<%BANNER%>

Looking at Ethiopia: History, Photography, and Power


PAGE 1

LOOKING AT ETHIOPIA: HIST ORY, PHOTOGRAPHY, AND POWER By JAIME BAIRD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by Jaime Baird

PAGE 3

This thesis is dedicated to Brian, Hayes, and Marley.

PAGE 4

iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The study would not have been possible wit hout the generous assistance of a great many people. Firstly, I would like to tha nk my committee: Robin Poynor and Vicki Rovine provided guidance and crucial insight throughout every stage of this project, and Eric Segal was always available to answer my questions and give valuable advice. Additionally, all three offered moral support and encouragement during the arduous final stages of the writing process. Dr. Rebecca Nagy, Director of the Harn Museum of Art, also provided much crucial assistance. Her vibrant enthusiasm for Ethiopian culture was the impetus for my own interests in this topi c and had it not been for her encouragement, I may never have realized how rich Ethiopian culture truly is. I woul d also like to thank several other professors, who all contributed in one way or another to my thinking on this project. In the art school, Dr. Barbara Barl etta, Dr. Alex Alberro, and Dr. Melissa Hyde, all deserve many thanks. I would also like to thank Dr. Abdoulaye Kane in anthropology, Dr. Fiona Mclaughlin in linguist ics and African studies, Dr. Joan Frosch in theater and dance, and Dr. Akintunde Akinye mi in African languages. I am also very grateful to several indivi duals who assisted me in a number of ways during the research and writing pr ocess. While my ideas were still in a very formative stage, Dr. Al Roberts offered advice on how to direct my research, and as my project neared completion, Dr. Peri Klemm provided va luable insight and encouragement, and Dr. Jon Abbink amiably replied to all of my numerous queries a bout Suri culture. I would also like to thank To m Southall whose keen enthusia sm for my topic was a great

PAGE 5

v inspiration. Dan Reboussin and John Nemmers deserve many thanks for their support and eagerness to share thei r hard-earned research and ideas with me. Ras Adam Simeon, Jah Jim Marshall, and BenGee also deserve a gr eat deal of thanks for sharing not only information but also a significant aspect of their lives with me for this project. I also wish to thank my fellow students in the art and art history, and African studies programs at the University of Florid a, without whom I would never have had the courage to undertake this study. In particular, I wish to th ank Mariola Alvarez, Jeremy Culler, Wood D. Weber, Kathy Huala, I zabela Riano, Lauren Turner, Natalie Haddad, Joann Ihas, Jody Berman, Ade Ofunniyin, A nn Baird, and Tim Nevin. Most of all I would like to express my enormous gratitude to Nicholas Frech, w ho provided assistance, friendship, and undying support during my entire tim e at the University of Florida. Last, but certainly not least, I wish to thank Brian Henderson and our two dogs Hayes and Marley, whose love and support kept me alive and sane.

PAGE 6

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................x ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: SCOPE AND CONTENT...........................................................1 Ethiopia: An Overview................................................................................................6 Ethiopia and the History of African Photography......................................................11 Organization and Goals..............................................................................................17 2 MAPPING ETHIOPIAS HISTORY: LEGENDS OF THE NILE AND THE THIOPIAN OCEAN...............................................................................................25 Early Visions of Africa...............................................................................................26 thiopia, Abyssinia and the Quest for Prester John..................................................31 The Habit of an Ethiopian.......................................................................................40 3 PHOTOGRAPHING ETHIOPIA: TH E SAFARI AND THE PILGRIMAGE.........63 Gazing at Ethiopia......................................................................................................64 Touring Ethiopian Bodies...........................................................................................70 Gazing Back................................................................................................................75 Authenticity as Spectacle and the Politics of Display................................................81 Beckwith and Fishers Ethiopia in Context................................................................88 4 VISIONS OF POWER: THE IMAGE OF EMPEROR HAILE SELASSIE I........105 The Image of Selassie in the Western Media...........................................................106 Selassie as the Chapel...............................................................................................112 5 CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................136 BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................138 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................153

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1.1 Photograph of a Suri man by Caro l Beckwith and Angela Fisher...........................20 1.2 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie............................................................21 1.3 Linguistic map of Ethiopia.......................................................................................22 1.4 Map of Ethiopia showing re gional boundaries of the nine Ethiopian States...........22 1.5 Spirit of Sisterhood by Aida Muluneh.....................................................................23 1.6 Lij Iyasu, his father Ras Mickael and Ras Hapte Ghiorgis. Attributed to Bedros Boyadjian. Private Collection (P ankhurst and Grard, 1998: 127)......................24 2.1 Map of the World according to Ptolemys second projection, 1482........................49 2.2 Reconstruction of Ptolemys oikoumen ..................................................................49 2.3 Liby (Africa) according to Ptolemy........................................................................50 2.4 Reconstruction of Liby (Africa), following Ptolemy..............................................50 2.5 T-O map................................................................................................................51 2.6 Copy of a map by al-Idrisi........................................................................................51 2.7 Sebastian Mnsters Map of Africa.........................................................................52 2.8 National Geographic map of Ethiopia printed in 1931............................................52 2.9 Africa According to y Newest and most Exact Observations created by Herman Moll, London, 1714..................................................................................................53 2.10 Detail of figure 2.9...................................................................................................53 2.11 Africa Ex Magna Orbis Terre created by Gerard Me rcator (the younger), 1595...54 2.12 Detail of figure 2.11.................................................................................................54 2.13 Detail of figure 2.11.................................................................................................55

PAGE 8

viii 2.14 Detail of figure 2.11.................................................................................................55 2.15 Africae Tabula Nova created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570......................56 2.16 Presbiteri Johannis Abissinorium Imperii Descripto (A representation of the empire of Prester John, or, of the Aby ssinians), created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1573..........................................................................................................56 2.17 Habessinia or Abassia, Pr esbyteri Johannis Regio (Habessinia or Abassia, the Land of Prester John.) Created by Hiob Ludolf, 1683......................................57 2.18 Detail of figure 2.17.................................................................................................57 2.19 Detail of Afric Nova Descriptio (Africa Newly Described), created by Willem Blaeu, 1630...............................................................................................................58 2.20 Detail of Afric map of Africa created by John Speed, London, 1626..................58 2.21 Guinea created by Willem Blau, Amsterdam, 1635...............................................59 2.22 Detail of figure 2.21.................................................................................................59 2.23 thiopia Inferior vel Exterior (Lower or Outer thiopia), made by Jan Jansson after an earlier map by Jan Blau (1642)......................................................60 2.24 Detail of figure 2.23.................................................................................................60 2.25 Paskaerte Van West Indien de Vaste Kusten en de Eylanden created by Pieter Goos, nd., probably late 1660s.................................................................................61 2.26 Detail of figure 2.25.................................................................................................61 2.27 Illustration from The Entertaining Traveler; or, the Whole World in Miniature by John Fransham and printed by Henry Holmes, London, 1767............................62 2.28 Illustration from History of All Nations printed by David Paterson, Edinburgh, 1777..........................................................................................................................6 2 2.29 Image of the Emperor of Abyssi nia from Allain Manesson Mallets Description de LUnivers 1685...................................................................................................62 3.1 Ethiopian Orthodox Priest, at a rock-hew n church in Lalibela. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher..........................................................................93 3.2 Suri men painting their bodies in preparation for Donga Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher....................................................................................94 3.3 Suri body painting. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher..................95

PAGE 9

ix 3.4 Suri body painting. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher..................95 3.5 Suri woman wearing a lip-plate. P hotograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher........................................................................................................................9 6 3.6 Priest standing at the entrance of the maqdas (holy of holies) of the church of Ura Kidane Mehret on Lake Tana. Phot ograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher........................................................................................................................9 7 3.7 Konso man. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher..............................98 3.8 Konso man and Konso architecture. Phot ography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher........................................................................................................................9 9 3.9 Hamar women. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher...................100 3.10 Early 20th century postcard of Algerian women.....................................................101 3.11 Young Konso woman. Photograph by Ca rol Beckwith and Angela Fisher...........102 3.12 Amhara woman and Orthodox priest. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher.........................................................................................................103 3.13 Maasai girl undergoing painful exci sion. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher.........................................................................................................104 3.14 Maasai girl undergoing ex cision. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher......................................................................................................................104 4.1 Photograph of Haile Selassie s coronation, front cover of Le Miroir du Monde 37 (November 15, 1930)........................................................................................118 4.2 Haile Selassies coronation, front cover of LIllustration ......................................119 4.3 Haile Selassies coronation, front cover of The Illustrated London News .............120 4.4 Haile Selassies coronation. Photogra ph by George W. Moore. From a feature article in National Geographic Magazine 59 no.6 (June 1931).............................121 4.5 Emperor Haile Selassie I on the cover of Time Magazine .....................................121 4.6 Britains Duke of Glou cester arriving in Addis Ababa for the coronation ceremony................................................................................................................122 4.7 Autographed portrait of Haile Selassie..................................................................122 4.8 Benito Mussolini facing a coronation portrait of Haile Selassie, from the New York Times ..............................................................................................................123

PAGE 10

x 4.9 Haile Selassie with his foot on an unexploded Italian gas bomb. Cover of The Illustrated London News ........................................................................................123 4.10 Haile Selassie and so ldiers on the cover of The Illustrated London News ............124 4.11 Haile Selassie on the cover of The Illustrated London News .................................124 4.12 Haile Selassie on the cover of Newsweek ...............................................................125 4.13 Haile Selassie on the cover of Time Magazine ......................................................125 4.14 Haile Selassie on front cover of Der Spiegel .........................................................126 4.15 Haile Selassie on the front cover of Epoca ............................................................126 4.16 Starving Ethiopian child and mother on the cover of Time Magazine ...................127 4.17 Starving Ethiopian woman. Photograph by Anthony Suau. Rolling Stone ...........127 4.18 Rastafari wearing a necklace with a red, yellow and green picture of Africa and a t-shirt bearing an image of Ras Tafari.................................................................128 4.19 Dreadlocked Rastafari wearing a t-sh irt bearing Haile Se lassies image...............129 4.20 Tote bag with coronation image of Haile Selasse..................................................129 4.21 Jah is my co-pilot bumper sticker.......................................................................130 4.22 Haile Selassie I medal from his Silver Jubilee Fair in 1955..................................130 4.23 Haile Selassie cigar band........................................................................................130 4.24 Haile Selassie and his wife, Empress Menen on the front cover of Jahug 5 Alpha and Omega .............................................................................................................131 4.25 Bob Marley and Haile Selassie on the cover of the re-released version of Selassie is the Chapel (Bob Marley and Wailers, JAD Records, 1998)...............131 4.26 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Se lassie. Photograph by Hagaz Boyadjian, 1930........................................................................................................................132 4.27 Formal portrait of Haile Selassie. Probably taken by Hagaz Boyadjian..............132 4.28 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie and his wife, Empress Menen. Probably taken by Hagaz Boyadjian.....................................................................133 4.29 Rastafari adaptation of one of Hagaz B oyadjians formal coronation portraits of Haile Selassie.........................................................................................................133

PAGE 11

xi 4.30 Haile Selassie and other African lead ers at the Heads of State Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 1967. Photograph by Marion Kaplan.....................................134 4.31 Slightly different image of Haile Selassi e and other African leaders at the Heads of State Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 1967.......................................................134 4.32 Young girl performing the sign of the heart...........................................................135 4.33 BenGee (right) with Joseph Hill (left) of the Jamaican reggae group Culture.......135

PAGE 12

xii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts LOOKING AT ETHIOPIA: HIST ORY, PHOTOGRAPHY, AND POWER By Jaime Baird August 2005 Chair: Robin Poynor Cochair: Victoria Rovine Major Department: Art and Art History Visual imagery has played an important role in the form ation of Western perceptions of Ethiopia. Th is thesis addresses histori cal and contemporary visual representations in maps, books, and photogra phs in order to explore how looking at imagery defines not only what is known about Ethiopia and Ethiopian people, but also how that knowledge operates in specific cult ural contexts. By focusing on how these images are used and understood in Western cultu re, it will be demonstrated that meaning is generated in both individua l and social s ituations. This study is organized into five chapte rs, including an introduction, and a brief conclusion. Chapters 2 through 4 each deal wi th a specific methodol ogical approach for looking at visual imagery. As an introduction for modes of looking, my analysis in chapter 2 explores how visual re presentations can be read as te xts. In chapter 3, I further this approach to include the subjectivities that are embedded in the imagery, and the different power structures that encode them with meaning. Chapter 4 utilizes a

PAGE 13

xiii combination of looking techniques as presen ted in the previous two chapters, while simultaneously projecting the process of looking back onto the imagein other words; the image as a thing that develops its ow n history or histories in different viewing contexts. Visual representations are always viewed through a filter of cascading contexts, a system of interlocking looks or gazes that converge and diverge at different points and locations in history. Numerous contexts ar e embedded within the representation itself, and, to some degree, these embedded contexts are stable, and can be read. At the same time, other and equally significant contex ts are created by the trajectory of the representation as it moves around acquiring mean ing in different and often remarkably singularized ways. By addressing the hist ory of Ethiopia as a history of the way Ethiopian people have been represented, I also hope to show that these two trajectories of the photographic imagethe photographed subj ect and the photograph as subjectare contingent and intertwined. Ethiopia has been exceptionally well-repre sented in the Western popular media, particularly during the 20th century; however, Ethiopia is vi rtually absent from academic studies of African visual culture. This thesis is intended, therefore, to fill a gap not only in the history of photographic practice and Afri ca, but also to serve as a contribution to Ethiopian and African visual studies in general.

PAGE 14

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: SCOPE AND CONTENT I want a History of Looking (Barthes, 1981: 12) Drawn against an austere backdrop of dr y greenish haze, the mans face in figure 1.1 stands alone, isolated, it would seem, not onl y from the rest of his body, but also from the surrounding material worl d. Transformed into an objet dart by the magic of the camera, the man in the photograph becomes an icon of timeless beautya symphony of color and form wrought from the palate of re al life. Figure 1.2, however, presents a very different picture. The latter example shows Emperor Haile Se lassie I, who ruled Ethiopia as absolute sovereign from 1930 until he wa s deposed by the Marxist Derg regime in 1974. Depicted in ornate coronation regali a and wearing an elaborate crown, Haile Selassie is presented as the classic embodime nt of steadfast imperial power. These two images are paired here as an abridged re presentation of the two dominant discursive spheres Ethiopia operates withint hematically and historically. As portraits, both photographs are a very pa rticular kind of visual representation. Portraiture is always given special mention in the history of phot ography, usually because of the power of presence it gran ts to unique human life. Walter Benjamin, for example, writes that in the fleeting e xpression of the human face, the aurabeckons for the last time.1 This, Benjamin realizes, is what give s them their melancholy and incomparable beauty. 1 Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility, in Selected Writings vol. 3. Ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 108

PAGE 15

2 No matter how many times they are repr oduced, photographs of human subjects carry a trace of the subjects aura or individual biography. Additionally, photographs, like all visual representations, are always vi ewed through a filter of cascading contexts, a system of interlocking looks or gazes th at converge and diverge at different points and locations in history. Numerous contex ts are embedded within the representation itself, and, to some degree, these embedded cont exts are stable, and can be read. At the same time, other, and equally significant cont exts are created by the trajectory of the representation as it moves around acquiring m eaning in different, and often remarkably singularized ways.2 This study focuses on representa tions of Ethiopia and Ethiopian people. By addressing the hist ory of Ethiopia as a history of the way Ethiopian people have been represented, I hope to show that these two trajectories of the photographic imagethe photographed subject and the phot ograph as subjectare contingent and intertwined. The photograph in figure 1.1 was taken by Ca rol Beckwith and Angela Fisher and it appears in Faces of Africa the newest edition in their line of popular coffee-table books about culture and life in Africa. In situ the caption reads: Surma, Ethiopia: Barchini, with his chis eled features and long elegant body, was one of the handsomest and most seductive men we met in Surmaland. After painting his body with beautiful chalk designs on the banks of the Dama River, he would turn around and gaze at us intensely, seeking our approval We were so disarmed by his powerful expression that sometimes we would forget to press our camera shutters .3 2 The edited volume, The Social Life of Things is perhaps the best collection of essays that address the way things, in this case commodities, move around and acquire meaning in different contexts. Arjun Appadurai, ed., The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). Appadurais introductory chapter and Igor Kopytoffs contribution were particularly useful for the present study. 3 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, Faces of Africa (Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2004): 86.

PAGE 16

3 Like many other ethnic groups in Africa that have become victims of their own iconicitythe Nuba for Leni Riefenstahl, th e Himba in Namibia, the Maasai in general in Beckwith and Fishers work, the Surm a have become the perennial sexy savages, ever-ready emblems of natural beauty and vi rulent receptacles of authentic primal yearnings and desire.4 This caption is far more explicitly exoticizing than the stylized explanatory texts tacked on to most of Beckwith and Fishers more documentary flavored works, yet the image of Ethiopia it prom otes is not exceptional in their oeuvre. Early on in its history, p hotography was adopted as a tool for exercising very different kinds of power. For over 150 years now it has been used variously to exploit, flatter, categorize, remember, identify, measur e, study, and control real people with real lives in an array of locali zed and international contexts Some of the most probing discussions of photographi c history are, in fact, rigorous social critiques, addressing how the camera and its product became not only an avenue towards voyeuristic revelry, but also a surveillance apparatus, and a means to generate essentializing racial and classbased categories. Photography also has a long history as art, as we ll as a reputation for disrupting the very systems by which artwor ks have traditionally acquired cultural, economic, and political value.5 In his erudite study The Body and the Archive, for 4 For a critique of Leni Riefenstahls photographs of the Nuba of Sudan, see Susan Sontag, Fascinating Fascism, in Under the Sign of Saturn (London: Vintage, 1996): 71-105; for an excellent study of representations of the Himba, see Michael Bollig an d Heike Heinemann, Nomadic Savages, Ochre People and Heroic Herders: Visual Presentations of the Himba of Namibias Kaokaoland, Visual Anthropology 15 (2002): 267-312. In her work on the Samburu, Sydney Kasfir discusses the iconic status of the Maasai in the Western world. See Slam-Dunking and the Last Noble Savage, Visual Anthropology 15 (2002): 369385 and Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber, in Ruth Phillips and Christopher Steiner, eds., Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999): 67-83. 5 See Rosalind Krauss, Photographys Di scursive Spaces: Landscape/View, Art Journal 42, no. 4 (Winter 1982): 311-319; Walter Benjamin, A Short History of Photography, in Classic Essays on Photography ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Leetes Island Books, 1980): 199-218; Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility, in Selected Writings vol. 3, ed. Howard Eiland and

PAGE 17

4 instance, Alan Sekula reveals photography s paradoxical status , as a double systemof representation cap able of functioning both honorifically and repressively simultaneously.6 Control over how these concatenat ed powers are exerted and yielded, and the processes by which they both limit and provoke reality, he then argues, should never be underestimated. Carol Beckwith and Angela Fishers photographs of Ethiopia exemplify how dangerous photography can be wh en its power is wielded with little to no regard for the message it communicates to both Western a nd non-Western audiences about life and culture in Africa. Their work is certainly honorific : indeed, their books usually begin with a proclamation about how grateful they are to have been able to capture so many beautiful images, followed by a statement about how they want to give something back to Africa by celebrating its unique and, above all, ancient cultures. Their work is also repressive they omit anything deemed inauthenti c, obscuring the complexities of modern life in Africa in order to supply the world market with the prototypical image of the non -Western. In his review of their previous major publication, African Ceremonies Anthony Appiah eloquently notes: Certainly you would never guess from Afr ican Ceremonies that by the year 2020 half the population of Afri ca will live in cities. The focus of salvaging a disappearing past means that there ar e no state openings of parliament, no weddings in white in modern Christia n churches, no graduations from the continents universities.7 Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 101-133; Waltar Benjamin, A Short History of Photography, in Classic Essays on Photography ed. Alan Trachtenberg (New Haven: Leetes Island Books, 1980) 199-216; and Allan Sekula, The Body and the Archive, October 39 (Winter 1986): 3-64. 6 Sekula, Ibid, 6. 7 K. Anthony Appiah. The Rite Stuff, New York Times Book Review (December 5, 1999): 13.

PAGE 18

5 By assuming that African traditions are remnants of the past rather than dynamic processes subject to the flow of time and history, Beckwith and Fisher reinforce the notion that modernity is restrict ed to the Western domain. Perhaps this is the appropri ate juncture to mention that most of the photographs and other visual examples I re-pre sent in this study are images of Ethiopia and Ethiopians created primarily by Westerners for Western audiences. Even the ones that were originally made in and for Ethiopia (discussed below and in the last chapter) are addressed as they operate in a predominantly Western context. As several recent studies of African art and visual culture have shown, Western and African representational systems are not mutually independent. For instance, in her work on the Samburu of Kenya, Sydney Kasfir brings to light the am biguities and tensions that exist between Samburu self-representation (through persona l adornment, weaponry, and comportment) and representations of Samburu in photogra phy, postcards, the tourist trade, and even Hollywood movies.8 In Christopher Steiners numerous explorations of authenticity and African art in the global market place, he utilizes Walter Benjamins critique of mechanical reproduction in order to show how seriality produces its own aesthetic constructs, especially as images and object s move from one socio-geographic domain to another.9 And in her work on Malian Bogolanfini (mud cloth), Victoria Rovine illustrates 8 Sydney Kasfir. Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber, 1999, and Slam-Dunking and the Last Noble Savage, 2002. 9 Christopher R. Steiner. Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive, in Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism ed. Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995): 202-225; Authenticity, Repetition, and the Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999): 87-103; and African Art in Transit (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

PAGE 19

6 how the same symbols of African culture can mean vastly different things simultaneously to diverse people in multiple local and international contexts.10 In addition to being about representations of Ethiopia, this st udy is also about how knowledge of Ethiopia comes to reside in vari ous inter-contextual milieux, or archives. The concept of the defined archive is much like that of a delimited discourse: it is a collection of information pertaining to this or that thing or governi ng concept, that comes together for the purpose of re presenting and exploring a par ticular idea. Some archives are existential, physical collections of things Other archives are id eological, intangible, perhaps even fleeting formations that ebb and flow with the demands of change and history. An archive is also that which one has access to, the field of possibilities that exist from a specified vantage point.11 Thus, this analysis is a kind of archive unto itself, a formation of information assembled based on my own access to representations of Ethiopia and Ethiopians. I hope that the absence of visual representations of Ethiopia by Ethiopians will therefore not be perceived as an omission, but rather an avenue for further research.12 Ethiopia: An Overview The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethi opia (figures 1.3 and 1.4) is organized into a bicameral parliament system made up of the House Peoples Representatives (HPR) and the House of the Federation (HF). The former is comprised of 548 10 Victoria Rovine, Bogolan: Shaping Culture through Cloth in Contemporary Mali (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001). 11 For an archivists perspective of access to archives, see Angelika Menne-Haritz, Accessthe Reformulation of an Archival Paradigm. Archival Science 1 no. 1 (March 2001): 57-82. 12 The majority of research conducted for this study was carried out in the George Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida; I also made one brief trip to the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia University in New York, and worked extensively on the internet.

PAGE 20

7 representatives from nine et hnically divided states a nd two administrative councils.13 The latter consists of at least one repres entative from each one of Ethiopias Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (which basically means one representative from each ethnic group). The authority to appoint the Prime Mi nister rests with the party that wins a majority of seats in the HPR, and alth ough the HPR has significantly more political power, the two houses meet together annuall y, and the HF is permitted to voice opinion on matters pertaining to the general running of the country as well as issues related to human rights.14 Representatives from both hous es serve a term of 5 years. Since 1991, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and his primarily Tigrayan peoples party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) have governed Ethiopiaat times with an iron fist. Rebel fighters from the EPRDF were instrumental in toppling the previous regime, a Marxist m ilitary junta known as the Derg (Amharic for Council) which had taken power from Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1974. The Derg left Ethiopia deeply wounded, yet Ethiopian peopl e have moved on with their lives and scholars in Ethiopia and abroad are now beginning to confront this difficult era in their work. As Bahru Zewde emotively not es in the second edition of his A History of Modern Ethiopia Now that the Darg [sic] is over, a re quiem of that past has become possible.15 13 According the Ethiopian parliament website, the nine states are delimited on the basis of the settlement patterns, language, identity and consent of the people concerned. < http://www.ethiopar.net/index.htm > Last accessed 6-22-05. 14 Ibid. 15 Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1991, 2nd edition (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2001): xix.

PAGE 21

8 Bahru, like many other writers of Ethiopi an history, begins his book by stating, Ethiopia is an ancient country..., which it is, in some respects.16 During the 1st century CE, a powerful kingdom known as Aksum, or A xum, developed in what is now northern Ethiopia.17 Situated just 100 miles from the Re d Sea, Aksum was a thriving commercial hub and traded with Arabia, Egypt, and India as well as several other African societies and kingdoms closer to the interior, includ ing Nubia. The Aksumites were highly organized; they minted currency, and empl oyed a written language, called Geez. Originally Geez was written in boustrophedonic Sabean (ancient Arabic) characters, but the script underwent several i ndigenizing changes following the translation of the bible into Geez from Greek in the 4th century.18 In fact, this eventthe translation of the bible into Geezis the first recorded use of the word Ethiopia (thiopia, or Aithiopia) by historic Ethiopian peoples.19 By many accounts, ancient Et hiopia lost contact with the outside world after the decline of Aksum sometime in the 7th century. Nevertheless, the sustained presence of Ethi opian priests, clerics, and pi lgrims in the Holy Land during the European Middle Ages, and in Rome duri ng the European Renaissance, assured that Ethiopia wasnt completely forgotten abroad. Modern Ethiopia has really onl y existed since the late 19th century. After a great deal of civil strife and dis unity, three provincial rulersTw edros, also referred to as King Theodore (r. 1855-1868), Yohannes (r. 1872-1889) and Menelik II (r. 188916 Ibid, 1. 17 For a history of Ethiopia see Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998); The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville, NJ and Asmara, Eritrea: The Red Sea Press, 1997); and A Social History of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1990). 18 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians 24-25. 19 Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia 1.

PAGE 22

9 1913)successively managed to unify large portions of the country.20 Their domain, just like that of their predecessors was concentrated in the hi ghlands areas of northern and central Ethiopia. It was Menelik II, who, under a great deal of political and economic pressure from the outside world (nam ely Italy and Egypt), decided to expand Ethiopias borders in order to increase the amount of arable land under the highland nobilitys control. More la nd meant more crops, more revenue, and more money to buy ammunition and guns for defending Ethiopia from the onslaught of colonial powers that had already gobbled up most of the rest of the African continent. Many of the outlying provinces incorporated into Meneliks em pire had functioned as independent kingdoms or emirates for centuries. Meneliks c onquest also brought lowland pastoralists recognizing no boundaries into the organized Ethiopian empire for the first time.21 However, because many of these groups were removed from the capital and other commercial areas by the natural landscape of the Great Rift Valley, imperial rule was essentially indirect. Ethiopias decision in 1994 to divide the country into ethn ically divided states was an attempt to recognize the incr edible cultural diversity of its people. Official business and general education is tran sacted in Amharic, yet th ere are 83 different languages spoken in Ethiopia, with 200 separate dialects The climate ranges from cool and breezy in the rainy highlands, to scor ching hot in the often desiccate d lowlands, and the range of lifestyles in Ethiopia is usua lly credited to its amazing topographical variation. The capital city, Addis Ababa (New Flower), sits right in the middle of the country, at the 20 Richard Pankhurst and Denis Grard, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Photographs of the Country and its People Taken between 1867 and 1935 (London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996): 17. 21 Zewde A History of Modern Ethiopia 20-21.

PAGE 23

10 very edge of the mountainous region wh ere altitudes begin to slide down, and temperatures begin to rise up. Thus, due to its relative accessibility, Addis Ababa and the markets along the citys periphery have long been a meeting place for numerous cultures and peoples who otherwise ha ve little in common. For the purposes of this study, the word Ethiop ia always refers to modern Ethiopia. If I am intentionally referencing the history of what is now Ethiopia, I will say historic Ethiopia, ancient Ethiopia, or the lands where Ethiopia is today. It should also be noted that when referring to Ethiopian people, it is considered appropriate to address them by their first name. Thus, the proper way to refer to Bahru Zewde in the third person is Bahru, not Zewde. Throughout the remainder of this work, I will use the Ethiopian rule for referring to Ethiopians, whilst all othe r individuals will be referred to by their surname. The only exception is Haile Selassie I, who I will refer to often as Selassie. Also worth mentioning are the plethora of Ang licizations of Ethiopian names and words. For the sake of consistency, I have opted to use the versions of words most frequently encountered in current research on Ethiopi a, though when citing photograph captions or excerpts from texts, I retain the form of the wo rds as they appear in situ. An example of the latter is the word Surma used above. Sur i is actually more politically correct, not to mention that the Suri usually refer to themselves as Chai or Tirmaga.22 All of the place names, group or ethnic names, as well as names of individual people mentioned here are re-presented it is never my intention to use terminology that has been deemed offensive, and if I do so, I do so in ignorance. Whenever I am aware that something I am re-presenting is false or derogatory, I will point out the correct term in the text, or in a 22Jon Abbink, Paradoxes of Power and Culture in an Old Periphery: Surma, 1974-1998, Remapping Ethiopia: Socialism and After ed. Wendy James et al. (Oxford: James Curry, 2002): 157-158.

PAGE 24

11 footnote. For example, Barchini is a corruption of the Suri name Barchinoy.23 I do not, however, have an answer for why the name wa s changed in Beckwith and Fishers book. Ethiopia and the History of African Photography Four dominant lines of inquiry have de fined most studies of the history of photography in and of Africa: 1) loc al productionphotographs made by and for African people living in Afri ca; 2) contemporary art photogr aphy; 3) post-colonial rereadings of colonial photogra phy; and 4) the use value of hi storic photographs as primary source material, and the use value of bot h new and old photographs in contemporary contexts such as exhibitions, textbooks, schol arly publications, classrooms, and fieldwork situations.24 Extensive work in the latter has b een carried out by Christraud Geary, who advocates methodological diligence when u tilizing historic photography, claiming, quite accurately, that impressionistic approaches can lead to serious errors in representation.25 Corinne Kratz, with her exhibition Okiek Portraits and the subsequent book in which she analyzes the exhibitions path from Nairobi to Atlanta, has also provided a valuable resource for understandi ng that photographs of Africa and Africans have a powerful political dimens ionin Africa and in the West.26 Post-colonial 23 Jon Abbink, personal communication, June 2005. 24 These categories are not meant to be all-inclusive, instead, they are intended to be a useful summary of the study of African photography thus far. 25 Christraud M. Geary, Photographic Practice and its Implications for the Use of Historical Photographs as Contextual Evidence, Fotografia e Storia dellAfrica ed. Alessandro Triulzi (Naples: I.U.O, 1995): 103-129; Old Pictures, New Approaches: Researching Historical Photographs, African Arts 24 no. 4 (October 1991): 36-39, 98; Images from Bamum: German Colonial Photography at the Court of King Njoya, Cameroon, West Africa, 1902-1915 (Washington D.C.: National Museum of African Art, 1988); Geary, ed., In and Out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 1885-1960 (London: Philip Wilson, 2003). Another very useful study worth mentioning is Da vid Killingray and Andrew Roberts, An Outline of Photography in Africa to ca. 1940, History in Africa 16 (1989): 197-208. 26 Corinne Kratz, The Ones That are Wanted: Communication and the Politics of Representation in a Photographic Exhibition (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002). In The Ones

PAGE 25

12 reinterpretations of colonial photography, also addre ssed by Geary, is a field that developed in tandem with a parallel shift in anthropological practi ce and theory, perhaps best exemplified by Johannes Fabians Time and the Other the History of Anthropology Series edited by George W. Stocking, and several essays by James Clifford.27 Clifford in particular emphasizes the need to realize that there is always a de gree of translation or innate interpretationinvol ved in any kind of representation, no matter what form it eventually takes. The collecti on of essays edited by Elizabet h Edwards in the much cited Anthropology and Photography 1860-1940 are perhaps the best example of work along this trajectory.28 Although I have grouped them separately here, contemporary African photographersand writing about contemporar y African photographersoften spans more than one of these four categories. For instance, South African photographer Santu Mofokeng retrieves old aparth eid-era photographs of South Af rican families in order to that Are Wanted Kratz meticulously analyzes the problems, challenges and successes of her exhibition Okiek Portraits, which premiered in Nairobi in 1989 and subsequently traveled to several US museums. The exhibition itself was initially conceived as a means to confront ethnic tensions between the forest dwelling Okiek and their Maasai neighbors. 27 Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983). The primary goal of Fabians analysis to show how, through what he calls the spatialization of time, non-western cultures have been represented as living fossils, or as contemporary historical records of the modern West. Fabian also discusses how this form of knowledge becomes a form of power over the Other and his critique is intended to highlight the political complexity of repres entational practices in general. There are currently ten volumes in the History of Anthropology Series (volumes 9 and 10 are edited by Richard Handler). The volumes most relevant to this study are: Observers Observed: Essays of Ethnographic Fieldwork (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983); Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985); and Romantic Motives: Essays on Anthropological Sensibility (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989). James Cliffords work is primarily intended to be a reexamination of the proce sses of representation. See The Others: Beyond the Salvage Paradigm, Third Text 6 (Spring 1989): 73-78; and The Predicament of Culture: TwentiethCentury Literature, Ethnography, and Art (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harv ard University Press, 1988). The latter volume is a collection of essays by Clifford published in journals and edited collections between 1979 and 1986. 28 Elizabeth Edwards, ed., Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992).

PAGE 26

13 rewrit[e] the historical relationship between image, archive and citizenship.29 His Black Photo Album/Look at Me 1890-1950 encompasses local practices at several levels, yet Mofokengs work is also operati ng in the mainstream Western art world. Today, there are several contemporary photogr aphers working locally in Ethiopia, though to date, the only Ethiopi an photographer to have brok en into the mainstream is Aida Muluneh (figure 1.5). A graduate of Howard University and a resident of Washington D.C., Aida was in cluded in the 2003 exhibition Ethiopian Passages: Contemporary Art from the Diaspora curated by Elizabeth Harney for the National Museum of African Art.30 Aida has also directed and produced a feature-length documentary film, The Unhealing Wound The film tells the story of the thousands of Ethiopians, some now in their 20s who were resettled in Cuba as children after being orphaned during the Somali-Ethiopian war.31 Interest in the first categoryphotographs produced in Africa by Africansis on the rise, largely due to the gr owing presence of academic Afri can art in the international domain. The recent attention lavished on Malian studio photographers Seydou Keta, and Malick Sidib, for example, typifies the ne w focus on contemporary African art; yet, as Lauri Firstenberg notes in the catalogue for the recent blockbuster exhibition The Short Century (which included Keta, Sidib and Mofokeng), the emergence of these photographic sources has contributed to grea ter public awareness of twentieth-century 29 Lauri, Firstenberg, Postcoloniality, Perfo rmance, and Photographic Portraiture, in The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 19451994, ed. Okwui Enwezor (Munich: Prestel, 2001): 177. 30 Elizabeth Harney, Ethiopian Passages: Contemporary Art from the Diaspora (Washington D.C.: National Museum of African Art, 2003). Aida was born in Addis Ababa. 31 < http://www.pastforwardf ilms.com/thestory.htm > Last Accessed 6-22-05.

PAGE 27

14 African modernity.32 The most comprehensive source currently available dealing with localized African photographic practices is Revue Noires 1998 Anthology of Photography in Africa and the Indian Ocean .33 Dizzyingly broad in scope, the book mak[es] use of the little research that has al ready been conducted, to present a collage of views rather than any sort of conclusive statemen t about what African photography is.34 Two essays in the volume deal with the hist ory of photography in Ethiopia. One of the two is Tinted Portra it Photography in Addis Abba, contributed by Guy Hersant, a French born contemporary photographer who bega n his career after encountering studio photographers in Bamako, Mali (including Sidib). 35 Hersant introduces several 20th century portrait studios and photographers who utilized the Armenian derived practice of re-touching photos and photo negatives with In dia ink and/or colored crayons and paints. Hersant writes that today the practice conti nues in the more modest quarters of Addis Ababa.36 The other essay, Court Photographers , is by Richard Pankhurst and Denis Grard.37 The two have also co-authored a book, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Photographs of the Country and its People taken between 1867 and 1935 .38 The latter is 32 Firstenberg, Postcoloniality, Performan ce, and Photographic Portraiture, 175. 33 Revue Noire. Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography Paris: Revue Noire, 1999. 34 Ibid, 6-7. 35 Guy Hersant, Tinted Portrait Photography in Addis Ababa, in Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography (Paris: Revue Noire, 1999): 136. 36 Ibid, 136. 37 Richard Pankhurst and Denis Grard, Court Photographers, Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography (Paris: Revue Noire, 1999): 118-133. 38 Richard Pankhurst and Denis Grard, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Photographs of the Country and its People Taken between 1867 and 1935 (London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996).

PAGE 28

15 a hodge-podge of imagery compiled from photographs in the archives at the Institute of Ethiopian Studies (IES) at the University of Addis Ababa, as well as books, magazines, and a surfeit of often un-named private collections.39 The Revue Noire article is of particular interest because it introduces the Boyadjians, a family of Armenian photographers who worked for the Ethiopian imperial court for three successive generations. Bedros Boyadjian arrived in Addis Ababa in 1905, set up a studio, and soon became one of Menelik IIs first court photogr aphers. His eldest son Hagaz worked for Empress Zawditu (r. 1916-1930), as well as Haile Selassie (r. 1930-1974), and Torkom, or TonyBedros Boyadjians youngest s onbecame Haile Selassies photographer when Hagaz retired.40 The portrait of Haile Selassie in figure 1.2 was most likely taken by Hagaz Boyadjian. The Boyadjians were ski lled at the kinds of re-touching techniques discussed by Hersant, yet many of their phot ographs also demonstrate a high degree of compositional sophistication. Figure 1.6, attri buted to Bedros Boyadjian, is a stunning triple portrait of Lij (honorific title mean ing child) Iyasu, Menelik IIs unfortunate successor (never actually crowned, Iyasu was chased into exile not long after assuming power), Iyasus father Ras Mikal, standing severely in the cente r, and another noble, Ras Hapte Ghiorgis, on the left. A diagonal st reak of shadow glides from the top left corner of the composition to rest on the border of Ras Mikals dark, wide-brimmed hat. The matching outfits and hats of the figures, as well as the props visible behind, below 39 Ethiopia Photographed is a bit cumbersome as a research tool primarily because th e photographs are not attributed or cited as well as they could be, and Pan khurst has rewritten all of the photograph captions to fit the thematic organization of the book. 40 Richard Pankhurst and Denis Grard, Court Photographers, 124-125.

PAGE 29

16 and beside themthe painted curtain in the back, the dirt floor, and the rock wall and fence-like structure stretching up and to the left from behi nd Iyasucreates a balanced amalgamation of planned geometry a nd organic bucolic respite. Pankhurst has written two other articles about the history of photography in Ethiopia: one appears in Elizabeth Edwards Anthropology and Photography and addresses the political impact of the camera in Ethiopia from its introduction in the mid 19th century through the reign of Lij Iyasu, which ended in 1916.41 The other article appeared significantly earlier (1976) in the British Journal of Photography and presents most of the same information contained in the introductory remarks for the later Ethiopia Photographed .42 Lastly, an article by Shiferaw Bekele summarizing the content and condition of the IES photographic collection wa s published (in English) in the Italian compilation Fotografia e Storia dell Africa which followed a symposium of the same name held in Naples in 1992.43 These sourcesShiferaws inventory, the book and article by Pankhurst and Grard, the two add itional articles by Pankhurst, and the essay 41 Richard Pankhurst, The Political Image: The Impact of the Camera in an Ancient Independent African State, in Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 ed. Elizabeth Edwards (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992): 234-241. In his conclu ding remarks, Pankhurst does mention the deposition of Haile Selassie, which occurred in 1974. On Se ptember 11, 1974 (Ethiopian New Years Day), British journalist Jonathon Dimblebys film, The Hidden Famine was aired on Ethiopian National T.V. spliced with imagery of Haile Selassie handing meat to his dogs as well as luxurious living at court. Selassie peacefully abdicated the next day. Dimblebys film contained deva stating imagery of starvation and suffering in Ethiopias Wollo province. 42 Richard Pankhurst, The Genesis of Photography in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, The British Journal of Photography 41-4 (1976): 878-882. 43 Shiferaw Bekele, A Preliminary Report on the Ph otographic Collection at the Institute of Ethiopian Studies (Addis Ababa), Fotografia e Storia dell Africa ed. Alessandro Triulzi (Naples: I.O.U., 1995): 173-180.

PAGE 30

17 by Hersantare the only sources addressi ng historic Ethiopian photography currently available in English.44 Organization and Goals This study is organized into five chapters, including the present introduction, and a brief afterward. Chapters two through four each deal with a particular archive, or set of archives, as well as a specif ic methodological approach for looking at visual imagery. As an introduction for modes of looking, my analys is in chapter two will explore how visual representations can be read as texts. In ch apter three, I will further this approach to include the subjectivities that are embedde d in the imagery, and the different power structures that encode them w ith meaning. Chapter four utilizes a combination of looking techniques as presented in th e previous two chapters, while simultaneously projecting the process of looking back onto the imagein other words; I will present the image as a thing that develops its own hi story or histories in different viewing contexts. While my discussion focuses mainly on modern Ethiopia, and how photographs of Ethiopians move around and acquire meani ng in different ways, the history of the West looking at Ethiopia begi ns at a much earlier date. Thus, in chapter two, I will address some of the earliest extant visual representations of hi storic Ethiopia and Ethiopians that are known to have circulat ed widely in the West. These are found on 44 Fotografia e Storia dell Africa includes several articles in Italian addressing photography in Ethiopia, as well as a fantastic article by Geary, written in English (Geary, 1992not about Ethiopia). Unfortunately, I do not read Italian and the information contained in th ese essays is therefore not included in my study. Other than the sources mentioned here, I am not aware of any other writings specifically about photography and Ethiopia in any language. Richard Pankhurst, who is undeniably the leading expert on the topic, also doesnt reference any additional sources pertaining specifically to photography in Ethiopia in his bibliographies. I am, of course, not including the many texts which include photographs of Ethiopians taken by various missionaries, explorers, and other sundry travelers that are widely available in a number of languages, nor sources that have an alternate focus and only cursorily or tangentially reference photography in Ethiopia. A complete listing of the former is available in Pankhurst and Grards book Ethiopia Photographed

PAGE 31

18 antique maps and as illustrati ons in old travel and histor y books and can certainly be defined as “archival material” in the strictest sense of the term. In addition, most of the maps I will be addressing are part of the archival collections in the Map and Imagery library at the University of Florida. A lthough it would be wrong to assume that modern representations of Ethiopia repr esent a direct conti nuum of historic ones, it would also be dangerous to assume that these two eras of visual codification are discrete and unrelated. In chapter three, I will move forward in time to the mid 1980s, a period that is recalled by many Ethiopians and Westerne rs as a tremendously difficult time in Ethiopia’s history. In 1985, the Derg had been in power for te n years, and due to massive droughts and lack of sufficient political infras tructure, millions of Ethiopians were dying of starvation. Nevertheless, Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher—w ith the blessings and assistance of the Tourism Commission of the Derg regime—managed to capture a glorious vision of Ethiopia unspoiled by th e plight of the poor and hungry, but also untainted by the modern “Western” world. Beckwith and Fisher’s photographs and books also constitute a type of tangible archive, yet I employ th eir work as a platform to launch an analysis of representations of Et hiopia and Africa in a more ethereal archive— the popular Western imagination. My analysis in chapter four is stru ctured around representations of a single individual—Emperor Haile Selassie I—yet I us e the various contexts in which his image appears to reveal the diffusion of “Ethiopi a” as a concept over an extended space and time period. Chapter four also analyzes contem porary representations of Haile Selassie as they appear in Rastafarian visu al culture. It is in the la tter category that the photographic image manifests itself ultimately as a “thing” that appears to have the ability to dissociate

PAGE 32

19 from its original context—these images operate independently, circulat ing at large in the world market and imagination with no real n eed for a fixed identity. At the same time, the Rastafari choose to associate the images with the life of Haile Selassie, the individual these images represent. In essence, the Rast afari have become arch ivists of information about Haile Selassie’s life, a nd in turn, about Ethiopia. Western discourse on Africa and African visu al culture has a hist ory of severing its subject into opposing fields of analysis, or dic hotomies. From civili zed vs. uncivilized to tradition vs. modernity to authentic vs. inau thentic, these patterns of thought have effectively restricted perceptions of Africa to a narrow plane of possi bilities. In this study, I intend to continue what I see as an inclination in contemporary scholarship to seek to tear down these restrictive paradigms, to branch out into new and flexible modes of understanding culture that more accurate ly reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge. Another important goal is to reveal that know ledge about Ethiopia a nd Africa as a whole is housed in archives that transcend the academic domain. Ethiopia represents many different things to diverse pe ople living in and out of Africa, and nowhere is this more apparent than in the popular sphere. In f act, visual representati ons of Ethiopia are far more prevalent in the popular domain than Et hiopia is present in academic studies of African visual culture. It is my hope, therefor e, that this study will not only fill a gap in the history of photographic pr actice and Africa, but that it will also serve as a contribution to Ethiopian and Africa n visual studies in general.

PAGE 33

20 Figure 1.1 Photograph by Carol Beckwith a nd Angela Fisher. 1980-2004. “Surma, Ethiopia. Barchini, with his chiseled features and long elegant body, was one of the handsomest and most seductive men we met in Surmaland. After painting his body with beautiful chalk designs on the banks of the Dama River, he would turn around and gaze at us intensely, seeking our approval. We were so disarmed by his powerful expression that we would sometimes forget to press our camera shutters.” (Beckwith and Fisher, 2004: 87)

PAGE 34

21 Figure 1.2 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie. Probably taken by Hagaz Boyadjian in 1930. Private collection. (Pankhurst and Grard, Ethiopia Photographed 74)

PAGE 35

22 Figure 1.3 Linguistic map of Ethi opia. (Zewde, 2001: 6) Figure 1.4 Map of Ethiopia showing re gional boundaries of the nine Ethiopian States. (James, et al., 2002: xii)

PAGE 36

23 Figure 1.5 Spirit of Sisterhood by Aida Muluneh, 2000. Cibachrome Print 40 x 30 in. Collection of the artist. (Har ney, 2003: 82 and back cover.)

PAGE 37

24 Figure 1.6 From right to left: Lij Iyasu, his fa ther Ras Mickael and Ras Hapte Ghiorgis. Attributed to Bedros Boyadjian. Priv ate Collection. (Pankhurst and Grard, 1998: 127)

PAGE 38

25 CHAPTER 2 MAPPING ETHIOPIAS HISTORY: LEG ENDS OF THE NILE AND THE THIOPIAN OCEAN Primitives in the Age of Discovery app eared to be identical throughout the globe because, wherever they were encountered, th ey were portrayed and represented by the same people... (Steiner, 1995: 203) The description of the archive deploys its possibilities (and the mastery of its possibilities) on the basis of the very discour ses that have just ceased to be ours; its threshold of existence is established by the di scontinuity that separates us from what we can no longer say, and from that which falls outside our discursive practices (Foucault, 1972: 130-131) Some of the earliest reproducible represen tations of Ethiopia and Ethiopian people are found in historic maps and books. These ar e also the earliest vi ews of what is now Ethiopia known to have circulated widely in the West. These early representations can never tell the whole storythey present a decidedly uneven versi on of history, told from a single perspective, designed for a spec ific European audience. Read contextually, however, these maps and illustrations become valuable documents, repositories of useful information that define both what we know and how we know about history. In this chapter, I will discuss how the imageand ideaof Africawas lit erally constructed over several centuries. Until incredibly recently, Western texts referred to Ethiopia as Abyssinia (Portuguese and English), or Abessinen/Abessinien (German) or Abyssinie (French). For the purposes of this chapter, Abyssini a, when it appears without quotation marks, refers to historic Ethiopia. Not only is this how the word was used in European texts up until the mid 20th century, it will also simplify the arguments presented in this chapter

PAGE 39

26 for, though Abyssinia has always been a part of thiopia thiopia is not the same thing as Abyssinia. Early Visions of Africa In the 5th century BCE, Herodotus included a lengthy speculativ e report on the elusive source of the Ni le in Book II of his Histories.1 Like many of his contemporaries, Herodotus was fascinated by the annual floods that brought life-giv ing silt downstream, fertilizing the Egyptian Nile delta and enab ling agriculture and civilization to flourish.2 The source of the Blue Nile, in highlands Ethiopia, was “discove red” by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Jeronimo Lobo in 1616, though it was little known until James Bruce discovered the source again with much more pomp and show in 1780.3 The source of the White Nile was not firmly identified un til 1862, when John Speke finally reached the shores of Lake Victoria after several sm aller discoveries by Richard Burton, David Livingston, Samuel Baker and Henry Morton Stanley.4 These contributions to accurate renderings of Africa’s topography were en ormous. Maps printed during the 19th century 1 Herodotus, The Histories translated by Robin Waterfield, with an introduction and notes by Carolyn Dewald (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). 2 Today the floods, which are caused by heavy seasonal rains in the Ethiopian highlands, are controlled by the Aswan High Dam—a virtuoso engineering feat that rises 107 meters above sea level, spans five kilometers at its crest, and produces 10 billion kilowatt hours a year. 3 See Jernimo Lobo The Itinerrio of Jernimo Lobo translated by Donald M. Lockhart (London: Hakluyt Society, 1984; and James Bruce. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (New York: Horizon Pres, 1964; originally published 1790). 4 See E.H. Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa: A Hi story of the Exploration of Africa as Reflected in the Maps in the Collection of the Rhodes Livingston Museum,” in The Occasional Papers of the RhodesLivingston Museum Nos. 1-16 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1974): 217. Burton and Speke found Lake Tanganyika in 1858; David Livingstone saw Lake Nyasa in 1859 and Lakes Mweru and Banweulu in 1867 and 1868; Baker made it all the way to Lake Albert and Nyanza in 1864; and in 1877, Stanley finally connected the Lualaba with the Congo after which, writes Lane-Pool, “there was not much left to be discovered in Africa.”

PAGE 40

27 even mark Stanley’s progress, tracing his j ourneys through territories that were labeled “unknown” for centuries. Historical representations, such as maps capture distinctive views of how Africa was perceived at various points in history. Because maps de pict what is known and what is unknown simultaneously, subtle changes and mi nor alterations can be read as signs of how the idea of Africa evolve d over time. The history of the mapping of Africa cannot be discussed without first introducing Ptol emy, a Greco-Roman scholar from Alexandria, who is recognized as one of the first th eorists to draw maps using stereographic projections, or systems for representing the three-dimensional surface of the earth on a two-dimensional plane.5 Ptolemy’s oikoumen or known world (figures 2.1 and 2.2), consists of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and e nds not far below the equator. When Ptolemy wrote his Geography in the 2nd century CE, unknown lands below the equator were thought to be infertile, “uninhabitable,” and generally unfit for civilization. Medieval maps occasionally depict would-be inhabitants, the so-called Antipodeans as contorted human-like creatures, folded at the waist, holding their feet up be side their grotesque 5 By the 6th century BCE, Greek philosophers had deduced th at the earth was a revolving sphere. This allowed them to calculate the earth’s circumference, which in turn enabled them to establish fixed meridians of longitude. (If the earth takes 24 hours to rotate 360 then one hour equals 360 divided by 24, or 15 .) When an event, such as an eclipse, is obse rved simultaneously at two different locations, the difference in local time between th e two places can be used to calculate their separation in degrees. Eratosthenes (276 BCE-194 BCE) used this method to determine the temporal distance between Alexandria and Syene (modern day Aswan) and estimated the diameter of the earth to be 25,000 miles, a figure within two hundred miles of actual polar circumference (24, 860 miles). Despite the accuracy of Eratosthenes’ calculation, his findings were challenged by subsequent theorists, and by the time Ptolemy wrote his Geography and drew his first maps of the oikoumen or known world, in the 2nd century CE, the estimated circumference of the earth had been reduced to approximately 18,000 miles. Published a century before Ptolemy’s, Strabo’s Geography also used this smaller calculation. In the great libraries at the University of Alexandria in Egypt, Ptolemy ha d access to books by Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo, and many other Classical philosophers, historians, astronomers, and mathematicians. Many of these texts no longer exist, though Ptolemy’s Geography is probably a synthesis of several earlier scholars’ achievements. See R.V. Tooley and Charles Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking: An Illu strated Survey of Maps and Mapmakers (Amsterdam and Brussels: Elsevier, 1968); and J. Lennart Berggren, and Alexander Jones, Ptolemy’s Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

PAGE 41

28 faces—symbolically representing the belief that these unfort unate monsters would have to walk upside down because they faced the sun from the wrong direction. Africa, which Ptolemy called Liby (figures 2.3 and 2.4), was thought to extend eastward just below the Horn, enclosing the I ndian Ocean like a lake (figure 2.1). Cities that were familiar to Ptolemy, such as Alexandria, and So n (Syene, modern Aswan), are mapped along with geographical features known only through conjecture, such as the two lakes south of Egypt depicted as the source of the Nile. The Nile River had mythical importance to early cartographers. The annua l floods that made the Egyptian soil rich and fertile were predictable, but both the source of the N ile and the cause of the lifegiving floods were an absolute mystery. Ptolemy’s proposal stems from a report by a Greek trader named Diogenes, who allege dly visited the two lakes around 50 CE.6 First called Paludes Nilli later known as the Lakes of the Cr ocodiles and the Cataracts, they were finally named Lakes Zairi and Zaflan and they appear on most maps of Africa through the 18th century.7 Ptolemy’s Geography eventually fell into disuse and his original manuscripts, along with all copies made shortly after his time, were lost. The Romans were disinterested in maps based on astronomical observation, and they discarded Ptolemy’s stereographic projections in favor of sche matic road maps, which were essentially straight lines with compass rosettes in the margins to indicate direction; the idea of spherical earth was rejected completely. Medieval “T-O maps” (figure 2.5) and large mappae mundi include most of the same place names used in Ptolemy’s Geography but 6 Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa,” 216. 7 Ibid, 216-217.

PAGE 42

29 depict Jerusalem at the center of the now -flattened known world. These maps accentuate the magnitude of Christian influence on Eur opean perceptions of the world during the centuries leading up to the great age of Europ ean exploration and “discovery.” In the 14th and 15th centuries, theological maps gave way to more functional nautical charts and guides, and the world became round once agai n. Thus, when sea-faring explorers and intrepid profit-seekers created a stronger ma rket for accurate, readable maps, Ptolemy’s scientific projections surged b ack into fashion. Arab cartographers had re tained knowledge of Greek science during the Middle Ages through their links with Byzantium and were responsible for reintroducing Ptolemy to the rest of the world. Figure 2.6 shows an early 16th century copy of a map drawn by the Arab cartographer al-Idrisi fo r King Roger of Sicily in 1154.8 Al-Idrisi’s design combines the Medieval “T-O” layout of the world with his interp retation of Ptolemy’s stereographic projection. The Indian Ocean is not enclosed, but the Horn is still stretched too far to the east. Lakes Zairi and Zaflan are included, along with a third, and all three feed streams leading north towards Egypt from the Montes Lunae or Mountains of the Moon—a hypothetical mountain range not accep ted by Ptolemy, but adopted by most of his followers. The oldest comple te extant copy of Ptolemy’s Geography was compiled by monks at the Vatopeki monastery in Mt Athos, Greece at the beginning of the 14th century.9 The first printed edition app eared in Europe in the late 15th century, with no maps; but a second edition featuring 26 maps from copper plates was printed in 1477.10 8 For information on al-Adrisi, see Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa,” 217; and Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 23-25. 9 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 21. 10 Ibid.

PAGE 43

30 As European explorers ventured farther a nd farther into the southern hemisphere, Africa steadily took shape in Western minds. The lower limits of the continent were established and the empty spaces along the co astline were packed with the names of places that had been recently “discovered.” Ye t, Europeans rarely reached the interior; in fact at first they scarcely tried. Early West ern explorers were prim arily concerned with tapping the spice and luxury-goods markets in the East and “discovering” Africa was a peripheral objective compared to trying to fi nd a way to get around it. Arab and African traders also eliminated the need to travel inland by bringing valuab le slaves, ivory and gold to the coastal ports.11 Maps of Africa from this time period, such as the Sebastian Mnster’s rendition for his 1540 reprint of Ptolemy’s Geography (figure 2.7), use space-consuming mountain ranges, wild animals, and fantastic beasts to fill in unknown territories.12 Like al-Idrisi, Mnster includes both lakes Zairi and Zaflan and the Mountains of the Moon, though his map is best remembered today primarily because of the Monoculi he drew perched on the coast of what is now Cameroon. This re mnant of the “dog-headed and four-headed men,” gryphons and countless other imaginar y things that “crept and crawled across Medieval manuscript maps” is much more th an mere nostalgic ornamentation, Mnster’s creature preserves a very real popular mi sconception that monsters like Monoculi actually 11 Ibid, 159. 12 Sebastian Munster was a professor of Hebrew. In addition to making maps, he also published bibles and a book on grammar as well as several Hebrew translatio ns. See Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa,” 219.

PAGE 44

31 inhabited regions of inland Africa.13 Edition after edition of Mnster’s Africa appeared until 1688, and it was popular long after more accurate maps had become available.14 Mnster’s map combined popular myths a nd Ptolemy’s descriptions of North Africa and the Nile, with up-to-date inform ation provided by Portugue se explorers about the, west, south, and southeas tern coastline. Sixteenth, 17th, and even 18th century cartographers consciously built upon Ptolem y’s work, thoroughly embedding his ideas within their own. Imaginar y land creatures like the Monoculi were not that common in later maps; however, brightly colored whimsical Africas embellished with lions and elephants, giant birds and fanciful trees pers isted. As time went on, cartographers drew increasingly elaborate maps, atlases were published with en tire chapters dedicated to segments of the African coast, and popular designs were constantly re-produced for a burgeoning merchant class with a rising intere st in foreign and exotic things. Even though new discoveries continually shifted Euro pean visions of Africa, the Nile region was often drawn according to Ptolemy’s 2nd century suggestion. thiopia, Abyssinia and the Quest for Prester John The Greeks knew the African continent as “ Liby ;” on Mnster’s map, the largest place name is the Greek word “thiopia.” For Ptolemy (and Mnster), “Africa” pertained only to what is now the Mediterranean coast line of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Later cartographers used “Libya” to designate all of northern Africa west of Egypt and labeled the adjacent inland areas “Inner Libya” or “Libya Interior.” The 13 The Monoculi is absent from a nearly identical map, created by Heinrich Bunting in 1592. A print of Bunting’s map is currently housed in the Map and Imaging Library at the University of Florida. 14 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking, 159. The most notable improvements to African cartography were made by Martin Waldseemller. De spite their accuracy, howeve r, Waldseemller’s maps were far less popular than those made by Mnster, which were released in edition after edition until 1688. See Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 159.

PAGE 45

32 coastal region of “Libya” was also referre d to as “Barbarie” (Barbari, Barbary, Berberey), although the term for the interi or usually remained the same. On 19th century maps, the western part of “Barbarie” is often labeled “Tripoli,” which is now where Libya, the modern country, is located today. Libya became an independent nation in 1951 after nearly five decades of first Ital ian, then French and British colonial rule.15 Before that, Libya had been part of the O ttoman, Roman, and Phoeni cian empires; yet, most post-colonial studies of African c ountries typically focus on the European, “modernizing” colonial period. This is, of cour se, due to the fact that by the beginning of the 20th century, Europe had colonized almost the entire African continent. The only two modern African countries that remained politically autonomous during the age of colonial rule are Liberi a, which declared independence in 1847, and Ethiopia. Italy actually atte mpted to take Ethiopia by force— twice. After being defeated by Emperor Menelik II and his armies at the battle of Adwa in 1896, a much embittered Italy attacked Ethiopia again, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. Although Italian forces did occupy Ethiopia from 1936 until 1941, the country is usually thought of as having never been officially colonized. A map published in the June 1931 issue of National Geographic Magazine (figure 2.8) independent Ethiopia is shown bordered by British and Italian Somaliland (Somalia), Fr ench Somaliland (Djibout i) and the AngloEgyptian Sudan. “Italian” is printed in parentheses beneath “Eritrea.” This National Geographic map is a solemn reminder that while Ethiopia was independent in 1931; most of the Afri can continent was not. During the 20th century, Ethiopia became a symbol of resistance, freedom, and hope for colonized people in 15 Libya was conquered by Italy in 1910, but was re distributed between France and Britain by the Allied powers in 1942.

PAGE 46

33 Africa, as well as for oppressed black commun ities in the Caribbean and North America. Several African countries adopted the green, ye llow, and red colors of the Ethiopian flag when they achieved independence from Europe in the 1960s and 70s.16 Home to “Lucy,” the skeletal remains of humanity’s olde st known ancestor; mentioned in Homer, Herodotus, and Ptolemy; and disc ussed numerous times in the bible; Ethiopia was and is commonly thought of as an ancient civi lization, a piece of Africa untainted by colonialism. On the National Geographic map, “Abyssinia” appears in parentheses below “Ethiopia.” As stated above, these two words are not necessarily interchangeable.17 This is clearly evident in Herman Moll’s Africa According to y Newest and most Exact Observations a map printed in London in 1714 (figure 2.9 and 2.10).18 West Africa is shown broken up into “Barbaria,” “Zaara, or the Desart,” “Negro Land,” and “Guinea,” while “Ethiopia,” written in large bold type acro ss the breadth of central Africa, refers to everything else below Egypt. Moll’s map is based closely on Ptolemy, who used “thiopia ” the same way.19 Moll locates “Abissina” (Abyssinia) more or less where Ethiopia is today, and correctly makes Lake Tana (spelled “Tzana”) the source of the Blue Nile. Even though Ptolemy’s fabled lake s Zaira and Zaflan had been dispelled by a 16 The following countries adopted red, yellow and green national flags upon declaring independence: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, So Tom and Principe, Senegal, and Togo. 17 See Martin Bernal “European Images of Africa—A Tale of Two Names: Ethiopia and N---,” in Images of Africa: Stereotypes & Realities ed. Daniel M. Mengara (Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2001): 23-45. 18 Moll’s map is atypically plain for this time period. 19 Mnster’s map followed Ptolemy closely who also uses thiopia for this region of Africa.

PAGE 47

34 cartographer named Guillaume Delisle in 1700, Moll includes them anyway. R.V. Tooley and Charles Bricker point out: [Moll] kept Zaire and Za flan, making them into what he called ‘bogs’ or ‘morasses,’ with no direct outle ts to the Nile. As if out of respect [for] the ideas of the ancient Alexandrian, he added a river, the Zebee, and made it flow north almost to the Nile in an apparent attempt to reconcile modern geography with Ptolemy.20 Moll’s “Africa,” as well as several imitations produced by his competitors, were published in British history books and geogr aphy journals until the end of the 18th century.21 In order to understand how influential Ptolemy’s ideas were, Moll’s map can be compared to a much more colorful document from 1595, the latter attributed to Gerard Mercator the Younger (figure 2.11) Mercator’s design is on e of “those old maps that fascinate collectors,” a “sumptuous, fancif ul, decorative…rarity;” inaccurate but beautiful, it “captures the imagination.”22 His elongated version of Africa is engulfed by gently undulating waves, and the oceans are la beled in an ostentat ious script, full of balanced loops and winding, rounded flips. La rger geographic regions are capitalized (“Libya Interior,” “Agisymb a,” “Abissini”) while the smaller units and cities are identified in lowercase print. Wide, gen tly gradated boundary lines follow invented threads of mountains and the imagined paths of major rivers, forming distinct geographic units suffuse in muted pink, yellow and gr een. The most elaborate ornamentation, 20 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 170. 21 Versions of Moll’s map were published in Michael Adams, The New Royal Geographical Magazine (London: Alex Hogg; Symonds, Parsons, and Co., 1794?): 297; A New, Royal, and Authentic System of Universal Geography (London: J. Cooke, 1790?); and in Daniel Fenning, A New and Easy Guide to the Use of Globes (London: S. Crowder, 1799). All of these sources were accessed in May 2005 from the George Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. < http://galnet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/servlet/ECCO > 22 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 9.

PAGE 48

35 however, is reserved for the title cartouche (figure 2.12). He re, twin satyrs, one facing forward, the other facing back, recline on t op of an illusionistic metalwork medallion, its lower portion draped in vines laden with ri pe fruit. The bisymme trical composition is enhanced by dramatic chiaroscuro detai ling raked over the vibrant pink and blue openwork design. The cartouche also communicat es important information about how to read the map correctly: the central white roundel bears th e title of the map and the name of its maker, while the narrow horizontal plat e across the bottom contains the scale. A trompe l’oeil frame surrounds the entire ma p, underscoring Mercator ’s obvious aesthetic sensitivity. It is important to note that before the 20th century, individual cartographers had different ideas about what Africa should look like. Place names are utilized sporadically and known boundaries frequently shift—while this inconsistency is partly due to honest attempts at accuracy, idiosyncrasies were mo st often the result of a lack of information combined with simple differences of opi nion. Moll’s map is extremely plain, while Mercator’s is deliberately artistic. Both maps of Africa incorporate Ptolemy’s Lakes Zairi and Zaflan, but whereas Moll makes “A bissina” a small province of “Ethiopia,” Mercator extends “Abissini” across the whole central interior, omitting “thiopia” completely. Moll intentionally synthesized canoni cal Ptolemaic cartography with the “ Newest and Most Exact Observations ” from up to date explorers’ accounts when he made his map of Africa in the early 18th century, just as Mnster ha d done in 1540, and Mercator does in 1595. Mercator’s map uses the Greek term “Agisymba,” Ptolemy’s word for the

PAGE 49

36 southernmost limit of the oikoumen (figure 2.13). 23 Despite Ptolemy’s massive impact on later cartographers, Mercator’s incl usion of “Agyismba” is an anomaly.24 All historic mapmakers made conscious decisions when selecting place names, setting regional boundaries, and modifying natural geophysical f eatures such as lakes, mountains, and rivers. These representational choices were not merely attempts to reconcile hear-say with science; inclusions a nd omissions were often strate gic, designed to communicate specific ideas to a defined audience. The Greek “thiopia” comes from Aithiops, which means “burnt-face.” In the past, the term functioned much like “Sub-Saharan Africa” does today: it designated a broad geographical region with vague boundaries, and ge nerally referred to the part of Africa where the people are dark-skinned, or “black.”25 “Abyssinia” is a Portuguese word, probably derived from the Arab ic term “Habash,” which in turn probably derives from “Habashat,” the name for a group of peopl e who live in modern Tigray, Ethiopia.26 Also widely used was the Arabic term “Habshi,” a corruption of “Habash,” which had negative 23 Berrgren and Jones state that for Ptolemy, Agisymba was the southernmost limit of the oikoumen However, it is important to note that despite the fact that “Agisymba” resembles “Abyssinia” or a variation of “Abyssinia,” “Agi symba” is a separate concept. Berrgren and Jones claim that the wo rd is found in no other independent ancient source, which underscores Mercator’s reliance on Ptolemaic geography. Mercator seems to have placed Agisymba in West Africa because of the misu nderstanding—shared by many cartographers at the time—that the Niger and the Nile were connected. Berrgren and Jones support the claim that Agisymba did indeed at one time refer to what is modern Niger or Chad. See Berrgren and Jones, Ptolemy’s Geography, 168. It is also worth noting that Tooley and Bricker’s Landmarks of Mapmaking assumes (probably erroneously) that Agisymba is interchangeable with Abyissina. 24 Out of the approximately 90 historical maps of A frica I looked at in the University of Florida’s collection, Mercator’s is the only one where Agyismba is used. These maps are also accessible on the world wide web at < http://palmm.fcla.edu/map/ > 25 See Bernal, “European Images of Africa—A Tale of Two Names: Ethiopia and N---.” 26 Richard Pankhurst. “The Ethiopian Diaspora to India,” in The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean ed. Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silvia and Richard Pankhurst (Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2003): 136.

PAGE 50

37 connotations, was often applied to slaves, and did not always refer to Abyssinians.27 Today Ethiopians prefer not to be called “Abyssinians,” and as I mentioned in the introduction, historic Ethiopians called themselv es Ethiopians, even while the rest of the world called them Abyssinians. What these hist oric maps reveal, howev er is that this is not a simple case of complex inter-lingual tr anslation—for in the past, Abyssinia was always a part of thiopia, but not all thiopians were Abyssinians. Mercator may have used “Abissina” instead of “Ethiopia” or “thiopia” because of the widely held popular belief in a mythic al figure named Prester John. In Europe, Prester John was a legendary Christia n Emperor who ruled a powerful kingdom somewhere in the East. He was rumored to liv e in India or Asia, but was quickly grafted onto Africa when early explorers like Marc o Polo encountered Christian “Abyssinian” Emperors.28 Christianity has existed in what is now Ethiopia since the 4th century. During the Middle Ages, when Islamic jihads or holy wars, tore through the heart of the Christian realm, the idea of a Christian str onghold in the East was a comforting fantasy— medieval Europeans believed that Prester John’s armies could help them fend off the onslaught of Islam and liberate the Holy Land from heretic “infidels.”29 In Mercator’s Africa, there are no fantastic beasts or wild animals and his oceans are sea-monster free, but he does include a small image of Preste r John, enthroned and bearing a Christian 27 Ibid. See also Ri chard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998): 77. 28 “Prester” comes from presbyter the Latin word for ‘priest.” Accord ing to Tooley and Bricker, Prester John supposedly “originiated in stories about a Tartar chief who converted to Christianity.” Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 161-163. 29 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians p. 76-78. See also Wendy James, “Kings, Commoners, and the Ethnographic Imagination in Sudan and Ethiopia,” in Localizing Strategies: Regional Traditions in Ethnographic Writing ed. Richard Fardon (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1990): 96-136.

PAGE 51

38 cross in one hand, mapped next to the Nile in the center of “Abi ssina” (figure 2.14). Mnster also included the well-known ki ngdom on his 1540 woodcut map. Labeled “Hamarich,” the home of Prester John is si milarly placed—on the Nile just below the ancient city of Meroe.30 The most widely circulated map of Africa in the late 16th century was published in 1570 as a page in Abraham Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the “first great atlas of the world” (figures 2.15).31 The 1573 edition of the atlas featured a new map: A representation of the empire of Prester John, or, of the Abyssinians (figure 2.16). Here, lakes Zairi and Zaflan are prom inently featured, along with four large blue elephants, and in the upper left corner, a small red shield bears the cr est of Prester John, “a Lion Rampant, supporting a crucifix.”32 The plaque below the cres t lists several “grand titles” for the biblical David, and gives information about Prester John’s lineage, traceable back to Solomon.33 Like Mercator, Ortelius assumes fa r too great an area for Abyssinia, wishfully projecting Christia nity, or at least Christia n control, over all the unknown regions surrounding the mysterious s outhern source of the Nile. In 1683, a German cartographer named Hiob Ludolf issued a much more accurate map of Abyssinia (figures 2.17).34 Hiob never visited Africa himself, but based his map 30 Hamarich is probably a variation of Amharic, the language of the Amhara people of highlands Ethiopia. 31 Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa,” 220. 32 Ibid, 221. 33 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 160-163. 161. 34 Hiob Ludolf never visited Africa, yet he is considered the father of Ethiopian studies. For information about Ludolf, see Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 163-166; and Siegbert Uhlig, Hiob Ludolfs “Theologia Aethiopica” (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1983). Hiob Ludolf’s map of Abyssinia may actually have been drawn after his death by one of his sons.

PAGE 52

39 on information provided by Abba Gregorius, an Amharic monk residing in Rome, and several Portuguese missionaries who had b een to Abyssinia. Hiob’s map provides accurate, timely details about Ethiopia in the 17th century, such as th e inclusion of the newly established capital Gondar. Indicated by a cluster of st ately marquees placed just off the north bank of Lake Tana (figure 2.18), the capital had been moved to Gondar from Danqaz in 1636 by the Abyssinian ruler Fasilidas.35 One of Hiob’s Portuguese missionary informants was Jernimo Lobo, a Jesuit priest who spent nine years in Abyssinia (in this case, definitely historic Ethi opia) in the 1620s and 30s. Lobo discusses Fasilidas at length in his Itenrio an account of his journeys in Abyssinia and discovery of the Blue Nile. When Samuel Johnson translated Lobo’s Itenrio in 1735, he remarked, in plain admira tion of Lobo’s “no-nonsense” approach: [Lobo] appears by his modest and unaffecting narration to have described things as he saw them, to have copied nature from th e life, and to have consulted his senses, not his imagination. He meets no basilisks that destroy with their eyes; his crocodiles devour their prey without tears; and his cataracts fall from the rock without deafening the neighboring inhabitants.36 Of Abyssinia, Lobo himself states: This is the empire commonly called the em pire of Prester John of the Indies, erroneously so, however, since the truth is that the ancient an d true Prester John and his domain have been lost to human memory. And with the persistence of rumours of Prester John in the eastern parts and the signs of his being a Christian prince, the Portuguese who very much wa nted to discover the said Empire and were unable to gain knowledge of it, fi nding the Ethiopian [sic] princes with so many signs of Christianity, and also compar ing them with [what they had heard of] the ancient Prester John…they came to beli eve that this was the ancient Prester John of the Indies; and this same report, brought and communicated by the Portuguese, was then pub lished throughout the world.37 35 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians 109. 36 Quoted in Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 163. 37 Jeronimo Lobo. The Itenario of Jeronimo Lobo 155.

PAGE 53

40 Hiob would have had access to this information; yet, he still calls his map “Abyssinia, the Land of Prester John.” Lobo’s account of Abyssinia was exceptional, and many representations of the Horn of Africa and the Nile region more broadly continued to romantically superimpose Abyssinia and Chri stian rule over vast portions of the unknown interior. Prester John” maps were designed for a wealthy and predominantly Christian European audience: it didn’t matter that the A byssinian rulers had re al names, nor did it matter that they had never had a King with th e title “Prester John” in their history; the fact that the Abyssinians were Christian was sufficient to confirm what European audiences and mapmakers wanted to believe. Just as Mnster, Moll, and Mercator included some Ptolemaic conventions in th eir maps of Africa and omitted others, Hiob consciously selected parts of Lobo’s story to include and deliberately chose to leave other important details out. The “Habit” of an Ethiopian Maps have a very unambiguous rapport with reality. They self-consciously “speak” about their subjects, offering a miniat urized, conceptual diag ram of an explicitly defined terrain—maps are made to communicate information and they are intended to be read. Text is, of course, i ndispensable; cities, mountains, rivers, lakes, oceans and seas, the title and creator’s name, as well as cues for decodi ng the map, like the scale, are all literally spelled out on the surface. Mapped alongside these textual representations, however, are numerous figurative representati ons that also bear significant meaning. Mnster’s Monoculi for example, or Mercator’s mini scule image of Prester John, suggest something beyond candid elocution of a notable African place; they also inadvertently convey cultural particulars about Mercator, Mnster, and thei r markets. Some figurative

PAGE 54

41 representations were highly conventionalize d, used on multiple maps of Africa from the 16th through the 19th century, such as the small images of elephants and other wild animals that appeared over unknown lands so fr equently, they became part of a pictorial language for conveying the concept of “Africa” to European audiences. Over time, cartographers refined their sk ills with better instruments and more comprehensive astronomical knowledge. Combin ed with the escalating influx of firsthand accounts provided by traders, explorer s, and missionaries, these improvements made 17th and 18th century maps far more accurate. Simultaneous developments in printmaking technology, specifica lly the invention of a sophis ticated type of copperplate intaglio engraving, allowed commercial mapmak ers to print more maps and include more detailed imagery, bringing Africa into sharper focus than ever before.38 Maps became progressively picturesque as views of di stant cities and ports, economic interests, zoological discoveries, and in evitably, African people, began to occupy a larger percentage of the margin. Consequently, imag es of “natives,” like elephants and lions, assumed a fundamental role in defining Eu rope’s mental picture of Africa. One of the more organized of these information laden maps is Willem Blaeu’s Africa Newly Described (figure 2.19). A veritable arch ive unto itself, Blaeu’s map features a wide border containing vignette s of Cairo, Alexandria and other well known cities across the top, and an inventory of African people “in national dress” down both sides. Part of a larger atlas of the world, Blaeu’s map of Africa a ppeared in 28 editions 38 Christopher R. Steiner, “Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive,” Prehistories of the Future: the Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism ed. Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995): 206.

PAGE 55

42 from 1630 to 1662.39 This wide-border style wa s very popular in the early 17th century, and since cartographers borrowed freely from each other, several maps were issued with identical or only slightly modified imag ery. The border figures on Blau’s map are identical to the figures on John Speed’s map of Africa from 1626 (figure 2.20), only Blaeu’s are shown reversed, and in pairs. Each figure or pair of fi gures is labeled, for example, “Abyssinian,” “Egyptian,” or “Mozambiquan.” Twelve nationalities are covered in all, and they are the same on both maps. For artistically minded cartographers, th e title cartouche, l ong a reserve of ornamental excess, also provided the perfect compositional opportunity to incorporate additional, relevant information. For exampl e, A map of the West African coast from 1635, again by Willem Blau (fi gure 2.21), portrays two African figures lounging on top of a stone marker, along with several monkeys and a parrot. Like the figures and cities on Blau’s wide-border map, these details convey information about Africa. “Oceanus thiopicus” is written just a bove the figures’ heads in the sa me style of decadent script used by Mercator. The map credits (publisher, cartographer’s signatu re, etc) are placed on a separate, smaller cartouche to the left, though the central cartouc he retains the title and the scale. On the lower right, Blaeu ha s also included a pair of Africanized putti bearing a large elephant’s tusk (figure 2.22) Ivory was a common theme on maps of the African coastline, reflecting the economic interests of European consumers at the time. Here, Blau’s map harks back to a century before, when sea monsters and mer-men populated the seas—just below the surface of the water the lower bodies of the putti are transformed into red-tipped green fish tails. 39 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 166.

PAGE 56

43 Another regional map of Africa, thiopia Inferior vel Exterior (“Lower or Outer” thiopia) is stylistically indistinguishable from Blaeu’s Guinea and repeats the same basic formation for the main cartouche: two African figures, surrounded by several monkeys, flank a central panel identifying th e geographic area bei ng presented (figure 2.23 and 2.24). Here, however, the two figures stand rather than recline, and the decorative stone slab has been replaced with a flayed cow skin. Replete with head and tail still attached, the pale pink inside of the hide suggests the slaughter was a fairly recent transaction, subtly (o r perhaps not so subtly) undersc oring their assumed barbarity.40 It is impossible to glean from these figures a speci fic “nationality” or pinpoint a more exact regional affiliation; they obvious ly have cattle, and they wear loincloths and capes and carry weapons, but they aren’t specif ically identified as “Abbissinian” or “Mozambiquean” like the border figures on Bl au and Speed’s sli ghtly earlier maps. Indeed, these two figures flanking a skin we ren’t intended to reference anything other than all of “Lower thiopia.” The same exact iconography is used by Du tch cartographer Pieter Goos on a map of the “West Indies” (figure 2.25 and 2.26) included in his Sea-Atlas of the Watter World, a book of nautical charts first printed in 1666. Johann Baptist Ho mann, a distinguished German cartographer, also uses the flayed sk in cartouche for a map of the “New World” he created in the early 18th century. The subject matter is totally different—the “New World” vs. southern “thiopi a”—but the image and the intention are the same; to the 40 While the majority of cartouches on historic maps continued to be styled after illusionistic stone markers or stelae, occasionally a cloth was used. For example, on his 18th century map of the Holy Land, Matthaeus Seutter uses a cloth cartouche supported by smiling (wh ite) putti. This type of cloth motif appears to be the “civilized” counterpart to th e flayed skin cartouche, which is only found on maps of lands once considered “primitive” by Europeans.

PAGE 57

44 right audience, the figures with the skin signify “primitiveness” in any context and can be easily lifted from one part of the world and grafted onto another. In his study of engravings of “primitive” people in travel narrative books from the 16th through the 19th century, Christopher St einer points out that: Illustrators were able to use conventionalized images w ithout sacrificing a sense of realism because few of their readers had ev er seen the peoples and places described in the text. Since neither artist nor reader had much knowledge of what the subject ought to look like, it is easy to understa nd how a system of imaginary signs could come into being to represent any culture deemed primitive. All that was necessary was that the image producer and image c onsumer agree on the meaning of these newly constructed signs.41 Steiner argues that this type of borrowing is part of “the l ogic of representation engendered by mechanical reproduction;” wh ereby a recognizable image, or sign, because it is recognizable becomes a way to make the text seem more comprehensive, more real, and more authentic.42 It was true that many cartographers and publishers never saw the places or the people depicted in their maps and they relied on previously encoded signs, or tropes, to authenticate their acc ounts; thus, images like the flayed skin cartouche enabled mapmakers to speak author itatively to their audience about unfamiliar subjects. Mechanical reproduction accelerated the di ssemination of recognizable imagery throughout Europe as new texts used old tropes to identify their subjects, recycling the same pictures to a widening audience through a range of printed materials. This was necessary in what Susan Stewart describes as the “entrepreneuria l mode” of knowledge 41 Steiner, “Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive,” 210. 42 Ibid, 202-225. See also Christopher Steiner, “Authenticity, Repetition, and the Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999): 90-96.

PAGE 58

45 production during the 18th century, when writers broke free of “the patronage system, the court, the world of the coffeehouse, and the pr actice of subscriptions,” and begin actively seeking publishers for their writings.43 This “commodification of writing” she argues, “demanded an authenticating apparatus;” in th e context of travel narratives, maps and other documents describing cultu res exotic to that of the producer, the picture of the “native” or “primitive other” becomes the authenticating apparatus, reciprocally proclaiming that both the text/map and the image are true.44 In the examples discussed above, the imag e of two “natives” holding up a flayed skin has the effect of casting both the “West Indies” and “Lower thiopia” as “primitive lands.” The figures are at once generic and specific: their ability to signify broadly makes them interchangeable, yet contextually the figures become “West Indians” and “thiopians,” comparable to the “Abbisinian,” the “Egyptian” or any of the other figures in Blau and Speed’s catalogue of “nationalities.” The way a figure is represented—their mode of dress and adornment, the objects they carry, the way they either sit or stand— become identifying characteristics of distinct categories of people when the same tropes are constantly repeated; thus, clothing—or the lack of clothi ng—can be made to serve as the medium through which “nationality” is translated, the dressed, adorned, or naked body becoming interchangeable with the figur e’s national(or “ethnic”, or “racial”) identification. 43 Susan Stewart, “Antipodal Expectations: Notes on the Formosan ‘Ethnography’ of George Psalmanazar,”in Romantic Motives: Essays on Anthropological Sensibility ed. George W. Stocking (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989): 48-53. 44 In “Travel Engravings and the Construction of The Primitive,” Christopher Steiner points out how this process does not apply only to “primitive” cultures; it was also used to represent cities in Europe in travel journals and other texts.

PAGE 59

46 Two book illustrations, both printed in the late 18th century, demonstrate this point clearly: in the first illustra tion, taken from John Fransham’s The Entertaining Traveler; or, The Whole World in Miniature (London, 1767), three pairs of figures, each a male and a female, wearing their “national costume” ar e presented as representatives from their respective cultures. They appear in a row with labels above their heads that read (from left to right) “The Habit of a Negroe,” “T he Habit of a Moor,” and “The Habit of a Mexican,” (figure 2.27). Nine modes of dress ar e presented in all, in three illustrations, and these are the only images in the whole book.45 The second example is from The History of All Nations by David Paterson (Edinburgh, 1777), (figure 2.28). The iconography is identical to Fran sham’s illustration of “the ha bit” of a “Negroe”: the man is wearing a loincloth and car ries a spear; the woman wear s a cloth draped about her waist, and carries an infant on her back The only difference is that in the second illustration, the words “the habit of…” are left of f. There are several illustrations of other nationalities in Fransham’s book, yet, his “A Negroe” is the only image that doesn’t include these extra contextualizing words. This image of an African woman wearing a short waist wrapper, carrying a baby on her back, appeared earlier as the “Mozambiquan” in the catalogue of cultures on Willem Blaeu’s Africa Newly Described and John Speed’s Afric, discussed above (figures 2.19 and 2.20) On both 17th century maps, “Abyssinians” are shown wearing jodhpur-style pants and belted tunics, wrapped turbans and shoes. A similarly dressed individual appears on the title page for Samuel Johnson 18th century novel The History of Rasselas, 45 The other two images contain representations of “The Habit of a Chinese,” “The Habit of a Mogul,” and “The Habit of a Persian;” and “The Habit of a Turk,” the Habit of a Tartar,” and “The Habit of a Polander.”

PAGE 60

47 Prince of Abyssinia .46 Images of Prester John, the mo st famous of all Abyssinians, always portray him in kingly dress, usually carrying a crucifix, and enthroned. An image of “The Emperor of Abyssinia” from Allain Manesson Mallet’s Description de L’Univers (1685) shows the Emperor, still equated with Prester John, in embroidered and tassled finery, wearing a military helmet and sandals (figure 2.29).47 In stark contrast to other kinds of thiopians—the two figures holding the flayed skin, or the “Mozambiquan” woman, for instance—Abyssinians are depicted “favorably” by European standards, most readily indicated by the fact that they are typically represented fully clothed. Pictures of Africa and African people printed on historical maps, and in old books, have the ability to communicate and store information; they ca n be read as products of a particular culture, as statements of contex tually specific ideas. They are also biased, implicated in the history of colonialism, si gns of an uneven distribution of knowledge and power. After Lake Victoria, was “discovere d” by John Speke in 1862, and the sources of the Congo and Lualaba were “d iscovered” a few years la ter by Henry Morton Stanley, “there was not much left to be explored in Africa.”48 The Nile Region, which held the undivided attention of two-thousand years of cartographers, could finally be mapped “correctly.” Not ten years after Stanley’s final break through, a group of European superpowers assembled in Berlin to haggle over Africa’s fu ture. They cut Africa into fifty different states, divided the newly estab lished territories between them, and agreed to respect each 46 Johnson, Samuel. The history of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia (London, 1799?), George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. May 2005 < http://galenet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/servlet/ECCO > 47 This image appears in Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of Mapmaking 164. 48 Lane-Pool, “The Discovery of Africa,” 217.

PAGE 61

48 other’s borders. At the Berlin Conference in 1894, the age of Discovery ended and the era of European colonialism in Africa offi cially began. The map of Africa today is a snapshot of this notorious event, a lasti ng picture of an inexorable moment in both Africa’s and Europe’s past. Yet, Africa today is also a picture of resistance, of freedom fought for and won, of new nati onal, regional and ever-changi ng individual identities. All of the maps and images discussed in this chapter are intended to illuminate the complex history of European representations of what is now Ethiopia. I have shown that what is Ethiopia today once had two different identities: A byssinia, the fertile country that feeds the Nile, the ancient Empire of Christian Kings; and thiopia an obscure land populated by barbaric pagans. In the next chapter I will turn to more recent representations of Ethiopia, and I will explor e how this division, in some instances, still exists; my discussion will also move from ma ps as historical documents of exploration and discovery, to photographs as representations of relati onships of power. Around the same time that Speke was discovering the s ource of the White N ile in 1862, Europeans began documenting people with photography, an d a whole new way to think about and look at African culture developed.

PAGE 62

49 Figure 2.1 Map of the World according to Ptolemy’s second projection, 1482. This map is from the 1482 Latin edition printed by Lienart at Ulm, the first edition of the Geography to include woodcut print maps. (Department of Printing and Graphic Arts, The Houghton Library, Harvar d University. Plate 6 in Berggren and Jones.) Figure 2.2 Reconstruction of Ptolemy’s oikoumen (Map 1. in Berggren and Jones)

PAGE 63

50 Figure 2.3 Liby (Africa) according to Ptolemy. (Map 7a in Berggren and Jones) Figure 2.4 Liby (Africa ). Reconstruction of Ptolemy’ s Africa showing how his map compares to Africa today. (M ap 7b in Berggren and Jones)

PAGE 64

51 Figure 2.5. “T-O” map. From a 14th century copy of the writings of Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus), a 1st-century Roman poet. (Tooley and Bricker, 24). The bottom stroke of the “T” represents th e Mediterranean; the top bar depicts the Nile River on the right, and the waters north of the Aegean on the left. The double outer ring represents the river Ocean. Figure 2.6 Copy of a map by al-Idrisi. Al-Idrisi created the original map for King Roger of Sicily in 1154. The copy shown here was probably made around 1500 CE. (Tooley and Bricker,. 24).

PAGE 65

52 Figure 2.7 Sebastian Mnster’s Map of Africa. Woodcut print w ith insert type. Created by Mnster in 1540 for his version of Ptolemy’s Geography The map depicted here is from the third edition, published in 1542. (Tooley and Bricker, 153). Figure 2.8 Map of Ethiopia printed in 1931. ( National Geographic Magazine June 1931, 702). The original caption reads, “ARID, SEMIDESERT COUNTRY SURROUNDS ETHIOPIA. The ancient Empire embraces more than 350,000 square miles of the productive north-eas tern plateau of Africa, and, while it lies wholly within the Tropics, its elevation tempers the climate.”

PAGE 66

53 Figure 2.9 Africa According to y Newest and most Exact Observations created by Herman Moll, London, 1714. 26.5 x 18.7 cm (U niversity of Florida, George A. Smathers Library) Figure 2.10 Detail of figure 2.9 showing “Abissina” ( upper right), Ethiop ia (center), and Lakes Zaire and Zaflan and the Zeebe River (bottom).

PAGE 67

54 Figure 2.11 Africa Ex Magna Orbis Terre created by Gerard Mercator (the younger), 1595. 38 x 47 cm (University of Florid a, George A. Smathers Library) Figure 2.12 Detail of figure 2.11. Title cart ouche from Mercator’s map, surface treatment of water, trompe l’oiel frame, and the “Oceanus Aethiopicus.”

PAGE 68

55 Figure 2.13 Detail of figure 2.11 showing “Agisymba.” Figure 2.14 Detail of figure 2.11 showing “Abissini” (bottom) and illustration of Prester John (center).

PAGE 69

56 Figure 2.15 Africae Tabula Nova created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570. 37.5 x 50.3 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library). Included in Ortelius’ world atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Figure 2.16 Presbiteri Johannis Abissinorium Imperii Descripto (A representation of the empire of Prester John, or, of the Aby ssinians), created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1573. 38 x 44 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library).

PAGE 70

57 Figure 2.17 Habessinia or Abassia, Pr esbyteri Johannis Regio (“Habessinia” or “Abassia,” the Land of Prester John.) Created by Hiob Ludolf (or possibly his son), 1683. (Tooley and Bricker, 165.) Figure 2.18 Detail of figure 2.17 showing tents at “Guender” (Gondar).

PAGE 71

58 Figure 2.19 Detail of Afric Nova Descriptio (Africa Newly Desc ribed), created by Willem Blaeu, 1630. (Reproduced in full in Tooley and Bricker, 175-176.) Figures depicted are (top to bottom): “gypty,” “Abiini,” and “Cafres in Mazambique,” [sic]. Figure 2.20 Detail of Afric map of Africa created by John Speed, London, 1626. (Tooley and Bricker, 166). People depict ed (left to right): “Abissinian,” and an “Egyptian.”

PAGE 72

59 Figure 2.21 Guinea created by Willem Blau, Amsterdam, 1635. 39 x 53 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library). Figure 2.22 Detail of figure 2.21.

PAGE 73

60 Figure 2.23 thiopia Inferior vel Exterior (“Lower or Outer” thiopia), made by Jan Jansson after an earlier map by Jan Bl au (1642). 39 x 51 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library) The only difference between Blau’s map and Jansson’s is that the latter la cks a sailing ship above the cartouche. (Blau’s version appears in Tooley and Bricker, 167.) Figure 2.24 Detail of figure 2.23 showing flayed cow skin cartouche.

PAGE 74

61 Figure 2.25 Paskaerte Van West Indien de Vaste Kusten en de Eylanden created by Pieter Goos, nd., probably late 1660s. (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library). Figure 2.26 Detail of figure 2.25 showing flayed skin cartouche.

PAGE 75

62 Figure 2.27 Illustration from The Entertaining Traveler; or, the Whole World in Miniature by John Fransham and printed by Henry Holmes, London, 1767. (The British Library, accessible at < http://galenet.galegroup.com >) Figure 2.28 Illustration from History of All Nations printed by David Paterson, Edinburgh, 1777. (The British Library, accessible at < http://galenet.galegroup.com >) Figure 2.29 Image of the Emperor of Abyssi nia from Allain Manesson Mallet’s Description de L’Univers 1685. (Tooley and Bricker, 164).

PAGE 76

63 CHAPTER 3 PHOTOGRAPHING ETHIOPIA: TH E SAFARI AND THE PILGRIMAGE While the gaze of the subject of the photogr aph may be difficult to find in the heavy crisscrossing traffic of the more priv ileged gazes of producers and consumers, contemporary stories of contestable power are told there nonetheless. (Lutz and Collins, 1993: 216) Photography is modernity run riot. (Sekula, 1986: 4) Recent readings of photography and Afri ca often focus on how the West has systematically used Africa to construct a na rrative about itself. This kind of cultural domination is not restricted to photography; indeed, the hist oric maps discussed in the last chapter reveal how Afri ca was colonized by the European imagination long before Europeans actually assumed political control. When viewed critically, photographs, like maps, often reveal much more about the producer/observer than they do about the produced/observed. The question then inevitab ly becomes, what, or who is really the subject? Photography, and photographs of huma n bodies in particular, necessitate that the subject be split into an interlocking triadthe photographer, the photographed, and the viewer, or spectator. All three are always present, yet they seldom exercise agency equally. In this chapter, I will address representa tions of Ethiopian people in photographs by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, most of which were taken between 1984 and 1989. During the mid 1980s, the Western news media was flooded with devastating images of starving Ethiopian women and ch ildren as Ethiopia went through one its worst famines in recorded history. While this kind of im agery can certainly be damagingpresenting

PAGE 77

64 Ethiopia as a pitiful, wretched place where life is nothing bu t a struggle for survival—the same is also true of the opposite; in other wo rds, representations of Ethiopia as a glorious Eden where humanity and nature are one and the same also promote stereotypical, and thus harmful perceptions of African people Gazing at Ethiopia The most comprehensive photographic study of modern Ethiopia is Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher’s African Ark: Peoples of the Horn a lavishly-illustrated, largeformat “coffee-table book” published in 1990.1 Ethiopia is the primary focus of the book, though Somalia, Djibouti, and what is now Eritr ea are also covered. Beckwith and Fisher have been working separately and together in Africa for over 30 years and between them they have published seven books, produced two films, contributed to several National Geographic feature articles and delivered coun tless lectures on African culture at universities and museums across the United States.2 Carol Beckwith is also a painter and Angela Fisher designs jewe lry, which she sells at a boutique near her London home. Their award-winning photographs have been exhi bited as art in cities all over the world, yet like most professional photographers, their work crosses disciplinary bounds; they self consciously document African culture, and their “fieldwork” resembles at times the 1 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark: Peoples of the Horn (London: Collins Harvill, 199). 2 The books are: Tepilit Ole Saitoti and Carol Beckwith, Maasai (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980); Angela Fisher, Africa Adorned (New York: Abrams, 1984); Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark ; Carol Beckwith, Nomads of Niger (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993); Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ceremonies 2 vols. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999); Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, Passages (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000) ; Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, Faces of Africa (Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2004). National Geographic articles featuring their photographs include: Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, “Masai Passage to Manhood,” National Geographic 196 no. 3 (September 1999): 52-65; Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, “African Marriage Rituals,” National Geographic 196 no. 5 (November 1999): 80-97; and Karen E. Lange, with photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, “Himba: Consulting the Past, Divining the Future,” National Geographic 205 no. 1 (January 2004): 32-47. The two films are Way of the Wodaabe and The Painter and the Fighter

PAGE 78

65 efforts of university-trained anthropologi sts and ethnographers. Frequently celebrated— and condemned—for the unprecedented access gran ted to them as outsiders, Fisher and Beckwith have managed to photograph events many Westerners are seldom permitted to see. Beckwith claims that she approaches photography “with the eye of a painter in terms of light, color, and composition;” her photographs are intended to be visually striking, “multilayered experien ces in the way a painting is.”3 This premeditated aesthetic is plainly visible, for instance, in the image of an Orthodox priest, gingerly descending a worn staircase within the rock-hewn Lalibela complex in northern highlands Ethiopia (figure 3.1). 4 In the photograph, enormous vertical masses of rutted and furrowed rock, weathered a dusky muddle of antique auburn, russet, and gray by centuries of wind and rain, rise up on either si de of the image, just barely reaching ground level where the un-seen top of the “so-calle d Tomb of Adam” peeks out from the vast trench in which it sits. Hewn, not built, th e eleven rock-cut churches at Lalibela were literally carved out of the solid red volcan ic tuff of the surroun ding terrain during the Zagw dynasty in the 12th or 13th century CE.5 3 Carol Beckwith, “An Interview with Carol Beckwith,” African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 38. 4 Two other photographs from Lalibela, (page 32 and pages 46-47 of African Ark ), and a third image from Ura Kidane Mehret on Lake Tana (page 56 in African Ark ) also appear in the August 1985 issue of African Arts as illustrations for an interview with Carol Beckwith, conducted by the editors of the magazine in December 1984. (The interview was published in 1985: Ca rol Beckwith. “An In terview with Carol Beckwith,” 38-45.) Angela Fisher is not mentioned in the interview, or in the photo captions; therefore, it is highly likely that this image was taken by Carol Beckwith. Although some of Beckwith and Fisher’s later compilations do include imagery that they previously published individually, when Beckwith and Fisher work together, they share credit for all of the photographs. I do not make any attempt in the following discussion to distinguish one’s work from the other. 5 Richard Pankhurst. The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998): 45-60.

PAGE 79

66 The composition is both stunning and sugges tive: the mammoth precipice dwarfs the Ethiopian priest, his tiny barefoot figure suspended in a shaft of ethereal light, purposely conjuring visions of Old Testament patriarchs and sandy pilgrimages to remote and holy places. The stark white of his turba n, softened by the halo-like aura that seems to surround his entire body, is a focal cue, leading the eye upwards past the darkened portal and the shadowed cross-shaped window to the barely illuminated ledge of the central edifice and the two unlit archways of the far wall. As somber and silent as the stone ramparts that almost completely engul f him, the priest in the picture bears his aesthetic burden with dignity and grace. Two general, though unstated, themes domin ate this particular collection of photographs: religion and/or r itual, and “ethnic” dress and ad ornment, both of which fall under the collective rubric of “traditional” culture.6 In the first category are images of pious Orthodox priests and bearded Falasha Cahens —religious leaders of the Beta Israel, or indigenous Ethiopian Jews —depicted soberly praying or reading from yellowed and fraying old books.7 There are also several pictures of “enraptured” Oromo pilgrims “only lightly brushed with Islam” and chanting “gypsies” who practice a “strange ecstatic religion” portrayed in the midst of ferven t revelry at the tomb of Sheikh Hussein.8 The second category includes pictures of Orthodox ce lebrants dressed in filigree crowns and embroidered capes; elaborate Hamar coiffures; Suri women wearing large clay lip-plates; 6 These two themes are not the only subjects addressed in the book. There are also several shots of domestic architecture and images of both men and wo men at work, but these images often function as a framing device for each group or culture, and set the stage, so to speak, for a narrative far more concerned with African bodies and “traditional” rituals. 7 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 49-75. 8 Ibid, 174-203.

PAGE 80

67 and several images of men and women with in tricate scarifications tattoos, and copious displays of beautiful jewelry. Of course, some images span both categories, such as the photographs of Suri men painting their bodies in preparation for “r itual dueling,” called Donga —which is actually more of a sport than a “ritual.”9 Played by the Mursi as well as the Suri, Donga is a type of stick-fighting where men pair up and try to knock down their opponent with a six foot wooden staff. The Suri photographs are some of the most attention-grabbing images in the whole book. Unlike the distant, rather ambiguous vant age point from which the viewer sees the tiny Ethiopian priest desce nding the Lalibela staircase, the Suri men are shown in relentless close-up. 10 The sequence begins with an image of one man painting another man’s face, shown opposite a life-size portrait of the latter individual.11 The next two 9 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark 263-297. 10 Catherine Lutz and Jean Collins, Reading National Geographic (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993): 193. In their discussion of photographs in National Geographic Magazine, Lutz and Collins locate seven different gazes. “Vantage point ” is a characteristic of the photographer’s gaze. 11 The first photograph reappears in Beckwith and Fisher’s most recent work, Faces of Africa yet in their new context, the two Suri men are given names. The man doing the painting is Ole Rege, and the man being painted is Kolaholi. Out of the twelve quixotically titled chapters in the book, Ole Rege and Kolaholi appear in “Patterns of Beauty.” (Recall, that Barchini appeared in the chapter titled “Art of Seduction;” see chapter one: Scope and Content.) On the next two pages, a close-up portrait of another Suri man, Muradit, appears with the following caption: “Surma, Ethi opia. Muradit’s painted face patterns enhance his mischievous mood.” A black page with white text (the format of choice for most picture-books about Africa) relays a story Beckwith and Fisher usually te ll during their lectures: “When the day came to leave Surmaland, we asked Muradit what we could give the Surma as a thank you for th eir wonderful hospitality. After a moment of reflection, he announced, ‘We would like to see your breasts!’ We were quite taken aback, but realized that this was a fair request as Surma women went bare-breasted, men often nude, and we were completely covered up, hiding unimaginable and mysterious secrets! We invited Muradit into our hut, took a deep breath, and, to the count of three, lifted our T-shirts for five long seconds. His eyes widened with amazement and his mout h dropped open. He raced outside to tell the 300 villagers pulsating with curiosity what he had seen. Muradit stood on a tree stump and delivered an 11-minute speech. Our guide, Zewde, translated his words. One of us had round voluptuous breasts and was clearly a married woman with many children and absolutely taboo. The other had small upright pointy nubile breasts and was clearly available to everyone! At this point, Zewge hurriedly packed up our mule train and spirited us over the mountains to safety,” (202). Beckwith and Fisher used this story as part of their stand-up routine during the lecture tour that accompanied the release of African Ceremonies in 1999—I would like to thank Al Roberts for pointing this out to me. I am not using Ole Rege and Kolaholi’s names in this section of my discussion, because it is significan t that they are anonymous in African Ark

PAGE 81

68 pages are double views of the same two men, standing on a rock outcropping, helping each other paint abstract designs in the wh ite chalk mixture smeared over their bodies (figure 3.2). On the right, one man, the same one who paints’ the other’s face in the first photograph of the sequence, leans forward, hi s countenance fixed in an expression of intense concentration, as he gently holds up his associate’s penis while using his other hand to paint intricate designs on the man’s lower abdomen. The following two photographs—cropped just above the belly butto n at the top and just above the knee at the bottom and covering the whole 10x14 inch page—are “portraits” of the painted genitalia of, presumably, th e same two men (figure 3.3).12 The final two pages reveal an even closer look, so close, in fact, that tiny crea ses and pores are cl early discernable on their carefully decorated bellies (figure 3.4). These photographs of Suri men are presente d to the viewer as objects that are meant to be looked at. In academic discourse, this act of looking is referred to as “the gaze” and can be defined as the (social and political) position from which a subject is viewed and perceived by a spectator. The positio n of the viewer, or sp ectator, and the act of viewing a subject as a spect ator, is a culturally bound proce ss, an activity that shifts according to who is doing the looking, what they are looking at, and how they interpret what they are seeing. Thus, the viewer or spectator—the observer—also becomes an active subject through the ve ry act of looking at the photograph, through the act of viewing, or gazing at the observed. In the photographs of the Suri men, Angela Fisher and/or Carol Beckwith are th e first spectators, and alt hough they are no t physically present in the pictures, their subjectivity as observers—their “gaze”—is embedded in the 12 In Faces of Africa there is instead a close-up of a Suri ma n’s buttocks. The caption reads: “Surma, Ethiopia: Details of body painting,” (202-205).

PAGE 82

69 image, encoded in the representational choi ces they have made. The subjects that photographers chose to shoot, the vantage point they shoot from, the equipment they use, the way a shot is framed, or the way the final image is cut; even the way the film is processed is part of a cons cious representational process.13 There are also other kinds of gazes embedded within photographs of human subjects, namely, the line of sight of the subjects themselv es. In their analysis of photographs in National Geographic Magazine Jane Collins and Catherine Lutz write: “There is perhaps no more significant gaze in th e photograph than that of its subject. It is how and where the other looks that most determines the differences in the message a photograph can give about intercultural relations.”14 In the case of the Suri men, the man who paints his associate’s body in figure 3.2 is gazing directly at the other man’s penis. His “gaze” is then emphasized by the two “por traits” of painted Suri genitalia on the following pages. When these photographs are vi ewed together, or read, on the pages of African Ark the emphasis on genitalia affects the vi ewer’s reception of the Suri man’s gaze, accentuating the penis rather than the act of painting, or the Donga game the paintings are created for; which, it should be noted, are likely far more important to the Suri men than the dramatization of their penises enacted by Fisher and Beckwith’s representational choices. This “intersection of gazes” is always exacerbated when the lived context of the observed is different from the lived context of the observer.15 In 13 Carol Beckwith states that she feels “Kodachrome film made and processed in France is much more suitable to Africa. The color balance seems to empha size earth tones and reds, and is better suited for African skin colors.” Carol Beckwith, “An Interview with Carol Beckwith,” 44. 14 Catherine Lutz and Jean Collins, Reading National Geographic 197. 15 See Jean Collins and Catherine Lutz, “The Photograph as an Intersection of Gazes,” chapter seven in Reading National Geographic

PAGE 83

70 other words, when—for example—a Western r eader gazes at a non-Western subject, the probability for there to be a disjuncture in meaning is heightened significantly. Touring Ethiopian Bodies The relationship between observer and obser ved that is implicit in all acts of looking, photographic or otherwise, often creates situations th at give rise to an uneven balance of power. In photography, this unevenness stems partly from a photograph’s ability to place the viewer in possession of the viewed subject; from photography’s ability to create a hand-held version of a real individual th at can be easily consumed. Susan Sontag has written extensively a bout photography’s power to commoditize the body, arguing that taking pictur es is a “predatory act,” th at “to photograph people is to violate them.”16 Photographs, she says, “turn people in to objects that can be symbolically possessed;” they “convert the world into a de partment store or museum-without walls in which every subject is depreciated into an ar ticle of consumption, promoted to an item for aesthetic appreciation.”17 The painted bodies—and body parts—of the Suri men are a case in point. Because Fisher and/or Beckw ith have chosen to present the men’s bodies as art, their bodies become b eautiful objects that eagerly in sist on being looked at: the photographs ask to be consumed. Gazing at African bodies in picture books a nd magazines is a very passive form of domination compared to the actual act of ta king the picture. P hotographers directly engage with their subjects, thus, they are in a position to abuse their authority. In the words of Susan Sontag, they are far more “p redatory” than those i ndividuals who merely 16 Susan Sontag On Photography (New York: Anchor Books, 1990): 14. 17 Ibid, 110.

PAGE 84

71 gaze at an image that somebody else has alrea dy taken. One arena where this “predatory” relationship is more than apparent is in cultural tourism and the practice of taking photographs of people as souvenirs.18 Sontag writes that taking pi ctures “gives shape to the experience” of being a tourist: people traveling in unfamiliar territory arrive at their destination, often unsure of what else to do, they “stop, take a picture, and move on.”19 According to David Turton, this is exactly what happens with the Mursi of southw estern Ethiopia, who ar e “one of the last few groups in Africa amongst w hom it is still the norm for wo men to wear large pottery or wooden ‘plates’ in their lower lips.”20 The Mursi are listed in European, American, and Ethiopian travel brochures as a “mustsee attraction,” and t ourists travel great distances just to take thei r pictures. Turton writes: The encounter between Mursi and tourists is clearly a tense and uneasy one for both sides. The Mursi seem determined not to let the tourists forget that they have come for no other purpose than to ‘take’ photographs, while the tourists seem intent on getting the photographs they need…and making their getaway as quickly as possible.21 Mursi women “expect to be paid 2 Ethiopian Birr” (less than 50 cents), although they usually have to “settle for 2 Birr for e ach series of photographs” taken by a single tourist.22 Of course, it is really th e lip-plates that people come to see. To tourists, the lip18 Ibid, 64. 19 Ibid, 10. 20 Turton, David, “Lip Plates and ‘The People Who Take Photographs:’ Uneasy Encounters between Mursi and Tourists in Southern Ethiopia,” Anthropology Today 20 no. 3 (June 2004). 21 Turton, David. “Lip Plates and ‘The People Who Take Photographs,” 5. 22 Ibid, 3.

PAGE 85

72 plate signifies the “authenticity” of the Murs i people, while their pho tographs confirm the very act of looking—the e xperience of touring “aut hentic” Mursi bodies. In African Ark there are several photogr aphs of Suri women wearing large clay lipplates (figure 3.5). Like the Mursi, the Su ri live in the Omo River valley area of southwestern Ethiopia, a regi on described in Fisher and Beckwith’s book as a remote wilderness, “forgotten by history.”23 The Omo River valley is also touted as remote, wild, and untouched by travel agencies that offer extreme rafting expeditions, cultural tours and photo safaris to this “forgo tten” region of Ethiopia. The main attraction is invariably the exotic wildlife and the numerous “tribes” who live there, whose authenticity is often the main attraction. Extreme Party, an adventur e travel agency locat ed in the Ukraine, claims that on their Omo River rafting expedi tion, “we shall feel as though we are in a wild untouched kingdom; this is the real, virg in Africa as it was t housands of years ago before the White Man appeared.”24 Safari Experts, a Utah based travel ag ency specializing in photographic tours of Africa, Argentina, Australia, and New Zeala nd, also offer rafting expeditions down the Omo. Their website resembles an amateur version of the latter half of African Ark with numerous photographs of the Suri and Murs i, as well as the Karo, and the Hamar juxtaposed with diary-like te xt detailing the most recent excursion. Echoing Turton’s lament of the Mursi women’s predicament, the entry reads: [The Mursi] have, perhaps rightly, learne d the value of their looks to earn money from tourists. The price is not high, and it wi ll surely rise as more visitors find their way to these remote places, just two bir …. Some have learned to count the clicks 23 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark, 249. 24 Extreme Tours, Osmos Co, Dnepropetrovsk, Lenin's street 15, Ukraine 49005. < http://www.go2raft.com > Last accessed May 23, 2005.

PAGE 86

73 from SLR [manual, “single-lens-ref lex”] cameras…so the price builds. I find my digital camera gives me an advant age here, as it is soundless .25 The itinerary for the Omo trip is actually mo re like a list of “tribal” body adornment practices and “ceremonies;” Safari Experts claim to provide a completely authentic experience, “immersing” their customers in the unique cultures of the Omo River peoples. They do, however, include a disclaim er: “there is of course no guarantee we will succeed in finding…any sought after cerem ony; but our local contacts give us the best chance to locate an d gain access to them.”26 In addition to their “photographic safaris” of the Omo River valley, Safari E xperts also lead guided “pilgrimage” tours to the rock-hewn churches of La libela, the imperial ruins of Gondar, and the ancient obelisks of Aksum. Beckwith and Fisher’s African Ark gives readers a chance to go on a “photographic safari” or “religious pilgrima ge” in Ethiopia without ever le aving home. In fact, the book was made as an extended travel brochure a dvertising the visual splendor of Ethiopia’s rich cultural diversity. Comrade Fisseha Geda the former head of the Ethiopian Tourism Commission, had seen Fisher and Beckwith’s other photographic books about Africa and invited them to conduct a similar survey of Ethiopia.27 Beckwith and Fisher began the project under his guidance, a nd later worked closely with Yohannes Berhanu, Head of Ethiopian Tourism Promotion. The Commissi on provided Fisher and Beckwith with two guides, Worku Sharew and Zewge Mariam Haile, who both worked with the photographers throughout their four and a half years of research in Ethiopia. In the 25 Safari Experts, L.C., P.O. Box 680098, Park City, UT 84068-0098. < http://www.safariexperts.com > Last accessed May 23, 2005. emphasis mine. 26 Ibid. 27Beckwith and Fisher, “Acknowledgements,” African Ark no page no.

PAGE 87

74 acknowledgments section of African Ark Fisher and Beckwith write: “With their knowledge, devotion, and endless patience the difficult task of covering the entire country became not only possible but one of the most unforgettable experiences in our lives.”28 Tourism is a major source of revenue fo r many African countries, as well as for many of Africa’s “traditional” peoples. The Mursi may not like having their photographs taken, but they depend on the money that t ourism generates in order to buy goods and food at the highlands market s, and to pay their taxes.29 They are aware of the exchange value of their “looks,” and are willing, be grudgingly, to perform their Mursi-ness for spectators who insist on looking at their bodies. It should also be noted that the “tribal” peoples of Ethiopia are not the only Ethi opians performing their “authenticity” for tourists. Orthodox priests in the predominantly Christian highlands are entirely willing to don their full regalia and displa y their church’s hallowed treasures for tourists who wish to take their picture. Like the Mursi, the priests expect payment, which they accept in the form of a small donation to the church. One of the photographs in African Ark shows a priest from the church of Ura Kidane Mehret in Bahr Dar, a popular tourist destination on the shores of Lake Tana (figure 3.6). The priest stands at the entrance to the maqdas the “holy of holies” where the sacred tabot (a symbolic representation of the Ar k of the Covenant) is kept, holding a processional cross and an illuminated manuscript. Like the priest descending the worn staircase at Lalibela (figur e 3.1), the body of the Bahr Dar priest is framed by an 28 Ibid. 29 Turton, “Lip Plates and ‘The People Who Take Photographs,” 3.

PAGE 88

75 elaborate architectural space. Wearing a dimly golden cape and hat with a faded sunflower-speckled red robe, the priest’s sma ll figure would be completely lost in the brightly painted murals that surround him were it not for the gleaming silver cross that reflects the glare from the camera’s flash and directs the viewers’ at tention to his face. Standing against the slightly open, large double doors leading to the dark, unlit interior room, the priest meets the photographer’s (and the viewer’s) gaze with self-awareness. He knows that his photograph is being “taken” by a tourist. Beckwith and/or Fisher’s photograph may be compositionall y sophisticated and have mo re snap and more “punch” than unremarkable tourist ve rsions captured with consumer-grade equipment by nonprofessionals; yet, other than its obvious t echnical superiority, the photograph could have been taken by anyone visiting the church in Bahr Dar.30 Gazing Back Few of the people depicted in Fish er and Beckwith’s photographs in African Ark meet the gaze of their photographers. Huma n subjects, the primary focus of the book, are usually depicted in the midst of some “ritu al” or activity, or they are shown gazing at someone or something just outside the frame of the picture, such as the Suri woman in figure 3.5. Most images that would qualify as portraits portray thei r subjects in this manner. One exception is the striking image of a Konso man, seated inside a circle of rocks on a steep outlook, presumably on the eas tern slopes of the Omo River in southwest 30 In a volume of African Arts dedicated wholly to photography (August 1985), editors Herbert Cole and Doran Ross suggest to that in order to improve their own amateur photography in the field, Africanists who study African visual culture should: “Look through the pages of several African Arts National Geographic Life and other publications to see which photographs have the most sensitivity or punch, tell the best story, bring Africa most alive.” Herbert Cole and Doran Ross, “The Art and Technology of Field Photography,” African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 48.

PAGE 89

76 Ethiopia (figure 3.7).31 The man looks straight into the camera, not quite smiling, but almost, with his arms folded casually across his lap. The leaning tree trunk to his right supports a tangled scribble of limbs, which occupy the top third of the photograph and assume the position of the sky. The tree and the branches help frame the man’s figure in the foreground, drawing him out from the d eep nebulous blur of seemingly endless terrain beyond the cliff. A skinny, pointed elbo w and a sliver of shir t corner and sleeve are the only visible signs of the young child who hides just ou t of sight on the other side of the leafless tree. The image of the Konso man is formally outstanding, yet the tree, rocks and vast landscape do not appear purely for aesthe tic effect; they are included to convey information about the Konso people. In fact, in Faces of Africa a compilation of their photographs published by the National Geographic Society in 2004, the image reappears, only this time it is flip-flopped, depicted in complete reverse (figure 3.8, left). In African Ark the caption reads: “For the Konso, wood a nd stone are the two most highly valued building materials.”32 The fact that the picture’s func tion is to convey information is reinforced by its placement in the text, sa ndwiched in between several photographs of Konso settlements and buildings. The same image of Konso architecture appears next to the photograph in Faces of Africa and the caption conveys the same vague information: 31 For information about the Konso, see Elizabeth Watson and Lakew Regassa, “Konso,” in Peripheral People: The Excluded Minorities of Ethiopia ed. Dena Freeman and Alula Pankhurst (London: Hurst and Company, 2003). The photograph appears on page 212 of African Ark sandwiched in between several images of Konso settlements and houses. 32 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 212.

PAGE 90

77 “Using gnarled roots and braches, the K onso build their houses on stony mountain terrains, leaving the better land to be terraced and cult ivated.” (figure 3.8, right).33 Another image where the subject returns th e photographer’s gaze is a picture of two young Hamar women, beautifully adorned for th e “jumping of the bull” “ceremony,” an event in which young Hamar men run across the back s of their herds of cattle in order to symbolically mark their entr ance into adulthood (figure 3.9). This image is included in both African Ark and Faces of Africa though unlike the previous example, the figures in the picture face the same direction in both pictures. The woman on the right watches an unseen activity transpiring out side the picture’s frame, seemingly unaware of the photographer’s presence; while the woman to her right, on the left side of the picture, is gazing directly at the photogra pher. She smiles, wholly awar e that her picture is being taken. The caption, which is again similar in both books, emphasizes the elaborate and plentiful jewelry both women wear, thus indi cating that their adornments are what makes them worth photographing. In photography, the returned g aze is a rhetorical device, marking the image as a representation that always al ready incorporates a relations hip to the subject from the observer’s perspective; the look back draws th e viewer into a dialog ic relationship with the person in the picture, both visually and em pathetically. In some cases, the returned gaze may make the visual encounter more co mfortable for the observer: it can “short circuit the voyeurism identified as an important component of most photography,” providing assurance that the person in the image is aware of being photographed—like a 33 Beckwith and Fisher, Faces of Africa 176.

PAGE 91

78 sign of consent.34 Smiles, especially, make the subj ect in the photo appear accessible by defining a comfortable viewing space.35 A returned gaze can also be self-consci ously seductive, inviting and confirming open voyeuristic engagement. In The Colonial Harem Malek Alloula demonstrates how colonial audiences gazed at images of Alge rian women on postcards to satisfy their own Orientalist obsession with the harem.36 Alloula finds two dominant themes in the postcards: Algerian or “Mooris h” women are 1) idle, and 2) sexually available. Many of the images depict women’s “rituals”—the things they do to combat boredom while imprisoned inside their harem, like drink co ffee and smoke cigarettes. Figure 3.10 is a postcard reproduced in Alloula’ s book depicting two Algerian women and a girl “having coffee.” The central figure is topless, and stares directly into the camera, paying very attention to the small cup of coffee in her ha nd or to the young girl w ho serves it to her. The woman’s gaze is clearly directed toward s a viewer that is expected to respond by staring directly back. The ex cuse that authenticates the su bject matter and gives viewers permission to consume the image, so to speak, is the “ritual,” the fact that the women are drinking coffee This deliberately tame subject matter is intended to mask—however poorly—the openly erotic message the image conveys. Colonial postcards have a gr eat deal of historical bagga ge. They are rooted in a system of exploitation that is now commonl y recognized as a significant facet of the 34 Lutz and Collins, Reading National Geographic 197. 35 It is important to not that the empathetic response to smiles in photographs is a culturally conditioned response. See Lutz and Collins, Reading National Geographic 96. 36 Malek Alloula, The Colonial Harem translated by Myrna Godzich and Wlad Godzich (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986).

PAGE 92

79 meanings they hold for contemporary audiences.37 Bare-breasted women, however, are still a major part of the Western pop ular image of “traditional” Africa.38 A photograph of a young Konso woman in African Ark epitomizes the standard chest-up portrait that is commonly encountered everywhere African pe ople are represented in Western popular culture (figure 3.11). From the pages of National Geographic to calendars, note-cards, and the internet, television, tr avel guides and tourist’s photogra phs, as well as a plethora of coffee table books, this type of image of African women is ubiquitous. The young Konso woman in figure 3.11 looks directly at the viewer, gently supporting a sleeping child on her back. Judging from young woman’s apparent age, the child is probably not her own, but rather a sibling or relative sh e has been charged w ith looking after. Nevertheless, the caption reads: “In addition to working in the fields, a Konso woman’s everyday activities include carrying fi re-wood, grinding corn and caring for her children.”39 The young woman depicted here doesn’t have the same inviting expression on her face as the woman on Alloula’s postcar d, yet her gaze establishes the possibility for Western audiences to interpret the image in the same way. 37 For an analysis of colonial postcards, see Christraud Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998). Four essays dealing with representations of Africa and Africans in postal stamps, a very related topic, are included in the Summer 2004 issue of African Arts. These include: Merrick Posnansky, “Propaganda for the Millions: Images from Africa,” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 53-57, 94; Agbenyega Adedze, “Re-Presenting Africa: Commemorative Postage Stamps of the Colonial Exhibition of Paris (1931),” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 58-61, 94-95 and “Commemorating the Chief: The Politics of Postage Stamps in West Africa,” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 68-73, 96; and Jessica Levin, “Sculpted Posts: Architectur al Decoration on Gabonese Stamps,” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 62-67, 95-96. 38 Bare-breasted non-white women are an iconic symbol in the Western world, particularly in National Geographic. Lutz and Collins discuss how “the nude black woman” was incorporated into the magazine to boost sales. White women were never portrayed nude; in fact, in one issue, a group of bare-breasted Polynesian women were airbrushed darker so they would not be mistaken for white women. See Lutz and Collins, Reading National Geographic 115-116; and Howard S. Abramson, National Geographic: Behind America's Lens on the World (New York: Crown Publishers, 1987): 143. 39 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 217.

PAGE 93

80 Awareness of the photograph’s ability to f unction as erotica can make the looking experience unpleasant for some viewers. Fo r example, a photograph very similar to the one in figure 3.12 was included in a recent exhibition of Fisher and Beckwith’s photographs at the Ralls Collection, a privat e gallery specializing in contemporary art located in Georgetown.40 The show, titled “Cultures on the Edge,” was co-sponsored by the National Geographic Society and also included photographs by Wade Davis, Chris Rainer and Phil Borges.41 One visitor to the show had the following to say: I started feeling uneasy looking at a picture by Beckwith a nd Fisher. It shows a shy nomad girl with her shirt off, her breast s are just beginning to bud and she wears a gorgeous beaded necklace. Her eyes meet the camera with a look so docile and vulnerable that I couldn’t help but wince. I began wondering whether she really wanted the duo to take her picture or wh ether she just couldn’t say no. There’s a quality of coercion in this picture that makes me uncomfortable. Or maybe I’m reading too much in. That ’s the trouble with seeing a photograph in this context.42 Like the photographs of the Suri men’s pe nises, the photograph of the Konso woman’s body acquires a new set of meanings when it ente rs a Western system of representation. 40The Ralls Collection Gallery confirmed that the Konso woman’s photograph was not included in the show, although they did not know which photograph the review refers to. Personal communication, May 2005. The Ralls Collection specializes in “contemporary photography, works on paper, and sculpture.” 41 Wade Davis, Chris Rainer, Phil Borges, and Carol Be ckwith and Angela Fisher work together on an “online magazine,” also called “Cultures on the Edge .” () See also Wade Davis, “Vanishing Cultures,” National Geographic 196, no. 2 (August 1999): 62-89. These photographers—Davis, Rainer, Borges—work in the same mode as Beckwith and Fisher. Phil Borges has also worked extensively in Ethiopia and his black and white, art-like photographs present their own set of problematic issues, which are beyond the scope of the present study. 42 Quoted in Jessica Dawson, “At Ralls, Photographs With an Unsettling Glare,” The Washington Post September 11, 2003: C-5. After being shown at the Ralls, “Cultures on the Edge” traveled to the United Nations, where it was shown in the Visitor’s Lobby from the 10th of May to the 10th of August, 2004 as part of a larger exhibition titled “In Celebration of Indige nous Peoples.” The UN show marked the third session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which met at the UN Headquarters from May 10-21, 2004 to discuss the theme “Indigenous Women.” See United Natio ns Press Release Note #5866. “Art Exhibit: In Celebration of Indigenous Peoples.” < http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2004/note5866.doc.htm > Last accessed May 2005.

PAGE 94

81 Authenticity as Spectacle and the Politics of Display No matter what the context of a returned gaze is, it always seems to ground the image by assuring the viewer that the subj ect is aware of be ing photographed; the reciprocal look provides a plat form for dialogue, a direction for how to empathize with a photographed subject—even when looking at th e image is difficult. Figure 3.12 depicts an Amharic woman being sprayed with holy water by an Orthodox priest near the source of the Blue Nile in highlands Ethiop ia. The photograph is not published in African Ark but does appear in Faces of Africa In situ, the image appear s opposite a standing portrait of Priest Aba Wolde, whose green sleeved left arm holds the hose in the former picture. The caption for both images is the same: “Ri ght and Left: Priest Aba Wolde treats a young woman possessed by the Zar spirit.”43 Out of the five figures in the posession image, Aba Wolde is the only individual given a name. The “young woman” whose nude and drenched body is prominently framed front and center—obviously the most visible body in the scene—is patently anonymous. Not only is the woman not name d, she is also blinded, prevented from returning her observer’s gaze by an iron cross held in front of her eyes. The man who stands just behind her, however, looks out towards the observers’ space, and his gaze immediately makes the viewer realize that the woman whose body is palpably on display is not aware that she is being photographed. Unlike the more formal, and certainly 43 Beckwith and Fisher, Faces of Africa 168. The photograph appears in the chapter titled “Inner Journeys.” Several images of Orthodox priests from African Ark appear at the beginning of this chapter. All of the images of “civilized” relig ions appear at the beginning (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, 140-151), while all other kinds of “inner journeys” follow: Himba possessions, 152-157; Ewe “voodoo healing hospitals,” 158-161; Ashanti possession, 162-165; more Ewe “voodoo,” 166-167; the Amhara woman being sprayed by an Orthodox priest, also a possession, 168-169; and to end the chapter, one more image of a Ewe man practicing “voodoo,” 70-171. Although she is being sprayed by an Orthodox priest in “what seemed like a normal Christian church service,” the Amhara woman appears late in the chapter, sandwiched in between imag es “voodoo” rituals.

PAGE 95

82 posed, frontal portrait of Aba Wolde shown on the left; the image of the young Amhara woman shown on the right appears to have b een captured with her unaware, incapacitated by her own spiritual suffering. Aesthetic and technical decisions are not the only repres entational choices photographers regularly make. The power to represent other people, particularly using verisimilar media such as photography and f ilm, comes with certain ethical and moral responsibilities that cannot be totally subverted through arti stic or even objective, documentary consideration. Even when human subjects in photographs are not given names, their bodies are lasting impressions of their presence as individuals; they are visible signs of human subjectivity. The image of the Amhara woman is very difficult to look at. Her obvious agony and apparent vu lnerability invite viewing subjects to empathize with her, to emotionally respond to her and view her as an individual; yet, For Beckwith and Fisher, the fact that the woma n is “possessed” is what makes the event “authentic” and worth photographing. Like the postcard showing Algerian women “drinking coffee” discussed above, it is the “ritual”—in this case, an exorcism—that claims to justify the viewer’s engagement w ith the scene. The Amhara woman is cast as an anonymous actor, un-knowingly staging her own “authenticity,” while her individual subjectivity is relegate d to the periphery. The concept of “authenticity” has been thoroughly unpacked by several Africanist scholars in discussions of what is commonly referred to as “tourist art.”44 These studies 44 See Ruth Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner, eds., Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); Sydney Kasfir, “Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher Steiner (Berkele y: University of California Press, 1999): 67-83; Christopher B. Steiner, “Authenticity, Repetition, and th e Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher Steiner (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) 87-103;

PAGE 96

83 examine how an object’s “authenticity” is c onstantly being redefined by the way people respond to and interact with th e objects—especially in the marketplace. As far as the African art market goes, “authen ticity” is usually de ployed as a standard for measuring an object’s value.45 This is, or course, nothing new. Walter Benjamin, in his study of the affects of mechanical reproducti on on artistic practice, argue d that the “aura” of art—its quality of uniqueness—declines when objects are mass produced; this dissemination, he later wrote, shifts the definiti on of “authenticity” away from the object itself, and into the realm of the political, into the arenas wh ere meaning is constantly being negotiated.46 It is important to note, however, that “judgme nts concerning authenticity are not limited to works of art; people, cultures and prac tices may also be deemed authentic or inauthentic.”47 In photographs of real people, the concep t of “authenticity” changes: a human subject’s unique “aura”—thei r subjectivity—is always pres ent regardless of how many times the picture is reproduced. In Beckw ith and Fisher’s work, the subjectivity or “aura” of the individual is always subjugated to the “authenticity” of the role they fulfill in the photograph. In other wo rds, Beckwith and Fisher’s su bjects are cast as actors, not people.48 Christopher B. Steiner, African Art in Transit Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994; and chapters three and four in Victoria L. Rovine, Bogolan: Shaping Culture through Cloth in Contemporary Mali (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001). 45 Rovine, Bogolan 31. 46 Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility,” in Selected Writings vol. 3. Ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 101133. 47 Rovine, Bogolan 30. 48 For Benjamin, the role of the human subject as actor in film does no t retain the same “beckoning aura” he finds in portrait photography. He attributes this to the actor’s knowledge of his audience: “While [the

PAGE 97

84 “Authentic” people, cultures and practices are the focus of Beckwith and Fisher’s two volume masterwork, African Ceremonies Most of the images portray anonymous human subjects; like the “young women possessed by a Zar spirit,” thei r “authenticity” is defined and limited by their pa rticipation in the “ritua ls” and “ceremonies” being depicted. Published in 1999, the book cont ains 744 pages, 850 photographs, costs $150, weighs 15.5 pounds and “documents” 43 “ceremonies ” in 26 African countries. In the introduction, Fisher and Beckwith write: As we have come to admire the beauty, st rength, and vitality of Africa’s people and traditions, we have also realized how vulnerable many of these cultures have become…Some groups we visited a d ecade ago have now disappeared, and Western ways are eroding the belief syst ems of many cultures. Concerned that these traditions are in imminent danger of being lost, we embarked on this project to document these vanishing ways of life and cr eate a visual record for future generations.49 Though they clearly state that the book is intended to be documentary, Fisher and Beckwith maintain that they “approached the pr oject not as anthropolog ists but as artists, following [their] creative spirits.”50 The book has received mixed reviews. So me of the photographs make audiences uncomfortable, or, make them question the relationship between th e photographers and their subjects. For instance, in his review of African Ceremonies for the New York Times Anthony Appiah asks, “What did it take…to pe rsuade Masai [sic] and Taneka men…to allow a foreign woman to photograph the mome nt of their circumci sion, their transition actor] stands before the apparatus, he knows that in the end he is confronting the masses. It is they who will control him.” See Walter Benjamin,”The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducability,” 112. In Beckwith and Fisher’s photographs, it is Beckwith and Fisher who are “confronting the masses” that they know will “control”—and of course, consume—their images. 49 Beckwith and Fisher. African Ceremonies v. 1, 12. 50 Ibid.

PAGE 98

85 to manhood?”51 Another set of problematic im ages are the photographs of a young Maasai girl undergoing a pain ful excision surgery without any anesthesia. Like the torment apparent on the face of the drenched Amhara woman in Faces of Africa and on the faces of the Maasai and Taneka initiat es, the Maasai girl’s agony is forcefully tangible. The caption for a dark, fuzzy close-up of her face reads: “As the cutting processes the girl screams in pain and app eals to her relatives to let her go, but they continue to hold her down, be lieving that the procedure is being performed in her own best interests…” (figure 3.13).52 A slightly smaller photograph appears above the close-up shot, and here, the viewer sees the girl being cut, but also looks at se veral of her relatives who gaze at her writhing body bearing wide, joyful smiles (figure 3.14) Western viewers ca nnot approach this image without bringing their own subjectivity to bear on their interpre tation; in a culture where excision is not practiced, it is no w onder that these photographs can be read as cruel. This example illuminates the slippery process of intercultural representation—no matter how much the image generates an empa thetic response, it cannot be assumed that the photograph means the same thing to Maasai and Western audiences. These disturbing photographs also raise anothe r issue: is this still art, and is it appropriate to put this kind of imagery on di splay? The intersecti on of photography, art, and life is indeed precari ous and has occupied much of the discourse surrounding 51 K. Anthony Appiah. “The Rite Stuff,” New York Times Book Review (December 5, 1999): 13. Interestingly, another line from Appiah’s article is us ed to advertise the book on Beckwith and Fisher’s website. It reads: “These are sumptuous photographs …a visual feast…and they reflect the photographer’s gift for gaining the trust of their subjects and the reciprocal generosity of African men and women.” The line appears at the beginning of Appiah’s review, before he launches into a critique of Ceremonies On Beckwith and Fisher’s website, the quote is attributed to “The New York Times Book Review.” See < http://www.africanceremonies.com/index.html > Last accessed June 2005. 52 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ceremonies v. 1, 89.

PAGE 99

86 photographs of real people.53 In September, 2004, twin e xhibitions titled “Inconvenient Evidence: Iraqi Prison Photographs from A bu Ghraib” were shown simultaneously at the Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh and the Manhattan International Center for Photography in New York.54 The now infamous Abu Ghraib photos were taken by United States soldiers stationed in Iraq and portray the soldiers abus ing, humiliating, and torturing several Iraqi detainees being held at the Abu Ghraib pr ison. Putting these difficult images on public display intensifies th e tacit and inescapable anxiety of looking at human suffering. In her scathing condemnation of the Abu Ghraib phenomenon (not the exhibit) Susan Sontag writes that rather than deal w ith the “complex crimes” the pictures depict, “the Bush administration and its defenders…s ought to limit…the dissemination of the photographs” and refused to address the word “torture.”55 “The administration’s initial response was to say that the president was shocked and di sgusted by the photographs—as if the fault or horror lay in the images, not in what they depict.”56 In effect, Sontag argues, this “displaces reality” onto the imag es themselves—and allows the subjectivity of both the American sold iers and the Iraqi prisoners to be overlooked. 53 For the relationship of the body to photography, see Alan Sekula, “The Body and the Archive,” October 39 (Winter 1986): 3-64; Laura Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure and the Narrative Cinema,” in Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation ed. Brian Wallis (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984): 361-373; and John Pultz, The Body and The Lens: Photography 1839-to the Present (New York: Abrams, 1995). 54 There was a significant difference between the two shows—at the Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, the Abu Ghraib pictures were exhibited along with photos depicting atrocities committed by the other side. Apparently this was done to lesson the blow of the harsh show in Pittsburgh, which is near the hometowns of several of the U.S. soldiers depicted in the in criminating imagery. See Paul Lieberman, “Putting Brutality on Display,” Los Angeles Times (September 17, 2004): E1. 55 Susan Sontag, “Regarding the Torture of Others,” New York Times Magazine (May 23, 2004): 25. 56 Ibid.

PAGE 100

87 This abused subjectivity is precisely what the curators at the Warhol Museum and the International Center for Photography br ing to the foreground by re-presenting the images to the American public. Yet, the cura tors (and Sontag) were not just questioning the subjectivity of the photogr aphers and their subjects, th ey are also questioning the subjectivity of the American public that cons umed—i.e. looked at on T.V., the web, or in an e-mail from a friend or loved one—the A bu Ghraib pictures by looking at them and showing them to others. The two exhibitions also highlight the implicit power imbalance of most photographic encounters. In the exhi bition brochure, Seymour M. Hersh points out that not only are the Iraqi prisoners being tortured, the photographic act was “part of the dehumanizing interrogation process” beca use the prisoners knew they were being photographed.57 The Abu Ghraib prison photographs represen t suffering inflicted as torture, while Beckwith and Fisher’s harsh representati ons of Maasai circ umcision and excision ceremonies portray suffering in the name of “tra dition.” Neither set of pictures is easy to view, yet it would be unfair and incredibly dangerous to say that the conditions of representation were the same: the Maasai gi rl who is being operated on is not being “tortured” by her smiling relatives and their intentions are neither malicious nor cruel. Similarly, the priest who administers trea tment to the “young woman possessed by a Zar spirit,” as well as her three male attendants, wish to help the possessed woman, not do her harm. It is important to note, therefore, th at unlike the Abu Ghraib pictures, in Beckwith 57 Hersh is quoted in Lieberman, “Putting Brutality on Display,” E1. The exhibition brochure essay was written by Brian Wallis, director of exhibitions at th e International Center of Photography and Seymour M. Hersh of the The New Yorker

PAGE 101

88 and Fisher’s photographs, the tension that aris es from viewing the images is a product of the photographic and viewing encounter, not of the photographed event. Beckwith and Fisher’s Ethiopia in Context Beckwith and Fisher’s work is difficult to categorize; part ar t, part documentary, part journalism, part tourist souvenir, a nd, according to one reviewer, part “egregious kitsch,” their photographs do not settle ea sily into any one discursive framework.58 When Beckwith first decided to switch fr om painting to photogr aphy, she “went to New York, with the thought of finding a gallery for [her photographs],” however, she took a friend’s advice and decided to do a book instead.59 Beckwith and Fisher’s books are similar to exhibitions: th e photographs are shown groupe d together, in sequence, accompanied by brief explanatory text. Like an exhibition, their books put the photographs on display; and like curators, Beckw ith and Fisher are cultural brokers; they are translators, mediators and brazen purveyor s of “authentic” and “traditional” African culture. The text for African Ark was written by Graham Hancock, whose own work, like Beckwith and Fisher’s, focuses on the “vanishing cultures” of the world. In the preface to the book, Beckwith, Fisher, and Hancock together write: The Horn of Africa has drawn us to it fo r nearly two decades, exerting a special magnetism that has brought us back to it again and again. Maybe this attraction stems from the fact that much of the Horn is wild in a way that few parts of Africa can claim to be, and thus still free in spirit….Cut off from the wider world…the ancient cultures of the region have retained their diversity unadulterated by Western influences ….Vast and remote, the Horn of Afri ca is an Ark that shelters an 58 Ken Johnson, “Images of Tribal Africa, In a Hollywood Style,” New York Times Late Edition, East Coast (August 25, 2000): E.2. Johnson is referring to the exhibition of their photographs titled “Passages” which traveled the country following the release of African Ceremonies in 1999. Johnson’s review discusses the show as it was exhibited at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. 59 Beckwith, “An Interview with Carol Beckwith,” 38.

PAGE 102

89 astonishing variety of human societies: from the ancient and highly sophisticated to the remote, simple and untouched ….In trying to capture the spirit of this extraordinary region we hope that we have made some contribution towards preserving it.60 Throughout the book, Graham’s insipid, heavil y-romanticized narration draws a sharp contrast between the “ancient and highly sophisticated” Chri stian and Jewish cultures of the highlands, and the “remote, simple a nd untouched” cultures of the south and the “gaunt and leopard colored” interior. This essentialist dichotomy is routed thr ough centuries of European representations of Abyssinians as civilized, respectable near-equals and thiopians as savage and naively child-like barbarians. I investigated this division at length in the first chapter, where I discussed how certain perceptions of Africa generated by the West became embedded in historical documents such as maps and printed illustrations in antique texts. This over-simplification of the peoples of the Horn and Ethiopia is problematized further in African Ark by Beckwith, Fisher, and Graham’s representation of the Horn as a “wild place,” still “free in spirit” where ancient cultures survive “unadulterated by the Western world.” This type of language is characteristi c of the woeful preservationist rhetoric that permeates far too many representations of Africa in Western popular culture. Beckwith and Fisher’s books read like a eulogy for a dying land; and the photographers, who have cast themselves as savi ors, resolutely insist that by capturing these people and practices on film, they are “making a record” which will preserve these endangered practices and cultures “for future generations of African children, as well as 60 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 9, emphasis mine.

PAGE 103

90 for the education, knowledge, and unde rstanding of the outside world. .”61 In an interview conducted by David Braun for National Geographic News in 2004 Beckwith states: “We believe about 15 percent of the ceremonies we have photographed no longer exist.”62 Another glaring example comes from Ange la Fisher’s introduction to her first book, Africa Adorned She writes: During seven years of traveling in Africa to research this bo ok, I was constantly aware that many traditions—including some outstanding styles of jewelry and dress—were rapidly becoming rarer or had already disappeared…On successive visits to the isolated Dink a people in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, I noticed that in a matter of months these proud nomads, traditionally naked except for a covering of ash and body beads, had, lik e many others on the continent, begun to wear synthetic headscarves, motif T-shirts, and even platform-heel shoes.63 By “implying that the adaptation of Western-st yle garb constitutes a failure, a breach in the vigilance of ‘traditional’ people,” Vict oria Rovine points out, Fisher denies her subjects any agency to blend local and non-local styles as they see fit.64 Rovine discusses several examples of how Western clothing is often negotiated into and subverted by African systems of fashion; rather than constituting a “b reach in vigilance,” these instances reflect the dynamic complexity a nd adaptability of African fashions and traditions.65 61 Angela Fisher, quoted in David Braun, “ Faces of Africa photographers on Their 30-year Endeavor,” National Geographic News (October 20, 2004): < http://news.nationalg eographic.com/news/2004/10/ 1020_041020_afri ca_faces.html > Last accessed March 2005. 62 Carol Beckwith, quoted in Ibid. 63 Angela Fisher, Africa Adorned (New York: Abrams, 1984): 9-10. 64 Rovine, Bogolan 97. 65 Ibid. Perri Klemm reaches a similar conclusion in her study of Oromo wome n’s dress in the Eastern Hararghe region of Ethiopia. See Peri M. Klemm, Shaping the Future, Wearing the Past: Dress and the Decorated Female Body among the Afran Qallo Oromo in Eastern Hararghe Ethiopia (PhD Dissertation, Emory University, 2002).

PAGE 104

91 Beckwith and Fisher were in Ethiopia taking photographs for African Ark during the mid and late 1980’s, during the twilight of Mengistu’s generally oppressive dictatorial regime. Most images of Ethiopia in the West at this time depicted conflict, war, and famine; far from being the resilient, proud na tion that had beaten colonialism, Ethiopia emerged as a starving, war-torn catas trophe. It is impossible to view African Ark without considering that the nostalgic, idealistic a nd highly sentimental “vanishing” version of Ethiopia it presents was not only endorsed by the Derg government; members of the Ethiopian Tourism Commission were intima tely involved with the production of the book. In other words, the two were asked to use their lavish photographs to reverse Ethiopia’s tarnished image. Beckwith and Fisher’s photographs are some of the most famous professional images of Africa circ ulating in popular Western culture today, and Ethiopia is well represented in their oeuvre. Th e first epigraph at the beginnin g of this chapter is an apt summary of what I have shown: while produc ers (the photographers) and consumers (the viewer) may exert a stronge r agency by influencing the photograph’s form or by interpreting its meaning, the pr esence of the subject’s body—t heir undeniably existential subjectivity—allows “contemporary stories of contestable power [to be] told there …nonetheless.”66 Beckwith and Fisher’s images of Ethiopi a reflect only one aspect of a diverse nation with a long, proud, and complex history. Their Ethiopia is a “vanishing” one, full of beautiful, spiritual, and even “wild” people practicing an cient rituals handed down to them by their ancestors. This vision of Ethi opia is really no different from the way the 66 Ibid, 216.

PAGE 105

92 rest of Africa has come to be represente d in Western popular culture: according to National Geographic the Discovery Channel, PBS, Granada, many international tourist agencies and a slew of popular “coffee-table books” beginning with the phrase, “Last of the…;” the whole African continent—or at l east, anything still “authentically African” in Africa—is about to disappear. In the next chapter I will address how di fferently modern Ethiopia was viewed in the Western world in the years before the De rg overthrew the Imperial government. In 1936, while the rest of Africa was still in the midst of coloni al rule, Haile Selassie was named Time Magazine’ s “Man of the Year;” he was a respected member of the United Nations, as well as a powerful champion for the modernization of his own country and a voice calling for freedom of a ll African peoples worldwide. Beckwith and Fisher’s photographs of Ethiopia may represent th e most recent popular Western vision of Ethiopia, yet, during the greater part of the 20th century, the whole world knew Ethiopia primarily through the image of Emperor Haile Selassie.

PAGE 106

93 Figure 3.1 Ethiopian Orthodox Priest at a rock-hewn church in Lalibela. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 126)

PAGE 107

94 Figure 3.2 Suri men painting their bodies in preparation for Donga Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 281)

PAGE 108

95 Figure 3.3 Suri body painting. Photograph by Caro l Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher,. African Ark 283) Figure 3.4 Suri body painting. Photograph by Caro l Beckwith and Angela Fisher. (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 284)

PAGE 109

96 Figure 3.5 Suri woman wearing a lip-plate. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 248)

PAGE 110

97 Figure 3.6 Priest standing at the entrance of the maqdas (“holy of holies”) of the church of Ura Kidane Mehret on Lake Tana Photograph by Ca rol Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark, 56)

PAGE 111

98 Figure 3.7 Konso man. The caption reads:“For the Konso, wood and stone are the two most highly valued building materials. ” Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 212)

PAGE 112

99 Figure 3.8 (left and right) Konso man and Konso architecture. “Konso, Ethiopia: Right and Left: Using gnarled roots and bran ches, the Konso build their houses on stony mountain terrains, leavi ng the better land to be te rraced and cultivated.” Photography by Carol Beckwith and A ngela Fisher. (Beckwith and Fisher, Faces of Africa ,176-177)

PAGE 113

100 Figure 3.9 Hamar women. Photography by Carol B eckwith and Angela Fisher. In African Ark : “On the day after the “jumping of the bull ceremony,” women gather together, beautifully attired in their beaded skins and iron jewellery [sic]. Their hair is rubbed with fat in to small balls and covered with ochre. This hairstyle is frequently set off wi th aluminum plaques in the shape of ducks’ bills which project dramatically from the forehead. Courtship dances follow and continue for the following two days and night s.” (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark 244) In Faces of Africa : “Beautifully attired in their beaded skins and iron jewelry, Hamar girl s gather together to celebrate the Jumping of the Bull male initiation. Th eir hair is styled into small round pellets covered with ochre and perfum ed fat, and accentuated with a large aluminum plaque resembling the beak of a hornbill. Their iron neck torques and armlets are permanently fixed onto their bodies by the local blacksmith to proclaim their marital status .” (Beckwith and Fisher, Faces of Africa 240 and back cover.)

PAGE 114

101 Figure 3.10 Early 20th century postcard of Algerian women. The caption reads: “Algiers. Arab women having coffee.” (Alloula, The Colonial Harem 73)

PAGE 115

102 Figure 3.11 Young Konso woman. The caption reads: “In addition to working in the fields, a Konso woman’s everyday ac tivities include carrying fire-wood, grinding corn and caring for her children.” Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher. (Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark, 217)

PAGE 116

103 Figure 3.12 (right and left) Amhara woman and Orthodox priest. The caption reads: “Amhara, Ethiopia: Right and left: Priest Aba Wolde treats a young woman possessed by the Zar spirit.” Photogr aph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher. (Fisher and Beckwith, 2004: 168-169)

PAGE 117

104 Figure 3.13 Maasai girl undergoing painful excision. (Fisher and Beckwith, African Ceremonies 90) Figure 3.14 Maasai girl undergoing excisi on. (Fisher and Beckwith, African Ceremonies 90)

PAGE 118

105 CHAPTER 4 VISIONS OF POWER: THE IMAGE OF EMPEROR HAILE SELASSIE I Culture is contested, tempor al and emergent. Representation and explanationboth by insiders and outsidersis implicated in this emergence (Clifford, 1986: 19) Until the color of a mans skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyesWe Africans will fight(Haile Selassie to the United Nations, October 6, 1963)1 In chapter three, I discussed Carol Beckw ith and Angela Fishe rs photographs of Ethiopia, most of which were produced at the invitation of th e Ethiopian Tourism Commission in the mid 1980s. At a time when the Western news media was flooded with devastating imagery of one of the worst fa mines in Ethiopian history, Beckwith and Fisher created a nostalg ic, idealistic, and highly marketable vision of Ethiopia unspoiled by the plight of the poor and hungry, and untainted by the modern Western world. Images of famine had been a large part of Ethiopias Western reputation since 1973, when British journalist Jonathon Dimblebly produced his devastating documentary The Hidden Famine about the millions of starving pe ople in Ethiopias Wallo province. On September 11th, 1974, Haile Selassies opponents screened Dimblebys film on Ethiopian national T.V., splic ed with scenes of imperial banquets and other palace luxuries. Haile Selassie was deposed the fo llowing day. Prior to his overthrow, however, Haile Selassies image was the primary symbol of Ethiopia circulating in the modern Western world. 1 The speech is reproduced in it s entirety in Lance Seunarine, The Lion Roars: Selected Speeches and Letters of Haile Selassie (New York: Trican, 1998). It is also worth noting that Bob Marley and the Wailers set this famous speech to music in their 1976 hit song War.

PAGE 119

106 In this final chapter, my discussion is structured around the image of Emperor Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie intentionally us ed his likeness as a tool of diplomacy, a means of generating and communicating power. In addition to his frequent appearance in the Western popular media, Selassie had numer ous formal portraits made throughout his lifetime, which were reproduced in large qua ntities and distributed internationally. Because images of Selassie were and are so prolific, they provide a useful platform for addressing the diverse personali ties his photograph acquires in specific viewing contexts. The Image of Selassie in the Western Media Tafari Makonnen was crowned Emperor Ha ile Selassie I on November 2, 1930 in the largest coronation ceremony in Ethiopia’s history.2 The event was big news in Ethiopia, as well as in the West, where photographs of the new Emperor and his wife Empress Menen were featured in popular periodicals such as Le Miroir du Monde and L’Illustration in France, The Illustrated London News in Britain, and National Geographic and Time Magazine in the United States (figures 4.1-4.5). Hundreds of journalists and diplomats from Europe a nd the United States attended the hugely publicized event. Ethiopia had never been more popular. For African Americans and other black pe ople living in the di aspora, Selassie’s coronation was a powerful metaphor for black solidarity and pride. Here was a black African man wearing a golden crown and s eated on a throne, with hundreds of white Europeans—including several members of va rious European royal families—paying their respects to his sovereignty (figure 4.6). For many white Europeans and Americans, 2 Most sources usually indicate that prior to his coronatio n in 1930, Tafari bore the title of Ras, or Prince. In fact, Tafari had been promoted from Ras to Negus, or King in 1928. Although Tafari was more prominent politically, at home and abroad, the actual ru ler of Ethiopia from 1916 until her death in 1930 was Empress Zawditu, a daughter of Menelik II.

PAGE 120

107 however, the coronation symbolized an entirely different concept; rather than marking a momentous event in the modern history of black empowerment, the event served to affirm the creeping belief that Ethiopians were not “real” Africans. During the coronation, writes Fikru Negash Gebrekidan, “the hundreds of white dignitaries in Addis Ababa could seek consolation in the Caucasoi d image of Ethiopia to convince themselves that their host, although swarthy in complexion, wa s not a black African.”3 There was a great deal of tension in the Western world during the early 20th century over how to classify Ethiopians. They were “Negros” and “brothers” to many black people living in Diaspora; yet many white pe ople, particularly proponents of what has come to be known as Social Darwinism, resolu tely insisted that at least some Ethiopians were “Caucasian.”4 The debate was strongest in areas where the ideological separation of blacks and whites was matched in social practic es and institutional structures, such as it was during the segregation-era in the United States. For example, in 1919, Ethiopia sent a “goodwill mission” to Belgium, England, France, and the US “to congratulate [t hem] on their success in the war.”5 “The AfricanAmerican press gave good coverage to the de legation,” writes Joseph Harris: “It was of course a rare opportunity for Af rican Americans to identify with official representatives 3 Fikru Gebrekidan, Bond Without Blood: A History of Ethiopian and New World Black Relations 18961991, (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005). 4 See Harold Marcus, “The Black Men Who Turned White: European Attitudes towards Ethiopians, 18501900,” Archiv Orientln 39 (1971); and Joseph E. Harris, African-American Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 1936-1941 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994). Harris quotes C.G. Seligman, an English anthropologist who later lived in Germany, who wrote that the Hamites “belong to the same great branch of mankind as the Whites.” Harris states that “such an idea allowed European scholars and writers to characterize Ethiopians as the cultural link betwee n themselves and the non-Hamitic Africans,” (1-3). 5 Joseph Harris, African American Reactions to War in Ethiopia 3. The delegation consisted of Dejazmach (“commander of the gate,” a political title just below Ra s similar to the English “count”)Nadeo, the nephew of Empress Zawditu; Ato (“Sir,” now “Mr.”) Sinkaw; Ato Hirouy; and Kantiba Gahrou, who spoke English and acted as interpreter.

PAGE 121

108 of an independent African country.”6 While the delegation was, for the most part, “treated like white men,” on August 8, 1919, the National Democratic Club on 5th Street in New York City refused to let them enter to dine.7 Despite the Democratic Club’s denial of the allegations, several members re ported hearing the reti nue being told, “we’ll not have black men eating here.”8 While the event was certainly a source of contention for all parties involved, it di d have the affect of “eradi cating the notion of racial difference between African-Americans and Et hiopians”—at least in the United States.9 African-American sentiments towards Et hiopia as a symbol of black nationhood were strengthened significantly during the It alo-Ethiopian War. In 1934, just prior to Mussollini’s invasion of Ethi opia, a group of Africans and African-Americans living in Washington D.C. organized the Ethiopian Rese arch Council to “disseminate information on the history, civilization, and diplomatic re lations of Ethiopia in ancient and modern times.”10 The organization had a tremendous imp act on African-American awareness of Ethiopia and Ethiopi an history. The council received and answered numerous queries regarding Ethiopian politics, and society, as well as education, population and military statistics. There were also 6 Ibid, 4. 7 Chicago Defender July 19, 1919. 8 Just prior to the incident, the leader of the delega tion, Dejazmach Nadeo, was interviewed in his suite at the Waldorf-Astoria by R.D. Jonas of th e International League of Black Races.8 Jonas asked Nadeo what “his people” thought about lynchings in the U.S. Nadeo answered that “[Ethiopians] dislike brutality, burning at the stake, lynching of any nature, and other outrages heaped upon your [Jonas’] people.” Jonas then asked him if the Ethiopians considered themselves to be black men, to which Nadeo replied, “We are, but not like American Bl ack men. We are treated like white men.” 9 Harris, African American Reactions to War in Ethiopia 5. 10 Ethiopian Research Council, Memorandum, Washington, nd. Quoted in Joseph Harris, African American Reactions to War in Ethiopia 20.

PAGE 122

109 “innumerable requests for Ethiopian flags and photographs of the emperor.”11 During the war, these items were sold (a map cost 15 cen ts) to raise money for the Ethiopian cause at meetings of the NAACP and the UNIA, “as well as door to door and on the street.”12 The Council produced their own maps, while the photographs were supplied—and autographed—by Emperor Haile Selassie himself (figure 4.7). Haile Selassie’s image appeared frequen tly in the Western media during the war and subsequent Italian o ccupation (figures 4.8-4.13).13 Two months prior to the Italian invasion, as Mussolini’s armies were amassi ng along the Eritrean-Ethiopian border in preparation for their impending attack, the New York Times published a concocted face off between a smug Benito Mussolini and a fi ve-year old formal portrait of Selassie, shown in full coronation regalia (figure 4.8) One of the most noteworthy images published during the Italo-Ethiopian war time period appeared on the front cover of the January 11, 1936 issue of The Illustrated London News (figure 4.9). The photograph shows Selassie posing with his left foot atop an unexploded Italia n gas bomb. Although it was printed in London, the picture did circul ate in the Western Atlantic world, where it 11 Ibid, 26. 12 Ibid. 13 For a detailed description of the war, see Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1998). The Italo-Ethiopian war officially began in October 1935. A young Italian pilot, reportedly Mussolini’s own son-in-law, dropped one of the first bombs at Adwa “in symbolic revenge for their compatriot’s defeat there forty years earlie r,” (226) Technologically, Ethiopia was ill prepared for the battle that ensued. After seven long months of being bombarded incessantly by mustard gas, the sorely depleted Ethiopian army realized def eat was near. On May 2, Selassie and his family fled the country. The Italians marched into the capital three days later and triumphantly declared: “Ethiopia is Italian.” Italian occupation lasted until 1941. See also Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1991, 2nd edition (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2001). 13

PAGE 123

110 had a profound impact on black people and wh ite people alike who sympathized with the Ethiopia’s struggle against Italian fascism.14 The Western world’s empathetic response to the Italo Ethiopian war resulted in Selassie’s second appearance on the cover of Time Magazine in January 1936, when subscribers voted him 1935’s “Man of the Year .” The text in the accompanying article lends credence to Gebrekidan’s claim that Haile Selassie and Et hiopia were perceived quite differently by black and white West ern audiences. The text reads: King of Kings In 1935 there was just one man who rose out of murky obscurity and carried his country with him up & up into brilliant focus before a pop-eyed world…Haile Selassie has created a ge neral, warm and blind sympathy for uncivilized Ethiopia throughout civilized Christendom In the wake of the world’s grandiose Depression, with millions of white men uncertain as to the benefits of civilization, 1935 produced a peculi ar Spirit of the Year in which it was felt to be a crying shame that the Machine Age seemed about to intrude upon Africa’s last free, unscathed and simple people. They were ipso facto Nobl e Savages, and the noblest of them all naturally emerge d as the Man of the Year. (my emphasis)15 Later in the article, Selassie is described as a “businessman” with “a grasp of both savage and diplomatic mentality.” World War II put an abrupt end to Western interest in Ethiopia, as Europeans and Americans alike became far more absorbed in their own national predicaments. Thus, Haile Selassie is virtually absent from th e Western media from 1941 until the 1950s when he once again became a focal point of world attention. The revived interest was largely due to Selassie’s involvement with indepe ndence movements elsewhere in Africa, which culminated in the establishment of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa 14 The image was especially powerful in Jamaica, where it was viewed by the Rastafari—a group of people who, following Selassie’s 1930 coronation, hailed Selassie as the returned messiah and a living god—as “one more sign of the emperor’s invincibility, a testam ent to his natural powers over man-made weaponry.” Gebrekidan, Bond Without Blood 61. The Rastafari are discussed in greater detail below. 15 “Ethiopia: Man of the Year,” Time Magazine 27 no. 1 (January 6, 1936).

PAGE 124

111 (ECA) in 1958 and the Organi zation of African Unity ( OAU) in 1963, both of which established their permanent headquarters in Addis Ababa.16 From 1950 until 1974, images of Haile Selassie appeared in eight issues of the German magazine Bunte Illustrierte ; three times each in Der Speigel (figure 4.14), Frau im Spiegel and Stern ; once in Film und Frau and Frankfurter Illustrierte ; and even once in a German issue of a Mickey Mouse comic themed “The Oldest Kingdom in the World.” During the same time frame in Italy, Selassie was featured in five issues of Epoca (figure 4.15), two of L’Europeo and once each in Oggi and Storia Illustrata The Illustrated London News published two more issues with Selassie on the cover, one in 1965 and another in 1966. In France, Haile Selassie appeared once in Paris Match and three times in Point de Vue: Images du Monde ; and in Norway, he was featured on the November 19, 1954 issue of Se Finally, in the United Stat es, Haile Selassie photos were published once in Business Week Jet and Hue and in seven issues of Life three issues of Ebony and one edition of National Geographic .17 16 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians, 26217 Sources with an asterisk featured a photog raph of Haile Selassie on the front cover. Bunte Illustrierte (August 22, 1959), (January 7, 1961), (January 14, 1961), (March 3, 1968*), (November 20, 1968), (February 26, 1969*), (December 15, 1970) and (March 1, 1973*); Der Spiegel (November 10, 1954*), (January 4, 1961) and (November 2, 1965); Frau im Spiegel 27 no. 45 (October 29, 1972), 27 no. 49 (November 26, 1972), and 27 no. 51 (December 10, 1972): Stern 18 no. 8 (February 21, 1965), 18 no. 9 (February 28, 1965), and 27 no. 39 (September 19, 1974); Film und Frau 26 no. 9 (October/November 1957); Frankfurter Illustrierte (April 25, 1959*); Micky Maus (May 15, 1971); Epoca 0534 (December 25, 1960*), 0535 (January 1, 1961), 0787 (October 24, 1965), 1051 (November 15, 1970), and 1224 (Marcch 17, 1974); L’Europeo 1007 (February 21, 1965), and 1383 (June 15, 1962); Oggi 21 no. 17 (April 29, 1965); Storia Illustrata no. 182 (January 1973); The Illustrated London News 246 no. 6550 (February 13, 1965*), and 249 no. 6631 (September 3, 1966); Paris Match no. 293 (November 13, 1954); Point de Vue: Images du Monde (November 4, 1954), (January 31, 1969*), and (November 11, 1972); Se 47 (November 19, 1954*); Business Week (May 29, 1954); Jet (October 2, 1952); Hue (January 1954); Life 34 no. 18 (May 4, 1953), 36 no. 24 (June 14, 1954), 39 no. 21 (November 21, 1955), 55 no. 16 (October 18, 1963), 55 no. 23 (December 6, 1963); 58 no. 7 (February 19, 1965), and 71 no. 18 (October 29, 1971); Ebony 6 no. 1 (November 1950*), 9 no.8 (June 1954), and 19 no. 2 (December 1963); and National Geographic 127 no. 4 (April 1965). This is not intended to be an exhaustive list. I would like to thank BenGee of Ababajanhoy.com (a Haile Selassie collectible vendor) in Germany for providing me with the majority of this information.

PAGE 125

112 Haile Selassie died in 1975, eleven m onths after being deposed by the Derg military junta in September 1974. In the 1980s, when images of starving women and children flooded the internationa l press, Ethiopia was viewed primarily as a pity case and quickly became the quintessentia l signifier of the “third worl d” (figures 4.16-4.17) When the famine ended, the border wars with Eritrea supplied a new succession of negative images that continued to shape Western perceptions of Ethiopia.18 In mainstream Western culture, Haile Selassie was esse ntially forgotten. Today, however, Haile Selassie’s image is once again a common sight. Si nce at least the late 1970’s, pictures of Selassie have been mobilized on a large soci al scale by an international group of people known as the Rastafari. Through their revi talization of his image—both visually and ideologically—Haile Selassie has been grante d a second life in the popular world view. Selassie as the Chapel “Haile Selassie is the Chapel Power of the Trinity Build your mind on this direction Serve the living God and live Take your troubles to Selassie He is the only King of Kings Conquering lion of Judah Triumphantly we all must sing I search and I sear ch this book of life In the Revelation look what I find Haile Selassie is the chapel All the world should know That man is the angel And our God, the King of Kings.” (Bob Marley and the Wailers, Selassie is the Chapel 1968)19 18 See Edmond J. Keller, “Drought, War, and th e Politics of Famine in Ethiopia and Eritrea,” The Journal of Modern African Studies 30 no. 4 (December 1992): 609-624. 19 My transcription. Bob Marley and the Wailers recorded “Selassie is the Chapel” on June 8th, 1968 at JBC studios in Kingston, Jamaica. Only 26 copies of the original single were pressed, 12 of which were taken to Ethiopia by Bob Marley’s close friend, Jamaican so ccer star Allan Cole, as a gift for Emperor Haile Selassie I. The song was actually adapted from the coun try western “Crying in the Chapel” by Artie Glenn. Several versions of the song were in circulation around the time Rasta elder Mortimo Planno wrote the

PAGE 126

113 Rastafarianism originated as a Black Na tionalist religious movement among poor maroon communities in rural Jamaica. En couraged by the “teachings” of Marcus Garvey, they perceived Haile Selassie’s cor onation as fulfillment of biblical prophecy and by 1933 many had begun to hail Selassie as the Living God, the returned Messiah who had finally come to release the black ma n from the bonds of white society and lead him back to Zion—which they equated with Ethiopia.20 Today the Rastafari, or Rastas as they are more commonly known, are encount ered all over the wo rld. Although it has remained a fundamentally patriarchal moveme nt, Rastafarianism is no longer closed to white believers.21 Contemporary adherents “promote love and respect for all living things” and membership—if it can even be defined as such—is open to all.22 Repatriation, once a tenant of Rastafari cree d, is also downplayed in modern expressions of the faith, though Ethiopia is still c onsidered the spiritual homeland. lyrics for the Wailers’ adaptation; Rex Allen had made the song a country western hit, there was a doo-wop version by Sonny Till and the Orioles, and in 1965, El vis Presley topped the charts in the UK with his gospel-infused rendition of the song. Planno was more th an likely most familiar with Elvis’s version, but country music was also very popular in Jamaica during the 1960s. Selassie is the Chapel disc 2 of The Complete Wailers 1967-1972 Part 1 Ontario: Koch International and JAD Records, 1998. 20 See Jabulani I. Tafari, A Rastafari View of Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Patriarch, Prophet, Philosopher (Jamaica: Great Company, 1996). When Tafari was crowned Emperor Haile Selassie I, he took the title “King of Kings, Lord of Lords, the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah.” The bible verse most frequently cited in efforts to “prove” Haile Selassie’s di vinity is Revelations (5: 2-5): “And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof? And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon. And I wept much, because no man was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.” Other popular verses are Revelations (17:14), (19:16), and (22:16). 21 Leonard Howell, considered by ma ny to be the founder of the Rastafari movement, adamantly promoted hatred of all white people. See Jabulani I. Tafari, A Rastafari View of Marcus Mosiah Garvey. 22 Neil J. Savishinsky, “Rastafari in the Promised Land: The Spread of a Jamaican Socioreligious Movement among the Youth of West Africa,” African Studies Review 37 no.3 (December 1994): 19.

PAGE 127

114 Neil Savishinsky, in his study of Rastafari in West Africa writes that until recently Rastafarianism “[drew] its largest and most committed following from among those whose indigenous culture has been suppresse d;” he posits that it functioned as an “ideological correctiv e” for young “people of color the world over,” who felt that years of systematic oppression23 of black culture in Western society left them disconnected from their African heritage.24 In his book Bond without Blood Fikru Negash Gebrekidan makes a similar claim, stating that in the “E thiopianist” tradition, Rastafarians “find a blueprint for self-revitalization.”25 A large part of this “self -revitalization” is enacted through the construction of a personal image that marks the adherent as a Rastafarian to his/herself and to others. Outwardly, via the medium of the body, this im age is heralded by dreadlocked coiffures; green, yellow, and red attire or adornments; and with t-sh irts and other wearable or portable items bearing emblems such as li ons, maps of Africa or Ethiopia, Marcus Garvey, Bob Marley, and, of course, Haile Selassie (figure 4.18-4.19). These same symbols frequently appear in interior spaces, such the home, where they serve to visually enhance the space and function as visual reminde rs of faith. In addition, businesses of all types will often display Rastaf ari insignia in much the same way as individuals, inserting 23 Oppression would be “ down pression” in current Rasta terminology. Rastafarians change words if they don’t feel the form and meaning have a justifiabl e relationship. In the aforementioned example, phonetically, “oppression” sounds like “ up pression.” Since “up” is good, and “oppression” is bad, it is simply changed to “ down pression.” Similary, “ under standing” becomes “ over standing;” “dedicated” ( dead icated) becomes “livicated” ( live icated)—which resulted in a ne w word, “livity”; and “library” becomes “ truth brary.” The first two examples are extremely common in Eng lish speaking countries, and have been since the 1970s. The latter example—“truthbrary” was used by Jim Marshall, a Los Angeles based Rastafari and collector (discussed below), in a personal communication (June 2005), and I do not know how widespread the term is in English speaking Rastafari communities. I would like to thank Nicholas Frech for directing my attention to this phenomenon. 24 Ibid, 19-20. 25 Fikru Negash Gebrekidan, Bond without Blood, 1.

PAGE 128

115 themselves into an ideological matrix while simultaneously attracting potential customers. Of course, not all who appear to be Rastafari actually are; ever since the 1970’s, when Bob Marley and the Wailers br ought the faith to the world through their music, the Rastafarian image has become extraordinarily fashionable. Consequently, images of Haile Selassie ar e ubiquitous in the market place. He appears on t-shirts, key chains, tote bags, bumper stickers and license plates, beach towels, necklaces, rings, and bracelets, posters postcards, books, air fresheners, and even boxing gloves (figures 4.20-4.21). There is also a healthy tr ade in “used” or second-hand Selassie items, such as stamps, paper curr ency, coins and medals, old magazines and newspaper articles, antique photographs, a nd other souvenir odds and ends like cigarbands (figure 4.22-23).26 According to Jim Marshall, or Jah Jim, a Rastafari from Los Angeles, California, there are as many uses of Haile Selassie’s image as there are individual Rastafari.27 Once mobilized by the Rastafari—in the marketplace, on the internet or in other Rasta-oriented publications, in the music industry, as well as on peoples’ bodies and in their homes and 26 These cigar bands are frequently available on e-bay, and from other vendors specializing in collector’s items. Cigar companies introduced decorative bands in the 19th century as a way to boost sales. Prominent political and military figures, men’s sports, and hunting scenes are all commonly found on the bands, which are still produced in some capacity today. For example, Felipe Gregorio (Alexandria, Virginia) produces a Ras Tafari cigar “made of Nicaraguan and Dominican filler, Dominican binder, and Cameroon wrapper.” An online advertisement for the cigars reads: “The ci gars come in two sizes, ‘Afrika’ and ‘Spliff’ which sell for $8.00 and $3.50 respectively…. The Ras Tafaris offer a glimpse at Ethiopian history ; the unique box bears a 16th century map of Africa on it, along with a reproduction of Haile Selassie's autograph.” My emphasis. < http://gosmokeshop.com/0299/brand2.htm > I would like to thank Jim Marshall, Ras Adam Simeon, and BenGee for directing my attention to the Felipe Gregorio cigars. (Personal communication May-June, 2005). 27 Among the Nyhabhingi, the most au thoritarian sect of the Rastafar i, images of Haile Selassie are typically placed on the altar of worship spaces. In the worship spaces of the Twelve Tribes, the most popular organized sect of Rastafari, murals of Selassie are frequently painted to “set the mood for worship.” It is important to note, however, that the images themselves are not worshipped. Ras Adam Simeon, personal communication, May-June 2005.

PAGE 129

116 social spaces—these images assume a ne w status and meaning; they become idiosyncratic or “singularized” representations of expressly Rastafarian beliefs (figures 4.18-4.25). When an object becomes “singularized,” it is possible to view it as an idiosyncratic entity that “accumulat[es] a specific biogr aphy, or set of biographies” as it “moves through different hands, contexts, and uses.”28 In recognition of this fact, Igor Kopytoff advocates an approach that recognizes the “cultural and cognitive” processes that endow different kinds of objects with meaning.29 Kopytoff’s methodology, which he calls “cultural biography,” is extremely useful for mapping the cumulative biography of singularized images such as the formal portraits of Haile Selassie’s coronation taken by his Armenian court photographer, Hagaz Boyadjian (figures 4.26-4.28). These images are among those most frequently adapted and modified to convey a message specific to Rastafari ideology (figures 4.29, 4.20 and 4.25). Like all photographs of human subjects, these images necessarily cont ain the “aura” of th e photographed subject, as well as the subjectivities of the photogra pher and subsequent modifier s and viewers, yet through their revitalization and wide dissemination by the Rastafari, Haigaz Boyadjian’s pictures of Selassie are host to a broadened ho rizon of semantic possibilities. 28 Arjun Appadurai, “Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value,” in Arjun Appadurai, ed., The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986): 34. Here, Appadurai is defining a key concept of Igor Kopytoff’s argument. 29 Igor Kopytoff, “The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization as Process,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective Ed. Arjun Appadurai (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986): 64-91.

PAGE 130

117 The “cultural biography” of imag es can also be utilized to illuminate the contingent social practices that are connected to, yet extend beyond the actual picture.30 For example, in a photograph of the 1967 Heads of State Conference in Kampala Uganda, which appears in the photography section of catalogue for the influential exhibition, The Short Century: Independence and Libera tion Movements in Africa 1945-1994 Haile Selassie is holding his hands in a position th at has come to be known in the Rastafari community as the “sign of th e heart” (figure 4.30). While I was conducting research for this section of my study, a n early identical image (and severa l other photographs of Haile Selassie with his hands in this position) was e-mailed to me by a German Rastafari named BenGee, following a request for inform ation about how Haile Selassie’s image is used which I had posted on several Rastaf ari web-based chat-groups (figure 4.31). To many Rastafari, the “sign of the heart” is a symbol of peace, unity, and love, and a powerful signifier of their faith (f igure 4.19, 4.32-4.33) BenGee also sent me a photograph of himself and Joseph Hill of th e Jamaican reggae group Culture, performing this particular gesture (figur e 4.33). He told me that th e sign of the heart is “a good example of how Rastafarian traditions are inspired by pictures of Haile Selassie.”31 30 For a comparable analysis of the way specific images are mobilized in widespre ad social situations, see Allen F. Roberts, and Mary Nooter Roberts, The Saint in the City (Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 2003). Roberts and Roberts discuss how a single image of Sheikh Amadou Bamba has developed into an icon of spirituality for the Mourid es, a Senaglese Sufi movement which is a mystical version of the Islamic faith. There are many importa nt similarities between the Mourides’ use of Bamba’s image and the Rastafari use of Selassi e’s picture, yet it is important to note that while the Mourides have developed their visual rhetoric based upon a single image of Bamba, the Rastafari employ numerous images of Selassie. Indeed, the abundance of Selassi e images and the different life moments they depict are integral to Rastafari ideology. 31 Personal communication, May 2005.

PAGE 131

118 Figure 4.1 Photograph of Haile Selassi e’s coronation, front cover of Le Miroir du Monde 37 (November 15, 1930).

PAGE 132

119 Figure 4.2 Haile Selassie’s co ronation, front cover of L’Illustration 4576 (November 15th 1930).

PAGE 133

120 Figure 4.3 Haile Selassie’s co ronation, front cover of The Illustrated London News (November 15, 1930).

PAGE 134

121 Figure 4.4 Haile Selassie’s cor onation. Photograph by George W. Moore. From a feature article in National Geographic Magazine 59 no.6 (June 1931). Figure 4.5 Emperor Haile Selass ie I on the cover of Time Magazine 16 no. 18 (November 3, 1930).

PAGE 135

122 Figure 4.6 Britain’s Duke of Glou cester arriving in Addis Ababa for the coronation ceremony. Collection of Alain Le Sear ’ch. (Pankhurst and Grard, Ethiopia Photographed, 72) Figure 4.7 Autographed portrait of Haile Selassie. From the collection of the MoorlandSpingarn Research Center Museum, Ho ward University. (Harris, AfricanAmerican Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 86)

PAGE 136

123 Figure 4.8 Benito Mussolini facing a coronation portrait of Haile Selassie, from the New York Times (August 4, 1935). Figure 4.9 Haile Selassie with his foot on an unexploded Italian gas bomb. Cover of The Illustrated London News (January 11, 1935).

PAGE 137

124 Figure 4.10 Haile Selassie and so ldiers on the cover of The Illustrated London News (April 11, 1936). Figure 4.11 Haile Selassie on the cover of The Illustrated London News (May 9, 1936).

PAGE 138

125 Figure 4.12 Haile Selassie on the cover of Newsweek (April 11, 1936) Figure 4.13 Haile Selassie on the cover of Time Magazine 27 no. 1 (January 6, 1936).

PAGE 139

126 Figure 4.14 Haile Selassie on front cover of Der Spiegel (Germany, November 11, 1954). Figure 4.15 Haile Selassie on the front cover of Epoca (Italy, December 25, 1960).

PAGE 140

127 Figure 4.16 Starving Ethiopian child a nd mother on the cover of Time Magazine (December 21, 1987). Figure 4.17 Starving Ethiopian woman. Photograph by Anthony Suau. Rolling Stone (August 15, 1985, 9).

PAGE 141

128 Figure 4.18 Rastafari wearing a necklace with a re d, yellow and green picture of Africa and a t-shirt bearing an image of Ras Ta fari (the picture th at is reproduced on the shirt was taken before 1930 when Tafari became Emperor Haile Selassie.) (Faristzaddi, Itations of Jamaica and I the Second Itation np)

PAGE 142

129 Figure 4.19 Dreadlocked Rastafari wearing a t-shirt bearing Haile Selassie’s image.. (Faristzaddi, Itations of Jamaica and I the Second Itation np) Figure 4.20 Tote bag with coronation image of Ha ile Selasse. Available at Zion Gates Reggae and Africentric [sic] Shop. (< http://www.ziongates.com >)

PAGE 143

130 Figure 4.21 “Jah is my co-pilot” bumper stic ker. Available at Zion Gates Reggae and Africentric [sic] Shop. (< http://www.ziongates.com >) Figure 4.22 Haile Selassie I medal from his Silv er Jubilee Fair in 1955. Photo courtesy of BenGee at Ababajanhoy. (< http://www.ababajanhoy.de >) Figure 4.23 Haile Selassie cigar band. Photo courtesy of BenGee at Ababajanhoy. (< http://www.ababajanhoy.de >)

PAGE 144

131 Figure 4.24 Haile Selassie and his wife, Em press Menen on the front cover of Jahug 5 Alpha and Omega .(London, nd.) The picture is a reproduction of George W. Moore’s photographs of Haile Selassie which appeared in the June 1931 issue of National Geographic Figure 4.25 Bob Marley and Haile Selassie on the cover of the re-released version of Selassie is the Chapel (Bob Marley and Wailers, JAD Records, 1998)

PAGE 145

132 Figure 4.26 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie. Photograph by Hagaz Boyadjian, 1930. Collection of Dr. Behanu Abebe. New print by Denis Grard. (Pankhurst and Grard, “Court Photographers,” 121). Figure 4.27 Formal portrait of Haile Selassie. Probably taken by Hagaz Boyadjian. Private collection. (Pankhurst and Grard, Ethiopia Photographed 74)

PAGE 146

133 Figure 4.28 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie and his wife, Empress Menen. Probably taken by Hagaz Boyadjian. (Copley, Ethiopia Reaches Her Hand unto God ). Figure 4.29 Rastafari adaptation of one of Ha gaz Boyadjian’s formal coronation portraits of Haile Selassie. (Faristzaddi, Itations of Jamaica and I the Second Itation np)

PAGE 147

134 Figure 4.30 Haile Selassie and other African lead ers at the Heads of State Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 1967. Photograph by Ma rion Kaplan. (The Short Century, 188). Figure 4.31 Slightly different image of Haile Se lassie and other African leaders at the Heads of State Conference, Kampal a, Uganda, 1967.Photo courtesy of BenGee.

PAGE 148

135 Figure 4.32 Young girl performing the sign of the hear t. (Faristzaddi, Itations of Jamaica and I, the Third Itation, front cover). Figure 4.33 BenGee (right) with Jose ph Hill (left) of the Jama ican reggae group Culture. Photo courtesy of BenGee.

PAGE 149

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Visual imagery provides an important mean s to access what is and what potentially will become recorded history. In my analysis of maps and historical book illustrations in chapter two, I have shown that visual repres entations of Ethiopia can be read to reveal information about how Ethiopia was perceived in Western history In my discussion of Carol Beckwith and Angela Fi shers photographs of Ethiopia, I have also demonstrated that imagery, particularly photographic imagery, must be read and contextualized in order to reveal the underlying power stru ctures that either define or enable the representation. And finally, in my brief explor ation of Haile Selassies image in Rastafari visual culture in Chapter four, I have shown that images, like other kinds of objects, can acquire new and often highly specialized forms and meanings as they move through the various stages of their lives. Lest this entire study be misunderstood as an exercise in methodology, let me conclude by stating why it is important to understand how visual representations of Ethiopia have been and are used in West ern contexts to make meaning. Among the Rastafari, images of Haile Selassie and ot her signifiers of Ethiopia possess what Arjun Appadurai calls semiotic virtuos itythat is the ability to signal fairly complex social messages.1 Yet these messages, it should be noted, are generated by the Rastafari and they speak to and about specifically Ra stafarii.e., non-Ethiopianpractices and 1 Arjun Appadurai, Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value, in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective ed. Arjun Appadurai (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986): 38.

PAGE 150

137 identities. Along the same lines, many repr esentations of Ethiopia—or, should I say, Abyssinia—on historical maps shed light not so much on Ethiopia’s pa st, but rather, they illuminate conceptions and misconceptions that are explicitly Eurocentric. Beckwith and Fisher’s images, however, mu st be treated with greater scrutiny.“Any photograph” writes Christraud Geary, “can be potentially useful to the historian.”2 The historian’s goal, she then adds, is to determ ine “what kind of information can be gained from the images.”3 In other words, in order to determine the epistemological value of specific images, historians must utilize a rigorous investigative methodology. I hope that in this study, I have managed to demonstrat e that while representa tions of Ethiopia and Ethiopians must be considered critically in their own right, it is the way that their meanings are mobilized in society th at illuminates thei r primary context 2 Christraud Geary, “Photographs as Materials for African History: Some Methodological Considerations,” History in Africa 13 (1986): note 2, 107.. 3 Ibid, 89-90.

PAGE 151

138 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbink, Jon. “Paradoxes of Power and Cultu re in an Old Periphery: Surma, 19741998,” in Remapping Ethiopia: Socialism and After Ed. Wendy James, et al. Oxford: James Curry, 2002, 151-172. Abramson, Howard S. National Geographic: Behind America's Lens on the World New York: Crown Publishers, 1987. Adams, Michael. The New Royal Geographical Magazine London: Alex Hogg; Symonds, Parsons, and Co., [1794?] Last accessed May 2005 from the George Smathers Libraries at the Universi ty of Florida, Gainesville, FL. < http://galnet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu > Adedze, Agbenyega. “Re-Presenting Africa: Commemorative Postage Stamps of the Colonial Exhibition of Paris (1931),” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 58-61, 94-95. ______. “Commemorating the Chief: The Politics of Postage Stamps in West Africa.” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 68-73, 96. Albers, Patricia C. and William R. Jame s. “Tourism and the Changing Photographic Image of the Great Lakes Indians.” Annals of Tourism Research 10 no. 1 (1983): 123-148. Alloula, Malek. The Colonial Harem translated by Myrna Godzich and Wlad Godzich. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986. Alvarado, Manuel, Edward Buscombe, and Richard Collins, eds. Representation and Photography New York: Palgrave, 2001. Amin, Mohamed, Duncan Willetts, and John Eames. The Last of the Maasai London: Bodley Head, 1987. Appadurai, Arjun, ed. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ______. “Introduction: Commodities a nd the Politics of Value,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective Ed. Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 3-63.

PAGE 152

139 Appiah, K. Anthony. “The Rite Stuff.” New York Times Book Review December 5, 1999: 13. ______. In My Father’s House New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Apter, Andrew. “Tarrying with our Negatives (and Positives).” African Arts 36 no. 2 (Summer 2003): 1-4. Bal, Mieke, and Norman Brys on. “Semiotics and Art History.” The Art Bulletin 73 no. 2 (June 1991): 174-208. Banta, Melissa. From Site to Sight: Anthropol ogy, Photography, and the Power of Imagery: A Photographic Exhibition from th e Collections of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology and the Department of Anthropology, Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum Press, 1986. Barkan, Elazar, and Ronald Bush, eds. Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995. Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography translated by Richard Howard. New York: Hill and Wang, 1981. Beckingham, Charles F. and Bernard Hamilton, eds. Prester John, the Mongols, and Ten Lost Tribes Aldershot, Hampshire: Variorum, 1996. Beckwith, Carol. Nomads of Niger New York: Abrams, 1993. ______. “An Interview with Carol Beckwith.” African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 3845. Beckwith, Carol, and Angela Fisher. Faces of Africa: Thirty Years of Photography Washington: National Geographic Society, 2004. ______. Passages New York, Abrams, 2000. ______. African Ceremonies 2 vols. New York: Abrams, 1999. ______. African Ark: Peoples of the Horn London: Collins Harvill, 1990. Behar, Michael. “The Selling of the Last Savage.” Outside 30 no.2 (February 2005): 96113. Bekele, Shiferaw. “A Preliminary Report on th e Photographic Collecti on at the Institute of Ethiopian Studies (Addis Ababa),” in Fotografia e Storia dell’ Africa Ed. Alessandro Triulzi. Na ples: I.O.U., 1995, 173-180. Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility,” in Selected Writings vol. 3. Ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002, 101-133.

PAGE 153

140 ______. “A Short History of Photography,” in Classic Essays on Photography Ed. Alan Trachtenberg. New Haven: Leete’s Island Books, 1980, 199-216. Berger John, and Jean Mohr. “The Authentic Image,” in Representation and Photography, Ed. Manuel Alvarado, et.al. New York: Palgrave, 2001, 164-179. Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. Ptolemy’s Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Bernal, Martin. “European Images of Afri ca—A Tale of Two Names: Ethiopia and N---,” in Images of Africa: Stereotypes and Realities Ed. Daniel M. Mengara. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2001, 23-45. Bigham, Elizabeth. “Issues of Authorship in the Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keita,” African Arts 32 no. 1 (Spring 1999): 56-67, 94-96. Bollig, Michael, and Heike Heinemann. “Nomadic Savages, Ochre People and Heroic Herders: Visual Presentations of the Himba of Namibia’s Kaokaoland.” Visual Anthropology 15 (2002): 267-312. Bolton, Richard, ed. The Contest of Meaning: Cr itical Histories of Photography Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1989. Braun, David. “ Faces of Africa photographers on Their 30-year Endeavor.” National Geographic News (October 20, 2004) < http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/10/1020_041020_africa_faces.ht ml > Last accessed March 2005. Bravman, Bill. “Using Old Photographs in In terviews: Some Cautionary Notes about Silences in Fieldwork.” History in Africa 17 (1990): 327-334. Bruce, James. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile New York: Horizon Press, 1964. Bryan, C. D. B. The National Geographic Society: 100 Years of Adventure and Discovery. New York: Abrams, 1997. Burgin, Victor. “Looking at Photographs.” in Representation and Photography, Ed. Manuel Alvarado et al. New York: Palgrave, 2001, 65-75. Chevannes, Barry. “Garvey Myths among the Jamaican People,” in Garvey: His Work and Impact Ed. Rupert Lewis and Patrick Bria n. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1991, 123-131. Clifford, James. Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

PAGE 154

141 ______. “The Others: Beyond the Salvage Paradigm.” Third Text 6 (Spring 1989): 7377. ______. The Predicament of Culture: Twentie th-Century Literature, Ethnography, and Art Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988. Clifford, James, and George Marcus, eds. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ ersity of California Press, 1986. Cohen, Erik, Yeshayahu Nir and Uri Alma gor. “Stranger-Local Interaction in Photography.” Annals of Tourism Research 19 no. 2 (1992): 213-233. Cole, Herbert, and Doran Ross. “The Art and Technology of Field Photography.” African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 46-55, 98-99. Coombes, Annie E. Reinventing Africa: Museums, Material Culture and Popular Imagination in Late Victorian and Edwardian England New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. ______. “Inventing the ‘Post-Colonial’: Hybr idity and Constituency in Contemporary Curating.” New Formations 18 (Winter 1992): 39-52. Coote, Jeremy, and Elizabeth Edwards. “Images of Benin at the Pitt Rivers Museum.” African Arts 30 no. 4 (Autumn 1997): 26-35, 93. Copley, Gregory R. Ethiopia Reaches Her Hand unto God: Imperial Ethiopia’s Unique Symbols, Structures and Ro le in the Modern World Alexandria, Virginia: Defense and Foreign Affairs; Pamela von Gruber, 1998. Crawford, Peter Ian, and David Turton, eds. Film as Ethnography Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. Croon, David, E. Black Moses: The Story of Marc us Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. Daly, M.W. and L.E. Forbes. The Sudan: Photographs from the Sudan Archive, Durham University. Reading, UK: Garnet, 1994. Davis, Wade. “Vanishing Cultures.” National Geographic 196, no. 2 (August 1999): 6289. Dawson, Jessica. “At Ralls, Photogra phs with an Unsettling Glare.” The Washington Post September 11, 2003: C-5. Deleuze, Gilles, and Flix Guiattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

PAGE 155

142 Dreifus, Claudia. “Two Photographe rs Document Vanishing Rituals.” The New York Times December 4, 1999: B-9. Edwards, Elizabeth, ed. Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992. Edwards, Elizabeth. “Introduction,” in Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 Ed. Elizabeth Edwards. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992, 3-17. Ebron, Paulla A. “Tourists as Pilgrims: Commercial Fashioning of Transatlantic Politics.” American Ethnologist 25 no. 4 (November 1999): 910-932. Enwezor, Okwui, ed. The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 1945-1994. Munich: Prestel, 2001. Fabian, Johannes. Time and the Other New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. Faris, James C. Navajo and Photography: A Critical History of the Representation of an American People Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996. ______. “Photography, Power, and the Southern Nuba.” in Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 Ed. Elizabeth Edwards. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, 211-217. Faristzaddi, Mihlawhdh. Itations of Jamaica and I, the Third Itation. Miami: Judah Anbesa, 1999. ______. Itations of Jamaica and I the Second Itation Miami: Judah Anbesa,1991. ______. Itations of Jamaica and I the First Itation Miami: Judah Anbesa,1987? Fenning, Daniel. A New and Easy Guide to the Use of Globes London: S. Crowder, 1799. Last accessed May 2005 from the Ge orge Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. < http://galnet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu > Ferguson, James. “Cultural Exchange: New Developments in the Anthropology of Commodities.” Cultural Anthropology 3 no.4 (November 1988): 488-513. Firstenberg, Lauri. “Postcol oniality, Performance, and P hotographic Portraiture,” in The Short Century: Independence and Libe ration Movements in Africa, 1945-1994 Ed. Okwui Enwezor. Munich: Prestel, 2001, 175-179. Fischer, Michael M. J. “Okiek Portraits.” American Anthropologist 93 no. 1 (March 1991): 265-269. Fisher, Angela. Africa Adorned New York: Abrams, 1984.

PAGE 156

143 Forbes, Rosita. From Red Sea to Blue Nile: Abyssinian Adventure New York: The Macauly Company, 1925. Foucault, Michel. “The Subject and Power,” in Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation. Ed. Brian Wallis. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984, 417-432. ______. Power/Knowledge: Selected Inte rviews and Other Writings 1972-1977 Ed. Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972, 1980. ______. The Archeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon, 1972. ______. The Order of Things New York: Vintage Books, 1970, 1996. Fransham, John. The Entertaining Traveler; or, the Whole World in Minature Vol. 2 London: Henry Holmes, 1767. Last acces sed May 2005 from the George A. Smathers Libraries at the Universi ty of Florida, Gainesville, FL. < http://galenet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu > Freeman, Dena, and Alula Pankhurst, eds. Peripheral people: th e Excluded Minorities of Ethiopia. London: Hurst and Company, 2002. Geary, Christraud M., ed. In and Out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 18851960 London: Philip Wilson, 2003. Geary, Christraud M. “The Incidental Phot ographer: Roy Sieber and His African Images.” African Arts 36 no. 2 (Summer 2003): 66-80, 96. ______. “Early Images from Benin at the Nation al Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.” African Arts 30 no.3 (Summer 1997): 44-53, 93. ______. “Photographic Practice in Africa and its Im plications for the use of Historical Photographs as Contextual Evidence,” in Fotografia e Storia dell’ Africa Ed. Alessandro Triulzi. Na ples: I.O.U., 1995: 103-130. ______. “Old Pictures, New Approaches: Re searching Historical Photographs.” African Arts 24 no. 4 (October 1991): 36-39, 98. ______. “Missionary Photography: Pr ivate and Public Readings.” African Arts 24 no. 4 (October 1991): 48-59, 98-100. ______. Images from Bamum: Colonial Phot ography at the Court of King Njoya, Cameroon, West Africa 1902-1915 Washington D.C.: National Museum of African Art, 1988. ______. “Photographs as Materials for Af rican History: Some Methodological Considerations.” History in Africa 13 (1986): 89-116.

PAGE 157

144 Geary, Christraud M., and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds. Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. Geary, Patrick. ‘Sacred Commodities: The Circulation of Medieval Relics,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Social Perspective. Ed. Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Gebrekidan, Fikru Negash. Bond Without Blood: A Histor y of Ethiopian and New World Relations 1896-1991 Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2005. Gilbert, Elizabeth L. Broken Spears: A Maasai Journey New York: Atlantic, 2003. Gordon, Robert J. Picturing Bushmen: The Den ver African Expedition of 1925 Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1997. Graham, John. Ethiopia: Off the Beaten Trail Addis Ababa: Shamma Books, 2001. Hammond, Dorothy and Alta Jablow. The Africa That Never Was: Four Centuries of British Writing about Africa New York: Twayne Publishers, 1970. Harney, Elizabeth. Ethiopian Passages: Contemporary Art from the Diaspora London: Philip Wilson 2003. Hassen, Mohammed. The Oromo of Ethiopia: A History 1570-1860 Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1994. Harris, Joseph E. African-American Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 1936-1941. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994. Herodotus. The Histories translated by Robin Waterfield, with an introduction and notes by Carolyn Dewald. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hersant, Guy. “Tinted Portrait Photography in Addis Ababa,” in Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography Paris: Revue Noire, 1999, 134-141. Hobsbawn, Eric and Terence Ranger, eds. The Invention of Tradition New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983. In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to the Present New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1996. Jahoda, Gustav. Images of Savages: Ancient Roots of Modern Prejudice in Western Culture London and New York: Routledge, 1999. James, Wendy. “Kings, Commoners, and th e Ethnographic Imagination in Sudan and Ethiopia,” in Localizing Strategies: Regional Traditions in Ethnographic Writing Ed. Richard Fardon. Edinburgh: Sc ottish Academic Press, 1990, 96-136.

PAGE 158

145 James, Wendy, Donald L. Donham, Eisei Kurimoto, and Alessandro Triulzi, eds. Remapping Ethiopia: Socialism and After Oxford: James Curry, 2002. Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silvia and Richard Pankhurst, eds. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2003. Jones, David Keith. Faces of Kenya New York: Mayflower Books, 1977. Karp, Ivan, and Steven D. Lavine, eds Exhibiting Cultures: the Poetics and Politics of Museum Display Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991. Kasfir, Sidney Littlefield. “Slam-Du nking and the Last Noble Savage.” Visual Anthropology 15 (2002): 369-385. ______. “Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds. Ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher Steiner. Berkeley: Univ ersity of California Press, 1999, 67-83. ______. “African Art and Authenticity: A Text with a Shadow.” African Arts 25, no. 2 (April 1992): 40-53, 96-97. ______. “One Tribe, One Style: Paradigms in the Historiography of African Art.” History in Africa 2 (1984): 163-193. Kebede, Messay. Survival and Modernization: Ethi opia’s Enigmatic Present: A Philosophical Discourse Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press, 1999. Keller, Edmond J. “Drought, War, and the Poli tics of Famine in Et hiopia and Eritrea.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 30 no. 4 (December 1992): 609-624. Killingray, David and Andrew Roberts. “An Outline of Photography in Africa to ca. 1940.” History in Africa 16 (1989): 197-208. Klemm, Peri M. Shaping the Future, Wearing the Past: Dress and the Decorated Female Body among the Afran Qallo Oromo in Eastern Hararghe Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, Emory University, 2002. Klopper, Sandra. “The Post-modern Context of Rural Craft Production in Contemporary South Africa.” Prince Claus Fund Journal 10a (December 2003): 84-99. Kopytoff, Igor. “The Cultural Biography of Things: Commo ditization as Process,” in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective Ed. Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 64-91. Kratz, Corinne. The Ones That Are Wanted: Communication and the Politics of Representation in a Photographic Exhibition Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

PAGE 159

146 ______. “On Telling/Selling a Book by Its Cover.” Cultural Anthropology 9 no. 2 (May 1994): 179-200. ______, “’We’ve Always Done It Like This…ex cept for a Few Details’: ‘Tradition’ and ‘Innovation’ in Okiek Ceremonies.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 35 no. 1 (January 1993): 30-65. Krauss, Rosalind. “Photography’s Discursive Spaces: Landscape/View.” Art Journal 42 no. 4 (Winter 1982): 311-319. Landau, Paul S., and Deborah D. Kaspin, eds. Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Lutz, Catherine and Jean Collins. Reading National Geographic Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993. ______. “Becoming America’s Lens on the World: National Geographic in the Twentieth Century.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 91 no. 1 (Winter 1992): 162191. Lane-Pool, E.H. “The Discovery of Africa: A History of the Explor ation of Africa as Reflected in the Maps in the Collecti on of the Rhodes Livingston Museum,” in The Occasional Papers of the RhodesLivingston Museum Nos. 1-16 Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1974, 215-248. Levin, Jessica. “Sculpted Posts: Arch itectural Decoration on Gabonese Stamps.” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 62-67, 95-96. Levine, Donald. Wax and Gold: Tradition and I nnovation in Ethiopian Culture Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1965. Lewis, Rupert and Patrick Brian, eds. Garvey: His Work and Impact Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1991. Lieberman, Paul. “Putting Brutality on Display.” Los Angeles Times September 17, 2004: E1. Lobo, Jernimo The Itinerrio of Jernimo Lobo translated by Donald M. Lockhart. London: Hakluyt Society, 1984. Lyman, Christopher. The Vanishing Race and Other Illusi ons: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1982. Magor, Thomasin. African Warriors: The Samburu New York: Abrams, 1994. Marcus, George E. and Fred R. Myers, eds. The Traffic in Culture: Refiguring Art and Anthropology Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

PAGE 160

147 Marcus, Harold. “The Black Men Who Turn ed White: European Attitudes Towards Ethiopians, 1850-1900.” Archiv Orientln 39 (1971). Marley, Bob, and the Wailers. Selassie Is the Chapel disc 2 of The Complete Wailers 1967-1972 Part 1 Ontario: Koch International and JAD Records, 1998. Massimo, Zaccaria. Photography and African Studies: A Bibliography Pavia: Department of Political and Soci al Studies, Pavia University, 2001. Menne-Haritz, Angelika. “Access—the Reform ulation of an Archival Paradigm.” Archival Science 1 no. 1 (March 2001): 57-82. Mercer, Kobena. Welcome to the Jungle New York: Routledge, 1996. Miner, Horace. “Body Ritual among the Nacirema.” American Anthropologist 58 (3) (June 1956): 503-507. Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie’s War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984. Mudimbe, V.Y. The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988. Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and the Narrative Cinema.” in Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation Ed. Brian Wallis. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984, 361-373. A New, Royal, and Authentic System of Universal Geography London: J. Cooke [1790?] Last accessed May 2005 from the George Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. < http://galnet.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu > Oguibe, Olu. “Photography and the Substance of the Image,” in In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to the Present 231-249. New York: Guggenheim Museum, 1996. Oguibe, Olu, and Okwui Enwezor, eds Reading the Contemporary: African Art from Theory to the Marketplace Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1999. Palmberg, Mai, ed. Encounter Images in the Meetin gs Between Africa and Europe Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2001. Pankhurst, Richard. “The Ethiopi an Diaspora to India,” in The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean Ed. Shihan de Silvia Jayasu riya and Richard Pankhurst. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2003: 189-221. ______. The Ethiopians Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. ______. The Ethiopian Borderlands Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press, 1997.

PAGE 161

148 ______. “The Political Image: The Impact of the Camera in an Ancient Independent African State,” in Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920 Ed. Elizabeth Edwards. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992: 234-241. ______. A Social History of Ethiopia Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1990. ______. “The Genesis of Photography in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa.” The British Journal of Photography 41-4 (1976): 878-882. ______. “Guns in Ethiopia.” Transition 20 (1965): 26-33. Pankhurst, Richard, and Denis Grar d. “Court Photographers,” in Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography Paris: Revue Noire, 1999, 118-133. ______. Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Phot ographs of the Country and its People Taken between 1867 and 1935 London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996. Pankhurst, Richard, and Leila Ingrams. Ethiopia Engraved London: Kegan Paul International, 1988. Paulitschke, Philipp Viktor. Forschungsreise nach den Soml und Galla-Lndern OstAfrikas Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1888. Pauly, Phillip J. “The World and All That is in It: The National Geographic Society 1888-1918.” American Quarterly 31 no. 4 (Autumn 1979): 517-532. Phillips, Ruth and Christopher B. Steiner, eds. Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. ______. “Art, Authenticity and the Bagga ge of Cultural Encounter,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds. Ed. Ruth Phillips and Christoper B. Steiner. Berkeley: Univ ersity of California Press, 1999, 3-19. Pinney, Christopher. “The Parallel Historie s of Anthropology and Photography,” in Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920. Ed. Elizabeth Edwards. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992, 74-95. ______. “The Lexical Spaces of the Eye-spy,” in Film as Ethnography Ed. Peter Ian Crawford and David Turton. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992, 2649. ______. “Appearing Worlds.” Anthropology Today 5 no. 3 (June 1989): 26-28. Posnansky, Merrick. “Propaganda for the Millions: Images from Africa.” African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 53-57, 94.

PAGE 162

149 Pratt, Mary Louise. “Fieldwork in Common Places,” in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography Ed. James Clifford and George Marcus. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986, 27-50. Price, Sally. Primitive Art in Civilized Places Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. Pultz, John. The Body and the Lens: Photography 1839 to the Present New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995. Rabinow, Paul. “Representations are Social Facts: Modernity and Post-Modernity in Anthropology,” in Writing Culture: The Poe tics and Politics of Ethnography Ed. James Clifford and George Marcus. Berk eley: University of California Press, 1986, 234-261. Revue Noire. Anthology of African a nd Indian Ocean Photography Paris: Revue Noire, 1999. Roberts, Allen F., and Mary Nooter Roberts. The Saint in the City Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 2003. Rosler, Martha. “In, Around, and Afterthough ts (on Documentary Photography),” in The Contest of Meaning: Criti cal Histories of Photography Ed. Richard Bolton. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1989. Rovine, Victoria L. “The Cultured Body.” African Arts 35 no. 4 (Winter 2002): 1-8. ______. Bogolan: Shaping Culture through Cloth in Contemporary Mali Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. Said, Edward. Orientalism New York: Vintage Books, 1978, 2003. Saitoti, Tepilit Ole and Carol Beckwith. Maasai New York: Abrams, 1980. Salvadori, Cynthia and Andrew Fedders. Maasai London: William Collins Sons, 1973. Sanjek, Roger. “The Ethnographic Present.” Man 26 no. 4 (December 1991): 609-628. Sassi, Dino. Masaai Nairobi: Kensta, 1979. Savishinsky, Neil J. “Rastafari in the Pr omised Land: The Spread of a Jamaican Socioreligious Movement among the Youth of West Africa.” African Studies Review 37 no.3 (December 1994): 19-50. Schildkrout, Enid. “Gender and Sexuality in Mangbetu Art,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds Ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999, 197-213.

PAGE 163

150 ______. “The Spectacle of Africa Through the Lens of Herbert Lang: Belgian Congo Photographs 1909-1915.” African Arts 24 no. 4 (October 1991): 70-85, 100. Schildkrout, Enid, and Curtis A. Keim. African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1990. Sekula, Alan. “Reading an Archive,” in Blasted Allegories Ed. Brian Wallis. New York: New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1987, 114-127. ______. “The Body and the Archive.” October 39 (Winter 1986): 3-64 ______. “The Traffic in Photographs.” Art Journal 41 no. 1 (Spring 1981): 15-25. Sellassie, Haile. My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress, 1892-1937 translated and annotated by Edward Ullendorf. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Seunarine, Lance. Visions of Rastafari: Facts on Haile Selassie I New York: Trican, 1999. ______. The Lion Roars: Selected Speeches and Letters of Haile Selassie New York: Trican Books, 1998. Shepherd, Jack. The Politics of Starvation New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1975. Silverman, Raymond A., ed. Ethiopia: Traditions of Creativity East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Pr ess; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. Simpson, William. Diary of a Journey to Abyssinia, 1868: with the Expedition under Sir Robert Napier, K.C.S.I.: the Diary and Observations of William Simpson of the Illustrated London News edited and annotated by Richard Pankhurst. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, 2002. Sontag, Susan. “Regarding the Torture of Others.” New York Times Magazine May 23, 2004: 25. ______. “Fascinating Fascism,” in Under the Sign of Saturn London: Vintage, 1996, 71-105. ______. On Photography New York: Anchor Books, 1990. Steiner, Christopher B. “Authenticity, Repetiti on, and the Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds Ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. 87-103.

PAGE 164

151 ______. “Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive,” in Prehistories of the Future: the Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism. Ed. Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995, 202-225. ______. African Art in Transit Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Stewart, Susan. “Antipodal Expectations: Notes on the Formosan “Ethnography” of George Psalmanazar.” in Romantic Motives: Es says on Anthropological Sensibility Ed. George W. Stocking. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989, 48-53. ______. On Longing Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984. Stocking, George W., ed. Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contextualization of Ethnographic Knowledge Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. ______. Romantic Motives: Essays on Anthropological Sensibility. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. ______. Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. ______. Observers Observed: Essays of Ethnographic Fieldwork Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Stokes, Deborah. “Documentary Observations : The African Photographs of William B. Fagg, 1949-1959.” African Arts 36 no. 4 (Winter 2003): 58-71, 95-96. Stoler, Ann Laura. “Colonial Ar chives and the Arts of Governance: On the Content in the Form.” in Refiguring the Archive Ed. Carolyn Hamilton, et al. Cape Town, South Africa: David Philip; Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002, 82-101. Strother, Z. S. “Invention and Rein vention in the Traditional Arts.” African Arts 28 no.2 (Spring 1995): 24-33, 90. Tafari, I. Jabulani. A Rastafari View of Marcus Mo siah Garvey: Patriarch, Prophet, Philosopher Jamaica: Great Company, 1996. Tagg, John. “The Currency of the Photograph,” in Representation and Photography Ed. Manuel Alvarado et al. New York: Palgrave, 2001, 87-118. ______. “Totaled Machines: Criticism, Photography and Technological Change.” New Formations 7 (Spring 1989): 21-34. ______. The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

PAGE 165

152 Tooley, R.V., and Charles Bricker. Landmarks of Mapmaking: An Illustrated Survey of Maps and Mapmakers Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1968. Torgovnick, Marianna. Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Triulzi, Alessandro, ed. Fotografia e Storia dell’ Africa. Napoli: I.O.U., 1995. Turton, David. “Lip Plates and ‘The People Who Take Photographs:’ Uneasy Encounters between Mursi and Tourists in Southern Ethiopia.” Anthropology Today 20 no. 3 (June 2004): 3-8. Uhlig, Siegbert. Hiob Ludolfs “Theologia Aethiopica.” Wiesbaden: Verlag, 1983. Ullendorf, Edward. The Two Zions: Reminiscences of Jerusalem and Ethiopia Kingston: Miguel Lorne Publishers, 2000. United Nations Press Release Note #5866. “Art Exhibit: In Celebr ation of Indigenous Peoples.” < http://www.un.org/News/Pre ss/docs/2004/note5866.doc.htm > Last accessed May 2005. Urry, John. The Tourist Gaze London and Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 2002. Vogel, Susan, James Baldwin, Romare Bear den, Ekpo Eyo, Nancy Graves, Ivan Karp, Lela Kouakou, Iba N’Diaye, David Rockef eller, William Rubin, and Robert Farris Thompson. Perspectives: Angles on African Art New York: The Center for African Art and Abrams, 1987. Wallis, Brian, “Black Bodies, White Sciences: Louis Agassiz’s Slave Daguerreotypes.” American Art 9 no. 2 (Summer 1995): 38-61. Watson, Elizabeth and Lakew Regassa. “Konso,” in Peripheral People: The Excluded Minorities of Ethiopia Ed. Dena Freeman and Alula Pankhurst. London: Hurst and Company, 2003, 240-261. Webb, Virginia Lee. “Fact and Fiction: Nine teenth-Century Photogr aphs of the Zulu.” African Arts 25 no. 1 ( January 1992): 50-59, 98-99. ______. “Art as Information: The African Po rtfolios of Charles Sheeler and Walker Evans.” African Arts 24 no. 1 (January 1991): 56-63, 103-104. Zewde, Bahru. A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1991, 2nd edition. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2001.

PAGE 166

153 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jaime Baird earned her BA in art history at the University of Georgia in 2001.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101123_AAAAAH INGEST_TIME 2010-11-23T06:00:33Z PACKAGE UFE0011902_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 52233 DFID F20101123_AAAFLJ ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH baird_j_Page_045.pro GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
c8ee93ed9a78953854ae051cafd6ad84
SHA-1
a84fada54c5a1a66d56826b46f70be60d6605dd2
67384 F20101123_AAAFKU baird_j_Page_024.pro
8b953da012e793bd31f3d589db455434
50a745b03ace301e2e8be02de083b1d9ea3c6ce0
52108 F20101123_AAAFLK baird_j_Page_046.pro
64f26368dccabf04c229f473065943dd
66ef1d39243cd1942c31fc4d03389670510c40d7
53507 F20101123_AAAFKV baird_j_Page_026.pro
08cb9c20c541b5ff1adb8ae9187c4eb4
ee755d6a9dc6e4bfb3c615eadef0dab394c5394b
53440 F20101123_AAAFKW baird_j_Page_027.pro
f3e48f5a860ea0cfa939a019e1c69aa4
a94a34f74bd91d41f699dc5d6974f1c99042730f
58488 F20101123_AAAFLL baird_j_Page_047.pro
bb270784be7e553a0d83cee357b096a2
d48169397560ace9dcc1e9661b3506d2ea99e3fd
52501 F20101123_AAAFKX baird_j_Page_028.pro
955dbd55114c0227e19cfbf328098839
9eadfb1061d70ffea3e34998fdbce8d6bdacf8af
4828 F20101123_AAAFMA baird_j_Page_072.pro
b6fc5088340be70600fb524990911e97
3f0db5b63afc78915f420eab4d64d69564acbf4e
59350 F20101123_AAAFLM baird_j_Page_052.pro
49b76ae4161be20d157b912bf6cf0960
b41305b9c453080d3eafd63888d535029664a12d
61109 F20101123_AAAFKY baird_j_Page_029.pro
1e7e45f30119fd8c1708e44fc015e70a
0d071912c272f25de22f645f1288fe6ecc03e1d0
16488 F20101123_AAAFMB baird_j_Page_074.pro
8e46a88b37b52eb8d43a860d13a458c5
fac6d1409d7b7cc8114e83d246f34d245f24cd55
49803 F20101123_AAAFLN baird_j_Page_053.pro
95b870cf0ec484ce7dfa601348a538b5
83a92cc74e1231fbdec37ff32d33023bbc5923be
67049 F20101123_AAAFKZ baird_j_Page_030.pro
789f477c3fd2fb23b099bd525d25065f
13a5c2d738cb633e100b9b3c8fcd55d2d17da361
14924 F20101123_AAAFMC baird_j_Page_075.pro
b6b46929593ddc3374fa8456d36764fe
823c8b97b3de1a55173e34c3de3feb8e94a02a57
51163 F20101123_AAAFLO baird_j_Page_054.pro
119757c918c024e094ec5335ee30d93a
c6c7fcc211dba102f5dbc000e08f5e63c6b09e3f
62642 F20101123_AAAFMD baird_j_Page_078.pro
3269de453baece5cdcd593aee46919c8
738c5b70340ec90c530b30bb8894f605a01b7c6c
58360 F20101123_AAAFLP baird_j_Page_057.pro
7646e08162c9bf0769d2615533d72f3d
de3ec363d23916f49a9aba43f3891b3e4da41519
53628 F20101123_AAAFME baird_j_Page_079.pro
a6f82330b01856a271794b04179edbc9
5ac6a0d8fe315e0bebdcff9914bc9c78e2caecb4
54432 F20101123_AAAFLQ baird_j_Page_058.pro
227b2fb215f0a640c5e47f7a0cd8a3ff
cdbedf881d6a0b133f727af5b0699cbd7783b7d2
53649 F20101123_AAAFMF baird_j_Page_081.pro
d63874ec94f0ef4e41370fe33a1404b5
2762822a871277098abdec4f7ac21b2d65e0c8f5
52704 F20101123_AAAFLR baird_j_Page_059.pro
c5792c0aad0752bcba0fa9672d3e2b7a
beb531f25da5a104d05110b4621f1774b5b6ac7d
47109 F20101123_AAAFMG baird_j_Page_083.pro
876927b9145abf6ee607fb7762932239
de0f548bdf088053f3fb616b18354f2a449bf304
12431 F20101123_AAAFLS baird_j_Page_062.pro
cc32f4ed451c31b4204a7a8dcf74ff80
741d8864b8392320afe7fc4ded55e961ad46355b
47335 F20101123_AAAFMH baird_j_Page_084.pro
0764afc8246c44dc0783a8e8bd39d931
899367ee0a7a36c2db61c1fd33e1d8d85fc751cd
15661 F20101123_AAAFLT baird_j_Page_063.pro
f4bf392a5002d1b95681cfed364960e7
6dc7aea13a89c043fb03adfcd1ea24925cac273f
53350 F20101123_AAAFMI baird_j_Page_085.pro
b1b5be987e9336e17a801e03c8d3e05d
79619f165645be9300f610a82a74783d48ede01b
38541 F20101123_AAAFLU baird_j_Page_065.pro
5debde964ae76b0c2d8eadf93a5d9514
c4955776eacafcccd447eeea9e2c274ae20fab92
50645 F20101123_AAAFMJ baird_j_Page_086.pro
523de4dd972e197e900ca372dc4ddd22
eed933c7752d0d80eb34d131d69cf90a2111e162
18561 F20101123_AAAFLV baird_j_Page_066.pro
39bfc53b3ad243b159ca7b2b8575e2b1
0c551b4102bda8598cd472a942b2e8261c27be7e
56735 F20101123_AAAFMK baird_j_Page_088.pro
8bfcb41432a4f0e5c417c6971267d7e0
f9fbf0962172f98ef246ebe170ee140734377a31
8551 F20101123_AAAFLW baird_j_Page_067.pro
c2acb0aca502ace8fca9d4fdac376ca0
aac0f57ca7e24300444de1d9666fef3d546951ed
50138 F20101123_AAAFML baird_j_Page_089.pro
1b3b81550a013d2a1bcfab82d24ba957
ffc38eb279ad7d9facb031d3ed6a86fbabc24b71
4698 F20101123_AAAFLX baird_j_Page_068.pro
1351490429bc7f7013fd1805c743cf42
eddc6883f5e420092615855f895b386554b1e487
4482 F20101123_AAAFNA baird_j_Page_106.pro
5d6e8b0cfe7a11e926f6d671850c5ddc
89e535cfb3719722c6d22e1bdae17028abf392bf
17296 F20101123_AAAFLY baird_j_Page_069.pro
1babca1948deac4a8c3595de86af921e
ec3089fad8d6db82a53b3653882c505178f21496
6795 F20101123_AAAFNB baird_j_Page_108.pro
79ca85fe3c00db3fe44c7d386174583e
8cf8ed2a731ec4467575d18fd6af9075a283aaad
47754 F20101123_AAAFMM baird_j_Page_090.pro
cf2165b385fc57ae3e287785e96aeca9
1d3f75ee0b287ba4887306a087816a714e411cb6
11776 F20101123_AAAFLZ baird_j_Page_071.pro
4b4cc7952450a48f110c9bc3cf14a246
9dfa08af08ae22735d215ebfeea6a4894910b9c5
55944 F20101123_AAAEKA baird_j_Page_082.pro
5a78f3dd5fa778de7ed7c1d5b0da40e3
4bf568f8fb4b1756102ecafe553f4f87e57288b1
3916 F20101123_AAAFNC baird_j_Page_109.pro
ccce57d6a860b7e35c603ffd26277a89
f200221f5e0274bbc2233e450027457d3dcf97e8
50961 F20101123_AAAFMN baird_j_Page_091.pro
80fb35ebcf9e9a3a246f53493854bb64
5746ffbe902946c12c09a68a6ff85db3135e8dac
3181 F20101123_AAAEKB baird_j_Page_040.txt
c7255c442abab9f5df45a385d8d35d44
bcff8abfcf1724bc2278a6b01382f6a45e40097e
6699 F20101123_AAAFND baird_j_Page_111.pro
d37dbcbda7d8dba2304f66bcd603ad63
075c9f90439002878f4dce53153dd4cb478def63
74756 F20101123_AAAFMO baird_j_Page_092.pro
bbd33ffb61e86c440a387211bc86572c
84c58e2a3f6eb266a7ed29e330a6a31a977bb989
1053954 F20101123_AAAEKC baird_j_Page_057.tif
e84b063bc92a5fd23dd4180bed9d8f1e
20183966f59726666e1a917205ba887b47bbe352
9159 F20101123_AAAFNE baird_j_Page_112.pro
ff91561ebabdfa0c423e96d57c664b50
1e2a6b39b4f60bbedb21278ab6ad643abf11f604
9864 F20101123_AAAEJN baird_j_Page_147.pro
406e199d55c575835382350bcf1d70cc
2860e917c1348301921276fcc08e73777ebd684d
78819 F20101123_AAAFMP baird_j_Page_093.pro
a087556fc53977691a9e6bc83c7f541b
493c8100b6c864f6f8e0b73fb14da9229826dc33
112571 F20101123_AAAEKD baird_j_Page_156.jpg
9033e8f78dcf7bbe21b24e1590d805a0
abe30f7b244745bdfedaa5c32d0d843a0f0755f4
29614 F20101123_AAAFNF baird_j_Page_113.pro
848c5c4eb421d75c6d7ad8062382be68
02879d8c90b217da8353d3fca64dd68c8637a5f7
22315 F20101123_AAAEJO baird_j_Page_144.QC.jpg
0cead7836156ef80fc15a31e8af83f54
4b33c796bb04991a13147e2c8c6d597c215b3e42
64252 F20101123_AAAFMQ baird_j_Page_094.pro
349e72b6e485d8e6eca39d8bb73cb039
8f7284358e473b788e8472c3e30710d8c54be6f2
2732 F20101123_AAAEKE baird_j_Page_006.txt
3fd41de5689bc9b155a1780c49e3debf
9b82a310cdbd9295ef521d159b9dcf4a7fc228bb
5458 F20101123_AAAFNG baird_j_Page_114.pro
6eab17b90d5d8055a9feaf6c620dd3ad
527f23c5d23dcfd61288c61ff50ea51dd6fe65d4
61062 F20101123_AAAEJP baird_j_Page_099.pro
559355df422a34829cd1d46486cfd5c6
b0e5e661f40bca9739ffebf5095fd55e09002d6b
61858 F20101123_AAAFMR baird_j_Page_095.pro
42d486f63ecea39459f91b058812484a
83c087a29521a88add87951d381df4a21bc1a490
113211 F20101123_AAAEKF baird_j_Page_081.jp2
e5b7ea87bb56ff13f969fad436a7c889
934502c2b007f35ca8e4186efb1bddd0fd152bab
8286 F20101123_AAAFNH baird_j_Page_115.pro
65e4db42d769523b5e634535386f0bc2
0857a502964fdf70998898d6ff193f0ef81f3e1e
45783 F20101123_AAAEJQ baird_j_Page_004.pro
e9928ecab88971f1528521f94488ef8f
ebd62c5fba3c0b241d6a692731c0bed823420e89
55474 F20101123_AAAFMS baird_j_Page_096.pro
446e0db74f34ee56cca847569abe21de
0b57dfef670862720ffd5f1268e65c39edfe7ded
115342 F20101123_AAAEKG baird_j_Page_056.jp2
bbda5c55b0edc1ead90f68121abb36da
c4502e05d1015acc03b400234797fde5bfeee220
7324 F20101123_AAAFNI baird_j_Page_116.pro
494320b90e5336bc2225188ce827d7f1
b55a97dad84a63ae46814c4bee480b6977e4a078
54008 F20101123_AAAEJR baird_j_Page_036.jpg
247a081d011e7fafe35d44880ee47bb0
faaa279ce10de0e257ac01379b33aff8082a13f8
56346 F20101123_AAAFMT baird_j_Page_097.pro
32af40e8d2d62f81531f526b079be4cd
0774a0110ae919c5099428c0073fb16d52ff910d
49890 F20101123_AAAEKH baird_j_Page_055.pro
b7a8a772f2f1378fbc4e669f8b727b86
8a1b727ff953ed797b3057844dcafe0c0b189e7a
5491 F20101123_AAAFNJ baird_j_Page_117.pro
41cb39eebc8ecdd32343a9e6f1060312
5e18ef12eeecddb132367683dc751d3edb6ae31a
93412 F20101123_AAAEJS baird_j_Page_118.jpg
34399294186e6f9505242648b9fc8c49
b9a441344f3e1b815b5d292af3bdf1c2ce36c46a
61837 F20101123_AAAFMU baird_j_Page_098.pro
f0e26f1d61f041fe5362224677a22248
578a5401d631e195a2688c1aa945c11e148d0887
25271604 F20101123_AAAEKI baird_j_Page_139.tif
8b84214672f8b6dee4d1a6cbef4fbf1d
55aa1bbf394cad9ac09ce51a2eb6fca559d9d3b8
47186 F20101123_AAAFNK baird_j_Page_118.pro
b685c49431e2cde7e495fda1a86b9524
26dadb19265ece6139dcd9cd1c1d03b9e425c02e
57465 F20101123_AAAEJT baird_j_Page_121.pro
84edc169d2b19d7c76c06382c9f398e4
04a4892691dfed75bcf70b66ecfc9fd518533a94
50653 F20101123_AAAFMV baird_j_Page_100.pro
28b43d00af4954c347b42189722bcafc
cc0bd44dc3b4e95dc044311409ca5dc67ff157af
F20101123_AAAEKJ baird_j_Page_021.tif
9188ec44d2d9fe5b361176293ab7cfa5
b0fa044caf6e6843ed033341b42ace6ab72505d6
67356 F20101123_AAAFNL baird_j_Page_120.pro
78cbd73489f330f93f6414ed9e615551
163fce836730e32069dafdd345634c9da415dc28
108420 F20101123_AAAEJU baird_j_Page_050.jpg
373c6f3697b155dd87c31ebef3cc6b21
f244badb33303bcfa9fc0e3bba08dd18615382bb
59253 F20101123_AAAFMW baird_j_Page_101.pro
0113a6aeb8dd1655484cec300551f14a
952c41baafaa9c9115b72409d8c7bbd84cc8e823
8958 F20101123_AAAFOA baird_j_Page_141.pro
b100f16c0e4f1b09de17d9982a2c58ab
f15905e1c6f0cc9c52016cbff3dc4b46ae7245c7
F20101123_AAAEKK baird_j_Page_036.tif
36d6c23b50c48a5f38c8de87a843e11e
4ab7bdbf1ee4c0e37dcade5802a845fa35ceec0e
58868 F20101123_AAAFNM baird_j_Page_122.pro
0804277ee10b35a2476746cb6ad40ee4
2d170dfd97b2ded04ee6a1db727756170e85fef2
F20101123_AAAEJV baird_j_Page_004.tif
ff53eb99be9c9bfdfc0bf543ac3f48e5
ab3e740b15ba93d3d28b9fdba5db19f60c15e348
47984 F20101123_AAAFMX baird_j_Page_102.pro
1c7a4e7cc43f553da0474bdea907c3b8
786ae5f62f199d1813590e7b434e543a6c251d24
10902 F20101123_AAAFOB baird_j_Page_143.pro
1cab50835273fcc8c4feb93157118c78
603f27a156a8811bfb083850fb37dda5e657a6bd
56932 F20101123_AAAEJW baird_j_Page_056.pro
b068981c3f9959c5c753b6980df1a5e9
4efdd281e95b5ab0305b3e751cabf4c7dbb1e226
47097 F20101123_AAAFMY baird_j_Page_104.pro
1937c29cffb1e0860a97ff044e18ee78
0734fc38d243a51bddc79c8704955138a5061b99
11391 F20101123_AAAFOC baird_j_Page_144.pro
eef3610ad145592ef8121c821e6ebffa
131b518f42cfd2fcba4fc046652b304f9c2d9640
116053 F20101123_AAAELA baird_j_Page_052.jpg
1138fca6090ebd22149ca7e9b6443101
473a4d23e068f20a869a56e2461e8b123bcacf09
32193 F20101123_AAAEKL baird_j_Page_121.QC.jpg
c4de08e9c6378cfe961eccb8e4ec9332
7c7dbd6e835d1fc54698ec18e8c9be67de819670
57422 F20101123_AAAFNN baird_j_Page_125.pro
4f1cb1d34b3c991be0cd9faa9f2f3095
d033d9dac9e954a011f0fa29a930fc9a48b1d2c6
17622 F20101123_AAAEJX baird_j_Page_070.pro
db8401002d3385f08081a51b9b9cbb08
5282149fc088380fbe84011f379b88e54972ad49
29313 F20101123_AAAFMZ baird_j_Page_105.pro
ce547e0df82648ee44617792928ad184
598a0e808141f6111df14d5433394f8717b44035
10050 F20101123_AAAFOD baird_j_Page_145.pro
a7df04a3a3a0fcf71d7a9ab784b9fcb6
ea25e656d0d59aa6e4561c775845b2d31fa8c4cb
113649 F20101123_AAAELB baird_j_Page_164.jpg
96e4d70ce7a055b3aadd69482e02fd0d
d30eb329b59e99afef6239c04aa9b631e903ce6b
F20101123_AAAEKM baird_j_Page_072.tif
0051c44cdd45e11453db0ddf49005002
caede8ffe0942a59787d49c345084273fa4dc4a1
76177 F20101123_AAAFNO baird_j_Page_126.pro
dd63e64b88c744625b1563d5a208d25b
f45656f2243b87334ac81bc42271ea0e747ca92c
2208 F20101123_AAAEJY baird_j_Page_152.txt
99b637f4c1709a45b82ae842f63438bd
409412121ea56c8d7f3963d660dd7da55187af03
7021 F20101123_AAAFOE baird_j_Page_148.pro
0d5461f8f40b62032308086f538da925
2373dfe020f882e0beda1088fb25fd0d25714e2b
113814 F20101123_AAAELC baird_j_Page_088.jp2
413b927c9e94ed24cf9c82afe50b032c
e117c0f58fececf737fd5febfd7e1012fad06a74
54679 F20101123_AAAEKN baird_j_Page_119.pro
ad80661c151d16de6e44fac25a17eefa
2669ab0aacbce6e829277a1071f1413be7b71f4a
65565 F20101123_AAAFNP baird_j_Page_127.pro
a1a581c9b9e0a5d24bd8928c153a735d
168ef7bd2ff526b2524d7049fc4738de0a65c4f7
58632 F20101123_AAAEJZ baird_j_Page_050.pro
b1ebcfd95158766aa2e5107f57e7a8fd
e2019f6cc7663e41c0f1ba64f4810f7f415acb75
45780 F20101123_AAAFOF baird_j_Page_151.pro
a0efa77db9befd144cce63d93f9ff5f5
c0c3d4588d1470162dd668bb63a44cd8c0054b1d
114059 F20101123_AAAELD baird_j_Page_095.jpg
2ac93b371a049da77df61753af9e2a28
ec6fe5917478639fef95c594ee3ca21b672823f2
9196 F20101123_AAAEKO baird_j_Page_010thm.jpg
db710b8c7a2f73dc18a1658d14af1ae0
0aa55c903ec4093f22eb6988ade873fd9fc75693
72940 F20101123_AAAFNQ baird_j_Page_128.pro
46f9b837b821a85638edbd9be3297454
a2544bfd706add0beef8f86dd9cda0d69707336e
53935 F20101123_AAAFOG baird_j_Page_152.pro
241ae9c8fde43b575730bf2ab5f381e2
7d6cce7de7db0183e4c2d75fc61bc12be7e590f0
995725 F20101123_AAAELE baird_j_Page_106.jp2
7e4fbb906a9dd23d003df419208fcba9
2ca87f807086ff230121e4a1dd307b68d1099274
137460 F20101123_AAAEKP baird_j_Page_111.jpg
6602d754472ac9b5142a6f86b669505d
62e489f648f9f54376d7a0c202ea5d291847f591
50403 F20101123_AAAFNR baird_j_Page_129.pro
ac556fbffc1abb253037603e5be27768
075102c745cbd13f42e2fbbadb4dc2ba8ab5d593
53512 F20101123_AAAFOH baird_j_Page_154.pro
c3bb2a06923aae0a75dac2e478d58995
cb35f56a6c19823a249a1e99b2e1186d77567634
103182 F20101123_AAAELF baird_j_Page_017.jpg
1b6b776c63d968aa7e117e353335bd00
1b310f020d1feb3e865e172b523642cf90234f49
7620 F20101123_AAAEKQ baird_j_Page_037thm.jpg
a895adf730d2ba9ae27ef158b41b5614
44da3ee8f7dfdacd3f49ae0a3e80f683190f413c
61065 F20101123_AAAFNS baird_j_Page_130.pro
ad88ad54e102388811d6b9934eb139a0
92f32d743adafd313860d3adc5f4e88b8eec1245
55594 F20101123_AAAFOI baird_j_Page_156.pro
815c46f71a8a36f86baa84e09dc8138b
013ba54c0eb22511a738c64a8a45f93f120bd051
3238 F20101123_AAAFNT baird_j_Page_131.pro
6d911e34189b628ad35e27972b266a3d
1c8ee005f4cce6572537fd8a21b8d2f9b09088db
80485 F20101123_AAAELG baird_j_Page_124.pro
5964675e5fda8d4dba6f6fbe5f9f6f83
985854d3b36f6cd5916dfd27933d73586f5d0441
19095 F20101123_AAAEKR baird_j_Page_116.QC.jpg
5bc84fafaa021c517ae6f611c1afa84e
c5f62db081304527fecc09648ab4d6d552a870eb
59477 F20101123_AAAFOJ baird_j_Page_158.pro
f07775f118823fb4959d94a24b1e8770
b9a94eacce98af00bd504e77f1f7e35ca937d37b
10924 F20101123_AAAFNU baird_j_Page_135.pro
ed03f4b5fdc1e75652f09aa6c6e19c02
aaa457c6fba27ce9a81062e0f2ad48aebe5c995b
1051983 F20101123_AAAELH baird_j_Page_026.jp2
168483d985813c92b8c3c10facbedf59
7964130d0e6446166b23bcdcae290336a04e0dd7
1051942 F20101123_AAAEKS baird_j_Page_139.jp2
0a0a089d1bb79fd5460a40180e3f98fe
0c5d1aca1e255455f0d62e690e607bbc9a9b7952
54965 F20101123_AAAFOK baird_j_Page_159.pro
1613ba2cd2b170377a7b2a9790adefe8
174a81aff47cfcf7b402e8c4f7531118f0ca41cf
7988 F20101123_AAAFNV baird_j_Page_136.pro
7703a0834062f034f948d21ff3507a20
d0b3141e9360e4fae71fde0cb3a7e8463213b796
F20101123_AAAELI baird_j_Page_123.tif
d007218b21509deb070270d664f4ea3a
25504ebbf3b086d82f97337ba55a02fe7b0b9d6b
31817 F20101123_AAAEKT baird_j_Page_046.QC.jpg
19dc063b59a338785af4b3f82d815c8c
86b79ba12e1a607d1e43845f953e9bfc64c6d76a
56773 F20101123_AAAFOL baird_j_Page_160.pro
372db7269386a599a9a41653f4afbb29
2d3a9e491b6f23948b4a869f8f9f93ae9b810684
7196 F20101123_AAAFNW baird_j_Page_137.pro
607c0b4fe80b684b420b4fc38a8a1dd2
b9d61e44de96af792124ffdf98367d9ed8d53050
F20101123_AAAELJ baird_j_Page_022.tif
a184ecaa4f5faa03f9b379969adda743
46f36c277b3acdb04ce47cd231f94d9030c8a5ac
33207 F20101123_AAAEKU baird_j_Page_152.QC.jpg
e338f5d2cc8f7c52b253f155c13bd44d
e191c6e2a386ef6573b056cec5dcdcd5d8b5dc1e
2375 F20101123_AAAFPA baird_j_Page_015.txt
8a6a873cbbc61fb4ab34aa64b5cea3b1
ffd4878254131a1c3a46c60b9b77e1c535c44b55
54598 F20101123_AAAFOM baird_j_Page_161.pro
fd5e01552d5e854cd002a3cf16690f6f
0b4dfad747217b33328b4104c09384595aa297e9
4811 F20101123_AAAFNX baird_j_Page_138.pro
3e46889d6dcd5933287eab424676e0c8
0edcee46d7ad77ebbf16660d5a4264bf850d2eaf
44509 F20101123_AAAELK baird_j_Page_014.pro
dd1aa103d5716e6deb82f9a74d044ea0
1293f5d5ed89973b8cfe6f583e23f5db66cca7e9
35563 F20101123_AAAEKV baird_j_Page_160.QC.jpg
e71a35fad8534293903f095a94e4b579
1626dffff7976d02a64a80866b871eb9ac9c9103
2114 F20101123_AAAFPB baird_j_Page_017.txt
551a6b88ba5b3e163492a39214217488
1a27a08a9e8034459cd0246246185900acec45f4
54580 F20101123_AAAFON baird_j_Page_162.pro
89e669f9d724bfd828ac2cc853c74314
73453b275407f91d4be9d71f625c5e9eaab27cfb
4940 F20101123_AAAFNY baird_j_Page_139.pro
bb9c2e7afcfa5b24d6a4f89711ab947a
05d386c572f078958a11a42672baaf29b757cda3
2090 F20101123_AAAEKW baird_j_Page_027.txt
f68ad768d5c667e98deb124fd1126038
b565f4b02e9b8d72052cf5fbaa12ef40e0b8a06d
F20101123_AAAELL baird_j_Page_133.tif
b6219c96d3d411ed4ee3f23cd664e14a
a436dfe61b0c4920be0b4efe92eb0c58f4418171
2345 F20101123_AAAFPC baird_j_Page_018.txt
f7243685c41db5d7ff84698b06c0d08b
fd07acd55d6f3652c79a5e53b1f1da3ca68bddc3
6068 F20101123_AAAFNZ baird_j_Page_140.pro
0848e4212e01ffb6fb0ef8da2a8402d4
dc6267399f98daca5ed5bcbe7d27c4f6ebe5519e
5558 F20101123_AAAEKX baird_j_Page_142thm.jpg
701ea1d32ab1ce480795f28be391682c
deff7ce2a2f320c043911f0b5ce6c4e9d8251665
103960 F20101123_AAAEMA baird_j_Page_125.jpg
6a3f3610c95b89102bace3fd0dad90ee
22770093852cffc8645eb0f1b0a9e15376207664
2245 F20101123_AAAFPD baird_j_Page_019.txt
a15d6eba3a4ef17ab09af218d422ff52
f7ea90ae18bded3460baba60db037eb127b7f8ec
53336 F20101123_AAAFOO baird_j_Page_163.pro
340860eb8798e45eedf5593bacbe914b
60f14a07fdaa2e36864e9dade0dcea8a24835b15
1643 F20101123_AAAEKY baird_j_Page_012.txt
edb078c5ee234f0cc12deac43c6c04a8
1e44a16d95cc1c1ba49ea7071d9ec3f3ad7c2a54
27765 F20101123_AAAEMB baird_j_Page_143.QC.jpg
7d68f9e4545d48b796bf23e84daaf519
6729e2589e5266c26945eb525b4c5f5558f84eac
1051969 F20101123_AAAELM baird_j_Page_009.jp2
293a9153d1d11e82057d077461b7f83c
02fee2e1ed2770869cd1cd4465e1394dea82c4b5
1910 F20101123_AAAFPE baird_j_Page_020.txt
637be1f8d349ae5038f3c219a3783d95
06c4b7da2f0b3a9a1e471438685a71113ffa1a08
56213 F20101123_AAAFOP baird_j_Page_164.pro
b50aef6a8a41a0ab01a62a29b985d42c
d3f2dcf150218147306cf4ae02a17171d74589fa
103698 F20101123_AAAEKZ baird_j_Page_041.jp2
d1e56f45a501d2eb783b8149ff0a1952
72480b5997bf6e3c1e7e58ac3bd19b8df601689f
F20101123_AAAEMC baird_j_Page_008.tif
e739f89909d1070d54edbadda601b14f
3d89f6db2ec5e4599e5d83469aa4f38fecf0594a
1162 F20101123_AAAELN baird_j_Page_074.txt
0437eb8e9c67f19e5f6f9dcc5c71add8
64a140dc8567739a09725906e0056f65ddda29fa
2071 F20101123_AAAFPF baird_j_Page_022.txt
50b2ecd8495bcd4ca64c67e7d10042fd
3dbd03d2e3d6ba6181efe63a40ecd16603290570
50557 F20101123_AAAFOQ baird_j_Page_165.pro
854c1706509b25a3be21a5a666c479eb
51838573951a559851ece725bd257095548e747e
F20101123_AAAEMD baird_j_Page_056.tif
c742cd7c55dd5bd458d3d89f4e172479
3d06251695e0245ad9c968cdc9fdf393230d2486
47003 F20101123_AAAELO baird_j_Page_041.pro
2748544adcfc7e217e45a71991724083
61228ce326ca87d7424171b6e853892a6ad4989d
2610 F20101123_AAAFPG baird_j_Page_024.txt
b78e1bb4c7d924bef7aeac9e531aad2a
89a47c67bf8a42c6b8eb56b6172a2c1a73bcdad1
2848 F20101123_AAAFOR baird_j_Page_166.pro
08806fce5ffc534e9d757de21a0c1076
4e6ccc76b428c3ccc4494c7baf1b397c0d103b16
32698 F20101123_AAAEME baird_j_Page_028.QC.jpg
9f0ca15fd7d89be15696f598c21eebfe
0be9888f0e638c7080e9bed3f488355623614e01
1859 F20101123_AAAELP baird_j_Page_087.txt
3a358db0bbfd4e4319602baa05163473
f44d56807041ea7f4028e134f1000fc3a7d83bbe
3059 F20101123_AAAFPH baird_j_Page_025.txt
94cd34e5843752b5510719aa45d9143a
b00578bfbdb8d642539c1af50131dfe72fb1e3e9
399 F20101123_AAAFOS baird_j_Page_001.txt
058f793fef30903cf1329fab44c31a1d
5176c94b6a06fac977ff7d8dc7ad94a5e79e771c
8214 F20101123_AAAEMF baird_j_Page_051thm.jpg
7dbb7cbdca7d32f6897dafa9e7b326fe
e0816c608ca054b7e3074481983c7455f746b6ee
123247 F20101123_AAAELQ baird_j_Page_016.jpg
646f9bdf74a092d420b423712f2ab512
63f4e629c9522779f47a306300c0730393c41ee3
2054 F20101123_AAAFPI baird_j_Page_028.txt
b84f9019c871bda63708861b2d2bee4c
19344385a19a096be3bb786630df80d4c9d989d6
108 F20101123_AAAFOT baird_j_Page_002.txt
d1916e6eff1f3f1a6268b0496e270c31
a1638db6fa5e06347228e201dfecf36cfe052e4f
F20101123_AAAEMG baird_j_Page_094.tif
e7a39de713045ece3b56c63beb3ff0d4
9baac49e1b9cfc5389cc84406b81f21ad7301a89
141540 F20101123_AAAELR baird_j_Page_110.jpg
1df79efccbcdb5ac4d190b1eae6f5db4
ad76fcb607556439b1d1cec2579d01983c179fc4
2379 F20101123_AAAFPJ baird_j_Page_029.txt
24f965d371e93584bd0dcaa1db3f8470
9556198c972fb616fb815b72aa7a0e463b0c12b1
118 F20101123_AAAFOU baird_j_Page_003.txt
2a43383b07b20df1e83869e1c5672324
0c55fdd37c65e58798a185ef006f5b3be910cd4c
4370 F20101123_AAAEMH baird_j_Page_002.jpg
8f254c0cb4d97dd790521bf9759de59b
fa055242a883601296588e2fab0a8033609f83b4
111578 F20101123_AAAELS baird_j_Page_015.jpg
c251731f041c76dc93cdb384f0309881
1fcf103fa923d5b50d38d9a763c2b18a47512db4
2035 F20101123_AAAFPK baird_j_Page_031.txt
22cb48d73af0d516fb32c32856efb639
b22a868a124fb9f59c00fe081d3c094c23f317f1
1133 F20101123_AAAFOV baird_j_Page_005.txt
80024d2848fea16b6ffa2740dc7f9c37
df83fad90e980af208e6ba239c6271bc01e94cd8
1171 F20101123_AAAEMI baird_j_Page_105.txt
bdf52210770b2ee682c1dae75d311709
da9a347e0cb9e3243c11e70d5928a76441b54728
F20101123_AAAELT baird_j_Page_088.txt
31ee12bb9185467425b290ea8fb6c5a3
5f6202c412c590a676284d992f8ade45890edbc5
1785 F20101123_AAAFPL baird_j_Page_032.txt
a4070d1f4a66972c5cd9a70c438d89d5
a50fcfb217be5ff42e814c50c1d21babe701a95e
2278 F20101123_AAAFOW baird_j_Page_007.txt
a22f07321193a9f172dc5203775c5d67
39cb1559b725236361b4ec1d6f4750ea1476a074
9247 F20101123_AAAEMJ baird_j_Page_009thm.jpg
f2871e836ce3b835b25fa044974f5d88
fd4dfe500ad725da93ab904957912c025597d0fe
F20101123_AAAELU baird_j_Page_147.tif
36ba3447b5e40bbe14c3fbe434c7adda
f34911d3ec42cae69e204b1515ea0a630e7bec20
2416 F20101123_AAAFQA baird_j_Page_052.txt
631167b1222f7f2d959f90eede9822e5
b81e2d4ebfebc5be9419d84a2ef79d4098955849
632 F20101123_AAAFPM baird_j_Page_033.txt
6a5dc1d086e758298731a48bcd32e4f1
dd105987c5ea5044e227ebb50bd219b1e412d0df
2827 F20101123_AAAFOX baird_j_Page_009.txt
f61a44dbef5ca73c06e5faf9e5c0d45d
1b6ba523793ecd82979f6fb939ec4ef0443d2ee9
91198 F20101123_AAAEMK baird_j_Page_032.jpg
0f6063c987127664793697ba3a47afd0
c2e8820a107575c0936f90d86ecf053fabf06aa3
75698 F20101123_AAAELV baird_j_Page_008.pro
4c02166362323528ad3db6ea4bcb6232
5f74d53b0ebfbc839b2b8825fbf65fed98d6f581
1984 F20101123_AAAFQB baird_j_Page_053.txt
1d26933327595f9919aa66a40ac83ccf
d5a5c7b0b216de8ac90acd197b963ad1e63a905e
326 F20101123_AAAFPN baird_j_Page_035.txt
20d706dd5bc537ec8a3d9a11230be5ac
32cd62ff4ca3431c1b7c57fee360380109a724e4
599 F20101123_AAAFOY baird_j_Page_011.txt
327b69828443640a80193519a633feda
d9151d5b6377ed0e5aa85a240cb16a5c1ef242dd
106025 F20101123_AAAEML baird_j_Page_081.jpg
60913acb128d5489b2bcfd7bcd6574c8
c5108088eaa54b8f26321d5725acc680a5c985cf
8770 F20101123_AAAELW baird_j_Page_023thm.jpg
171442878a166eeb36ed812e9dcdf6dd
d691465d50d25af6bce1728f4ba6e5c950d17b3a
2025 F20101123_AAAFQC baird_j_Page_054.txt
f3efb3bc748ca16ff183e3c4f27bd7cb
57e085e006a8353766c7fee18a5509b7dc74fab3
239 F20101123_AAAFPO baird_j_Page_036.txt
9d9f5f889c073173d85678708fcb1182
c5b04f705843dc5126e6d5622928adfd29999496
1837 F20101123_AAAFOZ baird_j_Page_014.txt
53b6e73b7b50d74d477e2b953eca8bee
3f07edb94e00bee07715963ece859663def2a87e
106904 F20101123_AAAENA baird_j_Page_072.jpg
100fa075826c7db8cd8bddd835ad997b
9f120f831ec5f150c35d87ce80fbb43468d24a8f
63802 F20101123_AAAEMM baird_j_Page_039.pro
f40582857ee68b2634caeca7f75d4eb0
974a0a722413be83314da02470b55fd48fa7809d
6075 F20101123_AAAELX baird_j_Page_061thm.jpg
54ad021817bfad540a4d716ea56d5c72
62e985cd63cde7029b0fef7ae594d79d3085154d
1968 F20101123_AAAFQD baird_j_Page_055.txt
3a30d143c504da398e6133ff6c978c2f
1f51cfda3779b8233d71dbd663f5312fcc1a5769
100884 F20101123_AAAENB baird_j_Page_042.jpg
d27e5f69cb6b463321a120c9cce47120
6d32cc8e1787d0a5976d1bc010eacbf6f25b38dc
106687 F20101123_AAAELY baird_j_Page_088.jpg
fc01a720484cae42bf6ba4bf932c204f
4c3ca2aa21fd534d92d13126caf44d225db0c64c
2221 F20101123_AAAFQE baird_j_Page_056.txt
acf9a2fd99cd30b7312bf9101f49c873
e867ac1b3cd288270ed8615a62d88521858a8504
F20101123_AAAFPP baird_j_Page_038.txt
5f451ad58fba725a69ccf86ef8794d1b
1d9041de76d8a3058b78150c743b99447b74dc76
79397 F20101123_AAAENC baird_j_Page_025.pro
45713b8c4aae1623d16ea47d4868bbfb
30f037b6b616a38639265fd00844d6a80891a7c6
1051879 F20101123_AAAEMN baird_j_Page_065.jp2
994eabbfd7f75f012866207d3832e9ff
fe34dd65561fbd592e12288eab27ffea7c299d9e
F20101123_AAAELZ baird_j_Page_097.txt
a9e452b000e8fc6ec485e6578fc48cd5
c331c044bfc70169694f08d631ffcb24c07f5c29
2321 F20101123_AAAFQF baird_j_Page_057.txt
370df4f71a74cabc4328ed5ba81526cf
861efb6c98888e059ac123e91a7a92fc06d87722
2499 F20101123_AAAFPQ baird_j_Page_039.txt
4b03d8204f7063d1610d8200626439a9
6f9f9cbd4795497a5c65912705aeabe2055e58b6
110896 F20101123_AAAEND baird_j_Page_058.jp2
0852c40a41facbeadb1fafc7eea0a33e
c0bc489b36006e0c876b0dd19acd7f17f9eb7880
5740 F20101123_AAAEMO baird_j_Page_037.pro
851ceb9bcb924e284449a7a15e3a4abd
25499cc809ea8f6bcb5dfa9f8471eb89eb5236cb
2076 F20101123_AAAFQG baird_j_Page_059.txt
8205114d5224912ff81491ae8bf72cbc
65e29ca64e4d801a1c9f6e58bc24bc389fee8b32
1867 F20101123_AAAFPR baird_j_Page_041.txt
119e8f6acf3d2951914933b150d288a6
5574e3a3d1efcff415facda7b2bc356e2f8624cf
68925 F20101123_AAAENE baird_j_Page_077.pro
dac30e016a1027420f646603443be65c
e7b0c78174f0b16422943319e6137806045eecbf
80730 F20101123_AAAEMP baird_j_Page_132.jpg
cf585bc4f87a5aa98dd90bf4971e0b9d
7225aa959de547f86c5ae31564b99125bc8aee76
1393 F20101123_AAAFQH baird_j_Page_061.txt
3b28bb731f70dfdadb44ae9b8cdf6a31
dee587f8f849b5a4aaec56c47134ed48e102270a
1980 F20101123_AAAFPS baird_j_Page_042.txt
9666b4bfef96602e95d6b960fe6f74a5
aceb2a981837fe233fdbf0624468ad371ea7e336
321 F20101123_AAAENF baird_j_Page_137.txt
4e4142809bd91922b291b18fe75c92cd
f7f524840e0580e6d105f0e0374cc3d5a6f20413
8221 F20101123_AAAEMQ baird_j_Page_100thm.jpg
628127e5a2aeb701df8659a71454ebb0
a38f5ac5caa0af406260f2cd1cdfde72ae2cb771
850 F20101123_AAAFQI baird_j_Page_063.txt
0161c38d59b3c89f80850fc9afebfe22
87473edc98353766531fe88675bf0c198ab8c4df
F20101123_AAAFPT baird_j_Page_045.txt
5a7feb900cb93b44d90f23711f39195f
d8b0c94322c67ab034de547a1d14154659dd5d84
35106 F20101123_AAAENG baird_j_Page_023.QC.jpg
f7896406ff277b61a6444e3cf4864b42
6a86f3cfbcede933c71a8b45e5068f38dea964a4
F20101123_AAAEMR baird_j_Page_010.tif
a7201e399ad361e8c446873d4222d7c4
218ae0e55de8b86342a56421f21830d689fef27d
705 F20101123_AAAFQJ baird_j_Page_064.txt
dcd902a7b9a1fd50d93ef37c2c82c376
28764071656c99fa20ef1ef81c419cacc8b9a4cc
2039 F20101123_AAAFPU baird_j_Page_046.txt
4f2aab3a8d47234b4cb3daa61da5a85a
68052fcabe4f53c7f61a37e8ca3f2f5cc2ec2bbe
1051966 F20101123_AAAENH baird_j_Page_093.jp2
e4349283e16c095dbc8e4bd0b4d5611b
cbf4eb241b5b09caa96af57ac835f613a01ea611
522 F20101123_AAAEMS baird_j_Page_144.txt
f180e7eec1b008368c4ddc26c76a08b1
5a4baa996cd8cce40dafba2e666a2d2ddc2f4609
1990 F20101123_AAAFQK baird_j_Page_065.txt
98784c2a7055d98b2ffc761213fc73f9
6bb58314a602b5d84a65a6b9b5380fc6b93694b8
2298 F20101123_AAAFPV baird_j_Page_047.txt
babf2cae5e6f04f2c49d8db74dc2dc6e
993708720062248c92f9617672fa9b7642f0c6bd
105356 F20101123_AAAENI baird_j_Page_085.jpg
69dfe306106e2d8305eb6680a2ef9f8d
9645c3de209e39723e89f7a1f9c2a40bce6652ec
19379 F20101123_AAAEMT baird_j_Page_115.QC.jpg
73eceb2199d8f6ca3d18f5d41a9aa971
b3bba52a8aca610a49cbd4679569988b12eb7f4c
953 F20101123_AAAFQL baird_j_Page_066.txt
ec4883bf99b97b8ab09050ca643445a5
df69e2042c8885685d4beb3358d8ebc9cf2342f3
1834 F20101123_AAAFPW baird_j_Page_048.txt
203c88a9d3a0a4deb23e2d7ce21a1ff6
8e759f2e9e172a7d568f9f666788f674de440213
29168 F20101123_AAAENJ baird_j_Page_150.pro
f8386710e9b1039759d9f99f7b97ebca
9ce85b4664f51e93977be5e13ae289aa80a0d6f8
F20101123_AAAEMU baird_j_Page_044.tif
f3e6ad03ce3164cf9af1006620ffc93f
c0aac520228dc4c623b6993297feac8e93dddc56
1974 F20101123_AAAFRA baird_j_Page_089.txt
1c988e098edad83f54391d9e1014031a
6438dbd88347bef8a8f65edd82582d4a9ff69381
388 F20101123_AAAFQM baird_j_Page_067.txt
7cd0cd57d2330c6549e4d1b2d24aacc4
8b07e914c610892a5fc375025fc168bc58cda991
2674 F20101123_AAAFPX baird_j_Page_049.txt
ffeebe2192b8b779a477e5946ec1e89e
ea60ba938d641353c40cebd96f65a09e819c3a74
122029 F20101123_AAAENK baird_j_Page_161.jp2
5dc045c797c0ba4dc83934f04b5d03d4
2e0ba61e3b27acc3b087ce176da7c72bdfaac2eb
628117 F20101123_AAAEMV baird_j_Page_011.jp2
48489e653676af2116cbb5ec37f452e1
8a5c1464d6f94eb9ea54356259e2a6596c62832c
2006 F20101123_AAAFRB baird_j_Page_091.txt
12cf4d87dfe4ff98cdc09c0915d10d2d
f565982e52abaf3044cb07982305a502f9875bcf
227 F20101123_AAAFQN baird_j_Page_068.txt
e8c511cf92a3b16b174aa740bfcbf9ec
a6e2eca7eb160d090d03520b5f9b060bddde496d
2275 F20101123_AAAFPY baird_j_Page_050.txt
da371e70c598940daf866a234accfce4
0ed1587b74ce6ea8d9b6a02e9abaeefb26a30142
1898 F20101123_AAAENL baird_j_Page_084.txt
c0b9c78d6c7a906a485854c220eb724f
d1809bfcacd062aadd8508b7cbecf80fa1135cb9
97460 F20101123_AAAEMW baird_j_Page_041.jpg
d0e143c61bd76b72389a15dbadf55552
3e923ba8fbee2bfde481e04cdb2bec35576d7ec7
2888 F20101123_AAAFRC baird_j_Page_092.txt
a300e27f92df41111e97e792f845a672
ba5d3398da5d71b336c46d90869e1bf6dc8e06be
1095 F20101123_AAAFQO baird_j_Page_069.txt
3f5e11b700c817532d4ce228581e35d8
c2f1a350e8342ba4709b455dffd71b1a61b94cd6
2077 F20101123_AAAFPZ baird_j_Page_051.txt
04674987806b1da300353b9f52a69484
89abb78b3021e1f0f68b00be16d4e8e56389923f
130556 F20101123_AAAENM baird_j_Page_120.jp2
f7d0d9a3b0760910988c5146f369cd6c
a21cddcdadb7a2bafc9826c0c71b88f5d6a39501
32409 F20101123_AAAEMX baird_j_Page_154.QC.jpg
ebf65264471e8a27b620548a395dc3e2
1060f1c4a39f69124f4ac3a19faba4f4de22f8ed
385 F20101123_AAAEOA baird_j_Page_136.txt
b5441fcf525e8580cb78beb9e5dddaaa
d2c228b0149e0b6d06568cf8b9cbaf0a8482d82c
3076 F20101123_AAAFRD baird_j_Page_093.txt
8483a4af75263167e2365d08aae3e9fb
b6f7f779097d13f802f00eef1f3840f1aac3ea46
1024 F20101123_AAAFQP baird_j_Page_070.txt
c8180a78dbd15c6ae8e0033a142fa9e1
bd6b9fc1b890924a262f63e25c2c4fba21e30af7
F20101123_AAAENN baird_j_Page_108.txt
829ad3ab745c243c9ea2109e4cbe0288
cbede3d1f87baecfbf9708cc5e20983096144f3f
1469 F20101123_AAAEMY baird_j_Page_003.QC.jpg
bd93023ed4ee8de33937df15a54f2193
746f969f0a8e1062dad16eb1a3413ae6529c0f1d
63213 F20101123_AAAEOB baird_j_Page_150.jp2
cf5af60ae69c464cd3d3e971ec060b2e
503e2df4ce5d55e819d0453a1150b19795fb9265
2496 F20101123_AAAFRE baird_j_Page_094.txt
e6391ced68ed2dee93dcf4c34f33e8cb
0f0e02f73e924ddb78f29f94de23b6b8511cef4f
F20101123_AAAEMZ baird_j_Page_032.tif
2bd89e4e3b6d9839853797047c1ee7ba
04b51d7019488493606a551daac901ea1047e25f
2105 F20101123_AAAEOC baird_j_Page_079.txt
da2328fb0c3fcc706599bc6c9f50451e
d964401b2eeb19f25a081d6eebea108ae0a5c5c4
2176 F20101123_AAAFRF baird_j_Page_096.txt
7a88a27d1a7f39cf1f447a1dc35bb721
f0ce42fd592c9c3164b75d0101ee8cc27f4e5753
582 F20101123_AAAFQQ baird_j_Page_071.txt
e87045e2bb7d12c649ca111e7183c00f
f75cf54e9d934eed5d9ea9a3c1f6e5cdccda25db
112062 F20101123_AAAENO baird_j_Page_022.jp2
a9c4308c75abcea56e348b4ad31ebfeb
9dc3dedc30915bf1214a5438f99134b5807abbbc
46389 F20101123_AAAEOD baird_j_Page_048.pro
34fe598de9ba4d2d7dfaf4e9deb13f2d
47c5ad1a4796922d4c74ab899bf86ca7ae52a378
2391 F20101123_AAAFRG baird_j_Page_098.txt
f12710a5e5381c5f809f69bd4c8c4cc8
7e7549ddfea85804dc0cf918152ecb909ac8f8c5
266 F20101123_AAAFQR baird_j_Page_072.txt
9b4b20f4fb3152b09a0b6e8d227527d6
8ccc3090f1431478f4aecd29e2ab56057f2465ed
2107 F20101123_AAAENP baird_j_Page_085.txt
da3e1218576a6d9661a82af644ed0b05
ff182287085fc49788e081e7388afd40fb6336d2
79710 F20101123_AAAEOE baird_j_Page_013.jpg
f96952fbc873517aa52b8f53e062fb1b
aca544863ee08cb2fc82a51622bdb28d0ed73a43
1999 F20101123_AAAFRH baird_j_Page_100.txt
9ce524bd774223f4f5849cc0206675f9
6e75c3b43816bf0d6f7e20b29ecc34fedb9f3453
1862 F20101123_AAAFQS baird_j_Page_076.txt
6e9d0990d4a715a44abfe536a3ea2ab4
c34df6a0f7afe9cf7ec02b5b2a942be0ecee22cd
F20101123_AAAENQ baird_j_Page_127.tif
b6d423d22035ff2e653939cdec0f8811
784315d0e4467df064c98a228a9e8239a0383cd1
354 F20101123_AAAEOF baird_j_Page_132.txt
4d2227d17f249119390662449cefd8f3
7e0efe249e0bc0d40cc51263d5c71f71a0792bc7
2359 F20101123_AAAFRI baird_j_Page_101.txt
a09560e465f5f0b2057d3a148993defc
a52e2d3e71e4022503903290667b04de87d6856d
2681 F20101123_AAAFQT baird_j_Page_077.txt
b5b6450fc6d35e7fd83d17b0e28fc001
a9f2c055324ee41ae5626a3f76dee773f949add6
8066 F20101123_AAAENR baird_j_Page_143thm.jpg
e0f617479135280b16a8129c3165a009
80b90940a004adb8f1ee48f51d9dda8394b66a4a
5440 F20101123_AAAEOG baird_j_Page_137thm.jpg
d16852d7482caeb7d4df464a0e844e95
3cf0a9dd4abbe94b1cb442235aedd128542d9d97
2283 F20101123_AAAFRJ baird_j_Page_103.txt
71946fd56dd7e03a986740de80b28009
5db452ab7b3fab941803f540f76a36757949ba6e
2421 F20101123_AAAFQU baird_j_Page_078.txt
36de45117aab5c3ffdcbb51175c88baf
3f2fb02a0d627d02a8e7112296a13cacbc1ef777
94774 F20101123_AAAENS baird_j_Page_136.jpg
3b996e0b97173c5b9fb380a1b365721b
f76f1c0d30f477171cf0acaf93899f2b071aa665
112027 F20101123_AAAEOH baird_j_Page_047.jpg
ce53e23e8f5351b3450ada7df08bd5e6
4f414e21958c1f65597d6233388584361c1c6a82
1868 F20101123_AAAFRK baird_j_Page_104.txt
e3a796a8e8f50521edce202802363197
4c617714c351021a3d37a7a03f02ecf53f76a090
3629 F20101123_AAAFQV baird_j_Page_080.txt
13561d78a8b0a32da91415362d28415a
4c0f0286dc722188460e010fe94b21a21158de95
65325 F20101123_AAAENT baird_j_Page_115.jpg
c5521e283216a18359697d9e86664ec9
f0fe4764580bcc08de7ba430f3a1b3ed7bbba21d
46001 F20101123_AAAEOI baird_j_Page_149.pro
da0950bd19ff658eaa5084ad3f77d163
8cc3b243ac65ccc37707c1b72b584084b05d0d1b
277 F20101123_AAAFRL baird_j_Page_106.txt
422bb2dd6021ac5026abf8e0d0c6e2f6
b1caf3a238759a708ee663d9a1c51c21ffa13b64
2104 F20101123_AAAFQW baird_j_Page_081.txt
335231286e65e5cf8b44132ffbaf91b8
f80ad21f0f52487aae954afacd1363d202fdf608
33492 F20101123_AAAENU baird_j_Page_018.QC.jpg
45de5aabe6e67bf7eda07412792e6ac9
5b1ddcf7c6433155e0814353a030ce50b424bfe9
F20101123_AAAEOJ baird_j_Page_087.tif
5c3663acf86acc882f8d7741443c6d14
b3813b731fa687ce3a08bf20c493712f400b397f
2942 F20101123_AAAFSA baird_j_Page_126.txt
71cb675874fe74e8f5b3a0ec7cab5ae9
f961139cd320bc844360ca9891d656c061c509e2
F20101123_AAAFRM baird_j_Page_107.txt
8cff09c88ee8c6a02ca1d1dc1df66ed7
846e4d94c5cd4dde71eb364bb88b2cde8aeb627b
2182 F20101123_AAAFQX baird_j_Page_082.txt
47fbe318d6674da48d86c30f6654efcc
ce6a643f472af6528e6482c8c2b31c5074e1bb61
2804 F20101123_AAAENV baird_j_Page_016.txt
4954cf2cbf3211fa45bc5b0aa6d8f901
1c0b7fc5b875e8fc83563d9341f9ba387e398098
18069 F20101123_AAAEOK baird_j_Page_073.pro
ccfe96158e6002a33c4e0af0aa8001bf
2a085079858bec0276fe8a6569ab4fe82344b2f4
2548 F20101123_AAAFSB baird_j_Page_127.txt
b68353d332ae9678474607df9cf10bf9
7f9cbc030474c35d97fde4f93e9baa3157b94d81
247 F20101123_AAAFRN baird_j_Page_109.txt
4eb358d6163ca79628f193481ff3e027
1a68909f273bf92c811319eb236e41da5971822c
1896 F20101123_AAAFQY baird_j_Page_083.txt
c0db3dda546052b6660b8f1cd2be1d9f
58e936aa2d76787a1fe2f04b0ad6c1f61af7a0a9
108689 F20101123_AAAENW baird_j_Page_091.jp2
c01ed07718b037b57a1470ab21aa1d04
0b082384428c9d4dd7c30471fe72f6f4f9ec3ef7
98854 F20101123_AAAEOL baird_j_Page_051.jpg
3114c4410600c6ad98499a56dbc690aa
770d4196ba4e30e963bd0be20b76d648deb63bbd
2819 F20101123_AAAFSC baird_j_Page_128.txt
73ad215d0c9790991e3acef11c623ce5
8bbc48ee4cc4402e152999d43a3bc4150ba4958b
357 F20101123_AAAFRO baird_j_Page_110.txt
89093420f8625081472f69088c13bb28
e65fa73b3f355b752f8c766ca69a9af8f98139b8
2001 F20101123_AAAFQZ baird_j_Page_086.txt
4b4a4831b76c459eab27e282c32956ee
e975b738310667859974847f5b9d7e2948ffb154
1807 F20101123_AAAENX baird_j_Page_043.txt
d73fb243638d430dcfc04de0dfe28036
b6324edaa1e4f97fe5ca7c2b2f3a5295e661c47d
117872 F20101123_AAAEPA baird_j_Page_123.jpg
2fda3f04399bf82f5e6a74da01d2b6a5
7089b7ca8a81f16daa55e02803bf9d8ea60330f9
F20101123_AAAEOM baird_j_Page_135.tif
eeefdebcf72e5fdbfd1b147727e9e9f6
10ecf660c1db3f3a1100a2382b9566a026828d24
1969 F20101123_AAAFSD baird_j_Page_129.txt
fbea542d5bcce6d0a056b5e5b44e78cc
e33e3349b95dc109d263891686fdfe05216c0f04
458 F20101123_AAAFRP baird_j_Page_112.txt
321515e75b6ef5e6a03b5b3a5c43c7a7
08d417e0a0b2f7ed06b8021ea00356ca31b76eb1
8212 F20101123_AAAENY baird_j_Page_101thm.jpg
8d95fe50596fc2024a34adc2076390f0
ab4d8a8eca23baa785dc468efd307e03243d95c0
102620 F20101123_AAAEPB baird_j_Page_122.jpg
3e6e122ccdc8f0e79e23164ee1318399
996af5befddda0b6234f54f337e880d830384c25
114085 F20101123_AAAEON baird_j_Page_082.jp2
9c26d0bdab6c66e788db64b50c137cbd
189f62f75e55a4d06aa72a8b518471e5074d11ab
2366 F20101123_AAAFSE baird_j_Page_130.txt
35f4df852d78019469188a3485fc25fb
7b38a2c203e1664d4bb4a3dc0b4a360a524fd71f
1314 F20101123_AAAFRQ baird_j_Page_113.txt
16f926516cecc6ada3c3374ddd76c187
cd7584cb2de51d8ce676f456f1261f71de9a9446
37078 F20101123_AAAENZ baird_j_Page_008.QC.jpg
a44c6fa4ec07f485f93ed2737135a0c6
e5ee50cced4c598fd5ce9865bd1a9aeca66effac
52798 F20101123_AAAEPC baird_j_Page_051.pro
92e5ae4e128151aa35ce7acd716a6f86
b6c908228ecf8d5043510a3b846b78ce3c90e102
33192 F20101123_AAAEOO baird_j_Page_053.QC.jpg
6a5de3eec2479a5f95c2cfdb9fc8086d
edbc034d5e4341f0f69f20c2036a0451dffd3495
204 F20101123_AAAFSF baird_j_Page_131.txt
7450c2a00ab47c9c322bd3b9d72f9964
c88508b2c7f47bbf84f635ba454474c1c3362a5d
36030 F20101123_AAAEPD baird_j_Page_025.QC.jpg
6a9d2ed06e3ffcff0e8901c551033e64
adea176bdeb230feb381ddec1e419c4ceaaa25cf
1139 F20101123_AAAFSG baird_j_Page_133.txt
05d9a099751e9fc43c95870857f47c1e
61aef6ee8b446fd6c473ec22730eba6d8d0f04aa
363 F20101123_AAAFRR baird_j_Page_114.txt
2f652b34d062c79c2ddc80c56ac35a7a
d9c833e888131d56d05a5666218f4d0010177b2a
57262 F20101123_AAAEPE baird_j_Page_007.pro
b1042b9272768d8910c56869c826ef4c
ace3abcb819d1236a69dd1d842725537ffe84184
8838 F20101123_AAAEOP baird_j_Page_160thm.jpg
0c731e72a8aead50bb3ded93cbb85e89
39d487506238312e2d6d7476067dbc0711f9e230
337 F20101123_AAAFSH baird_j_Page_134.txt
b10e635f53ad0d9a4c864e0bcee13890
6ed43506eba081fcbc55984bffc31574dce37b93
426 F20101123_AAAFRS baird_j_Page_115.txt
c7a46d7ca60c740b07ed4f0cc6481941
d269807d23d46d9a25b2623175d1eb1447a61adf
8557 F20101123_AAAEPF baird_j_Page_152thm.jpg
4c7683fbdc69695f5d4ce874cd6cabb1
87454b09dac72b4dd61aefe7ebdcec051b2c3459
1051963 F20101123_AAAEOQ baird_j_Page_134.jp2
2a739a91ed5071aadb4553dddcc80c35
017d8290ad617dd5e2dc14c4dcfe463413bf72f7
484 F20101123_AAAFSI baird_j_Page_135.txt
fd1a4d7745628a55812d8de13184eaca
c16887c9891f1ec7a55dbe8bb4d14bc8d0a5d851
271 F20101123_AAAFRT baird_j_Page_117.txt
1a6c0e205cac956253c6f9a0a57b03fe
c0bc6114ab3f7f8823e4b6b95f13f2ba7e9e5cd8
2199 F20101123_AAAEPG baird_j_Page_163.txt
bc046dc3785abd2ffff2b1edb9fe2f0e
b5de07cec309a58bdc358a4290a27baba035803b
8219 F20101123_AAAEOR baird_j_Page_021thm.jpg
6bae01727201df206cc79b6107a6fd10
22b117bae2736dcf91ad2fc68106d77e97b31df1
248 F20101123_AAAFSJ baird_j_Page_139.txt
d91bec5d23d13bcbebb36f29a061b159
f239c701dad2624479b451d4736a2d990564228b
2162 F20101123_AAAFRU baird_j_Page_119.txt
6cd41482440531dbf485eba76bcbcea1
119cf3b8fa000099a8f20c14fbbed701954d433e
113030 F20101123_AAAEPH baird_j_Page_098.jpg
7d20e7b314eeb9829d1f536536da57c5
3f446bf6fdcc2e5b75b9734f7e3d2f4a8ada2462
8459 F20101123_AAAEOS baird_j_Page_139thm.jpg
0b4b4f4beb48f85a5b2db501eb7c5e67
6fdca6461aaca102709fa2a4c99d10c3bc74b529
448 F20101123_AAAFSK baird_j_Page_141.txt
d5f9f7acf3e8e444a84cc55e8e813fc8
19786fca44af617794746ac1db8ba97ca87088dd
2240 F20101123_AAAFRV baird_j_Page_121.txt
49161a3bf91232512fc86132f985d8b4
0afdf521dacf688395c0b6e3096ec03195df6ef1
1051978 F20101123_AAAEPI baird_j_Page_151.jp2
38de883ec94bd53998ee85a0d5e336ae
1223e7f8a56202368c237dd37fe828e6cb612fe6
119991 F20101123_AAAEOT baird_j_Page_073.jpg
89442e0a1f5d648d26d7e59d4d79b42c
0a0b8268407b6a006568cc808c3a5993a33d7072
389 F20101123_AAAFSL baird_j_Page_142.txt
fb70819e2c31b81ef2b4998f10b220d2
8d26c523dfb97ab674c1b801089ca72b062ad265
2264 F20101123_AAAFRW baird_j_Page_122.txt
4303a0f269ddd50d063008bb485dad84
acc4fe6f15a3ebcb9835ef998001e868efe6cc91
33496 F20101123_AAAEPJ baird_j_Page_162.QC.jpg
8b774f242e87fb5904847121c906abcb
835c602288f1d76990d4342ece88d9f8b87fae54
692 F20101123_AAAEOU baird_j_Page_075.txt
f859f72fb55e42d0e666fb66e52930d7
036fefb070f14270ad441028742afbc5b37f2107
10233791 F20101123_AAAFTA baird_j.pdf
318bdd1ab3978df9052cbe4f3f0e684f
79607397357cc965f3ea67292ea3fc2e43701f51
460 F20101123_AAAFSM baird_j_Page_145.txt
9a536c5634d7a2a9aea6da375a7d6fbb
68c60f4bb9418993c3fe285ae1d411ffd6200a9b
2501 F20101123_AAAFRX baird_j_Page_123.txt
fe12810bb42332f635d0fca7663cb885
f09cfdf2c61fda21470370928915f7daf8fe9da9
107215 F20101123_AAAEPK baird_j_Page_055.jp2
ea21266fc08fe049695aff5a65e76cac
e4b79110c70d3b64b894ab8eac71086fbf660bd3
29097 F20101123_AAAEOV baird_j_Page_118.QC.jpg
32a2e65797ffa9cf3cb74dbd4c05e842
1fee6998de583c531b795f698040e0f9ff0fe99c
F20101123_AAAFTB baird_j_Page_001thm.jpg
5b411ede4c7d976d31c46300a7363ed0
cff465c798d13b9dd91dc640498507af24be3739
442 F20101123_AAAFSN baird_j_Page_146.txt
a9ea4a5dac1680c0abc271f35b3bebd3
a28b53488afe3ffbcd60356d777054f13a452d8a
3084 F20101123_AAAFRY baird_j_Page_124.txt
7cbbaa301ef8c39b8ea68360156dc887
aaca4f7d278843e29d7b70463fd719105272e468
5871 F20101123_AAAEPL baird_j_Page_107.pro
1bfa06fabbb85fd9f6c048b339c51dd7
2407ce30d2af3afb5cd5331c617249d3e4ff6345
F20101123_AAAEOW baird_j_Page_006.tif
c2098224f7ca7df3b0607271a8de90a6
9d4fa6dadc7a890efd803d2594d457a8c2c1f43e
6952 F20101123_AAAFTC baird_j_Page_001.QC.jpg
d113ec79962d11148ea005065c7f7565
9abb1e84061c9e1a699a4eb5e651ac6b63614da8
469 F20101123_AAAFSO baird_j_Page_147.txt
4df5c4f0c5707fdc17a5931aec14d409
3d95a78224ffc1f0d12c4a39d2c0868051c213da
2658 F20101123_AAAFRZ baird_j_Page_125.txt
a65158d7f4a980a3d1b608d1ba8fbee8
f7a3a510d206d274f9a7ecec042fb6d9a29ae5da
F20101123_AAAEQA baird_j_Page_124.tif
91a8273855a5f6ee0e07089af5a4834d
3b135cdf86d36645da14e0e1aa7ad71e95a5cfb5
35905 F20101123_AAAEPM baird_j_Page_120.QC.jpg
8144196907c590e02101489fa1d0adf2
edc32c941602906c4f780f59a79c42fe1572e838
379 F20101123_AAAEOX baird_j_Page_116.txt
8696c9966153aebf7bad13c28ac5b43d
3bff2920cc8fcccc5e11c4cb50a6f810477a3952
1425 F20101123_AAAFTD baird_j_Page_002.QC.jpg
0c5f2b8472a356c17f0f08aee85283bc
82c756bd88f3d5dac42f8e103bd4eaa677e38409
1199 F20101123_AAAFSP baird_j_Page_150.txt
541eb2c1bd4631d57695bac4e2ff9d58
e31d3f33d4552790b045145b66233f35a8bea226
10311 F20101123_AAAEQB baird_j_Page_166.jp2
8691977f016839d302f85a00dc316ad0
27dbe55b7920a4a5ac21bc4941c14ad6fd2d77b2
1051976 F20101123_AAAEPN baird_j_Page_007.jp2
3bbf7690876861fb64ce9ee98f069e57
c90a92b28c36215ff307c0b0ff7622744488ea0c
8113 F20101123_AAAEOY baird_j_Page_017thm.jpg
28062a50275d9ef264c26617967aeabf
7b1d103f010005714d88752dff689d2a9fc75881
588 F20101123_AAAFTE baird_j_Page_003thm.jpg
b1bba0691d31ce0788cce045179ec4a0
340f037fb34c022be8a3b9427b72ee87f6229236
F20101123_AAAFSQ baird_j_Page_153.txt
403a975ee9f131dbea8c078d51f6bc0e
28c4e94aa7a678f0d5b895a30640b3f199db8d0c
103693 F20101123_AAAEQC baird_j_Page_086.jpg
46cde1e86fa5c6d96489650859c4d4a5
7f2ab70ee409054f390ee49f195f765f7a1f403b
33487 F20101123_AAAEPO baird_j_Page_161.QC.jpg
3ba7e6a77d862b011079702b40f1f619
d7069fd05216acb4f7155a61e1d0a8944b9eb716
8209 F20101123_AAAEOZ baird_j_Page_019thm.jpg
93086c9f0f2c134cc8f791590fe98828
277c5b61c7e0ff1fb53fabb084b860309060dd46
7632 F20101123_AAAFTF baird_j_Page_004thm.jpg
125fc002ba6b042c1d8ded68c8ed5dc4
c502f74680f018085ca8382230095411170713a6
2192 F20101123_AAAFSR baird_j_Page_154.txt
8aa56b60e10b0931396164d785cde098
8cfc6bc6dcafd3eeef654f3f184bfdf00f3831b3
F20101123_AAAEQD baird_j_Page_055.tif
ec753f5ccef2c4eb5ded03c7a61caf59
3f944d92aeabf82403c8c9bcacf6226f0b591367
129318 F20101123_AAAEPP baird_j_Page_157.jp2
951f60091ee7cbd9094cebc992cf7643
dddce302e78a03a1f84008edc8684933409848da
30373 F20101123_AAAFTG baird_j_Page_004.QC.jpg
ef3f661877126812ddd533b373b6442a
58d3a80a93ace0d579ce8990f5857b43de3e5dc2
F20101123_AAAEQE baird_j_Page_023.tif
c46cbd9beb5497910922c949df331aa8
b2f0f40517ec7c5110457058728f047040b93451
19916 F20101123_AAAFTH baird_j_Page_005.QC.jpg
8d8e51d7147eed073800f19e91dfddcb
f2e00f970a15fb92ac17c16f06ee02ee8a80cefe
2228 F20101123_AAAFSS baird_j_Page_155.txt
d7618d199d26bae7ba7dfd89659691e7
bee00c92232569ea6e91331a5e152a491002d861
135392 F20101123_AAAEQF baird_j_Page_067.jpg
336609fce452708caa9df18a508c6124
22575a4b2ab893a497c9ebd9c243537b6b0f3e88
F20101123_AAAEPQ baird_j_Page_060.tif
e01231ad254ed0edd33ed98a301f9e1b
3d7b85c72f97fb7c6a10ead323c8b50a9811bdc3
24207 F20101123_AAAFTI baird_j_Page_006.QC.jpg
99ce9a225fe0a62bd691c17555f6801a
fc881d83d43c3139f0f19220961b2e9814dfe6c6
2320 F20101123_AAAFST baird_j_Page_156.txt
393950abec53d3ce83be3a2e349e74c9
bd9f91e9b955cf2aeb67631134d851072f8dd8cc
F20101123_AAAEQG baird_j_Page_058.tif
3796b163b6f1925843e4ede11a4fb697
963ec56a6ae8ab970e732641de969b3a4459b7f9
21405 F20101123_AAAEPR baird_j_Page_133.pro
f22ba53d7cb80e16939cdad37aaac48f
be7e7b2fbbd676f7967f7a73e1aece65d8f10eff
7069 F20101123_AAAFTJ baird_j_Page_007thm.jpg
3e4cad2f0181f30bc8e605efd8e43fde
3b5948d0cd2c5c37ffce9c0eb9f8aade9e0703d9
2286 F20101123_AAAFSU baird_j_Page_157.txt
3533dd06f4a33f2fb771367126ef59b1
be8add922a045c109710de9df5f4e49694827eae
35398 F20101123_AAAEQH baird_j_Page_158.QC.jpg
f2cb3104c17e73a2f7339c7c2c704ea8
3aad73e80e6a173371eab80d5accff0c6ca4bea7
91860 F20101123_AAAEPS baird_j_Page_084.jpg
98dce156ccc4942792311a56c823bea9
68e7336049bf67d7ad12dd13ac13574f9a8197ba
9204 F20101123_AAAFTK baird_j_Page_008thm.jpg
27ca4a7b27483c131fd1f07879722c10
f8132054d7f655f97bf9575183f1dae6f2ee3466
2282 F20101123_AAAFSV baird_j_Page_159.txt
8d31b122463e98cf87605ed35b370948
449268746e7e2606612dd539e56592106af44afe
1544 F20101123_AAAEPT baird_j_Page_013.txt
3dd1042a709a981a0e8600039e3d3453
c611064f25479934431197c2ce265252cc5e2a5f
474 F20101123_AAAEQI baird_j_Page_143.txt
fc50a2dc012015b5bc32d9db353fd063
67955c9f7b68274cb7cba1a6d9a2aadd05d66447
38607 F20101123_AAAFTL baird_j_Page_009.QC.jpg
7b84b66c24ede3cda9c8fe8aa8a41f85
1b48efc566666ad9cb96f4932ccace187a9d2726
2312 F20101123_AAAFSW baird_j_Page_160.txt
4877e8337ba8ee9fb8304f54c1ee8a83
699bfcca398d00ccc639f194c0a8b40eddc970b5
7999 F20101123_AAAEPU baird_j_Page_132.pro
18c94380786922690c58f0b8ba9f6663
881a497ba91933d8c98a92d6506148c2232a153b
8075 F20101123_AAAEQJ baird_j_Page_058thm.jpg
adb036729faf518f339545b5597dcd0d
829a75b2e05a3aa3021371ed509c265d8fdc29db
31030 F20101123_AAAFUA baird_j_Page_020.QC.jpg
0a3fe4f9300b0f57a2824a27d8b54cd0
8308c8e019aefec53124618aa9936908af374da1
37176 F20101123_AAAFTM baird_j_Page_010.QC.jpg
87e6b6cd488baf7818d8172ede190f52
719545ce68f898bd42101498c3c469382f5f4eab
2274 F20101123_AAAFSX baird_j_Page_161.txt
4d7e87252f8875e46a84c3bee4680c03
6b4310cefec9a4b2ebee56f8cb877289f4d0b922
1051974 F20101123_AAAEPV baird_j_Page_020.jp2
9ef230ab4ba220269e36105ef29b7a6d
f42045a86d4fed10d7f544e7b18f2df6900a18d9
18990 F20101123_AAAEQK baird_j_Page_106.QC.jpg
05ee7876d85f95e6cec97da7fe1e62c0
757e71d991d69042c42f15320d93ada261a86f81
8120 F20101123_AAAFUB baird_j_Page_022thm.jpg
fe7984579d2fcef839a22941b06ba258
7bc0c9ccbf49f90daebdefcfd398bf324861b7d2
2664 F20101123_AAAFTN baird_j_Page_011thm.jpg
fdef127770f5dc54dd936dcafba5a15e
15c77db51ffd7cc2a3e927143c02819ade28bb0e
2067 F20101123_AAAFSY baird_j_Page_165.txt
12448b845425164fedc30220dd3364f9
7ac2984ece38d25c14618c8d424d165d02fb95f8
F20101123_AAAEPW baird_j_Page_002.tif
fb8763667cba50fe266eff1df007da64
1c9734c388c2a5938db289775743edc9ef8ad604
72990 F20101123_AAAEQL baird_j_Page_016.pro
bbbb8b6d29eba7a7f7300578915c8b3e
901e28c4a080c0e3d40c8ed1f6cf7fd119162086
33563 F20101123_AAAFUC baird_j_Page_022.QC.jpg
4ae78c50138b3175dcad1a85deb75a69
9bfa3bc35450aec8036016d8ddb71c41d3ea54a1
10730 F20101123_AAAFTO baird_j_Page_011.QC.jpg
da2abb0115485f1df1b7bd1abbe30136
1d40300e5ac6814cec893361171be21f9aa072cf
150 F20101123_AAAFSZ baird_j_Page_166.txt
522a4fe45368459f78f2665580b3db72
f5fdcbd48b1c9b51f905cfcfd74d92d88b659718
122512 F20101123_AAAEPX baird_j_Page_154.jp2
a2997155ce494f2fb8986f4c25d87ce2
db765c6c44a5c2a1c8f2fe327deb27701070997b
2336 F20101123_AAAERA baird_j_Page_164.txt
e4b3c4d5715043b2c0ec8a083b28255b
791fdfc4711d05ee27a9095fafdb2591540b798d
7814 F20101123_AAAEQM baird_j_Page_090thm.jpg
b5db537d4d27647f6bdf2a41f5bfd421
7cf1f2091832dc63cb8e220accdec8d64402d8ad
8697 F20101123_AAAFUD baird_j_Page_024thm.jpg
dcbbb964154d522d182f0d2a44c2d29f
6053caa8a567d54b958678856df57786f2ca7c9d
6160 F20101123_AAAFTP baird_j_Page_012thm.jpg
99c105458787d101c1ed461b8187c92f
fdc926985015cf65115a6d6315bcc295f9bee905
8527 F20101123_AAAEPY baird_j_Page_026thm.jpg
a371d95d6f157ba1c93bd95968a456fc
d84ff6da2b3584a9a75373700d8e359b9c0bb6cb
21233 F20101123_AAAERB baird_j_Page_135.QC.jpg
aa2622133f3e5bfe18767c7080aa969d
c737820315a1babab1126c12522728642b0e5b91
2618 F20101123_AAAEQN baird_j_Page_030.txt
dfcfe1f3d066d388e88968fdaabb0064
d0b9446b62feb819ad831f5b026e492105b071bf
8844 F20101123_AAAFUE baird_j_Page_025thm.jpg
6385da3db75e3b27392bf5116597778e
a624e7f182fccb962ec2d27a61e1f7844092ebe4
6623 F20101123_AAAFTQ baird_j_Page_013thm.jpg
dafa99f768c3039465a7e321cf01622c
935d62e0409435696c18ec4cca3ecd10ce82740f
8413 F20101123_AAAEPZ baird_j_Page_142.pro
7f332a064f5e0e964d5cb734faa9e80b
2fb5c78346265ca6ec7a4b3bc40159ebc411dd0d
4967 F20101123_AAAERC baird_j_Page_005thm.jpg
c63a00ce04fd5f7e236ad2b32f2bce07
8c562f93ad3e51476e94653105681f2f15d23a91
F20101123_AAAEQO baird_j_Page_161.tif
baa4026ca681484702ef7f53213d3f7a
d855240c46948dd59bb56387515ccb2401d2aa6f
8056 F20101123_AAAFUF baird_j_Page_027thm.jpg
046dbeb442bddede3eaf2889104df4ff
82302af9252b33c0e431395a236da4b84ced8dcf
7297 F20101123_AAAFTR baird_j_Page_014thm.jpg
16c0c229040d77e4d38bd5d66967fbbf
0b28ee8753ea1169981f13950245c225b1226ac1
284 F20101123_AAAERD baird_j_Page_140.txt
d672a4087a19ee40b86e46370a9d01f8
42447b632ef6b3ec80e544a41d54bab2e3389c5a
2084 F20101123_AAAEQP baird_j_Page_021.txt
a942f33f6ae42668ba5cdbe2eb7ac608
8d7be55db3ed548c3d93547832891b16d36889de
8315 F20101123_AAAGAA baird_j_Page_123thm.jpg
569bc160905efade30b9d41a7d0dcc0d
6d08a32567bd9238d5489a1b292807b17254c047
31850 F20101123_AAAFUG baird_j_Page_027.QC.jpg
816eaa259662bde046628bf9308b3724
500db3635f5b9af2186a4e071fe0f9877d82df52
28127 F20101123_AAAFTS baird_j_Page_014.QC.jpg
56de0964b14886a823d8a6c8aaf91e7b
72b960303ae873f7603078adf4c90c7d51b08c45
F20101123_AAAERE baird_j_Page_111.tif
c31bc7ac3a7fd2145ee57bb696caec72
2dc0d574d35c05233de8b3bf718befa8efdd0d81
1891 F20101123_AAAEQQ baird_j_Page_090.txt
67b3bffa7d0b0a9e0e86c9c79b70acf5
8558c9aeb2afaff6a847a7999d1994a57e27ed98
34355 F20101123_AAAGAB baird_j_Page_123.QC.jpg
849a15757f9bb56ff0a7dbceed4eb80a
be99cb8ceb6fc2f0c0d0ab55255525e3446188ca
8138 F20101123_AAAFUH baird_j_Page_028thm.jpg
5657c5722a79c8c4efee118da661b324
1a465e8f820cd91a353a7b934ea87ff3be689100
1051980 F20101123_AAAERF baird_j_Page_072.jp2
d56a427858b0d774bcc99321b6a1d54a
88595b613542c8fc13a4289e70cd4366ddb04863
8648 F20101123_AAAGAC baird_j_Page_124thm.jpg
4b6253bfd886833a7b158681b8b9dbfb
a5d3558aa02237a84e1985ebac991a76f65bd24d
7979 F20101123_AAAFUI baird_j_Page_029thm.jpg
d44b95314e9253f3507ecd0580b4240a
cf9338efacc939c377eaa01598df8b0ae68aa713
8137 F20101123_AAAFTT baird_j_Page_015thm.jpg
38637188421c94734d33f9f13903cabb
be95d64be62b8076040bf71991e8971e678416fc
83706 F20101123_AAAERG baird_j_Page_033.jpg
e8fc9ee2f6280d158b1411693cfba162
5ad81632f03b10e9a0b2ead91e937467ae7bb796
6905 F20101123_AAAEQR baird_j_Page_134.pro
5b31f6c64cbac5246b933542d4f0c2fe
0eb2037b92674e571158f9867b05014da98e701d
7452 F20101123_AAAGAD baird_j_Page_125thm.jpg
a3b1d84a79fc5c2ef2d88652646c2118
dbd69b26bab521edf214d734934c0f957dd14701
8432 F20101123_AAAFUJ baird_j_Page_030thm.jpg
d4804bc37f39ea39d886a46fe7319864
2a8d4f5edcdae594c431f0e3e153ebffeca7fe4d
34795 F20101123_AAAFTU baird_j_Page_015.QC.jpg
99ace8a6d568d65fa0d6b92e965a9cbb
f6c79dad33d581f378cc62c470700d84af6bed0a
2401 F20101123_AAAERH baird_j_Page_095.txt
638ca710eb051ebf41029d25bab3ac84
eb64a4faee38af94d039aec3e47add98ebd77075
1663 F20101123_AAAEQS baird_j_Page_003.pro
15ca46b4c84844189bb48081e9c456e1
af92d65f0dfff98114aaa9deb0510445da6b67c9
35412 F20101123_AAAGAE baird_j_Page_126.QC.jpg
2327cdca0e3142f11531a40a5af2f579
b88fac53a1dc737f7af951133fd5ed2241f6bb44
33997 F20101123_AAAFUK baird_j_Page_030.QC.jpg
d12f1f78a385fde4f05437485b3f3551
401330c8d5d5523ac01247e7081589dcbbf56ae7
8816 F20101123_AAAFTV baird_j_Page_016thm.jpg
68810d5715c015f1b3aab0a8c5d54a39
6481a11a700284e5406b0ebe4f9d0facf3862731
7806 F20101123_AAAERI baird_j_Page_097thm.jpg
b39e4273a214f60e24a399508b93d49a
2472ce08149bbf184b12a0ef8828b32ff6173f0e
6059 F20101123_AAAEQT baird_j_Page_035.pro
f7dd8afa18160600a79afad01d0d499c
f85c4abc8056286034a74125d4d86467762c788b
8258 F20101123_AAAGAF baird_j_Page_127thm.jpg
8ddaa0efd32b98c92c5353ab41adb6f8
eeb32f625de016e836b1b482918890ed90ae441d
8599 F20101123_AAAFUL baird_j_Page_031thm.jpg
afa0aaa262e54b46dcdebf11bc1ef86b
bad556eefe2670e99a525384b31eeb069f09f198
31661 F20101123_AAAFTW baird_j_Page_017.QC.jpg
b3316d454cf5b1c6fc2fcc016d2942b5
ecaa61c549110c229a70be332ce5c67c87000280
21669 F20101123_AAAERJ baird_j_Page_001.jpg
7c526fa38ff0e1301edbb69a9f86f279
7585c0a8b02628b293774a6624517f7b44a49587
F20101123_AAAEQU baird_j_Page_027.tif
62be85f0670bbd17fda5c38fd7e60f04
b14ed5eaf735b25a13bad09cb2d81db13de720ab
34348 F20101123_AAAGAG baird_j_Page_127.QC.jpg
580c2f109470b7c2ef8159653f16efb1
b9e444f7cbb3615ff3d96cb7690d3bcc604d5967
8767 F20101123_AAAFVA baird_j_Page_040thm.jpg
83e17e6cc25c79872796ca497f77f9b5
18847dfbbdcf769c394d5d2508b24c35f684931a
34068 F20101123_AAAFUM baird_j_Page_031.QC.jpg
f93169806a1517ce3aaf5ca0f8bcaf65
6d04cad5b3e472c1d3d63563ff09d6d772cec8eb
8381 F20101123_AAAFTX baird_j_Page_018thm.jpg
0fe8d074863c87e036a3d65b86c31ad7
5972fa10866e4b1f268339754914e50ce7e9a42b
105838 F20101123_AAAERK baird_j_Page_119.jpg
dd5af9fae9f47d249f17c820b02d53a0
5b691871e6bb81de09289c947b1ad1f2f0360933
57558 F20101123_AAAEQV baird_j_Page_137.jpg
89931c211f1bfbe98230724fbb4326a8
73e96fbc97b4eaeee21f0468f2269e6eceac6efb
9051 F20101123_AAAGAH baird_j_Page_128thm.jpg
1bb9303cc84cf8fa0fdf23add265d96f
660a704f7bceae24e022e53fa7ecb3598604f4b8
37207 F20101123_AAAFVB baird_j_Page_040.QC.jpg
b9aa30cc9323f142dedbfc8499665c23
ac87f6ce89bc2d9b7c13948d0d04e2204ba31626
7292 F20101123_AAAFUN baird_j_Page_032thm.jpg
77eb625e0a8e0fdd5f7b3f37c52045eb
3689b1dd9302d0bce0c3076bccf0b49d6a5e3004
32657 F20101123_AAAFTY baird_j_Page_019.QC.jpg
76fcee0d4cfa113d8dc2bdcaf18ef49b
e5ef9b4d200f72182e01f3cecbaf4bc2f9bf15fd
21378 F20101123_AAAERL baird_j_Page_109.QC.jpg
ec0acdd72cd8d8834a175fe74093f54c
80f93142123d87e2cff7f6885521ae627659b905
34961 F20101123_AAAEQW baird_j_Page_061.pro
d7aec21e831a2c66a16d968f1be8c5bc
1e5733b8a9ae0352a844bc5db404b70dd79d6d50
7790 F20101123_AAAGAI baird_j_Page_129thm.jpg
1508061fe8e1b0b54b44d93cac8c4c44
f874f62a08a8b61492dcc6f39dcf76ff37c7b007
7896 F20101123_AAAFVC baird_j_Page_041thm.jpg
637c0f245c2a8280f7b14aeeaeee5725
a43158ed02132233299b1d2bdbbdfaff1a925329
29859 F20101123_AAAFUO baird_j_Page_032.QC.jpg
1456fa605e9a98deed4c2d985725c553
4d7d1acf818a92697844affad884943704d3a10a
8029 F20101123_AAAFTZ baird_j_Page_020thm.jpg
3ffc2b39ee9d454d7d7a360b95e9029f
f3433daa4ede024cbfa50dee05692024abbdb113
56563 F20101123_AAAESA baird_j_Page_153.pro
ed34d7c1a9dbfa9888117b68bb465b46
e9297645bcfbcc58d56197527864b5fba7fe15ba
F20101123_AAAERM baird_j_Page_145.tif
630ea3b345bb4d8e40764ea8399ae6c2
bd7ebe53eff88b8d925ed3f9a68dd2898f0227a2
132066 F20101123_AAAEQX baird_j_Page_158.jp2
607b307ac20e45ed64e2becf2f2e37f0
596f86836477a2a132979af46a90e553cf429136
30235 F20101123_AAAGAJ baird_j_Page_129.QC.jpg
d68e9daaa0a2a39dbed8de667d256011
c38567897acd736a3b63f5a4cf7c652261e97edd
31602 F20101123_AAAFVD baird_j_Page_041.QC.jpg
bfe8c05b095f43dba41edd7cb6258eb3
29290914091dadbf7a67b78b9762748554358e04
6263 F20101123_AAAFUP baird_j_Page_033thm.jpg
cfe7ee71172c117a51ee62d13b70c6b5
f7d3156aa88a298d8d032c0065a5e6092a608619
46888 F20101123_AAAESB baird_j_Page_087.pro
4b4da074590a967d95232509d45afafc
2da3600dfb06322601bafaf9dfac17c5a5afd5f7
591 F20101123_AAAERN baird_j_Page_062.txt
51c724f832b0e6c4ef0b347caec75080
1c064692074dff32f4fc89c009b0da31cb012ae5
31400 F20101123_AAAEQY baird_j_Page_048.QC.jpg
4123361b489902f874d1f1a38c050a1d
8be8ee49899bb21e2dce657de09fc3f65ffc460b
33053 F20101123_AAAGAK baird_j_Page_130.QC.jpg
f797678330cf5c02503a8024449f3809
a9f3868820d7f6bae588ed540b556a416de84a29
F20101123_AAAFVE baird_j_Page_042thm.jpg
6ee5d9db83547d07a1dc8db7f3fc16c4
ae35a2c1a049a48c37518b97a3e6a7224c5b5a70
22117 F20101123_AAAFUQ baird_j_Page_033.QC.jpg
ef5e0b356b24a21517df8afc857082b4
37c7d26e546cdea25a35a148d285abe4c8806536
2091 F20101123_AAAESC baird_j_Page_026.txt
16147b0817b9046090a500f7339faec5
5a7832ab880004702ab95e8d6f4aecd9a40d2377
33081 F20101123_AAAERO baird_j_Page_021.QC.jpg
e7cf7e9227e4e8afdca0385e3ace3f60
bf7b6ffb4a1cb6e15c0ec309d1b9578caff23db2
274 F20101123_AAAEQZ baird_j_Page_034.txt
6fcb93edc24eca593be90731ba2f1270
5238373e1b1f9eecf057ca3a872afe78bb57f388
18512 F20101123_AAAGAL baird_j_Page_131.QC.jpg
e2efe62b1fe7e35898023a8ebf3a1f12
dfdf23d642fcb625e9da16489e581b7fe25d9686
32839 F20101123_AAAFVF baird_j_Page_042.QC.jpg
d4bde8ed67aeea5d484c4ef37322a700
a59478c747661014434ff64342dabbbefbb1d7f4
5304 F20101123_AAAFUR baird_j_Page_034thm.jpg
68c2f4ba9cd6743b1e20ab762962aeff
61ea1e0ea8fa8cdd7d6a2968ef933a954f8c50b5
61405 F20101123_AAAESD baird_j_Page_117.jpg
a54eac0c5f9251c05160674c0ba4cfd6
e6dbbaeca3f8457c423b800411615c72ed16b219
417 F20101123_AAAERP baird_j_Page_111.txt
e57723f046ae5ec218a998be3fd8778c
df7f6e812935f3ea134102f28b350d8f3a44896e
28956 F20101123_AAAGBA baird_j_Page_141.QC.jpg
46c4dd46bbfa23d5f0e2960cd1d3220d
d9760569d80fd886b64153b60d57d088f2285aa8
6711 F20101123_AAAGAM baird_j_Page_132thm.jpg
bcdf8bc992c6f9360c6017101a294b68
dee6dc1fd1217b0379a4dd7533003112e1b4cffd
7268 F20101123_AAAFVG baird_j_Page_043thm.jpg
411bfe97cfc2729df4407803d72bb9d1
282dc55e585267c934edf4858e55bc6a2f68722e
18708 F20101123_AAAFUS baird_j_Page_034.QC.jpg
5dec5b6a216937dbc4e3b3dd66b20821
44ec7f4634f273026405d56db844ac36be9496b9
1886 F20101123_AAAESE baird_j_Page_149.txt
4effed20b76f2c52e7da1c4b2e28093e
6effa35e7370cce14f6755058d30c532d521eb22
108627 F20101123_AAAERQ baird_j_Page_057.jpg
73c122fb62e4076ad04a170b3a8ff6ce
fb5d9ec84f2bece27854ee5d1adf6cd8acdb39fa
18308 F20101123_AAAGBB baird_j_Page_142.QC.jpg
8b2789af67722ba1c412d0223939766c
352ae01ca8eb7f90c37ebc4ac4c88cdc2fcfcdc2
24015 F20101123_AAAGAN baird_j_Page_132.QC.jpg
eee2e9f4b1df5532cae99e729f231c25
684a79f6f9c79b6442fb0df2206a3c9321572e1f
29081 F20101123_AAAFVH baird_j_Page_043.QC.jpg
d4c0540939f38b22ad1a6ba77aa72b46
67e2824f8f08377ea1dc7cee9769ad1cf1994c50
5580 F20101123_AAAFUT baird_j_Page_035thm.jpg
59645d64d6fd71eb12b19def568323ea
1be3ffb986150d61f4f56c58b210fef0ccfcbcf9
2765 F20101123_AAAESF baird_j_Page_010.txt
3d62dfdb67c0d7c80fd059c83439a6c4
cebb6a4a5448e0c9b126821b74a672ca61197791
121743 F20101123_AAAERR baird_j_Page_159.jp2
36824c291d55242bd10b31eee252c29c
f0d664eb9d3be2c35a5fd65adb451c2f49750504
6545 F20101123_AAAGBC baird_j_Page_144thm.jpg
1108e215ec0c0646eaef595b6c33ccad
0485aec8d0dcaf4196748138bffa6d7ae9120930
8457 F20101123_AAAGAO baird_j_Page_133thm.jpg
6d5b997da6b8d5517813e159803def26
6384a7b9e3f29b46e8ebc78ed2cbd7714b028925
34806 F20101123_AAAFVI baird_j_Page_044.QC.jpg
20ecb01c5f11ca7d0a07a6f93b6c1bb2
9ebf2cecfe7725cbb49899f8284ae691c514cda1
F20101123_AAAESG baird_j_Page_155.pro
1c267a11006100c7798b9777988492d7
05766626a786da638f99218d14516de33077248f
5260 F20101123_AAAGBD baird_j_Page_145thm.jpg
3ae53e7bc702ccca62373a870daab899
79c70b334313613bf622537134cf91ec3c0eeb0f
30543 F20101123_AAAGAP baird_j_Page_133.QC.jpg
5d30ff2dcaf061a742e07795b2bd972f
cf298547cf84d9a6e5b05b86406432e22601c430
8486 F20101123_AAAFVJ baird_j_Page_045thm.jpg
4194175ca574114644ad8e3ef175f50d
7cb0d909a0062c743370217ef43d8801de9606a3
20121 F20101123_AAAFUU baird_j_Page_035.QC.jpg
6a8bf729f6290f6099155babe79031f1
692b30b6c975fe31fdf0d005924336dc7920354d
48409 F20101123_AAAESH baird_j_Page_020.pro
8a92fa910e06500240a170beb69cc686
e1ffe5a33134ca330d985b1e4a3407adafbaabff
35710 F20101123_AAAERS baird_j_Page_024.QC.jpg
e6c36c5b38087cfed76035224d093847
057fe373a429ed8965d6dee18f9a9d26eb8ec559
18656 F20101123_AAAGBE baird_j_Page_145.QC.jpg
9f97fb9d06efb1a5d05068a8f56ae138
2d097c68d9a7591d97b74ac886f583db580933fa
5839 F20101123_AAAGAQ baird_j_Page_134thm.jpg
aa5793750720ee4c24f3505e1cee977a
98be38ef2634c26c7447a3deed2986069660e360
F20101123_AAAFVK baird_j_Page_045.QC.jpg
d478cd4739d499454274ae060e9c2b70
07a48e355cd24543b5ad424932a5a2eba6729d47
4891 F20101123_AAAFUV baird_j_Page_036thm.jpg
05bf2b296cdc738954259dcc6b866604
d03cad0235cf61e05257f6c608e0c2479ea897e0
66506 F20101123_AAAESI baird_j_Page_105.jp2
a4ee77a47cd5e15c3228aa08f255ef98
b28c89c699d335ff0aba9d5fd41c19ba75b9cd7f
1008 F20101123_AAAERT baird_j_Page_166thm.jpg
5027c58b019c6dcf66096a4e905018bd
c7860f686af39cbcdeb98a2e682e297f854add76
6396 F20101123_AAAGBF baird_j_Page_146thm.jpg
b4cfeb64ec8bdafb10c5c543c160493c
0903d9fe680e3db313affd9082af6c37d2cd0eb6
5980 F20101123_AAAGAR baird_j_Page_135thm.jpg
5bd5bdcc92cc10db3a4ff5dd2affacab
ef33716ddb168a681461736a488e7c8fc360007a
7926 F20101123_AAAFVL baird_j_Page_046thm.jpg
aaa3ed73ade5916216909fde089de4fc
ea11ff8c8d0da480979eb9c48e6f8d129f80d434
15019 F20101123_AAAFUW baird_j_Page_036.QC.jpg
ddeba4733ba5eadc1d3c5fdcb466d5e6
dfa3166a8d8782890be21e7b90dcf9f259847975
50166 F20101123_AAAESJ baird_j_Page_042.pro
490f211ff3a5d1e959b9830cac13aa04
56b24b8db3fe199d531be44d38a473a73df3713d
1106 F20101123_AAAERU baird_j_Page_073.txt
1af1dd3d483dd82965f95c5b60124ca3
597a6d837073739a70b26d4e0f0eb458f159df24
21323 F20101123_AAAGBG baird_j_Page_146.QC.jpg
5cfc919863bc9b24f36144ac74e3b033
d83e227dc9f8aec9940e27ea16402a5ae169543d
7289 F20101123_AAAGAS baird_j_Page_136thm.jpg
1b07bb723a3eee07d6c8a08144dee0ba
e4c50c53630c9ffcb1484d219e36cb8e0b3767a7
8253 F20101123_AAAFWA baird_j_Page_056thm.jpg
b3fa6ad716b135a1aab78e92735a9cf1
f3ff07945a23cf86493de6d721ae14e65f2cfc77
8455 F20101123_AAAFVM baird_j_Page_047thm.jpg
3eb3597e1c1105e6c9bc04944b62512f
e355aece32f6754fccd51ee2b1b1e8d29f8bd939
30248 F20101123_AAAFUX baird_j_Page_038.QC.jpg
291469e9cc0ebdc75b58e5cff4a03df9
cc1f527b64de30a47756f1c86712ff0c266e6cd3
116953 F20101123_AAAESK baird_j_Page_050.jp2
7e7732cdec45154a7167f3cc60b753d2
036487ae439ba92af641d0368ee17d8cd148977e
2376 F20101123_AAAERV baird_j_Page_099.txt
0b16759d434670ce55a6401de65fb8d3
07e9e0b783b84680a9e8bdb312050562b36b4d5f
8679 F20101123_AAAGBH baird_j_Page_147thm.jpg
03836907ca107e008bc4131efec0351e
23b88e0609fd3406eb90644c8374e82c3334d944
26447 F20101123_AAAGAT baird_j_Page_136.QC.jpg
93d851cc44c96e6dad22efceee0422d3
d4955403f856b07e6db9c713dee4a8d6e63937e8
33419 F20101123_AAAFWB baird_j_Page_056.QC.jpg
1952758a9bdfed79dd569fbd2e26d0f0
1e026ddc939aaca1e65facf6736a505c56f942f4
8038 F20101123_AAAFVN baird_j_Page_048thm.jpg
4e8f299dfd120b65d7392e42c037dc47
f97b87b9d4b843c68e6377d9d07798a12c1e8009
8287 F20101123_AAAFUY baird_j_Page_039thm.jpg
e40cd9f97b0cb70f8f2e9404241d9ab1
d5182236219a242dbcec5c16a3338614262adbe7
F20101123_AAAESL baird_j_Page_008.jp2
a5b332ec5a0f3ab504e2e12c2750805f
13c1cc0f588a0a4a8250d24fc06da85d80a5fd1d
7280 F20101123_AAAERW baird_j_Page_070thm.jpg
497f949a78e317406255ee5472d618e9
cce6d6c794cf46ca8817c649ff65a7db3a09d6bc
31635 F20101123_AAAGBI baird_j_Page_147.QC.jpg
93e36e1ff47970e5515efe1f067ed0ef
d0ae20e3bef61a76b689f89a7d4a67afd10c84f7
18504 F20101123_AAAGAU baird_j_Page_137.QC.jpg
af079ee7d3ff1fa76526e59df60ebe5d
998a150a9fdf807236a3833139da4a4fec98926e
8454 F20101123_AAAFWC baird_j_Page_057thm.jpg
3e56ab56f0d88a05c130da77515915e0
8d1248f4d131cf18b2ad33f9712433d69db2a37c
8637 F20101123_AAAFVO baird_j_Page_049thm.jpg
cc798dcb931ec973bb443525c84b456a
780e2b6bc6da9dc2754fa83a4254917a707ccfc6
32519 F20101123_AAAFUZ baird_j_Page_039.QC.jpg
16a964d75201aeb0d4a48b7e88066141
47e79c85a0015df8e14460e130fc79b4d2facff7
112296 F20101123_AAAESM baird_j_Page_121.jp2
33ff30acc47713f7cba8f95fdf95435c
73fbd5e22c7046c7f6dcb35b445638be6aa0ba49
36635 F20101123_AAAERX baird_j_Page_016.QC.jpg
5ef552cc9c95c0452f8f7f26fec6abe1
f80545a55aeb2ff4d55b7ba8aee73901b57d2e41
1051774 F20101123_AAAETA baird_j_Page_075.jp2
a327b8087cc995f670f077cd82af191d
ff503c8ebedeff717a0d0a9e028be5c17dde0b43
6892 F20101123_AAAGBJ baird_j_Page_148thm.jpg
99a26047f0be052abc45bf765467a4c9
b1686c90c3ea07f7ad7da9b17aa931d7701aafad
6131 F20101123_AAAGAV baird_j_Page_138thm.jpg
e42920ea6d4775b5d2949e3c6b0ff45f
dffd112d04cdc9217f384feb0e0b9c8b1e1f7f19
33055 F20101123_AAAFWD baird_j_Page_057.QC.jpg
2677444bc9dd7a5bf3bb82b38877386c
fe11e664cc7c986ad84eaff12500dcff753d4747
34490 F20101123_AAAFVP baird_j_Page_049.QC.jpg
9032660f007a556369ec502a10135abe
0cf682848ddf6d47f3129867cc32a09d88b4035d
44527 F20101123_AAAESN baird_j_Page_076.pro
8f0084f58529ce363ffd3cdcedbdf8bf
02aa47dfee83abb447c3d127a1137bbc1a1e2d07
34076 F20101123_AAAERY baird_j_Page_153.QC.jpg
9219d5d77e32ea8168ad6a8cecc3a9fb
87815c8f9b14445e032dbff31396f6d5fe690c78
F20101123_AAAETB baird_j_Page_110.tif
e95294bb9afdd795bf35cfec267fabd5
e0ee4842372d782c29db351d5e505b2eabaf6195
23331 F20101123_AAAGBK baird_j_Page_148.QC.jpg
18450268ad04d32c94c01f01b5461e81
6893ba3e8d9503ea010dd5c66b740c887cb6b4b7
21641 F20101123_AAAGAW baird_j_Page_138.QC.jpg
99edf1c5a9a1293dc832d1e503e79722
5c803a577742adfae0914c53bb0094612357f767
32056 F20101123_AAAFWE baird_j_Page_058.QC.jpg
d8c2cca4757c0f261063e11808969111
035dfa9b67a2eaba601f2665b4f452d987efdaef
8444 F20101123_AAAFVQ baird_j_Page_050thm.jpg
580d744776cc286bec2cd1b012a455cf
90ff85b35eac2b0ee9887051c4829fbcb98c13b9
F20101123_AAAESO baird_j_Page_092.tif
763b051d6749d0edf61da100b3002f30
20805732f237cfd23f5291728f29ef181b7e3fa7
100299 F20101123_AAAERZ baird_j_Page_055.jpg
256e2a42ca8d5f867ae152949af77fcd
cee5a391bb6134ef5851c4a46248853fc03d08bc
22328 F20101123_AAAETC baird_j_Page_112.QC.jpg
05b3dfc9c8ab6aef2466f4acf4d58f73
9e50702c4e5642bbc8b5f13b7644d7b483a56c74
33269 F20101123_AAAGCA baird_j_Page_159.QC.jpg
908bd21f525b7f6ce5a005dc43a44a41
1737b16b72971514d19f7a0b867b2f6e1c20166a
7482 F20101123_AAAGBL baird_j_Page_149thm.jpg
b8d2889597f981db59d969b7381eaa04
83b32a08ba53dba463582cb561dd10f1cc1df7bd
6622 F20101123_AAAGAX baird_j_Page_140thm.jpg
74acf9df3ab188b0f8f7543abd159b30
b688067f44b5d27114a65ef7dda137e269740bff
8342 F20101123_AAAFWF baird_j_Page_059thm.jpg
8439866fc1ce7992591b7a625bf7da36
2f58a009a9fb0d23892dfba02d40cffff2d8bcee
33378 F20101123_AAAFVR baird_j_Page_050.QC.jpg
dc743fb3bdd93ee40d081f84b92220c6
e7c091af013d49526000bd6db141253efd3ed831
33578 F20101123_AAAESP baird_j_Page_047.QC.jpg
dbc005580e4ec7d919eca8f7af28c6ce
0fe3d3becf6861205f95bcfcbb47103183bd2729
2417 F20101123_AAAETD baird_j_Page_158.txt
249923b075c3148025e3ebb98574663f
fbccbdec121ea54c2f658622cdb67c5f9b7ac441
28895 F20101123_AAAGBM baird_j_Page_149.QC.jpg
656ef06458acb3e7b46f0dbee278cbb4
9b3ffab6f19dfd5ef539b088ced178e0fd7f0bac
22432 F20101123_AAAGAY baird_j_Page_140.QC.jpg
7cfbccbcbf434d95cfcb85fd7ad68bc9
ccef5db49dfedbde29d7e443cb5497104351db57
33410 F20101123_AAAFWG baird_j_Page_059.QC.jpg
ba9d34fef97aeb0d7a59e9f8d19da730
7816bbae244fe8121f6ce43785a4211dc09f6c4d
31748 F20101123_AAAFVS baird_j_Page_051.QC.jpg
4afafb03ca29ff21bce3fb7ea7515748
017b71c95cf666c8347bb35ad02c4abf2c73feed
F20101123_AAAESQ baird_j_Page_024.tif
5511c9c6e9a5a7a13b1f26975dfd023c
db3e383ae02c48f5ebb8d2b235add9ebec99c290
109314 F20101123_AAAETE baird_j_Page_054.jp2
2dd23f02e2e1baa448dc5467042e1150
d9cba847b8ec458c8e41131a8758099d7b250d3a
8152 F20101123_AAAGCB baird_j_Page_161thm.jpg
192f539e369b60de19d8751f15f65d2f
7b4694beec699d96d6330a109b84336f9843459e
4837 F20101123_AAAGBN baird_j_Page_150thm.jpg
56d518c690da8737b445994afd8e3ddc
9b0e13ddccc8e58e933c2c5e8c84f863ad19d304
8289 F20101123_AAAGAZ baird_j_Page_141thm.jpg
bfb7198ddbe84a666bb0732ab9c41c76
34cc7542b8cae520b2a22b7089d939ba7782427f
8670 F20101123_AAAFWH baird_j_Page_060thm.jpg
e797bd4deb6500c49094bfdd410e0693
dea32f3bc1a572a6e8b5880744eaedcd154b4d8b
7874 F20101123_AAAFVT baird_j_Page_052thm.jpg
b501568364c0479867922481a0e6d4e0
d0ae9406001b37296bdd4e9264161de64d43971d
8626 F20101123_AAAESR baird_j_Page_126thm.jpg
dde4726891ac67ada7a985549e4d6717
ced54ee09835b383afce21d25155f0ad7f6f850d
7530 F20101123_AAAETF baird_j_Page_151thm.jpg
a3af853e8bac4a527f3c85639cc1fdc3
cc5fcdba1b0f55427683139428a343c6434d537d
8672 F20101123_AAAGCC baird_j_Page_162thm.jpg
179af98d0d82d1df1a2c3f7668903b69
a0d23f9fe5d3743a5ad4c72e6ef02064354a9a81
19647 F20101123_AAAGBO baird_j_Page_150.QC.jpg
313fee191d78cfb33155950bfbb946a0
affa2156449484103b97aeaa99fecff06bcfccb8
34799 F20101123_AAAFWI baird_j_Page_060.QC.jpg
f3a3cd7da6bef4bd24678acd01f0d948
0b1fad64f60b33773ea47c9702503396d05c3c42
33780 F20101123_AAAFVU baird_j_Page_052.QC.jpg
3b4f9c468fc0d238612b4c2103c5825f
7613223e7dc9533f77a24a7ab2b41cab4e790771
56770 F20101123_AAAESS baird_j_Page_157.pro
65e950059c3ca3cb60f4c0a5c726c3b3
6d1235781f9a4fbb6441449bfacc16173f08dc0c
27310 F20101123_AAAETG baird_j_Page_007.QC.jpg
8cb8122ad1de11bee0384ccf22445a51
57c378e57166702c31b2f1c361b6c16042d0b195
7997 F20101123_AAAGCD baird_j_Page_163thm.jpg
6e1d0da68318a0c88b22e8cfb65d82be
dee9035ee1363f86f051ccf05dde17c13e8dc7f9
28058 F20101123_AAAGBP baird_j_Page_151.QC.jpg
af68e5bb87ff6b2e9253532759064748
5bcebc4cfe63cf0b2be715acfa1c9e67185d9e4c
24227 F20101123_AAAFWJ baird_j_Page_061.QC.jpg
8a1bf56a9ea9a0dcfe187e46e98ff9e1
f95a0db51507710a047225cf8276479c64ab3fe2
94064 F20101123_AAAETH baird_j_Page_087.jpg
9e9e025a2e2be7265dec6d5c75e9effa
3046bf55413b1c8b10339d2bfd03208244b32417
32259 F20101123_AAAGCE baird_j_Page_163.QC.jpg
5da0d29072b353006e3291d2aa51f36b
01c18dc1f09363b04b32883c960eb5339ff1328f
8967 F20101123_AAAGBQ baird_j_Page_153thm.jpg
a644be3fa6e480fd4fe7797b86da4cd7
66990033b579eae0caa3fab7736eea17d0d8817b
21274 F20101123_AAAFWK baird_j_Page_062.QC.jpg
e9847a32c80cbda5f22e9a37efa45fb3
5754f1445b83449eedae5b15a3fddb919321dc08
8116 F20101123_AAAFVV baird_j_Page_053thm.jpg
f58d86f75a690785e8badfb143b1c507
f2fb69006c50ead5ca4dc049bf3e89fae0d9da82
19592 F20101123_AAAEST baird_j_Page_134.QC.jpg
7d82b52f3f41f3a75e838886e88f316d
2b3dbf870bb7e64310aec55dbdfbf10e5470db7c
24696 F20101123_AAAETI baird_j_Page_012.QC.jpg
ca917657f112815b8823ce9cba39c70a
293ab0c1964eda546010bbeba7d5d92bd89192d1
8373 F20101123_AAAGCF baird_j_Page_164thm.jpg
46e7f127c96fbba13a1b0b18e0609a9a
d2e1f440f63110f050de64d63a916e28e884d16e
8384 F20101123_AAAGBR baird_j_Page_154thm.jpg
bab20b2cf8e27ced24eaac7520b9e108
98cf1c7580607b12a8cfc2bc78fe7dbc165063f0
6322 F20101123_AAAFWL baird_j_Page_063thm.jpg
67fa090aa008f18053501c163d0415e3
fd31af2cbff02dc28f17f9015735cbf03798e4f5
F20101123_AAAFVW baird_j_Page_054thm.jpg
d0a36e6ef97cc90b7cc28a3f8cf8d12b
e026004ab143b69931f53e0377df5e8e56e9578e
6125 F20101123_AAAESU baird_j_Page_006thm.jpg
400c734e23c7de31fc9c6fed3e3d803f
3c6386b2c36dc19a92ec4f4a4aa4424086516044
34027 F20101123_AAAETJ baird_j_Page_081.QC.jpg
ef6226167ad398c04336c2b5404c31ea
46a0db998db02bb0e0f5e5281782b4e25228988c
33239 F20101123_AAAGCG baird_j_Page_164.QC.jpg
bef64fd1094131d22b283c881b6653ab
c90f318c6f796c311607a83c1bb8fdb4179a908c
8628 F20101123_AAAGBS baird_j_Page_155thm.jpg
8a8dd6de721f756d763014317191796c
3d4121e1f7b5599685b690a587e92c317822f814
6271 F20101123_AAAFXA baird_j_Page_071thm.jpg
e3050047e71faed9a17571b67467f0e6
fd246792c467add781d48aed34665eb7ae433a80
21590 F20101123_AAAFWM baird_j_Page_063.QC.jpg
206f443e19c7e8784916c817477e6267
84f1e196b4f2c0ac085ea6db04fd6702c2ff7f82
32667 F20101123_AAAFVX baird_j_Page_054.QC.jpg
d4bb224526b9098606a7861c9e0c2860
1f0b69639d99ad85d2b2a677c5bb7bc710c70116
31264 F20101123_AAAESV baird_j_Page_125.QC.jpg
55cf961a5129f3db880013056bc76b40
6ed350b81e77d97969f5c5589fd6446a7ee03444
109412 F20101123_AAAETK baird_j_Page_103.jpg
97c694b19f260c708dacd597e485cebf
330d7df72319cae242a6a3ccf74f130bf1855d5a
33219 F20101123_AAAGCH baird_j_Page_165.QC.jpg
c7e995935dbbf7ee558cb2a44a40fc16
d63db181b47069fff8b0a0e7978bfda2927b5518
33779 F20101123_AAAGBT baird_j_Page_155.QC.jpg
d221c04250021fa26d5364aa8cd13749
01b2855136ce38c016dc34cd808ae280c46c391a
23223 F20101123_AAAFXB baird_j_Page_071.QC.jpg
f1a181119b011405bfeaf2ca19396dbe
64d88d7acf5120f5155e8f03f9dd0a6f30a6b9b7
5525 F20101123_AAAFWN baird_j_Page_064thm.jpg
b8caffa36458d0b44402b168e090a293
b1e7ed029b14c1878bd4401d78124dd0d0ffa701
8109 F20101123_AAAFVY baird_j_Page_055thm.jpg
72a63f6bcee0b64ea573a5bdd9fceb73
7f1bb3aafbaaa7322ea8e944b15f23c7b8d0d1e3
2203 F20101123_AAAESW baird_j_Page_162.txt
e0fe35d30ccf76c213d7f93a8a276624
4959b602d56fcabce9e5b5d935a3cc2da420e75b
1051982 F20101123_AAAETL baird_j_Page_153.jp2
601453f896c215e1a713b1cb1f396b99
bd8d30ccf3c3c95ee24df6fd0ed319890b880f00
3628 F20101123_AAAGCI baird_j_Page_166.QC.jpg
2e0ab1292ca78c9144b32d6a453027b7
ddaafc6444d212abc900e38802460aedb218f274
8813 F20101123_AAAGBU baird_j_Page_156thm.jpg
8f1accf94ae84d225b08736abd8e1469
a75d0fe466bd2516ad2a64f530f3d0f1ff306985
8763 F20101123_AAAFXC baird_j_Page_073thm.jpg
c0a1c14a0ef20b0d631240c47ca11784
28f410fda2e3fab3ea8f356fe6e2c73b34019d85
20254 F20101123_AAAFWO baird_j_Page_064.QC.jpg
fa9c72e255c8b2019e6fe86254f254dc
bf52a02a4bd08f37306e5916ee29cca49c4cab80
32986 F20101123_AAAFVZ baird_j_Page_055.QC.jpg
5778425cf0c088b833725b329ff0fb09
3f703e983c4cd75702b84a8c81612052a002190d
F20101123_AAAESX baird_j_Page_011.tif
569960a47b1af568d9b75c97b2deabf9
d88513dfcf236b25c38402007711a0a6bb7aceec
2990 F20101123_AAAEUA baird_j_Page_008.txt
fab06e6b8c2f4fb9cdbb254f766e3568
a96fc2bcfc0702263f39f91a4daedf851c9b5c03
102186 F20101123_AAAETM baird_j_Page_058.jpg
8179ee3b5f022e7f036f46f48f91c800
5321a3ddadd55e73f273b13da0790b7333eb69a6
190290 F20101123_AAAGCJ UFE0011902_00001.mets FULL
8bd4718c0e744c95644d465b5bf07b29
efb677dfffc3110d81d7a5e072cdc7bdf0186cfa
34062 F20101123_AAAGBV baird_j_Page_156.QC.jpg
7c907d6af8da242dc68ebc38c1130788
1e3506bd683f37383f227fe459493bc75498be07
34852 F20101123_AAAFXD baird_j_Page_073.QC.jpg
63f6af6c46d7683d84d20bb463848cab
5481e3f50e99d38832ab709f4f4518e7e91e1eaa
6553 F20101123_AAAFWP baird_j_Page_065thm.jpg
bfe3e4d438c40619bb775106cc49436f
ac179146356655300d4ebe0e34a25c24790923bb
5542 F20101123_AAAESY baird_j_Page_062thm.jpg
ff2e6378ae9581be132030868dda3fc4
cfcc6af08603efdb4d21f611b9f3913e2cfef37f
7893 F20101123_AAAEUB baird_j_Page_074thm.jpg
edc3adf2391ec4bf4a2a69145dbe5fba
b512516deb50133986f83b1f6714b979e1246687
F20101123_AAAETN baird_j_Page_009.tif
7f7cb205de722e415319deced8ad0cbd
e68e27670b8d41f5776e0e53967341344bb50b69
8777 F20101123_AAAGBW baird_j_Page_157thm.jpg
e33b8e626e0cb0fa2e187d296926c397
57e5f5e315edcc7604701bca9009ab6737caa511
30078 F20101123_AAAFXE baird_j_Page_074.QC.jpg
c3739848a8e72de5beb6147b926f4b86
86bb0d45698b7fcd411d1432e02a24565ea5748d
27924 F20101123_AAAFWQ baird_j_Page_065.QC.jpg
a4179f29724564a09865ab79fbd4692e
8e11a7c292102679a4f860a6070a068803607ce2
2178 F20101123_AAAESZ baird_j_Page_023.txt
a59c1c6bb58c56de10e82f4c29d4dfd5
d53c0eb4e11a5902f53523faa1a351f9441c6ff6
25963 F20101123_AAAEUC baird_j_Page_013.QC.jpg
5bc414e2ea81548e77c5e1688089034a
4b12bbf6da2955293bc0001ba7e0c12520e98c40
242 F20101123_AAAETO baird_j_Page_037.txt
7f9a6d6b72698dc20c6c614cd23ac709
023ff0e726913ce223f3f7cb274aa26951f77c6a
34945 F20101123_AAAGBX baird_j_Page_157.QC.jpg
7a09b5547a9db243f8830b083da38d1a
ac8c7d353dcb33d8c120011641d21b563c0ac244
5744 F20101123_AAAFXF baird_j_Page_075thm.jpg
86855423fd24a751fb25a4486298b61c
48eb8cbffb767394d386d97e4ec940cae2354603
7696 F20101123_AAAFWR baird_j_Page_066thm.jpg
548b434b2234be2ee8b393a1c8ef504c
eece5507d17660e1b40b69b7e575f46229e9b0df
110305 F20101123_AAAEUD baird_j_Page_079.jp2
57a7717865d9b29cd58ff2ddedd99434
30cb96eceef0e8c6bb14ac03eb1448a6e9ab2888
62900 F20101123_AAAETP baird_j_Page_005.jp2
2d65efaf0f92492744f8896b32ed23ac
b2dd38da0c697917ae3a5f18c935e323b617b1a4
8379 F20101123_AAAGBY baird_j_Page_158thm.jpg
163d1e8864a4b3247c70412e6da98ff2
9d8a2b348ae0a5d81903fc3f02d09d603513fe89
21178 F20101123_AAAFXG baird_j_Page_075.QC.jpg
da2b87fbd6a9ff35137d7ddc6e1a83a1
b220dea59e0677665b5f4f39f415aa7448d37105
32782 F20101123_AAAFWS baird_j_Page_066.QC.jpg
64b634b6b7d34355e68d97782a456db7
b5b7ba37d40041c63025e4da4c94f5d02a47cfdd
57555 F20101123_AAAEUE baird_j_Page_103.pro
cd14337fe76e094763979d2e21236dec
6f7f06bea56f408a612d6c910c62475aecc3a2f8
36322 F20101123_AAAETQ baird_j_Page_124.QC.jpg
7b515fbd420e3cf43931705ab10a2023
f7b91cefa243ccb6cefda203fab372a13b55569b
8710 F20101123_AAAGBZ baird_j_Page_159thm.jpg
cf865249098affd08b759eb7232650db
a86adccd6784cc3a665f2dd5baf7d63c13953c6c
7635 F20101123_AAAFXH baird_j_Page_076thm.jpg
7dde6fc50e2a8d1926a5286a0fd80a60
8b6a100efd5f41243b0d6837629df05e7a06a20b
9305 F20101123_AAAFWT baird_j_Page_067thm.jpg
e78a6ae79cd30edab680164cee1fc70a
5a97505efb32b58b81f26f64edf516e3858ba691
8314 F20101123_AAAEUF baird_j_Page_165thm.jpg
973119559aaaf3454d261984836b72ce
a39b6061e90f654f3d143407916128522c24a034
63043 F20101123_AAAETR baird_j_Page_123.pro
7653636a49437f11a6a0c4472a3a1948
27c0fc09ec8cd81e187e81f49adf4922bea96293
29632 F20101123_AAAFXI baird_j_Page_076.QC.jpg
228006599709c444c1c386f8a5c8a512
6343d2d780dcb9f59ad51694a85a7f7e743c0822
37731 F20101123_AAAFWU baird_j_Page_067.QC.jpg
fc19c99030eae1bf38505ed883bde29c
9672eca50bcc4fb9e0490aace3c4469af8afe98b
558 F20101123_AAAEUG baird_j_Page_002thm.jpg
cffe94558de9fd07c30bf45baab11a27
5bc0e414fb41abbf1c30ceb01213e9d00c1dba70
6535 F20101123_AAAETS baird_j_Page_110.pro
e4725cda45d20f42bccd0a88ac489cb1
0e9dc45c816705dcc938f8458b1a638a973bf8c4
72689 F20101123_AAAFAA baird_j_Page_140.jpg
6c3bf31f7d6c98afea2b34f36ec6b72c
44fc82bc745b8a111a6caa3befe4af1b69fcc0bd
F20101123_AAAFXJ baird_j_Page_077thm.jpg
759f422d1362f99f0bc7e89eabc01074
4ea1681edd4ab05d24f58bbce599c12055a6a6d8
11207 F20101123_AAAFWV baird_j_Page_068thm.jpg
188ace4fb4821f3533f9dbdf14138fe5
1a8fb1cd54f66a40d63c3ca531a41c150eb4e199
5406 F20101123_AAAEUH baird_j_Page_131thm.jpg
6488297b3bf7843551fdaafb70bb340d
a9bb047889b53fda002003b3ccaf4b53c56ff5f3
117816 F20101123_AAAETT baird_j_Page_029.jp2
cf643e7b83ea7595207b6399ce1eb3e6
f0eaff9835ccff1439410afccc52e5c9f0ade356
104795 F20101123_AAAFAB baird_j_Page_141.jpg
cfe73e9d28674c85f9b3aec94e79389c
716da80d3065b81c977c9b95c8287487cbfa61de
35400 F20101123_AAAFXK baird_j_Page_077.QC.jpg
42f52e8de7307854fdec69494eb775fb
8163166689ce7dd1000fc5bc68688c4b7d6267de
1051949 F20101123_AAAEUI baird_j_Page_071.jp2
71aef5904554cab37bdb8ce686a7f291
7f4e7963324602f142b4f6cd51744f30961111ff
62886 F20101123_AAAFAC baird_j_Page_142.jpg
4fb0d5a7edd35a9f9379b47a9c2ea0bf
b0098166871692b4c6bcdb4e8effe544727cfc12
8473 F20101123_AAAFXL baird_j_Page_078thm.jpg
df29f84a3231e6b0a99023f348cfabd3
c7382df2a992fe7197630f0efeab4c5447370f99
41116 F20101123_AAAFWW baird_j_Page_068.QC.jpg
3e268369bdc99aee85a363a045360baa
21bd3a5550b29628c56dfba02e6989b3c252e947
F20101123_AAAEUJ baird_j_Page_038.tif
f8219f6ea3c4eccfcf56bdf15a4131cf
9878b106989cab2f58458bc19808aba3ea52d1f6
94874 F20101123_AAAETU baird_j_Page_080.pro
3ab56e897045516abb63b7e6c5a70ef9
c5ce803ddc9c2ae4c5cb56798c235e4a75822c49
91603 F20101123_AAAFAD baird_j_Page_143.jpg
59fc927bb0cc71241ef0849f9d9f651e
85e610fb4d7e38bfa581b99b073049315a560de9
32706 F20101123_AAAFYA baird_j_Page_086.QC.jpg
1b3d81e1d4cb340d3a2936aac53a959f
fc6100cd25721bbd4ceba6bcff9213865d2b0c26
33285 F20101123_AAAFXM baird_j_Page_078.QC.jpg
cc3bfd8fd7c032491ac0a7bd41096cd7
4647dfe1701cc4e31dc1e5a5ad09f4992f368449
9421 F20101123_AAAFWX baird_j_Page_069thm.jpg
ebd863ae45510a4e39828cbc385ffb89
647aeaeea7b981db6f45f982d0b7013f7697b6c6
35101 F20101123_AAAEUK baird_j_Page_128.QC.jpg
0972c0d25f941c9868be3933837bbfbb
276017b4a8d0c224f6587df739c514fdfc588bd5
28667 F20101123_AAAETV baird_j_Page_139.QC.jpg
5da3fd5edccb1da3796c2aa82a227445
4b87daab28edc95bf9dfc87670b237e7ce773df7
64185 F20101123_AAAFAE baird_j_Page_145.jpg
0d6f69c58158928a5eb76f95e4ba5047
119f5e081d334ab7a847520dd9df31f475236c21
8098 F20101123_AAAFYB baird_j_Page_087thm.jpg
5147a4cda49b62a33c567eeb914582e0
904353338297d9f669ec728e1518c7f9816fb7c3
8123 F20101123_AAAFXN baird_j_Page_079thm.jpg
4ac32e70a8e4a1a7870e8d9face3930b
a4513dfce27169f82884d7dc4f165697433912aa
37035 F20101123_AAAFWY baird_j_Page_069.QC.jpg
8560608908e2f0461dac45d87a85c0bb
ca05e4802c1826110ac90e9a6775b5d87c4805dc
31215 F20101123_AAAEUL baird_j_Page_072.QC.jpg
51b475b645ae6ee48175178750286245
1d819f96bb68e48a9645b09e666289fc3d589a0e
9611 F20101123_AAAETW baird_j_Page_146.pro
d7660a726a09a37539545fdb31976553
ca9f50ca0b840129da27d3716436b3d4a9f49665
74165 F20101123_AAAFAF baird_j_Page_146.jpg
dc90b089a9d5b4578c39694349735e32
8924f608e960c35554d8a498df66e06020e1bba4
31310 F20101123_AAAFYC baird_j_Page_087.QC.jpg
95ff9d0a6534530d887e287912826aca
365cabf1d9f0c1483bf8e6f3b7f86024339c1c51
32720 F20101123_AAAFXO baird_j_Page_079.QC.jpg
756236432e5ff0744c4cfebd42f7e836
9743aa627ae0a7c0496fb85e9153b8848bb9543c
30585 F20101123_AAAFWZ baird_j_Page_070.QC.jpg
144b090d80a739d99ba774bff5532b17
01507c785cea7c53d8c8fd3eaad9d51580f47021
5270 F20101123_AAAEVA baird_j_Page_105thm.jpg
83b6100179c51ebaa15a7a6c3ed85c62
040e20dad36ad84f78b14bb3c937f6b4d602a225
105419 F20101123_AAAEUM baird_j_Page_100.jp2
938eaabfa6117d609ac18f7fa571fcc6
805c062b7cbfed3f798182223c10b441e6137515
37608 F20101123_AAAETX baird_j_Page_111.QC.jpg
aa23327b2e163e9d9052479d36a4b279
8b4f3abb4827942e07465b8fa69dcee0d9a8becb
105781 F20101123_AAAFAG baird_j_Page_147.jpg
54d00404e6579bf5038a5af5b3642026
1fd20d59d091ea919a884a5afdacce96623efced
8008 F20101123_AAAFYD baird_j_Page_088thm.jpg
073ba27b34a375874100f6b2529ef340
1b55f27649e65347f8f3c1d7dafce0bf90155b77
38786 F20101123_AAAFXP baird_j_Page_080.QC.jpg
1b85315c2d7beb0fef340467e6ff9aaf
4ab535ebff1e88360962d70f806f99b722403d3f
7971 F20101123_AAAEVB baird_j_Page_121thm.jpg
1381c9d72496ffb68c75a3fad23d7971
34dbb5b3716d863a55707dd3899e21a78b457165
8399 F20101123_AAAEUN baird_j_Page_072thm.jpg
df14dde7dcf1aa0ad7dec0056293330d
671119c62c1ee6693bf4ce858e0159577026158a
346 F20101123_AAAETY baird_j_Page_148.txt
acd3ed82e29685fb7250be3cc90b1f62
97620e91fb4f493c2f17f375f0e71e50859a4c1a
75466 F20101123_AAAFAH baird_j_Page_148.jpg
e9788796de3db7bd777ffd39a8f50dc6
b2ce828df7ff6385017905933e6006c1b6725a6d
32946 F20101123_AAAFYE baird_j_Page_088.QC.jpg
b5390434f3b971a50205be847dcdc592
d30609a160f65d1141275718df43ef716efb19c6
8650 F20101123_AAAFXQ baird_j_Page_081thm.jpg
f15f93ae12d90dedea98f596e97b0be6
9a6a5aad6aec71f407e62eb8c00fbbec369dcc30
8588 F20101123_AAAEVC baird_j_Page_044thm.jpg
9ea5c1ab486c3c2a5de8fe4c514924e3
1162d9eed092d97543452d6556ace6204a46eaed
38540 F20101123_AAAEUO baird_j_Page_013.pro
14d999ffe93dfc8f59ce7ab96da12ce1
2e025a8a25882e5f911742db100ccee5e70c54a7
F20101123_AAAETZ baird_j_Page_151.txt
7b1c5d6ac709364838c2e74bfa45c79f
5b51c76baf927c6daa44b3c52ed98dc621caf7a6
91154 F20101123_AAAFAI baird_j_Page_149.jpg
a0b5d901151145623c3c4755113972fc
99321d2b620552aead7eb50af6511a23ec44f0cf
7516 F20101123_AAAFYF baird_j_Page_089thm.jpg
917b8917e5690d7ced65e82a65ac961a
774dd6c7d36400a166d6ee409516f61b4edc13eb
F20101123_AAAFXR baird_j_Page_082thm.jpg
b494f3f4d42425d4359392c6db78d21e
6814bdf81176941038d6a5c7e37d0b9eea8a9346
F20101123_AAAEVD baird_j_Page_166.tif
23a1dfd8c8412cc3318d22962bb1f1bb
b8997874427d9d2424956e656e87ebaa306e9f83
F20101123_AAAEUP baird_j_Page_052.tif
ce7e67d74df382aae1159a4d5104c24f
8fdca1a350a654300a9261cdbdb680086df71c1d
59796 F20101123_AAAFAJ baird_j_Page_150.jpg
706e4413a9a3e83c9df91efaf5a8dfc1
84b64ddf2a4d9295086cbbc198427e0d157fda23
30695 F20101123_AAAFYG baird_j_Page_089.QC.jpg
798eb7406f0dc53f9bda4e45ea78bee5
039f6e8487878b17fd5368eec8de11d02dc22a01
33958 F20101123_AAAFXS baird_j_Page_082.QC.jpg
b203857a211870854e0e1bfb604f97d3
a19c97fc23599065c605279587f9d4a0a98b3ec8
134458 F20101123_AAAEVE baird_j_Page_069.jpg
5087cbd284a6c713fb1d1944dbb36623
caedd037a71aad9ae42299fc0da6c3e52dc90fab
32190 F20101123_AAAEUQ baird_j_Page_100.QC.jpg
12aa8af06db6e883e558f3fd50a444bb
25d837cae19baae443093e28cd1411263d4eb508
96837 F20101123_AAAFAK baird_j_Page_151.jpg
7f14a112ec38e6ea6f6cf2168daedf45
4225e46a9b87e84d816c3d809fdd3ecb3c8a3595
8095 F20101123_AAAFYH baird_j_Page_091thm.jpg
d492bf68e0746571a24836133c6fcfd2
d94237f5033e1e1e67c3da5cf899f6f200713808
8068 F20101123_AAAFXT baird_j_Page_083thm.jpg
abd73114591d32966ed6b21d87bb4268
0b1589ca150a1e25e65365bf025a97f2361adaec
F20101123_AAAEUR baird_j_Page_129.tif
234a051f87313c82582c643463c6ec6e
a514f1bcd62cfc4f0a1a4f1db9b30d11723a529e
98089 F20101123_AAAFBA baird_j_Page_004.jp2
cb2b49892a6167e331666e5b9090a4d0
0135a34975a440d30334b1f032a0e439a51c7a19
111243 F20101123_AAAFAL baird_j_Page_152.jpg
9da114e7cd89c00416fb6299375702f5
05d05b76ebc771cbee70b6a2889a51340e9bc2b4
F20101123_AAAEVF baird_j_Page_045.tif
15092a9e36977763517849c28bdee2be
fe0608c5fac74ae44793596bce9bbd705ae1dfb4
31507 F20101123_AAAFYI baird_j_Page_091.QC.jpg
bf48140a8d1421490b792cab3d10d638
5e6b7c4479e353d986b02dcd3b90cabd18e10fd5
31849 F20101123_AAAFXU baird_j_Page_083.QC.jpg
acc75b018382b33c2d3c04e0b7b8a7be
999bf76936eb958602b7ad35ab309a6cbbee7b38
99474 F20101123_AAAEUS baird_j_Page_133.jpg
8e96f961488bb91874d87f954ff451d8
f7ed625f3f1d1bead1aca03a79c11c2a1928e3d6
114445 F20101123_AAAFAM baird_j_Page_153.jpg
d47eb159d69ed6eb88bbc2ee0073d6eb
93558a3ed02d94e1521e8917319dbc2a195a8cb8
F20101123_AAAEVG baird_j_Page_150.tif
8ea1894ae74f379c94d3b5c6a83edaa7
4c8d65a564332922358540fba2954771fb12326a
8771 F20101123_AAAFYJ baird_j_Page_092thm.jpg
c9a16add5e2e8d6a5a796fed658d6067
caf63dd67f9ae06a6214c413e277711563de4755
7334 F20101123_AAAFXV baird_j_Page_084thm.jpg
512f3e2b1c2e26d8a4aabb2f3c7ddb78
77543f58e1abc295bcba6305372382d592b13678
68467 F20101123_AAAEUT baird_j_Page_064.jpg
08c0377a124130db7f3ebb1b8f4b9c8d
3e7b86250a3292c15c3b458f21f9f72589405d67
1051981 F20101123_AAAFBB baird_j_Page_006.jp2
e460f41466f56a55c93bb721a1c7aeff
a9194b87b0cff557dd833704950470cb01b60d3f
107025 F20101123_AAAFAN baird_j_Page_154.jpg
9327368ccf31a79a2a4fa522085c860b
b1f59da29d0d4fa15c21c80cc8b091157ea290a3
1051971 F20101123_AAAEVH baird_j_Page_156.jp2
d84721f5cc3a6b900bd0894b6f96bdba
c5db530b3c47ec8c48609844e64b10c347a6a57d
36475 F20101123_AAAFYK baird_j_Page_092.QC.jpg
3b1d5784963d30797cea9f3b891712d4
b9ceb45a60be9b7fa6e3967341d93b73b5e34630
28312 F20101123_AAAFXW baird_j_Page_084.QC.jpg
1089eb3a30b6f80a8e3089d5f6e64b1e
dff39853a588b551f19e898cae648bacaa5c57ab
8078 F20101123_AAAEUU baird_j_Page_130thm.jpg
55c190b63738d713c1fe2ebc0ff2f89d
ce6b23c6f0688dcc7dc14f102862385c74e4a358
1051968 F20101123_AAAFBC baird_j_Page_010.jp2
8857398f7f4bd3a871b07fd9bc0a9c68
01579a0ac80c2dcb321dda2bee3a87ec91526266
114317 F20101123_AAAFAO baird_j_Page_155.jpg
7e3b3cf2b4bcddde9447ba8a67148d1c
745f52bff5b94dc3dae2c03afb4693ce80df5c1e
F20101123_AAAEVI baird_j_Page_098.tif
979dba2158121737b646ae80d21921a6
971e487a3d9b7f5efcc78468f931f96ae3d9aaeb
8701 F20101123_AAAFYL baird_j_Page_093thm.jpg
2c7fdf1386c4e0409abfffe87a5b087d
148ed479088e4b187e2e089fdf32f5e282cf7ebb
81639 F20101123_AAAFBD baird_j_Page_012.jp2
694c1802df5bc942827d4ed7a6df2da4
8fda23fda17c89c688650901ccf82f26f58dd379
118261 F20101123_AAAFAP baird_j_Page_157.jpg
6dcedb6f0e81f6d7a7b3b0b5e7a4e6dc
be646f1a6ee4c8ebf526a3d2f1c19a54f70d9bdd
31890 F20101123_AAAEVJ baird_j_Page_029.QC.jpg
4a1ec9dec6203b08ec35fb5939b5299b
cfeee7f6751164941ef83bb58d2826586ed5f62b
8277 F20101123_AAAFZA baird_j_Page_103thm.jpg
98d6694022e55e363a3bc31f4df10216
fb3fd7c1c0a75698640b1349926dde1ce54b650d
36499 F20101123_AAAFYM baird_j_Page_093.QC.jpg
ad5c3019f4a358d837c6a4808ea2cf11
8d6754804cbade99adcac2168ec27b200548cd1c
8450 F20101123_AAAFXX baird_j_Page_085thm.jpg
3bc0717f946331bceb75a488183c67bb
ea926d018879f1fec1f52b8bb2d366c6c8a765fe
101307 F20101123_AAAEUV baird_j_Page_038.jp2
905171927574d7cd3902df0b2b8021a2
aba67c1208d7999ff3b410ba54f00dc8cb7077d5
85745 F20101123_AAAFBE baird_j_Page_013.jp2
ce1d38135ccb985158edbdadee45f91b
f28f5b609888e798b9c52411bb010a48bdd10260
125026 F20101123_AAAFAQ baird_j_Page_158.jpg
55b3e92da9d616be03b85f3dd402d9ef
be878f8a382ee674eddf0a999589a82d31ae7bec
26351 F20101123_AAAEVK baird_j_Page_037.QC.jpg
c5e1dca396bf62d4ca24b054a3c19bbe
8eafe49b614e9b1fa4c5644b4704640a80874e2c
31738 F20101123_AAAFZB baird_j_Page_103.QC.jpg
2a469214353fa95e0d92afe7b11f0865
a6a151c6dbcca7605f5f1c7448c753e7068c511b
8601 F20101123_AAAFYN baird_j_Page_094thm.jpg
1465502fa95a362f7711ec9de6b236b4
437eec4380d60ad0769e60a235b024f632a53781
34282 F20101123_AAAFXY baird_j_Page_085.QC.jpg
7012d8432b87d65346730d68d7a6f08a
90e506c5bb25a130fe4c555ad825c6c860b4bbcf
33902 F20101123_AAAEUW baird_j_Page_026.QC.jpg
9de4e777be23dda0bc66fa39accbab4b
0eca30b1b99987b54847fc4418d10bffe471fe27
94367 F20101123_AAAFBF baird_j_Page_014.jp2
f5bcaaf17fd5eed1ac95b9dbb68b2a55
c8952f556bb53b801a8f8d5425c6b6c31459aa6f
114313 F20101123_AAAFAR baird_j_Page_159.jpg
d20c3059858a18bebf1d15b8f81cac76
48d01da26e92bf3b68beab612b7457a5e90f15d5
34980 F20101123_AAAEVL baird_j_Page_094.QC.jpg
cd671e3730763f445eef4d4b18c70de6
55ba2648fc57a3308c145a69c1f5cf56a7673727
8211 F20101123_AAAFZC baird_j_Page_104thm.jpg
2430b7a3649ba4f276bf6495feebc9b5
f744a85367e21c63e1334636e957bc6417d6afc7
8723 F20101123_AAAFYO baird_j_Page_095thm.jpg
ff481666875ffe5eb153465d7c18aa98
bc5dac3fc97c147fb2ff71492f27a61cba20ceb3
8267 F20101123_AAAFXZ baird_j_Page_086thm.jpg
cb8cd4f4a4a465de9d4a29f8b637fbe8
d92afa028bf98d438305fea11193b58d9b5107c7
14938 F20101123_AAAEUX baird_j_Page_064.pro
91d42e34ffee96bf060b70acf1d7fa98
9f9970f81b8c29392d16024a1def41fa46fc6323
122760 F20101123_AAAFBG baird_j_Page_015.jp2
81b37770293502e9a2991647064caf83
05e05092f925df2582db63505248731785d3377c
107712 F20101123_AAAEWA baird_j_Page_042.jp2
c07f440e7bdd2210000c7f6d787665ff
6ff21a422300381a419d920108657a88eac73e6c
122081 F20101123_AAAFAS baird_j_Page_160.jpg
edb7f36cd1c16ced263a453db509f4c6
238faca4e7a019f4099d478490270557dab7d63d
1923 F20101123_AAAEVM baird_j_Page_102.txt
4e72f0c420e37adbd99fdd510f3e37dc
8fb64602fdd8c4d03ba494608d62dfcc6331cb6b
31179 F20101123_AAAFZD baird_j_Page_104.QC.jpg
8f95c5a979b33cedaaab384b4ed4c649
15f916ecbf106a157a990e809d12a5dff260edd7
35499 F20101123_AAAFYP baird_j_Page_095.QC.jpg
fb36cc0c3af18a02b18124ae2b3efc01
720123bf853ae2202d434640f4300f8428cacc01
60752 F20101123_AAAEUY baird_j_Page_005.jpg
9d7c78da9a8cfd076c1146c7862b290a
e7fa008c93823c1564b66cf02fc095010ead22da
136991 F20101123_AAAFBH baird_j_Page_016.jp2
e77b53b2fe8269d3e30909b045f2631a
c2e230d6542b68725f93ee1304308b62129c76fa
106148 F20101123_AAAEWB baird_j_Page_082.jpg
088f6ed30cd0129a52ee3ba89e37936d
50d58556d63b13a55cdf45ab25c2aff0a3078705
118618 F20101123_AAAFAT baird_j_Page_161.jpg
c1b3d8c866c4d1d7cb28239ccc5ba887
a87911994bb48ae68349896ec3478bd7e1239288
5764 F20101123_AAAEVN baird_j_Page_117thm.jpg
0d7b852b53b256616a77c49e75f25dc1
e6dbcdd39f791b3647e71dab5385f5b3a26474f6
20386 F20101123_AAAFZE baird_j_Page_105.QC.jpg
36df872e95b23845654ddaea087b68d1
0b18eca809fda0d566e73ec1b41e3d4f19cbc1aa
8271 F20101123_AAAFYQ baird_j_Page_096thm.jpg
34d3d979b8be9d4b26363371c5107246
1d8788cfb88bede64b5bd17af7b2f228f4664ad0
2126 F20101123_AAAEUZ baird_j_Page_058.txt
2829d2c80838d95928553056326e1145
68ac0bd9bc3652bbd6e957872030c0cff70c1f17
111074 F20101123_AAAFBI baird_j_Page_017.jp2
724c23120b7b6d00789a1d6b8e32a0eb
b44aacf8753b5cc922a6bc6d71b9ebacbeb56797
1051952 F20101123_AAAEWC baird_j_Page_117.jp2
0f57990ca779176acfaab663245c43de
9c9c29879dd24c31ccad6c2f8ec09aec757c3bc7
115782 F20101123_AAAFAU baird_j_Page_162.jpg
f65e60d55da3ad913bea7b8fec3d3ddd
c862343933b148c6173ceb491fe7dc9bff8ed4c0
2612 F20101123_AAAEVO baird_j_Page_120.txt
097254ce749dcc1584c0a22961815a1e
721105110969a4b91815386f300c831fba4152a8
F20101123_AAAFZF baird_j_Page_106thm.jpg
c6bff24e33154a1fc1fc9cf12bd50766
a810d8ece8b7e71fb86ceeaa4822c931a90fc2e2
31472 F20101123_AAAFYR baird_j_Page_096.QC.jpg
2e1f959675abbbb9bb3fa677e7e5dd73
6e4f508e629c0301f0df9779c0f8412102faf79d
120575 F20101123_AAAFBJ baird_j_Page_018.jp2
3aea754f9abd6984b54f54e79f70a5b4
215cbaefbdf1c102be67f54ea74ddf719dda82c0
31720 F20101123_AAAEWD baird_j_Page_090.QC.jpg
10a195ef7df8f45aa1fb9ef46c8db00d
7d107affecdbdeeb874f40be0fc438748e07a78b
108705 F20101123_AAAFAV baird_j_Page_163.jpg
bf44c196f33c2a6bae74450129f4c503
4372d4adbae02ef1d471ebdedf886505ef712ecb
301 F20101123_AAAEVP baird_j_Page_138.txt
ad023775c66e3cce8f93f1b30cf1d97f
9d981947e076c0a17ea8c6fdd8eb61e829a02226
9849 F20101123_AAAFZG baird_j_Page_107thm.jpg
69beeb6310b21989e4edeb886b538e46
c37002084f2e9c5f7c601c1f8c7878fa5e812b70
32323 F20101123_AAAFYS baird_j_Page_097.QC.jpg
4fdbd677737c7bf3c82b88f04c9b1b4c
cd8fec252dae5139cb68de8374dfdb1eb6e8b19e
112977 F20101123_AAAFBK baird_j_Page_019.jp2
7f11f6158b65bc3e34dfea76b42adedf
7c417cf1f4219e290efd40430deab5576653cff9
52767 F20101123_AAAEWE baird_j_Page_022.pro
69f2acb094062046e64abe7b89823b33
9867fe71e22815b273b9c8bee6570a57252ee53e
111611 F20101123_AAAFAW baird_j_Page_165.jpg
936855473413b4bcb1cf4c3644ac7d91
90577cea482e6b246e72131788345f9fa70c67ef
68824 F20101123_AAAEVQ baird_j_Page_138.jpg
60f0ee323e863087522a44e875742884
80c3462717ef479d337e2ead28d81e83014f08a3
35057 F20101123_AAAFZH baird_j_Page_107.QC.jpg
6d91a4a0de9b578d7a144cc9aa951a16
5cea4584ecc52410c547664c126f103e1ebf0adc
8638 F20101123_AAAFYT baird_j_Page_098thm.jpg
e8a760c7140db34d38a2ced036fed260
58c8e653cdfb69892f965b1ac048728d5072ed82
149437 F20101123_AAAFCA baird_j_Page_040.jp2
926f5d5d21ba0606c6f8e1c0aa50bcb4
bfb406439542b90a0afecd11a902411015f5e3bd
110316 F20101123_AAAFBL baird_j_Page_021.jp2
26a801ecb763b8eb4c9fa37f3ee40ea5
d37145a22532568ab5f064dde769d6828754bd5e
62854 F20101123_AAAEWF baird_j_Page_105.jpg
b8277fb59707934ddea100f37beaa07d
da89b49e62f585347de72f8faf440a3a3efe6d1f
9333 F20101123_AAAFAX baird_j_Page_166.jpg
a91c1d73783d8891a2b62bfaacbfd908
02b6455e240ea085589c51aaba5c0914f686db24
2302 F20101123_AAAEVR baird_j_Page_044.txt
fbac31722b0ad48acf97c722715a06ea
e19a57e37b20f5dfaeb8bf5333887f0105f86ebd
5768 F20101123_AAAFZI baird_j_Page_108thm.jpg
d15b783e593f94a9b6f5dce5c79fcb68
b7ea6c280ad2fcc6faf658c5a69e5d2a87705fda
34731 F20101123_AAAFYU baird_j_Page_098.QC.jpg
df1d3d1dc6d198d68bfc50db763d642e
6ccb7275acf0bf7761e52fc52752ad3f43874758
97811 F20101123_AAAFCB baird_j_Page_043.jp2
216fd6a5aded3c917fdc2cfdfec786e1
4acbb0655db691710631875080ed587cf4bf8605
114576 F20101123_AAAFBM baird_j_Page_023.jp2
6c68612b8599deda1891644e44a09118
b3d6d5d367a5674d9ca286b715589ce9af7ef657
53031 F20101123_AAAEWG baird_j_Page_060.pro
a0a4712e258bcb954b24f706f3eac191
b500d6b1efe1dfb1dbbb1426a1d31b7d795acdce
20857 F20101123_AAAFAY baird_j_Page_001.jp2
5c17041912c4a4fca64db37df46f45a6
c4b0efd2c39763174e7ce4eae69f34d98790b958
8835 F20101123_AAAEVS baird_j_Page_113thm.jpg
f6b46f2f7e3ec0060463ad2c562557f7
77228f10346a2096b3fcbfad65efc91c7e518a36
20201 F20101123_AAAFZJ baird_j_Page_108.QC.jpg
0add0e1f8a296c9b7de1b7d087fe18bf
494ac9e6e4bd3d10e86faab57eed464f932cf2f7
8107 F20101123_AAAFYV baird_j_Page_099thm.jpg
beb9ccec2bf9bf668d7dd3df86103c61
26f39c316f0adefd8f82b9bb9f0502ce533d280b
130235 F20101123_AAAFBN baird_j_Page_024.jp2
b824fd962a90166e6c165a3e692c856b
8179b1c28ce9ee2afdddb166ce94821d5e622dbb
8882 F20101123_AAAEWH baird_j_Page_080thm.jpg
93fe1b5177f27f915efabf9db46ba98d
4c76d21aade5dfeb7fcc60b37e39f7808ca1e099
5344 F20101123_AAAFAZ baird_j_Page_002.jp2
ceb9824d1b77bbd6d5d106e4993b111a
9c8ff93cb0ef837a712177d166d4cdfc266e8cda
72488 F20101123_AAAEVT baird_j_Page_144.jpg
5530cd5046aca1920a310c607a9185b8
e1f0d96c2a7878719a714a510e4e38b089b5ed7a
6868 F20101123_AAAFZK baird_j_Page_109thm.jpg
688bbd9eff9ae40a8447d5b251f37360
65f1b42612f72cc47a378c3ba0925304fd2e5bfd
33040 F20101123_AAAFYW baird_j_Page_099.QC.jpg
9e13ecfc891c3ced535645d7d3b06ad0
00b75a7e26ae84ea67fbdcf1d4efee5ea6cf6c22
147329 F20101123_AAAFBO baird_j_Page_025.jp2
4c2b072ed5b2611bdc300730d1503864
c8411891459b7ceff92de9425bd0a59af39f16c0
F20101123_AAAEWI baird_j_Page_007.tif
49c501cc82e531cf2b919b6e021da0ec
3e60e1be619cd272f6f4dab43f3a481fbd119db2
97907 F20101123_AAAEVU baird_j_Page_102.jpg
679ee1f1c7147f029d794afde5851434
e6e856877dd6fba531dec8ee0939c594e413ee8b
119448 F20101123_AAAFCC baird_j_Page_044.jp2
9500277e792502b34dfda4030cec1fa7
b20b7883c1db01b8612d3ed9f4cd9a356ce99df2
10574 F20101123_AAAFZL baird_j_Page_110thm.jpg
6767919308fec5852e99e18bdd04026d
b81e8ec0f129dbbf782826c2b490e63e444791a7
32889 F20101123_AAAFYX baird_j_Page_101.QC.jpg
fc6b499d9e1b562145dc3d7a8bdeb2ea
b7ecc72bcd30e4c9dfe656e1f9459736ea6c7f21
112021 F20101123_AAAFBP baird_j_Page_027.jp2
e67e6b2ac26eacac02f243a0198d5ad7
8611225ab7eccbe5c38f23ae4d91f2ae56f46984
109441 F20101123_AAAEWJ baird_j_Page_078.jpg
96f16d0eaf6fa7764ed787a62a4c45bf
b8997b315efb7856f67a0cb925ede48f43417432
1051985 F20101123_AAAEVV baird_j_Page_110.jp2
aa8e4ecc9352d5bbd278eb88a9ad6ab2
ef0ac8abf95981ccf469277d0fc2e15bb9fd3023
110604 F20101123_AAAFCD baird_j_Page_045.jp2
9286034e8c5d4bdf247b5db842e85c63
c4dd022957bca7b39ddac6f23f9e2f9de0a3fb07
9682 F20101123_AAAFZM baird_j_Page_111thm.jpg
072d0fefaa026f0ddbbdaa2af08733d3
c96f8a33af3e2b86dec558c26e38280c3a689586
109898 F20101123_AAAFBQ baird_j_Page_028.jp2
e392ff78fe178c6090278845fd72ed33
3772032d6d207cd69d56f8552c44c8916e591431
7411 F20101123_AAAEWK baird_j_Page_038thm.jpg
660e09c58726ccce79b726c2249fd30f
f3b9ce960b597717c2c23c334ca6888d298f137e
107909 F20101123_AAAFCE baird_j_Page_046.jp2
22d1ec4d9ec66b3f95ad03d5b8b79955
ec89de275d46a5729d8367c999ad31338cd8695c
6223 F20101123_AAAFZN baird_j_Page_112thm.jpg
164496be39e380ecef10610d70f6b36f
0d7e43f4f902ec75636ce5b84a5bb010fa03378e
7594 F20101123_AAAFYY baird_j_Page_102thm.jpg
178732e7d9d62f424eb8866f713d183f
079332dc3bbad074dc7c43bc1276789dc4f938ed
125560 F20101123_AAAFBR baird_j_Page_030.jp2
8315c750cf287561b7b6846d44e91737
bcdf6514c2f083daa244c642945e821589eadfb5
1921 F20101123_AAAEWL baird_j_Page_118.txt
e726f694f1a13bb9fe9619dd775e1408
a6920e0ad521438d875bd48ea9c33ccd49255ef2
F20101123_AAAEVW baird_j_Page_004.txt
f1f36a03c2adb8eba8c838cf122506e7
b9fcacd82e30bd69e4c43cc28c8eb81348cfa070
1051975 F20101123_AAAFCF baird_j_Page_047.jp2
07bee02659dbe086a9b1873ae4a4c485
d1ab6c9b6022d2119830b170a159073a8d4fbfac
32708 F20101123_AAAFZO baird_j_Page_113.QC.jpg
4f0e23cd241d926cfab78248423fb3f8
9ab4e7237a1ea0ec851169b265a252397034d00a
30861 F20101123_AAAFYZ baird_j_Page_102.QC.jpg
11a9c9f76cf36a48f8aa9bdf50c7afef
00c8f271954cd653008409db95c6d4cad8c5ba86
77458 F20101123_AAAEXA baird_j_Page_012.jpg
132163d22437bd9d7ba8c021d9d00941
e9778e106af8b521f977747887c2d3d2f3f6b00e
110027 F20101123_AAAFBS baird_j_Page_031.jp2
f6434a1f654f95e32248f2e1edc5f22d
f51c9792ad22ccee421e5e7ad6e7d549e9fffd21
40217 F20101123_AAAEWM baird_j_Page_110.QC.jpg
3ad5190df52d0d944add82a81171ab36
22e28e8a5a7d97418058b9155eb7fb39afa9f2e8
136002 F20101123_AAAEVX baird_j_Page_009.jpg
39b1c1bca2a31d4c1c7cc762c00d32f4
25bfa2c30aa82defb3ac69d43ab70af37c96a232
100592 F20101123_AAAFCG baird_j_Page_048.jp2
3ef23d7a7f16f67b7d322528fc1c4951
991df7ca4a3e1cca29a948c3b21062af0c432d02
5755 F20101123_AAAFZP baird_j_Page_114thm.jpg
d416cf59e8153048ed577acd5259b951
d08f18cd188ec2199a6b197f9aee442dadf9e07e
89335 F20101123_AAAEXB baird_j_Page_014.jpg
d08733ed137851ddf1a74fafeb7d6415
689c20915ca73ebccf51a6b0e570d8d8e2a81d10
95537 F20101123_AAAFBT baird_j_Page_032.jp2
aa95671071a00c91d8618e099785cfb3
e25e7225a993a318b23e003ad33625eba71bf1c2
106939 F20101123_AAAEWN baird_j_Page_045.jpg
97dc4499127df63460ea273db4ddb29b
7d4d61298db7f40413a5436fc6568dafb286665d
2086 F20101123_AAAEVY baird_j_Page_060.txt
6bcd40c3cbfc714544877071ff1d6301
bf1a271796f897446768ffbd3e3146f8d0d5df74
F20101123_AAAFCH baird_j_Page_049.jp2
e75927d5c3a8469af49b4bff5a51147e
7a39c2b82325acb970b380f7b22ebaa0a5582aa9
23290 F20101123_AAAFZQ baird_j_Page_114.QC.jpg
d036b25141534ecdc369c4b555fe932e
3686af1723cd2990ea084c7ba145dc02a89a50a1
109981 F20101123_AAAEXC baird_j_Page_018.jpg
de7cd9e1697fd6bac5f846c16ea3308a
21233e20ed176c6f95e9974fda087507a2b3b354
1051892 F20101123_AAAFBU baird_j_Page_033.jp2
fea75be4eb991646696ec830ac5774e7
0e5e50d673b5ab819fdcbeb73ea7e7cf98565471
6597 F20101123_AAAEWO baird_j_Page_003.jp2
129d3e56a5f8c82ce207f08e38d6de62
5759d450143d1c09f2de8978d15b226c53dd5d28
68877 F20101123_AAAEVZ baird_j_Page_049.pro
4adeea7ba966b1b44433742bfcf4a210
eb73469ad7b592a6f1d33c37cf4b80eaa249d2d3
106946 F20101123_AAAFCI baird_j_Page_051.jp2
0d5e3a6fae5b767f8ab5216c180c0d0e
146dd4a4de3b8014034fdfac06db5096f3df31b7
6177 F20101123_AAAFZR baird_j_Page_115thm.jpg
cff95b6767932809669c58b22d1944a8
5deb85d4ff1975ede3268d47f5978eb839059f1f
103103 F20101123_AAAEXD baird_j_Page_019.jpg
9d42b0d41e12b8c8e6d64d70d5435f1d
6a3cb39a0e6f38876672ba24404ffda06d13152a
F20101123_AAAFBV baird_j_Page_034.jp2
22dda8b1b0c0dca0ff848b6e1649e739
44c68df8cb4d2060850bd2fe90cb0d253f0c7038
118816 F20101123_AAAEWP baird_j_Page_049.jpg
3ebaf459cede1db5942f5432f58819b0
d73888b487fad6ffe7f5bdc330ea75356698f611
121939 F20101123_AAAFCJ baird_j_Page_052.jp2
9c63d414bf3abde880c8f5691392d13c
a464691eb79ff83b1abb3cc9c2c9298b342c7484
5656 F20101123_AAAFZS baird_j_Page_116thm.jpg
316759d0b07491566f4e6798bce07eaa
05cb341c06fca588f90326a84db81e001624c5e4
96435 F20101123_AAAEXE baird_j_Page_020.jpg
ef2e847a2817f27363c4f4e192f5d74b
c3c7ccfe004b3d150c5d966ba531bef87f019649
861468 F20101123_AAAFBW baird_j_Page_035.jp2
c95253a91d0dcc4f077ba050b5aa0cda
51ec4bccc24b4af72e664377b1d92399fe2333d9
246597 F20101123_AAAEWQ UFE0011902_00001.xml
39ea50892f6dc12b28071d7156dc0b20
b724623c4898a07a8fde44737093b295c3919607
107033 F20101123_AAAFCK baird_j_Page_053.jp2
908f1164de596176a26bde98deb1946d
2f53121071b251b2dc48731b0685cc868abddcf2
18862 F20101123_AAAFZT baird_j_Page_117.QC.jpg
f254fcbc6bd48a92a488681ce5dc3a97
001571a1b0a2e4d5dbf882c7dcb9ba3c2e3e4099
102487 F20101123_AAAEXF baird_j_Page_021.jpg
02e1a7abc16ccb30df4c5c68f271e347
62a0b9b610a08b887bea64b40eeb835d079c3731
1051986 F20101123_AAAFBX baird_j_Page_036.jp2
a51249944b9adf9bf0a23f638c6e522b
2e2fed62f2bcfc63093c33979d5a168ee75bce82
133858 F20101123_AAAFDA baird_j_Page_077.jp2
73f4676bbfd819394ede4ae237479503
68ab70a99edb80efcebf78b53899f7e56edfa129
119838 F20101123_AAAFCL baird_j_Page_057.jp2
6e94ef2640af536080fa6d1f94948aa7
64727000580342069f053ccc7ed1ebba77c093b7
7585 F20101123_AAAFZU baird_j_Page_118thm.jpg
55dfa596262cf441b8b0cdfd8db8feb0
f3c57a9bdd8427b735174ab2ce1ebf58b7d100bd
103898 F20101123_AAAEXG baird_j_Page_022.jpg
b10184c797fa1f9afc4c24198ef2181c
8e5f1ec2a4a7980168792b98e0cc243075e64a0d
1051967 F20101123_AAAFBY baird_j_Page_037.jp2
7a0bbd94a1d9c5982fd34ffac03fe087
9016b0ae3ae4e89b7189529a1cb31ce9301632f5
118994 F20101123_AAAFDB baird_j_Page_078.jp2
3a6fcc543e1f5592ebfb1d5283c4fafb
473028b6f042aef5e85ab50cb6d1c885727e5943
109960 F20101123_AAAFCM baird_j_Page_059.jp2
d038c71b6a93317b057473be3a441d6f
072e306c228c8a4c42e53b24845547607d2d340a
8543 F20101123_AAAFZV baird_j_Page_119thm.jpg
d62f5728b75338f7664106b8f61281c2
f1d918947e8ed998aaeb6303b13c37f33d61b314
108782 F20101123_AAAEXH baird_j_Page_023.jpg
e352a631478f9b23ee4eff11a40eccb1
72742428836fba9c46bd6f1b639a6b5c85b95049
120166 F20101123_AAAFBZ baird_j_Page_039.jp2
515b7e3775bf5141ac64c21b516f80db
5e1d097f08b67b68cca639a48b22197eb8e158a6
5593 F20101123_AAAEWT baird_j_Page_003.jpg
5aca178fda1166d808f2ec91f3c857f8
544ef271191dde1720368a11cbae4c637b201528
162682 F20101123_AAAFDC baird_j_Page_080.jp2
cd86c8df65b2ad274acde80b1e90b385
d78c2b004dcd5fba2859513a03554cf36fd74c73
F20101123_AAAFCN baird_j_Page_060.jp2
b33f59420f5696c9f3df1b2141ca5cb4
fa0a0bf275bc7450473f55942815917cf32dd2db
34581 F20101123_AAAFZW baird_j_Page_119.QC.jpg
dc9cfd7cece20480f584bca5ab8f7398
28d1c95254606c367cc598d47c59d93014f6851f
116712 F20101123_AAAEXI baird_j_Page_024.jpg
0f028090c762e629cd2e1d4fb20f30bf
8f2558ba707d9e64b74bb7b7934e9467e5881693
93982 F20101123_AAAEWU baird_j_Page_004.jpg
0031704bab673db3a401748133d7434d
c0977a2e5704c06f1bc450f2c64b149c169bec58
77718 F20101123_AAAFCO baird_j_Page_061.jp2
f0d376594e65d49787bfdfc4ef93cdf5
882e6166db73ac4a3fc6caba4f1f2e7c577f2a73
8688 F20101123_AAAFZX baird_j_Page_120thm.jpg
394d268ef9a20a1bc70ad18c558cfcde
7ec73f29d19adaf0de8ce93480b9f10c1b23f4c7
128533 F20101123_AAAEXJ baird_j_Page_025.jpg
682334aaeb85a55ba4c34b6d59052c43
c420b2ba668d17a3468f3aafbfe6a408ce5aa01d
97082 F20101123_AAAEWV baird_j_Page_006.jpg
f809bf11df8cee52e3d7dc7437c7609f
631f98c221b6e8cd3a77ffa4613c44ef3db7001c
103084 F20101123_AAAFDD baird_j_Page_083.jp2
3a64361b715ac2898f2990d615537f5c
855bd476681328df60d5e5760a684b68f1ec0e7d
1051957 F20101123_AAAFCP baird_j_Page_062.jp2
cbe325a5b8e045f7791f923bd5b2c7f2
9e85fc7885ed9b711852496d444d51dab0514784
7688 F20101123_AAAFZY baird_j_Page_122thm.jpg
d4273a1dde7b9af98f8dcd9c50071699
166468e2512ec91e2dbeac7e787faeadc2b81e56
106152 F20101123_AAAEXK baird_j_Page_026.jpg
4ab7868d3e98216e9b6a09f85acbd0e7
ab0770e1bdab91161ec52aecd1bd130fde4642d7
96968 F20101123_AAAEWW baird_j_Page_007.jpg
90b61f2f8017933ae67992400932db98
1f312c62bd90d8830c9934f365ce60483c0334b6
97356 F20101123_AAAFDE baird_j_Page_084.jp2
dcebd0a1c2e121fad98be9fa84356830
012c29d8a44554a579d009e82eaa838922443325
910617 F20101123_AAAFCQ baird_j_Page_063.jp2
78be636acdfa5d2b668bd599b3b06e5c
f7355661d10fd815a70ee60aea054fcfd4a7ceec
98595 F20101123_AAAEXL baird_j_Page_027.jpg
731962654948b3952285b5e43f9a26b2
6c759b4cd6ee3a3799c4a20d6801c434c98a2c49
1051851 F20101123_AAAFDF baird_j_Page_085.jp2
1381bf22da6eb1f94f7d372002690922
2f86bf3b200e2bbce4d523f5b6b375eb0a551f4e
914735 F20101123_AAAFCR baird_j_Page_064.jp2
493651f76ec4164ae6fd96f14f2fd1a3
5e920d10ba6282a1036681140e5e4595d7528075
30790 F20101123_AAAFZZ baird_j_Page_122.QC.jpg
4fd44aa8274b5b78fe9fc83f52b8998c
3d7264486f65fce85006f128e83ea84e58bfee09
102354 F20101123_AAAEXM baird_j_Page_028.jpg
97bb4c8ba75d8367e1f35ef794400f22
3f40f53b412af2db6aa479438810a30f79bfd8b2
133677 F20101123_AAAEWX baird_j_Page_008.jpg
f181ddec161295cf411a23778f2993ba
b5f390b10d56c883377f3ae9b75c37da084a5861
1051945 F20101123_AAAFDG baird_j_Page_086.jp2
3e2fdbc3531ff40a4ca263a8ac9a6b09
30ea13f1ac39c962eed35be95a2f510a2c80c94b
100842 F20101123_AAAEYA baird_j_Page_053.jpg
14800a17b1623ca69b7f3581f000129a
588b0164176b2d01c295a44942a404dfc8f537c3
1051888 F20101123_AAAFCS baird_j_Page_066.jp2
8e325aa3ba388aa475cba65fa933bb44
79f8a0418d6191278e8d348886ce6efb79fb463d
106370 F20101123_AAAEXN baird_j_Page_029.jpg
a0ac24d664c4b811587d3281a82edbf7
b19ebe4152a8f3dd4c9d8721691cb39ce2ab0365
133712 F20101123_AAAEWY baird_j_Page_010.jpg
fdd8d08e936c3f268eb5cdbc9d4f9ab4
fc24d9ae915656f16eac1419cbd0899d31e20758
100244 F20101123_AAAFDH baird_j_Page_087.jp2
c8fd0a2f51f80433977ae5103d770b98
ac21f5dc20cd07a715d6fb0621a20db50f1ef6e7
100683 F20101123_AAAEYB baird_j_Page_054.jpg
29ae1af7b3f92588e7ea5889e2f0989f
5378dc5fc871d8c0374e596435672db8eaad7c1b
F20101123_AAAFCT baird_j_Page_067.jp2
f675ddddb66251e17030df9564219c92
41c10f67c6a55356169b883a5cd56a7eed6c5fe1
114601 F20101123_AAAEXO baird_j_Page_030.jpg
0f1081e573e2834d83ecaeb82493697d
ce077e75025eef266660f2313ddcef7d336041ca
35078 F20101123_AAAEWZ baird_j_Page_011.jpg
f21d22f4cee01c5538f70a061f443d83
e5d37c3ef864d358204966647586052af14badec
104574 F20101123_AAAFDI baird_j_Page_089.jp2
5262067f4dfd4a65dbf64149f1e393ce
78475bdd7c5ba2b925a41441e7bfe2b881dba7f8
107675 F20101123_AAAEYC baird_j_Page_056.jpg
41da8a4749323bd620e1564bebdc1fb0
0b8826a8202bcc904754b7271cca9953e232a331
1051705 F20101123_AAAFCU baird_j_Page_068.jp2
c0715920593fcf63402ea4a9d22be7be
8d9787b6cd6afd270f3efb06c9ebb70541ab234b
103670 F20101123_AAAEXP baird_j_Page_031.jpg
8aa5eb6be5b0757312efecda521f0085
378b648da741f793aa709b0340ffb5620e6bddb4
102996 F20101123_AAAFDJ baird_j_Page_090.jp2
13dbe5d06b42339e9ca1869a9451bb92
e468daf2dd4b9d0d95068cf480325f473d09c280
103307 F20101123_AAAEYD baird_j_Page_059.jpg
26c89ff5008d2c8fe2ca472476ddceb1
b572ae7ab507b2a0b43cc6daa30962d79539cd88
F20101123_AAAFCV baird_j_Page_069.jp2
dc24450b6593768f081cce08ae44483c
031653509dde8ed93bcacb294483683256469a10
66795 F20101123_AAAEXQ baird_j_Page_034.jpg
e8845dae23bed2b9a124fc3652a5787d
8f20dcbfdef28fc0b040fe48070f584394444f7a
142649 F20101123_AAAFDK baird_j_Page_092.jp2
14f7a4562b9e9c83af4632ac1f167093
0f5ff2bcc557969102534efde7634314871abf77
105911 F20101123_AAAEYE baird_j_Page_060.jpg
0c3e9539df5af752a266a749bed5b825
33f3ed35b4401d66af29368e0319cc5e1807f40d
1051889 F20101123_AAAFCW baird_j_Page_070.jp2
5c139846ca5b4f36a1beca011900117c
ada8d9500ffa838a45adfb73cc398743ae83b193
62320 F20101123_AAAEXR baird_j_Page_035.jpg
650f0be4a1d98e7fe4210c9cd9dcf8e4
bcae2324b19bd64596f7b31724c6e08e69bc154f
1051964 F20101123_AAAFEA baird_j_Page_113.jp2
248c80a27c41701fd649acea7025b9a4
7224411f693a1b5f2b2d66062d0e6ea751aa773f
125034 F20101123_AAAFDL baird_j_Page_094.jp2
71efed9e7d312fccb4b43bc5255249b2
10697c3afb70e1a8e733a902935de9396375c47e
72190 F20101123_AAAEYF baird_j_Page_061.jpg
a702022788818087fda7aa557a3fea01
3781d3a246b85ea9ef15c9f7592cbe1c24c60712
1051935 F20101123_AAAFCX baird_j_Page_073.jp2
e89408e50a6d6f256c7ce0b17396b9a7
7430ec138fd0b9a53957d4b1f3c4b7386df0d4c4
91177 F20101123_AAAEXS baird_j_Page_037.jpg
9b7e39f983a791f19f54ce911401844d
8c4fdbf2d737961cc98dfeab15387891ae734fa7
1051946 F20101123_AAAFEB baird_j_Page_114.jp2
fc6e94da2d786d5dd9d1ad2ac4c68f5f
6d084c3e98bb8b487ece72bb0ca3825ac7bb6eb6
124021 F20101123_AAAFDM baird_j_Page_095.jp2
17068ddb9489f80da50fd57901baa7ca
8d3c2d43be56c0aecb3a0a75f8014fedd9d6541a
77821 F20101123_AAAEYG baird_j_Page_062.jpg
f57803360bbe5443c5ac0d93f6c38aa2
5a7498d9e08cc2826431afaf5a19c736cd0c0f45
1051984 F20101123_AAAFCY baird_j_Page_074.jp2
fc06c1ef6fae9679776afe29c66b7f5a
36e2ff782d147d7931aac55d3b50088b6dfb729e
97038 F20101123_AAAEXT baird_j_Page_038.jpg
254fbc3513c78db2a2c4ee4d35730f95
8169d654819b0264c72886635d61ba13c6f5285c
F20101123_AAAFEC baird_j_Page_115.jp2
5f0de2aea28e1c61b70e13ed080a0dae
ac3fba7d921198124013018a21d66f709e28b29b
110293 F20101123_AAAFDN baird_j_Page_096.jp2
95e0efd77d8ed126c7ed10a903f3ab55
244a7fbd4bfa237c5b47b05f40bf888fd1aa99be
72018 F20101123_AAAEYH baird_j_Page_063.jpg
82f6194f64f4de3708b6404b3b765cdd
b0f88c38140bb99e95a275a38811a540fdb78bae
98068 F20101123_AAAFCZ baird_j_Page_076.jp2
82454ecf1e213083af77ce8332290ca8
0dfadfa22d8c114e405271fc8c50b48f5a5c0c0e
107332 F20101123_AAAEXU baird_j_Page_039.jpg
8e9b431e08774f8353236a7e05b7a031
e8146baf96eca836c48b54a39dee10db01ec0c4d
F20101123_AAAFED baird_j_Page_116.jp2
a997992c6a6bc698cadcfcf54c221955
c72e487f58d21c2d7a6ade796471eacb5bdf9dbb
115376 F20101123_AAAFDO baird_j_Page_097.jp2
46a78a18ddcf481d28cdbc917baf1819
be23af9a991ae3a3a379a551e0a1b9dc2b50abd8
103862 F20101123_AAAEYI baird_j_Page_065.jpg
62bbf4d86de5af7fdecc8e4533b3a2da
310fc5f62c888b042b5ab640adc2ca1bda5b3eeb
132489 F20101123_AAAEXV baird_j_Page_040.jpg
6ccd65a60a8e6ebb48b0f83046af6109
0ed8d531874ca42ec48baf28af9de7dedd2227be
1051918 F20101123_AAAFDP baird_j_Page_098.jp2
2085d15442443f9eb2582609435a97f2
2ef9b319f5685decfd6b0d942adcb7548dec87a0
118519 F20101123_AAAEYJ baird_j_Page_066.jpg
06d7b871fe6bc5be857c6b38cd3650dc
ba6f6a71ac3ef03111a27aecf5ce0f358a225cc5
89623 F20101123_AAAEXW baird_j_Page_043.jpg
d4f360fa562a86b4c06a0369cc5731b4
41996c3f2e18e7afacb52a8aff3bceec8d14e6c2
99411 F20101123_AAAFEE baird_j_Page_118.jp2
6f81dbc66c3a7290a15e5ccedbba09d4
1f820d7c5f16b9082acea0d4bb329534f8748192
119528 F20101123_AAAFDQ baird_j_Page_099.jp2
29c3b4f72a163112591ecf5df9d8c0a0
41645b3f3cc5acf9cf3df82a996401339031bed9
131668 F20101123_AAAEYK baird_j_Page_068.jpg
660778b19eab5ae6e632864023675177
8ff843da8dd1917c20cc3e712af5f7fe6e142ab3
110288 F20101123_AAAEXX baird_j_Page_044.jpg
c2a54063e63d2d861c7a3da3e83a71b8
9245d9ea7e41d6cb28826c712f7c2953e21c72fb
114690 F20101123_AAAFEF baird_j_Page_119.jp2
784992265d0bf5fb6b7a3c0938252cb6
1675d828750465dfc357f1890af3de72ed4b7bf6
120118 F20101123_AAAFDR baird_j_Page_101.jp2
c65359a50a331725b4487474fef81203
5d5ebcb2ae17ba42f6bc4f8dbc07fb619aaf5887
108125 F20101123_AAAEYL baird_j_Page_070.jpg
a776d04d435f6c8e271a6f961898d6d8
5afc6a594dfcf945bd3d343d9e706ccc70734dd3
112169 F20101123_AAAFEG baird_j_Page_122.jp2
25f10f1f670eb4261d2aa5341a23d7a2
6fc4dced63c0b75e9e6c90015f8fa84167973f7c
101080 F20101123_AAAEZA baird_j_Page_096.jpg
ec4930fff230f5a71818d4c5bbc180ac
3f6797c7592ac682458c469f9049ae2632c56bd0
103958 F20101123_AAAFDS baird_j_Page_102.jp2
14993dedcb52b11b0ce650615025ddad
2027eab5af63da50567381bfedf0b066042d8951
79511 F20101123_AAAEYM baird_j_Page_071.jpg
711401a4d683916531c4ed995b6dacae
e9eb12ed5cf6578fc33f7c9a3560da3e1345e141
99837 F20101123_AAAEXY baird_j_Page_046.jpg
3e595daea37e5f1c8c27a4b9ee565fe1
6951ec3e2316247a080295657e5641cbeb073e52
128971 F20101123_AAAFEH baird_j_Page_123.jp2
5b6a843f1717d550fd3c0b4c30742b70
75843fb49f144a9fbdf6582fcbd7d0a6648064b8
108730 F20101123_AAAEZB baird_j_Page_097.jpg
83eebc9dd1f586ce9fb209f1f79ab57b
1bf16131757a3aea8f7ef65c8e7bd3e68951dad0
F20101123_AAAFDT baird_j_Page_103.jp2
a88b44bf339f4bc0a4b24fbca28559bc
17bd30239a887cad824ee350b0aa358a36e6e759
108324 F20101123_AAAEYN baird_j_Page_074.jpg
9f2e6fefde2e89436e97b0442789dcbc
ccd0f20936f3f56c892945483ef807510030c751
94356 F20101123_AAAEXZ baird_j_Page_048.jpg
3d6d9082857c4d3195766c8935665bcd
b47f62d1c2d9926de5ef419c895b9c4469209e6c
148037 F20101123_AAAFEI baird_j_Page_124.jp2
2119645eb7b1c7a14031aa669edd3f8d
b3270853c2bfe6ce66a0bfef5c70e77369f2a7a7
108353 F20101123_AAAEZC baird_j_Page_099.jpg
a99219263c9074588cef218272f2ec21
fe8ef29a0519c234b2084a1c6b96f37d073c3e7d
102136 F20101123_AAAFDU baird_j_Page_104.jp2
5ba5d001e226de13e5ff361276adf968
950922db5b4c57e81b8b04b6a250b518b3df3bb4
74016 F20101123_AAAEYO baird_j_Page_075.jpg
235231d3ece76c19024c9221faf419c9
39fe421c679f20cdadbdd3a8544fa6537dc6ad27
111675 F20101123_AAAFEJ baird_j_Page_125.jp2
6d86f7eef9c9415823e4634708b39f2a
3a9ae21ac4a1c12e6118b7c3b52b0d3e13bca750
99681 F20101123_AAAEZD baird_j_Page_100.jpg
a29ed2f6ca4e3a0f65d06a6572fbde20
f69544d5e19eca590ace4e7b288b69669a94d6b9
F20101123_AAAFDV baird_j_Page_107.jp2
56cc146b5c40e54a2ac11fd2e670d534
6b940e12c4c62cb72e6abac995178ba168f103c6
92536 F20101123_AAAEYP baird_j_Page_076.jpg
59560e075c2f0004ee0dd40a2b4dbbc3
2fbae4c2eb8ea7fe409c6977b503b031e3969359
138064 F20101123_AAAFEK baird_j_Page_126.jp2
83c3ce95f637aee3153506b147695dc9
433a3c7db00a682ca5c73a2a1c8bc308c72b3ff2
110841 F20101123_AAAEZE baird_j_Page_101.jpg
74780b5e7893cd2378648ce2e7e5190a
826f87c2fa9eb929314614c0bb5c3b0475e488e2
F20101123_AAAFDW baird_j_Page_108.jp2
5fe9c8555427c680577edf541c78e8a5
d6354ada8ee8fa7012259bf0831f8961d2cdc68a
121385 F20101123_AAAEYQ baird_j_Page_077.jpg
7c9739b00fa090933b4a62d00d9ad12d
6956c4ee69f762afc1e26e4f1756ac2d2b904130
125407 F20101123_AAAFEL baird_j_Page_127.jp2
79d82820f8cc938796a527bfeea1d7e4
0cfcee948957886842187bddfe9897cb4a5afcd5
96308 F20101123_AAAEZF baird_j_Page_104.jpg
cffebc7227bb557c47568d5de6720746
693dd25d9bcb7230150a3b99e2da7140d6bb9076
1051951 F20101123_AAAFDX baird_j_Page_109.jp2
c62184141aee7c4ac8b2ee4553250764
0efe0970a19ec319fb0ce758bd63c634ef7bb8a0
102523 F20101123_AAAEYR baird_j_Page_079.jpg
feb2581d5b3ced98c2d0adc0641b6dca
88cf167c57472ec374fe870df5d6e060c9590d69
1051828 F20101123_AAAFFA baird_j_Page_144.jp2
db2af7dac2882c8c541a14b9090bd3cf
76fb4adba2cb77f4ffc0b3b13062b02683a15d0e
F20101123_AAAFEM baird_j_Page_128.jp2
1ed7befce8f0fa2bbda2b2767aeec2dd
26a226d5d72e025ec4cb736b7aa05d78c094114f
62474 F20101123_AAAEZG baird_j_Page_106.jpg
0e082bf67c3bc75eccca370a244f2d39
daa0142a125db5b120dc0259f9f4b16f20f3d6e2
1051955 F20101123_AAAFDY baird_j_Page_111.jp2
bfe180c98281f680f00a885187ef90a5
9233c2feffbfe01e7576eb94f36e6c183c5e39ee
144989 F20101123_AAAEYS baird_j_Page_080.jpg
c2cc68b1dc90d4e858f31632703bf7c7
31160051c9b9a678d4a552b552ffa7fabc294506
907346 F20101123_AAAFFB baird_j_Page_145.jp2
753c14ef2a9e83af8546f1acc18c5814
97652ede8b5582a7d978952a208c3acba5aa8578
106373 F20101123_AAAFEN baird_j_Page_129.jp2
be17ab1bf028b3b87c5478a6eea4d6ed
380bf2a46555959d0ae673a92499c3bf79ce705b
115094 F20101123_AAAEZH baird_j_Page_107.jpg
8a183948f0de4e2c58eb068fab52015d
95d213396522f6c448a0fd6200647273ad098a0e
F20101123_AAAFDZ baird_j_Page_112.jp2
a20fef25ffa72990b5bce083ced7ec4c
18bcc163a804aa7692e2a92f27775ec900235e4d
95621 F20101123_AAAEYT baird_j_Page_083.jpg
83263180bf03d0107138d54ee3511b0a
c08b899d470d3a8c9c6460a992969aaf32df823f
1051934 F20101123_AAAFFC baird_j_Page_146.jp2
4d93df98de5bad896883e3090f5f5af6
a195897415d0110f5c5a4c32bc48dc257ee5e0eb
118390 F20101123_AAAFEO baird_j_Page_130.jp2
01c01a93e4b1d7326303c8982a2799dd
49f99c11db744842c4fd4966f7c95122f04b7cca
67799 F20101123_AAAEZI baird_j_Page_108.jpg
daf12caf9e2bcaf655ff63dab3c3aeaa
76a986758cf7c746a2cbe84b7b71549fd929dcf7
96794 F20101123_AAAEYU baird_j_Page_089.jpg
39c2e63274ca5b940738eb58d4ddacb3
19c2a03d91721398f22e1cb9b333aeb08f0293f0
1051940 F20101123_AAAFFD baird_j_Page_147.jp2
5ed304883be79f6341766c9726f9f2d8
8c1e53e8a116a59db6a66575b7c42ae8f024e841
799796 F20101123_AAAFEP baird_j_Page_131.jp2
748901d8ff01a349f38f700da53df50c
b19d55df82881992f24a47b6f0e1c71840ad1bac
70603 F20101123_AAAEZJ baird_j_Page_109.jpg
df398a720c723ab4f5bc3300f30d54b6
514d77d29eb44e08cc3ffb6a85c81abc473091ad
97128 F20101123_AAAEYV baird_j_Page_090.jpg
9ba0724167e2f7c37ac11d850a745e6d
064f11a28817caa2ebeba4ee9843a384611c58f3
1051921 F20101123_AAAFFE baird_j_Page_148.jp2
8fc29e46a7a3687d9411e863e6614ae9
568ada34aae486d2d48e51fa56baa3abe12aabfa
1051806 F20101123_AAAFEQ baird_j_Page_132.jp2
a56ef0828ce8de2c251c9ecc640c657a
494176bf0b32bab398637777670372e62e6a8c8c
77476 F20101123_AAAEZK baird_j_Page_112.jpg
bd3dd35c1d419b8e776e5d3d2756a445
8b3c6972946df2ba86a8272c0a8bf011f51e33bf
98779 F20101123_AAAEYW baird_j_Page_091.jpg
98a4880c3f33bc3c28f6e2852793c5de
0529de9ec6196ad6078aaa479f0e6dc3109aa1ce
1051923 F20101123_AAAFER baird_j_Page_133.jp2
04e1d097dd61b578810b08c0026de82f
ca117645a21ba03594136fc38cdc20e8b1b23327
118705 F20101123_AAAEZL baird_j_Page_113.jpg
bcea14280411b2cd592c7cee709da79b
43225f4de751eb74d46daf63d569aa1975932144
126961 F20101123_AAAEYX baird_j_Page_092.jpg
5a0e03a8430a5147cbd5be75b6986ca3
0dcc37182100b6fd3126d51f63d3054083081320
97838 F20101123_AAAFFF baird_j_Page_149.jp2
65253825b2642e24131b7ab5d3789f49
6596d9186ec3a0bb16419eafd2e3828007e33590
1051684 F20101123_AAAFES baird_j_Page_135.jp2
99c222d1b83c186374f4e9402aad2bf6
127f2fae65fd77a7eba8b7aabe130137324ff3b1
82022 F20101123_AAAEZM baird_j_Page_114.jpg
0a72a228ff52f900c58587d32af2c124
fa1504c36f1eb7866e272299671171778fc14886
134172 F20101123_AAAEYY baird_j_Page_093.jpg
cc55e1a142fd46840501d2cbc5d82269
c4a6a246555a98f392ad4f052bdd53a46c3de84d
121446 F20101123_AAAFFG baird_j_Page_152.jp2
24bb0127af2d72d1b2b1a42bae78bdf9
fe783c94079335da5ce34e7a1e96d8400303ab1a
1051960 F20101123_AAAFET baird_j_Page_136.jp2
80254822cf95f0b434066a8be9920d79
c75edc65d713848dd7d4554579d7a6e04853e7e3
64125 F20101123_AAAEZN baird_j_Page_116.jpg
aa6329a08994912d31fedf2962085a8f
3eb5deaca7d1a4a2ee6e8a3ff9f61de29cb2eb3a
F20101123_AAAFFH baird_j_Page_155.jp2
f92215fb284be390659a7437c8950c57
3370fa4823761262fc21b25f7585a03e4a349bac
782619 F20101123_AAAFEU baird_j_Page_137.jp2
6d91918759ead916a905f9c7e4e18296
bda5778a2f820d033401e88ca6c2ddd70e884d23
118171 F20101123_AAAEZO baird_j_Page_120.jpg
2421d9dd04275438913963c814461b20
384598909395cbdcc56632d771793806376a865a
115932 F20101123_AAAEYZ baird_j_Page_094.jpg
fd1f5627d6918f1e5926100bfae0ecf9
3903d0603f3529e93e4f00321c9f58f2caef73b9
F20101123_AAAFFI baird_j_Page_160.jp2
a01499c6fb966f402bce8b813117d6b2
8ba33b6aa8ad9b75314114390054e0d994428012
1051979 F20101123_AAAFEV baird_j_Page_138.jp2
11d687f69bca093ba90ea3c97c18dd83
1ca34bc9b088042328c82fd883e8b62dc7646698
104045 F20101123_AAAEZP baird_j_Page_121.jpg
71fa814c9cb5f6f5f5a9d6b8ff2305f2
4aaad6c0a18a4c66609c616fc7f3e00075275e86
121960 F20101123_AAAFFJ baird_j_Page_162.jp2
4f8b29246e88342d5e2673dbb47aeb9b
a7a624b6718961072ca8605058ef43d86375ac94
F20101123_AAAFEW baird_j_Page_140.jp2
eac9841ac3e1c2e4877d48365f19741f
147ed6ccdbf9d0c5548f5103f107ff238eaa9f4d
130432 F20101123_AAAEZQ baird_j_Page_124.jpg
885cafc29f91033711c9fc0e04950aa4
eb4855a74dd338a80990ef6ae87566558682b857
118481 F20101123_AAAFFK baird_j_Page_163.jp2
ef5eb7cfe80dcad3c4cf3d8fa6abea8d
873449ebfd566100749198b7645fdc235a686cc4
F20101123_AAAFEX baird_j_Page_141.jp2
6248259c22ac6f657a42a422b0fdb412
bc29f57ec562e67c155fec3b21b0ed030356ce19
124151 F20101123_AAAEZR baird_j_Page_126.jpg
61dadda75cfb2d718bdc9b7c404211aa
b2d0c7320ed6b0a06719e8b8198a475cf4d7db13
F20101123_AAAFGA baird_j_Page_026.tif
2d8fff74b956231fad3b656bed4365dc
6155cbaa85c84a82aa9fc5e702e2cb144dae87ee
125700 F20101123_AAAFFL baird_j_Page_164.jp2
b60136f2b0ce92b84cddf98d74063463
a67fe47bbc67337b6d7f21bc941a6a00a144d189
F20101123_AAAFEY baird_j_Page_142.jp2
8f124306066c48394c8690a2f4cf0279
2c9427b6cc794f5043169bdb23d329a7d76b075c
113465 F20101123_AAAEZS baird_j_Page_127.jpg
3cff7bc6d7b47a0029dfce42a3d70fd0
abe352bdde1cb13469f44688bc5e2b53b145a64a
F20101123_AAAFGB baird_j_Page_028.tif
afec604acb72a8479750d064f3b1065d
b88ac383ab6e15f1665b4f215b4ab74e831cad32
F20101123_AAAFFM baird_j_Page_165.jp2
2201f86f211ab65c721305eec65d3486
62932bbbe4b7d7a9f2eae8cbd7efae27973d60c8
1051965 F20101123_AAAFEZ baird_j_Page_143.jp2
86d0db5b1a2940913a8694e5ab3ce2cc
351b87785726686ba021ad68c895d8fe40b1c1e3
123098 F20101123_AAAEZT baird_j_Page_128.jpg
56dfc031c5d9d343a02435c5bcb523ee
c82540fbfccc62cb62208449bd3ffc9f5ba1c241
F20101123_AAAFGC baird_j_Page_029.tif
c1d3e48511328a7159811609500bf349
54b87572ee4417994f04372896c742c554d81cf5
F20101123_AAAFFN baird_j_Page_001.tif
4066059b29069c35bea84adb800f651a
b192459fbbed0fca72934f30e115283d88c5a1e3
95334 F20101123_AAAEZU baird_j_Page_129.jpg
1e79d375d529af8d686e82ac521e54b1
6d1ec05a79a90e373f692f13c5be7f0e6aca6428
F20101123_AAAFGD baird_j_Page_030.tif
49664ac07b7db25ede46b7087cf093c0
9815ed7c313b5d39f757a160ab65f1d891465637
F20101123_AAAFFO baird_j_Page_003.tif
992e6b45d0fa9f027d66b7ad247e5f9f
c05776592bbf9fcd7063f4117ba6b825924ba661
107732 F20101123_AAAEZV baird_j_Page_130.jpg
f29638b495b9a14e47a34e4dc9dc406f
f28b75d3cb14b94a448239e43a66f5684140d78b
F20101123_AAAFGE baird_j_Page_031.tif
50ccd6d238e1a06d72ac2c56c4320bb7
a4fb73b96c30665989e0b58ea05b9ed8627ae3d1
F20101123_AAAFFP baird_j_Page_005.tif
a4bd858f4164f68181aaf8af9ac76266
7d054698bb0141085346fc447034a708889e0253
55284 F20101123_AAAEZW baird_j_Page_131.jpg
0f801e719e7c775c639ea2a5ec0430e0
9db3978cd7fffc891087123bee60bde34bb88bb0
F20101123_AAAFGF baird_j_Page_033.tif
b47f1fa6b4a79d12aa0b045a3881374e
56d48b6e3267503cc5542027656e9237d869773d
F20101123_AAAFFQ baird_j_Page_012.tif
0c9f0ce073470c2493a4543f0dfc41df
e7ef451d46762d1892064259db6a17ca03e6b585
64087 F20101123_AAAEZX baird_j_Page_134.jpg
0c53a7b7275b69b7e6c876f69e87edcf
36ddd135deda224ab74586ad6251e6516aef96b6
F20101123_AAAFFR baird_j_Page_013.tif
9fa032d78b4638d4a4cb5f9abbb95212
8b909df5a45f3e70b4e23b0c5c269dcf5f946969
74674 F20101123_AAAEZY baird_j_Page_135.jpg
af8841f3648ac137802feafff8a71695
50f73cc6e82edac04709e3b70278d4a0ff65830e
F20101123_AAAFGG baird_j_Page_034.tif
9bcffd19472b7b3f2c82a9affa05d3ea
633773f9e57c1a92895b3a36baa769eeae0d84f2
F20101123_AAAFFS baird_j_Page_014.tif
7cdd454bc3e9a4acce1c0de93db5755c
8ee31ac99e4d8b9ccb9edc0469efbc81369756e0
95341 F20101123_AAAEZZ baird_j_Page_139.jpg
343ce4545d4b29dae50f8b4406b37856
5161722e303e63da96c490a993e377a27897efc0
F20101123_AAAFGH baird_j_Page_035.tif
508db1fca42bf1127b9313b487a4209c
381bf89b02f4a77a18464dac9570810d74c8ca5b
F20101123_AAAFFT baird_j_Page_015.tif
45f07bd3270ab099efbc94065ab63c57
ee36cf80b9bf3e1577716cd315a429ac2aaa81c6
F20101123_AAAFGI baird_j_Page_037.tif
147977de15f78f66bd8200f3b0930b51
dff58e5b8d19bd0ab15bbd9b02a23de980241a62
F20101123_AAAFFU baird_j_Page_016.tif
4048f20339c5eeea7d1122de597e9355
85d0101691f8a929f29b3df95f5d62cd955e572a
F20101123_AAAFGJ baird_j_Page_039.tif
672582b2a62005e30794f74f435d5012
aaae674cd90d497847d25ea381430020c345ff9b
F20101123_AAAFFV baird_j_Page_017.tif
8d3f678c26f83dd7db1ff2c523b13ba5
60a211fb33296dd9afb1d77050571191d5255adc
F20101123_AAAFGK baird_j_Page_040.tif
62b15a66c76c70b8de1b1f063aec524f
1d13ec9b191a10947a7619e8faebcfdf22a56553
F20101123_AAAFFW baird_j_Page_018.tif
30dc27d8021bc470c986a6050c18e29d
933d3615a33fea052cae07146ecee8eed146c227
F20101123_AAAFGL baird_j_Page_041.tif
05f97287972f184d5c6a94037989008b
d1e591070addcb442c9f2b1406fd564929ad59b1
F20101123_AAAFFX baird_j_Page_019.tif
35ad30fb4ca628e42e0b7f141b50db36
66ce37dde0cbfd34baafeebff7901c1e64d3839f
F20101123_AAAFHA baird_j_Page_064.tif
0a4ceba48ae93c92978484b56499b5a1
ef3c242b016094c082f640ac96d6bca92e22a287
F20101123_AAAFGM baird_j_Page_042.tif
767d8cd299e8700e2952260c720fca35
e2d1d260c3b6b9e6ec713b7621e954062d05b483
F20101123_AAAFFY baird_j_Page_020.tif
0282c2c2d5a4a00b81e71602d994706c
8d5010887f40a22cf4e9b8ee8b19bbe545a16c28
F20101123_AAAFHB baird_j_Page_065.tif
35edfd27c5d390ffcef9abea31726214
a0693bf701f7408fd73fef11d7895d4366bf5e02
F20101123_AAAFGN baird_j_Page_043.tif
45d72b8f54494f01d3ea585422ecb092
8ce9f1e4253037954196065a5afe384107057fe6
F20101123_AAAFFZ baird_j_Page_025.tif
7fed8fd4c5b40546197da4ec264f638b
3a8877f37342de1682b525056486c745cba93d25
F20101123_AAAFHC baird_j_Page_066.tif
cb28854ecb481338c534fbd8f87aa3be
5a30f5ea499b0498209b1a0d31db5c1d59d29eac
F20101123_AAAFGO baird_j_Page_046.tif
65949ab3d02f538a4d51a4f31c3675d7
b4a47820b7afc11d85da7ace28a31ed39f070c77
F20101123_AAAFHD baird_j_Page_067.tif
babb9da242c1ce04ad6148f187d5a182
d4dbb8ad892b994729b7c078d255fee5ccacc0db
F20101123_AAAFGP baird_j_Page_047.tif
71fc28ca04dc484e6b11491136dec105
1bbb1a4f05bab6d4ab25ef14bba8201910f3c0b3
F20101123_AAAFHE baird_j_Page_068.tif
e396abd0498349ad3df0866e59e24060
6f860b259eea30475c1f6830575685d2231af78c
F20101123_AAAFGQ baird_j_Page_048.tif
d8ee57a0c7561c33be95a382d73d5297
7934a9b12824250c6a6268f5389cd2169c0bb4ce
F20101123_AAAFHF baird_j_Page_069.tif
48ba3c4ef11111015e1ac648b2922f6a
dc7d00ede13eb69a2bf83c31469f0b72469dda0a
F20101123_AAAFGR baird_j_Page_049.tif
ef8c5e26f9d25d3926ceadef459b89ba
e5bd13a389a9bcc624325efef3d2cb7db775d729
F20101123_AAAFHG baird_j_Page_070.tif
9e0577909887649b60f6016089e6b114
c641d9c6f3922a8f7da277032a8332e68cbd7c7e
F20101123_AAAFGS baird_j_Page_050.tif
df5758c833073470989643825021b730
c5e831a6c25bedd733593eb71efd7ee3105fe9ec
F20101123_AAAFGT baird_j_Page_051.tif
8935cf7e373b5d186ae6db490ea631a4
c2dac23e2a1f8cd4d2503d74155ba6c25472541d
F20101123_AAAFHH baird_j_Page_071.tif
2456d04821f033eb666115a23eccd7b8
095fa79b169d06dcb6db407e1a59ed39102d39ef
F20101123_AAAFGU baird_j_Page_053.tif
be734dd0139dd5ce11a4a9207ded1159
35f231b59ed1d65d99d10a11b6238fb7bfd36b80
F20101123_AAAFHI baird_j_Page_073.tif
f341b56e739608d266718bc746b03c91
29fe50fa4dfcdd9323412e938372da6b8756223f
F20101123_AAAFGV baird_j_Page_054.tif
843ccc2d4a93f53c4082d45b532dd378
586aaa14b1158254cb8f8f57b05600f636dcf07d
F20101123_AAAFHJ baird_j_Page_074.tif
bd6e962ecdd4b71d4d13944a202fb378
03cd0efe611f28544aa85229d7c8074dbc2e0ef4
F20101123_AAAFGW baird_j_Page_059.tif
5750aff4710f16ca6d966b58f27405c6
3bdd597ff780f57667853cb40f3a88b77aaf4923
F20101123_AAAFHK baird_j_Page_075.tif
4f6010c9f154a86f5fb5290a66e539a1
5502417e7957fab13f78c066229e91293b9b2235
F20101123_AAAFGX baird_j_Page_061.tif
cdee71eacb75de4e8663f23ff3ca3b2d
e620a4ec406c6addc74f17a41bb745040ca7aad0
F20101123_AAAFIA baird_j_Page_093.tif
56297285e2f5a46c09731d5d46e8713b
964db5251db9ea8493c304f33a8db40154e21b16
F20101123_AAAFHL baird_j_Page_076.tif
db2377cec122702d774c674a62aa31c5
61904a8b258a26d8f01c70c7c139678b2f2e54ea
F20101123_AAAFGY baird_j_Page_062.tif
e2f324dbfb8469b690c461f7e0bbb024
cc7dace82dee871cf4b3e17891ecdabdcbba9f6a
F20101123_AAAFIB baird_j_Page_095.tif
5d3babfe91a9456a383596b8f4708dd3
3112bbeabbd739a0a4cef457c7c8200e7dc84eb7
F20101123_AAAFHM baird_j_Page_077.tif
1bae492586a30f217cd8aade1015d63c
9673ec47e8b67dcbb0b757073586e877c7be1b37
F20101123_AAAFGZ baird_j_Page_063.tif
22ca1aaf699585adbc36282a6c73eb10
92369ecf908ca66963e8e77d7faa604e0019eb61
F20101123_AAAFIC baird_j_Page_096.tif
a4b8e627061c49dd082740a15df72590
9fc3e7e58d9e4226d857f55c04df7f8b57dde07b
F20101123_AAAFHN baird_j_Page_078.tif
79627bc9a32139378bf75a025c060e4c
d2de57ca64581188d73a48cbf6ddfb5773e46324
F20101123_AAAFID baird_j_Page_097.tif
885def8b9b10eb4c2e71ec41e007f356
b1ea8bc44c3ba1552d447e1167e31f294cfcff78
F20101123_AAAFHO baird_j_Page_079.tif
3a8e234dc6736aeeaba16d983002c4c4
97a926a2d1a7630114a706b29cc6c2ab27c5f9f0
F20101123_AAAFIE baird_j_Page_099.tif
63ec486ffe9c56da2f4fc3b77b7a2a4a
889aa0b5f7b108bb14aac1e475ed67dc9bf75b37
F20101123_AAAFHP baird_j_Page_080.tif
984c0e36f471ce0f9f62cd5d5560d7e8
4b355149e38d908bb21cf2c1273acebfb2f9e4b2
F20101123_AAAFIF baird_j_Page_100.tif
3593c43ddd4b3202d50f8c9688bd4495
611badb84d79cac0772b3debf7b1df384e181989
F20101123_AAAFHQ baird_j_Page_081.tif
c965d75213c40104de28574d58de62e2
8e1dac70867018c14f5eaba299d679a98fd7dc15
F20101123_AAAFIG baird_j_Page_101.tif
45ca1130b7fbef7f7ecc9fd74dad067f
b13ae7a4d5e0a004f7a7044c7d85c4c8dfccf632
F20101123_AAAFHR baird_j_Page_082.tif
e4e5a557a048b037d6eb79e5a87c560a
151b46e72884b8ee019a1003fa5692d707605a57
F20101123_AAAFIH baird_j_Page_102.tif
cc13d939c78775305fd4d65d2941bfc6
bfd1fd73f51e62f815ddce22c620400771203624
F20101123_AAAFHS baird_j_Page_083.tif
7519fd52b641395498128acde4fbb43b
ab25ea812f7c0cf62cbdb067e1d7b8ac31a462d5
F20101123_AAAFHT baird_j_Page_084.tif
b8c1295fd2824880695bd30580264583
58c294b8ed2963102dbc55851c7c7c93e60668f2
F20101123_AAAFII baird_j_Page_103.tif
7ecc7d429d385e45d5d3f90dfd5f44f3
f8959d3393dc5eb732f5a9b5c5f689d41bfe1c87
F20101123_AAAFHU baird_j_Page_085.tif
7193080fae8adcf98dd51f5bd45b277d
ce08bb8e5a29bb742aa709e2c3d8d2964b6dfe39
F20101123_AAAFIJ baird_j_Page_104.tif
9593027b93d0eb37dae921e88b3f3d74
608555f6b31618617fd8ad825a79d497a43a9c7c
F20101123_AAAFHV baird_j_Page_086.tif
2198389109cde0a7d847fe8967ad3291
c2ea6ad8a95b21a5774fe3b365c8b3f0c10f6300
F20101123_AAAFIK baird_j_Page_105.tif
84684c637ffcdd3b646c1f201c8745dd
9ce5dc4dbff5bbf2067e0c2b61f59665055636d2
F20101123_AAAFHW baird_j_Page_088.tif
cfe77b2d169a788a8958fef588f97eff
1c689a5d8d1e1d6c020fb9d9722e7d931a6d2f55
F20101123_AAAFJA baird_j_Page_125.tif
868ebd13a23245d4e46a5246dc3b72a5
1c09feca03f21caee965d05d15f3d1833f1c9d16
F20101123_AAAFIL baird_j_Page_106.tif
2378b1066e41904235abfaae4535faaf
9de80ac905b715ec818ee2103b8aebcd6235f8c8
F20101123_AAAFHX baird_j_Page_089.tif
f8d6456c7ea167c175872de0e698937c
2d2d10b821293bb73c1cebc993ef05bc0d2bdbf1
F20101123_AAAFJB baird_j_Page_126.tif
66e0f5d6b7a602d1c8466ecf715e7798
0307da8b2ef7628a51cb67462cdd23f0a1240fd1
F20101123_AAAFIM baird_j_Page_107.tif
c3c1a3b386a064f5c508b268cb46927b
4e32eb7b1fa7af1f2f34f4cb5b189594924af0e4
F20101123_AAAFHY baird_j_Page_090.tif
d859cae60df11676a59bdb1ce81218aa
5b1666607d9afb439a4112bc0fe2e06212dcb841
F20101123_AAAFJC baird_j_Page_128.tif
9d3b5bce8fc732df6abe9076664cb2a6
1a53731e610bda11902005c2081ea06e9349ab94
F20101123_AAAFIN baird_j_Page_108.tif
ee8714902f0d2186afeb473339015550
8c5a83466eecbf1ada9ae5dd9f3ca64e7d727e12
F20101123_AAAFHZ baird_j_Page_091.tif
3f27ae09b57f92ce518748eea1f669dc
1ac1b7028615bd956e5f8b131515ef968a51dadd
F20101123_AAAFJD baird_j_Page_130.tif
5ef507d067813ce2eabf137ba66cc42c
3f4276d748e8ab274e54c032c0f2dae2d31337af
F20101123_AAAFIO baird_j_Page_109.tif
88f85cf7c11ff03837eba2cc79976b76
dc4563718832ef391616d0805d6355721eeea35c
F20101123_AAAFJE baird_j_Page_131.tif
c9553421bfe80334df6195d5192a8b5c
704ecba342b9e49fb15a475ea3c17d138d6dabf2
F20101123_AAAFIP baird_j_Page_112.tif
320fb72bb7689f647e271938c2107568
b8526c17be8f4ccc916039c1fc8e2763083cc260
F20101123_AAAFJF baird_j_Page_132.tif
cc5c4e2270bd31fe9ab723dfa4666d6b
5372442c52b3034a7538964a4437dc285e80f0a9
F20101123_AAAFIQ baird_j_Page_113.tif
5f27c4bead4f9e809bd27a5baf0dacf9
7c35d90d5f48474262c98073daf3e0b5665d30b5
F20101123_AAAFJG baird_j_Page_134.tif
fe349ce522a6d61a40461febedda878a
f7054e506a0309e0e58b4b4bc3dc92ba40de8696
F20101123_AAAFIR baird_j_Page_114.tif
7ac9fb1f37544e3a79650b4c073f639f
9fc56e768c745d000909117087297b5dff6973ca
F20101123_AAAFJH baird_j_Page_136.tif
22dff2daf9d630a03f3082cb7ae91eff
96471bbf597564ab4d0d24784980cdbcbeac353b
F20101123_AAAFIS baird_j_Page_115.tif
4699056f0621fdbe708f55a5a8fd8d34
c531f2ed59a4b733101b780a4c284cb817908a64
F20101123_AAAFJI baird_j_Page_137.tif
afe2c1eebbe679d0a97b1589ae215302
58e46e1c2daf87afcc64af0eb7e466501bfdaf72
F20101123_AAAFIT baird_j_Page_116.tif
57630ea6e5db40c0415621a1e63867f6
38713177a429a9531782536d24af7971b3ea8166
F20101123_AAAFIU baird_j_Page_117.tif
91c5ac0ec4dd20218255e874b885eb15
c35601c0911444a8a76f4e91c458106d7d200657
F20101123_AAAFJJ baird_j_Page_138.tif
2c34840ff970086c3a38929966be8499
4c1ef0844ec45f1421fb1db47c8f354b9133cc2d
F20101123_AAAFIV baird_j_Page_118.tif
5be6eca5c86c80ddbadcdd618173174b
8ce5fe39a06505d62a6a48c19c41efe506dbdd8c
F20101123_AAAFJK baird_j_Page_140.tif
4db093793557559ab6a57f6352402026
2bcda52fedbb65cb87db4459869f02432aa2fda6
F20101123_AAAFIW baird_j_Page_119.tif
b7209c24a4c358b7aa8b64e630d101c2
e117de1fd267fa9aa1fb8c9820eef25db022f2d0
F20101123_AAAFJL baird_j_Page_141.tif
e69771bd25e749012133af7f1373acbe
542a8646ad800e4cff434e1f07d0ef19e63932ce
F20101123_AAAFIX baird_j_Page_120.tif
f161e243ee0cb64e32f4d893ca383cfe
764281ba6a616bfcc30bd0e24f540324257f623f
F20101123_AAAFKA baird_j_Page_159.tif
1c1cfd54293b95d627df2a35fcf890c7
edce9486c0d5d8e42b4d2670e6ee7967dbc15b89
F20101123_AAAFJM baird_j_Page_142.tif
f7f7659aa6f9eefcdbdb65054a0e3fcb
c0c83faec850d1da16a4feb1f52ed0876e810fff
F20101123_AAAFIY baird_j_Page_121.tif
2fac811ed96e37c79e8acd533c9f765b
e3c956fa0eed40fd0c4f72ddbb4ba9aeeda76e60
F20101123_AAAFKB baird_j_Page_160.tif
fb11785d11b5f964be8c6277614fd389
b6156e3a2d1fa254d99db1d3821d59533ee21686
F20101123_AAAFJN baird_j_Page_143.tif
a332642288ed7b63222d2b0c63baf490
086c7bc9d6caa426fa5e0d99878504c5a25e0576
F20101123_AAAFIZ baird_j_Page_122.tif
4bc29ecf43bed50b772830ac86fa84bd
72f83702d8951b2700755c97f2f0e14dc8197aec
F20101123_AAAFKC baird_j_Page_162.tif
d97236919ffe21f948d64da39397d091
2558644aef6c82f92cc87bfc3be74b2678bca99e
F20101123_AAAFJO baird_j_Page_144.tif
48127422d41d18e23e4c9ffcf532a294
772613359354a2b0bac750fc88a483f61382d3d6
F20101123_AAAFKD baird_j_Page_163.tif
187ee90240302f67662e79f0c5e452eb
6b76981faf952a4613111d6207bad0043aa4225a
F20101123_AAAFJP baird_j_Page_146.tif
9679f5707a78832e26a546c6b3a66683
0f06f810af7d5d437d05b35188a7ce571e2bb248
F20101123_AAAFKE baird_j_Page_164.tif
1712633141bad8de9fe74109e08eae9d
5ee56e17168eff44c42b25fd831e062ed4b9bd63
F20101123_AAAFJQ baird_j_Page_148.tif
44317f87e4f428988cec31702bb77cf1
72ea9616b2af9841378242a69536820487f18e12
F20101123_AAAFKF baird_j_Page_165.tif
354f68c3600baaf430effad234146b7a
e07fdfca8a5998983047150040036037bd5733e6
F20101123_AAAFJR baird_j_Page_149.tif
d76d611adaa2a706aacedb5cb8867871
47c180224e6fa1554d26a8f97845e46667e1e21a
6878 F20101123_AAAFKG baird_j_Page_001.pro
903e5d6c8e631cf91a55d2e9bdb0d517
46823ab4c0bdedec535315be3bf1880dba7db156
F20101123_AAAFJS baird_j_Page_151.tif
2c6a524b6f7b18f7d6820a282a6dac24
33e61781763a8bad8492c2a40bb1a544b3e4e22e
1069 F20101123_AAAFKH baird_j_Page_002.pro
743d0a8dc9d61063caba6e11e75d8947
dff7094a32518f27a8fd7ee185237cd620b4a437
F20101123_AAAFJT baird_j_Page_152.tif
068aa57dc823821cfd640dded415c6a6
7e1d5306d3d75717ebd7155a43ea81dfc55f89a5
28286 F20101123_AAAFKI baird_j_Page_005.pro
9bc52e422e01e3cfa651249eaa88ac64
223d0efe2492ea06cb89c2554d21ebf8e3e9b8a6
F20101123_AAAFJU baird_j_Page_153.tif
6e5a9b7865fed4cd6d3ed6b6d7a1363c
6113683e56d2dfac3d2202f9924ecd982e7e5d73
66623 F20101123_AAAFKJ baird_j_Page_006.pro
18bf507b43bc366b98549e165f3686bc
8225f4d47d23791926d09542c40d94a345dd636b
F20101123_AAAFJV baird_j_Page_154.tif
7ba229512903bcaff81958e1b3ef77bc
e017dba2adc13c8e085d6a3e04916b9fbf20d849
F20101123_AAAFJW baird_j_Page_155.tif
8095d4fac974014de133489fce0a1634
c1c727ccb426eee16f511ed169b2e8604e5b2bcf
71341 F20101123_AAAFKK baird_j_Page_009.pro
592151e167ceb9a0975fba73c826b3d0
336aa74e0aac50630d6cc9c79cacc20dfd5dcce5
F20101123_AAAFJX baird_j_Page_156.tif
ba41c1d9105b4f85d0796fe9c7ca6af2
dd5c603e7f0d728e6242d70f6a70b00fda161237
51764 F20101123_AAAFLA baird_j_Page_031.pro
093a2b6dc18d0ce94eafe413b02f08bf
97c1e1840725839c3d343a96f6763c65495170f9
70530 F20101123_AAAFKL baird_j_Page_010.pro
faf7917ca40329b42ad716723e12bc0f
266fd95ea61ff6a220cec5660fe2efaf248223fd
45013 F20101123_AAAFLB baird_j_Page_032.pro
a73b833ea7755bf817f31040d5a1a141
760c1db79f01483ab8d3acdd1cea74074635c602
14900 F20101123_AAAFKM baird_j_Page_011.pro
0bb0e40c70dcdfdf46a15ddd25b013e1
588bf89f5b51090ddcac93f0c499e2d0a51eb708
F20101123_AAAFJY baird_j_Page_157.tif
089e9f787303fd1a566e78d1f454e109
35c03ada9c3a3ffd7965428058727f33128461d6
14278 F20101123_AAAFLC baird_j_Page_033.pro
c1ce12c17b2cfc5176c0f438f2cf47f3
5b979f51500a243d5de1889e3e129e00d4e177fc
37125 F20101123_AAAFKN baird_j_Page_012.pro
1a81f2a31a74a2e62f9cbcfc6204eb91
bd72f5aca28021ec6d7624e0a2c48810ac2978f2
F20101123_AAAFJZ baird_j_Page_158.tif
fed5a5cd441ed7296b472ce21be262a0
125a29bb168a667beb62c20c5016e9ed200ca2d5
4709 F20101123_AAAFLD baird_j_Page_034.pro
e0605301d0f9368a0b009ca511f8df8e
3fabda9f07046b4e4fe483ea33d8f2f978b2baec
60039 F20101123_AAAFKO baird_j_Page_015.pro
61429839481082725bfafec2af410edb
b7226bd646c57340193d5217155535850e78b51d
4070 F20101123_AAAFLE baird_j_Page_036.pro
256e0ae0598f681146bb8520122782b7
75b8b7594453d19ee2c88a75b9e6ca45e7703386
53363 F20101123_AAAFKP baird_j_Page_017.pro
3c0ab7a5950b1a02c564106165c78086
1466b7bfa1a3e7771d27597e480816190d0a3d33
47727 F20101123_AAAFLF baird_j_Page_038.pro
7f83f18fd4d74cd5a46095e6faf792b8
01ca7454b2ba64f0bc5f113e4629b95803167b44
60707 F20101123_AAAFKQ baird_j_Page_018.pro
fb09f3ced47a07d4eadf8897fec0f4da
48d8828cb2f623604b2d8d9ca72e54fd9087960c
82907 F20101123_AAAFLG baird_j_Page_040.pro
02148494adecea94bbdb101afa31771a
d939b680f1ad81eddf710af9076424d013a73314
56898 F20101123_AAAFKR baird_j_Page_019.pro
7f3df8dda888b58ed4f432ddbbbf87e1
596679da7383f4f655f0f817f1d0a0708d65adeb
45545 F20101123_AAAFLH baird_j_Page_043.pro
92dd079c376c361b7c73114dbc19f5af
9c45f3e66618ac2496e71c35c106c362d7b099ca
52959 F20101123_AAAFKS baird_j_Page_021.pro
4525af2fefe6bea0437b06943474b823
8390ebc1d36659951c7bb7e8e2c7038f5c9c2bea
58720 F20101123_AAAFLI baird_j_Page_044.pro
cb2914597791f0eec3b58f31657082d5
23a6b961b15f4ea7ad87373a89deb5a3c9a7a854
55776 F20101123_AAAFKT baird_j_Page_023.pro
d02108548d4ebca01ecc75f7303340be
ba15bba87f7aa7cad36d05e688ef2a0ee52d1357


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011902/00001

Material Information

Title: Looking at Ethiopia: History, Photography, and Power
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0011902:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011902/00001

Material Information

Title: Looking at Ethiopia: History, Photography, and Power
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0011902:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












LOOKING AT ETHIOPIA: HISTORY, PHOTOGRAPHY, AND POWER


By

JAIME BAIRD














A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Jaime Baird

































This thesis is dedicated to Brian, Hayes, and Marley.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study would not have been possible without the generous assistance of a great

many people. Firstly, I would like to thank my committee: Robin Poynor and Vicki

Rovine provided guidance and crucial insight throughout every stage of this project, and

Eric Segal was always available to answer my questions and give valuable advice.

Additionally, all three offered moral support and encouragement during the arduous final

stages of the writing process. Dr. Rebecca Nagy, Director of the Harn Museum of Art,

also provided much crucial assistance. Her vibrant enthusiasm for Ethiopian culture was

the impetus for my own interests in this topic and had it not been for her encouragement,

I may never have realized how rich Ethiopian culture truly is. I would also like to thank

several other professors, who all contributed in one way or another to my thinking on this

project. In the art school, Dr. Barbara Barletta, Dr. Alex Alberro, and Dr. Melissa Hyde,

all deserve many thanks. I would also like to thank Dr. Abdoulaye Kane in anthropology,

Dr. Fiona Mclaughlin in linguistics and African studies, Dr. Joan Frosch in theater and

dance, and Dr. Akintunde Akinyemi in African languages.

I am also very grateful to several individuals who assisted me in a number of ways

during the research and writing process. While my ideas were still in a very formative

stage, Dr. Al Roberts offered advice on how to direct my research, and as my project

neared completion, Dr. Peri Klemm provided valuable insight and encouragement, and

Dr. Jon Abbink amiably replied to all of my numerous queries about Suri culture. I

would also like to thank Tom Southall whose keen enthusiasm for my topic was a great









inspiration. Dan Reboussin and John Nemmers deserve many thanks for their support and

eagerness to share their hard-earned research and ideas with me. Ras Adam Simeon, Jah

Jim Marshall, and BenGee also deserve a great deal of thanks for sharing not only

information but also a significant aspect of their lives with me for this project.

I also wish to thank my fellow students in the art and art history, and African

studies programs at the University of Florida, without whom I would never have had the

courage to undertake this study. In particular, I wish to thank Mariola Alvarez, Jeremy

Culler, Wood D. Weber, Kathy Huala, Izabela Riano, Lauren Turner, Natalie Haddad,

Joann Ihas, Jody Berman, Ade Ofunniyin, Ann Baird, and Tim Nevin. Most of all I

would like to express my enormous gratitude to Nicholas Frech, who provided assistance,

friendship, and undying support during my entire time at the University of Florida.

Last, but certainly not least, I wish to thank Brian Henderson and our two dogs

Hayes and Marley, whose love and support kept me alive and sane.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF FIGU RE S ......... ..................................... ........... vii

ABSTRACT ........ ........................... .. ...... .......... .......... xii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION: SCOPE AND CONTENT .................................................1

E thiopia: A n O v erview ................ ....... ............................................. .......... .. .. ...6
Ethiopia and the History of African Photography ................................................11
O organization and G oals .......................................... ............ ...... ........17

2 MAPPING ETHIOPIA'S HISTORY: LEGENDS OF THE NILE AND THE
IE T H IO P IA N O C E A N .................................... .......................... .............. .............25

Early V isions of A frica .............. .. ................................. ........... 26
IEthiopia, Abyssinia and the Quest for Prester John ...............................................31
The "H abit" of an Ethiopian ........................................ ....... ....... ............... 40

3 PHOTOGRAPHING ETHIOPIA: THE SAFARI AND THE PILGRIMAGE......... 63

G az in g at E th io p ia ........................................................................... .................... 6 4
Touring Ethiopian B odies................................................. .............................. 70
Gazing Back .......................................... .............. ........................ 75
Authenticity as Spectacle and the Politics of Display ............................. .............81
Beckwith and Fisher's Ethiopia in Context..... .......... ...................................... 88

4 VISIONS OF POWER: THE IMAGE OF EMPEROR HAILE SELASSIE I........105

The Image of Selassie in the W western M edia ............... ............ .....................106
Selassie as the C hapel ....................................... ........ ... .. .......... .. ........ .. 112

5 C O N C L U SIO N ......... ....................................................................... ........ .. ..... .. 136

BIBLIOGRAPH Y ........... .... ............ ................................................. 138

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH ......... ................. ...................................... .....................153
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1.1 Photograph of a Suri man by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher .........................20

1.2 Formal coronation portrait ofHaile Selassie................................ 21

1.3 Linguistic map of Ethiopia...................................... ......... ................... 22

1.4 Map of Ethiopia showing regional boundaries of the nine Ethiopian States ...........22

1.5 Spirit of Sisterhood, by Aida M uluneh................................. ....................... 23

1.6 Lij Iyasu, his father Ras Mickael and Ras Hapte Ghiorgis. Attributed to Bedros
Boyadjian. Private Collection (Pankhurst and Gerard, 1998: 127)....................24

2.1 Map of the World according to Ptolemy's second projection, 1482......................49

2.2 Reconstruction of Ptolemy's oikoumen ............................ .... ............... 49

2.3 Libyj (A frica) according to Ptolem y .................................... ......... ................... 50

2.4 Reconstruction of Libyj (Africa), following Ptolemy............................................50

2 .5 "T -O m ap ......................................................... ............................. 5 1

2.6 C opy of a m ap by al-Idrisi............................................... ............................. 51

2.7 Sebastian Miinster's Map of Africa .................... ..... .............. 52

2.8 National Geographic map of Ethiopia printed in 1931 ................ .............. ....52

2.9 Africa According to y Newest and most Exact Observations created by Herman
M oll, L ondon, 17 14 ............ ... ........................................................ .. .... ...... 53

2.10 D detail of figure 2.9 ................................ .............................................................. 53

2.11 Africa ExMagna Orbis Terre created by Gerard Mercator (the younger), 1595 ...54

2.12 Detail of figure 2.1 1......... .. .......... .. ..... .. .. .......... .... .....54

2.13 Detail of figure 2.1 1......... .. .......... .. ..... .. .. .......... .... .....55









2.14 Detail of figure 2.11 ............... ..... ...... .............. ...................... .... ..................55

2.15 Africae Tabula Nova, created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570 ....................56

2.16 Presbiteri Johannis Abissinorium Imperil Descripto (A representation of the
empire of Prester John, or, of the Abyssinians), created by Abraham Ortelius,
A ntw erp, 1573 ........................................................................56

2.17 Habessinia or Abassia, Presbyteri Johannis Regio. ("Habessinia" or "Abassia,"
the Land of Prester John.) Created by Hiob Ludolf, 1683 ....................................57

2.18 D etail of fi gure 2.17. ............ ............... ...... .... .... ..................... .......... ... .....57

2.19 Detail of Africce Nova Descriptio (Africa Newly Described), created by Willem
B laeu 16 3 0 .........................................................................5 8

2.20 Detail of Africe, map of Africa created by John Speed, London, 1626 ..................58

2.21 Guinea, created by Willem Blau, Amsterdam, 1635 ............................................59

2.22 Detail of figure 2.21 ............... ......... ........ ... .. ............................ ..... 59

2.23 AEthiopia Inferior vel Exterior ("Lower or Outer" /Ethiopia), made by Jan
Jansson after an earlier map by Jan Blau (1642)..................................................60

2.24 D detail of figure 2.23. .......................... .............. .......................................... 60

2.25 Paskaerte Van West Indien de Vaste Kusten en de Eylanden, created by Pieter
G oos, nd., probably late 1660s. ........................................ ........................... 61

2.26 D etail of figure 2.25. ............ ........ .... .......... ............. ............... .... 61

2.27 Illustration from The Entertaining Traveler; or, the Whole World in Miniature,
by John Fransham and printed by Henry Holmes, London, 1767............................62

2.28 Illustration from History ofAll Nations, printed by David Paterson, Edinburgh,
17 7 7 ................. ......... ................ ............................................62

2.29 Image of the Emperor of Abyssinia from Allain Manesson Mallet's Description
de L 'U nivers, 1685 .......................... ....................................... .. .....62

3.1 Ethiopian Orthodox Priest, at a rock-hewn church in Lalibela. Photography by
Carol Beckw ith and Angela Fisher ............................................... ............... 93

3.2 Suri men painting their bodies in preparation for Donga. Photograph by Carol
Beckwith and Angela Fisher ............................................................................. 94

3.3 Suri body painting. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher ................95









3.4 Suri body painting. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher..................95

3.5 Suri woman wearing a lip-plate. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela
Fisher ............. ......................................... ........... ...... ........ .. 96

3.6 Priest standing at the entrance of the maqdas ("holy of holies") of the church of
Ura Kidane Mehret on Lake Tana. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela
Fisher ............. ......................................... ........... ...... ........ .. 97

3.7 Konso man. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher............................98

3.8 Konso man and Konso architecture. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela
F ish er ..............................................................................................9 9

3.9 Hamar women. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher ................. 100

3.10 Early 20th century postcard of Algerian women............................101

3.11 Young Konso woman. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher...........02

3.12 Amhara woman and Orthodox priest. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and
A ngela F isher ....................................................................... 103

3.13 Maasai girl undergoing painful excision. Photograph by Carol Beckwith and
A ngela F isher ....................................................................... 104

3.14 Maasai girl undergoing excision. Photography by Carol Beckwith and Angela
F ish er ...................................... .................................................. 10 4

4.1 Photograph of Haile Selassie's coronation, front cover of Le Miroir du Monde,
37 (N ovem ber 15, 1930). .................................... ... ............ ........ .... 118

4.2 Haile Selassie's coronation, front cover of L'Illustration................................ 119

4.3 Haile Selassie's coronation, front cover of The Illustrated London News............. 120

4.4 Haile Selassie's coronation. Photograph by George W. Moore. From a feature
article in National Geographic Magazine 59 no.6 (June 1931) ...........................121

4.5 Emperor Haile Selassie I on the cover of Time Magazine ...................................121

4.6 Britain's Duke of Gloucester arriving in Addis Ababa for the coronation
c erem o n y ........................................................................ 12 2

4.7 Autographed portrait of Haile Selassie ....................... ....... .. ............. 122

4.8 Benito Mussolini facing a coronation portrait of Haile Selassie, from the New
York Times....................... ... ...... .... ................................... ........ 123









4.9 Haile Selassie with his foot on an unexploded Italian gas bomb. Cover of The
Illustrated London N ew s. ............................................................ ..................... 123

4.10 Haile Selassie and soldiers on the cover of The Illustrated London News. ...........124

4.11 Haile Selassie on the cover of The Illustrated London News ..............................124

4.12 Haile Selassie on the cover of Newsweek.................................... ............... 125

4.13 Haile Selassie on the cover of Time Magazine .............................................. 125

4.14 Haile Selassie on front cover ofDer Spiegel. .................................... ............... 126

4.15 Haile Selassie on the front cover of Epoca. ................................... ..................... 126

4.16 Starving Ethiopian child and mother on the cover of Time Magazine................... 127

4.17 Starving Ethiopian woman. Photograph by Anthony Suau. Rolling Stone...........127

4.18 Rastafari wearing a necklace with a red, yellow and green picture of Africa and
a t-shirt bearing an image of Ras Tafari................. ............ ... .. ............. 128

4.19 Dreadlocked Rastafari wearing a t-shirt bearing Haile Selassie's image.............129

4.20 Tote bag with coronation image of Haile Selasse................................................. 129

4.21 "Jah is my co-pilot" bumper sticker.................................................................... 130

4.22 Haile Selassie I medal from his Silver Jubilee Fair in 1955 ...............................130

4.23 H aile Selassie cigar band .......................................................................... .... ... 130

4.24 Haile Selassie and his wife, Empress Menen on the front cover ofJahug 5 Alpha
and Omega ..... ........... ............................ 131

4.25 Bob Marley and Haile Selassie on the cover of the re-released version of
Selassie is the Chapel. (Bob Marley and Wailers, JAD Records, 1998) .............131

4.26 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie. Photograph by Haigaz Boyadjian,
19 3 0 .............................................................................. 13 2

4.27 Formal portrait of Haile Selassie. Probably taken by Haigaz Boyadjian..............132

4.28 Formal coronation portrait of Haile Selassie and his wife, Empress Menen.
Probably taken by Haigaz Boyadjian. .......................................... ............... 133

4.29 Rastafari adaptation of one of Haigaz Boyadjian's formal coronation portraits of
H aile S elassie ....................................................................... 133









4.30 Haile Selassie and other African leaders at the Heads of State Conference,
Kampala, Uganda, 1967. Photograph by Marion Kaplan ...................................134

4.31 Slightly different image of Haile Selassie and other African leaders at the Heads
of State Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 1967. ............. ........................ ......... 134

4.32 Young girl performing the sign of the heart.......................................................... 135

4.33 BenGee (right) with Joseph Hill (left) of the Jamaican reggae group Culture....... 135















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

LOOKING AT ETHIOPIA: HISTORY, PHOTOGRAPHY, AND POWER

By

Jaime Baird

August 2005

Chair: Robin Poynor
Cochair: Victoria Rovine
Major Department: Art and Art History

Visual imagery has played an important role in the formation of Western

perceptions of Ethiopia. This thesis addresses historical and contemporary visual

representations in maps, books, and photographs in order to explore how looking at

imagery defines not only what is known about Ethiopia and Ethiopian people, but also

how that knowledge operates in specific cultural contexts. By focusing on how these

images are used and understood in Western culture, it will be demonstrated that meaning

is generated in both individual and social situations.

This study is organized into five chapters, including an introduction, and a brief

conclusion. Chapters 2 through 4 each deal with a specific methodological approach for

looking at visual imagery. As an introduction for modes of looking, my analysis in

chapter 2 explores how visual representations can be read as texts. In chapter 3, I further

this approach to include the subjectivities that are embedded in the imagery, and the

different power structures that encode them with meaning. Chapter 4 utilizes a









combination of looking techniques as presented in the previous two chapters, while

simultaneously projecting the process of looking back onto the image-in other words;

the image as a "thing" that develops its own history or histories in different viewing

contexts.

Visual representations are always viewed through a filter of cascading contexts, a

system of interlocking looks or gazes that converge and diverge at different points and

locations in history. Numerous contexts are embedded within the representation itself,

and, to some degree, these embedded contexts are stable, and can be read. At the same

time, other and equally significant contexts are created by the trajectory of the

representation as it moves around acquiring meaning in different and often remarkably

singularized ways. By addressing the history of Ethiopia as a history of the way

Ethiopian people have been represented, I also hope to show that these two trajectories of

the photographic image-the photographed subject and the photograph as subject-are

contingent and intertwined.

Ethiopia has been exceptionally well-represented in the Western popular media,

particularly during the 20th century; however, Ethiopia is virtually absent from academic

studies of African visual culture. This thesis is intended, therefore, to fill a gap not only

in the history of photographic practice and Africa, but also to serve as a contribution to

Ethiopian and African visual studies in general.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION: SCOPE AND CONTENT

I want a History of Looking (Barthes, 1981: 12)

Drawn against an austere backdrop of dry greenish haze, the man's face in figure

1.1 stands alone, isolated, it would seem, not only from the rest of his body, but also from

the surrounding material world. Transformed into an objet d'art by the magic of the

camera, the man in the photograph becomes an icon of timeless beauty-a symphony of

color and form wrought from the palate of real life. Figure 1.2, however, presents a very

different picture. The latter example shows Emperor Haile Selassie I, who ruled Ethiopia

as absolute sovereign from 1930 until he was deposed by the Marxist Derg regime in

1974. Depicted in ornate coronation regalia and wearing an elaborate crown, Haile

Selassie is presented as the classic embodiment of steadfast imperial power. These two

images are paired here as an abridged representation of the two dominant discursive

spheres Ethiopia operates within-thematically and historically.

As portraits, both photographs are a very particular kind of visual representation.

Portraiture is always given special mention in the history of photography, usually because

of the power of presence it grants to unique human life. Walter Benjamin, for example,

writes that "in the fleeting expression of the human face, the aura...beckons for the last

time."1 This, Benjamin realizes, is "what gives them their melancholy and incomparable

beauty."


1 Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility," in Selected i; ,-,,i,
vol. 3. Ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 108









No matter how many times they are reproduced, photographs of human subjects

carry a trace of the subject's "aura" or individual biography. Additionally, photographs,

like all visual representations, are always viewed through a filter of cascading contexts, a

system of interlocking "looks" or "gazes" that converge and diverge at different points

and locations in history. Numerous contexts are embedded within the representation

itself, and, to some degree, these embedded contexts are stable, and can be read. At the

same time, other, and equally significant contexts are created by the trajectory of the

representation as it "moves around" acquiring meaning in different, and often remarkably

singularized ways.2 This study focuses on representations of Ethiopia and Ethiopian

people. By addressing the history of Ethiopia as a history of the way Ethiopian people

have been represented, I hope to show that these two trajectories of the photographic

image-the photographed subject and the photograph as subj ect-are contingent and

intertwined.

The photograph in figure 1.1 was taken by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher and

it appears in Faces of Africa, the newest edition in their line of popular "coffee-table

books" about culture and life in Africa. In situ the caption reads:

Surma, Ethiopia: Barchini, with his chiseled features and long elegant body, was
one of the handsomest and most seductive men we met in Surmaland. After
painting his body with beautiful chalk designs on the banks of the Dama River, he
would turn around and gaze at us intensely, seeking our approval. We were so
disarmed by his powerful expression that sometimes we would forget to press our
camera shutters.


2 The edited volume, The Social Life of Things is perhaps the best collection of essays that address the way
things, in this case commodities, move around and acquire meaning in different contexts. Arjun
Appadurai, ed., The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1986). Appadurai's introductory chapter and Igor Kopytoff's contribution were
particularly useful for the present study.

3 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, Faces ofAfrica (Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society,
2004): 86.










Like many other "ethnic" groups in Africa that have become victims of their own

iconicity-the Nuba for Leni Riefenstahl, the Himba in Namibia, the Maasai in general-

in Beckwith and Fisher's work, the "Surma" have become the perennial sexy savages,

ever-ready emblems of natural beauty and virulent receptacles of "authentic" primal

yearnings and desire.4 This caption is far more explicitly exoticizing than the stylized

explanatory texts tacked on to most of Beckwith and Fisher's more "documentary"

flavored works, yet the image of Ethiopia it promotes is not exceptional in their oeuvre.

Early on in its history, photography was adopted as a tool for exercising very

different kinds of power. For over 150 years now it has been used variously to exploit,

flatter, categorize, remember, identify, measure, study, and control real people with real

lives in an array of localized and international contexts. Some of the most probing

discussions of photographic history are, in fact, rigorous social critiques, addressing how

the camera and its product became not only an avenue towards voyeuristic revelry, but

also a surveillance apparatus, and a means to generate essentializing racial and class-

based categories. Photography also has a long history as art, as well as a reputation for

disrupting the very systems by which artworks have traditionally acquired cultural,

economic, and political value.5 In his erudite study "The Body and the Archive," for


4 For a critique of Leni Riefenstahl's photographs of the Nuba of Sudan, see Susan Sontag, "Fascinating
Fascism," in Under the Sign of Saturn (London: Vintage, 1996): 71-105; for an excellent study of
representations of the Himba, see Michael Bollig and Heike Heinemann, "Nomadic Savages, Ochre People
and Heroic Herders: Visual Presentations of the Himba of Namibia's Kaokaoland," Visual li,, it. '. .-. 15
(2002): 267-312. In her work on the Samburu, Sydney Kasfir discusses the iconic status of the Maasai in
the Western world. See "Slam-Dunking and the Last Noble Savage," Visualni,,i. 'i.'-' r 15 (2002): 369-
385 and "Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber," in Ruth Phillips and Christopher
Steiner, eds., Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1999): 67-83.

5 See Rosalind Krauss, "Photography's Discursive Spaces: Landscape/View," Art Journal 42, no. 4
(Winter 1982): 311-319; Walter Benjamin, "A Short History of Photography," in Classic Essays on
Photography, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Leete's Island Books, 1980): 199-218; Walter Benjamin, "The Work
of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility," in Selected ;';, 1,,., vol. 3, ed. Howard Eiland and









instance, Alan Sekula reveals photography's "paradoxical status," as a "double

system.., of representation capable of functioning both honorifically and repressively"

simultaneously.6 Control over how these concatenated powers are exerted and yielded,

and the processes by which they both limit and provoke reality, he then argues, should

never be underestimated.

Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher's photographs of Ethiopia exemplify how

dangerous photography can be when its power is wielded with little to no regard for the

message it communicates to both Western and non-Western audiences about life and

culture in Africa. Their work is certainly honorific: indeed, their books usually begin

with a proclamation about how grateful they are to have been able to capture so many

beautiful images, followed by a statement about how they want to "give something back"

to Africa by "celebrating" its unique and, above all, "ancient" cultures. Their work is

also repressive-they omit anything deemed inauthentic, obscuring the complexities of

modern life in Africa in order to supply the world market with the prototypical image of

the non-Western. In his review of their previous major publication, African Ceremonies,

Anthony Appiah eloquently notes:

Certainly you would never guess from "African Ceremonies" that by the year 2020
half the population of Africa will live in cities. The focus of salvaging a
disappearing past means that there are no state openings of parliament, no
weddings in white in modern Christian churches, no graduations from the
continent's universities.7


Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 101-133; Waltar Benjamin, "A Short
History of Photography," in Classic Essays on Photography, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (New Haven: Leete's
Island Books, 1980) 199-216; and Allan Sekula, "The Body and the Archive," October 39 (Winter 1986):
3-64.

6 Sekula, Ibid, 6.

7 K. Anthony Appiah. "The Rite Stuff," New York Times Book Review (December 5, 1999): 13.









By assuming that African traditions are remnants of the past rather than dynamic

processes subject to the flow of time and history, Beckwith and Fisher reinforce the

notion that modernity is restricted to the Western domain.

Perhaps this is the appropriate juncture to mention that most of the photographs and

other visual examples I re-present in this study are images of Ethiopia and Ethiopians

created primarily by Westerners for Western audiences. Even the ones that were

originally made in and for Ethiopia (discussed below and in the last chapter) are

addressed as they operate in a predominantly Western context. As several recent studies

of African art and visual culture have shown, Western and African representational

systems are not mutually independent. For instance, in her work on the Samburu of

Kenya, Sydney Kasfir brings to light the ambiguities and tensions that exist between

Samburu self-representation (through personal adornment, weaponry, and comportment)

and representations of Samburu in photography, postcards, the tourist trade, and even

Hollywood movies.8 In Christopher Steiner's numerous explorations of "authenticity"

and African art in the global market place, he utilizes Walter Benjamin's critique of

mechanical reproduction in order to show how seriality produces its own aesthetic

constructs, especially as images and objects move from one socio-geographic domain to

another.9 And in her work on Malian Bogolanfini (mud cloth), Victoria Rovine illustrates



8 Sydney Kasfir. "Samburu Souvenirs: Representations of a Land in Amber," 1999, and "Slam-Dunking
and the Last Noble Savage," 2002.

9 Christopher R. Steiner. "Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive," in Prehistories of the
Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture ofModernism, ed. Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush,
(Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995): 202-225; "Authenticity, Repetition, and the
Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Unpacking Culture:
Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World, ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner, (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1999): 87-103; and African Art in Transit (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1994).









how the same symbols of African culture can mean vastly different things simultaneously

to diverse people in multiple local and international contexts.10

In addition to being about representations of Ethiopia, this study is also about how

knowledge of Ethiopia comes to reside in various inter-contextual milieux, or "archives."

The concept of the defined archive is much like that of a delimited discourse: it is a

collection of information pertaining to this or that thing or governing concept, that comes

together for the purpose of representing and exploring a particular idea. Some archives

are existential, physical collections of things. Other archives are ideological, intangible,

perhaps even fleeting formations that ebb and flow with the demands of change and

history. An archive is also that which one has access to, the field of possibilities that exist

from a specified vantage point.1 Thus, this analysis is a kind of archive unto itself, a

formation of information assembled based on my own access to representations of

Ethiopia and Ethiopians. I hope that the absence of visual representations of Ethiopia by

Ethiopians will therefore not be perceived as an omission, but rather an avenue for further

research. 12

Ethiopia: An Overview

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (figures 1.3 and 1.4) is organized

into a bicameral parliament system made up of the House Peoples' Representatives

(HPR) and the House of the Federation (HF). The former is comprised of 548


10 Victoria Rovine, Bogolan: -li, ti Culture ;i, ',gi Cloth in Contemporary Mali (Washington and
London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).

11 For an archivists perspective of "access" to archives, see Angelika Menne-Haritz, "Access-the
Reformulation of an Archival Paradigm." Archival Science 1 no. 1 (March 2001): 57-82.

12 The majority of research conducted for this study was carried out in the George Smathers Libraries at the
University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida; I also made one brief trip to the Rare Book and Manuscript
Library at Columbia University in New York, and worked extensively on the internet.









representatives from nine "ethnically divided" states and two administrative councils.13

The latter consists of at least one representative from each one of Ethiopia's "Nations,

Nationalities, and Peoples" (which basically means one representative from each "ethnic"

group). The authority to appoint the Prime Minister rests with the party that wins a

majority of seats in the HPR, and although the HPR has significantly more political

power, the two houses meet together annually, and the HF is permitted to voice opinion

on matters pertaining to the general running of the country as well as issues related to

human rights.14 Representatives from both houses serve a term of 5 years.

Since 1991, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and his primarily Tigrayan people's

party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) have governed

Ethiopia-at times with an iron fist. Rebel fighters from the EPRDF were instrumental

in toppling the previous regime, a Marxist military junta known as the Derg (Amharic for

"Council") which had taken power from Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1974. The Derg left

Ethiopia deeply wounded, yet Ethiopian people have moved on with their lives and

scholars in Ethiopia and abroad are now beginning to confront this difficult era in their

work. As Bahru Zewde emotively notes in the second edition of his A History of Modern

Ethiopia, "Now that the Darg [sic] is over, a requiem of that past has become possible."15







13 According the Ethiopian parliament website, the nine states are "delimited on the basis of the settlement
patterns, language, identity and consent of the people concerned."
Last accessed 6-22-05.

14 Ibid.

15 Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1991, 2nd edition (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University
Press, 2001): xix.









Bahru, like many other writers of Ethiopian history, begins his book by stating,

"Ethiopia is an ancient country...," which it is, in some respects.16 During the 1st century

CE, a powerful kingdom known as Aksum, or Axum, developed in what is now northern

Ethiopia.17 Situated just 100 miles from the Red Sea, Aksum was a thriving commercial

hub and traded with Arabia, Egypt, and India as well as several other African societies

and kingdoms closer to the interior, including Nubia. The Aksumites were highly

organized; they minted currency, and employed a written language, called Ge'ez.

Originally Ge'ez was written in boustrophedonic Sabean (ancient Arabic) characters, but

the script underwent several "indigenizing" changes following the translation of the bible

into Ge'ez from Greek in the 4th century.18 In fact, this event-the translation of the bible

into Ge'ez-is the first recorded use of the word "Ethiopia" (IEthiopia, or Aithiopia) by

historic Ethiopian peoples.19 By many accounts, ancient Ethiopia "lost contact" with the

"outside world" after the decline of Aksum sometime in the 7th century. Nevertheless,

the sustained presence of Ethiopian priests, clerics, and pilgrims in the Holy Land during

the European Middle Ages, and in Rome during the European Renaissance, assured that

Ethiopia wasn't completely forgotten abroad.

Modem Ethiopia has really only existed since the late 19th century. After a great

deal of civil strife and disunity, three provincial rulers-Tewedros, also referred to as

King Theodore (r. 1855-1868), Yohannes (r. 1872-1889) and Menelik II (r. 1889-

16 Ibid, 1.

17 For a history of Ethiopia see Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford:
Blackwell Publishers, 1998); The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville, NJ and Asmara, Eritrea: The Red
Sea Press, 1997); andA Social History ofEthiopia. (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1990).

18 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians, 24-25.

19 Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1.









1913)-successively managed to unify large portions of the country.20 Their domain, just

like that of their predecessors, was concentrated in the highlands areas of northern and

central Ethiopia. It was Menelik II, who, under a great deal of political and economic

pressure from the "outside" world (namely Italy and Egypt), decided to expand

Ethiopia's borders in order to increase the amount of arable land under the highland

nobility's control. More land meant more crops, more revenue, and more money to buy

ammunition and guns for defending Ethiopia from the onslaught of colonial powers that

had already gobbled up most of the rest of the African continent. Many of the outlying

provinces incorporated into Menelik's empire had functioned as independent kingdoms

or emirates for centuries. Menelik's conquest also brought lowland pastoralistss

recognizing no boundaries" into the organized Ethiopian empire for the first time.21

However, because many of these groups were removed from the capital and other

commercial areas by the natural landscape of the Great Rift Valley, imperial rule was

essentially indirect.

Ethiopia's decision in 1994 to divide the country into ethnically divided states was

an attempt to recognize the incredible cultural diversity of its people. Official business

and general education is transacted in Amharic, yet there are 83 different languages

spoken in Ethiopia, with 200 separate dialects. The climate ranges from cool and breezy

in the rainy highlands, to scorching hot in the often desiccated lowlands, and the range of

lifestyles in Ethiopia is usually credited to its amazing topographical variation. The

capital city, Addis Ababa ("New Flower"), sits right in the middle of the country, at the

20 Richard Pankhurst and Denis G6rard, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Photographs of the Country and
its People Taken between 1867 and 1935 (London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996): 17.
21 Zewde A History of Modern Ethiopia, 20-21.









very edge of the mountainous region where altitudes begin to slide down, and

temperatures begin to rise up. Thus, due to its relative accessibility, Addis Ababa and the

markets along the city's periphery have long been a meeting place for numerous cultures

and peoples who otherwise have little in common.

For the purposes of this study, the word Ethiopia always refers to modern Ethiopia.

If I am intentionally referencing the history of what is now Ethiopia, I will say historic

Ethiopia, ancient Ethiopia, or the lands where Ethiopia is today. It should also be noted

that when referring to Ethiopian people, it is considered appropriate to address them by

their "first" name. Thus, the proper way to refer to Bahru Zewde in the third person is

Bahru, not Zewde. Throughout the remainder of this work, I will use the Ethiopian rule

for referring to Ethiopians, whilst all other individuals will be referred to by their

surname. The only exception is Haile Selassie I, who I will refer to often as Selassie.

Also worth mentioning are the plethora of Anglicizations of Ethiopian names and words.

For the sake of consistency, I have opted to use the versions of words most frequently

encountered in current research on Ethiopia, though when citing photograph captions or

excerpts from texts, I retain the form of the words as they appear in situ. An example of

the latter is the word "Surma" used above. "Suri" is actually more politically correct, not

to mention that the Suri usually refer to themselves as "Chai" or "Tirmaga."22 All of the

place names, group or "ethnic" names, as well as names of individual people mentioned

here are re-presented-it is never my intention to use terminology that has been deemed

offensive, and if I do so, I do so in ignorance. Whenever I am aware that something I am

re-presenting is "false" or derogatory, I will point out the correct term in the text, or in a


22Jon Abbink, P.iI.do\cw of Power and Culture in an Old Periphery: Surma, 1974-1998," Remapping
Ethiopia: Socialism andAfter, ed. Wendy James et al. (Oxford: James Curry, 2002): 157-158.










footnote. For example, Barchini is a corruption of the Suri name "Barchinoy."23 I do not,

however, have an answer for why the name was changed in Beckwith and Fisher's book.

Ethiopia and the History of African Photography

Four dominant lines of inquiry have defined most studies of the history of

photography in and of Africa: 1) "local" production-photographs made by and for

African people living in Africa; 2) contemporary art photography; 3) post-colonial re-

readings of colonial photography; and 4) the use value of historic photographs as primary

source material, and the use value of both new and old photographs in contemporary

contexts such as exhibitions, textbooks, scholarly publications, classrooms, and fieldwork

situations.24 Extensive work in the latter has been carried out by Christraud Geary, who

advocates methodological diligence when utilizing historic photography, claiming, quite

accurately, that "impressionistic" approaches can lead to "serious errors" in re-

presentation.25 Corinne Kratz, with her exhibition "Okiek Portraits" and the subsequent

book in which she analyzes the exhibition's path from Nairobi to Atlanta, has also

provided a valuable resource for understanding that photographs of Africa and Africans

have a powerful political dimension-in Africa and in the West.26 Post-colonial



23 Jon Abbink, personal communication, June 2005.

24 These categories are not meant to be all-inclusive, instead, they are intended to be a useful summary of
the study of African photography thus far.

25 Christraud M. Geary, "Photographic Practice and its Implications for the Use of Historical Photographs
as Contextual Evidence," Fotografia e Storia dell'Africa, ed. Alessandro Triulzi (Naples: I.U.O, 1995):
103-129; "Old Pictures, New Approaches: Researching Historical Photographs," African Arts 24 no. 4
(October 1991): 36-39, 98; Images from Bamum: German Colonial Photography at the Court of King
Njoya, Cameroon, WestAfrica, 1902-1915 (Washington D.C.: National Museum of African Art, 1988);
Geary, ed., In and Out ofFocus: Images from Central Africa, 1885-1960 (London: Philip Wilson, 2003).
Another very useful study worth mentioning is David Killingray and Andrew Roberts, "An Outline of
Photography in Africa to ca. 1940," History in Africa 16 (1989): 197-208.

26 Corinne Kratz, The Ones That are Wanted: Communication and the Politics ofRepresentation in a
Photographic Exhibition (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002). In The Ones










reinterpretations of colonial photography, also addressed by Geary, is a field that

developed in tandem with a parallel shift in anthropological practice and theory, perhaps

best exemplified by Johannes Fabian's Time and the Other, the History of Anthropology

Series edited by George W. Stocking, and several essays by James Clifford.27 Clifford in

particular emphasizes the need to realize that there is always a degree of "translation"-

or innate interpretation-involved in any kind of representation, no matter what form it

eventually takes. The collection of essays edited by Elizabeth Edwards in the much cited

Anthropology and Photography 1860-1940, are perhaps the best example of work along

this trajectory.28

Although I have grouped them separately here, contemporary African

photographers-and writing about contemporary African photographers-often spans

more than one of these four categories. For instance, South African photographer Santu

Mofokeng "retrieves" old apartheid-era photographs of South African families in order to


thatAre Wanted, Kratz meticulously analyzes the problems, challenges and successes of her exhibition
"Okiek Portraits," which premiered in Nairobi in 1989 and subsequently traveled to several US museums.
The exhibition itself was initially conceived as a means to confront ethnic tensions between the forest
dwelling Okiek and their Maasai neighbors.

27 Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983). The primary goal
of Fabian's analysis to show how, through what he calls the spatializationn of time," non-western cultures
have been represented as living fossils, or as contemporary historical records of the modern West. Fabian
also discusses how this form of knowledge becomes a form of power over the "Other" and his critique is
intended to highlight the political complexity of representational practices in general. There are currently
ten volumes in the History of Anthropology Series (volumes 9 and 10 are edited by Richard Handler). The
volumes most relevant to this study are: Observers Observed: Essays oj i ri. g ll,,.. Fieldwork
(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983); Objects and Others: Essays on Museums andMaterial
Culture (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985); and Romantic Motives: Essays on
A ri.t-' p. ,i,.... Sensibility (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989). James Clifford's work is
primarily intended to be a reexamination of the processes of representation. See "The Others: Beyond the
Salvage Paradigm," Third Text 6 (Spring 1989): 73-78; and The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-
Century Literature, Eil,, .'i. .ll 'i. andArt (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988).
The latter volume is a collection of essays by Clifford published in journals and edited collections between
1979 and 1986.

28 Elizabeth Edwards, ed., A ihi,.'/'-. .-.'. and Photography 1860-1920 (New Haven and London: Yale
University Press, 1992).









"rewrit[e] the historical relationship between image, archive and citizenship."29 His

Black Photo Album/Look at Me 1890-1950 encompasses "local practices" at several

levels, yet Mofokeng's work is also operating in the mainstream "Western" art world.

Today, there are several contemporary photographers working "locally" in Ethiopia,

though to date, the only Ethiopian photographer to have broken into the mainstream is

Aida Muluneh (figure 1.5). A graduate of Howard University and a resident of

Washington D.C., Aida was included in the 2003 exhibition Ethiopian Passages:

Contemporary Art from the Diaspora, curated by Elizabeth Harney for the National

Museum of African Art.30 Aida has also directed and produced a feature-length

documentary film, The Unhealing Wound. The film tells the story of the thousands of

Ethiopians, some now in their 20s who were resettled in Cuba as children after being

orphaned during the Somali-Ethiopian war.31

Interest in the first category-photographs produced in Africa by Africans-is on

the rise, largely due to the growing presence of academic African art in the international

domain. The recent attention lavished on Malian studio photographers Seydou Keita, and

Malick Sidibe, for example, typifies the new focus on "contemporary" African art; yet, as

Lauri Firstenberg notes in the catalogue for the recent blockbuster exhibition The .\lNi, t

Century (which included Keita, Sidibe and Mofokeng), "the emergence of these

photographic sources has contributed to greater public awareness of twentieth-century


29 Lauri, Firstenberg, "Postcoloniality, Performance, and Photographic Portraiture," in The Short Century:
Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 1945-1994, ed. Okwui Enwezor (Munich: Prestel,
2001): 177.

30 Elizabeth Harney, Ethiopian Passages: Contemporary Artfrom the Diaspora (Washington D.C.:
National Museum of African Art, 2003). Aida was born in Addis Ababa.
31 Last Accessed 6-22-05.









African modernity."32 The most comprehensive source currently available dealing with

localized African photographic practices is Revue Noire's 1998 Anthology of

Photography in Africa and the Indian Ocean.33 Dizzyingly broad in scope, the book

makese] use of the little research that has already been conducted," to "present a collage

of views" rather than any sort of conclusive statement about "what African photography

iS.,,34
is."34

Two essays in the volume deal with the history of photography in Ethiopia. One

of the two is "Tinted Portrait Photography in Addis Abba," contributed by Guy Hersant, a

French born contemporary photographer who began his career after encountering studio

photographers in Bamako, Mali (including Sidibe). 35 Hersant introduces several 20th

century portrait studios and photographers who utilized the Armenian derived practice of

re-touching photos and photo negatives with India ink and/or colored crayons and paints.

Hersant writes that today the practice continues "in the more modest quarters" of Addis

Ababa.36 The other essay, "Court Photographers," is by Richard Pankhurst and Denis

Gerard.37 The two have also co-authored a book, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic

Photographs of the Country and its People taken between 1867 and 1935.38 The latter is


32 Firstenberg, "Postcoloniality, Performance, and Photographic Portraiture," 175.

33 Revue Noiie ri. i.-..' ofAfrican and Indian Ocean Photography. Paris: Revue Noire, 1999.

34 Ibid, 6-7.

35 Guy Hersant, "Tinted Portrait Photography in Addis Ababa," inll I l. i. *.\- ofAfrican andIndian Ocean
Photography (Paris: Revue Noire, 1999): 136.

36 Ibid, 136.

37 Richard Pankhurst and Denis G6rard, "Court Photographers," ii,. 'i. *- ofAfrican andIndian Ocean
Photography (Paris: Revue Noire, 1999): 118-133.

38 Richard Pankhurst and Denis G6rard, Ethiopia Photographed: Historic Photographs of the Country and
its People Taken between 1867 and 1935 (London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1996).









a hodge-podge of imagery compiled from photographs in the archives at the Institute of

Ethiopian Studies (IES) at the University of Addis Ababa, as well as books, magazines,

and a surfeit of often un-named private collections.39 The Revue Noire article is of

particular interest because it introduces the Boyadjians, a family of Armenian

photographers who worked for the Ethiopian imperial court for three successive

generations.

Bedros Boyadjian arrived in Addis Ababa in 1905, set up a studio, and soon

became one of Menelik II's first court photographers. His eldest son Haigaz worked for

Empress Zawditu (r. 1916-1930), as well as Haile Selassie (r. 1930-1974), and Torkom,

or Tony-Bedros Boyadjian's youngest son-became Haile Selassie's photographer

when Haigaz retired.40 The portrait ofHaile Selassie in figure 1.2 was most likely taken

by Haigaz Boyadjian. The Boyadjians were skilled at the kinds of re-touching techniques

discussed by Hersant, yet many of their photographs also demonstrate a high degree of

compositional sophistication. Figure 1.6, attributed to Bedros Boyadjian, is a stunning

triple portrait of Lij (honorific title meaning "child") Iyasu, Menelik II's unfortunate

successor (never actually crowned, Iyasu was chased into exile not long after assuming

power), Iyasu's father Ras Mika'el, standing severely in the center, and another noble,

Ras Hapte Ghiorgis, on the left. A diagonal streak of shadow glides from the top left

corner of the composition to rest on the border of Ras Mika'el's dark, wide-brimmed hat.

The matching outfits and hats of the figures, as well as the "props" visible behind, below



39 Ethiopia Photographed is a bit cumbersome as a research tool, primarily because the photographs are not
attributed or cited as well as they could be, and Pankhurst has rewritten all of the photograph captions to fit
the thematic organization of the book.
40 Richard Pankhurst and Denis G6rard, "Court Photographers," 124-125.










and beside them-the painted curtain in the back, the dirt floor, and the rock wall and

fence-like structure stretching up and to the left from behind Iyasu-creates a balanced

amalgamation of planned geometry and organic bucolic respite.

Pankhurst has written two other articles about the history of photography in

Ethiopia: one appears in Elizabeth Edward's Anthropology and Photography and

addresses the "political impact of the camera" in Ethiopia from its introduction in the mid

19th century through the reign of Lij Iyasu, which ended in 1916.41 The other article

appeared significantly earlier (1976) in the British Journal ofPhotography, and presents

most of the same information contained in the introductory remarks for the later Ethiopia

Photographed.42 Lastly, an article by Shiferaw Bekele summarizing the content and

condition of the IES photographic collection was published (in English) in the Italian

compilation Fotografia e Storia dell'Africa, which followed a symposium of the same

name held in Naples in 1992.43 These sources-Shiferaw's inventory, the book and

article by Pankhurst and Gerard, the two additional articles by Pankhurst, and the essay







41 Richard Pankhurst, "The Political Image: The Impact of the Camera in an Ancient Independent African
State," inl. i"n, .,. '..-.-i and Photography 1860-1920, ed. Elizabeth Edwards (New Haven and London:
Yale University Press, 1992): 234-241. In his concluding remarks, Pankhurst does mention the deposition
of Haile Selassie, which occurred in 1974. On September 11, 1974 (Ethiopian New Year's Day), British
journalist Jonathon Dimbleby's film, The Hidden Famine, was aired on Ethiopian National T.V. spliced
with imagery of Haile Selassie "handing meat to his dogs as well as luxurious living at court." Selassie
peacefully abdicated the next day. Dimbleby's film contained devastating imagery of starvation and
suffering in Ethiopia's Wollo province.

42 Richard Pankhurst, "The Genesis of Photography in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa," The British
Journal of Photography 41-4 (1976): 878-882.

43 Shiferaw Bekele, "A Preliminary Report on the Photographic Collection at the Institute of Ethiopian
Studies (Addis Ababa)," Fotografia e Storia dell'Africa, ed. Alessandro Triulzi (Naples: I.O.U., 1995):
173-180.










by Hersant-are the only sources addressing historic Ethiopian photography currently

available in English.44

Organization and Goals

This study is organized into five chapters, including the present introduction, and a

brief afterward. Chapters two through four each deal with a particular archive, or set of

archives, as well as a specific methodological approach for looking at visual imagery. As

an introduction for modes of looking, my analysis in chapter two will explore how visual

representations can be read as texts. In chapter three, I will further this approach to

include the subjectivities that are embedded in the imagery, and the different power

structures that encode them with meaning. Chapter four utilizes a combination of looking

techniques as presented in the previous two chapters, while simultaneously projecting the

process of looking back onto the image-in other words; I will present the image as a

"thing" that develops its own history or histories in different viewing contexts.

While my discussion focuses mainly on modern Ethiopia, and how photographs

of Ethiopians move around and acquire meaning in different ways, the history of the

West looking at Ethiopia begins at a much earlier date. Thus, in chapter two, I will

address some of the earliest extant visual representations of historic Ethiopia and

Ethiopians that are known to have circulated widely in the West. These are found on


44 Fotografia e Storia dell' Africa includes several articles in Italian addressing photography in Ethiopia, as
well as a fantastic article by Geary, written in English (Geary, 1992-not about Ethiopia). Unfortunately, I
do not read Italian and the information contained in these essays is therefore not included in my study.
Other than the sources mentioned here, I am not aware of any other writings specifically about photography
and Ethiopia in any language. Richard Pankhurst, who is undeniably the leading expert on the topic, also
doesn't reference any additional sources pertaining specifically to photography in Ethiopia in his
bibliographies. I am, of course, not including the many texts which include photographs of Ethiopians
taken by various missionaries, explorers, and other sundry travelers that are widely available in a number of
languages, nor sources that have an alternate focus and only cursorily or tangentially reference photography
in Ethiopia. A complete listing of the former is available in Pankhurst and G6rard's book Ethiopia
Photographed.









antique maps and as illustrations in old travel and history books and can certainly be

defined as "archival material" in the strictest sense of the term. In addition, most of the

maps I will be addressing are part of the archival collections in the Map and Imagery

library at the University of Florida. Although it would be wrong to assume that modem

representations of Ethiopia represent a direct continuum of historic ones, it would also be

dangerous to assume that these two eras of visual codification are discrete and unrelated.

In chapter three, I will move forward in time to the mid 1980s, a period that is

recalled by many Ethiopians and Westerners as a tremendously difficult time in

Ethiopia's history. In 1985, the Derg had been in power for ten years, and due to massive

droughts and lack of sufficient political infrastructure, millions of Ethiopians were dying

of starvation. Nevertheless, Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher-with the blessings and

assistance of the Tourism Commission of the Derg regime-managed to capture a

glorious vision of Ethiopia unspoiled by the plight of the poor and hungry, but also

untainted by the modem "Western" world. Beckwith and Fisher's photographs and

books also constitute a type of tangible archive, yet I employ their work as a platform to

launch an analysis of representations of Ethiopia and Africa in a more ethereal archive-

the popular Western imagination.

My analysis in chapter four is structured around representations of a single

individual-Emperor Haile Selassie I-yet I use the various contexts in which his image

appears to reveal the diffusion of "Ethiopia" as a concept over an extended space and

time period. Chapter four also analyzes contemporary representations of Haile Selassie as

they appear in Rastafarian visual culture. It is in the latter category that the photographic

image manifests itself ultimately as a "thing" that appears to have the ability to dissociate









from its original context-these images operate independently, circulating at large in the

world market and imagination with no real need for a fixed identity. At the same time,

the Rastafari choose to associate the images with the life of Haile Selassie, the individual

these images represent. In essence, the Rastafari have become archivists of information

about Haile Selassie's life, and in turn, about Ethiopia.

Western discourse on Africa and African visual culture has a history of severing its

subject into opposing fields of analysis, or dichotomies. From civilized vs. uncivilized to

tradition vs. modernity to authentic vs. inauthentic, these patterns of thought have

effectively restricted perceptions of Africa to a narrow plane of possibilities. In this

study, I intend to continue what I see as an inclination in contemporary scholarship to

seek to tear down these restrictive paradigms, to branch out into new and flexible modes

of understanding culture that more accurately reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge.

Another important goal is to reveal that knowledge about Ethiopia and Africa as a whole

is housed in archives that transcend the academic domain. Ethiopia represents many

different things to diverse people living in and out of Africa, and nowhere is this more

apparent than in the popular sphere. In fact, visual representations of Ethiopia are far

more prevalent in the popular domain than Ethiopia is present in academic studies of

African visual culture. It is my hope, therefore, that this study will not only fill a gap in

the history of photographic practice and Africa, but that it will also serve as a

contribution to Ethiopian and African visual studies in general.











p.- .


f..


Figure 1.1 Photograph by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher. 1980-2004. "Surma,
Ethiopia. Barchini, with his chiseled features and long elegant body, was one
of the handsomest and most seductive men we met in Surmaland. After
painting his body with beautiful chalk designs on the banks of the Dama
River, he would turn around and gaze at us intensely, seeking our approval.
We were so disarmed by his powerful expression that we would sometimes
forget to press our camera shutters." (Beckwith and Fisher, 2004: 87)










































Figure 1.2 Formal coronation portrait ofHaile Selassie. Probably taken by Haigaz
Boyadjian in 1930. Private collection. (Pankhurst and Gerard, Ethiopia
Photographed, 74)












































42, 4V
4?' ?1
S1lf


Figure 1.3 Linguistic map of Ethiopia. (Zewde, 2001: 6)


Figure 1.4 Map of Ethiopia showing regional boundaries of the nine Ethiopian States.
(James, et al., 2002: xii)










































Figure 1.5 Spirit of Sisterhood, by Aida Muluneh, 2000. Cibachrome Print 40 x 30 in.
Collection of the artist. (Harney, 2003: 82 and back cover.)











Liiiilll


F
ii


Figure 1.6 From right to left: Lij Iyasu, his father Ras Mickael and Ras Hapte Ghiorgis.
Attributed to Bedros Boyadjian. Private Collection. (Pankhurst and Gerard,
1998: 127)














CHAPTER 2
MAPPING ETHIOPIA'S HISTORY: LEGENDS OF THE NILE AND THE
IETHIOPIAN OCEAN

Primitives in the Age of Discovery appeared to be identical throughout the globe
because, wherever they were encountered, they were portrayed and represented by the
same people... (Steiner, 1995: 203)

The description of the archive deploys its possibilities (and the mastery of its
possibilities) on the basis of the very discourses that have just ceased to be ours; its
threshold of existence is established by the discontinuity that separates us from what we
can no longer say, and from that which falls outside our discursive practices...
(Foucault, 1972: 130-131)


Some of the earliest reproducible representations of Ethiopia and Ethiopian people

are found in historic maps and books. These are also the earliest views of what is now

Ethiopia known to have circulated widely in the West. These early representations can

never tell the "whole story"-they present a decidedly uneven version of history, told

from a single perspective, designed for a specific European audience. Read contextually,

however, these maps and illustrations become valuable documents, repositories of useful

information that define both what we know and how we know about history. In this

chapter, I will discuss how the image-and idea-of Africa-was literally constructed

over several centuries.

Until incredibly recently, Western texts referred to Ethiopia as Abyssinia

(Portuguese and English), or Abessinen/Abessinien (German), or Abyssinie (French).

For the purposes of this chapter, Abyssinia, when it appears without quotation marks,

refers to historic Ethiopia. Not only is this how the word was used in European texts up

until the mid 20th century, it will also simplify the arguments presented in this chapter-










for, though Abyssinia has always been a part of Ethiopia, Ethiopia is not the same thing

as Abyssinia.

Early Visions of Africa

In the 5th century BCE, Herodotus included a lengthy speculative report on the

elusive source of the Nile in Book II of his Histories.1 Like many of his contemporaries,

Herodotus was fascinated by the annual floods that brought life-giving silt downstream,

fertilizing the Egyptian Nile delta and enabling agriculture and civilization to flourish.2

The source of the Blue Nile, in highlands Ethiopia, was "discovered" by the Portuguese

Jesuit missionary Jeronimo Lobo in 1616, though it was little known until James Bruce

discovered the source again with much more pomp and show in 1780.3 The source of the

White Nile was not firmly identified until 1862, when John Speke finally reached the

shores of Lake Victoria after several smaller discoveries by Richard Burton, David

Livingston, Samuel Baker and Henry Morton Stanley.4 These contributions to accurate

renderings of Africa's topography were enormous. Maps printed during the 19th century





1 Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Robin Waterfield, with an introduction and notes by Carolyn
Dewald (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

2 Today the floods, which are caused by heavy seasonal rains in the Ethiopian highlands, are controlled by
the Aswan High Dam-a virtuoso engineering feat that rises 107 meters above sea level, spans five
kilometers at its crest, and produces 10 billion kilowatt hours a year.

3 See Jer6nimo Lobo, The Itinerdrio ofJer6nimo Lobo, translated by Donald M. Lockhart (London:
Hakluyt Society, 1984; and James Bruce. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (New York: Horizon
Pres, 1964; originally published 1790).

4 See E.H. Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa: A History of the Exploration of Africa as Reflected in the
Maps in the Collection of the Rhodes Livingston Museum," in The Occasional Papers of the Rhodes-
Livingston Museum Nos. 1-16 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1974): 217. Burton and Speke
found Lake Tanganyika in 1858; David Livingstone saw Lake Nyasa in 1859 and Lakes Mweru and
Banweulu in 1867 and 1868; Baker made it all the way to Lake Albert and Nyanza in 1864; and in 1877,
Stanley finally connected the Lualaba with the Congo, after which, writes Lane-Pool, "there was not much
left to be discovered in Africa."










even mark Stanley's progress, tracing his journeys through territories that were labeled

"unknown" for centuries.

Historical representations, such as maps, capture distinctive views of how Africa

was perceived at various points in history. Because maps depict what is known and what

is unknown simultaneously, subtle changes and minor alterations can be read as signs of

how the idea of Africa evolved over time. The history of the mapping of Africa cannot

be discussed without first introducing Ptolemy, a Greco-Roman scholar from Alexandria,

who is recognized as one of the first theorists to draw maps using stereographic

projections, or systems for representing the three-dimensional surface of the earth on a

two-dimensional plane.5 Ptolemy's oikoumenJ, or known world (figures 2.1 and 2.2),

consists of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and ends not far below the equator. When Ptolemy

wrote his Geography in the 2nd century CE, unknown lands below the equator were

thought to be infertile, "uninhabitable," and generally unfit for civilization. Medieval

maps occasionally depict would-be inhabitants, the so-called Antipodeans, as contorted

human-like creatures, folded at the waist, holding their feet up beside their grotesque

5 By the 6th century BCE, Greek philosophers had deduced that the earth was a revolving sphere. This
allowed them to calculate the earth's circumference, which in turn enabled them to establish fixed
meridians of longitude. (If the earth takes 24 hours to rotate 360 then one hour equals 360 divided by 24,
or 15 .) When an event, such as an eclipse, is observed simultaneously at two different locations, the
difference in local time between the two places can be used to calculate their separation in degrees.
Eratosthenes (276 BCE-194 BCE) used this method to determine the temporal distance between Alexandria
and Syene modernr day Aswan) and estimated the diameter of the earth to be 25,000 miles, a figure within
two hundred miles of actual polar circumference (24,860 miles). Despite the accuracy of Eratosthenes'
calculation, his findings were challenged by subsequent theorists, and by the time Ptolemy wrote his
Geography and drew his first maps of the oikoumene, or known world, in the 2nd century CE, the estimated
circumference of the earth had been reduced to approximately 18,000 miles. Published a century before
Ptolemy's, Strabo's Geography also used this smaller calculation. In the great libraries at the University of
Alexandria in Egypt, Ptolemy had access to books by Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo, and many other
Classical philosophers, historians, astronomers, and mathematicians. Many of these texts no longer exist,
though Ptolemy's Geography is probably a synthesis of several earlier scholars' achievements. See R.V.
Tooley and Charles Bricker, Landmarks oJ \p I]li,,l io.: An Illustrated Survey of Maps and Mapmakers
(Amsterdam and Brussels: Elsevier, 1968); and J. Lennart Berggren, and Alexander Jones, Ptolemy's
Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical ( I',... q (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
2000).









faces-symbolically representing the belief that these unfortunate monsters would have

to walk upside down because they faced the sun from the wrong direction.

Africa, which Ptolemy called Libyj (figures 2.3 and 2.4), was thought to extend

eastward just below the Horn, enclosing the Indian Ocean like a lake (figure 2.1). Cities

that were familiar to Ptolemy, such as Alexandria, and Soene (Syene, modern Aswan),

are mapped along with geographical features known only through conjecture, such as the

two lakes south of Egypt depicted as the source of the Nile. The Nile River had mythical

importance to early cartographers. The annual floods that made the Egyptian soil rich

and fertile were predictable, but both the source of the Nile and the cause of the life-

giving floods were an absolute mystery. Ptolemy's proposal stems from a report by a

Greek trader named Diogenes, who allegedly visited the two lakes around 50 CE.6 First

called Paludes Nilli, later known as the Lakes of the Crocodiles and the Cataracts, they

were finally named Lakes Zairi and Zaflan and they appear on most maps of Africa

through the 18th century.7

Ptolemy's Geography eventually fell into disuse and his original manuscripts,

along with all copies made shortly after his time, were lost. The Romans were

disinterested in maps based on astronomical observation, and they discarded Ptolemy's

stereographic projections in favor of schematic road maps, which were essentially

straight lines with compass rosettes in the margins to indicate direction; the idea of

spherical earth was rejected completely. Medieval "T-O maps" (figure 2.5) and large

mappae mundi include most of the same place names used in Ptolemy's Geography, but


6 Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa," 216.

7 Ibid, 216-217.









depict Jerusalem at the center of the now-flattened known world. These maps accentuate

the magnitude of Christian influence on European perceptions of the world during the

centuries leading up to the great age of European exploration and "discovery." In the 14th

and 15th centuries, theological maps gave way to more functional nautical charts and

guides, and the world became round once again. Thus, when sea-faring explorers and

intrepid profit-seekers created a stronger market for accurate, readable maps, Ptolemy's

scientific projections surged back into fashion.

Arab cartographers had retained knowledge of Greek science during the Middle

Ages through their links with Byzantium and were responsible for reintroducing Ptolemy

to the rest of the world. Figure 2.6 shows an early 16th century copy of a map drawn by

the Arab cartographer al-Idrisi for King Roger of Sicily in 1154.8 Al-Idrisi's design

combines the Medieval "T-O" layout of the world with his interpretation of Ptolemy's

stereographic projection. The Indian Ocean is not enclosed, but the Horn is still stretched

too far to the east. Lakes Zairi and Zaflan are included, along with a third, and all three

feed streams leading north towards Egypt from the Montes Lunae, or Mountains of the

Moon-a hypothetical mountain range not accepted by Ptolemy, but adopted by most of

his followers. The oldest complete extant copy of Ptolemy's Geography was compiled by

monks at the Vatopeki monastery in Mt. Athos, Greece at the beginning of the 14th

century.9 The first printed edition appeared in Europe in the late 15th century, with no

maps; but a second edition featuring 26 maps from copper plates was printed in 1477.10


8 For information on al-Adrisi, see Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa," 217; and Tooley and Bricker,
Landmarks oJ \IIl l'''il' i 23-25.

9 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks ojf \ lLif/.,l~,. 21.

10 Ibid.









As European explorers ventured farther and farther into the southern hemisphere,

Africa steadily took shape in Western minds. The lower limits of the continent were

established and the empty spaces along the coastline were packed with the names of

places that had been recently "discovered." Yet, Europeans rarely reached the interior; in

fact at first they scarcely tried. Early Western explorers were primarily concerned with

tapping the spice and luxury-goods markets in the East and "discovering" Africa was a

peripheral objective compared to trying to find a way to get around it. Arab and African

traders also eliminated the need to travel inland by bringing valuable slaves, ivory and

gold to the coastal ports.11

Maps of Africa from this time period, such as the Sebastian Minster's rendition for

his 1540 reprint of Ptolemy's Geography (figure 2.7), use space-consuming mountain

ranges, wild animals, and fantastic beasts to fill in unknown territories.12 Like al-Idrisi,

Monster includes both lakes Zairi and Zaflan and the Mountains of the Moon, though his

map is best remembered today primarily because of the Monoculi he drew perched on the

coast of what is now Cameroon. This remnant of the "dog-headed and four-headed

men," gryphons and countless other imaginary things that "crept and crawled across

Medieval manuscript maps" is much more than mere nostalgic ornamentation, Munster's

creature preserves a very real popular misconception that monsters like Monoculi actually






1 Ibid, 159.
12 Sebastian Munster was a professor of Hebrew. In addition to making maps, he also published bibles and
a book on grammar as well as several Hebrew translations. See Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa," 219.









inhabited regions of inland Africa.13 Edition after edition of Minster's Africa appeared

until 1688, and it was popular long after more accurate maps had become available.14

Monster's map combined popular myths and Ptolemy's descriptions of North

Africa and the Nile, with up-to-date information provided by Portuguese explorers about

the, west, south, and southeastern coastline. Sixteenth, 17th, and even 18th century

cartographers consciously built upon Ptolemy's work, thoroughly embedding his ideas

within their own. Imaginary land creatures like the Monoculi were not that common in

later maps; however, brightly colored whimsical Africas embellished with lions and

elephants, giant birds and fanciful trees persisted. As time went on, cartographers drew

increasingly elaborate maps, atlases were published with entire chapters dedicated to

segments of the African coast, and popular designs were constantly re-produced for a

burgeoning merchant class with a rising interest in foreign and exotic things. Even

though new discoveries continually shifted European visions of Africa, the Nile region

was often drawn according to Ptolemy's 2nd century suggestion.

/Ethiopia, Abyssinia and the Quest for Prester John

The Greeks knew the African continent as "Libyj;" on Minster's map, the largest

place name is the Greek word "'Ethiopia." For Ptolemy (and Munster), "Africa"

pertained only to what is now the Mediterranean coastline of Morocco, Algeria and

Tunisia. Later cartographers used "Libya" to designate all of northern Africa west of

Egypt and labeled the adjacent inland areas "Inner Libya" or "Libya Interior." The

13 The Monoculi is absent from a nearly identical map, created by Heinrich Bunting in 1592. A print of
Bunting's map is currently housed in the Map and Imaging Library at the University of Florida.
14 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ A ',,twIo i.I'. 159. The most notable improvements to African
cartography were made by Martin Waldseemiiller. Despite their accuracy, however, Waldseemiiller's maps
were far less popular than those made by Muinster, which were released in edition after edition until 1688.
See Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ u\I ',,,lo 159.









coastal region of "Libya" was also referred to as "Barbarie" (Barbarix, Barbary,

Berberey), although the term for the interior usually remained the same. On 19th century

maps, the western part of "Barbarie" is often labeled "Tripoli," which is now where

Libya, the modern country, is located today. Libya became an independent nation in

1951 after nearly five decades of first Italian, then French and British colonial rule.15

Before that, Libya had been part of the Ottoman, Roman, and Phoenician empires; yet,

most post-colonial studies of African countries typically focus on the European,

"modernizing" colonial period. This is, of course, due to the fact that by the beginning of

the 20th century, Europe had colonized almost the entire African continent.

The only two modem African countries that remained politically autonomous

during the age of colonial rule are Liberia, which declared independence in 1847, and

Ethiopia. Italy actually attempted to take Ethiopia by force-twice. After being defeated

by Emperor Menelik II and his armies at the battle of Adwa in 1896, a much embittered

Italy attacked Ethiopia again, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. Although

Italian forces did occupy Ethiopia from 1936 until 1941, the country is usually thought of

as having never been officially colonized. A map published in the June 1931 issue of

National Geographic Magazine (figure 2.8) independent Ethiopia is shown bordered by

British and Italian Somaliland (Somalia), French Somaliland (Djibouti) and the Anglo-

Egyptian Sudan. "Italian" is printed in parentheses beneath "Eritrea."

This National Geographic map is a solemn reminder that while Ethiopia was

independent in 1931; most of the African continent was not. During the 20th century,

Ethiopia became a symbol of resistance, freedom, and hope for colonized people in

15 Libya was conquered by Italy in 1910, but was redistributed between France and Britain by the Allied
powers in 1942.









Africa, as well as for oppressed black communities in the Caribbean and North America.

Several African countries adopted the green, yellow, and red colors of the Ethiopian flag

when they achieved independence from Europe in the 1960s and 70s.16 Home to "Lucy,"

the skeletal remains of humanity's oldest known ancestor; mentioned in Homer,

Herodotus, and Ptolemy; and discussed numerous times in the bible; Ethiopia was and is

commonly thought of as an ancient civilization, a piece of Africa untainted by

colonialism.

On the National Geographic map, "Abyssinia" appears in parentheses below

"Ethiopia." As stated above, these two words are not necessarily interchangeable.17 This

is clearly evident in Herman Moll's Africa According to y Newest and most Exact

Observations, a map printed in London in 1714 (figure 2.9 and 2.10).18 West Africa is

shown broken up into "Barbaria," "Zaara, or the Desart," "Negro Land," and "Guinea,"

while "Ethiopia," written in large bold type across the breadth of central Africa, refers to

everything else below Egypt. Moll's map is based closely on Ptolemy, who used

"'Ethiopia" the same way.19 Moll locates "Abissina" (Abyssinia) more or less where

Ethiopia is today, and correctly makes Lake Tana (spelled "Tzana") the source of the

Blue Nile. Even though Ptolemy's fabled lakes Zaira and Zaflan had been dispelled by a




16 The following countries adopted red, yellow and green national flags upon declaring independence:
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, SAo Tom6 and
Principe, Senegal, and Togo.

17 See Martin Bernal "European Images of Africa-A Tale of Two Names: Ethiopia and N---," in Images
ofAfrica: Stereotypes & Realities, ed. Daniel M. Mengara (Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press,
2001): 23-45.

18 Moll's map is atypically plain for this time period.

19 Miinster's map followed Ptolemy closely who also uses Athiopia for this region of Africa.









cartographer named Guillaume Delisle in 1700, Moll includes them anyway. R.V.

Tooley and Charles Bricker point out:

[Moll] kept Zaire and Zaflan, making them into what he called 'bogs' or
morassess,' with no direct outlets to the Nile. As if out of respect [for] the ideas of
the ancient Alexandrian, he added a river, the Zebee, and made it flow north almost
to the Nile in an apparent attempt to reconcile modern geography with Ptolemy.20

Moll's "Africa," as well as several imitations produced by his competitors, were

published in British history books and geography journals until the end of the 18th

century.21

In order to understand how influential Ptolemy's ideas were, Moll's map can be

compared to a much more colorful document from 1595, the latter attributed to Gerard

Mercator the Younger (figure 2.11). Mercator's design is one of "those old maps that

fascinate collectors," a "sumptuous, fanciful, decorative...rarity;" inaccurate but

beautiful, it "captures the imagination."22 His elongated version of Africa is engulfed by

gently undulating waves, and the oceans are labeled in an ostentatious script, full of

balanced loops and winding, rounded flips. Larger geographic regions are capitalized

("Libya Interior," "Agisymba," "Abissini") while the smaller units and cities are

identified in lowercase print. Wide, gently graduated boundary lines follow invented

threads of mountains and the imagined paths of major rivers, forming distinct geographic

units suffuse in muted pink, yellow and green. The most elaborate ornamentation,


20 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ 1 ",-', ii. ,,l-' 170.

21 Versions of Moll's map were published in Michael Adams, The New Royal Geographical Magazine
(London: Alex Hogg; Symonds, Parsons, and Co., 1794?): 297; A New, Royal, andAuthentic System of
Universal Geography (London: J. Cooke, 1790?); and in Daniel Fenning, A New and Easy Guide to the
Use of Globes (London: S. Crowder, 1799). All of these sources were accessed in May 2005 from the
George Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.


22 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ 1 ,',- iiil,,,-. 9.









however, is reserved for the title cartouche (figure 2.12). Here, twin satyrs, one facing

forward, the other facing back, recline on top of an illusionistic metalwork medallion, its

lower portion draped in vines laden with ripe fruit. The bisymmetrical composition is

enhanced by dramatic chiaroscuro detailing raked over the vibrant pink and blue

openwork design. The cartouche also communicates important information about how to

read the map correctly: the central white roundel bears the title of the map and the name

of its maker, while the narrow horizontal plate across the bottom contains the scale. A

trompe l'oeil frame surrounds the entire map, underscoring Mercator's obvious aesthetic

sensitivity.

It is important to note that before the 20th century, individual cartographers had

different ideas about what Africa should look like. Place names are utilized sporadically

and known boundaries frequently shift-while this inconsistency is partly due to honest

attempts at accuracy, idiosyncrasies were most often the result of a lack of information

combined with simple differences of opinion. Moll's map is extremely plain, while

Mercator's is deliberately artistic. Both maps of Africa incorporate Ptolemy's Lakes

Zairi and Zaflan, but whereas Moll makes "Abissina" a small province of "Ethiopia,"

Mercator extends "Abissini" across the whole central interior, omitting "'Ethiopia"

completely.

Moll intentionally synthesized canonical Ptolemaic cartography with the "Newest

andMost Exact Olb/'et 'li/,li" from up to date explorers' accounts when he made his

map of Africa in the early 18th century, just as Munster had done in 1540, and Mercator

does in 1595. Mercator's map uses the Greek term "Agisymba," Ptolemy's word for the










southernmost limit of the oikoumenJ (figure 2.13). 23 Despite Ptolemy's massive impact

on later cartographers, Mercator's inclusion of"Agyismba" is an anomaly.24 All historic

mapmakers made conscious decisions when selecting place names, setting regional

boundaries, and modifying natural geophysical features such as lakes, mountains, and

rivers. These representational choices were not merely attempts to reconcile hear-say

with science; inclusions and omissions were often strategic, designed to communicate

specific ideas to a defined audience.

The Greek "lEthiopia" comes from Aithiops, which means "burnt-face." In the past,

the term functioned much like "Sub-Saharan Africa" does today: it designated a broad

geographical region with vague boundaries, and generally referred to the part of Africa

where the people are dark-skinned, or "black."25 "Abyssinia" is a Portuguese word,

probably derived from the Arabic term "Habash," which in turn probably derives from

"Habashat," the name for a group of people who live in modern Tigray, Ethiopia.26 Also

widely used was the Arabic term "Habshi," a corruption of "Habash," which had negative




23 Berrgren and Jones state that for Ptolemy, Agisymba was the southernmost limit of the oikoumene.
However, it is important to note that despite the fact that "Agisymba" resembles "Abyssinia" or a variation
of "Abyssinia," "Agisymba" is a separate concept. Berrgren and Jones claim that the word is found in no
other independent ancient source, which underscores Mercator's reliance on Ptolemaic geography.
Mercator seems to have placed Agisymba in West Africa because of the misunderstanding-shared by
many cartographers at the time-that the Niger and the Nile were connected. Berrgren and Jones support
the claim that Agisymba did indeed at one time refer to what is modem Niger or Chad. See Berrgren and
Jones, Ptolemy's Geography, 168. It is also worth noting that Tooley and Bricker's Landmarks of
Mapmaking assumes (probably erroneously) that Agisymba is interchangeable with Abyissina.

24 Out of the approximately 90 historical maps of Africa I looked at in the University of Florida's
collection, Mercator's is the only one where Agyismba is used. These maps are also accessible on the
world wide web at

25 See Bernal, "European Images of Africa-A Tale of Two Names: Ethiopia and N---."

26 Richard Pankhurst. "The Ethiopian Diaspora to India," in The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean, ed.
Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silvia and Richard Pankhurst (Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 2003):
136.









connotations, was often applied to slaves, and did not always refer to Abyssinians.27

Today Ethiopians prefer not to be called "Abyssinians," and as I mentioned in the

introduction, historic Ethiopians called themselves Ethiopians, even while the rest of the

world called them Abyssinians. What these historic maps reveal, however is that this is

not a simple case of complex inter-lingual translation-for in the past, Abyssinia was

always a part of Ethiopia, but not all /Ethiopians were Abyssinians.

Mercator may have used "Abissina" instead of "Ethiopia" or "/Ethiopia" because of

the widely held popular belief in a mythical figure named Prester John. In Europe,

Prester John was a legendary Christian Emperor who ruled a powerful kingdom

somewhere in the East. He was rumored to live in India or Asia, but was quickly grafted

onto Africa when early explorers like Marco Polo encountered Christian "Abyssinian"

Emperors.28 Christianity has existed in what is now Ethiopia since the 4th century.

During the Middle Ages, when Islamicjihads, or holy wars, tore through the heart of the

Christian realm, the idea of a Christian stronghold in the East was a comforting fantasy-

medieval Europeans believed that Prester John's armies could help them fend off the

onslaught of Islam and liberate the Holy Land from heretic "infidels."29 In Mercator's

Africa, there are no fantastic beasts or wild animals and his oceans are sea-monster free,

but he does include a small image of Prester John, enthroned and bearing a Christian



27 Ibid. See also Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell
Publishers, 1998): 77.
28 "Prester" comes from presbyter, the Latin word for 'priest." According to Tooley and Bricker, Prester
John supposedly originatedd in stories about a Tartar chief who converted to Christianity." Tooley and
Bricker, Landmarks oJf ~I,-'i,,l.,,,. 161-163.

29 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians, p. 76-78. See also Wendy James, "Kings, Commoners, and the Ethnographic
Imagination in Sudan and Ethiopia," in Localizing Strategies: Regional Traditions in Eil, i. -, 0h, i/,.
;'ii;,i- ed. Richard Fardon (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1990): 96-136.









cross in one hand, mapped next to the Nile in the center of"Abissina" (figure 2.14).

Minster also included the well-known kingdom on his 1540 woodcut map. Labeled

"Hamarich," the home of Prester John is similarly placed-on the Nile just below the

ancient city of Meroe.30

The most widely circulated map of Africa in the late 16th century was published in

1570 as a page in Abraham Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the "first great atlas of

the world" (figures 2.15).31 The 1573 edition of the atlas featured a new map: A

representation of the empire ofPrester John, or, of the Abyssinians, (figure 2.16). Here,

lakes Zairi and Zaflan are prominently featured, along with four large blue elephants, and

in the upper left corner, a small red shield bears the crest of Prester John, "a Lion

Rampant, supporting a crucifix."32 The plaque below the crest lists several "grand titles"

for the biblical David, and gives information about Prester John's lineage, traceable back

to Solomon.33 Like Mercator, Ortelius assumes far too great an area for Abyssinia,

wishfully projecting Christianity, or at least Christian control, over all the unknown

regions surrounding the mysterious southern source of the Nile.

In 1683, a German cartographer named Hiob Ludolf issued a much more accurate

map of Abyssinia (figures 2.17).34 Hiob never visited Africa himself, but based his map



30 Hamarich is probably a variation of Amharic, the language of the Amhara people of highlands Ethiopia.

31 Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa," 220.

32 Ibid, 221.

33 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ 1l,-",il ,,, 160-163. 161.

34 Hiob Ludolf never visited Africa, yet he is considered the father of Ethiopian studies. For information
about Ludolf, see Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ \ I, -,', ,,,- 163-166; and Siegbert Uhlig, Hiob
Ludolfs / Ii.. -. -,,, Aethiopica" (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1983). Hiob Ludolf's map of
Abyssinia may actually have been drawn after his death by one of his sons.









on information provided by Abba Gregorius, an Amharic monk residing in Rome, and

several Portuguese missionaries who had been to Abyssinia. Hiob's map provides

accurate, timely details about Ethiopia in the 17th century, such as the inclusion of the

newly established capital Gondar. Indicated by a cluster of stately marquees placed just

off the north bank of Lake Tana (figure 2.18), the capital had been moved to Gondar from

Danqaz in 1636 by the Abyssinian ruler Fasilidas.35 One of Hiob's Portuguese missionary

informants was Jer6nimo Lobo, a Jesuit priest who spent nine years in Abyssinia (in this

case, definitely historic Ethiopia) in the 1620s and 30s.

Lobo discusses Fasilidas at length in his Itendrio, an account of his journeys in

Abyssinia and discovery of the Blue Nile. When Samuel Johnson translated Lobo's

Itendrio in 1735, he remarked, in plain admiration of Lobo's "no-nonsense" approach:

[Lobo] appears by his modest and unaffecting narration to have described things as
he saw them, to have copied nature from the life, and to have consulted his senses,
not his imagination. He meets no basilisks that destroy with their eyes; his
crocodiles devour their prey without tears; and his cataracts fall from the rock
without deafening the neighboring inhabitants.36

Of Abyssinia, Lobo himself states:

This is the empire commonly called the empire of Prester John of the Indies,
erroneously so, however, since the truth is that the ancient and true Prester John
and his domain have been lost to human memory. And with the persistence of
rumours of Prester John in the eastern parts and the signs of his being a Christian
prince, the Portuguese who very much wanted to discover the said Empire and
were unable to gain knowledge of it, finding the Ethiopian [sic] princes with so
many signs of Christianity, and also comparing them with [what they had heard of]
the ancient Prester John...they came to believe that this was the ancient Prester
John of the Indies; and this same report, brought and communicated by the
Portuguese, was then published throughout the world.37


35 Pankhurst, The Ethiopians, 109.

36 Quoted in Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks oJ uoh,'io,,l'o.. 163.

7 Jeronimo Lobo. The Itenario ofJeronimo Lobo, 155.









Hiob would have had access to this information; yet, he still calls his map "Abyssinia, the

Land of Prester John." Lobo's account of Abyssinia was exceptional, and many

representations of the Horn of Africa and the Nile region more broadly continued to

romantically superimpose Abyssinia and Christian rule over vast portions of the unknown

interior.

Prester John" maps were designed for a wealthy and predominantly Christian

European audience: it didn't matter that the Abyssinian rulers had real names, nor did it

matter that they had never had a King with the title "Prester John" in their history; the

fact that the Abyssinians were Christian was sufficient to confirm what European

audiences and mapmakers wanted to believe. Just as Minster, Moll, and Mercator

included some Ptolemaic conventions in their maps of Africa and omitted others, Hiob

consciously selected parts of Lobo's story to include and deliberately chose to leave other

important details out.

The "Habit" of an Ethiopian

Maps have a very unambiguous rapport with reality. They self-consciously

"speak" about their subjects, offering a miniaturized, conceptual diagram of an explicitly

defined terrain-maps are made to communicate information and they are intended to be

read. Text is, of course, indispensable; cities, mountains, rivers, lakes, oceans and seas,

the title and creator's name, as well as cues for decoding the map, like the scale, are all

literally spelled out on the surface. Mapped alongside these textual representations,

however, are numerous figurative representations that also bear significant meaning.

Monster's Monoculi, for example, or Mercator's miniscule image of Prester John, suggest

something beyond candid elocution of a notable African place; they also inadvertently

convey cultural particulars about Mercator, Munster, and their markets. Some figurative









representations were highly conventionalized, used on multiple maps of Africa from the

16th through the 19th century, such as the small images of elephants and other wild

animals that appeared over unknown lands so frequently, they became part of a pictorial

language for conveying the concept of "Africa" to European audiences.

Over time, cartographers refined their skills with better instruments and more

comprehensive astronomical knowledge. Combined with the escalating influx of first-

hand accounts provided by traders, explorers, and missionaries, these improvements

made 17th and 18th century maps far more accurate. Simultaneous developments in

printmaking technology, specifically the invention of a sophisticated type of copperplate

intaglio engraving, allowed commercial mapmakers to print more maps and include more

detailed imagery, bringing Africa into sharper focus than ever before.38 Maps became

progressively picturesque as views of distant cities and ports, economic interests,

zoological discoveries, and inevitably, African people, began to occupy a larger

percentage of the margin. Consequently, images of "natives," like elephants and lions,

assumed a fundamental role in defining Europe's mental picture of Africa.

One of the more organized of these information laden maps is Willem Blaeu's

Africa Newly Described (figure 2.19). A veritable archive unto itself, Blaeu's map

features a wide border containing vignettes of Cairo, Alexandria and other well known

cities across the top, and an inventory of African people "in national dress" down both

sides. Part of a larger atlas of the world, Blaeu's map of Africa appeared in 28 editions





38 Christopher R. Steiner, "Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive," Prehistories of the
Future: the Primitivist Project and the Culture ofModernism, ed. Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush
(Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995): 206.









from 1630 to 1662.39 This wide-border style was very popular in the early 17th century,

and since cartographers borrowed freely from each other, several maps were issued with

identical or only slightly modified imagery. The border figures on Blau's map are

identical to the figures on John Speed's map of Africa from 1626 (figure 2.20), only

Blaeu's are shown reversed, and in pairs. Each figure or pair of figures is labeled, for

example, "Abyssinian," "Egyptian," or "Mozambiquan." Twelve nationalities are

covered in all, and they are the same on both maps.

For artistically minded cartographers, the title cartouche, long a reserve of

ornamental excess, also provided the perfect compositional opportunity to incorporate

additional, relevant information. For example, A map of the West African coast from

1635, again by Willem Blau (figure 2.21), portrays two African figures lounging on top

of a stone marker, along with several monkeys and a parrot. Like the figures and cities

on Blau's wide-border map, these details convey information about Africa. "Oceanus

IEthiopicus" is written just above the figures' heads in the same style of decadent script

used by Mercator. The map credits (publisher, cartographer's signature, etc) are placed

on a separate, smaller cartouche to the left, though the central cartouche retains the title

and the scale. On the lower right, Blaeu has also included a pair of Africanized putti

bearing a large elephant's tusk (figure 2.22). Ivory was a common theme on maps of the

African coastline, reflecting the economic interests of European consumers at the time.

Here, Blau's map harks back to a century before, when sea monsters and mer-men

populated the seas-just below the surface of the water the lower bodies of the putti are

transformed into red-tipped green fish tails.


39 Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of 1,,- 'i,,i.,,i 166.









Another regional map of Africa, AEthiopia Inferior vel Exterior ("Lower or Outer"

IEthiopia) is stylistically indistinguishable from Blaeu's Guinea and repeats the same

basic formation for the main cartouche: two African figures, surrounded by several

monkeys, flank a central panel identifying the geographic area being presented (figure

2.23 and 2.24). Here, however, the two figures stand rather than recline, and the

decorative stone slab has been replaced with a flayed cow skin. Replete with head and tail

still attached, the pale pink inside of the hide suggests the slaughter was a fairly recent

transaction, subtly (or perhaps not so subtly) underscoring their assumed barbarity.40 It is

impossible to glean from these figures a specific "nationality" or pinpoint a more exact

regional affiliation; they obviously have cattle, and they wear loincloths and capes and

carry weapons, but they aren't specifically identified as "Abbissinian" or

"Mozambiquean" like the border figures on Blau and Speed's slightly earlier maps.

Indeed, these two figures flanking a skin weren't intended to reference anything other

than all of "Lower IEthiopia."

The same exact iconography is used by Dutch cartographer Pieter Goos on a map

of the "West Indies" (figure 2.25 and 2.26) included in his Sea-Atlas of the Watter World,

a book of nautical charts first printed in 1666. Johann Baptist Homann, a distinguished

German cartographer, also uses the flayed skin cartouche for a map of the "New World"

he created in the early 18th century. The subject matter is totally different-the "New

World" vs. southern "'Ethiopia"-but the image and the intention are the same; to the



40 While the majority of cartouches on historic maps continued to be styled after illusionistic stone markers
or stelae, occasionally a cloth was used. For example, on his 18th century map of the Holy Land, Matthaeus
Seutter uses a cloth cartouche supported by smiling (white) putti. This type of cloth motif appears to be the
"civilized" counterpart to the flayed skin cartouche, which is only found on maps of lands once considered
"primitive" by Europeans.









right audience, the figures with the skin signify primitivenesss" in any context and can be

easily lifted from one part of the world and grafted onto another.

In his study of engravings of "primitive" people in travel narrative books from the

16th through the 19th century, Christopher Steiner points out that:

Illustrators were able to use conventionalized images without sacrificing a sense of
realism because few of their readers had ever seen the peoples and places described
in the text. Since neither artist nor reader had much knowledge of what the subject
ought to look like, it is easy to understand how a system of imaginary signs could
come into being to represent any culture deemed primitive. All that was necessary
was that the image producer and image consumer agree on the meaning of these
newly constructed signs.41

Steiner argues that this type of borrowing is part of "the logic of representation

engendered by mechanical reproduction;" whereby a recognizable image, or sign,

because it is recognizable, becomes a way to make the text seem more comprehensive,

more real, and more authentic.42 It was true that many cartographers and publishers

never saw the places or the people depicted in their maps and they relied on previously

encoded signs, or tropes, to authenticate their accounts; thus, images like the flayed skin

cartouche enabled mapmakers to speak authoritatively to their audience about unfamiliar

subj ects.

Mechanical reproduction accelerated the dissemination of recognizable imagery

throughout Europe as new texts used old tropes to identify their subjects, recycling the

same pictures to a widening audience through a range of printed materials. This was

necessary in what Susan Stewart describes as the "entrepreneurial mode" of knowledge


41 Steiner, "Travel Engravings and the Construction of the Primitive," 210.

42 Ibid, 202-225. See also Christopher Steiner, "Authenticity, Repetition, and the Aesthetics of Seriality:
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in
Postcolonial World, ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1999): 90-96.









production during the 18th century, when writers broke free of "the patronage system, the

court, the world of the coffeehouse, and the practice of subscriptions," and begin actively

seeking publishers for their writings.43 This "commodification of writing" she argues,

"demanded an authenticating apparatus;" in the context of travel narratives, maps and

other documents describing cultures exotic to that of the producer, the picture of the

"native" or "primitive other" becomes the authenticating apparatus, reciprocally

proclaiming that both the text/map and the image are true.44

In the examples discussed above, the image of two "natives" holding up a flayed

skin has the effect of casting both the "West Indies" and "Lower IEthiopia" as "primitive

lands." The figures are at once generic and specific: their ability to signify broadly

makes them interchangeable, yet contextually the figures become "West Indians" and

"'Ethiopians," comparable to the "Abbisinian," the "Egyptian" or any of the other figures

in Blau and Speed's catalogue of"nationalities." The way a figure is represented-their

mode of dress and adornment, the objects they carry, the way they either sit or stand-

become identifying characteristics of distinct categories of people when the same tropes

are constantly repeated; thus, clothing-or the lack of clothing-can be made to serve as

the medium through which "nationality" is translated, the dressed, adorned, or naked

body becoming interchangeable with the figure's national(or "ethnic", or "racial")

identification.



43 Susan Stewart, "Antipodal Expectations: Notes on the Formosan 'Ethnography' of George
Psalmanazar,"in Romantic Motives: Essays on i,ri, .. i, .. 1 Sensibility, ed. George W. Stocking
(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989): 48-53.

44 In "Travel Engravings and the Construction of The Primitive," Christopher Steiner points out how this
process does not apply only to "primitive" cultures; it was also used to represent cities in Europe in travel
journals and other texts.









Two book illustrations, both printed in the late 18th century, demonstrate this point

clearly: in the first illustration, taken from John Fransham's The Entertaining Traveler;

or, The Whole World in Miniature (London, 1767), three pairs of figures, each a male and

a female, wearing their "national costume" are presented as representatives from their

respective cultures. They appear in a row with labels above their heads that read (from

left to right) "The Habit of a Negroe," "The Habit of a Moor," and "The Habit of a

Mexican," (figure 2.27). Nine modes of dress are presented in all, in three illustrations,

and these are the only images in the whole book.45 The second example is from The

History ofAllNations, by David Paterson (Edinburgh, 1777), (figure 2.28). The

iconography is identical to Fransham's illustration of "the habit" of a "Negroe": the man

is wearing a loincloth and carries a spear; the woman wears a cloth draped about her

waist, and carries an infant on her back The only difference is that in the second

illustration, the words "the habit of..." are left off. There are several illustrations of other

nationalities in Fransham's book, yet, his "A Negroe" is the only image that doesn't

include these extra contextualizing words.

This image of an African woman wearing a short waist wrapper, carrying a baby on

her back, appeared earlier as the "Mozambiquan" in the catalogue of cultures on Willem

Blaeu's Africa Newly Described and John Speed's Africce, discussed above (figures 2.19

and 2.20). On both 17th century maps, "Abyssinians" are shown wearing jodhpur-style

pants and belted tunics, wrapped turbans and shoes. A similarly dressed individual

appears on the title page for Samuel Johnson 18th century novel The History ofRasselas,



45 The other two images contain representations of "The Habit of a Chinese," "The Habit of a Mogul," and
"The Habit of a Persian;" and "The Habit of a Turk," the Habit of a Tartar," and "The Habit of a Polander."









Prince ofAbyssinia.46 Images of Prester John, the most famous of all Abyssinians,

always portray him in kingly dress, usually carrying a crucifix, and enthroned. An image

of "The Emperor of Abyssinia" from Allain Manesson Mallet's Description de L 'Univers

(1685) shows the Emperor, still equated with Prester John, in embroidered and tassled

finery, wearing a military helmet and sandals (figure 2.29).47 In stark contrast to other

kinds of/Ethiopians-the two figures holding the flayed skin, or the "Mozambiquan"

woman, for instance-Abyssinians are depicted "favorably" by European standards, most

readily indicated by the fact that they are typically represented fully clothed.

Pictures of Africa and African people printed on historical maps, and in old books,

have the ability to communicate and store information; they can be read as products of a

particular culture, as statements of contextually specific ideas. They are also biased,

implicated in the history of colonialism, signs of an uneven distribution of knowledge and

power. After Lake Victoria, was "discovered" by John Speke in 1862, and the sources of

the Congo and Lualaba were "discovered" a few years later by Henry Morton Stanley,

"there was not much left to be explored in Africa."48 The Nile Region, which held the

undivided attention of two-thousand years of cartographers, could finally be mapped

"correctly."

Not ten years after Stanley's final breakthrough, a group of European superpowers

assembled in Berlin to haggle over Africa's future. They cut Africa into fifty different

states, divided the newly established territories between them, and agreed to respect each

46 Johnson, Samuel. The history ofRasselas, Prince ofAbissinia (London, 1799?), George A. Smathers
Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. May 2005


47 This image appears in Tooley and Bricker, Landmarks of l',,,,,l-.,,. 164.

48 Lane-Pool, "The Discovery of Africa," 217.









other's borders. At the Berlin Conference in 1894, the age of Discovery ended and the

era of European colonialism in Africa officially began. The map of Africa today is a

snapshot of this notorious event, a lasting picture of an inexorable moment in both

Africa's and Europe's past. Yet, Africa today is also a picture of resistance, of freedom

fought for and won, of new national, regional and ever-changing individual identities.

All of the maps and images discussed in this chapter are intended to illuminate the

complex history of European representations of what is now Ethiopia. I have shown that

what is Ethiopia today once had two different identities: Abyssinia, the fertile country

that feeds the Nile, the ancient Empire of Christian Kings; and Ethiopia, an obscure land

populated by barbaric pagans. In the next chapter I will turn to more recent

representations of Ethiopia, and I will explore how this division, in some instances, still

exists; my discussion will also move from maps as historical documents of exploration

and discovery, to photographs as representations of relationships of power. Around the

same time that Speke was discovering the source of the White Nile in 1862, Europeans

began documenting people with photography, and a whole new way to think about and

look at African culture developed.





























- I


Figure 2.1 Map of the World according to Ptolemy's second projection, 1482. This map
is from the 1482 Latin edition printed by Lienart at Ulm, the first edition of
the Geography to include woodcut print maps. (Department of Printing and
Graphic Arts, The Houghton Library, Harvard University. Plate 6 in Berggren
and Jones.)


K,~~7
x


Figure 2.2 Reconstruction of Ptolemy's oikoumenj, (Map 1. in Berggren and Jones)







50



0 10 20' 300 40 50 600 700 80s 90


r-S 4rj N


Inner Libye

LIBYE











tkisymba
Unknown Land


Figure 2.3 LibyJ (Africa) according to Ptolemy. (Map 7a in Berggren and Jones)


40E ..... .50' E .40 N


20W 10'W 0'

Ci L-


Inner Lib ?

Agisymba?

LIBYE


30' N
Eg 'pt,






., 0 N

tiopla

I,*., In ia

F<* ^s ." r, SrillB Aih a!
y ik n


Figure 2.4 Libye (Africa). Reconstruction of Ptolemy's Africa showing how his map
compares to Africa today. (Map 7b in Berggren and Jones)


T-





LihiM'


Ai




























Figure 2.5. "T-O" map. From a 14th century copy of the writings of Lucan (Marcus
Annaeus Lucanus), a 1st-century Roman poet. (Tooley and Bricker, 24). The
bottom stroke of the "T" represents the Mediterranean; the top bar depicts the
Nile River on the right, and the waters north of the Aegean on the left. The
double outer ring represents the river Ocean.



















Figure 2.6 Copy of a map by al-Idrisi. Al-Idrisi created the original map for King Roger
of Sicily in 1154. The copy shown here was probably made around 1500 CE.
(Tooley and Bricker,. 24).










I-r^T^


1 _.."_- --.... ,..,' -. .
.- .
.. -. .. ;' \ .; t' ^. ,,
,, } ....-- ... ;'- l/. ?^ ,,.... .,
,J ,,,
-7-- iil



.,* A TI-HIO I'- ,,,r
-'.y. L ._- .. < ,
" -''-* -"*^ -"*< ,. "--":
: '1 -* ".

'- 1 ;4 1 ./
0, "I'.:
,~ ~ .





II ,ih,
',, "'-~-.h -
__.rVJh-: ... 4, -_ : -
~ ~.--" .--.,- rI .
.,,'0 "L '" "A


Figure 2.7 Sebastian Muinster's Map of Africa. Woodcut print with insert type. Created
by Mtinster in 1540 for his version of Ptolemy's Geography. The map
depicted here is from the third edition, published in 1542. (Tooley and
Bricker, 153).


Figure 2.8. Map of Ethiopia printed in 1931. (National Geographic Magazine, June
1931, 702). The original caption reads, "ARID, SEMIDESERT COUNTRY
SURROUNDS ETHIOPIA. The ancient Empire embraces more than 350,000
square miles of the productive north-eastern plateau of Africa, and, while it
lies wholly within the Tropics, its elevation tempers the climate."


.. ''' _

I j*
I i. : <4 ,, I

,.. '. ."'-- 1 P I .
2 '.1 .. N I/ ... p ...


i \- P* ," ., '-
,_ ._ _r '.,. / "
.. ..-.--.. i ..
rJ p ,
;" I.-lLI
_-.
1 -. ,.


0





































Figure 2.9 Africa According to y Newest and most Exact Observations created by
Herman Moll, London, 1714. 26.5 x 18.7 cm (University of Florida, George
A. Smathers Library)


Z.f&nntf flti*F
'aa


*n~m Jots
ea^^r^*
.grajrb on



rA .V~a rtn4 n .
[ 'F^V^ 1


Lt^ t ^'^ ) ) !.a'-ri
pw.xrul .- 'b' ^^ l i tmiaL
'J,,.^ ^ (*^r^



r- iytj.,rf ^ >^
s -V I
HIOPJX A+
Jqt~ ;
tjr t s


-_- -i is


I-,,
'r id
~I I
4 V ^ \ 0''-~
flcarco
%, .fc^ ;b i',-^u

^SS^^ *. .L^^Ae C9 ^P
'Vt.^ K
,, ,r~~T 444


Figure 2.10. Detail of figure 2.9 showing "Abissina" (upper right), Ethiopia (center), and
Lakes Zaire and Zaflan and the Zeebe River (bottom).






























Figure 2.11 Africa Ex Magna Orbis Terre created by Gerard Mercator (the younger),
1595. 38 x 47 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library)


Figure 2.12 Detail of figure 2.11. Title cartouche from Mercator's map, surface
treatment of water, trompe l'oiel frame, and the "Oceanus Aethiopicus."



























Figure 2.13 Detail of figure 2.11 showing "Agisymba."


Figure 2.14 Detail of figure 2.11 showing "Abissini" (bottom) and illustration of Prester
John (center).







56








A r- *

















Figure 2.15 Africae Tabula Nova, created by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1570. 37.5 x
50.3 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers Library). Included in
Ortelius' world atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.
,. '. j ,,, .,*-Z ,_ -" -
I











.'I I X i I.1,















I Pi k R l1 1 10




Figure 2.16 Presbiteri Johannis Abissinorium Imperii Descripto (A representation of the
empire ofPrester John, or, of the Abyssinians), created by Abraham Ortelius,
Antwerp, 1573. 38 x 44 cm (University of Florida, George A. Smathers
Library).
:6;..i;:ll;;~ o .;..- ; w. 1lJ,11 l li-'

























Lib rary).







57





S- '' ~, -"' L ''" .



"'' I-, I t II







hI -


.. .. _- ., ."k I._ ..
i -" ? .. "' .-4" .* .- __. .




S- i hw' '-''I
*'* 4 *I*t- ^\










Figure 2.17 Habessinia or Abassia, Presbyteri Johannis Regio. ("Habessinia" or

"Abassia," the Land of Prester John.) Created by Hiob Ludolf (or possibly his
son) 1683 (Tooley and Bricker, 165.)
son),~ 1683. (Too ey ndBrike 15.


* 1%


la I '- 1 4 l- .t:


:c r. ILI m .
At4 h MAripm.

rlk- 'tr-u rr
n- /tA Mi
Pr Y 6 n


Figure 2.18 Detail of figure 2.17 showing tents at "Guender" (Gondar).




































Figure 2.19 Detail of Africce Nova Descriptio (Africa Newly Described), created by
Willem Blaeu, 1630. (Reproduced in full in Tooley and Bricker, 175-176.)
Figures depicted are (top to bottom): "VEgypty," "Abifini," and "Cafres in
Mazambique," [sic].















Figure 2.20 Detail of Africce, map of Africa created by John Speed, London, 1626.
(Tooley and Bricker, 166). People depicted (left to right): "Abissinian," and
an "Egyptian."








































Figure 2.21 Guinea, created by Willem Blau, Amsterdam, 1635. 39 x 53 cm (University
of Florida, George A. Smathers Library).


Figure 2.22 Detail of figure 2.21.


_ -- I







60











-. .

.- ', I .,,-- I '



II










Figure 2.23 AEthiopia Inferior vel Exterior ("Lower or Outer" /Ethiopia), made by Jan
Jansson after an earlier map by Jan Blau (1642). 39 x 51 cm (University of
Florida, George A. Smathers Library). The only difference between Blau's
map and Jansson's is that the latter lacks a sailing ship above the cartouche.
(Blau's version appears in Tooley and Bricker, 167.)











"ETHIOPIA

X-cl
E XTE RIOR.
Er b, !.tz Sa,-'. L-
map~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ .. ,.., Jaso' s .. _latrlcsa aln hi bv hecroc
a' eso per n olyadBikr 6.


Figure 2.24 Detail of figure 2.23 showing flayed cow skin cartouche.


r I







61




S -t---





I I
,:


i: *.. ,- -^ k- '

I 1 -
j y


"- '
-JA,

.., G eor -
l ''..;'- "L .
-4
,! '__ I --
I" r 7"
"I' "=- ''" "'': N % -
I _., .,





Figure 2.25 Paskaerte Van West Indien de Vaste Kusten en de Eylanden, created by
Pieter Goos, nd., probably late 1660s. (University of Florida, George A.
Smathers Library).


Figure 2.26 Detail of figure 2.25 showing flayed skin cartouche.























Figure 2.27 Illustration from The Entertaining Traveler; or, the Whole World in
Miniature, by John Fransham and printed by Henry Holmes, London, 1767
(The British Library, accessible at )

A N E G O 0 E.


Figure 2.28 Illustration from History ofAll Nations, printed by David Paterson,
Edinburgh, 1777. (The British Library, accessible at
)


Figure 2.29 Image of the Emperor of Abyssinia from Allain Manesson Mallet's
Description de L 'Univers, 1685. (Tooley and Bricker, 164).


r I














CHAPTER 3
PHOTOGRAPHING ETHIOPIA: THE SAFARI AND THE PILGRIMAGE

While the gaze of the subject of the photograph may be difficult to find in the heavy
crisscrossing traffic of the more privileged gazes of producers and consumers,
contemporary stories of contestable power are told there nonetheless.
(Lutz and Collins, 1993: 216)

Photography is modernity run riot. (Sekula, 1986: 4)

Recent readings of photography and Africa often focus on how the West has

systematically used Africa to construct a narrative about itself. This kind of cultural

domination is not restricted to photography; indeed, the historic maps discussed in the

last chapter reveal how Africa was "colonized" by the European imagination long before

Europeans actually assumed political control. When viewed critically, photographs, like

maps, often reveal much more about the producer/observer than they do about the

produced/observed. The question then inevitably becomes, what, or who is really the

subject? Photography, and photographs of human bodies in particular, necessitate that

the subject be split into an interlocking triad-the photographer, the photographed, and

the viewer, or spectator. All three are always present, yet they seldom exercise agency

equally.

In this chapter, I will address representations of Ethiopian people in photographs by

Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, most of which were taken between 1984 and 1989.

During the mid 1980s, the Western news media was flooded with devastating images of

starving Ethiopian women and children as Ethiopia went through one its worst famines in

recorded history. While this kind of imagery can certainly be damaging-presenting









Ethiopia as a pitiful, wretched place where life is nothing but a struggle for survival-the

same is also true of the opposite; in other words, representations of Ethiopia as a glorious

Eden where humanity and nature are one and the same also promote stereotypical, and

thus harmful perceptions of African people

Gazing at Ethiopia

The most comprehensive photographic study of modem Ethiopia is Carol Beckwith

and Angela Fisher's African Ark: Peoples of the Horn, a lavishly-illustrated, large-

format "coffee-table book" published in 1990.1 Ethiopia is the primary focus of the book,

though Somalia, Djibouti, and what is now Eritrea are also covered. Beckwith and Fisher

have been working separately and together in Africa for over 30 years and between them

they have published seven books, produced two films, contributed to several National

Geographic feature articles and delivered countless lectures on African culture at

universities and museums across the United States. Carol Beckwith is also a painter and

Angela Fisher designs jewelry, which she sells at a boutique near her London home.

Their award-winning photographs have been exhibited as art in cities all over the world,

yet like most professional photographers, their work crosses disciplinary bounds; they

self consciously document African culture, and their "fieldwork" resembles at times the


1 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark: Peoples of the Horn. (London: Collins Harvill, 199).

2 The books are: Tepilit Ole Saitoti and Carol Beckwith, Maasai (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980);
Angela Fisher, Africa Adorned (New York: Abrams, 1984); Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African
Ark; Carol Beckwith, Nomads oJ (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993); Carol Beckwith and Angela
Fisher, African Ceremonies, 2 vols. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999); Carol Beckwith and Angela
Fisher, Passages (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000); Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, Faces ofAfrica
(Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2004). National Geographic articles featuring their
photographs include: Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, "Masai Passage to Manhood," National
Geographic 196 no. 3 (September 1999): 52-65; Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, "African Marriage
Rituals," National Geographic 196 no. 5 (November 1999): 80-97; and Karen E. Lange, with photography
by Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, "Himba: Consulting the Past, Divining the Future," National
Geographic 205 no. 1 (January 2004): 32-47. The two films are Way of the Wodaabe, and The Painter and
the Fgin. i'.










efforts of university-trained anthropologists and ethnographers. Frequently celebrated-

and condemned-for the unprecedented access granted to them as outsiders, Fisher and

Beckwith have managed to photograph events many Westerners are seldom permitted to

see.

Beckwith claims that she approaches photography "with the eye of a painter in

terms of light, color, and composition;" her photographs are intended to be visually

striking, "multilayered experiences in the way a painting is."3 This premeditated

aesthetic is plainly visible, for instance, in the image of an Orthodox priest, gingerly

descending a worn staircase within the rock-hewn Lalibela complex in northern

highlands Ethiopia (figure 3.1). 4 In the photograph, enormous vertical masses of rutted

and furrowed rock, weathered a dusky muddle of antique auburn, russet, and gray by

centuries of wind and rain, rise up on either side of the image, just barely reaching ground

level where the un-seen top of the "so-called Tomb of Adam" peeks out from the vast

trench in which it sits. Hewn, not built, the eleven rock-cut churches at Lalibela were

literally carved out of the solid red volcanic tuff of the surrounding terrain during the

Zagwe dynasty in the 12th or 13th century CE.5




3 Carol Beckwith, "An Interview with Carol Beckwith," African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 38.

4 Two other photographs from Lalibela, (page 32 and pages 46-47 of African Ark), and a third image from
Ura Kidane Mehret on Lake Tana (page 56 in African Ark) also appear in the August 1985 issue of African
Arts as illustrations for an interview with Carol Beckwith, conducted by the editors of the magazine in
December 1984. (The interview was published in 1985: Carol Beckwith. "An Interview with Carol
Beckwith," 38-45.) Angela Fisher is not mentioned in the interview, or in the photo captions; therefore, it
is highly likely that this image was taken by Carol Beckwith. Although some of Beckwith and Fisher's
later compilations do include imagery that they previously published individually, when Beckwith and
Fisher work together, they share credit for all of the photographs. I do not make any attempt in the
following discussion to distinguish one's work from the other.

5 Richard Pankhurst. The Ethiopians, (Malden, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998):
45-60.









The composition is both stunning and suggestive: the mammoth precipice dwarfs

the Ethiopian priest, his tiny barefoot figure suspended in a shaft of ethereal light,

purposely conjuring visions of Old Testament patriarchs and sandy pilgrimages to remote

and holy places. The stark white of his turban, softened by the halo-like aura that seems

to surround his entire body, is a focal cue, leading the eye upwards past the darkened

portal and the shadowed cross-shaped window to the barely illuminated ledge of the

central edifice and the two unlit archways of the far wall. As somber and silent as the

stone ramparts that almost completely engulf him, the priest in the picture bears his

aesthetic burden with dignity and grace.

Two general, though unstated, themes dominate this particular collection of

photographs: religion and/or ritual, and "ethnic" dress and adornment, both of which fall

under the collective rubric of "traditional" culture.6 In the first category are images of

pious Orthodox priests and bearded Falasha Cahens-religious leaders of the Beta Israel,

or indigenous Ethiopian Jews-depicted soberly praying or reading from yellowed and

fraying old books.' There are also several pictures of "enraptured" Oromo pilgrims "only

lightly brushed with Islam" and chanting "gypsies" who practice a "strange ecstatic

religion" portrayed in the midst of fervent revelry at the tomb of Sheikh Hussein.8 The

second category includes pictures of Orthodox celebrants dressed in filigree crowns and

embroidered capes; elaborate Hamar coiffures; Suri women wearing large clay lip-plates;


6 These two themes are not the only subjects addressed in the book. There are also several shots of
domestic architecture and images of both men and women at work, but these images often function as a
framing device for each group or culture, and set the stage, so to speak, for a narrative far more concerned
with African bodies and "traditional" rituals.

SBeckwith and Fisher, African Ark, 49-75.

8 Ibid, 174-203.










and several images of men and women with intricate scarifications, tattoos, and copious

displays of beautiful jewelry. Of course, some images span both categories, such as the

photographs of Suri men painting their bodies in preparation for "ritual dueling," called

Donga-which is actually more of a sport than a "ritual."9 Played by the Mursi as well

as the Suri, Donga is a type of stick-fighting where men pair up and try to knock down

their opponent with a six foot wooden staff.

The Suri photographs are some of the most attention-grabbing images in the whole

book. Unlike the distant, rather ambiguous vantage point from which the viewer sees the

tiny Ethiopian priest descending the Lalibela staircase, the Suri men are shown in

relentless close-up. 10 The sequence begins with an image of one man painting another

man's face, shown opposite a life-size portrait of the latter individual.11 The next two


9 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark, 263-297.

10 Catherine Lutz and Jean Collins, Reading National Geographic (Chicago and London: The University of
Chicago Press, 1993): 193. In their discussion of photographs in National Geographic Magazine, Lutz and
Collins locate seven different gazes. "Vantage point" is a characteristic of the photographer's gaze.

1 The first photograph reappears in Beckwith and Fisher's most recent work, Faces ofAfrica, yet in their
new context, the two Suri men are given names. The man doing the painting is Ole Rege, and the man
being painted is Kolaholi. Out of the twelve quixotically titled chapters in the book, Ole Rege and Kolaholi
appear in "Patterns of Beauty." (Recall, that Barchini appeared in the chapter titled "Art of Seduction;" see
chapter one: Scope and Content.) On the next two pages, a close-up portrait of another Suri man, Muradit,
appears with the following caption: "Surma, Ethiopia. Muradit's painted face patterns enhance his
mischievous mood." A black page with white text (the format of choice for most picture-books about
Africa) relays a story Beckwith and Fisher usually tell during their lectures: "When the day came to leave
Surmaland, we asked Muradit what we could give the Surma as a thank you for their wonderful hospitality.
After a moment of reflection, he announced, 'We would like to see your breasts!' We were quite taken
aback, but realized that this was a fair request as Surma women went bare-breasted, men often nude, and
we were completely covered up, hiding unimaginable and mysterious secrets! We invited Muradit into our
hut, took a deep breath, and, to the count of three, lifted our T-shirts for five long seconds. His eyes
widened with amazement and his mouth dropped open. He raced outside to tell the 300 villagers pulsating
with curiosity what he had seen. Muradit stood on a tree stump and delivered an 11-minute speech. Our
guide, Zewde, translated his words. One of us had round voluptuous breasts and was clearly a married
woman with many children and absolutely taboo. The other had small upright pointy nubile breasts and
was clearly available to everyone! At this point, Zewge hurriedly packed up our mule train and spirited us
over the mountains to safety," (202). Beckwith and Fisher used this story as part of their stand-up routine
during the lecture tour that accompanied the release of African Ceremonies in 1999-I would like to thank
Al Roberts for pointing this out to me. I am not using Ole Rege and Kolaholi's names in this section of my
discussion, because it is significant that they are anonymous inAfrican Ark.









pages are double views of the same two men, standing on a rock outcropping, helping

each other paint abstract designs in the white chalk mixture smeared over their bodies

(figure 3.2). On the right, one man, the same one who paints' the other's face in the first

photograph of the sequence, leans forward, his countenance fixed in an expression of

intense concentration, as he gently holds up his associate's penis while using his other

hand to paint intricate designs on the man's lower abdomen. The following two

photographs-cropped just above the belly button at the top and just above the knee at

the bottom and covering the whole 10x14 inch page-are "portraits" of the painted

genitalia of, presumably, the same two men (figure 3.3).12 The final two pages reveal an

even closer look, so close, in fact, that tiny creases and pores are clearly discernable on

their carefully decorated bellies (figure 3.4).

These photographs of Suri men are presented to the viewer as objects that are

meant to be looked at. In academic discourse, this act of looking is referred to as "the

gaze" and can be defined as the (social and political) position from which a subject is

viewed and perceived by a spectator. The position of the viewer, or spectator, and the act

of viewing a subject as a spectator, is a culturally bound process, an activity that shifts

according to who is doing the looking, what they are looking at, and how they interpret

what they are seeing. Thus, the viewer or spectator-the observer-also becomes an

active subject through the very act of looking at the photograph, through the act of

viewing, or gazing at the observed. In the photographs of the Suri men, Angela Fisher

and/or Carol Beckwith are the first spectators, and although they are not physically

present in the pictures, their subjectivity as observers-their "gaze"-is embedded in the

12 In Faces of Africa, there is instead a close-up of a Suri man's buttocks. The caption reads: "Surma,
Ethiopia: Details of body painting," (202-205).









image, encoded in the representational choices they have made. The subjects that

photographers chose to shoot, the vantage point they shoot from, the equipment they use,

the way a shot is framed, or the way the final image is cut; even the way the film is

processed is part of a conscious representational process.13

There are also other kinds of gazes embedded within photographs of human

subjects, namely, the line of sight of the subjects themselves. In their analysis of

photographs in National Geographic Magazine, Jane Collins and Catherine Lutz write:

"There is perhaps no more significant gaze in the photograph than that of its subject. It is

how and where the other looks that most determines the differences in the message a

photograph can give about intercultural relations."14 In the case of the Suri men, the man

who paints his associate's body in figure 3.2 is gazing directly at the other man's penis.

His "gaze" is then emphasized by the two "portraits" of painted Suri genitalia on the

following pages. When these photographs are viewed together, or read, on the pages of

African Ark, the emphasis on genitalia affects the viewer's reception of the Suri man's

gaze, accentuating the penis rather than the act of painting, or the Donga game the

paintings are created for; which, it should be noted, are likely far more important to the

Suri men than the dramatization of their penises enacted by Fisher and Beckwith's

representational choices. This "intersection of gazes" is always exacerbated when the

lived context of the observed is different from the lived context of the observer.15 In


13 Carol Beckwith states that she feels "Kodachrome film made and processed in France is much more
suitable to Africa. The color balance seems to emphasize earth tones and reds, and is better suited for
African skin colors." Carol Beckwith, "An Interview with Carol Beckwith," 44.

14 Catherine Lutz and Jean Collins, Reading National Geographic, 197.

15 See Jean Collins and Catherine Lutz, "The Photograph as an Intersection of Gazes," chapter seven in
Reading National Geographic.









other words, when-for example-a Western reader gazes at a non-Western subject, the

probability for there to be a disjuncture in meaning is heightened significantly.

Touring Ethiopian Bodies

The relationship between observer and observed that is implicit in all acts of

looking, photographic or otherwise, often creates situations that give rise to an uneven

balance of power. In photography, this unevenness stems partly from a photograph's

ability to place the viewer in possession of the viewed subject; from photography's

ability to create a hand-held version of a real individual that can be easily consumed.

Susan Sontag has written extensively about photography's power to commoditize the

body, arguing that taking pictures is a "predatory act," that "to photograph people is to

violate them."16 Photographs, she says, "turn people into objects that can be symbolically

possessed;" they "convert the world into a department store or museum-without walls in

which every subject is depreciated into an article of consumption, promoted to an item

for aesthetic appreciation.""17 The painted bodies-and body parts-of the Suri men are a

case in point. Because Fisher and/or Beckwith have chosen to present the men's bodies

as art, their bodies become beautiful objects that eagerly insist on being looked at: the

photographs ask to be consumed.

Gazing at African bodies in picture books and magazines is a very passive form of

domination compared to the actual act of taking the picture. Photographers directly

engage with their subjects, thus, they are in a position to abuse their authority. In the

words of Susan Sontag, they are far more "predatory" than those individuals who merely


16 Susan Sontag. On Photography (New York: Anchor Books, 1990): 14.

17 Ibid, 110.









gaze at an image that somebody else has already taken. One arena where this "predatory"

relationship is more than apparent is in cultural tourism and the practice of taking

photographs of people as souvenirs.18

Sontag writes that taking pictures "gives shape to the experience" of being a tourist:

people traveling in unfamiliar territory arrive at their destination, often unsure of what

else to do, they "stop, take a picture, and move on."19 According to David Turton, this is

exactly what happens with the Mursi of southwestern Ethiopia, who are "one of the last

few groups in Africa amongst whom it is still the norm for women to wear large pottery

or wooden 'plates' in their lower lips."20 The Mursi are listed in European, American,

and Ethiopian travel brochures as a "must-see attraction," and tourists travel great

distances just to take their pictures. Turton writes:

The encounter between Mursi and tourists is clearly a tense and uneasy one for
both sides. The Mursi seem determined not to let the tourists forget that they have
come for no other purpose than to 'take' photographs, while the tourists seem intent
on getting the photographs they need...and making their getaway as quickly as
possible.21

Mursi women "expect to be paid 2 Ethiopian Birr" (less than 50 cents), although they

usually have to "settle for 2 Birr for each series of photographs" taken by a single

tourist.22 Of course, it is really the lip-plates that people come to see. To tourists, the lip-





18 Ibid, 64.

19 Ibid, 10.
20 Turton, David, "Lip Plates and 'The People Who Take Photographs:' Uneasy Encounters between Mursi
and Tourists in Southern Ethiopia," I, ii, .'. '-. .- Today 20 no. 3 (June 2004).

21 Turton, David. "Lip Plates and 'The People Who Take Photographs," 5.

22 Ibid, 3.









plate signifies the "authenticity" of the Mursi people, while their photographs confirm the

very act of looking-the experience of touring "authentic" Mursi bodies.

In African Ark, there are several photographs of Suri women wearing large clay lip-

plates (figure 3.5). Like the Mursi, the Suri live in the Omo River valley area of

southwestern Ethiopia, a region described in Fisher and Beckwith's book as a remote

wilderness, "forgotten by history."23 The Omo River valley is also touted as remote, wild,

and untouched by travel agencies that offer extreme rafting expeditions, cultural tours

and photo safaris to this "forgotten" region of Ethiopia. The main attraction is invariably

the exotic wildlife and the numerous "tribes" who live there, whose authenticity is often

the main attraction. Extreme Party, an adventure travel agency located in the Ukraine,

claims that on their Omo River rafting expedition, "we shall feel as though we are in a

wild untouched kingdom; this is the real, virgin Africa as it was thousands of years ago

before the White Man appeared."24

Safari Experts, a Utah based travel agency specializing in photographic tours of

Africa, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand, also offer rafting expeditions down the

Omo. Their website resembles an amateur version of the latter half of African Ark, with

numerous photographs of the Suri and Mursi, as well as the Karo, and the Hamar

juxtaposed with diary-like text detailing the most recent excursion. Echoing Turton's

lament of the Mursi women's predicament, the entry reads:

[The Mursi] have, perhaps rightly, learned the value of their looks to earn money
from tourists. The price is not high, and it will surely rise as more visitors find their
way to these remote places, just two bir.... Some have learned to count the clicks

23 Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher, African Ark, 249.

24 Extreme Tours, Osmos Co, Dnepropetrovsk, Lenin's street 15, Ukraine, 49005.
Last accessed May 23, 2005.









from SLR [manual, "single-lens-reflex"] cameras... so the price builds. Ifind my
digital camera gives me an advantage here, as it is soundless.25

The itinerary for the Omo trip is actually more like a list of "tribal" body adornment

practices and "ceremonies;" Safari Experts claim to provide a completely authentic

experience, "immersing" their customers in the unique cultures of the Omo River

peoples. They do, however, include a disclaimer: "there is of course no guarantee we

will succeed in finding...any sought after ceremony; but our local contacts give us the

best chance to locate and gain access to them."26 In addition to their "photographic

safaris" of the Omo River valley, Safari Experts also lead guided "pilgrimage" tours to

the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela, the imperial ruins of Gondar, and the ancient

obelisks of Aksum.

Beckwith and Fisher's African Ark gives readers a chance to go on a "photographic

safari" or "religious pilgrimage" in Ethiopia without ever leaving home. In fact, the book

was made as an extended travel brochure advertising the visual splendor of Ethiopia's

rich cultural diversity. Comrade Fisseha Geda, the former head of the Ethiopian Tourism

Commission, had seen Fisher and Beckwith's other photographic books about Africa and

invited them to conduct a similar survey of Ethiopia.27 Beckwith and Fisher began the

project under his guidance, and later worked closely with Yohannes Berhanu, Head of

Ethiopian Tourism Promotion. The Commission provided Fisher and Beckwith with two

guides, Worku Sharew and Zewge Mariam Haile, who both worked with the

photographers throughout their four and a half years of research in Ethiopia. In the

25 Safari Experts, L.C., P.O. Box 680098, Park City, UT 84068-0098.
Last accessed May 23, 2005. emphasis mine.
26 Ibid.

27Beckwith and Fisher, "Acknowledgements," African Ark, no page no.









acknowledgments section of African Ark, Fisher and Beckwith write: "With their

knowledge, devotion, and endless patience the difficult task of covering the entire

country became not only possible but one of the most unforgettable experiences in our

lives."28

Tourism is a major source of revenue for many African countries, as well as for

many of Africa's "traditional" peoples. The Mursi may not like having their photographs

taken, but they depend on the money that tourism generates in order to buy goods and

food at the highlands markets, and to pay their taxes.29 They are aware of the exchange

value of their "looks," and are willing, begrudgingly, to perform their Mursi-ness for

spectators who insist on looking at their bodies. It should also be noted that the "tribal"

peoples of Ethiopia are not the only Ethiopians performing their "authenticity" for

tourists. Orthodox priests in the predominantly Christian highlands are entirely willing to

don their full regalia and display their church's hallowed treasures for tourists who wish

to take their picture. Like the Mursi, the priests expect payment, which they accept in the

form of a small donation to the church.

One of the photographs in African Ark shows a priest from the church of Ura

Kidane Mehret in Bahr Dar, a popular tourist destination on the shores of Lake Tana

(figure 3.6). The priest stands at the entrance to the maqdas, the "holy of holies" where

the sacred tabot (a symbolic representation of the Ark of the Covenant) is kept, holding a

processional cross and an illuminated manuscript. Like the priest descending the worn

staircase at Lalibela (figure 3.1), the body of the Bahr Dar priest is framed by an


28 Ibid.

29 Turton, "Lip Plates and 'The People Who Take Photographs," 3.









elaborate architectural space. Wearing a dimly golden cape and hat with a faded

sunflower-speckled red robe, the priest's small figure would be completely lost in the

brightly painted murals that surround him were it not for the gleaming silver cross that

reflects the glare from the camera's flash and directs the viewers' attention to his face.

Standing against the slightly open, large double doors leading to the dark, unlit interior

room, the priest meets the photographer's (and the viewer's) gaze with self-awareness.

He knows that his photograph is being "taken" by a tourist. Beckwith and/or Fisher's

photograph may be compositionally sophisticated and have more snap and more "punch"

than unremarkable tourist versions captured with consumer-grade equipment by non-

professionals; yet, other than its obvious technical superiority, the photograph could have

been taken by anyone visiting the church in Bahr Dar.30

Gazing Back

Few of the people depicted in Fisher and Beckwith's photographs in African Ark

meet the gaze of their photographers. Human subjects, the primary focus of the book, are

usually depicted in the midst of some "ritual" or activity, or they are shown gazing at

someone or something just outside the frame of the picture, such as the Suri woman in

figure 3.5. Most images that would qualify as portraits portray their subjects in this

manner. One exception is the striking image of a Konso man, seated inside a circle of

rocks on a steep outlook, presumably on the eastern slopes of the Omo River in southwest





30 In a volume of African Arts dedicated wholly to photography (August 1985), editors Herbert Cole and
Doran Ross suggest to that in order to improve their own amateur photography in the field, Africanists who
study African visual culture should: "Look through the pages of s.c cu l. 1 frican Arts, National Geographic,
Life, and other publications to see which photographs have the most sensitivity or punch, tell the best story,
bring Africa most alive." Herbert Cole and Doran Ross, "The Art and Technology of Field Photography,"
African Arts 18 no.4 (August 1985): 48.









Ethiopia (figure 3.7).31 The man looks straight into the camera, not quite smiling, but

almost, with his arms folded casually across his lap. The leaning tree trunk to his right

supports a tangled scribble of limbs, which occupy the top third of the photograph and

assume the position of the sky. The tree and the branches help frame the man's figure in

the foreground, drawing him out from the deep nebulous blur of seemingly endless

terrain beyond the cliff. A skinny, pointed elbow and a sliver of shirt corner and sleeve

are the only visible signs of the young child who hides just out of sight on the other side

of the leafless tree.

The image of the Konso man is formally outstanding, yet the tree, rocks and vast

landscape do not appear purely for aesthetic effect; they are included to convey

information about the Konso people. In fact, in Faces of Africa, a compilation of their

photographs published by the National Geographic Society in 2004, the image reappears,

only this time it is flip-flopped, depicted in complete reverse (figure 3.8, left). In African

Ark, the caption reads: "For the Konso, wood and stone are the two most highly valued

building materials."32 The fact that the picture's function is to convey information is

reinforced by its placement in the text, sandwiched in between several photographs of

Konso settlements and buildings. The same image of Konso architecture appears next to

the photograph in Faces of Africa, and the caption conveys the same vague information:







31 For information about the Konso, see Elizabeth Watson and Lakew Regassa, "Konso," in Peripheral
People: The Excluded Minorities ofEthiopia, ed. Dena Freeman and Alula Pankhurst (London: Hurst and
Company, 2003). The photograph appears on page 212 of African Ark, sandwiched in between several
images of Konso settlements and houses.
32 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark, 212.









"Using gnarled roots and branches, the Konso build their houses on stony mountain

terrains, leaving the better land to be terraced and cultivated." (figure 3.8, right).33

Another image where the subject returns the photographer's gaze is a picture of two

young Hamar women, beautifully adorned for the "jumping of the bull" "ceremony," an

event in which young Hamar men run across the backs of their herds of cattle in order to

symbolically mark their entrance into adulthood (figure 3.9). This image is included in

both African Ark and Faces of Africa, though unlike the previous example, the figures in

the picture face the same direction in both pictures. The woman on the right watches an

unseen activity transpiring outside the picture's frame, seemingly unaware of the

photographer's presence; while the woman to her right, on the left side of the picture, is

gazing directly at the photographer. She smiles, wholly aware that her picture is being

taken. The caption, which is again similar in both books, emphasizes the elaborate and

plentiful jewelry both women wear, thus indicating that their adornments are what makes

them worth photographing.

In photography, the returned gaze is a rhetorical device, marking the image as a

representation that always already incorporates a relationship to the subject from the

observer's perspective; the look back draws the viewer into a dialogic relationship with

the person in the picture, both visually and empathetically. In some cases, the returned

gaze may make the visual encounter more comfortable for the observer: it can "short

circuit the voyeurism identified as an important component of most photography,"

providing assurance that the person in the image is aware of being photographed-like a


33 Beckwith and Fisher, Faces ofAfrica, 176.









sign of consent.34 Smiles, especially, make the subject in the photo appear accessible by

defining a comfortable viewing space.35

A returned gaze can also be self-consciously seductive, inviting and confirming

open voyeuristic engagement. In The Colonial Harem, Malek Alloula demonstrates how

colonial audiences gazed at images of Algerian women on postcards to satisfy their own

Orientalist obsession with the harem.36 Alloula finds two dominant themes in the

postcards: Algerian or "Moorish" women are 1) idle, and 2) sexually available. Many of

the images depict women's "rituals"-the things they do to combat boredom while

imprisoned inside their harem, like drink coffee and smoke cigarettes. Figure 3.10 is a

postcard reproduced in Alloula's book depicting two Algerian women and a girl "having

coffee." The central figure is topless, and stares directly into the camera, paying very

attention to the small cup of coffee in her hand or to the young girl who serves it to her.

The woman's gaze is clearly directed towards a viewer that is expected to respond by

staring directly back. The excuse that authenticates the subject matter and gives viewers

permission to consume the image, so to speak, is the "ritual," the fact that the women are

drinking coffee. This deliberately tame subject matter is intended to mask-however

poorly-the openly erotic message the image conveys.

Colonial postcards have a great deal of historical baggage. They are rooted in a

system of exploitation that is now commonly recognized as a significant facet of the



34 Lutz and Collins, Reading National Geographic, 197.

5 It is important to not that the empathetic response to smiles in photographs is a culturally conditioned
response. See Lutz and Collins, Reading National Geographic, 96.
36 Malek Alloula, The Colonial Harem, translated by Myrna Godzich and Wlad Godzich (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1986).










meanings they hold for contemporary audiences.37 Bare-breasted women, however, are

still a major part of the Western popular image of "traditional" Africa.38 A photograph of

a young Konso woman in African Ark epitomizes the standard chest-up portrait that is

commonly encountered everywhere African people are represented in Western popular

culture (figure 3.11). From the pages of National Geographic, to calendars, note-cards,

and the internet, television, travel guides and tourist's photographs, as well as a plethora

of coffee table books, this type of image of African women is ubiquitous. The young

Konso woman in figure 3.11 looks directly at the viewer, gently supporting a sleeping

child on her back. Judging from young woman's apparent age, the child is probably not

her own, but rather a sibling or relative she has been charged with looking after.

Nevertheless, the caption reads: "In addition to working in the fields, a Konso woman's

everyday activities include carrying fire-wood, grinding corn and caring for her

children."39 The young woman depicted here doesn't have the same inviting expression

on her face as the woman on Alloula's postcard, yet her gaze establishes the possibility

for Western audiences to interpret the image in the same way.


37 For an analysis of colonial postcards, see Christraud Geary and Virginia-Lee Webb, eds., Delivering
Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press,
1998). Four essays dealing with representations of Africa and Africans in postal stamps, a very related
topic, are included in the Summer 2004 issue of African Arts. These include: Merrick Posnansky,
"Propaganda for the Millions: Images from Africa," African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 53-57, 94;
Agbenyega Adedze, "Re-Presenting Africa: Commemorative Postage Stamps of the Colonial Exhibition of
Paris (1931)," African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 58-61, 94-95 and "Commemorating the Chief: The
Politics of Postage Stamps in West Africa," African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer 2004): 68-73, 96; and Jessica
Levin, "Sculpted Posts: Architectural Decoration on Gabonese Stamps," African Arts 37 no. 2 (Summer
2004): 62-67, 95-96.

38 Bare-breasted non-white women are an iconic symbol in the Western world, particularly in National
Geographic. Lutz and Collins discuss how "the nude black woman" was incorporated into the magazine to
boost sales. White women were never portrayed nude; in fact, in one issue, a group of bare-breasted
Polynesian women were airbrushed darker so they would not be mistaken for white women. See Lutz and
Collins, Reading National Geographic, 115-116; and Howard S. Abramson, National Geographic: Behind
America's Lens on the World (New York: Crown Publishers, 1987): 143.

39 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ark, 217.










Awareness of the photograph's ability to function as erotica can make the looking

experience unpleasant for some viewers. For example, a photograph very similar to the

one in figure 3.12 was included in a recent exhibition of Fisher and Beckwith's

photographs at the Ralls Collection, a private gallery specializing in contemporary art

located in Georgetown.40 The show, titled "Cultures on the Edge," was co-sponsored by

the National Geographic Society and also included photographs by Wade Davis, Chris

Rainer and Phil Borges.41 One visitor to the show had the following to say:

I started feeling uneasy looking at a picture by Beckwith and Fisher. It shows a shy
nomad girl with her shirt off, her breasts are just beginning to bud and she wears a
gorgeous beaded necklace. Her eyes meet the camera with a look so docile and
vulnerable that I couldn't help but wince. I began wondering whether she really
wanted the duo to take her picture or whether she just couldn't say no. There's a
quality of coercion in this picture that makes me uncomfortable. Or maybe I'm
reading too much in. That's the trouble with seeing a photograph in this context.42

Like the photographs of the Suri men's penises, the photograph of the Konso woman's

body acquires a new set of meanings when it enters a Western system of representation.






40The Rails Collection Gallery confirmed that the Konso woman's photograph was not included in the
show, although they did not know which photograph the review refers to. Personal communication, May
2005. The Ralls Collection specializes in "contemporary photography, works on paper, and sculpture."

41 Wade Davis, Chris Rainer, Phil Borges, and Carol Beckwith and Angela Fisher work together on an
"online magazine," also called "Cultures on the Edge." ()
See also Wade Davis, "Vanishing Cultures," National Geographic 196, no. 2 (August 1999): 62-89. These
photographers-Davis, Rainer, Borges-work in the same mode as Beckwith and Fisher. Phil Borges has
also worked extensively in Ethiopia and his black and white, art-like photographs present their own set of
problematic issues, which are beyond the scope of the present study.

42 Quoted in Jessica Dawson, "At Ralls, Photographs With an Unsettling Glare," The Washington Post
September 11, 2003: C-5. After being shown at the Ralls, "Cultures on the Edge" traveled to the United
Nations, where it was shown in the Visitor's Lobby from the 10th of May to the 10th of August, 2004 as part
of a larger exhibition titled "In Celebration of Indigenous Peoples." The UN show marked the third session
of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which met at the UN Headquarters from May 10-21, 2004 to
discuss the theme "Indigenous Women." See United Nations Press Release Note #5866. "Art Exhibit: In
Celebration of Indigenous Peoples." Last
accessed May 2005.









Authenticity as Spectacle and the Politics of Display

No matter what the context of a returned gaze is, it always seems to ground the

image by assuring the viewer that the subject is aware of being photographed; the

reciprocal look provides a platform for dialogue, a direction for how to empathize with a

photographed subject-even when looking at the image is difficult. Figure 3.12 depicts

an Amharic woman being sprayed with holy water by an Orthodox priest near the source

of the Blue Nile in highlands Ethiopia. The photograph is not published in African Ark,

but does appear in Faces of Africa. In situ, the image appears opposite a standing portrait

of Priest Aba Wolde, whose green sleeved left arm holds the hose in the former picture.

The caption for both images is the same: "Right and Left: Priest Aba Wolde treats a

young woman possessed by the Zar spirit."43

Out of the five figures in the possession image, Aba Wolde is the only individual

given a name. The "young woman" whose nude and drenched body is prominently

framed front and center-obviously the most visible body in the scene-is patently

anonymous. Not only is the woman not named, she is also blinded, prevented from

returning her observer's gaze by an iron cross held in front of her eyes. The man who

stands just behind her, however, looks out towards the observers' space, and his gaze

immediately makes the viewer realize that the woman whose body is palpably on display

is not aware that she is being photographed. Unlike the more formal, and certainly


43 Beckwith and Fisher, Faces of Africa, 168. The photograph appears in the chapter titled "Inner
Journeys." Several images of Orthodox priests from African Ark appear at the beginning of this chapter.
All of the images of "civilized" religions appear at the beginning (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, 140-151),
while all other kinds of "inner journeys" follow: Himba possessions, 152-157; Ewe "voodoo healing
hospitals," 158-161; Ashanti possession, 162-165; more Ewe "voodoo," 166-167; the Amhara woman
being sprayed by an Orthodox priest, also a possession, 168-169; and to end the chapter, one more image of
a Ewe man practicing "voodoo," 70-171. Although she is being sprayed by an Orthodox priest in "what
seemed like a normal Christian church service," the Amhara woman appears late in the chapter,
sandwiched in between images "voodoo" rituals.









posed, frontal portrait of Aba Wolde shown on the left; the image of the young Amhara

woman shown on the right appears to have been captured with her unaware, incapacitated

by her own spiritual suffering.

Aesthetic and technical decisions are not the only representational choices

photographers regularly make. The power to represent other people, particularly using

verisimilar media such as photography and film, comes with certain ethical and moral

responsibilities that cannot be totally subverted through artistic or even objective,

documentary consideration. Even when human subjects in photographs are not given

names, their bodies are lasting impressions of their presence as individuals; they are

visible signs of human subjectivity. The image of the Amhara woman is very difficult to

look at. Her obvious agony and apparent vulnerability invite viewing subjects to

empathize with her, to emotionally respond to her and view her as an individual; yet, For

Beckwith and Fisher, the fact that the woman is "possessed" is what makes the event

"authentic" and worth photographing. Like the postcard showing Algerian women

"drinking coffee" discussed above, it is the "ritual"-in this case, an exorcism-that

claims to justify the viewer's engagement with the scene. The Amhara woman is cast as

an anonymous actor, un-knowingly staging her own "authenticity," while her individual

subjectivity is relegated to the periphery.

The concept of"authenticity" has been thoroughly unpacked by several Africanist

scholars in discussions of what is commonly referred to as "tourist art."44 These studies


44 See Ruth Phillips and Christopher B. Steiner, eds., Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in
Postcolonial World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); Sydney Kasfir, "Samburu Souvenirs:
Representations of a Land in Amber," in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial Worlds,
ed. Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher Steiner (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999): 67-83;
Christopher B. Steiner, "Authenticity, Repetition, and the Aesthetics of Seriality: The Work of Art in the
Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Unpacking Culture: Art and Commodity in Postcolonial World, ed.
Ruth B. Phillips and Christopher Steiner (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) 87-103;










examine how an object's "authenticity" is constantly being redefined by the way people

respond to and interact with the objects-especially in the marketplace. As far as the

African art market goes, "authenticity" is usually deployed as a standard for measuring an

object's value.45 This is, or course, nothing new. Walter Benjamin, in his study of the

affects of mechanical reproduction on artistic practice, argued that the "aura" of art-its

quality of uniqueness-declines when objects are mass produced; this dissemination, he

later wrote, shifts the definition of "authenticity" away from the object itself, and into the

realm of the political, into the arenas where meaning is constantly being negotiated.46 It

is important to note, however, that "judgments concerning authenticity are not limited to

works of art; people, cultures and practices may also be deemed authentic or

inauthentic."47

In photographs of real people, the concept of "authenticity" changes: a human

subject's unique "aura"-their subjectivity-is always present regardless of how many

times the picture is reproduced. In Beckwith and Fisher's work, the subjectivity or

"aura" of the individual is always subjugated to the "authenticity" of the role they fulfill

in the photograph. In other words, Beckwith and Fisher's subjects are cast as actors, not

people.48


Christopher B. Slc inci .Ifrican Art in Transit. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994; and
chapters three and four in Victoria L. Rovine, Bogolan: \1hp-, Culture ;l, ,,'hi Cloth in Contemporary
Mali (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).

45 Rovine, Bogolan, 31.

46 Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducibility," in Selected T~i ,,,, ,
vol. 3. Ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002): 101-
133.

47 Rovine, Bogolan, 30.

48 For Benjamin, the role of the human subject as actor in film does not retain the same "beckoning aura"
he finds in portrait photography. He attributes this to the actor's knowledge of his audience: "While [the









"Authentic" people, cultures and practices are the focus of Beckwith and Fisher's

two volume masterwork, African Ceremonies. Most of the images portray anonymous

human subjects; like the "young women possessed by a Zar spirit," their "authenticity" is

defined and limited by their participation in the "rituals" and "ceremonies" being

depicted. Published in 1999, the book contains 744 pages, 850 photographs, costs $150,

weighs 15.5 pounds and "documents" 43 "ceremonies" in 26 African countries. In the

introduction, Fisher and Beckwith write:

As we have come to admire the beauty, strength, and vitality of Africa's people and
traditions, we have also realized how vulnerable many of these cultures have
become... Some groups we visited a decade ago have now disappeared, and
Western ways are eroding the belief systems of many cultures. Concerned that
these traditions are in imminent danger of being lost, we embarked on this project
to document these vanishing ways of life and create a visual record for future
generations.49

Though they clearly state that the book is intended to be documentary, Fisher and

Beckwith maintain that they "approached the project not as anthropologists but as artists,

following [their] creative spirits."'5

The book has received mixed reviews. Some of the photographs make audiences

uncomfortable, or, make them question the relationship between the photographers and

their subjects. For instance, in his review of African Ceremonies for the New York Times,

Anthony Appiah asks, "What did it take...to persuade Masai [sic] and Taneka men...to

allow a foreign woman to photograph the moment of their circumcision, their transition



actor] stands before the apparatus, he knows that in the end he is confronting the masses. It is they who
will control him." See Walter Benjamin,"The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproducability,"
112. In Beckwith and Fisher's photographs, it is Beckwith and Fisher who are "confronting the masses"
that they know will "control"-and of course, consume-their images.

49 Beckwith and Fisher. African Ceremonies v. 1, 12.

50 Ibid.









to manhood?"51 Another set of problematic images are the photographs of a young

Maasai girl undergoing a painful excision surgery without any anesthesia. Like the

torment apparent on the face of the drenched Amhara woman in Faces of Africa, and on

the faces of the Maasai and Taneka initiates, the Maasai girl's agony is forcefully

tangible. The caption for a dark, fuzzy close-up of her face reads: "As the cutting

processes the girl screams in pain and appeals to her relatives to let her go, but they

continue to hold her down, believing that the procedure is being performed in her own

best interests..." (figure 3.13).52

A slightly smaller photograph appears above the close-up shot, and here, the viewer

sees the girl being cut, but also looks at several of her relatives who gaze at her writhing

body bearing wide, joyful smiles (figure 3.14). Western viewers cannot approach this

image without bringing their own subjectivity to bear on their interpretation; in a culture

where excision is not practiced, it is no wonder that these photographs can be read as

cruel. This example illuminates the slippery process of intercultural representation-no

matter how much the image generates an empathetic response, it cannot be assumed that

the photograph means the same thing to Maasai and Western audiences.

These disturbing photographs also raise another issue: is this still art, and is it

appropriate to put this kind of imagery on display? The intersection of photography, art,

and life is indeed precarious and has occupied much of the discourse surrounding

51 K. Anthony Appiah. "The Rite Stuff," New York Times Book Review (December 5, 1999): 13.
Interestingly, another line from Appiah's article is used to advertise the book on Beckwith and Fisher's
website. It reads: "These are sumptuous photographs...a visual feast...and they reflect the photographer's
gift for gaining the trust of their subjects and the reciprocal generosity of African men and women." The
line appears at the beginning of Appiah's review, before he launches into a critique of Ceremonies. On
Beckwith and Fisher's website, the quote is attributed to "The New York Times Book Review." See
Last accessed June 2005.

52 Beckwith and Fisher, African Ceremonies v. 1, 89.










photographs of real people.53 In September, 2004, twin exhibitions titled "Inconvenient

Evidence: Iraqi Prison Photographs from Abu Ghraib" were shown simultaneously at the

Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh and the Manhattan International Center for Photography in

New York.54 The now infamous Abu Ghraib photos were taken by United States soldiers

stationed in Iraq and portray the soldiers abusing, humiliating, and torturing several Iraqi

detainees being held at the Abu Ghraib prison. Putting these difficult images on public

display intensifies the tacit and inescapable anxiety of looking at human suffering.

In her scathing condemnation of the Abu Ghraib phenomenon (not the exhibit)

Susan Sontag writes that rather than deal with the "complex crimes" the pictures depict,

"the Bush administration and its defenders... sought to limit...the dissemination of the

photographs" and refused to address the word "torture."55 "The administration's initial

response was to say that the president was shocked and disgusted by the photographs-as

if the fault or horror lay in the images, not in what they depict."56 In effect, Sontag

argues, this "displaces reality" onto the images themselves-and allows the subjectivity

of both the American soldiers and the Iraqi prisoners to be overlooked.





53 For the relationship of the body to photography, see Alan Sekula, "The Body and the Archive," October
39 (Winter 1986): 3-64; Laura Mulvey, "Visual Pleasure and the Narrative Cinema," inArtAfter
Modernism: PF. di,,ikl,, Representation, ed. Brian Wallis (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary
Art, 1984): 361-373; and John Pultz, The Body and The Lens: Photography 1839-to the Present (New
York: Abrams, 1995).

54 There was a significant difference between the two shows-at the Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, the
Abu Ghraib pictures were exhibited along with photos depicting atrocities committed by the other side.
Apparently this was done to lesson the blow of the harsh show in Pittsburgh, which is near the hometowns
of several of the U.S. soldiers depicted in the incriminating imagery. See Paul Lieberman, "Putting
Brutality on Display," Los Angeles Times (September 17, 2004): El.

55 Susan Sontag, "Regarding the Torture of Others," New York Times Magazine (May 23, 2004): 25.

56 Ibid.









This abused subjectivity is precisely what the curators at the Warhol Museum and

the International Center for Photography bring to the foreground by re-presenting the

images to the American public. Yet, the curators (and Sontag) were not just questioning

the subjectivity of the photographers and their subjects, they are also questioning the

subjectivity of the American public that consumed-i.e. looked at on T.V., the web, or in

an e-mail from a friend or loved one-the Abu Ghraib pictures by looking at them and

showing them to others. The two exhibitions also highlight the implicit power imbalance

of most photographic encounters. In the exhibition brochure, Seymour M. Hersh points

out that not only are the Iraqi prisoners being tortured, the photographic act was "part of

the dehumanizing interrogation process" because the prisoners knew they were being

photographed.57

The Abu Ghraib prison photographs represent suffering inflicted as torture, while

Beckwith and Fisher's harsh representations of Maasai circumcision and excision

ceremonies portray suffering in the name of "tradition." Neither set of pictures is easy to

view, yet it would be unfair and incredibly dangerous to say that the conditions of

representation were the same: the Maasai girl who is being operated on is not being

"tortured" by her smiling relatives and their intentions are neither malicious nor cruel.

Similarly, the priest who administers treatment to the "young woman possessed by a Zar

spirit," as well as her three male attendants, wish to help the possessed woman, not do her

harm. It is important to note, therefore, that unlike the Abu Ghraib pictures, in Beckwith





57 Hersh is quoted in Lieberman, "Putting Brutality on Display," El. The exhibition brochure essay was
written by Brian Wallis, director of exhibitions at the International Center of Photography and Seymour M.
Hersh of the The New Yorker.