts and so on (Schwandt, 2000, p. 192). However, as the study progressed, I was not sure that as a white, middle-class female I was entirely able to get into the heads of my participants who were from non-dominant cultures and who described themselves from low SES backgrounds. In this sense, I felt that I was not so much in their heads as I was looking over their shoulders (through observations and interviews) in order to ascertain their understandings, motivations and the meanings of their actions as they understood them (Geertz, 1979). This distance that I perceived in not being inside the heads of my participants but rather looking over their shoulders helped me to understand the participants motivations and meanings in an objective way. This objectivity is another feature of interpretivism

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33 where the meaning that the interpreter finds is considered the original meaning of the action. In order to attain this perspective, one must employ some method to step outside of ones assumptions and understandings and look at the observed actions with a purely theoretical attitude of observer (Outhwaite, 1975). For this, I employed grounded theory where a series of carefully planned steps generates theoretical ideas. Grounded Theory A central assumption of Verstehen and interpretivism is that meaning of human action is inherent in that action, and the task of the inquirer is to unearth that meaning (Schwandt 2001, p.134). The methodology I used to unearth the meaning of effective classroom management was grounded theory. Sociologists Glaser and Strauss (1967) are considered the founding fathers of grounded theory. Until this time, conventional theory was deductive in nature. The ultimate goal of deductive theory was to produce universal laws of behavior and societal functioning (Glesne, 1999). Initially, Glaser and Strauss (1967) also believed that their grounded theory would inductively function as explanation and prediction, but a more modern understanding of grounded theory is that those theories that are developed are not grand theories but substantive theories. Substantive theories have their roots in everyday-world situations and are often more specific and thus useful to practice (Merriam, 1998). In my research, I collected and analyzed data to inductively form a substantive theory about effective classroom management. My study added new understandings about what makes some teachers effective classroom managers in diverse, low-income classrooms where classroom management is a challenge to many novice and experienced teachers. In grounded theory methods, like other qualitative research methods, the researcher is the lens through which the data are viewed. The researcher collects, selects, and

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34 interprets the data. The process of developing the grounded theory must be theoretically sensitive. Strauss and Corbin (1990) explained that this is the ability to recognize what is important in data to give it meaning. It is of paramount importance that a researcher using grounded theory not only be aware of his/her own biases, prejudices, and assumptions but find ways to combat them so the data form the theory. Methodology The purpose of this study was to observe and interview teachers considered effective classroom managers working in high poverty predominately African American classrooms to comprehend better the teachers practices and understandings about successful classroom management in their specific contexts. In my work in classrooms at Green Meadows Elementary School in the year prior to this study, I realized that many teachers were struggling with classroom management and could not move beyond addressing student misbehavior and applying increasingly severe consequences in their efforts to try and control their students. This common approach was not effective, and the teachers and students remained frustrated and learning suffered. In other classrooms I noticed that teachers seemed to be effortlessly engaging and managing the students. The atmosphere in these classrooms was warm and engaging with more on-task behavior from students and less punishment from teachers. I began to wonder what was happening in the well-managed classrooms and if it would be possible somehow to capture the essence of these teachers practices and understandings in order to help those who were struggling with classroom management issues. Research Questions The following questions guided my interactions with the three participants in this study:

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35 Research Question 1. How do effective teachers working in a low SES, predominantly African American school context: Define classroom management Establish classroom culture (community, rules procedures, etc.) Define misbehavior Address misbehavior Research Question 2. What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon? Context of the Study Green Meadows Elementary School is a public school located in the southeastern portion of the US. At the time of this study, 531 students were enrolled at Green Meadows Elementary School with a predominately English-speaking population (99.8%) comprised of 88% African American, 6% White, 3% Hispanic, 2% Multi-Racial, and 1% Asian ethnicities. The school population is considered high poverty with 92% of the students on the free and reduced lunch system. The three classrooms observed for this study were representative of the school demographics listed above. The kindergarten class was composed of nineteen students whose ages ranged between five and six years old. Students in this class are predominately African American with only two students labeled as mixed ethnicity. The fourth grade class observed for this study rotated classes throughout the day and observational data included all three homeroom groupings. The fourth grade class as a whole was composed of 60 students whose ages range from nine to twelve years old (several of the students have been retained two times and one had been retained three times). The students were predominately African American and four students were white. All students in the fourth grade cited English as their first language.

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36 The teachers in this school are highly educated and rate above the state average for advanced degrees with 59.4% of the faculty holding degrees beyond the bachelors level. Not only are the teachers at Green Meadows Elementary School well educated but they are experienced practitioners with an average 11.1 years of teaching experience. Teachers work in classrooms averaging 18.7 students (approximately 5 students less than the state average of 24.1 students per classroom). In the 2004-2005 school year the school was in a state of transition with a principal, Curriculum Resource Teacher and Behavior Resource Teacher who joined the faculty the year before. In addition to the faculty changes, the school received a D on the state achievement test and was under pressure to raise student achievement scores. To this end, new reading and math programs were purchased and implemented in the 2004-2005 school year1. Participants Three participants were chosen for this study. All were teachers at Green Meadows Elementary School and had less than 10 years of teaching experience. In qualitative research, participant selection is deliberate and purposeful (Patton, 1990). Qualitative research is not concerned with finding truth and adding to theoretical knowledge but with transferability and adding to conventional wisdom (Patton, 2002). Participants were selected using extreme case sampling. Glesne (1999) defined extreme case sampling as choosing participants who are unusual or special in some way. Since this study focused on understanding what teachers in high poverty contexts do to deal with student behavior 1 All statistics were downloaded from http://www.greatschools.net

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37 effectively and create a positive classroom culture, I chose participants considered to be effective classroom managers. The Professor-in-Residence2, Behavioral Resource Teacher, Curriculum Resource Teacher and school principal were contacted to gain insight into participant selection. Participants were selected using the following criteria: 1. Had taught at least one full year 2. Had no intern in the classroom for the 2004-2005 school year. 3. Had positive interactions with students 4. Nurtured high academic success in students 5. Had a lower than average number of referrals to the BRT The Professor-in-Residence, the Behavioral Resource Teacher, the Curriculum Resource Teacher, and the school principal were asked to assess teachers for these criteria. Assessment was conducted in two ways. First, each knowledgeable professional (as noted above) was given a list of all the teachers in the building who had taught for more than one full year. Each was asked to rate each teacher using the following ratings: E meaning the teacher was effective in meeting these criteria NS meaning not sure if the teacher meets the criteria NO meaning the teacher did not meet these criteria When teacher placements were completed for the 2004-2005 school year, teachers who were rated as effective by three of the four professionals were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Three respondents were selected for the research (all female). Each was given an informed consent form to sign to ensure her understandings of both the study and her rights as a participant (Appendix A). The participants and school at which the study took place were assigned pseudonyms: Green Meadows Elementary 2 The professor-in-residence is a faculty member from a nearby university who spends 25% of her time at Green Meadows. Her role involves running a collaborative staff development program and coaching teachers through classroom observation and consultation.

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38 School, Kathy, Lucy, and Susie. In addition, permission to conduct the study was attained from the principal as well as the local school district. Description of Participants All three participants were from non-dominant cultures, were female, and ranged in age from mid 20s to early 30s. I had the opportunity to work with each of the teachers the year before this study through a staff development program. In the previous year, I was in the participants classrooms on average once a month and often spoke with them about educational dilemmas and successes in informal conversations during the school day. Through the staff development program, I also worked with the participants in a more formal role as co-facilitator at the monthly three-hour meetings focused on staff development and inquiry. Lucy Lucy is currently teaching fourth-grade writing three periods of the day and fourth-grade reading one period of the day. She is an African American woman who had taught in high poverty minority schools for her entire career including her internship. She holds a bachelors degree in elementary education from a local college and is certified by the state to teach elementary-aged children. Lucy is in her eighth year of teaching at Green Meadows Elementary School and previously had taught a combination class, fourth grade and fifth grade. She was raised not far from the community and has many relatives and friends who live near the school and even attended school with many of her students parents, cousins, aunts and uncles. Kathy Kathy is currently teaching fourth-grade math three periods of the day and fourth-grade reading one period of the day. She is an African American woman who is in her fourth year teaching at Green Meadows Elementary School where she took over a classroom as a long-term substitute to begin her teaching career. She holds a Bachelors

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39 degree in elementary education and a Masters degree in educational leadership from a local school and is certified by the state to teach elementary aged students. Kathys experiences in high poverty minority schools began with her internship at a local school near Green Meadows Elementary where her son now attends elementary school. Kathy is very active in the church and often sees her students on Sundays while attending services. She also has three sons who are active in extra curricular activities in the community and interacts with her students and their caregivers through these informal meetings. Susie Susie, who considers herself to be multi-ethnic (Japanese and Israeli, among others), is currently teaching kindergarten at Green Meadows Elementary School. This is currently her third year at Green Meadows Elementary School and her second year teaching kindergarten. She spent her first year at Green Meadows teaching high needs students in a pull-out program at Green Meadows. She holds a Bachelors degree and Masters degree in elementary education from a local university and is temporarily certified to teach elementary-aged students. Susie conducted her internship year at a local school that is composed of mainly White, upper-middle class students. After her internship she sought to work with non-dominant students and came to work at Green Meadows Elementary School. Data Collection Since this study focused on classroom management and the most crucial time to establish community, relationships, and routines is in the first six weeks of school, data for this study were collected from August through October with member checks in April and again in June (Emmer et al., 1980). I conducted all of the interviews and observations and was solely responsible for transcribing each as they were conducted. All data were recorded in a data log to keep track of who was observed and interviewed

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40 as well as what dates and what time of day they were observed (see Appendix B). Data collection was interrupted for two weeks in September due to two hurricanes hitting the area, resulting in school closings and making travel impossible. Observations In the first two weeks of observations, participants were observed twice each week (except for Susie, who was observed only once the first week) for approximately two hours each time. For Weeks 3 through 8, participants were observed once a week for approximately two hours, totaling in an average of eight two-hour observations per participant. Observations were scheduled ahead of time. The time of day for observations was varied in order to observe different classes, subjects, and transition times. Observational notes (questions, reflections, etc.) were kept on paper and were often discussed in the post-observation interviews to clarify teacher understandings, strategies, and intent. Observational time spent with participants and total number of transcribed observational data are reported in Table 1. Table 1. Observational time spent with participants and pages transcribed from observations Participant Logged Observation Time Pages transcribed Kathy 18 hours 95 pages Lucy 18 hours 86 pages Susie 16 hours 82 pages I had worked with the teachers at this school during the past year and spent time observing and helping out in the classrooms. I had many opportunities to converse with teachers in both formal and informal situations about classroom topics. As I collected data for this study, my role was one of observer-as-participant (Merriam, 1998). My primary role was to gather evidence as an observer in selected classrooms. The role of observer as participant allowed me to continue my relationships with these teachers (which was important in gaining an insiders understanding of those phenomena

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41 observed) but not take part in the classroom activities. While in these classrooms collecting data, I did not interact with the students or with the teacher and resisted giving management advice. Teachers were well aware of my presence and purpose in these observations and, for the most part, ignored my presence in their classrooms while I was collecting data. Interviews Three types of interviews were conducted with each participant: Post-observation, follow-up member check, and background (see Appendix C). Post observational interviews were conducted as soon as possible after each observation and lasted for approximately 20-40 minutes depending on time constraints (interviews scheduled after school rather during planning times were often longer). In the first two weeks of school interviews were limited to once a week due to the teachers overwhelming schedules in beginning the school year. Each participant took part in six to seven post-observational interviews throughout the data collection process. These interviews were extremely useful in answering questions and confirming themes and understandings I had begun to generate from observations. Interview time spent with participants and total number of transcribed interview data are reported in Table 2. The table shows that Susies interview time was over an hour more than Kathy or Lucys time. The reason for this difference is that Susie was a novice teacher who was highly reflective and verbal. The interviews were often longer because she enjoyed talking about her practice, the students, and future pedagogical choices she was considering.

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42 Table 2. Interview time spent with participants and pages transcribed from interviews Participant Interview time Pages of transcription Kathy 131 minutes 74 pages Lucy 144 minutes 71 pages Susie 200 minutes 89 pages Near the end of the data-collection process, teachers participated in a background interview after school that lasted for approximately 60 minutes. These interviews were scheduled for this time so that teachers had a chance to settle into their schedules, recover some equilibrium from the hurricanes, and be able to spend the time needed to complete the interview. The purpose of the background interview was to gain an understanding of the teachers, their experiences both as students and teachers, and to allow them a forum in which to explain their understandings about teaching and learning with respect to classroom management and issues of culture. In addition to asking questions and clarifying themes as data collection progressed, member checks were used to ascertain formally that the conclusions reached about each participant were true to their own understandings. In mid-April, I sent each participant the draft from her case study and a member check form to complete and return to me in the self-addressed stamped envelope. By the end of August, I had either received member check forms from the participants or spoken to them over the phone to confirm their approval of their cases. Development of interview protocols In qualitative research, interviews are extremely important. Within some genres of theory, interview transcripts constitute the entire set of raw data. In this research, interviews did not compose the entire set of data but were still very important in giving the researcher insight to participants understandings and motivations. The interview protocols (see Appendix C) were adapted

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43 from other interview protocols used in past research projects. All interviews were semi-structured, meaning that each began with questions and intended probes but was not limited to these questions. My main intent when constructing the interviews was to encourage the participants to discuss their understandings, beliefs, and thoughts about culture and classroom management. My questions were not intended to direct the interview or to trick the participant. I wanted to encourage the participants to speak freely about their understandings of the phenomenon. In grounded theory, the theory comes from the data, not from the researcher. The interview must encourage the participant to tell her story her way, not guide her in telling the story I wish to hear. Also, when using grounded theory, the data are constantly analyzed and hypotheses, questions, ideas, and summaries are recorded. As I gathered data from initial observations and preliminary interviews, I often added questions to interview protocols to include these new understandings and initial theories. Data Analysis Grounded theory was used to analyze and interpret the data collected. The founders of grounded theory methodology, Glaser and Strauss (1967), stated that theory is more inductive than deductive. This means that the theory emerges from the data and does not conform to a theory presupposed by the researcher. The grounded theory approach consists of a set of steps that guides the researcher in carefully analyzing data, coding data, and constant comparison leading to the construction of a substantive theory (Moustakas, 1994). However, Strauss (1987) explained that there are no sequential steps that guide all of grounded theory; each research project is unique and researchers must conduct their research as best fits the data, researchers interpretations and experiences, and the contingencies that influence the research.

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44 Grounded theory proceeds in cycles where data are analyzed throughout the research, and theories, summaries, hypothesis, and connections are recorded. These initial analyses are then used to drive the next wave of data collection. Ultimately, saturation is reached and data can be analyzed to uncover the theory that explains the phenomenon in question. The following are components and descriptions of grounded theory methods I used for analyzing data as discussed by Strauss and Corbin (1990) and Glaser and Strauss (1967). Open coding Open coding was used to identify, name, categorize and describe the phenomena found in the data. As observations were conducted and interviews transcribed, I wrote initial codes in the margins or on a piece of paper (attached to the interview/observation). Some of the open codes from the data included: concern, respect, trust, question, teacher control, order, support, etc. After each interview and observation were coded, questions, reflections, summations, and emerging themes were recorded to use in further data collection and analysis. When all data were collected, the codes were compiled into a list and refined until it was non-repetitive and non-overlapping. Axial coding As open codes were identified, they were also related to each other via a combination of inductive and deductive reasoning. Since I was not only striving to describe the phenomenon but to explain it as well, my axial codes fit into a basic frame of generic relationships that included the following elements: phenomenon, causal conditions, context, intervening conditions, action strategies, and consequences. Some examples of axial codes from the data are humor, reminding, modeling, praise, scaffolding, etc. When all data were collected and coded, a list of axial codes was

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45 compiled for each case. The codes list was refined until it was non-repetitive and non-overlapping. Selective coding The purpose of selective coding is to find the big concepts that encapsulate the data. As data were collected and initially coded I analyzed the coded data for consistent concepts both within cases and between cases. These concepts defined the selective codes and included relationships, rules and routines, instruction, and addressing misbehaviors. All coded data for the three participants were found within these four main concepts. Lastly, I looked across all three cases to identify similarities and differences. The original data were then recoded to find confirming and disconfirming evidence of these identified concepts. Constant comparison In this process I constantly reviewed my data and analyzed my emerging themes. This process was imperative in order to note relationships and links between data and to continually question gaps in the dataomissions and inconsistencies, and incomplete understandings (Moustakas, 1994, p. 5). Memos As noted earlier, the data in this study were immense. A codebook was developed in order to inventory my codes and their descriptions. I also kept memos (code notes) that discussed the codes and ideas I had for theory development, relationships, questions, etc. As I worked with and analyzed the data, I developed theoretical notes that helped to connect data or codes to the literature. Trustworthiness of the Study Several techniques were employed in this study to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. These are discussed below using criteria for evaluating qualitative research found in Crotty (1998), Glesne (1999), Guba and Lincoln (1994), and Patton (2002).

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46 Credibility Qualitative researchers admit that there are many potential biases in their research and must describe processes used to ensure credibility in their studies. In this study, I used prolonged engagement with participants and triangulation of data to enhance credibility. While conducting this study, I invested significant time to learn about the classroom cultures, build trust with the participants and worked to detect and minimize any distortions that may have influenced the data. I was in classrooms on a weekly basis for the first 8 weeks of school accumulating 16-18 hours of observation in each room for a total of 52 hours of observation. Interviews were conducted with participants and also served to triangulate data from observations. A total of 8 hours was spent talking with teachers about their understandings resulting in 234 pages of transcribed data. To reduce biases and distortions, it is important that the data be examined from another perspective. For this study, the professor in residence, who was familiar with the context, reviewed and discussed with me emerging themes as well as developing theories. These discussions and my audio taped interviews and observations served as an additional source of triangulation. Dependability Dependability is achieved when the researcher is scrupulous in documenting the process and procedures used for generating and interpreting data (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). Qualitative researchers provide a clear and concise paper trail to help readers understand how data were analyzed and conclusions drawn. In this study, the paper trail was recorded in a journal. All decisions about data collection and analysis were recorded in this journal. Another way that I showed dependability in this study was with member checks. Member checks were on-going as I collected and analyzed data. In

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47 post-observational interviews, I often asked questions about themes and theories for the teachers to clarify or discuss. More formal member checks were conducted after most of the data were collected and in the later stages of theory development. I brought preliminary findings to the participants and asked their opinions on the truth of these theories in relation to their own understandings and experiences. In each case there were minor details (terms, numbers, names) to be corrected but each member agreed that the findings represented their understandings of classroom management. Confirmability Confirmability relates to ones subjectivity as a researcher. In this study, I enhanced confirmability in two ways. One way was to state explicitly my theoretical perspective and assumptions (see Appendix D). The second was to include examples of raw data, data analysis procedures, category and theme development, as well as process notes (see Appendix E). By including this information, readers could see for themselves how conclusions were generated. Transferability Though qualitative researchers are not as concerned with replication as quantitative researchers, qualitative researchers are concerned with transferability which means that other researchers can decide if and how to apply the findings from this study to their own situation. By describing the context of both the classroom and the teacher as well as using numerous quotes and anecdotes, I provided a thick description of the research process and how conclusions were developed. This description allowed readers to decide if findings from this study could be transferred to other contexts due to shared characteristics. Limitations One limitation of this study was the fact that all three participants were from non-dominant ethnicities. Another limitation of this study was that the

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48 students in each class observed were predominately African American and spoke English as their first language. In many classrooms today, it is white teachers who are teaching students whose cultural, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds vary greatly from each other. However, this study does begin to illuminate effective practices used in high poverty African American contexts and future research can extend the generalizability of these findings. Conventions of the Language This research is a combination of reporting what teachers said and did, interpreting their actions and words, and creating conceptualizations from the interpreted data. Because of this messy business of qualitative research, some explanations about language are provided. When I am discussing teachers abiding beliefs that we assume will continue beyond this research, the present tense is used (i.e., Lucy believes in her students and wants what is best for them.) Interview and observational data are presented in the past tense because they were recorded at one particular time in the past (i.e., Susie leaned forward and made eye contact with the student while she held her hand up). Participants words are represented verbatim and can be identified by indented text followed by codes (described below) or contained within quotation marks. Troy, sit down! [II-o923p2] Presentation of Findings This study includes well-documented and detailed descriptions of the teachers, their classrooms and the school context in which they work. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 represent each teachers case study organized according to the larger selective codes discussed earlier in this chapter. Within each case, data are represented with the following codes: Teacher code: Kathy (I), Lucy (II), and Susie (III) Data source: observation (o) or interview (i)

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49 Date of data collection: month/day (923=Sept. 23) Transcript page: page from which the data comes (p2). In the end, a code like this II-o1012p4 can be interpreted as Lucy, observation, October 12, page 4. In Chapter 7, I summarize the findings and present conclusions derived from a cross-case analysis to develop a theory about the centrality of relationships to classroom management. (Readers who prefer to peruse this theory and its explanation before reading the three cases are advised to skip to Chapter 7 at this time. Readers who would rather peruse the three cases and construct their own understandings about these teachers practice are advised to continue reading.) Literature is used to situate the findings within the broader research base. This chapter concludes with implications for teachers, teacher educators, and further research in the area of culturally responsive classroom management.

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CHAPTER 4 KATHY: THE MAESTRO Kathy is at the board firing math questions at the group of fourth grade students sitting at desks placed in groups of four or five. Students are sitting up in their seats with books and papers out juggling their attention between Kathy and the answers they have written on their papers and sometimes conferring with others in their group about answers. Kathy models the new math concepts and invites students to come to the board and complete a problem for the rest of the class. As a group of students come to the board, Kathy continues to monitor the group and prompts students at their seats to look up here and check your paper. She notices that one of the students at the board needs some help and quietly moves over to her and scaffolds her to complete the problem. As students return to their seats and Kathy asks them to explain the completed problems, she notices that Juanita is talking with a neighbor (she was spoken to about this twice already). Juanita, Im gonna call your momma and you know what will happen then. Juanita stops talking. Students are finished explaining their problems and Kathy asks everyone to make sure they have this written down because the homework is just like this. Kathy then directs students to clear off desks and waits, with her hand up in the air and her other hand covering her lips, for students to settle down. When the class is quiet, Kathy plays the CD Math Rap. As Kathy walks around the room she and the students sing and move to the familiar song reinforcing important mathematical definitions and terms. [I-o826p4-5] 50

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51 In this fourth-grade math class at the beginning of the year, Kathy, a fourth-year teacher, shows students how exciting math can be. Kathy, an African American woman, is closely connected to the community both as a teacher and as a private citizen. She knows her students and their families and carries these understandings into her classroom in relationships, instruction, and management. Kathy is a caring teacher who will push students to achieve and accepts no excuses for not meeting the high standards she sets in her class. Much of Kathys practice was focused on preventing student misbehavior and promoting academic achievement through pedagogy (see Appendix F). Students who misbehave were more likely to experience a prompt, directive or warning than a consequence (100 to 4). Though specific instances of relationship building were observed only 36 of a total 571 times, Kathys care for students and her commitment to providing a positive learning environment for them was evident in all of the other areas of her practice. Kathy is like the maestro who expertly guides, teaches, and supports her musicians to perform skillfully exciting and challenging symphonies. What follows is an analysis of Kathys practice for the first three months of the2004 school year. Relationships As noted in Emmer et al. (1980), the purpose of classroom management is to prevent misbehavior and promote a classroom environment where students feel safe, cared for, and valued. The importance of relationships in the construction of such an environment can be found in classroom management literature (Marzano & Marzano, 2003), culturally responsive pedagogy literature (Ladson-Billings, 1994), and culturally relevant classroom management literature (Brown, 2003; Weinstein et al., 2004).

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52 Though specific relationship-building data were coded less often than other components of her practice, Kathy was quite consistent in reinforcing several themes important to building successful relationships: Believing in students, building a community of respect and care, and being accessible to students both in and outside of school. These themes were observed in isolated instances (as noted here) but were also woven into other aspects of Kathys practice (interactions with students, pedagogical choices, and dealing with misbehaviors). As the leader of the orchestra, Kathy knew that her ability to draw out each players best performance was largely based on the relationship she developed with him or her. Belief in Students Kathy believes that all students can and will succeed and is relentless in her insistence that they will succeed. And a lot of kids they act up when they do the things they do because they dont get it at home. They dont get the love they dont get the kindness and some of them at home all they hear is you little ignorant child or youre stupid and this and that. And thats what they give you because thats what they hear, but if you let them know that youre better than this and you can do better than this, a lot of times theyll start striving to show you that they can. And then theyll start believing it themselves. And so I believe that if I instill it in them (and I let them know I expect your best, nothing but your best, youre not giving me your best you can do better than this), eventually theyll start believing it themselves and start doing it. [I-i118p26] Kathy would not give up on a student even if that student had given up on himself or herself. Though she was insistent, she was not militant and worked with the student to find a way to help him or her to be successful (on task and engaged). This was apparent when she adapted her management to meet the needs of two challenging groups of students: low achievers and those students labeled with special education needs. When Kathy recognized that her low-achieving students needed more one-on-one instruction

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53 (they can get rowdy waiting for a teacher to come and help them), she solicited the help of another teacher and split the class in half. This way, each teacher only had seven or eight students and student wait time for assistance was cut in half. When this change was implemented, Kathy noticed an increase in on-task behavior and a decrease in misbehavior. Green Meadows Elementary School had recently become an inclusion school and Kathy had several special needs students in her classroom. Kathy understood that they have unique needs and worked hard to build a relationship with them so she could better determine both management and instructional strategies that would be most effective in moving the students toward success. Kathys interactions with Dequan demonstrated how her belief that a child can and will succeed enabled her to give a student space to control his behavior successfully and function as a member of the classroom. Dequan has an emotional handicap that sometimes means he erupts in class. Something will set him off, and he becomes disruptive (e.g., yelling, complaining, stomping feet, slamming book, turning over desk, flinging his book bag, or hitting another student). Kathy expected him to settle himself and participate in instruction but she was also willing to give him space to calm himself down. For example, he was allowed to walk out into the centrium to cool off and return when he was ready. This strategy cut down on his outbursts in the class and his behavior evened out. More important than the strategy is the fact that it was not developed as a plan to control his behavior. Instead, this solution was negotiated through many discussions between Kathy and Dequan about his feelings and needs. When Kathy worked to develop a relationship with her students she was able to better understand their needs and structure a management plan that will meet these

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54 needs; that is, through her relationship with students, she conveyed her belief in each one and communicated that she was on their side(Strachota, 1996) and that they could solve problems together. The ability to work with students rather than to control them from above is obviously related to Kathys respect and care for her students. Community of Respect and Care Belief in her students is the foundation for Kathys relationship with students but it is not enough to guarantee success. Kathy knows that her students often experience lives where respect and courtesy can get lost in the hectic business of survival. She sees it as her responsibility to teach students about respect and courtesy and model these desired behaviors. Kathy could certainly be firm and, she explained, even hard in expecting students to behave but she never demeaned or humiliateed a student in class. Her interactions with students were often conducted with a soft voice and even when Kathy raised her voice to be heard or to emphasize her point, she remained courteous and respectful of students. The second week of school, Kathys students were working on placement tests. When they finished, they could choose a book to read quietly. On one occasion Troy carelessly put his book back on the shelf sideways and sticking out. In response, Kathy firmly explained that is not how books are to be placed in the shelf and asked him to please replace it correctly. Troy calmly walked back to the shelf and replaced the book correctly. Kathy responded, Thank you. In everyday interactions, Kathy often used common courtesies like please, thank you, and excuse me (70 instances of these social conventions were noted from the overall 571). Students were thanked for helping out in class (passing out supplies, collecting supplies, cleaning up), helping others (either to get on task or to complete work), and for participating (answering questions, coming to the board to explain a problem).

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55 The environment of respect that Kathy built in her classroom was also evident in student behavior. It is interesting to note that in Kathys class, students responded to her questions with Yes, maam and No, maam (with no visible instruction from Kathy) but did not use these terms of respect with the other teachers they rotated through each day. Relationships among students were also affected by Kathys focus on building community in her classroom. In the first few weeks of school, Kathy reinforced ideas of respect and care for others when she admonished students to listen while others are talking and to help your neighbors. In coded data, these remarks were found significantly less often in the last two months of observation with all 11 remarks limited to August observations and remarks praising community goals recorded sporadically in August but more regularly throughout September and October. The students in Kathys class had no doubt that they were part of a supportive and caring community. Kathy was a model for the students as she interacted with them using common courtesies and respectful strategies to create an environment where they felt safe and successful. Students responded to this environment by behaving with respect and care for Kathy and for each other. Being Accessible to Students Both Inside and Outside of School Students were extremely respectful to Kathy but were not scared of or intimidated by her. It was not unusual to see Kathy talking with an individual student or small groups of students between classes, after school, or during her planning period. Kathys classroom door was nearly always open, and students felt comfortable coming into the classroom and talking with her about their successes, frustrations, dreams, and dilemmas. All of these occasions were opportunities for Kathy to continue to develop relationships with her students.

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56 have fun with the kids and just be myself with the kids. I think that I wouldnt get the results I do if I couldnt to that. I think that the kids being able to see me in an unprofessional way. It makes them feel better able to come and talk to me when they have problems or come to me when they need help. Because they dont feel like Im unapproachable. And I think that is important that the children feel comfortable coming to you and seeking your help when they need it, that theyre not intimidated by you. So I think being able to put my guard down and have fun with them and dance around the room and joke with them every now and then let them know that Im a person just like them. [I-i118p24] Though Kathy is a very structured teacher with firm ideas about classroom management, she sees the humor in certain situations. One day while students were working independently, a boy complained that his neighbor was distracting him by singing. Kathy walked over to the student and casually said, Jassey, we know you have a beautiful voice but right now you need to be quiet. One day you can showcase your voice in front of the whole class but now you need to be quiet. [I-o101p4] The class, including Kathy and Jassey, laughed and then got back to work. Here Kathy chose to react with humor and, in doing this, showed students that she could laugh with them. Kathy sees school as serious business, and joking is not often observed within the context of instructional times, but it was not unusual to see Kathy smiling or joking with students in her informal interactions before school, after school, or between classes. Kathy also showed that she is human and accessible to students by sharing personal information with them. There are pictures of Kathy, her family and friends, awards, and pictures created by former and current students hung on walls and placed on bookshelves for all to see. She often discussed her children with her class and related their experiences to her students experiences. Kathys students know she has a life outside of school and often find that her experiences and their own are similar.

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57 Kathy extends her relationships with students outside of school. One of the best ways to understand better and build a relationship with her students is to interact with them in the community. I know that a lot of them are involved in things. A lot of them go to church. I see a lot of them in church. They are involved in different things. Sports. Some go like theres a dance troupe thats big in the African American community. They do ballet and different dances. Some of the girls are in that. I see students at the city basketball games and things. Community centera lot of them go to community centers after school. I see some like in our town we have different community centers. Different communities have little different names (names 4 of them) and Ill see the kids in different little areas. And theyll be like, Ohh Ms. K what you doing in [name of local community]? (laughs) and so I get to relate to them in different aspects outside of the school. [I-i118p20] As Kathys relationship with the students grows, her understanding of them grows as well. Kathy often incorporated this added knowledge of students into her management plan. Im very involved with the church, and so I see a lot of them in church. And I know the different churches they go to. And Ill use it. OK Im gonna tell your pastor on you. (laughs) and Ill tell the kids sometimes, Now, is that whatI know I seen you in churchand is that how youre supposed to be acting? What would Jesus do? Cause I know a lot of them their churches teach them WWJ. And I say, What would Jesus do? Because I know that theyre into the churches so I kind of use that (laughs). [I-i118p21] This is just one example of how Kathy used her relationships outside of school to manage students inside school. Throughout lessons, Kathy casually reminded misbehaving students that she knows their grandma or that she knows they can behave like I saw you in church on Sunday. Students are no longer anonymous but are known to Kathy. Because of this knowledge, Kathy has a deeper understanding of the students she teaches and uses this knowledge like the conductor who is first a musician and really understands the perspective of each musician.

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58 It is interesting to note that Kathy uses her identity, situated both in the African American community and in the mainstream community, to teach students explicitly about mainstream norms they might not know. I want them to know that, yes, we act this way at home but when we get in a different setting we have to change the way . we cant act the same way when were in a professional setting or when were in a school setting. Its fine to act this way at home but when you get in a different environment, you have to adapt to that environment. Thats just the way it is. [I-i118p3] One example of this is the ability to code switch. Code switching involves teaching students whose first language may not be Standard English the language of power and giving them practice in using the two languages in appropriate contexts (Delpit, 1995). . like when Im at home I do talk in Ebonics and slang. And I even talk with the kids when I see them on the street Ill be like OK hey wass up? But then when Im at school its hello. How are you doing today? And so I just let them know that yes, we can talk this way here at home but when we are at school, we talk a different way because when we are at home some of them might call me Kathy. Theyll play around and well kid and theyll maybe say something and Ill say, Your momma. And they know when we get to school we cant do that same thing and I just want them to be able to know that there is a difference. There is a difference even when you grow up theres a difference from the way you act at home. You can do certain things at home but when you get into a professional setting or a different environment you cant do those same things. [I-i118p3] Building quality relationships with students was very important to Kathy, who used many different strategies to build trust, respect, and understanding in her classroom. She understands the importance of knowing her students in different contexts and, in return, being known by her students as well. As Kathy began to know her students better, she understood their motivations and unique needs more accurately and used this knowledge to create a management plan where students could positively interact in the environment. As students began to know Kathy and understood that she was more than just the teacher they see in the classroom, she was humanized, and students felt more connected to her.

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59 This kind of trust brings the student/teacher relationship to another level and makes classroom management more effective (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). Rules, Procedures, and Routines Kathy built strong student/teacher relationships from the first day of school and at the same time, she also worked to teach rules and routines to students. Kathy is the conductor of the orchestra, and the rules and routines of the classroom are like the musical score that lends structure to the selection being played. When one walks into the classroom, one sees students who are engaged and well behaved while going about meeting their individual needs with some autonomy. One hears the harmonious music but rarely sees the score from which it generates. How does Kathy achieve such beautiful music with her students? Kathys success with rules and routines is based on (a) explicit instruction, (b) rule and routine practice/reminders, and (d) positive reinforcement. Emmer et al. (1980) and Bohn et al. (2004) conducted research that showed effective classroom managers explicitly taught expectations to the students, allowed students time to practice the routines, and gave students appropriate feed back on their performance. The similarities between Kathys practice and those of the other effective managers are unmistakable. Explicit Instruction In the first few weeks of school, one can see how important rules and routines were to Kathy. Especially in the first two weeks, Kathy spent an extraordinary amount of time explicitly teaching rules and routines to the students. Kathy left nothing to chance in this crucial process. Many students who come to Kathys class may be unaware of certain school norms or may be used to performing certain routines differently than is expected in Kathys class. She knows that her students may not already know how to perform the

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60 routines of the class so like the good conductor that she is, Kathy taught every rule and routine to her students. In the beginning of the year, she started with the simple and graduated to more complicated routines later on. One of the most basic procedures Kathy taught on the first day of school was the bathroom routine. The fourth graders were allowed to use the bathroom at one specific time. Students must take the pass from the hook, and then they were free to leave the room to go to the bathrooms located across the hall. Students were allowed to go to the bathroom when Kathy was not instructing or giving directions. Kathy discussed this procedure with the class and then showed them where the passes were kept. It was amazing to see how much instruction it took for this seemingly simple procedure. Students got up during instructional time or they got up and met another student at the door to get the pass from him/her (this caused some traffic issues in the class). Each time that Kathy saw a student not following the specific procedure, she stopped and re-taught the correct procedure. Later in the semester, data showed that students were going to the bathroom at the appropriate times, and class ran smoothly as students took care of their bathroom needs without as many reminders from Kathy. Explicitly teaching the rules and reinforcing procedures takes a great deal of time and effort at the beginning but has great benefits in the end. In October, students were working in their reading textbooks where small group reading and discussions were suggested. When Kathy said, OK, get into your reading groups and read the story, then discuss the questions at the end of the story with your group, students moved their seats and got to work right away. Reading and quality discussions were taking place with only one request from Kathy. Later Kathy explained how this miracle was achieved.

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61 We talked about it. Last week was the first week we had our reading groups, and I discussed with them the teams and the responsibility of team members, what I would be looking for. We did practice having group discussions last week, and I told them, OK, I want to hear you going back into the story to find the support for your answers. Give me details from the story. Dont just tell me something. You have to find it. Find it in the story and support it from the story using details. So we did discuss it the week before, and Im finding that they didtheyre using it now. [I-i923p4] When teachers use explicit instruction to teach their students classroom rules and routines and give them time to practice them, students are better able to understand the expectations inherent in the rule or procedure and are more successful in following them. Though it seems that students should know the rules and routines, the reality is that many students often do not know the rules so explicit instruction and reinforcement is crucial in order for teachers to lay the foundation for student independence. Remind, Remind, Remind Just as learning a new piece of music takes a great deal of practice, so does learning new rules and routines in the classroom. Kathy knows that students will not always remember the correct rules and routines. Instead of punishing them for infractions, she reminded them of her expectations. Today, it was interesting. I had to keep repeating it. Open your planners get your HW out. Open your planners get your HW out. But I suppose that by next week theyll automatically open it up have their HW out. The first day today it was pretty much a matter of getting them to listen and pay attention when they first come in. But were doing it one-day at a time. One step at a time. [I-i824p9] Kathy did a great deal more reminding than punishing (62 to 4) but she did expect students to follow rules and procedures independently. From her experiences with the students, she had in her mind about how long it would take most students to master the skill. Kathy kept reminding students up to this point and even told them when she expected that they should be able to perform the skill without her reminders,

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62 Next week you will be responsible for bringing in your homework and your planner must be signed or you will not get full credit. [I-o831p4] Kathy believes that as the conductor it is her job to help students to succeed in performing rules and procedures. Students were not left to sink or swim alone, and Kathy did not perceive her job as that of policeman to punish infractions. She knows that for order to be achieved, students must understand and be able to perform desired classroom routines. They needed many opportunities to practice and often needed to be reminded of expectations. She was not interested in catching misbehaviors but in creating an environment where well-behaved students could learn and achieve. Positive Reinforcement Kathys goal was to have students who were on task and who were independently engaged in following classroom rules and routines. She explicitly taught and frequently reminded students of expectations in order to get students into the habit of performing desired behaviors. She told students what they were doing correctly in the hope that others would emulate it and that the student being praised would continue with the behavior. Kathys classroom was an overwhelmingly positive place. An observer would both see and hear the numerous ways that Kathy positively reinforced student behavior. One use of positive reinforcement was to calm the class and gain student attention. On several occasions, Kathy followed the students into class and noticed that many students were talking, out of their seats, or otherwise not on task. Instead of yelling and punishing, she gave those who were behaving a treat (M&Ms), a stamp for their card (to redeem for a prize after 20 stamps), or specific praise. Though she did not use external rewards often (4 out of 29 total reinforcing incidents) Kathy said that she found these strategies to be

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63 successful in catching the students attention. Once she had their attention, she began the lesson for the day. Kathy worked hard to catch students doing something good and made a conscious effort to let them know she noticed and appreciated their efforts. The fact that Kathy used a great deal of positive reinforcement is notable. In the average classroom, positive statements are used every 20 minutes while negative statements can be heard every 2 to 5 minutes (Algozzine & Ysseldyke, 1997). Throughout the day, Kathy could be heard reinforcing positive student behavior. Thank you for waiting patiently. [I-o826p4] Good job! Youre the first one to have everything out and ready. Good job. [I-o831p4] Thank you for those who were working quietly. [I-o101p2] Denny, thank you for quietly following directions and getting your book out. [I-o1020p2] Most of the praise Kathy gave was genuine and specific, indicative of effective praise (Brophy & Good, 2000). This kind of interaction creates a positive snowball effect where positive behavior elicits positive teacher attention that then promotes more positive behavior and positive teacher attention (Vitto, 2003). In all, this lead to a well-behaved and positive environment for student learning. Kathy used explicit instruction, reminders/practice of rules and routines, and positive reinforcement to make sure her students understood what desired behaviors looked and sounded like. She understood students would not be perfect the first time and gave them a grace period to work toward mastery of the new skills. Throughout the entire process, Kathy looked for the positive and amply rewarded students for their efforts with her regard in front of their peers.

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64 Curriculum and Instruction Classroom management research has documented the connection between wellbehaved students and appropriate, challenging, and varied instruction and curriculum (Bohn et al., 2004; Cotton, 2001; Emmer et al., 1980). Teachers who are successful managers also engage and motivate students in active learning through active teaching strategies. Kathy is an effective and skillful teacher who encouraged and motivated her students with scaffolding, second chances, and praise. She engaged students in active learning through fun and participatory activities and used her knowledge of her students culture to make links between school and home. Like the maestro who wants to inspire his musicians to brilliance, Kathy supplied students with a score that was stimulating, challenging and novel. Encourage and Motivate Students In her classroom, Kathy described a successful lesson as follows: The majority of the class grasped the concept, they have an idea of what theyre doing, they understand the overall point. They were into the lesson. And hopefully they had a little bit of fun somewhere during that period. [I-i105p6] Kathy believes successful classroom management is more than students sitting quietly in their seats listening to the teacher. Students need to be engaged and motivated by their learning. How does Kathy encourage her students to keep trying and motivate them to participate in the lessons? Kathy primarily used three strategies: scaffolding, second chance, and praise. During the observation period, Kathy primarily taught math (3/4 of the day) and reading one period each day. Kathys math classes were comprised of the entire fourth grade placed into three leveled periods that rotated through her room each day. One way that students can become disengaged from their learning is when new concepts or skills

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65 are taught and they do not understand the connection to skills already learned. In these cases students who fail to get it become frustrated and disengaged, often resulting in behavior problems. Kathy met this issue head on. When she saw that students were getting frustrated, she stepped in and used scaffolds to move them to the next level. One example of this was seen in late August. Kathy had students working at the board writing numbers in standard, expanded, and word form. Shekisha was working on writing expanded form. Kathy noticed that Shekisha was struggling with the problem. Kathy moved next to her and quietly asked questions to talk her through the process until she could succeed independently. Scaffolding can be as complicated as this example or as simple as when Kathy asked a student to identify which number was greatest: 582,411 or 572,4011. The student struggled in reading the numbers. To help, Kathy covered part of the number and had the student read it again uncovering the second part after the first part was read. In the end the student read each number correctly and correctly identified the largest number. Rather than letting students struggle and fail, Kathy caught them before they could fall and supported them in gaining a foothold. Another way that Kathy encouraged students to continue to try was by giving students a second chance. In many classrooms teachers ask students questions and after a brief wait time, or if the student answers incorrectly, they move on and ask another student to answer the question or to help the previous student. In Kathys class, students had a second chance to answer the question. One way that Kathy gave students a second chance was to allow them time to consider an answer. For example, she asked Rakeem a question, and he did not have an answer. Kathy gave him some more information

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66 (scaffolding) and said she would come back to him. Then she moved on and asked several children similar questions eventually returning to Rakeem, who answered the question correctly. Rakeem stayed engaged because he knew that Kathy would come back to him and he needed to have an answer. Interestingly, later in the data-collecting process, Kathy asked a student a question that he was not prepared to answer; he asked her to come back to him. She nodded and moved on, coming back to him after several others had responded to other questions. When she came back to him, he was ready with the correct answer. Another time that Kathy gave students a second chance was when they were completing their work. If they did not complete the page, or forgot to write the number in two forms, Kathy would give the papers back to the students and ask them to complete them correctly. When students got a second chance, it showed that Kathy valued the work they did and expected them to meet the high standards she had for them. Much of this kind of encouragement was documented in the first month of school with few incidences in September or October. As students understood that Kathy expected them to do the work as assigned and would not accept anything less, they were motivated to meet the expectations. Kathy used praise most often to encourage and motivate her students academic success (25 out of 59 total encouraging incidents). Kathy used academic praise to reinforce those behaviors that were beneficial to the students learning. As students continued to try working through a hard problem, attempted to work a new problem, or completed problems at the board, Kathy gave praise for their accomplishments. Kathy did not only praise correct answers, she also praised students who tried new things and

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67 took a risk. Praise where student effort is noted is found to be highly encouraging and effective (Brophy & Good, 2000). In August, Kathy asked Katrina to write a particularly long number in expanded form. She completed the problem and sat down at her desk. When Kathy had the class discuss the problem, they found that Katrina had an extra zero in one place. Kathy erased the zero, again explained the rationale, and then moved on to finish the discussion and the problem, ending with praise for Katrinas efforts. Rather than concluding the problem was wrong, Kathy focused on the parts that were right and the fact that Katrina took a risk to come up and try such a challenging problem. When students feel that their efforts are appreciated, they will stay engaged and continue to work toward success. Active Learning Kathy knows her students and understands that they learn best when they are active participants in their learning. Research shows that many African American homes are busy places with many people, much activity (usually centered around the physical), and high levels of stimulation (Irvine, 1990). Many behavior problems occur in classrooms where students are expected to sit passively as information is disseminated to them and then work independently to complete assigned work. Kathy avoided this pitfall by engaging her students in fun/participatory lessons and used cooperative learning to achieve her academic goals. Cooperative learning has received mixed reviews from teachers. Some feel that it is a good way to support and engage students while others feel that it is a way for students to shirk responsibility and can lead to chaos in the classroom. As Bohn et al. (2004) and Putnam (1997) explained, those who are most successful with instructional methods often have the best strategies and management routines in place for the chosen

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68 method. Kathy is an effective manager and, as discussed earlier in this case, explicitly taught her expectations and routines to the students and allowed them to practice expected behaviors before engaging them in cooperative tasks. Kathy used cooperative groups as one way to keep students interested and involved in the lesson. I think with all kids you have to keep them engaged and motivated. Im finding that they really like having the discussions with their team members. And theyre more eager but theyre more umm motivated to do the questions than when they have to do them on their own. Its not just throwing them out there. Theyve had a chance to talk about it. Get different ideas and then when theyre writing, when they have to write on their own, theyre doing it with a little bit more eagerness. [I-i923p5] Students supported each other in understanding the content and processing it in different ways. When students had the opportunity to share ideas and perspectives, learning became personal and interesting. Students were more engaged in explaining their perspective (which helps to define it) as well as listening and questioning other points of view. Cause they get to hear other viewpoints. Maybe they didnt think about the viewpoint that one of their partners brought up. It just exposes them to other viewpoints, hearing others ideas and Im finding their doing a lot better. Were doing it with math and it just makes the children . they get more into the lesson. Everybodys participating now. I dont have anybody daydreaming. Everybodys participating. [I-i923p6] When students engage in this kind of cooperative learning, their understandings are often deeper, which increases academic success as well as students time on task. Kathy emphasized that in cooperative groups everybodys participating. Participation was a very important part of Kathys practice. It was rare that one observed students sitting in seats listening or working independently for extended periods of time. Even when Kathy was at the board teaching, she drew students into the lesson with call/response or unison/choral response patterns. One day in October, Kathy was at the

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69 board teaching the definitions for addition properties. Instead of reading the definitions to the class, she engaged in a common African American discourse pattern: Call/response (discussed in Chapter 2, the literature review). At this time, Kathy wrote the definition on the board, then began to call (say the definition with a rhythm). When she stopped, students responded by echoing the call. This pattern continued several times for each definition, and each time Kathy changed the rhythm or tone, students responded with the new rhythm and tone. The pace was smooth and brisk as Kathy led the group through the definitions. Students were highly engaged and bobbed their heads, waved their hands, or tapped their feet as they responded to Kathys calls. At the end of the session, Kathy called on individual students to tell the group the definitions of each rule (several students were given the opportunity for each rule). All were able to do this correctly and often answered with a rhythm from the call/response activity. The call/response strategy was used intentionally by Kathy to engage and teach her students the properties of addition. . for OUR group I think that it is. A lot of them love music and do a lot of things with music and the call and response. We do it in different beats, different tones, and different rhythms. Theyre more into it. They pay more attention than if I just say it in the same monotone voice. [I-i105p3] Because Kathy knew that her students loved music, she incorporated it into her lessons. One might wonder how music and math are connected? In Kathys class she used a CD produced by a local teacher called Math Rap. The CD uses the call/response pattern along with a rap beat to teach fundamental math terms and definitions (perimeter, area, mode, median, mean, pentagon, isosceles triangle, etc.). Kathy used this CD to engage students in learning these important terms. Students loved the CD and were on task singing along while they learned. It was a perfect example of how students participation in lessons can heighten their motivation and engagement.

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70 Active Teaching Kathy certainly did not expect her students to do all the work in her class. She understood that she has a part in keeping student engagement up and misbehavior down. Kathy orchestrated the active lessons that kept students engaged. She is an extremely active teacher who modeled/re-taught, created clever and challenging activities for the students, and explicitly explained instructions/directions for the students to follow. Kathys class was fast paced with well-organized transitions between activities. Kathy knows that students often learn best by example and modeled new mathematical procedures often or re-taught a concept utilizing modeling. Children learn by modeling a lot of times and so in order for themif you expect something from them, then you need to show it to them. And so I do try to do that. [I-i118p24] When Kathy perceived that many students needed to be re-taught a concept or when she introduced a new concept, she often modeled expected procedures at the board or overhead projector. If Kathy noticed that isolated groups or individual students needed to be re-taught, she went to their desks and quietly worked with them there. Students in Kathys class were not left to guess what to do; she showed them, and if they needed it, she would show them again until they understood and were able to perform the task. Bohn et al. (2004) found that effective managers were more explicit and clear in their directions and instructions than were less effective managers. It only makes sense that when students are clear about what they are to do they are able to do it correctly the first time. Kathy was very explicit and clear with her directions and instructions to the class. Now write this, this and this down on your paper (points to rules and signs on board) so you can have it at home tonight. Make sure you write it neat. Write the signs and everything. Make sure your signs are facing the right way. [I-o831p8]

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71 Do set A and set B when you are done, bring your papers to me. If I am with somebody you need to wait or go on and do other problems (repeat). Go on and get busy. Get started. Write your first and last name on your paper. [I-o101p8] Since Kathys instructions were so clear, when students began working there was very little confusion. When students turned in their work, it was usually done correctly. This cut down on the amount of academic time that is often wasted in other classrooms when students are unsure as to what they are to do for the assignment, and more time on task means less time for misbehavior. In Kathys classroom, increased time on task and decreased misbehavior were not a function of punishing students or reinforcing rules. Good management involved instructional methods that called for student participation, engaging and supportive methods of teaching, and curriculum and pedagogy that were aligned with students culture and interests. When students experienced learning that was exciting, diverse, cooperative, and interactive, they could not help but be energized to succeed in each new task they were given. Misbehavior and Discipline Though effective managers spend the majority of their time preventing misbehavior, they cannot prevent all misbehavior. Teachers who are effective at redirecting and stopping misbehaviors were not found to be so different in what they did but in when they did it. Skillful managers stopped behavior sooner than less effective teachers and their interventions got results more quickly (Cotton, 2001; Emmer et al., 1980). Kathy is an effective manager who rarely ignored student misbehavior (5 out of 32 total misbehaviors coded) and used a hierarchy of increasing pressure to promptly address infractions in her class. Observational data show that Kathy had four levels in

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72 her hierarchy: (1) Pick your battles (choose which to address); (2) Prompt/redirect; (3) Momma Mode and (4) Consequences. Kathys goal was to orchestrate a classroom of engaged and motivated students who were focused on academic success. Misbehaviors in her class were defined as any action that was contrary to this goal and included playing with friends or in backpacks during instructional times, talking when others are speaking, not participating in class, and being disruptive to others learning. Ignore Misbehavior Kathy spent a great deal of her time monitoring the students as they were working. She walked around the class, looked up as she was working with individuals, looked at each student as she taught at the board, and watched small groups at work. As Kathy monitored her class, she noticed when students were beginning to get off track and then decided how best to address the problem. Kathy rarely ignored student misbehavior but the data show that she did ignore misbehavior 5 out of 32 times. Why did she ignore these behaviors and not others? In reviewing the contexts of these incidents, Kathy ignored student misbehavior in favor of continuing with the pace of the class. In all five situations, Kathy ignored minor student disruptions (tapping pencil, shuffling through book bag, off topic comment) and continued with the pace of the lesson. The misbehaviors stopped as students became engaged with the lesson. In these situations, Kathy did not want to overreact to a situation and allowed students to self-correct as they received no attention for the action and abandoned it in favor of the engaging lesson. Prompt/Redirect There were other times when ignoring misbehavior was not an appropriate choice. In these cases, Kathy choose to prompt students to do the right thing with a waiting strategy, proximity, gestures, attention cues and reminders.

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73 There were times when students were misbehaving and Kathy did not continue with the lesson and felt that she needed to wait for student behavior to improve before she could move on. Kathy did not use this strategy very often (7 out of 32 total misbehaviors) but when she did use it, she got results quickly. When does Kathy use her waiting technique? Data show that Kathy used her waiting technique when large groups of the class were off task. In these cases, she knew that to go on was not productive so she usually gave the quiet signal (one hand up and one hand on lips, standing in front of class making eye contact with students) and announced that the class was waiting for everyones attention. During the quiet signal, Kathys tone and body language exuded authority and not surprisingly, students quickly quieted down. As the class quieted down, Kathy thanked them and then promptly moved on with the lesson. At other times, Kathy used proximity or gestures to redirect the students behavior. Kathy was often at the front of the room during instruction (over-head projector or white board) so using proximity usually occurred as students were working independently. Kathy used this type of prompt infrequently in her practice and only when students were fooling around and needed to be prompted to get back on track. A more frequently used prompt was gesturing. For example, Kathy continued teaching as she gestured to students to put away inappropriate materials, throw away paper they were playing with, and sit up in their seats. Kathy also shook her head to gesture to students to stop what they were doing (talking, playing with materials, and rocking in seats). Again, she made eye contact with students, and her expression showed she meant business. The students usually stopped the behavior immediately.

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74 Sometimes a student misbehaved (his or her attention is focused elsewhere) and Kathy could not catch his/her eye. To get his/her attention, Kathy called the students name. Troy? [I-o825p7] Calvin, Alli? You arent listening. [I-o101p8] When students heard their name they stopped what they were doing and looked up at Kathy who returned their look with one of authority (direct eye contact, serious expression, raised eyebrows). These were quick and effective and did not interfere with the progress of the lesson. Reminding was also used to prompt students to get back on track. If you come back from the b-room with the pass you must hang it on the hook. Do not give it to someone. If you are waiting to go, then take it off the hook. [I-o820p4] Now my hand is up and stays up until everyone is looking at me and not talking. [I-o820p1] Interestingly, the data show that Kathy did the majority of reminding in the first month of school as students were in their practice mode of learning classroom rules and routines and lessened as time progressed. Kathy used reminding as a scaffold to help students master the behaviors expected of them in the classroom. Momma Mode Later in the year, as students were expected to know and adhere to the rules and procedures of the classroom, Kathy used two techniques to help misbehaving students get back on track: Directives and warnings. These warnings are called momma mode because, as Kathy discussed these two techniques, she referred to treating the students as if they were her own children and she was their momma. Directive statements and

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75 warnings are two types of discourse that are common in African American culture (Delpit, 1995; Hammond, Banks, Cotton, Dent, & Reaves, 2003; Irvine, 1990). Directives were used almost exclusively at this level (41 out of 51total momma mode codes) while warnings were rarely used (10 out of 51 total momma mode codes). Directives differed from reminders in that they no longer gave information but directed behavior. Alli close that book [I-o101p6] You need to get out a piece of paper and copy down whats on the board [I-o105p6]. Calvin! Get out the worksheet. [I-o105p12] When students heard Kathy using directives they were in no doubt as to what behaviors were expected of them. As Kathy issued the directives, students generally reacted with haste and did as they were told. Though many teachers who are unfamiliar with this type of discourse may assume it is harsh or disrespectful and that students feelings may be hurt, this is not the case. When students were on the receiving end of directives, they often looked up at Kathy, lowered their eyes, and corrected the behavior. Then they looked up at Kathy again for approval. As the students got back on track, Kathy nodded and made eye contact with them so they got the positive feedback they were seeking and the positive behavior was reinforced. Kathy used warnings very sparingly. When all else failed and students had hit her last nerve, Kathy used warnings to address student misbehavior. I know in the African American community a lot of them get spankings and so Ill . In knowing a lot of their parents I can threaten them with, OK you know if I call your grandparents you know whats going to happen to you. And I know that a lot of their parents when it comes to their education, they dont play. Then the kids know that they will get in trouble. And Ill tell them. And Ill kind of hang it over

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76 their heads. You know if I call home, you know whats gonna happen. You dont want me to call home do you? or Do I need to call home? [I-i118p12] Here, she used an African American parenting style that to some might seem harsh (Hammond, Banks, Cotton, Dent, & Reaves, 2003). But students interpreted these as warnings to do the right thing. Kathy delivered the warning in a teasing manner, usually with a smile. Students often smiled back and got back on track and the class moved on. There were other times when Kathy used warnings, and she was not teasing. Like I had a student who was acting up a lot and just playing in class. And hes a very bright student. He does real well but he was just playing a lot and he was getting in trouble because he was playing a lot. And so one day after school I just pulled him to the side and I was like, Listen. So-and-so Im sick and tired of you doing this mess. I was like, you better straighten up your act right now or Ill go and take you outside and Ill tear you up. Because Im sick and tired of you acting up in my class. And I was like Do you understand me? he was like Yes. I was like, yes? Where do you get that yes mess from? Youd better straighten up right now. What are you supposed to say? yes maam. And I was like, From now on thats what youre supposed to say when you address an adult. Do you hear me? (quietly) Yes maam. I said, Do you hear me? because he had his head down. He was like, Yes maam. I said, You better hold your head up and look at me when Im talking to you boy. (laughs) and it was like the same thing I kinda do with my own children or my nieces and nephews. Now I dont want this behavior from you anymore. Do you understand? he was like, Yes. Maam. What are you gonna do? hes like, Im gonna come to class and Im gonna do the right thing. When are you gonna do it? hes like, Every day. When? hes like Every day. I was like, Am I gonna have anymore problems from you? and he was like, No. And whats gonna happen if I do? Me and you gonna go outside. I said, Thats right. Now youd better get out of here. (laughs). [I-i118p14] With this type of warning, Kathy used direct eye contact, a firm voice, and dialect frequently associated with family and community. Her words were direct and explicit, and her emotions were apparent to the student. In the African American culture these are signals of a powerful and authoritative adult (Delpit, 1995; Marzano & Marzano, 2003). The student knew Kathy meant business and indicated his understanding with lowered head and, at the end of the conversation, showed his willingness to do better and comply

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77 with Kathys directives. Kathy reported that after this talk the students behavior was fine, no problems. These warnings might seem startling to readers who have never seen them in action. Remember, the threats are delivered in an environment of care and familial familiarity. Kathy also explained that she threatens the students with a punishment but does not have any intention of following through with them. Well I know some people disagree with writing sentences but I always threaten them with sentences because they just hate writing sentences. And if I just threaten (smiles) them and say there going to have to write sentences, then it catches their attention. Like today I just wrote a sentence on the board and I just threatened them and when see me writing it, they know automatically that someone was going to have to do it if they acted up so that kind of catches their attention and gets them on track. I rarely give it to someone but I just do it to threaten them. [I-i105p4] Even though Kathy rarely followed through with the punishments, warnings were still effective with the students. Students were familiar with this strategy (often used by caregivers at home) and knew that the use of warnings meant the adult had hit their last nerve and they had better straighten up. Directives and warnings were used sparingly but were useful strategies because they are aligned with the students cultural lives at home and conducted within an environment of care and respect. Many student misbehaviors are a product of disconnect between home and school cultures. Kathy is familiar with the students culture and used this familiarity to manage her class. Students often reflect on favorite teachers who made the classroom seem like home and who sounded like a beloved grandmother, aunt, or parent (Howard, 2001). Consequences Kathy used many effective strategies for getting misbehaving students back on track and rarely had to resort to consequences. In the three months that she was observed,

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78 Kathy used consequences only 4 of 571 total instances coded. Consequences Kathy used were: moving seats (3 times) and moving a student out of the room (1 time). All four of these consequences were enacted after Kathy had moved through her hierarchy of discipline and the behavior persisted. Interestingly, Kathy enacted these consequences with a minimum of disruption to the rest of the class. In the cases of students being moved to other seats, Kathy called their name and pointed to the new location or she made eye contact with them and pointed to the new location. In all three cases, students got up and moved to the new seats (though they had grumpy looks on their faces) without complaint or disruption as the lesson continued. In the case of the student asked to leave the room, Kathy just pointed to the door and the student got up and went out to wait in the centrium where Kathy later discussed his behavior and classroom expectations with him. When asked about the students reaction to the consequences, Kathy replied that students knew what they had done wrong and were aware of the consequences so when they were asked to move or leave, they could not be angry with her. They just got up and moved or left the room. All of these events took place in October when classroom norms and expectations were clearly understood by the students and showed how Kathy moved from reminding and prompting to expecting appropriate behavior from the students and enforcing appropriate consequences when misbehavior occurred. These consequences were not punitive but were used to stop disruptive behavior (talking and joking with others) so learning could continue. Kathy is the Maestro who skillfully orchestrated her fourth grade reading and math classes. She developed relationships with her students both in and outside of school so that students came to trust and know her and she got to know them better in order to

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79 motivate, engage, and direct them toward success. Kathy believes in her students and would not give up on them even when they had given up on themselves. She constructed her classroom in a way that promoted student success by explicitly teaching rules and routines that may be unfamiliar to her students and building bridges to scaffold students toward mastery of vital skills and concepts. Kathy did all of this with engaging, culturally relevant, and challenging pedagogy and clever and creative curriculum ideas. Students in Kathys class were captivated by her methods and behavior was usually very good. In cases where student behavior was an issue, Kathy approached the matter as a problem that both she and the student could and would solve. Kathys interactions with misbehaving students were marked by explicitness, consistency, and patience. She treated students as if they were her own children and used culturally relevant strategies to turn misbehaving students into engaged, successful, and well-behaved learners.

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CHAPTER 5 LUCY: PART OF THE FAMILY It is the last period of the day, and Lucy is reviewing Fact and Opinion with her third-period writing class. Lucy keeps a quick pace and solicits responses from students explaining important concepts and definitions as they come up in the lesson. I want to know what is a fact. Troy. Something you can look up or see. (She repeats his answer 2 times.) OK, now I need an example of a fact. (Calls student to answer.) My mom has a car. Can we check it out? Yes. Another one. (Calls a student to answer.) Ms. Lucy has on Jordans. Lucy goes to the board and writes, False statement. She explains that she is wearing Nikes. Can you check it out? Yes. But it so happens that it is false. Whats an opinion? Alli? (He is sitting in Lucys chair at her desk because he felt that he needed space away from the students in his class and discussed this with Lucy before class began.) This is the best school in the world. What makes that an opinion? (Calls on student to answer.) 80

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81 He thinks it. Another. Ms. Lucy is the best teacher. Honey, that is a fact! (Everyone laughs.) Another opinion. (Calls on student to answer.) This is the best school ever. Thats an opinion. Another one. (Calls on student to answer.) Thats ugly. Thats? What is thats? Tell me a sentence. Pick something over there. (Points to board.) He wont talk. Turns his head away. Baby, I cant let you talk like that. Youre in fourth grade. (He is sulking.) Come on and pick something over there. (Wont talk). Lucy moves on to another student and leaves him alone (Later, when others are working, she comes back over and discusses this with him.) Now you have eight sentences on the board (overhead). What you are going to do is write these sentences down. Put an O if it is an opinion. Ill do the first one with you. (Lucy reads it aloud) Fact or opinion? Dont say it. Write it. Trendarious is responding with a grunt after each word she says. She walks by him and stops by his desk. Trendarious, dont play with me. (He smiles and stops.) If there is something you do not know, think about if you can check it out; or if you can go ask somebody about it. Then you can do the problem.

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82 Students begin working (some talking to others about the questions and some working independently) while Lucy walks around helping students and monitoring their progress. One student asks about #3, Prime TV time. Lucy explains what prime time means (8, 9, 10 oclock). Laterious gets up to put his paper in the bin for completed work. (Quietly.) Hey, baby. (Shakes her head.) There are eight. I need to move it up. One boy is still not done. Lucy walks over and reads the sentence to him spelling the hard words. (He is looking grumpy but working.) (Quietly.) Baby, Im helping you out. He finishes, and Lucy puts 6, 7, and 8 up. For #9 & and #10 write your own opinion and your own fact. She walks around the class checking papers, and finds a student not completing his assignment. Whats s this? You dont have #3 either? You all gotta work faster than this. [II-o107p4-5]. Lucy is an African American teacher who has been teaching in local high poverty predominately African American schools for eight years. She is no stranger to her students or their parents, having lived either in or near the community since she was in elementary school and was classmates with many of her students relatives and caregivers. Relationships were important in Lucys classroom (see Appendix G), and the lines between community and school were often crossed, creating a family-like environment

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83 where students were cared about and expected to succeed both academically and behaviorally. Rules and routines were important to Lucy but were not a focus of her practice (76 of 848). Lucy wanted her students to be comfortable in her class and not feel overwhelmed with lots of rules and routines taught in the first few days so she taught those routines needed, provides practice, and offered reinforcement. Later she added rules and routines as needed. Lucy knows that her students must succeed academically, and engaging instruction was one of the largest components of her practice. Instruction was culturally aligned, providing motivating and engaging strategies, active teaching, and a great deal of student participation. Students were engaged three fourths of the time and misbehavior was usually minor and swiftly handled with a hierarchy of management strategies including, monitoring, reminding/cueing, directives/warnings, and consequences. Lucy conducted all aspects of her management program from an insiders perspective and treated all of her students as if they were her own children. What follows is an analysis of Lucys practice the first three months of school 2004. Relationships Walking into Lucys classroom was like walking into a familys living room filled with children and adults who shared common understandings, close relationships, common goals, and informal speech and behavior patterns. The sense of family that one feels when visiting Lucys class was no accident. Relationships were important to Lucy and observations show that she spent about one quarter of her time specifically building and reinforcing relationships in her classroom (219 of a total 848). She skillfully drew students into her family through a strong belief that the students could and would be successful, connecting with students and creating a sense of community in her classroom.

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84 Connecting with Students Lucy related to her students on many levels. She had previously established relationships with many of her students families and was imbedded in the local community. Because Ive grown up in this neighborhood. I know either their aunts, uncles or cousins, or mom, dad, grandma. I know somebody thats related to them. And that helps too [II-923ip6] Lucy said that knowing the students and being a part of the neighborhood helped with classroom management. In observations, Lucy used family connections to address management issues in two ways. The first way that Lucy used her status as an insider to manage students was to gain insight into the why of behavior. Instead of developing a standard way of behaving, Lucy used the context of the students lives to make decisions about how best to proceed. In one instance, a boy was talking quite a bit in class and after repeated warnings, Lucy asked him to go outside and call home. Lucy went outside with him and, as they began to call home, he started to cry. Lucy knew that at the time, he was being shuffled between relatives homes and was feeling a bit unsettled. Instead of calling home, she decided to speak frankly with him about expectations and in the end they reached an agreement. He returned to class and was much better behaved thereafter. In this case Lucy knew that calling home would not be as helpful as she wished since at this time the students homelife was unsettled. Instead, Lucy chose to be frank with the student and dealt directly with him to solve the problem. Another way that Lucy used her inside knowledge of students lives was to reinforce her expectations with similar expectations of the family. In this example, a student came to conference with Lucy about his writing assignment. I know your momma would not say its OK to write like this here. [II-o1012p4]

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85 Lucy showed him what she expected and sent him back to his seat to correct the assignment. The student went back and diligently corrected the assignment without resistance. When Lucy used her knowledge of family members to reinforce the expectations of the class, students experienced a united front and showed little resistance. It is important to note, however, that her strategy would backfire without intimate knowledge of the childrens families. Lucy treated students as if they were a part of her own family. Nearly half of all statements that Lucy used to connect to students were statements reflecting this perspective (23 of 52 total connecting with students incidents). For example at the end of the day students were given 20 minutes of free time to read or catch up on writing and a student, who was having a difficult day, wanted to leave school early. He was hovering around the classroom door holding his backpack and looked like a caged tiger walking back and forth. This was a management problem waiting to explode. Lucy looked up and gently responded Oh no, come on baby, come over here baby. Come and talk to your mama. Your mama at school. The student walked over to Lucy kicking his backpack. Lucy asked in a quiet voice, What you doing? He responded that he wanted to go home. Baby, we got 20 more minutes of school. You cant stand there for 20 minutes. Go find something to do. Come on baby. Hang in there then you can go and do whatever you want. Just hang in there with me. [II-o1012p5] The student put his backpack down by Lucys desk and sat with her and a group of students who were looking and talking about pictures of past students (many are siblings or cousins) displayed on her desk until class was dismissed 20 minutes later. Here Lucy

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86 used her relationship with the student to diffuse a potentially explosive situation. Instead of ordering the student to sit down, she invited him to come and talk to momma, and just like a family member Lucy showed understanding, support, and guidance to the student. The student felt that Lucy was on his side and that she was there to support him in finding a solution to his behavior issue (Strachota, 1996). Being Human In schools today, students often feel disconnected from their teachers and in some cases feel that teachers are not on their side and are against them (Glasser, 1990) Sharing her life outside of school with her students was another way that Lucy fostered relationships with her students. I always tell them some story about my daughter, my mom, my brother something that happened the day before or something were reading about and I think ohhh. I meant to tell you all and so I tell them stuff about like with me so Im not just the teacher the writing teacher. [II-i1026p8] Lucy wanted her students to know that she was more than the writing teacher. She is a person, just like they are, with family, friends, likes, and dislikes. One story that Lucy told to help students understand this perspective was the story of her own experiences as a child who knew what it was like to have the power turned off and be unable to do homework. She explained that she knows the students and their lives and understands certain circumstances that might pose a challenge to school success. She asked that students come and talk to her and told them that together they would find a way to make it work (do homework in class in the morning or after school). Again, Lucy aligned herself as an insider who would not judge the student but would be there to help and support the student in his/her quest for academic success.

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87 Humor was often used (20 of 47 total of being human incidents) in Lucys classroom to create a relaxed and informal environment where students could feel comfortable. Lucy set the stage for these interactions from the very first day when she called students by nicknames and joked with them about relatives, clothes, and summer school experiences. Students reacted with big smiles and lots of laughing. When Lucy began the year with these kinds of interactions, one could see the students visibly relax and felt the atmosphere in the class warm up. One morning, (after several days of difficult placement tests) students were taking another placement test when one boy looked up from his test and asked for a dictionary (half joking). Lucy walked over and rubbed his head and face in an affectionate way. I know you. I had you over the summer. I know your people. I know you are a real bad boy (smiling and laughing). Do you think Im going to give you a dictionary? [II-o820p4] The boy smiled up at Lucy and shook his head and then got back to the business of taking his test. The atmosphere of the class before this encounter was stressed and tense with students holding their heads and sucking their teeth over the test questions. Lucys use of humor and care to react to what was clearly a cry for help broke the tense atmosphere and students got back to work feeling a little better. At times, Lucys teasing was directly focused on building relationships with students. One morning, a students father walked into class with a bag of donuts for him (interrupting class). Lucy took the bag and thanked the parent then walked over to the students desk. Ohh, thank you for bringing me breakfast! Ohh, donuts! [II-o820p3] She put the bag on his desk and gave him a big hug. The student responded with a radiant smile, and the rest of the class smiled and laughed as well. This particular student

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88 was retained twice and has a reputation for disruptive behavior. The positive attention and real affection that Lucy showed through her teasing helped to build a foundation for a relationship with Calvin that was later used to promote desired behaviors in the classroom. The relationships that Lucy built with humor and teasing were also used to address minor misbehaviors in the classroom. As classes switched in the afternoon, a student walked ploddingly to his desk and put his head down. You slower than my grandma. I bet your grandma walks faster than you do. [II-o923p1] The student smiled at Lucy and sat up ready for class. Instead of criticizing or demanding that students behave, Lucy teased and joked with them to get them back on track with desired behaviors. Using this strategy allowed students to save face and at the same time corrected behaviors that were not productive in the classroom. Lucys humor was never at the expense of her students sense of pride or dignity. Rather the teasing came from the perspective of a family member who knows inside information and could see the humor in the situation. Even when students were being corrected or gently reprimanded for minor misbehavior, she used a familial, friendly tone coupled with a great deal of affectionate touching. Students were left in no doubt that Lucy understood them and appreciated them for who they were even if they were not perfect. This unconditional positive regard was a crucial component in the quality of her student-teacher relationships. Believe in Students Lucy worked hard to create a community in the classroom where all students were understood, accepted, and connected to the teacher and each other. Lucy believes in all of

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89 her students and their ability to succeed. Data show that 97 of 219 comments made about relationship building were based in Lucys strong belief that students could and would experience success in her class. In Lucys practice, the main components of her belief in students were her unwavering care and high expectations. Lucy had extremely high expectations for the students and accepted no excuses from those who were not meeting them. Lucy used her knowledge of students and their families to push them to succeed. She was like an Auntie or older sister expecting what was best for the student and the family as a whole. African American culture is not based on the individual but on the group. Students identify with the idea that the class is the family and Lucy is the momma and will respond to the expectations of the group and its matriarch (Ladson-Billings, 1994). One day, a boy was having a difficult afternoon and was walking around the class dragging his backpack on his foot (disrupting the class). Students were mainly working only looking up when the students backpack hit their desk or chair. Lucy addressed the student with a sorrowful voice and sad expression. You disappoint me (repeats). (She says to him quietly) You can be mad but you need to act better than that. [II-o1012p5] The student stopped and looked at Lucy, then dropped his head and walked over to his desk, sat with his arms crossed on top and put his head down. Lucy gave him space and did not remark on the fact he was not working. Within a few minutes he picked his head up and began his work. This student had developed a strong connection with Lucy, and it was this relationship that she used to urge him to meet her expectations for student behavior and academic performance. One of the most remarkable examples of Lucys no excuses philosophy involved a student and his hearing aids. Without the hearing aids, he cannot hear any instruction.

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90 The first few days of school Lucy struggled to get the boy to wear the hearing aids (cajoling, reminding, directing). The next week, he said he had forgotten them. Lucy had him leave the room to call home. She told him that in order to get back into class he had to be wearing his hearing aids (mom brought them and he came back into class). The next week he had the hearing aids on in Lucys class but she saw him take them off when walking to another class. She privately asked what the problem was (uncomfortable, do not work, could not hear, too loud)? He said he didnt want to be made fun of. The next day before the student arrived in class, Lucy spoke with the class about wearing glasses, hearing aids and other necessities for learning and made it clear that teasing was not OK and would not be tolerated. The next week, Lucy asked the student privately if everything was going OK and whether he had any problem with teasing. He smiled and responded that he did not. Subsequently, every time the class was observed, the student was voluntarily wearing his hearing aids. When asked about this, Lucy explained that this student was so far behind academically that he could not lose even one minute of class instruction. Lucy had high expectations for all of her students, and just as many African American parents would not accept excuses, neither would Lucy. Though Lucy demanded that students meet high expectations, she did so within a caring and supportive relationship. The personal connections that Lucy built with her students could be observed in gestures like head rubbing, smiles, hugs, pats on the back, endearments, and in little moments when she said she missed a student who was absent or asked how a student was feeling. Lucys use of relationship-building strategies resulted in a classroom environment where students felt like they were accepted and cared for, that Lucy was on their side, and that they were a part of a family working together.

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91 Rules, Procedures, and Routines Rules, procedures, and routines were represented the least of all the data collected (76 of a total 848). Lucys classroom was informal in nature and she did not have many rules or procedures for students to follow. In addition to this, Lucy was focused on individual students and often flexed rules and routines to meet specific student needs (sit where ever you want, work at your own pace, get materials as needed, etc.). Even though the class was informal with few rules and routines, Lucy did spend time in the first few weeks of school familiarizing students with classroom procedures, reminding and reinforcing their efforts. Practicing Routines The first few days of school were crucial to Lucy in establishing long term rules and procedures that acted as the backbone in creating an environment conducive to academic success. Lucy knew her students well and understood that some of the school rules and procedures might be unfamiliar to them and worked to familiarize students with the new expectations gradually. Well at the beginning I kinda let it slide because I know 4th grade is new. Theyre changing classes in 4th grade. Something that they did not do in 3rd grade only for reading. But we change all day long like middle school. The summer is just over I try to give them a little leed way. But eventually, theyll see that I get a little stricter. [II-i826p3] Lucy used a combination of explicitly teaching rules up front and teaching some rules and routines as needed. When asked about this method, she said she does not like to overwhelm the students and instead will teach some routines as she sees they are needed. Then as the students have the opportunity to practice and become more familiar with them she expects that they will be able to follow the rules without any reminders.

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92 Lucy understands that rules are neither taught nor learned in one day and provided opportunities for students to practice expected behaviors without consequence. As students entered the room, the first of their team to arrive was to go to a wire bin and get their team folder. One morning in September, as Lucy began Reading with the class she looked around and noticed that some of the teams did not have their folder. Instead of berating or punishing teams without their folders, she asked members from each team to go to the bin and get their folder if they had not already gotten it. Students quickly got up and retrieved their folders and the lesson continued. As students worked toward mastering new routines, Lucy was understanding and reminded them of the expectation. Have your planners out please so they can be stamped. [II-o826p7] (Troy has a folder on his desk that should be turned in). I need that folder. [II-o92p1] Reminders did help students to learn the routines, and data showed that as students began to learn the rules and routines, instances of reminding were observed less often and were limited to unusual or changed routines. When Lucy explained routines, allowed students to practice and reminded them of expectations, students felt that teachers cared about their success and were not out to catch them doing something wrong. Praise and Positive Reinforcement Lucy showed students that she was focused on catching them doing something right when she used positive reinforcement and rewards. Lucy used praise to reinforce students who were following directions, being considerate to others, and following classroom norms without a reminder. Thank you for stacking your books [II-o819p5]

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93 I liked how you waited for the others to go out before you came in [II-o819p5] What a nice table already sitting down. [II-o824p8] Praise continued consistently throughout the year with Lucy naming names and highlighting good behavior. As Lucy asked students to line up, a frequently non-compliant student walked to the door quietly and stood in line. Thank you, Calvin (eye contact and smiles). [II-o1012p2]. Calvin smiled to himself while standing quietly at the door. Lucy caught him doing something good today. External Rewards Lucy intentionally used external rewards to acknowledge students who were following rules and procedures. Some of the external rewards that Lucy used are points, stamps and school claws that were put into a school wide drawing each Friday. External rewards were never taken away and were often used to reward specific positive behavior when the majority of the class was not demonstrating expected behaviors. One day in September, Lucy was checking homework and found many students had not completed the assignment. Your only HW last night was to read for 20 minutes and get your paper signed. Did anybody do that? (repeat, repeat). NOBODY!!! (repeat). (Denttrall holds up his paper and Lucy gives him money to buy ice cream at lunchtime). [II-o930p4] As soon as Lucy gave Dentrall the ice cream money, the class exploded with comments about how they were going to do their reading every night so they could get some money for ice cream too. Lucy knows that many of her students are on free and reduced lunch and do not always have the extra change needed to purchase ice cream. This reward was extremely motivating and Lucy made no promises if or when she would do it again but the possibility that she might got the students excited.

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94 Lucys strategies for teaching and reinforcing rules, routines and behaviors were positive in nature and extended from her close relationships with the students. Rather than a police officer that enforces and punishes, Lucy portrayed herself as a caring family member who was interested in helping students to succeed. Curriculum and Instruction Lucy is the writing teacher for fourth grade and teaches three periods of leveled writing classes as well as her homeroom Reading. In her instruction, Lucy chose culturally congruent instructional strategies that would encourage, motivate, and support her students. This is an active classroom where Lucy actively sought to engage students and they were expected to participate in their learning. Academic success was a must and Lucy worked hard to provide her students with encouraging, stimulating, and culturally appropriate instruction and curricula. When Lucy was asked about her criteria for evaluating the success of a lesson she revealed that success was relative depending on the student and the lesson. She elaborated that success might be a quiet class where everyone was working independently or more noisy where students were sharing ideas, giving feedback, and working on different assignments. In general, Lucy defined a successful lesson as one where Youre orderly. Youre doing what your supposed to do. Youre not over here shooting baskets and stuff like that. [II-i1026p23] In the end, Lucy expected that Theres no foolin around. Theres no diggin in the desk. Theres no you know you supposed to be writing and youre drawing. I walk by and youre drawing. The kids are engaged [II-i1026p22] Lucy knows that there is not a moment to waste in the students quest for academic success. Students need to be engaged and on task so learning can proceed.

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95 Encourage/Motivate The students in Lucys class were seen as individuals and as such, had unique strengths and weaknesses. Lucy understood this and used scaffolding to help move students from where they were to where they needed to be. One way that Lucy provided scaffolding was through guided practice. As students attempted to learn new concepts and skills they often faltered on the edge of failure and without scaffolding, could become disengaged from the task, eventually resulting in behavioral issues. As Lucy walked around the room monitoring students progress, she stopped and asked questions or supplied definitions for an unfamiliar word so that students could stay focused and engaged. At one point students were reading a story and answering questions. Lucy walked by a student who was struggling to answer the questions. She stopped at his desk to help. Theyre trying to teach you something in this story. What are they trying to teach you? The boy retold the story. Lucy asked questions about the storys details. Then what do you think they are trying to teach? The student was still puzzled. Lucy asked more specific questions about who and what (intent of author). This time the boy answered with the lesson of the story. There you go. You just need to write it. [II-o826p6] This example shows how Lucy took students from where they were and moved them toward a greater understanding and success. Instead of directing the student to read the passage again and think about it or supplying the answer, Lucy asked questions and encouraged the student to find new ways to think about the story. In the end, the student moved further in understanding. Scaffolding in Lucys class was not always so time

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96 consuming or complicated. Other examples of scaffolding include supplying students with a word they are struggling to read or clarifying directions. What is another way to say main idea? Two words. Begins with T second word begins with S (Student answers: topic sentence). [II-o824p8] Lucy used scaffolding throughout the year, not just at the beginning of the year to get students started. It was an integral part of her practice in encouraging students to stay engaged and successful. Coupled with scaffolding, Lucy used praise to encourage her students. Many of the concepts and skills students learned in Lucys classroom were new and success was hard won. Lucy understood the effort and risk students took when they attempted a new challenge and she was quick to praise students who persevered. For some students who rarely hear any praise, (average classrooms have a negative verbal statement every 2 to 5 minutes) a kind or appreciative word can mean a great deal. This is his second year in this quad. He was in third grade twice then moved up to fourth. I know that kids want to hear praise. They love praise. You want to hear when you do something good. [II-i923p8] Vitto (2003) concurred that students need to hear good things about themselves in order to maintain their behavior and motivation and will become discouraged if only their failures and mistakes are noticed. The praise Lucy gave is genuine, specific and public. One instance of praise in Lucys class occurred when Jamie supplied an insightful analogy about main idea and supporting details to his reading group first thing in the morning (Main idea and supporting details are like a hand with the details as the fingers and the main idea as the palm). Lucy was so impressed by his response (not so much that it was correct but that the metaphor he used to describe the concept was creative and insightful) that she not

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97 only praised him for his response in front of that class but also used Jamies example (giving him full credit for it) in each of her other writing classes. This meant that the entire fourth grade heard of Jamies accomplishment. Interestingly, Jamie had been retained twice, was in the low reading group and was reluctant to participate in class. I want to tell the whole class. I know I know these kids. They could go back and say Ms. Lucy was talking about Jamie and an Ms. Lucy said this and this . I know theyll do that I know it. So thatll make him feel good and Jamie was like he knows hes kind of low so a lot of times he doesnt want to volunteer to do a lot of stuff but doing stuff like that and letting him know ohhh that was good! Kinda make him want to do it some more. Itll make him feel real good that day. I think [hell think] ohh let me get my work done because I did extra good today in reading and it makes him do good at whatever he does the rest of the day or the next day when he comes to reading. [II-i923p8] Lucys reasons for praising Jamie are supported by research that advocates praise that is focused on attributes other than ability (Brophy & Good, 2000). By not focusing on the fact that the answer was correct but on the thoughtful metaphor given by the student to explain the answer, Lucy provided encouraging praise and identified Jamie publicly as a good thinker. As discussed earlier, Lucy is part of the community and is like a family member to the students. This familiarity was demonstrated when Lucy gave a student quick praise for a response. Get it Troy! 3[II-o824p4] These quick praise statements were often accompanied by a high-five hand slap, hug or a pat on the back. It was not unusual for other students to begin clapping or to echo, Get 3 Get it! is a common expression in this African American community meaning good job or way to go.

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98 it _____ after Lucy praised a student. This added praise from peers enhanced the feeling of family in the classroom with Lucy at the center. Lucy certainly understands that it is her responsibility to encourage and motivate students in their efforts to learn. Lucy provided scaffolds for students when they needed a little support and utilized effective praise for jobs well done. As was typical for Lucy, she did this in a warm, friendly, and familial way where students knew she was genuine in her concern for their success and would do what needed to be done to see that they succeeded. Active Learning Students in Lucys class also have a responsibility in their academic success and must be actively involved in their learning. What does this look like in Lucys class? Student participation consisted of active ways to answer questions, reading aloud, choral response, call/response, student models, and cooperative work. Observation data showed that Lucy incorporated these strategies equally throughout her lessons. Lucy liked to keep it fresh so the students did not get bored. She even found a fun way to have students discuss answers for a standard multiple-choice worksheet. After instructions, guided practice and independent work, Lucy checked answers by playing Four Corners. Students went to a corner of the room according to the answer they selected. Lucy asked students in each corner to explain their choice and then the class discussed the merits of their responses (both correct and incorrect). This was a fun and active way for students to interact with the new information and was also a safe way for students to work through any incorrect answers or misunderstandings they might have had. It was a great opportunity to ask questions and hear other perspectives without being high risk for students.

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99 Some participatory strategies that were based on Lucys understanding of the students and their lives at home were: call/ response and choral or unison response patterns. As noted in Chapter 2, call/response discourse patterns are familiar to many African American children for whom active and participatory discourse is the norm. Lucy used call/response patterns when she introduced a new term or checked for understanding (usually directions). In September, students did a Round Robin reading of a story in their reading workbook. The story was about a volcano. As a student got to the word, volcanologist she stumbled and then attempted to read it again. Lucy stepped in, Youre close. If I were to say it, Id say it like this. She then pronounced the word. She paused and then began call/response with the class. What is the word? (Students reply in unison: VOLCANOLOGIST). What is the word? (Students reply in unison: VOLCANOLOGIST). [II-92p5] Lucy changed her tone and the rhythm of the call as students repeated with same tone and rhythm. After several more times she moved on and asked what a volcanologist might do. Here, Lucy was not teaching the definition but teaching an unfamiliar term to the students. Rather then just tell Juanita how to say the term, Lucy used the familiar African American discourse pattern call/response so everyone learned the term in a fun and active way. Lucy also used choral response for certain kinds of questions. Choral response was used in Lucys class when answers were definitive (yes, no, letter, or number). Dequita can you read detail number 1 please? (She reads) Is that something good about mom? (Allyes). [II-o824p4] Watching the students during choral response showed that it was a way for them to self-monitor. If they said no when everyone said yes, they would frown and look at the text

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100 again or ask Lucy about the question. Choral response was not used as a form of evaluation but more as a just checking strategy and usually encompassed known material not new concepts. Many African American children are raised in homes where there is a great deal of stimulation, activity and noise (Irvine, 1990). Lucy is cognizant of this and worked to provide culturally congruent opportunities for students to participate in classroom activities. Students responded to this interactive environment with interest and excitement. Their time on task was high and their time off task was low. Active Teaching When one walks into Lucys classroom on any given day, one is sure to find Lucy in action. She knows that to be an effective teacher, she must be an active teacher. I know that you cant sit in your seat and teach a class. I know that you gotta move around. You gotta walk around. You gotta let them see you moving. [II-i1026p3] In Lucys class active teaching was composed of strategies like providing visual examples, explicit directions, and explaining unfamiliar terms (often providing links to background knowledge). Lucy selected strategies that would pull students into the lesson and keep them focused. On one particular day, Lucys students were having difficulty remembering to indent their paragraphs. After some discussion, Lucy realized they were having trouble remembering the word indent. To aid the students, she began to sway her hips side to side while pointing along with her hip movements chanting, What is it called? In? Students yelled, INDENT! Lucy laughed and said they would remember indent because they would always think of her indent dance.

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101 In many classrooms a great deal of academic time is wasted when instructions and directions are not clear to students. Because Lucy was familiar with African American discourse patterns she knew that one way to be clear and understood by students is to use directive discourse to give explicit directions. We are going to read the story on page 20. Answer the questions and stop on 22. Ready? Alrighty then. Wait. Shes sharpening the pencil. Alrighty then. Put your pencil where you are marking your answer. (walks to each student and says), get started, get started, one more story 12 more questions, no more talking now. Zip your lips read with your lips closed please. (clears throat loudly). [II-o820p3] When Lucy used directive statements, the student knew exactly what was expected of them and could more easily complete the assignment correctly. Students were on task and engaged without confusion or questions about what to do. When Lucy used this strategy to give students directions, they spent more time on task and more learning was accomplished. Lucy knows that students who do not understand often get off task and management problems can ensue, and in the end, academic success is compromised. Lucy spent nearly one quarter of her active teaching time explaining and defining unfamiliar terms for students. In this school composed of over 95% African American students there is a discontinuity between the curriculum and student knowledge. Sometimes students do the work, but they do not understand some of the components of a task like directions or vocabulary. Lucy knows this and spent almost a quarter of her time making links between curriculum and students knowledge by discussing unfamiliar terms. Sometimes the students asked about a term. What popular means? Popular means when everybody likes you. [II-o826p6]

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102 Lucy knows that when a student asks a question, it is probable that several or even many students need similar academic support and she made sure that when she responded to the question the rest of the class could hear as well. Most discussion of unfamiliar terms was during direct instruction when reading text together. For example, in reading the SFA text, the saying The early bird gets the worm was used. What does that mean? [No response] Lets say you going out to get a job. You will all go out to get jobs. Who they gonna hire? Basco who is there early or someone else who shows up late and all (flops head back. arms askew)? (Kids say: Early!) Thats right, the early bird gets the worm. [II-o826p4] Again it was Lucys intimate knowledge of her students lives that prompted this discussion and supplied the very effective example. These students gained a real understanding of how the saying the early bird gets the worm applied to real life. Lucy used familiar discourse patterns and acted as an interpreter to explain unfamiliar terms to her students. Because she knows her students so well, she was able to seamlessly incorporate strategies that helped the students to understand lessons and assignments. Students in Lucys class were not left to fall through the cracks but were encouraged to walk along the bridges Lucy built with her active teaching strategies. Misbehavior and Discipline Lucy addressed misbehavior (198 of a total of 848) less then a quarter of the time. Although spending one quarter of ones time addressing misbehavior seems like a great deal it is important to remember two points: (1) Most teachers in high poverty schools spend an average of 50% of their time on classroom management (Cotton, 2001) and (2) these data were collected during the first three months of school when students were learning and practicing new rules and routines so more attention to management was

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103 likely to occur. Lucy understands that students sometimes misbehave and in these cases, she, like Kathy, used a hierarchy of strategies to address off task behavior. Lucy first tried to nip it in the bud by monitoring and using proximity strategies (e.g. moving to stand next to a misbehaving student). If these were not successful, she attempted to get students back on track with reminders and cueing strategies. These were almost always successful but in those instances when students really pushed her buttons, Lucy said she reverted to momma mode where she used familiar family discourse (directives and warnings) and language from the surrounding community (Ebonics) to manage the students. This strategy was very effective and students often responded by stopping the misbehavior and getting back to the business of learning. Infrequently, (9 out of 240) Lucy employed consequences to keep disruption to a minimum and to help a misbehaving student to get back on track. Nip in the Bud Lucy defined student misbehavior as immature behavior. I know theyre like 9 and 10 years old but some of them act so immature. [II-i1026p16] Lucy perceived immature behavior as off-task talking, inability to sit in ones seat correctly, and thinking everything is funny. Lucy used monitoring and proximity to try and stop misbehavior before it became disruptive to the class. If they think you coming they stay busy. Oh here she comes. [II-i1026p3]. While students were working, Lucy walked around the class working with students who needed scaffolding. When a teacher works individually with students it is often a time when others get off task (either waiting for help or being unattended). Lucy knew

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104 that even when she was working with individual students, she needed to always monitor the rest of the class. I just have to keep looking. I just have to keep looking up. You cannot keep your head down too long. You have to even if Im talking to Susie I can talk to Susie but I gotta look this way [out toward classroom]. You just have to keep your eyes open. You cant like if Im doing this one thing with this one child I cant just be like this [back to class] with her and not looking in this direction. Maybe it has to do with how we sit. Have her sit this way [back to class] that way I can look at her and listen to her but still have . [II-i1012p10] This is exemplifies what Kounin (1970) called overlapping, where a teacher successfully attends to different events simultaneously without being diverted by any one activity. Teachers who are successful managers know that no matter how diverting a student or activity might be, they must remain alert and responsive to the remainder of the class. This is certainly not an easy skill to master especially as a novice teacher who is often struggling to attend to the task at hand, but it is a skill that needs to be developed for teachers to effectively manage their active and diverse classrooms. Along with monitoring, Lucy used proximity to help students refocus on academic activity. While Lucy was monitoring students, she walked around and through the groups of desks looking at students and noting their behavior. She was not necessarily looking to catch a student doing something wrong but was more interested in keeping students on task so they would not fall behind in the lesson. Lucy used proximity in a friendly and familiar way. She did not stand over a student to intimidate him or her; instead, she would sit down next to a student and read from her/his book, or lean down, put her arm around the student and nod her head as he/she read. Sometimes she would even bring her own work over to a quad of desks where students were off task, sit down, and begin her work. As she sat down, the students looked up at her and then got busy

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105 with their own work. Lucy wants students to succeed and used proximity to get them back on task with a minimum of disruption. Prompt/Redirect Sometimes students needed a little more guidance to follow directions. In these cases, Lucy reminded a student of the expectation or cued them to do the right thing and get back on track with the rest of the class. In the first few months of school, Lucy used reminders instead of consequences. Alright, let me tell you again in case you didnt hear me. Please, please, please do not put any work on my desk. It will go into the garbage. [II-o820p2] You should not be running. [II-o824p8] Dequan, you want to take that pencil with you to class? [II-o923p5] Lucy supported students with reminders as they worked to master new routines and rules. Again, she was not trying to catch students and punish them in order to manage the class instead she clearly reminded students of the expectation so they could be successful in following rules and routines. Lucy also used cueing strategies to help students attend to a task. Lucy utilized two different kids of cues to prompt students attention: Cue the group to attend to a future task and call an individual student to attend to the lesson. Listen. Im going to read something and theres a question for you to answer at the end. [II-o826p7] Calvin? You paying attention? [II-o92p5] Although Lucy did single out students for not paying attention, it was not done to embarrass the student and often resulted in the student getting back on track. I try to call on the ones (laughs) that I know theyre not paying attention just to get their attention. Like Brian. I think I called him earlier to read and he didnt know

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106 where we were. I noticed later on he had his finger and he was (shows finger tracking text) trying to keep up. [II-i826p4] Lucy really cares about each of her students and knows that they must attend to the lesson if they are to succeed academically. In the caring, supportive environment that Lucy created, these cueing strategies are understood as an extension of her care for the students and are not a source of embarrassment to students. Momma Mode Lucy treated students as if they were her own children, and when she sees that they are not behaving, she moved from her professional demeanor to momma mode. If I really get down to it that means you have taken me to my last point and professional no no no no no no (laughs). When it gets down to like the last straw, Im home. Im home. Im going to take you outside and talk to you like your mom does [II-i1026p26]. In momma mode, Lucy uses directives and warnings (often said in Ebonics) that are closely aligned with her students cultural lives outside of school. One way that Lucy used momma mode was to issue a directive to a student who was misbehaving. When Calvin was rooting through his desk instead of attending to the lesson, Lucy slapped the desk. Get your hand outta that desk. You not sleeping in here. Pay attention. [II-o92p6] Calvin snapped his head up, jerked his hands out of the desk and attended to the lesson for the rest of the period. Just like at home, students know that when an adult uses directives in that way, they mean business. There was no doubt about what behavior was unacceptable and what behavior was expected of them. When Lucy had unsuccessfully tried several other strategies to manage student behaviors she used warnings to gain student cooperation. Warning is defined as to give notice beforehand especially of danger or evil; to give admonishing advice to (Merriam

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107 Webster, 2005). Lucy did not use warnings often (28 of 240 responses and misbehaviors) and warnings were not harsh but were linked to her understanding of the community and grounded in students values and family norms. In this sense, Lucy used the look to let students know they were skating on thin ice. I give them the eye you know like their parents do. Or I tell them what my mom or grandmother used to do when we were in church and were talking, theyd just give me that look once (shows me the look). So Ill do that. [II-i1012p10] One of Lucys most effective warnings was a twist on the common strategy to call home. In Lucys class, she took out her cell phone and placed it on a misbehaving students desk. This strategy allowed her to communicate with the student without disrupting the flow of the class. It was interesting to watch the students who had the cell phone placed on their desks. They snapped to attention and participated in the lesson but also kept glancing at the phone as if it could call home at any minute and they had better behave. Usually the warning about calling home was enough to get students back on track but students knew that Lucy would do whatever it takes to keep them on track. One day a student was being sassy to Lucy, and after several chances, Lucy warned that she would call her home. The student replied that she did not have a phone. Lucy quickly answered, You have an address and Ill come to your house. The student shook her head, and Lucy asked the class if she would go to her house. The class unequivocally answered, YES! After this exchange, the student smiled, looked down, and was on-task for the rest of the period. Consequences Students in Lucys class rarely experienced consequences (9 of 240 responses and misbehaviors) but when behavior was disruptive to the rest of the class and Lucy tried her other strategies, she then chose to move students to another seat or to a table where they

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108 were alone or asked them to go out into the centrium. Then she spoke with them when she had the rest of the class started on their lesson. When students were told to move or to go to the centrium, they got up and went without complaint (observed on all 9 occasions). Though Lucy enjoyed a casual and friendly relationship with the students she was quick to remark to a student who was going too far Im your teacher not your friend. She was undoubtedly the authority in the classroom and used assertive behaviors to reinforce this message. Lucy is entrenched in the community and is no stranger to the students. Her warnings held the ring of authenticity and authority that sprung from her intimate knowledge of the students and their lives. She knew exactly what strategies would and would not work with individual students and chose her strategies accordingly. Just like a parent who disciplines their children individually, Lucy knows her students as individuals and applied appropriate management strategies correspondingly. Lucy is an effective classroom manager who used her relationships with students and the surrounding community to build trust and a family-like atmosphere in her classroom. Lucy is a part of the community and can really relate to the students and did so with familiar patterns of humor and care. She believes strongly in her students abilities to succeed academically and behaviorally and encouraged her students with praise and scaffolding. Student behavior was often managed through active learning strategies. Students cultural discourse patterns were also incorporated into the classroom and brought an added sense of the comfortable and familiar linked to academic progress. Rather than lecturing and disseminating information to students, Lucy explained unfamiliar terms and used explicit directions to build bridges between students

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109 knowledge and the new knowledge they were expected to learn in class. No student is perfect all the time and some misbehavior occurred in the classroom. Lucy tried to catch behaviors before they become disruptive by reminding students of expectations, using proximity and cueing strategies to refocus students. When Lucy noticed that a student was really misbehaving and all the other strategies had failed, she put aside her teacher persona and took on the momma mode where she used directive statements, Ebonics and warnings to manage misbehaviors. In momma mode the line between home and school was nearly invisible and Lucy echoed the discourse patterns and disciplinary methods of students home-life. The students responded to this consistency and misbehavior was almost always stopped. Lucys classroom was a blend of school life and family life where students were encouraged to succeed in a comfortable and caring, culturally aligned environment, and where Lucy treated students as if they were her own children.

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CHAPTER 6 SUSIE:MOTHER DUCK Susie sits in a chair before nineteen 5-and-6 yearolds who are sprawled across the multi-colored carpet. Some are talking to a neighbor, playing with their shoelaces, tracing lines on the carpet, or jiggling the beads in their hair. A few of the students are sitting on their colored square with their legs criss-crossed, hands in their laps, and eyes on the teacher. Susie stops the CD, sits up straight in her chair, holds her left hand in the air, and covers her lips with her right index finger, OK, Give me five she says in a firm voice, making eye contact with the students in front of her. Like magic, students snap to attention and sit up with their legs crossed, hands in their laps, lips closed, and eyes on Susie. There are three students who are slow to respond to the cue, and Susie begins praising others who are following directions. One more student falls in line, and Susie praises her right away. Of the two students left not attending, Susie calls one by name, nods her head at the others following directions and widens her eyes. The student sits up and stops playing with his shoelace. The last student is not responding to the prompts, and Susie leans over and says, Make a good choice. You dont want to pull your card. The student sits up and is now attending. Susie praises the group for following the routine and getting back on track. She then continues with the morning routine where students are singing and gesturing along with Susie and the CD to a familiar morning song, Kiss Your Brain.[III-o831p1-2] 110

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111 This is a kindergarten class at the beginning of the year where Susie, a multi-ethnic, third year teacher, works to manage behavior while moving through her plans for the day. This is Susies second year as a kindergarten teacher at this school. She is a graduate of the local state university and is quite familiar with the surrounding community. Susie feels the pressure of getting her students prepared for first grade and will not tolerate any behavior that interferes with this goal. Susies focus on academics was evident in the data collected in her class. Observational data (see Appendix H) show that half of all activities and statements in the classroom were linked to academics and one third of Susies observed class times (355 of 1087) were focused on addressing student social skills and behavior. Those who are not familiar with the primary grades may be surprised that an effective manager would spend a third of her time addressing social skills and student behavior but research shows that in average classrooms, teachers spend up to half of their time with activities other than instruction, most of which are disciplinary in nature (Cotton, 2001). In addition, research on younger students found that teaching social skills is a foundational aspect of the curriculum and that young students social competence is predictive of future academic and life success (Kagan, 1991). While some teachers ignore misbehavior, Susie rarely did and saw each moment off task as learning time lost. To facilitate on task behavior and efficient transitions, Susie skillfully motivated students through active teaching and active learning methods and smoothed transitions between activities with explicitly taught and often rehearsed routines. Susie is like a mother duck that knows time with her ducklings is limited, and she must waste no time in preparing them for the life they will live beyond the pond. The

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112 mother duck focuses on establishing everyday routines and teaching lifelong lessons that will enable her ducklings to grow into successful ducks in their own right. So, too, does Susie dream of students who move out of kindergarten and embark on successful academic careers and eventually live lives of bounty and fulfillment. What follows is an analysis of Susies practice the first three months of kindergarten 2004. Relationships Susie wants her students to succeed, and she knows that an important component for school success is building relationships with and among students. Teachers who develop and sustain quality relationships with their students promote higher academic success and fewer behavior problems (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). Though the data collected show only 50 of 1,087 actions and statements were centered specifically on relationship building, Susie was able to build relationships with students and foster a sense of community within her kindergarten classroom because she integrated many of the characteristics of caring discussed below into other areas of her teaching practice. Caring As one would expect in a kindergarten classroom, Susie spent a great deal of time caring for her students and helped them get settled, packed up for the day, blow their noses, tie a shoelace, and get supplies organized for a project. Susie showed that her care was deeper than just these everyday actions. Susie cares deeply for her students and was very explicit in her feelings and expectations for them. One example is when a student was having some trouble with her behavior and was ending each day at the lowest level of the behavior system. When the parent brought this to her attention, Susie was very concerned that the student was receiving negative attention each day. Instead of blaming the student for misbehavior, Susie reflected how her actions may have contributed to the

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113 problem and how she could change the environment or her practice to help the student experience success in the classroom. Over the next three months of data collection, Susie tried several different strategies to help the student (move seat, signal to get back on task, time out) with varying levels of success. Susie showed her students that she thought about them even when she was not in school. In October, Susie attended an inclusion workshop and was out of the classroom for two days. When she returned she greeted her students with a big smile and lots of hugs. I am so happy to be back today. I missed you so much! I wondered how you were and what you were doing. I even came into the classroom on Wednesday after school to see how everything was and called Ms. G to see how you were. [III-o101p2] This kind of warm and caring interaction promoted a positive atmosphere in Susies kindergarten classroom. Students felt that they were personally cared for and were connected with the teacher in many different ways. Building a Community In the beginning of the year, Susie was very explicit about the behaviors that were and were not acceptable in relation to the classroom community she was working to build. I hear someone talking while our friend is talking. [III-o824p3] Green table, I like how your friends sat quietly and waited for you to get ready. I like how you are helping with the crayons. [III-o824p7] Lets look at our rules. Why is it against our rules? (Student says someone could get hurt.) Thats right. Someone might get hurt and bleed. We dont want our friends to bleed. [III-o826p1] With Susies guidance, students began to understand that they were a community of friends and needed to support each other.

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114 One little girl she went up and said Im sorry. I didnt even have to tell her to say sorry. She hugged him. And they went straight back to what they were supposed to be doing. [III-i924p8] That was really kind of Somerica. Quanika is in her spot but shes not fussing, she is waiting for Quanika to move. Thats how friends treat each other. [III-o1014p3] As the year progressed, students began to spontaneously interact as friendly, considerate community members. On several occasions Susie even told them they were like a family. This was most evident when Susie had her Stepping Stones center activities in the afternoons. At this time, students with varying disabilities from the other kindergarten classes joined her own inclusive environment to work in small groups with the general education students, the special education teacher and a paraprofessional. Susie reflected on how her students behaved in this situation. When they go to the three groups, they seem to be listening and working with the other students and the other students seem to take care of them. And it seems to be working out just fine. [III-i1019p3] From the examples above it is evident that Susie taught, modeled and reinforced caring behaviors and was reaping the rewards of her efforts. Students understood how to care for others and seamlessly welcomed new students into their community showing patience, care and acceptance. The environment of care that Susie created for her students was a strong foundation from which to build academic and personal success. Positive relationships are a prerequisite for effective learning and behavior (Pinata, 1999), academic success (Birch and Ladd, 1997), and motivation (Mendler, 2000). In the first few weeks of school Susie cultivated relationships with students and then extended this environment of care to include other aspects of instruction and behavior management.

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115 Rules, Procedures, and Routines Susies classroom has a caring tone and conveys a pervasive sense of order with well-established rules and routines. Well-behaved students must know which behaviors are and are not permitted in the classroom and the consequences of any misbehavior. In the first month of school, Susie spent a great deal of class time making sure students knew how to interact and conduct themselves in the classroom and provided repeated opportunities for students to practice routines and desired behaviors. No one is allowed to touch the costume while she is wearing it. [III-o824p2] If you are talking make sure your work is done. [III-o824p6] When we are listening, we have our eyes on the book or the teacher. [III-o824p8] I saw something I didnt like. When you are on the playground, you may not push someone. [III-o826p1] Dismissal time is quiet. Mouths are closed. [III-o826p6] Good listeners look over here at the board. Good listeners are sitting criss cross applesauce. [III-o831p2] When you go to your desk, you are not to talk [III-o831p3] Her comments were not negative or critical but were direct and addressed the behavior and the expectation. The comments served as reminders for students who were working to master the many expectations for acceptable school behavior. This is one of Susies strengths as a classroom manager. She is explicit about her expectations for behavior and directs students toward her expectations. This clarity of purpose has evolved as Susie gained experience with students. Ive been very explicit. Last year, . when youre a [new] teacher you dont really know what you expect (laughs). You dont. You think you do and then when they throw you off your like oh my gosh what am I supposed to do? You know, youre all confused. Youre getting sweaty. Its different. [III-i826p6]

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116 As a third year teacher Susie has a baseline of experience from which to build her expectations for classroom management. Drawing on her experience Susie can reflect on what needs to be addressed, explicitly taught, and practiced in the class. Practicing Routines Susie taught routines as a fun activity at the beginning of the year. She initially spent time calling out common classroom phrases and had children follow them to practice important listening skills. Just simple directions at the beginning of the year like, Walk to the door not run. Touch the door. And had them play different games in the classroom where I gave them a task to do and they just did it. [III-i1014p2] She wanted the students to learn the routines and be able to perform them with a high level of automaticity. Ultimately, Susie expected that with a word or gesture from her the students should be able to perform classroom routines. In order to scaffold students to this point, Susie spent time practicing routines and skills that students needed to move through the day with a measure of autonomy. One of the first routines the students learned was countdown. In the countdown routine, Susie gave directions and counted to five holding her hand up and counting along with her fingers. Students were expected to have completed the direction by the time Susie reached the number five. On a day in late August, the students did not complete the task within the allotted time. Lets practice that again. (Holds up hand and counts to 5). [III-o824p3] Rather than punishing students, Susie gave them another chance to practice the routine knowing that it would eventually become automatic. Another skill that Susie had her students practice was waiting patiently and quietly. There are many times when Susie needs to get materials, change a CD, speak with

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117 another teacher, or help a student and her class needs to wait. In order to prepare for these instances, Susie set aside time for practice. We practiced it. Like this morning we practiced waiting for three minutes. Really it was 11/2 minutes (smiles). We sat and we waited. We waited at our desks. [III-i826p3] This practice paid off when, later in the day, a teacher walked into the room and Susie gave her signal for students to wait patiently while she spoke with the teacher (1, 2, 3 sit smart). All of the students sat quietly with their hands to themselves and patiently waited for Susie to finish speaking. When the teacher left the room, Susie turned to her class and, with a big smile and excited voice, praised them for their behavior and then returned to the lesson, demonstrating another key element of her approach to management. Praise and Reinforcement In Susies classroom, praise was used predominately for reinforcement of either academic or behavioral goals. In keeping with Susies practice of care and community, praise was used in abundance to let students know their behavior was noticed and appreciated. Michael, I like how your hand is up. [III-o824p6] I like how Terrell is sitting quietly. [III-o824p6] I like the way the red and purple group are waiting their turn quietly. [III-o826p1] Aaron, Ms. S is very proud of the way you are sitting. [III-o831p1] When Susie used praise in this way, the student usually sat up straighter and smiled as he/she was being praised. A secondary effect of this reinforcement was that other students who were not following directions stopped their misbehavior and followed the directions. Susie was quick to praise these students as soon as they stopped the

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118 misbehavior thereby reinforcing their choice to follow directions. Susie wanted students to begin to take responsibility for their own behavior and make positive choices. Choice really, really puts all of the responsibility for their actions on them and takes it off of me. So when I say that theyI do believe they understand that if they want to do something, theres a reaction to everything they do so if they choose to do the right thing, if they want the positive consequence to happen for them, then they need to do that thing at that time. [III-i924p6] When she praised students who were making positive choices, she reinforced her understanding that students need to be guided in learning to make choices that elicit positive results. This is just one more component in Susies larger goal to develop students who will be independent thinkers. External Rewards While Susie did not use external rewards a great deal, she did have several systems in place to reward students for demonstrating appropriate behaviors. One system she used is in conjunction with a school-wide program where students are recognized for appropriate behavior and given a claw with their name on it. This claw goes into a raffle were the BRT chooses each Friday and students can win prizes ranging from pencils and erasers to a bicycle. Students names are broadcast on the school morning show each Friday. Susie also had a poster on her board Reaching Our Goal. This board was divided into 12 equal squares. Whenever Susie saw a student making the right choice she would praise him/her and place a star in one of the squares. When all of the squares were full, the class would receive a treat. As the school year continued, it was evident that Susies focus on explicitly teaching, rehearsing, and reinforcing classroom rules and routines provided the structure needed to shift the focus from behavior to instruction.

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119 Curriculum and Instruction For student interest to remain high and behavior issues to remain low, Susie knows she must have engaging, motivating, and appropriate curriculum and instruction. The foundation for her engaging instruction lies in an active and exciting environment where both students and teacher are actively engaged in classroom activities. The classroom environment nearly vibrated with songs and music, exciting literature, high student participation, and a great deal of praise. At the same time, Susie was constantly monitoring learning and scaffolding students toward mastery of important skills and concepts. Active Learning On any given day in Susies classroom a variety of active learning activities could be observed. This class was often noisy and full of movement and students could be observed singing, speaking, chanting, dancing, moving, and responding to the teacher. Most noticeable was that students were participants in this classroom. When Susie was reading a text to the students, she encouraged their participation with questions. Princess, what is happening? [III-o824p4] Jamie, what color is next? [III-o826p4] What is this story about? Jaquie? [III-o831p6] Students remained engaged when they knew that they might have the opportunity to answer a question. Susies questions about the text also served to help the students stay involved in thinking about the text and not drift away to play with a shoelace or talk to a neighbor. As the year progressed, the questions became more complex and often involved gestures or actions in addition to a verbal response.

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120 Now I see the word MY at the beginning of this sentence. Hold your fingers in the air and show me how many times we have the word MY in our morning message? Carlique will come up and show us where he sees the word my. (Carlique comes up. He circles the word MY). [III-o1014p4] During these kinds of lessons, most students were engaged and showed a marked eagerness to respond. Susie never pressured anyone to come up and perform nor did she try to humiliate a student who was not attending or was unable to perform the task. Susie knew that this was only one type of interactive lesson and that students would have other opportunities to participate in a forum where they may be more comfortable. In the end, all students participated at some time (dancing, singing, writing on chart, calendar). Music and movement were a large part of the curriculum. Susie herself is very musical and enjoys singing and writing music, and she has been part of several dance groups. She knows that her students are also very musical and enjoy the opportunity to learn through music and dance. Each morning began with music and dance (Hokey Pokey, Zippity Doo-Dah, Kiss Your Brain). These songs set the tone for a positive and upbeat day. Students often asked if they could sing the song again before they moved on to another lesson. Music is also used to teach academics. The reading series came complete with several music CDs and some of the class favorites included Alphabet Aerobics, Rap Clap and Rhyme, My City, and What Are You Wearing? When Susie put one of these songs on the CD player, the students perked up and sang and danced along with the music. These songs taught many important skills and concepts including vocabulary, beginning reading skills, math concepts, and social studies and science concepts in a way that engaged and involved students in their own learning. Music is a very effective way to keep students focused on the academic task as well as increasing their academic

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121 achievement. A meta-analysis of 62 studies by over 100 researchers found that students exposed to drama, music and dance may do a better job at mastering reading, writing, and math than those who are exposed solely to academics (Arts Education Partnership, 2002). Another way that Susie made sure students had the opportunity to be active learners was with choral and unison response. This strategy was not used a great deal but was utilized as one of many ways to actively involve students in a lesson. Susie generally used this strategy to check understanding and to emphasize directions. What school do you go to? (All) Green Meadows! [III-o824p4] (Susie holds up strips with days of the week on them.) Yesterday was? (All reply) Monday. (Susie)Today is? (All reply) Tuesday. [III-o831p1] Can we do that? (All) Yes. [III-o824p8] Unison response is a familiar discourse to African American children, and it took very little prompting or instruction to elicit unison responses that reflected student understanding. Students responded in clear, loud voices with smiles on their faces. They enjoyed the opportunity to show Susie and classmates that they knew the correct answer. This also gave Susie the chance to clarify specifics that she found were unclear. Overall, students were given many opportunities to learn important skills and concepts by participating in the lessons. In this classroom, students were actively involved in their learning and were not passive recipients of instruction. When students feel that they matter in their learning, they are more attentive and behavior is more likely to be on task.

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122 Active Teaching Susie is a very active teacher who seldom sits down or gives directions for an activity so that she can do other work while students complete the task. Susies success in engaging students in an active learning environment while still managing student behavior was connected to two strategies: explicit directions and consistent assessment and monitoring of students. Susie was very explicit in her teaching. One strategy that Susie used effectively was giving the students advanced organizers. Alright boys and girls, we are talking and learning this morning about friendship. [III-o824p1] Alright boys and girls, we are moving on to the 2nd part of reading. Yesterday we learned a nursery rhyme (all --Jack Be Nimble, Jack Be Quick). Now today we have another one to learn, Baa Baa Black Sheep. [III-o831op6] Today is free choice time. We have a couple of choices today. Im going to introduce them to you. [III-o924p4] When Susie did this she gave the students the whole picture, often including the motivation for the lesson and links to previous lessons. Students could better attend to the lesson when they knew where it was going and how it was placed within the larger scope of the curriculum. Susie was also clear in her directions to the students. They were explicitly told the rules and the assigned task to be completed. This is a quiet activity. You need to draw and write inside the box. [III-o831p3] Now it is Speaking Stone time. Lets go over the rules. If you have the speaking stone then you can tell the class anything. If you would like to speak today raise your hand. We are going to pull names and everyone will get a chance to go when I pull your name out. [III-o101p2]

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123 Susies directions often drew on classroom routines that students had previously practiced and mastered. One notable way that Susie utilized this strategy was when she dismissed students to go back to their seats and begin the assigned lesson. Rather than simply sending them to their seats, which can result in running, pushing and generally chaotic behavior, Susie asked a group to please stand and then explicitly stated (often for the second time) the task and the directions Walk quietly back to your seats and draw a picture of what you see in the classroom. Then she dismissed the group to their seats. She followed this same pattern for each group and then moved around the class helping students to complete the lesson. This strategy gave students the benefit of hearing the directions several times. If they missed details the first time, they had the opportunity to get the information the next time she repeated it to a group. Students who were being dismissed benefited because they heard the directions right before they moved to their seats to complete the lesson. In the end, the majority of the students knew what to do when they began the activity, and Susie was free to help those few who needed more guidance. As students participated in the classroom activities, Susie assessed and monitored their learning. Many management problems begin when students are asked to complete tasks that are too hard or too easy (Evertson et al., 2003). One example of this was during learning centers. As students worked cooperatively at several centers spread around the room (Doctor, Blocks, Clay, Listening Center), she stopped to talk with students, asking questions that assessed their understanding and mastery level of the skills and concepts practiced at each center. Susie used the knowledge she gained at these times to direct future lessons and activities that were geared to be challenging but not

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124 frustrating to her students. As most novice teachers do, sometimes Susie misjudged student ability but was quick to notice the problem and either drop the activity or modify it to make it appropriate for the students. Susie had many of these occasions this year as she became familiar with the new reading series. One example was when the reading series called for Susie to hold up cards with colored circles on each and have individual students repeat the sentence pattern: This circle is__________. As Susie went around the circle of students, she noticed two things were happening; (1) Students wanted to say THAT circle is _______ ; (2) Students waiting for their turn were getting off task. As she noticed the trouble, she picked up the pace and had students quickly reply in unison This card is_______, and then moved to the next more interactive activity with the cards. Susie knew that to stay with a lesson that was not working was only going to increase off task behavior so she quickly assessed the situation and chose to modify the original lesson to better meet the needs of her class. Susies use of explicit directions and monitoring strategies in her instructional practice helped to provide an atmosphere where students understood the tasks and that the tasks assigned were appropriate for their varied skill levels. The result was students who were focused and engaged in challenging work that was within their capabilities. Encouraging Students When tasks are challenging, students often need encouragement to complete them. In Susies class, she provided encouragement to her students in predominately two ways. Susie used scaffolding and praise to keep students in the game. As Susie moved around the classroom monitoring students or directed a lesson with small groups or the whole class, she used scaffolds to help students move from where they were to where they needed to be. Misbehavior can become apparent when a student

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125 feels frustrated and is not able to make the leap to the new skill or concept being taught. Susie used scaffolds to support learning and to prevent misbehaviors. In the lesson below, students were asked to walk around the room and find items that were the same color as the circle she was holding up. When students had found an item, Susie asked for volunteers to share what they found. This . (boy points to brown box and says its green). Susie holds up circle and asks, Is it the same? (boy shakes head no) No? Find something that is this color (points to circle). Green. [III-831op8] Many times scaffolding was centered on unfamiliar concepts or terms. In October, Susie introduced a new unit about Autumn. When she began to ask questions about the season students were puzzled and unresponsive. She helped them to get to the term with several questions. Who knows another word for Fall? (No response). Winter Spring Summer ? (still no response). Starts with an auauauauauauauauau. Student responds, Autumn! [III-o107p1] After the class repeated the unfamiliar term several times, Susie resumed the lesson about Autumn. This lesson could have been a disaster. Without the scaffolding from Susie, students would have been frustrated and unable to move forward. Once Susie helped students to the next level she was able to move ahead with engaged students who were clear on the unfamiliar term, Autumn. When students in Susies class accomplished a new goal, they were very proud of themselves and Susie often rewarded them with praise. As discussed earlier in this study,

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126 Susie used praise to reinforce academic and behavioral goals. This section discusses Susies use of academic praise. Susies ultimate goal is academic success for her students, and Susie wanted to reinforce those attitudes and behaviors that reflect this goal. So when students were listening carefully, took a risk and answered a challenging question, used skills and concepts taught to answer a question correctly, or extended a skill beyond that which was taught, Susie was quick to praise the student. Great! Pat yourself on the back. [III-o824p6] Good job, Dante. [III-o924p2] Alright! High five. [III-o107p7] These praise statements are general and deemed less effective than specific praise, but they do focus on effort rather than correct responses. Susie was quick to say great or to give a high-five to a student who was attempting to complete a difficult task. Praise focused on accomplishment rather than ability is considered effective for student growth and motivation (Brophy & Good, 2000). In addition to her words of praise, Susies body language also exuded approval. Susies whole body would light up when giving praise to her students. She sat or stood up tall, her eyes widened and sparkled, and her voice reflected her true excitement in the students achievement. Susie is an exciting and enthusiastic teacher who brings her exuberance for learning into the classroom. Students were active learners and had many different opportunities to participate in class activities through cooperative groups, music, dance, and movement. Students accomplishments were rewarded with authentic praise that resulted in an overwhelmingly positive learning environment where students flourished.

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127 Misbehavior and Discipline Part of being an effective classroom manager is not only preventing misbehaviors but in how they are addressed when they do happen. Susie spent nearly one third of the total observational time addressing student misbehaviors (on average teachers spend 50%). As is to be expected in kindergarten, Susie spent more time addressing social skills and behavior in the first two weeks of school with incidents significantly dropping off in the last two weeks of data collection. Susie believes that students need to be attending and on task and any time spent off task is wasting precious opportunities to learn the skills and concepts students will need to succeed both in school and in life. Like Kathy and Lucy, Susie had a hierarchy that she moved through when addressing student misbehavior. This hierarchy has four levels of increasing intensity ending with consequences. Also like Kathy and Lucy, the majority of Susies actions were coded as prompting and redirecting with very few incidences of consequences. The data show that, like other effective managers, Susie was focused on getting students back on track and not punishing students for non-compliance. Ignore Behavior Susie knows that as a kindergarten teacher she is responsible for teaching and reinforcing student behaviors that will be expected for years of schooling to come and she takes this responsibility seriously. She rarely ignored student behavior (5 of 355 total responses and misbehaviors coded). Susie sometimes ignored students who were calling out in order to keep the momentum of the class going and all students observed became engaged in the lesson and stopped interrupting.

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128 Prompt Most of Susies comments and actions were directed toward prompting students to behave (207 of 355 total responses and misbehaviors). Three prompts that Susie used most often are waiting, reminding, and attention cues. Susie does not often use the waiting strategy, preferring to cue students with a well-rehearsed routine instead (123 sit smart). When Susie did pause and wait for student attention it was usually when a slight interruption caused students to lose focus (Grandma walking in, announcement) and students got back to the lesson as soon as the interruption ended. More often, Susie reminded students of rules and routines with the expectation that the reminder was all they needed to get back on track. When we are on the rug, no one is going to the bathroom or to get a drink. [III-o824p4] No talking after a song. [III-o826p3] Domminic calls out, Im done! If youre done get a book and read quietly. [III-o831p4] As would be anticipated, reminders were more frequent in the first few weeks of school. As the year progressed and students were more familiar with what behavior was and was not allowed in the classroom, Susies reminders were needed less often. Reminders were also used to help a student follow a rule or routine while attention cues were used almost exclusively to bring attention back to the task at hand (usually a story or lesson). Sometimes the cue was specific to a student. Mallika. You dont want to miss out. Ready? [III-o824p8] Carmen? Princess? Listen. [III-o831p3]

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129 At other times, Susie noticed that the group as a whole seemed to have drifted away. They had been sitting for a while or important information was coming up and she wanted to cue students to pay attention. Listen to this one. [III-o824p8] Listen, this is very important. [III-o831p3] Listen, your name might be called. [III-o101p1] Again, as the students matured and became accustomed to the expectations as well as developed academically, their ability to focus and attend to lessons and stories increased and general cues were used less often. Warning Though general cues were used less, Susie continued to attend to specific students throughout the observation period. As patterns developed over time, Susie moved through the phases of reminding and cueing into a warning phase where she used directives and warnings in an attempt to redirect student behavior. Directive statements were used in Susies class when students were not attending to reminders or attention cues. Put your teddy bear away. [III-o824p6] Turn around. [III-o826p2] Put that away . Sit on your bottom. [III-o101p3] Directives were used when Susie meant business and were usually accompanied by a firm tone, eye contact, and close proximity. Directives were a quick and often successful way to redirect student behavior. Susie could solve a management issue without breaking the pace of the lesson or getting into a power struggle with the student.

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130 Disciplinary actions usually stopped at the directive level but there were times during the observation when a student was resistant or wanted to enter into a power struggle with Susie. These kinds of misbehaviors can be time consuming and can halt the progress of the lesson. In these cases, Susie was very firm and consistent in her response when she warned students with the choice of 4 pulling their card or complying with the classroom rules. Who is talking? Youll go pull your card. [III-o826p6] Domminic do you need to pull your card? This is a warning. [III-o101p7] When Susie used this warning, the resistant student corrected his/her behavior 50% of the time and no consequence was needed. Consequences Consequences in Susies class were very rare (18 of 355 total responses and misbehaviors coded) and were equally divided between moving a student to another seat and pulling his/her card. Moving students was often a successful way to stop students from fooling around. Card pulling was not very successful in the beginning of the year when students would get upset and angry when told to go pull their cards. Susie suspected it was because they did not understand that the behavior and consequences were their choice and their responsibility. As she explained this to students and reinforced the idea, students became less angry about the consequence and often pulled their card and went to the time out rug without a fuss (with the exception of one student who continued to show anger), accepting the responsibility for their actions. 4In this class students each have a pocket on the wall containing three cards (green, yellow, red). Students begin each day on green and are asked to pull their card for escalating misbehavior. Students who pull their card loose the opportunity for rewards, center time, recess time, and can have a letter sent home or a call to a parent.

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131 From these data, one can conclude that Susies philosophy to help students behave rather than punish them is evident in her practice. She spent the majority of her time reminding and cueing students to pay attention and follow rules and very little of her time warning and punishing students. In the end, she wants students to be on task so they can learn the important information being taught. If students are in time out, at the office, or in another classroom, they will not be learning and Susies goal for successful students will not be met. Time and effort is spent helping students to learn appropriate behaviors so they will be prepared for life beyond her classroom doors. Susies practice reflected much of what researchers found in successful managers classrooms. Susie began with creating high quality student teacher relationships and encouraging a caring classroom community as well. Within the community, with a great deal of practice and praise students were explicitly taught and helped to master new social and behavioral skills. To meet the needs of every student in her predominately African American class, Susie used effective pedagogy that was interactive and culturally congruent. She is a no excuses teacher who worked to include all of her students in enriching learning experiences. With such high goals for her students, Susie made sure that behavior stayed on task by using a system of discipline that was explicit and focused on increasing student responsibility and choice.

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs, understandings, and pedagogy of teachers who were considered to be effective classroom managers in low SES, predominately African American classrooms. Effectively managing classrooms so learning can take place is the first step in providing all students with a quality education. Legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act holds teachers accountable for providing all students with a challenging and high-quality education and ensuring that they reach at least a minimum proficiency on state academic assessments. Because the majority of teachers spend approximately 50% of their instructional time dealing with misbehavior, academic achievement suffers. In addition, teachers become frustrated and within 5 years, nearly one-third of the teaching force leaves the field. As discussed earlier, the attrition rate for novice teachers in high poverty schools is even higher with 50% leaving by the end of 5 years (Ingersoll, 2001). Classroom management issues are of paramount interest to teachers. One could even say that teacher success is inextricably linked to effective classroom management. Often teachers are judged to be either successful or unsuccessful by their ability to maintain classroom discipline (Bridges, 1986). In this study, I used a grounded theory approach to explore the understandings and practices of effective classroom managers in low-income schools. I selected three participants from a list of effective managers, as defined earlier in this study, and observed each teacher approximately nine times (totaling 52 hours) followed by post132

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133 observational interviews where motivations and understandings were discussed. Participants also took part in a more extensive background interview, lasting a little over an hour, near the end of data collection. Since grounded theory is concerned with the story that is told by the data, I conducted member checks to verify that participants found the themes and understandings to be accurate. Consistent with grounded theory methods, data analysis was ongoing and consisted of recording initial thoughts, conclusions, and emerging themes in a notebook, utilizing constant comparison methods, and discussing understandings with participants during post observational interviews. Data were organized and categories were developed throughout data collection. I created lists of emerging themes for each participant. I analyzed these lists and generated one non-overlapping list of themes for each case. I re-coded cases to make sure that the list was complete. The cases in Chapters 4, 5, and 6 detail each teachers practice and her understandings about classroom management for her particular context. Cases are described in four parts: Relationships; Curriculum/Instruction Connection; Rules, Routines and Definitions of Misbehavior and Dealing with Misbehaviors. Together, these three chapters present a picture of effective classroom management in a low SES predominately African American elementary school. The cases illuminate how each classroom environment was unique and similar. Kathys classroom was quiet, orderly, and ran like a well-oiled machine. Lucys class was more like a family gathering where relationships and rules were relaxed. Susies classroom environment was nurturing and supportive as she worked to teach her students both social and academic skills.

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134 Though each classroom had its own unique feel one overriding theory emerged from the data. In these three cases, relationships were at the center of each interaction, decision, and pedagogical choice (see graphic 1 below). Graphic 1: Relationships are at the center of all decisions and actions in the classroom. d e f A D E B C F CRP CM CRCM 1 4 2 5 3 6 a b c RELATIONSHIPS CRP= Culturally responsive pedagogy CM= Classroom management CRCM= Culturally responsive classroom management A=Interactive pedagogy B= high expectations C= scaffold and support D= Culturally congruent pedagogy and materials E= Maximize learning time F= Warm demander 1= Communicates/teaches rules and procedures effectively 2= Uses pedagogy to prevent misbehavior 3= Withitness 4= Praise 5= Assertive behavior 6= Perceives and reacts to student needs a= Prompts and redirects students b= Monitors c= Reminds of rules and procedures d= Cues students e=Momma Mode/warnings f= Consequences

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135 This diagram shows how teacher-student relationships were at the center of all pedagogical decisions and actions in the classrooms. The teachers used many best practice strategies from classroom management, culturally responsive pedagogy, and culturally responsive classroom management research but it was their understanding of and relationship with each student that enabled them to choose a strategy that would be most successful for that student in that context at that time. The arrows in the diagram show that these decisions were dynamic. Teachers often reflected on their choices and the perceived effectiveness of that choice. This diagram shows the crucial part that teacher-student relationships played in each of the observed classrooms where teachers were highly successful managers. The cases showed that each of the teachers successfully used a variety of strategies promoted by classroom management, culturally responsive pedagogy, and culturally responsive classroom management literature. The success of these strategies was strongly linked to the relationships between students and teacher. Certainly the teachers were skillful in using a variety of strategies but more importantly, they knew their students and were able to select strategies that would be successful for each student in each specific context. All three teachers believed in their students ability to behave and achieve and felt that the students and teacher were a team working toward eventual success in these areas. The teachers were warm demanders who would not accept excuses for failure and would go to great lengths to help students succeed in school. Teachers valued and respected each student as an individual. Teachers were deliberate in creating a climate where academic goals were a priority, and each demonstrated the use of a hierarchical

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136 system for dealing with student misbehaviors based on their understanding of each student. I did not measure academic outcomes but the data collected indicated that there were fewer than average incidences of misbehaviors and that instances of consequences for continued misbehavior were extremely low (see Appendices F, G, and H). When teachers spend less time on management issues and more time on actual teaching, academic achievement is enhanced. In this chapter, I discuss how these findings extend the existing theoretical framework for classroom management. I also present implications for teacher educators, elementary teachers, and the research community. Extending the Theoretical Framework for Classroom Management: The Centrality of Relationships Findings from this study illuminate what effective managers do and why they do it. The findings extend the general classroom management literature and the culturally responsive classroom management literature to include observational data that conclusively show the importance of developing and maintaining quality student-teacher relationships, creating a climate where academic goals are a priority, and addressing inappropriate behavior in culturally diverse classrooms. Relationships Landmark classroom management studies have not specifically addressed relationships (Emmer et al., 1980; Kounin, 1970). When relationships between student and teacher were addressed they were discussed within other classroom management components. In the past five years, research studies began to note the importance of relationships in classroom management and academic success (LePage et al., 2005; Marzano, 2003).

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137 Much of the research attempted to describe the nature of high quality student-teacher relationships. The research indicated that teachers who developed strong relationships with students cared about their students (Gay, 2000), showed appropriate levels of dominance and cooperation (Evertson et al., 2003; Marzano & Marzano, 2003), and believed in students (Cotton, 2001). The case studies describing Kathy, Lucy, and Susies practice certainly included these components, but they also illuminated something that the literature did not: how teachers used the relationships to promote successful classroom management. In the three classrooms observed for this study, relationships were crucial to the success of the teachers. In fact, when interviewed, all three teachers listed relationships with students at the heart of their classroom management systems. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie used student-teacher relationships in three ways: to begin all student-teacher interactions, to make informed decisions about management concerns, and to keep lines of communication open between student and teacher. For Kathy and Lucy who were already familiar with many of their students and their families, student-teacher relationships began before the students stepped into the classroom for the first day of school. These existing relationships were used to ease students into the first few days of school. Both Kathy and Lucy utilized their knowledge about their students and put them at ease to create a safe and comfortable environment for learning. Susie was not as connected to the community but used her existing knowledge of the students families and siblings to create an instant connection when her students arrived for the first day of kindergarten.

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138 Most teachers focus on relationship building at the beginning of the year, but as academic pressure builds and schedules get more hectic, they spend less time on relationships and more time on other academic matters. The teachers in this study also focused on building and sustaining relationships at the beginning of the year but then continued to nurture relationships throughout the observation period. For these teachers, relationships were used as a starting place for all other decisions and actions. When coding the data, it was very difficult to separate codes because many of them could have been coded as related to student-teacher relationships. When looking at the data in this way, it was easy to see how relationships were not separate from the curricula but infused into the very fiber of the classroom. Most notably, the teachers used the knowledge gained from their relationships with students to make informed decisions about management concerns. In classrooms where there is distance between teacher and student, the teacher reacts to misbehavior from his/her perspective of what is right and wrong. When teachers have a strong quality relationship with students, they are better able to shift their perspective to that of the student. I observed evidence of this in all three classrooms where students with specific behavioral needs were accepted for who they were and an acceptable solution was negotiated between student and teacher. When asked in post observational interviews why the teachers made certain decisions about classroom management, they often responded with a line of reasoning linked to the students context (he is working to control his anger; that was his cousin he was teasing; he is being shuffled between households; her mother is terminally ill and she is living with an aunt). These teachers did not use a one-size-fits-all philosophy for classroom management. Instead, they took

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139 each case on an individual basis and used their understandings about each student to make informed decisions about how best to proceed. When teachers thought about students as individuals, student-teacher relationships were not linear but cyclical. This means that Kathy, Lucy, and Susie continually sought new information about students in order to understand the students better and to make decisions that were successful in moving them forward. Kathy and Lucy made home visits throughout the year to touch base with families and gather information to use in decision making in the classroom. Sometimes they went to houses with specific questions that they wanted to discuss with caregivers, and sometimes they just went to visit and gain additional insight into the students and their lives. Susie was a great communicator who often called home to gather more information or asked a parent to come in to class to discuss some questions she had about a student. In all three cases, teachers posed their concerns as questions and sought not to blame but to gather more information about the situation in order to generate and assess the feasibility of possible solutions. The teachers also knew that students were a great source of information and did not hesitate to ask students privately what was going on or why they made specific decisions. The teachers did not ask these questions rhetorically but were sincerely interested in understanding the students perspective and making decisions based on their reasoning. Creating a Climate Where Academic Goals Are a Priority With Kounins (1970) findings about preventing rather than reacting to misbehavior, classroom management research turned its focus to what teachers should do in order to engage and motivate their students and thereby reduce instances of misbehavior. Later research on this perspective suggested that teachers who were

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140 effective managers had certain core similarities that included: enthusiasm about teaching and learning (Brophy, 1987), the ability to give directions clearly and use materials effectively (Emmer et al., 1980), and the ability to perceive and react to student needs (Bohn, 2004). In addition to this body of literature, culturally responsive pedagogy literature illuminated other strategies that helped to engage and motivate culturally and linguistically diverse students. These included: communicating high expectations (Gay, 2000), linking instruction to students lives (Ladson-Billings, 1994), and communicating in culturally congruent ways (Delpit, 1995). Undeniably, the three teachers in this study were highly effective in utilizing many of the strategies that researchers advocate for engaging and motivating students. More importantly, each teacher created a climate where the strategies could be used successfully. The classroom environment is not a new topic in the literature. For 30 years, researchers have discussed room set up and traffic patterns (Emmer et al., 1980; Randolph & Evertson, 1994). More recent research began to look at ways that teacher actions impact the classroom environment either positively or negatively. Teachers can positively influence the classroom environment by reinforcing positive behaviors (Cotton, 2001), giving students clear directions and allowing adequate time to practice them (Bohn, 2004), and monitoring students closely (Emmer, 1980). Culturally responsive literature added that classrooms composed of culturally and linguistically diverse learners should include many examples where diversity is apparent and imbedded in the classroom (Gay, 2000). Again, the three teachers in this study utilized these strategies to promote a positive environment for learning. However, in reflecting on the

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141 real seed for the teachers success, I found it was their ability to be a highly engaged warm demander. Kleinfeld (1975) used the term warm demander when describing the kind of teacher who was most successful teaching Alaskan students. Later, Vasquez (1988) used the term in his study of culturally diverse students and their perceptions of successful teachers. In both cases, the term warm demander was defined as a teacher who was deeply concerned with the well-being and success of the student and who accepted nothing less than student success. The three teachers from this study showed that they were warm demanders in many ways. Most notably, they were using culturally responsive pedagogy, accepting no excuses, and scaffolding students. Students who are not from the dominant culture often feel invisible and left out of classroom curricula and pedagogy. This feeling of cultural disconnection can cause students to resist instruction and gain attention through misbehavior. Schools are often places where there is a narrow view of what is right and what is wrong and often reflect the norms of the dominant culture. These overriding norms and beliefs serve to keep students in the same social class from which they began and are called social reproduction by critical theorists (Hinchey, 2001). When students realize that their opportunity to succeed in school is not equal to those of the privileged class, they reject the system with resistant behaviors. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie worked to develop open lines of communication with their students and used the knowledge they gained to provide students with appropriate pedagogy that engaged and motivated them. Students were not invisible in these classrooms. Rather, students were at the center of the teachers pedagogy and decisions.

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142 All three teachers were overwhelmingly active in their pedagogy and used varied strategies to align their teaching with their students cultural norms. Susie used a great deal of music and movement to engage students in learning new skills and concepts. Kathy made math fun with student interaction and a math rap CD. Lucy engaged students in writing with humorous reminders and links to students own lives. All three teachers used call/response, unison response, and choral reading/response to keep students active and engaged in the lessons. The pace of each class was brisk and teachers had high expectations for student success in meeting the academic goals. Again, the teachers knew their students and worked to understand what motivated each student. This knowledge allowed each teacher to ascertain what was an excuse and what was an authentic cry for help. The tension between pushing students to the next level (accepting no excuses) and supporting them through a strong relationship was evidenced often in all three classrooms. Kathy lectured her low-level math group when they scored well below expectations. She explicitly told them she was disappointed (careless errors) and knew they could do better. Later, Kathy gave the students another assessment, and scores were much higher. Lucy often told students that if they had some trouble completing the homework to come and talk to her about it, and between them they would find a way for the student to do the assignment. Susie often showed students she would accept no excuses when she waited for a student to answer a difficult question or when she used encouraging body language or words to convey that the student could do the assigned task or answer the question. Teachers show they care when they hold students accountable for meeting expectations within a supportive environment.

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143 Scaffolding goes hand in hand with high expectations and not accepting excuses. Students need support when faced with challenging and engaging activities. They cannot be expected to move from one level to the next without help. Again, it is the student-teacher relationship that helps each teacher to understand that not all students learn in the same manner or at the same speed. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie really cared about their students and wanted them to succeed. Oftentimes this meant that they needed to provide scaffolding to help students meet high expectations. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie drew on their knowledge of each individual in order to provide the most effective scaffolds for their students. When asked about scaffolds in post-observational interviews, the teachers all referred to understandings gained from their relationships with students (he has trouble writing his thoughts; she is not a strong reader). These understandings about students helped the teachers to be highly effective in using a variety of scaffolds to meet the specific needs of each student successfully. Approaches to Inappropriate Behavior Effective teaching and strong relationships prevent a great deal of misbehavior but it still occurs. With the change in research perspective from reacting to misbehavior to preventing misbehavior, there is little information about what to do when there is misbehavior in the classroom and even less research to illuminate appropriate strategies for culturally diverse students. Weinstein et al. (2003) began the discussion about strategies for enacting culturally responsive classroom management. They proposed six fundamental understandings that would promote successful classroom management in culturally diverse classrooms: (1) creating a physical setting that promotes academic and social goals, (2) clear expectations for behavior, (3) culturally congruent communication, (4) developing a caring classroom environment, (5) working with families and (6) using

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144 appropriate interventions to assist students with behavior problems. Brown (2003) moved the research a step further when he interviewed 13 successful urban teachers about classroom management and found that all of the teachers interviewed used culturally responsive strategies including: care for students, acting with appropriate authority, and communicating with students in culturally congruent ways. Collectively, these researchers theorized about ways teachers should think about misbehavior (Weinstein et al., 2003 and reported what teachers said they were doing, but there is no research that reports from observational data what teachers actually do (Brown, 2003) to address inappropriate behaviors successfully in culturally diverse classrooms. The data from my study included 52 hours of observation in three classrooms. The data demonstrated that these three teachers each used a hierarchy when addressing misbehavior. The hierarchy used by the teachers was deeply rooted in their care for each student and their desire to see students succeed. The care the teachers had for their students was evidenced in their definitions of misbehavior. Rather than perceiving misbehavior as non-compliance, all three teachers described misbehavior as any behavior that disrupted either that students ability to learn or other classmates ability to learn. The teachers were not expecting cookie-cutter students who would fit into a specific norm but were concerned that all students should have the opportunity to learn. When teachers were addressing student misbehavior, the fact that they spent the majority of this time prompting and redirecting rather than punishing provided evidence that the priority was that all students should have equal access to learning. Not all students came to school with the same understandings about behavior and classroom

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145 routines. Because the teachers took the time to know their students and develop a relationship with them, they understood that when a student was not following directions or routines, it was often due to misunderstanding or confusion rather than defiance or the desire to embarrass the teacher. When the focus is on high-quality student-teacher relationships, trust is built and motivations are more clearly perceived. When asked about the amount of time they spent on reminding and redirecting students, the teachers often replied that school was just starting and students needed time to get used to new routines and expectations. This was especially true in Susies kindergarten classroom as evidenced by her high numbers of prompts (see Appendix H). Kindergarten is a time when the foundations of school behavior are taught, reinforced and rewarded. Susie understood that many of the school norms were new and unfamiliar to her students and gave them a great deal of support in meeting these new expectations. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie were very understanding and supportive in helping students learn new routines and rules, but they had high expectations for student behavior and did not tolerate disruptive behavior. This is a fine line. When should a teacher begin to use other strategies to manage inappropriate behavior? There is no specific answer for this very important question. Instead, the teachers reported that they knew the students and kept a close relationship with them and from this relationship they could tell when the student was ready to be held totally accountable for the rules and routines in the classroom. This is not a sudden switch, but one where responsibility is gradually shifted to the student. Examples from the study included the time when Kathy told students they would need to remember to have their planners out on their desks without a reminder or when Susie helped her kindergarteners to understand their choices by explicitly asking

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146 them to make a choice. Most interesting was Lucys talk with her boisterous third-period class about reputations and how they were getting a bad reputation and needed to turn it around. Once students were told they were responsible for the new routines, Kathy, Lucy and Susie moved into the second level of the hierarchy: Warning. This level of the hierarchy included directives and momma mode. As discussed earlier, directives are a type of discourse commonly used in African American homes. Kathy, Lucy, and Susie used directives to state the expectation quickly and clearly and keep the pace of the class moving. The students at Green Meadows are very familiar with this type of discourse and usually get back on track with no disruption. Some people who are unfamiliar with directive discourse might think it is rude or disrespectful, but, in fact, when teacher and student have a trusting relationship with each other, the directive is given and received within an environment of care and is quite effective and not hurtful to the student. On very few occasions, students continued inappropriate behavior, and Kathy and Lucy needed to enact momma mode. They described this part of the hierarchy as treating the students as if they were their own or using some of the strategies that their own mothers and grandmothers had used when they misbehaved as children. The discourse and threats in this mode can seem harsh to those outside of the African American culture but to those who are a part of the culture, it represents actions congruent with those of caregivers and was used within an environment of care and trust. This is important to remember when literature describes the importance of treating students from diverse cultures as if they were ones own. Many of our teachers today are white and middle class. If they were to treat students as if they were their own, then

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147 expectations and reactions to inappropriate behavior would be culturally incongruent and in the end, resistance, frustration, and failure would occur. What makes this warning mode so effective is that it is congruent with students own understandings and sends a familiar message that the adult has had enough of the behavior and it needs to stop now. When the teachers used directives and momma mode to stop inappropriate behaviors, they were almost always successful but there were a few instances when students continued the behavior and consequences were incurred. It is interesting to note that in all three classrooms, sending students to the office or out of the classroom was observed only once (and the student was invited back into the class after having a private talk with the teacher). Most consequences involved pulling their card, moving seats, or being isolated for a brief period of time (where the student could still hear the lesson but not be disruptive). These types of consequences again showed the care the teachers had for the students. They wanted the students to succeed and understood that if the students were sent out of the room they would miss important information. Instead, they moved the students or had them pull their card to stop the behavior. These consequences also sent the message that even though the students were acting inappropriately, they were still included in the class and were a part of the family. Nearly each time a student experienced a consequence, the teacher later spoke to him/her about the incident. These sessions were not teacher lectures chastising students for what they did wrong but opportunities for the teacher to listen and learn more about the student and then collaboratively plan with the student some strategies for a more successful next time. Overall, this study illuminated how crucial teacher care is to effective classroom management in diverse classrooms. The care these teachers showed was not warm and

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148 fuzzy nor was it pity for those poor disadvantaged minority students. The care observed in this study was characterized by being a warm demander, having high expectations, acting with authority and assertiveness, learning about students, using culturally congruent pedagogy, having high expectations, creating an inclusive and safe learning environment, and caring for children as students and as people. This conception of care is not new, and several researchers conducted studies to explain what this type of care looks like and how effective it is in promoting academic achievement (Brown, 2003; Delpit, 1995; Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Noddings, 1984; Vasquez, 1988; Villegas & Lucas, 2002). What is new is the crucial role care plays in all aspects of classroom management. The teachers in this study used many of the strategies publicized as best practice by landmark classroom management studies and also incorporated strategies from culturally responsive pedagogy. The study of Kathy, Lucy and Susies practices also extended the literature from Weinstein et al. (2003) and Brown (2003) by showing what effective teachers do when they use culturally appropriate classroom management strategies (p. 27). However, none of these strategies would have been successful without the care the teachers showed students in building student-teacher relationships. The trust, understanding, and insights that teachers gained helped them to make appropriate pedagogical decisions that in the end promoted effective classroom management. Implications The findings from this study cannot be generalized to the population of all low SES predominately African American populations. In addition, the teachers in this study were all from non-dominant cultures while students were predominately African American and

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149 low SES. Despite these limitations, these findings have implications for teacher educators, elementary teachers, and the research community. Implications for Preservice and Inservice Teacher Educators In many teacher education programs across the nation, preservice teachers are required to take only one classroom management course. In this one 15 week course teacher educators work to teach preservice teachers theory and effective practices that will serve as the foundation for their management styles in the years to come. This study showed that care is at the heart of successful management. University instructors need to make care an important component in their courses. They can begin with texts that incorporate ideas of care into classroom management: On Their Side (1996), Relationship-Driven Classroom Management (2003), and Teaching Children to Care (2002). No matter how good the course texts, students are still likely to feel that they are getting a lot of theory but little practical experience (NEA, 2001). If the bottom line in effective classroom management is care and the development of high quality student-teacher relationships then preservice teachers need to be given the opportunity to work with culturally diverse students and effective classroom managers in authentic ways (tutoring, mentoring, volunteering at community functions, home visits, coaching sports teams, and teaching dance groups in the community). Practical experiences alone are not enough. Preservice teachers need skillful instructors who can help them connect the theory from coursework to their experiences. Skillful instructors will also help students to grow through debriefing and scaffolding. Students who have limited experiences with cultures other than their own often need support to help them make sense of their

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150 experience and better understand other perspectives. Without this vital support, stereotypes and misunderstandings can be reinforced. University-based instructors also need to set an example by caring for their own students. They can begin this by modeling effective management pedagogy in their classrooms where students are cared for and not treated to a no tolerance or one-size fits all management system. If we want teachers to be caring and focused on individual students, then we must set the example by working to develop caring relationships with our preservice teachers. University professors can do this in many of the same ways that the teachers from this study developed relationships with their students: be accessible to students, continue to learn about students as individuals, be humorous, believe in the ability of all students to learn and achieve, and work to build a community of learners. Professors also need to model pedagogy that will engage students while at the same time help them to reflect on their assumptions, biases, and beliefs about management and diverse students. Much can be learned from using narratives, autobiographies, family histories, and life histories as springboards for conversations about beliefs and assumptions. Preservice teachers can also learn a great deal from case studies, simulation exercises, and inter-active video exercises. The effectiveness of these methodologies is often based on the quality of the learning community and the relationships developed between students and teacher. When students feel safe to voice their deepest and most honest beliefs and other students feel comfortable posing their different perspectives, real learning can happen. Students who are fortunate enough to be in a course like this not only learn about classroom

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151 management but also learn about themselves and others. This knowledge builds their perceptions of the world around them. This study showed that teachers who wish to be effective classroom managers must care about their students and make student-teacher relationships a priority. Research tells us that the most effective management systems are preventative and not reactive and students who are engaged and feel valued in the classroom are more likely to be well-behaved than those who are fearful or controlled. How do classroom teachers become warm demanders ? It is not enough to hope that teachers will naturally develop this skill. Instead, it must be deliberately cultivated (Gay, 2000). Teachers must acquire a knowledge base, develop personal and professional self-awareness, and continue to engage in dialogues about cultural diversity. As stated earlier in this study, the majority of teachers in public schools today are white, middle-class females who have little experience with cultures other than their own. These teachers need to gain some background information about the many cultures they have in their classrooms. There are numerous resources that can help teachers to gain important insight into their students cultural lives. Among the many resources available, books like Celebrating City Teachers (2001), Listening (2003), and The Light in Their Eyes (1999) give perceptive and sensitive portrayals of multicultural students. While teachers are learning about their students, they also need to be learning about themselves as cultural beings and what this means in the context of their pedagogical decisions. Teachers from the dominant class often do not recognize themselves as promoting any cultural agenda and need to become aware of their own culture and how their beliefs and understandings affect their culturally diverse students. A text to begin

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152 this journey is We Cant Teach What We Dont Know (1999). Howard discussed his experiences as a white, male teacher in multi-racial classrooms and his journey of transformation over 25 years of teaching. Teachers also need to analyze their own practice. This analysis can be conducted through peer observations and video-taped sessions. These methods can be useful in helping teachers to see culture in their own behavior and their students behavior and in understanding better how both teachers and students often communicate in culturally prescribed ways. When teachers gain these insights, motivations for perceived misbehaviors are more clearly understood and effective responses can be implemented. Finally, teachers need to continue the journey with informative and analytical dialogues. These are not just conversations that happen in the teachers lounge or after school in the hallway. Meaningful dialogues involve a wide range of individuals with many different perspectives and varied skill levels. Critical friends and inquiry projects are just two ways that teachers can begin dialogues where issues of caring in culturally diverse classrooms are at the center. The recommendations are likely to be most effective when facilitated by a person or people who have experience with and knowledge about cultural influences in classroom behaviors. The facilitator should help to keep the focus and scaffold teachers to new understandings and pedagogies while at the same time cultivate a sense of community and trust within the group. Implications for Further Research This study raises some important questions for the research community. The participants in this study were all from non-dominant cultures and two of the three participants were from the same or similar culture as the students. More research needs

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153 to be done to study teachers who are from the dominant culture and who are effective managers in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Is what they are doing similar to what was found in this study, or is their practice significantly different from the teachers observed in this study? Do teachers of varied ethnicities and backgrounds use Momma Mode? If so, what does it look like for these different contexts? Another research avenue opened by this study concerns the student population. In this study, the classrooms were composed of predominately African American students who were categorized as low SES (on free and reduced lunch plans). Would the strategies and understandings found effective in this study also be true for more diverse classrooms where there were several different languages and cultures represented? What about for older students? Classroom management is also a concern for middle and high school teachers. Is care also important at these levels? Because this study was focused on understanding teachers actions and motivations, students perceptions were not gathered in the data (although student reactions were noted in observational data). How do culturally diverse students perceive different kinds of classroom managers? Are some strategies and understandings more effective in certain settings than others? Classroom management research would benefit from more intense study of students perceptions in relation to effective management strategies. Lastly, in this age of accountability and standardized assessment, we cannot afford to ignore the possible effects that different management styles might have on student achievement. In this study I did not try to measure student achievement levels for the classrooms observed. Making causal claims about management and achievement is very

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154 difficult, and more research is needed to investigate possible connections between culturally responsive classroom management strategies and increased student achievement.

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APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT Dear Teacher: I have spent the last school year (2003-2004) observing in your classrooms and talking with you about some of the dilemmas and the strategies you have used to resolve these dilemmas. This year (2004-2005), I am particularly interested in documenting your experiences as they relate to classroom management. The purpose of this letter is to secure your consent for participation in the collection of materials that will help me understand more about this topic. The following types of documentation may be collected: InterviewsInterviews will help to incorporate your perspectives and impressions. Interviews will focus on your perspectives about classroom management, will be tape recorded and transcribed. Three types of interviews will be conducted: 1. Background interview : This is a 30-45 minute interview with you to learn what your perspectives are in relation to classroom management 2. Post observation interview: This is a 15-20 minute interview scheduled after an observation will ask for your perceptions of the observation period and will help me to better understand what was observed. 3. Member check Interview : This is a 10-15 minute interview where you are asked to relate if the conclusions drawn and quotes used are authentic and portray your understandings. They will also be used to ask about your experiences as a participant in this project. ObservationsIf you give permission, field notes from pre-specified observations will be collected. Notes will not be taken during any observations unless you give permission for notes to be taken on that specific day. I do not perceive any risk due to your participation in the study. In fact, teachers often enjoy the opportunity to talk about their classroom experiences. There will be no compensation for participation in this study. Your identity will be confidential to the extent provided by the law. All audio-tapes and transcripts will be kept in a locked closet and destroyed after two years. Participation is voluntary and you are free to withdraw your consent to participate and to discontinue your participation in this study at any time without prejudice. Please sign and return to me a copy of this letter. A second copy is provided for your records. If you have any questions about the study or the procedures for data collection, please contact me (407-448-0213 or digregg@bellsouth.net ) or my advisor, Dr. Dorene Ross, (392-0751, ext. 238 or dross@coe.ufl.edu). If you have any questions about the rights of research participants, you can contact the University 155

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156 of Florida Institutional Review Board Office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611. Sincerely, Diane B. Marks, Principal Investigator Doctoral Candidate I have read the procedure described above for the study of novice teachers and their perceptions of classroom management in a high poverty school. I agree to participate in the procedure, and I have received a copy of this description. ___________________________________ ___________________ Signature of Participant Date

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APPENDIX B DATA MANAGEMENT LOG Date Observation Name & Time (7:30-9:30am) Observation Name & Time (9:30-11:30am) Observation Name & Time (11:30-1:30pm) Interviews (1) 8/16-8/20 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Kathy Lucy Kathy (p) Lucy (afs) Friday Lucy Kathy Susie (p) (2)8/23-8/27 Monday Tuesday Susie Lucy Kathy (p) Wednesday Kathy Thursday Kathy Lucy Susie Lucy(p)/Susie (afs) Friday (3) 8/30-9/3 Monday Tuesday Kathy Susie Kathy (afs) Wednesday Thursday Susie Susie (p) Friday Lucy Lucy (p) 9/6-9/10 Monday Hurricanes hit the area Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 9/13-9/17 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday (4) 9/20-9/24 Monday 157

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158 Tuesday Kathy Kathy (p) Wednesday Thursday Lucy Lucy (afs) Friday Susie Susie (afs) (5) 9/27-10/1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Lucy Lucy (p) Friday Susie Kathy Kathy (p)/Susie (afs) (6) 10/4-10/8 Monday Tuesday Kathy Kathy (afs) Wednesday Thursday Susie Lucy Susie (p)/Lucy (afs) Friday (7)10/11-10/15 Monday Tuesday Lucy Lucy (afs) Wednesday Thursday Susie Susie (p) Friday (8) 10/18-10/22 Monday Tuesday Susie Susie (afs) Wednesday Thursday Kathy Kathy (afs) Friday (9) 10/25-10/29 Background Interviews Monday Tuesday Lucy (afs) Wednesday Kathy (afs) Thursday Susie (afs) Friday AFSinterview took place after school P-interview took place during planning time

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APPENDIX C INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS Background/Beliefs Interview Protocol: 1. How many years have you been teaching? 2. What type of teacher education program did you attend? 3. Do you feel that your TE program prepared you for teaching? Why? Why not? 4. What part, if any, does culture play in your life? 5. We know that our experiences as children influence our decisions as adults. Can you tell me about the way you were raised? Your familys perspective on behavior and how it has influenced your ideas about behavior? 6. Tell me about your experiences in relation to classroom management when you were in elementary school. Tell me about a teacher that you considered strong and/or weak. 7. Tell me about the students you teach? (Probe for details and stories). 8. What do you consider successful classroom management? What does it look like? Sound like? 9. What do you consider to be the three most important components of successful classroom management at this school? 10. Why is successful classroom management so important to teachers? to students? 11. Do you think student culture/teacher culture plays a role in the success of classroom management? Why (If so then describe what part it plays) Why not? 12. Do you use culture to help you make decisions about classroom management? How? Post-Observation/Context Building Interview Protocol: 1. Tell me about the activity I just observed. How did it go? (probe for details about classroom management strategies, cultural understandings, etc. I noticed). 2. Did this activity go as you expected? Why/Why not? (Probe for CM details) 159

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160 3. What strategies did you use with relation to classroom management for this lesson? 4. Would you consider this activity successful in terms of classroom management? Why/Why not? What might you have done differently? 5. Did you have any concerns about behavior during this activity? 6. In terms of classroom management, have you discovered any new understandings about your students or yourself from this activity? If so, please describe the new understandings to me. Later in the data collecting process: 1. Tell me about your successes with relation to classroom management. 2. Tell me about a management dilemma that you have solved. 3. Tell me about a management dilemma with an individual student that you have solved. 4. What or who has been helpful in making sense of classroom management? 5. What are some management dilemmas you are continuing to work on? 6. How did you come to teach here? 7. What keeps you here? Member Check/ Follow-up Interview 1. After presenting a written copy of interview transcripts for the participant to review, ask have I accurately portrayed your responses to me during these interviews? Is there anything you would like to change or add to the data? 2. As I have begun to analyze my data for this project, I have identified some themes and relationships (discuss with the participant). Do these understandings fit with your experiences? 3. Tell me about your participation thus far in the study. Did my presence in your classroom affect your teaching in any way? If so, in what way/s? Is there anything I can do to make this experience better for you?

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161 How could I improve this process for future research projects?

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APPENDIX D PERSONAL ASSUMPTIONS Qualitative research does not pretend to be objective. Research is subjective and as such the researcher should explicitly describe their subjectivity (Glesne, 1999). I hope that by reading my personal stance the reader will gain a better understanding of how this research is situated in my ideas about classroom management in high poverty schools. I have been a teacher for the past decade, a facilitator in a high poverty school (this past year) and I bring the following beliefs to this research. I have been an elementary school teacher in Central Florida for ten years and have strong feelings about roles of student choice and classroom structure in effectively managed classrooms. I believe that students operate best when they are in classrooms where teachers understand, respect and listen to them. Well-managed classrooms have teachers and students who develop relationships of trust and care and where negotiation is encouraged. Students should be autonomous and have the freedom to make important decisions that pertain to them. All of this exists within a defined classroom structure negotiated between students and teacher. Some would say these beliefs would only be successful in white, middle classed schools. I have worked in high poverty schools (fourth grade and emotionally handicapped self-contained classrooms) and experienced success (little misbehavior) with these students as well. Over the past year, I have observed and interviewed teachers from a high poverty school in the Southeastern portion of the US. I have seen how the more a teacher tries to control 162

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163 students through punishment and external behavior management systems, the less choice and voice students have, and the more students are expected to conform to the teachers ideas of correct behavior, the more resistant and disconnected the students become. I have also observed teachers beginning to break this cycle of domination/resistance by incorporating more student choice and power into the classroom. My beliefs about classroom management are not fatal flaws in conducting this research. However, I must be careful to remain cognizant of my assumptions while collecting and analyzing data for this study. I will note on observations and transcriptions personal thoughts and feelings in order to continue to confront biases directly and explicitly.

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APPENDIX E EXAMPLES OF RAW DATA AND CODING PROCESS Lucy Raw DataObservation Name: Lucy Date: 8/26 Time: 7:30-9:30 All capitals= codes Kids come into class as they arrive. Are sitting in seats. Lucy puts DOL on overhead for students to fill out. As she puts it up, kids take out paper and begin working ROUTINES. Some takeout HW and put it on the desk ROUTINES. Morning announcements are pre videotaped and are mixed up. Lucy comments on it and turns off the TV. Kids seem to ignore this mix-up and continue with morning routines. ROUTINES A Parent walks their child into class and signs the planner. Lucy walks around room and stops at a table asks, why is there no one at this table working? MONITOR Student repliesI had to sharpen my pencil. Lit dont take that long. NO EXCUSES Student gets to work. Other student at table says something and Lucy responds you just stop flapping your lips. DIRECTIVE Speaker buzzes and says morning announcements will be on in a min. Lthat is too cute. HUMOR Lucy has student turn on TV for announcements. Class hears last min. of announcements. 7:50 and kids are still working on DOL while Lucy gets ready for the day and watches class MONITOR. Boy gets up to sharpen pencil another follows 164

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165 ROUTINES. Boy has tag on outside of jersey. (tag has $300.00 on it). Boy throws ball of paper across room at garbage can MISBEHAVIOR. Lucy gets in his face and says If you do that again Ill call your mama. THREAT you know I dont allow that. EXPECTATIONS He goes back to seat. Lto classIt would truly be all right if you started your work today. Ummumm. REMIND Student puts hearing aids on without comment from Lucy. Student asks for another reading comprehension sheet Lucy downloaded off the Internet about the R&B singer Allyia. LINK TO STUDENTS LIVES Lsays she will look for an extra for her CARE. Girl explains that she had done all the subtraction to find out how old she was when she died and it told at the bottom of the story. LThats all right. L(to boy) One more word and youll go to (Spec. ed) teacher. THREAT He says what? LYou been here all morning and have three words on your paper. Get to work. DIRECTIVE He looks down and begins writing on paper. Ltaking role (quietly looking at kids and writing on the attendance sheet). 16 kids are present and working on DOL (8:00) ROUTINES. LBrianne did your daddy come and pick you up yesterday? Bno. Loh. He was sitting across the street waiting but I guess you already left. He must have missed you. KNOW STUDENTS Teacher comes in to talk to Lucy. Kids ignore and keep working some are talking quietly as they work. As kids finish, they stay in seats ROUTINES. Did everybody bring a dollar for me (joke) to get my nails done? Kids laugh and sayIm not bringing a dollar so you can get your nails done. HUMOR Lhow many of you dont know your lunch number? If you went here last year, you have the same number. Chaslin saysIve had the same number since kindergarten. Llooks at her and smiles then saysOK Ill say it again. (repeats). If you

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166 dont know you r lunch number, Ill give it to you. STUDENT NEEDS 8:07 kids still working on DOL Lucy asksanybody have money for lunch or ice cream? ROUTINES Two kids bring money up. The first boy up. Lucy takes his $ then asks him to hold out his arms (shows him) then sticks post its with lunch # on them on his arms and tells him who to give them to. He goes back and passes them out. Lrecords money given. One boy sticks his post it on his forehead. Then takes it off as Lucy walks by and sticks it on his arm PROXIMITY. He walks over and asks for a pencil from a neighbor. Neighbor nods and he takes it to be sharpened. COMMUNITY (8:11). Lucy saysall right let me walk around and see how much we have done on these papers. MONITOR She walks from table to table and ummumm. Uhhhuuh. Wheres yours? Ummmumm. MONITOR Lucy closes the doors and get some papers organized from the back table. Kids are working or talking quietly all are in seats. One girl gets up and puts DOL paper in bin labeled morning work. Kevin also gets up to put his work away. ROUTINES Lucy goes over to the bin and picks up top paper and calls BoscoI dont want to drop it on the floor but I will. How would I know this is yours if I hadnt seen you put it in? EXPECTATIONS Lucy pulls Kevins paper (looks it over and realizes the multiplication is incorrect) out and says Wheres your planner? He shrugs. She says Its your planner where did you put it? They walk over to his desk. Opens the planner to the multiplication table and she shows him how to figure 5s and 6s. SCAFFOLD he smiles and says Ohhh. Then she asks him some problems and he answers correctly. She gives him his paper back and says Now you can go and fix this. EXPECTATIONS He is using the table to answer. Lif you are done, you can take out the focus books. Were gonna start with them today. EXPLICIT DIRECTIONS

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167 She holds up a pencil and asks if it is anybodys. No one raises his or her hand. Lthank you for telling the truth. It must be from another class. PRAISE Im passing around a blue and black marker so you can write your name on the outside of your books. This is so if Brienne (bree-on). Looses his book, Devante can return it. EXPLICIT DIRECTIONS Cell Phone rings. Lhold on this might be my friend. PERSONAL Stands by back door and uhh. Mmm. (seems like a serious call). Ill call you during my break. OK I can turn this of now. I was waiting on her call. Lets see whos done with their work. MONITOR About 2 min. (8:23). About 2/3 of class have focus on books on desk. They are talking quietly to each other. OK I think we should be ready. She walks by Kevin to check on his paper. MONITOR Lyou skipped something. Your one number off. MONITORING Put this away for now and well do it in a min. SUPPORT Take out your focus books now. EXPLICIT DIRECTIONS Boy says -what? LFind a book in your desk that says focus. Did anyone hear me say put your morn. work up? Yes. OK just making sure I said it. Open your book to page 32. Remember the story about the man who was sleeping? REVIEW Notices student needs a book. Gets him one. STUDENT NEEDS Now I know we read this part yesterday but please read it again to yourself. DIRECTIONS Phone rings again. Kids say Lucy your phone is ringing. As she talks, kids are in seats quietly talking quietly to each other. Lucy apologizes for the interruption. COURTESY/RESPECT [comes to tell me friend found a lump in breast and sister had cancer. She is out today at the Dr. and getting a mammogram. She is another teacher and very worried about class and open house tonight] Lucy reads story out loud. They go over the comprehension questions at the end. Asks Brianne to read question and answers. PARTICIPATE

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168 Asks class did they? Class responds in unisonyes. UNISON Asks student for answer. Lainiethe answer is I. PARTICIPATE Lteases, did you look at the answer down at the bottom now tell the truth. Lainie smiles and says no. HUMOR/TEASES LucyGood job. PRAISE Alright lets move to the next one. CUE Tabitha, would you like to read? We missed you yesterday. CARE Treads the question. It is the saying the early bird gets the worm. Lsays what does that mean? No response. Llets say you going out to get a job. You will all go out to get jobs. Who they gonna hire Pasco who is there early or someone else who shows up late and all (flops head back and spreads arms askew). Kids say early! Thats right, the early bird gets the worm. DEFINE UNFAMILIAR TERMS Moves on to next paragraph. Asks Lindsay to read sentence. PARTICIPATE Lthats a long sentence. Now pay attention, your supposed to learn something from this paragraph. CUE TO PAY ATTENTION Calls another to read. Stops and asks questions about whats read. No response. Lwe got to read again? Kids pipe up with suggestions. EXPECTATIONS Lvery good. PRAISE Clarifies some of the details. DEFINES UNFAMILIAR TERMS OK lets see what happens. ATTENTION CUE Chooses another student to read. PARTICIPATE As he stumbles over words, Lucy quietly prompts with correct word. SCAFFOLD Move on to comprehension questions. Lreads comprehension question and answers. Then directs kids to answer. Circle correct answer. Lreads answers again. If you chose a put one finger in the air B-2, C how many fingers? Students 3. DIRECTIONS Lucy looks around the room and calls out numbers MONITOR. Then gives the answer. Lpat yourself on the back. PRAISE Turn to page 34. Kevinhush.

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169 DIRECTIVE Kentrell first two sent. Please. PARTICIPATE Here is another one. Theyre going to teach you something in the paragraph. Listen. ATTENTION CUE OK Kentrell. Kbegins reading. Where the text says Help! Wolf! Wolf! He just mumbles over it. Loh no oh no. Goes to the board and writes text. Lif you walking home and see a pit bull coming at you would you say (mumbles) help dog. No everyone show me how you would say it. LINK TO LIVES Not too loudly. All saystop! Wolf! Wolf!. EXPECTATIONS Continue reading. Loh I need to stand over here (girls talking) She moves to quad and girls stop talking. PROXIMITY Calls two boys who dont know where they are. ATTENTION CUE She saysyou all need to follow along. REMIND I dont need to stand over you like 2 year olds. EXPECTATIONS Finish reading. Now lets see. Remember, you were supposed to learn something here. REMIND Who knows the story about the boy who cried wolf? (some hands go up). Has kids read answers out loud. PARTICIPATE LOk circle the answer. DIRECTIONS Walking around MONITOR LI see some good answers I see some with no answers. EXPECTATIONS Walks over to a student and has a little talk about talking during instruction. REMIND Reviews to class directions for holding up fingers for answers. REMIND Looks around and sees mostly 4s. But sees two 1s. MONITOR OK lets see what one is. Discusses the answer and why it is not the correct answer. Leads discussion to correct answer. SCAFFOLD Now let me tell you how this book works (explains set up). Please tear these blue pages out. DIRECTIONS

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170 Walks around and helps who need it. MONITOR Boy with arms in shirt. She says firmly Lyour not even trying to do it. Take your arms out of your shirt and try it. DIRECTIVE If you cant do it well help you. CARE He takes his arms out and tears out papers. Now Ill pass around a stapler and you will staple it where it says name not date. DIRECTIONS The staple goes by name. REMIND What is the first thing you will write on the paper? ALL-Name. UNISON Kentrell what are you going to write? (responds with first and last name). Lget out! (positive term) Your gonna write your last name? Alright. PRAISE Lwrites date on board. Now goes over directions with the class step by step. MODEL Discusses terms that are unfamiliar. DESCUSS UNFAMILIAR TERMS Whats a theme? Im sure I forgot. Girl responds correctly. Lget it girl. PRAISE Phone beeps. Picks phone up off students desk and says why you touch my phone? He looks puzzled. She backs up and says did I tell this class about my phone rule? Oh no? well if I put the phone on your desk thats a warning that Ill call your mama. EXPLICIT CONSEQUENCES Ok now. Lucy goes back to explaining directions. Get started. DIRECTIVE Student asks what popular means Lucy says loudly Popular means when everybody likes you. DISCUSSES UNFAMILIAR TERMS Lucy refills stapler and answers questionyou can bubble in or circle. Walks by boy talking MONITOR and says whats all the noise? Turn your chair around please. DIRECTIVE Boy gets back to work. Student who was reluctant to tear paper is not working. Lignores IGNORE. Student asks if have to do #4 (written answer).

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171 Lof course (like dah). You all getting lazy. You have to write them on the FCAT. Do it here, too. EXPECTATIONS Brianne has hand up. Lucy goes over to him and clarifies term for him. DISCUSSES UNFAMILIAR TERMS Kids working quietly. Even boy who was reluctant is now working. Lgoes and gets morning work out of the bin. Puts them in a file behind her desk. Student asks to go to the b-room. Lyes you may. He gets up and walks out of the classroom. Lucy stops at a desk and clarifies the question no no no they dont want to know the main idea. They want to know what the paragraph taught you. SCAFFOLD Student ohhh. Ok stop! Stop right now. If you dont have a capital letter at the beginning of each sentence do it right now. REMIND Stops at boys desk theyre trying to teach you something in this story. What are they trying to teach you? REMIND Boy retells story. Lasks questions. Then what do you think they are trying to teach? SCAFFOLD Still dont know. Asks more specific questions about who and what (intent of author). Boy answers correctly. Lthere you go you just need to write it. SCAFFOLD Directs students to put finished work in bin (reading). REMIND Lmake sure you do all five heres one on the back. Tabitha read with your lips together. REMIND Kentrell. What you doing? Dont dig in that desk. Finish your work. DIRECTIVE When finished, kids take out paper and draw, talk in whispers to friends. ROUTINES Kevin comes up and asks about #5. Lyou gotta tell me what you learned from the story.

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172 Lucy begins reading the story to him. Lstops and tells student to take papers off his fingers he is still working on assignment.MONITOR Lcontinues reading. Asks questions as she reads. Asks, what they trying to teach you? Kevin responds. LOk write that. Kevin hesitates. Lcan you write that? Kshakes head no. Ltakes paper and says tell me what to write. Kevin elaborates on his answer and Lucy clarifies with questions the specific lesson learned. SCAFFOLD Have your planners out please so they can be stamped. DIRECTIONS You dont need to talk just take them out. REMIND Ok lets see. MONITOR She walks around room discusses with kids MONITOR. Sends student around to collect HW. Reminds to make sure name is on it. REMIND Has a discussion with Lindsay about no HW. Says tell me you didnt have time to do it. Tell me. Ill ask your momma (works at front office). You know I will. I didnt have time. Why not? I was at the hair dresser. You could have done it while you were sitting under the dryer. You sat under the dryer right. NO EXCUSES Class is laughing. Lindsay laughs and says yeh. HUMOR Take what you need to your next class out and put it on your desk. You will not be allowed back in this class to get it. REMIND If you need HW or a folder get it out right now. Please do not have to come back in this class. Kids getting supplies out. Ready for specials. Listen. Im going to read something and theres a question for you to answer at

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173 the end. CUE TO LISTEN Reads from a book stories to solve. Standing in front of room reading. Uses fingers and head gestures to highlight important details. ACTIVE TEACHING Has kids generate answers. PARTICIPATE Discuss logic of the answers with class. SCAFFOLD She continues to repeat details. SCAFFOLD None get it. So she calls up 3 boys and explains the answer. CONCRETE EXAMPLES Ok lets do another one. Reads the story. Writes details on the board. VISUAL EXAMPLES Calls Pasco as reading to get his attention. CALL NAME Kids generate answers. PARTICIPATE Discuss the logic of answers. SCAFFOLD Kids are raising hands and so excited to give answers. ENGAGED Lmakes sure they are listening to each other. COMMUNITY Tells answer and kids dont want her to. They want to keep trying. EXCITED Lwe got to go to art. Im reading it. She reads the answer and explains it to the kids. Silence. Kidsohhh yeh. Line up for art. You probably need a pencil. REMIND Thank you John. PRAISE Line up, line up. DIRECTIVE Clean up that trash. DIRECTIVE Line up. DIRECTIVE Kids in line at the door. Some Examples of Notes from Data Collection Interview 8/26/04Student participation important Student choice Student perspective Holds students accountable Positive attitude Kids need someone like their mom (what specifically does this mean?) No excuses Connection between instruction and CM (is there literature on this?) Observation 9/2/04Great rapport with the students

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174 Lots of Round Robin reading. How to motivate and keep on task? What about those who dont want to read? Lots of monitoring used (Kounin (1970) & Emmer et al (1980) agree) Whats with the threatening but not following through? Is this a cultural strategy? Monitoring leads to re-teaching not punishment Observation 9/24/04Has a warm and caring familial way with the students Seems more organized today. Is this why lesson is smoother? Interesting talk about getting a reputation (Link to lives?) responsible for own actions? Last period is the difficult groupend of day no patience? No excuses? Why so tough on them? Lots of praise for Jimmytold all classes about achievement. Wonder what was the motivation for this? Interview 10/7/04Shows emotion (mad, frustrated, exasperated, happy, love, care)Link to Delpit (1995) and Ladson-Billings (1994) about African American students perceiving care from teachers. Knows their families Acts like Mom (Delpit like own children) High expectations (CRP literature) Different strategies for different classes (indiv. expectations?)

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APPENDIX F KATHY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES RELATIONSHIPS 36 Push/believe in students 10 Building a Community 11 Humor 1 Part of the community 5 Assessable to students 6 Human 3 CURRICULUM/INSTRUCTION CONNECTION 214 Success is 9 Engaged/on task 9 Encourage/Motivate 59 Second chance 13 Scaffolding 14 Define unfamiliar terms 3 Praise 25 Advanced organizer 4 Active Learning 46 Fun/participation 15 Autonomy/choice 3 Songs/movement/music 4 Call/response 5 Unison/choral response 5 Cooperative learning 14 Active Teaching 86 Visual examples 11 Model 5 Re-teach/review 14 Explicit directions 26 Explicit teaching 13 Creative/clever/ challenging pedagogy & Curriculum 12 Pace (dont waste time) 5 Connections to home 5 Code switching 5 175

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176 DEAL WITH MISBEHAVIORS 224 Monitoring 38 Misbehavior is 32 Ignore Misbehaviors 5 Ignore 5 Prompt 56 Wait/Pause 7 Proximity 4 Gesture 15 Attention cue 30 Warning (Momma Mode) 51 Directives 41 Threaten 10 Consequence 4 Move seat 3 Send out of room 1 RULES, ROUTINES, AND BEHAVIORS 135 Explicit expectations 10 Remind/practice 62 Balance freedom and structure 14 Routines 20 Hand up/mouths closed 5 Homework 5 Time warning 10 Reinforcing 29 Positive reinforcement 25 External rewards 4 TOTAL 571

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APPENDIX G LUCY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES RELATIONSHIPS 219 Sense of Community 23 Connecting with Students 52 treat as own 23 know family 13 part of the community 16 Human 47 teacher as friend 3 assessible 4 trust 1 humor 20 accepting 1 tease 12 emotion 6 Believe in Students 97 no excuses 17 high expectations 31 firm 2 goal for students 1 care 21 fair 2 CURR.INST. CONNECTION 313 Success Is 9 on task 2 engaged 2 orderly 2 not always quiet 1 organized 2 Encourage/Motivate 115 encourages students 10 praise 38 OK make mistakes 6 2nd chance 5 scaffold 27 extra credit 2 177

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178 positive reinforcement 8 Guided Practice 19 Active Learning 54 student participate 28 student model 9 choral response 7 call/response 6 cooperative work 4 Active Teaching 99 re-teach/model 10 explicit/directive directions 14 visual examples 11 link to st. lives 6 link HW to class 5 link to background knowledge 3 explain unfam. Terms 21 Focus on the Indiv. 36 indiv. Inst. 3 Indiv. needs 7 indiv. Pace 12 choice 2 autonomy 12 DEAL WITH MISBEHAVIORS 240 Misbehavior is... 8 immature 8 Nip in the Bud 59 proximity 6 monitor 53 Prompt/Redirect 89 remind 26 explicit consequences 9 assigned seats 4 cue/attention 10 cue/task 1 cue/name 9 quiet strategy 3 Warning "Momma Mode" 75 directive 35 threaten 28 mad 6 sarcastic 6 Consequences 9 separate 1 change seats 2 isolate 1

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179 out of room (centrium) 4 office 1 RULES, ROUTINES, BEHAVIORS 76 Remind 26 Positive reinforcement 19 external rewards 14 Routines 11 CM Individual 6 TOTAL 848

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APPENDIX H SUSIE: OBSERVATIONAL CODES RELATIONSHIPS 54 Relationship/consideration 52 care 21 humor 8 community 3 Focus on the individual 2 know kids 1 individual expectations 0 fair 1 CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION CONNECTION 509 Success is... 17 engaged/on task 12 prepared 5 Encourage/Motivate 187 OK to make mistakes 4 second chance 8 scaffold 21 define unfamiliar terms 8 praise 118 responsive curr. 3 positive 2 advanced organizer 23 Active Learning 155 practice 2 fun 10 autonomy 8 choice 21 participate 60 songs/music/movement 30 cooperative work 2 unison/choral response 20 call/response 2 Active Teaching 160 assessing learning/monitoring 28 visual cues 4 180

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181 visual examples 10 model/reteach 19 review 14 intonation 14 explicit directions 58 explicit teaching 1 pace 12 Connections to Home 7 links school to home 7 DEAL WITH MISBEHAVIORS 355 Automaticity 2 Misbehavior is 45 Ignore Misbehavior 5 ignore 5 Prompt 207 wait/pause 10 visual cue/gesture 26 attention cue 88 remind/repeat 83 Warning 78 threat 20 directive 58 Consequence 18 move to another seat/move away 9 pull card 9 RULES, ROUTINES, AND BEHAVIORS 169 Explicit expectations/student responsibility 44 Reinforcing 54 external rewards 16 praise2 38 Routines 71 time warning 13 123 Sit Smart 17 countdown 25 general 16 TOTAL 1087

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183 Brophy, J.E. (1988). Educating teachers about managing classrooms and students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(1), 1-18. Brophy, J.E. (1996). Teaching problem students. New York: Guilford. Brophy, J.E. & Good, T. (2000). Looking in classrooms (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Brophy, J.E & McCaslin, N. (1992). Teachers reports of how they perceive and cope with problem students. Elementary School Journal, 93, 3-68. Brown, D.F. (2002). Becoming a successful urban teacher. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Brown, D.F. (2003). Urban teachers use of culturally responsive management strategies. Theory Into Practice, 42(4), 277-86. Canter, L. (1976). Assertive Discipline. Los Angeles: Lee Canter Associates. Cazden, C. (1999). Foreword. In C. Ballenger, Teaching other peoples children: Literacy and learning in a bilingual classroom. New York: Teachers College Press. Charney, R.S. (2002). Teaching children to care. Greenfield, MA: NEFC. Clark, R. (2004). The Essential 55. New York: Hyperion Books. Cotton, H. (2001). Schoolwide and classroom discipline. School Improvement Research Series. Retrieved June 3, 2004 from http://nwrel.org Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). How teacher education matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 166-173. Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 6-13. Deasy, R.J. (Ed.) (2002). Critical links: Learning in the arts and student academic and social development. Arts Education Partnership (p. 1-172). Retrieved May 25, 2005, from http://aep-arts.org/PDF%20files/Criticallinks.pdf Delpit, L. (1995). Other peoples children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York, New York: The New Press. Delpit, L. & Dowdy, J.K. (Eds.). The skin that we speak. New York: New York Press.

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184 Doyle, W. (1989). Classroom management techniques. In Moles, O.C. (ed.) Strategies to Reduce Student Misbehavior (pp. 11-31). Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Emmer, E., Evertson, C., & Anderson, L. (1980). Effective classroom management at the beginning of the school year. Elementary School Journal, 80(5), 219-231. Evertson, C.M., Emmer, E.T., & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom management for elementary teachers (6th edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Everston, C. & Harris, A. (1992). Synthesis of research: What we know about managing classrooms. Educational Leadership, 49, 74-78. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2003). What new teachers need to learn. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 25-29. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106-117. Geertz, G. (1979). From natives point of view: On the nature of anthropological understanding. In P. Rainbow & W.M. Sullivan (Eds.), Interpretive social science: A reader (pp. 225-241). Berkeley : University of California Press. Glasser, W. (1990). The quality school: Managing students without coercion. New York: Harper and Row. Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. Gordon, G. (1999). Teacher talent and urban schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 81, 304-306. Guba, E.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research (1st ed.), (pp. 105-117). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hale-Benson, J.E. (1986). Black children: Their roots, culture, and learning styles (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Diane Beth Marks was born in Hollywood, Florida, September 21, 1967. She began her education at a brand new science and math magnet school called Nova. Diane graduated from Nova High School in May 1985 and set off for the unknown north to earn her bachelors degree in elementary education from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in May 1989. Diane then headed back to the warmth of her family and the Sunshine State and attended the masters program at Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida. She earned her masters in elementary education in 1991 and began looking for a teaching position as the nation was experiencing a serious recession. Diane found work as an elementary teacher at a low SES predominately African American school in Orlando, Florida. The next year, Diane was hired as a kindergarten teacher at the Kenworthy School in Maitland, Florida, where she stayed for the next two years. Finally, Diane found her niche at The Hebrew Day School in Maitland, Florida, where she taught several different grades over the next seven years. While at the Hebrew Day School, Diane enjoyed teaching kindergarten, was team leader, Technology Assistant, and Judaica leader for grades K-2. Diane left the Hebrew Day School to enter the doctoral program at the University of Florida in 2001. While at UF Diane was involved in a multitude of projects including, co teaching a masters level intern course and an undergraduate Core Classroom Management course, providing a financial literacy grant to staff and students in a low 191

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192 SES elementary school, co-facilitating staff development for teachers working in a local low SES school, and working with a novice teacher group. Diane is not only interested in working with teachers and students but is committed to staying abreast of current research that will aid her own work and that of the students and teachers she meets with. To this end, Diane is an active member of the American Educational Research Association, the International Reading Association, and the Florida Association of Teacher Educators. In the future, Diane would like to continue her work to improve teacher efficacy and student achievement by working in schools to support teachers and working with university preservice teachers.


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Title: Culture and Classroom Management: Grounded Theory from a High Poverty Predominantly African American Elementary School
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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CULTURE AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: GROUNDED THEORY FROM A
HIGH POVERTY PREDOMINATELY AFRICAN AMERICAN ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL















By

DIANE B. MARKS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005


































Copyright 2005

by

Diane B. Marks

































Maxwell and Caroline Marks who began the dream. Joseph Marks who provided for the
dream. Susan Marks who supported the dream. This is for you.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I must admit that the doctoral program and the process of creating this dissertation

have changed my life and the way I understand the world around me. My life as a

doctoral student has been filled with excitement, awe, anxiety, sadness, and a great deal

of satisfaction. There have been many people along the way who shared these feelings

with me and who I hope are aware of the impact they have had on my life. As I complete

this chapter of my life and move on to a new one, I want to thank them all one more time.

First I would like to thank Dr. Dorene Ross who has played a large part in my

experiences at UF. As my professor, she always inspired me to push to the next level and

never accept the status quo. As my mentor with the Lastinger Fellows she was incredibly

generous with her time and expertise. I learned so much from those long discussions we

had nearly every week for two years. As my chairperson, she helped me fashion a

doctoral program that was meaningful to me while at the same time encouraged me to try

new things. Throughout the dissertation process, she was invaluable as a teacher, mentor,

editor, and friend. Her continued support and unwavering belief in my abilities have

meant so much as I faced each new challenge. I would like to thank Dr. Ross for inviting

me to play.

I would like to thank my other committee members for their unique contributions to

my success. I thank Dr. Pringle, who showed me how one can walk the walk and not just

talk the talk. She is an inspiration. I thank Dr. Bondy, the world of critical theory was

exciting to explore and discuss. It changed my life. I thank Dr. Correa, every time we









talked I learned to see the issue from a new perspective. Her help and guidance with my

first attempts at research were greatly appreciated. Finally, I thank Dr. George, from

whom I learned so much. His generosity in allowing me to share his Core Classroom

Management class last spring was greatly appreciated.

I would also like to thank the three brave teachers who opened their classrooms to

me for the first three months of the school year. I learned so much from observing their

practice and discussing teaching with them. Their commitment to providing quality

education to their students is inspirational to educators everywhere.

Along the way there have been friends and family who have had to rearrange plans

or adjust to less "visit time" with me. They never complained and always supported my

commitment to this project. Cynthia, without her calming common sense perspective I

would be lost. Cindy, who is always ready to cut loose and forget about worries, Brenda,

who is only a phone call away. And my nephews, Andrew and Anthony I thank them for

understanding even when we celebrated their birthdays three weeks late. I am grateful to

my friends and family all for their love and support.

My parents, Nanny, and Sandy (my fan club) were always there for me no matter

what and celebrated the good times while supporting me through the tough times. And

finally, I thank Sneakers, my cat, whose warm furry body and comforting purrs kept me

company those many days and nights I was away from home.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................... .... .... x

ABSTRACT .............. .................. .......... .............. xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

State ent of the P problem .................................................................................. 1
Purpose of the Study ............... ................ .................................. .3
D definition of T erm s ................... .... ............................ ...... ........ .......... .......

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................ ......................... 6

C classroom M anagem ent ............................................................... ....................... 7
Towards a Definition................... .... .. .... .. ...........................7
What is it that Successful Classroom Managers Do? .........................................9
Culturally R esponsive Pedagogy ...................................... .............. ................ .. ... 17
Toward an Inclusive Environm ent ............................. ..... ...................... 19
Culturally Responsive Instruction .............................................................. 19
Caring in a Culturally Diverse Classroom.........................................................21
Culturally Responsive Classroom M anagement.............................. ............... 23
Recognition of One's Own Ethnocentrism and Biases ....................................24
Understanding of the Broader Social, Economic, and Political Context of Our
E educational System ................................... ............... ... .. ... ...... ........ 25
Knowledge of Students' Cultural Backgrounds and Ability and Willingness
to Use Culturally Appropriate Classroom Management Strategies.................25
Commitment to Building Caring Classroom Communities .............................27

3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY............................... 31

T h eoretical P ersp ectiv e ..................................................................... .... .......... .. ..... 3 1
Interpretivism ..................................................................... 32
G rounded T heory ............. ........................................................... ....... .. .. .. 33
M methodology ............... ..... ............. ......... .............. ........... 34
R research Q questions ..................... .... ......................... ........ .. ............ .... 34









C context of the Study .......... .... .. .... ............ ......................... .... 35
P articip an ts ................................................................3 6
D description of Participants ........................................................... ..................... 38
Data Collection .................. ........ ................ 39
D ata A n a ly sis ................................................................................................. 4 3
Trustw orthiness of the Study ......................................................... .............. 45
Conventions of the Language........................................................... ... .......... 48
Presentation of Findings ......................................................... .............. 48

4 K A TH Y : TH E M AESTRO ............................................... ............................ 50

Relationships ........... .......... ..... .................... 51
Belief in Students .......... ...... .......................... .... ...... .. ........... ...... 52
Com munity of Respect and Care.................. ...... ...... ........... .................. 54
Being Accessible to Students Both Inside and Outside of School ....................55
Rules, Procedures, and R outines ........................................ .......................... 59
Explicit Instruction ............................................... .... .... .. ........ .... 59
Remind, Rem ind, Remind ...........................................................................61
Positive R einforcem ent ............................................... ............................ 62
Curriculum and Instruction........................................ ................. ............... 64
Encourage and Motivate Students.................. .... .......... ...............64
A ctiv e L earn in g ............... .................................................. ........ .. .... .6 7
A ctiv e T teaching ............ ... ........................................................ .......... ...... 70
M isbehavior and D discipline ....................................................................... 71
Ignore M isb behavior .............................. ........................ .. ........ .... ............72
Prom pt/R direct ...................................................... ... ......... .... 72
M om m a M ode .................................... ..... .......... ...... ........ .. 74
C on sequ en ces ...............................................................7 7

5 LUCY: PART OF THE FAMILY............................................................ .......... 80

R e la tio n sh ip s ........................................... .. .......................................................... 8 3
Connecting with Students.............................................. .. ........... .... 84
B being H um an ......................................86.............................
B eliev e in Stu d ents .............. .................................................. .......... .... 8 8
Rules, Procedures, and R outines ........................................ .......................... 91
Practicing Routines.......... ..... ............ ........ .... ....... ...... .... .. ............. 91
Praise and Positive Reinforcem ent............................................................. 92
E xternal R ew ards........... ............................................................... .... .... ... .. 93
C curriculum and Instruction .............................................................. .....................94
E ncourage/M otivate ................................................. ............................... 95
A active L earning ...........................................................................................98
A ctive T teaching ........... .......................................................... .. .... ..... ... 100
M isbehavior and D discipline ......................................................... .............. 102
N ip in the B ud ....................................................................103
Prom pt/R direct .......................................................... .. ....... .... 105
M om m a M ode .......................................................... .. ............ 106









Consequences ......................................... ................... .... ....... 107

6 SU SIE:M OTHER DU CK .......................................................... ............... 10

R relationships ................................................................ ......112
Caring ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 112
Building a Com m unity ......................................................... .............. 113
R ules, Procedures, and R outines .................................. ........................... .. ......... 115
Practicing R outines ........................................................................ 116
Praise and R einforcem ent............................................................. ............... 117
External Rew yards ............................................. ... .......... .... ........ 118
C urriculum and Instruction ......... ................................................... ............... 119
Active Learning ................... .... ................ .................... ............. 19
A ctiv e T teaching ............ ... ...................................................... ........ ........ 122
E encouraging Students ......... ................... ................................. ............... 124
M isbehavior and D discipline ......................................................... .............. 127
Ignore B behavior ...................................................... .. .......... .. 127
Prom pt ................................. .......................... .... .... ......... 128
W warning ................................. .......................... .... ... ......... 129
Consequences ......... ..................... ...... ..................130

7 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .........................................132

Extending the Theoretical Framework for Classroom Management: The
Centrality of Relationships ........................................136
R elation ship s ............... ........ .... ........ ..... ....................136
Creating a Climate Where Academic Goals Are a Priority .............................139
Approaches to Inappropriate Behavior .............................................................143
Implications ....................................... ... .... .....................148
Implications for Preservice and Inservice Teacher Educators ........................149
Implications for Further Research ........................................152

APPENDIX

A IN F O R M E D C O N SE N T .................................................................................... 155

B DATA M ANAGEM ENT LOG ................................................................. 157

C INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS ............................................................. .............159

D PERSONAL ASSUM PTION S ........................ ......................................162

E EXAMPLES OF RAW DATA AND CODING PROCESS ................................... 164

F KATHY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES ................................... ............... 175

G LUCY: OBSERVATIONAL CODES .............................................................. 177









H SUSIE: OBSERVATIONAL CODES ............................ ................................. 180

LIST OF REFEREN CES ....................................................................... ............... 182

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH .................................... ............ ......................................191
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

1 Observational time spent with participants and pages transcribed from
observations ........... .... ............................................ .... .... ........ 40

2 Interview time spent with participants and pages transcribed from interviews .......42















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

CULTURE AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: GROUNDED THEORY FROM A
HIGH POVERTY PREDOMINATELY AFRICAN AMERICAN ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL

By

Diane B. Marks

December 2005

Chair: Dorene Ross
Cochair: Rose Pringle
Major Department: Teaching and Learning

In public schools today, teachers and students alike are experiencing a great deal of

frustration and failure. Classrooms are becoming increasingly diverse while teacher

populations remain predominately white, middle class and female. The cultural

disconnect between teacher and student often results in behavioral problems. Teachers

report that their number one concern in classrooms today is classroom management. The

purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs, understandings, and pedagogy of

teachers who were considered effective classroom managers. The guiding questions for

this research were:

Research Question 1. How do effective teachers working in a low SES,

predominantly African American school context:

* Define classroom management
* Establish classroom culture (community, rules procedures, etc.)
* Define misbehavior









* Address misbehavior

Research Question 2. What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon?

Grounded theory research methodology was used to study three teachers during the

first three months of the 2004-2005 school year. Data sources for the participants

consisted of observations and interviews. From these data, three cases were constructed

to describe the participants' practice and their understandings in relation to classroom

management.

Each case showed the teachers had unique ways of managing their classes but one

abiding theory emerged in all three cases: Student-teacher relationships were at the

center of all pedagogy and teacher decisions. The teachers did not subscribe to a "one

size fits all" theory of classroom management. Instead, they used the understandings

they had gained from their relationships with students to best engage and deal with

student misbehavior.

Preservice and inservice teacher educators can help novice teachers be more

effective managers in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms in four ways:

connect theory to practice, be a warm demander in university courses, model culturally

responsive pedagogy, and cultivate communities of learners who examine their practice

and seek to learn about themselves and their students. With skillful scaffolding,

preservice and inservice teachers can learn to create caring relationships that provide all

students with an equal opportunity to learn.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

Teacher Shortage! Emergency Certification Needed! No Teachers to Fill

Classrooms! Local newspapers and magazines report teacher shortages with increasing

fever. What is going on? Are we in the midst of an educational crisis, as the media

would have us think? Who will be teaching our children? These are but a few of the

questions I am asked when people learn that I am a teacher. As I am often in a social

situation, my response is brief (and often found to be confusing) when I say that the

answer is both yes and no.

As with many other matters in America where there is famine in one household,

others are feasting. In some areas (often suburban), there are waiting lists for teachers to

find employment. However, in other areas (usually urban and poor), schools struggle to

fill classrooms with any available warm body. The warm bodies found to fill these very

challenging positions are often novice teachers with provisional credentials and high

ideals for their first "real" teaching experience (Darling-Hammond, 2003).

When novice teachers are hired at high poverty urban schools, they find that their

image of the context and the reality of that context are very different indeed (Feiman-

Nemser, 2003). Novice teachers are often given a full teaching load, are expected to take

part in several committee groups, and are measured for efficacy with the same ruler as

veteran teachers (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Renard, 2003). These are high expectations

for novice teachers and little support is given to help them achieve these lofty goals.









Inexperienced teachers are often left to sink or swim (Feiman-Nemser, 2003; Renard,

2003).

According to attrition studies, about one-third of new teachers leave the profession

within the first five years (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Wilkins-Canter, Edwards, Young,

Ramanathan, & McDougle, 2000) with teacher turnover in high poverty schools 50%

higher than in low poverty schools (Ingersoll, 2001). The continuous influx of novice

teachers does not allow expertise to develop and in the end greatly reduces overall

educational productivity. As Darling-Hammond (2003) succinctly stated, "The education

system never gets a long-term payoff from its investment in novices who leave" (p. 7).

The move from the teacher education program to a classroom in a high poverty

elementary school comes with a steep learning curve. As they begin their journey into the

world of teaching, novice teachers must simultaneously tackle issues of curriculum,

instruction, assessment, management, school culture and the larger community (Feiman-

Nemser, 2003). Often, novice teachers in high poverty schools experience more stresses

and more demanding workloads than their counterparts in middle class schools (Feiman-

Nemser, 2003; Renard, 2003). Working conditions in low-wealth schools are more

difficult than in schools with middle to upper class populations and teachers in high

poverty schools have less influence over school decisions. As if these challenges are not

enough, many novice teachers have limited experiences with diverse cultures and

struggle to make sense of their classroom experiences (Feiman-Nemser, 2003). While

novice teachers struggle (often alone) to master the many new skills their teaching

assignments require, they are being evaluated and assessed with the same criteria as the

veteran teachers who have had years to develop these skills (Huberman, 1989). The









novice teacher feels alone, isolated and overwhelmed. These feelings of failure and

frustration drive some of the brightest and best teaching candidates from the field and

continue the cycle of teacher induction in high poverty schools (Ladson-Billings, 2001).

The constant churning from novice teachers entering the teaching pool is catching

students in an undercurrent of inexperience and professional naivete. Classroom

management is one of the novice teacher's greatest concerns (Jones, 1996; Ladson-

Billings, 2001; Renard, 2003). About one half of novice teachers report that their teacher

education program did a fair or a poor job of preparing them to deal effectively with

student discipline (Ladson-Billings, 2001). In their study of 17 novice teachers, Mastrilli

and Sardo-Brown (2002) found that 12 of the 17 novice teachers solved their

management dilemmas with behavioral strategies. These included the combination of

positive reinforcement, individual behavior modification plans, ignoring negative student

behavior, individual reward charts, and changing the setting of the classroom. In

discussions about the chosen solutions, nearly half of the teachers who chose to employ

behavioral solutions indicated that they were unsuccessful.

Research is needed to examine what is happening in culturally diverse, high

poverty classrooms where teachers report success with classroom management. Merely

describing what is happening is not enough. Some explanation for why and how it is

working in these situations is needed so teacher educators can help preservice teachers

understand not just the strategies but the underlying theory that drives successful

classroom management in high poverty schools.

Purpose of the Study

In public education today, novice teachers are often placed in the most challenging

contexts with little or no support. They are given a great deal of responsibility and are









expected to succeed at veteran levels as they enter the field. As novice teachers struggle

to make sense of their experiences, they feel isolated, overwhelmed, and frustrated.

Classroom management is a main concern for novice teachers who understand that

without successful management, learning cannot occur in the classroom. Management is

based on the teachers' assumptions and understandings about what is normal and often

reflects the mainstream perspective. In classrooms today where cultural and linguistic

diversity accounts for an average of half the student body and in some areas 70% to 90%,

novice assumptions about behavior and management can cause cultural

misunderstandings and exacerbate management problems. Novice teachers are at a loss

as to how to manage culturally and linguistically diverse students successfully. In the

end, teachers leave the field and students turn off to school.

In teacher education programs across the country, preservice teachers are enrolled

in classroom management courses where they are taught a variety of ways to prevent and

react to student misbehavior. Students are often provided with numerous theories and

practical applications for research-based practice and given opportunities to work with

cooperating teachers to observe management strategies in action. With this preparation,

teachers are still struggling to manage students and engage them in learning. What is it

that effective managers can teach us about classroom management in culturally diverse

contexts?

This study was designed to look closely at effective managers working in low SES,

predominately African American contexts. The following questions were explored:

Question 1: How do effective teachers working in a low SES predominately African

American school context:









* Define classroom management
* Establish classroom culture (community, rules, and procedures, etc.)
* Deal with misbehaviors
* What is defined as misbehavior?
* What approaches or strategies are used to remedy misbehavior?

Question 2: What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon?

Definition of Terms

The definitions given here are not definitive or considered the only way to

understand the concepts. The definitions are given to clarify for readers what is meant in

this study by the terms used.

* Effective classroom managers are defined as teachers who demonstrate "a variety
of knowledge and skills that allow them to structure the physical class environment
effectively, establish rules and procedures, develop relationships with children, and
maintain attention and engagement in academic activities" (LePage, Darling-
Hammond, Akar, Gutierrez, Jenkins-Gunn & Rosebrock, 2005, p. 330).

* Culture is used to describe certain beliefs, customs, practices and social behavior
held by particular groups or group of people.

* The terms Routines and procedures are often used in this study together. Routine
is defined as "a prescribed, detailed course of action to be followed regularly; a
standard procedure" and a procedure is defined as "a particular way of
accomplishing or of acting" (Merriam-Webster, 2005).














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The purpose of this study was to examine how novice teachers working in a high

poverty, predominately African American elementary school utilized a variety of

strategies to successfully manage their classrooms. Specifically, teacher actions and the

motivations, assumptions, and understandings behind these actions were explored as the

novice teachers began the year and implemented their management plans. To better

interpret and understand the collected data, a review of the literature was conducted

before, during and after the data collection process.

On bookshelves today, there is a plethora of literature concerning classroom

management. One can find everything from top-selling texts like Ron Clark's Essential

55 to Cotton's 2001 meta-analysis of 60 studies focused on school-wide discipline and

management. Unfortunately, much of the literature provides recipe style how to manuals

giving readers rules to follow, tricks to try, and reward systems that range from a simple

ticket system to highly complex systems with levels of rewards and numerous procedures

for earning them. These self-help manuals have some useful ideas that may or may not

work in a specific context but give little insight into the research or theoretical base that

supports each practice. This literature review focuses on frequently cited, research-based

studies around the constructs of classroom management, culturally relevant pedagogy,

and culturally relevant classroom management. The classroom management literature

suggests the core components of well-managed classrooms. Literature on culturally

relevant pedagogy and culturally relevant classroom management provide additional









insights about the ways that culture can be systematically addressed in classrooms in

order to motivate and engage culturally and linguistically diverse students. This literature

review provides a multi-dimensional picture of successful classroom management

understandings to date.

Classroom Management

To begin the journey into classroom management, let us begin with the following

questions: What is classroom management? Is classroom management concerned with

preventing misconduct or punishing it? Classroom management means different things

to different people. Is a well-managed classroom one where students are silent for much

of the day (including lunch) and sit in their seats completing work assigned by the

teacher? Or is a well-managed classroom one where students are working cooperatively,

discussing opinions, and asking thoughtful questions? These are questions one must

address in reading the research about classroom management because what can seem to

be a well-managed classroom to one person can seem stifling or disordered to another.

Much depends on one's beliefs and perspectives about teaching, learning, social justice,

and discipline.

Towards a Definition

As discussed above, defining classroom management is not simple because one's

definition is based on a theoretical perspective. In the 1960's and early 1970's the focus

in psychology and management was centered on understanding students' problems and

helping them understand their problems and work to develop more productive behaviors.

Another perspective in the mid-1970's found that adults were more concerned with

controlling the disruptive misbehavior of students and teachers and were instructed to use

more behavioristic management strategies to control students (Canter, 1976; Jones,









1987). Behaviorists believed that discipline is external and controlled by the teacher and

is characterized by operant conditioning and behavior modification.

Yet Kounin (1970) found another perspective. He found that there was a definite

relationship between teachers' management and instructional actions and students'

classroom behaviors. Interestingly, in this study, thousands of hours of well-managed

classrooms were videotaped and subsequently analyzed to see how teachers reacted when

students misbehaved. No differences were noted. However, significant differences were

found in how teachers acted prior to student misbehavior. These findings turned the

classroom management focus from the student to the teacher and from teacher reaction to

teacher action. Brophy (1988) defined classroom management as

actions taken to create and maintain a learning environment conductive to
attainment of the goals of instruction (arranging the physical environment of the
classroom, establishing rules and procedures, maintaining attention to lessons, and
engagement in academic activities). (p. 2)

Subsequent research found that creating and maintaining a learning environment

conductive to the attainment of instructional goals includes more than arranging the

physical environment or establishing rules and routines. Charney (2002) who wrote from

her experiences teaching for 30 years explained that a learning environment must include

empathy as well as structure. This empathy will help teachers to know their students

more thoroughly, to understand their perspectives, and in the end to meet their needs

betteras a learner. Marzano (2003) supported the importance of empathy in classroom

management. In this meta-analysis of more than 100 studies, high quality teacher-student

relationships were found to be the foundation for successful classroom management.

They define high quality relationships in terms of teacher behaviors that are characterized

by the following: appropriate levels of dominance, appropriate levels of cooperation, and









an awareness of high-needs students. Teachers who demonstrated these behaviors and

had quality relationships with their students had 31% fewer discipline problems over a

year's time than their counterparts who did not have quality relationships with their

students.

It is clear that current research supports the claim that classroom management is

more than reacting to student misbehavior or providing external incentives to promote

compliant behavior. In today's schools, successfully managed classrooms are created

and maintained by teachers who have "a variety of knowledge and skills that allow them

to structure the physical class environment effectively, establish rules and procedures,

develop relationships with children, and maintain attention and engagement in academic

activities" (LePage, Darling-Hammond, Akar, Gutierrez, Jenkins-Gunn & Rosebrock,

2005, p. 330).

What is it that Successful Classroom Managers Do?

In the past three decades, several landmark research studies provided critical insight

into the differences between well-managed and poorly managed classrooms. Kounin

(1970) began with several studies including college students, kindergarten students, boys

in summer camp, high school students, and a video-taped study of 30 elementary

classrooms from middle-class suburbs. While he was looking for information on desist

techniques he found evidence that changed the way classroom management was

understood. Most importantly, Kounin found that it was not what the more effective

teachers did to address misbehavior (desist techniques) but that effective teachers worked

to prevent misbehaviors. Kounin found that effective managers used overlapping, and

had what he called 1 iirime,,\\ where the teacher was able to communicate to the student

by her actual behavior that she knew what the children were doing. In addition, effective









managers were skillful in managing movement in their classrooms by keeping the

momentum up and transitions smooth.

Ten years later, Emmer, Evertson and Anderson (1980) conducted a study with 27

third grade teachers in eight elementary schools (four of which were Title 1 and the other

four served populations from upper-lower to lower-middle class students). This study

focused on what effective and ineffective managers did in the beginning of the school

year to set up rules and classroom procedures. Results were consistent with previous

research and Emmer et al. (1980) found that effective managers were leaders who

assertively managed behavior and instruction, planned for student concerns and were

skillful in dealing with constraints. In the first days of school, effective teachers had a

workable system of rules and procedures that they taught to their students and carefully

monitored students as they worked to master the new rules and routines. Misbehavior

was stopped sooner than in ineffectively managed classrooms, and consequences were

clear and applied consistently in effectively managed classrooms.

Bohn, Roehrig, and Pressley (2004) extended this line of research when they

observed the practice of six primary school teachers (all white) in five schools (upper

middle class to middle class) during the first few weeks of school. Of the six teachers

observed, Bohn et al. found that two were effective managers while the others were

considerably less effective. Findings from this study were consistent with Emmer et al.

(1980) in that effective teachers were clear in communicating classroom routines so that

students could learn them, closely monitored students and responded to their needs,

provided many opportunities for students to succeed, rewarded them often, and provided

a positive environment with less criticism and punishment. In addition to these findings









that concur with previous studies, Bohn et al. found that the effective teachers in their

study also showed a great deal of enthusiasm for teaching and learning, provided a great

deal of both teacher and student modeling, encouraged self-regulation, and explicitly

taught routines and procedures to students.

In the sections that follow, the principles of strong classroom management reported

by these researchers and supported by subsequent research are described.

Research provides evidence that it is the teacher who creates and maintains an

environment where students are well behaved and successful but what does this look

like? Are there some general themes or components in what successful teachers do to

promote an environment where students demonstrate desired behaviors? In the past two

decades researchers examined this question and found that effective classroom managers

create an environment conducive to academic learning, provide challenging and

interesting instruction, and build strong teacher-student relationships.

Classroom environment When one first begins discussing the classroom

environment within the context of classroom management, room set up comes to mind.

Indeed room set up is crucial to classroom management and successful managers know

that it is important to keep traffic areas clear, make materials and supplies accessible, and

to keep instructional and work areas clear so both students and teachers are able to see

each other (Everston, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003). Classrooms also need to reflect and

facilitate the types of instruction used most often. Teachers who use small group learning

circles, provide inquiry-based science or math activities, or use learning centers need

specific physical accommodations within their classrooms (Randolph & Everston, 1994).









Beyond the physical accommodations, teachers must think of the ways in which

students will interact within the classroom. Will students sit in their seats quietly and

wait for materials to be distributed or will students get their own materials? How are

bathroom and drink breaks to be performed? Will students hand in their homework and

folders or will the teacher or student collect them each day? There is no one right way to

answer these questions and successful managers implement many different rules and

routines for students to follow. What is common among successful managers is that they

spend a great deal of time at the beginning of the year explicitly teaching, practicing, and

reinforcing classroom rules and routines (Bohn Roehrig, & Pressley, 2004; Emmer

Evertson, & Anderson, 1980; Sanford, Emmer, & Clements, 1983). Rules and routines

must be explicitly taught to students, and simply telling them the rules and routines is not

enough. Students will be more able to perform expected behaviors when they understand

the rule or routine and are given some time to practice the new routine before

consequences are implemented (Everston, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003).

Knowing how long to reinforce and practice rules and routines before

consequences are used is one part of what Kounin (1970) called ii iiilinc\\ In his study,

Kounin defined this term as the teacher knowing what is going on in the classroom and

with the students and the ability to communicate this knowledge to the students.

Teachers who are successful managers know that to stay in i/h it they must continuously

monitor their students and respond to their needs and concerns. In their observational

study of six primary teachers (all white) from five schools (upper middle class),

contrasting effective managers with ineffective managers, Bohn et al. (2004) found that

teachers spent a great deal of their time monitoring their students and often used the









information gathered from monitoring to direct instruction, change rules and procedures,

or to redirect students. Emmer et al. (1980) found that successful teachers perceived how

students felt about the classroom and this knowledge was used to make decisions about

which rules and procedures they would teach first in order to set in place a sense of safety

and order.

In responding to perceived student needs, teachers who are effective managers are

less likely to punish or criticize students and more likely to praise positive behaviors,

remind and redirect students who are off task (Cotton, 2001). This is not to say that

students who are misbehaving are ignored. Effective managers enforce classroom rules

promptly, consistently, and equitably (Brophy, 1983; Doyle, 1989). They are credible and

perceived as the authority in the classroom. These teachers are not authoritarian in a

negative sense (forceful control or command over others) but are skillful in providing

clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both behavior and academics (Marzano &

Marzano, 2003).

Instruction In the current environment of high stakes testing it is apparent that

academic achievement is often considered the ultimate goal of education and students

must be engaged and on task in order to reach this goal. The connection between

instructional strategies and classroom management often was perceived as linear with

well-behaved students attending to instruction. But in fact, the connection between

instruction and classroom management is cyclical with engaging and appropriate

pedagogy creating an environment where students' time on task is high and behavior

problems are low (Evertson, & Harris, 1992).









Emmer et al. (1980) found that more effective teachers communicated clear

directions and instructions more skillfully to their students, used more effective materials,

and kept the pace of the classroom brisk with smooth transitions and little time wasted.

In Cotton's 2001 meta analysis of 60 documents she found that effective management

was linked to smoothness and momentum in lessons and also found that stimulating

seatwork that provided students with a variety of challenging activities was an important

component in successful management. Evertson et al. (2003) concurred that the majority

of behavior problems arose while students were working individually at their seats.

When the work was too easy or boring or the work was too hard, students became

disengaged and behavior issues ensued. Similarly, in a study of fifth-and sixth-grade

science classes, Blumenfeld, Puro, and Mergendoller (1992) found that cognitive

motivation was higher when teachers focused lessons on development of understanding

and moved students forward with feedback, participation, and scaffolding. Appropriately

leveled, varied, and stimulating instruction is the key to keeping students engaged and on

task in the classroom.

Teacher affect is also important in instruction. Bohn et al. (2004) found that the

teachers who were most effective in engaging and managing students were enthusiastic

about teaching and managed to skillfully build enthusiasm for lessons in their students.

This was done by clearly communicating to students the exciting and interesting purpose

of the lesson to be taught. Brophy (1987) listed 33 motivational strategies and among

these are 4 related to modeling an interest and excitement about learning. Brophy

advocated that teachers (1) model interest in learning and motivation to learn, (2) project









intensity, (3) project enthusiasm, and (4) model task-related thinking and problem

solving. Morse (1987) concluded,

If school is not inviting, if the tasks are not clear, interesting, and at an appropriate
level, how can we expect pupils to be on task? Adverse student reactions should be
expected when classes are dull, teaching is uninspired, and failure is built in. Their
oppositional behavior is a sign of personal health and integrity. (p. 5)

Student-teacher relationships As teachers feel more and more pressure to have

students perform well on high-stakes tests, many focus more on instruction and student

behavior and less on student-teacher relationships. By the end of seventh grade, more

than half of the students believe that teachers and principals are their adversaries

(Glasser, 1990). Yet, there is a significant body of research that indicates that academic

achievement and student behavior are influenced by the quality of the teacher-student

relationship (Jones & Jones, 1998; Marzano, 2003). What are the characteristics of a

quality student-teacher relationship? Is this where students and teachers are friends? Can

quality relationships only be formed if the teacher is charismatic and popular with

students? In fact, none of these factors are part of successful student teacher relationships

rather successful relationships are formed when teachers exhibit appropriate levels of

dominance, appropriate levels of cooperation, and are aware of high-needs students

(Marzano & Marzano, 2003).

There is a difference among teachers who are passive, aggressive, and assertive.

Emmer Evertson, and Worsham (2003) defined assertive behavior as "the ability to stand

up for one's legitimate rights in ways that make it less likely that others will ignore or

circumvent them" (p. 146). In their study, Emmer and colleagues found that assertive

behavior is a balance where the teacher uses body language that is insistent and serious

but not threatening to the students, uses an appropriate tone of voice, and insists on









appropriate behaviors (not ignoring inappropriate behaviors). This would include erect

posture and eye contact but not leaning over the student or otherwise trying to intimidate

the student, speaking clearly and deliberately in a slightly elevated tone of voice, and

listening to legitimate explanations and not being diverted by arguing or denying. Jones

and Jones (2003) concurred that teachers who create and maintain effective relationships

with their students find ways to blend warmth, concern, and firmness.

Even though the teacher must be perceived as assertive she cannot be a dictator. In

quality student-teacher relationships, teachers work as a team with students in appropriate

levels of cooperation. Teachers begin developing relationships by taking a personal

interest in their students. There are numerous ways that teachers can make personal

connections with their students. McCombs and Whisler (1997) listed several easy and

quick ways to promote personal connections: Talk informally with students, have lunch

with a few students each day or once a week, be aware of and comment on important

events in students' lives, and compliment students on important achievements both in and

outside of school.

Caring about students is certainly one way to form quality relationships. Emmer et

al. (1980) found that an important part of a successful teacher's management plans was to

accommodate students' concerns. Effective teachers were more skillful in using

students' interests and background knowledge in class than ineffective teachers. Bohn et

al. (2004) found that effective managers consistently listened to students' thoughts and

needs and responded compassionately. In addition, they emphasized democracy and

self-regulation in the classroom. In these successfully managed classrooms, students felt

that they were cared for and that their concerns and thoughts mattered.









Believing and showing that every student matters is important in creating quality

relationships with students. In most classrooms today, 12% to 22% of students have

special emotional, behavioral, medical, or academic needs and up to 18% of students

have extraordinary needs (Marzano, 2003). Though regular classroom teachers may not

be in a position to address directly more severe issues, successful managers have a

repertoire of specific techniques for meeting students' needs in the classroom. Successful

managers know that fair and equitable treatment of students does not mean treating all

students the same. Brophy (1996) and Brophy and McCaslin (1992) found that the most

effective teachers were sensitive to student needs and employed different strategies for

different students based on these understandings. For teachers to be sensitive and

understanding of all students' needs, they must take the time to build a relationship with

those students and keep lines of communication open so needs and concerns can be

addressed as they emerge.

Research on classroom management shows that effective classroom managers

provide a safe and stimulating haven where students are cared for and encouraged to

succeed both academically and behaviorally. Teachers are assertive and insist that

students demonstrate appropriate behaviors while working to meet the individual needs

of all of the students. Kohn (1991) succinctly stated, "Preceding and underlying specific

techniques for encouraging particular behaviors is the practice of nesting all kinds of

discipline and instruction in the context of a warm, nurturant, and empathetic relationship

with students" (p. 503).

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

If teachers are to create supportive and challenging environments for students,

utilize appropriate and motivating pedagogy, and foster quality relationships with









students then they must know and respect their students. Who are the students in public

schools today and who are their teachers? Student enrollment statistics showed that

culturally and linguistically diverse students comprised nearly 50% of elementary school

enrollment in 2004 with 33% living in low-income or poverty environments. On the other

hand, teachers remained predominately white, middle class, monolingual, and female

(NCES, 2005). Many teachers working with predominately culturally and linguistically

diverse students have limited experiences with diversity and have little knowledge of

their students' lives outside the classroom (Van Hook, 2002). The cultural incongruence

between teacher and student is at the center of many academic and behavioral issues.

Teachers often come to school with assumptions and biases about their students that can

lead to lowered expectations and lower achievement levels in their students (Neito, 2000;

Weiner, 2003). Behavior is affected when students perceive teacher biases or when

teachers misinterpret student behaviors and inadvertently create an environment of

resistance (Howard, 2001; Kaplan, Gheen & Midgley, 2002; Weiner, 2003). Teachers

today want to be effective and help their students to achieve but many are at a loss as to

how to go about creating a learning environment, developing engaging and stimulating

lessons, and fostering quality student-teacher relationships with students who seem so

completely different from everything they know and understand.

Advocates for culturally responsive pedagogy argue that we must bring culture

from under the rug and into the fabric of the classroom. Gay (2000) defined culturally

responsive pedagogy as teaching that uses the "cultural characteristics, experiences, and

perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more

effectively" (p. 106). Culturally responsive pedagogy is based on the assumption that









when students' school experiences are situated within their lived lives and cultural

understandings, motivation and academic success are increased and behavior problems

are decreased (Gay, 2000).

Toward an Inclusive Environment

Culturally responsive teaching is multidimensional and should be reflected in the

classroom environment. Toward the goal of creating an environment where students feel

accepted, comfortable, and valued, teachers need to set up a room where diversity is

apparent and imbedded in the classroom environment. In her vignette about a

multicultural kindergarten classroom, Gay (2000) described a classroom environment

filled with visual examples representative of the students' cultural lives. Bulletin boards

reflected students' varied languages, occupations, native countries, and cultural rites of

passage (marriage, adulthood, baptism). One of the most interesting uses of cultural

visual imagery is a multicultural alphabet streamer where different ethnic groups and

contributions are associated with each letter. For example the words "Japanese

American, "Jazz," and "Jamaican" are listed under the letter J. With this vignette, one

can begin to understand the importance of providing more than a colorful, well-

organized, classroom where students and teachers can see each other and move freely

through the room.

Culturally Responsive Instruction

Instructional strategies are the cornerstone in the culturally responsive pedagogy

literature. Students must experience academic success (Ladson-Billings, 1995).

Academic success begins with high expectations. Teachers must believe in their

students, accept nothing less than high levels of success, and work diligently to achieve

these goals (Gay, 2002). Howard (2001) interviewed 17 elementary school students about









their experiences in a culturally responsive classroom and found that students attributed

much of their academic success to teachers who pushed and challenged them.

A key to successful instruction is to link it to students' lives and experiences. In

her study of six successful teachers of African American students, Ladson-Billings

(1994) found that teachers taught concepts like algebra and grammar by linking them to

students' interests such as rap music and the African origins of algebra. In these

classrooms, motivation and engagement levels were high with little off-task behavior.

When teachers link students' interests to instruction it makes for stimulating and fun

activities. Many African American students come from homes that accommodate large

numbers of family members, with lots of stimulation, noise, and activity (often

surrounding physical movement) (Boykin, 1986). In a study by Howard (2001) some

students described engaging teachers who use theatrics to portray stories with different

voices, and actions. Other students in the same study mentioned how exciting it was

when their teacher used their names in stories.

Successful teachers also communicate effectively with their students. Students

need to know and understand the instructions for their lessons. This seems to be a simple

concept but within diverse classrooms there are many discourse patterns, cultural norms,

and linguistic understandings that can impede understanding between teacher and

student. Many African American families use more directive modes of communication

while Caucasian families use more indirect styles of communication (Delpit, 1995, 2002;

Villegas, 1991). This difference in communication styles can result in behavior problems

when students are perceived as not following directions, surly, or uncooperative (King,

1994).









One type of African American discourse, call and response, is active rather then

passive with more fluid and interchangeable roles between speaker and listener than more

common passive discourse found in mainstream communication (Delpit, 1995; Gay,

2000). The effective teachers observed and interviewed in Ladson-Billings' 1994 study,

The Dreemkeepers, consistently used both directives and call/response strategies in

successfully teaching their predominately African American students.

However it is important to stress that there is no one best way to teach culturally

and linguistically diverse students. Although there is research that advocates direct

instruction (Delpit, 1995), cooperative learning (Putnam, 1997), afro-centric centered

curriculum (Hale-Benson, 1986) and many other types of instruction, most research

suggests that teachers who are successful use a variety of strategies to meet the needs of

their students (Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994). Although there are many

different ways to teach multicultural students, there are some similarities in the practices

of multicultural teachers. These teachers are all interactive teachers, have extremely high

expectations for their students, scaffold and support them as needed, maximize learning

time, balance choice and structure, use culturally congruent materials and pedagogy, keep

a brisk pace with varied activities, and show students they care about them (Banks,

Cochran-Smith, Moll, Richert, Zeichner, LePage, Darling-Hammond, Duffy, &

McDonald, 2005; Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990; Knapp & Shields, 1990; Ladson-Billings,

1994; Noddings, 1992).

Caring in a Culturally Diverse Classroom

Many teachers struggle to make connections with their students. Often students'

modes of dress, speech, entertainment, and behavior are unfamiliar to teachers and no

common ground is apparent from which to build a relationship, but build a relationship









they must. Research tells teachers that caring is one of the key characteristics in being

effective in urban diverse schools (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Gordon, 1999) and that

students who have caring relationships with their teachers are motivated to perform at

higher academic levels than students who are not (Gay, 2000; Irvine, 1990).

Teachers cannot care for their students from a distance; they must become

detectives and seek out information about their students in order to bring them closer

together (Villegas & Lucas, 2002). Effective teachers in both Delpit (1995) and Howard

(2001) not only learned about their students but also shared their own lives and emotions

with them. Students, who have quality relationships with their teachers, reported that they

knew their teacher cared about them because she shared stories and pictures about her

own family and frequently showed emotions like humor, disappointment, and sadness.

Caring is also demonstrated by actions that communicate respect and unconditional

acceptance. This type of caring is often called empathy where teachers take on the

perspectives of another culture and are i/ i/h the student in a non-judgmental way

(Goleman, 1998; Noddings, 1984). When teachers have empathy for their students, they

are more likely to modify curricula and pedagogy to meet diverse student needs

(McAllister, 2002).

There is some research that questions the role of empathy in working with

culturally and linguistically diverse students. Rosenberg (1988) found that in white

preservice teachers empathy could provide a false sense of involvement where the

teachers felt that they knew and understood their students well but in reality they may

have had only a superficial understanding of the students (p. 8). When teachers feel that

they really know students they may equate their own experiences with the other person's









experiences and essentially erase the distinction between the two experiences (Spelman,

1995). In light of these studies, teachers must be cautious in assuming they know and

understand their students and must keep lines of communication and acceptance open as

they seek to learn continually about and nurture quality relationships with their students.

Culturally responsive pedagogy is based on the premise that culture is an important

and deciding factor in schools today and that teachers who are successful in teaching

culturally and linguistically diverse students use their knowledge of students' lived lives

to create environments, teach lessons, and build relationships with their students in

culturally congruent ways.

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management

The literature on culturally responsive pedagogy addresses several components of

management but primarily focuses on instruction. Is there a framework that focuses on

the intersection of culture and classroom management? The past five years have seen the

emergence of a framework that connects ideas of culture and classroom management.

Culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM) is consistent with the findings

from current classroom management research that advocate prevention strategies and

promote an approach that where students behave not out of fear or a desire for rewards

but out of a sense of personal responsibility (Weinstein Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran,

2004). CRCM is consistent with assumptions of culturally responsive pedagogy in its

explicit acknowledgment and use of cultural understandings to work effectively with

students. Understandings from both classroom management and culturally responsive

pedagogy literature bases are used to create a framework for classroom management that

is focused on meeting the needs of both teachers and students in 21st century classrooms.









CRCM is not a recipe to be followed for successful classroom management rather it

is a frame of mind for teachers to use. Weinstein et al. (2004) proposed a set of five

components essential to CRCM: "(a) recognition of one's own ethnocentrism and biases;

(b) knowledge of students cultural backgrounds; (c) understanding of the broader social,

economic, and political context of our educational system; (d) ability and willingness to

use culturally appropriate classroom management strategies; and (e) commitment to

building caring classroom communities" (p. 27). Unapologetically, CRCM is political

and its goal is not to have control over compliant students but to promote a style of

management that will be equitable for all students. The focus is one of social justice

where all students have equal opportunities to learn (Weinstein et al., 2004).

Recognition of One's Own Ethnocentrism and Biases

To achieve equitable management for all students, one must begin by recognizing

one's own ethnocentrism and biases. Most teachers are not blatant racists, rather they are

cultural hegemonists (Gay, 2000). Novice teachers who have few experiences with

cultures other than their own perceive all behavior based on their own standards of

normalcy. In this situation, students who are outside the mainstream of expectations and

assumptions are often perceived as behavior problems (Sheets, 1996). Teachers often

blame students for the misbehavior rather than looking at the role culture might play in

the situation. Successful resolution of problems is more likely when teachers understand

that they inadvertently might have caused a problem because of their own cultural

assumptions, seek out the problem and solutions, and adapt their practice to

accommodate the student. Weinstein et al. (2004) described a teacher who was having

difficulty managing her predominately Haitian preschool class. She observed effective

teachers managing the same group and realized her communication style was incongruent









with those of the students. She made some changes in her own pedagogy and found the

new strategies to be much more effective. This sounds like a simple task, but, in fact,

there is a plethora of literature documenting the difficulties in teachers from the dominant

class experience in gaining the insight they need to examine their understandings and

assumptions from another perspective (Mcltyre, 1997; Pajares, 1992; Richardson, 1996;

Zeichner & Hoeft, 1996).

Understanding of the Broader Social, Economic, and Political Context of Our
Educational System

Education is moral and political (Neito, 2000; Tom, 1997), and teachers will be

more successful with classroom management when they understand and use this

knowledge in their practice. One of the most common issues documented in urban

schools is student resistance. Teachers often respond with increased control that in turn

causes behavior problems to escalate. Research suggests that student resistance is a

response to a system that does not value their culture, thoughts, interests, or emotions

(Munns & McFadden, 2000); that is, when students act out, when they perceive this as

the only way to be seen and heard (Macedo & Bartholome, 2000). Hernandez and Sheets

(1996) interviewed 16 students about this very topic and found that many of them felt

that their teachers did not care about their perspectives, and problems between teachers

and students escalated because teachers did not bother to listen to them when they wanted

to explain. Teachers who are successful in overcoming student resistance listen to their

students and consider their perspectives (Valenzuela, 1999).

Knowledge of Students' Cultural Backgrounds and Ability and Willingness to Use
Culturally Appropriate Classroom Management Strategies

Just as teachers who wish to increase student academic achievement must use

culturally appropriate strategies, teachers who wish to be successful managers must be









willing to identify when something is not working, to abandon it, and use another strategy

that is more appropriate for the students. Teachers who take the time to learn about their

students as individuals will be better able to use this knowledge to intertwine skillfully

culturally responsive methods that will be congruent with students' lives outside the

classroom. As teachers learn more about their students they must remember that all

students are individuals and be careful not to make broad generalizations or to propagate

stereotypes (Cazden, 1999; McLaren, 1995).

When teachers gain more knowledge about themselves, their students, and the

surrounding socio-political environment, they are in a position to create and use strategies

that will promote equal access to learning. There is no one- best way to meet the needs

of culturally and linguistically diverse students. In fact, one of the difficulties teachers

face in trying to meet the needs of their students is in their attempts to homogenize

classroom management and student behavior according to school norms and expectations

(Sleeter, 2001). However, there is research to recommend certain management strategies

that are effective in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. In his study of 13 K-

12 teachers in seven U.S. cities, Brown (2002, 2003) found that successful management

strategies included caring for students, the use of authority, and congruent

communication patterns to create a productive learning environment. In addition to these

findings, Weinstein Curran, and Tomlinson-Clarke (2003) advocated high expectations,

working with families, and dealing with problem behaviors.

Many educators might question the idea of culture affecting how one determines

what is misbehavior and how to respond to the behavior. It would seem that either

students are behaving (on task, following rules) or they are not. As with most









educational issues the subject is not nearly as clear-cut as it seems. For example, African

American students perceive authority as a function of personal actions based in strength

and assertiveness (Delpit, 1995; Irvine, 1990; Ladson-Billings, 1994). With this

perspective, students are more likely to challenge teachers rather than to give them the

response they expect due to their position in the school hierarchy. Teachers not

understanding this cultural norm will perceive the student as disrespectful and disruptive.

Punishment will ensue, and the student and teacher will feel disrespected and

misunderstood. Instead, a teacher who understands his/her students' culture may choose

to take the time to explain and discuss the classroom rules or may even find the intensity

and passion with which the student is responding is acceptable in the classroom, thus

broadening the teacher's own definition of acceptable behaviors (Weinstein et al., 2003).

Commitment to Building Caring Classroom Communities

As discussed earlier in this review, teachers must care for their students. They

must care for them in more than a warm and fuzzy way. Culturally and linguistically

diverse students need teachers who are warm demanders (Kleinfeld, 1975;Vasquez,

1988). The most successful teachers push their students to achieve and will accept

nothing less than success. However, it is not enough to build successful student-teacher

relationships teachers must build caring communities of learners.

Part of the challenge in establishing caring communities in culturally diverse

classrooms is with student-student relationships. It is imperative that teachers provide

and encourage classrooms where students are valued, accepted, heard, and where

opportunities for student interaction are provided in many different forms (Gay, 2000;

Noddings, 1992). Cooperative learning is one way that students can build relationships

with each other. In fact, many culturally diverse students prefer this dynamic and social









way to learn (Losey, 1997). Students who participated in cooperative learning

environments, showed among other effects, positive interethnic group social interactions

and friendships (Slavin, 1995; Stevens & Slavin, 1995). It makes sense that as students

form friendships and come to understand and value each other, the instances of student-

student misbehavior (fights, name calling, stealing, etc.) decrease and positive classroom

behaviors increase. Culturally relevant communities are often like extended families for

African American students. Ladson-Billings (1994) documented how one of her

teachers, Hilliard, used the idea of family as a theme throughout the year. Students were

encouraged to care and support their "brothers and sisters" and were responsible for each

other's academic success (p. 69). This idea is consistent with the African American

cultural norm where the individual is seen within the context of the group.

Caring communities are hard to construct and maintain in an environment where

there is little enough time to teach academic subjects and focus is often on test scores and

individualized learning. Successful classroom managers make the time and exert the

effort because they know that their students will learn more and demonstrate positive

behavior when they are part of a caring community of learners (Battistich, Watson,

Solomon, Lewis, & Schaps, 1999).

Many culturally and linguistically diverse learners do not ever experience CRCM

and are left alone to struggle through minefields of culturally incongruent management

strategies. In her text, Black Students and School Failure, Irvine (1990) profiled African

American students' school experiences with chilling statistics that show the following:

Black students (males in particular) as three times more likely to be in lower track or

special education classes, more likely to receive controlling statements and qualified









praise, more likely to be labeled deviant and described more negatively than white males,

more likely to be sent to the principals office for challenging the teacher, and more likely

to be judged inaccurately by teachers. With these statistics and others that show novice

teachers working in urban schools using the majority of their instructional time

addressing management problems, there is an obvious need for research about new, and

more culturally congruent, strategies for classroom management.

Currently, there is a lack of research examining the connection between classroom

management and culture. Much of the past research was connected to instruction (Delpit,

1995; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1995) rather than classroom management. The recent

interest in CRCM from Weinstein et al. (2003, 2004) is theoretical in nature rather than

researched based. However, Brown (2002, 2003) conducted a study of 13 urban teachers

(1st -12th grade) from seven U.S. cities. Brown used an extensive interview to gain

insight into how the teachers effectively managed their culturally and linguistically

diverse classrooms in mostly low income, urban schools. Brown's research was linked to

culturally responsive pedagogy literature (his research preceded Weinstein et al. [2003]

CRCM framework) and examined what teachers said they were doing to manage their

classrooms successfully. Results from this study showed that the 13 teachers interviewed

said they cared about their students and their success, acted with authority and

assertiveness, and used congruent communication patterns with their students. Brown's

research incorporated many of the components of CRCM but only went so far as to

describe what teachers said they did. Brown had no observational data to back these

claims, and neither does the interview data show what these strategies looked like in the

different classrooms.









Currently, we know what Weinstein et al. (2003, 2004) proposed as necessary

components for CRCM and we know that 13 successful teachers from Brown (2002,

2003) said they were caring, assertive, and used culturally congruent communication with

their students, but we do not have a clear picture of what this looks like in different

classrooms. My research of 3 elementary teachers in predominantly African American

classrooms utilized both observational and interview data to add insight into the strategies

used by teachers who were effective managers in predominately African American, high

poverty classrooms.














CHAPTER 3
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs, understandings, and

pedagogy of novice teachers who were considered to be effective classroom managers in

high poverty, predominately African American classrooms. Specifically, how did these

novice teachers define classroom management and establish classroom community,

routines, and procedures, define misbehaviors and address misbehavior in the classroom?

Last, what part, if any, does culture play in successful classroom management in the

context of a low SES, mostly African American student body?

Understanding more about successful classroom management in low SES,

culturally diverse contexts can help novice teachers working in these contexts and teacher

educators who are preparing new teachers to take on these very challenging positions. In

addition, this research added to the relatively small body of research literature that

examined the intersection of culture and classroom management.

Theoretical Perspective

My purpose for this study was to gain a deeper understanding of effective novice

teachers' definitions of, beliefs about, and strategies for classroom management. I also

was seeking to understand what role, if any; culture played in their success with

classroom management in a high poverty school. My interest in these components was

framed using interpretivism and grounded theory. These two perspectives can be found

throughout the study from design to analysis and finally in the presentation of the









findings. Interpretivism and grounded theory as they relate to this study are briefly

explained in the following sections.

Interpretivism

Interpretivism is connected with the human sciences where researchers are

concerned with understanding (Verstehen). Interpretivists believe that human actions

(especially social actions) are inherently meaningful, and to understand them, one must

grasp the meanings that constitute that action (Schwandt, 2000). In this study, I sought to

understand effective practice in low SES culturally diverse contexts. I wanted to

understand the meaning of their actions and how these actions fit into their larger systems

of meanings.

Verstehen (understanding) has different meanings depending upon which

perspective one subscribes to. In this study the process of interpreting or achieving

verstehen was connected to empathetic identification where the researcher gets "inside

the head of the actor to understand what he or she is up to in terms of motives, beliefs,

desires, thoughts and so on" (Schwandt, 2000, p. 192). However, as the study progressed,

I was not sure that as a white, middle-class female I was entirely able to get into the

heads of my participants who were from non-dominant cultures and who described

themselves from low SES backgrounds. In this sense, I felt that I was not so much in

their heads as I was looking over their shoulders (through observations and interviews) in

order to ascertain their understandings, motivations and the meanings of their actions as

they understood them (Geertz, 1979).

This distance that I perceived in not being inside the heads of my participants but

rather looking over their shoulders helped me to understand the participants' motivations

and meanings in an objective way. This objectivity is another feature of interpretivism









where the meaning that the interpreter finds is considered the original meaning of the

action. In order to attain this perspective, one must employ some method to step outside

of one's assumptions and understandings and look at the observed actions with a purely

theoretical attitude of observer (Outhwaite, 1975). For this, I employed grounded theory

where a series of carefully planned steps generates theoretical ideas.

Grounded Theory

A central assumption of Verstehen and interpretivism is "that meaning of human

action is inherent in that action, and the task of the inquirer is to unearth that meaning"

(Schwandt 2001, p. 134). The methodology I used to unearth the meaning of effective

classroom management was grounded theory. Sociologists Glaser and Strauss (1967) are

considered the founding fathers of grounded theory. Until this time, conventional theory

was deductive in nature. The ultimate goal of deductive theory was to produce universal

laws of behavior and societal functioning (Glesne, 1999). Initially, Glaser and Strauss

(1967) also believed that their grounded theory would inductively function as explanation

and prediction, but a more modern understanding of grounded theory is that those

theories that are developed are not grand theories but substantive theories. Substantive

theories have their roots in everyday-world situations and are often more specific and

thus useful to practice (Merriam, 1998). In my research, I collected and analyzed data to

inductively form a substantive theory about effective classroom management. My study

added new understandings about what makes some teachers effective classroom

managers in diverse, low-income classrooms where classroom management is a

challenge to many novice and experienced teachers.

In grounded theory methods, like other qualitative research methods, the researcher

is the lens through which the data are viewed. The researcher collects, selects, and









interprets the data. The process of developing the grounded theory must be theoretically

sensitive. Strauss and Corbin (1990) explained that this is the ability to recognize what is

important in data to give it meaning. It is of paramount importance that a researcher

using grounded theory not only be aware of his/her own biases, prejudices, and

assumptions but find ways to combat them so the data form the theory.

Methodology

The purpose of this study was to observe and interview teachers considered

effective classroom managers working in high poverty predominately African American

classrooms to comprehend better the teachers' practices and understandings about

successful classroom management in their specific contexts. In my work in classrooms at

Green Meadows Elementary School in the year prior to this study, I realized that many

teachers were struggling with classroom management and could not move beyond

addressing student misbehavior and applying increasingly severe consequences in their

efforts to try and control their students. This common approach was not effective, and

the teachers and students remained frustrated and learning suffered. In other classrooms I

noticed that teachers seemed to be effortlessly engaging and managing the students. The

atmosphere in these classrooms was warm and engaging with more on-task behavior

from students and less punishment from teachers. I began to wonder what was happening

in the well-managed classrooms and if it would be possible somehow to capture the

essence of these teachers' practices and understandings in order to help those who were

struggling with classroom management issues.

Research Questions

The following questions guided my interactions with the three participants in this


study:









Research Question 1. How do effective teachers working in a low SES,

predominantly African American school context:

* Define classroom management
* Establish classroom culture (community, rules procedures, etc.)
* Define misbehavior
* Address misbehavior

Research Question 2. What part, if any, does culture play in this phenomenon?

Context of the Study

Green Meadows Elementary School is a public school located in the southeastern

portion of the US. At the time of this study, 531 students were enrolled at Green

Meadows Elementary School with a predominately English-speaking population (99.8%)

comprised of 88% African American, 6% White, 3% Hispanic, 2% Multi-Racial, and 1%

Asian ethnicities. The school population is considered high poverty with 92% of the

students on the free and reduced lunch system.

The three classrooms observed for this study were representative of the school

demographics listed above. The kindergarten class was composed of nineteen students

whose ages ranged between five and six years old. Students in this class are

predominately African American with only two students labeled as "mixed" ethnicity.

The fourth grade class observed for this study rotated classes throughout the day and

observational data included all three "homeroom" groupings. The fourth grade class as a

whole was composed of 60 students whose ages range from nine to twelve years old

(several of the students have been retained two times and one had been retained three

times). The students were predominately African American and four students were

white. All students in the fourth grade cited English as their first language.









The teachers in this school are highly educated and rate above the state average for

advanced degrees with 59.4% of the faculty holding degrees beyond the bachelor's level.

Not only are the teachers at Green Meadows Elementary School well educated but they

are experienced practitioners with an average 11.1 years of teaching experience.

Teachers work in classrooms averaging 18.7 students (approximately 5 students less than

the state average of 24.1 students per classroom).

In the 2004-2005 school year the school was in a state of transition with a principal,

Curriculum Resource Teacher and Behavior Resource Teacher who joined the faculty the

year before. In addition to the faculty changes, the school received a "D" on the state

achievement test and was under pressure to raise student achievement scores. To this

end, new reading and math programs were purchased and implemented in the 2004-2005

school year'.

Participants

Three participants were chosen for this study. All were teachers at Green Meadows

Elementary School and had less than 10 years of teaching experience. In qualitative

research, participant selection is deliberate and purposeful (Patton, 1990). Qualitative

research is not concerned with finding ri /lih and adding to theoretical knowledge but with

transferability and adding to conventional wisdom (Patton, 2002). Participants were

selected using extreme case sampling. Glesne (1999) defined extreme case sampling as

choosing participants who are unusual or special in some way. Since this study focused

on understanding what teachers in high poverty contexts do to deal with student behavior


1 All statistics were downloaded fio l Ihllip \ "\ \ .greatschools.net









effectively and create a positive classroom culture, I chose participants considered to be

effective classroom managers.

The Professor-in-Residence2, Behavioral Resource Teacher, Curriculum Resource

Teacher and school principal were contacted to gain insight into participant selection.

Participants were selected using the following criteria:

1. Had taught at least one full year
2. Had no intern in the classroom for the 2004-2005 school year.
3. Had positive interactions with students
4. Nurtured high academic success in students
5. Had a lower than average number of referrals to the BRT

The Professor-in-Residence, the Behavioral Resource Teacher, the Curriculum

Resource Teacher, and the school principal were asked to assess teachers for these

criteria. Assessment was conducted in two ways. First, each knowledgeable professional

(as noted above) was given a list of all the teachers in the building who had taught for

more than one full year. Each was asked to rate each teacher using the following ratings:

* "E" meaning the teacher was "effective" in meeting these criteria
* "NS" meaning "not sure" if the teacher meets the criteria
* "NO" meaning the teacher did not meet these criteria

When teacher placements were completed for the 2004-2005 school year, teachers

who were rated as effective by three of the four professionals were contacted and asked

to participate in the study. Three respondents were selected for the research (all female).

Each was given an informed consent form to sign to ensure her understandings of both

the study and her rights as a participant (Appendix A). The participants and school at

which the study took place were assigned pseudonyms: Green Meadows Elementary


2 The professor-in-residence is a faculty member from a nearby university who spends 25% of her time at
Green Meadows. Her role involves running a collaborative staff development program and coaching
teachers through classroom observation and consultation.









School, Kathy, Lucy, and Susie. In addition, permission to conduct the study was

attained from the principal as well as the local school district.

Description of Participants

All three participants were from non-dominant cultures, were female, and ranged in

age from mid 20s to early 30s. I had the opportunity to work with each of the teachers

the year before this study through a staff development program. In the previous year, I

was in the participants' classrooms on average once a month and often spoke with them

about educational dilemmas and successes in informal conversations during the school

day. Through the staff development program, I also worked with the participants in a

more formal role as co-facilitator at the monthly three-hour meetings focused on staff

development and inquiry.

Lucy Lucy is currently teaching fourth-grade writing three periods of the day and

fourth-grade reading one period of the day. She is an African American woman who had

taught in high poverty minority schools for her entire career including her internship.

She holds a bachelor's degree in elementary education from a local college and is

certified by the state to teach elementary-aged children. Lucy is in her eighth year of

teaching at Green Meadows Elementary School and previously had taught a combination

class, fourth grade and fifth grade. She was raised not far from the community and has

many relatives and friends who live near the school and even attended school with many

of her students' parents, cousins, aunts and uncles.

Kathy Kathy is currently teaching fourth-grade math three periods of the day and

fourth-grade reading one period of the day. She is an African American woman who is in

her fourth year teaching at Green Meadows Elementary School where she took over a

classroom as a long-term substitute to begin her teaching career. She holds a Bachelor's









degree in elementary education and a Master's degree in educational leadership from a

local school and is certified by the state to teach elementary aged students. Kathy's

experiences in high poverty minority schools began with her internship at a local school

near Green Meadows Elementary where her son now attends elementary school. Kathy is

very active in the church and often sees her students on Sundays while attending services.

She also has three sons who are active in extra curricular activities in the community and

interacts with her students and their caregivers through these informal meetings.

Susie Susie, who considers herself to be multi-ethnic (Japanese and Israeli, among

others), is currently teaching kindergarten at Green Meadows Elementary School. This is

currently her third year at Green Meadows Elementary School and her second year

teaching kindergarten. She spent her first year at Green Meadows teaching high needs

students in a pull-out program at Green Meadows. She holds a Bachelor's degree and

Master's degree in elementary education from a local university and is temporarily

certified to teach elementary-aged students. Susie conducted her internship year at a

local school that is composed of mainly White, upper-middle class students. After her

internship she sought to work with non-dominant students and came to work at Green

Meadows Elementary School.

Data Collection

Since this study focused on classroom management and the most crucial time to

establish community, relationships, and routines is in the first six weeks of school, data

for this study were collected from August through October with member checks in April

and again in June (Emmer et al., 1980). I conducted all of the interviews and

observations and was solely responsible for transcribing each as they were conducted.

All data were recorded in a data log to keep track of who was observed and interviewed









as well as what dates and what time of day they were observed (see Appendix B). Data

collection was interrupted for two weeks in September due to two hurricanes hitting the

area, resulting in school closings and making travel impossible.

Observations In the first two weeks of observations, participants were observed

twice each week (except for Susie, who was observed only once the first week) for

approximately two hours each time. For Weeks 3 through 8, participants were observed

once a week for approximately two hours, totaling in an average of eight two-hour

observations per participant. Observations were scheduled ahead of time. The time of

day for observations was varied in order to observe different classes, subjects, and

transition times. Observational notes (questions, reflections, etc.) were kept on paper and

were often discussed in the post-observation interviews to clarify teacher understandings,

strategies, and intent. Observational time spent with participants and total number of

transcribed observational data are reported in Table 1.

Table 1. Observational time spent with participants and pages transcribed from
observations
Participant Logged Observation Time Pages transcribed
Kathy 18 hours 95 pages
Lucy 18 hours 86 pages
Susie 16 hours 82 pages

I had worked with the teachers at this school during the past year and spent time

observing and helping out in the classrooms. I had many opportunities to converse with

teachers in both formal and informal situations about classroom topics. As I collected

data for this study, my role was one of observer-as-participant (Merriam, 1998). My

primary role was to gather evidence as an observer in selected classrooms. The role of

observer as participant allowed me to continue my relationships with these teachers

(which was important in gaining an insider's understanding of those phenomena









observed) but not take part in the classroom activities. While in these classrooms

collecting data, I did not interact with the students or with the teacher and resisted giving

management advice. Teachers were well aware of my presence and purpose in these

observations and, for the most part, ignored my presence in their classrooms while I was

collecting data.

Interviews Three types of interviews were conducted with each participant: Post-

observation, follow-up member check, and background (see Appendix C). Post

observational interviews were conducted as soon as possible after each observation and

lasted for approximately 20-40 minutes depending on time constraints (interviews

scheduled after school rather during planning times were often longer). In the first two

weeks of school interviews were limited to once a week due to the teachers'

overwhelming schedules in beginning the school year. Each participant took part in six

to seven post-observational interviews throughout the data collection process. These

interviews were extremely useful in answering questions and confirming themes and

understandings I had begun to generate from observations. Interview time spent with

participants and total number of transcribed interview data are reported in Table 2. The

table shows that Susie's interview time was over an hour more than Kathy or Lucy's

time. The reason for this difference is that Susie was a novice teacher who was highly

reflective and verbal. The interviews were often longer because she enjoyed talking

about her practice, the students, and future pedagogical choices she was considering.









Table 2. Interview time spent with participants and pages transcribed from interviews
Participant Interview time Pages of transcription
Kathy 131 minutes 74 pages
Lucy 144 minutes 71 pages
Susie 200 minutes 89 pages


Near the end of the data-collection process, teachers participated in a background

interview after school that lasted for approximately 60 minutes. These interviews were

scheduled for this time so that teachers had a chance to settle into their schedules, recover

some equilibrium from the hurricanes, and be able to spend the time needed to complete

the interview. The purpose of the background interview was to gain an understanding of

the teachers, their experiences both as students and teachers, and to allow them a forum

in which to explain their understandings about teaching and learning with respect to

classroom management and issues of culture.

In addition to asking questions and clarifying themes as data collection progressed,

member checks were used to ascertain formally that the conclusions reached about each

participant were true to their own understandings. In mid-April, I sent each participant

the draft from her case study and a member check form to complete and return to me in

the self-addressed stamped envelope. By the end of August, I had either received

member check forms from the participants or spoken to them over the phone to confirm

their approval of their cases.

Development of interview protocols In qualitative research, interviews are

extremely important. Within some genres of theory, interview transcripts constitute the

entire set of raw data. In this research, interviews did not compose the entire set of data

but were still very important in giving the researcher insight to participants'

understandings and motivations. The interview protocols (see Appendix C) were adapted









from other interview protocols used in past research projects. All interviews were semi-

structured, meaning that each began with questions and intended probes but was not

limited to these questions. My main intent when constructing the interviews was to

encourage the participants to discuss their understandings, beliefs, and thoughts about

culture and classroom management. My questions were not intended to direct the

interview or to trick the participant. I wanted to encourage the participants to speak

freely about their understandings of the phenomenon.

In grounded theory, the theory comes from the data, not from the researcher. The

interview must encourage the participant to tell her story her way, not guide her in telling

the story I wish to hear. Also, when using grounded theory, the data are constantly

analyzed and hypotheses, questions, ideas, and summaries are recorded. As I gathered

data from initial observations and preliminary interviews, I often added questions to

interview protocols to include these new understandings and initial theories.

Data Analysis

Grounded theory was used to analyze and interpret the data collected. The founders

of grounded theory methodology, Glaser and Strauss (1967), stated that theory is more

inductive than deductive. This means that the theory emerges from the data and does not

conform to a theory presupposed by the researcher. The grounded theory approach

consists of a set of steps that guides the researcher in carefully analyzing data, coding

data, and constant comparison leading to the construction of a substantive theory

(Moustakas, 1994). However, Strauss (1987) explained that there are no sequential steps

that guide all of grounded theory; each research project is unique and researchers must

conduct their research as best fits the data, researcher's interpretations and experiences,

and the contingencies that influence the research.









Grounded theory proceeds in cycles where data are analyzed throughout the

research, and theories, summaries, hypothesis, and connections are recorded. These

initial analyses are then used to drive the next wave of data collection. Ultimately,

saturation is reached and data can be analyzed to uncover the theory that explains the

phenomenon in question. The following are components and descriptions of grounded

theory methods I used for analyzing data as discussed by Strauss and Corbin (1990) and

Glaser and Strauss (1967).

Open coding Open coding was used to identify, name, categorize and describe the

phenomena found in the data. As observations were conducted and interviews

transcribed, I wrote initial codes in the margins or on a piece of paper (attached to the

interview/observation). Some of the open codes from the data included: concern,

respect, trust, question, teacher control, order, support, etc. After each interview and

observation were coded, questions, reflections, summations, and emerging themes were

recorded to use in further data collection and analysis. When all data were collected, the

codes were compiled into a list and refined until it was non-repetitive and non-

overlapping.

Axial coding As open codes were identified, they were also related to each other

via a combination of inductive and deductive reasoning. Since I was not only striving to

describe the phenomenon but to explain it as well, my axial codes fit into a basic frame of

generic relationships that included the following elements: phenomenon, causal

conditions, context, intervening conditions, action strategies, and consequences. Some

examples of axial codes from the data are humor, reminding, modeling, praise,

scaffolding, etc. When all data were collected and coded, a list of axial codes was









compiled for each case. The codes list was refined until it was non-repetitive and non-

overlapping.

Selective coding The purpose of selective coding is to find the big concepts that

encapsulate the data. As data were collected and initially coded I analyzed the coded data

for consistent concepts both within cases and between cases. These concepts defined the

selective codes and included relationships, rules and routines, instruction, and addressing

misbehaviors. All coded data for the three participants were found within these four

main concepts.

Lastly, I looked across all three cases to identify similarities and differences. The

original data were then recorded to find confirming and disconfirming evidence of these

identified concepts.

Constant comparison In this process I constantly reviewed my data and analyzed

my emerging themes. This process was imperative in order to note relationships and links

between data and to "continually question gaps in the data-omissions and

inconsistencies, and incomplete understandings" (Moustakas, 1994, p. 5).

Memos As noted earlier, the data in this study were immense. A codebook was

developed in order to inventory my codes and their descriptions. I also kept memos

(code notes) that discussed the codes and ideas I had for theory development,

relationships, questions, etc. As I worked with and analyzed the data, I developed

theoretical notes that helped to connect data or codes to the literature.

Trustworthiness of the Study

Several techniques were employed in this study to enhance the trustworthiness of

the findings. These are discussed below using criteria for evaluating qualitative research

found in Crotty (1998), Glesne (1999), Guba and Lincoln (1994), and Patton (2002).









Credibility Qualitative researchers admit that there are many potential biases in

their research and must describe processes used to ensure credibility in their studies. In

this study, I used prolonged engagement with participants and triangulation of data to

enhance credibility. While conducting this study, I invested significant time to learn

about the classroom cultures, build trust with the participants and worked to detect and

minimize any distortions that may have influenced the data. I was in classrooms on a

weekly basis for the first 8 weeks of school accumulating 16-18 hours of observation in

each room for a total of 52 hours of observation.

Interviews were conducted with participants and also served to triangulate data

from observations. A total of 8 hours was spent talking with teachers about their

understandings resulting in 234 pages of transcribed data.

To reduce biases and distortions, it is important that the data be examined from

another perspective. For this study, the professor in residence, who was familiar with the

context, reviewed and discussed with me emerging themes as well as developing theories.

These discussions and my audio taped interviews and observations served as an

additional source of triangulation.

Dependability Dependability is achieved when the researcher is scrupulous in

documenting the process and procedures used for generating and interpreting data (Guba

& Lincoln, 1994). Qualitative researchers provide a clear and concise paper trail to help

readers understand how data were analyzed and conclusions drawn. In this study, the

paper trail was recorded in journal. All decisions about data collection and analysis

were recorded in this journal. Another way that I showed dependability in this study was

with member checks. Member checks were on-going as I collected and analyzed data. In









post-observational interviews, I often asked questions about themes and theories for the

teachers to clarify or discuss. More formal member checks were conducted after most of

the data were collected and in the later stages of theory development. I brought

preliminary findings to the participants and asked their opinions on the "truth" of these

theories in relation to their own understandings and experiences. In each case there were

minor details (terms, numbers, names) to be corrected but each member agreed that the

findings represented their understandings of classroom management.

Confirmability Confirmability relates to ones subjectivity as a researcher. In this

study, I enhanced confirmability in two ways. One way was to state explicitly my

theoretical perspective and assumptions (see Appendix D). The second was to include

examples of raw data, data analysis procedures, category and theme development, as well

as process notes (see Appendix E). By including this information, readers could see for

themselves how conclusions were generated.

Transferability Though qualitative researchers are not as concerned with

replication as quantitative researchers, qualitative researchers are concerned with

transferability which means that other researchers can decide if and how to apply the

findings from this study to their own situation. By describing the context of both the

classroom and the teacher as well as using numerous quotes and anecdotes, I provided a

thick description of the research process and how conclusions were developed. This

description allowed readers to decide if findings from this study could be transferred to

other contexts due to shared characteristics.

Limitations One limitation of this study was the fact that all three participants

were from non-dominant ethnicities. Another limitation of this study was that the









students in each class observed were predominately African American and spoke English

as their first language. In many classrooms today, it is white teachers who are teaching

students whose cultural, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds vary greatly from each other.

However, this study does begin to illuminate effective practices used in high poverty

African American contexts and future research can extend the generalizability of these

findings.

Conventions of the Language

This research is a combination of reporting what teachers said and did, interpreting

their actions and words, and creating conceptualizations from the interpreted data.

Because of this messy business of qualitative research, some explanations about language

are provided.

* When I am discussing teachers' abiding beliefs that we assume will continue
beyond this research, the present tense is used (i.e., Lucy believes in her students
and wants what is best for them.)

* Interview and observational data are presented in the past tense because they were
recorded at one particular time in the past (i.e., Susie leaned forward and made eye
contact with the student while she held her hand up).

* Participants' words are represented verbatim and can be identified by indented text
followed by codes (described below) or contained within quotation marks.

Troy, sit down! [II-o923p2]

Presentation of Findings

This study includes well-documented and detailed descriptions of the teachers, their

classrooms and the school context in which they work. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 represent

each teacher's case study organized according to the larger selective codes discussed

earlier in this chapter. Within each case, data are represented with the following codes:

* Teacher code: Kathy (I), Lucy (II), and Susie (III)
* Data source: observation (o) or interview (i)









* Date of data collection: month/day (923=Sept. 23)
* Transcript page: page from which the data comes (p2).

In the end, a code like this II-o1012p4 can be interpreted as Lucy, observation, October

12, page 4.

In Chapter 7, I summarize the findings and present conclusions derived from a

cross-case analysis to develop a theory about the centrality of relationships to classroom

management. (Readers who prefer to peruse this theory and its explanation before

reading the three cases are advised to skip to Chapter 7 at this time. Readers who would

rather peruse the three cases and construct their own understandings about these teachers'

practice are advised to continue reading.) Literature is used to situate the findings within

the broader research base. This chapter concludes with implications for teachers, teacher

educators, and further research in the area of culturally responsive classroom

management.














CHAPTER 4
KATHY: THE MAESTRO

Kathy is at the board firing math questions at the group offourth grade students

sitting at desks placed in groups offour or five. Students are sitting up in 11thi seats il ith

books and papers out juggling their attention between Kathy and the answers they have

written on their papers and sometimes c v~fI I ing i i: ith others in their group about

answers. Kathy models the new math concepts and invites students to come to the board

and complete a problem for the rest of the class. As a group of students come to the

board, Kathy continues to monitor the group and prompts students at their seats to "look

up here" and "check your paper. She notices that one of the students at the board

needs some help and quietly moves over to her and scaffolds her to complete the problem.

As students return to their seats and Kathy asks them to explain the completed problems,

she notices that Juanita is it king i/ ith a neighbor (she was spoken to about this twice

already). "Juanita, I'm gonna call your momma and you know what will happen then. "

Juanita stops talking. Students are finished explaining their problems and Kathy asks

everyone to make sure they have this written down because the homework is 'just like

this. Kathy then directs students to clear off desks and waits, i/th her hand up in the air

and her other hand covering her lips, for students to settle down. When the class is quiet,

Kathy plays the CD "Math Rap. As Kathy walks around the room she and the students

sing and move to the familiar song reinforcing important mathematical definitions and

terms. [I-o826p4-5]









In this fourth-grade math class at the beginning of the year, Kathy, a fourth-year

teacher, shows students how exciting math can be. Kathy, an African American woman,

is closely connected to the community both as a teacher and as a private citizen. She

knows her students and their families and carries these understandings into her classroom

in relationships, instruction, and management. Kathy is a caring teacher who will push

students to achieve and accepts no excuses for not meeting the high standards she sets in

her class.

Much of Kathy's practice was focused on preventing student misbehavior and

promoting academic achievement through pedagogy (see Appendix F). Students who

misbehave were more likely to experience a prompt, directive or warning than a

consequence (100 to 4). Though specific instances of"relationship building" were

observed only 36 of a total 571 times, Kathy's care for students and her commitment to

providing a positive learning environment for them was evident in all of the other areas

of her practice.

Kathy is like the maestro who expertly guides, teaches, and supports her musicians

to perform skillfully exciting and challenging symphonies. What follows is an analysis

of Kathy's practice for the first three months of the2004 school year.

Relationships

As noted in Emmer et al. (1980), the purpose of classroom management is to

prevent misbehavior and promote a classroom environment where students feel safe,

cared for, and valued. The importance of relationships in the construction of such an

environment can be found in classroom management literature (Marzano & Marzano,

2003), culturally responsive pedagogy literature (Ladson-Billings, 1994), and culturally

relevant classroom management literature (Brown, 2003; Weinstein et al., 2004).









Though specific relationship-building data were coded less often than other components

of her practice, Kathy was quite consistent in reinforcing several themes important to

building successful relationships: Believing in students, building a community of respect

and care, and being accessible to students both in and outside of school. These themes

were observed in isolated instances (as noted here) but were also woven into other

aspects of Kathy's practice (interactions with students, pedagogical choices, and dealing

with misbehaviors). As the leader of the orchestra, Kathy knew that her ability to draw

out each player's best performance was largely based on the relationship she developed

with him or her.

Belief in Students

Kathy believes that all students can and will succeed and is relentless in her

insistence that they will succeed.

And a lot of kids they act up when they do the things they do because they don't
get it at home. They don't get the love they don't get the kindness and some of
them at home all they hear is you little ignorant child or you're stupid and this and
that. And that's what they give you because that's what they hear, but if you let
them know that 'you're better than this and you can do better than this,' a lot of
times they'll start striving to show you that they can. And then they'll start
believing it themselves. And so I believe that if I instill it in them (and I let them
know I expect your best, 'nothing but your best,' you're not giving me your best
you can do better than this), eventually they'll start believing it themselves and start
doing it. [I-ill8p26]

Kathy would not give up on a student even if that student had given up on himself or

herself. Though she was insistent, she was not militant and worked with the student to

find a way to help him or her to be successful (on task and engaged). This was apparent

when she adapted her management to meet the needs of two challenging groups of

students: low achievers and those students labeled with special education needs. When

Kathy recognized that her low-achieving students needed more one-on-one instruction









(they can get rowdy waiting for a teacher to come and help them), she solicited the help

of another teacher and split the class in half. This way, each teacher only had seven or

eight students and student wait time for assistance was cut in half. When this change was

implemented, Kathy noticed an increase in on-task behavior and a decrease in

misbehavior.

Green Meadows Elementary School had recently become an inclusion school and

Kathy had several special needs students in her classroom. Kathy understood that they

have unique needs and worked hard to build a relationship with them so she could better

determine both management and instructional strategies that would be most effective in

moving the students toward success. Kathy's interactions with Dequan demonstrated

how her belief that a child can and will succeed enabled her to give a student space to

control his behavior successfully and function as a member of the classroom. Dequan

has an emotional handicap that sometimes means he erupts in class. Something will set

him off, and he becomes disruptive (e.g., yelling, complaining, stomping feet, slamming

book, turning over desk, flinging his book bag, or hitting another student). Kathy

expected him to settle himself and participate in instruction but she was also willing to

give him space to calm himself down. For example, he was allowed to walk out into the

centrium to cool off and return when he was ready. This strategy cut down on his

outbursts in the class and his behavior evened out. More important than the strategy is

the fact that it was not developed as a plan to control his behavior. Instead, this solution

was negotiated through many discussions between Kathy and Dequan about his feelings

and needs. When Kathy worked to develop a relationship with her students she was able

to better understand their needs and structure a management plan that will meet these









needs; that is, through her relationship with students, she conveyed her belief in each one

and communicated that she was "on their side"(Strachota, 1996) and that they could solve

problems together. The ability to work i/ti students rather than to control them from

above is obviously related to Kathy's respect and care for her students.

Community of Respect and Care

Belief in her students is the foundation for Kathy's relationship with students but it

is not enough to guarantee success. Kathy knows that her students often experience lives

where respect and courtesy can get lost in the hectic business of survival. She sees it as

her responsibility to teach students about respect and courtesy and model these desired

behaviors. Kathy could certainly be firm and, she explained, even "hard" in expecting

students to behave but she never demeaned or humiliated a student in class. Her

interactions with students were often conducted with a soft voice and even when Kathy

raised her voice to be heard or to emphasize her point, she remained courteous and

respectful of students. The second week of school, Kathy's students were working on

placement tests. When they finished, they could choose a book to read quietly. On one

occasion Troy carelessly put his book back on the shelf sideways and sticking out. In

response, Kathy firmly explained that is not how books are to be placed in the shelf and

asked him to please replace it correctly. Troy calmly walked back to the shelf and

replaced the book correctly. Kathy responded, "Thank you." In everyday interactions,

Kathy often used common courtesies like please, thank you, and excuse me (70 instances

of these social conventions were noted from the overall 571). Students were thanked for

helping out in class (passing out supplies, collecting supplies, cleaning up), helping

others (either to get on task or to complete work), and for participating (answering

questions, coming to the board to explain a problem).









The environment of respect that Kathy built in her classroom was also evident in

student behavior. It is interesting to note that in Kathy's class, students responded to her

questions with "Yes, ma'am" and "No, ma'am" (with no visible instruction from Kathy)

but did not use these terms of respect with the other teachers they rotated through each

day. Relationships among students were also affected by Kathy's focus on building

community in her classroom. In the first few weeks of school, Kathy reinforced ideas of

respect and care for others when she admonished students to "listen while others are

talking" and to "help your neighbors." In coded data, these remarks were found

significantly less often in the last two months of observation with all 11 remarks limited

to August observations and remarks praising community goals recorded sporadically in

August but more regularly throughout September and October.

The students in Kathy's class had no doubt that they were part of a supportive and

caring community. Kathy was a model for the students as she interacted with them using

common courtesies and respectful strategies to create an environment where they felt safe

and successful. Students responded to this environment by behaving with respect and

care for Kathy and for each other.

Being Accessible to Students Both Inside and Outside of School

Students were extremely respectful to Kathy but were not scared of or intimidated

by her. It was not unusual to see Kathy talking with an individual student or small groups

of students between classes, after school, or during her planning period. Kathy's

classroom door was nearly always open, and students felt comfortable coming into the

classroom and talking with her about their successes, frustrations, dreams, and dilemmas.

All of these occasions were opportunities for Kathy to continue to develop relationships

with her students.









... have fun with the kids and just be myself with the kids. I think that I wouldn't
get the results I do if I couldn't to that. I think that the kids being able to see me in
an unprofessional way. It makes them feel better able to come and talk to me when
they have problems or come to me when they need help. Because they don't feel
like I'm unapproachable. And I think that is important that the children feel
comfortable coming to you and seeking your help when they need it, that they're
not intimidated by you. So I think being able to put my guard down and have fun
with them and dance around the room and joke with them every now and then let
them know that I'm a person just like them. [I-il 18p24]

Though Kathy is a very structured teacher with firm ideas about classroom

management, she sees the humor in certain situations. One day while students were

working independently, a boy complained that his neighbor was distracting him by

singing. Kathy walked over to the student and casually said,

Jassey, we know you have a beautiful voice but right now you need to be quiet.
One day you can showcase your voice in front of the whole class but now you need
to be quiet. [I-ol01p4]

The class, including Kathy and Jassey, laughed and then got back to work. Here Kathy

chose to react with humor and, in doing this, showed students that she could laugh with

them. Kathy sees school as serious business, and joking is not often observed within the

context of instructional times, but it was not unusual to see Kathy smiling or joking with

students in her informal interactions before school, after school, or between classes.

Kathy also showed that she is "human" and accessible to students by sharing

personal information with them. There are pictures of Kathy, her family and friends,

awards, and pictures created by former and current students hung on walls and placed on

bookshelves for all to see. She often discussed her children with her class and related

their experiences to her students' experiences. Kathy's students know she has a life

outside of school and often find that her experiences and their own are similar.









Kathy extends her relationships with students outside of school. One of the best

ways to understand better and build a relationship with her students is to interact with

them in the community.

I know that a lot of them are involved in things. A lot of them go to church. I see a
lot of them in church. They are involved in different things. Sports. Some go like
there's a dance troupe that's big in the African American community. They do
ballet and different dances. Some of the girls are in that. I see students at the city
basketball games and things. Community center-a lot of them go to community
centers after school. I see some like in our town we have different community
centers. Different communities have little different names (names 4 of them) and
I'll see the kids in different little areas. And they'll be like, "Ohh Ms. K what you
doing in [name of local community]?" (laughs) and so I get to relate to them in
different aspects outside of the school. [I-i 1l8p20]

As Kathy's relationship with the students grows, her understanding of them grows as

well. Kathy often incorporated this added knowledge of students into her management

plan.

I'm very involved with the church, and so I see a lot of them in church. And I know
the different churches they go to. And I'll use it. "OK I'm gonna tell your pastor
on you." (laughs) and I'll tell the kids sometimes, "Now, is that what...I know I
seen you in church...and is that how you're supposed to be acting? What would
Jesus do?" Cause I know a lot of them their churches teach them WWJ. And I say,
"What would Jesus do?" Because I know that they're into the churches so I kind of
use that (laughs). [I-i 118p21]

This is just one example of how Kathy used her relationships outside of school to manage

students inside school. Throughout lessons, Kathy casually reminded misbehaving

students that she knows their grandma or that she knows they can behave "like I saw you

in church on Sunday." Students are no longer anonymous but are known to Kathy.

Because of this knowledge, Kathy has a deeper understanding of the students she teaches

and uses this knowledge like the conductor who is first a musician and really understands


the perspective of each musician.









It is interesting to note that Kathy uses her identity, situated both in the African

American community and in the mainstream community, to teach students explicitly

about mainstream norms they might not know.

I want them to know that, yes, we act this way at home but when we get in a
different setting we have to change the way ... we can't act the same way when
we're in a professional setting or when we're in a school setting. It's fine to act
this way at home but when you get in a different environment, you have to adapt to
that environment. That's just the way it is. [I-i 118p3]

One example of this is the ability to code switch. Code switching involves teaching

students whose first language may not be Standard English the "language of power" and

giving them practice in using the two languages in appropriate contexts (Delpit, 1995).

... like when I'm at home I do talk in Ebonics and slang. And I even talk with
the kids when I see them on the street I'll be like "OK hey wass up?" But then
when I'm at school it's "hello. How are you doing today?" And so I just let them
know that yes, we can talk this way here at home but when we are at school, we
talk a different way because when we are at home some of them might call me
Kathy. They'll play around and we'll kid and they'll maybe say something and I'll
say, "Your momma." And they know when we get to school we can't do that same
thing and I just want them to be able to know that there is a difference. There is a
difference even when you grow up there's a difference from the way you act at
home. You can do certain things at home but when you get into a professional
setting or a different environment you can't do those same things. [I-i 118p3]

Building quality relationships with students was very important to Kathy, who used

many different strategies to build trust, respect, and understanding in her classroom. She

understands the importance of knowing her students in different contexts and, in return,

being known by her students as well. As Kathy began to know her students better, she

understood their motivations and unique needs more accurately and used this knowledge

to create a management plan where students could positively interact in the environment.

As students began to know Kathy and understood that she was more than just the teacher

they see in the classroom, she was humanized, and students felt more connected to her.









This kind of trust brings the student/teacher relationship to another level and makes

classroom management more effective (Marzano & Marzano, 2003).

Rules, Procedures, and Routines

Kathy built strong student/teacher relationships from the first day of school and at

the same time, she also worked to teach rules and routines to students. Kathy is the

conductor of the orchestra, and the rules and routines of the classroom are like the

musical score that lends structure to the selection being played. When one walks into the

classroom, one sees students who are engaged and well behaved while going about

meeting their individual needs with some autonomy. One hears the harmonious music but

rarely sees the score from which it generates. How does Kathy achieve such beautiful

music with her students? Kathy's success with rules and routines is based on (a) explicit

instruction, (b) rule and routine practice/reminders, and (d) positive reinforcement.

Emmer et al. (1980) and Bohn et al. (2004) conducted research that showed effective

classroom managers explicitly taught expectations to the students, allowed students time

to practice the routines, and gave students appropriate feed back on their performance.

The similarities between Kathy's practice and those of the other effective managers are

unmistakable.

Explicit Instruction

In the first few weeks of school, one can see how important rules and routines were

to Kathy. Especially in the first two weeks, Kathy spent an extraordinary amount of time

explicitly teaching rules and routines to the students. Kathy left nothing to chance in this

crucial process. Many students who come to Kathy's class may be unaware of certain

school norms or may be used to performing certain routines differently than is expected

in Kathy's class. She knows that her students may not already know how to perform the









routines of the class so like the good conductor that she is, Kathy taught every rule and

routine to her students. In the beginning of the year, she started with the simple and

graduated to more complicated routines later on. One of the most basic procedures Kathy

taught on the first day of school was the bathroom routine. The fourth graders were

allowed to use the bathroom at one specific time. Students must take the pass from the

hook, and then they were free to leave the room to go to the bathrooms located across the

hall. Students were allowed to go to the bathroom when Kathy was not instructing or

giving directions. Kathy discussed this procedure with the class and then showed them

where the passes were kept. It was amazing to see how much instruction it took for this

seemingly simple procedure. Students got up during instructional time or they got up and

met another student at the door to get the pass from him/her (this caused some traffic

issues in the class). Each time that Kathy saw a student not following the specific

procedure, she stopped and re-taught the correct procedure. Later in the semester, data

showed that students were going to the bathroom at the appropriate times, and class ran

smoothly as students took care of their bathroom needs without as many reminders from

Kathy.

Explicitly teaching the rules and reinforcing procedures takes a great deal of time

and effort at the beginning but has great benefits in the end. In October, students were

working in their reading textbooks where small group reading and discussions were

suggested. When Kathy said, "OK, get into your reading groups and read the story, then

discuss the questions at the end of the story with your group," students moved their seats

and got to work right away. Reading and quality discussions were taking place with only

one request from Kathy. Later Kathy explained how this miracle was achieved.









We talked about it. Last week was the first week we had our reading groups, and I
discussed with them the teams and the responsibility of team members, what I
would be looking for. We did practice having group discussions last week, and I
told them, OK, I want to hear you going back into the story to find the support for
your answers. Give me details from the story. Don't just tell me something. You
have to find it. Find it in the story and support it from the story using details. So
we did discuss it the week before, and I'm finding that they did-they're using it
now. [I-i923p4]

When teachers use explicit instruction to teach their students classroom rules and

routines and give them time to practice them, students are better able to understand the

expectations inherent in the rule or procedure and are more successful in following them.

Though it seems that students should know the rules and routines, the reality is that many

students often do not know the rules so explicit instruction and reinforcement is crucial in

order for teachers to lay the foundation for student independence.

Remind, Remind, Remind

Just as learning a new piece of music takes a great deal of practice, so does learning

new rules and routines in the classroom. Kathy knows that students will not always

remember the correct rules and routines. Instead of punishing them for infractions, she

reminded them of her expectations.

Today, it was interesting. I had to keep repeating it. 'Open your planners get your
HW out. Open your planners get your HW out.' But I suppose that by next week
they'll automatically open it up have their HW out. The first day today it was
pretty much a matter of getting them to listen and pay attention when they first
come in. But we're doing it one-day at a time. One step at a time. [I-i824p9]

Kathy did a great deal more reminding than punishing (62 to 4) but she did expect

students to follow rules and procedures independently. From her experiences with the

students, she had in her mind about how long it would take most students to master the

skill. Kathy kept reminding students up to this point and even told them when she

expected that they should be able to perform the skill without her reminders,









Next week you will be responsible for bringing in your homework and your planner
must be signed or you will not get full credit. [I-o83 lp4]

Kathy believes that as the conductor it is her job to help students to succeed in

performing rules and procedures. Students were not left to sink or swim alone, and

Kathy did not perceive her job as that of policeman to punish infractions. She knows that

for order to be achieved, students must understand and be able to perform desired

classroom routines. They needed many opportunities to practice and often needed to be

reminded of expectations. She was not interested in catching misbehaviors but in

creating an environment where well-behaved students could learn and achieve.

Positive Reinforcement

Kathy's goal was to have students who were on task and who were independently

engaged in following classroom rules and routines. She explicitly taught and frequently

reminded students of expectations in order to get students into the habit of performing

desired behaviors. She told students what they were doing correctly in the hope that

others would emulate it and that the student being praised would continue with the

behavior.

Kathy's classroom was an overwhelmingly positive place. An observer would both

see and hear the numerous ways that Kathy positively reinforced student behavior. One

use of positive reinforcement was to calm the class and gain student attention. On several

occasions, Kathy followed the students into class and noticed that many students were

talking, out of their seats, or otherwise not on task. Instead of yelling and punishing, she

gave those who were behaving a treat (M&Ms), a stamp for their card (to redeem for a

prize after 20 stamps), or specific praise. Though she did not use external rewards often

(4 out of 29 total reinforcing incidents) Kathy said that she found these strategies to be









successful in "catching the students' attention." Once she had their attention, she began

the lesson for the day.

Kathy worked hard to catch students doing something good and made a conscious

effort to let them know she noticed and appreciated their efforts. The fact that Kathy

used a great deal of positive reinforcement is notable. In the average classroom, positive

statements are used every 20 minutes while negative statements can be heard every 2 to 5

minutes (Algozzine & Ysseldyke, 1997). Throughout the day, Kathy could be heard

reinforcing positive student behavior.

Thank you for waiting patiently. [I-o826p4]

Good job! You're the first one to have everything out and ready. Good job. [I-
o831p4]

Thank you for those who were working quietly. [I-ol01p2]

Denny, thank you for quietly following directions and getting your book out. [I-
ol020p2]

Most of the praise Kathy gave was genuine and specific, indicative of effective praise

(Brophy & Good, 2000). This kind of interaction creates a positive snowball effect where

positive behavior elicits positive teacher attention that then promotes more positive

behavior and positive teacher attention (Vitto, 2003). In all, this lead to a well-behaved

and positive environment for student learning.

Kathy used explicit instruction, reminders/practice of rules and routines, and

positive reinforcement to make sure her students understood what desired behaviors

looked and sounded like. She understood students would not be perfect the first time and

gave them a grace period to work toward mastery of the new skills. Throughout the

entire process, Kathy looked for the positive and amply rewarded students for their

efforts with her regard in front of their peers.









Curriculum and Instruction

Classroom management research has documented the connection between well-

behaved students and appropriate, challenging, and varied instruction and curriculum

(Bohn et al., 2004; Cotton, 2001; Emmer et al., 1980). Teachers who are successful

managers also engage and motivate students in active learning through active teaching

strategies. Kathy is an effective and skillful teacher who encouraged and motivated her

students with scaffolding, second chances, and praise. She engaged students in active

learning through fun and participatory activities and used her knowledge of her students'

culture to make links between school and home. Like the maestro who wants to inspire

his musicians to brilliance, Kathy supplied students with a score that was stimulating,

challenging and novel.

Encourage and Motivate Students

In her classroom, Kathy described a successful lesson as follows:

The majority of the class grasped the concept, they have an idea of what they're
doing, they understand the overall point. They were into the lesson. And hopefully
they had a little bit of fun somewhere during that period. [I-i 105p6]

Kathy believes successful classroom management is more than students sitting

quietly in their seats listening to the teacher. Students need to be engaged and motivated

by their learning. How does Kathy encourage her students to keep trying and motivate

them to participate in the lessons? Kathy primarily used three strategies: scaffolding,

second chance, and praise.

During the observation period, Kathy primarily taught math (3/4 of the day) and

reading one period each day. Kathy's math classes were comprised of the entire fourth

grade placed into three leveled periods that rotated through her room each day. One way

that students can become disengaged from their learning is when new concepts or skills









are taught and they do not understand the connection to skills already learned. In these

cases students who fail to get it become frustrated and disengaged, often resulting in

behavior problems.

Kathy met this issue head on. When she saw that students were getting frustrated,

she stepped in and used scaffolds to move them to the next level. One example of this

was seen in late August. Kathy had students working at the board writing numbers in

standard, expanded, and word form. Shekisha was working on writing expanded form.

Kathy noticed that Shekisha was struggling with the problem. Kathy moved next to her

and quietly asked questions to talk her through the process until she could succeed

independently. Scaffolding can be as complicated as this example or as simple as when

Kathy asked a student to identify which number was greatest: 582,411 or 572,4011. The

student struggled in reading the numbers. To help, Kathy covered part of the number and

had the student read it again uncovering the second part after the first part was read. In

the end the student read each number correctly and correctly identified the largest

number. Rather than letting students struggle and fail, Kathy caught them before they

could fall and supported them in gaining a foothold.

Another way that Kathy encouraged students to continue to try was by giving

students a second chance. In many classrooms teachers ask students questions and after a

brief wait time, or if the student answers incorrectly, they move on and ask another

student to answer the question or to help the previous student. In Kathy's class, students

had a second chance to answer the question. One way that Kathy gave students a second

chance was to allow them time to consider an answer. For example, she asked Rakeem a

question, and he did not have an answer. Kathy gave him some more information









(scaffolding) and said she would come back to him. Then she moved on and asked

several children similar questions eventually returning to Rakeem, who answered the

question correctly. Rakeem stayed engaged because he knew that Kathy would come

back to him and he needed to have an answer. Interestingly, later in the data-collecting

process, Kathy asked a student a question that he was not prepared to answer; he asked

her to come back to him. She nodded and moved on, coming back to him after several

others had responded to other questions. When she came back to him, he was ready with

the correct answer.

Another time that Kathy gave students a second chance was when they were

completing their work. If they did not complete the page, or forgot to write the number

in two forms, Kathy would give the papers back to the students and ask them to complete

them correctly. When students got a second chance, it showed that Kathy valued the

work they did and expected them to meet the high standards she had for them. Much of

this kind of encouragement was documented in the first month of school with few

incidences in September or October. As students understood that Kathy expected them to

do the work as assigned and would not accept anything less, they were motivated to meet

the expectations.

Kathy used praise most often to encourage and motivate her students' academic

success (25 out of 59 total encouraging incidents). Kathy used academic praise to

reinforce those behaviors that were beneficial to the students' learning. As students

continued to try working through a hard problem, attempted to work a new problem, or

completed problems at the board, Kathy gave praise for their accomplishments. Kathy

did not only praise correct answers, she also praised students who tried new things and









took a risk. Praise where student effort is noted is found to be highly encouraging and

effective (Brophy & Good, 2000). In August, Kathy asked Katrina to write a particularly

long number in expanded form. She completed the problem and sat down at her desk.

When Kathy had the class discuss the problem, they found that Katrina had an extra zero

in one place. Kathy erased the zero, again explained the rationale, and then moved on to

finish the discussion and the problem, ending with praise for Katrina's efforts. Rather

than concluding the problem was wrong, Kathy focused on the parts that were right and

the fact that Katrina took a risk to come up and try such a challenging problem. When

students feel that their efforts are appreciated, they will stay engaged and continue to

work toward success.

Active Learning

Kathy knows her students and understands that they learn best when they are active

participants in their learning. Research shows that many African American homes are

busy places with many people, much activity (usually centered around the physical), and

high levels of stimulation (Irvine, 1990). Many behavior problems occur in classrooms

where students are expected to sit passively as information is disseminated to them and

then work independently to complete assigned work. Kathy avoided this pitfall by

engaging her students in fun/participatory lessons and used cooperative learning to

achieve her academic goals.

Cooperative learning has received mixed reviews from teachers. Some feel that it

is a good way to support and engage students while others feel that it is a way for

students to shirk responsibility and can lead to chaos in the classroom. As Bohn et al.

(2004) and Putnam (1997) explained, those who are most successful with instructional

methods often have the best strategies and management routines in place for the chosen









method. Kathy is an effective manager and, as discussed earlier in this case, explicitly

taught her expectations and routines to the students and allowed them to practice

expected behaviors before engaging them in cooperative tasks. Kathy used cooperative

groups as one way to keep students interested and involved in the lesson.

I think with all kids you have to keep them engaged and motivated. I'm finding
that they really like having the discussions with their team members. And they're
more eager but they're more umm motivated to do the questions than when they
have to do them on their own. It's not just throwing them out there. They've had a
chance to talk about it. Get different ideas and then when they're writing, when
they have to write on their own, they're doing it with a little bit more eagerness. [I-
i923p5]

Students supported each other in understanding the content and processing it in different

ways. When students had the opportunity to share ideas and perspectives, learning

became personal and interesting. Students were more engaged in explaining their

perspective (which helps to define it) as well as listening and questioning other points of

view.

Cause they get to hear other viewpoints. Maybe they didn't think about the
viewpoint that one of their partners brought up. It just exposes them to other
viewpoints, hearing others' ideas and I'm finding their doing a lot better. We're
doing it with math and it just makes the children .. they get more into the lesson.
Everybody's participating now. I don't have anybody daydreaming. Everybody's
participating. [I-i923p6]

When students engage in this kind of cooperative learning, their understandings are often

deeper, which increases academic success as well as students' time on task.

Kathy emphasized that in cooperative groups "everybody's participating."

Participation was a very important part of Kathy's practice. It was rare that one observed

students sitting in seats listening or working independently for extended periods of time.

Even when Kathy was at the board teaching, she drew students into the lesson with

call/response or unison/choral response patterns. One day in October, Kathy was at the









board teaching the definitions for addition properties. Instead of reading the definitions

to the class, she engaged in a common African American discourse pattern: Call/response

(discussed in Chapter 2, the literature review). At this time, Kathy wrote the definition

on the board, then began to call (say the definition with a rhythm). When she stopped,

students responded by echoing the call. This pattern continued several times for each

definition, and each time Kathy changed the rhythm or tone, students responded with the

new rhythm and tone. The pace was smooth and brisk as Kathy led the group through the

definitions. Students were highly engaged and bobbed their heads, waved their hands, or

tapped their feet as they responded to Kathy's calls. At the end of the session, Kathy

called on individual students to tell the group the definitions of each rule (several students

were given the opportunity for each rule). All were able to do this correctly and often

answered with a rhythm from the call/response activity. The call/response strategy was

used intentionally by Kathy to engage and teach her students the properties of addition.

... for OUR group I think that it is. A lot of them love music and do a lot of things
with music and the call and response. We do it in different beats, different tones,
and different rhythms. They're more into it. They pay more attention than if I just
say it in the same monotone voice. [I-i105p3]

Because Kathy knew that her students loved music, she incorporated it into her lessons.

One might wonder how music and math are connected? In Kathy's class she used a CD

produced by a local teacher called Math Rap. The CD uses the call/response pattern

along with a rap beat to teach fundamental math terms and definitions (perimeter, area,

mode, median, mean, pentagon, isosceles triangle, etc.). Kathy used this CD to engage

students in learning these important terms. Students loved the CD and were on task

singing along while they learned. It was a perfect example of how students' participation

in lessons can heighten their motivation and engagement.









Active Teaching

Kathy certainly did not expect her students to do all the work in her class. She

understood that she has a part in keeping student engagement up and misbehavior down.

Kathy orchestrated the active lessons that kept students engaged. She is an extremely

active teacher who modeled/re-taught, created clever and challenging activities for the

students, and explicitly explained instructions/directions for the students to follow.

Kathy's class was fast paced with well-organized transitions between activities.

Kathy knows that students often learn best by example and modeled new

mathematical procedures often or re-taught a concept utilizing modeling.

Children learn by modeling a lot of times and so in order for them...if you expect
something from them, then you need to show it to them. And so I do try to do that.
[I-i 1l8p24]

When Kathy perceived that many students needed to be re-taught a concept or when she

introduced a new concept, she often modeled expected procedures at the board or

overhead projector. If Kathy noticed that isolated groups or individual students needed to

be re-taught, she went to their desks and quietly worked with them there. Students in

Kathy's class were not left to guess what to do; she showed them, and if they needed it,

she would show them again until they understood and were able to perform the task.

Bohn et al. (2004) found that effective managers were more explicit and clear in

their directions and instructions than were less effective managers. It only makes sense

that when students are clear about what they are to do they are able to do it correctly the

first time. Kathy was very explicit and clear with her directions and instructions to the

class.

Now write this, this and this down on your paper (points to rules and signs on
board) so you can have it at home tonight. Make sure you write it neat. Write the
signs and everything. Make sure your signs are facing the right way. [I-o83 lp8]











Do set A and set B when you are done, bring your papers to me. If I am with
somebody you need to wait or go on and do other problems (repeat). Go on and get
busy. Get started. Write your first and last name on your paper. [I-ol01p8]

Since Kathy's instructions were so clear, when students began working there was very

little confusion. When students turned in their work, it was usually done correctly. This

cut down on the amount of academic time that is often wasted in other classrooms when

students are unsure as to what they are to do for the assignment, and more time on task

means less time for misbehavior.

In Kathy's classroom, increased time on task and decreased misbehavior were not a

function of punishing students or reinforcing rules. Good management involved

instructional methods that called for student participation, engaging and supportive

methods of teaching, and curriculum and pedagogy that were aligned with students'

culture and interests. When students experienced learning that was exciting, diverse,

cooperative, and interactive, they could not help but be energized to succeed in each new

task they were given.

Misbehavior and Discipline

Though effective managers spend the majority of their time preventing

misbehavior, they cannot prevent all misbehavior. Teachers who are effective at

redirecting and stopping misbehaviors were not found to be so different in what they did

but in when they did it. Skillful managers stopped behavior sooner than less effective

teachers and their interventions got results more quickly (Cotton, 2001; Emmer et al.,

1980). Kathy is an effective manager who rarely ignored student misbehavior (5 out of

32 total misbehaviors coded) and used a hierarchy of increasing pressure to promptly

address infractions in her class. Observational data show that Kathy had four levels in









her hierarchy: (1) Pick your battles (choose which to address); (2) Prompt/redirect; (3)

Momma Mode and (4) Consequences. Kathy's goal was to orchestrate a classroom of

engaged and motivated students who were focused on academic success. Misbehaviors

in her class were defined as any action that was contrary to this goal and included playing

with friends or in backpacks during instructional times, talking when others are speaking,

not participating in class, and being disruptive to others' learning.

Ignore Misbehavior

Kathy spent a great deal of her time monitoring the students as they were working.

She walked around the class, looked up as she was working with individuals, looked at

each student as she taught at the board, and watched small groups at work. As Kathy

monitored her class, she noticed when students were beginning to get off track and then

decided how best to address the problem. Kathy rarely ignored student misbehavior but

the data show that she did ignore misbehavior 5 out of 32 times. Why did she ignore

these behaviors and not others? In reviewing the contexts of these incidents, Kathy

ignored student misbehavior in favor of continuing with the pace of the class. In all five

situations, Kathy ignored minor student disruptions (tapping pencil, shuffling through

book bag, off topic comment) and continued with the pace of the lesson. The

misbehaviors stopped as students became engaged with the lesson. In these situations,

Kathy did not want to overreact to a situation and allowed students to self-correct as they

received no attention for the action and abandoned it in favor of the engaging lesson.

Prompt/Redirect

There were other times when ignoring misbehavior was not an appropriate choice.

In these cases, Kathy choose to prompt students to do the right thing with a waiting

strategy, proximity, gestures, attention cues and reminders.









There were times when students were misbehaving and Kathy did not continue

with the lesson and felt that she needed to wait for student behavior to improve before she

could move on. Kathy did not use this strategy very often (7 out of 32 total

misbehaviors) but when she did use it, she got results quickly. When does Kathy use her

waiting technique? Data show that Kathy used her waiting technique when large groups

of the class were off task. In these cases, she knew that to go on was not productive so

she usually gave the quiet signal (one hand up and one hand on lips, standing in front of

class making eye contact with students) and announced that the class was waiting for

everyone's attention. During the quiet signal, Kathy's tone and body language exuded

authority and not surprisingly, students quickly quieted down. As the class quieted down,

Kathy thanked them and then promptly moved on with the lesson.

At other times, Kathy used proximity or gestures to redirect the students' behavior.

Kathy was often at the front of the room during instruction (over-head projector or white

board) so using proximity usually occurred as students were working independently.

Kathy used this type of prompt infrequently in her practice and only when students were

fooling around and needed to be prompted to get back on track. A more frequently used

prompt was gesturing. For example, Kathy continued teaching as she gestured to students

to put away inappropriate materials, throw away paper they were playing with, and sit up

in their seats. Kathy also shook her head to gesture to students to stop what they were

doing (talking, playing with materials, and rocking in seats). Again, she made eye

contact with students, and her expression showed she meant business. The students

usually stopped the behavior immediately.









Sometimes a student misbehaved (his or her attention is focused elsewhere) and

Kathy could not catch his/her eye. To get his/her attention, Kathy called the student's

name.

Troy? [I-o825p7]

Calvin, Alli? You aren't listening. [I-ol01p8]

When students heard their name they stopped what they were doing and looked up at

Kathy who returned their look with one of authority (direct eye contact, serious

expression, raised eyebrows). These were quick and effective and did not interfere with

the progress of the lesson.

Reminding was also used to prompt students to get back on track.

If you come back from the b-room with the pass you must hang it on the hook. Do
not give it to someone. If you are waiting to go, then take it off the hook. [I-
o820p4]

Now my hand is up and stays up until everyone is looking at me and not talking. [I-
o820pl]

Interestingly, the data show that Kathy did the majority of reminding in the first month of

school as students were in their practice mode of learning classroom rules and routines

and lessened as time progressed. Kathy used reminding as a scaffold to help students

master the behaviors expected of them in the classroom.

Momma Mode

Later in the year, as students were expected to know and adhere to the rules and

procedures of the classroom, Kathy used two techniques to help misbehaving students get

back on track: Directives and warnings. These warnings are called momma mode

because, as Kathy discussed these two techniques, she referred to treating the students as

if they were her own children and she was their momma. Directive statements and









warnings are two types of discourse that are common in African American culture

(Delpit, 1995; Hammond, Banks, Cotton, Dent, & Reaves, 2003; Irvine, 1990).

Directives were used almost exclusively at this level (41 out of 5 Itotal momma mode

codes) while warnings were rarely used (10 out of 51 total momma mode codes).

Directives differed from reminders in that they no longer gave information but directed

behavior.

Alli close that book [I-ol01p6]

You need to get out a piece of paper and copy down what's on the board [I-
ol05p6].

Calvin! Get out the worksheet. [I-ol05pl2]

When students heard Kathy using directives they were in no doubt as to what behaviors

were expected of them. As Kathy issued the directives, students generally reacted with

haste and did as they were told. Though many teachers who are unfamiliar with this type

of discourse may assume it is harsh or disrespectful and that students' feelings may be

hurt, this is not the case. When students were on the receiving end of directives, they

often looked up at Kathy, lowered their eyes, and corrected the behavior. Then they

looked up at Kathy again for approval. As the students got back on track, Kathy nodded

and made eye contact with them so they got the positive feedback they were seeking and

the positive behavior was reinforced.

Kathy used warnings very sparingly. When all else failed and students had hit her

last nerve, Kathy used warnings to address student misbehavior.

I know in the African American community a lot of them get spankings and so I'll.
In knowing a lot of their parents I can threaten them with, 'OK you know if I call
your grandparents you know what's going to happen to you.' And I know that a lot
of their parents when it comes to their education, they don't play. Then the kids
know that they will get in trouble. And I'll tell them. And I'll kind of hang it over









their heads. 'You know if I call home, you know what's gonna happen. You don't
want me to call home do you?' or 'Do I need to call home?' [I-i 118p12]

Here, she used an African American parenting style that to some might seem harsh

(Hammond, Banks, Cotton, Dent, & Reaves, 2003). But students interpreted these as

warnings to do the right thing. Kathy delivered the warning in a teasing manner, usually

with a smile. Students often smiled back and got back on track and the class moved on.

There were other times when Kathy used warnings, and she was not teasing.

Like I had a student who was acting up a lot and just playing in class. And he's a
very bright student. He does real well but he was just playing a lot and he was
getting in trouble because he was playing a lot. And so one day after school I just
pulled him to the side and I was like, 'Listen. So-and-so I'm sick and tired of you
doing this mess. I was like, you better straighten up your act right now or I'll go
and take you outside and I'll tear you up. Because I'm sick and tired of you acting
up in my class.' And I was like 'Do you understand me?' he was like 'Yes.' I was
like, 'yes? Where do you get that yes mess from? You'd better straighten up right
now. What are you supposed to say?' 'yes ma'am.' And I was like, 'From now on
that's what you're supposed to say when you address an adult. Do you hear me?'
(quietly) 'Yes ma'am.' I said, 'Do you hear me?' because he had his head down.
He was like, 'Yes ma'am.' I said, 'You better hold your head up and look at me
when I'm talking to you boy.' (laughs) and it was like the same thing I kinda do
with my own children or my nieces and nephews. 'Now I don't want this behavior
from you anymore. Do you understand?' he was like, 'Yes. Ma'am.' 'What are
you gonna do?' he's like, 'I'm gonna come to class and I'm gonna do the right
thing.' 'When are you gonna do it?' he's like, 'Every day.' 'When?' he's like
'Every day.' I was like, 'Am I gonna have anymore problems from you?' and he
was like, 'No.' 'And what's gonna happen if I do?' 'Me and you gonna go
outside.' I said, 'That's right. Now you'd better get out of here.' (laughs). [I-
i118p14]

With this type of warning, Kathy used direct eye contact, a firm voice, and dialect

frequently associated with family and community. Her words were direct and explicit,

and her emotions were apparent to the student. In the African American culture these are

signals of a powerful and authoritative adult (Delpit, 1995; Marzano & Marzano, 2003).

The student knew Kathy meant business and indicated his understanding with lowered

head and, at the end of the conversation, showed his willingness to do better and comply









with Kathy's directives. Kathy reported that after this talk the student's behavior was

"fine, no problems."

These warnings might seem startling to readers who have never seen them in

action. Remember, the threats are delivered in an environment of care and familial

familiarity. Kathy also explained that she threatens the students with a punishment but

does not have any intention of following through with them.

Well I know some people disagree with writing sentences but I always threaten
them with sentences because they just hate writing sentences. And if I just threaten
(smiles) them and say there going to have to write sentences, then it catches their
attention. Like today I just wrote a sentence on the board and I just threatened
them and when see me writing it, they know automatically that someone was going
to have to do it if they acted up so that kind of catches their attention and gets them
on track. I rarely give it to someone but I just do it to threaten them. [I-i105p4]

Even though Kathy rarely followed through with the punishments, warnings were still

effective with the students. Students were familiar with this strategy (often used by

caregivers at home) and knew that the use of warnings meant the adult had hit their last

nerve and they had better straighten up.

Directives and warnings were used sparingly but were useful strategies because

they are aligned with the students' cultural lives at home and conducted within an

environment of care and respect. Many student misbehaviors are a product of disconnect

between home and school cultures. Kathy is familiar with the students' culture and used

this familiarity to manage her class. Students often reflect on favorite teachers who made

the classroom seem like home and who sounded like a beloved grandmother, aunt, or

parent (Howard, 2001).

Consequences

Kathy used many effective strategies for getting misbehaving students back on

track and rarely had to resort to consequences. In the three months that she was observed,









Kathy used consequences only 4 of 571 total instances coded. Consequences Kathy used

were: moving seats (3 times) and moving a student out of the room (1 time). All four of

these consequences were enacted after Kathy had moved through her hierarchy of

discipline and the behavior persisted. Interestingly, Kathy enacted these consequences

with a minimum of disruption to the rest of the class. In the cases of students being

moved to other seats, Kathy called their name and pointed to the new location or she

made eye contact with them and pointed to the new location. In all three cases, students

got up and moved to the new seats (though they had grumpy looks on their faces) without

complaint or disruption as the lesson continued. In the case of the student asked to leave

the room, Kathy just pointed to the door and the student got up and went out to wait in

the centrium where Kathy later discussed his behavior and classroom expectations with

him. When asked about the students' reaction to the consequences, Kathy replied that

students knew what they had done wrong and were aware of the consequences so when

they were asked to move or leave, they could not be angry with her. They just got up and

moved or left the room. All of these events took place in October when classroom norms

and expectations were clearly understood by the students and showed how Kathy moved

from reminding and prompting to expecting appropriate behavior from the students and

enforcing appropriate consequences when misbehavior occurred. These consequences

were not punitive but were used to stop disruptive behavior (talking and joking with

others) so learning could continue.

Kathy is the Maestro who skillfully orchestrated her fourth grade reading and math

classes. She developed relationships with her students both in and outside of school so

that students came to trust and know her and she got to know them better in order to









motivate, engage, and direct them toward success. Kathy believes in her students and

would not give up on them even when they had given up on themselves. She constructed

her classroom in a way that promoted student success by explicitly teaching rules and

routines that may be unfamiliar to her students and building bridges to scaffold students

toward mastery of vital skills and concepts. Kathy did all of this with engaging,

culturally relevant, and challenging pedagogy and clever and creative curriculum ideas.

Students in Kathy's class were captivated by her methods and behavior was usually very

good. In cases where student behavior was an issue, Kathy approached the matter as a

problem that both she and the student could and would solve. Kathy's interactions with

misbehaving students were marked by explicitness, consistency, and patience. She

treated students as if they were her own children and used culturally relevant strategies to

turn misbehaving students into engaged, successful, and well-behaved learners.















CHAPTER 5
LUCY: PART OF THE FAMILY

It is the last period of the day, and Lucy is reviewing Fact and Opinion ii i/h her

third-period writing class. Lucy keeps a quick pace and solicits responses from students

explaining important concepts and definitions as they come up in the lesson.

"I want to know what is a fact. Troy."

"St iumeihilng you can look up or see." (She repeats his answer 2 times.)

"OK, now I need an example of a fact. (Calls student to answer.)

"My mom has a car. "

"Can we check it out?"

"Yes. "

"Another one." (Calls a student to answer.)

"Ms. Lucy has on Jordan's. "

Lucy goes to the board and writes, "False statement. She explains that she is wearing

Nikes.

"Can you check it out?"

"Yes. "

"But it so happens that it is false. What's an opinion? Alli?"

(He is sitting in Lucy's chair at her desk because he felt that he needed space away

from the students in his class and discussed this i ith Lucy before class began.)

"This is the best school in the world. "

"What makes that an opinion? (Calls on student to answer.)









He thinks it."

"Another."

"Ms. Lucy is the best teacher. "

"Honey, that is a fact!" (Everyone laughs.) "Another opinion. (Calls on student

to answer.)

"This is the best school ever. "

"That's an opinion. Another one." (Calls on student to answer.)

"That's ugly. "

"'That's?' What is "' that's? '" Tell me a sentence. Pick ,,iiethilig over there."

(Points to board.) He won't talk. Turns his head away.

"Baby, I can't let you talk like that. You're in fourth grade. (He is sulking.)

"Come on andpick \,inehinig over there. (Won't talk).

Lucy moves on to another student and leaves him alone (Later, when others are working,

she comes back over and discusses this i/ ith him.)

Now you have eight sentences on the board (overhead). What you are going to

do is write these sentences down. Put an 0 if it is an opinion. I'll do the first one

ii ith you. (Lucy reads it aloud) Fact or opinion? Don't say it. Write it. "

Trendarious is epll ending ii /h a grunt after each word she says. She walks by him and

stops by his desk.

"Trendarious, don'tplay i ith me. (He smiles and stops.) If there is ,\,ueinithig

you do not know, think about ifyou can check it out; or ifyou can go ask somebody about

it. Then you can do the problem. "









Students begin working (some talking to others about the questions and some

working independently) while Lucy walks around helping students and monitoring their

progress.

One student asks about #3, "Prime TV time." Lucy explains what "prime time"

means (8, 9, 10 o 'clock). Laterious gets up to put his paper in the bin for completed

work.

(Quietly.) Hey, baby. (Shakes her head.) There are eight. I need to move it up."

One boy is still not done. Lucy walks over and reads the sentence to him spelling the

hard words. (He is looking grumpy but working.)

(Quietly.)" Baby, I'm helping you out."

He finishes, and Lucy puts 6, 7, and 8 up.

"For #9 & and #10 write your own opinion and your own fact."

She walks around the class checking papers, andfinds a student not completing his

assignment.

"What's s this? You don't have #3 either? You all gotta work faster than this."

[II-ol07p4-5].

Lucy is an African American teacher who has been teaching in local high poverty

predominately African American schools for eight years. She is no stranger to her

students or their parents, having lived either in or near the community since she was in

elementary school and was classmates with many of her students' relatives and

caregivers.

Relationships were important in Lucy's classroom (see Appendix G), and the lines

between community and school were often crossed, creating a family-like environment









where students were cared about and expected to succeed both academically and

behaviorally. Rules and routines were important to Lucy but were not a focus of her

practice (76 of 848). Lucy wanted her students to be comfortable in her class and not feel

overwhelmed with lots of rules and routines taught in the first few days so she taught

those routines needed, provides practice, and offered reinforcement. Later she added

rules and routines as needed. Lucy knows that her students must succeed academically,

and engaging instruction was one of the largest components of her practice. Instruction

was culturally aligned, providing motivating and engaging strategies, active teaching, and

a great deal of student participation. Students were engaged three fourths of the time and

misbehavior was usually minor and swiftly handled with a hierarchy of management

strategies including, monitoring, reminding/cueing, directives/warnings, and

consequences. Lucy conducted all aspects of her management program from an insider's

perspective and treated all of her students as if they were her own children. What follows

is an analysis of Lucy's practice the first three months of school 2004.

Relationships

Walking into Lucy's classroom was like walking into a family's living room filled

with children and adults who shared common understandings, close relationships,

common goals, and informal speech and behavior patterns. The sense of family that one

feels when visiting Lucy's class was no accident. Relationships were important to Lucy

and observations show that she spent about one quarter of her time specifically building

and reinforcing relationships in her classroom (219 of a total 848). She skillfully drew

students into her family through a strong belief that the students could and would be

successful, connecting with students and creating a sense of community in her classroom.









Connecting with Students

Lucy related to her students on many levels. She had previously established

relationships with many of her students' families and was imbedded in the local

community.

Because I've grown up in this neighborhood. I know either their aunts, uncles or
cousins, or mom, dad, grandma. I know somebody that's related to them. And that
helps too [II-923ip6]

Lucy said that knowing the students and being a part of the neighborhood helped with

classroom management. In observations, Lucy used family connections to address

management issues in two ways. The first way that Lucy used her status as an insider to

manage students was to gain insight into the why of behavior. Instead of developing a

standard way of behaving, Lucy used the context of the students' lives to make decisions

about how best to proceed. In one instance, a boy was talking quite a bit in class and

after repeated warnings, Lucy asked him to go outside and call home. Lucy went outside

with him and, as they began to call home, he started to cry. Lucy knew that at the time,

he was being shuffled between relatives' homes and was feeling a bit unsettled. Instead

of calling home, she decided to speak frankly with him about expectations and in the end

they reached an agreement. He returned to class and was much better behaved thereafter.

In this case Lucy knew that calling home would not be as helpful as she wished since at

this time the student's homelife was unsettled. Instead, Lucy chose to be frank with the

student and dealt directly with him to solve the problem.

Another way that Lucy used her inside knowledge of students' lives was to

reinforce her expectations with similar expectations of the family. In this example, a

student came to conference with Lucy about his writing assignment.

I know your momma would not say it's OK to write like this here. [II-ol012p4]









Lucy showed him what she expected and sent him back to his seat to correct the

assignment. The student went back and diligently corrected the assignment without

resistance. When Lucy used her knowledge of family members to reinforce the

expectations of the class, students experienced a united front and showed little resistance.

It is important to note, however, that her strategy would backfire without intimate

knowledge of the children's families.

Lucy treated students as if they were a part of her own family. Nearly half of all

statements that Lucy used to connect to students were statements reflecting this

perspective (23 of 52 total connecting with students incidents). For example at the end of

the day students were given 20 minutes of free time to read or catch up on writing and a

student, who was having a difficult day, wanted to leave school early. He was hovering

around the classroom door holding his backpack and looked like a caged tiger walking

back and forth. This was a management problem waiting to explode. Lucy looked up and

gently responded

Oh no, come on baby, come over here baby. Come and talk to your mama. Your
mama at school.

The student walked over to Lucy kicking his backpack. Lucy asked in a quiet voice,

What you doing?

He responded that he wanted to go home.

Baby, we got 20 more minutes of school. You can't stand there for 20 minutes.
Go find something to do. Come on baby. Hang in there then you can go and do
whatever you want. Just hang in there with me. [II-ol012p5]

The student put his backpack down by Lucy's desk and sat with her and a group of

students who were looking and talking about pictures of past students (many are siblings

or cousins) displayed on her desk until class was dismissed 20 minutes later. Here Lucy









used her relationship with the student to diffuse a potentially explosive situation. Instead

of ordering the student to sit down, she invited him to come and talk to "momma," and

just like a family member Lucy showed understanding, support, and guidance to the

student. The student felt that Lucy was "on his side" and that she was there to support

him in finding a solution to his behavior issue (Strachota, 1996).

Being Human

In schools today, students often feel disconnected from their teachers and in some

cases feel that teachers are not on their side and are against them (Glasser, 1990) Sharing

her life outside of school with her students was another way that Lucy fostered

relationships with her students.

I always tell them some story about my daughter, my mom, my brother something
that happened the day before or something we're reading about and I think ohhh. I
meant to tell you all and so I tell them stuff about like with me so I'm not just the
teacher the writing teacher. [II-i 026p8]

Lucy wanted her students to know that she was more than the writing teacher. She is a

person, just like they are, with family, friends, likes, and dislikes. One story that Lucy

told to help students understand this perspective was the story of her own experiences as

a child who knew what it was like to have the power turned off and be unable to do

homework. She explained that she knows the students and their lives and understands

certain circumstances that might pose a challenge to school success. She asked that

students come and talk to her and told them that together they would find a way to make

it work (do homework in class in the morning or after school). Again, Lucy aligned

herself as an insider who would not judge the student but would be there to help and

support the student in his/her quest for academic success.









Humor was often used (20 of 47 total of being human incidents) in Lucy's

classroom to create a relaxed and informal environment where students could feel

comfortable. Lucy set the stage for these interactions from the very first day when she

called students by nicknames and joked with them about relatives, clothes, and summer

school experiences. Students reacted with big smiles and lots of laughing. When Lucy

began the year with these kinds of interactions, one could see the students visibly relax

and felt the atmosphere in the class warm up. One morning, (after several days of

difficult placement tests) students were taking another placement test when one boy

looked up from his test and asked for a dictionary (half joking). Lucy walked over and

rubbed his head and face in an affectionate way.

I know you. I had you over the summer. I know your people. I know you are a
real bad boy (smiling and laughing). Do you think I'm going to give you a
dictionary? [II-o820p4]

The boy smiled up at Lucy and shook his head and then got back to the business of taking

his test. The atmosphere of the class before this encounter was stressed and tense with

students holding their heads and sucking their teeth over the test questions. Lucy's use of

humor and care to react to what was clearly a cry for help broke the tense atmosphere and

students got back to work feeling a little better.

At times, Lucy's teasing was directly focused on building relationships with

students. One morning, a student's father walked into class with a bag of donuts for him

(interrupting class). Lucy took the bag and thanked the parent then walked over to the

student's desk.

Ohh, thank you for bringing me breakfast! Ohh, donuts! [II-o820p3]

She put the bag on his desk and gave him a big hug. The student responded with a

radiant smile, and the rest of the class smiled and laughed as well. This particular student









was retained twice and has a reputation for disruptive behavior. The positive attention

and real affection that Lucy showed through her teasing helped to build a foundation for a

relationship with Calvin that was later used to promote desired behaviors in the

classroom.

The relationships that Lucy built with humor and teasing were also used to address

minor misbehaviors in the classroom. As classes switched in the afternoon, a student

walked ploddingly to his desk and put his head down.

You slower than my grandma. I bet your grandma walks faster than you do. [II-
o923pl]

The student smiled at Lucy and sat up ready for class. Instead of criticizing or

demanding that students behave, Lucy teased and joked with them to get them back on

track with desired behaviors. Using this strategy allowed students to save face and at the

same time corrected behaviors that were not productive in the classroom. Lucy's humor

was never at the expense of her students' sense of pride or dignity. Rather the teasing

came from the perspective of a family member who knows inside information and could

see the humor in the situation. Even when students were being corrected or gently

reprimanded for minor misbehavior, she used a familial, friendly tone coupled with a

great deal of affectionate touching. Students were left in no doubt that Lucy understood

them and appreciated them for who they were even if they were not perfect. This

unconditional positive regard was a crucial component in the quality of her student-

teacher relationships.

Believe in Students

Lucy worked hard to create a community in the classroom where all students were

understood, accepted, and connected to the teacher and each other. Lucy believes in all of