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Relationship of Gender to Interiors and Exteriors in Euripides

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RELATIONSHIP OF GENDER TO INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES By MICHAEL IAN WHEELER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Michael Ian Wheeler

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................................v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SPACES IN EURIPIDES.....1 2 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES HEKABE....................................4 Interiors in Euripides Hekabe......................................................................................5 Agamemnons Tent...............................................................................................5 Tents of the Captive Trojan Women.....................................................................8 Polymestors Home in Thrace...............................................................................8 Troy.....................................................................................................................10 Exteriors in Euripides Hekabe...................................................................................12 Achilles Tomb....................................................................................................12 Outside Agamemnons Tent................................................................................14 3 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES MEDEA....................................17 Exteriors in Euripides Medea....................................................................................17 Outside Jasons HouseDivorce........................................................................17 Outside Jasons HouseExile............................................................................18 Above Jasons House..........................................................................................19 Interiors in Euripides Medea.....................................................................................19 Kreons Palace.....................................................................................................19 Jasons House......................................................................................................22 4 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES ELEKTRA.................................25 An Exterior in Euripides Elektra: Environs of the Farmhouse.................................25 Interiors in Euripides Elektra....................................................................................26 Environs of the Farmhouse..................................................................................26 The Shrine...........................................................................................................28 Inside the Farmhouse...........................................................................................30 iii

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5 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES HIPPOLYTOS..........................34 Exteriors in Euripides Hippolytos.............................................................................34 Outside the Palace of Theseus at Troezen...........................................................34 Along the Cliffs: the Chariot Accident................................................................35 An Interior in Euripides Hippolytos: Inside the Palace at Troezen...........................36 An Ambiguous Space in Euripides Hippolytos: The Inviolate Meadow..................37 6 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES ION...........................................41 Interiors in Euripides Ion...........................................................................................41 The Cave of the Long Rocks...............................................................................41 The Banquet Tent................................................................................................43 An Exterior in Euripides Ion: Outside the Temple of Apollo at Delphi...................44 7 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES BAKCHAI.................................46 An Ambiguous Space in Euripides Bakchai: Mount Kithairon................................46 An Interior in Euripides Bakchai: Inside the Palace.................................................48 An Exterior in the Bakchai: Before the Palace...........................................................49 8 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................51 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................54 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................57 iv

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts RELATIONSHIP OF GENDER TO INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES By Michael Ian Wheeler August 2005 Chair: Karelisa Hartigan Cochair: Kostas Kapparis Major Department: Classics Interior and exterior spaces in Euripides can be defined most simply as categorizations of various physical spaces. There needs to be an interior space to diametrically oppose the exterior space because this dichotomy is merely a reflection of reality. Why then is there any scholastic reason to invest time in researching these spaces? Closer inspection of the topic yields hints of deeper meanings. For example, the Hekabe requires an interior to Agamemnons tent both because of plot and because tents physically have an interior; there obviously needs to be an exterior plane, an outdoor area in front of the tent, visible to the audience. It is the actions that occur in these spaces, however, which give a more significant meaning to the simply physical spaces. Each realm includes a set of behaviors or traits that are inherently linked to physical space. It is through direct juxtaposition that this relationship becomes most apparent. Violence, murder and deception are inextricably tied to the idea of the interior, which is also a feminine space. Public knowledge, on the contrary, is made available to v

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the audience in the exterior, the masculine space. This dichotomy therefore provides for the relegation of violent acts not only within but also outside the time-frame of the drama to interiors and allows for the fact that they do not appear on stage. Most importantly, justice is relegated to men and the exterior, whereas judgment is associated with women and interiors. vi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SPACES IN EURIPIDES At their most basic level, interior and exterior spaces are defined simply as categorizations of those two kinds of physical spaces. It is logical to suppose that the main reason for the presence of interior and exterior spaces is solely out of physical necessity: if there is an exterior space, then any interior space exists in opposition simply as a reflection of reality. Closer inspection, however, yields deeper meaning. True, Euripides plays often require an interior because of plot and because buildings physically have an interior, and such buildings often form a backdrop for the dramatic action. There also needs to be an exterior area visible to the audience so that the viewers may be apprised of events through speech or visible action. It is the actions that occur in these various spaces however which give more significant meaning to interiors and exteriors. Each realm includes a set of behaviors or traits that are inherently linked to a particular physical space. Through examination of certain situations occurring in interior and exterior spaces in Euripides plays, this relationship becomes most apparent. This paper will explore situations in Euripides Hekabe, Medea, Elektra, Hippolytos, Ion and Bakchai. Situations often, although not always directly, arise due to some kind of instability. The relative instability of exterior spaces and interior spaces is linked in the plays under scrutiny. In other words, if there is an instability in the exterior, instability similarly appears in the interior. For example, in the Hekabe, the captive womens collective memory of Troy recalls that the instability of the exterior Trojan war spills over into the 1

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2 interior of the city, and into the womens own homes and lives. The interior space should be a safe haven, where the inhabitants are safe and protected. If exterior events in the play become unstable, the interior becomes an unsafe, dangerous place. In terms of space and gender, women are associated with interiors, deceit, and violence for personal reasons. Such violence, when it occurs, invariably takes place in the interior; deceit either occurs in the interior or acts as a gateway thereto. Both violence and deceit in these cases are based on judgments made by the women involved, which have no lawful reasoning behind them. These judgments are based on emotion and not legality. Men are associated with exterior spaces, openness, and justice. When men make decisions, they have legal backing, and therefore at least the appearance of justice. In addition, the fact that such decisions are made with legal sanction allows them to be made openly, in the exterior, where any audience member or character can observe them. If violence happens to occurs in an exterior setting, it is legally sanctioned violence for public benefit, not for the serving of personal gain or private vendettas. Not every element necessarily shows up in every situation, or even in every play, but when an element does appear it falls into a predictable pattern. An unstable situation manifests itself in certain ways for women and interiors on the one hand and for men and exteriors on the other (Figure 1).

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3 Figure 1. Manifestation of instability on interior and exterior spaces in Euripides plays

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CHAPTER 2 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES HEKABE There are four interior situations and two exterior situations in Euripides Hekabe. The interiors include Agamemnons tent, the tents where the other Trojan captives live, Polymestors home, and Troy. The exteriors are the area before Agamemnons tent and the tomb of Achilles. An interior to Agamemnons tent is required both because of plot and because tents physically have an interior; regardless of whether the stage building is an actual tent or not, for the purposes of the play it symbolizes one and therefore follows the same rules as a real tent in the minds of the audience. As for the other interiors, they are merely suggested through dialogue, but exist in the minds of the audience. Hourmouziades suggests that imaginary places which are of equal significance with that of the scene represented in the acting area are located, in the audiences imagination, within very easy reach. 1 For the logic of the play to work, the other interiors must exist. Polymestors house must exist in order for Polydoros to be killed there, and the captives tents must exist to enable a retrieving of the stolen ornaments. Troy works slightly differently as an interior. If it is considered on the same level as the other interiors, it no longer exists, as it has been razed. On a deeper level, however, it exists as an interior in the minds of the captive Trojan women. It is described as they remember it, from inside their homes and Priams palace. 1 Nicolaos C. Hourmouziades. Production and Imagination in Euripides. Athens: Greek Society for Humanistic Studies, 1965: 110. 4

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5 The most obvious physical exterior space is what is visible to the audience, the au)lh/ and surrounding area in front of Agamemnons tent, represented by the stage and the orchestra where the actors and the chorus can be seen (Hekabe 171). Less obvious is what takes place offstage. Offstage spaces, like interiors, must be treated as physical spaces learned about by the audience by means of description by actors or the chorus. The mound where Achilles is buried is an exterior space of this nature. It is the outdoor location where the rest of the Greek army is waiting. [I]f the space in the theatre did not represent a part of Athens [or wherever else the play was being staged], the outer region had also to undergo a corresponding imaginary transformation, so that the transition from the one area to the other could be performed without violating the conventional links between what was seen and what was only imagined. 2 If imagination is used, the comings and goings of Talthybios and the other Greeks who talk with Hekabe become plausible. Interiors in Euripides Hekabe Agamemnons Tent Agamemnons tent is the most apparent physical interior space. The building in question must be Agamemnons tent because it is thus described by the ghost of Polydoros: skhnh=v . A)game/mnonov (53-4). However, the tent is only nominally his. Men may own homes, whether tents or palaces, but they do not participate in the day-to-day running of the home, which is the domestic sphere belonging to women. The events surrounding Agamemnons tent contain all of the possible elements associated with women and interiors. The Trojan captive women and Hekabe in particular are associated 2 Ibid., 109.

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6 with Agamemnons tent. It is Hekabes judgment that her son Polydoros must be avenged, though she has no legitimate power to make such a decision. Hekabe lies to trick Polymestor into entering the tent, which he later describes as a koi/th, translatable as both bedchamber and lair (1083). She asserts that when they enter the tent, the location of more gold will be revealed in detail, and that spoils already lie within. This is bait which the greedy Polymestor finds irresistible. Once Polymestor is in the tent, he and his children are completely within the womens power. The Trojan captives wreak havoc on Polymestors children and eyes by acting like normal women with no hidden motives might, cooing over the children, until the time comes to strike. Polymestor describes this after the fact: i(/zw de\ kli/nhv e)n me/sw| ka/myav go/nu: pollai\ de\ xei=rev, ai(\ me\n e)c a)ristera=v, ai(\ d e)/nqen, w(v dh\ para\ fi/lw|, Trw/wn ko/rai qa/kouv e)/xousai, kerki/d H)dwnh=v xero\v h)/|noun, u(p au)ga\v tou/sde leu/ssousai pe/plouv: a)/llai de\ ka/maka Qrh|ki/an qew/menai gumno/n m e)/qhkan diptu/xou stoli/smatov. o(/sai de\ toka/dev h)=san, e)kpaglou/menai te/kn e)n xeroi=n e)/pallon, w(v pro/sw patro\v genoi/nto, diadoxai=v a)mei//bousai xerw=n: And having bent a knee I sat in their midst on a couch; and many Trojan maidens took seats, some on the left, and some on the other side, as if next to a friend, talking of the workmanship of our Edonian weave, looking at these robes up against the sunlight; and others looking at my Thracian spear made me naked of my twofold protection. And whichever of them were mothers, they dandled my children in their arms, cooing, so that they were further from their father, passing them from hand to hand . (1150-9) The women make a fuss over his fine clothing and weaponry, as well as his children, and manage to remove them all from his vicinity. The women prove

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7 Agamemnon wrong to have questioned the ability of women to master men (883). When women are in their own space, the interior, they hold the power, even over men. Hekabe and the Trojan women take their revenge on Polymestor in Agamemnons tent. Not only do they pitilessly murder his children, but they blind him with their brooch-pins, emphasizing the womens sexuality and its inherent danger as it is with brooches that their clothing is fastened. The first indication of what exactly is happening comes as a scream from within the tent itself. Polymestor yells w)/moi, tuflou=mai fe/ggov o)mma/twn ta/lav . w)/moi ma/l au)/qiv, te/kna, dusth/nou sfagh=v (1035-7). The full horror of the violence done in the tent is told by Polymestor himself to Agamemnon in hopes of sympathy: . prosfqegma/twn eu)quv labou=sai fa/sgan e)k pe/plwn poqe\n kentou=si pai=dav, ai(\ de\ polemi/wn di/khn cunarpa/sasai ta\v e)ma\v ei)=xon xe/rav kai\ kw=la: paisi\ d a)rke/sai xrh/|zwn e)moi=v, ei) me\n pro/swpon e)canistai/hn e)mo/n, ko/mhv katei=xon, ei) de\ kinoi/hn xe/rav, plh/qei gunaikw=n ou)de\n h)/nuon ta/lav. to\ loi/sqion de/, ph=ma ph/matov ple/on, e)ceipga/santo dei/n: e)mw=n ga\r o)mma/twn, po/rtav labou=sai, ta\v talaipw/rouv ko/rav kentou=sin, ai(ma/ssousin . . . after their words immediately having taken knives from their dresses they stab the children, and some held me as a prisoner of war having pinned my arms and legs together; needing to keep them off my children, they held my hair, and if I moved my hands, I, wretched, could effect nothing against the multitude of women. And at the last, they effected a misery more terrible than the previous misery; for having taken brooch-pins they stabbed my eyes, making them bleed . (1160-71) The gruesome details of the violence are shared with the audience. Hekabes acts of murder and mutilation belong to the dark, private space of the captive women. In

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8 tragedy this offstage space, often representing the interior of the house or palace, functions as the space of the irrational or the aspects of personality that are hidden, dark, and fearful. It is often the place of female sexuality, deceit, and revenge. 3 In this case, it is all three, as the womens fondling of Polymestors clothes and weapons is pointedly sexual in the service of pulling off a deception to effect revenge. Tents of the Captive Trojan Women In the Greek camp, the captive women have enough personal freedom in their respective tents to hide stolen Trojan goods from their masters. In addition, Hekabe tells Agamemnon that she will have no trouble carrying out her plan against Polymestor, because of the ste/gai kekeu/qas ai(/de Trw|a/dwn o)/xlon (880). She tells Polymestor that the treasure she has inside Agamemnons tent was able to be hidden because sku/lwn e)n o)/xlw| tai=sde sw/|zetai ste/gaiv, the women have their own tents (1014). To adorn the dead Polyxena, Hekabe intends to gather up a collection of ornaments taken from their former homes by the captive Trojan women ei)/ tiv tou\v newsti\ despo/tav / laqou=s e)/xei ti kle/mma tw=n au(th=v do/mwn (617-8). The Trojan women, by stealing from their own homes and hiding the theft from the Greeks, are practicing deceit in interior spaces. Polymestors Home in Thrace Polymestors palace in Thrace is an interior space rife with deceit. First of all, Priam sent Polydoros to live with Polymestor according to the principles of ceni/a. When Polymestor kills Polydoros to acquire the gold for his own coffers, he breaks these bonds. This is treachery of the highest order carried out under Polymestors own roof, and 3 Charles Segal. Violence and the Other: Greek, Female, and Barbarian in Euripides Hecuba. Transactions of the American Philological Association 120 (1990): 125.

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9 indeed becomes the basis for the second half of the play. He does not even consider the boy to be worth burying, casting him out to sea instead. Thus does the audience learn of the violence done Polydoros, when his body washes up upon the shore. Hekabe in a kind of frenzied autopsy rails at the absent Polymestor about Polydoros wounds: . w(v diemoira/sw / xro/a, sidare/w| temw\n fasga/nw| / me/lea . (718-20). There is no question as to the magnitude of the violence done here, but even so, it pales in comparison to the violence done at the end of the play. Segal points out that for the Hekabe the interior of Agamemnons tent also serves as an analog to Polymestors palace. Just as Agamemnons tent is supposedly safe, having no men ta)/ndon de\ pista\ ka)rse/nwn e)rhmi/a, Polydoros was supposed to be safe in Polymestors home (1017). As Hekabe tells Polymestor, ceno/n kate/ktav sh\n molo/nt e)f e(sti/an (1216). Why then is there no feminine aspect apparent in the home of Polymestor in Thrace? To the Greeks, the Thracians are barbarians. This idea is underscored by Polymestors flaunting of one of the most important of Greek customs, ceni/a, by killing Polydoros, son of his ce/nov Priam. Barbarians in turn share many qualities with women. The Hekabe explores the otherness of the female by combining it . with the otherness of the barbarians. 4 Polymestor is part of the space of the other which both barbarians and women inhabit, and therefore his home in Thrace becomes a female space inasmuch as is possible without mention of an actual genetic female inhabitant. This idea is further stressed when Polymestor is blinded by the Trojan women in Agamemnons tent. The blinding of Polymestor can . suggest symbolic castration, particularly when combined with the destruction of his two male children . Hekabe overcomes male strength and 4 Ibid., 109.

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10 attacks a man where he is most vulnerable to the female, in his need for children (especially sons) to continue his line. 5 The connection between barbarians and women is thus made painfully clear. Troy When Hekabe entreats Odysseus to spare her daughter Polyxena, she makes mention of their meeting in Troy. Odysseus is found out in the interior spaces of Troy as a kata/skopov, or spy, by Helen and Hekabe (239). This is a profession which depends upon deceit and trickery to exist. Odysseus is such a sly talker that he manages as a suppliant to secure Hekabes silence. He admits as much, saying pollw=n lo/gwn eu(rh/maq, w(/ste mh\ qanei=n, or inventions of many words, so as not to die (250). This deceit takes place in Troy, inside Priams palace where Hekabe and Helen both live. The fact that Odysseus will say whatever is most advantageous means that he is often guilty of deception to secure his own ends. By the time of the Hekabe, Hekabe herself is no longer a threat, so he feels no compunction about revealing his earlier deceitfulness. Despite his deceit, the motivation behind his spying was to aid in successful prosecution of the war. Hecubas failure to reveal him to the Trojans is much more of a deception than Odysseus, despite any act of supplication. Violence occurs in Troy when the Greeks sack the city. The chorus of captive Trojan women sets up a mawkish picture of home life in Troy: mesonu/ktiov w)llu/man, h)=mov e)k dei/pnwn u(/pnov h)du\v e)p o)/ssoiv ski/dnatai, molpa=n d a)/po kai\ xoropoiw=n qusia=n katalu/sav po/siv e)n qala/moiv e)/kaito, custo\n d e)pi\ passa/lw| . 5 Ibid., 122.

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11 At midnight I was destroyed, at the point after dinner when sleep sweetly creeps over the eyes, after the song and the dances, having made an offering my husband lay in the bedchamber this, and on a peg his spear . (914-20) The word qa/lamov, defined as chamber or womens apartment, shows that the scene is an interior one. The image of the spear upon a peg belies the peaceful nature of the scene, as the Trojans are indeed at war. Suddenly the apparent peace is broken as the Greeks enter the city: a)na\ de\ ke/ladov e)/mole po/lin: ke/leusma d h)=n kat a)/stu Troi/av to/d: w)= pai=dev E)lla/nwn, po/te dh\ po/te ta\n I)lia/da skopia\n pe/rsantev h(/cet oi)/kouv; le/xh de\ fi/lia mono/peplov lipou=sa, Dwri\v w(v ko/ra, semna/n prosi/zous ou)k h)/nus A)/rtemin a( tla/mwn: a)/gomai de\ qano/nt i)dou=s a)koi/tan . but through the city there came a clamor; and this shout went down through the town of Troy: O sons of Greece, destroying the Ilian citadel when will you seek out your homes? And having left my loves bed in a tunic like a Dorian maiden, I did not succeed at placing myself at the holy altar of Artemis; and I was led away having seen my spouse die . (928-37) Even the presence of the altar of Artemis fails to stop the violence that occurs with the capture and enslavement of the Trojan women. The use of the term for womens quarters makes clear the feminine nature of Troy. In addition, and in a broader sense, the only surviving people to remember living in Troy

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12 are the women. Thus with the chorus made up of the captive Trojan women life at Troy is filtered through a female perspective, which deals primarily with the interior. Hekabe frees the suppliant Odysseus inside Priams palace. In the palace, it is Odysseus who is the dou=lov, as the power in the interior is held by women (249). Exteriors in Euripides Hekabe Achilles Tomb The burial mound of Achilles lies within the realm of public knowledge on two different levels. First, through Talthybios, who presumably is giving an honest account of events, the audience and the women are made aware of the events that occur surrounding Polyxenas death. Additionally, the burial mound is where the Greeks engage in debate among themselves in a public fashion, and where Odysseus convinces them to sacrifice Polyxena on Achilles behalf: . o( poikilo/fwn / ko/piv h(dulo/gov dhmoxaristh\v / Laertia/dhv pei/qei stratia\n . (131-3). In other words, Achilles tomb is where public matters affecting the entire army are aired, specifically the question of the winds failure to bear the Greeks home. This lack of wind is the instability leading to Polyxenas sacrifice. Achilles tomb is also mens space. On a basic level it houses the remains of the most a)/ristov and manliest man of all the Greeks (134). Beyond this, it is where the army spends the time framed by the Hekabe. The army of course is made up exclusively of Greek men, so ipso facto the tomb is in the province of men. How then can an act of violence involving a woman occur at Achilles burial mound if female violence is supposed to be relegated to the interior? Polyxena is slain in an exterior setting, the only act of violence in the play to occur outside. The types of violence in the play help segregate interior/female from exterior/male. In each of the

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13 violent interior scenes there is a common thread. In Troy, the battle is both unexpected and sudden, as well as chaotic to the point of sacrilege, as not even the semna\n . h)/nus A)/rtemin can stem the violence (935-6). At Polymestors home, the slaying of Polydoros is by nature unexpected and also quite bloody, at least from Hekabes description of the corpse (718-20). Agamemnons tent is a place of frenzied violence as well, as Polymestor refers to the womens sudden transformation into Ba/kxaiv A(/idou (1077). Polyxenas death in contrast to all these is a product of particularly directed violence. The violence is no surprise; rather, it is well known beforehand to everyone, including the victim herself. Polyxenas death is a religious sacrifice acting as a political expedient. There is nothing frenzied about it. Her death is a public spectacle, placing it within the realm of public knowledge and the exterior. The way Polyxena chooses to die, baring her breast and willingly offering herself to the blade, also is quite different from the other scenes of violence in the Hekabe. She tells Neoptolemos I0dou/, to/d, ei) me\n ste/rnon, w)= neani/a, / pai/ein proqumh=|; pai=son, ei) d u(p au)xe/na / xrh/|zeiv, pa/resti laimo\v eu)treph\v o(/de (563-5). She becomes the balia\n e)/lafon of Hekabes dream, a sacrificial animal (90). Polyxena bares her breasts to receive death, whereas in contrast the Trojan captive women bare their breasts in order to mete it out. Polyxenas acquiescence to the slaughter emphasizes her sacrificial status and the unusual nature of the violent act. Finally, the sexual nature of her death is almost pornographic, as she labou=sa pe/plouv e)c a)/krav e)pwmi/dov / e)/rrhce lago/nav e)v me/sav par o)mfalo/n, / mastou/v t e)/deice ste/rna q w(v a)ga/lmatov / ka/llista in front of the entire army of men (558-61). This makes the sacrifice not only exterior in

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14 terms of the public display, but exterior in the sense that it is a public show to be enjoyed by the men. Indeed, Hekabe has to entreat Talthybios that the Argives not touch Polyxenas corpse: mh\ qigga/nein moi mhde/n (605). The death of Polyxena is sufficiently different from the violence at Troy, the death of Polydoros, and the violence directed at Polymestor and his children as to belong to a different category altogether, one compatible with the male, public space of the exterior. In addition to the directed nature of the violence, the reasons behind it make it a form of justice, not against Polyxena, but for the benefit of the slain Achilles. The Greeks believe that it is right and proper to honor Achilles with Polyxenas sacrifice. To see the army safely home, the winds must be made to blow, which in turn entails that Neoptolemos provides his father with the requested sacrifice. Outside Agamemnons Tent The area in front of Agamemnons tent is the most obvious place of public knowledge. Everything that happens there is immediately available to the audience and the chorus of the Trojan captive women, which acts as a sort of internal audience. The discussions between Hekabe and Odysseus, Agamemnon, and Talthybios all take place here, as does Agamemnons judging of the situation after Hekabe has exacted her revenge on Polymestor. Exterior spaces are the province of men. The women come and go in and out of the tents, but the men remain outside. None of the men who come to speak to Hekabe do so inside the tent. They all hold their discussions outside, in full view of the audience. The exception to this is Polymestor, but as has been described above, he does not count as a Greek, civilized male, but is more suited as a barbarian to be classified with females as the other. Even Agamemnon, to whom the tent belongs, never actually steps inside it.

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15 In part, the mere fact that the interior is the space allotted to women makes whatever is not so allotted, i.e. the exterior space, belong to the realm of men. The dichotomy of male and female is thus re-affirmed and mimicked through physical space. Agamemnons judgement of Polymestor also takes place before the tent. MacDowell asserts that at this early period [t]he king was the sole ruler and judge. 6 As the king would naturally be a male, law-courts were from the beginning a male province. This continues into Euripides time as well, and though the office of king has been done away with, [t]o be a juror a man had to be aged thirty or more and in possession of full citizen rights (italics mine). 7 Just as there are distinct male and female physical realms, there are also distinct judgment behaviors associated with men and women in Euripides plays. Agamemnons judgment of Polymestors blinding occurs in the open with the presence of others as witnesses. Both Polymestor and Hekabe plead their cases to Agamemnon who in turn passes judgment that is upheld and recognized by others in the encampment. Hekabes judgment to take her vengence on Polymestor is enacted only after a consultation with Agamemnon, who gives her the go-ahead by way of, to some extent, feigning ignorance. There is one major difference between the judgment of Agamemnon and Hekabes reasons for killing Polymestor in this case, although both reach the same conclusion. Hekabes decision is personally motivated and involves her own interests. Agamemnons judgment, on the other hand, is performed partially with order and justice in mind regarding the maintenance of order in the encampment, but also because Agamemnon 6 Douglas M. MacDowell. The Law in Classical Athens. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978: 26. 7 Ibid., 34.

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16 owes [Hekabe] a favour in return for Cassandras favors . [Agamemnon] fears that the army may think him guilty of planning the murder [for that exact reason . He] grant[s] the favour only because the winds have not changed. 8 It is important to note that his reasoning for offering judgment (flawed or no) makes no impact on the fact that it is still his male judgment with its legal weight that allows both the plan to proceed and for the Trojan captive women to escape further punishment. 8 James C. Hogan. Thucydides 3.52-68 and Euripides Hecuba. Phoenix 26.3 (1972): 255.

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CHAPTER 3 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES MEDEA In the Medea there are two interiors of note and two exteriors. The interiors are Jasons house and Kreons palace, and the exteriors are the areas in front of and above Jasons house. In discussing this play, the interiors and exteriors are all physical in nature, not recollected as in the Hekabes Troy. Though Medeas past is fraught with violence, Euripides does not delve as much into the details as in the Hekabe; it is important that she comes from violence in terms of having no home to return to, but it is not discussed to the point where it is necessary to include Kolchis as a distinct location. Thus, in terms of interiors and exteriors, Medea is a much simpler play than the Hekabe. Exteriors in Euripides Medea Outside Jasons HouseDivorce Two related situations occur in the area in front of Jasons house: Medea learns of both her divorce and her exile, from Jason and Kreon respectively. The motives behind these are sufficiently dissimilar to encourage closer inspection. As in the situation in front of Agamemnons tent in the Hekabe, the events occurring and information aired here are immediately available to the audience. The events in front of Jasons house are both male-motivated, and as such the males involved see no reason to conceal their motivations. The instability in Jasons life stems from his marriage to the barbarian Medea and the perception, doubtless true, that he could increase his wealth and social standing by marrying Kreons daughter, who is after all a Greek princess. He asserts that he is only thinking of the welfare of Medea and their children, that with more wealth he 17

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18 would be able to provide for them comfortably. Medea wisely believes this to be so much bunk, bemoaning the fate of women, but the issue is not for her to decide; what is just is decided by males, so in light of this Jason is well within his rights. Though the chorus of household servants tries to express their sympathy, saying a)ndra/si me\n do/liai boulai/, qew=n d / ou)ke/ti pi/stiv a)/raren, the fact that Medea is not a Greek could truly only add to public approval of Jasons actions, otherwise reprehensible as they may be (Medea 412-3). Jason swore an oath to her, which has been broken in the interests of supposed practicality. The egotistical Jason has clearly given little thought to his familys welfare, despite his belated protests to the contrary, as exile for a woman with no chance of returning to her fathers house is a death sentence. 1 Though within his rights, he makes a victim out of Medea, effectively pushing her to the point where she will refuse to be victimized. Outside Jasons HouseExile In terms of the exile, Kreon is simply looking after his welfare and that of his family. He owes nothing to Medea, and wants his lineage to continue without Jasons current children getting in the way. The instability he rightly perceives is that Medea is not just any scorned woman; though she acts as a supplicant, she is a vengeful ex-wife and powerful sorceress to boot, and thus occasions a potential threat that cannot be taken lightly. As the king, he decides what justice is, so there is no arguing with his decision to protect his family by exiling Medea. In the opening scenes of the play, Medea still allows herself to be victimized: Euripides clearly establishes sympathy for Medea in the first half of the play . she effectively manages to persuade the Chorus, Kreon, Aigeus, 1 Helene P. Foley. Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001: 258.

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19 and Jason himself to help her by portraying herself as a victim, like everyone else. 2 She is no ordinary woman though, and like any being with power, she is a boon to those who help her and a curse to those who are a hindrance. Above Jasons House As will be discussed below, Medea flees on her flying chariot from the roof of the house after murdering her children. This area is open to the audience, and is thus where truth is finally revealed. At the end of the play, she has returned to her divinity: Helios is her ancestor and through that divine link she is able to make use of his gift, the flying chariot. Although the female divinity has been repressed by Hellenic civilization, the text of the play, by subordinating Medeas divinity to her status as mortal woman, makes the audience fear the return of that repressed. 3 Though Rabinowitz then states otherwise, I argue that Medea is, despite her attempt at mortal womanhood, still truly at least a semi-divinity, and that the final scene is exactly the return of that repressed that the audience feared. Medea has taken command of Helios chariot and, at that same instant, her hidden status as a vengeful goddess. Interiors in Euripides Medea Kreons Palace The interiors in the Medea are replete with violence and deceit, all stemming from Medea herself. Her life has suddenly become unstable through Jasons decision to divorce her and remarry. The importance of the stability of married life to a woman in the Greek world, barbarian or no, cannot be overstated: gunai=k e)f h(mi=n despo/tin 2 Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993: 127-8. 3 Ibid., 136.

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20 do/mwn e)/xei (694). It is paramount to consider that even when she plans revenge, she only acts once assured of a safe haven in the form of King Aegeus extracted promise to protect her should she make it to Athens. In return, she promises him renewed fertility, which has the effect of securing his aid; Aegeus own continued lineage is more important to him than anything Medea might do by way of revenge on her husband. Buttrey sees difficulties in this where they do not exist: The first is that Aegeus only offers her asylum, not escape . The second difficulty is that, judging from the exodos, Medea needed no help at all. If Euripides will have her escape through the air in the chariot of Helios, Aegeus timely arrival is unnecessary. 4 On the contrary, it gives her somewhere to go. When her semi-divinity is re-realized, of course she can effect her own escape, but neither does this change the fact that she is not an Olympian goddess, thus having nowhere in Greece where she would be welcomed, nor does it change the fact that she still cannot return to Kolchis. Jason supposedly plans to provide for her and their children after he remarries, but there is nothing holding him to that promise any more than to the promise to be with Medea in the first place. This is the very issue at hand: Medea acts out of her judgment that Jason should be punished for oathbreaking but, because it is judgment and not justice, the violence escalates and the death toll mounts. The men act out of justice, which they get to define. Medea wants revenge for a perceived slight, whereas Jason is hardly aware that he has slighted her. w)= mega/la Qe/mi kai\ po/tni A)/rtemi, leu/sseq a(\ pa/sxw, mega/loiv o(/rkoiv e)ndhsame/na to\n kata/raton 4 T. V. Buttrey. Accident and Design in Euripides Medea. The American Journal of Philology 79.1 (1958): 2.

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21 po/sin; o(/n pot e)gw\ nu/mfan t e)si/doim au)toi=v mela/qroiv diaknaiome/nouv, oi(= e)me\ pro/sqen tolmw=v a)dikei=n. O great Themis and Lady Artemis, do you perceive the things I suffer, having bound my abominable husband with great oaths? Would that once I may see him and his bride scraped to nothing with their houses, having dared to do injustice to me earlier! (160-5) This statement foreshadows the violence and deceit that occur in Kreons palace. Medea pretends to assent to Jasons plans and asks that the children be allowed to stay on without her. She has them deliver poisoned clothing to the princess, which has the effect of killing her and the unknowing Kreon in a most hideous fashion: xrusou=v me\n a)mfi\ krati\ kei/menov plo/kov qaumasto\n i(/ei na=ma pamfa/gou puro/v, pe/ploi de\ leptoi/, sw=n te/knwn dwrh/mata, leukh\n e)/dapton sa/rka th=v dusdai/monov . plh\n tw=| teko/nti ka/rta dusmaqh\v i)dei=n: ou)/t o)mma/twn ga\r dh=lov h)=n kata/stasiv ou)/t eu)fue\v pro/swpon, ai(=ma d e)c a)/krou e)/staze krato\v sumpefurme/non puri/, sa/rkev d a)p o)ste/wn w(/ste peu/kinon da/kru gna/qoiv a)dh/loiv farma/kwn a)pe/rreon, deino\n qe/ama . Laying around her head the gold crown set in motion (a wonder!) a stream of all-devouring fire, and the spun robe, given by your children, was melting the wretched girls white flesh . The wretched girls face only could be seen by her father; for her eyes were not settled clear nor her shapely face, and from the top of her head blood dripped mixed with fire, and flesh fell from her bones like pine sap from the invisible jaws of the drug, a terrible sight . (1186-202) Medea has stopped playing the victim, as there was no future in it for her. Euripides . undercuts that sympathy [for Medea as a woman like everyone else] by

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22 revealing her difference. The audience has three levels of questions about her ontological status: is she mortal or immortal? is she foreign or Greek? in the end, is she like or unlike other Greek women? 5 Foley argues that the vengeful Medea deliberately imitates a heroic brand of masculinity [and] the heroic code itself . gives priority to public success and honor over survival and the private concerns of love and family. 6 Rabinowitz thinks rather that Medea acts more as a warning to men, in that she has been identified as and with other women [and ergo] destabilizes the category woman. 7 I would suggest that as a foreigner and possibly a semi-divine being, Medea cannot truly fit the mold of a normal woman no matter how she pretends, but that at the last she does not put success over survival in that she secures Aegeus help before acting. Jasons House Though she tells them to avoid their mothers ire, the nurse early on urges the children inside to supposed safety, not knowing the perversion of safety that interiors in Euripides undergo: i)/t, eu)= ga\r e)/stai, dwma/twn e)/sw, te/kna (89). After Medea uses her children to slay Kreon and his daughter the princess, she resolves to continue her revenge on Jason: she takes their children inside the house and kills them with a sword. When Jason arrives and the chorus informs him of the killings, he asks where the violence has occurred: pou= ga/r nin e)/ktein; e)nto\v h)\ )cwqen do/mwn; (1312). Of course, the murders have taken place in the interior, and when he 5 Rabinowitz, 131-2. 6 Foley, 263-4. 7 Rabinowitz, 132.

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23 asks that the doors be opened, he threatens to kill Medea inside as well. Medea appears above the house, saying: ti/ ta/sde kinei=v ka)namoxleu/eiv pu/lav, nekrou\v e)reunw=n ka)me\ th\n ei)rgasme/nhn; pau=sai po/nou tou=d. ei) d e)mou= xrei/an e)/xeiv, le/g ei)/ ti bou/lh|, xeiri\ d ou) yau/seiv pote/: toio/nd o)/xhma patro\v H(/liov path\r di/dwsin h(mi=n, e)/ruma polemi/av xero/v. Why do you move and force the gates, looking for the bodies and for me who did it? Stop your work. But if you need something from me, tell me if you want, but you will not ever touch me; Helios, the father of my father, has given me such a vehicle, as a guard against warlike hands. (1317-22) She subsequently escapes on her flying chariot. Jasons ineffectuality draws notice to the fact that in the interior, a mothers rage and grief prove to be far from helpless, as was apparent in the Hekabe, although the two mothers have different methods. 8 Hekabe uses her status among the Trojan captives to set events in motion, whereas Medea takes matters directly into her own hands. Jasons attempt to do violence against her, however, is doomed to failure, as [i]t is a commonplace of stage-craft that horror can be conveyed more effectively through the suggestive power of words on the imagination than by actual spectacle. 9 Jason cannot get in to kill Medea away from the audiences gaze, and indeed it would go against the nature of interiors for him to do so. The Medea fits without exception the model of space in Euripides. Jason and Kreon make decisions and perform actions openly in the exterior. Medea employs deceit and violence in the interior in typical fashon for a Euripidean female character. She is 8 Segal, TAPA 1990: 122. 9 R. Sri Pathmanathan. Death in Greek Tragedy. Greece & Rome, 2 nd Series 12.1 (1965): 6.

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24 only semi-divine, and though this may have an effect on the reason for her decisions and on how she is perceived by others, she is still woman enough to be bound to the interior model.

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CHAPTER 4 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES ELEKTRA Euripides Elektra would appear at first glance not to fit the model of female interior deceit and violence as opposed to exterior male openness. The spaces where events occur include the exterior area around the farmhouse, and two interiors: the farmhouse itself, and the shrine where Aigisthos meets his end. The shrine as a complete space is a bit of ambiguity, however, and will be discussed below; such religious sites typically include an exterior as well. The recognition scene between Elektra and Orestes occurs in front of the farmhouse and Klytemnestras death occurs within it. An Exterior in Euripides Elektra: Environs of the Farmhouse The house in the country is pointedly isolated from the public sphere due simply to its distance from the city of Argos, and thus automatically becomes a part of the private sphere. 1 This would make the farmhouse a part of the private, domestic sphere, putting it squarely in the provenance of women. I would argue that there are no true exteriors in the Elektra, only quasi-exteriors. When she speaks of the palace at Argos, Elektra says of her newly unstable life: h( . mh/thr e)mh/, / e)ce/bale/ m oi)/kwn . (Elektra 60-1). This does not mean, however, that she has been exiled out of doors in particular, but rather that to her everything which is not the Argive palace is outside, at least metaphorically. Indeed, the farmers house, unquestionably an interior space, is just one part of Elektras larger prison, the entirety of her new husbands lands. The area in 1 Foley, 234. 25

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26 front of the farmhouse thus acts in a dual role as exterior and interior depending on what the turn of events in the play necessitate. Being out of the public sphere and therefore in the domestic domain of women, the environs of the farmhouse act as an interior. In terms of events being made available to the audience, however, they act as an exterior. The area before the farmhouse is where the audience is apprised of events. The farmers speech concerning the state of affairs in Mycenae takes place here, as do updates from the messenger and the children of Agamemnon describing the deaths of Aigisthos and Klytemnestra, respectively. In addition, when the Dioscori appear, although it is above the house proper, they are present to provide an explanation of events to the audience and the characters in the play. Castor informs each person of his or her lot: Orestes is to travel to Athens to be acquitted of blood-guilt, and Pylades is to return home to Phokis with the farmer and Elektra, the former to make wealthy, and the latter to marry. Though Castor acknowledges that Apollo has acted unwisely in setting the task of vengeance on Orestes, the purpose of the gods arrival is to return the myth to its original state, and this they do despite the broken lives in clear evidence below. 2 Interiors in Euripides Elektra Environs of the Farmhouse Other than its distance from the public sphere, the area in front of the farmhouse acts most like an interior in terms of the recognition scene. One would think that a recognition scene should occur in the exterior, as it involves the revelation of previously hidden knowledge. The recognition scene in Euripides Elektra, however, is muddled, as Orestes and Elektra play out the charade long past the point of recognition, until Orestes 2 J. Michael Walton. Greek Theatre Practice: Contributions to Drama and Theatre Studies, No. 3. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980: 209.

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27 is finally unequivocally outed by the old man, who after running through the list of possible tokens recognizes him by a scar, thus forcing Elektra reluctantly to acknowledge her equally reluctant brother. 3 They have each been deceiving each other because neither is what the other expects. They are thus loathe to shatter their illusions through admittance of the facts. Elektra denies all [of the tokens of recognition] because they do not accord with her view of Orestes . He would not come secretly to Argos. 4 On Orestes own part, the only possible reason for his failure to identify himself is that after taking a close look at Elektra, he no longer wishes to reveal himself as her brother. 5 She has proved herself to be sour and bloodthirsty, not the expected . attractive woman married and with some social status or at least access to the palace: 6 )Hl: ou)kou=n o(ra=|v mou prw=ton w(v chro\n de/mav . kai\ kra=ta plo/kamo/n t e)skuqisme/non curw=| . e)ghma/mesq, w)= cei=ne, qana/simon ga/mon . *** )Or: h)= kai\ met au)tou= mhte/r a)n tlai/hv ktanei=n; )Hl: tau)tw=| ge pele/kei tw=| path\r a)pw/leto . qa/noimi mhtro\v ai(=m e)pisfa/cav e)mh=v. El: Then first as you see my body is withered . And my head and hair cropped close like a Scythian . I am married, stranger, and my marriage is death . *** Or: And with him you would dare to slay your mother? El: With the same axe by which my father was slain . May I die having spilled the blood of my mother! (239-81) 3 Ibid., 208. 4 Karelisa V. Hartigan. Ambiguity and Self-Deception: The Apollo and Artemis Plays of Euripides. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991: 113. 5 Walton, 205. 6 Hartigan, 115.

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28 Surely, the properness of Aigisthos death is a non-issue for Orestes: Aigisthos has helped in the murder of Agamemnon and is responsible for Orestes own exile. In addition, Orestes and Aigisthos are not close enough kin to invoke the Furies wrath. The logic that applies to killing Aigisthos works in this case; revenge against the usurper on his fathers behalf is easily justifiable to Orestes and the audience. The logic does not extend to killing one parent on behalf of another. Given Orestes doubts about the wisdom of killing his mother, it is apparent that he does not find Elektras bloodlust against Klytemnestra to be very contagious (966-87). To further strain their renewed relationship, all of Elektras hopes seem to be riding on Orestes: [Elektra] clearly sees herself as one who deserves a much better lot in life and is, evidently, relying on him to give it to her. 7 This romantic expectation she has of him does not in the least correspond to reality, and her unreasonable expectations hardly endear her to him. The Shrine At the shrine where Aigisthos is sacrificing a bull, violence and deceit are readily at hand. First of all, Orestes and Pylades deceive Aigisthos by posing as Thessalians on their way to the Alpheius. Aigisthos invites them to join in the sacrifice, and they accept his offer of hospitality. Orestes manages to cut up the bull successfully, falsely proving himself to Aigisthos as a Thessalian; he then slays Aigisthos while he is interpreting the spilled organs: labw\n de\ ko/ptei. spla/gxna d Ai)/gisqov labw\n h)/qrei diairw=n. tou= de\ neu/ontov ka/tw o)/nuxav e)p a)/krouv sta\v kasi/gnhtov se/qen e)v sfondu/louv e)/paise, nwtiai=a de\ 7 Ibid.

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29 e)/rrhcen a)/rqra: pa=n de\ sw=m a)/nw ka/tw h)/spairen h)la/laze dusqnh/|skwn fo/nw|. And taking [the axe] he struck. And Aigisthos taking the entrails having interpreted them considered them. But as he stooped down your brother [Orestes] having stood on his tiptoes hacked at his spine, and shattered his vertebral column; his entire body convulsed up and down, and wretchedly wailed at his slaughter. (838-43) In normal circumstances, it is perfectly natural for Orestes to slay Aigisthos; he is no close kin to Aigisthos, who was his fathers murderer. This being the case, the slaying should take place outside in the light of day as justice demands. Indeed, it does: [s]acrifice, the focal act of communal religious observance, was enacted outside, on an open-air altar usually opposite the main, east, faade of the temple, while the interior contained objects dedicated to the deity, including a cult statue. 8 So while the actual killing of Aigisthos takes place outside, where the sacrifice would have occurred, the ambiguous language used in describing the space helps twist the shrine into a quasi-interior. Euripides goes to great pains to make it clear that this is not a just killing in the traditional sense. Orestes conquest of Aigisthos is achieved . in disguise, at a sacrifice, and in violation of xenia . There is no characteristic of the heroic deed about his act. 9 Additionally, according to Elektra, Aigisthos is womanly, being known as Klytemnestras wife, yet she also accuses him of being the womanizer. 10 Another discrepancy exists between his supposed impiety at Agamemnons grave and the gracious extension of his hospitality to his murderers at the shrine, as a 8 Mary B. Hollinshead. Adyton, Opisthodomos, and the Inner Room of the Greek Temple. Hesperia 68.2 (1999): 189. 9 Hartigan, 116. 10 Foley, 237.

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30 courteous man of religious principle. 11 It is not necessary that Euripides audience feel total sympathy with Aigisthos, but it is absolutely vital that they not condemn him out of hand; no one deserves to die as he does, betrayed by a guest. Orestes concept of Aigisthos is informed by his sisters jaded viewpoint, and in a womans world, which is limited . by the moral stature of the contestants as women (they are uncontrolled, changeable, and so forth) . the issue of justice in a more abstract and principled sense gets lost, leaving only judgment. 12 Not only does Orestes kill Aigisthos in a manner befitting the deceitfulness of a woman, but he does so through a womans influence: Elektras. Orestes intentions are justifiable, but his actions are not. Inside the Farmhouse The interior of the farmhouse allows connections to be drawn throughout the play. When the farmer extends domestic hospitality to Orestes and Pylades, it holds up a mirror to the hospitality extended by Aigisthos according to the messenger. Orestes expects the farmer to be a product of his class, and is surprised to find that he is not. In similar fashion, Aigisthos is not the impious man described by Elektra and Orestes does not take just actions commensurate with his own class. The domestic scene and Orestes musings about class and morality demonstrate an observation that he ironically fails to apply to himself (367-95). The farmhouse, the very place where these issues are raised, becomes the location of Klytemnestras murder. This becomes the final example in the Elektra of Orestes dearth of just action coupled with just intention. 11 Hartigan, 119. 12 Foley, 238.

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31 Klytemnestra is called to visit Elektra because of a supposed birth. But whether through choice or circumstance, Elektra remains a virgin. Klytemnestra, preoccupied with attendance to Aigisthos, apparently would never even have visited her daughter without being tricked into it, since she did not even bother to visit during Elektras nine months of imaginary pregnancy; even so, she is surprised to find Elektra in rags and without a midwife present (1123-32). This in itself suggests that Elektra has been overstating her poverty, since her mother knows full well to whom she is married, and yet expected to find her in clean clothes at the very least, if not noble finery. Once she enters the farmhouse, Klytemnestras death at the hands of her children is horrifying: )Or: katei=dev, oi(=on a( ta/lain e)/cw pe/plwn e)/balen, e)/deice masto\n e)n fonai=sin, i)w/ moi, pro\v pe/dw| tiqei=sa go/nima me//lea; ta\n ko/man d e)gw\ . *** boa\n d e)/laske ta/nde, pro\v ge/nun e)ma\n tiqei=sa xei=ra: Te/kov e)mo/n, litai/nw: parh/|dwn t e)c e)ma=n e)kri/mnaq, w(/ste xe/rav e)ma\v lipei=n be/lov . *** e)gw\ me\n e)pibalw\n fa/rh ko/raiv e)mai=v fasga/nw| kathrca/man mate/rov e)/sw de/rav meqei/v. )Hl: e)gw\ d e)pegke/leusa/ soi ci/fouv t e)fhya/man a(/ma. Or: Did you see how, miserable, she opened her robe, she bore her breast to the slaughter, oh me, fallen to the ground, limbs having birthed me? And I . her hair . *** And she let out that cry, putting her hand on my face; My child, I beseech you; she hung from my face, so that the blade dropped from my hand . ***

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32 Draping my cloak over my eyes I sacrificed her with my sword, having let it go into my mothers throat. El: And I spurred you on with my hand fast to yours on the sword. (1206-25). The story of the false child, which the king and queen fear . foreshadows Klytemnestras death, since she [is] killed in a cruel mimicry of the very circumstance she dreaded. 13 The murder itself is an absolute mess, with dropped weapons and torn clothing preventing a clean and quick killing blow. Even the overly optimistic Lloyd, who argues that Orestes and Elektra are heroic figures, voices the possibility that the matricide [may be] shown at the end of the play to have been a mistake, [and] it is no less tragic that such an act should be the responsibility of plausible and sympathetic characters than of . warped and inadequate individuals . 14 The point to be made is that not only is the action of Klytemnestras death terrible, but it is also morally reprehensible. Orestes will eventually be set free of blood guilt for Klytemnestras death, as he (and not Elektra) was pointedly motivated by gods, whereas the female characters confront the corrosive uncertainties of revenge on a more direct and personal level. 15 I would argue that Orestes actions are justice, however skewed. Castor castigates Apollo himself for being the impetus behind the matricide (1296-302). But Orestes, despite his own misgivings, fulfills the gods charge. Even though Apollo demands a morally 13 Michael J. OBrien. Orestes and the Gorgon: Euripides Electra. The American Journal of Philology 85.1 (1964): 19. 14 Michael Lloyd. Realism and Character in Euripides Electra. Phoenix 40.1 (1986): 19. 15 Foley, 241-2.

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33 questionable act from Orestes, the fact that it is a god who orders the deed necessarily justifies its enactment (1245-6). Elektra in contrast never had the cause of justice on her side. 16 Apollo gives Orestes his task through an oracle, but does not do so for Elektra. Thus the agendas of men and gods are kept separate. Orestes acts with justice at Apollos urging, whereas Elektra is condemn[ed] for what she has forced Orestes to do and for what at the end is her own decision. 17 Concerns are raised about the correctness of matricide on both human and divine levels, [but] these doubts remain more fully linked to Elektra. 18 For the gods, the ends justify the means, but this is not and cannot be the case for humans. In attempting to arrogate the manly heroism of Orestes divine charge, Elektra only affirms the injustice of her participation in the matricide; this is apparent in her choice of an interior and therefore female space for the purpose of deceiving and slaying Klytemnestra. 16 Hartigan, 124. 17 Walton, 209. 18 Foley, 241.

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CHAPTER 5 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES HIPPOLYTOS The Hippolytos offers one of the strongest and most apparent arguments for feminine deception and violence in the interior, although some of its other scenes must be dealt with in more detail. The interior in question is the palace of Theseus at Troezen wherein Phaedra kills herself after writing a damning and false letter against Hippolytos. Exteriors include the area in front of the Troezen palace and the area along the cliffs where Hippolytos receives the brunt of his fathers curse. Exteriors in Euripides Hippolytos Outside the Palace of Theseus at Troezen The exterior of the palace of Theseus provides the usual forum for the chorus and audience to be apprised of events. Aphrodite begins the play by making very clear that Hippolytos will die and that incidentally Phaedra will suffer: h( d eu)kleh\v me\n a)ll o(/mwv a)po/llutai / Fai/dra: to\ ga\r th=sd ou) protimh/sw kako\n / to\ mh\ ou) parasxei=n tou\v e)mou\v e)xqrou\v e)moi\ / di/khn tosau/thn w(/st e)moi\ kalw=v e)/xein (Hippolytos 47-50). Reinforcing the bond between maleness and openness is Hippolytos, who at first entrance refuses to pay respect to the statue of Cypris, blatantly stating his views on the subject of unchastity. When approached by the nurse later in the play, he speaks with disgust around the subject of their discussion so thoroughly that a perfect picture of Phaedras unholy love for him is created by the spaces between his words. He does not explicitly break his oath to any who do not already know the truth, as Phaedras servants do. 34

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35 Along the Cliffs: the Chariot Accident Hippolytos death is caused by Poseidon in response to Theseus curse. Hippolytos death is unjustified but is still just. He has offended Aphrodite and must die, that much is clear from the very beginning. He is immoderate in chastity and deserves to suffer. Orestes was an unwilling kinslayer, Theseus unwitting. Both do the will of a god, which is justice whether wise or not. With the available information Theseus acts with justice. Hippolytos tells Theseus the following: h(\n a)rti/wv e)/leipon, h(\ fa/ov to/de / ou)/pw xro/non palaio\n ei)sede/rketo (907-8). When the lines are spoken, Euripides is making use of Hippolytos innocence and Theseus suspicions that Phaedras note tells the truth . Spoken innocently, Hippolytos words have sinister implications for Theseus, who has a vivid conception of what occurred at the last meeting between his wife and son . Ambiguity is essential . Since the imperfect is what is used, it does not [in Hippolytos mind] draw attention to a specific act of leaving. 1 But why would Theseus be more inclined to believe his wife than his son? In accordance with the entire reason Aphrodite has for punishing Hippolytos, it is supremely easy to assign hypocrisy to the self-righteous; the possibility that someone so full of hubris is living a double life is too delicious to pass up. su\ dh\ qeoi=sin w(v perisso\v w)n a)nh\r cu/nei; su\ sw/frwn kai\ kakw=n a)kh/ratov; ou)k a)n piqoi/mhn toi=si soi=v ko/mpoiv e)gw\ qeoi=si prosqei\v a)maqi/an fronei=n kakw=v. 1 Wesley D. Smith. Staging in the Central Scene of the Hippolytus. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 91 (1960): 167.

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36 h)/dh nun au)/xei kai\ di a)yu/xou bora=v si/toiv kaph/leu Orfe/a t a)/nakt e)/xwn ba/kxeue pollw=n gramma/twn timw=n kapnou/v: e)pei g e)lh/fqhv. tou\v de\ toiou/touv e)gw\ feu/gein profwnw= pa=si: qhreu/ousi ga\r semnoi=v lo/goisin, ai)sxra\ mhxanw/menoi. Do you indeed meet with gods, being a man beyond the norm? Are you chaste and unsullied by evils? Ill not believe your noises nor be ignorant as to think evils associated with the gods. Now boast already, and with veggies and grains be a merchant, and having Orpheus as your lord celebrate the mysteries honoring the smoke of many books: when youve been caught out! But I warn everybody to flee men such as these; they hunt you with holy words, scheming shameful things (948-58). In short, Hippolytos deserved what he got, since for gods such as Aphrodite the ends justify the means; it is easy to feel sympathy for Theseus and Phaedra, but extremely difficult to bolster much feeling for Hippolytos, whose arrogance removes even what small sympathy he deserves. An Interior in Euripides Hippolytos: Inside the Palace at Troezen The oath Hippolytos swears in the palace to the nurse, that he will keep silent about Phaedras love, is given before he knows the extent of what she asks. This causes the mix of emotion between outrage and piety that produces the famous response: h( glw=sv o)mw/mox, h( de\ frh\n a)nw/motov (612). The nurse is not the only one to exact an oath under dubious if not downright deceptive circumstances. [Just as] Medea murders Jasons new bride, Kreon and her two sons[,] Phaedra gains her revenge on Hippolytos by a suicide note containing a false accusation of rape . [T]he conventional oath of silence would be realistically implausible if the chorus at the time of swearing knew precisely the magnitude of the intended crimes.

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37 Euripides accordingly so organizes his plots that both choruses give their pledges . without realizing the detailed implications of their allegiances. 2 However, the nurse is guilty twice over. She has told Hippolytos of Phaedras love without emphasizing that Phaedra did not send her. She then fails to tell Phaedra of Hippolytos oath of silence, lying by omission and causing her mistress death, however inadvertantly, as she is driven from the stage [and] never learns of Phaedras intention of immediate suicide nor of her intention to slander Hippolytos . [The chorus fails to clear things up because b]y their position and by the swift and violent progress of the scene [between Hippolytos and the nurse], they are simply excluded from any active part in it. 3 Inside the palace is also where the most cataclysmic event of the play takes place: Phaedra commits suicide, certainly a violent act, after writing the note which deceives Theseus into thinking his son has raped her; this creates a prime example of womanly violence and deceit in interiors. She has condemned him with violence [in] defense of an imaginary attack. She kills Hippolytos for words he does not intend to speak. 4 An Ambiguous Space in Euripides Hippolytos: The Inviolate Meadow The inviolate meadow of Artemis is an in-between space. Though it is clearly outdoors, it is also deep within the interior of the forest. Phaedra in her lovesickness originally wishes to join Hippolytos here. She couples this with a connection between speech and going out of the house by repeating thuraia: the tongue that is out of doors 2 W. G. Arnott. Off-Stage Cries and Choral Presence; Some Challenges to Theatrical Conventions in Euripides. Antichthon: Journal of the Australian Society for Classical Studies 16 (1982): 37. 3 Smith, 172. 4 Ibid., 174.

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38 (395), the woman who seeks a bed outside her home (409). 5 This is a reflection of the idea that women should be in the interior. Since Hippolytus is a chaste hunter, the wish to be in a bed outside her home is not a possibility. Thus wishing to hunt with him stands in place of that desire, since the normal channels of adultery could not be appropriate. Indeed, she describes her fear of just such an adulterous scenario: misw= de\ kai\ ta\v sw/fronav me\n e)n lo/goiv, la/qra| de\ to/lmav ou) kala\v kekthme/nav: ai(\ pw=v pot, w)= de/spoina ponti/a Ku/pri, ble/pousin e)v pro/swpa tw=n cuneunetw=n ou)de\ sko/ton fri/ssousi to\n cunerga/thn te/ramna/ t oi)/kwn mh/ pote fqoggh\n a)fh=|; But I also hate those women chaste in words, But secretly are not, having procured evil courage; How then can they, o Cypris, mistress of the sea, look into the visages of their spouses and not fear lest their helpmate the dark and the chambers of the house send forth speech at some point (413-418)? She imagines herself in places associated with Hippolytos, because she longs to share his freedom as much as to possess him . when Phaedra comes to herself . she wants to hide her head (243) and with it the hair she has let down, to go inside . 6 The meadow is in this case an exterior and thus a place to which Phaedra can only wish to belong. Hippolytos himself assumes much about this sacred space: he has assumed for himself permission to enter the inviolate meadow, he has supposed that his hand alone is sufficiently pure to pluck its blossoms . [but] he is not the best of men as he had 5 Rabinowitz, 161. 6 Ibid., 162.

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39 presumed [and] has invaded the inviolate meadow (italics mine). 7 In this case, the meadow is clearly an interior. Hippolytos does not belong here, however much he may have fallen into self-deception concerning his worthiness. The fact that he himself describes the inviolate meadow as a place apart, denied to the impure, shows it to be an interior. According to Segal, the ocean, which is representative of Aphrodite, metaphorically encroaches upon the meadow, Artemis (and Hippolytos) sacred space, eventually destroying the bond between Artemis and Hippolytos through his death. The untouched wild . becomes active and dangerous only through its contact with and opposition to the surging sea . [T]here is no aspect of the universe that provides escape or refuge from Aphrodite. Phaedra, who would have escaped into the calm woodland (see 208ff) is caught, u(pe/rantlov, by the sea . 8 According to Segal, Aphrodite then expands her power until Theseus and Hippolytos are both destroyed by the sea. Reminiscent of the Aphroditic bees of the meadow, [t]hrough the horses [Hippolytos] is destroyed by a part of his own life, by something he has reared himself and always believed he could control, yet perhaps did not fully understand. When confronted by the power of the sea and the monster it produces . the horses show their other side and in their newly released wildness become the actual instruments of the disaster. 9 In relation to the sea, the cliffs take on an ambiguous nature as well: while clearly outside, they create an enclosed space wherein Poseidons bull, coming out of the sea, forces the 7 Hartigan, 40-1. 8 Charles Segal. The Tragedy of the Hippolytus: The Waters of Ocean and the Untouched Meadow: In Memoriam Arthur Darby Nock. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 70 (1965): 132-4. 9 Ibid., 147.

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40 horses to smash into the rocks. If Phaedra can be seen as the ultimate cause of Hippolytos death, then however indirectly she is still responsible for the violence that befalls him, making the cliffs transition from exterior to interior entirely appropriate. Aphrodite has touched Artemis domain, which perhaps they shared from the beginning: Hippolytos is ever unwilling to confront the childbirth aspect of Artemis worship, due to the worship of Aphrodite that must logically precede it; in his untutored sophrosyne he remains ignorant of his goddess full realm of power. 10 Whatever the truth, the inviolate meadow cannot fit into the normal categorization of interior and exterior. It represents an unreality which, when dispelled, results in Hippolytos death from within and without, from the meadow and the sea. 10 Hartigan, 44.

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CHAPTER 6 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES ION There are three main spaces in Euripides Ion, one exterior and two interiors. The exterior is the area in front of the audience outside Apollos temple at Delphi. The interiors include the Cave of the Long Rocks and Ions banquet tent. As Ion himself says, to enter the temple grounds is not permitted, so the temple itself does not function as an interior (Ion 220-2). It is the particular space of the god Apollo and thus, as has been seen before, does not follow normal rules for an interior space. Throughout the play it is important to keep in mind the stark difference between Kreusa and Ion, and by association all women and men: Kreusa does not deliberate on right and wrong . the god or his agent intervenes after the fact to prevent the harmful result Kreusa had intended. Ion, on the other hand, is brought by divine intervention to the point where he himself chooses to . do the will of Apollo . Ion can be trusted to make the proper choice and Kreusa cannot. 1 Interiors in Euripides Ion The Cave of the Long Rocks It is here that Kreusa is raped and Ion is born. Apollo, however, must be freed from any sort of moral guilt at this. Scholars who suggest otherwise are bringing far too many of their own sensibilities to bear on the issue, according to Burnett. Accusations of faithlessness, cruelty, and misuse of divine power have . been made against Apollo 1 Vincent J. Rosivach. Earthborns and Olympians: The Parados of the Ion. The Classical Quarterly, New Series 27.2 (1977): 292. 41

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42 both by characters in the play and scholars who agree with them. 2 Those same characters seem to transcend it, however, as the god[s design], known to the audience from the beginning, is not made manifest to the characters of the play until its end, when they depart praising him for his benevolence. 3 It is not necessarily a wholly evil thing that Apollo has raped Kreusa, even so much as this grates against all reason and modern sensibilities. A union between a god and a human woman is an extraordinary event. For a noble family, a dynasty, or a nation this relation represents the highest degree of nobility and a confirmation of national claims and prestige. 4 Kreusa complains not of the rape, but of Apollos supposed abandonment of their son and subsequent silence on the subject: w)= Foi=be, ka)kei= ka)nqa/d ou) di/kaiov ei)= e)v th\n a)pou=san, h(=v pa/reisin oi( lo/goi: o(\v ou)/t e)/swsav to\n so\n o(\n sw=sai/ v e)xrh=n, ou)/q i(storou/sh| mhtri\ ma/ntiv w)\n e)rei=v, w(v, ei) me\n ou)ke/t e)/stin, o)gkwqh=| ta/fw|, ei) d e)/stin . O Phoebus, unjust there or here to her having been absent, her words are here; he whom you did not save, your child, it was necessary that you save, and being a prophet you will not speak to the mother entreating you, that if he no longer lives, she might heap up a tomb, and if he does . (384-9) Thus it is Kreusas own lack of faith in Apollo that is blameworthy here, not Apollo himself, who was and is in the process of taking very good care of their son indeed. Kreusa is the one who physically abandoned the child, which though not an act 2 Anne Pippin Burnett. Human Resistance and Divine Persuasion in Euripides Ion. Classical Philology 57.2 (1962): 89. 3 Ibid. 4 Felix Martin Wassermann. Divine Violence and Providence in Euripides Ion. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71 (1940): 589.

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43 of direct violence certainly could have opened up the child to attacks by wild beasts. Care of the child is just as much her responsibility as Apollos, and Apollo is the parent who came through. Kreusa abandons Ion in order to hide the fact that he exists and thus to preserve her supposed virginity for marriage. This is certainly an understandable course of action, but is nevertheless deceitful. The Banquet Tent Xuthus tries to spare Kreusas feelings by holding the banquet for Ion in secret. Without knowing the facts, she reacts violently. The banquet tent is decorated grandly with many divine symbols, particularly those pertaining to the stars and hence navigation, the Pleiades and Orion for example (1133-65). The emphasis on stars and other navigational aids used to plot a correct course make a fitting counterpoint to Kreusas thoughtless and misguided actions. Kreusas poisoning of Ion would have occurred here in the banquet tent had it come off properly, as thinly justified vengeance on Xuthus for his supposed past indiscretion. As it is, the only fatality is the unlucky bird which drinks the poisoned wine. This is a direct example of the aforementioned propensity of Kreusa to act without regard to right and wrong and needing to be circumvented by Apollo, whether directly through sending the birds to out the poisoner, or indirectly through the simple fact that Ion is piously cognizant enough to pour out the wine at an unlucky omen: . e)n xeroi=n e)/xonti de\ sponda\v met a)/llwn paidi\ tw=| pefhno/ti blasfhmi/an tiv oi)ketw=n e)fqe/gcato: o( d, w(v e)n i(erw=| ma/ntesi/n t e)sqloi=v trafei/v, oi)wno\n e)/qeto, ka)ke/leuv a)/llon ne/on krath=ra plhrou=n: ta\v de\ pri\n sponda\v qeou= di/dwsi gai/a|, pa=si/ t e)kspe/ndein le/gei. . and holding in his hands a libation amidst the others, to the revealed son one of the house slaves spoke a blasphemy;

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44 and he, thus reared in the temple and among good prophets, held it an omen, and requested that another new cup be filled; and the libations from before for the god he gave to the ground, and told all to pour them out (1187-93). Though aborted, the attempt at violence has nonetheless been made, and thus the situation differs from the potential violence at Apollos altar, which does not ultimately materialize. An Exterior in Euripides Ion: Outside the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Ions impulse is to murder Kreusa in revenge, but his piety and sense of morality slows him enough to become fully aware of the facts before he acts. He then makes the right choice: not to kill his newly-discovered mother. Apollos plan comes off successfully, so the one person who must not know Ions real parentage, Xuthus, does not, but is told information that will cause him to accept Ion as a son. Throughout the play Kreusa makes snap judgments that must be blocked to ensure Apollos plan: her resistance is overcome; Apollos physical conquest of her body, necessary to his plan, prefigured the conquest he now makes of her doubt and hatred. 5 When Ion makes a snap judgment, he has the self-control not to act on it lest it fail to coincide with Apollos justice. Kreusa was stopped from murdering Ion by the intervention of the god, but Ion stops himself from murdering Kreusa because not all the facts are yet clear. It would seem that men have the ability to temper judgment with justice, whereas women do not. Kreusa has committed or attempted to commit acts of violence in interior spaces, either by neglect as against the infant Ion or directly as against the grown Ion. Like Odysseus in the Hekabe, Apollo practices deceit for unselfish reasons, lying to Xuthus to insure a place for Ion. Similarly, he intervenes with his birds 5 Burnett, Classical Philology 1962: 97.

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45 to expose the poisoner for Ions sake. Kreusas actions are interior for their selfish and self-contained qualities no less than in terms of actual physical space, and when men venture into the feminine realm of the interior, it is for selfless, exterior reasons.

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CHAPTER 7 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES BAKCHAI The Bakchai is a play quite different from those discussed above. Like the Hippolytos, it involves unstoppable divine vengeance carried out in part through a female agent; in this case Agave is not only the cause (as Phaedra was for Hippolytos) but also the direct instrument of Pentheus death. However, in the Hippolytos, Aphrodite states her intent from the beginning. Pentheus, unlike any other hero of punishment tragedy, begins his play before he has committed a decisive offense. He will outrage his divine antagonist . as part of the action of this play, making the Bakchai the one tragedy that encompasses in its spectacle both an act of hybris and its consequent experience of nemesis. 1 An Ambiguous Space in Euripides Bakchai: Mount Kithairon Dionysos has a tendency to cause gender reversal wherever he goes. Women in the Bakchai under the influence of divine madness act like men, and men like women. Cadmus and Teiresias put on the feminine fawnskins and take up the thyrsai to honor the god. The women who originally doubted Dionysos divinity in their jealousy over Semele in their frenzy . begin to imitate masculine behaviour: they hunt down animals, sack and plunder villages and defeat men in a pitched battle [whereas] Pentheus . agrees to dress up as a woman so that he can spy upon their rituals. 2 The Bacchic rites put women outside, exactly the place where they did not belong, 1 Anne Pippin Burnett. Pentheus and Dionysus: Host and Guest. Classical Philology 65.1 (1970): 19. 2 Sue Blundell. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995: 175. 46

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47 according to Greek men. The women in the Bakchai go to Mount Kithairon and act, in some instances, as a sort of terrible reflection of men: they hunt, but tear apart animals with their own hands or use their thyrsai as weapons rather than use a bow or spear. For these reasons and due to its physical location outside, Mount Kithairon acts as an exterior. Kithairon also acts as an interior, however. The rites performed there are hidden, and supposed to be shut away from the presence of men, who are forbidden to enter the wild to view the mysteries. The Bacchic women retain their femininity in a strange and disturbing way: they have no horses or hunting dogs, but they carry and nurse wild beasts as if their own infants. Dionysos is described in feminine language by Pentheus, who seems increasingly attracted despite himself: . canqoi=si bostru/xoisin eu)osmw=n ko/mhn, oi)nw=pav o)/ssoiv xa/ritav A)frodi/thv e)/xwn . a)ta\r to\ me\n sw=m ou)k a)/morfov ei)=, ce/ne, w(v e)v gunai=kav, e)f o(/per e)v Qh/bav pa/rei: plo/kamo/v te ga/r sou tanao/v, ou) pa/lhv u(/po, ge/nun par au)th\n kexume/nov, po/qou ple/wv: leukh\n de\ xroia\n e)k paraskeuh=v e)/xeiv, ou)x h(li/ou bolai=sin, a)ll u(po\ skia=v, th\n A)frodi/thn kallonh=| qhrw//menov. . fragrant hair with yellow locks, having the dark graces of Aphrodite in your eyes . But your body is not unshapely, foreigner, as for women, whereupon you are here in Thebes; for your locks are long, not from wrestling, poured on your cheek, full of longing; and you have white skin from preparation, not from the strokes of the sun, but from shade, chasing beautiful Aphrodite (Bakchai 235-6, 453-9). Thus for the gender-ambiguous god to use deception and to take advantage of Pentheus and Agaves madness is no great stretch. He encourages Pentheus to spy on

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48 the rites and causes Agave and the other women to see her son as a lion to be slain. The women are incredibly violent in ripping apart his body and putting his head on a thyrsus: labou=sa d w)le/nhv a)ristera\n xe/ra, pleurai=sin a)ntiba=sa tou= dusdai/monov a)pespa/racen w_=mon, ou)x u(po\ sqe/nouv, a)ll o( qeo\v eu)ma/reian e)pedi/dou xeroi=n: Inw\ de\ ta)pi\ qa/ter e)ceirga/zeto, r(hgnu=sa sa/rkav, Au)tono/h t o)/xlov te pa=v e)pei=xe bakxw=n: h)=n de\ pa=v o(mou= boh/, o(\ me\n stena/zwn o(/son e)tu/gxan e)mpne/wn, ai(\ d h)la/lazon. e)/fere d h(\ me\n w)le/nhn, h(\ d i)/xnov au)tai=v a)rbu/laiv: gumnou=nto de\ pleurai\ sparagmoi=v: pa=sa d h(|matwme/nh xei=rav diesfai/rize sa/rka Penqe/wv. And having taken his left arm at the forearm, having put her foot against his unlucky ribs she tore off his shoulder, not from strength, but the god gave her ease in her hands; and Ino began to finish off the other, rending his flesh, and Autonoe and all the crowd of Bacchants held him; a collective shout came from them all, he groaning as much as he was happening to breathe, and they raised the war-cry. And they bore his forearm, and his foot with its own boot; and his ribs were stripped naked with manglings; and they all were playing ball with Pentheus flesh (1125-36). With Kithairon acting as an interior outside of which he was to be kept, Pentheus violates the inner sanctum of the rites and is punished accordingly. An Interior in Euripides Bakchai: Inside the Palace The gender-ambiguous Dionysos performs a most basic act of deceit inside the palace. In trying to prove his godhood to Pentheus, he pretends to be a Lydian and mere leader of the rites. [T]he disowned god himself leads his royal cousin out and away to dismemberment, by means of the madness that starts inside the palace during the choral part of the miracle scene, wherein Dionysos escapes from the dungeon, causes fires to

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49 flash on Semeles tomb, and finally causes an earthquake which apparently destroys part of the palace. 3 While arguably not a violent act, the earthquake is certainly an act of destruction. Although to what extent this miracle was visible to the audience is much-contested, ultimately it has no bearing on this paper as Dionysos is still in the palace when he causes the earthquake, as attested by the chorus: a)= a)=, ta/xa ta\ Penqe/wv me/laqra diati na/cetai perh/masin. o( Dio/nusov a)na\ me/laqra: se/bete/ nin. se/bomen w)/. ei)/dete la/ina ki/osin e)/mbola dia/droma ta/de; Bro/miov a)la la/zetai ste/gav e)/sw. Ah, ah, quickly the halls of Pentheus are shaken asunder by falls. Dionysos is in the halls; revere him! O, we revere him! See the stone pillars, the architrave reeling? Bromius raises the war-cry in the halls (586-93). As if being of ambiguous gender and being inside the palace were not enough, the earthquake is a very showy and selfish act of godhood. Dionysos intentions might normally be beyond question due to his divinity, but are impossible to ignore in combination with his femininity and physical location. An Exterior in the Bakchai: Before the Palace It is only here in the public forum where madness can finally subside and normalcy return. Here the Lydian is revealed as Dionysos, and here what was always apparent to the audience is revealed to the characters in the play. Here also Agave with help from 3 Victor Castellani. That Troubled House of Pentheus in Euripides Bacchae. Transactions of the American Philological Association 106 (1976): 72.

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50 Kadmos shakes off her madness to find she has murdered Pentheus; the veil is lifted from her eyes and truth is revealed. Dionysos idea of justice, ordained by Zeus, is made manifest, and any complaint to the contrary, such as at line 1346 (Ka/dmov: e)gnw/kamen tau=t: a)ll e)pece/rxh| li/an), fails to recognize once again that for the gods the ends can and do justify the means, and mortals must live with the consequences.

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CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION The actions that occur in the various spaces in Euripides plays supply a deeper significance to them, which in a symbiotic cycle binds specific types of space with certain behaviors and traits. Similarly, instability in one type of space is coupled with instability in its opposite: for example, an interior which outside of tragedy would be linked to domesticity and security becomes unsafe when affected by exterior instability. Furthermore, the spaces and actions become tied to specific genders. Women become associated with interior spaces and actions of deceit, violence and judgment. Men become associated with exterior spaces and actions of openness and justice; though [m]en in Greek myth can . do their fair share of killing . this is usually a straightforward manly affair . Typically, a woman employs trickery and deception in order to dispose of others; and the people disposed of are generally related to her by blood or by marriage. 1 Male violence is about sacrifice and justice for the public good, not about private vendettas. Components associated with instabilities typically follow the model set forth in the introduction. We have seen that Hekabe, Medea, Elektra, and Kreusa all commit or attempt to commit acts of violence in interior settings, either by proxy or themselves, all for the sake of vengeance for wrongs real or perceived. For similar reasons, Hekabe, Medea, Elektra, and Phaedra engage in deception against others in the interior, and Elektra and Kreusa 1 Blundell, 19. 51

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52 even engage in self-deception in the interests of judgments they have made. Agave alone commits murder while not in her right mind, at Dionysus urging, but still does so in an interior-like space. Agamemnon, Jason, Kreon, and Theseus all make decisions from positions of both strength and authority, which imbues their actions with justice. Though Medea, for example, acts with strength, she lacks authority; therefore her actions are condemnable as unjust. Orestes acts from a high ground of justice defined by Apollo, though the morality of his actions is questionable at the human level. Gods are beyond reproach, however, whether they should be or not, and for them the ends justify the means; they must ultimately go unchallenged, if not unquestioned. Exceptions only occur in certain circumstances. Barbarians such as Polymestor can fill the role of women in interiors. The influence of a gender-confusing deity such as Dionysos in the Bakchai can also cause men and women to act outside their respective spaces and roles. Ischomachos in Xenophons Economics describes the folly of role reversal in men: ei ) de/ tiv par a (\ o ( qeo \v e )/fuse poiei =, i )/swv ti kai \ a )taktw =n tou \v qeou\v ou) lh/qei kai\ di/khn di/dwsin a)melw=n tw=n e)/rgwn tw=n e(autou= h)\ pra/ttwn ta\ th=v gunaiko\v e)/rga" (7.31). Similarly, when women attempt to reverse roles it results in either tragedy, as for Phaedra, who merely expressed a desire to act like a man, or contemptible acts such as Medeas series of murders and Elektras attempt to attach herself to Orestes divine charge. The events stemming from instabilities in Euripides plays tend to follow a hierarchical pattern. From weakest to strongest, this pattern includes physical space, gender, and intention. Intention that is directed towards the exterior in terms of benefit to

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53 others is masculine. A males role in society is to work for its common good. Intention that is interior, or selfish, is feminine. Only rarely do physical space or gender fail to follow along with intention, and in such cases, a conscious effort is made to reconcile the break with convention. For example, in the Bakchai Dionysos acts selfishly, and is thus made to do so not only from the interior of the palace, but the ambiguity of his gender is repeatedly stressed. The actions of men and women in exterior and interior spaces in Euripides plays contribute to a larger examination of morality. The association of men and women to traditional spaces and roles provide a forum for questioning the assumptions underlying those traditions. The characters in Euripides plays both reinforce and undermine these assumptions through their attempts to conform to or deny the roles society has set for them. Morality is a human construct, however, and ultimately we are forced to acknowledge the all-pervasive power and will of gods who have human emotions and commit very human acts without being subject to human concepts of morality. This concept is discussed in Euripides plays through the assignation of specific behaviors and qualities of character to interiors and exteriors.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Arnott, W. G. Off-Stage Cries and Choral Presence; Some Challenges to Theatrical Conventions in Euripides. Antichthon: Journal of the Australian Society for Classical Studies 16 (1982): 35-43. Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Burnett, Anne Pippin. Human Resistance and Divine Persuasion in Euripides Ion. Classical Philology 57.2 (1962): 89-103. Burnett, Anne Pippin. Pentheus and Dionysus: Host and Guest. Classical Philology 65.1 (1970): 15-29. Buttrey, T. V. Accident and Design in Euripides Medea. The American Journal of Philology 79.1 (1958): 1-17. Castellani, Victor. That Troubled House of Pentheus in Euripides Bacchae. Transactions of the American Philological Association 106 (1976): 61-83. Euripides. Bacchae. Euripidis Fabulae Vol. 3. Ed. Gilbert Murray. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. Euripides. Electra. Euripidis Fabulae Vol. 2. Ed. Gilbert Murray. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. Euripides. Hecuba. Euripidis Fabulae Vol. 1. Ed. Gilbert Murray. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1902. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. Euripides. Hippolytus. Euripides, with an English Translation. David Kovacs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, forthcoming. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. Euripides. Ion. Euripidis Fabulae Vol. 2. Ed. Gilbert Murray. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. 54

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55 Euripides. Medea. Euripides, with an English Translation. David Kovacs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, forthcoming. Perseus Digital Library Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 26 July 2005 < http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html >. Foley, Helene P. Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. Hartigan, Karelisa V. Ambiguity and Self-Deception: The Apollo and Artemis Plays of Euripides. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991. Hogan, James C. Thucydides 3.52-68 and Euripides Hecuba. Phoenix 26.3 (1972): 241-57. Hollinshead, Mary B. Adyton, Opisthodomos, and the Inner Room of the Greek Temple. Hesperia 68.2 (1999): 189-218. Hourmouziades, Nicolaos C. Production and Imagination in Euripides. Athens: Greek Society for Humanistic Studies, 1965. Lloyd, Michael. Realism and Character in Euripides Electra. Phoenix 40.1 (1986): 1-19. OBrien, Michael J. Orestes and the Gorgon: Euripides Electra. The American Journal of Philology 85.1 (1964): 13-39. MacDowell, Douglas M. The Law in Classical Athens. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pathmanathan, R. Sri. Death in Greek Tragedy. Greece & Rome, 2 nd Series 12.1 (1965): 2-14. Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Rosivach, Vincent J. Earthborns and Olympians: The Parados of the Ion. The Classical Quarterly, New Series 27.2 (1977): 284-94. Segal, Charles. The Tragedy of the Hippolytus: The Waters of Ocean and the Untouched Meadow: In Memorian Arthur Darby Nock. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 70 (1965): 117-69. Segal, Charles. Violence and the Other: Greek, Female, and Barbarian in Euripides Hecuba. Transactions of the American Philological Association 120 (1990): 109-31. Smith, Wesley D. Staging in the Central Scene of the Hippolytus. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 91 (1960): 162-77.

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56 Walton, J. Michael. Greek Theatre Practice: Contributions in Drama and Theatre Studies, No. 3. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980. Wassermann, Felix Martin. Divine Violence and Providence in Euripides Ion. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71 (1940): 587-604.

PAGE 63

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael Ian Wheeler was born to Dr. Michael K. Wheeler and Sally W. Wheeler on November 17 th 1981. He grew up in Delray Beach, Florida, and graduated cum laude from Saint Andrews School in Boca Raton, Florida, as a National Merit Finalist in 2000. After transferring from Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, in order to earn combined undergraduate/graduate credits, he graduated with a B.A. in classical studies from the University of Florida in 2004. He plans to pursue a doctorate and hopes to teach at the college level. He will receive his M.A. in August of 2005. 57


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RELATIONSHIP OF GENDER TO INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES


By

MICHAEL IAN WHEELER
















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Michael Ian Wheeler
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A B ST R A C T ............... .................................................................................. ..... v

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SPACES IN EURIPIDES .....1

2 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' HEKABE ...................................4

Interiors in E uripides' H ekabe ............................. ............ .......................................5
Agamemnon' s Tent ................... ...... .. ................ ............ ..
Tents of the Captive Trojan Women .......................................... .. ...............8
Polym estor's H om e in Thrace .................................................................... .... 8
T ro y .................................................................................. 10
Exteriors in Euripides' H ekabe......................................................... ............... 12
A chilles' Tom b .............. ......................... ... .... ............... .. ............... 12
Outside Agamemnon's Tent.......................... ............................14

3 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' MEDEA ..................................17

Exteriors in Euripides' M edea ............................. ..................... 17
Outside Jason's House- Divorce ................. ....... ..... ...................... ............... 17
Outside Jason's H ouse- Exile ........................................ ........................ 18
A bove Jason's H house ...................... ................ .................... ........19
Interiors in Euripides' M edea .................................................................... 19
Kreon' s Palace ............ ......... ...... ................ ......... 19
Jason 's H ou se ......................................................................22

4 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' ELEKTRA.................................25

An Exterior in Euripides' Elektra: Environs of the Farmhouse .............................25
Interiors in E uripides' E lektra ......................................................... .....................26
Environs of the Farmhouse........................... ............. ....... ......... 26
T h e S h rin e ...................................................................... 2 8
Inside the Farm house .................. ................. ............ .. .... .. ..............30









5 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' HIPPOLYTOS ..........................34

Exteriors in Euripides' H ippolytos ........................................ ......... ............... 34
Outside the Palace of Theseus at Troezen.................................34
Along the Cliffs: the Chariot Accident.................. ..... ............. 35
An Interior in Euripides' Hippolytos: Inside the Palace at Troezen...........................36
An Ambiguous Space in Euripides' Hippolytos: The Inviolate Meadow ..................37

6 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' ION........................................ 41

Interiors in E u rip id es' on ................................................................ .....................4 1
The Cave of the Long R ocks ................. ... ................................... .............41
T he B banquet T ent ........................... .... ........................ .. ........ ... ........ 43
An Exterior in Euripides' Ion: Outside the Temple of Apollo at Delphi ...................44

7 INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' BAKCHAI................................46

An Ambiguous Space in Euripides' Bakchai: Mount Kithairon .............................46
An Interior in Euripides' Bakchai: Inside the Palace ...........................................48
An Exterior in the Bakchai: Before the Palace...................... ...................49

8 C O N C L U SIO N .......... ......................................................................... ........ .... .. 51

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S .................................... ............................... ..........................54

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................57















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

RELATIONSHIP OF GENDER TO INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES

By

Michael Ian Wheeler

August 2005

Chair: Karelisa Hartigan
Cochair: Kostas Kapparis
Major Department: Classics

Interior and exterior spaces in Euripides can be defined most simply as

categorizations of various physical spaces. There needs to be an interior space to

diametrically oppose the exterior space because this dichotomy is merely a reflection of

"reality." Why then is there any scholastic reason to invest time in researching these

spaces? Closer inspection of the topic yields hints of deeper meanings. For example, the

Hekabe requires an interior to Agamemnon's tent both because of plot and because tents

physically have an interior; there obviously needs to be an exterior plane, an outdoor area

in front of the tent, visible to the audience. It is the actions that occur in these spaces,

however, which give a more significant meaning to the simply physical spaces. Each

realm includes a set of behaviors or traits that are inherently linked to physical space. It

is through direct juxtaposition that this relationship becomes most apparent.

Violence, murder and deception are inextricably tied to the idea of the "interior,"

which is also a feminine space. Public knowledge, on the contrary, is made available to









the audience in the "exterior," the masculine space. This dichotomy therefore provides

for the relegation of violent acts not only within but also outside the time-frame of the

drama to interiors and allows for the fact that they do not appear on stage. Most

importantly, justice is relegated to men and the exterior, whereas judgment is associated

with women and interiors.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR SPACES IN EURIPIDES

At their most basic level, interior and exterior spaces are defined simply as

categorizations of those two kinds of physical spaces. It is logical to suppose that the

main reason for the presence of interior and exterior spaces is solely out of physical

necessity: if there is an exterior space, then any interior space exists in opposition simply

as a reflection of 'reality.' Closer inspection, however, yields deeper meaning. True,

Euripides' plays often require an interior because of plot and because buildings

physically have an interior, and such buildings often form a backdrop for the dramatic

action. There also needs to be an exterior area visible to the audience so that the viewers

may be apprised of events through speech or visible action. It is the actions that occur in

these various spaces however which give more significant meaning to interiors and

exteriors. Each realm includes a set of behaviors or traits that are inherently linked to a

particular physical space. Through examination of certain situations occurring in interior

and exterior spaces in Euripides' plays, this relationship becomes most apparent. This

paper will explore situations in Euripides' Hekabe, Medea, Elektra, Hippolytos, Ion and

Bakchai.

Situations often, although not always directly, arise due to some kind of instability.

The relative instability of exterior spaces and interior spaces is linked in the plays under

scrutiny. In other words, if there is an instability in the exterior, instability similarly

appears in the interior. For example, in the Hekabe, the captive women's collective

memory of Troy recalls that the instability of the exterior Trojan war spills over into the









interior of the city, and into the women's own homes and lives. The interior space should

be a safe haven, where the inhabitants are safe and protected. If exterior events in the

play become unstable, the interior becomes an unsafe, dangerous place.

In terms of space and gender, women are associated with interiors, deceit, and

violence for personal reasons. Such violence, when it occurs, invariably takes place in

the interior; deceit either occurs in the interior or acts as a gateway thereto. Both

violence and deceit in these cases are based on judgments made by the women involved,

which have no lawful reasoning behind them. These judgments are based on emotion

and not legality.

Men are associated with exterior spaces, openness, and justice. When men make

decisions, they have legal backing, and therefore at least the appearance of justice. In

addition, the fact that such decisions are made with legal sanction allows them to be made

openly, in the exterior, where any audience member or character can observe them. If

violence happens to occurs in an exterior setting, it is legally sanctioned violence for

public benefit, not for the serving of personal gain or private vendettas.

Not every element necessarily shows up in every situation, or even in every play,

but when an element does appear it falls into a predictable pattern. An unstable situation

manifests itself in certain ways for women and interiors on the one hand and for men and

exteriors on the other (Figure 1).










JUDGMENT
TrV
VIOLENCE W OMEN DECEIT
(for personal ,
reasons) INTERIOR
INTERIOR



t
INSTABILITY

4
MEN

VIOLENCE EXTERIOR OPENNESS
(for common
good)T
JUSTICE


Figure 1. Manifestation of instability on interior and exterior spaces in Euripides' plays















CHAPTER 2
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' HEKABE

There are four interior situations and two exterior situations in Euripides' Hekabe.

The interiors include Agamemnon's tent, the tents where the other Trojan captives live,

Polymestor's home, and Troy. The exteriors are the area before Agamemnon's tent and

the tomb of Achilles.

An interior to Agamemnon's tent is required both because of plot and because tents

physically have an interior; regardless of whether the stage building is an actual tent or

not, for the purposes of the play it symbolizes one and therefore follows the same rules as

a real tent in the minds of the audience. As for the other interiors, they are merely

suggested through dialogue, but exist in the minds of the audience. Hourmouziades

suggests that "imaginary places which are of equal significance with that of the scene

represented in the acting area are located, in the audience's imagination, 'within very

easy reach'."1 For the logic of the play to work, the other interiors must exist.

Polymestor's house must exist in order for Polydoros to be killed there, and the captives'

tents must exist to enable a retrieving of the stolen ornaments. Troy works slightly

differently as an interior. If it is considered on the same level as the other interiors, it no

longer exists, as it has been razed. On a deeper level, however, it exists as an interior in

the minds of the captive Trojan women. It is described as they remember it, from inside

their homes and Priam's palace.


1 Nicolaos C. Hourmouziades. Production andIJ,"l~,;, r,. '; in Euripides. Athens: Greek Society for
Humanistic Studies, 1965: 110.









The most obvious physical exterior space is what is visible to the audience, the

au)lh/ and surrounding area in front of Agamemnon's tent, represented by the stage and

the orchestra where the actors and the chorus can be seen (Hekabe 171). Less obvious is

what takes place offstage. Offstage spaces, like interiors, must be treated as physical

spaces learned about by the audience by means of description by actors or the chorus.

The mound where Achilles is buried is an exterior space of this nature. It is the outdoor

location where the rest of the Greek army is waiting. "[I]f the space in the theatre did not

represent a part of Athens [or wherever else the play was being staged], the outer region

had also to undergo a corresponding imaginary transformation, so that the transition from

the one area to the other could be performed without violating the conventional links

between what was seen and what was only imagined."2 If imagination is used, the

comings and goings of Talthybios and the other Greeks who talk with Hekabe become

plausible.

Interiors in Euripides' Hekabe

Agamemnon's Tent

Agamemnon's tent is the most apparent physical interior space. The building in

question must be Agamemnon's tent because it is thus described by the ghost of

Polydoros: "oKrlvrif ... Ayaps pvovoc" (53-4). However, the tent is only nominally his.

Men may own homes, whether tents or palaces, but they do not participate in the day-to-

day running of the home, which is the domestic sphere belonging to women. The events

surrounding Agamemnon's tent contain all of the possible elements associated with

women and interiors. The Trojan captive women and Hekabe in particular are associated


2 Ibid., 109.









with Agamemnon's tent. It is Hekabe's judgment that her son Polydoros must be

avenged, though she has no legitimate power to make such a decision. Hekabe lies to

trick Polymestor into entering the tent, which he later describes as a koi/th, translatable as

both bedchamber and lair (1083). She asserts that when they enter the tent, the location

of more gold will be revealed in detail, and that spoils already lie within. This is bait

which the greedy Polymestor finds irresistible. Once Polymestor is in the tent, he and his

children are completely within the women's power. The Trojan captives wreak havoc on

Polymestor's children and eyes by acting like normal women with no hidden motives

might, cooing over the children, until the time comes to strike. Polymestor describes this

after the fact:

!I 6s KXIflTvrC v E) 'IOC KCa-Pc(c yovu"
TToAAk 6s XSEpsE, CI pay) sE~ cXOTspaCc,
cx 6' 'v6Ev, coc 6r Trapd (t)Aco, TpcoDov KopC(I
6OaKOuc sXouoC(, KEpKIS' HScovfic XEPoc
rvouv, UTT' C(auyc Touo 6s Asu E oucaI TT'Treouc'
(AAc2 6s KC( PC(KC( OpriKaIC(V 6scoIva(I
yu-Ipvov P' E6rIKc(v ST 6rTTuXou OT oAlIoc-TOc.
OOC(I 6E TOKC6iE( ioaC(V, sKTrCayAoupalC(I
TSKV' 'EV XEspoV E1TrCAov, coc TTpOoco TrTCTpoc
yEvoVTro, 61ct60Xc X(c axjiouoc(a XEpoCv

And having bent a knee I sat in their midst on a couch;
and many Trojan maidens took seats,
some on the left, and some on the other side,
as if next to a friend, talking of the workmanship of our Edonian
weave, looking at these robes up against the sunlight;
and others looking at my Thracian spear
made me naked of my twofold protection.
And whichever of them were mothers, they dandled
my children in their arms, cooing, so that they were
further from their father, passing them from hand to hand ... (1150-9)

The women make a fuss over his fine clothing and weaponry, as well as his

children, and manage to remove them all from his vicinity. The women prove









Agamemnon wrong to have questioned the ability of women to master men (883). When

women are in their own space, the interior, they hold the power, even over men. Hekabe

and the Trojan women take their revenge on Polymestor in Agamemnon's tent. Not only

do they pitilessly murder his children, but they blind him with their brooch-pins,

emphasizing the women's sexuality and its inherent danger as it is with brooches that

their clothing is fastened. The first indication of what exactly is happening comes as a

scream from within the tent itself. Polymestor yells copoi, TU)AoGupal (syyoo

oppI-TCOV TC(Xacc ... cOpoi piC(A' C(aOic, TeKV(a, 6uo0rTvou oC(ayrf (1035-7). The full

horror of the violence done in the tent is told by Polymestor himself to Agamemnon in

hopes of sympathy:

... rrpoo(6Sypc5Tcov
EOuc CAa(PouGoI (aoyaC(v EK TTrTroCv TroOsv
KEVTOUOI TraTSC(GC, C(' 6S TTrOXASCOV 61KrTv
(uvcapTra(cocxal Tac sEpdc sEXOV XEPC(c
KC( KC6SC(" TaC(Io 6' CapKSOC( XPTxcov Epo'l,
SEl SV TrTpOOOTTOV S~C(VIOTC(aiV SpEOV,
KOpTyr KC(aTSXOV, sE 6s KIVOyTIV XSPcc,
TrXrOEIl yuvaCIKCSV ou'Sv TIVUOV TxaA(c.
To Ao oOlov 6E, TTr~icp Tr Ipa(Tro TrXEov,
ssi1Tyao'OavCTO 6ESV' sp)CLV yap O-ppITCLoV,
TTOpT ac AapoUocal, Tcxc TCxaA2cXTrpouc Kopacw
KEVTOUOIV, CIipaooouoIV ...

... after their words
immediately having taken knives from their dresses
they stab the children, and some held me as a prisoner
of war having pinned my arms and legs
together; needing to keep them off my children,
they held my hair, and if I moved my hands,
I, wretched, could effect nothing against the multitude of women.
And at the last, they effected a misery more terrible than
the previous misery; for having taken brooch-pins
they stabbed my eyes, making them bleed ... (1160-71)

The gruesome details of the violence are shared with the audience. "Hekabe's acts

of murder and mutilation belong to the dark, private space of the captive women. In









tragedy this offstage space, often representing the interior of the house or palace,

functions as the space of the irrational or the aspects of personality that are hidden, dark,

and fearful. It is often the place of female sexuality, deceit, and revenge."3 In this case,

it is all three, as the women's fondling of Polymestor's clothes and weapons is pointedly

sexual in the service of pulling off a deception to effect revenge.

Tents of the Captive Trojan Women

In the Greek camp, the captive women have enough personal freedom in their

respective tents to hide stolen Trojan goods from their masters. In addition, Hekabe tells

Agamemnon that she will have no trouble carrying out her plan against Polymestor,

because of the "OTSycal KEKESU(O' ci 6E Tpcacov O)XAov" (880). She tells Polymestor

that the treasure she has inside Agamemnon's tent was able to be hidden because

"oKuAcov s)V oX)Q TcXIOS6 OCeSTC(I OTsyac," the women have their own tents (1014).

To adorn the dead Polyxena, Hekabe intends to gather up a collection of ornaments taken

from their former homes by the captive Trojan women "E'l TIC TOUC VECOOTI 6soTrTTac /

Aa60uo6' 'sXEI TI KAs)aC( TCoV C(auXJT 66opcov" (617-8). The Trojan women, by stealing

from their own homes and hiding the theft from the Greeks, are practicing deceit in

interior spaces.

Polymestor's Home in Thrace

Polymestor's palace in Thrace is an interior space rife with deceit. First of all,

Priam sent Polydoros to live with Polymestor according to the principles of Evia. When

Polymestor kills Polydoros to acquire the gold for his own coffers, he breaks these bonds.

This is treachery of the highest order carried out under Polymestor's own roof, and

3 Charles Segal. "Violence and the Other: Greek, Female, and Barbarian in Euripides' Hecuba."
Transactions of the American Philological Association 120 (1990): 125.









indeed becomes the basis for the second half of the play. He does not even consider the

boy to be worth burying, casting him out to sea instead. Thus does the audience learn of

the violence done Polydoros, when his body washes up upon the shore. Hekabe in a kind

of frenzied autopsy rails at the absent Polymestor about Polydoros' wounds: .. coc

6IEpoIpaoco / XpCoa, oi6caps~ TE COJV #c(oycvco / p i2As (718-20). There is no

question as to the magnitude of the violence done here, but even so, it pales in

comparison to the violence done at the end of the play. Segal points out that for the

Hekabe the interior of Agamemnon's tent also serves as an analog to Polymestor's

palace. Just as Agamemnon's tent is supposedly safe, having no men "TcXvov 6s TrTIOTc

KCxposvwv 'prilpic," Polydoros was supposed to be safe in Polymestor's home (1017).

As Hekabe tells Polymestor, "isv6v KC(TSKTC(C oTrv pdoAovT' 'E4' 'EsoTav" (1216).

Why then is there no feminine aspect apparent in the home of Polymestor in

Thrace? To the Greeks, the Thracians are barbarians. This idea is underscored by

Polymestor's flaunting of one of the most important of Greek customs, sviac, by killing

Polydoros, son of his Svoc Priam. Barbarians in turn share many qualities with women.

The Hekabe "explores the otherness of the female by combining it ... with the otherness

of the barbarians."4 Polymestor is part of the space of the 'other' which both barbarians

and women inhabit, and therefore his home in Thrace becomes a female space inasmuch

as is possible without mention of an actual genetic female inhabitant. This idea is further

stressed when Polymestor is blinded by the Trojan women in Agamemnon's tent. "The

blinding of Polymestor can ... suggest symbolic castration, particularly when combined

with the destruction of his two male children ... Hekabe overcomes male strength and


4 Ibid., 109.









attacks a man where he is most vulnerable to the female, in his need for children

(especially sons) to continue his line."5 The connection between barbarians and women

is thus made painfully clear.

Troy

When Hekabe entreats Odysseus to spare her daughter Polyxena, she makes

mention of their meeting in Troy. Odysseus is found out in the interior spaces of Troy as

a KC(TC(OKOTTOc, or 'spy,' by Helen and Hekabe (239). This is a profession which

depends upon deceit and trickery to exist. Odysseus is such a sly talker that he manages

as a suppliant to secure Hekabe's silence. He admits as much, saying "TrohhAcv U oycov

supriaC(6', COOTS E p~ OcavEv," or 'inventions of many words, so as not to die' (250). This

deceit takes place in Troy, inside Priam's palace where Hekabe and Helen both live. The

fact that Odysseus will say whatever is most advantageous means that he is often guilty

of deception to secure his own ends. By the time of the Hekabe, Hekabe herself is no

longer a threat, so he feels no compunction about revealing his earlier deceitfulness.

Despite his deceit, the motivation behind his spying was to aid in successful prosecution

of the war. Hecuba's failure to reveal him to the Trojans is much more of a deception

than Odysseus', despite any act of supplication.

Violence occurs in Troy when the Greeks sack the city. The chorus of captive

Trojan women sets up a mawkish picture of home life in Troy:

p-SOOVUKTIOC CoAAupcaV,
Tifoc SEK 6EITrVCOV UTTVO ri6uc TTr' 6oooi0
oKi'vc(Tca, poXTTr(v 6' ~TTO KC(x XopoTTrOIov
Ouolav KC(TCraAuOac
rrolw 'Ev 6aAac(,iowI 'KC(I-
TO, UOTO-r 6' )ETT TTaCoocaA' .

5 Ibid., 122.










At midnight I was destroyed,
at the point after dinner when sleep sweetly creeps over
the eyes, after the song and the dances,
having made an offering
my husband lay in the bedchamber -
this, and on a peg his spear ... (914-20)

The word 6OccAcpoc, defined as chamber or women's apartment, shows that the

scene is an interior one. The image of the spear upon a peg belies the peaceful nature of

the scene, as the Trojans are indeed at war. Suddenly the apparent peace is broken as the

Greeks enter the city:

avd 6s KeC6ASoc (soA" TroAiv
K'XEUOIjC( iV KC(T' (OTU Tpot-
acx TO 6' Co
TaCi6xi EAAVcovv, TTrO 6i~ TToT TiV
'IXAi6c OKOTTl(V
TSpocavTSTc 1ET' O'IKOUC;
AsXrl 6s (IAlcia povO6rET ToC
AiTrouGo(, Acopic cL Kop(a,
osl-VCv TrTpooiouo' OUK
ivuo' ApTSpIV a TCAax(cov"
ayopC(I 6s OaC(V6VT' '6ouo' aKOTaC( .

but through the city there came a clamor;
and this shout went down
through the town of Troy: O
sons of Greece, destroying the Ilian citadel
when will you seek out your homes?
And having left my love's bed
in a tunic like a Dorian maiden,
I did not succeed at placing myself
at the holy altar of Artemis;
and I was led away having seen my spouse die ... (928-37)

Even the presence of the altar of Artemis fails to stop the violence that occurs with

the capture and enslavement of the Trojan women.

The use of the term for women's quarters makes clear the feminine nature of Troy.

In addition, and in a broader sense, the only surviving people to remember living in Troy









are the women. Thus with the chorus made up of the captive Trojan women life at Troy

is filtered through a female perspective, which deals primarily with the interior. Hekabe

frees the suppliant Odysseus inside Priam's palace. In the palace, it is Odysseus who is

the 6ouAoc, as the power in the interior is held by women (249).

Exteriors in Euripides' Hekabe

Achilles' Tomb

The burial mound of Achilles lies within the realm of public knowledge on two

different levels. First, through Talthybios, who presumably is giving an honest account

of events, the audience and the women are made aware of the events that occur

surrounding Polyxena's death. Additionally, the burial mound is where the Greeks

engage in debate among themselves in a public fashion, and where Odysseus convinces

them to sacrifice Polyxena on Achilles' behalf: ... 0 TroiKiX6)cov / KO6TTIC 6uX6yoc

6riIoxc(poInTT / AaspTI6ia6rl TrrElOI OTpcc "(131-3). In other words, Achilles'

tomb is where public matters affecting the entire army are aired, specifically the question

of the winds' failure to bear the Greeks home. This lack of wind is the instability leading

to Polyxena's sacrifice.

Achilles' tomb is also men's space. On a basic level it houses the remains of the

most cpioToc and manliest man of all the Greeks (134). Beyond this, it is where the

army spends the time framed by the Hekabe. The army of course is made up exclusively

of Greek men, so ipsofacto the tomb is in the province of men.

How then can an act of violence involving a woman occur at Achilles' burial

mound if female violence is supposed to be relegated to the interior? Polyxena is slain in

an exterior setting, the only act of violence in the play to occur outside. The types of

violence in the play help segregate interior/female from exterior/male. In each of the









violent interior scenes there is a common thread. In Troy, the battle is both unexpected

and sudden, as well as chaotic to the point of sacrilege, as not even the "oGvciv ...

ivuo' ApTSEIV" can stem the violence (935-6). At Polymestor's home, the slaying of

Polydoros is by nature unexpected and also quite bloody, at least from Hekabe's

description of the corpse (718-20). Agamemnon's tent is a place of frenzied violence as

well, as Polymestor refers to the women's sudden transformation into "BcKXcX c A16ou"

(1077).

Polyxena's death in contrast to all these is a product of particularly directed

violence. The violence is no surprise; rather, it is well known beforehand to everyone,

including the victim herself. Polyxena's death is a religious sacrifice acting as a political

expedient. There is nothing frenzied about it. Her death is a public spectacle, placing it

within the realm of public knowledge and the exterior. The way Polyxena chooses to die,

baring her breast and willingly offering herself to the blade, also is quite different from

the other scenes of violence in the Hekabe. She tells Neoptolemos "16ou, TO6', sEl Psv

OTSpvov, cD vsEcavia, / Trrca(Ev TTpo6uif; rrTTCoov, sI 6' UTT' ca(XVC( / Xp Esic, TrapsEo

Aaclpdc su'TpETrrC 6Es" (563-5). She becomes the "pcaAXldv S'Aacov" of Hekabe's

dream, a sacrificial animal (90). Polyxena bares her breasts to receive death, whereas in

contrast the Trojan captive women bare their breasts in order to mete it out.

Polyxena's acquiescence to the slaughter emphasizes her sacrificial status and the

unusual nature of the violent act. Finally, the sexual nature of her death is almost

pornographic, as she "Aapcooc( Trr'rrouc '~ aKpac Ircop~ IoC / Epprls AcNayovac 's

p1eoaC( Trap' opbc(aAv, / pC(oTOUc T' 6ESEl OTEpvC( 6' coc CydA4IC(cTO / Kc(AAXOTCa" in

front of the entire army of men (558-61). This makes the sacrifice not only exterior in









terms of the public display, but exterior in the sense that it is a public show to be enjoyed

by the men. Indeed, Hekabe has to entreat Talthybios that the Argives not touch

Polyxena's corpse: "pri I6yycavEv pot pril6v" (605). The death of Polyxena is

sufficiently different from the violence at Troy, the death of Polydoros, and the violence

directed at Polymestor and his children as to belong to a different category altogether,

one compatible with the male, public space of the exterior.

In addition to the directed nature of the violence, the reasons behind it make it a

form of justice, not against Polyxena, but for the benefit of the slain Achilles. The

Greeks believe that it is right and proper to honor Achilles with Polyxena's sacrifice. To

see the army safely home, the winds must be made to blow, which in turn entails that

Neoptolemos provides his father with the requested sacrifice.

Outside Agamemnon's Tent

The area in front of Agamemnon's tent is the most obvious place of public

knowledge. Everything that happens there is immediately available to the audience and

the chorus of the Trojan captive women, which acts as a sort of internal audience. The

discussions between Hekabe and Odysseus, Agamemnon, and Talthybios all take place

here, as does Agamemnon's judging of the situation after Hekabe has exacted her

revenge on Polymestor.

Exterior spaces are the province of men. The women come and go in and out of the

tents, but the men remain outside. None of the men who come to speak to Hekabe do so

inside the tent. They all hold their discussions outside, in full view of the audience. The

exception to this is Polymestor, but as has been described above, he does not count as a

Greek, civilized male, but is more suited as a barbarian to be classified with females as

the 'other.' Even Agamemnon, to whom the tent belongs, never actually steps inside it.









In part, the mere fact that the interior is the space allotted to women makes whatever is

not so allotted, i.e. the exterior space, belong to the realm of men. The dichotomy of

male and female is thus re-affirmed and mimicked through physical space.

Agamemnon's judgement of Polymestor also takes place before the tent.

MacDowell asserts that at this early period "[t]he king was the sole ruler and judge."6 As

the king would naturally be a male, law-courts were from the beginning a male province.

This continues into Euripides' time as well, and though the office of king has been done

away with, "[t]o be ajuror a man had to be aged thirty or more and in possession of full

citizen rights" (italics mine).7

Just as there are distinct male and female physical realms, there are also distinct

judgment behaviors associated with men and women in Euripides' plays. Agamemnon's

judgment of Polymestor's blinding occurs in the open with the presence of others as

witnesses. Both Polymestor and Hekabe plead their cases to Agamemnon who in turn

passes judgment that is upheld and recognized by others in the encampment. Hekabe's

judgment to take her vengence on Polymestor is enacted only after a consultation with

Agamemnon, who gives her the go-ahead by way of, to some extent, feigning ignorance.

There is one major difference between the judgment of Agamemnon and Hekabe's

reasons for killing Polymestor in this case, although both reach the same conclusion.

Hekabe's decision is personally motivated and involves her own interests. Agamemnon's

judgment, on the other hand, is performed partially with order and justice in mind

regarding the maintenance of order in the encampment, but also because "Agamemnon


6 Douglas M. MacDowell. The Law in ClassicalAthens. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978: 26.

7 Ibid., 34.









owes [Hekabe] a favour in return for Cassandra's favors ... [Agamemnon] fears that the

army may think him guilty of planning the murder [for that exact reason He] grants]

the favour only because the winds have not changed."8 It is important to note that his

reasoning for offering judgment (flawed or no) makes no impact on the fact that it is still

his male judgment with its legal weight that allows both the plan to proceed and for the

Trojan captive women to escape further punishment.


8 James C. Hogan. "Thucydides 3.52-68 and Euripides' Hecuba." Phoenix 26.3 (1972): 255.














CHAPTER 3
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' MEDEA

In the Medea there are two interiors of note and two exteriors. The interiors are

Jason's house and Kreon's palace, and the exteriors are the areas in front of and above

Jason's house. In discussing this play, the interiors and exteriors are all physical in

nature, not recollected as in the Hekabe's Troy. Though Medea's past is fraught with

violence, Euripides does not delve as much into the details as in the Hekabe; it is

important that she comes from violence in terms of having no home to return to, but it is

not discussed to the point where it is necessary to include Kolchis as a distinct location.

Thus, in terms of interiors and exteriors, Medea is a much simpler play than the Hekabe.

Exteriors in Euripides' Medea

Outside Jason's House-Divorce

Two related situations occur in the area in front of Jason's house: Medea learns of

both her divorce and her exile, from Jason and Kreon respectively. The motives behind

these are sufficiently dissimilar to encourage closer inspection. As in the situation in

front of Agamemnon's tent in the Hekabe, the events occurring and information aired

here are immediately available to the audience. The events in front of Jason's house are

both male-motivated, and as such the males involved see no reason to conceal their

motivations. The instability in Jason's life stems from his marriage to the barbarian

Medea and the perception, doubtless true, that he could increase his wealth and social

standing by marrying Kreon's daughter, who is after all a Greek princess. He asserts that

he is only thinking of the welfare of Medea and their children, that with more wealth he









would be able to provide for them comfortably. Medea wisely believes this to be so

much bunk, bemoaning the fate of women, but the issue is not for her to decide; what is

just is decided by males, so in light of this Jason is well within his rights. Though the

chorus of household servants tries to express their sympathy, saying "&v6pcaot psv

60AlcaI pouiAac, 6Csov 6' / OUKETIr TrTOTInC cpcapsv," the fact that Medea is not a Greek

could truly only add to public approval of Jason's actions, otherwise reprehensible as

they may be (Medea 412-3). Jason swore an oath to her, which has been broken in the

interests of supposed practicality. "The egotistical Jason has clearly given little thought

to his family's welfare, despite his belated protests to the contrary," as exile for a woman

with no chance of returning to her father's house is a death sentence.1 Though within his

rights, he makes a victim out of Medea, effectively pushing her to the point where she

will refuse to be victimized.

Outside Jason's House-Exile

In terms of the exile, Kreon is simply looking after his welfare and that of his

family. He owes nothing to Medea, and wants his lineage to continue without Jason's

current children getting in the way. The instability he rightly perceives is that Medea is

not just any scorned woman; though she acts as a supplicant, she is a vengeful ex-wife

and powerful sorceress to boot, and thus occasions a potential threat that cannot be taken

lightly. As the king, he decides what justice is, so there is no arguing with his decision to

protect his family by exiling Medea. In the opening scenes of the play, Medea still

allows herself to be victimized: "Euripides clearly establishes sympathy for Medea in the

first half of the play she effectively manages to persuade the Chorus, Kreon, Aigeus,


1 Helene P. Foley. Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001: 258.









and Jason himself to help her by portraying herself as a victim, like 'everyone else."'"2

She is no ordinary woman though, and like any being with power, she is a boon to those

who help her and a curse to those who are a hindrance.

Above Jason's House

As will be discussed below, Medea flees on her flying chariot from the roof of the

house after murdering her children. This area is open to the audience, and is thus where

truth is finally revealed. At the end of the play, she has returned to her divinity: Helios is

her ancestor and through that divine link she is able to make use of his gift, the flying

chariot. "Although the female divinity has been repressed by Hellenic civilization, the

text of the play, by subordinating Medea's divinity to her status as mortal woman, makes

the audience fear the return of that repressed."3 Though Rabinowitz then states

otherwise, I argue that Medea is, despite her attempt at mortal womanhood, still truly at

least a semi-divinity, and that the final scene is exactly the "return of that repressed" that

the audience feared. Medea has taken command of Helios' chariot and, at that same

instant, her hidden status as a vengeful goddess.

Interiors in Euripides' Medea

Kreon's Palace

The interiors in the Medea are replete with violence and deceit, all stemming from

Medea herself. Her life has suddenly become unstable through Jason's decision to

divorce her and remarry. The importance of the stability of married life to a woman in

the Greek world, barbarian or no, cannot be overstated: "yuvcxIK' s pI' v sEOTTrTIV


2 Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Ithaca: Comell
University Press, 1993: 127-8.

3 Ibid., 136.









66wcov XXsEi" (694). It is paramount to consider that even when she plans revenge, she

only acts once assured of a safe haven in the form of King Aegeus' extracted promise to

protect her should she make it to Athens. In return, she promises him renewed fertility,

which has the effect of securing his aid; Aegeus' own continued lineage is more

important to him than anything Medea might do by way of revenge on her husband.

Buttrey sees difficulties in this where they do not exist: "The first is that Aegeus only

offers her asylum, not escape ... The second difficulty is that, judging from the exodos,

Medea needed no help at all. If Euripides will have her escape through the air in the

chariot of Helios, Aegeus' timely arrival is unnecessary."4 On the contrary, it gives her

somewhere to go. When her semi-divinity is re-realized, of course she can effect her own

escape, but neither does this change the fact that she is not an Olympian goddess, thus

having nowhere in Greece where she would be welcomed, nor does it change the fact that

she still cannot return to Kolchis.

Jason supposedly plans to provide for her and their children after he remarries, but

there is nothing holding him to that promise any more than to the promise to be with

Medea in the first place. This is the very issue at hand: Medea acts out of her judgment

that Jason should be punished for oathbreaking but, because it is judgment and not

justice, the violence escalates and the death toll mounts. The men act out of justice,

which they get to define. Medea wants revenge for a perceived slight, whereas Jason is

hardly aware that he has slighted her.

c3 EsycXC( Os\C I EAsuoose' a TTrcoXc), PEsya ;olc opKoI
esv6rlaoclsva TOV KC(aTapccTrov

4 T. V. Buttrey. "Accident and Design in Euripides' Medea." The American Journal of Philology 79.1
(1958): 2.









TTOOIV; ov TTOT' syco vupjC(av T' sEoi6OJ'
cauToic pEsAX2 polc 6IC(KVC(IOp VOUC,
01' sps TTpoo6sV ToAXPoSC' aIKsiV.

O great Themis and Lady Artemis,
do you perceive the things I suffer, having bound
my abominable husband with great
oaths? Would that once I may see him and his bride
scraped to nothing with their houses,
having dared to do injustice to me earlier! (160-5)

This statement foreshadows the violence and deceit that occur in Kreon's palace.

Medea pretends to assent to Jason's plans and asks that the children be allowed to stay on

without her. She has them deliver poisoned clothing to the princess, which has the effect

of killing her and the unknowing Kreon in a most hideous fashion:

Xpuaoouc lSv c&PxiI Kpc(TI KSIIEIVOC TrTO6KOC
6CaupccoTov'isl vaCpC( rrTTC(a you Trupoc,
TTrETTol 6' AETTOI oC S TEKVCOV copIp-lC(TC(,
ASUKTIV sSa(TTTov ocapKC( Tfic 6uo6aiipovoc .
TrAIrV T TCEKOVTI KaCpTC( uo6-UaC(r 16s'iv
OUT' 6OJ'JCTCOV yc'p 6Tior 'jv KC(TC(OTC(aOI
OUT' s UUEu TTpoocoATTOv, c( PC( 6' ~ a(Kpou
SOTCcaS KpaCTOC OUlTTESUplPSVOV TTUpl,
OcXpKSE 6' C(Tr' OOTECOV CKOOTS -TTSUKIVOV 6C(KpU
yvodoic aSC(iolO (tcappcKcov ars1ppsov,
6sivov OsaC(aC ...

Laying around her head the gold crown
set in motion (a wonder!) a stream of all-devouring fire,
and the spun robe, given by your children,
was melting the wretched girl's white flesh ...
The wretched girl's face only could be seen by her father;
for her eyes were not settled clear
nor her shapely face, and from the top of her head
blood dripped mixed with fire,
and flesh fell from her bones like pine sap
from the invisible jaws of the drug,
a terrible sight ... (1186-202)

Medea has stopped playing the victim, as there was no future in it for her.

"Euripides ... undercuts that sympathy [for Medea as a woman like everyone else] by









revealing her difference. The audience has three levels of questions about her ontological

status: is she mortal or immortal? is she foreign or Greek? in the end, is she like or unlike

other Greek women?"5 Foley argues "that the vengeful Medea deliberately imitates a

heroic brand of masculinity [and] the heroic code itself gives priority to public

success and honor over survival and the private concerns of love and family."6

Rabinowitz thinks rather that Medea acts more as a warning to men, in that she "has been

identified as and with other women [and ergo] destabilizes the category 'woman.'"7 I

would suggest that as a foreigner and possibly a semi-divine being, Medea cannot truly

fit the mold of a normal woman no matter how she pretends, but that at the last she does

not put success over survival in that she secures Aegeus' help before acting.

Jason's House

Though she tells them to avoid their mother's ire, the nurse early on urges the

children inside to supposed safety, not knowing the perversion of safety that interiors in

Euripides undergo: "IT', sE ydp OTa(I, 6COpJCTCOV E'co, TEKVC(" (89).

After Medea uses her children to slay Kreon and his daughter the princess, she

resolves to continue her revenge on Jason: she takes their children inside the house and

kills them with a sword. When Jason arrives and the chorus informs him of the killings,

he asks where the violence has occurred: "Trou yap viv IKTSIV'; SVTOc (|' 1coOJ6

66cpcov;" (1312). Of course, the murders have taken place in the interior, and when he





5 Rabinowitz, 131-2.

6 Foley, 263-4.

SRabinowitz, 132.









asks that the doors be opened, he threatens to kill Medea inside as well. Medea appears

above the house, saying:

TI TCos6 KIVESC KCXavaCOXXEAsuc TruAac,
vsKpouc spsuvo6v KC(aX TTr s'Ipycaop- vrlv;
TrrctuGoc TrTVOU ToG6'. S'l 6' I SoG XpSiC(v 'XEIc,
Asy' sE TI Pr, 13o XEIPI 6' ou qC(auos TTOTE
TOIoV6' 6Xrlnlca TrcTpoc( HtAlo TTC(xTcrp
61icooiv lPiIv, spupaC( TTro0AJla XEp6c.

Why do you move and force the gates,
looking for the bodies and for me who did it?
Stop your work. But if you need something from me,
tell me if you want, but you will not ever touch me;
Helios, the father of my father, has given me such
a vehicle, as a guard against warlike hands. (1317-22)

She subsequently escapes on her flying chariot. Jason's ineffectuality draws notice

to the fact that in the interior, a "mother's rage and grief prove to be far from helpless," as

was apparent in the Hekabe, although the two mothers have different methods.8 Hekabe

uses her status among the Trojan captives to set events in motion, whereas Medea takes

matters directly into her own hands. Jason's attempt to do violence against her, however,

is doomed to failure, as "[i]t is a commonplace of stage-craft that horror can be conveyed

more effectively through the suggestive power of words on the imagination than by

actual spectacle."9 Jason cannot get in to kill Medea away from the audience's gaze, and

indeed it would go against the nature of interiors for him to do so.

The Medea fits without exception the model of space in Euripides. Jason and

Kreon make decisions and perform actions openly in the exterior. Medea employs deceit

and violence in the interior in typical fashion for a Euripidean female character. She is


8 Segal, TAPA 1990: 122.

9 R. Sri Pathmanathan. "Death in Greek Tragedy." Greece & Rome, 2nd Series 12.1 (1965): 6.






24


only semi-divine, and though this may have an effect on the reason for her decisions and

on how she is perceived by others, she is still woman enough to be bound to the interior

model.














CHAPTER 4
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' ELEKTRA

Euripides' Elektra would appear at first glance not to fit the model of female

interior deceit and violence as opposed to exterior male openness. The spaces where

events occur include the exterior area around the farmhouse, and two interiors: the

farmhouse itself, and the shrine where Aigisthos meets his end. The shrine as a complete

space is a bit of ambiguity, however, and will be discussed below; such religious sites

typically include an exterior as well. The recognition scene between Elektra and Orestes

occurs in front of the farmhouse and Klytemnestra's death occurs within it.

An Exterior in Euripides' Elektra: Environs of the Farmhouse

The house in the country is "pointedly isolated from the public sphere" due simply

to its distance from the city of Argos, and thus automatically becomes a part of the

private sphere.1 This would make the farmhouse a part of the private, domestic sphere,

putting it squarely in the provenance of women. I would argue that there are no true

exteriors in the Elektra, only quasi-exteriors. When she speaks of the palace at Argos,

Elektra says of her newly unstable life: "i ... P. ITrIp EPi, / i s caAs 'KCw "

(Elektra 60-1). This does not mean, however, that she has been exiled out of doors in

particular, but rather that to her everything which is not the Argive palace is 'outside,' at

least metaphorically. Indeed, the farmer's house, unquestionably an interior space, is just

one part of Elektra's larger 'prison,' the entirety of her new husband's lands. The area in


1 Foley, 234.









front of the farmhouse thus acts in a dual role as exterior and interior depending on what

the turn of events in the play necessitate. Being out of the public sphere and therefore in

the domestic domain of women, the environs of the farmhouse act as an interior. In terms

of events being made available to the audience, however, they act as an exterior.

The area before the farmhouse is where the audience is apprised of events. The

farmer's speech concerning the state of affairs in Mycenae takes place here, as do updates

from the messenger and the children of Agamemnon describing the deaths of Aigisthos

and Klytemnestra, respectively. In addition, when the Dioscori appear, although it is

above the house proper, they are present to provide an explanation of events to the

audience and the characters in the play. Castor informs each person of his or her lot:

Orestes is to travel to Athens to be acquitted of blood-guilt, and Pylades is to return home

to Phokis with the farmer and Elektra, the former to make wealthy, and the latter to

marry. Though Castor acknowledges that Apollo has acted unwisely in setting the task of

vengeance on Orestes, "the purpose of the gods' arrival is to return the myth to its

original state, and this they do despite the broken lives in clear evidence below."2

Interiors in Euripides' Elektra

Environs of the Farmhouse

Other than its distance from the public sphere, the area in front of the farmhouse

acts most like an interior in terms of the recognition scene. One would think that a

recognition scene should occur in the exterior, as it involves the revelation of previously

hidden knowledge. The recognition scene in Euripides' Elektra, however, is muddled, as

Orestes and Elektra play out the charade long past the point of recognition, until Orestes

2 J. Michael Walton. Greek Theatre Practice: Contributions to Drama and Theatre Studies, No. 3.
Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980: 209.









is finally unequivocally outed by the old man, who after running through the list of

possible tokens "recognizes him by a scar, thus forcing Elektra reluctantly to

acknowledge her equally reluctant brother."3 They have each been deceiving each other

because neither is what the other expects. They are thus loathe to shatter their illusions

through admittance of the facts. "Elektra denies all [of the tokens of recognition] because

they do not accord with her view of Orestes ... He would not come secretly to Argos."4

On Orestes' own part, "the only possible reason for his failure to identify himself is that

after taking a close look at Elektra, he no longer wishes to reveal himself as her brother."5

She has proved herself to be sour and bloodthirsty, not the "expected ... attractive

woman married and with some social status or at least access to the palace:"6

'HX: OUKOGV obpc aou P Tpo3CTov cLY TrlpOs v 6S'jac ...
KC(A Kp(TaC( TrTaKCxP6io T' 'EoKU6IOpsVOV Vu ..
SyrIiaclaiEo', c~ SEiV, 6C(VcoigPov yc(iov ...

Op: Ti KC(aI PET' C(XUTOG JlITE'p' Cx( TXC(XrlC KTC(VEIv;
SHA: TC(UTcO yE T2sEKEI TCO6 TTC(xTlP Tro.TO .
9OcvolPil l-JrTpOc cii' TTIoc(cx(C' )spric.

El: Then first as you see my body is withered ...
And my head and hair cropped close like a Scythian ...
I am married, stranger, and my marriage is death ...

Or: And with him you would dare to slay your mother?
El: With the same axe by which my father was slain ...
May I die having spilled the blood of my mother! (239-81)




3 Ibid., 208.

4 Karelisa V. Hartigan. Ambiguity and Self-Deception: The Apollo andArtemis Plays ofEuripides.
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991: 113.

5 Walton, 205.
6 Hartigan, 115.









Surely, the properness of Aigisthos' death is a non-issue for Orestes: Aigisthos has

helped in the murder of Agamemnon and is responsible for Orestes' own exile. In

addition, Orestes and Aigisthos are not close enough kin to invoke the Furies' wrath. The

logic that applies to killing Aigisthos works in this case; revenge against the usurper on

his father's behalf is easily justifiable to Orestes and the audience.

The logic does not extend to killing one parent on behalf of another. Given

Orestes' doubts about the wisdom of killing his mother, it is apparent that he does not

find Elektra's bloodlust against Klytemnestra to be very contagious (966-87). To further

strain their renewed relationship, all of Elektra's hopes seem to be riding on Orestes:

"[Elektra] clearly sees herself as one who deserves a much better lot in life and is,

evidently, relying on him to give it to her."7 This romantic expectation she has of him

does not in the least correspond to reality, and her unreasonable expectations hardly

endear her to him.

The Shrine

At the shrine where Aigisthos is sacrificing a bull, violence and deceit are readily at

hand. First of all, Orestes and Pylades deceive Aigisthos by posing as Thessalians on

their way to the Alpheius. Aigisthos invites them to join in the sacrifice, and they accept

his offer of hospitality. Orestes manages to cut up the bull successfully, falsely proving

himself to Aigisthos as a Thessalian; he then slays Aigisthos while he is interpreting the

spilled organs:

Aapccv 6s KOTTEI. OTTrXcaXVCa 6' A'iyioGo0 Aa2\cov
IOpsEI Scvcpo6v. ToU 6s VESOVTOC KCXTCO
ovuXac (~STT' KxpOUc OTCx KC(XOIyvfToc OEEsv
sc o(ov6Xuouc eTTCrIOs, VCoTICiCa cs









SpprTlJv Cpepcc" Trcv 6 oo3Ip' Cvco KCTCLO
I rOTcip/ v aXaXC(s 6uOOv oKcOv (O6vco.

And taking [the axe] he struck. And Aigisthos taking the entrails
having interpreted them considered them. But as he stooped down
your brother [Orestes] having stood on his tiptoes
hacked at his spine, and shattered his
vertebral column; his entire body convulsed up and
down, and wretchedly wailed at his slaughter. (838-43)

In normal circumstances, it is perfectly natural for Orestes to slay Aigisthos; he is

no close kin to Aigisthos, who was his father's murderer. This being the case, the slaying

should take place outside in the light of day as justice demands. Indeed, it does:

sacrificeic, the focal act of communal religious observance, was enacted outside, on an

open-air altar usually opposite the main, east, facade of the temple, while the interior

contained objects dedicated to the deity, including a cult statue."8 So while the actual

killing of Aigisthos takes place outside, where the sacrifice would have occurred, the

ambiguous language used in describing the space helps twist the shrine into a quasi-

interior. Euripides goes to great pains to make it clear that this is not a just killing in the

traditional sense. Orestes' "conquest of Aigisthos is achieved ... in disguise, at a

sacrifice, and in violation ofxenia ... There is no characteristic of the heroic deed about

his act."9 Additionally, according to Elektra, Aigisthos is womanly, being known as

"Klytemnestra's 'wife,'" yet she also accuses him of being the "womanizer."10

Another discrepancy exists between his supposed impiety at Agamemnon's grave

and the gracious extension of his hospitality to his murderers at the shrine, "as a


8 Mary B. Hollinshead. "'Adyton,' 'Opisthodomos,' and the Inner Room of the Greek Temple." Hesperia
68.2 (1999): 189.

9 Hartigan, 116.

'0 Foley, 237.









courteous man of religious principle.""1 It is not necessary that Euripides' audience feel

total sympathy with Aigisthos, but it is absolutely vital that they not condemn him out of

hand; no one deserves to die as he does, betrayed by a guest. Orestes' concept of

Aigisthos is informed by his sister's jaded viewpoint, and "in a woman's world, which is

limited ... by the moral stature of the contestants as women (they are uncontrolled,

changeable, and so forth) ... the issue of justice in a more abstract and principled sense

gets lost," leaving only judgment.12 Not only does Orestes kill Aigisthos in a manner

befitting the deceitfulness of a woman, but he does so through a woman's influence:

Elektra's. Orestes' intentions are justifiable, but his actions are not.

Inside the Farmhouse

The interior of the farmhouse allows connections to be drawn throughout the play.

When the farmer extends domestic hospitality to Orestes and Pylades, it holds up a mirror

to the hospitality extended by Aigisthos according to the messenger. Orestes expects the

farmer to be a product of his class, and is surprised to find that he is not. In similar

fashion, Aigisthos is not the impious man described by Elektra and Orestes does not take

just actions commensurate with his own class. The domestic scene and Orestes' musings

about class and morality demonstrate an observation that he ironically fails to apply to

himself (367-95). The farmhouse, the very place where these issues are raised, becomes

the location of Klytemnestra's murder. This becomes the final example in the Elektra of

Orestes' dearth of just action coupled with just intention.


11 Hartigan, 119.
12 Foley, 238.









Klytemnestra is called to visit Elektra because of a supposed birth. But whether

through choice or circumstance, Elektra remains a virgin. Klytemnestra, preoccupied

with attendance to Aigisthos, apparently would never even have visited her daughter

without being tricked into it, since she did not even bother to visit during Elektra's nine

months of imaginary pregnancy; even so, she is surprised to find Elektra in rags and

without a midwife present (1123-32). This in itself suggests that Elektra has been

overstating her poverty, since her mother knows full well to whom she is married, and yet

expected to find her in clean clothes at the very least, if not noble finery.

Once she enters the farmhouse, Klytemnestra's death at the hands of her children is

horrifying:

'Op: KC(TEiSe6, 00ov a TCXAaCIV' kS c TTsrrcov
sPC(XsV, 6EISEs pC(oTov's EV ovaioiv,
'Ic Pot0, rTpOc TTs c
TlOsE&c yovilIca pEsAsa(; TaXV KopIC(V 6' yoL .

podyv 6' 'SAC(OKE TC(V6, TTpoc ysvuv 'Esdv
TIEOsloC Xeipc( TSKO spJO6V, AITC(IVCo'
Trc(prT'ICOV T' ls EIcXv
IKpip-VC(9', COOTE XSPC( cc SA2iC XTrSTv PSXAo .

syoC; iPv S'ETTrIPC(Xv c(Tdprl Kopc(xi SEPc(-I
4cxoyCdvc9 KacTrqpci(ccv
paC(TScpoc sec 6Spc(c IEPsOsc.
HA: syc; 6' ESTTYKsAsuod ot01
1((ouc T' (rl4qJcx(P-c v dc-pc.

Or: Did you see how, miserable, she opened
her robe, she bore her breast to the slaughter,
oh me, fallen to the ground,
limbs having birthed me? And I... her hair ...

And she let out that cry, putting her hand
on my face; 'My child, I beseech you;"
she hung from my
face, so that the blade dropped from my hand ...
***










Draping my cloak over my eyes
I sacrificed her with my sword,
having let it go into my mother's throat.
El: And I spurred you on
with my hand fast to yours on the sword.
(1206-25).

The story of the false child, which "the king and queen fear .. foreshadows

Klytemnestra's death, since she [is] killed in a cruel mimicry of the very circumstance

she dreaded."13 The murder itself is an absolute mess, with dropped weapons and torn

clothing preventing a clean and quick killing blow. Even the overly optimistic Lloyd,

who argues that Orestes and Elektra are heroic figures, voices the possibility that "the

matricide [may be] shown at the end of the play to have been a mistake, [and] it is no less

tragic that such an act should be the responsibility of plausible and sympathetic

characters than of... warped and inadequate individuals ... "14 The point to be made is

that not only is the action of Klytemnestra's death terrible, but it is also morally

reprehensible.

Orestes will eventually be set free of blood guilt for Klytemnestra's death, as he

(and not Elektra) was "pointedly motivated by gods, whereas the female characters

confront the corrosive uncertainties of revenge on a more direct and personal level."15 I

would argue that Orestes' actions are justice, however skewed. Castor castigates Apollo

himself for being the impetus behind the matricide (1296-302). But Orestes, despite his

own misgivings, fulfills the god's charge. Even though Apollo demands a morally


13 Michael J. O'Brien. "Orestes and the Gorgon: Euripides' Electra." The American Journal of Philology
85.1 (1964): 19.
14 Michael Lloyd. "Realism and Character in Euripides' Electra." Phoenix 40.1 (1986): 19.

15 Foley, 241-2.









questionable act from Orestes, the fact that it is a god who orders the deed necessarily

justifies its enactment (1245-6).

Elektra in contrast never "had the cause of justice on her side."16 Apollo gives

Orestes his task through an oracle, but does not do so for Elektra. Thus the agendas of

men and gods are kept separate. Orestes acts with justice at Apollo's urging, whereas

Elektra is condemnede] for what she has forced Orestes to do" and for what at the end is

her own decision.17 Concerns are raised about the correctness of "matricide on both

human and divine levels, [but] these doubts remain more fully linked to Elektra."18 For

the gods, the ends justify the means, but this is not and cannot be the case for humans. In

attempting to arrogate the manly heroism of Orestes' divine charge, Elektra only affirms

the injustice of her participation in the matricide; this is apparent in her choice of an

interior and therefore female space for the purpose of deceiving and slaying

Klytemnestra.



















16 Hartigan, 124.

17 Walton, 209.

18 Foley, 241.














CHAPTER 5
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' HIPPOLYTOS

The Hippolytos offers one of the strongest and most apparent arguments for

feminine deception and violence in the interior, although some of its other scenes must be

dealt with in more detail. The interior in question is the palace of Theseus at Troezen

wherein Phaedra kills herself after writing a damning and false letter against Hippolytos.

Exteriors include the area in front of the Troezen palace and the area along the cliffs

where Hippolytos receives the brunt of his father's curse.

Exteriors in Euripides' Hippolytos

Outside the Palace of Theseus at Troezen

The exterior of the palace of Theseus provides the usual forum for the chorus and

audience to be apprised of events. Aphrodite begins the play by making very clear that

Hippolytos will die and that incidentally Phaedra will suffer: "i 6' suK2S\Ec E'v x2aH'

opc coxT aTroAAuTC( / Oa16pc( TO yap Tfjo6' ou TrpoTIplipco KC(KOV / TO Prl ou

Trrapacxs6i TOUC sEpouc EX6pouc sJpoI / 61KTrI TooaurTTIV C0JOT' spoI KC(aAXcc XEIV"

(Hippolytos 47-50). Reinforcing the bond between maleness and openness is Hippolytos,

who at first entrance refuses to pay respect to the statue of Cypris, blatantly stating his

views on the subject of unchastity. When approached by the nurse later in the play, he

speaks with disgust around the subject of their discussion so thoroughly that a perfect

picture of Phaedra's unholy love for him is created by the spaces between his words. He

does not explicitly break his oath to any who do not already know the truth, as Phaedra's

servants do.









Along the Cliffs: the Chariot Accident

Hippolytos' death is caused by Poseidon in response to Theseus' curse.

Hippolytos' death is unjustified but is stilljust. He has offended Aphrodite and must die,

that much is clear from the very beginning. He is immoderate in chastity and deserves to

suffer. Orestes was an unwilling kinslayer, Theseus unwitting. Both do the will of a god,

which is justice whether wise or not. With the available information Theseus acts with

justice. Hippolytos tells Theseus the following: "T]v apTIicc ''EITrov, r~ (#coc TOS6 /

OUTTCO Xpovov TrCXaAXC(v s'IXosspKETo" (907-8).

When the lines are spoken, Euripides is making use of Hippolytos' innocence and

Theseus' suspicions that Phaedra's note tells the truth ... Spoken innocently, Hippolytos'

words have sinister implications for Theseus, who has a vivid conception of what

occurred at the last meeting between his wife and son ... Ambiguity is essential ...

Since the imperfect is what is used, it does not [in Hippolytos' mind] draw attention to a

specific act of leaving.1

But why would Theseus be more inclined to believe his wife than his son? In

accordance with the entire reason Aphrodite has for punishing Hippolytos, it is supremely

easy to assign hypocrisy to the self-righteous; the possibility that someone so full of

hubris is living a double life is too delicious to pass up.

ou sri Osoioav coc TEspioooc cov avlp
uvEI; ou oco'G)pcov Kai KaCKov aXKrpa(roc;
OUK av TTrloil-rpV TrooI ooT KOITTOIC syc~
Osoil0o TpooOsic caaXC(1v (povEsv KCaKoc.



1 Wesley D. Smith. "Staging in the Central Scene of the Hippolytus." Transactions and Proceedings of the
American PhilologicalAssociation 91 (1960): 167.









r6r vuv )cx(UEl KCXi 61' qAXou P3op&cx
OITOtI KC(Tr-ihVU' Op(#C( T' CVC(KT' SXCOV
3BcKXEUE TT2o\oSv YPC(xCxTCO)V TIiPoCV KC(TxVOUC"
lTTEI y' E)9rlC. TOUCH 6S TOIOUTOUC SyoC;
E6uyEIv TTpo)covo3C Trcaor 6rpEtouoI yap
ospvoi Ao6yoloIv, caoXpc, PIxavco pEsvol.

Do you indeed meet with gods, being a man
beyond the norm? Are you chaste and unsullied by evils?
I'll not believe your noises
nor be ignorant as to think evils associated with the gods.
Now boast already, and with veggies
and grains be a merchant, and having Orpheus as your lord
celebrate the mysteries honoring the smoke of many books:
when you've been caught out! But I warn everybody
to flee men such as these; they hunt you
with holy words, scheming shameful things (948-58).

In short, Hippolytos deserved what he got, since for gods such as Aphrodite the

ends justify the means; it is easy to feel sympathy for Theseus and Phaedra, but extremely

difficult to bolster much feeling for Hippolytos, whose arrogance removes even what

small sympathy he deserves.

An Interior in Euripides' Hippolytos: Inside the Palace at Troezen

The oath Hippolytos swears in the palace to the nurse, that he will keep silent about

Phaedra's love, is given before he knows the extent of what she asks. This causes the

mix of emotion between outrage and piety that produces the famous response: "'

yASo o' 6pcoloX', qi 6s (qpr'V C(VC OTOC" (612). The nurse is not the only one to exact

an oath under dubious if not downright deceptive circumstances.

[Just as] Medea murders Jason's new bride, Kreon and her two sons[,] Phaedra

gains her revenge on Hippolytos by a suicide note containing a false accusation of

rape [T]he conventional oath of silence would be realistically implausible if the

chorus at the time of swearing knew precisely the magnitude of the intended crimes.









Euripides accordingly so organizes his plots that both choruses give their pledges ...

without realizing the detailed implications of their allegiances2

However, the nurse is guilty twice over. She has told Hippolytos of Phaedra's love

without emphasizing that Phaedra did not send her. She then fails to tell Phaedra of

Hippolytos' oath of silence, lying by omission and causing her mistress' death, however

inadvertently, as "she is driven from the stage [and] never learns of Phaedra's intention of

immediate suicide nor of her intention to slander Hippolytos [The chorus fails to clear

things up because b]y their position and by the swift and violent progress of the scene

[between Hippolytos and the nurse], they are simply excluded from any active part in it."3

Inside the palace is also where the most cataclysmic event of the play takes place:

Phaedra commits suicide, certainly a violent act, after writing the note which deceives

Theseus into thinking his son has raped her; this creates a prime example of womanly

violence and deceit in interiors. She has condemned him with "violence [in] defense of

an imaginary attack. She kills Hippolytos for words he does not intend to speak."4

An Ambiguous Space in Euripides' Hippolytos: The Inviolate Meadow

The inviolate meadow of Artemis is an in-between space. Though it is clearly

outdoors, it is also deep within the interior of the forest. Phaedra in her lovesickness

originally wishes to join Hippolytos here. She couples this with "a connection between

speech and going out of the house by repeating thuraia: the tongue that is 'out of doors'




2 W. G. Arnott. "Off-Stage Cries and Choral Presence; Some Challenges to Theatrical Conventions in
Euripides." Antichthon: Journal of the Australian Society for Classical Studies 16 (1982): 37.

3 Smith, 172.

4 Ibid., 174.









(395), the woman who seeks a bed 'outside her home' (409)."5 This is a reflection of the

idea that women should be in the interior. Since Hippolytus is a chaste hunter, the wish

to be in 'a bed outside her home' is not a possibility. Thus wishing to hunt with him

stands in place of that desire, since the normal channels of adultery could not be

appropriate. Indeed, she describes her fear of just such an adulterous scenario:

pilCo 6's KC; Tac oca((povacc 1y ev Av 2yolc,
Ac(dOp 6s ToAPC(ac ou KCaAd c KSKTTIJSVC(C'
I TrTCo TTOT', o3 6s1TTrOVC( TTOVTitc KrTTrpl,
P3?ATTouolv Es TTpoGCOTTc TCSV UVSUVSTCoSV
o'6 OK6TOV #plOOOU01 TOV UVSwpyC(TT|V
Tspcapvac T' OdKCov p TTOTE B9oyynrv axr;

But I also hate those women chaste in words,
But secretly are not, having procured evil courage;
How then can they, o Cypris, mistress of the sea,
look into the visages of their spouses
and not fear lest their helpmate the dark
and the chambers of the house send forth speech at some point (413-418)?

"She imagines herself in places associated with Hippolytos, because she longs to

share his freedom as much as to possess him when Phaedra 'comes to herself ... she

wants to hide her head (243) and with it the hair she has let down, to go inside ."6 The

meadow is in this case an exterior and thus a place to which Phaedra can only wish to

belong.

Hippolytos himself assumes much about this sacred space: he "has assumed for

himself permission to enter the inviolate meadow, he has supposed that his hand alone is

sufficiently pure to pluck its blossoms ... [but] he is not the best of men as he had


5 Rabinowitz, 161.
6 Ibid., 162.









presumed [and] has invaded the inviolate meadow" (italics mine).7 In this case, the

meadow is clearly an interior. Hippolytos does not belong here, however much he may

have fallen into self-deception concerning his worthiness. The fact that he himself

describes the inviolate meadow as a place apart, denied to the impure, shows it to be an

interior.

According to Segal, the ocean, which is representative of Aphrodite,

metaphorically encroaches upon the meadow, Artemis' (and Hippolytos') sacred space,

eventually destroying the bond between Artemis and Hippolytos through his death. The

"untouched wild .. becomes active and dangerous only through its contact with and

opposition to the surging sea ... [T]here is no aspect of the universe that provides escape

or refuge from Aphrodite. Phaedra, who would have escaped into the calm woodland

(see 208ff) is caught, 1TrpcTv-rAoc, by the sea ... "8 According to Segal, Aphrodite then

expands her power until Theseus and Hippolytos are both destroyed by the sea.

Reminiscent of the Aphroditic bees of the meadow, throughuh the horses [Hippolytos] is

destroyed by a part of his own life, by something he has reared himself and always

believed he could control, yet perhaps did not fully understand. When confronted by the

power of the sea and the monster it produces the horses show their other side and in

their newly released wildness become the actual instruments of the disaster."9 In relation

to the sea, the cliffs take on an ambiguous nature as well: while clearly outside, they

create an enclosed space wherein Poseidon's bull, coming out of the sea, forces the


Hartigan, 40-1.

8 Charles Segal. "The Tragedy of the Hippolytus: The Waters of Ocean and the Untouched Meadow: In
Memoriam Arthur Darby Nock." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 70 (1965): 132-4.

9 Ibid., 147.









horses to smash into the rocks. If Phaedra can be seen as the ultimate cause of

Hippolytos' death, then however indirectly she is still responsible for the violence that

befalls him, making the cliffs' transition from exterior to interior entirely appropriate.

Aphrodite has touched Artemis' domain, which perhaps they shared from the

beginning: Hippolytos is ever unwilling to confront the childbirth aspect of Artemis'

worship, due to the worship of Aphrodite that must logically precede it; "in his untutored

sophrosyne he remains ignorant of his goddess' full realm of power."10 Whatever the

truth, the inviolate meadow cannot fit into the normal categorization of interior and

exterior. It represents an unreality which, when dispelled, results in Hippolytos' death

from within and without, from the meadow and the sea.


10 Hartigan, 44.















CHAPTER 6
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' ION

There are three main spaces in Euripides' Ion, one exterior and two interiors. The

exterior is the area in front of the audience outside Apollo's temple at Delphi. The

interiors include the Cave of the Long Rocks and Ion's banquet tent. As Ion himself

says, to enter the temple grounds is not permitted, so the temple itself does not function

as an interior (Ion 220-2). It is the particular space of the god Apollo and thus, as has

been seen before, does not follow normal rules for an interior space. Throughout the play

it is important to keep in mind the stark difference between Kreusa and Ion, and by

association all women and men: Kreusa "does not deliberate on right and wrong ... the

god or his agent intervenes after the fact to prevent the harmful result Kreusa had

intended. Ion, on the other hand, is brought by divine intervention to the point where he

himself chooses to ... do the will of Apollo ... Ion can be trusted to make the proper

choice and Kreusa cannot."1

Interiors in Euripides' Ion

The Cave of the Long Rocks

It is here that Kreusa is raped and Ion is born. Apollo, however, must be freed

from any sort of moral guilt at this. Scholars who suggest otherwise are bringing far too

many of their own sensibilities to bear on the issue, according to Burnett. "Accusations

of faithlessness, cruelty, and misuse of divine power have been made against Apollo"


1 Vincent J. Rosivach. "Earthborns and Olympians: The Parados of the Ion." The Classical Quarterly,
New Series 27.2 (1977): 292.









both by characters in the play and scholars who agree with them.2 Those same characters

seem to transcend it, however, as "the god['s design], known to the audience from the

beginning, is not made manifest to the characters of the play until its end, when they

depart praising him for his benevolence."3 It is not necessarily a wholly evil thing that

Apollo has raped Kreusa, even so much as this grates against all reason and modern

sensibilities. "A union between a god and a human woman is an extraordinary event.

For a noble family, a dynasty, or a nation this relation represents the highest degree of

nobility and a confirmation of national claims and prestige."4 Kreusa complains not of

the rape, but of Apollo's supposed abandonment of their son and subsequent silence on

the subject:

cW CoiPE, KXKESI KXVO6c' ou 6iKaioc ESt
Sc TTv cxTroGocxv, fc Tr~rpSEoIV 01 O6yolI
oc OUT' Iseocoac TOV o0v 3v ooSoca C' EXPfv,
o;U' 'lOTOpouoril pl-rTpi Pci(VTIc cov 'psipc,
CLY, El StSV OUKET SOTIV, 6YKCL9T1 TC((c?,
Sl 6' OTIV ...

O Phoebus, unjust there or here to her
having been absent, her words are here;
he whom you did not save, your child, it was necessary that you save,
and being a prophet you will not speak to the mother entreating you,
that if he no longer lives, she might heap up a tomb,
and if he does ... (384-9)

Thus it is Kreusa's own lack of faith in Apollo that is blameworthy here, not

Apollo himself, who was and is in the process of taking very good care of their son

indeed. Kreusa is the one who physically abandoned the child, which though not an act

2 Anne Pippin Burnett. "Human Resistance and Divine Persuasion in Euripides' Ion." Classical Philology
57.2 (1962): 89.

SIbid.

4 Felix Martin Wassermann. "Divine Violence and Providence in Euripides' Ion." Transactions and
Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71 (1940): 589.









of direct violence certainly could have opened up the child to attacks by wild beasts.

Care of the child is just as much her responsibility as Apollo's, and Apollo is the parent

who came through. Kreusa abandons Ion in order to hide the fact that he exists and thus

to preserve her supposed virginity for marriage. This is certainly an understandable

course of action, but is nevertheless deceitful.

The Banquet Tent

Xuthus tries to spare Kreusa's feelings by holding the banquet for Ion in secret.

Without knowing the facts, she reacts violently. The banquet tent is decorated grandly

with many divine symbols, particularly those pertaining to the stars and hence navigation,

the Pleiades and Orion for example (1133-65). The emphasis on stars and other

navigational aids used to plot a correct course make a fitting counterpoint to Kreusa's

thoughtless and misguided actions. Kreusa's poisoning of Ion would have occurred here

in the banquet tent had it come off properly, as thinly justified vengeance on Xuthus for

his supposed past indiscretion. As it is, the only fatality is the unlucky bird which drinks

the poisoned wine. This is a direct example of the aforementioned propensity of Kreusa

to act without regard to right and wrong and needing to be circumvented by Apollo,

whether directly through sending the birds to out the poisoner, or indirectly through the

simple fact that Ion is piously cognizant enough to pour out the wine at an unlucky omen:

.v XEpoiv EXovTI 6s
OTTOv6cc pIT' CXAAcov Tra161c TC rTETIVO6T
Ph~C(taravI(V TIC O'IKETCOV LSJ)OsyC(TO'
o 6', c I')yIEPc O '(VTEOIiV T' EoO OiC Tpc(()cE,
oIcovov '8sTO, KXKsAsuc' AAov vsov
KpC(arpC( TrhApouGv Tac 6s Tpiv oTrov6Sc 68oG
616ooal yccai, Tirao T' EKOTTSV6SEIV SySEI.

... and holding in his hands
a libation amidst the others, to the revealed son
one of the house slaves spoke a blasphemy;









and he, thus reared in the temple and among good prophets,
held it an omen, and requested that another new
cup be filled; and the libations from before for the god
he gave to the ground, and told all to pour them out (1187-93).

Though aborted, the attempt at violence has nonetheless been made, and thus the

situation differs from the potential violence at Apollo's altar, which does not ultimately

materialize.

An Exterior in Euripides' Ion: Outside the Temple of Apollo at Delphi

Ion's impulse is to murder Kreusa in revenge, but his piety and sense of morality

slows him enough to become fully aware of the facts before he acts. He then makes the

right choice: not to kill his newly-discovered mother. Apollo's plan comes off

successfully, so the one person who must not know Ion's real parentage, Xuthus, does

not, but is told information that will cause him to accept Ion as a son.

Throughout the play Kreusa makes snap judgments that must be blocked to ensure

Apollo's plan: her "resistance is overcome; Apollo's physical conquest of her body,

necessary to his plan, prefigured the conquest he now makes of her doubt and hatred."5

When Ion makes a snap judgment, he has the self-control not to act on it lest it fail to

coincide with Apollo's justice. Kreusa was stopped from murdering Ion by the

intervention of the god, but Ion stops himself from murdering Kreusa because not all the

facts are yet clear. It would seem that men have the ability to temper judgment with

justice, whereas women do not. Kreusa has committed or attempted to commit acts of

violence in interior spaces, either by neglect as against the infant Ion or directly as against

the grown Ion. Like Odysseus in the Hekabe, Apollo practices deceit for unselfish

reasons, lying to Xuthus to insure a place for Ion. Similarly, he intervenes with his birds

5 Burnett, Classical Philology 1962: 97.






45


to expose the poisoner for Ion's sake. Kreusa's actions are interior for their selfish and

self-contained qualities no less than in terms of actual physical space, and when men

venture into the feminine realm of the interior, it is for selfless, exterior reasons.















CHAPTER 7
INTERIORS AND EXTERIORS IN EURIPIDES' BAKCHAI

The Bakchai is a play quite different from those discussed above. Like the

Hippolytos, it involves unstoppable divine vengeance carried out in part through a female

agent; in this case Agave is not only the cause (as Phaedra was for Hippolytos) but also

the direct instrument of Pentheus' death. However, in the Hippolytos, Aphrodite states

her intent from the beginning. "Pentheus, unlike any other hero of punishment tragedy,

begins his play before he has committed a decisive offense. He will outrage his divine

antagonist... as part of the action of this play, making the Bakchai the one tragedy that

encompasses in its spectacle both an act of hybris and its consequent experience of

nemesis."1

An Ambiguous Space in Euripides' Bakchai: Mount Kithairon

Dionysos has a tendency to cause gender reversal wherever he goes. Women in the

Bakchai under the influence of divine madness act like men, and men like women.

Cadmus and Teiresias put on the feminine fawnskins and take up the thyrsai to honor the

god. The women who originally doubted Dionysos' divinity in their jealousy over

Semele "in their frenzy ... begin to imitate masculine behaviour: they hunt down

animals, sack and plunder villages and defeat men in a pitched battle [whereas]

Pentheus ... agrees to dress up as a woman so that he can spy upon their rituals."2

The Bacchic rites put women outside, exactly the place where they did not belong,

1 Anne Pippin Burnett. "Pentheus and Dionysus: Host and Guest." Classical Philology 65.1 (1970): 19.
2 Sue Blundell. Women in Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995: 175.









according to Greek men. The women in the Bakchai go to Mount Kithairon and act, in

some instances, as a sort of terrible reflection of men: they hunt, but tear apart animals

with their own hands or use their thyrsai as weapons rather than use a bow or spear. For

these reasons and due to its physical location outside, Mount Kithairon acts as an

exterior.

Kithairon also acts as an interior, however. The rites performed there are hidden,

and supposed to be shut away from the presence of men, who are forbidden to enter the

wild to view the mysteries. The Bacchic women retain their femininity in a strange and

disturbing way: they have no horses or hunting dogs, but they carry and nurse wild beasts

as if their own infants. Dionysos is described in feminine language by Pentheus, who

seems increasingly attracted despite himself:

.. .c(avOiol p3ooTpuXolIoIv EsoooL3V KO6Irv,
OIvcOTrc'c( oooOl XC(plTcc A()poTrl| SXcov ..
aTap TO T-oEv oC6JJ' OUK aiiopoc S7, ESvs,
cOc s c yuVC6iKC(c, 7 4' OITTp s c O]3C(C TrTapsrI
TrrXKc(Xao TS yap oou Tavac(, ou TraXrl, uTro,
ySvuv Trap' c(auTrI KEXUPEVOc, Tr60Ou TrAXcoc
XAUKTIV 6S XpoICaV SK TrC(apaoKsuTi SXsic,
ouX rAlou poXcalolv, a,\h' JTO r oKIac,
TT~v A(po6ITrlv Kc(XAovf 6TrpcoJpEVoc.

... fragrant hair with yellow locks,
having the dark graces of Aphrodite in your eyes ...
But your body is not unshapely, foreigner,
as for women, whereupon you are here in Thebes;
for your locks are long, not from wrestling,
poured on your cheek, full of longing;
and you have white skin from preparation,
not from the strokes of the sun, but from shade,
chasing beautiful Aphrodite (Bakchai 235-6, 453-9).

Thus for the gender-ambiguous god to use deception and to take advantage of

Pentheus' and Agave's madness is no great stretch. He encourages Pentheus to spy on









the rites and causes Agave and the other women to see her son as a lion to be slain. The

women are incredibly violent in ripping apart his body and putting his head on a thyrsus:

XAaCoGuoc 6' coAsvrlc capioTspCv XEpa,
TrrAupcxIov cavTI-Caocx TOU 6uo6cxapovoc
caTTCrrcapcaSev o31pov, ouX UTTO o0~vouc,
&a2\' b 06Ec Esup pSEIpsv )ETTEIOU XEpoIv
'IVlG;)c 6 TCXTT OucTEP' 'EsEIpycESTO,
pryvuocx oCapKac, AJTov6rl T' 6XAoc TS rrc&(
STTriXE PC(KXCSV' T'i 6S TTrC(' OboG (OTr,
0 jESv OTSvaCcov oov )ETU'yXCV' J1PTrrvSCv,
a!i 6' 7iXAcAaov. sEsps 6' iiV cP'vAsrv,
11 6' iXvoc auTcaic appuAcCU'- yUPvouvTo 6s
Trhsupcxa oTrcxapaypot Tra C 6' UpC(Tco0psVrl
Xsipcc 6SisE C(apis oGCpKC( TTsvOscoc.

And having taken his left arm at the forearm,
having put her foot against his unlucky ribs
she tore off his shoulder, not from strength,
but the god gave her ease in her hands;
and Ino began to finish off the other,
rending his flesh, and Autonoe and all the crowd
of Bacchants held him; a collective shout came from them all,
he groaning as much as he was happening to breathe,
and they raised the war-cry. And they bore his forearm,
and his foot with its own boot; and his ribs
were stripped naked with manglings; and they all were playing
ball with Pentheus' flesh (1125-36).

With Kithairon acting as an interior outside of which he was to be kept, Pentheus

violates the inner sanctum of the rites and is punished accordingly.

An Interior in Euripides' Bakchai: Inside the Palace

The gender-ambiguous Dionysos performs a most basic act of deceit inside the

palace. In trying to prove his godhood to Pentheus, he pretends to be a Lydian and mere

leader of the rites. "[T]he disowned god himself leads his royal cousin out and away to

dismemberment, by means of the madness that starts inside the palace during the choral

part of the miracle scene," wherein Dionysos escapes from the dungeon, causes fires to









flash on Semele's tomb, and finally causes an earthquake which apparently destroys part

of the palace.3 While arguably not a violent act, the earthquake is certainly an act of

destruction. Although to what extent this miracle was visible to the audience is much-

contested, ultimately it has no bearing on this paper as Dionysos is still in the palace

when he causes the earthquake, as attested by the chorus:


TcC(Xc T UTEsvOECcoc P1XcOpca 6icrT
va ESTa Trprjlacxov.
o AI6vuooC avvd pcsAa6pca(
OsPETe Viv. OsOpsV Co.
E6iSTS AXCiVCa KIOOIV 'EP3oXCa
61S6popaC TCa6s; Bp6ptoc &Xac
cx;ESTaC(I OTSyaC( 'OCO.

Ah, ah,
quickly the halls of Pentheus
are shaken asunder by falls.
Dionysos is in the halls;
revere him! 0, we revere him!
See the stone pillars, the architrave
reeling? Bromius raises the war-cry
in the halls (586-93).

As if being of ambiguous gender and being inside the palace were not enough, the

earthquake is a very showy and selfish act of godhood. Dionysos' intentions might

normally be beyond question due to his divinity, but are impossible to ignore in

combination with his femininity and physical location.

An Exterior in the Bakchai: Before the Palace

It is only here in the public forum where madness can finally subside and normalcy

return. Here the Lydian is revealed as Dionysos, and here what was always apparent to

the audience is revealed to the characters in the play. Here also Agave with help from


3 Victor Castellani. "That Troubled House of Pentheus in Euripides' Bacchae." Transactions of the
American PhilologicalAssociation 106 (1976): 72.






50


Kadmos shakes off her madness to find she has murdered Pentheus; the veil is lifted from

her eyes and truth is revealed. Dionysos' idea of justice, ordained by Zeus, is made

manifest, and any complaint to the contrary, such as at line 1346 (Ka6Spoc: 'syvc aKCapE

TaUT' XaAA x TTrPXTn Xcav), fails to recognize once again that for the gods the ends can

and do justify the means, and mortals must live with the consequences.














CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION

The actions that occur in the various spaces in Euripides' plays supply a deeper

significance to them, which in a symbiotic cycle binds specific types of space with

certain behaviors and traits. Similarly, instability in one type of space is coupled with

instability in its opposite: for example, an interior which outside of tragedy would be

linked to domesticity and security becomes unsafe when affected by exterior instability.

Furthermore, the spaces and actions become tied to specific genders. Women become

associated with interior spaces and actions of deceit, violence and judgment. Men

become associated with exterior spaces and actions of openness and justice; though

"[m]en in Greek myth can ... do their fair share of killing ... this is usually a

straightforward manly affair ... Typically, a woman employs trickery and deception in

order to dispose of others; and the people disposed of are generally related to her by

blood or by marriage."1 Male violence is about sacrifice and justice for the public good,

not about private vendettas. Components associated with instabilities typically follow the

model set forth in the introduction.

We have seen that Hekabe, Medea, Elektra, and Kreusa all commit or attempt to

commit acts of violence in interior settings, either by proxy or themselves, all for the sake

of vengeance for wrongs real or perceived. For similar reasons, Hekabe, Medea, Elektra,

and Phaedra engage in deception against others in the interior, and Elektra and Kreusa


SBlundell, 19.









even engage in self-deception in the interests of judgments they have made. Agave alone

commits murder while not in her right mind, at Dionysus' urging, but still does so in an

interior-like space.

Agamemnon, Jason, Kreon, and Theseus all make decisions from positions of both

strength and authority, which imbues their actions with justice. Though Medea, for

example, acts with strength, she lacks authority; therefore her actions are condemnable as

unjust. Orestes acts from a high ground of justice defined by Apollo, though the morality

of his actions is questionable at the human level. Gods are beyond reproach, however,

whether they should be or not, and for them the ends justify the means; they must

ultimately go unchallenged, if not unquestioned.

Exceptions only occur in certain circumstances. Barbarians such as Polymestor can

fill the role of women in interiors. The influence of a gender-confusing deity such as

Dionysos in the Bakchai can also cause men and women to act outside their respective

spaces and roles. Ischomachos in Xenophon's Economics describes the folly of role

reversal in men: "s16~ TtC nTap' a o 0soc S4QuoEs TTOIt, Iococ TI K(Xa C(TC(KTCOV TOUc

EOsou o0u r]'iO KC(x V 1KrTv 6S6cooiv ap'sAcov TC- 'Epycov TOS sC(UTOG pc TpTTcov TOd

TrTf yUVC(IKoc spya(" (7.31). Similarly, when women attempt to reverse roles it results

in either tragedy, as for Phaedra, who merely expressed a desire to act like a man, or

contemptible acts such as Medea's series of murders and Elektra's attempt to attach

herself to Orestes' divine charge.

The events stemming from instabilities in Euripides' plays tend to follow a

hierarchical pattern. From weakest to strongest, this pattern includes physical space,

gender, and intention. Intention that is directed towards the exterior in terms of benefit to









others is masculine. A male's role in society is to work for its common good. Intention

that is interior, or selfish, is feminine. Only rarely do physical space or gender fail to

follow along with intention, and in such cases, a conscious effort is made to reconcile the

break with convention. For example, in the Bakchai Dionysos acts selfishly, and is thus

made to do so not only from the interior of the palace, but the ambiguity of his gender is

repeatedly stressed.

The actions of men and women in exterior and interior spaces in Euripides' plays

contribute to a larger examination of morality. The association of men and women to

traditional spaces and roles provide a forum for questioning the assumptions underlying

those traditions. The characters in Euripides' plays both reinforce and undermine these

assumptions through their attempts to conform to or deny the roles society has set for

them. Morality is a human construct, however, and ultimately we are forced to

acknowledge the all-pervasive power and will of gods who have human emotions and

commit very human acts without being subject to human concepts of morality. This

concept is discussed in Euripides' plays through the assignation of specific behaviors and

qualities of character to interiors and exteriors.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Michael Ian Wheeler was born to Dr. Michael K. Wheeler and Sally W. Wheeler

on November 17th, 1981. He grew up in Delray Beach, Florida, and graduated cum laude

from Saint Andrew's School in Boca Raton, Florida, as a National Merit Finalist in 2000.

After transferring from Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, in order to earn

combined undergraduate/graduate credits, he graduated with a B.A. in classical studies

from the University of Florida in 2004.

He plans to pursue a doctorate and hopes to teach at the college level. He will

receive his M.A. in August of 2005.