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Qualitative Examination of Athletes' Sources of Motivation to Participate in a Competitive Environment Using Grounded Theory

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QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ATHLETES’ SOURCES OF MOTIVATION TO PARTICIPATE IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT USING GROUNDED THEORY By BRADLEY RICHARD LANGLEY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AND KINESIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Bradley Richard Langley

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many important people deserve recognition for their contribution to this study of sport motivation. First I would like to thank my supervisory committee chair Dr. Giacobbi, for believing in me enough to stay with this study over the long haul, and for constantly pushing and challenging me to make this project better. His, time, effort, and insight were invaluable to me. I would al so like to thank my committee members (Drs. Todorovich and Tillman) for bending over backwards to make this project a success. Two other people who deserve recognition for their role in this project are Taryn Lynn and Amber Stegelin. Without their dedica tion to the qualitativ e research group that helped code and analyze of the data, this pr oject would not have b een possible. They expanded my perspective and encouraged me to follow through to the end. I would also like to acknowledge my family and friends. Without them I would have never made it to this point. They motivated me to stay focuse d, even when I lost sight of the goal. Their faith in me is an inspiration. This has been a long journey, and the t oughest academic challenge I have ever faced. One person could never do this alone, so I thank all of the people who made contributions to this project directly and indir ectly this is as much theirs as mine. And I thank them for believing in me!

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................1 Glossary of Terms.........................................................................................................2 Early History of Theories on Motivation......................................................................3 Cognitive Evaluation Theory........................................................................................5 Self-Determination Theory.........................................................................................10 Self-Determination Research in Sport........................................................................16 Hierarchical Model of Intrin sic and Extrinsic Motivation.........................................19 Achievement Goal Theory..........................................................................................27 Participation Motives From A Developmental Perspective.......................................30 Qualitative Rationale..................................................................................................32 Philosophical Issues Related to Knowle dge Construction in Sport Psychology.33 Need for New Theories of Motivation................................................................35 Rationale.....................................................................................................................3 6 Statement of Purpose..................................................................................................37 Personal Interest..........................................................................................................37 2 METHODS.................................................................................................................39 Participants.................................................................................................................39 Procedure....................................................................................................................40 Purposeful Sampling and Theoretical Sampling........................................................40 Interview Procedures..................................................................................................41 Interview Guide Design.......................................................................................41 Member Checks...................................................................................................42 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................43 Interviews and Data Transcription......................................................................43 Line-by-Line Coding...........................................................................................43 Multiple Coders...................................................................................................44 Independent Audit...............................................................................................44

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v Axial Coding.......................................................................................................45 Constant Comparison..........................................................................................45 Memo Writing.....................................................................................................46 3 RESULTS...................................................................................................................48 How Athletes Define Motivation................................................................................49 How Athletes Define Competition.............................................................................50 Internal Sources of Motivation...................................................................................51 Goals.......................................................................................................................... .51 Performance Goals..............................................................................................52 Seeing Improvement............................................................................................53 Fulfilling Personal Needs....................................................................................54 Feelings of Satisfaction and Accomplishment....................................................55 Anger.......................................................................................................................... 56 Something to Prove.....................................................................................................57 Outlet for Stress/ Aggression......................................................................................59 Sport as an Outlet................................................................................................60 Escaping from Problems through Sport..............................................................60 Release of Emotional Energy through the Release of Physical Energy..............61 External Sources of Motivation..................................................................................62 Family......................................................................................................................... 62 Initial Exposure to Sports....................................................................................62 Family as a Support System................................................................................63 Father as Coach...................................................................................................64 Family as a Confidant..........................................................................................64 Friends........................................................................................................................ 65 Motivated by Friend’s Participation....................................................................65 Comparison and Competition between Friends..................................................65 Teammates and Team Atmosphere............................................................................66 Team Aspects of Sport........................................................................................66 Camaraderie of the Team/ Team Atmosphere.....................................................67 Friendships and Loyalty......................................................................................68 Shared Goals........................................................................................................68 Teammate Support...............................................................................................69 Teammate Enthusiasm.........................................................................................70 Competing against Teammates............................................................................71 Competitive Nature.............................................................................................71 Embarrassment....................................................................................................72 Cheering on Teammates......................................................................................74 Contributing to Team Success.............................................................................74 Being Part of an Elite Group...............................................................................74 Success of Teammates.........................................................................................75 Success of Team..................................................................................................75 Being a Leader to Teammates.............................................................................76

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vi Coach.......................................................................................................................... 76 Setting up and Reinforcing Program Goals.........................................................76 Confidence in Coach’s Knowledge.....................................................................77 Running Out of Time to Achieve Goals..............................................................78 Take Advantage of Opportunity..........................................................................79 Coach’s Confidence in Athlete............................................................................80 Coach as an Encourager......................................................................................81 Coach as an Advisor............................................................................................82 High Expectations and Pressure.................................................................................82 Pressure from Self...............................................................................................83 Pressure of Representing Entity..........................................................................83 Expectations of Coaches......................................................................................83 Striving to Reach Personal Standards..................................................................84 Striving to Reach Coach’s Expectations.............................................................84 Coach’s Expectations too High...........................................................................85 Benefits of Participation.............................................................................................86 Travel...................................................................................................................86 Meet New People................................................................................................87 Fulfillment of Personal Needs.............................................................................88 Physical Health Benefits......................................................................................88 Development of Confidence................................................................................89 Development of Life Skills.................................................................................90 Competition................................................................................................................90 Competing In Games/ Co mpeting Against Others..............................................91 Competition as Motivation for Practice..............................................................92 Being the Best......................................................................................................95 Early Success.......................................................................................................95 Winning...............................................................................................................96 Being the Best I Can Be......................................................................................97 Big Games...........................................................................................................98 Pre-Game Motivators..................................................................................................99 Music...................................................................................................................99 Imagery..............................................................................................................101 Employing Religious Beliefs.............................................................................102 Pre-Competition Rituals....................................................................................103 Grounded Theory Framework..................................................................................104 4 DISCUSSION...........................................................................................................113 Study Limitations and Future Directions..................................................................121 Applied Implications................................................................................................122 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT..........................................................................................138 B INTERVIEW GUIDE I............................................................................................140

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vii LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................151

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1. Motivation continuum..............................................................................................12 2. Hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.........................................24 3. Sources of motivation conceptual framework........................................................124 4. Developmental model of sources of motivation to participate in sport.................137

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ATHLETES’ SOURCES OF MOTIVATION TO PARTICIPATE IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT USING GROUNDED THEORY By Bradley Richard Langley August 2005 Chair: Peter Giacobbi Major Department: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology How athletes are motivated is a question that has been explored since the infancy of sport psychology. However, most of the curr ent theories of sport motivation have been adopted from other areas of psychology. We ex amined the predominant theories of sport motivation including cognitive evaluation th eory, self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of motiva tion achievement goal theory We also examined studies that have tested these theoretical fram eworks are discussed. The sport psychology literature needs more information on what mo tivates athletes and on new theories that explain the motivation of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of my study was to use grounded theory analytic procedures to explore and assess National Collegiate Athle tic Association athletes’ and club athletes’ sources of motivation to participate in spor t. A secondary purpose was to explore and assess the participants’ sources of motivation to compete in sport. Finally, a grounded theory was inductively developed to explai n how contextual feat ures of the sport

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x environment influenced the participants’ t houghts, feelings, and behaviors toward their sport participation. We used this grounded theo ry to organize the participants’ sources of sport motivation which were influenced by environmental opportuni ties and significant others such as coaches and family members. Semi-structured interviews we conducted w ith 7 male and 7 female athletes who participated in N.C.A.A. Divi sion I/ collegiate athletics, or club-level sports. The interviews were analyzed using grounded-theo ry analytic procedures. Results produced two major overarching sources of motivation; internal and exte rnal. Higher order themes that emerged as internal sources of motivati on were goals, anger, and sport as an outlet for stress and aggression. The higher order themes that were defined as external sources of motivation were family, friends, team asp ects of sport, coaches, pressure and high expectations, benefits of participation, co mpetition, and pre-competition motivators. All of these themes were organized into a th eoretical framework th at helped define relationships among the sources of motivation. Finally we derived a grounded theory show ing athletes’ sources of motivation to participate in sport from a developmenta l perspective was produced. Our findings support ideas from the extant literature, how ever there were some contradictions. Athletes in my study were found to have more external sources of motivation, including competition, a factor that decreases motivati on. Sources of motivation also differed for athletes at the two competitive levels.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Michael Jordan built a reputation as one of the most complete players in professional basketball. Yet at age 39, he wa s still playing in the NBA (Clarkson, 1999). He played through injury and sickness and ev en scored 69 points in a game in which he suffered severe symptoms from the flu. With little left to accomplish in the game of basketball, and at the risk of tarnishing his stellar career, hi s motivation to play the sport he loved did not dwindle. Any account of Michael Jordan’s tremendous career is incomplete without mention of his fero cious competitive spirit. Teammates and opponents alike testify to his ti reless, almost manic, drive to win on or off the court. Instances of athletes who physically and me ntally push themselves to the brink of their human potential in the name of compe tition are common. Over the past 60 years, the type of drive that enables a person to ex cel in the face of adversity, or propels him or her to overcome performance obstacles has be en extensively debated and analyzed in a large number of research studies (Deci, 1972; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Freud, 1969; Vallerand, 1997; White, 1959). While manifested in many forms, motivation has been loosely defined as an internal or external force that causes a specific behavior to occur and persist (Vallerand & Thill, 1993). My study focused on the motivational forces that sustain long-term participation in competitiv e sport and physical activity settings. We reviewed the literature to summar ize research progre ss in the area of motivation. We specifically examined cogni tive evaluation theory (Deci, 1972), selfdetermination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) the Hierarchical model of motivation

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2 (Vallerand, 1997), Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1984, 1989) and studies that have tested these theoretical frameworks. We also examined measurement issues in current research (Harwood, 2002; Petruzzello, 2001), a push within the field to expand acceptable methods for knowledge constr uction (Hoshand & Polkinghorn, 1992; Martens, 1987), and current debates on theo ries of motivation (H arwood & Hardy, 2001; Harwood, Hardy, & Swain, 2000; Treasure et al., 2001). Glossary of Terms We developed a list of terms and definiti ons used in our study. These terms are used throughout the remainder of this thesis. Axial coding : The process of relating categorie s to their subcategories, termed “axial” because coding occurs around the axis of a category, linking categories at the level of properties and dime nsions (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Coding : The analytic processes through whic h data are fractured, conceptualized, and integrated to form theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Dimensionalizing : The process of organizing da ta to better understand the relationships and characteristics with in and among higher-order themes and categories (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Grounded theory : Theory that was derived from data taken directly from participant interviews. The data are analyzed and or ganized into a framework that explains relationships between major and minor them es in the text (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Open coding : The analytic process through which concepts are identified and their properties and dimensions are discovered in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Qualitative research : Any type of research that pr oduces findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of qua ntification (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Theoretical sampling : Sampling on the basis of emerging concepts, with the aim being to explore the dimensional rang e or varied conditions along which the properties of concepts vary (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

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3 Early History of Theories on Motivation Research on the topic of motivation pr ogressed from two separate schools of thought in general psychology. The first (psy choanalytic instinct theory) was proposed by Freud (1969) who held a mechanistic view of individuals. According to Freud (1969), people play a passive role in their interaction with the environment, and are guided by basic instincts (e.g.,, hunger, thir st). In a second conceptua lization of motivation framed by White (1959), people were portrayed as activ e members in constant interaction with their surroundings. White (1959) said that indi viduals were propelled by instinct to act, and also guided by a natural curiosity and propensity to learn and explore, which he labeled competence. The idea of an inte rnally fueled cognitive tendency toward discovery led to the concept of intrinsic motivation (White, 1959). Intrinsic motivation involves the performa nce of an activity for the enjoyment and fulfillment derived solely from participation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Ryan and Deci (2000) consider intrinsic motivation an idealistic ma nifestation of the hu man propensity toward learning and creativity. Simply stated, an in trinsically motivated athlete plays purely for the joy of the game. An individual’s enjoym ent (which contributes to the maintenance of intrinsic motivation) is contingent solely on participation in the activity. Intrinsic motivation is self-sufficient; therefore if one participates in an activity for intrinsic reasons one is inclined toward further par ticipation. Continued pa rticipation in turn increases intrinsic motivation to participate in the activity (Deci & Ry an, 1985). Intrinsic motivation is considered the most benefi cial type of motivat ion because of an individual’s internal locus of control. When motives for par ticipation are fully integrated into the value system of an individual (intrinsic motivation), that person is likely to put

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4 forth greater effort for longer periods of time (Ryan & Connell, 1989). These actions are positive bi-products of an individual being internally motivated. Research in a broad spectrum of contexts has explored the dimensions of intrinsic motivation. Fields such as psychology, busin ess, and education linked this internal driving force to a variety of positive behavi ors. For example, Lawler and Hall (1970) tested laboratory scientists’ job-involvem ent attitudes, higher-order-need satisfaction attitudes, and intrinsic motivation attitudes. Results linked intrinsically motivated attitudes with characteristics such as prolonged effort and in creased performance. Also in the business context, a study by Meir (1972) investigated job pers istence of women in Israel according to the fulfillment of intrinsic and extrinsic needs. Fulfillment of intrinsic needs was highly correlated with pers istence in a single occupation. Creativity is another positive factor associated with high levels of intrinsic motivation. A study by Krop (1969) compared the creativity of college students categorized as high, medium, and low in intr insic motivation. High intrinsic motivation was closely correlated to high levels of creativity. Moneta and Siu (2002) found a greater propensity for creativity while engaged in a wr iting task for students high in intrinsic motivation than for students more extrinsically focused. Intrinsic motivation has also been linked to elevated performan ce and productivity. A study by Yip and Chung (2002) identified signifi cantly higher levels of trait intrinsic motivation in high academic achievers when comp ared to the disposi tions of their lower achievement counterparts. Conversely, St ruman and Thibodeau (2001) found a positive correlation between decreased intrinsic motiv ation and decreased performance in free agent baseball players.

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5 Finally, feelings of satisfaction were observed to be indicative of community volunteers who displayed high levels of in trinsic motivation in a longitudinal study by Davis, Hall, and Meyer (2003) Likewise, Hirschfeld ( 2000) found correlations in job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation while te sting a revised version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, & England, 1967). The research listed above, gives further credence to a view of intrinsi c motivation as an ideal driving force behind activities. Expanding on the ideas put forth by Fre ud (1969) and White (1959), Deci (1972) completed experiments on motivation that anal yzed the affects of the extrinsic rewards (i.e., money and positive feedback) on intr insic motivation. The results of those experiments demonstrated a decrease in intrin sic motivation when a monetary (external) reward was tied to an activity. In contra st, when positive reinforcement was applied in the form of verbal feedback, intrinsic motiv ation increased. In light of these findings, Deci (1972) was inclined to propose an alterna tive perspective than th at of either White (1959), or Freud (1969). Guided by the em pirical data gathered from his own study, Deci (1972) ushered in a new theoretical framework structured around a cognitive approach. The new theory, called Cognitive Evaluation theory, focused on the nature and type of the extrinsic reward as predictors of intrinsic motivation. Included in Cognitive Evaluation theory was ideas about the nature of intrinsic motivation and conditions in which intrinsic motivation would flourish and diminish. The focus of this review will now turn to more cognitively orie nted theories of motivation. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Evaluation theory (Deci, 1972) advanced motivation research in two ways. First, Cognitive Evaluation theory identified factors and conditions such as task

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6 non-contingent rewards, task contingent rewa rds, performance contingent rewards, and competitively contingent rewards that affect intrinsic motivation. The second innovation was the ability of the theory to predict and describe how an indivi dual’s interpretation of these factors would affect motivation. The first major tenet of Cognitive Evaluation theory describes four types of contingent rewards that affect intrinsic motivation (Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983). The first, task non-contingent rewards, are r eceived for participating in an activity, independent of performance. For instance, a puzzle solving activity in which everyone gets a dollar simply for partic ipating would be considered a task non-contingent reward. A second type of reward, task contingent, refers to rewards received for completing a task. It is important to note that payment of a task contingent reward does not take into account the quality of completion. Building on the previous example, a contingent reward would be receiving a dollar only after the puzzle was completed not simply attempted (Deci, 1972). A reward given when a specified level of achievement is met would be considered a performance contingent reward. Giving a two-dollar prize for each puzzle completed within a designated time frame would be an example of a performance contingent reward. This type of reward varies in size depending on the success of the participant. Success and competence can easily be assessed thr ough the comparison to norms or set standards through this type of award sy stem (Ryan et al., 1983). The final type of contingent reward was defined as a competitively contingent reward. Also called a zero-sum reward, th is form of compensation is dependent on winning while in direct competition with other participants. For instance, receiving five

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7 dollars for being the first competitor to su ccessfully complete four puzzles would be considered a competitively contingent reward (Pritchard, Campbell, & Campbell, 1977). The second major conceptual component of Cognitive Evaluation theory involves the explanation of the cognitive processes, which determine the impact of the previously outlined reward scenarios on intrinsic motiva tion. Deci and Ryan (1980) coined the terms informational or controlling to describe the two ways a reward can be interpreted. Any award or communication that is constr ued as feedback indicative of competence would be considered informational and thus lead to feelings of intrinsic motivation. Conversely, rewards identified as controlling cause feelings of external pressure to act or perform to meet outside expectations and lead to decrements in intrinsic motivation. An example of how a reward can be interpreted as either inform ational or controlling might be an athlete who is elected captain of the vo lleyball team. An award of this nature could be construed by the athlete to mean that she possesses leadership qualities worthy of respect from teammates and coaches (e.g.,, competen ce). In this case, the player may feel encouraged to continue or step up effort. However, the athlet e might feel that the role of team captain has been forced upon her meaning that she must now conform to others’ expectations about what a team captain s hould be (e.g.,, controlling). Interpreting the situation in this way could cause decreases in the athlete’s motivation to work hard and display leadership. From a cognitive evaluation theory perspective there are clear individual differences in how individuals perceive and interpret rewards and information about their performance and/or competence. There have been numerous studies that have examined the relationship between contingent rewards and intrinsic motivati on. For example, Ryan, Mims, and Koestner

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8 (1983) examined the relationship between in formational and controlling performancecontingent rewards of college psychology students (N=96) on hidden figure puzzles. Results from the experiment revealed that performance-contingent rewards undermine intrinsic motivation when contrasted to the control group (no feedback/ no reward). The data also lent support for the hypothesis pr edicting controlling feedback and controlling rewards would deplete intrinsic motivation wh en compared to informational feedback and rewards. A third significant finding was that informationally transmitted feedback and rewards enhanced intrinsic motivation, wh ile controlling and task-contingent rewards did not increase intrinsic motivation. The key finding of this study was that an individuals’ interpretation of rewards predicted whether that reward would undermine, or enhance intrinsic motivation. Strong empirical support for many aspect s of Cognitive Evaluation theory has influenced research in a variety of areas of psychology. Leadership (Charbanneau, Barling, & Kelloway, 2001), coaching style (Goudas, Biddle, Fox, & Underwood, 1995; Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini, 1989), edu cation and teaching style (Black & Deci, 2000; Flink, Goggiano, & Barrett, 1990; Gr olnick & Ryan, 1987), physical activity (Kavussanu & Roberts, 1996), and sport (Ale xandris, Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002; Baric, Erpic, & Babic, 2002) have all ad apted Cognitive Evaluation theory into their frame of reference. The broad range of research mentioned above has provided support for the nature of intrinsic motivation outlined in Cognitive Evaluation theory (Deci, 1972). The role that intrinsic motivation and competition play within the context of sport and physical activity represents an important area of interest within th e field of sport psychology. One

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9 study by Vallerand, Gauvin, and Halliwell (1986) lends strong support to Cognitive Evaluation theory by showing competition to be detrimental to intrinsic motivation as well as competence. Vallerand et al. (1986) examined the effects of competition on the intrinsic motivation and competence of 5th and 6th grade Canadian boys (N = 26). Participants were randomly selected into conditions of winning or losing a contrived competition. The participants were then tested on a stabilometer motor task. Each participant was told that their times were be ing compared to other children their age and if their overall time was better than the pr eexisting best score they would receive a reward of one dollar. One group of participants was told that they achieved the best score (winning) and were rewarded with the dolla r. The second group of children was told their times were not better than the establishe d best score (losing) and did not receive the dollar. The experimenter then left the room and the children were told that they could spend time however they wanted (a “free choice period”). Meas ures of intrinsic motivation were two fold. First, intrinsi c motivation was measured by how much time was spent on the stabilometer during the “fr ee choice period.” Th e second measure of intrinsic motivation was an initial choice meas ure in which the students were observed to see if they went to the stabilometer first, or did other things first. Competence was measured using the Perceived Competence Sc ale (PCS; Harter, 1982). Results revealed that the winning group had a higher score on th e initial choice measurement, and spent significantly more time engaged in the stabilometer task du ring the free choice period. Both of these measures supported the hypothe sis that the winning group would be more intrinsically motivated than th e losing group. Data analysis from the PCS also indicated the losing group perceived themselves as less competent than the winning group.

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10 Cognitive Evaluation theory contributed valuable insight about the role perceptions of rewards play in establishing and maintain ing intrinsic motivation. However, ideas put forth by Deci (1972) could not account for extrinsic motives for participation. For instance, a basketball player who plays on the team because of pressure from his father has motives that extend outside of his pure enjo yment of the game. In light of this need to expand the limited scope of Cognitive Evaluation theory, Deci and Ryan (1985) introduced Self-determination theory, which viewed motivation as a multidimensional construct. Self-Determination Theory Building upon previous research, De ci and Ryan (1985) outlined Selfdetermination theory, a twopart theory, which incor porated the ideas posited by Cognitive Evaluation theory. The purpose behind the Self-determination theory framework was two fold. First, was the ne cessity to develop a cognitive behavioral theory that took into account individual’s motives derive d from external as well as internal sources. The second reason arose from the need to understand in more depth the cognitive processes that medi ated individual’s interpreta tion of the environment. Therefore, Self-determination theory ma de two major advancements beyond Cognitive Evaluation theory. The first was the recogniti on of three distinct types of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation. Th e relationship between these three types of motivation was predicted to exist along a continuum. The second advancement was to identify the fulfillment of three needs, name ly competence, autonomy, and relatedness, as important predictors of motivation. Thes e two advancements will be elaborated on below.

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11 The construct of motivation possesses su ch an array of meaning that having a theory that encompasses a multitude of aspect s was paramount. The introduction of Selfdetermination theory not only explained intrinsically motivated actions, but also accounted for motives that lay outside the indi vidual’s own value system (extrinsic), as well as non-motivated behavior. The extended framework enabled researchers to explore motivation in a larger variet y of circumstances and environments (Deci & Ryan, 1985). As discussed earlier, intrinsic motivation re fers to taking part in an activity purely for the enjoyment of the activity itself. Pure ly self-determined action represents the ideal expression of an individual’s desire to experience and learn about his or her surroundings (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Actions, intrinsic in natu re, were posited to be highly autonomous, and exist on one polar end of the motivation continuum. In the middle of the continuum were extrinsic actions, which involve performanc e of an activity in order to attain some external reward, or as a means to an end (Deci & Ryan, 1985). For example, professional football players often leave one team because they can make more money playing for another. Their action is prom pted by the desire for greater external rewards and therefore viewed as externally motivated. At the far end of the continuum were amo tivated actions. Deci and Ryan (1985) defined amotivation as the l ack of desire to perform. Most commonly described as “going through the motions,” a person experien cing the effects of amotivation either does not perform, or puts fourth ve ry little effort toward completion of tasks. Athletes who continually feel their effort, the strategies they employ, or a combination of the two, will make no difference in the outcome of their activ ities, would be classified as amotivated. In fact, previous research has shown that athletes who experienced amotivation for

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12 extended periods of time also suffered perf ormance deterioration and feelings of helplessness (Flink, Boggiano, & Barrett, 1990). Researchers using Self-determination theory organized these three forms of motivation into a system that could identify th e motives of an indivi dual by the degree of autonomy felt by the actor (Deci & Rya n, 2000). As shown in Figure 1, Selfdetermination theory posits that intrinsic motivati on, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation exist on a conti nuum of decreasing autonomy. At one extreme is pure intrinsic motivation, representing an entirely self-determined or free ly chosen action. A volleyball player who is experiencing intrinsi c motivation might participate in practice because he or she really enjoys learning and understanding new strategies. At the midpoint of the continuum is extrinsic motiva tion. Actions falling into this region are posited to be initiated by factors that exist outs ide the locus of the actor. For example, a player who’s motivation to participate in a sport comes from the desire to attain the notoriety that comes to profe ssional athletes is driven by extrinsic motivation. Actions with little or no autonomy la y at the polar opposite end of the continuum from intrinsic motivation, and are categorized und er the label amotivation. Amotivation might occur, if a basketball player feels no amount of practic e can supply the type of skill he or she needs to compete with a particular opponent. Figure 1. Motivation continuum The second advancement Self-determina tion theory made over Cognitive Evaluation theory was to identify the fulfillment of three needs as important predictors of Decreasing Autonomy IM EM AM

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13 motivation. Self-determination theory theori zes that all actions fall somewhere on the motivation continuum depending on the degree of fulfillment of the need for perceived competence, autonomy and relatedness. Within the Self-determination theory framework, an individual can only develop in terpersonally and experience successful interactions in social settings when he or she possesses high personal perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Frederick-Recascino, 2002; Ryan & Deci, 2000). In other words, an individual who feels he or she has the skills necessary to meet the demands of a task, feels ownership in the outcome, and perceives support from family and friends, is likely to feel high intrinsic motivation towa rd that activity. The above aspects of Self-determination theory will be mo re extensively discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. Competence refers to the belief that one has the necessary skills to accomplish a given task (Deci & Ryan, 1985). A person w ith high-perceived comp etence feels they have an adequate amount of skill or abil ity to achieve a desired outcome. Selfdetermination theory posits that facilitation of competency by using positive feedback for a particular task will result in higher levels of integration (Deci & Ryan, 1995). For example, a football player who feels that he does not have enough ability and skill to compete with the other players at his position would be considered to have low perceived competence. If a coach compliments the athl ete on his work ethic, then the player may begin to see himself as more competent because of the positive feedback from the coach. Autonomy refers to the degree to which a person feels they have control over the outcome of an activity. It also pertains to how much ownership a person takes in an activity (Deci & Ryan, 1985). When the sour ce of motivation behind action comes from

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14 within, one experiences the highest levels of autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2002). Take for instance the football player from the above example. If he felt that being a starter for the upcoming season was extremely important he might feel highly autonomous about putting in extra time during the off-season to reach his goal. However, the athlete may also experience very low feelings of autonom y during off-season workouts if the goal of being a starter was brought about by the fear of disappointing a coach or parents. Finally, relatedness is defined as the need to belong and feel connected with others (e.g.,, family, friends). Relatedness is consider ed an important factor when looking at the internalization of extrinsically motivated beha viors because fulfillment of this need is a tremendous predictor of inte rnalization. Ryan and Deci (2000) hypothesized that relatedness becomes a mediating variable in motivation because th e perceived value of behaviors typically stems from the prompting or value system of significant others. An illustration of this comes from the previous example with the football player who wanted to be a starter because he felt pressure to assimilate the values of others deemed important, in this case a coach or parents. Therefore, he adopted a nd internalized others’ goals to fulfill his own need for relatedness. Internalization of behavior is an important part of Self-determination theory. A behavior is said to be internalized when it is recognized as impor tant, and taken into one’s own value system. Often internalizati on refers to the assim ilation of goals, ideas, or beliefs from an outside source. Integration alludes to the prioritization of the external values into a personal value, and is a ke y to understanding motivated behaviors (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

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15 The central concept behind motivation is that for action to occur, the activity must have some degree of importance to the individua l. If an activity we re not important, then there would be no action. It is easy to see th at even the least self -determined (externally regulated) activities must have some degree of identification and integr ation. The level to which integration and identification take pl ace depends on the degree to which a person perceives his or her own competence, autonom y, and relatedness. These three needs are considered the primary contributors to the internalization of activities, especially those that fall in the extrinsic motivation zone of the motivation continuum As the extrinsic value of an action becomes more internalized and integrated, the motivation of that action becomes more intrinsic in na ture (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Each of the determinants (e.g.,, comp etence, autonomy, relatedness), when increased or decreased, causes a slide to the left or right of the motivation continuum, based on whether the three needs are being more or less fulfilled. Take for example the football player who had the extr insically motivated goal to become a starter on the team. If the hard work during the off-season paid off and his goal was reached, he may have more perceived competence because he dem onstrated enough skill to win the job. He may also have experienced higher levels of autonomy due to the satisfaction he gained from accomplishing his goal through his own ef forts. The athlete would also likely perceive more relatedness with his coaches, pa rents, and teammates due to his successful integration and internalization of their expe ctations. According to Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), experiencing hi gher perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness would mean that the motiva tion of the athlete would shift from a less

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16 self-determined form of motivation (extrinsic motivation) to a more intrinsic type of motivation. As previously discussed, Self-determina tion theory’s multidimensional view of motivation has a great deal of explanatory power. The ability to predict behavior by understanding the sources of motivation has br oad reaching implication in many fields. One context where the Self-determination theory research has been applied is sport. The ensuing paragraphs discuss some of the pertinent studies, which have used Selfdetermination theory as the guiding framework. Self-Determination Research in Sport In the context of sport, researchers ha ve studied Self-determination theory to examine the role of motivation as it pertains to athlete’s perceptions of their athletic scholarships as controlling versus compet ence supporting (Vallera nd, 2000). According to Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), an award can be either perceived as promoting competence in which case intrinsic motivation would increas e, or perceived to be controlling, in which case intrinsic motivation would decr ease. For example, a study by Ryan (1977) investigated the intrinsic motiv ation of collegiate male football players by verbally surveying them about their interest and enjoymen t of playing sport. Ryan (1977) posited that scholarship athletes would have lower levels of intrinsic motivation than non-scholarship players. Results from the study lent support to the hypothesis that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation. A follow up study (Ryan, 1980) extended pr evious research by comparing the intrinsic motivation of scholar ship and non-scholarship male athletes from both football and wrestling, and female athletes from various other sports. The re sults indicated that non-scholarship football players had higher in trinsic motivation than their teammates on

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17 scholarship. However, the scholar ship athletes from all of the female sports, and the male athletes from the wrestling team reported hi gher levels of intrinsic motivation than the non-scholarship athletes in their respectiv e sports. According to Ryan (1980) the contrary results were due to differing percep tions of the reward (scholarship). Ryan (1980) hypothesized that since fewer scholar ships were awarded to male and female athletes in their respective sports, they perc eived their scholarships as positive feedback about competence. In high-profile sports such as football, the athletes tended to feel that there were more scholarships given out within the team; therefore, a scholarship was not perceived as proof of competence. In contrast athletes in lower-pro file sports such as wrestling and most women’s at hletics at the time of the st udy, scholarships were viewed as evidence of competence, because within their respective team, fewer were given out. More recently, Amrose and Horn (2000) tested the hypothesis of Ryan (1980) by assessing whether intrinsic mo tivation of scholarship and non-scholarship athletes’ from a broad range of sports varied as a function of their perception of the number of athletes on their team receiving scholarships. The In trinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI; McAuley & Tammen, 1989) was used to assess the at hletes’ intrinsic motivation. The results indicated that athletes on scholarship had significantly higher intrinsic motivation than non-scholarship athletes, which refutes pr evious research (Ryan 1977, 1980) stating athletic scholarships undermine intrinsic motivation. The authors (Amrose & Horn, 2000) suggested the discrepant findings might be due to tw o major differences between the two studies. First, the sample used in the Amrose and Horn (2000) study consisted of athletes from a broader range of sports than the E. Ryan (1977, 1980) studies. Second, the instrumentation used to measure intrin sic motivation in the Ryan (1977, 1980) studies

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18 was different than that used by Amrose a nd Horn (2000). Ryan (1977, 1980) verbally interviewed the participants, asking a seri es of survey questions about athlete’s enjoyment and interest in their respectiv e sport, while Amro se and Horn (2000) employed the IMI (McAuley & Tammen, 1989). Another facet of the sporting context to which Self-determination theory has been applied involves the ro le of motivation as it pertains to athletic performance. For instance, Chantal, Guay, Dobreva-Martinov a, and Vallerand (1996) compared the types of motivation of medal winning and non-meda l winning elite Bulgarian athletes. In alignment with Self-determination theory, Chantal et al. (1996) hypothesized that the medal winning performers would display lower levels of intrinsic motivation and higher levels of extrinsic motivation and amotiva tion than the less successful athletes. The athletes (N=98) were given the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Briere, Vallerand, Blais, & Pelletier, 1995), which was ba sed on the tenets of Selfdetermination theory, and employed a multidim ensional view of motivation. The results from the study (Chantal et al ., 1996) partially supported the stated hypothesis. While the findings indicated the most successful athl etes exhibited higher levels of non selfdetermined motivation than the less successf ul competitors, no significant differences were found in the levels of intrinsic motiv ation between the two groups. Chantal, Guay, Dobreva-Martinova, and Valle rand (1996) attributed the contrary findings to the possibility that athletes’ motivations were a bi-product of socializat ion of participants through a communist reward system. Chantal et al. (1996) surmised that the data supported a proposal by Fortier, Vallerand, Br iere, and Provencher (1995) to extend Selfdetermination theory to include situational factors as elements that foster non self-

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19 determined forms of motivation. Fortier et al’s. (1995) predicti ons have important implications for my study and therefore wi ll be discussed late r in this review. The introduction of concepts embedded in Self-determination theory, such as the previously described motivation continuum, ha s led to a more complete understanding of the complexity of motivation. Likewise, the identification of competence, autonomy, and relatedness has supplied a con ceptual framework for the pr ocesses individuals use to mediate self-determined action. Recently, Va llerand (1997) recognized the need to break down motivation into distinct levels according to their overall impact on the individual. Vallerand (1997, 2000) proposed the Hierarchic al Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation as an extension to the basic com ponents of Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) into three levels of generality. The focus will now turn to the Vallerand’s theory of motivation. Hierarchical Model of Intrin sic and Extrinsic Motivation While there is much support for Self-det ermination theory, many felt that a larger, more extensive framework was needed in order to more completely understand motivation. Vallerand (1997, 2000) modified the ideas of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000), and extended them into the three-tier model th at is shown in Figure 2. The Hierarchical model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivati on (Vallerand, 1997; Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002) revolves around five basic assumptions. The first, labeled Postulate 1, states that any comprehensive assessment of motivation must consider al l three types of motivation, intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation. Postulate 1 reiterates the im portance of adopting Deci and Ryan’s (1985) perspective by examining all three forms of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation. When viewed as a multidime nsional construct, motivation can cover an

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20 extremely broad range of purposeful action. For instance, an athlete who normally exhibits great effort during practice may be fu eled by internal or ex ternal sources. The motives for an abrupt change in the player’s efforts may not be able to be explained simply by viewing his or her mo tivation from one perspective. Postulate 2 of the Hierarchical Model pos its that motivation must be viewed as existing on three levels of generality, globa l, contextual, and s ituational (Vallerand, 1997). The global level is considered a trait level of motivation, the semi-permanent disposition of individuals toward all activit ies. The Hierarchi cal Model proposed by Vallerand views global motivation as the propensity of individuals to engage in activities with either an intrinsic or extrinsic orie ntation (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001). Simply put, global motivation is indicative of the rewards a person receives from his or her everyday activities (Figure 2). If an athlete tends to participate in mostly interesting tasks, then likely he or she has a more globally intrinsic disp osition. Inversely, an individual who gravitates toward rewarded activities or situations where recognition is inherent may have a more extrinsic globa l orientation. One could consider global motivation as a function of personality. The Hierarchical Model identifies a sec ond level from which motivation can exist; the contextual level. Vallerand’s model predicts multiple life contexts for which a person can have separate feelings of motivation. For example, education, work environment, personal relationships, and spor t are all individual contexts within a person’s life. Hierarchical Model predicts that within each of these individual aspects of life, separate levels of motivation exist (Figure 2). For instance, a person may feel extremely intrinsically motivated when they play s ports because they participate solely for

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21 recreation and enjoyment. The same pers on might feel coerced, and extrinsically motivated toward their work context, because they feel their only purpose for being there is so they can pay rent and buy food. Th e above hypothetical situation is a simplistic demonstration of one person having multiple mo tivations toward separate contexts in their life (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001). The third level of generality outlined by Hier archical Model is the situational level. State feelings of motivation, which are time and place specific are considered situational (Figure 2). Whereas global motivation was very stable and consistent, situational motivation changes constantly according to how the individual feels about what he or she is doing at that exact moment. For instance, a female soccer player might globally feel intrinsically motivated. The sa me player might also feel in trinsically motivated toward the context of soccer practice while one particular part of practice, possibly conditioning, may be perceived in a different manner. Thus her situational motiva tion during that part of practice may be extrinsic for that day. Postulates 3 makes three predictions a bout motivation. The first states that motivation is determined by social factors that exist in the environment surrounding an individual. Determinants such as place of residence, motivational climate (Lloyd & Fox, 1992), the interactional style a coach utilizes with athlet es (Deci & Ryan, 1987), and sport structure (Fortier, Valle rand, Briere, & Provencher, 1995) are all considered social factors that potentially influe nce motivation. Corollary 3.1 pred icts social factors can be global, contextual, or situational, and aff ect the corresponding level of generality. For example, the place where an athlete lives c ould be considered a global social factor

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22 impacting global motivation because a residen ce can affect virtually every facet of life for that athlete (Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002). The second hypothesis found in Postulate 3 predicts that perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness medi ate the impact social factors have on motivation (Corollary 3.2). This postulate highlights the role that intern al needs play in interpreting the impact social factors have on motivation. An example of this might be an athlete who lives in a home that is supportive of his/her effort s on the field of play. That environment could increase the athlete’s perceptions of compet ence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn increase their in trinsic motivation toward the sport context. The last prediction Postulate 3 makes is outlined by Corollary 3.3, which states that motivation can be affected by a top-down inte raction from the proximally higher level of generality. In other words, the type of global motivation (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) a person possesses has an impact on motivation in the different contexts of life and in specific situations within those contex ts (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001) To demonstrate the chain reaction effects posited by Corollary 3.3 imagine a softball player who is having problems getting along with her parents. An overarching factor such as difficulty at home may affect the global motivation of th e athlete. Prolonged unrest at home may begin to influence her desire to be part of the softball team. Her curbed motivation toward the context of sport co uld in turn, cause friction with the coach when she does not put forth her usual effort during conditioning. The t op-down effects predicted by Corollary 3.3 outline an important characteristic of motivation previously not accounted for by motivation theories such as Self -determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

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23 Like Postulate 3, Postulate 4 identifies interactions among th e three levels of generality. The Hierarchical model (Valle rand & Ratelle, 2002; Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001) posits a bottom-up effect on motivation from lower levels of ge nerality to the level immediately above (Postulate 4). Vallerand and Rousseau (2001) s uggest incidents that occur on the situational level could over time have an impact on contextual motivation, and possibly global disposition. An instance where this might occur would be a sprinter who continually has problems beating opponents in big races. Situat ional social factors such as competition, which are inherent in sport, can interfere with performance and erode situational competence. If the athlete continues to have problems at the situational level his or her motivation toward the context of sport could be affected. Within the sport context, amotivation may grow and the athlet e may decide to quit racing all together. Postulate 4 of Hierarchical Model predicts that eventual ly, global motivation could be impacted. From a Hierarchical Model perspective, ev ery action has some sort of outcome or consequence one one’s motivation. Hierarchic al Model categorizes outcomes into three classifications: affective (enjoyment), cogni tive (high levels of concentration), and behavioral (persistence in an activity). Post ulate 5 describes the na ture of consequences of the different types of motivation.

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24 24 Figure 2. Hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

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25 First, Corollary 5.1 hypothesizes the increasingly negative consequences of motivation as it moves across the continuum from intrinsic to amotivation. For inst ance, the previously discussed Vallerand et al. (1986) study used behavioral consequences to determine the type of motivation children experienced duri ng a stabilometer task. Children high in intrinsic motivation toward the task spent a greater amount of free time doing the activity, than children who were extrinsically motivated to participate. In the described case, positive behavioral consequences (persistence) were correlated with highly selfdetermined forms of motivation. Corollary 5.2 attributes consequenc es at a particular level of generality to be indicative of th e motivation at the same level of generality (Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002). Simply stat ed, global, contextual, and situational motivation will best predict consequences at their respective level. The Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic a nd Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997) framework envelops a broad spect rum of motivational aspects. The theory’s flexibility to make predictions about factors which affect motivation, as well as outcomes of motivated action that make Hierarchical Model a valuable asset to the field of sport psychology. One facet of the model of particular intere st to the context of sport is Corollary 3.1. Corollary 3.1 of the Hierarch ical Model predicts social f actors, which exist at each of the three levels of generality, infl uence motivation at the corresponding level (Vallerand, 2000). One important factor identified by Hierarchical Model, which could play an important role within the context of sport is sport structure. According to Vallerand and Rousseau (2001), athletes who pa rticipate in sport l eagues in which high levels of competition are encouraged (i.e., co llege and professional sports), are likely to experience decreases in intrinsic motivation. The above hypothesis has only been tested

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26 in two studies (Cornelius, Silva, & Mo lotsky, 1991; Fortier, Vallerand, Briere, & Provencher, 1995), with only the latter being published. Fortier et al. (1995) assessed and co mpared the motivation levels of 221 competitive and recreational intramural French Canadian college student athletes for differences in motivation between sport structures. The intrinsic motivation levels of each participant were assessed using the French version of the SMS (Briere et al., 1995). This validated measure of motivation has 7 subscales that measure the types of motivation suggested by Cognitive Evaluati on theory, (e.g.,, 3 types of intrinsic motivation, 3 types of extrinsic motivation, and amotivation). Results from the study indicated competitive athletes have lower intrinsic motivation toward their sport activity than intramural participants The data also supported predictions made by Cognitive Evaluation theory and Self-determination theory about competition as a situational factor that undermines intrinsic motivation. One fi nding, which was contrary to expectations, suggested competitive athletes’ demonstrated higher identified regulation (a selfdetermined form of extrinsic motivation) than their recreational count erparts. Fortier et al. (1995) speculated that the reason compe titive sport athletes felt more identified regulation than recreat ional athletes was due to long te rm goals set by athletes in a competitive sport structure. As previously discussed, little research ha s been done on the social and contextual factors that might influence mo tivation within a structured s port environment. However, another perspective on motivation, achieve ment goal theory (Duda, 1992; Nicholls, 1984), has been applied to the investigation of competitive sport structures, as well as individual’s approaches to competition. Achievement goal theory has received

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27 considerable research attention in the spor t psychology literature, and this literature review will now focus on this perspective. Achievement Goal Theory Achievement goal theory, put forth by Ni cholls (1984) and elaborated on by Duda (1992), uses a divergent line of thinking from Self-determination theory and the hierarchical model. While Self-deter mination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and Hierarchical Model (Vallerand, 1997) freely use the terms intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, achievement goal theory ascribes the terms task and ego to define motives behind activity involvement. Achievement goal theory predic ts cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses by examining how indivi duals subjectively define success or failure in a given context (Duda & Ha ll, 2001). Nicholls (1984, 1989) proposed that individuals give meaning to their actions in any achievem ent context (e.g.,, the academics, athletics, business) by the goals they endorse. These goals are directly linked to the beliefs of the person about ability, and manifest into a globa l or trait disposition toward achievement. Nicholls (1984, 1989) posits conceptions a bout ability and comp etence stem from either a differentiated or undifferentiated view of success. An individual whose view of ability is undifferentiated (task-oriented) as sumes applying high effort to an activity will result in more learning therefore improving competence. In contrast, a person with a differentiated (ego-oriented) conception of ability believes effort can only increase performance up to the limit of their present capacity. A task-oriented action is performed due to the belief that effort and competence maintain a direct relationship An athlete successfully fulfill s a task-oriented goal when he or she feels that effort will directly impact his or her goal of competence development and mastery (Ames, 1992). An ego-oriented goa l describes intentions of an individual to

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28 display superior competence to others. For example, an athlete acting with a task-goal perspective would feel successful while engagi ng in a jumpshooting drill when he or she becomes more comfortable with the particul ar shot being practiced. In the converse, someone taking part in the same drill with ego-oriented involvement would only feel successful if he exhibited more skill than others who were participating, or equal skill with less effort. Achievement goal orientations are not only viewed as a global construct, but can also be applied to a specific context. Similar to Hierarchical Model of motivation (Vallerand, 1997), task and ego goals can exist in separate facets of the life of an individual. Achievement motiva tion in sport situations is a widely studied area (Nicholls, 1989; Ames, 1992). Research examining achievement goal orie ntations in sport and physical activity has identified differing behavior al consequences between task and ego orientations. For instance, a study by Lochbaum and Roberts (19 93) found that high school athletes with a task orientation focused on ad aptive achievement strategies (e.g.,, focus on task mastery, prolonged engagement, exertion of effort), whereas ego-oriented athletes tended to employ more maladaptive achievement strategi es (e.g.,, reduced effort, selection of easy tasks, give up more quickly). An ego-goal perspective can prove to be a double edged sword, depending on the strategy employed to prove competence (Coving ton, 1992). For example, a player could exhibit superior competence by outperforming hi s peers in the activity (i.e., winning); but an outcome goal such as this, with an extern al locus, cannot always be controlled by one single individual because of the myriad fact ors involved in an athletic competition. A

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29 maladaptive strategy an athlete might use to demonstrate overt competence involves an individual displaying comparable ability to others in the ga me without appearing to apply as much effort (Duda & Hall, 2001). Ego-goa ls such as this have obvious dangerous consequences in terms of an athlete gi ving effort no matter the game situation. Another line of inquiry that has been addre ssed in the literature is the nature of the sport as a social environment. Social situ ational factors within a particular context influence an athlete’s states of task and ego involvement, as well as the perception an athlete has of his or her environment (White & Duda, 1994). A variety of factors such as relationships with coaches and teammates, perception of the motiv ational climate, and competition, have been identified as key co mponents in interpreting and understanding motivational goals and behaviors (Ames, 1992; Duda & Hall, 2001). Several studies have explored social relationships as possible situational factors that influence motivation within sport situ ations. Research conducted by Alderman and Wood (1976) and Gill, Gross, and Huddleston (1983) indicated that making friends was an important motive for participation in youth hockey players, and youth sport camp participants respectively. Likewise, a study by Gould, Felt z, and Weiss (1985) assessed the motives of competitive youth swimmers. The findings showed that achievement status, team atmosphere, and friendship we re strong motives fo r participation in competitive youth swimming leagues. Another social factor that affects goal or ientation is motivational climate. Ames (1992) defined motivational climate as an enviro nment that promotes either a task, or ego orientation. Most often, the greatest influence on the motivational climate comes from teachers or coaches interactions with stude nts and athletes. Walling, Duda, and Chi

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30 (1993) investigated high level competitive youth sport participant’s perceptions of motivational climate from a variety of sports. The results demonstrat ed that athletes who perceived a mastery (task) climate also expe rienced higher levels of satisfaction with being a member on the team and experienced lower amounts of performance worry. In contrast, a performance based (ego) climate was positively associated with concerns about failing and adequacy of one's performa nce and negatively correlated with team satisfaction. As noted previously, research shows that the context of sport contains multiple factors, which interact to create a unique a nd complex environment. One factor inherent in many achievement settings, competiti on, has received a cons iderable amount of research attention. Studies inquiring into th e nature of competition in sport and physical activity settings have predominantly observed individual’s goal orie ntation in youth sport settings. Furthermore, recent studies provi ded evidence that point to differences in motives for participation in phys ical activity and competitive s port as individuals mature. The subsequent sections will disc uss this issue in more depth. Participation Motives From A Developmental Perspective Achievement Goal theory research indicat es that individual’s motivational goals change as they develop from children to a dults (Butler, 1989a, 1989b). Gould, Feltz, and Weiss (1985) emphasized the need for studies that explore the motives of athletes in different age groups as well as at different competitive levels. Their study compared the motives of male and female competitive youth swimmers (N=365) from different age groups. Results indicated that younger swim mers maintained more external motives (e.g.,, achievement status, pressure from pa rents/friends, like the coach) than older

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31 swimmers who rated developing fitness and excitement-challenge as important reasons they participate in competitive swimming. A study by Brodkin and Weiss (1990) assessed the motives of competitive swimmers (N=100) whose ages ranged from 6 to 74 years of age using the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (Gill et al., 1983). An alysis of the data revealed that youth swimmers (ages 6-14) identified competition as a strong motive for participation, high school and college age participants rated social status and significan t others as important, while young and middle adults (ages 23-59) rate d health and fitness as primary motives for involvement. All of these results le nd support to the idea that motives for participation may be a developmental process. Butt and Cox (1992) compared the sources of motivation of (N=46) college age (18-23 yrs.) tennis players from three se parate competitive levels (e.g.,, Davis Cup, intercollegiate, recreational players). Each of the part icipants was given The Sport Protocol (Butt, 1987) to asse ss sport motivation, affect, soci alization, and needs. The results from the study indicated that the elite level athletes (Davis Cup players) endorsed more feelings of aggression, conflict, comp etence, and competition than players at the collegiate or recreational levels. The elite leve l players also scored higher than collegiate and recreational athletes on negative affect, and feelings of frustration. With respect to the discussed results, the authors cited the low reliability of The Sport Protocol as a limitation of the study. Another study, which investig ated the relationship of le vel of sport involvement and task and ego-orientation, was conducted by White and Duda (1994). This study used the TEOSQ (Duda, 1992) to assess male and female sport participants at four competitive

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32 levels (e.g.,, youth, high school, in tercollegiate, recreational) Results revealed that athletes at the highest competitive levels (e.g.,, intercollegiate sports) exhibited higher ego-orientation than recreational athletes in the same age group, or the younger sport participants (e.g.,, youth, high school). The studies reviewed above indicated that athletes in different age groups may have differing motives for participating in sport. Therefore, specific age groups should be targeted during inquiry into participation motives. The previous section focused on studies, which target athletes in a variety of age groups. It is important to note that studies involving college age spor t participants are most rele vant to the proposed study. However, there has been relatively little re search, which investigates the motives of participation of college age athletes within varying sport structures. In light of previous discovery, applica tion of a qualitative approach would be beneficial to investigate athlete’s motives for sport participation, as well as their perceptions of their sport environment. A grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) approach could provide altern ative knowledge construction to the limited inquiry of previous theory driven resear ch. A qualitative study would be ideal to expl ore the known dimensions of motivation and th is approach may result in th e discovery of new constructs (Eccles, Walsh, & Ingledew, 2002; Strean, 1998) The open-ended question format used in a grounded theory approach could provide thick description a bout the motives of athletes to participate in spor t, and uncover insight into the complex interactions of the sport context through the eyes of its participants. Qualitative Rationale Toward the goal of understanding how so cial factors influence motivation, qualitative inquiry could be one of the most effective methods for gathering data on a

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33 subjective issue such as athlete perceptions of the sport structure. Strean and Roberts (1992) suggested that the comple xity of a competitive-sport domain must be included in the research design. To unders tand how athletes interact w ithin a sport context, they must be studied in a sport setting. Th ey also emphasized the need to use less conventional methods (e.g.,, qualitative inquiry), and multi-method approaches to capture the richness of the sport context. Philosophical Issues Related to Knowledge Construction in Sport Psychology In recent years, scientists from divers e disciplines have questioned predominant philosophical approaches to research in sport psychology a nd encouraged the use of new ideas and theories to shape future dir ections (Hoshand & Polkinghorn, 1992; Kuhn, 1969; Martens, 1987; Petruzzello, 2000; Sparkes, 1998). For instance, Martens (1987) urged researchers to break out of the traditiona l scientific methodology, which dominates the field, and more readily embrace new, applicab le schemas for knowledge. Martens (1987) cited the false assumption of obj ectivity in traditiona l scientific methods for the necessity to break the “orthodox science paradigm” (p. 31), which he believed has failed in the human behavioral sciences. Sparkes (1998) also cited the need for va rying forms of knowledge construction to be embraced in order for the science of spor t psychology to grow. He advocates the use of qualitative inquiry to expand understanding in a variety of sport psychology related topics. Sparkes (1998) suggested that e xploring new ways to understand athletes’ experiences in might enable spor t scientists to answer questions that are more in line with applied interests. In line with Martens (19 87) and Sparkes (1998), Hoshand and Polkinghorn (1992) emphasized the strengths of post-modern and constructivist epistemologies as necessary

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34 additions to sport psychology literature. Ca utioning against the broadening gap between the academy researcher and the practicing ps ychologist, Hoshand and Polkinghorn (1992) suggested qualitative approaches might act as a bridge to bring scien tists and practitioners back to a common ground. The above observations have important im plications for motivation researchers. The body of motivation litera ture, as a whole has been limited by a unidimensional approach to knowledge construction. All of the studies in this review of literature tested aspects of the multidimensional construct of motivation by applying quantitative methods (e.g.,,, survey and/or experimental designs). Mo re specifically, a great majority of all the research done in the area of mo tivation uses some type of survey (e.g.,, IMI, McAuley et al., 1989; SMS, Pelletier et al., 1995), or behavioral measure (Deci, 1971,1972; Vallerand et al., 1986) to assess the different forms of motivation. Employment of measures such as these has been criticized by a variety of s ources. For instance, Strean (1998) cautioned that entering a research setting with pred etermined variables to observe could blind researchers to new data outside the scope of e xpectation. This is an important point when considering that surveys were designed to assess aspects of a specific theory (e.g.,, SelfDetermination theory and the SMS). The beha vioral approach, in which observations are made on how much time participants spend doing some type of experimental activity in a contrived setting using designated “free choi ce periods” (Deci, 1971), have also been considered inadequate motivation research ers (Harwood, 2002). The broad interpretation of a behavioral measure is that people only choose to do intrinsically motivated activities during periods in which they choose their ow n use of time (Deci, 1971). In sum, these two types of measurements (e.g.,, survey data and “free choice” observation periods)

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35 cannot possibly cover all the aspects of mo tivation, and are extrem ely limited in their contribution to the bigger picture of motivation in sport. Various researchers have emphasized th e danger of widely employing similar research methods. Krane, Strean, and Anders on (1997) alluded to the need to expand the resources used to construct knowledge in the field of sport psychology. Specifically, Krane et al. (1997) cited quali tative research as one possible avenue to avoid the suffocation of knowledge advancement that can occur from a mono-method approach. Similarly, Strean and Roberts (1992) emphasi zed the benefits of using a variety of theories and methods within sport psychology. They warned that unchecked conformity to prior methodologies discourages valuable creativity in scie ntific investigations. Many feel that scientific progre ss necessitates a departure from accepted practices, and to dismiss a variety of methodologies is to mi ss out on possible new means of advancing the field of sport psychology (Str ean & Roberts, 1992). In line with these viewpoints, the present study will use an alte rnative qualitative research paradigm: grounded theory. Need for New Theories of Motivation Recently, issues involving interpretations of major concepts w ithin the motivation literature have brought to light some dissatisfaction with curr ent theories of motivation. Harwood and Hardy (2001) discus sed the unrest with inadequate assessment techniques, emphasizing the present as an opportune time to conduct studies, which employ divergent methodologies. The use of qualitative methods to advance the motivation literature could serve to answer their call for “innovativ e research” and advance new ideas about motivation in sport (Harwood & Hardy, 2001, p. 330) Treasure et al. (2001) talk about subjective perception of the at hletic domain as key to understanding the motivation of athletes. The use of a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998), which

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36 employs the use of open-ended questions to at tain subjective responses, appears to be a timely approach to current research to motivation in sport. Rationale The proposed study would extend current resear ch in three ways. First, Corollary 3.1 of the Hierarchical model of Intrinsi c and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997) identified sport structures as one of the soci al factors that potentially may have a negative affect on intrinsic motivation. Results from the Fortier et al. (1995) study supported Hierarchical Model, and indicated that compe titive sport structures diminish the intrinsic motivation of the athletes who participate. However, the quantitative nature of the study allowed the researchers only to speculate on the reasons that athletes in competitive leagues experience lower intrinsic motivation than athletes in recreational leagues. Exploring the motives behind sport participa tion for competitive athletes and club sport athletes would provide insight into the role competition plays in affecting motivation at the contextual level. The next way the proposed study would benefit motivation research is by approaching motivation from an alternative pers pective than that of the vast majority of research. In line with the views expresse d by Krane et al. (1997), Strean & Roberts (1992), Hoshand and Polkinghorn (1992), Mart ens (1987), and Sparkes (1998), viewing the multidimensional construct of motivation from a grounded theory approach would be a step in expanding knowledge construction in the area of motivation research. More specifically, the present grounded theory study would allow for an in-depth and contextually specific underst anding about how individual’s thoughts and feelings about their motivation have been and currently are in fluenced by the social context of sport.

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37 The third potential contribution of the pres ent study involves the lack of theories derived specifically from the sport context. The present st udy may be ideally suited to answer the calls for new motivational fr ameworks by Harwood et al. (2000, 2001), and Treasure et al. (2001). The grounded theo ry techniques (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) employed in the study, which are discussed in Chapter 2, will produce a theoretical framework that integrates raw da ta themes taken directly from the athlete interviews. Statement of Purpose The purpose of my study is to use gro unded theory analytic procedures (e.g.,, Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to explore and asse ss N.C.A.A. athletes’ and club athletes’ sources of motivation to participate in sport. A secondary purpose wi ll be to explore and assess the participants’ sources of motivation to compete in sport. Finally, a grounded theory will be inductively developed to expl ain how contextual features of the sport environment influenced the participants’ t houghts, feelings, and be haviors towards their sport participation. More specifically, the grounded theory will be used understand how the participants sources of sport moti vation were influenced by environmental opportunities and significant others such as coaches and family members. Personal Interest My interest in motivation in sport come s from my background as a competitive athlete in various sports, and my coaching experiences at the high school as well as collegiate levels. Throughout my athletic expe riences I was inclined to orient my entire life around the sports which I l oved and dedicated my time and effort. I view all of my endeavors on the playing field as an intric ate part in developing into the person I am today. To see workouts, practices, mee tings, and game study culminate into one competitive performance is truly fascinating and gratifying. While my enjoyment of the

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38 preparation stages varied from day to day, week-to-week, season-to -season, my love for sport competition never wavered. The above fact has helped raise the questions, which the following study attempts to explore. What is it about sports play that drives athletes to sacrifice other priorities in th eir lives in order to participate? It is this multidimensional construct that I desire to probe and exam ine within the methodology of grounded theory order to understand more extensively the nuances of the motivation of athletes toward the context of competitive environments.

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39 CHAPTER 2 METHODS To achieve the goals of exploring the mo tivation of athletes to participate and compete, as well as developing a sport specific theory of motivation; it was important to go directly to the source of the question, the athletes (Krane, Strea n, & Andersen, 1997). The entire basis of the study hinged on usi ng the techniques outlined by grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to gain insight into the complex set of motives driving athletes to participate in competitive environments. As can be seen by the review of the literature, grounded theory provi des a much-needed change of perspective, and a unique yet validated method to qualita tively assess athlete’s experi ences, and organize them into a usable framework. The use of an altern ative perspective to guide exploration has helped to alleviate possible biases in previ ous studies of an established framework such as Hierarchical Model (S chilling & Hayashi, 2001). Participants The participants in my study were 14 male (n = 7) and female (n = 7) athletes who had competed at either the NCAA Division I or club sport level for a large southeastern school. The mean age for participants wa s 22.5 years. The ethnic breakdown of the participants was as follows: Caucasian (n=9 ), Black (n=3), Filipino (n=1), American Indian (n=1). Each athlete was taken on a voluntary basis, and only interviewed one time for a total of 14 interviews. Each particip ant was given an informed consent agreement (see appendix A) to read and sign. The doc ument outlined the purpose of the study as well as the expectations put upon the participan t. The informed consent also guaranteed

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40 complete anonymity to each pa rticipant and explained the st eps that would be taken to uphold confidentiality. Procedure Selection of all the athletes was done th rough a 4-step process that was approved by the University of Florida In stitutional Review Board. First, a letter was sent out to the coaches and directors of the athletic pr ograms asking for possible candidates for the study. Next, possible participants were c ontacted through letter or electronic mail explaining the purpose and requirements of th e study. Each particip ant then signed the informed consent. The last preinterview e xpectation of the participant was to set up a time for the 30 to 60 minute inte rview (Schilling & Hayashi, 2001). Purposeful Sampling and Theoretical Sampling All the participants were selected thr ough purposeful (Patton, 1990) and theoretical sampling. Purposeful sampling allowed the rese archer the freedom to select participants whose rich, thick description of experiences was most releva nt to the line of inquiry. Theoretical sampling enabled the researcher to select future part icipants who provided insight into any unknown constructs, which em erged from the data. Sampling in this manner was a cumulative process, which wa s dependent on past data collection. Combining the two types of sampling afforded the researcher the ability to highlight particular areas of interest in the experiences of an athl ete, and provided precisely the flexibility needed when the researcher was attempting to derive an entire conceptual framework from thick rich data te xt (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Each participant was selected on five criteria. First, all participants needed to be at least 18 years of age to partic ipate in the research study. Second, each athlete must have competed for at the high school le vel, and continued participati on for at least 1 year at the

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41 collegiate level. A third consideration was th e achievement of a balance of data between male and female athletes. The fourth criter ion set forth by the prin cipal investigator was the selection of participants based on the pr operties of the sport (team or individual) in which they competed. The intention of recognizing and accounting for athletes, who participate only in one type of sport, in th is case the genre of individual sport, was to ensure the new theory integrated data on athlet es with similar athletic experiences. The assessment of athletes who only participated in individual sports enabled the emerging categories and codes to be more precise and focused. While all sports have different aspects, which make them unique, including just individual sport at hletes provided some stability and similarity from which to base the interview questions. The fifth and final consideration when selecting part icipants was to account for a va riety of sports in order to add richness and diversity to the da ta collected (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Interview Procedures Each participant sat down for a one on one interview with the researcher at a time deemed convenient by the participant. All of the interviews were audio taped by the principal investigator. The interviews were conducted using a semi structured interview guide (Blumenfeld, 1992) consisting of opene nded questions designed to allow for thick descriptive data (Strean, 1998). The time allotted for each interview was set for between 30 and 60 minutes. Interview Guide Design The questions in the interview guide (see appendix B) were posed to the participants in order to gain insight into their perceptions about, and attitude toward athletic competition. The first set of questions was intended to gather personal information about the background of each par ticipant and to develop rapport and trust

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42 with the interviewee. The rest of the que stions on the interview guide were loosely designed to give each athlete to the opportuni ty describe in-depth their motives for competitive athletic participation. Along th ese same lines, the interview guide was designed in a manner which allo wed the researcher freedom to probe new ideas presented by each participant in order to increase the ri chness of the content and further explore any new avenues opened by the athletes (Eccl es, Walsh, & Ingledew, 2002; Schilling & Hayashi, 2001). A key element in the design of any successf ul interview guide was the pilot testing of the questions. Because the interviewi ng process was so pertinent to the grounded theory data collection process, each question needed to suppl y relevant text thick with descriptive detail. In order to assure that the questions achiev ed that goal, they were pilot tested on two individuals in pr actice interviews before they are posed to participants in the study. Through this method, the researcher was afforded the ability to modify and develop the guide to ensure the focus rema ins on answering the questions outlined by the purpose statement of the study. Member Checks A member check was used to verify with th e participant all of the statements he or she made during the interview. First, the researcher creat ed a summary of statements made by the participants based on the reco rded dialogue from the interview. The summarized interpretation was then given to the athlete for review. Providing a summary of the interview gave the res pondent a chance to correct any mi sinterpretation of the data by the interviewer, and afford the researcher confidence that the overa ll feel for the data that guided the analysis was accurate.

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43 Data Analysis Although the ultimate goal of research conducted using grounded theory is a practical, useable theoretical framework, which is firmly grounded in the data, a scientist must take painstaking measures to ensure analysis of the data collected from the interviews is processed correctly. Proce dures outlined by well -respected qualitative researchers (Strauss & Corbin, 1998; Eccles et al. 2002; Strean, 1998) provide multiple methods which, when applied to the data, main tain the relationship between the original data, and emerging concepts incorporated into the new theory. My study was based on the assumption that accounts given by particip ants are generally accurate representations of their experiences (Schilling & Hayashi, 2001). The steps of the analyzing process, which were used in my study, included lin e-by-line and axial coding, multiple coders, constant comparison, member checks, and memo writing, and independent audit. The combination all of the tools at the disposal of researcher, provided a rigorous standard with which to comply in order to maintain the integrity and validity of the research. The following sections will discuss in-depth each step of the data analysis process. Interviews and Data Transcription All interviews were conducted by the pr incipal investigator and audio-tape recorded. The principal investigator then transcribed each completed interview verbatim. Line-by-Line Coding The initial stage of analysis employed a t echnique labeled line-by-line coding. In this process, the researcher carefully fract ured the data collected in the transcribed interviews into manageable chunks (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). By carefully scrutinizing every line of each interview, and pulling out significant words and phrases called raw data themes, the investigator was able to group like ideas fr om separate sections of the

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44 same interview. The process also enabled the scientist to compare similar and dissimilar ideas from the interviews of different indi viduals, as well as synt hesize the “chunks” of data into coherent cat egories and concepts. Multiple Coders The use of multiple coders was another method of maintaining validity in the analysis of data. The process calls for several trained qualitative researchers to critically analyze and code the interviews. Each member of the research team was given a copy of the interview that they indivi dually coded. Research meetin gs were held in which the group of researchers reviewed each line of th e interview, and discussed the codes they pulled from the text. Any discrepancy on a code was discussed and agreed upon before the data was applied to the existing framework. Application of this research tool afforded the primary investigator alte rnative viewpoints to his’ ow n perspective on the emerging themes. Critical questioning of coding is a valuable tool to control against bias. Quality control of this type also challenged the rese archer to reevaluate every aspect of his interpretation of the data, and view coded material in a new light (Krane, Strean, & Anderson, 1997). Independent Audit Another procedure used to ma intain validity was an independent audit. In this process, an independent researcher, w ho was familiar with the grounded theory methodology but not the current study, was pres ented with a list of raw data themes pulled directly from the text. They were to ld to match each data theme to the higher order theme they felt best encompassed the raw data theme. The results from the audit were 81% agreement with the categorization done by the multiple coders on the research team, which is an acceptable level.

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45 A second audit was done with the same independent researcher in which broad themes from the current study were matched to long quotes that were taken from the results section. The auditor matched 74% of the long quotes to the same broad categories selected by the research group. The high percentage of agreement between the independent auditor and the res earch team on the classificati on and organization of data lends credibility to the analysis and coding done by the researcher and the multiple coders during the current study. Axial Coding Another process used to synthesize emer ging data was axial coding. As broad categories began to form and similar themes arose in multiple interviews, axial coding was employed as a method to calculate the relationships between the broad categories and the corresponding subsidiary raw data themes. The initial theoretical framework began to take shape within this step. E ach theme, when placed into a category of appropriate fit, helped to shape parameters, and outline another dimension of that category (Eccles et al., 2002). Axial coding wa s a stage in which theo retical relationships between corresponding data were not only grouped for similarity, but also scrutinized for instances of incongruence. In this step, analysis was di rected by the evolving theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Constant Comparison One of greatest strengths of grounded theo ry as a research tool and methodology lies in its reliance on comparative methods. Through the technique labeled constant comparison, the researcher had the ability to check the va lidity of emerging data in multiple ways. First, transcription of each in terview immediately, allowed the scientist to stay “grounded” in the data, maintain intim acy, and familiarity with the text produced by

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46 the participants. One advantage to the use of this strategy was the ability to compare statements made at the beginning of interv iews with responses occurring later for discrepancies. A second bene ficial quality of the compar ative method was the validation of raw data themes from multiple sources. Triangulation of data from more than one participant in an openended interview format lent immediate credibility to the emerging codes and themes. The tool of constant comparison fit into the grounded theory paradigm because comparison encouraged the researcher to dr aw on his or her, own experiences when viewing the data. Grounded theory not only acknowledges the problem of separating the scientist and the science, which is a big issue concerning quantitative research, but embraces the indivisibility as a characteristic vi tal to accurate synthesi s of data. In their book Basics of Qualitative Research, Strau ss and Corbin (1998) emphasized this by pointing to the fact many researchers who have followed the guidelines in the book were apt to incorporate their ow n knowledge. The ability to make real-life comparisons between the experimental material and ot her experiences was a key to discovering untapped dimensions and properties within the data. Constant comparison was not one stage of analysis, through which the information was filtered. Instead, the strategy was just what the label suggests, a constant perspective that was upheld through out the process in orde r for the constructed theory to entirely represent the data from the initial to the final intervie w (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Memo Writing Memo writing was a technique applied to th e research from the initial stages of interviewing. Strauss and Corbin (1998), s uggested a set up similar to a journal, which can be used as a record of the thoughts and id eas, which can guide each step of the theory

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47 building process. The journal was a conglom eration of notations about behaviors of interviewees, surprising asp ects of coded material, early sketching of possible frameworks, and any other musings about re lationships concerning emerging categories and themes.

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48 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS The current study had three major purposes. The first was to use grounded theory analytic procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to identify th e sources of motivation of N.C.A.A. collegiate athletes and recreational/ club sport athletes. The second purpose was to investigate the participants’ motives to compete in sport. The third purpose was to organize the data into a grounded theory of motivation for competitive athletes. This chapter begins with the athl etes’ perceptions of the defi nition of motivation. Next, descriptions of supporting quotes of higher order themes identified through the line-byline, and open coding procedures will be pres ented. Then, competition is examined as an environmental and social-contextual factor of sport, as well as a primary source of motivation for athletes. Fi nally, the codes and themes gathered during my study are organized into a grounded theory of sport mo tivation based on athl etes’ conceptions of their sport. The presentation of the results is organized ar ound Figure 3. Specifically, all of the higher order sources of motivation fell in to one of two general dimensions, internal sources of motivation and extern al sources of motivation. Cla ssified within the construct of internal sources of motivation were the themes goals and anger, and outlet for stress and aggression. The higher order themes of family, friends, team aspects of sport, coaches, pressure and high expectations, bene fits of participation, competition, and precompetition motivators were categorized as external sources of motivation.

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49 How Athletes Define Motivation An important first step in understandi ng athletes’ sources of motivation to participate and compete in spor t is to understand athletes’ pe rceptions of motivation. All of the participants in the study were asked to define motivation in their own words. While the responses to this question were dive rse there were some definite similarities within the participants’ respons es (Figure 3). One definiti on, the internal desire to do whatever it takes to accomplish a desired goa l, incorporates two aspects of motivation most frequently noted by participants, inte rnal drive and goals. For instance, Lynn, a swimmer at the Olympic level, st ated “I think to be motivated is to want to do something. And think that in order to get it done you mu st be able to go through any obstacle that you come across…because you want to accomplis h the goals.” Cindy, a collegiate track athlete, defined motivation by saying “I guess it’ s just a drive inside of you that you just don’t want to give up.” Lest er, a judo club athlete summed up motivation by identifying it as “To have a reason for doing something. To be motivated, is to set goals for yourself and then go after them. What motivates me is to achieve something. I guess to me it’s a sense of accomplishment.” Other themes that came out in athlete’ s descriptions of motivation included “proving something,” “having a goal in mind,” “wanting to improve a nd get better,” and “wanting to reach your optimal level of perf ormance.” The definitions of motivation given by the athletes in the current study lend credibility to their understanding of personal motivators and what drives them to pa rticipate in their respective sport. In a similar manner, athletes were also asked to give a personal defin ition and explain their views on competition.

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50 How Athletes Define Competition Another aspect of sport that the particip ants were asked about was their personal definition of competition (Figure 3). With respect to the various ideas about competition that exist in the motivation literature, it was deemed important to gain athletes’ perspective on this component of their spor t experience. There were a variety of responses from the participants that yielded three major pe rspectives on the dynamic role of competition within the lives of the partic ipants. The most prominent conception about competition was that of beating an opponent in head to head competition. Eight of the 14 participants made reference to “putting your skills agains t someone else,” or “going up against somebody or another team and seeing if you can beat them at whatever the game is.” Jeff, a collegiate track athlete even we nt as far as to call competition a “war with your opponent.” Five of the participants made reference to doing whatever was necessary to win or be the best. Another facet of competition that was id entified involved competition within a team and between teammates. The athletes in the current stud y produced evidence to suggest that competition is a healthy compone nt of a team atmosphere. They made statements such as: “I can’t imagine runni ng without competition,” and “The games are the funnest part.” A final construct of competition included “competing against yourself,” “doing your best,” and “performing y our best against the best teams.” These varying views of competition encompass the important sources of motivation identified by a vast majority of the athletes and will be discussed in greater detail later in the chapter. The following sections discuss th e higher order sources of motivation that emerged from the analysis of the interview text.

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51 Internal Sources of Motivation The first general dimension that was r ecognized during the grouping of data was internal sources of motivati on. These were characterized as such because they were factors that acted as sources of motivation with an internal locus of control. Goals, anger, and sport as an outlet for stress and aggressi on were all constructs which the participants alone controlled. For example, goals that the participants set for themselves acted as a source of motivation only if they represented ac tions that the athletes had a strong desire to accomplish. They would not be a source of motivation if the participant did not identify with the goal and deem it important. The following sections will elaborate on the internal sources of motivati on that the participants in the current study possessed. Goals The first important higher order theme th at emerged from the axial coding was “goals” the athletes set for themselves. Th e general dimension of goals (Figure 3) was defined by “long term goals,” “performance goals,” “seeing improvement,” “fulfilling personal needs,” and “feeling of satisfacti on and accomplishment.” The athletes in the current study tended to be heavily motivated by their goals. Eight of the participants described a variety of goals as major sources of motivation. The goals expressed by the participants encompassed a variety of goal type s. For instance, Diane, a collegiate soccer player, revealed “I have a long term goal of actually signing with a semi-pro [soccer] team in Europe so I know that on a daily basi s I have to go out and workout every day.” This statement illustrated how her long-term goa l acted as a daily or shortterm source of motivation. Lucy, who threw the shot put at the colle giate level, described how she used her goals to increase her motivation when she was not performing at peak levels by saying “I

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52 just go back to my goals I made. I write them down and stuff. And just look at them and just like this is just a tough time, you go tta push through.” Like wise, Cindy described how she employed goals when she was frustrat ed with periods of poor performance, “I just try to look at future goals and why I need to get motivated.” These statements identified athletes’ use of long-term goals to increase motivation when it was low. One athlete, Amy, a collegiate soccer player, even explained how her goal to be a collegiate athlete drove her to overcome pain from chronic illness: I knew I really wanted to play soccer in co llege, and it got hard because I had to sit, or I couldn’t train as hard as I would lik e. But you know, it just motivated me to hang in there and stick with it, and just ge t through it regardless of how I felt. Just to get out there and play. It’s my motivation to keep going. Performance Goals Performance goals were another type of goal that emerged as a source of motivation. The athletes discussed the impor tance of being able to set incremental benchmarks tied to their performance in s port. Athletes looked at both practice and competition as an opportunity to set and achieve performance goals. Steve, who discussed how important hitti ng his target times during prac tice was said, “As a runner [practice times] that’s all you really have to in dicate where you’re at race-shape wise, is what you do in practice.” Doug discussed his approach to goal setting during games in this quote, “I always have an idea when I st ep out on the floor how many assists I want to get and how many steals I need to get for us to win a game.” A variety of quotes from the participants also gave insight into why performance goals were motivators. They discussed aspects such as “the y are a huge factor in what you think you’re capable of,” and “it [setti ng performance goals] was the best situation for someone that really likes to see their wo rk come to fruition. You can see how you’re

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53 actually doing in comparison to what you ’re actually working towards.” These statements supply important information about specific components of goal setting strategies that appeal to at hletes. The above quotes not only describe how performance goals affect an athlete’s c onfidence, but how they are us ed to maintain motivation. Cindy, a high jumper, explained how she co mbined different types of goals to increase her motivation. She described meld ing performance and process goals in this quote, “I set goals, heights, like I want to clear a certain height [in the pole vault]. But I also set other goals with my technique and my form, that ’s so important.” Terry, a distance runner at the collegiate level, said “ I’m more interested not so much in place [in the race] as time.” These types of goals ca rried a strong relationshi p with another higher order source of motivation, “seeing improvement.” Seeing Improvement Ten of fourteen participants identifie d “seeing improvement” as an important source of motivation (Figure 3). As previous ly discussed, the participants in the study were definitely goal oriented. The participants used goals and goal setting as a system for marking improvement over a period of time. Accomplishing a series of goals established a step-by-step path which displayed progre ss which in turn increased motivation. For example, Ryan, a club judo player, indicated that “being able to see a definite improvement in my work and my abilities? Oh yeah, it really motivates me.” Athletes at both the collegiate and club sport level at tributed “seeing improvement” to increased motivation. A quote by Cindy displayed her perception of how “seeing improvement” impacted her motivation: When I’m doing better, when I can see the results I’m more motivated. We do testing with all our drills a nd our [weight] lifting and stuff every 8 weeks in the fall. So you can actually see improvement from th e first day you’re in the weight room

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54 on the weight card, and then you test it 8 weeks later a nd you see how much you’ve improved. That’s r eally motivating!” The preceding paragraphs show how the di fferent types of goals set by athletes serve as sources of motivation. The next ques tion that needed to be answered was, “Why are these goals a source of mo tivation?” The participants in the current study identified two constructs that gave value to the goals that had been set. The first was a set of needs that were satisfied by achieving goals. The s econd dimension was the feelings that the athletes experienced when their goals were accomplished. The following sections will focus on the reasons that goals are a sour ce of motivation to the athletes. Fulfilling Personal Needs Throughout the interview proce ss the participants discussed certain “needs” that drove them to set and achieve goals. One fi rst order theme that arose was a need to “receive credit.” Three athletes identified a need to be recognized for their talent or accomplishments as a source of motivation. Da vid, a collegiate swimmer, explained one of the reasons that he worked hard for team instead of individual goals in this way, “It always seems like team champions get more cr edit.” Another athl ete discussed his goal to make the top traveling squad, attributing his desire in part to hi s need to affirm his place as one of the top runners and prove himself competent. Steve said: But to be part of the group that was tr aveling, it was like oh yeah, we’re going to California. Not because you want to go to California so much, but because it was a privilege that okay, if you were in the top three or four guys you were going to go to Stanford to go to THIS meet, and the rest of you guys…You’re going to Western Michigan. Where would you ra ther go, San Francisco or Mi chigan? So part of it was being able to go to better places, and part of it was ju st being involved with the best guys on the team. And you’re like, okay, I’m sort of in this upper-echelon of guys now. Athletes also revealed that their sport fulfilled a need to perform for others. Specifically, Cindy explained that one of her moti vations for participating in sport was, “I

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55 enjoy performing and doing stuff like that.” Diane possessed a similar perspective when discussing what was motivating to her about her sport. Sh e said, “[The games] That’s when you see the fans. The fans are one of th e biggest motivations, especially at Florida, because they’re great. And they come out ev ery single day, and every single game, just to come watch you play.” It is important to note that the need fulfillment described by the participants in my study is similar to the ideas put forth in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000) and the Hierarchical Model of Intr insic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997). The quotes in the preceding paragraphs lend weight to the construct of need fulfillment as a factor in motiv ation. Each of the above athletes described particular aspects of their sport that satisfied in inne r desire. Specificall y, David and Steve both make reference to their need to feel competen t or display competence, which is one of the three basic needs outlined by self-determi nation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000). Feelings of Satisfaction and Accomplishment The second reason goals served as a motivat or was the feelings athletes received from achieving them. Six of the participants in the current study desc ribed their feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction when they reached a goal as important sources of motivation. A quote from Steve articulated those feelings, “[When I look back at] stuff I set out at the beginning of the year on that note card I was like I want to win as an individual and I want to win as a team and I actually accomp lished both of those things. It’s the greatest feeling when you actually achiev e that stuff.” Doug said, “It was just an amazing accomplishment for me to reach my goa l of playing college basketball, but to actually get out on the floor a nd play in the first game fe lt unbelievable.” Lester gave insight into the feelings of satisfaction that he got from setting high standards for himself

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56 during practices. He said, “I’m very satisfied when I get pushed so hard [in practice] I think I’m gonna die. Cause at the end I think, ahh, I made it through; I can do this again.” Steve echoes Lester’s mentality with his statements on difficult workouts: Workouts were more fun than the easy days, because you knew you were going to get a lot out of it. You we re going to be pushed to your max. I always liked that anyway. I actually liked the hardest wor kouts better than the eas y workouts. I feel like I accomplish more, even if I wasn’t able to finish the whole thing. The way in which the athletes above desc ribed their willingness to push their limits in order to gain a sense of satisfaction a nd accomplishment from goals lends depth to the strength of goals as a powerful source of motivation. The use of goals was a great example of an internal driv ing force for athletes, but it is not the only one. The participants in the current study also used their emotions to channel physical performance. The next section will discuss athletes’ use of one specific emotion, anger as a source of motivation. Anger Throughout the interview proce ss a number of different emotions were linked to athletes’ experiences in their sport. The pa rticipants described f eeling love, excitement, nervous, disappointed, and stressed just to name a few. One emotion that athletes’ isolated as a source of motivation for them wa s anger (Figure 3). Five of the athletes provided evidence to support the construct that athletes can use emotions such as anger as sources of motivation to succeed. Statements like, “If someone does that, pisses me off, I use it”, “Sometimes when I get mad it help s”, and “You know I’d get mad, just very mad and take it out”, show athletes’ awareness of their use of anger. The anger may come from a variety of sources for instance; Lucy talked about being mad at teammates and how she used that to supplement her performa nce. She explained the scenario in this

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57 way, “You know to me I use it [anger] and I’v e done it before when some of my teammates might have said something so off the wall that makes me mad, I’m just going to like okay, I’m going to use it.” She comm ented that it gave her “some kind of extra adrenaline flow.” David further defined the link between the teammate dynamic and anger in this quote: [When my teammates talked trash to me] th en I’d get pissed off and I’d just go up and start swimming really fast and I’d just start screaming at hi m and I’d just say, “What’s up now?” kind of thing. And we we re really competitiv e with each other and it helped us in practice. Jeff described a time when he had personal i ssues that he drew on to perform better during a competition. He detailed the event lik e this, “I was so mad. I was just so mad that that last 200 meters I don’t think my feet even touched the ground I was running so hard…’Cause anger is a very strong feeling. It can be used in a positive way.” Lucy said, “I just use anger toward working hard basically instea d of just feeling sorry for myself.” A statement such as this provi ded evidence which sugge sted that athletes consciously chose to use anger to accomplish something positive. The first order theme, something to prove, emerged to provide insight into the ways that athletes interpret the feelings and emotions associated with anger. Something to Prove Athletes in the current study who felt th at anger was a source of motivation interpreted their feelings of anger in a way that translated into athletic success. When they felt slighted or threatened they channeled their emotions into physical performance. Five participants discussed how their need to show people that they were talented and good enough to participate in s port at a high level was a source of motivation. For instance, Jeff said:

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58 I just want to prove something to people. I just wanted to show off basically. What I had in me; my talent. You just want to show to the best that you deserve to be at that level. I deserve to be here. You just want to sa y, “Hey I’m here and I’m going to be a force to be reckoned with. David described one of his most memorabl e experiences as an instance where he and his swim team of “nobody’s” ended up as one of the top ranked teams in the country. He had this to say: Probably my most memorable moment [of my athletic career] wa s my senior year [in college] when we got fourth in NCAA’ s and that was a real big accomplishment for our team because we were a bunch of nobody’s. My teammates, the whole senior class, and most of the other pe ople were just a bunch of nobody’s and no one recruited us out of high school and we ended up getting f ourth our senior year and we were ranked tenth or eleventh all year long. And we were the fourth best team in the nation was kind of an accomplishment. Three of the athletes interviewed for th e study struggled to get accepted to their universities, and were motivated to prove that they belonged in college. Jenny said, “[It] has definitely built my character. Having to show that I belong, having to prove that I could get into this school. Whether it be th rough the appeals process or whatever.” Jeff also had trouble meeting the academic requireme nts of his university. He said, “With the academics it was like I don’t even deserve to be here [college]. So I’m like I wanna show people what I’m made of.” David had the mo st revealing quote that tied his struggles with admittance to the university to his desire to prove himself. He described it this way: I had good grades in high school; I just coul dn’t get into UF. And my coach at the time, he is no longer here, gave me a little money to get accepted. It was something like a $20 scholarship-athletic schol arship to get in. ‘Cause that was the only way I could get in. Anyw ay, my freshman year I wanted to prove myself and he didn’t get resigned [contract renewed] after my freshman year. And then the new coach came in, and my whole sophomore year I had to start all over. I had to prove myself all over again. And that was a big thing; proving to myself that I was a good athlete, that was pretty much it. I was trying to prove it too my coaches, but most of all I was proving it to myself. Because I’m not going to go around and say…Point to them and say “Look, look what I’ve done. I’ve done this all by myself. I just wanted to prove to myself that I’m capable of being better.

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59 The athletes who felt they had been in some way underestimated were motivated to prove that they belonged. David explained how he used his feelings of being slighted as a source motivation. He said: I guess you’ve got to get fuel from somewhere. I’ve been doing this for so long, I wouldn’t call myself lazy, I’m just a relaxed easy-going guy, and if there’s something that drives me, it helps a lot. I guess in swimming, showing the most and getting pissed off and proving my coaches wrong, especially my head coach [was big motivator]. Only one athlete who discussed anger did no t feel that it was a source of motivation for her. Cindy acknowledged that athletes sh e knew used anger as a motivator, but did not feel that she had the dis position to employ such a source herself. She summed up her experiences with anger this wa y, “I don’t really get angry ab out stuff or mad. I’m kind of laid back. So that doesn’t work. I don’t re ally get fired up about anything.” Her choice to use emotions in a positive way leads one to wonder if the process was simply a beneficial mechanism for coping with emotions or were athletes drawn to sport as a physical outlet for stress? There was evidence that supported the idea that athletes used their chosen sport as an outlet for stress, and this in turn acted as a motivator for them to continue in their participation. Outlet for Stress/ Aggression Participants in the current study described how participation in sport carried with it a certain degree of stress for the athletes, whether it is from high expectations or competition. However, the athletes in my study also indicated that their sport was an outlet for stress. Four first order themes de fined this category (Figure 3), “Sport as an outlet,” “Escaping problems through sport,” “Release of emotional energy through physical activity,” and “Feeling be tter after participation.”

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60 Sport as an Outlet The participants in the current study c ited the physical exertion required during participation as a major release for them. Both levels of athlete, collegiate and club sport athletes in particular identif ied this benefit as a source of motivation for participation. The athlete’s sport served as an outlet for st ress precisely for the reasons described in the previous section. Participating in a sport enabled individuals to separate themselves from their emotions and frustrations by refocusing th eir attention on a more enjoyable task, and allowed them to release and express their built up emotions th rough physical actions. The athletes from a broad range of sports conveyed some highly similar experiences involving their sport as an ou tlet for relieving stress. Escaping from Problems through Sport One aspect that received a considerable amount of focus was the participants’ tendency to step away from out side problems while they were engrossed in the activity. Diane expressed her experience as an escape: Being able to forget everything else in your life and just being able to play on the field. For ninety minutes you don’t have to worry about anything else. You can get a lot of aggression out; you can get a lo t of anger out. And just having fun being surrounded by good people… Similar ideas were expressed by Ryan, “Jus t being able to go to Judo, work hard, and not think about anything else, that’s more my release.” Kacy had this to say: [Playing your sport] It kind of lets you; it’s a way to let you relieve yourself from everything else. All your other pressures, and all that kind of stuff. You’re out there and there’s noth ing else you have to worry about. You just out there to play and have fun. And I think for a lot of peopl e that can be very therapeutic…It is [for me]. I guess what I’m saying about it bei ng therapeutic. If things aren’t going well, in your life, when you step out ther e and all of sudden you’re doing all these things well; you’re playing these gr eat balls, it kind of lifts you up.

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61 Release of Emotional Energy throug h the Release of Physical Energy Another aspect of sport as an outlet that was emphasized was the release of emotional energy through the release of physical energy. One participant, Ryan expressed that exchange in this statement, “All your stresses, everything just bleeds out on the mat…” Lester described his releas e of aggression thr ough sport by saying, “You don’t have to be aggressive in judo to get out aggression. It ’s just the physical activity itself that helps relieve the aggression.” A very in-depth explanation of the interaction between physical and emotional energy release was displayed in a passage from Diane: I guess it’s like a non-contact sport [soccer ], if there’s someone else who has the ball in front of you and they’ve sort of knocked one of your friends over, you can get a lot of frustration out by just okay you’re going for the ball, but you’re also going to get half of the player as well And it’s like a physical, very physically demanding game. If you’re angry, and like you’re really screwed up, like stuff inside you, like just to go run for 90 minutes; it just gives you a breath of fresh air. You just kind of get it all out. Th en you’re too tired to be angry. Lester provided a summative statement about the reasons that spor t, being an outlet for stress and aggression, was a source of motivation. He said: I find that my confrontation level goes wa y down when I use my sport as an outlet because that’s my confrontation out ther e [on the mat]. I don’t know whether it’s just an ego thing or what, because I always feel that I have to match wits with somebody or physical confrontation. What mo tivates me to work out is that I know I’m much easier to get along w ith in my personal life. I feel that my stress level is way down. I feel better. I just feel clearer So it motivates me because I just feel better when I work out. So that’s defini tely a high motivation factor for me…Yea so my mental health as well as my phys ical health is a big motivation for me. Through the wide range of testimony given by athletes in various contexts, one begins to gain an understanding of how sport can serve as an outlet fo r stress release, and how this type of benefit could serve as a major source of motivation to participate. Up to this point this paper has discussed sources of motivation that exist internally within athletes; however there were also a variety of motivators with an external origin.

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62 Important people in athletes’ lives were anot her source of motivation. The next sections will focus on these and other external sources of motivation. External Sources of Motivation In the current study the external sources of motivation were defined as sources of motivation that exist outside of the athlete, but within the social context of sport. These include family, friends, team aspects of spor t, coaches, pressure and high expectations, benefits of participation, competition, and pr e-competition motivators. All of the factors listed above play a role providing motivati on for athletes. Many of these sources supplement the athletes’ motivation when inte rnal motivators are not enough to maintain the type of effort necessary to compete in co llegiate level and club level athletics. The first external motivator that most of the participants discussed was the role that family played in their motivation. The following s ection will provide a more in-depth look at family as an external source of motivation for athletes. Family Family was a significant source of motivati on that participants in the current study deemed important on multiple levels. Figure 3 outlines four first order themes that fell under the category of family; “initial exposure to sports,” “family as a support system,” “father as coach,” and “family as confidants.” Each of these dimensions of the family construct instills dept h to the category as a source of motivation. Initial Exposure to Sports One way that family served as a source of motivation to athletes was that parents and siblings acted as the mechanism for getting the athlete invol ved in sport for a majority of the participants ( 10 of 14 participants). Six of the participants described their

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63 dad as being “athletic” or as having an “athl etic background.” Two others were exposed to sports through the influence of the entire family. For example, Amy said: I guess our family is just really into sports and pretty athletic. So once I started I just didn’t want to stop. Sports was just something our family does all the time. We would also go to the pool and swim t ogether and run together. And always play games outside when we were little, like soccer games…cause we have six people I our family I guess it kind of came naturally to us. Kacy, a collegiate soccer athlete, descri bed how she was first introduced to her sport through the participation of her older si blings. She said, “Eve rybody in my family is really athletic. My brothe r and sister both played soccer. All of us played a whole bunch of different sports. It [soccer] was the one that I al ways wanted to play when I first saw my brother and sister play I was like I want to play that!” Nine of the participants had brothers or sisters that participat ed in sports. It is al so interesting to note that a majority of the participants competed in the same sport that other athletes in their family competed. Family as a Support System A second capacity in which family served as a source of motivation involved the support system that loved one provided for the athletes. Four athl etes felt that their parents were a source of streng th for them, especially when they struggled with their own motivation, or things did not go well with their sport. Athlet es listed examples of support such as unconditional love as in this quote from Jenny, a walk on collegiate soccer player, “I call home and I talk to my pare nts, and they’re there, you know the they’re going to love you if you played the worst game, or if you played the best game, it’s all going to be the same.” Lucy explained that her family was a source of inspiration to her because of the sacrifices her mother made to encourage and attend competitions. She

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64 said, “She [my mom] is my bi ggest motivator. She is where I get most of my motivation from…she never missed a game, never missed anything.” Father as Coach Coach was another capacity that family fulfilled that served as sources of motivation. Two of the participant had pare nts who were involved coaching them during the beginning stages of their at hletic participation, which served as a motivation to stay involved the sport. Lester discussed his father’s extens ive background in judo, and his role in coaching him like this: Over the years it was very difficult for me to get my black belt because of who my father was. He eventually promoted me but it was like a lot of people surpassed me that I was in judo with for the same amount of time and got promoted before me, but…I was always expected to do th ings perfect, better than the average people, so I was held back a little longer. You know I’m my father’s son and I’m expected to do this perfect. And over th e years I’ve beat 10’s, hundreds of black belts over the years before I was even promoted to black belt. While my skill level was certainly up there, it was just when my father felt it was the right time. I was always motivated to achieve by his expectations. Family as a Confidant Athletes also made mention of parents who listened to complaints and helped to provide perspective and wisdom when times were tough. A statement by Jenny illustrated this role, “I find it [motivation] from my family. My dad helps me out a lot. He’s like, ‘its okay, today sha ll pass too’ and that helps me. He does motivate me. He pushes me a lot [because he knows me so we ll], even though he doesn’t know anything about soccer.” The theme of “family” provi ded a variety of exte rnal resources that athletes used as sources of mo tivation. The next section expl ores the role of friends as another external source of motivatio n to athletes.

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65 Friends All of the athletes who participated in my study were influenced to participate by some outside force. Along with family, fr iends were a significan t source of motivation for athletes’ participation in s port (Figure 3.) Two first orde r themes pertaining to friends were identified by participants as playing a role in providing motiva tion for participation in sport, “motivated by friend’s participat ion,” and “comparison/ competition between friends.” Motivated by Friend’s Participation In the instances id entified by the partic ipants in the current study, they were inclined to participate in th eir chosen sport because a frie nd was already active. Terry described his reasoning like this, “[My fr iend was running] so I’m like okay, I join the track team too.” David pointed to a similar experience when he said, “I guess one of the reasons why I started swimming competitivel y was to be around her [friend] more.” Cindy cited a specific instance wh en she was already particip ating in one sport and she became interested in pole vault just because a friend thought it would be fun to do. She said, “I just remember her [a friend] talk ing about it, and I was doing gymnastics at the time, and another girl from gymnastics was doi ng pole vaulting also. And I just wanted to try it; it sounded neat.” Comparison and Competition between Friends Not only did friends play a direct role in getting the athletes in volved in sport, but they also served as a source to continue participation. “Comparison and competition between friends” was portrayed as a str ong catalyst for one athlete’s continued participation. Terry, discussed how he used his competitiveness with friends as a motivator in this passage:

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66 I just always compare myself to a lot of my friends and how they’re doing, and other elite athletes that I felt were not too far above me, but you know close where I would say, “Well this guy is a little bit bette r than me, so I better run faster or run harder, to more to catch up you know.” This statement supported the concept that co mparison of self to successful others can drive athletes to be successful. This th eme will become even more prominent in the upcoming section dealing with teammates and the team atmosphere. Teammates and Team Atmosphere The athletes in my study reported that they drew on the highly contextual resource of teammates to provide motivation in a va riety of ways. The category “teammates” acted as a source of motivation when the par ticipants felt their team mates were successful (Figure 3). In addition they used the suppor t of the other athletes, as well as their seemingly contagious enthusiasm as sources of motivation. The participants in the current study also obtained motivation when they felt included by the team, and when they strove to separate themselves from th e group in order to be the best. To better understand how athletes derive motivation from their teammates, one must first obtain an understanding of how the athlet es perceived the environment in which they practiced and competed. Team Aspects of Sport Axial coding produced a higher order them e which was titled “team aspects of sport.” It is important to not e that in the methods section of my study, one of the sample criterions for the selection of the initial participants was that they were an individual sport participant. The primary reason for sampling athletes who competed in individual sports was to get a view of athletes ’ sources of motivation as th ey related to the athlete’s personal experience with their sport. It was originally thought that participants who

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67 competed in individual sports might provide mo re focused insight into the internal forces that drive athletes to partic ipate and compete in sport. However, all of the initial participants cited sources of motivation em bedded in relationships with teammates or some aspect of being part of a team. Th e emphasis placed on team by the individual sport athletes created the need to look at athletes involved in t eam sports for possible similarities and differences in motivation to participate. The following paragraphs will expand on the sources of motivation that exis ted within the team context for individual sport and team sport athletes. Camaraderie of the Team/ Team Atmosphere Athletes from both individual and team sports received motivation from contextual influences based on the social interactions th at are inherent in s port. All fourteen participants in the current study alluded to particular aspects of being part of a team as important to their personal mo tivation. Athletes in individu al sports as well as team sports made mention of the “camaraderie of the team” or “team atmosphere” as important sources of enjoyment and motivation within th e sport context. Terry, a distance runner, described his experience with team in this wa y: “I just loved comp eting with three other guys against other teams. I liked it more th an the individual races in track…I guess it’s just the team atmosphere that I enjoy better than the indivi dual.” Diane, a soccer player said: I think the biggest thing about soccer is that it’s a team sport. That was my best motivation. It’s like; okay you have a t eam around you that are going to take half the blame for it if you mess up. You have a responsibility to you know…I like the camaraderie; I like being able to hang out, a nd the socializing aspect of it as well as the actually physical an d mental playing wise.

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68 These quotes from the individual and team sport athletes displayed the athletes’ keen interest in contributing to the success of the team, and feelings of accountability for their performance. Friendships and Loyalty The reasons for feelings of commitment and dedication s eemed to be tied to two factors. The first was friendships and loyalt y developed within the team. Kacy, a soccer player elaborated on the importance of frie ndships with teammates in this statement: Since I’ve been at Florida these are my closest friends…It definitely makes you want to play for the other person when you’re out there…That’s a good relationship to have. That’s the best pa rt. That is definitely by far the thing I have gotten the most of playing here is the friendships, for sure. Another athlete referred to hi s club as a “second family.” These athletes seemed to carry a strong sense of duty to their teammates. They felt that others on the team were depending on them, and their sense of res ponsibility and relatedness pushed them to practice and play at a high level. Shared Goals The second factor that appeared importan t to athletes’ feelings of accountability was “shared goals”. Four participants stat ed that they felt accountability to their teammates because they were working towa rd the same goals. Revealing personal motivators to teammates seemed to drive athl etes to succeed even when their internal motivation is low. For instance, Steve rec ounted his feelings about team goal setting in this paragraph: I think it’s good especially wh en we shared our goals with our teammates and stuff. So there’s sort of some accountability th ere. Like, alright everybody knows I want to place, such and such, at a state meet or national championships, and there’s no getting off the hook now. When you’re sort of hurting in pract ice they’re going to say, “Hey, you want to be in the top 20 in th is race you’re going to have to step it up.” I always use them as a motivational factor as well.

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69 The previous statements show the motivating power of athletes playing for each other. The participants were more motivated when they felt that everyone on the team was playing for the common good of the team The athletes viewed the idea that individuals play together as a team as bei ng similar to a whole be ing stronger than the sum of its parts. They also indicated that dedication and commitment to the same goals and to teammates allowed for the greatest opportunity for success. Jenny, a soccer player, also gave evidence th at a lack of these types of feelings about team and teammates might have an equally damaging effect on individual motivation. She described her struggles with staying motivated during last season in this quote, “Sometimes I think I feel like the pl ayers make you feel that way [like you are not good], and that’s why I say it’s a blow to your confidence sometimes. And that’s why you can’t rely on them; you have to rely on yourself.” She elaborated by saying: It’s high [the within team competition at the university level] and it’s…sometimes I feel like they’re going for me and I have the team behind me, and then sometimes I feel that they aren’t. And that might be because I’m not as skilled a player as everyone so I mess up more and getting yelle d at more than I am getting cheered on or “good job”, you know, praised. It’s very different on this team. It’s different than any other team I’ve been on because I’v e never been in question of whether or not my team is behind me, and here I am. Her statements were in sharp contrast to th at of the other participants, but lend even more support to the importance athletes pl aced on commitment to the team and the motivation derived from the relationships, and th e shared goals within the team structure. Teammate Support The support of teammates was also a team related dynamic that was cited as a contributor to the motivation of the partic ipants in the current study. Based around the same beliefs that made the players feel accountable and committed to their teammates, the athletes’ confidence was bolstered when their teammates showed belief in their

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70 ability. Five of the particip ants cited instances where they were not playing well, and demonstrations of support by their teammates provided them with the motivation to increase the level of intensity in their pl ay. One athlete described an interaction involving teammate support like this: With soccer if you’re having an off day, th en you have other teammates to lean on you know? I mean they’re always going to be supportive, you know. You can tell if your friends are having a bad day, or you can tell if your friend’s like touches aren’t normal, or they’re not pushing as ha rd as they can. They would always ask for, you just get to know each other more, you know? You don’t want to let someone down again. You want to…the y’re your teammates you know, and they know you better than anyone else…So I definitely like to bounce off my teammates, and look to them for support. Teammate Enthusiasm Three participants in the study talked about the role that their teammates’ enthusiasm played in keeping their own motivation high (Figure 3). The athletes discussed the enthusiasm of th eir teammates as an outside in spiration used to help get them motivated, especially during practices when their individual motivation was low. Kacy said, “I like the encouragement [of tea mmates]. When I’m out there [on the field], it helps. Lucy stated, “I can say that I get more motivated when I saw that the rest of my team was also getting motivated to do better. Cause when they weren’t motivated it was kind of a struggle.” She goes on to say, “O nce one or two people get like that [being excited and motivated] it gets infectious. Cindy described the contagious effect of teammate enthusiasm this way: I guess it’s from everybody else. I think it feeds off each other, at practices when we’re maybe not all there. You know, you’ve had a long day or something. I think you can feed off other teammates you know wh en they’re all ther e, and they’ve got that motivation in them for the day, it kind of rubs off. The term “feeding” off of teammates’ ent husiasm was an interesting phrase that was repeated by multiple participants. It insinuated being hungry or in need of

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71 enthusiasm and motivation. The infectious pr operty of enthusiasm made it an important source from which athletes could draw the ev eryday motivation they needed to continue the rigorous workout routines requi red for high level competition. Competing against Teammates The aspect of the team context most fre quently mentioned by the participants was the interpersonal competition between teammates. The higher order theme “competitive atmosphere of team” divulged insight in to the inner workings of the athletes’ relationships with their teammates, and th e constructs surroundi ng their sources of motivation within this contex t. Five of the athletes interviewed for the study made reference to comparing themselves to high level teammates. This competition between teammates seemed to motivate the athletes to work harder in the pr actice setting. David, a collegiate swimmer described his interactions with one of his team mates this way, “The guy I mentioned earlier, he was highly recru ited out of high school, when we were both in the pool we were really competitive and we’d always I guess you could say talk c**p to each other during practice. And it helped motivate us.” Ryan detailed the benefits of his competitive relationship with his teammate in this statement, “Blake, he’s in Russia right now, the Ukraine to be exact, and he’s awesome. He’s better than me…when we go together we really push each other hard, and we’ve gotten to the point where we’re stalemating each other and we have to try ne w things.” The drive to best teammates seemed to come from an internal desire or n eed to compete. Some athletes in the study referred to this quality as competitive nature. Competitive Nature Three participants made reference to thei r “competitive nature.” This first order theme was strongly tied to a person’s need to win, another higher order theme that will be

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72 described in more depth in the following secti ons. A majority of the athletes in my study (n= 9) admitted to being competitive in area s other than sport. The tendency to pit oneself against others in general contexts in life was considered “competitive nature.” The athletes described it as, “I don’t like to give up on something”, and “Always wanting to win. Having the competitive attitude, it definitely helps.” This competitive nature, along with other factors intertwined in the environment of competitive sports was an important force behind motivation. Embarrassment Another aspect of athletes’ competition w ith their teammates that surfaced within multiple data points was embarrassment if one was showed up by teammates. Athletes made references to different situations w ithin the team context where they expressed shame if their performance in practice wasn’t up to the level of a particular teammate. A quote by David lent depth to this idea: They [teammates] could just embarrass you pr etty much if you have an off day. Someone could just, it makes you seem like they’re just swimming laps back and forth just passing you. And sometimes its embarrassment coming off an off-day is what motivates. That would have motivated me to work harder and be better the next day, or the next prac tice; whatever it was. The idea that David alluded to was an im portant concept in understanding what triggers motivation in athletes. An athlete’ s chosen sport was one way they represented themselves to others. It was considered a re flection of self. Athletes who competed at the collegiate and club sport level spent a great deal of time preparing for competitions, and the hard work created a sense of pride in their ability and skill as it pertained to their sport. When an athlete felt that they were being overshadowed or outperformed by others, that sense of pride or that image of self was damaged, and the feelings of embarrassment were triggered. That then b ecame a source of motivation to work harder

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73 and perform better. A statement by Steve i llustrated the thinking that went on when athletes dealt with teammates who they felt were trying to show them up: I don’t know if it was good or bad, but it de finitely mattered. When those people weren’t around we were like, “I wonder wh at this guy is doing today? Trying to show everybody up in practice when ev erybody knows he doesn’t belong up there [at the front of the pack].” Or, “What was this guy doing sand-bagging the whole time and then he would come on the last one and try and beat everybody when he’s been running a minute slower on the first f our of the five [laps] and then he’s running one fast one?” I don’t know if it was good or bad but people definitely noticed what was going on. I thi nk to bring it all into pe rspective with motivational sources definitely for me too, there was defi nitely one teammate of mine that really got steamed when guys would try and run w ith him. He was one of the best guys and he would get real mad when lesser calib er athletes would tr y and run with him, even if it was the first of five intervals. And he would get so mad; he would try so hard to drop these guys. I guess it helps; it’s a source of motivation. I guess people don’t want people that they don’t feel are at their level yet to try every practice and I don’t know maybe if that’s good or bad, but definitely served its source. Athletes who chose to participate and co mpete at higher level athletic endeavors had made important investments and sacrifices to achieve at that particular level. The dedication to their sport and to excellence in their sport produced an environment in which competition and success were necessities. However, contrary to previous research (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), there was evidence w ithin my study to support the idea that athletes who participate at more highly co mpetitive levels of sport, such as the participants in my study, thrive in such envi ronments. Lucy explained that, “I like the competitive atmosphere. I know that ever yday if I go, somebody’s gonna be competing with somebody in something, whether it’s verbal or nonverbal [physical].” She elaborated by saying, “There is always room for more in this environment.” Amy had this to say about competition, “I think it [competition] makes it more fun personally, because everyone out there is giving it their all.” Terry revealed this about competing against high level teammates, “practices were more competitive though [than high school]…you come to college and you’re raci ng against, you’re pr acticing with people

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74 who are your ability level or better you know? It made you r un harder at practice I can tell you that much.” In subsequent sections competition will be examined more closely as a contextual factor as well as a source of motivation to athletes. Cheering on Teammates Other sources of motivation that occur with in the context of team included cheering on teammates (Figure 3). Cindy said, “I just like to be around othe r people and I enjoy cheering each other on, and keeping focused on the competition. That keeps me motivated during it [competitions], mentally.” Kacy also stated, “I like to motivate other people. I talk a lot, and it’s like…I’m very positive.” The evidence indicated that athletes gained motivation by mo tivating others, or feeling th at they were. This source was tied closely with another first order theme, “Contributing to team success.” Contributing to Team Success Three of the participants felt that they were motivated by wanting to contribute to the team’s success. Terry illustrated this poi nt when he said, “I feel good when I run a fast time and help out the team, you know?” He continued by addi ng “I care more about the team than I do about the individual perf ormance.” Cindy talked about her motivation to help the team in this way, “You just feel better about yourself when you know what you’re doing and when you know you’re helpin g out the team win the championship.” Being Part of an Elite Group One driving force that existed only for th e collegiate athletes who participated in the current study was being part of an elit e group. Lending support to this construct, Lucy discussed how being surrounded by high level teammates acted as motivation for her to achieve their level of performance. She said:

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75 Like I see it like if I want an individual kind of title I have to do it in one of the events by myself. And it is not going to be easy, because I got some extremely good teammates. Like they are on the Olympi c level basically. So like that’s just a challenge to me to see if I can work extr a hard to get to that …being a part of the number one throwing group in the country, th e number one throwers in the country, individual people [that motivates me]. Lynn further detailed this construct when she emphasized her desire to have expectations set for the highest level of achievement with th is statement, “Wanting to be an elite college team, rather than just a co llege team.” Jenny disc ussed the difficulty and importance of keeping her confidence in an elite atmosphere in this way: These girls are good. You’re training w ith the best. You really do have to constantly work at yourself, your insides. I always find that is the hardest thing for me. Not even working on my tactical or technical, it’s giving myself the confidence to be like okay “I’m going to win this ball.” Giving myself the confidence to say “okay you’re good enough to be out here, so now show it.” Success of Teammates The team atmosphere yielded yet another source of motivation in the “success of teammates.” Athletes who participated in my study identified others’ success as a source motivation. Lucy spoke of teammate success in this manner, “Five of my teammates who went before me all had PR’s (personal record s), and I was like yea, I can do this too.” She went on to talk about using the same so rt of motivation during the off-season in this quote, “I’m like even more hi ghly motivated, even though I’m not in season right now, like just watching my teammates. Like all of them are breaking personal records, and I’m like “I can’t wait till next year!” Success of Team Similarly, the success of the team had enhancing effects on motivation. For instance, athletes spoke of the importance of being on a winning team this way. David said “I always wanted to be on a winning t eam. And so when I came to college that’s

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76 what I worked for the most, is a team champi onship. That’s probably what fueled me the most.” He then finished off the topic by adding this phrase, “Individual accomplishments came with training for a team goal.” Being a Leader to Teammates A final theme that emerged from the data text was “being a leader to teammates.” Jeff, a middle distance runner, talked about e xperiencing the pressure s of leadership, and why he felt motivated from those demands. He said, “The guys who were with me [teammates] worked so hard, and looked up to me so much that it was like I want them to feel how I feel.” The theme of leadership was a powerful dynamic to team atmosphere because it really illustrated how the athlet es were tied together by common goals and aspirations. Often the unifying vision for the goals a group of athletes wanted to achieve came from another source of mo tivation for athletes, the coach. Coach One motivator that was essential to the success of all of the athletes was the coach. Figure 3 delineated how the player-coach re lationship revolved ar ound a plan that the coach has for an athlete, and the athlete’s willingness to follow that plan through to completion. The athletes in my study provided a wealth of evidence to this affect. For the participants, the coach served capacities that ranged from be ing “an advisor” to “being demanding” and “havi ng high expectations.” Setting up and Reinforcing Program Goals The first key to the coach acting as a motivat or was that he or she provided a set of goals and expectations that the athletes’ believed would make them successful. The theme “coach setting up and reinforcing pr ogram goals”, emerged as a source of motivation because the athletes indicated th at they were motivated by an environment

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77 structured around goals. For in stance, Lynn talked about all of the swimmers on her team understanding and meeting the expect ations of the coach. She said: I think that [everyone on the team ha ving the same goals] all stems from the coaching staff. I think we had fun, but at the same time we knew what we were there for and I think that was very importa nt and it usually weeded out the people who weren’t very serious…[coach would sa y] “I’m going to expect you to be a practice every time there is a practice every time you’re supposed to.” An interesting aspect of the above qu ote was Lynn’s statement about “weeding out” the athletes who did not take the swimming seriously. This statement lent further credence to the view that team atmosphere pl ayed an important role in the motivation of athletes. It also illustrated how the coach was tied to creating and maintaining that unified source of motivation for the athletes. By only keeping athl etes in the program who worked hard and took the sport and goals of the program “seriously”, the coach facilitated the competitive team atmosphere that served as an important motivator to his or her players. Confidence in Coach’s Knowledge Another component necessary for the coach to function as a motivator was the athletes’ “confidence in the coach’s knowledge.” Lester cited the need for his coach’s guidance and knowledge during his training be cause he did not feel that he had a “realistic picture” of what it would take for hi m to be successful. He stated it this way: [I don’t have the ability to push myself] not as hard as my coaches. I’ve had some very good coaches…Those guys push me hard. I can’t…I mean I have so much knowledge. They have far more knowledge. They know what I need to do. It is very hard to be objective about one’s self. I have my pict ure of myself that I have drawn. They know what the real picture is. They know what needs to be done, I know what I think needs to be done. The importance of an athlete’s confiden ce in a coach’s knowledge was elaborated on by Lucy discussed her coach’s role in he r development this way, “Now I know I have

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78 a coach who has thrown before and he knows what he is doing. Then that helps out. Cause he can tell me from what I did wrong, why, and how to fix it.” She goes on, expressing her feeling of urge ncy to acquire as much knowledge as she can get because she was beginning her last year of eligibility. She said, “I wish I could have spent all my years here, because I kind of came into a situation where I ha d to get it [coach’s knowledge] now and get it fast, because now I’m on my last year.” The statements made by Lucy not only described the coach’s role as a source of motivation, but also helped to more clearly define a theme that was prev iously discussed, “seeing improvement.” Running Out of Time to Achieve Goals As discussed earlier, one of the major sour ces of motivation for athletes was seeing improvement in their performance. The rela tionship between a player and a coach was strongly based on this need, and the coach’s abil ity to facilitate it. The intensity of the relationship was compounded by the sense of ur gency athletes felt because they only had a limited amount of time to achieve their goals in their current colleg iate setting. There are two first order themes that relate to th is topic. The first was labeled “last year/ running out of time to achieve goals.” One of the athletes described this source of motivation is this way, “I’m so much more mo tivated because it’s my last year and I want to do good.” Another participant discussed th e feelings he had about taking for granted his opportunity to compete at the collegiate level. He said, “M an, I really feel like a jerk for feeling like I was wasting my time the last year, so I was really motivated to make better use of my last year.” David gave an in-depth look at how strong a motivator “running out of time” could be in this dialogue: I had a bad summer and it was my senior year. I got second the year before at NCAA’s and won my individual swims a nd I wanted to go out with a bang my senior year and I trained. I was training th e hardest I’ve ever trained in my life.

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79 And that was probably one of the most motivated times in my life. And I was doing things I never thought I could do be fore, and it’s just amazing to look back on it…I decided to give it my all everyda y and I was eating right and doing things, off the field things. I was eating right a nd sleeping, and not going out as much, and trying to be fresh so I could do my best everyday at practice. Take Advantage of Opportunity The above passage reinforces the powerful impact that goals had on an athlete’s motivation, as well as highlights the sacrifices he or she was willing to make to achieve those goals. Three of the part icipants in the current study viewed the chance to compete at the collegiate or club level as an opportunity. The desire to take advantage of this opportunity was identified as another sour ce of motivation. Diane explained how she was moved to change her lifestyle in order to get the most out of her opportunity. She said: [I was] blown out, partying, I had an aw esome time. And then realizing you know, you need to get focused, and that you are he r for a reason. So th at whole summer I was so highly motivated I would train twi ce a day. Go out on my own, like I didn’t need anyone to push me or anything. Steve also illustrated these same motivations by saying: So I want to take advantage of being young and stuff like that. Be able to say, “Yeah, I did the best I could.” I don’t want to look back and say, “Oh man, I was a real bum…stuff like that keeps me motivated saying, “Okay, I’m going to do everything right so that I can accomplish what I want to do. Athletes who participate in sport at such a high leve l recognized the chance that they had been given to pursue their goals to such an extent. They used their opportunity as a source of motivation by k eeping in perspective that it could be over at any time. Cindy illuminated this factor with her statement, “it’s such a great opportunity that I just try. That keeps me motivated, my goals, how I can improve, and what I can get out of it. I just want to make the most of my experience.”

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80 Coach’s Confidence in Athlete As with an athlete’s relationship with t eammates, the relationship between coaches and players motivated some pl ayers to give maximum effort. Similar to the effects teammates had on a player’s motivation, when an athlete felt that a coach had confidence in him or her it became a reservoir from wh ich to draw motivation. By adding to the players’ own self-confidence, a coach’s conf idence inspired feelings that drove the athlete to fulfill the coach’s expectations fo r them. This was clearly illustrated in a paragraph by Diane: Just knowing that a lot of people [coach] ha d a lot of faith in my ability, and I was getting; they were giving me opportunities. They we re giving me money, they were giving me their time, they were givi ng me their energy. And I didn’t want to let people down, and like it wa s just a point where I was lik e, “okay, this is not the reason I’m over here. Yeah, I want to ge t an education, but t oo I think it’s to represent this college so… A lot of it was I didn’t want to let people down. The influence of a coach’s confidence in hi s athletes extended in the other direction as well. If a player felt that the coach l acked confidence in him or her, it had a damaging effect on the athlete’s motivation. Jenny de scribes what happened to her motivation when she did not feel that the coach ha d confidence in her ability. She said: I’m in question as to whether my coaches want me here becau se it’s a totally different atmosphere. There are different th ings at stake. There are times when I want to go up to my coaches and ask them “Do you want me here?” Not that I feel like, and I don’t think they would ever answ er that because I think that they expect you to build that up on your own, and be totally driven by your own selfmotivation. And that’s all, and that’s why my family is so big, and that‘s why God is so big. Because I can’t rely comp letely on myself, because I can’t do it by myself. I can do it with G od’s help. It’s just so hard at this level. Not only did this passage illustrate the impact that a coach’s confidence or lack there of, can have on a player’s motivation, bu t it also underlined the importance of some of the other sources of motivation athletes rely on such as family and religion.

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81 It is important to note that within the above quote there was an important discrepant perception suggested by this at hlete. Jenny was a walk-on to the varsity soccer team at her college, meaning that she did not receiv e a scholarship or fina ncial compensation for her efforts toward the soccer team. She also had not experienced much success in her first season with the team, and these factor s seem to have lowered her confidence and motivation to participate. She expressed in her interview that she felt the coaches expected her motivation to come from with in. The perception that she was the only athlete who maintained external sources of motivation, and needed the coach’s confidence, contributed to her feelings of low motivation. Because she felt her needs and sources of motivation were different from t hose of her teammates, she prevented herself from engaging them as a highly valuable resource from which to draw strength. Coach as an Encourager Another role that the coach fulfilled that served as a source of motivation for athletes is that of an encourager (Figure 3) The participants c ited examples of their coach’s influence in both getting involved, a nd staying with in their chosen sport. For one athlete in particular, Lucy, it was her co ach who got her involved in her sport (shot put). Taking the place that parents fulfilled in getting some of the other athletes involved in sports, Lucy was introduced to her spor t by her middle school coach. She said, “I didn’t want to play sports. I wanted to be like a cheerleader or something. They [coaches] kind of kept bugging me everyday li ke just try, just try, and I was like okay fine I’ll try.” She elaborated on this topi c by saying, “But when I got to high school, I don’t know they just kind of made me st ick with throwing.” Once again, the above passage cited how an athlete was exposed to sport by an ou tside influence, which lends

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82 further weight to the importance of significan t others’ as a source of motivation for high level athletes. A second way in which a coach was an encourager was thro ugh inspirational speaking. The data coding yielded evidence that athletes used things the coach said as a source for motivation, especially immediately preceding a performance. Quotes such as, “The stuff he [coach] says is inspiring…I hear what he says and it kind of picks me back up”, and “I think the team talk ing is huge. Especially what the coaches say to you right before you go step out onto the field. That’s a huge thing.” Coach as an Advisor A final way in which a coach served as a source of motivation was by being an advisor. Lynn recounted her relationship with her coaching staff by saying, “Also talking, mostly to the coaches The coaches here helped a lot with that [keeping me motivated when I was feeling burned out] and us ually they had really good advise.” It is easy to see the complexity of the playe r-coach relationship in high level sport participation. One must have an understanding of this construct as the discussion turns to a source of motivation that involves the athl ete and coach, “expectations” and “training at the highest possible level.” High Expectations and Pressure Thirteen of the fourteen at hletes interviewed for the st udy talked about the pressure and expectations that went along with particip ating in sport at a high level. There were six first order themes that fell under the cat egory of high expectat ions and pressure. Figure 3 highlighted pressure from self, pressu re of representing ent ity, expectations from coaches, striving to reach personal standards, striving to reach coach ’s expectations, and coach’s expectations too high all as subcateg ories. The overall perception presented by

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83 the athletes was that they used the exp ectations to increase their intensity and performance, and viewed the pr essure as a positive influenc e on their performance. To best understand how the athletes accessed this source of motivation we must first get an idea of what the expectations were and where they were coming from. Pressure from Self Some of the pressure that athletes coped with was selfimposed. For example, this quote by Lucy, “I would probably place it [pressur e] on myself first, and then the team. Cause you have to look at yourself first before you look at everybody else At least that’s the way I look at it.” Steve talked about the pressure he felt when he set his goals and how that motivated him. He said, “You set th e bar high in certain areas; in athletics for sure.” Pressure of Representing Entity The athletes also felt the pressure of repr esenting an entity larger than themselves and their team such as a university or a to wn. One athlete discussed the prospect of competing against others who were going to be in top form because th ey were facing “the best.” Jeff described having competitors “gunning for you” in this way, “I think [competition] is very stressful because you are a Florida Gator. You’ve got to be at you’re A game all the time.” Expectations of Coaches Still even more lofty expectations were applied by the coaches. A paragraph by Lynn displayed some of these expectations: In the pool you were exp ected to do one hundred per cent each time. Naturally people are human and you can’t do one hundr ed percent, but any sort of, I mentioned before, all of them keeping you in line if you weren’t giving one hundred percent, they’l l be in your face.

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84 Another quote by Diane provided insight in to an athlete’s perceptions of an environment where the goals of the program and the expectations of the coaches and players were nothing short of excellence. She said: As the competition gets higher, the pressure gets higher. That can be a good thing when it’s a final four. But it can also be a bad thing, because you just…as it gets harder you have a lot of expectations of what you’re supposed to do. Especially coming to a program like UF, the motivation to succeed is a lot higher, especially from the coaching staff, because they’v e been there and they’ve done it. And you’re going to get different players and th ey’re going to bring in different types of players, but there is still that thing that they’ve done it before. They’re going to use every single strategy, coaching and stuff lik e that the same way. And it’s not going to work with most people, some of the girls on the team don’t…their coaching style doesn’t sit well with them. They’re very demanding and if you can’t do it then get out. I don’t know. The higher competiti on, you want to strive…You’re motivated to strive to get to a higher level, but the competition does get more stressful. Striving to Reach Personal Standards The various athletes had diffe rent interpretations of what the pressure meant to them and how they responded it. For some of the athletes, the motivation came from their desire to participate in their sport at the highest possible level. Diane said, “My motivation is I don’t ever want to let my standards slip,” speaking about expecting nothing less than playing at th e highest level possible. Je nny supplemented this argument with her testimony: For me, I liked it [soccer], and I just got better and better each year. And then you reach a point where you can either keep goi ng and keep getting better, pin-pointing those skills you need to master, or you can stay at the same level. Striving to Reach Coach’s Expectations Athletes also gained motivation by trying to achieve standards set for them by a coach. David talked about hi s interactions with his swim coach and how he used the aggression he felt when the coach wo uld “chew” him out. He cited this: My coaches yelled at me a lot, and I alwa ys wondered why and then one day one of the old coaches was like, “Well, the r eason he yelled at you was because you could

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85 handle it and he knows that you’re not going to bolt.” And as I looked back on it he would chew on me every day and I neve r let it bother me. And I just got pissed off and it was my fuel. And I would end up doing what he’d asked me to do and surpassing what was expected of me. So it was my fuel I guess. The experience David had with his swim coach brought to light an interesting social factor within the contex t of sport. David, like other athletes cited feeling “pissed off” when the coach would “yell” at him and th at he used it for “fuel.” David’s response was to use his feelings of anger in a positive way by deriving motivation from his emotions. He was not the only athlete who refe rred to feelings of anger as a source of motivation. Previous sections discuss the use of anger as a source of motivation for athletes to achieve at high levels. Coach’s Expectations too High Another social contextual factor that n eeds to be addressed was possible negative effects that extremely high expectations, particularly from a coach, could have on athletes’ motivation. While many of the at hletes pointed out the need for demanding goals and expectations, there was also evid ence that indicated when a coach is too demanding it could be detrimental to an athlete’s motivation. For instance, Lynn discussed in depth her relati onship with one of her coaches in which she felt that the coach’s expectations were n ecessary for her, but only to a point where she felt supported by her coach. She had this to say, “I needed them [high expe ctations]. I’m the type of person that needs someone behind me to do thi ngs, but as I said my coach before was a lot worse than they [the coaches at UF] in te rms of expectations.” Lynn then described a time when her coach’s expectati ons were so heavy that it lead her to feelings of burnout. She spoke of this particular incident: Luckily with him [my first swim coach] it was only swimming that I had to worry about, but he had extremely high expectati ons in terms of training, going fast one

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86 hundred percent. Really stri ct work ethic towards ever ything…By the time I left, cause I left not on really good terms or a nything, but at first it wasn’t too bad, but then he got a little psycho and then it starte d to hurt me more than help me…I hated swimming. I didn’t want to swim for him, but I was to the point where I didn’t care if I did swim. She went on to say that, “I think there is a point where coaches can push too much and I got to that point with him [her co ach]. So that became a problem with my motivation. I was a lot less motivated to do anything.” Benefits of Participation Another higher order source of motivation identified by participants was benefits of participation in their respective sport (Figure 3). Many athletes (n=10) pointed out that they were motivated by the fringe benefits th at came along with bei ng an athlete. Cited were themes such as travel, meeting new people, and fulfillment of personal needs. Travel Participants in the current study felt that th ere were some external benefits to their participation in higher level s ports. For instance, a quote by K acy gave insight into this source of motivation: For me, you get a lot of things out of playi ng. Not just the soccer and part of being successful and having a lot of fun, but we also get to travel. We go a lot of places, we get to do a lot of things nobody has ever done. We get a lot of benefits. I mean our locker room is incredible. During classes, if you have a break you can go back there and sleep. We have big leather couc hes, they feed us. We get food all the time. There’s just a lot. They take us fun places. We’ve been to California a few times, Europe. There are a lot of benefits to it. Kacy alluded to a variety of benefits that she received from being on the university soccer team, one of which was travel. Six othe r athletes said the pl aces they got to go for team road trips were a source of motivation fo r them. Cindy said, “I’v e gotten to travel a lot [with the team], a few different places. Wh en we do travel our coach takes us out and

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87 we go sight seeing. We went mountain climbi ng; we go snowmobiling.” Lucy added to this idea with her statement: Yea [traveling is motivating]…the biggest benefit you get from traveling [with the team] is that you get to go places on them [t he school]. I mean that’s like I get to go places that my family be like “Wow,” you know I take pictures, but they’ll probably never go to California. Lynn expanded her feeling about travel to include not only the th ings she got to do while she was visiting new places, but also the people. She said, “I love traveling [to international competitions] and meeting di fferent people and experiencing different cultures. Her perspe ctive provided more clarity into why travel was motivating for athletes. It is important to point out that the athl etes who mentioned travel as a source of motivation were all collegiate level athletes None of the club sport participants identified any travel that they did as a source of motivation. The discrepancy in motivation may have been because the club spor t athletes had to pay for any travel that they did, where as the collegiate athletes’ trav el was paid for by the university. However, collegiate and club sport athletes both fe lt that meeting new people was a source of motivation for them. Meet New People Four athletes identified the people they met while involved in their sport as a source of motivation for them. Similar to L ynn’s viewpoint Lester ha d this to say about his experiences, “I mean there are people all ove r the world that I’ve met that if I was not a part of this sport I would ne ver have had an opportunity to.” Cindy agreed, “I feel like the track team is a very well-rounded group of people. So it’s giving me a lot of opportunities to meet new people and that’s what I like.” Lucy, who was African

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88 American, discussed how her experiences with new people were valuable because they have allowed her to be comfortable around pe ople with backgrounds different from hers. She said, “I have no problem now being around just all whites or just all Puerto Ricans, or just all blacks. I can mix in now. That’s what has taught me a lot.” Lucy’s statements provide insight into why meeti ng new people was motivating to some of the participants. Her quote about being able to “mix” insinuate d that she saw value in being able to understand the people around her better, and her experiences in her sport gave her that ability. The next subcategory that fe ll under the higher order theme benefits of participation was fulfillment of personal needs. This broad category encompassed a variety of first order themes such as: development of se lf confidence, taking care of and defending oneself, physical health benefits, and mainta ining personal relationships. The following section will explore this category further. Fulfillment of Personal Needs A statement by Lester provided an overview of the general dimensions of this construct. His quote encompasses the multiple functions that a sport can serve in an individual’s life. He said: The actual sport itself, to me is everything. It’s aerobic; it’s strength building. I get it all right here. It’s very gr atifying. It’s applicable not ju st as a sport, but as a selfdefense. I don’t thing I’m invincible, but at the same token I have the confidence to do what I need to do. So it gratifie s me in so many ways, and I’m probably leaving a lot out. The physical and mental aspect of it. The fact that it does a lot for me. Not only the mental aspect as fa r as it makes me feel good, but it helps me get along better in my personal relationships, because it helps me think clearer. Physical Health Benefits Lester brought up a spectrum of benefits that he received from judo which fulfilled his personal needs. For example he disc ussed the positive physical payoffs that he

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89 received by participating in his sport. Terry also identified the health gains he received from running as a motivator. He had this to say, “[It motivates me] being able to go long distances and not be out of breath, or run really hard for a long amount of time. Likewise, Amy felt that “running around and being in shape” was a source of motivation for her to play soccer. Development of Confidence A second element of sport that Lester ta lked about as fulfilling a need was the confidence to defend oneself. This is an in teresting concept because both judo athletes made reference to the importance of knowing they could defend themselves. Ryan discussed his perspec tive in this quote; Being able to say to myself if someone wa nts to start something with me, I’m more than happy to bring it to them, wherever, whenever. That motivates me. It gives me the self-confidence. I mean, I’m lik e the most non-violent person you’ll ever meet, but it makes me feel good knowing th at I can defend myself, knowing that I can take care of my friends. It gives me great pleasure. Ryan’s quote from the previous section br ought up another compone nt of sport that fulfilled needs for athletes. Throughout the data coding process, the development of confidence was brought up as a by-product of sport participation in a variety of ways. It was discussed in reference to parental suppor t, teammate support, a coach’s role as a source of motivation, religious beliefs, as we ll as fulfillment of personal needs. Kacy described how sport helped her develop confidence in this quot e, “I guess it’s the success you get out of it. Knowing that you’re good at something.” Ryan added this about the role that sport played in changing his self-i mage, “It’s given me a lot of confidence in myself. I don’t know if I’d call it a life-cha nging experience, but it’s changed my outlook on a lot of things.”

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90 Development of Life Skills As the current study illustrated in Figure 3, athletics endeavors involve a complex mixture of physical and mental demands on at hletes. The athletes recognized that the stressful conditions in sport emulate simila r circumstances that all people encounter throughout life. They also felt that the funda mental aptitude necessary to be successful within the domain of sport carried over to those real-life situations. Lucy delineated her attitude about this subject in this quote: [One thing that motivated me about sports was that] I saw that it could teach you a little discipline about things. Like anything I run into; just kind of related it to real life stuff. A lot of determination was in it. I was pretty much the only minority on the team, but after a while I got used to it and I enjoyed playin g with them [other athletes on the team], and I learned a lot just being around different people basically. Lucy’s statements pointed to her understa nding of the benefits she could receive from her sport participation. She recognized the long-term value of being around people who were different from herself, and de veloping “determination,” both of which she knew she could relate to “real life stuff” that would help her in the future. Competition Up to this point, my study has looked at athletes’ sources of motivation to participate in sport. A second purpose fo r my study was to expl ore the construct of competition that is intertwined with all spor ts at the collegiate and club levels. As discussed earlier in the paper, each of the athletes was asked to define competition in their own terms, and a majority viewed competition as two individuals or teams struggling to better the othe rs’ performance. However upon further questioning, the participants in my study presented a variety of viewpoints on compe tition as a source of motivation. There were seven first order them es that fell under the higher order theme

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91 competition (Figure 3). They included: comp etition increases motivation, competition as motivation for practice, being the best, early success, winning, being the best I can be, and big games. Aspects of competition have already been discusses with respect to the competitive environment that exist within the co ntext of team. Participants indicated the competition that exists between teammates with in the context of their sport was a positive and beneficial source of motivation. The at hletes provided a great amount of insight and detail into the dynamics of th e competitive team environment as a motivator. The goal of this section is to extend the investigation of competition as a source of motivation to explore athletes’ perception of competition as it pertains to outside opponents as well as competing against oneself. Competing In Games/ Co mpeting Against Others Possibly the most controversia l finding in my study was evidence that athletes view competition against others as a source of motiv ation. One athlete even referred to it as a need. Lester said, “I don’t see how you can go through life without feeling some sense of a need to compete at some level.” As has b een discussed in Chapter 1 of this paper, the prominent theories of motivation in the sports psychology lite rature (i.e., Selfdetermination theory; Vallerand’s Hierarchical model) viewed competition as a force that tends to be detrimental to the motivation of athletes. However, the testimony given by the athletes in this study supported a different perception of competition as it relates to athletes. All of the athletes spoke favorably about the competitions they participated in as part of their membership on a collegiate vars ity team, or club sport team. Almost without exception athletes said that the opportunity to take part in competitions increased their motivation and enjoyment of thei r sport. Terry said, “I can ’t imagine it [running] without

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92 competition…It wouldn’t be any fun if there were no winners, losers, or places when you get in those races you know?” Steve lent support to Terry’s viewpoint by saying: [Running] it’s what I really enjoy doing. And I don’t know what I’d do without that source of competition because I don’t re ally compete in much else. I’m not real competitive about grades, and I don’t ha ve any siblings to fight with. I’m a pretty laid back kind of guy. It’s the only thing [running] that I really enjoy competing in. Lynn agreed with their view point by addi ng, “So I think being able to compete and having someone next to you when you race he lps you motivate yourself to go faster or slower, depends on the person.” Jeff said, “Oh it [competition] most definitely increases it [enjoyment]. Competition is another motivator.” Amy discussed how competition increases her enjoyment and effort in this quote: I think it [competition] definitely incr eases the enjoyment because it makes everyone have to give one hundred percent. So you’re out there, and you’re out there so you’re giving one hundred percent and also because you like it. So you are having fun at the same time and competition creates both of those. As can be seen from the text pulled direc tly from the interview transcripts, many of the athletes questioned for this study had st rong feelings toward competition as a source of motivation for them in their particular sport. Competition as Motivation for Practice The next question that needed to be an swered in exploring the construct of competition in sport was: What aspects of competition made it such a good source of motivation for athletes? Eight of the athletes felt that comp etitions were their payoff for working hard in practice and making the sacr ifices necessary to be successful. Without the competitions many of the athletes felt that they would have no reason to practice with the intensity that they did. In this quote Da vid portrayed his perspe ctive about being able to compete, “[Competing] Increased it [motiv ation]. That’s why I did it. I don’t think

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93 anybody would do it, go through that I guess you’ d call it hell, trai ning that we did without enjoying meets.” He went on to say, “Meets are the funnest part of it [participating in swimming]. If you ask me, yeah maybe that ’s one of the things that drove me to it [work so hard].” Kacy added this perspective, “The games? Yeah, it definitely increases it [motivation]. Because you could practice all the time, but practice isn’t the fun part…The games; it’s the best pa rt. Without that part it’s not worth it [all the hard work]. That’s where you’re trying to win.” Diane elaborated on this idea in this statement, “The game is what you…You do all the hard work during the week just so you know there’s a game at the end of the week that you can play.” From the beliefs illustrated above, th e theme “competition as motivation for practice” arose as a primary source of motiv ation for athletes. Because games and competitions were perceived as a reward of sorts, the athletes used them as a way to maintain their motivation to work hard and sa crifice over the course of the season. Terry gave this example of the way that competitions helped him stay motivated, even with his heavy practice schedule. He said, “[Competition] that’s a huge difference right there. It’s definitely a motivator as far as training is concerned.” He elaborated on that topic with this statement, “So that helps workouts a lot; competition. ‘Cause you wouldn’t run six days, seven days a week if you didn’ t have a race coming up, you know? Or some sort of competition coming up.” Cindy used th e same approach with this statement, “I need to be like, well we have a meet coming up in two weeks, I need to start…I need to get in good practices and someti mes that will get me motivate d.” Steve had this to say about his motivation since he no longer ha d the structure of being on a track team: I think it [competition] increases. I would sa y definitely increases it. Like when I said the last year without having compet ition, I got down. Looking for excuses to

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94 not run, and if I had anything to do I woul dn’t go running. But when I’ve just been hanging around all day I just feel like I should be doing something. It actually makes me feel like I have a reason to be participating in this [running in a marathon in the near future]. It’s something I’ve enjoyed always…But now I’m like okay, I’ve got this marathon coming up, and just yesterday I was out running and I was like I’m going to go 10 miles. I got 3 miles into it and I just felt horrible. I was like I can either turn straight around and go back and it will be 6 [miles] or I can finish doing this big loop. And I was like I gotta finish so I took off and I was like I’ve only got to make another 2 miles and then I have no choice. I think having competition involved makes it more enjoyable. The above passage gave interesting insight into how an athlete used a competition as a long term goal to provide short term motiv ation. Steve admitted to his struggle with motivation when he was just doing it “recr eationally.” However, when he had the marathon to train for, his recreational running became training and he felt that he could push himself to train harder. One important aspect about “competition as a motivation for practice” that supported competition being a source of motivat ion instead of detrimental to motivation was that although collegiate athletes had comp etitions built into their sport participation as a requirement, they still felt that it wa s the “best part” of th eir participation. In addition, the club sport athletes who partic ipated strictly for personal reasons put themselves in situations where they were ab le to compete in their chosen sport. For example Steve previously discussed running re creationally after his collegiate career was over and the difficulty he encountered with hi s motivation to run. As a way to counter those feelings of burnout, he entered a marat hon so that he would have some competitive outlet to train for. This evidence lends valid ity to the concept of competition as a source of motivation.

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95 Being the Best While competition did provide motivation for practices, it also functioned as a motivator in several other ways For instance, another first order theme, “being the best” alluded to a desire to be the top athlete in a sport. The in terviews yielded evidence that suggested athletes viewed competition as a way to help them to achieve that status. Lucy provided insight into her desi re to be the best in this quote, “Yea, I made a big improvement, bla, bla, bla, but I want mo re. I don’t want to be just good. I want awesome. Ryan has a similar outlook in his re marks, “I want to be the best person at what I’m doing [judo].” Kacy added de pth to this argument by vocalizing her experiences: Ever since I was younger, I just didn’t want to lose. I wanted to be the best at everything. I think that’s why I always pl ayed, always trained, and most of the time when I was younger I was the best. Kacy’s testimony not only provided a window into an athlete’s mentality of being the best, but it also alluded to another source of motivation th at coincided closely with the themes of competition and being the best. Early Success In her last statement, Kacy added that in her earliest experiences with sport she had success. The first order theme of “early succe ss” was identified by ei ght other athletes as a source of motivation for them when they bega n participating in their current sport. Jeff told about his successful expe riences with running early in his career and how that impacted his motivation: I was in middle school, 8th grade. I ran the mile and I would just run away from people. I did not lose one race in middl e school, in all the races within my 8th grade year. And I won the Broward count y meet for middle school in the mile, running 4:59, so that’s when I knew.

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96 Jeff’s early success was a source of motivati on to make running “his sport.” Lucy was another athlete whose early success booste d her inclination toward her sport. She said, “I wanted to run, but he [coach] was like no, no, stick to this. You know then he taught me the discus. I didn’t like it at first, but once I st arted to get good at it (i.e., success), I wanted to stick with doing it. ” Steve explained how his prior success influenced his decision to get started in running in this pass age, “I was like well, I’m probably faster than the kids in my neighborhood I should give this a try….it was fun, so I stuck with it ever since.” Two other athletes added support to the id ea of early success as a motivator with their accounts of disappointing experiences with sports. Da vid’s first sport was baseball but when he spent time on the bench he qui ckly gave up and moved on to swimming. He explains his decision, “[I cha nged to swimming because] Not liking riding the pine, and in swimming you never have to [sit on the benc h].” Diane paralleled David’s sentiments with her quote, “I don’t think that I’m very good at being one of those players who sits on the bench and waits for, like I want to be play ing at the top level ever y single time I play, you know?” These alternative viewpoints ad ded strength to the argument for early success as a source of motivation. Winning Another way in which competition was used by athletes as a resource for motivation involved the data code “winning.” While most of the athletes interviewed enjoyed the competitive aspect of their sport, fi ve were strongly driven by more than just the opportunity to participate in the competitio ns. The athletes in the current study gave testimony that one of the major reasons they liked competition was “winning.” David expressed his motivation this way, “Winning. Pretty much; winning was what it was

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97 [that drove him to work hard].” He went on to emphasize his point by saying, “[Competition] I loved it. I loved every minute of it. I loved going to meets and trying to win. Everybody hates losing.” Lynn, who emph asized in her interview that she was more interested in her performance than b eating an opponent even ha d this to say, “I’m into my times, but there’s no denying that someone racing beside you is going to help you go faster. Yes, you want to touch the wall before them.” Ryan agreed, “I’m in there until someone wins. And it’s my job to make sure I win. So my motivation is to work as hard as I can so I can win.” Steve discusse d how his drive to win elevated his motivation to train and out work hi s opponents. He divulged: Well, during the summer I just went out every day and I know these guys that beat me last year are all out here running ever y day. So I just went out here every day and just went running by myself when nobody was around. None of my teammates were there from the summer, so I just ran ev ery day with that sort of thing in mind [that I was out working my opponents]…If I go out for a ten mile run by myself, I’m like “Okay now I’m competing because Joe Smith over there is running ten miles down in Tampa and we have a race ne xt month and he’s going to beat me if I’m not out here. Being the Best I Can Be Another theme that arose as a source of motivation was a departure from the previously discussed aspects of competition. Seven athletes described being the “Best I can be” as an important mentality that result ed from the competitive environment. They adopted a perspective of comp etition that was not tied to b eating others. Instead it was focused on improving previous performance, and fulfilling potential. Not surprisingly, individual sport athletes more than the t eam sport athletes accessed this source of motivation. Statements like, “I was just out there to make myself the best that I could be”, and “That was the most fun thing…trying to do my best” provided an inside look at

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98 how the participants in my study employed this concept. Terry enhanced the depth of this idea with his quote: Having my personal best is probably way more motivating [than winning]. I didn’t run to beat people. When I was training, I ran to make myself the best, the fastest runner I could, you know? I can make myself the best runner that I can be and if that’s good enough to beat you, then so be it. Steve reemphasized Terry’s philosophy with his statement, “I’d rather just be the best that I could be. If that’s the best guy on the team, or the 10th guy on the team. My best finish at nationals was 90th and I was so happy with that.” The use this mentality drew on competition in a different way than does playing against others. While it still allows athletes to be successful and feel satisfied, the competition was self-referenced, and therefore slightly more predictable. Big Games The final way that competition served as a source of motivation was it provided athletes opportunities to play in “Big games.” This theme represented athletes’ recognition of their opportunity to achieve at the highest levels of their sport. Four of the athletes discussed being at the peak of thei r motivation and performance when they felt that there was the most at stake. Lucy said, “I’m really highly motivated during championship time.” Jeff agreed, “Big competition is what gets you going…it’s more of the battle between you’re body and mind…And th en there are those times when you feel that way and something in your mind just c licks and it throws you into another gear.” Kacy recounted her experience with being in the college soccer final four like this: Our team went to the final four, and I m ean just the excitement. I mean you just look around and you just can’t believe you’re at the final four. And that definitely, all the hype and everything surr ounding it got you; got everybody going.

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99 These big games provided a platform for athl etes to focus all of their energies and efforts on one event which in turn often pr oduced high level performances. From the testimony given, it was obvious that competition played a complex and multidimensional role as a source of motivation for athletes. Pre-Game Motivators One higher order theme that arose from the data text was pre-game motivators.” Nine of the athletes from the current st udy described a set of sources of motivation centered on getting focused and prepared for competitions (Figure 3). The resources participants used covered a broad spectrum ranging from prayer and spirituality to imagery and music, the following paragra phs will focus on the different pre-game sources of motivation, and how the athl etes derived motivation from them. Music Six of the fourteen athletes interviewed said that they felt music was a source of motivation for them while preparing for a competition. Lucy said, “I get it [motivation] from music.” Jeff had similar sentiments, “I use music mostly [as a pre-game motivator].” Jenny described music’s impact by saying: [Music is an] incredible source of motiva tion. I think that because it makes me want to…It’s like something inside. It makes you want to just go, it makes you just want to have fun because the musi c is up-beat and it’s positive. The participants in the study who listened to music expressed different ways they incorporated it into th eir preparation. Kacy remarked how listening to music in a group setting was motivating for her. She said: We get lots of music in the locker room [right before the game] and that kind of thing. Something about that, and it kind of makes if fun, it lig htens the mood. It just gets you ready for it. A lot of our music, you’ve got a beat going; It’s fast paced so you’re getting excited, because the majority of our team likes to dance and do that kind of stuff.

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100 Jenny also enjoyed music with her teamma tes, she said, “You’re all dancing, you get pumped and there’s no other way to explai n it besides it’s something within you that makes you want to go hard, and you want to do good.” Other athletes, such as Jeff, used music in a completely differe nt way. Whereas the athletes above listened to up-beat music that was “fun” in a group atmosphere, Jeff said, “[I get by myself and] basically I pick out a very aggressive song, not necessarily one type, rock, rap, either one would really get me motivated…Hyped up.” Terry, who employed music in a similar manner, had this to say: [I listened to] hard music basically. Like it actually is good motivation, like hearing that type of music, like “Eye of the Tiger” and those songs, cause it brings back visual memories of Rocky kicking someone’s butt on the movie, so it kind of makes you feel like you’re going to kick butt. Steve, a runner, always listened to the sa me CD before every race. Steve described his experience in this way: I always listened to U2 before every r ace in high school and most of them in college. Actually my two best performances I can actually remember during the race having that beat in your head and whol e songs. It was kind of like one race I ran under 30 minutes I had the same part in my head for 20 of the 30 minutes. That’s kind of nice because it takes your mind off what you’re…In running you have that luxury. You can take your mind off the pain and it’s actually better. It is interesting to note that athletes fro m the same sports used music in similar ways. For instance, Kacy and Jenny were both soccer players, and they both drew motivation from fast-paced music in a team setting. Jeff and Terry (both distance runners) were both more motivated by “hard” “aggressive” music. Similar to Steve, Terry mentioned listening to the same CD and combined that with imagery to get motivated before competitions in his quote, “I listened to the same CD like before every race, and I would do imagery. Just picture myself running and winning.”

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101 Only two athletes, Cindy and Doug, menti oned that their experiences using music during pre-performance preparations was not motivating. She had this to say about her experience with music: I put on headphones and I think that’s bad, cause every meet th at I’ve done really bad, I’ve put on headphones [for]. I think I lo se focus [when I listen to music]. I think that’s a big part for me. I have to be focused and know what’s going on. Imagery Terry’s previous statement about “picturi ng” himself during his race was just one of several raw data themes that divulged athl etes’ use of mental skills such as imagery and visualization. Five partic ipants in the study made menti on of imagery as a source of motivation for them before they competed. Lynn said, “Sometimes I would do a lot of imagery, visualizing my race.” Terry agreed with Lynn in his statement, “Imagining yourself going over the hurdles; imagine yourse lf winning the race. I used that in practice too. Imagine myself winning the race that weekend, or at least passing a bunch of people.” Steve provided in sight on his use of imagery to develop a plan for winning races. He said: Mentally and stuff like that I think it’s im portant to visualize what you want to do during the race. We would always go to the course the day before and take our time and jog it real slow and take out chec kpoints and stuff like that. And the night before when you’re laying in bed and you just think about the race and how you want to be situated in the field during cer tain points in the race. And thinking about what it is you want to accomplish and how you’re going to realistically go to do that. Likewise, Jenny talked about visualizing her reactions to things that might happen in the game like this: I think about situations on the field, ho w I handle them. Sometimes even at the field, sometimes in another place, just tr ying to calm my nerves and focus on what lies ahead. Mental preparation I thi nk is so much stronger than physical preparation.

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102 One athlete identified a similar source of motivation when she discussed watching video before competitions to get motivated. Cindy explained her activity like this, “Also watching film [is a source of motivation]. We ’ll go by our coach’s office and he has a T.V. and VCR in there and we’ll go [watch our selves on video], and if I do that before I go out then that’s really mo tivating.” Cindy’s use of vide o to watch herself is very similar to the way other athletes pictured themselves in their mind performing skills and visualizing scenarios. Employing Religious Beliefs Another first order theme that athletes felt was a source of motivation was their religious beliefs. Three of the athletes in terviewed discussed ways they drew strength and motivation from prayer and spirituality. For example, Lucy discussed how she used the time immediately before she performed in this way: “Like my motivation to me is basically I pray first [befor e I go throw].” Jenny said, “I found a lot of motivation spiritually.” Amy elaborated on this idea with her statements about pre-performance motivators: To motivate myself before a game I will sp end a few minutes praying. It’s really important to go out there and have fun and not really worry about messing up or doing bad because it really doesn’t matter. Because God still loves you no matter what and that’s motivation for me because that just gives me confidence. Amy’s quote highlights two constructs that ha ve been brought out in other sections of this chapter. First, her statement “G od still loves you no matter what…” was similar to the feelings expressed by participants wh en talking about parent support. In both instances the athletes received comfort from the knowledge that they were loved no matter how they performed in their sport. Am y’s statement lends support for the idea that

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103 feeling unconditionally loved and supported is an important source of motivation for athletes. The second aspect of Amy’s quote that a mirrored statement made previously was her mention of “God’s love” giving her confidence Another athlete, Je nny went into this topic in more depth with this testimonial: Definitely God motivates me because conf idence is such a hard thing to keep consistent here at this level. Maybe it ha s to do with the program, level of play, D1 you know. Because I find that if I know I do my best and if God knows I did my best then that’s all [I need]. Both of the above statements alluded to the connection between feeling loved regardless of performance, and confidence. Religion acted as a source of motivation because it provided athletes with a foundation of unconditional support. Pre-Competition Rituals Six athletes who participat ed in the current study spoke of their pre-competition rituals as sources of motivation. These were defined as things th at the athletes did consistently before they competed that they felt prepared them to perform at their optimum level. Steve explaine d it like this, “As fa r as rituals go, the actual day of the competition I would always do the same thing. Our races are usually early in the morning, so I would always eat the same break fast. Usually I try to mellow and relax.” Cindy described the way she came up with her routine in this way, “I’m very superstitious, so if I do well at a meet I look back at everything I did and try to do it again.” Overall the athletes felt that the pur pose of a routine was to get them “focused” and “relaxed.” Kacy described her pre-perf ormance routine like this, “My roommate and I like to hang out a little bit before the game and just relax.” Stev e echoed this sentiment

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104 in his quote, “I’d rather be relaxed (instead of pumped up) ‘cause that’s how I am at practice. I don’t want to change anything.” Grounded Theory Framework The following section describes the fr amework illustrated in Figure 4, which depicts the development of athletes’ sources of motivation to participate in sport at different levels. The grounded theory depi cted in Figure 4 was developed through the use of sensitizing concepts within grounded theory anal ytic procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 2000). While the primary structure of the current framework was derived from the raw data themes and higher-order themes that emerged from participant interviews, the use of sensitizing concepts allows for the integration of previous theory and research within the current findings (Charmaz, 2000). Specifically, Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000,) Vallerand’s Hierarch ical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997,) and Achievemen t goal theory (Nicholls, 1984, 1989.) were employed as a means of interpreting the resu lts found here. The poi nts of departure from previous literature will be emphasized th roughout the following sect ions. Concurrently, the use of constant comparison enabled the re searcher to evaluate statements made by participants at different times within an inte rview, as well as contrast viewpoints made by multiple participants. The above process, wh ich melds a myriad of resources into one useable framework, was instrumental in the cr eation of the current th eory. It is this theory that was one of the objectives of this study. The global influences stage of the grounded th eory pertains to the athletes’ initial sources of motivation to participate in spor t (Box 1 of Figure 4). There were three prominent sources of motivation that contributed to athlete’s initial interest in sports participation: family, friends, and competitive nature. While family and friends were

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105 sources that were external in nature, they were very infl uential not only in creating, but also maintaining motivation throughout the at hletes’ careers. As illustrated in the descriptive results, family and friends had an enormous influence on the participants’ motivation and these findings were consiste nt with Deci and Ryan’s (2000) work. Specifically, sport appeared to provide a cont ext with which the at hletes could connect and develop feelings of relatedness with others The athletes in the current study chose to participate in sport at least in part becau se others that were deemed “significant” emphasized the value of sports. Most had brothers, sisters, friends or parents who participated in sports and the participants here derived motivation from these significant others. A second way in which athletes derived motivation from family and friends was by providing essential needs to the athletes such as housing, food, and clothing. Family and friends perpetuated their role as motivators, even after introducing sports to the athlete, by acting as a global support system fr om which the athlete gained support, encouragement, advice, and direction. The motivation that was gleaned from family sources did not stop at initial participation. The athletes in the current study depended upon the encouragement and support throughout thei r athletic participation, particularly as they progressed to the more competitive st ages of athletic part icipation (Boxes 4 and 5). These sources of motivation were very si milar to what Vallera nd (1997) described as global influences on motivation since they existed within multiple contexts of the athletes’ lives. The participants in the current study po ssessed an internal source of motivation they referred to as a “competitive nature.” The athletes expressed the desire to compete

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106 as a drive that transcended athletics and manife sted itself in a variety of contexts within their lives. This data is in line with Vallerand’s Hierar chical model (Vallerand, 1997) which states that global dispos itions, which are similar to pe rsonality traits, can affect contextual and situational motivation in multiple contexts. Therefore, initial participation and competitive nature were both sources of mo tivation that affected the athletes overall development and personalities. While friends and family served as external sources of motivation, the development of competitive natu re was an internal source of motivation. It was highly likely that sport was one of the fi rst contexts in which the athletes were able to, and possibly even encouraged, to freel y express his or her inclination toward competition. The context specific stage of the grounded theory (Box 2 of Figure 4) highlights the important role that early succe ss played in the participants’ development. As elaborated on in the results, young athletes whose early ex periences with sports were positive and successful were motivated to continue and ev en intensify their participation efforts. These findings were consistent with Deci a nd Ryan’s (1995) ideas about competence and motivation. Specifically, Deci and Ryan pred icted that athletes with high competence beliefs would experience increased levels of intrinsic motivation. In the current study the athletes translated their spor t success into positive feed b ack about their competence in athletics. This was demonstrated by their increased autonomy and continued participation, or in the cases of a negative experience with a spor t, their decision to desist. When strong perceived competence developed through athletic success is combined with elevated feelings of relate dness received in the form of encouragement and support from significant others it would be easy to see why an individual would continue sport

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107 participation. In this case, the athlete w ould view the context of sport as a means to satisfy their desire for competence and relate dness two of the most important sources of motivation within self-determina tion theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). The integration stage of development in the grounded theory (Box 3) identifies goals as the most predictive source of motivatio n for athletes. It is at this point that the athlete decides the importance of sports by th e how extensively their goals are integrated into the lifestyle. Every part icipant in the study purported th e use of a variety of goals and goal setting strategies in order to main tain motivation. The goals athletes set for themselves with regard to sport enabled them to advance to highly competitive levels of the sport structure. Athletes viewed their goa ls as small indicators of success that kept them motivated while striving to achieve larg er more long-term goa ls. Specifically, the goals set forth by participants were often crea ted to satisfy personal “needs” such as the desire to receive credit, or to attain f eelings of achievement or satisfaction. The participants in my study acknow ledged very specific motivators that existed at the two general levels (e.g.,, Division I/Olympic and club level) of sport participation recognized within the current grounded theory. The commitment and participation stage of the current grounded theory (Box 4 and 5 of Figure 4) depicts two levels of sport part icipation, the division I collegiate and/or the Olympic level, and recreational sport participa tion. Central to this grounded theory is the principle that all of the athl etes in the current study adva nced to the fourth stage of competitive sport structure out of their own goals, which were to participate and enjoy their sport (intrinsic motivatio n), but also to train and comp ete against others (extrinsic motivation). Thus, competition was a similar source of motivation be tween athletes at

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108 both competitive levels. Athletes at both le vels felt that the opportunity to contend against others through organized competition gave them incentive to participate. For the participants in this study, the opportunity to compete was viewed as an incentive to develop sport specific skills to a higher degree. They appeared motivated to practice and improve because they knew they would be tested in a competitive context. Additionally, sport served as an outlet for stress and aggression for athletes at both competitive levels. This was illustrated at the collegiate/ Olympic level (Box 4,) by the way athletes viewed the dual role that pressu re and high expectations played within the context of sport. The participants felt that the pressure they encount ered acted a source of stress in their lives, as well as a source of motivation. Cons equently, in conjunction with the additional stress imparted by participa tion, sport also provided a physical and emotional release that counterac ted any superfluous stress rece ived from participating in the activity. The participants at both levels of involveme nt cited the use of their sport to cope with stressors and frustrations from their daily lives. They were motivated to participate in their sport because they felt able to re lease psychological tensi on and anxiety through physical activity. Vallerand’s Hierarchical model (1997) supports this source of motivation by outlining how social factors can influence motivation at the contextual level. For example, Postulate 3 of the Hi erarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Figure 2) discusses the interactions between multiple individual contexts of a person’s life. Specifically, feelings involvi ng one major aspect of a person’s life can have an impact on motivation in other majo r contexts. Conseque ntly an individual feeling stressed about academics, or social aspects of life could be motivated to

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109 participate in sport because the physical demand s within the context of sport aid in relief from psychological stress fe lt in the other contexts. The above being said, there were important differences between athletes at the Division I/Olympic level and Club levels. On e source of motivation related directly to competition helped to differentiate athletes at the two levels of competitive sport structure: “Being the best” was a source of motivation for division I/ Olympic level athletes, but did not play a signi ficant role for club level par ticipants. This difference was perhaps due to the level of competition inherent in the two separate levels of sport. Athletes, particularly at the Olympic level, participated ag ainst elite competition. Their competitors were the best athletes from c ountries around the world. Being the best was a realistic goal given the opponent s and the context in which athletes perform. Depending upon the sport, club level competition is considerably less formidable. Therefore, the goal of being the best would not be as rea listic, because the competition at the club level was considered recreational instead of elite. There were seven major sources of motiva tion at the division I/ Olympic level of sport participation. It is important to note th at at this level of competitive sport, where the demands are high, and achievement and suc cess are the primary focus, the athletes viewed their environment as rich with mo tivational resources. They cited high expectations, sport as an ou tlet for stress and aggression, th e coach, teammates, travel, a desire to be the best, and competition as com ponents of this sport structure that provide motivation. Athletes viewed the high expectations a nd pressure placed upon them, as well as the expectations they placed on themselves as strong sources of motivation. This

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110 perspective emphasizes the importance of an athlete’s perception of his or her environment which is highly consistent w ith Vallerand’s hierarchical model (1997, 2001). Vallerand views the environment around an athlete as a global social factor that influences motivation not only at the global leve l, but at the contextual level as well. When an athlete interprets his environment as positive, supportive, and challenging then motivation at the global and c ontextual levels are affected accordingly. This is demonstrated by the importance athletes’ plac e on relationships with family, friends, coaches, and teammates. These relationships create the environm ent that the athlete experiences. If they are not perceived as supportive then the athletes loses important global and contextual resources fr om which to draw motivation. A second major source of motiva tion that existed at the co llegiate/ Olympic level of participation was the coach. The athletes percei ved their coaches as an external source of motivation that provided counsel, aided the athlete in goal setting, and applied some of the expectations and pressure discussed a bove. While athletes desired their coach’s direction and motivation, the extent to which it was needed and the method through which it was provided was highly individuali zed. Vital to the relationship, was the athlete’s perception of the coach’s high expect ations as a collaborative effort designed to help the athlete achieve his or her goals. If a coach’s demands were interpreted negatively by the athlete, they could b ecome highly detrimental to the athlete’s motivation, possibly produci ng feelings of burn out. Teammates were another source of motivati on for athletes within the collegiate/ Olympic stage but not club sport athletes (Box 4). In accord with Gould, Feltz, and Weiss (1985) teammates were a social cont extual factor that provided support,

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111 enthusiasm, friendship, and competition. They were a sport specific support system that impacted athletes at the global and situationa l levels of motivation. Athletes of both individual and team sports drew on the multidimensional motivational resources that teammates provided. The last motive for participation that was unique to collegiate/ Olympic sport participants was the opportunity to travel. Participants viewed the chance to see new places and experience different people as an im portant source of motivation for them to compete. For many of the athletes, the res ources of the university and Olympic athletic systems provided access to experiences and travel that they would not get on their own. One source of motivation reported only by club level participan ts (Box 5 of Figure 4), was physical/ mental health benefits that resulted from sport participation. Club level athletes fulfilled some of their personal health needs through their sport. Their participation gave them a sense of sati sfaction and self conf idence through being physically fit, their ability to take care/ de fend themselves, and their development of life and social skills. This motivational resource reported by participants is consistent with findings by Brodkin and Weiss (199 0) who identified health and physical fitness as major motives for competitive swimmers between the ages of 23-59. The last aspect of the grounde d theory that must be discussed is the relationship that exists between the two competitive levels of sport. Some of the participants interviewed for the current study were club spor t athletes at the time of the interviews, who had previously participated at the collegiate/ Olympic le vel (Box 4 of Figure 4). For them their sport was such an ingrained part of their lives that they c ontinued to participate at the recreational level even after they were no longer able to compete at the highest

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112 level of their sport. They chose to get i nvolved in club sports, which provided them with a competitive outlet. Accounts from numerous athletes supported the viewpoint that athletes enjoyed and even sought out the competitive component of sport.

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113 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The current study had three major purposes. The first was to use grounded theory analytic procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to identify th e sources of motivation of N.C.A.A. collegiate athletes and recreational/ club sport athletes to part icipate in sport. A second purpose was to investig ate the participants’ motives to compete in sport. The third and final purpose was to organize the data gathered into a grounded theory of motivation for competitive athletes. Semi-str uctured, in-depth interviews were conducted with athletes, who participated competitively at two levels of sport, collegiate/ Olympic and recreational. The results generally supported posits made by Vallerand’s (1997) Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrin sic Motivation, and Self -determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000). The current study yielded two overarching categories in which all major sources of motivation fell, internal and external. Within the classification of internal s ources of motivation two higher-o rder themes emerged: goals, anger and outlets for stress and aggression. Th e external higher-ord er themes included: family, friends, team aspects of sport, coach es, pressure and high expectations, benefits of participation, competition, and pre-co mpetition motivators. In the following paragraphs, findings from the current study wi ll be discussed with regard to extant literature. Next theoretical and practical im plications of the grounded theory constructed in this study will be proposed. Finally, st udy weaknesses and future research directions will be suggested in light of findings from this project.

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114 The data gathered during my study were in accord with a wide range of ideas embedded in the extant literature. The part icipant interviews yielded strong support for competence, autonomy, and relatedness as impor tant needs to be satiated (Deci & Ryan, 1985). There was also support for Post ulate 3, and Corollaries 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 of Vallerand’s Hierarchical model (1997), which outlines the impact that social contextual factors can have upon the global and cont extual levels of generality. One of the central tenets in Self-deter mination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the Hierarchical model (Vallerand, 1997) is the idea that the degree to which competence, autonomy, and relatedness are fulfilled determin es the type of motivation that drives action. Competence, autonomy, and relatedness are thought of as needs that people have, and as they are increasingly satisfied, the individual becomes more intrinsically motivated. Evidence in the current study indica ted that many of the sources of motivation identified by athletes seem to be derived from these internal needs, especially relatedness and competence. For instance, the higher-order themes of family and friends played a vital role in exposing the athlet es to their sports. The athlet es indicated that they were inclined to begin sport partic ipation because either they ha d a mother or father who was athletic, a brother or sister who participated, or a friend wa s involved. The participants talked about their desire to ta ke part in what they saw “si gnificant others” doing. This is in line with predictions ma de within SDT (Deci & Rya n, 1985) about feelings of relatedness, which states that individuals will experience incr eased motivation if they feel supported and connected to importa nt others in their life. Previous research (Frederick-Recasci no, 2002; Ryan & Deci, 2000) also cites family and friends as a critical component in the social support network with which

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115 athletes surround themselves. Athletes at bo th the collegia te/ Olympic, and recreational level of sport discussed the importance of their loved ones as confidants, coaches, and encouragers. These people (i.e., family and fr iends) served as an external, global source of motivation by increasing feeli ngs of relatedness, which re sulted in higher levels of motivation over the athlet e’s extended participation. Feelings of relatedness were also strongly tied to two other sources of motivation: team atmosphere of sport and coaches. The at hletes revealed that feelings of closeness with teammates and coaches perpetuated th eir overall motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1995). Teammates were conveyed as very close friends with whom the athletes shared loyalty, camaraderie, and not only personal goals, but also common team-oriented goals. The shared goals represented inte rnalization of external valu es that are indicative of relatedness. The common experiences they shared and the feeling that teammates understood what the athlete was going th rough further strengthened the bonds experienced in sport with teammates. Coaches were deemed “significant others” because of the stake they shared in the athletes’ success. The feelings of relate dness between athlete a nd coach were based on the athlete’s belief in the coach’s plan to en able the athlete to succeed. The athlete was motivated when he felt that the coach had goals, and knowledge that could contribute to the athlete’s own plan for success. They [t he participants] were further motivated by feelings that they had a limite d amount of time (i.e., eligibil ity) to achieve their goals. The benefits of the relationshi p with the coach were two fold. First, the relationships facilitated feelings of relatedness because the coach invested time and encouragement

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116 toward the athlete. It also boosted the at hlete’s feelings of competence, because the coach displayed belief in the player’s abil ity to accomplish their mutual goals. The athletes in the current study experien ced significant motivational effects of high perceived competence in their relationship w ith their coaches. In line with Deci and Ryan’s (1995) study, athletes gained compet ence information through feedback from the coach that came in several forms. First, co aches described by part icipants provided their players with positive reinforcement regarding their performance. Feelings of perceived competence were also experienced because athletes recognized that coaches committed time, belief, and money (i.e., scholarships) in their ability. Finally, the athletes came to believe that they had high levels of athl etic competence because they set and achieved difficult individual and team goals that were orchestrated to some degree by the coach. Data from the current study supported D eci and Ryan’s (1985) posits involving competence beliefs in other ways as well. For instance, the interviews revealed that participant’s experiences with youth sports contributed signif icantly to their continuation of sport over long periods of time. High leve ls of competence were perceived by athletes when they experienced success in sport at an early age. These feelings of competence served as a source of motivation that enc ouraged further participation by prompting athletes to set long term goals in sport. Autonomy was another need that was suppor ted by the participan ts in this study. Club sport athletes in particular emphasized the importance of feeli ng ownership in their sport activities. They revealed that they participated in the s port, not only for the enjoyment that they received, but from the physic al and mental health benefits, as well as an outlet for stress. They felt that a great deal of autonomy was necessary in order to

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117 maintain the motivation to dedicate significan t amounts of time and effort into an activity that was purely recreational. The current study also provided support for certain aspects of another major theory of motivation, the Hierarchical model of intrinsic and ex trinsic motivation (Vallerand, 1997). Many of the sources of motivation for sport participants extended from the global and contextual levels of generality as ou tlined by Vallerand (1997). Corollaries 3.2 and 3.3 highlight the impact that social factors such as relationships with family and friends, which exist at a global level, can have at spec ific lower levels of ge nerality such as the sport context. For instance, the athletes in my study attributed their initial involvement in sport to family and friends (global social fact ors). The positive support that they received for participating in athletic endeavors medi ated their feelings of competence, autonomy, and relatedness with regard to the context of sport. When they struggled with their internal motivation to participate in sport (motivation at the contextual level), they went back to these outside resources (global factor s) to help get them past the low points. There is also evidence that supports Corollary 3.1 of the Hierarchical model (Vallerand, 1997); social factors can be global, contextual, or situational, and affect the corresponding level of generality. Findings in the current project identified one major source of motivation that illustrated the validity of this concept, sport as an outlet for stress and aggression. Both di vision I/ Olympic and club spor t participants purported that the context of sport enabled them to release stress and aggression acquired from other life contexts. Areas such as academics, work, and social relationships were some of the life contexts in which participants reported feeli ng stress. The bodily demands inherent in sport acted as a pressure release that enabled athletes to vent some of their psychological

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118 frustration through physical means. Because th eir involvement in sport provided athletes with this outlet for stress, their motivation toward the context of sport was increased. Therefore, social factors in se parate contexts of athletes’ lives affected their motivation toward the context of sport, which is in line with pos its embedded in Corollary 3.1 (Vallerand, 1997). While the preced ing paragraphs describe fi ndings that upheld ideas in popular motivational theories, there was also da ta that contradicted existing literature. The primary discrepant finding in this study concerns the relationship between competition and motivation. All of the prominen t theories of motivation discussed in the literature review consider competition as a factor deemed detrimental to athletes’ motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Vallerand, 1997 ; Nicholls, 1984; Duda, 1992). Studies by Fortier et al. (1995) and Vallerand and Rousseau (2001) describe motivation as a factor that decreases intrinsic motivation, esp ecially in highly competitive sport structures (i.e., division I/ Olympic, and club sport levels). However, the quantitative nature of the study only allowed them to speculate on the re asons that competitive sport athletes had increased levels of extrinsic motivation. At hletes in the current study did not seem to embrace intrinsic motives (i.e., enjoyment of the sport) as their primary motivational resource. Instead they reported thriving on more extrinsic and external sources of motivation such as teammates, family, coaches and competition in order to maintain or increase their personal motiva tion in given contexts. Ther efore, the current theory approaches competition as factor inherent with in the context of spor t, and views it as a resource employed by the athlete to sustain sh ort-term as well as long-term motivation. For instance, all fourteen participants in the current study found aspects of competition to be motivational in some capacity. They iden tified competing with friends and teammates

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119 as a way to encourage themselves to pract ice harder as well as make practice more enjoyable. The prospect of an upcoming competition against an opponent was also a source of motivation for athlet es to complete demanding wor kouts, and make sacrifices necessary to achieve at a high le vel. Athletes particularly at the division I/ Olympic level maintained a great number of resources for motivation that existed externally at the global as well as the contextual level. Club sport athletes identified sources of motivation that were more intrinsic in nature. However, even while highly internalized and integrated into the athlete’s value system (i ndicative of intrinsic motivation), physical and mental health benefits and sport as an outle t for stress and aggression were sources that depicted sport as a means to an end (extrinsic motivation). In fact, a ll but three sources of motivation described by the participants were of an extrinsic nature. The Fortier et al. (1995) and Chantal et al. (1996) studies support the current study’s findings (with unexpected results) by reporting that the comp etitive athletes in their studies exhibited high levels of extrinsic motivation. Also, some of the sources of motivation identified by athletes in the current study, such as a desire to be the best, and prove competence through competition are indicative of an ego orientation. White & Duda (1994) produced similar results when they found that athletes who participated in highly competitive sport structures have more of an ego orientation. In light of this data, theoreti cal perspectives in wh ich intrinsic motivation and task orientation are cons idered optimal conditions for motivation (self-determination theory, hierarchical model, achievement goal theory) seem incomplete if not ill-suited to describe the motivation of competitive sport athletes. Thus, the results from the current study extend the literatu re in three ways.

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120 First, my study addresses the need to expl ore athletes’ motives to participate at different competitive levels (Gould, Feltz, & Weiss, 1985). Prior research shows that individuals’ motives to pa rticipate in sport change with age (Butler, 1989a, 1989b; Brodkin & Weiss, 1990). Only one study (But t & Cox, 1992) has looked specifically at sources of motivation for college age stude nts at differing competitive levels. The current study supports the idea that motives for sport participation are dependent on the sport structure, but it also exte nds the literature by identify ing, directly from participants, what their sources of motivation are at two comp etitive levels (divisio n I/ Olympic, club). This is important because all other studies have used questionnaires that are limited by the scope of the theory they are de signed to test (Strean, 1998). Second, this study addressed a need in th e motivation literature to expand the research paradigm, which has been up to this point, unidimensional (Hoshand & Polkinghorn, 1992; Strean & Roberts, 1992; Ma rtens, 1987; Petruzzello, 2000; Sparkes, 1998). All of the studies discussed have used quantitative met hodology as a means of explaining the motivation of athletes. Th e current study, which employs a qualitative approach, helped to break the mono-method bias that exists in sport motivation research. The grounded theory approach of my study was optimal for providing an alternative perspective on athletes’ sources of motiva tion to participate in a competitive sport environment. The exploratory nature of the methodology provided the flexibility necessary to integrate social and contextual fa ctors present in the s ports environment into a theory produced from intervie w text and sensitizing concepts. Finally, the grounded theory produced as a resu lt of this research project answers a call within the field for new th eories of motivation which ar e sport specific (Harwood et

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121 al., 2000; Treasure et al., 2001). This met hodology is ideal because the theory comes directly from the athlete, and as Treasu re et al. (2001) expressed, “The key to understanding motivational processes in th e athletic domain…is how the competitive conditions… are subjectively perceived by the athlete” (p. 319). While current theories of motivation do account for some social and c ontextual factors, no theory has been able to explore and integrate factors such as t eammates, coaches, and competition into a sport specific theory derived directly from athlet es’ statements about their own perceptions. The qualitative aspects of this study help to meld the unique complexity of the sport environment with the motivation of the individua l as a whole. Overall, much of the data collected during the current st udy supports theories and ideas that are prominent to sport motivation research. However, the discrepant findings relative to the role of competition are an area which should be further explored. Study Limitations and Future Directions The limitations of my study included the limited scope of the competitive sport structures and the single age group that was investigat ed. Interviews were only conducted with athletes who pa rticipated at the division I/ Olympic level, or the club sport level. The exploration of various other sport structur es including intramural, youth competitive, and master’s level competition would broaden the range of this theory. Likewise, interviews with sport participan ts from other age groups could expand the theory’s insight into the developmen t of sources of motivation over time. Because the grounded theory developed here is so different from that of other popular theories, future studi es should focus on expanding knowledge in this area. Further exploration is needed to understa nd more clearly how athletes perceive competition within different sport structures Similarly, studies should investigate the

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122 perception of competition within different age groups to find out if competition is viewed differently as experience, and skill are deve loped. Finally, it would be interesting to further investigate the support system of fa mily, friends, teammates, and coaches that impact athletes’ motivation by interviewing athletes who are missing one or more of those areas of support. In summary, the gr ounded theory presented in this study should only serve as a foundation on which fu ture research is to be based. Applied Implications There are a variety of applied implications that can be taken from my study. First, sports psychologists should be aware of the broad range of reasons people have for participating in competitive sport. Knowledge of the differences in motives to participate in varying sport structures c ould be a key to isolating the reasons for lost motivation or feelings of burnout. Also, findings from this study suggest an alternative point of view with regard to the negative role competi tion plays in motivation. This change in perspective may permit sport psychologists better insight into the competitive sport environment that athletes experience. A second finding from my study with applie d implications comes from familiarity with the support systems that athletes employ to maintain motivation. The grounded theory produced from this st udy outlines the external resour ces that competitive athletes access to keep their motivational levels high. Better understanding how relationships with family, friends, coaches, and teammate s influence an athlete’s motivation could enable a sport psychologist to identify po ssible places where athletes are lacking the necessary affirmation to continue prolonged sport involvement. A third way that my study has applied imp lications is in the area of sport as a coping mechanism for athletes. Athletes, lik e all people, have stress and aggression in

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123 their lives. One facet of this grounded theory identifies the use of sports as a way for athletes to alleviate stress a nd aggression they feel. This dimension of sport serves as a source of motivation for athletes to continue to participate an d compete in sport. A sport psychologist could use the information gathered fr om this study to help frustrated athletes understand the value of their sport as a physic al release for psychological and emotional stress. Finally, data gathered from my study highlig hts the value of goals as a source of motivation for athletes. The goal setting stra tegies identified by participants in my study underscores the importance of short-term goa ls as stepping stones that maintain motivation while an athlete works toward his or her long-term goals. The grounded theory presented here also endorses the use of multiple goal types su ch as performance, process, short-term, and long-term goals to help maintain motivation. This could prove valuable to applied sport psychologists who are aiding athletes in the goal setting process. By helping an athlete to create incremental goals of multiple types, the sport psychologist would be able to maximize this motivational resour ce for the benefit of the athlete.

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124You have to be able to motivate yourself and others To prove something To get going and do the best I can To have a goal or something to strive for It's the feeling of really wanting something To want to accomplish something Definitions of To go through any obstacle to get what you want Motivation A drive inside you where you just don't want to give up It just makes you do whatever it is you're doing Excitement about doing something To try to reach your optimal leve l of performance Comes from within you Wanting to improve on a daily basis Succeeding over any obstacles Going to war with your opponent Going up against somebody else to see if you can win Doing something when you're focused on a goal Who wants it more and has the desi re to go get it A chance to compete with yourself Definitions of To go out and do your best in front of people Competition Being the best Optimal performance Playing your very best against the best teams Playing against someone who wants to be the best too To learn where in the pecking order you are Pitting one's skills against another's Playing sports at the college level Signing with a semi-pro team It was always a dream to play in college Figure 3. Sources of motivation conceptual framework

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125Motivated by looking at future goals Long Term Goals Work to get an individual title I look at the goals I wrote down Had to get through pain I want to clear a certain height To run under 30 minutes in the 10 K When I made the finals for Olympics Performance Goals See what you are actually working towards More interested in time not place He took me from throwing 55 to 67 in a year Improvement in my work and my abilities Goals Seeing results of hard work All the hard work makes me better Seeing Better race times Im provement Wanting to go against tougher competition Upping practice goals Improving technique Performing better against others Team champions get more credit Receiving Credit Being in the upper echelon of guys Needs I enjoy performing and stuff Need to perform The fans watch you play you want to give back Figure 3. Continued

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126Accomplishing goals is the greatest fee ling Feelings of To actually play in a game felt amazing satisfaction and Internal sources To push myself to my limits is very satisfying accomplishment of motivation Hard workouts make me feel like I accomplish more I just use anger towards working hard If someone p*sses me off I use it Teammates say something that makes me mad I use it When I get mad it helps It gives me that extra adrenaline flow If you control the adrenaline flow, anger can be good Anger as a I'd say anger is a good motivator motivator Anger Anger is a strong feeling that can be used in a positive way I'd get very mad and just take it out I ran so hard my feet didn't even touch the ground I got mad that I hadn't qualified yet and worked harder I'd get p*ssed off and start swimming really fast I'm a better athlete than they think I am I just wanted to prove something to people I wanna show people what I'm made of A bunch of nobody's ended up 4th in the country Something to I wanted to prove myself in the pool prove I was mostly trying to prove it to myself I got pi**ed off and tried to prove my coaches wrong I don't really get mad, so that doesn't work Can't use anger When I tried to be mad I had a bad performance to motivate Figure 3. Continued

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127It’s a nice outlet to stressful situations Practice is where you get stress out Sport as Judo is my release an outlet Running is an outlet for me Being able to forget everything else in life For 90 minutes you don’t have to worry about anything You can get a lot of aggression out Escaping from Being able to work hard and not think about anything else problems Outlet for It’s a way to relieve yourself from everythi ng else through sport stress I think it can be very therapeutic and aggression When things aren’t going well it kind of lifts you up All your stresses just bleed out on the mat You don’t have to be aggressive to get out aggression Release of emotional You can get out a lot of frustration just going for a ball energy through By the end you are too tired to be angry physical activity I am easier to get along with when I work out I just feel better Dad was athletic Family was really athletic Brother and sister both played soccer Dad played basketball Initial exposure Grew up playing sports to sports My dad was a pretty good athlete My whole family swims Everybody in my family is real athletic Uncles were all football players Figure 3. Continued

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128My father was a 6th degree black belt Family My dad helps me out a lot I know my family loves me no matter how I play Family support My mom never missed a game system My dad taught me how to swim My dad coached me Father was My father pushed me my coach My dad was my coach sometimes I talked to my father about it Family as I talk to my parents confidant My friends were on the track team so I joined My friends were doing it and it sounded co ol Friends participation I wanted to spend time with my frie nd who swam Friends My friends are still competing that keeps me going Compare and compete I compare myself to a lot of my friends against friends Enjoy the team atmosphere When you're playing for each other you have to be motivated I like the camaraderie It takes a whole team Team atmosphere Liked team better than individual competitions Don't have to be the best individuals to win Figure 3. Continued

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129My teammates are my closest friends These teammates are a second family Having a whole team reminds you to step it up Friendships and Aspects They're committed to us and us to th em loyalty of team If you were messing up they would straighten you out You watch out for your teammates Sharing goals with teammates makes us accountable Its important that everyone has the same goals Have the same goals, be on the same page I have a commitment to my teammates Shared Goals When everybody knows goals, you feel accountable I’ve never been in question of team support but I am here I look to my teammates for support When I’m doing bad they just try to encourage me I like being out there, everybody encouraging you Teammate support I like the encouragement from teammates 110% they support, and the same thing from me It’s a blow to my confidence that they think I’m not good I get more motivated when my teammates are Excitement is infectious Everyone getting hyped up gets me motivated Everyone motivating each other Teammate When someone else is excited then you are too enthusiasm Figure 3. Continued

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130 I get my excitement from everybody else I feed of my teammates excitement Enthusiasm rubs off practicing against people of your ability makes better Competing for a spot make you at your best Team aspects Every day at practice you're competing with someone of sport Establishing yourself within the t eam at practice There is always room for more Competing against You have to work harder when all are on your level teammates Everyone on the team is competitive You've got to go your hardest to earn a spot My teammate and I talked cr*p and that really motivated In practice we have to try new things I don't like to give up on something Having the competitive attitude definitely helps I have a competitive nature Competitive nature I'm just really competitive I am always wanting to win You could get embarrassed if you have an off day The embarrassment of an off day motivates Embarrassment He tried to embarrass them Nobody wants to be embarrassed I just loved cheering on my teammates Cheering teammates keeps me focused on competition Cheering on I like to motivate others teammates I talk to others to get myself back in the game Figure 3. Continued

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131I feel good when I run a fast time, it helps out the team A lot of the team success will depend on the throwers Contributing I wasn't awesome, I was just trying to score for the team to team I care more about the team than individual performance success Feels good know you are helping to win championships Being part of the number one throwing group Wanting to be elite not just good Being part of We are training with the best an elite group My teammates got personal bests I can too My teammates are breaking personal record s I can too Success of The harder we train the better the results as a team teammates The guys looked up to me Being a leader to teammates Coaches credited for seeing that we all had same goals Setting up They weeded out ones who didn’t take it seriously and reinforcing Coach provided structured workouts program goals Coach made sure we were all on same page Coach has a realistic picture of what it takes I have a coach who knows what he is doing Confidence I need his knowledge in coach’s The coaches have far more knowledge knowledge They know what I need to do. This is my last year I want to do good I want next year to be a big year, cause its my last Running out of time I wasted last year I want my last year to be the best of time Figure 3. Continued

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132My senior year I decided to give it my all everyday to achieve goals I want to go out with a bang my senior year I am running out of time, I’ve go to get it now and fast Coach I needed to get focused, I’m here for a reason I don’t want to look back and wish I’d tried harder Take advantage It’s such a great opportunity to play in college of opportunity I want to make the most out of my experience The coach has a lot of faith in my ability They were giving me time and money Coach's confidence I didn't want to let people down in athlete External I'm not sure the coaches want me here sources of motivation The coach kept bugging me to play Coach just made me stick with it The stuff coach says is inspiring Coach as The things he says pick me up when I'm down an encourager what coach says right before you go on the field is huge I talked to my coaches a lot when I had problems Coach as He would tell me how thing really are an advisor I would put pressure on myself first, then the team Pressure from You set the bar high for yourself in athletics for sure self I think it is very stressful being a Florida Gator Pressure of representing entity You are expected to 100% in practi ce all the time The expectation to succeed is higher from the coaches Expectations of Figure 3. Continued

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133They are very demanding coaches The competition is stressful I don't ever want to let my standards slip Striving to reach Pressure and You can either keep getting better or stay at the same level personal standards High expectations He would chew on me and it was my fuel Striving to reach I did what he asked and surpassed expect ations coach's expectations His expectations were too high By the time I left we weren’t on good terms Coach’s expectations I didn’t want to swim at all too high There is a point where a coach can push too much Going on trips was fun I get to go places that my family will never get to go my best friends and I get to travel around the country Travel I love the travel and meeting diff erent people We get to travel and do things nobody else gets to do I have been around all types of people because of sport The track team is a very well rounded group Meet new people I have met people from all over the world because of judo Being able to go long distances and not be out of breath Benefits of It is a rigorous sport and I need the conditioning Physical health participation I just like running around and being in shape benefits It feels good knowing I can defend myself Fulfillment I get the confidence to do what I need to do Development of of personal Figure 3. Continued

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134 Judo has given me a lot of confidence confidence needs I can walk into any situational and know I’ll be alright Knowing that you’re good at something Sport teaches you discipline Development of I learned how to be around people different than me life skills I can't imagine running without competition It wouldn't be any fun if there were no winners and losers Competition I enjoy running; What would I do without the competition? increases Being able to compete motivates you to go faster motivation Competition definitely increase my enjoyment You wouldn't run 6 or 7 days a week if no competition I don’t think anybody would go through all that without meets Meets were the funnest part I we weren't competi ng why are we training? Without competition I got down in training Competitions make me feel like I have a reason to train Competitions as Having competition involved makes it more enjoyable motivation for practice I need to be like I have a meet in two weeks You could practice all the time, but that isn't the fun part Without the games it’s not worth it. You do all the hard work because there's a game at the end I was motivated to practice because of a tournament I don't want to be good I want to be awesome Figure 3. Continued

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135 I want to be the best person doing Judo Being the best I didn't want to lose, I wanted to be the best at everything I kept playing when I was young because I was good at it I didn't like it at first, but when I started to get good I won the Broward County meet and that’s when I knew I was running fast times and not really trying Early success Competition I played soccer the best so I stuck with it I was pretty good at it too Most of the time when I was younge r I was the best Winning is what drove me to work hard I loved to compete, going to meets and trying to win Everybody hates losing Winning You want to touch the wall before them. It's my job to make sure I win We have a race and he will beat me if I'm not out here I am just happy if I do the best I can I was just happy with doing my best Having a personal best is way more motivating I am trying to be the best I can be I'm happy with 90th place if that is the best I can do Being the best When I'm doing the best I can I get consistent motivation I can be If I can make myself the best I can be that good enough I'd rather just be the best I could be I am really motivated during cham pionship time Figure 3. Continued

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136Big competition is what gets you going Big Games All the hype surrounding the final four got everybody going The opportunity to play against the best in the country Music is an incredible source of motivation I use music to get motivated I always listen to the same CD I listen to really aggressive music before I race The fast paced music gets me excited Music The up-beat music is fun and positive Music makes you want to go hard and do good Hard music makes you feel like you are going to kick butt Music made me lose focus I never play well when I listen to music I picture myself winning I see myself in different situations Pre-competition I do a lot of imagery and visualization Imagery motivators It is important to visualize yourself during the race We'll watch ourselves on video before we go out I pray before I go out on the field I found a lot of motivation spiritually I spend a few minutes praying Employing religious God's love gives me confidence beliefs I just focus and pray On the day of competition I always do the same thing I always eat the same breakfast Pre-competition I have a little routine rituals I'm superstitious and try to do everything I did again Figure 3. Continued

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137 Figure 4. Developmental model of sources of motivation to participate in sport

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APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT PLEASE READ THIS DOCUMENT BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY. YOU MAY KEEP THIS PAGE. TO: All Research Participants FROM: Bradley R. Langley RE: Informed Consent STUDY TITLE: A Qualitative Examination of Athletes’ Sources of Motivation PURPOSE OF THIS STATEMENT: The purpose of this statement is to summarize the study I am conducting, explain what I am asking you to do, and to assure you that the information you and other participants share will be kept complete ly confidential to the extent permitted by law. Specifically, nobody besides the Prin cipal Investigator and his supervisor will be able to identify you in this study and your name will not be used in any research reports that result from this project. AGE REQUIREMENT: You must be at least 18 years of age or older in order to participate in this study. WHAT YOU WILL BE ASKED TO DO : If you agree to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete one interview between 8/10/2002 and 5/1/2003. The interviews will be audio tape-recorded and you will be asked a series of questions about the motivation behind your athletic performance. You may also be asked a bout relationships with family, coaches, and peers during this development. You do not have to answ er any questions you do not wish to answer. Your responses will be kept completely confidential to the extent permitted by law. The Principal investigator and his supervisor will be the only people to have access to these interviews. The principal investigator will transcribe the interviews and the tapes will be locked in a file cabinet. After your interviews have been transcribed, the ta pe will be destroyed. You will receive a copy of the transcribed interview, as well as a br ief summary by the principal investigator. TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 30-60 minutes for each interview. RISKS AND BENEFITS : There are no risks expected from participating in this study. As a result of your participation, you may develop insights into motivations for your athletic participation.

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139 COMPENSATION : No compensation will be given as a result of participating in this study. CONFIDENTIALITY : Your identity will be kept confidentia l to the extent provided by law. Your transcribed interview will be assigned a code number. The tapes will be kept in my office in a locked file cabinet. When the study is comp leted and the transcripts have been analyzed, all tapes will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION : Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. RIGHT TO WITHDRAW : You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. WHOM TO CONTACT IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS STUDY : Brad R. Langley, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, 100 Florida Gym, PO Box 118207, Gainesville, FL, 32611; ph. (352) 392-0580 x.1377 WHOM TO CONTACT ABOUT YOUR RIGHTS AS A RESEARCH PARTICIPANT IN THE STUDY : UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph. 392-0433. PLEASE SIGN AND LEAVE THIS PORT ION OF THE FORM WITH US. AGREEMENT: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant:_____________________________________________Date:___________ Principal Inves tigator:____________________________________Date:___________

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140 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE I 1. Tell me about your family, mo m, dad, brothers, sisters? 2. Where did you grow up? 3. Have you always lived in the same place or did you move around? 4. Why/ When did you get into competitive athl etics? (Was there a particular incident that prompted participation?) 5. Which competitive sports did you play in high school? 6. What was your motivation for beginning your pa rticipation in these activities at the high school level (int rinsic/ extrinsic)? 7. What is your favorite/ most me morable athletic experience? 8. What was your favorite thing about the activities? Was it the competition, the work ethic, the team aspect? 9. How would you describe yourself as an athl ete (i.e., talented, hard-worker, etc.)? 10. When you are having an off day athletica lly, what do you use to help motivate you to do your best? 11. Do you ever feel burned out, feel like quitting? What keeps you going then? 12. What made you decide to continue your athletic particip ation into college? (intrinsic/ extrinsic) 13. Do you find it harder to get motivated to go through the demanding workouts of college level competition? 14. What are some sources of strength you draw upon to continue to excel at this level? 15. Are the reasons you participate in colle ge level competition different than you reasons in high school? 16. Do you see yourself participating competitiv ely after college is over (recreational leagues, etc.)?

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141 17. What kinds of things do you use to get yourse lf in the right frame of mind before and during a competition? 18. Would you consider yourself a competitive pe rson outside of the arena of athletics? 19. What kinds of things do you focus on after a good performance? A bad one? 20. When is the most highly motivated you have been for a performance or competition? What triggered the extra drive? 21. Do you feel that you compete better when you put a lot of pressure on yourself to perform well, or when you feel relaxed and at ease? 22. What do you think about in highly pressurized situations such as when the game is on the line? 23. What kinds of things do you do to motivate yourself before a game? 24. What kinds of thoughts drive you to do your best every ti me you step onto the field, court, etc.? 25. When you are having a tough day, does the pr ospect of having a workout energize you, or is it something else to try and get through? 26. What were your initial reasons for sport participation? 27. Thinking back on some of your past su ccessful competitive performances, does anything stand out that might have driven you to compete harder or be more competitive? 28. What are the things that you en joy most about your sport? 29. Do you feel that the element of competi tion increases or decreases your enjoyment of the game? 30. When you know that you have a big game to prepare for, do you feel more or less motivated to work hard to prepare? 31. How do you feel after you have been successful in a competition? More or less motivated? What about unsuccessful? 32. Do you ever get frustrated with your progress or athl etic endeavors? 33. What drives you when you feel fr ustrated with your progress? 34. Do you feel the need to be competiti ve in other aspects of your life? 35. If so, what are some of the areas?

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142 36. How do you define competition?

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143 LIST OF REFERENCES Alderman R.B., & Wood, N.L. (1976). An analysis of incentive motivation in young Canadian athletes. Canadian Jour nal of Applied Sport Sciences, 1 (2), 169-175. Alexandris, K., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Groui os, G. (2002). Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investig ating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotiv ation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34 (3), 233-252. Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivatio nal climate, and motivational processes. In G. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in spor t and exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Amrose, A.J., & Horn, T.S. (2000). Intrinsic motivation: Relationships with collegiate athletes’ gender, scholarship status, and perceptions of their coaches’ behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22 63-84. Baric, R., Erpic, S.C., & Babic, V. (2002). Intrinsic motivation and goal orientation in track-and-field children. Kinesiology, 34 (1). 50-60. Biddle, S.J.H. (1999). Motivation and its percep tions of control: Tracing its development and plotting its future in exercise an d sport psychology. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21 1-23. Black, A.E., & Deci, E.L. (2000).The eff ects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on l earning organic chemistry: A selfdetermination theory perspective. Science Education, 84 (6), 740-756. Blumenfeld, P.C. (1992). Classroom learning and motivation: Clar ifying and expanding goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 272-281. Briere, N.M., Vallerand, R.J., Blai s, M.R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1995). On the development and validation of the French form of th e Sport Motivation Scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26 465-489. Brodkin, P., & Weiss, M. (1990). Developm ental differences in motivation for participating in competitive swimming. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12 248-263.

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144 Butler, R. (1989a). Interest in the task and interest in P eers’ work in competitive and noncompetitive conditions: A developmental study. Child Development, 60 (3), 562-570. Butler, R. (1989b). Mastery versus ability a ppraisal: A developmenta l study of children’s observations of peers’ work. Child Development, 60 (6), 1350-1361. Butt, D.S. (1987). Psychology of sport: Th e behavior, motivation, personality, and performance of athletes (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Butt, D.C., & Cox, D.N. (1992). Motivationa l patterns in Davis Cup, university and recreational tennis players. Interna tional Journal of Sport Psychology, 23 1-13. Chantal, Y., Guay, F., Dobreva-Martinova T., & Vallerand, R. J. (1996). Motivation and elite performance: an exploratory i nvestigation with Bulgarian athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27 173-182. Charbanneau, D., Barling, J., & Kelloway, E. K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31 (7), 1521-1534. Charmaz, K. (2000). Grounded theory: Object ivist and constructivist methods. In D.K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Methods (2nd edition, pp. 509-535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Clarkson, M. (1999). Competitive Fire: Insights to developing the warrior mentality of sports champions Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Cohen, J.L., & Davis, J. H. (1973). Effects of audience status, evaluation, and time of action on performance with hiddenword problems. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 27 74-85. Cornelius, A.E., Silva, J.M., & Molotsky, E.J. (1991). Motive struct ures for engaging in regular exercise. Unpublished manuscript. Covington, M.V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspec tive on motivation and school reform. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Davis, M.H., Hall, J.A., & Meyer, M. ( 2003). The first year: Influences on the satisfaction, involvement, and persis tence of new community volunteers. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (2), 248-260. Deci, E.L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 18 (1), 105-115. Deci, E.L. (1972). The effects of contingent and noncontingent rewa rds and controls on intrinsic motivation. Organizational Be havior and Human Decision Processes. 8(2), 217-229.

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146 Freud, S. (1969). An outline for psychoanalysis New York: Norton. Gill, D.L., Gorss, J.B., & Huddleston, S. (1983). Participation motivation in youth sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 14 (1), 1-14. Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. ( 1967). Discovery of grounded theory Chicago, IL: Aldine Goudas, M., Biddle, S., Fox, K., & Underw ood, M. (1995). It ain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it! Teaching style affects children’s motivation in track and field lessons. The Sport Psychologist, 9 254-264. Gould, D., Feltz, D., & Weiss, M. (1985). Moti ves for participating in competitive youth swimming. International Jour nal of Sport Psychology, 16 126-140. Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K. & Giannini, J. (1989). An exploratory examination of strategies used by elite coaches to enhance self-efficacy in athletes. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11 (2), 128-140. Grolnick, W.S., & Ryan, R.M. (1987). Autonomy in children’s learni ng: An experimental and individual difference investigat ion. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52 (5), 890-898. Hamner, W.C., & Foster, L.W. (1975). Are intrinsic and ex trinsic rewards additive: A test of Deci’s cognitive evaluation th eory of task motivation. Organizational Behavior & Human D ecision Processes, 14 398-415. Harackiewicz, J.M. (1979). The effects of re ward contingency and performance feedback on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37 (8), 13521363. Harter, S. (1982). The Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Child Development, 53 (1), 87-97. Harwood, C. (2002). Achievement goals in sp ort: A critique of conceptual and measurement issues. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22 (3), 235-255. Harwood, C., & Hardy, L. (2001). Persistence and effort in moving achievement goal research forward: A response to Treasu re and colleagues. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23 (4), 330-345. Harwood, C., Hardy, L., & Swain, A. (2000). Achi evement goals in sport: a critique of conceptual and measurement issues. Jour nal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22 235-255. Hirschfeld, R.R. (2000). Does revising the intrinsic and extrinsi c subscales of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form make a difference? Educational & Psychological Measurement, 60 (2), 255-270.

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150 Vallerand, R.J., & Rousseau, F. L. (2001). In R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas, & C.M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Vallerand, R.J., & Thill, E.E. (1993). Introduc tion au concept de motivation [Introduction to the concept of motivation]. In R.J. Va llerand & E.E. Thill (Eds.), Introduction a la psychologie de la motivation [Introduction to the psyc hology of motivation] (p. 3-39). Laval, Canada: Editions Etudes Vivantes. Walling, M.D, Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1993) The Perceived Motiv ational Climate in Sport Questionnaire: Construc t and predictive validity. Jour nal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15 (2), 172-183. Weiss, D.J., Davis, R.V., & England, G.W. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minnesota St udies in Vocational Rehabilitation, 22 120. White, R.W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66 297-333. White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1994). The relationshi p of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to task and ego orientation. Intern ational Journal of Sport Psychology, 25 (1), 4-18. Yip, M.C.W, & Chung, O.L.L. (2002). Relati on of study strategies to the academic performance of Hong Kong university students. Psychological Reports, 90 (1), 338340.

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151 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brad Langley was born in Houston, Texa s February, 15, 1977. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in kinesiology (w ith a second teaching fi eld in biology) from HardinSimmons University in Abilene, Texa s. While there he competed in football, and was also a student assistant coach for the football team. He went on to teach integrated physics and chemistry for a se mester at McKinney North High School in McKinney, Texas then began Graduate School at the University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville, Florida. While at UF, Brad had th e opportunity to be a graduate assistant in Exercise and Sport Science department wh ere he taught while completing his course work. He completed his Master of Scie nce degree with a concentration in sport psychology in 2005, and moved back to Texa s to pursue a career in teaching and coaching. He is currently a chemistry teach er and a football and soccer coach at Ross Sterling High School in Baytown, Texas.


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Title: Qualitative Examination of Athletes' Sources of Motivation to Participate in a Competitive Environment Using Grounded Theory
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0012120/00001

Material Information

Title: Qualitative Examination of Athletes' Sources of Motivation to Participate in a Competitive Environment Using Grounded Theory
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ATHLETES' SOURCES OF MOTIVATION TO
PARTICIPATE IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT USING GROUNDED
THEORY















By

BRADLEY RICHARD LANGLEY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AND
KINESIOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Bradley Richard Langley















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many important people deserve recognition for their contribution to this study of

sport motivation. First I would like to thank my supervisory committee chair Dr.

Giacobbi, for believing in me enough to stay with this study over the long haul, and for

constantly pushing and challenging me to make this project better. His, time, effort, and

insight were invaluable to me. I would also like to thank my committee members (Drs.

Todorovich and Tillman) for bending over backwards to make this project a success.

Two other people who deserve recognition for their role in this project are Taryn

Lynn and Amber Stegelin. Without their dedication to the qualitative research group that

helped code and analyze of the data, this project would not have been possible. They

expanded my perspective and encouraged me to follow through to the end. I would also

like to acknowledge my family and friends. Without them I would have never made it to

this point. They motivated me to stay focused, even when I lost sight of the goal. Their

faith in me is an inspiration.

This has been a long journey, and the toughest academic challenge I have ever

faced. One person could never do this alone, so I thank all of the people who made

contributions to this project directly and indirectly this is as much theirs as mine. And I

thank them for believing in me!
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ......... .. ..................................................................... iii

LIST O F FIG U R E S ......................................................... ......... .. ............. viii

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... ix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................1

G lo ssary of T erm s ......................................................... ......................... .. 2
Early History of Theories on M otivation................................... ....................... 3
C ognitive E valuation T heory ............................................................. .....................5
Self-D eterm nation Theory ................................................... ................. ............... 10
Self-D eterm nation Research in Sport................................................. .................. 16
Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation .............. ..................19
A chievem ent G oal Theory....................................... ........................................... 27
Participation Motives From A Developmental Perspective ......................................30
Q ualitative R rationale ....................................... .................... .. .. .....................32
Philosophical Issues Related to Knowledge Construction in Sport Psychology.33
Need for New Theories of Motivation ...............................................35
R action ale ......... ................................... ...........................3 6
State ent of Purpose ......... ........................ .... ........ .... ...... ................. 37
Personal Interest .............................................................................. ........ .................. 37

2 M E T H O D S ........................................................................................................... 3 9

P a rtic ip a n ts ........................................................................................................... 3 9
Procedure ........................ ... ................. ..................... ........ 40
Purposeful Sampling and Theoretical Sampling ................. ................. ....40
Interview P procedures .............................................................4 1
Interview G uide D esign...................................................... 41
Member Checks ...... .................... ........ ... ........42
Data Analysis............................................ 43
Interviews and Data Transcription .......................................... 43
Line-by-Line Coding ...................... ......... ................43
Multiple Coders ......................... .......... .........44
In d ep en d en t A u d it ......................................................................................... 4 4









A x ia l C o d in g ................................................................................................. 4 5
C constant C om prison ................................................ .............................. 45
M e m o W ritin g ............................................................................................... 4 6

3 R E S U L T S .............................................................................4 8

H ow A athletes D efine M otivation.......................................... ........... ............... 49
H ow Athletes D efine Com petition ........................................ ......... ............... 50
Internal Sources of M otivation ........................................................ ............. 51
G o a ls .......................................................................................................... 5 1
Perform ance G oals ...................................... ...........................52
Seeing Im provem ent......... ...................................................... .. .... .... ..... 53
Fulfilling Personal N eeds .................................................. ............... .... 54
Feelings of Satisfaction and Accomplishment .......................................... 55
A n g e r ................................................................5 6
Something to Prove...................... ..................................57
O utlet for Stress/ A ggression........................................................... ............... 59
S p ort as an O u tlet .............. .. .. .............................................. .... ......... .. .. ..6 0
Escaping from Problem s through Sport ...................... ........................... ....60
Release of Emotional Energy through the Release of Physical Energy .............61
External Sources of M otivation........................................................ ............... 62
F am ily ................. ... ... ..........................................................................6 2
Initial Exposure to Sports ............................................................................. 62
Fam ily as a Support System ........................................ .......................... 63
F ath er a s C o a ch ............................................................................................. 6 4
Fam ily as a C onfidant.......... .............................................. .......... ........ 64
F rie n d s .............. ......... ....... ...................................6 5
M motivated by Friend's Participation................................................................ 65
Comparison and Competition between Friends ...............................................65
Team m ates and Team Atm osphere ........................................ ........................ 66
Team A aspects of Sport ................................................. ............................. 66
Camaraderie of the Team/ Team Atmosphere............ ................ .. ...............67
F riendship s and L oy alty ........................................................... .....................68
Shared G oals........................................................ 68
T eam m ate Su pp ort...................................................................... ...................69
T eam m ate E nthu siasm .............................................................. .....................70
Com peting against Team m ates....................................... ......................... 71
C om petitiv e N ature .............................. ........................ .. ........ .... ............7 1
E m barrassm ent ........................ ...... ................ ... .... ......... .. .... .. 72
Cheering on Teammates ........... .... ............... .................... 74
Contributing to Team Success.................................... ...................... 74
B eing Part of an Elite G roup ........................................ .......... ............... 74
Success of Teammates.......... .... ........... ...... ............... 75
Success of Team ........ ..... ..... ...... .................. ........ .. .............75
B eing a Leader to Team m ates ........................................ ......... ............... 76




v









C coach ................................ ........ .. .... ...................... .................. ....... 76
Setting up and Reinforcing Program Goals.............................. ...............76
Confidence in Coach's Knowledge .............. ..............................................77
Running Out of Time to Achieve Goals...........................................................78
Take A advantage of O opportunity ................................... .................................... 79
Coach's Confidence in A thlete....................................... ......................... 80
C oach as an E ncourager .............................................. ............. ............... 81
Coach as an Advisor ............................................ ........ .. ............ 82
H igh Expectations and Pressure ........................................ ........................... 82
Pressure from Self ............................................ .. ..... ................. 83
Pressure of R presenting Entity ................................. ...................................... 83
E expectations of C oaches........................................................................ ... ..... 83
Striving to Reach Personal Standards....................................... ............... 84
Striving to Reach Coach's Expectations .................................. ............... 84
Coach's Expectations too H igh ........................................ ....................... 85
B benefits of Participation .............................................................................86
T ra v e l ............................................................................................................. 8 6
M eet N ew People .......................... ............ ............... .... ....... 87
Fulfillm ent of Personal N eeds ................................... ............................. ....... 88
Physical H health B enefits........................................................... ............... 88
D evelopm ent of C onfidence................................................... ............... ............89
D evelopm ent of Life Skills ........................................ ........................... 90
C om petition .............................. ........... .... ....... ...... ........... ............ 90
Competing In Games/ Competing Against Others ......................................91
Com petition as M otivation for Practice ................................... .................92
B ein g th e B est................................................. ................ 9 5
E arly S u access ................................................ ................ 9 5
W in n in g .................................................. .................. ................ 9 6
B eing th e B est I C an B e ........................................................... .....................97
B ig G am e s ...................................................... ................ 9 8
P re-G am e M otivators.......... ........................................................ .... ...... .... .... 99
M u sic .............. ....................................................................... ...........99
Imagery ............ ......... ............................ 101
Em playing R religious B eliefs....................................... .......................... 102
Pre-C om petition R ituals ....................................... .............. ............... 103
Grounded Theory Fram work ............................................................................ 104

4 D IS C U S S IO N ............................................................................ 1 13

Study Limitations and Future Directions.................. ....... ..................... 121
A applied Im plications .............................................. .. .... ...... .. ... ............ 122

APPENDIX

A IN FORM ED CON SEN T .................................................................................... 138

B IN TERV IEW GU ID E I .................................................. .............................. 140









L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......................................................................... ................... 143

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................. ..................151
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1. M motivation continuum ............................ ........................................ ............. ..... 12

2. Hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation..................... ........ 24

3. Sources of motivation conceptual framework................................... ...............1. 24

4. Developmental model of sources of motivation to participate in sport ............... 137















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ATHLETES' SOURCES OF MOTIVATION TO
PARTICIPATE IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT USING GROUNDED
THEORY

By

Bradley Richard Langley

August 2005

Chair: Peter Giacobbi
Major Department: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology

How athletes are motivated is a question that has been explored since the infancy of

sport psychology. However, most of the current theories of sport motivation have been

adopted from other areas of psychology. We examined the predominant theories of sport

motivation including cognitive evaluation theory, self-determination theory, the

hierarchical model of motivation achievement goal theory We also examined studies

that have tested these theoretical frameworks are discussed. The sport psychology

literature needs more information on what motivates athletes and on new theories that

explain the motivation of athletes.

Therefore, the purpose of my study was to use grounded theory analytic procedures

to explore and assess National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes' and club athletes'

sources of motivation to participate in sport. A secondary purpose was to explore and

assess the participants' sources of motivation to compete in sport. Finally, a grounded

theory was inductively developed to explain how contextual features of the sport









environment influenced the participants' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward their

sport participation. We used this grounded theory to organize the participants' sources of

sport motivation which were influenced by environmental opportunities and significant

others such as coaches and family members.

Semi-structured interviews we conducted with 7 male and 7 female athletes who

participated in N.C.A.A. Division I/ collegiate athletics, or club-level sports. The

interviews were analyzed using grounded-theory analytic procedures. Results produced

two major overarching sources of motivation; internal and external. Higher order themes

that emerged as internal sources of motivation were goals, anger, and sport as an outlet

for stress and aggression. The higher order themes that were defined as external sources

of motivation were family, friends, team aspects of sport, coaches, pressure and high

expectations, benefits of participation, competition, and pre-competition motivators. All

of these themes were organized into a theoretical framework that helped define

relationships among the sources of motivation.

Finally we derived a grounded theory showing athletes' sources of motivation to

participate in sport from a developmental perspective was produced. Our findings

support ideas from the extant literature, however there were some contradictions.

Athletes in my study were found to have more external sources of motivation, including

competition, a factor that decreases motivation. Sources of motivation also differed for

athletes at the two competitive levels.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Michael Jordan built a reputation as one of the most complete players in

professional basketball. Yet at age 39, he was still playing in the NBA (Clarkson, 1999).

He played through injury and sickness and even scored 69 points in a game in which he

suffered severe symptoms from the flu. With little left to accomplish in the game of

basketball, and at the risk of tarnishing his stellar career, his motivation to play the sport

he loved did not dwindle. Any account of Michael Jordan's tremendous career is

incomplete without mention of his ferocious competitive spirit. Teammates and

opponents alike testify to his tireless, almost manic, drive to win on or off the court.

Instances of athletes who physically and mentally push themselves to the brink of

their human potential in the name of competition are common. Over the past 60 years,

the type of drive that enables a person to excel in the face of adversity, or propels him or

her to overcome performance obstacles has been extensively debated and analyzed in a

large number of research studies (Deci, 1972; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Freud, 1969;

Vallerand, 1997; White, 1959). While manifested in many forms, motivation has been

loosely defined as an internal or external force that causes a specific behavior to occur

and persist (Vallerand & Thill, 1993). My study focused on the motivational forces that

sustain long-term participation in competitive sport and physical activity settings.

We reviewed the literature to summarize research progress in the area of

motivation. We specifically examined cognitive evaluation theory (Deci, 1972), self-

determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the Hierarchical model of motivation









(Vallerand, 1997), Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1984, 1989) and studies that have

tested these theoretical frameworks. We also examined measurement issues in current

research (Harwood, 2002; Petruzzello, 2001), a push within the field to expand

acceptable methods for knowledge construction (Hoshand & Polkinghorn, 1992;

Martens, 1987), and current debates on theories of motivation (Harwood & Hardy, 2001;

Harwood, Hardy, & Swain, 2000; Treasure et al., 2001).

Glossary of Terms

We developed a list of terms and definitions used in our study. These terms are

used throughout the remainder of this thesis.


* Axial coding: The process of relating categories to their subcategories, termed
"axial" because coding occurs around the axis of a category, linking categories at
the level of properties and dimensions (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Coding: The analytic processes through which data are fractured, conceptualized,
and integrated to form theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Dimensionalizing: The process of organizing data to better understand the
relationships and characteristics within and among higher-order themes and
categories (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Grounded theory: Theory that was derived from data taken directly from participant
interviews. The data are analyzed and organized into a framework that explains
relationships between major and minor themes in the text (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Open coding: The analytic process through which concepts are identified and their
properties and dimensions are discovered in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Qualitative research: Any type of research that produces findings not arrived at by
statistical procedures or other means of quantification (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

* Theoretical sampling: Sampling on the basis of emerging concepts, with the aim
being to explore the dimensional range or varied conditions along which the
properties of concepts vary (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).









Early History of Theories on Motivation

Research on the topic of motivation progressed from two separate schools of

thought in general psychology. The first (psychoanalytic instinct theory) was proposed

by Freud (1969) who held a mechanistic view of individuals. According to Freud (1969),

people play a passive role in their interaction with the environment, and are guided by

basic instincts (e.g.,, hunger, thirst). In a second conceptualization of motivation framed

by White (1959), people were portrayed as active members in constant interaction with

their surroundings. White (1959) said that individuals were propelled by instinct to act,

and also guided by a natural curiosity and propensity to learn and explore, which he

labeled competence. The idea of an internally fueled cognitive tendency toward

discovery led to the concept of intrinsic motivation (White, 1959).


Intrinsic motivation involves the performance of an activity for the enjoyment and

fulfillment derived solely from participation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Ryan and Deci (2000)

consider intrinsic motivation an idealistic manifestation of the human propensity toward

learning and creativity. Simply stated, an intrinsically motivated athlete plays purely for

the joy of the game. An individual's enjoyment (which contributes to the maintenance of

intrinsic motivation) is contingent solely on participation in the activity. Intrinsic

motivation is self-sufficient; therefore if one participates in an activity for intrinsic

reasons one is inclined toward further participation. Continued participation in turn

increases intrinsic motivation to participate in the activity (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Intrinsic

motivation is considered the most beneficial type of motivation because of an

individual's internal locus of control. When motives for participation are fully integrated

into the value system of an individual (intrinsic motivation), that person is likely to put









forth greater effort for longer periods of time (Ryan & Connell, 1989). These actions are

positive bi-products of an individual being internally motivated.

Research in a broad spectrum of contexts has explored the dimensions of intrinsic

motivation. Fields such as psychology, business, and education linked this internal

driving force to a variety of positive behaviors. For example, Lawler and Hall (1970)

tested laboratory scientists' job-involvement attitudes, higher-order-need satisfaction

attitudes, and intrinsic motivation attitudes. Results linked intrinsically motivated

attitudes with characteristics such as prolonged effort and increased performance. Also

in the business context, a study by Meir (1972) investigated job persistence of women in

Israel according to the fulfillment of intrinsic and extrinsic needs. Fulfillment of intrinsic

needs was highly correlated with persistence in a single occupation.

Creativity is another positive factor associated with high levels of intrinsic

motivation. A study by Krop (1969) compared the creativity of college students

categorized as high, medium, and low in intrinsic motivation. High intrinsic motivation

was closely correlated to high levels of creativity. Moneta and Siu (2002) found a greater

propensity for creativity while engaged in a writing task for students high in intrinsic

motivation than for students more extrinsically focused.

Intrinsic motivation has also been linked to elevated performance and productivity.

A study by Yip and Chung (2002) identified significantly higher levels of trait intrinsic

motivation in high academic achievers when compared to the dispositions of their lower

achievement counterparts. Conversely, Struman and Thibodeau (2001) found a positive

correlation between decreased intrinsic motivation and decreased performance in free

agent baseball players.









Finally, feelings of satisfaction were observed to be indicative of community

volunteers who displayed high levels of intrinsic motivation in a longitudinal study by

Davis, Hall, and Meyer (2003). Likewise, Hirschfeld (2000) found correlations in job

satisfaction and intrinsic motivation while testing a revised version of the Minnesota

Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, & England, 1967). The research listed above,

gives further credence to a view of intrinsic motivation as an ideal driving force behind

activities.

Expanding on the ideas put forth by Freud (1969) and White (1959), Deci (1972)

completed experiments on motivation that analyzed the affects of the extrinsic rewards

(i.e., money and positive feedback) on intrinsic motivation. The results of those

experiments demonstrated a decrease in intrinsic motivation when a monetary (external)

reward was tied to an activity. In contrast, when positive reinforcement was applied in

the form of verbal feedback, intrinsic motivation increased. In light of these findings,

Deci (1972) was inclined to propose an alternative perspective than that of either White

(1959), or Freud (1969). Guided by the empirical data gathered from his own study,

Deci (1972) ushered in a new theoretical framework structured around a cognitive

approach. The new theory, called Cognitive Evaluation theory, focused on the nature and

type of the extrinsic reward as predictors of intrinsic motivation. Included in Cognitive

Evaluation theory was ideas about the nature of intrinsic motivation and conditions in

which intrinsic motivation would flourish and diminish. The focus of this review will

now turn to more cognitively oriented theories of motivation.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Cognitive Evaluation theory (Deci, 1972) advanced motivation research in two

ways. First, Cognitive Evaluation theory identified factors and conditions such as task









non-contingent rewards, task contingent rewards, performance contingent rewards, and

competitively contingent rewards that affect intrinsic motivation. The second innovation

was the ability of the theory to predict and describe how an individual's interpretation of

these factors would affect motivation.

The first major tenet of Cognitive Evaluation theory describes four types of

contingent rewards that affect intrinsic motivation (Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983). The

first, task non-contingent rewards, are received for participating in an activity,

independent of performance. For instance, a puzzle solving activity in which everyone

gets a dollar simply for participating would be considered a task non-contingent reward.

A second type of reward, task contingent, refers to rewards received for completing

a task. It is important to note that payment of a task contingent reward does not take into

account the quality of completion. Building on the previous example, a contingent

reward would be receiving a dollar only after the puzzle was completed not simply

attempted (Deci, 1972).

A reward given when a specified level of achievement is met would be considered

a performance contingent reward. Giving a two-dollar prize for each puzzle completed

within a designated time frame would be an example of a performance contingent reward.

This type of reward varies in size depending on the success of the participant. Success

and competence can easily be assessed through the comparison to norms or set standards

through this type of award system (Ryan et al., 1983).

The final type of contingent reward was defined as a competitively contingent

reward. Also called a zero-sum reward, this form of compensation is dependent on

winning while in direct competition with other participants. For instance, receiving five









dollars for being the first competitor to successfully complete four puzzles would be

considered a competitively contingent reward (Pritchard, Campbell, & Campbell, 1977).

The second major conceptual component of Cognitive Evaluation theory involves

the explanation of the cognitive processes, which determine the impact of the previously

outlined reward scenarios on intrinsic motivation. Deci and Ryan (1980) coined the

terms informational or controlling to describe the two ways a reward can be interpreted.

Any award or communication that is construed as feedback indicative of competence

would be considered informational and thus lead to feelings of intrinsic motivation.

Conversely, rewards identified as controlling cause feelings of external pressure to act or

perform to meet outside expectations and lead to decrements in intrinsic motivation. An

example of how a reward can be interpreted as either informational or controlling might

be an athlete who is elected captain of the volleyball team. An award of this nature could

be construed by the athlete to mean that she possesses leadership qualities worthy of

respect from teammates and coaches (e.g.,, competence). In this case, the player may feel

encouraged to continue or step up effort. However, the athlete might feel that the role of

team captain has been forced upon her meaning that she must now conform to others'

expectations about what a team captain should be (e.g.,, controlling). Interpreting the

situation in this way could cause decreases in the athlete's motivation to work hard and

display leadership. From a cognitive evaluation theory perspective there are clear

individual differences in how individuals perceive and interpret rewards and information

about their performance and/or competence.

There have been numerous studies that have examined the relationship between

contingent rewards and intrinsic motivation. For example, Ryan, Mims, and Koestner









(1983) examined the relationship between informational and controlling performance-

contingent rewards of college psychology students (N=96) on hidden figure puzzles.

Results from the experiment revealed that performance-contingent rewards undermine

intrinsic motivation when contrasted to the control group (no feedback/ no reward). The

data also lent support for the hypothesis predicting controlling feedback and controlling

rewards would deplete intrinsic motivation when compared to informational feedback

and rewards. A third significant finding was that informationally transmitted feedback

and rewards enhanced intrinsic motivation, while controlling and task-contingent rewards

did not increase intrinsic motivation. The key finding of this study was that an

individuals' interpretation of rewards predicted whether that reward would undermine, or

enhance intrinsic motivation.

Strong empirical support for many aspects of Cognitive Evaluation theory has

influenced research in a variety of areas of psychology. Leadership (Charbanneau,

Barling, & Kelloway, 2001), coaching style (Goudas, Biddle, Fox, & Underwood, 1995;

Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini, 1989), education and teaching style (Black & Deci,

2000; Flink, Goggiano, & Barrett, 1990; Grolnick & Ryan, 1987), physical activity

(Kavussanu & Roberts, 1996), and sport (Alexandris, Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002;

Baric, Erpic, & Babic, 2002) have all adapted Cognitive Evaluation theory into their

frame of reference.

The broad range of research mentioned above has provided support for the nature

of intrinsic motivation outlined in Cognitive Evaluation theory (Deci, 1972). The role

that intrinsic motivation and competition play within the context of sport and physical

activity represents an important area of interest within the field of sport psychology. One









study by Vallerand, Gauvin, and Halliwell (1986) lends strong support to Cognitive

Evaluation theory by showing competition to be detrimental to intrinsic motivation as

well as competence. Vallerand et al. (1986) examined the effects of competition on the

intrinsic motivation and competence of 5th and 6th grade Canadian boys (N = 26).

Participants were randomly selected into conditions of winning or losing a contrived

competition. The participants were then tested on a stabilometer motor task. Each

participant was told that their times were being compared to other children their age and

if their overall time was better than the preexisting best score they would receive a

reward of one dollar. One group of participants was told that they achieved the best score

(winning) and were rewarded with the dollar. The second group of children was told

their times were not better than the established best score (losing) and did not receive the

dollar. The experimenter then left the room and the children were told that they could

spend time however they wanted (a "free choice period"). Measures of intrinsic

motivation were two fold. First, intrinsic motivation was measured by how much time

was spent on the stabilometer during the "free choice period." The second measure of

intrinsic motivation was an initial choice measure in which the students were observed to

see if they went to the stabilometer first, or did other things first. Competence was

measured using the Perceived Competence Scale (PCS; Harter, 1982). Results revealed

that the winning group had a higher score on the initial choice measurement, and spent

significantly more time engaged in the stabilometer task during the free choice period.

Both of these measures supported the hypothesis that the winning group would be more

intrinsically motivated than the losing group. Data analysis from the PCS also indicated

the losing group perceived themselves as less competent than the winning group.









Cognitive Evaluation theory contributed valuable insight about the role perceptions

of rewards play in establishing and maintaining intrinsic motivation. However, ideas put

forth by Deci (1972) could not account for extrinsic motives for participation. For

instance, a basketball player who plays on the team because of pressure from his father

has motives that extend outside of his pure enjoyment of the game. In light of this need

to expand the limited scope of Cognitive Evaluation theory, Deci and Ryan (1985)

introduced Self-determination theory, which viewed motivation as a multidimensional

construct.

Self-Determination Theory

Building upon previous research, Deci and Ryan (1985) outlined Self-

determination theory, a two-part theory, which incorporated the ideas posited by

Cognitive Evaluation theory. The purpose behind the Self-determination theory

framework was two fold. First, was the necessity to develop a cognitive behavioral

theory that took into account individual's motives derived from external as well as

internal sources. The second reason arose from the need to understand in more depth the

cognitive processes that mediated individual's interpretation of the environment.

Therefore, Self-determination theory made two major advancements beyond Cognitive

Evaluation theory. The first was the recognition of three distinct types of motivation:

intrinsic, extrinsic, and motivation. The relationship between these three types of

motivation was predicted to exist along a continuum. The second advancement was to

identify the fulfillment of three needs, namely competence, autonomy, and relatedness, as

important predictors of motivation. These two advancements will be elaborated on

below.









The construct of motivation possesses such an array of meaning that having a

theory that encompasses a multitude of aspects was paramount. The introduction of Self-

determination theory not only explained intrinsically motivated actions, but also

accounted for motives that lay outside the individual's own value system (extrinsic), as

well as non-motivated behavior. The extended framework enabled researchers to explore

motivation in a larger variety of circumstances and environments (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

As discussed earlier, intrinsic motivation refers to taking part in an activity purely

for the enjoyment of the activity itself. Purely self-determined action represents the ideal

expression of an individual's desire to experience and learn about his or her surroundings

(Deci & Ryan, 2000). Actions, intrinsic in nature, were posited to be highly autonomous,

and exist on one polar end of the motivation continuum. In the middle of the continuum

were extrinsic actions, which involve performance of an activity in order to attain some

external reward, or as a means to an end (Deci & Ryan, 1985). For example, professional

football players often leave one team because they can make more money playing for

another. Their action is prompted by the desire for greater external rewards and therefore

viewed as externally motivated.

At the far end of the continuum were motivated actions. Deci and Ryan (1985)

defined motivation as the lack of desire to perform. Most commonly described as

"going through the motions," a person experiencing the effects of motivation either does

not perform, or puts fourth very little effort toward completion of tasks. Athletes who

continually feel their effort, the strategies they employ, or a combination of the two, will

make no difference in the outcome of their activities, would be classified as motivated.

In fact, previous research has shown that athletes who experienced motivation for









extended periods of time also suffered performance deterioration and feelings of

helplessness (Flink, Boggiano, & Barrett, 1990).

Researchers using Self-determination theory organized these three forms of

motivation into a system that could identify the motives of an individual by the degree of

autonomy felt by the actor (Deci & Ryan, 2000). As shown in Figure 1, Self-

determination theory posits that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and

motivation exist on a continuum of decreasing autonomy. At one extreme is pure

intrinsic motivation, representing an entirely self-determined or freely chosen action. A

volleyball player who is experiencing intrinsic motivation might participate in practice

because he or she really enjoys learning and understanding new strategies. At the

midpoint of the continuum is extrinsic motivation. Actions falling into this region are

posited to be initiated by factors that exist outside the locus of the actor. For example, a

player who's motivation to participate in a sport comes from the desire to attain the

notoriety that comes to professional athletes is driven by extrinsic motivation. Actions

with little or no autonomy lay at the polar opposite end of the continuum from intrinsic

motivation, and are categorized under the label motivation. Amotivation might occur, if

a basketball player feels no amount of practice can supply the type of skill he or she

needs to compete with a particular opponent.


TM EM AM



Decreasing Autonomy

Figure 1. Motivation continuum

The second advancement Self-determination theory made over Cognitive

Evaluation theory was to identify the fulfillment of three needs as important predictors of









motivation. Self-determination theory theorizes that all actions fall somewhere on the

motivation continuum depending on the degree of fulfillment of the need for perceived

competence, autonomy and relatedness. Within the Self-determination theory

framework, an individual can only develop interpersonally and experience successful

interactions in social settings when he or she possesses high personal perceived

competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Frederick-Recascino, 2002; Ryan & Deci,

2000). In other words, an individual who feels he or she has the skills necessary to meet

the demands of a task, feels ownership in the outcome, and perceives support from family

and friends, is likely to feel high intrinsic motivation toward that activity. The above

aspects of Self-determination theory will be more extensively discussed in the subsequent

paragraphs.

Competence refers to the belief that one has the necessary skills to accomplish a

given task (Deci & Ryan, 1985). A person with high-perceived competence feels they

have an adequate amount of skill or ability to achieve a desired outcome. Self-

determination theory posits that facilitation of competency by using positive feedback for

a particular task will result in higher levels of integration (Deci & Ryan, 1995). For

example, a football player who feels that he does not have enough ability and skill to

compete with the other players at his position would be considered to have low perceived

competence. If a coach compliments the athlete on his work ethic, then the player may

begin to see himself as more competent because of the positive feedback from the coach.

Autonomy refers to the degree to which a person feels they have control over the

outcome of an activity. It also pertains to how much ownership a person takes in an

activity (Deci & Ryan, 1985). When the source of motivation behind action comes from









within, one experiences the highest levels of autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2002). Take for

instance the football player from the above example. If he felt that being a starter for the

upcoming season was extremely important he might feel highly autonomous about

putting in extra time during the off-season to reach his goal. However, the athlete may

also experience very low feelings of autonomy during off-season workouts if the goal of

being a starter was brought about by the fear of disappointing a coach or parents.

Finally, relatedness is defined as the need to belong and feel connected with others

(e.g.,, family, friends). Relatedness is considered an important factor when looking at the

internalization of extrinsically motivated behaviors because fulfillment of this need is a

tremendous predictor of internalization. Ryan and Deci (2000) hypothesized that

relatedness becomes a mediating variable in motivation because the perceived value of

behaviors typically stems from the prompting or value system of significant others. An

illustration of this comes from the previous example with the football player who wanted

to be a starter because he felt pressure to assimilate the values of others deemed

important, in this case a coach or parents. Therefore, he adopted and internalized others'

goals to fulfill his own need for relatedness.

Internalization of behavior is an important part of Self-determination theory. A

behavior is said to be internalized when it is recognized as important, and taken into

one's own value system. Often internalization refers to the assimilation of goals, ideas,

or beliefs from an outside source. Integration alludes to the prioritization of the external

values into a personal value, and is a key to understanding motivated behaviors (Ryan &

Deci, 2000).









The central concept behind motivation is that for action to occur, the activity must

have some degree of importance to the individual. If an activity were not important, then

there would be no action. It is easy to see that even the least self-determined (externally

regulated) activities must have some degree of identification and integration. The level to

which integration and identification take place depends on the degree to which a person

perceives his or her own competence, autonomy, and relatedness. These three needs are

considered the primary contributors to the internalization of activities, especially those

that fall in the extrinsic motivation zone of the motivation continuum. As the extrinsic

value of an action becomes more internalized and integrated, the motivation of that action

becomes more intrinsic in nature (Deci & Ryan, 2000).

Each of the determinants (e.g.,, competence, autonomy, relatedness), when

increased or decreased, causes a slide to the left or right of the motivation continuum,

based on whether the three needs are being more or less fulfilled. Take for example the

football player who had the extrinsically motivated goal to become a starter on the team.

If the hard work during the off-season paid off and his goal was reached, he may have

more perceived competence because he demonstrated enough skill to win the job. He

may also have experienced higher levels of autonomy due to the satisfaction he gained

from accomplishing his goal through his own efforts. The athlete would also likely

perceive more relatedness with his coaches, parents, and teammates due to his successful

integration and internalization of their expectations. According to Self-determination

theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), experiencing higher perceptions of competence, autonomy,

and relatedness would mean that the motivation of the athlete would shift from a less









self-determined form of motivation (extrinsic motivation) to a more intrinsic type of

motivation.

As previously discussed, Self-determination theory's multidimensional view of

motivation has a great deal of explanatory power. The ability to predict behavior by

understanding the sources of motivation has broad reaching implication in many fields.

One context where the Self-determination theory research has been applied is sport. The

ensuing paragraphs discuss some of the pertinent studies, which have used Self-

determination theory as the guiding framework.

Self-Determination Research in Sport

In the context of sport, researchers have studied Self-determination theory to

examine the role of motivation as it pertains to athlete's perceptions of their athletic

scholarships as controlling versus competence supporting (Vallerand, 2000). According

to Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), an award can be either perceived as

promoting competence in which case intrinsic motivation would increase, or perceived to

be controlling, in which case intrinsic motivation would decrease. For example, a study

by Ryan (1977) investigated the intrinsic motivation of collegiate male football players

by verbally surveying them about their interest and enjoyment of playing sport. Ryan

(1977) posited that scholarship athletes would have lower levels of intrinsic motivation

than non-scholarship players. Results from the study lent support to the hypothesis that

rewards decrease intrinsic motivation.

A follow up study (Ryan, 1980) extended previous research by comparing the

intrinsic motivation of scholarship and non-scholarship male athletes from both football

and wrestling, and female athletes from various other sports. The results indicated that

non-scholarship football players had higher intrinsic motivation than their teammates on









scholarship. However, the scholarship athletes from all of the female sports, and the male

athletes from the wrestling team reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation than the

non-scholarship athletes in their respective sports. According to Ryan (1980) the

contrary results were due to differing perceptions of the reward (scholarship). Ryan

(1980) hypothesized that since fewer scholarships were awarded to male and female

athletes in their respective sports, they perceived their scholarships as positive feedback

about competence. In high-profile sports such as football, the athletes tended to feel that

there were more scholarships given out within the team; therefore, a scholarship was not

perceived as proof of competence. In contrast, athletes in lower-profile sports such as

wrestling and most women's athletics at the time of the study, scholarships were viewed

as evidence of competence, because within their respective team, fewer were given out.

More recently, Amrose and Horn (2000) tested the hypothesis of Ryan (1980) by

assessing whether intrinsic motivation of scholarship and non-scholarship athletes' from

a broad range of sports varied as a function of their perception of the number of athletes

on their team receiving scholarships. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI; McAuley

& Tammen, 1989) was used to assess the athletes' intrinsic motivation. The results

indicated that athletes on scholarship had significantly higher intrinsic motivation than

non-scholarship athletes, which refutes previous research (Ryan 1977, 1980) stating

athletic scholarships undermine intrinsic motivation. The authors (Amrose & Horn,

2000) suggested the discrepant findings might be due to two major differences between

the two studies. First, the sample used in the Amrose and Horn (2000) study consisted of

athletes from a broader range of sports than the E. Ryan (1977, 1980) studies. Second,

the instrumentation used to measure intrinsic motivation in the Ryan (1977, 1980) studies









was different than that used by Amrose and Horn (2000). Ryan (1977, 1980) verbally

interviewed the participants, asking a series of survey questions about athlete's

enjoyment and interest in their respective sport, while Amrose and Horn (2000)

employed the IMI (McAuley & Tammen, 1989).

Another facet of the sporting context to which Self-determination theory has been

applied involves the role of motivation as it pertains to athletic performance. For

instance, Chantal, Guay, Dobreva-Martinova, and Vallerand (1996) compared the types

of motivation of medal winning and non-medal winning elite Bulgarian athletes. In

alignment with Self-determination theory, Chantal et al. (1996) hypothesized that the

medal winning performers would display lower levels of intrinsic motivation and higher

levels of extrinsic motivation and motivation than the less successful athletes. The

athletes (N=98) were given the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS;

Briere, Vallerand, Blais, & Pelletier, 1995), which was based on the tenets of Self-

determination theory, and employed a multidimensional view of motivation. The results

from the study (Chantal et al., 1996) partially supported the stated hypothesis. While the

findings indicated the most successful athletes exhibited higher levels of non self-

determined motivation than the less successful competitors, no significant differences

were found in the levels of intrinsic motivation between the two groups. Chantal, Guay,

Dobreva-Martinova, and Vallerand (1996) attributed the contrary findings to the

possibility that athletes' motivations were a bi-product of socialization of participants

through a communist reward system. Chantal et al. (1996) surmised that the data

supported a proposal by Fortier, Vallerand, Briere, and Provencher (1995) to extend Self-

determination theory to include situational factors as elements that foster non self-









determined forms of motivation. Fortier et al's. (1995) predictions have important

implications for my study and therefore will be discussed later in this review.

The introduction of concepts embedded in Self-determination theory, such as the

previously described motivation continuum, has led to a more complete understanding of

the complexity of motivation. Likewise, the identification of competence, autonomy, and

relatedness has supplied a conceptual framework for the processes individuals use to

mediate self-determined action. Recently, Vallerand (1997) recognized the need to break

down motivation into distinct levels according to their overall impact on the individual.

Vallerand (1997, 2000) proposed the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic

Motivation as an extension to the basic components of Self-determination theory (Deci &

Ryan, 1985) into three levels of generality. The focus will now turn to the Vallerand's

theory of motivation.

Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

While there is much support for Self-determination theory, many felt that a larger,

more extensive framework was needed in order to more completely understand

motivation. Vallerand (1997, 2000) modified the ideas of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000),

and extended them into the three-tier model that is shown in Figure 2. The Hierarchical

model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997; Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002)

revolves around five basic assumptions.

The first, labeled Postulate 1, states that any comprehensive assessment of

motivation must consider all three types of motivation, intrinsic, extrinsic, and

motivation. Postulate 1 reiterates the importance of adopting Deci and Ryan's (1985)

perspective by examining all three forms of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, and

motivation. When viewed as a multidimensional construct, motivation can cover an









extremely broad range of purposeful action. For instance, an athlete who normally

exhibits great effort during practice may be fueled by internal or external sources. The

motives for an abrupt change in the player's efforts may not be able to be explained

simply by viewing his or her motivation from one perspective.

Postulate 2 of the Hierarchical Model posits that motivation must be viewed as

existing on three levels of generality, global, contextual, and situational (Vallerand,

1997). The global level is considered a trait level of motivation, the semi-permanent

disposition of individuals toward all activities. The Hierarchical Model proposed by

Vallerand views global motivation as the propensity of individuals to engage in activities

with either an intrinsic or extrinsic orientation (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001). Simply

put, global motivation is indicative of the rewards a person receives from his or her

everyday activities (Figure 2). If an athlete tends to participate in mostly interesting

tasks, then likely he or she has a more globally intrinsic disposition. Inversely, an

individual who gravitates toward rewarded activities or situations where recognition is

inherent may have a more extrinsic global orientation. One could consider global

motivation as a function of personality.

The Hierarchical Model identifies a second level from which motivation can exist;

the contextual level. Vallerand's model predicts multiple life contexts for which a person

can have separate feelings of motivation. For example, education, work environment,

personal relationships, and sport are all individual contexts within a person's life.

Hierarchical Model predicts that within each of these individual aspects of life, separate

levels of motivation exist (Figure 2). For instance, a person may feel extremely

intrinsically motivated when they play sports because they participate solely for









recreation and enjoyment. The same person might feel coerced, and extrinsically

motivated toward their work context, because they feel their only purpose for being there

is so they can pay rent and buy food. The above hypothetical situation is a simplistic

demonstration of one person having multiple motivations toward separate contexts in

their life (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001).

The third level of generality outlined by Hierarchical Model is the situational level.

State feelings of motivation, which are time and place specific are considered situational

(Figure 2). Whereas global motivation was very stable and consistent, situational

motivation changes constantly according to how the individual feels about what he or she

is doing at that exact moment. For instance, a female soccer player might globally feel

intrinsically motivated. The same player might also feel intrinsically motivated toward

the context of soccer practice while one particular part of practice, possibly conditioning,

may be perceived in a different manner. Thus, her situational motivation during that part

of practice may be extrinsic for that day.

Postulates 3 makes three predictions about motivation. The first states that

motivation is determined by social factors that exist in the environment surrounding an

individual. Determinants such as place of residence, motivational climate (Lloyd & Fox,

1992), the interactional style a coach utilizes with athletes (Deci & Ryan, 1987), and

sport structure (Fortier, Vallerand, Briere, & Provencher, 1995) are all considered social

factors that potentially influence motivation. Corollary 3.1 predicts social factors can be

global, contextual, or situational, and affect the corresponding level of generality. For

example, the place where an athlete lives could be considered a global social factor









impacting global motivation because a residence can affect virtually every facet of life

for that athlete (Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002).

The second hypothesis found in Postulate 3 predicts that perceptions of

competence, autonomy, and relatedness mediate the impact social factors have on

motivation (Corollary 3.2). This postulate highlights the role that internal needs play in

interpreting the impact social factors have on motivation. An example of this might be an

athlete who lives in a home that is supportive of his/her efforts on the field of play. That

environment could increase the athlete's perceptions of competence, autonomy, and

relatedness, which in turn increase their intrinsic motivation toward the sport context.

The last prediction Postulate 3 makes is outlined by Corollary 3.3, which states that

motivation can be affected by a top-down interaction from the proximally higher level of

generality. In other words, the type of global motivation (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) a person

possesses has an impact on motivation in the different contexts of life and in specific

situations within those contexts (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001). To demonstrate the chain

reaction effects posited by Corollary 3.3 imagine a softball player who is having

problems getting along with her parents. An overarching factor such as difficulty at

home may affect the global motivation of the athlete. Prolonged unrest at home may

begin to influence her desire to be part of the softball team. Her curbed motivation

toward the context of sport could in turn, cause friction with the coach when she does not

put forth her usual effort during conditioning. The top-down effects predicted by

Corollary 3.3 outline an important characteristic of motivation previously not accounted

for by motivation theories such as Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985).









Like Postulate 3, Postulate 4 identifies interactions among the three levels of

generality. The Hierarchical model (Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002; Vallerand & Rousseau,

2001) posits a bottom-up effect on motivation from lower levels of generality to the level

immediately above (Postulate 4). Vallerand and Rousseau (2001) suggest incidents that

occur on the situational level could over time have an impact on contextual motivation,

and possibly global disposition. An instance where this might occur would be a sprinter

who continually has problems beating opponents in big races. Situational social factors

such as competition, which are inherent in sport, can interfere with performance and

erode situational competence. If the athlete continues to have problems at the situational

level his or her motivation toward the context of sport could be affected. Within the sport

context, motivation may grow and the athlete may decide to quit racing all together.

Postulate 4 of Hierarchical Model predicts that eventually, global motivation could be

impacted.

From a Hierarchical Model perspective, every action has some sort of outcome or

consequence one one's motivation. Hierarchical Model categorizes outcomes into three

classifications: affective (enjoyment), cognitive (high levels of concentration), and

behavioral (persistence in an activity). Postulate 5 describes the nature of consequences

of the different types of motivation.














I HfERARCHICA LEVELS OF AoTIVA T IO


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First, Corollary 5.1 hypothesizes the increasingly negative consequences of motivation as

it moves across the continuum from intrinsic to motivation. For instance, the previously

discussed Vallerand et al. (1986) study used behavioral consequences to determine the

type of motivation children experienced during a stabilometer task. Children high in

intrinsic motivation toward the task spent a greater amount of free time doing the activity,

than children who were extrinsically motivated to participate. In the described case,

positive behavioral consequences (persistence) were correlated with highly self-

determined forms of motivation. Corollary 5.2 attributes consequences at a particular

level of generality to be indicative of the motivation at the same level of generality

(Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002). Simply stated, global, contextual, and situational

motivation will best predict consequences at their respective level.

The Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997)

framework envelops a broad spectrum of motivational aspects. The theory's flexibility to

make predictions about factors which affect motivation, as well as outcomes of motivated

action that make Hierarchical Model a valuable asset to the field of sport psychology.

One facet of the model of particular interest to the context of sport is Corollary 3.1.

Corollary 3.1 of the Hierarchical Model predicts social factors, which exist at each

of the three levels of generality, influence motivation at the corresponding level

(Vallerand, 2000). One important factor identified by Hierarchical Model, which could

play an important role within the context of sport is sport structure. According to

Vallerand and Rousseau (2001), athletes who participate in sport leagues in which high

levels of competition are encouraged (i.e., college and professional sports), are likely to

experience decreases in intrinsic motivation. The above hypothesis has only been tested









in two studies (Cornelius, Silva, & Molotsky, 1991; Fortier, Vallerand, Briere, &

Provencher, 1995), with only the latter being published.

Fortier et al. (1995) assessed and compared the motivation levels of 221

competitive and recreational intramural French Canadian college student athletes for

differences in motivation between sport structures. The intrinsic motivation levels of

each participant were assessed using the French version of the SMS (Briere et al., 1995).

This validated measure of motivation has 7 subscales that measure the types of

motivation suggested by Cognitive Evaluation theory, (e.g.,, 3 types of intrinsic

motivation, 3 types of extrinsic motivation, and motivationn. Results from the study

indicated competitive athletes have lower intrinsic motivation toward their sport activity

than intramural participants. The data also supported predictions made by Cognitive

Evaluation theory and Self-determination theory about competition as a situational factor

that undermines intrinsic motivation. One finding, which was contrary to expectations,

suggested competitive athletes' demonstrated higher identified regulation (a self-

determined form of extrinsic motivation) than their recreational counterparts. Fortier et

al. (1995) speculated that the reason competitive sport athletes felt more identified

regulation than recreational athletes was due to long term goals set by athletes in a

competitive sport structure.

As previously discussed, little research has been done on the social and contextual

factors that might influence motivation within a structured sport environment. However,

another perspective on motivation, achievement goal theory (Duda, 1992; Nicholls,

1984), has been applied to the investigation of competitive sport structures, as well as

individual's approaches to competition. Achievement goal theory has received









considerable research attention in the sport psychology literature, and this literature

review will now focus on this perspective.

Achievement Goal Theory

Achievement goal theory, put forth by Nicholls (1984) and elaborated on by Duda

(1992), uses a divergent line of thinking from Self-determination theory and the

hierarchical model. While Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and

Hierarchical Model (Vallerand, 1997) freely use the terms intrinsic and extrinsic

motivation, achievement goal theory ascribes the terms task and ego to define motives

behind activity involvement. Achievement goal theory predicts cognitive, affective, and

behavioral responses by examining how individuals subjectively define success or failure

in a given context (Duda & Hall, 2001). Nicholls (1984, 1989) proposed that individuals

give meaning to their actions in any achievement context (e.g.,, the academics, athletics,

business) by the goals they endorse. These goals are directly linked to the beliefs of the

person about ability, and manifest into a global or trait disposition toward achievement.

Nicholls (1984, 1989) posits conceptions about ability and competence stem from

either a differentiated or undifferentiated view of success. An individual whose view of

ability is undifferentiated (task-oriented) assumes applying high effort to an activity will

result in more learning therefore improving competence. In contrast, a person with a

differentiated (ego-oriented) conception of ability believes effort can only increase

performance up to the limit of their present capacity.

A task-oriented action is performed due to the belief that effort and competence

maintain a direct relationship. An athlete successfully fulfills a task-oriented goal when

he or she feels that effort will directly impact his or her goal of competence development

and mastery (Ames, 1992). An ego-oriented goal describes intentions of an individual to









display superior competence to others. For example, an athlete acting with a task-goal

perspective would feel successful while engaging in a jump- shooting drill when he or

she becomes more comfortable with the particular shot being practiced. In the converse,

someone taking part in the same drill with ego-oriented involvement would only feel

successful if he exhibited more skill than others who were participating, or equal skill

with less effort.

Achievement goal orientations are not only viewed as a global construct, but can

also be applied to a specific context. Similar to Hierarchical Model of motivation

(Vallerand, 1997), task and ego goals can exist in separate facets of the life of an

individual. Achievement motivation in sport situations is a widely studied area (Nicholls,

1989; Ames, 1992).

Research examining achievement goal orientations in sport and physical activity

has identified differing behavioral consequences between task and ego orientations. For

instance, a study by Lochbaum and Roberts (1993) found that high school athletes with a

task orientation focused on adaptive achievement strategies (e.g.,, focus on task mastery,

prolonged engagement, exertion of effort), whereas ego-oriented athletes tended to

employ more maladaptive achievement strategies (e.g.,, reduced effort, selection of easy

tasks, give up more quickly).

An ego-goal perspective can prove to be a double edged sword, depending on the

strategy employed to prove competence (Covington, 1992). For example, a player could

exhibit superior competence by outperforming his peers in the activity (i.e., winning); but

an outcome goal such as this, with an external locus, cannot always be controlled by one

single individual because of the myriad factors involved in an athletic competition. A









maladaptive strategy an athlete might use to demonstrate overt competence involves an

individual displaying comparable ability to others in the game without appearing to apply

as much effort (Duda & Hall, 2001). Ego-goals such as this have obvious dangerous

consequences in terms of an athlete giving effort no matter the game situation.

Another line of inquiry that has been addressed in the literature is the nature of the

sport as a social environment. Social situational factors within a particular context

influence an athlete's states of task and ego involvement, as well as the perception an

athlete has of his or her environment (White & Duda, 1994). A variety of factors such as

relationships with coaches and teammates, perception of the motivational climate, and

competition, have been identified as key components in interpreting and understanding

motivational goals and behaviors (Ames, 1992; Duda & Hall, 2001).

Several studies have explored social relationships as possible situational factors

that influence motivation within sport situations. Research conducted by Alderman and

Wood (1976) and Gill, Gross, and Huddleston (1983) indicated that making friends was

an important motive for participation in youth hockey players, and youth sport camp

participants respectively. Likewise, a study by Gould, Feltz, and Weiss (1985) assessed

the motives of competitive youth swimmers. The findings showed that achievement

status, team atmosphere, and friendship were strong motives for participation in

competitive youth swimming leagues.

Another social factor that affects goal orientation is motivational climate. Ames

(1992) defined motivational climate as an environment that promotes either a task, or ego

orientation. Most often, the greatest influence on the motivational climate comes from

teachers or coaches interactions with students and athletes. Walling, Duda, and Chi









(1993) investigated high level competitive youth sport participant's perceptions of

motivational climate from a variety of sports. The results demonstrated that athletes who

perceived a mastery (task) climate also experienced higher levels of satisfaction with

being a member on the team and experienced lower amounts of performance worry. In

contrast, a performance based (ego) climate was positively associated with concerns

about failing and adequacy of one's performance and negatively correlated with team

satisfaction.

As noted previously, research shows that the context of sport contains multiple

factors, which interact to create a unique and complex environment. One factor inherent

in many achievement settings, competition, has received a considerable amount of

research attention. Studies inquiring into the nature of competition in sport and physical

activity settings have predominantly observed individual's goal orientation in youth sport

settings. Furthermore, recent studies provided evidence that point to differences in

motives for participation in physical activity and competitive sport as individuals mature.

The subsequent sections will discuss this issue in more depth.

Participation Motives From A Developmental Perspective

Achievement Goal theory research indicates that individual's motivational goals

change as they develop from children to adults (Butler, 1989a, 1989b). Gould, Feltz, and

Weiss (1985) emphasized the need for studies that explore the motives of athletes in

different age groups as well as at different competitive levels. Their study compared the

motives of male and female competitive youth swimmers (N=365) from different age

groups. Results indicated that younger swimmers maintained more external motives

(e.g.,, achievement status, pressure from parents/friends, like the coach) than older









swimmers who rated developing fitness and excitement-challenge as important reasons

they participate in competitive swimming.

A study by Brodkin and Weiss (1990) assessed the motives of competitive

swimmers (N=100) whose ages ranged from 6 to 74 years of age using the Participation

Motivation Questionnaire (Gill et al., 1983). Analysis of the data revealed that youth

swimmers (ages 6-14) identified competition as a strong motive for participation, high

school and college age participants rated social status and significant others as important,

while young and middle adults (ages 23-59) rated health and fitness as primary motives

for involvement. All of these results lend support to the idea that motives for

participation may be a developmental process.

Butt and Cox (1992) compared the sources of motivation of (N=46) college age

(18-23 yrs.) tennis players from three separate competitive levels (e.g.,, Davis Cup,

intercollegiate, recreational players). Each of the participants was given The Sport

Protocol (Butt, 1987) to assess sport motivation, affect, socialization, and needs. The

results from the study indicated that the elite level athletes (Davis Cup players) endorsed

more feelings of aggression, conflict, competence, and competition than players at the

collegiate or recreational levels. The elite level players also scored higher than collegiate

and recreational athletes on negative affect, and feelings of frustration. With respect to

the discussed results, the authors cited the low reliability of The Sport Protocol as a

limitation of the study.

Another study, which investigated the relationship of level of sport involvement

and task and ego-orientation, was conducted by White and Duda (1994). This study used

the TEOSQ (Duda, 1992) to assess male and female sport participants at four competitive









levels (e.g.,, youth, high school, intercollegiate, recreational). Results revealed that

athletes at the highest competitive levels (e.g.,, intercollegiate sports) exhibited higher

ego-orientation than recreational athletes in the same age group, or the younger sport

participants (e.g.,, youth, high school).

The studies reviewed above indicated that athletes in different age groups may have

differing motives for participating in sport. Therefore, specific age groups should be

targeted during inquiry into participation motives. The previous section focused on

studies, which target athletes in a variety of age groups. It is important to note that

studies involving college age sport participants are most relevant to the proposed study.

However, there has been relatively little research, which investigates the motives of

participation of college age athletes within varying sport structures.

In light of previous discovery, application of a qualitative approach would be

beneficial to investigate athlete's motives for sport participation, as well as their

perceptions of their sport environment. A grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998)

approach could provide alternative knowledge construction to the limited inquiry of

previous theory driven research. A qualitative study would be ideal to explore the known

dimensions of motivation and this approach may result in the discovery of new constructs

(Eccles, Walsh, & Ingledew, 2002; Strean, 1998). The open-ended question format used

in a grounded theory approach could provide thick description about the motives of

athletes to participate in sport, and uncover insight into the complex interactions of the

sport context through the eyes of its participants.

Qualitative Rationale

Toward the goal of understanding how social factors influence motivation,

qualitative inquiry could be one of the most effective methods for gathering data on a









subjective issue such as athlete perceptions of the sport structure. Strean and Roberts

(1992) suggested that the complexity of a competitive-sport domain must be included in

the research design. To understand how athletes interact within a sport context, they

must be studied in a sport setting. They also emphasized the need to use less

conventional methods (e.g.,, qualitative inquiry), and multi-method approaches to capture

the richness of the sport context.

Philosophical Issues Related to Knowledge Construction in Sport Psychology

In recent years, scientists from diverse disciplines have questioned predominant

philosophical approaches to research in sport psychology and encouraged the use of new

ideas and theories to shape future directions (Hoshand & Polkinghom, 1992; Kuhn, 1969;

Martens, 1987; Petruzzello, 2000; Sparkes, 1998). For instance, Martens (1987) urged

researchers to break out of the traditional scientific methodology, which dominates the

field, and more readily embrace new, applicable schemas for knowledge. Martens (1987)

cited the false assumption of objectivity in traditional scientific methods for the necessity

to break the "orthodox science paradigm" (p. 31), which he believed has failed in the

human behavioral sciences.

Sparkes (1998) also cited the need for varying forms of knowledge construction to

be embraced in order for the science of sport psychology to grow. He advocates the use

of qualitative inquiry to expand understanding in a variety of sport psychology related

topics. Sparkes (1998) suggested that exploring new ways to understand athletes'

experiences in might enable sport scientists to answer questions that are more in line with

applied interests.

In line with Martens (1987) and Sparkes (1998), Hoshand and Polkinghom (1992)

emphasized the strengths of post-modern and constructivist epistemologies as necessary









additions to sport psychology literature. Cautioning against the broadening gap between

the academy researcher and the practicing psychologist, Hoshand and Polkinghom (1992)

suggested qualitative approaches might act as a bridge to bring scientists and practitioners

back to a common ground.

The above observations have important implications for motivation researchers.

The body of motivation literature, as a whole has been limited by a unidimensional

approach to knowledge construction. All of the studies in this review of literature tested

aspects of the multidimensional construct of motivation by applying quantitative methods

(e.g.,,, survey and/or experimental designs). More specifically, a great majority of all the

research done in the area of motivation uses some type of survey (e.g.,, IMI, McAuley et

al., 1989; SMS, Pelletier et al., 1995), or behavioral measure (Deci, 1971,1972; Vallerand

et al., 1986) to assess the different forms of motivation. Employment of measures such

as these has been criticized by a variety of sources. For instance, Strean (1998) cautioned

that entering a research setting with predetermined variables to observe could blind

researchers to new data outside the scope of expectation. This is an important point when

considering that surveys were designed to assess aspects of a specific theory (e.g.,, Self-

Determination theory and the SMS). The behavioral approach, in which observations are

made on how much time participants spend doing some type of experimental activity in a

contrived setting using designated "free choice periods" (Deci, 1971), have also been

considered inadequate motivation researchers (Harwood, 2002). The broad interpretation

of a behavioral measure is that people only choose to do intrinsically motivated activities

during periods in which they choose their own use of time (Deci, 1971). In sum, these

two types of measurements (e.g.,, survey data and "free choice" observation periods)









cannot possibly cover all the aspects of motivation, and are extremely limited in their

contribution to the bigger picture of motivation in sport.

Various researchers have emphasized the danger of widely employing similar

research methods. Krane, Strean, and Anderson (1997) alluded to the need to expand the

resources used to construct knowledge in the field of sport psychology. Specifically,

Krane et al. (1997) cited qualitative research as one possible avenue to avoid the

suffocation of knowledge advancement that can occur from a mono-method approach.

Similarly, Strean and Roberts (1992) emphasized the benefits of using a variety of

theories and methods within sport psychology. They warned that unchecked conformity

to prior methodologies discourages valuable creativity in scientific investigations. Many

feel that scientific progress necessitates a departure from accepted practices, and to

dismiss a variety of methodologies is to miss out on possible new means of advancing the

field of sport psychology (Strean & Roberts, 1992). In line with these viewpoints, the

present study will use an alternative qualitative research paradigm: grounded theory.

Need for New Theories of Motivation

Recently, issues involving interpretations of major concepts within the motivation

literature have brought to light some dissatisfaction with current theories of motivation.

Harwood and Hardy (2001) discussed the unrest with inadequate assessment techniques,

emphasizing the present as an opportune time to conduct studies, which employ divergent

methodologies. The use of qualitative methods to advance the motivation literature could

serve to answer their call for "innovative research" and advance new ideas about

motivation in sport (Harwood & Hardy, 2001, p. 330) Treasure et al. (2001) talk about

subjective perception of the athletic domain as key to understanding the motivation of

athletes. The use of a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998), which









employs the use of open-ended questions to attain subjective responses, appears to be a

timely approach to current research to motivation in sport.

Rationale

The proposed study would extend current research in three ways. First, Corollary

3.1 of the Hierarchical model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997)

identified sport structures as one of the social factors that potentially may have a negative

affect on intrinsic motivation. Results from the Fortier et al. (1995) study supported

Hierarchical Model, and indicated that competitive sport structures diminish the intrinsic

motivation of the athletes who participate. However, the quantitative nature of the study

allowed the researchers only to speculate on the reasons that athletes in competitive

leagues experience lower intrinsic motivation than athletes in recreational leagues.

Exploring the motives behind sport participation for competitive athletes and club sport

athletes would provide insight into the role competition plays in affecting motivation at

the contextual level.

The next way the proposed study would benefit motivation research is by

approaching motivation from an alternative perspective than that of the vast majority of

research. In line with the views expressed by Krane et al. (1997), Strean & Roberts

(1992), Hoshand and Polkinghom (1992), Martens (1987), and Sparkes (1998), viewing

the multidimensional construct of motivation from a grounded theory approach would be

a step in expanding knowledge construction in the area of motivation research. More

specifically, the present grounded theory study would allow for an in-depth and

contextually specific understanding about how individual's thoughts and feelings about

their motivation have been and currently are influenced by the social context of sport.









The third potential contribution of the present study involves the lack of theories

derived specifically from the sport context. The present study may be ideally suited to

answer the calls for new motivational frameworks by Harwood et al. (2000, 2001), and

Treasure et al. (2001). The grounded theory techniques (Strauss & Corbin, 1998)

employed in the study, which are discussed in Chapter 2, will produce a theoretical

framework that integrates raw data themes taken directly from the athlete interviews.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of my study is to use grounded theory analytic procedures (e.g.,,

Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to explore and assess N.C.A.A. athletes' and club athletes'

sources of motivation to participate in sport. A secondary purpose will be to explore and

assess the participants' sources of motivation to compete in sport. Finally, a grounded

theory will be inductively developed to explain how contextual features of the sport

environment influenced the participants' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors towards their

sport participation. More specifically, the grounded theory will be used understand how

the participants sources of sport motivation were influenced by environmental

opportunities and significant others such as coaches and family members.

Personal Interest

My interest in motivation in sport comes from my background as a competitive

athlete in various sports, and my coaching experiences at the high school as well as

collegiate levels. Throughout my athletic experiences I was inclined to orient my entire

life around the sports which I loved and dedicated my time and effort. I view all of my

endeavors on the playing field as an intricate part in developing into the person I am

today. To see workouts, practices, meetings, and game study culminate into one

competitive performance is truly fascinating and gratifying. While my enjoyment of the






38


preparation stages varied from day to day, week-to-week, season-to-season, my love for

sport competition never wavered. The above fact has helped raise the questions, which

the following study attempts to explore. What is it about sports play that drives athletes

to sacrifice other priorities in their lives in order to participate? It is this multidimensional

construct that I desire to probe and examine within the methodology of grounded theory

order to understand more extensively the nuances of the motivation of athletes toward the

context of competitive environments.














CHAPTER 2
METHODS

To achieve the goals of exploring the motivation of athletes to participate and

compete, as well as developing a sport specific theory of motivation; it was important to

go directly to the source of the question, the athletes (Krane, Strean, & Andersen, 1997).

The entire basis of the study hinged on using the techniques outlined by grounded theory

(Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to gain insight into the complex set of motives driving athletes

to participate in competitive environments. As can be seen by the review of the

literature, grounded theory provides a much-needed change of perspective, and a unique

yet validated method to qualitatively assess athlete's experiences, and organize them into

a usable framework. The use of an alternative perspective to guide exploration has

helped to alleviate possible biases in previous studies of an established framework such

as Hierarchical Model (Schilling & Hayashi, 2001).

Participants

The participants in my study were 14 male (n = 7) and female (n = 7) athletes who

had competed at either the NCAA Division I or club sport level for a large southeastern

school. The mean age for participants was 22.5 years. The ethnic breakdown of the

participants was as follows: Caucasian (n=9), Black (n=3), Filipino (n=l), American

Indian (n=l). Each athlete was taken on a voluntary basis, and only interviewed one time

for a total of 14 interviews. Each participant was given an informed consent agreement

(see appendix A) to read and sign. The document outlined the purpose of the study as

well as the expectations put upon the participant. The informed consent also guaranteed









complete anonymity to each participant and explained the steps that would be taken to

uphold confidentiality.

Procedure

Selection of all the athletes was done through a 4-step process that was approved

by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. First, a letter was sent out to the

coaches and directors of the athletic programs asking for possible candidates for the

study. Next, possible participants were contacted through letter or electronic mail

explaining the purpose and requirements of the study. Each participant then signed the

informed consent. The last pre- interview expectation of the participant was to set up a

time for the 30 to 60 minute interview (Schilling & Hayashi, 2001).

Purposeful Sampling and Theoretical Sampling

All the participants were selected through purposeful (Patton, 1990) and theoretical

sampling. Purposeful sampling allowed the researcher the freedom to select participants

whose rich, thick description of experiences was most relevant to the line of inquiry.

Theoretical sampling enabled the researcher to select future participants who provided

insight into any unknown constructs, which emerged from the data. Sampling in this

manner was a cumulative process, which was dependent on past data collection.

Combining the two types of sampling afforded the researcher the ability to highlight

particular areas of interest in the experiences of an athlete, and provided precisely the

flexibility needed when the researcher was attempting to derive an entire conceptual

framework from thick rich data text (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

Each participant was selected on five criteria. First, all participants needed to be at

least 18 years of age to participate in the research study. Second, each athlete must have

competed for at the high school level, and continued participation for at least 1 year at the









collegiate level. A third consideration was the achievement of a balance of data between

male and female athletes. The fourth criterion set forth by the principal investigator was

the selection of participants based on the properties of the sport (team or individual) in

which they competed. The intention of recognizing and accounting for athletes, who

participate only in one type of sport, in this case the genre of individual sport, was to

ensure the new theory integrated data on athletes with similar athletic experiences. The

assessment of athletes who only participated in individual sports enabled the emerging

categories and codes to be more precise and focused. While all sports have different

aspects, which make them unique, including just individual sport athletes provided some

stability and similarity from which to base the interview questions. The fifth and final

consideration when selecting participants was to account for a variety of sports in order to

add richness and diversity to the data collected (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

Interview Procedures

Each participant sat down for a one on one interview with the researcher at a time

deemed convenient by the participant. All of the interviews were audio taped by the

principal investigator. The interviews were conducted using a semi- structured interview

guide (Blumenfeld, 1992) consisting of open- ended questions designed to allow for thick

descriptive data (Strean, 1998). The time allotted for each interview was set for between

30 and 60 minutes.

Interview Guide Design

The questions in the interview guide (see appendix B) were posed to the

participants in order to gain insight into their perceptions about, and attitude toward

athletic competition. The first set of questions was intended to gather personal

information about the background of each participant and to develop rapport and trust









with the interviewee. The rest of the questions on the interview guide were loosely

designed to give each athlete to the opportunity describe in-depth their motives for

competitive athletic participation. Along these same lines, the interview guide was

designed in a manner which allowed the researcher freedom to probe new ideas presented

by each participant in order to increase the richness of the content and further explore any

new avenues opened by the athletes (Eccles, Walsh, & Ingledew, 2002; Schilling &

Hayashi, 2001).

A key element in the design of any successful interview guide was the pilot testing

of the questions. Because the interviewing process was so pertinent to the grounded

theory data collection process, each question needed to supply relevant text thick with

descriptive detail. In order to assure that the questions achieved that goal, they were pilot

tested on two individuals in practice interviews before they are posed to participants in

the study. Through this method, the researcher was afforded the ability to modify and

develop the guide to ensure the focus remains on answering the questions outlined by the

purpose statement of the study.

Member Checks

A member check was used to verify with the participant all of the statements he or

she made during the interview. First, the researcher created a summary of statements

made by the participants based on the recorded dialogue from the interview. The

summarized interpretation was then given to the athlete for review. Providing a summary

of the interview gave the respondent a chance to correct any misinterpretation of the data

by the interviewer, and afford the researcher confidence that the overall feel for the data

that guided the analysis was accurate.









Data Analysis

Although the ultimate goal of research conducted using grounded theory is a

practical, useable theoretical framework, which is firmly grounded in the data, a scientist

must take painstaking measures to ensure analysis of the data collected from the

interviews is processed correctly. Procedures outlined by well-respected qualitative

researchers (Strauss & Corbin, 1998; Eccles et al. 2002; Strean, 1998) provide multiple

methods which, when applied to the data, maintain the relationship between the original

data, and emerging concepts incorporated into the new theory. My study was based on

the assumption that accounts given by participants are generally accurate representations

of their experiences (Schilling & Hayashi, 2001). The steps of the analyzing process,

which were used in my study, included line-by-line and axial coding, multiple coders,

constant comparison, member checks, and memo writing, and independent audit. The

combination all of the tools at the disposal of researcher, provided a rigorous standard

with which to comply in order to maintain the integrity and validity of the research. The

following sections will discuss in-depth each step of the data analysis process.

Interviews and Data Transcription

All interviews were conducted by the principal investigator and audio-tape

recorded. The principal investigator then transcribed each completed interview verbatim.

Line-by-Line Coding

The initial stage of analysis employed a technique labeled line-by-line coding. In

this process, the researcher carefully fractured the data collected in the transcribed

interviews into manageable chunks (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). By carefully scrutinizing

every line of each interview, and pulling out significant words and phrases called raw

data themes, the investigator was able to group like ideas from separate sections of the









same interview. The process also enabled the scientist to compare similar and dissimilar

ideas from the interviews of different individuals, as well as synthesize the "chunks" of

data into coherent categories and concepts.

Multiple Coders

The use of multiple coders was another method of maintaining validity in the

analysis of data. The process calls for several trained qualitative researchers to critically

analyze and code the interviews. Each member of the research team was given a copy of

the interview that they individually coded. Research meetings were held in which the

group of researchers reviewed each line of the interview, and discussed the codes they

pulled from the text. Any discrepancy on a code was discussed and agreed upon before

the data was applied to the existing framework. Application of this research tool afforded

the primary investigator alternative viewpoints to his' own perspective on the emerging

themes. Critical questioning of coding is a valuable tool to control against bias. Quality

control of this type also challenged the researcher to reevaluate every aspect of his

interpretation of the data, and view coded material in a new light (Krane, Strean, &

Anderson, 1997).

Independent Audit

Another procedure used to maintain validity was an independent audit. In this

process, an independent researcher, who was familiar with the grounded theory

methodology but not the current study, was presented with a list of raw data themes

pulled directly from the text. They were told to match each data theme to the higher

order theme they felt best encompassed the raw data theme. The results from the audit

were 81% agreement with the categorization done by the multiple coders on the research

team, which is an acceptable level.









A second audit was done with the same independent researcher in which broad

themes from the current study were matched to long quotes that were taken from the

results section. The auditor matched 74% of the long quotes to the same broad categories

selected by the research group. The high percentage of agreement between the

independent auditor and the research team on the classification and organization of data

lends credibility to the analysis and coding done by the researcher and the multiple coders

during the current study.

Axial Coding

Another process used to synthesize emerging data was axial coding. As broad

categories began to form and similar themes arose in multiple interviews, axial coding

was employed as a method to calculate the relationships between the broad categories

and the corresponding subsidiary raw data themes. The initial theoretical framework

began to take shape within this step. Each theme, when placed into a category of

appropriate fit, helped to shape parameters, and outline another dimension of that

category (Eccles et al., 2002). Axial coding was a stage in which theoretical relationships

between corresponding data were not only grouped for similarity, but also scrutinized for

instances of incongruence. In this step, analysis was directed by the evolving theory

(Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

Constant Comparison

One of greatest strengths of grounded theory as a research tool and methodology

lies in its reliance on comparative methods. Through the technique labeled constant

comparison, the researcher had the ability to check the validity of emerging data in

multiple ways. First, transcription of each interview immediately, allowed the scientist to

stay "grounded" in the data, maintain intimacy, and familiarity with the text produced by









the participants. One advantage to the use of this strategy was the ability to compare

statements made at the beginning of interviews with responses occurring later for

discrepancies. A second beneficial quality of the comparative method was the validation

of raw data themes from multiple sources. Triangulation of data from more than one

participant in an open- ended interview format lent immediate credibility to the emerging

codes and themes.

The tool of constant comparison fit into the grounded theory paradigm because

comparison encouraged the researcher to draw on his or her, own experiences when

viewing the data. Grounded theory not only acknowledges the problem of separating the

scientist and the science, which is a big issue concerning quantitative research, but

embraces the indivisibility as a characteristic vital to accurate synthesis of data. In their

book Basics of Qualitative Research, Strauss and Corbin (1998) emphasized this by

pointing to the fact many researchers who have followed the guidelines in the book were

apt to incorporate their own knowledge. The ability to make real-life comparisons

between the experimental material and other experiences was a key to discovering

untapped dimensions and properties within the data.

Constant comparison was not one stage of analysis, through which the information

was filtered. Instead, the strategy was just what the label suggests, a constant perspective

that was upheld through out the process in order for the constructed theory to entirely

represent the data from the initial to the final interview (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).

Memo Writing

Memo writing was a technique applied to the research from the initial stages of

interviewing. Strauss and Corbin (1998), suggested a set up similar to journal, which

can be used as a record of the thoughts and ideas, which can guide each step of the theory






47


building process. The journal was a conglomeration of notations about behaviors of

interviewees, surprising aspects of coded material, early sketching of possible

frameworks, and any other musings about relationships concerning emerging categories

and themes.














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

The current study had three major purposes. The first was to use grounded theory

analytic procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to identify the sources of motivation of

N.C.A.A. collegiate athletes and recreational/ club sport athletes. The second purpose

was to investigate the participants' motives to compete in sport. The third purpose was to

organize the data into a grounded theory of motivation for competitive athletes. This

chapter begins with the athletes' perceptions of the definition of motivation. Next,

descriptions of supporting quotes of higher order themes identified through the line-by-

line, and open coding procedures will be presented. Then, competition is examined as an

environmental and social-contextual factor of sport, as well as a primary source of

motivation for athletes. Finally, the codes and themes gathered during my study are

organized into a grounded theory of sport motivation based on athletes' conceptions of

their sport. The presentation of the results is organized around Figure 3. Specifically, all

of the higher order sources of motivation fell into one of two general dimensions, internal

sources of motivation and external sources of motivation. Classified within the construct

of internal sources of motivation were the themes goals and anger, and outlet for stress

and aggression. The higher order themes of family, friends, team aspects of sport,

coaches, pressure and high expectations, benefits of participation, competition, and pre-

competition motivators were categorized as external sources of motivation.









How Athletes Define Motivation

An important first step in understanding athletes' sources of motivation to

participate and compete in sport is to understand athletes' perceptions of motivation. All

of the participants in the study were asked to define motivation in their own words.

While the responses to this question were diverse there were some definite similarities

within the participants' responses (Figure 3). One definition, the internal desire to do

whatever it takes to accomplish a desired goal, incorporates two aspects of motivation

most frequently noted by participants, internal drive and goals. For instance, Lynn, a

swimmer at the Olympic level, stated "I think to be motivated is to want to do something.

And think that in order to get it done you must be able to go through any obstacle that

you come across...because you want to accomplish the goals." Cindy, a collegiate track

athlete, defined motivation by saying "I guess it's just a drive inside of you that you just

don't want to give up." Lester, a judo club athlete summed up motivation by identifying

it as "To have a reason for doing something. To be motivated, is to set goals for yourself

and then go after them. What motivates me is to achieve something. I guess to me it's a

sense of accomplishment."

Other themes that came out in athlete's descriptions of motivation included

"proving something," "having a goal in mind," "wanting to improve and get better," and

"wanting to reach your optimal level of performance." The definitions of motivation

given by the athletes in the current study lend credibility to their understanding of

personal motivators and what drives them to participate in their respective sport. In a

similar manner, athletes were also asked to give a personal definition and explain their

views on competition.









How Athletes Define Competition

Another aspect of sport that the participants were asked about was their personal

definition of competition (Figure 3). With respect to the various ideas about competition

that exist in the motivation literature, it was deemed important to gain athletes'

perspective on this component of their sport experience. There were a variety of

responses from the participants that yielded three major perspectives on the dynamic role

of competition within the lives of the participants. The most prominent conception about

competition was that of beating an opponent in head to head competition. Eight of the 14

participants made reference to "putting your skills against someone else," or "going up

against somebody or another team and seeing if you can beat them at whatever the game

is." Jeff, a collegiate track athlete even went as far as to call competition a "war with

your opponent." Five of the participants made reference to doing whatever was

necessary to win or be the best.

Another facet of competition that was identified involved competition within a

team and between teammates. The athletes in the current study produced evidence to

suggest that competition is a healthy component of a team atmosphere. They made

statements such as: "I can't imagine running without competition," and "The games are

the funniest part." A final construct of competition included "competing against

yourself," "doing your best," and "performing your best against the best teams." These

varying views of competition encompass the important sources of motivation identified

by a vast majority of the athletes and will be discussed in greater detail later in the

chapter. The following sections discuss the higher order sources of motivation that

emerged from the analysis of the interview text.









Internal Sources of Motivation

The first general dimension that was recognized during the grouping of data was

internal sources of motivation. These were characterized as such because they were

factors that acted as sources of motivation with an internal locus of control. Goals, anger,

and sport as an outlet for stress and aggression were all constructs which the participants

alone controlled. For example, goals that the participants set for themselves acted as a

source of motivation only if they represented actions that the athletes had a strong desire

to accomplish. They would not be a source of motivation if the participant did not

identify with the goal and deem it important. The following sections will elaborate on the

internal sources of motivation that the participants in the current study possessed.

Goals

The first important higher order theme that emerged from the axial coding was

"goals" the athletes set for themselves. The general dimension of goals (Figure 3) was

defined by "long term goals," "performance goals," "seeing improvement," "fulfilling

personal needs," and "feeling of satisfaction and accomplishment." The athletes in the

current study tended to be heavily motivated by their goals. Eight of the participants

described a variety of goals as major sources of motivation. The goals expressed by the

participants encompassed a variety of goal types. For instance, Diane, a collegiate soccer

player, revealed "I have a long term goal of actually signing with a semi-pro [soccer]

team in Europe so I know that on a daily basis I have to go out and workout every day."

This statement illustrated how her long-term goal acted as a daily or short- term source of

motivation.

Lucy, who threw the shot put at the collegiate level, described how she used her

goals to increase her motivation when she was not performing at peak levels by saying "I









just go back to my goals I made. I write them down and stuff. And just look at them and

just like this is just a tough time, you gotta push through." Likewise, Cindy described

how she employed goals when she was frustrated with periods of poor performance, "I

just try to look at future goals and why I need to get motivated." These statements

identified athletes' use of long-term goals to increase motivation when it was low. One

athlete, Amy, a collegiate soccer player, even explained how her goal to be a collegiate

athlete drove her to overcome pain from chronic illness:

I knew I really wanted to play soccer in college, and it got hard because I had to sit,
or I couldn't train as hard as I would like. But you know, it just motivated me to
hang in there and stick with it, and just get through it regardless of how I felt. Just
to get out there and play. It's my motivation to keep going.

Performance Goals

Performance goals were another type of goal that emerged as a source of

motivation. The athletes discussed the importance of being able to set incremental

benchmarks tied to their performance in sport. Athletes looked at both practice and

competition as an opportunity to set and achieve performance goals. Steve, who

discussed how important hitting his target times during practice was said, "As a runner

[practice times] that's all you really have to indicate where you're at race-shape wise, is

what you do in practice." Doug discussed his approach to goal setting during games in

this quote, "I always have an idea when I step out on the floor how many assists I want to

get and how many steals I need to get for us to win a game."

A variety of quotes from the participants also gave insight into why performance

goals were motivators. They discussed aspects such as "they are a huge factor in what

you think you're capable of," and "it [setting performance goals] was the best situation

for someone that really likes to see their work come to fruition. You can see how you're









actually doing in comparison to what you're actually working towards." These

statements supply important information about specific components of goal setting

strategies that appeal to athletes. The above quotes not only describe how performance

goals affect an athlete's confidence, but how they are used to maintain motivation.

Cindy, a high jumper, explained how she combined different types of goals to

increase her motivation. She described melding performance and process goals in this

quote, "I set goals, heights, like I want to clear a certain height [in the pole vault]. But I

also set other goals with my technique and my form, that's so important." Terry, a

distance runner at the collegiate level, said "I'm more interested not so much in place [in

the race] as time." These types of goals carried a strong relationship with another higher

order source of motivation, "seeing improvement."

Seeing Improvement

Ten of fourteen participants identified "seeing improvement" as an important

source of motivation (Figure 3). As previously discussed, the participants in the study

were definitely goal oriented. The participants used goals and goal setting as a system for

marking improvement over a period of time. Accomplishing a series of goals established

a step-by-step path which displayed progress which in turn increased motivation. For

example, Ryan, a club judo player, indicated that "being able to see a definite

improvement in my work and my abilities? Oh yeah, it really motivates me." Athletes at

both the collegiate and club sport level attributed "seeing improvement" to increased

motivation. A quote by Cindy displayed her perception of how "seeing improvement"

impacted her motivation:

When I'm doing better, when I can see the results I'm more motivated. We do
testing with all our drills and our [weight] lifting and stuff every 8 weeks in the fall.
So you can actually see improvement from the first day you're in the weight room









on the weight card, and then you test it 8 weeks later and you see how much you've
improved. That's really motivating!"

The preceding paragraphs show how the different types of goals set by athletes

serve as sources of motivation. The next question that needed to be answered was, "Why

are these goals a source of motivation?" The participants in the current study identified

two constructs that gave value to the goals that had been set. The first was a set of needs

that were satisfied by achieving goals. The second dimension was the feelings that the

athletes experienced when their goals were accomplished. The following sections will

focus on the reasons that goals are a source of motivation to the athletes.

Fulfilling Personal Needs

Throughout the interview process the participants discussed certain "needs" that

drove them to set and achieve goals. One first order theme that arose was a need to

"receive credit." Three athletes identified a need to be recognized for their talent or

accomplishments as a source of motivation. David, a collegiate swimmer, explained one

of the reasons that he worked hard for team instead of individual goals in this way, "It

always seems like team champions get more credit." Another athlete discussed his goal

to make the top traveling squad, attributing his desire in part to his need to affirm his

place as one of the top runners and prove himself competent. Steve said:

But to be part of the group that was traveling, it was like oh yeah, we're going to
California. Not because you want to go to California so much, but because it was a
privilege that okay, if you were in the top three or four guys you were going to go
to Stanford to go to THIS meet, and the rest of you guys... You're going to Western
Michigan. Where would you rather go, San Francisco or Michigan? So part of it
was being able to go to better places, and part of it was just being involved with the
best guys on the team. And you're like, okay, I'm sort of in this upper-echelon of
guys now.

Athletes also revealed that their sport fulfilled a need to perform for others.

Specifically, Cindy explained that one of her motivations for participating in sport was, "I









enjoy performing and doing stuff like that." Diane possessed a similar perspective when

discussing what was motivating to her about her sport. She said, "[The games] That's

when you see the fans. The fans are one of the biggest motivations, especially at Florida,

because they're great. And they come out every single day, and every single game, just

to come watch you play."

It is important to note that the need fulfillment described by the participants in my

study is similar to the ideas put forth in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985;

2000) and the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand,

1997). The quotes in the preceding paragraphs lend weight to the construct of need

fulfillment as a factor in motivation. Each of the above athletes described particular

aspects of their sport that satisfied in inner desire. Specifically, David and Steve both

make reference to their need to feel competent or display competence, which is one of the

three basic needs outlined by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000).

Feelings of Satisfaction and Accomplishment

The second reason goals served as a motivator was the feelings athletes received

from achieving them. Six of the participants in the current study described their feelings

of accomplishment and satisfaction when they reached a goal as important sources of

motivation. A quote from Steve articulated those feelings, "[When I look back at] stuff I

set out at the beginning of the year on that note card I was like I want to win as an

individual and I want to win as a team and I actually accomplished both of those things.

It's the greatest feeling when you actually achieve that stuff." Doug said, "It was just an

amazing accomplishment for me to reach my goal of playing college basketball, but to

actually get out on the floor and play in the first game felt unbelievable." Lester gave

insight into the feelings of satisfaction that he got from setting high standards for himself









during practices. He said, "I'm very satisfied when I get pushed so hard [in practice] I

think I'm gonna die. Cause at the end I think, ahh, I made it through; I can do this

again." Steve echoes Lester's mentality with his statements on difficult workouts:

Workouts were more fun than the easy days, because you knew you were going to
get a lot out of it. You were going to be pushed to your max. I always liked that
anyway. I actually liked the hardest workouts better than the easy workouts. I feel
like I accomplish more, even if I wasn't able to finish the whole thing.

The way in which the athletes above described their willingness to push their limits

in order to gain a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment from goals lends depth to the

strength of goals as a powerful source of motivation. The use of goals was a great

example of an internal driving force for athletes, but it is not the only one. The

participants in the current study also used their emotions to channel physical

performance. The next section will discuss athletes' use of one specific emotion, anger

as a source of motivation.

Anger

Throughout the interview process a number of different emotions were linked to

athletes' experiences in their sport. The participants described feeling love, excitement,

nervous, disappointed, and stressed just to name a few. One emotion that athletes'

isolated as a source of motivation for them was anger (Figure 3). Five of the athletes

provided evidence to support the construct that athletes can use emotions such as anger as

sources of motivation to succeed. Statements like, "If someone does that, pisses me off, I

use it", "Sometimes when I get mad it helps", and "You know I'd get mad, just very mad

and take it out", show athletes' awareness of their use of anger. The anger may come

from a variety of sources for instance; Lucy talked about being mad at teammates and

how she used that to supplement her performance. She explained the scenario in this









way, "You know to me I use it [anger] and I've done it before when some of my

teammates might have said something so off the wall that makes me mad, I'm just going

to like okay, I'm going to use it." She commented that it gave her "some kind of extra

adrenaline flow." David further defined the link between the teammate dynamic and

anger in this quote:

[When my teammates talked trash to me] then I'd get pissed off and I'd just go up
and start swimming really fast and I'd just start screaming at him and I'd just say,
"What's up now?" kind of thing. And we were really competitive with each other
and it helped us in practice.

Jeff described a time when he had personal issues that he drew on to perform better

during a competition. He detailed the event like this, "I was so mad. I was just so mad

that that last 200 meters I don't think my feet even touched the ground I was running so

hard...'Cause anger is a very strong feeling. It can be used in a positive way." Lucy

said, "I just use anger toward working hard basically instead of just feeling sorry for

myself." A statement such as this provided evidence which suggested that athletes

consciously chose to use anger to accomplish something positive. The first order theme,

something to prove, emerged to provide insight into the ways that athletes interpret the

feelings and emotions associated with anger.

Something to Prove

Athletes in the current study who felt that anger was a source of motivation

interpreted their feelings of anger in a way that translated into athletic success. When

they felt slighted or threatened they channeled their emotions into physical performance.

Five participants discussed how their need to show people that they were talented and

good enough to participate in sport at a high level was a source of motivation. For

instance, Jeff said:









I just want to prove something to people. I just wanted to show off basically. What
I had in me; my talent. You just want to show to the best that you deserve to be at
that level. I deserve to be here. You just want to say, "Hey I'm here and I'm going
to be a force to be reckoned with.

David described one of his most memorable experiences as an instance where he

and his swim team of "nobody's" ended up as one of the top ranked teams in the country.

He had this to say:

Probably my most memorable moment [of my athletic career] was my senior year
[in college] when we got fourth in NCAA's and that was a real big accomplishment
for our team because we were a bunch of nobody's. My teammates, the whole
senior class, and most of the other people were just a bunch of nobody's and no one
recruited us out of high school, and we ended up getting fourth our senior year and
we were ranked tenth or eleventh all year long. And we were the fourth best team
in the nation was kind of an accomplishment.

Three of the athletes interviewed for the study struggled to get accepted to their

universities, and were motivated to prove that they belonged in college. Jenny said, "[It]

has definitely built my character. Having to show that I belong, having to prove that I

could get into this school. Whether it be through the appeals process or whatever." Jeff

also had trouble meeting the academic requirements of his university. He said, "With the

academics it was like I don't even deserve to be here [college]. So I'm like I wanna show

people what I'm made of." David had the most revealing quote that tied his struggles

with admittance to the university to his desire to prove himself. He described it this way:

I had good grades in high school; I just couldn't get into UF. And my coach at the
time, he is no longer here, gave me a little money to get accepted. It was
something like a $20 scholarship-athletic scholarship to get in. 'Cause that was the
only way I could get in. Anyway, my freshman year I wanted to prove myself and
he didn't get resigned [contract renewed] after my freshman year. And then the
new coach came in, and my whole sophomore year I had to start all over. I had to
prove myself all over again. And that was a big thing; proving to myself that I was
a good athlete, that was pretty much it. I was trying to prove it too my coaches, but
most of all I was proving it to myself. Because I'm not going to go around and
say...Point to them and say "Look, look what I've done. I've done this all by
myself. I just wanted to prove to myself that I'm capable of being better.









The athletes who felt they had been in some way underestimated were motivated to

prove that they belonged. David explained how he used his feelings of being slighted as

a source motivation. He said:

I guess you've got to get fuel from somewhere. I've been doing this for so long, I
wouldn't call myself lazy, I'm just a relaxed easy-going guy, and if there's
something that drives me, it helps a lot. I guess in swimming, showing the most
and getting pissed off and proving my coaches wrong, especially my head coach
[was big motivator].

Only one athlete who discussed anger did not feel that it was a source of motivation

for her. Cindy acknowledged that athletes she knew used anger as a motivator, but did

not feel that she had the disposition to employ such a source herself. She summed up her

experiences with anger this way, "I don't really get angry about stuff or mad. I'm kind of

laid back. So that doesn't work. I don't really get fired up about anything." Her choice

to use emotions in a positive way leads one to wonder if the process was simply a

beneficial mechanism for coping with emotions, or were athletes drawn to sport as a

physical outlet for stress? There was evidence that supported the idea that athletes used

their chosen sport as an outlet for stress, and this in turn acted as a motivator for them to

continue in their participation.

Outlet for Stress/ Aggression

Participants in the current study described how participation in sport carried with it

a certain degree of stress for the athletes, whether it is from high expectations or

competition. However, the athletes in my study also indicated that their sport was an

outlet for stress. Four first order themes defined this category (Figure 3), "Sport as an

outlet," "Escaping problems through sport," "Release of emotional energy through

physical activity," and "Feeling better after participation."









Sport as an Outlet

The participants in the current study cited the physical exertion required during

participation as a major release for them. Both levels of athlete, collegiate and club sport

athletes in particular identified this benefit as a source of motivation for participation.

The athlete's sport served as an outlet for stress precisely for the reasons described in the

previous section. Participating in a sport enabled individuals to separate themselves from

their emotions and frustrations by refocusing their attention on a more enjoyable task, and

allowed them to release and express their built up emotions through physical actions.

The athletes from a broad range of sports conveyed some highly similar experiences

involving their sport as an outlet for relieving stress.

Escaping from Problems through Sport

One aspect that received a considerable amount of focus was the participants'

tendency to step away from outside problems while they were engrossed in the activity.

Diane expressed her experience as an escape:

Being able to forget everything else in your life and just being able to play on the
field. For ninety minutes you don't have to worry about anything else. You can
get a lot of aggression out; you can get a lot of anger out. And just having fun
being surrounded by good people...

Similar ideas were expressed by Ryan, "Just being able to go to Judo, work hard,

and not think about anything else, that's more my release." Kacy had this to say:

[Playing your sport] It kind of lets you; it's a way to let you relieve yourself from
everything else. All your other pressures, and all that kind of stuff. You're out
there and there's nothing else you have to worry about. You just out there to play
and have fun. And I think for a lot of people that can be very therapeutic...It is [for
me]. I guess what I'm saying about it being therapeutic. If things aren't going
well, in your life, when you step out there and all of sudden you're doing all these
things well; you're playing these great balls, it kind of lifts you up.









Release of Emotional Energy through the Release of Physical Energy

Another aspect of sport as an outlet that was emphasized was the release of

emotional energy through the release of physical energy. One participant, Ryan

expressed that exchange in this statement, "All your stresses, everything just bleeds out

on the mat..." Lester described his release of aggression through sport by saying, "You

don't have to be aggressive in judo to get out aggression. It's just the physical activity

itself that helps relieve the aggression." A very in-depth explanation of the interaction

between physical and emotional energy release was displayed in a passage from Diane:

I guess it's like a non-contact sport [soccer], if there's someone else who has the
ball in front of you and they've sort of knocked one of your friends over, you can
get a lot of frustration out by just okay you're going for the ball, but you're also
going to get half of the player as well. And it's like a physical, very physically
demanding game. If you're angry, and like you're really screwed up, like stuff
inside you, like just to go run for 90 minutes; it just gives you a breath of fresh air.
You just kind of get it all out. Then you're too tired to be angry.

Lester provided a summative statement about the reasons that sport, being an outlet

for stress and aggression, was a source of motivation. He said:

I find that my confrontation level goes way down when I use my sport as an outlet
because that's my confrontation out there [on the mat]. I don't know whether it's
just an ego thing or what, because I always feel that I have to match wits with
somebody or physical confrontation. What motivates me to work out is that I know
I'm much easier to get along with in my personal life. I feel that my stress level is
way down. I feel better. I just feel clearer. So it motivates me because I just feel
better when I work out. So that's definitely a high motivation factor for me...Yea
so my mental health as well as my physical health is a big motivation for me.

Through the wide range of testimony given by athletes in various contexts, one

begins to gain an understanding of how sport can serve as an outlet for stress release, and

how this type of benefit could serve as a major source of motivation to participate. Up to

this point this paper has discussed sources of motivation that exist internally within

athletes; however there were also a variety of motivators with an external origin.









Important people in athletes' lives were another source of motivation. The next sections

will focus on these and other external sources of motivation.

External Sources of Motivation

In the current study the external sources of motivation were defined as sources of

motivation that exist outside of the athlete, but within the social context of sport. These

include family, friends, team aspects of sport, coaches, pressure and high expectations,

benefits of participation, competition, and pre-competition motivators. All of the factors

listed above play a role providing motivation for athletes. Many of these sources

supplement the athletes' motivation when internal motivators are not enough to maintain

the type of effort necessary to compete in collegiate level and club level athletics. The

first external motivator that most of the participants discussed was the role that family

played in their motivation. The following section will provide a more in-depth look at

family as an external source of motivation for athletes.

Family

Family was a significant source of motivation that participants in the current study

deemed important on multiple levels. Figure 3 outlines four first order themes that fell

under the category of family; "initial exposure to sports," "family as a support system,"

"father as coach," and "family as confidants." Each of these dimensions of the family

construct instills depth to the category as a source of motivation.

Initial Exposure to Sports

One way that family served as a source of motivation to athletes was that parents

and siblings acted as the mechanism for getting the athlete involved in sport for a

majority of the participants (10 of 14 participants). Six of the participants described their









dad as being "athletic" or as having an "athletic background." Two others were exposed

to sports through the influence of the entire family. For example, Amy said:

I guess our family is just really into sports and pretty athletic. So once I started I
just didn't want to stop. Sports was just something our family does all the time.
We would also go to the pool and swim together and run together. And always
play games outside when we were little, like soccer games...cause we have six
people I our family I guess it kind of came naturally to us.

Kacy, a collegiate soccer athlete, described how she was first introduced to her

sport through the participation of her older siblings. She said, "Everybody in my family

is really athletic. My brother and sister both played soccer. All of us played a whole

bunch of different sports. It [soccer] was the one that I always wanted to play when I

first saw my brother and sister play I was like I want to play that!" Nine of the

participants had brothers or sisters that participated in sports. It is also interesting to note

that a majority of the participants competed in the same sport that other athletes in their

family competed.

Family as a Support System

A second capacity in which family served as a source of motivation involved the

support system that loved one provided for the athletes. Four athletes felt that their

parents were a source of strength for them, especially when they struggled with their own

motivation, or things did not go well with their sport. Athletes listed examples of support

such as unconditional love as in this quote from Jenny, a walk on collegiate soccer

player, "I call home and I talk to my parents, and they're there, you know the they're

going to love you if you played the worst game, or if you played the best game, it's all

going to be the same." Lucy explained that her family was a source of inspiration to her

because of the sacrifices her mother made to encourage and attend competitions. She









said, "She [my mom] is my biggest motivator. She is where I get most of my motivation

from... she never missed a game, never missed anything."

Father as Coach

Coach was another capacity that family fulfilled that served as sources of

motivation. Two of the participant had parents who were involved coaching them during

the beginning stages of their athletic participation, which served as a motivation to stay

involved the sport. Lester discussed his father's extensive background in judo, and his

role in coaching him like this:

Over the years it was very difficult for me to get my black belt because of who my
father was. He eventually promoted me, but it was like a lot of people surpassed
me that I was in judo with for the same amount of time and got promoted before
me, but... I was always expected to do things perfect, better than the average
people, so I was held back a little longer. You know I'm my father's son and I'm
expected to do this perfect. And over the years I've beat 10's, hundreds of black
belts over the years before I was even promoted to black belt. While my skill level
was certainly up there, it was just when my father felt it was the right time. I was
always motivated to achieve by his expectations.

Family as a Confidant

Athletes also made mention of parents who listened to complaints and helped to

provide perspective and wisdom when times were tough. A statement by Jenny

illustrated this role, "I find it [motivation] from my family. My dad helps me out a lot.

He's like, 'its okay, today shall pass too' and that helps me. He does motivate me. He

pushes me a lot [because he knows me so well], even though he doesn't know anything

about soccer." The theme of "family" provided a variety of external resources that

athletes used as sources of motivation. The next section explores the role of friends as

another external source of motivation to athletes.









Friends

All of the athletes who participated in my study were influenced to participate by

some outside force. Along with family, friends were a significant source of motivation

for athletes' participation in sport (Figure 3.) Two first order themes pertaining to friends

were identified by participants as playing a role in providing motivation for participation

in sport, "motivated by friend's participation," and "comparison/ competition between

friends."

Motivated by Friend's Participation

In the instances identified by the participants in the current study, they were

inclined to participate in their chosen sport because a friend was already active. Terry

described his reasoning like this, "[My friend was running] so I'm like okay, Ijoin the

track team too." David pointed to a similar experience when he said, "I guess one of the

reasons why I started swimming competitively was to be around her [friend] more."

Cindy cited a specific instance when she was already participating in one sport and she

became interested in pole vault just because a friend thought it would be fun to do. She

said, "I just remember her [a friend] talking about it, and I was doing gymnastics at the

time, and another girl from gymnastics was doing pole vaulting also. And I just wanted

to try it; it sounded neat."

Comparison and Competition between Friends

Not only did friends play a direct role in getting the athletes involved in sport, but

they also served as a source to continue participation. "Comparison and competition

between friends" was portrayed as a strong catalyst for one athlete's continued

participation. Terry, discussed how he used his competitiveness with friends as a

motivator in this passage:









I just always compare myself to a lot of my friends and how they're doing, and
other elite athletes that I felt were not too far above me, but you know close where I
would say, "Well this guy is a little bit better than me, so I better run faster or run
harder, to more to catch up you know."

This statement supported the concept that comparison of self to successful others

can drive athletes to be successful. This theme will become even more prominent in the

upcoming section dealing with teammates and the team atmosphere.

Teammates and Team Atmosphere

The athletes in my study reported that they drew on the highly contextual resource

of teammates to provide motivation in a variety of ways. The category "teammates"

acted as a source of motivation when the participants felt their teammates were successful

(Figure 3). In addition they used the support of the other athletes, as well as their

seemingly contagious enthusiasm as sources of motivation. The participants in the

current study also obtained motivation when they felt included by the team, and when

they strove to separate themselves from the group in order to be the best. To better

understand how athletes derive motivation from their teammates, one must first obtain an

understanding of how the athletes perceived the environment in which they practiced and

competed.

Team Aspects of Sport

Axial coding produced a higher order theme which was titled "team aspects of

sport." It is important to note that in the methods section of my study, one of the sample

criterions for the selection of the initial participants was that they were an individual sport

participant. The primary reason for sampling athletes who competed in individual sports

was to get a view of athletes' sources of motivation as they related to the athlete's

personal experience with their sport. It was originally thought that participants who









competed in individual sports might provide more focused insight into the internal forces

that drive athletes to participate and compete in sport. However, all of the initial

participants cited sources of motivation embedded in relationships with teammates or

some aspect of being part of a team. The emphasis placed on team by the individual

sport athletes created the need to look at athletes involved in team sports for possible

similarities and differences in motivation to participate. The following paragraphs will

expand on the sources of motivation that existed within the team context for individual

sport and team sport athletes.

Camaraderie of the Team/ Team Atmosphere

Athletes from both individual and team sports received motivation from contextual

influences based on the social interactions that are inherent in sport. All fourteen

participants in the current study alluded to particular aspects of being part of a team as

important to their personal motivation. Athletes in individual sports as well as team

sports made mention of the "camaraderie of the team" or "team atmosphere" as important

sources of enjoyment and motivation within the sport context. Terry, a distance runner,

described his experience with team in this way: "I just loved competing with three other

guys against other teams. I liked it more than the individual races in track... I guess it's

just the team atmosphere that I enjoy better than the individual." Diane, a soccer player

said:

I think the biggest thing about soccer is that it's a team sport. That was my best
motivation. It's like; okay you have a team around you that are going to take half
the blame for it if you mess up. You have a responsibility to, you know...I like the
camaraderie; I like being able to hang out, and the socializing aspect of it as well as
the actually physical and mental playing wise.









These quotes from the individual and team sport athletes displayed the athletes'

keen interest in contributing to the success of the team, and feelings of accountability for

their performance.

Friendships and Loyalty

The reasons for feelings of commitment and dedication seemed to be tied to two

factors. The first was friendships and loyalty developed within the team. Kacy, a soccer

player elaborated on the importance of friendships with teammates in this statement:

Since I've been at Florida these are my closest friends... It definitely makes you
want to play for the other person when you're out there... That's a good relationship
to have. That's the best part. That is definitely by far the thing I have gotten the
most of playing here is the friendships, for sure.

Another athlete referred to his club as a "second family." These athletes seemed to

carry a strong sense of duty to their teammates. They felt that others on the team were

depending on them, and their sense of responsibility and relatedness pushed them to

practice and play at a high level.

Shared Goals

The second factor that appeared important to athletes' feelings of accountability

was "shared goals". Four participants stated that they felt accountability to their

teammates because they were working toward the same goals. Revealing personal

motivators to teammates seemed to drive athletes to succeed even when their internal

motivation is low. For instance, Steve recounted his feelings about team goal setting in

this paragraph:

I think it's good especially when we shared our goals with our teammates and stuff.
So there's sort of some accountability there. Like, alright everybody knows I want
to place, such and such, at a state meet or national championships, and there's no
getting off the hook now. When you're sort of hurting in practice they're going to
say, "Hey, you want to be in the top 20 in this race you're going to have to step it
up." I always use them as a motivational factor as well.









The previous statements show the motivating power of athletes playing for each

other. The participants were more motivated when they felt that everyone on the team

was playing for the common good of the team. The athletes viewed the idea that

individuals play together as a team as being similar to a whole being stronger than the

sum of its parts. They also indicated that dedication and commitment to the same goals

and to teammates allowed for the greatest opportunity for success.

Jenny, a soccer player, also gave evidence that a lack of these types of feelings

about team and teammates might have an equally damaging effect on individual

motivation. She described her struggles with staying motivated during last season in this

quote, "Sometimes I think I feel like the players make you feel that way [like you are not

good], and that's why I say it's a blow to your confidence sometimes. And that's why

you can't rely on them; you have to rely on yourself." She elaborated by saying:

It's high [the within team competition at the university level] and it's... sometimes I
feel like they're going for me and I have the team behind me, and then sometimes I
feel that they aren't. And that might be because I'm not as skilled a player as
everyone so I mess up more and getting yelled at more than I am getting cheered on
or "good job", you know, praised. It's very different on this team. It's different
than any other team I've been on because I've never been in question of whether or
not my team is behind me, and here I am.

Her statements were in sharp contrast to that of the other participants, but lend even

more support to the importance athletes placed on commitment to the team and the

motivation derived from the relationships, and the shared goals within the team structure.

Teammate Support

The support of teammates was also a team related dynamic that was cited as a

contributor to the motivation of the participants in the current study. Based around the

same beliefs that made the players feel accountable and committed to their teammates,

the athletes' confidence was bolstered when their teammates showed belief in their









ability. Five of the participants cited instances where they were not playing well, and

demonstrations of support by their teammates provided them with the motivation to

increase the level of intensity in their play. One athlete described an interaction

involving teammate support like this:

With soccer if you're having an off day, then you have other teammates to lean on
you know? I mean they're always going to be supportive, you know. You can tell
if your friends are having a bad day, or you can tell if your friend's like touches
aren't normal, or they're not pushing as hard as they can. They would always ask
for, you just get to know each other more, you know? You don't want to let
someone down again. You want to...they're your teammates you know, and they
know you better than anyone else... So I definitely like to bounce off my
teammates, and look to them for support.

Teammate Enthusiasm

Three participants in the study talked about the role that their teammates'

enthusiasm played in keeping their own motivation high (Figure 3). The athletes

discussed the enthusiasm of their teammates as an outside inspiration used to help get

them motivated, especially during practices when their individual motivation was low.

Kacy said, "I like the encouragement [of teammates]. When I'm out there [on the field],

it helps. Lucy stated, "I can say that I get more motivated when I saw that the rest of my

team was also getting motivated to do better. Cause when they weren't motivated it was

kind of a struggle." She goes on to say, "Once one or two people get like that [being

excited and motivated] it gets infectious. Cindy described the contagious effect of

teammate enthusiasm this way:

I guess it's from everybody else. I think it feeds off each other, at practices when
we're maybe not all there. You know, you've had a long day or something. I think
you can feed off other teammates you know when they're all there, and they've got
that motivation in them for the day, it kind of rubs off.

The term "feeding" off of teammates' enthusiasm was an interesting phrase that

was repeated by multiple participants. It insinuated being hungry or in need of









enthusiasm and motivation. The infectious property of enthusiasm made it an important

source from which athletes could draw the everyday motivation they needed to continue

the rigorous workout routines required for high level competition.

Competing against Teammates

The aspect of the team context most frequently mentioned by the participants was

the interpersonal competition between teammates. The higher order theme "competitive

atmosphere of team" divulged insight into the inner workings of the athletes'

relationships with their teammates, and the constructs surrounding their sources of

motivation within this context. Five of the athletes interviewed for the study made

reference to comparing themselves to high level teammates. This competition between

teammates seemed to motivate the athletes to work harder in the practice setting. David,

a collegiate swimmer described his interactions with one of his teammates this way, "The

guy I mentioned earlier, he was highly recruited out of high school, when we were both

in the pool we were really competitive and we'd always I guess you could say talk c**p

to each other during practice. And it helped motivate us." Ryan detailed the benefits of

his competitive relationship with his teammate in this statement, "Blake, he's in Russia

right now, the Ukraine to be exact, and he's awesome. He's better than me...when we go

together we really push each other hard, and we've gotten to the point where we're

stalemating each other and we have to try new things." The drive to best teammates

seemed to come from an internal desire or need to compete. Some athletes in the study

referred to this quality as competitive nature.

Competitive Nature

Three participants made reference to their "competitive nature." This first order

theme was strongly tied to a person's need to win, another higher order theme that will be









described in more depth in the following sections. A majority of the athletes in my study

(n= 9) admitted to being competitive in areas other than sport. The tendency to pit

oneself against others in general contexts in life was considered "competitive nature."

The athletes described it as, "I don't like to give up on something", and "Always wanting

to win. Having the competitive attitude, it definitely helps." This competitive nature,

along with other factors intertwined in the environment of competitive sports was an

important force behind motivation.

Embarrassment

Another aspect of athletes' competition with their teammates that surfaced within

multiple data points was embarrassment if one was showed up by teammates. Athletes

made references to different situations within the team context where they expressed

shame if their performance in practice wasn't up to the level of a particular teammate. A

quote by David lent depth to this idea:

They [teammates] could just embarrass you pretty much if you have an off day.
Someone could just, it makes you seem like they're just swimming laps back and
forth just passing you. And sometimes its embarrassment coming off an off-day is
what motivates. That would have motivated me to work harder and be better the
next day, or the next practice; whatever it was.

The idea that David alluded to was an important concept in understanding what

triggers motivation in athletes. An athlete's chosen sport was one way they represented

themselves to others. It was considered a reflection of self. Athletes who competed at

the collegiate and club sport level spent a great deal of time preparing for competitions,

and the hard work created a sense of pride in their ability and skill as it pertained to their

sport. When an athlete felt that they were being overshadowed or outperformed by

others, that sense of pride or that image of self was damaged, and the feelings of

embarrassment were triggered. That then became a source of motivation to work harder









and perform better. A statement by Steve illustrated the thinking that went on when

athletes dealt with teammates who they felt were trying to show them up:

I don't know if it was good or bad, but it definitely mattered. When those people
weren't around we were like, "I wonder what this guy is doing today? Trying to
show everybody up in practice when everybody knows he doesn't belong up there
[at the front of the pack]." Or, "What was this guy doing sand-bagging the whole
time and then he would come on the last one and try and beat everybody when he's
been running a minute slower on the first four of the five [laps] and then he's
running one fast one?" I don't know if it was good or bad but people definitely
noticed what was going on. I think to bring it all into perspective with motivational
sources definitely for me too, there was definitely one teammate of mine that really
got steamed when guys would try and run with him. He was one of the best guys
and he would get real mad when lesser caliber athletes would try and run with him,
even if it was the first of five intervals. And he would get so mad; he would try so
hard to drop these guys. I guess it helps; it's a source of motivation. I guess people
don't want people that they don't feel are at their level yet to try every practice and
I don't know maybe if that's good or bad, but definitely served its source.

Athletes who chose to participate and compete at higher level athletic endeavors

had made important investments and sacrifices to achieve at that particular level. The

dedication to their sport and to excellence in their sport produced an environment in

which competition and success were necessities. However, contrary to previous research

(Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), there was evidence within my study to support the idea that

athletes who participate at more highly competitive levels of sport, such as the

participants in my study, thrive in such environments. Lucy explained that, "I like the

competitive atmosphere. I know that everyday if I go, somebody's gonna be competing

with somebody in something, whether it's verbal or nonverbal [physical]." She

elaborated by saying, "There is always room for more in this environment." Amy had

this to say about competition, "I think it [competition] makes it more fun personally,

because everyone out there is giving it their all." Terry revealed this about competing

against high level teammates, "practices were more competitive though [than high

school].. you come to college and you're racing against, you're practicing with people









who are your ability level or better you know? It made you run harder at practice I can

tell you that much." In subsequent sections, competition will be examined more closely

as a contextual factor as well as a source of motivation to athletes.

Cheering on Teammates

Other sources of motivation that occur within the context of team included cheering

on teammates (Figure 3). Cindy said, "I just like to be around other people and I enjoy

cheering each other on, and keeping focused on the competition. That keeps me

motivated during it [competitions], mentally." Kacy also stated, "I like to motivate other

people. I talk a lot, and it's like...I'm very positive." The evidence indicated that

athletes gained motivation by motivating others, or feeling that they were. This source

was tied closely with another first order theme, "Contributing to team success."

Contributing to Team Success

Three of the participants felt that they were motivated by wanting to contribute to

the team's success. Terry illustrated this point when he said, "I feel good when I run a

fast time and help out the team, you know?" He continued by adding "I care more about

the team than I do about the individual performance." Cindy talked about her motivation

to help the team in this way, "You just feel better about yourself when you know what

you're doing and when you know you're helping out the team win the championship."

Being Part of an Elite Group

One driving force that existed only for the collegiate athletes who participated in

the current study was being part of an elite group. Lending support to this construct,

Lucy discussed how being surrounded by high level teammates acted as motivation for

her to achieve their level of performance. She said:









Like I see it like if I want an individual kind of title I have to do it in one of the
events by myself. And it is not going to be easy, because I got some extremely
good teammates. Like they are on the Olympic level basically. So like that's just a
challenge to me to see if I can work extra hard to get to that...being a part of the
number one throwing group in the country, the number one throwers in the country,
individual people [that motivates me].

Lynn further detailed this construct when she emphasized her desire to have

expectations set for the highest level of achievement with this statement, "Wanting to be

an elite college team, rather than just a college team." Jenny discussed the difficulty and

importance of keeping her confidence in an elite atmosphere in this way:

These girls are good. You're training with the best. You really do have to
constantly work at yourself, your insides. I always find that is the hardest thing for
me. Not even working on my tactical or technical, it's giving myself the
confidence to be like okay "I'm going to win this ball." Giving myself the
confidence to say "okay you're good enough to be out here, so now show it."

Success of Teammates

The team atmosphere yielded yet another source of motivation in the "success of

teammates." Athletes who participated in my study identified others' success as a source

motivation. Lucy spoke of teammate success in this manner, "Five of my teammates who

went before me all had PR's (personal records), and I was like yea, I can do this too."

She went on to talk about using the same sort of motivation during the off-season in this

quote, "I'm like even more highly motivated, even though I'm not in season right now,

like just watching my teammates. Like all of them are breaking personal records, and

I'm like "I can't wait till next year!"

Success of Team

Similarly, the success of the team had enhancing effects on motivation. For

instance, athletes spoke of the importance of being on a winning team this way. David

said "I always wanted to be on a winning team. And so when I came to college that's









what I worked for the most, is a team championship. That's probably what fueled me the

most." He then finished off the topic by adding this phrase, "Individual accomplishments

came with training for a team goal."

Being a Leader to Teammates

A final theme that emerged from the data text was "being a leader to teammates."

Jeff, a middle distance runner, talked about experiencing the pressures of leadership, and

why he felt motivated from those demands. He said, "The guys who were with me

[teammates] worked so hard, and looked up to me so much that it was like I want them to

feel how I feel." The theme of leadership was a powerful dynamic to team atmosphere

because it really illustrated how the athletes were tied together by common goals and

aspirations. Often the unifying vision for the goals a group of athletes wanted to achieve

came from another source of motivation for athletes, the coach.

Coach

One motivator that was essential to the success of all of the athletes was the coach.

Figure 3 delineated how the player-coach relationship revolved around a plan that the

coach has for an athlete, and the athlete's willingness to follow that plan through to

completion. The athletes in my study provided a wealth of evidence to this affect. For

the participants, the coach served capacities that ranged from being "an advisor" to

"being demanding" and "having high expectations."

Setting up and Reinforcing Program Goals

The first key to the coach acting as a motivator was that he or she provided a set of

goals and expectations that the athletes' believed would make them successful. The

theme "coach setting up and reinforcing program goals", emerged as a source of

motivation because the athletes indicated that they were motivated by an environment









structured around goals. For instance, Lynn talked about all of the swimmers on her team

understanding and meeting the expectations of the coach. She said:

I think that [everyone on the team having the same goals] all stems from the
coaching staff. I think we had fun, but at the same time we knew what we were
there for and I think that was very important and it usually weeded out the people
who weren't very serious... [coach would say] "I'm going to expect you to be a
practice every time there is a practice, every time you're supposed to."

An interesting aspect of the above quote was Lynn's statement about "weeding

out" the athletes who did not take the swimming seriously. This statement lent further

credence to the view that team atmosphere played an important role in the motivation of

athletes. It also illustrated how the coach was tied to creating and maintaining that

unified source of motivation for the athletes. By only keeping athletes in the program

who worked hard and took the sport and goals of the program "seriously", the coach

facilitated the competitive team atmosphere that served as an important motivator to his

or her players.

Confidence in Coach's Knowledge

Another component necessary for the coach to function as a motivator was the

athletes' "confidence in the coach's knowledge." Lester cited the need for his coach's

guidance and knowledge during his training because he did not feel that he had a

"realistic picture" of what it would take for him to be successful. He stated it this way:

[I don't have the ability to push myself] not as hard as my coaches. I've had some
very good coaches... Those guys push me hard. I can't...I mean I have so much
knowledge. They have far more knowledge. They know what I need to do. It is
very hard to be objective about one's self. I have my picture of myself that I have
drawn. They know what the real picture is. They know what needs to be done, I
know what I think needs to be done.

The importance of an athlete's confidence in a coach's knowledge was elaborated

on by Lucy discussed her coach's role in her development this way, "Now I know I have









a coach who has thrown before and he knows what he is doing. Then that helps out.

Cause he can tell me from what I did wrong, why, and how to fix it." She goes on,

expressing her feeling of urgency to acquire as much knowledge as she can get because

she was beginning her last year of eligibility. She said, "I wish I could have spent all my

years here, because I kind of came into a situation where I had to get it [coach's

knowledge] now and get it fast, because now I'm on my last year." The statements made

by Lucy not only described the coach's role as a source of motivation, but also helped to

more clearly define a theme that was previously discussed, "seeing improvement."

Running Out of Time to Achieve Goals

As discussed earlier, one of the major sources of motivation for athletes was seeing

improvement in their performance. The relationship between a player and a coach was

strongly based on this need, and the coach's ability to facilitate it. The intensity of the

relationship was compounded by the sense of urgency athletes felt because they only had

a limited amount of time to achieve their goals in their current collegiate setting. There

are two first order themes that relate to this topic. The first was labeled "last year/

running out of time to achieve goals." One of the athletes described this source of

motivation is this way, "I'm so much more motivated because it's my last year and I want

to do good." Another participant discussed the feelings he had about taking for granted

his opportunity to compete at the collegiate level. He said, "Man, I really feel like a jerk

for feeling like I was wasting my time the last year, so I was really motivated to make

better use of my last year." David gave an in-depth look at how strong a motivator

"running out of time" could be in this dialogue:

I had a bad summer and it was my senior year. I got second the year before at
NCAA's and won my individual swims and I wanted to go out with a bang my
senior year and I trained. I was training the hardest I've ever trained in my life.









And that was probably one of the most motivated times in my life. And I was
doing things I never thought I could do before, and it's just amazing to look back
on it... I decided to give it my all everyday and I was eating right and doing things,
off the field things. I was eating right and sleeping, and not going out as much, and
trying to be fresh so I could do my best everyday at practice.

Take Advantage of Opportunity

The above passage reinforces the powerful impact that goals had on an athlete's

motivation, as well as highlights the sacrifices he or she was willing to make to achieve

those goals. Three of the participants in the current study viewed the chance to compete

at the collegiate or club level as an opportunity. The desire to take advantage of this

opportunity was identified as another source of motivation. Diane explained how she

was moved to change her lifestyle in order to get the most out of her opportunity. She

said:

[I was] blown out, partying, I had an awesome time. And then realizing you know,
you need to get focused, and that you are her for a reason. So that whole summer I
was so highly motivated I would train twice a day. Go out on my own, like I didn't
need anyone to push me or anything.

Steve also illustrated these same motivations by saying:

So I want to take advantage of being young and stuff like that. Be able to say,
"Yeah, I did the best I could." I don't want to look back and say, "Oh man, I was a
real bum... stuff like that keeps me motivated saying, "Okay, I'm going to do
everything right so that I can accomplish what I want to do.

Athletes who participate in sport at such a high level recognized the chance that

they had been given to pursue their goals to such an extent. They used their opportunity

as a source of motivation by keeping in perspective that it could be over at any time.

Cindy illuminated this factor with her statement, "it's such a great opportunity that I just

try. That keeps me motivated, my goals, how I can improve, and what I can get out of it.

I just want to make the most of my experience."









Coach's Confidence in Athlete

As with an athlete's relationship with teammates, the relationship between coaches

and players motivated some players to give maximum effort. Similar to the effects

teammates had on a player's motivation, when an athlete felt that a coach had confidence

in him or her it became a reservoir from which to draw motivation. By adding to the

players' own self-confidence, a coach's confidence inspired feelings that drove the

athlete to fulfill the coach's expectations for them. This was clearly illustrated in a

paragraph by Diane:

Just knowing that a lot of people [coach] had a lot of faith in my ability, and I was
getting; they were giving me opportunities. They were giving me money, they
were giving me their time, they were giving me their energy. And I didn't want to
let people down, and like it was just a point where I was like, "okay, this is not the
reason I'm over here. Yeah, I want to get an education, but too I think it's to
represent this college so... A lot of it was I didn't want to let people down.

The influence of a coach's confidence in his athletes extended in the other direction

as well. If a player felt that the coach lacked confidence in him or her, it had a damaging

effect on the athlete's motivation. Jenny describes what happened to her motivation

when she did not feel that the coach had confidence in her ability. She said:

I'm in question as to whether my coaches want me here because it's a totally
different atmosphere. There are different things at stake. There are times when I
want to go up to my coaches and ask them, "Do you want me here?" Not that I feel
like, and I don't think they would ever answer that because I think that they expect
you to build that up on your own, and be totally driven by your own self-
motivation. And that's all, and that's why my family is so big, and that's why God
is so big. Because I can't rely completely on myself, because I can't do it by
myself. I can do it with God's help. It's just so hard at this level.

Not only did this passage illustrate the impact that a coach's confidence or lack

there of, can have on a player's motivation, but it also underlined the importance of some

of the other sources of motivation athletes rely on such as family and religion.









It is important to note that within the above quote there was an important discrepant

perception suggested by this athlete. Jenny was a walk-on to the varsity soccer team at

her college, meaning that she did not receive a scholarship or financial compensation for

her efforts toward the soccer team. She also had not experienced much success in her

first season with the team, and these factors seem to have lowered her confidence and

motivation to participate. She expressed in her interview that she felt the coaches

expected her motivation to come from within. The perception that she was the only

athlete who maintained external sources of motivation, and needed the coach's

confidence, contributed to her feelings of low motivation. Because she felt her needs and

sources of motivation were different from those of her teammates, she prevented herself

from engaging them as a highly valuable resource from which to draw strength.

Coach as an Encourager

Another role that the coach fulfilled that served as a source of motivation for

athletes is that of an encourager (Figure 3). The participants cited examples of their

coach's influence in both getting involved, and staying with in their chosen sport. For

one athlete in particular, Lucy, it was her coach who got her involved in her sport (shot

put). Taking the place that parents fulfilled in getting some of the other athletes involved

in sports, Lucy was introduced to her sport by her middle school coach. She said, "I

didn't want to play sports. I wanted to be like a cheerleader or something. They

[coaches] kind of kept bugging me everyday like just try, just try, and I was like okay

fine I'll try." She elaborated on this topic by saying, "But when I got to high school, I

don't know they just kind of made me stick with throwing." Once again, the above

passage cited how an athlete was exposed to sport by an outside influence, which lends









further weight to the importance of significant others' as a source of motivation for high

level athletes.

A second way in which a coach was an encourager was through inspirational

speaking. The data coding yielded evidence that athletes used things the coach said as a

source for motivation, especially immediately preceding a performance. Quotes such as,

"The stuff he [coach] says is inspiring...I hear what he says and it kind of picks me back

up", and "I think the team talking is huge. Especially what the coaches say to you right

before you go step out onto the field. That's a huge thing."

Coach as an Advisor

A final way in which a coach served as a source of motivation was by being an

advisor. Lynn recounted her relationship with her coaching staff by saying, "Also

talking, mostly to the coaches. The coaches here helped a lot with that [keeping me

motivated when I was feeling burned out] and usually they had really good advise." It is

easy to see the complexity of the player-coach relationship in high level sport

participation. One must have an understanding of this construct as the discussion turns to

a source of motivation that involves the athlete and coach, "expectations" and "training at

the highest possible level."

High Expectations and Pressure

Thirteen of the fourteen athletes interviewed for the study talked about the pressure

and expectations that went along with participating in sport at a high level. There were

six first order themes that fell under the category of high expectations and pressure.

Figure 3 highlighted pressure from self, pressure of representing entity, expectations from

coaches, striving to reach personal standards, striving to reach coach's expectations, and

coach's expectations too high all as subcategories. The overall perception presented by









the athletes was that they used the expectations to increase their intensity and

performance, and viewed the pressure as a positive influence on their performance. To

best understand how the athletes accessed this source of motivation we must first get an

idea of what the expectations were and where they were coming from.

Pressure from Self

Some of the pressure that athletes coped with was self- imposed. For example, this

quote by Lucy, "I would probably place it [pressure] on myself first, and then the team.

Cause you have to look at yourself first before you look at everybody else. At least that's

the way I look at it." Steve talked about the pressure he felt when he set his goals and

how that motivated him. He said, "You set the bar high in certain areas; in athletics for

sure."

Pressure of Representing Entity

The athletes also felt the pressure of representing an entity larger than themselves

and their team such as a university or a town. One athlete discussed the prospect of

competing against others who were going to be in top form because they were facing "the

best." Jeff described having competitors "gunning for you" in this way, "I think

[competition] is very stressful because you are a Florida Gator. You've got to be at

you're A game all the time."

Expectations of Coaches

Still even more lofty expectations were applied by the coaches. A paragraph by

Lynn displayed some of these expectations:

In the pool you were expected to do one hundred percent each time. Naturally
people are human and you can't do one hundred percent, but any sort of, I
mentioned before, all of them keeping you in line if you weren't giving one
hundred percent, they'll be in your face.









Another quote by Diane provided insight into an athlete's perceptions of an

environment where the goals of the program and the expectations of the coaches and

players were nothing short of excellence. She said:

As the competition gets higher, the pressure gets higher. That can be a good thing
when it's a final four. But it can also be a bad thing, because you just...as it gets
harder you have a lot of expectations of what you're supposed to do. Especially
coming to a program like UF, the motivation to succeed is a lot higher, especially
from the coaching staff, because they've been there and they've done it. And
you're going to get different players and they're going to bring in different types of
players, but there is still that thing that they've done it before. They're going to use
every single strategy, coaching and stuff like that the same way. And it's not going
to work with most people, some of the girls on the team don't...their coaching style
doesn't sit well with them. They're very demanding and if you can't do it then get
out. I don't know. The higher competition, you want to strive... You're motivated
to strive to get to a higher level, but the competition does get more stressful.

Striving to Reach Personal Standards

The various athletes had different interpretations of what the pressure meant to

them and how they responded it. For some of the athletes, the motivation came from

their desire to participate in their sport at the highest possible level. Diane said, "My

motivation is I don't ever want to let my standards slip," speaking about expecting

nothing less than playing at the highest level possible. Jenny supplemented this argument

with her testimony:

For me, I liked it [soccer], and I just got better and better each year. And then you
reach a point where you can either keep going and keep getting better, pin-pointing
those skills you need to master, or you can stay at the same level.

Striving to Reach Coach's Expectations

Athletes also gained motivation by trying to achieve standards set for them by a

coach. David talked about his interactions with his swim coach and how he used the

aggression he felt when the coach would "chew" him out. He cited this:

My coaches yelled at me a lot, and I always wondered why and then one day one of
the old coaches was like, "Well, the reason he yelled at you was because you could









handle it and he knows that you're not going to bolt." And as I looked back on it
he would chew on me every day and I never let it bother me. And Ijust got pissed
off and it was my fuel. And I would end up doing what he'd asked me to do and
surpassing what was expected of me. So it was my fuel I guess.

The experience David had with his swim coach brought to light an interesting

social factor within the context of sport. David, like other athletes cited feeling "pissed

off" when the coach would "yell" at him and that he used it for "fuel." David's response

was to use his feelings of anger in a positive way by deriving motivation from his

emotions. He was not the only athlete who referred to feelings of anger as a source of

motivation. Previous sections discuss the use of anger as a source of motivation for

athletes to achieve at high levels.

Coach's Expectations too High

Another social contextual factor that needs to be addressed was possible negative

effects that extremely high expectations, particularly from a coach, could have on

athletes' motivation. While many of the athletes pointed out the need for demanding

goals and expectations, there was also evidence that indicated when a coach is too

demanding it could be detrimental to an athlete's motivation. For instance, Lynn

discussed in depth her relationship with one of her coaches in which she felt that the

coach's expectations were necessary for her, but only to a point where she felt supported

by her coach. She had this to say, "I needed them [high expectations]. I'm the type of

person that needs someone behind me to do things, but as I said my coach before was a

lot worse than they [the coaches at UF] in terms of expectations." Lynn then described a

time when her coach's expectations were so heavy that it lead her to feelings of burnout.

She spoke of this particular incident:

Luckily with him [my first swim coach] it was only swimming that I had to worry
about, but he had extremely high expectations in terms of training, going fast one









hundred percent. Really strict work ethic towards everything... By the time I left,
cause I left not on really good terms or anything, but at first it wasn't too bad, but
then he got a little psycho and then it started to hurt me more than help me... I hated
swimming. I didn't want to swim for him, but I was to the point where I didn't
care if I did swim.

She went on to say that, "I think there is a point where coaches can push too much

and I got to that point with him [her coach]. So that became a problem with my

motivation. I was a lot less motivated to do anything."

Benefits of Participation

Another higher order source of motivation identified by participants was benefits of

participation in their respective sport (Figure 3). Many athletes (n=10) pointed out that

they were motivated by the fringe benefits that came along with being an athlete. Cited

were themes such as travel, meeting new people, and fulfillment of personal needs.

Travel

Participants in the current study felt that there were some external benefits to their

participation in higher level sports. For instance, a quote by Kacy gave insight into this

source of motivation:

For me, you get a lot of things out of playing. Not just the soccer, and part of being
successful and having a lot of fun, but we also get to travel. We go a lot of places,
we get to do a lot of things nobody has ever done. We get a lot of benefits. I mean
our locker room is incredible. During classes, if you have a break you can go back
there and sleep. We have big leather couches, they feed us. We get food all the
time. There's just a lot. They take us fun places. We've been to California a few
times, Europe. There are a lot of benefits to it.

Kacy alluded to a variety of benefits that she received from being on the university

soccer team, one of which was travel. Six other athletes said the places they got to go for

team road trips were a source of motivation for them. Cindy said, "I've gotten to travel a

lot [with the team], a few different places. When we do travel our coach takes us out and









we go sight seeing. We went mountain climbing; we go snowmobiling." Lucy added to

this idea with her statement:

Yea [traveling is motivating].., the biggest benefit you get from traveling [with the
team] is that you get to go places on them [the school]. I mean that's like I get to
go places that my family be like "Wow," you know I take pictures, but they'll
probably never go to California.

Lynn expanded her feeling about travel to include not only the things she got to do

while she was visiting new places, but also the people. She said, "I love traveling [to

international competitions] and meeting different people and experiencing different

cultures. Her perspective provided more clarity into why travel was motivating for

athletes.

It is important to point out that the athletes who mentioned travel as a source of

motivation were all collegiate level athletes. None of the club sport participants

identified any travel that they did as a source of motivation. The discrepancy in

motivation may have been because the club sport athletes had to pay for any travel that

they did, where as the collegiate athletes' travel was paid for by the university. However,

collegiate and club sport athletes both felt that meeting new people was a source of

motivation for them.

Meet New People

Four athletes identified the people they met while involved in their sport as a

source of motivation for them. Similar to Lynn's viewpoint Lester had this to say about

his experiences, "I mean there are people all over the world that I've met that if I was not

a part of this sport I would never have had an opportunity to." Cindy agreed, "I feel like

the track team is a very well-rounded group of people. So it's giving me a lot of

opportunities to meet new people and that's what I like." Lucy, who was African









American, discussed how her experiences with new people were valuable because they

have allowed her to be comfortable around people with backgrounds different from hers.

She said, "I have no problem now being around just all whites or just all Puerto Ricans,

or just all blacks. I can mix in now. That's what has taught me a lot." Lucy's statements

provide insight into why meeting new people was motivating to some of the participants.

Her quote about being able to "mix" insinuated that she saw value in being able to

understand the people around her better, and her experiences in her sport gave her that

ability.

The next subcategory that fell under the higher order theme benefits of participation

was fulfillment of personal needs. This broad category encompassed a variety of first

order themes such as: development of self confidence, taking care of and defending

oneself, physical health benefits, and maintaining personal relationships. The following

section will explore this category further.

Fulfillment of Personal Needs

A statement by Lester provided an overview of the general dimensions of this

construct. His quote encompasses the multiple functions that a sport can serve in an

individual's life. He said:

The actual sport itself, to me is everything. It's aerobic; it's strength building. I get
it all right here. It's very gratifying. It's applicable not just as a sport, but as a self-
defense. I don't thing I'm invincible, but at the same token I have the confidence
to do what I need to do. So it gratifies me in so many ways, and I'm probably
leaving a lot out. The physical and mental aspect of it. The fact that it does a lot
for me. Not only the mental aspect as far as it makes me feel good, but it helps me
get along better in my personal relationships, because it helps me think clearer.

Physical Health Benefits

Lester brought up a spectrum of benefits that he received from judo which fulfilled

his personal needs. For example he discussed the positive physical payoffs that he









received by participating in his sport. Terry also identified the health gains he received

from running as a motivator. He had this to say, "[It motivates me] being able to go long

distances and not be out of breath, or run really hard for a long amount of time.

Likewise, Amy felt that "running around and being in shape" was a source of motivation

for her to play soccer.

Development of Confidence

A second element of sport that Lester talked about as fulfilling a need was the

confidence to defend oneself. This is an interesting concept because both judo athletes

made reference to the importance of knowing they could defend themselves. Ryan

discussed his perspective in this quote;

Being able to say to myself if someone wants to start something with me, I'm more
than happy to bring it to them, wherever, whenever. That motivates me. It gives
me the self-confidence. I mean, I'm like the most non-violent person you'll ever
meet, but it makes me feel good knowing that I can defend myself, knowing that I
can take care of my friends. It gives me great pleasure.

Ryan's quote from the previous section brought up another component of sport that

fulfilled needs for athletes. Throughout the data coding process, the development of

confidence was brought up as a by-product of sport participation in a variety of ways. It

was discussed in reference to parental support, teammate support, a coach's role as a

source of motivation, religious beliefs, as well as fulfillment of personal needs. Kacy

described how sport helped her develop confidence in this quote, "I guess it's the success

you get out of it. Knowing that you're good at something." Ryan added this about the

role that sport played in changing his self-image, "It's given me a lot of confidence in

myself. I don't know if I'd call it a life-changing experience, but it's changed my outlook

on a lot of things."









Development of Life Skills

As the current study illustrated in Figure 3, athletics endeavors involve a complex

mixture of physical and mental demands on athletes. The athletes recognized that the

stressful conditions in sport emulate similar circumstances that all people encounter

throughout life. They also felt that the fundamental aptitude necessary to be successful

within the domain of sport carried over to those real-life situations. Lucy delineated her

attitude about this subject in this quote:

[One thing that motivated me about sports was that] I saw that it could teach you a
little discipline about things. Like anything I run into; just kind of related it to real
life stuff. A lot of determination was in it. I was pretty much the only minority on
the team, but after a while I got used to it and I enjoyed playing with them [other
athletes on the team], and I learned a lot just being around different people
basically.

Lucy's statements pointed to her understanding of the benefits she could receive

from her sport participation. She recognized the long-term value of being around people

who were different from herself, and developing "determination," both of which she

knew she could relate to "real life stuff' that would help her in the future.

Competition

Up to this point, my study has looked at athletes' sources of motivation to

participate in sport. A second purpose for my study was to explore the construct of

competition that is intertwined with all sports at the collegiate and club levels. As

discussed earlier in the paper, each of the athletes was asked to define competition in

their own terms, and a majority viewed competition as two individuals or teams

struggling to better the others' performance. However upon further questioning, the

participants in my study presented a variety of viewpoints on competition as a source of

motivation. There were seven first order themes that fell under the higher order theme