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The Central Gallery: Visitor Orientation at the Florida Museum of Natural History

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PAGE 1

THE CENTRAL GALLERY: VISITOR ORIENTATION AT THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY By PROVIDENCE LEGRAND A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by Providence LeGrand

PAGE 3

An enormous amount of gratitude is bestowed upon my parents, who have always wanted me to have more in this life than they had. My husband deserves my undying appreciation. Even before he was my husband, he assisted me financially and provided emo tional support during the long nights and the stressful times. Greg always believed in me even when I didnt believe in myself. I dedicate this work to all of you, with much love!

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many thanks are extended to Laura Chance, research assistant. Her contributions of time and effort were imperative to the timely completion of this project. Much appreciation is directed towards Betty Dunkel. Her knowledge of visitor studies and research evaluation was an extremely helpful resource when developing this study. Darcie MacMahon was a supportive and patient advisor. She was always willing to answer my questions and address my concerns. She knew when to point me in the right direction. Beyond this specific project she has always encouraged and motivated my exhibition design career goals with her own professionalism and success in the field. The ultimate thanks go to Debra Harris, committee chairperson. Even though she had very little academic knowledge about museum studies, she still agreed to advise me. Like many others she was supportive and assisted me through some of the toughest points in the masters degree process. On a less professional note, she also lent a caring ear during some very stressful personal times. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................xii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Introduction...................................................................................................................1 Purpose.........................................................................................................................2 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................4 Visitor Studies..............................................................................................................4 Wayfinding...................................................................................................................6 Conceptual Orientation.................................................................................................9 Data Collection Strategies..........................................................................................12 3 METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS.......................................................................16 Research Design.........................................................................................................16 Setting.........................................................................................................................17 Ethics and Human Subjects........................................................................................17 Data Collection...........................................................................................................18 Research Assistants.............................................................................................18 Pilot Study...........................................................................................................19 Physical Setting Assessment Phase.....................................................................19 Observation Phase...............................................................................................20 Interview Phase...................................................................................................21 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................22 v

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4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................24 Physical Assessment Data..........................................................................................24 Entry Sequence....................................................................................................24 Inside the FLMNH..............................................................................................26 The Central Gallery......................................................................................30 Choice points................................................................................................33 Observation Data........................................................................................................36 Frequencies..........................................................................................................36 Cross-tabulations.................................................................................................41 Interview Data............................................................................................................48 Demographic Information...................................................................................49 Questions 1, 2, 3..................................................................................................50 Questions 4, 5......................................................................................................52 Questions 6 and 8................................................................................................53 Questions 7 and 9................................................................................................54 Question 10..........................................................................................................55 Questions 11, 12, and 13.....................................................................................56 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION........................................................................58 Who Are the Visitors?................................................................................................58 What Are Visitors Doing?..........................................................................................59 What Do Visitors Think?............................................................................................63 Limitations..................................................................................................................66 Design Recommendations for the Central Gallery Renovation.................................67 Conclusions.................................................................................................................68 APPENDIX A TRACKING SHEET..................................................................................................70 B STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS............................................................71 C DEMOGRAPHIC RECORD LOG.............................................................................72 D VISUAL AID #1: PANORAMA OF LIFE, PROPOSED NEW DESIGN............73 E VISUAL AID #2: FLMNH HANDOUT MAP..........................................................74 F IRB INFORMED CONSENT FORM APPROVAL..................................................75 G FLMNH OVERALL FLOOR PLAN.........................................................................76 H CATEGORY LISTS FOR EACH INTERVIEW QUESTION..................................77 I OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 1.....................................81 vi

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J OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 4.....................................82 K OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 5.....................................84 L OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 6.....................................86 M OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 7.....................................88 N OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 8.....................................90 O OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 9.....................................92 P OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 10,10a............................94 Q OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 11...................................96 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................97 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................100 vii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Frequency of group size...........................................................................................37 4-2 Frequency of restroom use.......................................................................................37 4-3 Frequency of gift shop use.......................................................................................38 4-4 Frequency of information desk use..........................................................................38 4-5 Frequency of interaction with desk staff..................................................................38 4-6 Frequency of picking-up paper information.............................................................38 4-7 Frequency in viewing Mammoth and Mastodon......................................................38 4-8 Frequency in reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels.....................................39 4-9 Frequency of noticing large directional signage......................................................39 4-10 Frequency of monetary donations............................................................................39 4-11 Frequency in choosing choice points.......................................................................39 4-12 Frequency of total time inside Central Gallery........................................................40 4-13 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information desk use, and picking up paper information within the group composition variable.....................................................................................................................41 4-14 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and Mastodon viewing, reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels, and noticing directional signage within the group composition variable..................................41 4-15 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information desk use, and picking up paper information within the total time spent variable.....................................................................................................................42 4-16 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and Mastodon viewing, reading text labels, and noticing signage within the total time spent variable..................................................................................................43 viii

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4-17 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between group composition variable and total time spent variable........................................................................................46 4-18 Frequency of visitor age groups...............................................................................49 4-19 Frequency of visitor racial identity..........................................................................50 4-20 Frequency of visitor gender......................................................................................50 4-21 Frequency of responses for purpose of visit.........................................................51 4-22 Frequency of group size...........................................................................................51 4-23 Frequency of repeat vs first time visitors................................................................52 ix

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Street and parking area in front of FLMNH.............................................................25 4-2 Sidewalk leading to front main entrance of FLMNH..............................................25 4-3 Front main entrance of FLMNH..............................................................................26 4-4 Interior doors after entering front entrance..............................................................26 4-5 Floor plan diagram of entrance and the Central Gallery..........................................28 4-6 Tiled entry area.........................................................................................................29 4-7 View of gift shop entrance.......................................................................................29 4-8 Closer view of information desk and donation box.................................................30 4-9 Two views of the information desk..........................................................................30 4-10 Mammoth and Mastodon fossils inside the Central Gallery....................................31 4-11 Interior views of the Central Gallery........................................................................31 4-12 Entrance to mens and womens restrooms..............................................................31 4-13 View of large directional signs, which are located at the rear of the Central Gallery......................................................................................................................32 4-14 Choice point A, entrance to Microbes, temporary exhibit.......................................33 4-15 Choice point B, hallway to other permanent exhibit halls.......................................33 4-16 Choice point C, entrance to the Northwest Florida exhibit hall...............................34 4-17 Choice point D, entrance to The McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit................................................................................34 4-18 Choice point E, entrance to the administrative offices.............................................35 4-19 Choice point F, hallway to multi-purpose classrooms.............................................35 x

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4-20 Choice point G, entrance to security office..............................................................36 4-21 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of total time inside the Central Gallery......................................................................................................................40 4-22 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who used restroom for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.....................44 4-23 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the information desk for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.........................................................................................................44 4-24 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery....................................................................................45 4-25 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who read the text labels for the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery............................................................................45 4-26 Bar graph showing frequency of single visitors for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery..................................................................46 4-27 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an adult couple group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery....................................47 4-28 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an adult group of 3 or more for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.....................47 4-29 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a family of 5 or fewer group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.....................48 4-30 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a family of 6 or more group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.....................48 4-31 Complete view of the frog wall................................................................................53 xi

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design THE CENTRAL GALLERY: VISITOR ORIENTATION AT THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. By Providence LeGrand August 2005 Chair: Debra Harris Major Department: Interior Design The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for a National Science Foundation Grant. The grant is needed to fund renovations to the Florida Museum of Natural History entrance gallery, also called the Central Gallery. The Central Gallery acts as a lobby area where visitors gather and orient themselves to the museum. Both physical and conceptual orientation takes place there. Therefore this study addressed issues central to both forms of orientation. The study focused on physical orientation devices in the Central Gallery such as the handout map and information desk, and visitor perceptions about the museum and the current entrance icon in the Central Gallery. Using a multi-method research design, data was collected during a six week period and in three phases. These phases were: 1) a physical assessment of the space, 2) visitor observations, and 3) visitor interviews. The data was primarily analyzed using a statistical program called SPSS. SPSS allowed the principal investigator to compile frequencies, cross-tabulations, and line graphs for the data variables. xii

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The data revealed that entrance icons have the potential to communicate content, or in this case the museums educational message, visually and at-a-glance. It was also demonstrated that different icon designs can communicate different messages. The study also showed that many of the devices that exist to help visitors physically orient themselves to the space are under-utilized. Consequently, the study generated several design recommendations that may alleviate this problem. This study and its recommendations will help the FLMNH make good, evidence-based decisions about the Central Gallery renovation. xiii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction What is a museum? Perhaps it is a place where people can entertain themselves through novel displays, a place of reverential experience, or a place where people make meaning of, or connect themselves, to the world (Falk and Dierking, 2000). Regardless of which definition is correct, we know learning takes place there, either consciously or subconsciously (ibid.). Museums are often called informal learning places. Unlike a traditional school setting, learners (the visitors) are free to choose what and how they will learn (ibid.). While the visiting public is free to choose what they will learn, the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) has an infinitely larger choice as to what it will teach. Entrenched in the research community of the University of Florida, the FLMNH seeks to educate the public about complex science concepts using their abundant collection of artifacts and their arsenal of written research. One could say that the principle goal of the FLMNH is to teach. However, a museums basic message could be just as complex as museum theory that surrounds it. Fortunately FLMNH scientists and educators have generated a concrete message that introduces visitors to the museum experience. The museum wants to convey the importance of three science concepts. They are: 1) biodiversity (life is diverse); 2) ecology (life is connected); and 3) evolution (life is related) (MacMahon, 2005). The FLMNH hopes to visually incorporate this message of diversity, connectedness and relationship in a new exhibit inside the museums Central 1

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2 Gallery. The objective is for the new exhibit to become an entrance icon. An entrance icon is defined by MacMahon (2005) as specimens or sculptures that serve as focal points inside the entrance galleries of museums. The entrance icon should convey information visually and at-a-glance to visitors about the nature of the museum and the repeated themes inside the permanent exhibit halls (MacMahon, 2005). Simply, the entrance icon will serve to orient visitors conceptually to the museum. However all the emphasis cannot be placed on conceptual orientation; physical orientation is also of primary importance to a visitors experience and ultimate learning. In other words, the ability to make meaning of the physical context of the museum is inherent to learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000). Acting as a front-end evaluation, this study asks FLMNH visitors questions about their physical orientation experience. It also explores the ideas and feelings expressed by visitors when they look at the current entrance icon (Mammoth and Mastodon) in the Central Gallery, and then, a conceptual rendering of a proposed new entrance icon. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide baseline data for the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) as they plan renovations to the Central Gallery (entrance gallery). Additional studies will build on this work and will be proposed to the National Science Foundation for funding. If awarded, the grant will provide funds needed to enhance the Central Gallery. The enhancement seeks to improve and more closely integrate the inherent dual function of the Central Gallery space: as a lobby space orienting visitors physically to the building, and conceptually to the museums educational message.

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3 According to Falk and Dierking (2000), Appropriately designed exhibitions are compelling learning tools, arguably one of the best educational mediums ever devised for facilitating concrete understanding of the world. Consequently it is logical that appropriately designed exhibits should include the integration of good physical and conceptual tools for visitor orientation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore and identify issues that are impacting the physical and conceptual orientation of visitors to FLMNH. Once we understand the positive and negative impacts of these issues, appropriate design guidelines can be developed for the Central Gallery renovation.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Visitor Studies The visitor study is a relatively new genre within environmental behavior studies. Such studies often encompass research that documents the behavior of people visiting museums, zoos, aquariums or other exhibition places. Visitor studies are important because they help museum professionals get to know and understand their visitors. Specifically, visitor studies help gain insight into the attitudes, knowledge and misconceptions of the target audience (Bitgood and Loomis, 1993). The studies are also very helpful in assessing whether exhibits are communicating the desired message within an exhibit (Bitgood and Loomis, 1993). Furthermore, when exhibit components fail to communicate the appropriate message, visitor studies can tell us why they are failing and suggest possible remedies to the problem(s). Very few of these studies were conducted prior to the 1960s. Edward Robinson and Arthur Melton conducted the better known and scarce studies before 1960. However, they were mostly concerned with the physical environment of the museum and how that affected visitor behavior (Bitgood, 1989). Then in the 1960s and early 1970s researchers began applying behavioral learning approaches to their research (Bitgood and Loomis, 1993). According to Stephen Bitgood (1989), Chan Screven and Harris Shettel were among the most prominent figures of this period. A shift occurred in the mid-1970s when museum personnel began to play a more integrated role in conducting visitor studies. Before this shift, all visitor studies had been conducted by researchers outside the 4

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5 walls of the museum (Bitgood, 1989). This change to internal research continued into the 1980s, the 1990s and is still primarily the case today. Many examples of museums conducting their own visitor studies can be found in Bitgood and Loomis (1993) and other sources. The Florida Museum of Natural History utilizes internal visitor evaluation for many reasons. Darcie MacMahon, Assistant Director for Exhibits, believes in . . keeping the studies in-house due to our expertise in this area, our profound interest in study design and research results, the ease of initiating auxiliary studies to further explore questions, and timely turnaround of deliverables (MacMahon, 2005). This perception has led to the unification of the museums goals for internal evaluation and the completion of this Masters thesis. As more internal researchers and independents join the growing visitor studies revolution, many have brought with them varied methodological approaches. As outlined by Bitgood (2002) some examples include the naturalistic evaluation approach, the cognitive approach, the behavioral approach, the ethological approach, and the social design approach. The social design approach will be discussed more in depth in the Research Design Chapter. He contends . . (They) have all been integrated into the arsenal of visitor studies methodology (Bitgood, 1989). Many visitor studies focus either on exhibit development or exhibit evaluation. The studies are categorized into three types: front-end, formative, and summative evaluation. These categories correlate to the planning stage, the preparation stage and the post installation stage (Bitgood & Loomis, 1993). Visitor input is elicited during each stage. This study in particular is concerned with assessing the physical orientation of the visitor and informing the development of a new icon that will help visitors with their conceptual

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6 orientation. Since visitor input is elicited during the planning stage, this study is considered a front-end evaluation. As previously stated, visitor studies encompass research that examines the behavior of people visiting museums, zoos, aquariums or other places for entertainment or educational purposes. Extensive research has been conducted outside museums and some within with regards to how people interact with architecture and physically orient themselves. We already know that the way people move throughout the interior space of the museum and within each individual exhibit becomes crucial to the visitors experience (Melton, 1935). Unfortunately, much less information exists concerning the conceptual orientation of museum visitors. First outlined below are some of the key factors in physical wayfinding or physical orientation. Those factors most important to this study are signage, maps and Weismans four environmental cues (Weisman, 1981). Then some ideas are explored concerning conceptual orientation. Wayfinding A simplified definition of wayfinding is offered by Peponis, Zimring and Choi (1990). They propose that wayfinding is merely how well someone finds their destination without undue stress or anxiety. However Passinis (1992) definition is more complex: there are three distinct abilities needed in order for someone to find their destination. These abilities are: 1. a cognitive mapping ability; 2. a decision making ability; and 3. an execution of the decision that results in a specific behavior. Bitgood (1989) writes that, . . wayfinding is the ability to navigate through the museum.

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7 In order to navigate in space it is assumed that people need information in order to make decisions within the built environment. Therefore Weismans four environmental cues become influential in affecting wayfinding. These cues are: 1) visual access to landmarks or familiar cues; 2) architectural distinctions between different parts of a building; 3) the use of signs; and 4) plan configuration (Weisman, 1981). The first two cues concerning landmarks and architectural distinctions are reminiscent of Kevin Lynchs (1960) five established environmental elements. These elements are: 1) landmarks (which Weisman specifically references); 2) paths; 3) nodes; 4) edges; and 5) districts. Although these environmental elements were first applied by Lynch to large urban settings, a landmark could be used inside the built environment, translating into a large architectural feature or an ornate piece of art work that is centrally located. Thereby, a landmark in the built environment serves as a type of point-reference . . the same as it would in a city (Passini, 1992). Paths, nodes, edges and districts can be architectural distinctions between parts of a building. In fact Passini translated these elements from the large urban setting of a city to the interior built environment. His study in 1978 asked participants to build a scale model of a particular building they had visited. Then, they were asked to describe in detail as much as they could remember about the building. Passini found that most participant comments centered on the five basic elements coined by Lynch. So how is this useful in designing or evaluating circulation within the built environment? It is the opinion of this researcher that people are not consciously aware of these five elements. However, people subconsciously differentiate between distinctions in the built environment and use their understanding of the differences to help them navigate and understand an interior space.

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8 Weismans environmental cues continue with the use of signage. In simplest form, signs tell people where things are. According to Passini (1992) signs come in three forms: directional, identification, and reassurance. Directional signs show direction by using differing forms or types of arrows to point to where something is in a general direction. Identification signs identify a place in space. Usually these signs are located very near or at the entrance to a place. They use text and/or symbols, and perhaps recognizable logos. Reassurance signs are located between the desired destination and the initial directional sign. These signs reassure the user they are headed in the correct direction. Signs are important aids in wayfinding, but merely providing them without thinking about their legibility, where they are located, and how many are needed, could be a grave oversight. There have been several studies that are specific to the use of signage. Carpman, Grant and Simmons (1984) developed a study designed to test how long (distance) a person could go without a sign and still feel comfortable. They discovered that any distance over 50 feet (ft) without a sign was too long. At the 50ft mark people exhibited uncomfortable behavior and began to look for another sign. Best discovered that signs were most effective when placed near decision points (Best, 1970). When Bests theory was applied by Corlett, Manenica and Bishop (1972) in a renovation study of a university building, their findings reinforced Bests original research. And while there are several studies that advance the use of signage as a way to enhance wayfinding performance, there are several others that show the opposite effects. Weisman studied signage in a nursing home environment. His findings showed that only 18% of residents used the signage to help them find their way (Weisman, 1987). The remaining 82% said that architectural cues were more helpful for orientation (Weisman,

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9 1987). This substantiates the importance of Weismans theory regarding architectural distinctions discussed earlier. In addition, Seidels (1983) large airport study showed that 30% of the participants said that there were too many signs. These adverse results show that all signs are not useful to all people. Different populations and building types require careful thought by a designer. While Weisman does not specifically point out maps as an environmental cue, maps are usually considered support material to be used in conjunction with signage (Passini, 1992). They usually represent space two-dimensionally; they are generally mounted to a wall for display or are accessible to the user in printed pamphlet or handout form. Many problems occur with mounted maps. First, the user must find their position on the map. Next, the user must understand the orientation of the map. Many maps use cardinal north/south direction. This is easily understood by the viewer if the user is looking the way the map is oriented. However, if the user wants to look the other direction, he or she would need to mentally turn the map. Perhaps the most famous of all mounted maps is the you-are-here maps. Levines research focused on this type of map. He determined that presenting the map rotated differently than the alignment of the building was worse than not providing a map at all (Levine, 1982). Levines research demonstrated that a misaligned map created significantly more mistakes in wayfinding (Levine, 1982). Passini (1992) recommends incorporating some or all of the five elements described by Lynch into a maps design to prevent disorientation. Conceptual Orientation Conceptual orientation is described as the knowledge of what is offered at the museum thematically, how long it may take to view, and the information needed to plan the overall visit (Bitgood & Cota, 1995; Bitgood & Lankford, 1995). According to Wolf

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10 (1992) conceptual orientation is important because, people can only reap the full educational or esthetic benefit of a museum experience when the conceptual demands of that experience are made manifest. Wolfe contends that if a museums orientation efforts are done well, . . a pleasurable and valuable learning experience will ultimately transpire (1992). Bitgood and Cota (1995) reiterate this theory by stating visitors learn more and are more satisfied when they are properly oriented. Conceptual orientation actually begins when a visitor encounters any information about the museum. It could be information from a billboard, website or newspaper article. However, most critical to this study is the conceptual orientation that takes place inside the entrance gallery space. Visitors are often disorientated when they are unable to comprehend what the museum is about or the ideas the museum is trying to convey (Wolf, 1992). Wolf explains that . . visitors are often more frustrated with the latter kind of disorientation than they are about not finding their way around the space (Wolf, 1992). Bitgood and Lankford (1995) have established a checklist for conceptual orientation within lobby spaces. They are: Provide information about what there is to see and do at the museum; Provide clear directions to guest amenities such as restrooms; Provide information that would allow for time management; and Provide ways to demonstrate exhibit themes without having to enter exhibit areas. A good strategy for conceptual orientation should be paired with an equally good strategy for physical orientation. We know that disorientation can occur in the absence of effective orientation aids (Cohen, Wikel, Olsen & Wheeler, 1977). The checklist that Bitgood and Lankford (1995) have outlined for physical orientation in museums is reminiscent of the wayfinding tactics explored earlier. These recommendations are:

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11 Ensure the ticket booth/information desk is identifiable; Visitor guides should have readable maps; Handheld maps should be simplistic and only identify essential information; Mounted maps should adhere to the main principles of providing a landmark, you-are-here symbol and forward equivalence (Up on the map should represent forward space in the setting); Directional signs should be placed were they will be most easily noticed. They should be consistent with other wayfinding devices; Place information at choice points; and Security guards should be trained to answer orientation questions and give directions. So beyond helping the visitor move within and understand the intent of the museum, why is physical and conceptual orientation important? Could they affect overall visitor satisfaction? According to a study conducted at the St. Louis Science Center in 1996, both types of orientation affect the overall satisfaction of its visitors (Bitgood & Tisdale, 1996). This has widespread implications for all museums. Physically, the Center has two lobby spaces: the Oakland Avenue lobby and Forest Park lobby. More visitors reported a problem with wayfinding in the Forest Park lobby probably because of the complex building configuration, lack of directional signage, and the absence of receiving a visitor guide (Bitgood & Tisdale 1996). Most of the positive results surround the use of the visitor guide. Those who received a visitor guide in either lobby reported a better overall satisfaction rating than those who did not (Bitgood & Tisdale 1996). This study illustrates that both types of orientation are essential to a good visit and that physical and conceptual orientation are interconnected. A good strategy in one area can not overcome a poor

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12 strategy in the other. Therefore it is logical that the study at the Florida Museum of Natural History would need to focus on both orientation types. Data Collection Strategies Widely used in many other areas of research, observation and interview/survey techniques are also widely used in museum visitor studies. They are relatively inexpensive methods to use depending on how they are implemented. However, they can be time-consuming for the researcher (Nielson, 1946). Observation in general allows the researcher to collect data within a specific setting. It allows the researcher to relate the setting to the particular behavior presented by the setting users (Sommers & Sommers, 1997). The physical means of collecting data when using observational methods can vary. High-tech solutions are infrequent; but behavioral mapping and visitor tracking are a few that are used often. Several visitor studies employing these methods will be discussed in this section. Several high-tech ways of physically collecting the data have been developed to overcome the exhaustive nature of collecting observational data. One such method is using multiple camera shots. A mounted ceiling camera takes a series of photos within the area of interest. According to Nielsen (1946) it is a slow-motion record of the behavior and movement within the area where the camera is mounted. Nielsen reports much success with this technique at The Museum of Science and Technology in Chicago. However, only one other reference to a similar photographic technique (Taylor, 1963) was found in other research related to observational methods. Another technological solution was developed by Bechtel in 1967. Called the Hodometer method, it entailed installing a flooring system that would trigger an electric impulse to a computer when a visitor walked on certain points. While this was helpful in determining frequency of use

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13 of certain key points in the exhibit; it was not helpful in understanding the big picture. Certain behaviors exhibited by visitors could not be recorded with this method alone. Due to high cost and the inherent limitations of these high-tech solutions, these were not good candidates for this study. Instead a mixture of both behavioral mapping and tracking techniques were used. More specific explanation on how these techniques were implemented can be found in Chapter 3: Data Collection. Behavioral mapping is often used to record and determine behavioral activities of people and how they use a specific space (Bechtel and Ziesel, 1987). A tracking technique usually determines visitor use of pre-determined points of interest and documents frequency or total time of use within an exhibit (Bitgood, 2002). In most tracking studies, visitors are usually followed during their visit and records are made of their behaviors. This technique was used in a previous summative evaluation in 2004 by this researcher. However, it was not necessary to follow participants in the current study because the area of study was small; the participants could be easily observed anywhere in the Central Gallery from several vantage points. As noted by Groat and Wang (2002), the most important detail when using observational methods is to understand what to look for. The researchers of a study conducted at the Boston Museum of Science established 39 different points of interest and also collected time data from these areas (Bailey, Bronnenkant, Kelley, & Hein, 1998). Klein (1993) also developed points of interest in his study at a London automobile museum. He presented his finding by using diagrams of circulation routes. The use of diagrams was not used by this researcher because the Central Gallery space is not a complex exhibit hall. It was understood from anecdotal evidence that participants

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14 were exhibiting routes or walking paths that could be easily explained by denoting the use or non-use of key points of interest only. Therefore, diagrams were not necessary. Observational data can help a researcher identify certain behavior patterns, but it cannot tell a researcher why a visitor chooses to behave a certain way. It cannot explain what thoughts or feelings might have led to the behaviors observed (Bitgood, 2002). Therefore another method must be used to obtain this type of data. An interview or survey is most valuable for collecting complex information or ideas (Sommer & Sommer, 1997) Surveys tend to be self administering, where participants respond to the prescribed questionnaire in a written format. Interviews also use prescribed questions but there is an interaction between the researcher and the participant. Surveys and interviews also ask for similar types of information, but interviews have an advantage because they allow the interviewer/researcher to ask follow-up or more probing questions of the visitor. Interviewing can also be advantageous because a museum visitor may be unwilling to write a lengthy answer to a survey question, but finds verbally telling his/her answer more acceptable. Note that this study is only concerned with the manifest content. Manifest content is the information which is verbally conveyed in the answer. This study does not analyze or describe information that is inherent is a participants body language, facial expression or emotional state, also called latent content (Sommer & Sommer, 1997). Asking open ended interview questions requires careful analysis using a coding system. A coding system allows open ended responses to be numerically tabulated by frequency of response content (Sommer & Sommer, 1997). One such example is explained in a study conducted about nurses and pediatric patients. The conversations

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15 between nurse, parent and child patient were audio-recorded. Then the researcher transcribed the recordings verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed line-by-line and coded for frequency of themes. These themes were then grouped into categories (Baggens, 2001). A similar technique is used for this study, except the FLMNH staff and this researcher predetermined the categories before reviewing the interview data. Using a mixture of observational and interview methods can obtain information where one method alone would not be successful. Stephen Bitgood realized this dynamic when assessing a visitor study at the St. Louis Science Center. He comments, no single method would have provided a clear picture of the overall problems (Bitgood & Tisdale, 1996).

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS Research Design This study was designed to use a mixed methodology strategy because of the need to focus on both physical and conceptual orientation. The tools employed for data collection were: physical setting assessment, structured interviews and observations. By using a combination of these methods it was possible to illicit information that could not have been obtained by using only one tool. According to Groat and Wang (2002), a mixed methodology research design has the potential to maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each design. In this study the use of qualitative and quantitative tactics are well grounded in Social Design evaluation. Social Design evaluation has five basic assumptions: 1. User-oriented: visitors and staff 2. Multi-disciplined 3. Theoretically eclectic 4. Methodologically scientific 5. Politically democratic These five assumptions were outlined in 1989 by Bitgood in an attempt to define Social Design and how it fits within the context of museum evaluation studies. This study follows these guidelines fairly closely, with the exception of eliciting information from staff. Other committee meetings and seminars not associated with this study are assisting in that effort. The Social Design approach has several benefits. First it favors participation from the community, which helps gain support for the museum at the grass 16

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17 roots level (Bitgood, 1989). By being theoretically eclectic and methodologically scientific, data from Social Design evaluation is inevitably gathered in a more reliable and valid fashion. Setting This research is only being conducted at the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The Florida Museum of Natural History is recognized as the official natural history museum of the State of Florida. It houses four permanent exhibit halls, two rotating or flexible exhibit halls, several teaching classrooms, the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the Central Gallery. However the Central Gallery is the main focus of this study. Ethics and Human Subjects There are several codes of conduct governing ethical principles in research. The British Psychological Society (2000-2004) and the Belmont Report of 1979 (updated 1998) both discuss the ethical treatment of human subjects in research. Both advocate that subjects be given all the necessary information in order to make a self determined judgment about whether they should participate in the research. This is usually referred to as informed consent (USFDA, 1998). Participation in the research should be completely voluntary and not coerced by the researcher. Both codes suggest that the nature or scope of the research should be fully divulged to the participant. The participant should also be informed of the risks associated with participating. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Florida governs all research conducted by faculty, staff or students. The IRB closely follows the principles outlined above and its primary function is to provide for the health, safety and welfare of all human subjects participating in research at the University of Florida. This study was presented and

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18 reviewed by the IRB. Approval was granted by the IRB on February 8th, 2004, prior to data collection (Appendix H). Data Collection To collect reliable and valid data, the researcher must select appropriate data collection methods. A physical setting assessment, observation and structured interviews were employed for this study partly because of their widespread usage and acceptance among the research community across disciplines and in other visitor studies. Therefore the data was collected in three phases. A physical setting assessment entails collecting information like floor plans, pictures or other documents that depict the physical environment being studied. Structured interviews have a set number of questions and the questions are preconceived. When asked in the same order and manner the structured interview is a highly valid way of understanding what visitors think about complex topics (Sommer & Sommer, 1997). The use of observation is important because it shows specific visitor behavior. At times these behaviors might be in opposition to what visitors tell researchers they are thinking about. There are several methods for observing visitors. Here focused observation was used. Focused observation is used when problems or specific items to be observed have already been identified (Bitgood, 2002). Research Assistants A research assistant (RA) helped collect data during the period of March 11, 2005 to April 17, 2005. The assistant practiced the procedures using a pilot study during the weeks prior to March 11, 2005. Her technique and performance was assessed by the principle investigator (PI). Incorrect procedures or mistakes were identified and corrected prior to beginning the official data collection on March 11, 2005.

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19 Pilot Study A pilot study was conducted on February 12th and 13th, and March 9th, 2005. Seven participants were observed and six participants were interviewed. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the comprehensibility of the interview questions by museum visitors and to determine the average amount of time needed to administer the interview questions. The pilot study also was important in determining whether the tracking sheet was complete and effective. It was useful when estimating how much data could be collected during the six week collection period. The data collection instruments were then tweaked using feedback gathered during the pilot study. Wording was modified within some of the interview questions and a choice point (see Chapter 4 for explanation) was added to the tracking sheet for the observation phase. The ultimate decision to audio-record the participant interview was made because of the difficulty in trying to hand-write responses during the pilot study. Thus the pilot study was a valuable segment of the overall data collection process. Physical Setting Assessment Phase The principle investigator (PI) made several site visits to the FLMNH prior to other phases of data collection. The PI anecdotally watched visitors and their behavior inside the Central Gallery. Notes were recorded in a notebook describing the characteristics of the physical space and general information about how the museum operates on a day-to-day basis. The PI also gathered documents which described the space visually, such as the floor plan and visitor map. Photographs of the entry sequence and the Central Gallery were also taken for later analysis and reference.

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20 Observation Phase For the observation phase of the study a systematic space sampling was used. Participants were selected as they entered through the main entrance of the museum; each third adult visitor was chosen as a participant during data collection periods. A general sign informed all visitors to the museum that a research study was being conducted. It explained that visitors may be observed while they are inside the FLMNH. It was important to remain as unobtrusive as possible while monitoring the movement and behavior of the participant. The PI or RA remained seated at designated benches within the Central Gallery, unless their view of the participant was obstructed. The chosen participant was not be approached by the PI or RA while he/she was inside the Central Gallery. While inside the boundaries of the Central Gallery, the PI or RA observed the participants actions, movements and behavior. The tracking sheet (Appendix A) lists the actions or behavior the PI or RA were specifically interested in documenting. However the PI or RA was not limited to this list. They were free to document any other behavior or action that may have been of interest even if it was not listed on the tracking sheet. The PI or RA also documented the overall time-in and time-out for each participant. Participants actions or behaviors were not observed once they entered into any space directly attached to the Central Gallery (outside the boundaries of the Central Gallery). This includes restrooms, gift shop or offices. The PI or RA stopped observing the participant when the participant left the boundaries of the Central Gallery and entered exhibit areas. Exhibit areas and the boundaries of Central Gallery are identified in Appendix G. The length of this observational period was determined by the amount of time the Central Gallery was inhabited by each selected participant.

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21 Interview Phase Participants for the interview phase were a sample of convenience. Any adult visitor (over the age of 18) inside the Central Gallery was a possible participant. Therefore, the PI or RA was free to select any adult visitor for this phase. Thirteen questions (Appendix B) were generated for this phase of data collection. A demographic data form (Appendix C) was also created to document the demographic information for each participant prior to beginning each interview. Multiple participant demographics were recorded on a single form. The data collection began when a convenient visitor was approached by the PI or RA and asked if they would like to participate. The PI or RA explained the research study and what actions were required of the participant. The PI or RA asked the participant to give verbal consent to participate in the interview and to have the interview audio-recorded. Once verbal consent was given the survey was administered in an interview format. The PI or RA then began to record the interview; first they identified by voice the sample number. Then the PI or RA began asking the survey questions beginning with Question #1 (Appendix B). The PI or RA was able to explain the questions further or clarify the question but were careful not to influence the potential answers given by the participant. Two different visual aids (Appendix D, E) were used in conjunction with Question #8, #9 and #11. The first visual aid is a computer generated rendering of a proposed change to the Central Gallery. The concept and rendering was created by Ralph Applebaum Associates (an exhibition design company) for FLMNH. The second aid is the current visitor handout map. It is printed on white bond paper in black and white only. Both the visual aids are no larger than 11 x 17 and were laminated for durability and ease of use. The PI or RA gave the participant sufficient time to answer each question.

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22 Once the participant answered all the questions or voluntarily ended their participation, then the interview was concluded. Each participant was given a handout, an informed consent form (Appendix F), which explained who they could contact if they had questions about their participation in this study. Finally, the PI or RA thanked each visitor for their time and participation. Data Analysis The information gathered during the physical setting assessment was analyzed in several ways. First the floor plan was diagramed to show direction of travel, choice points, visitor services locations, location of exhibit areas and the main entrance (Appendix G). The photographs taken at the site illustrated the location of important signage and places where orientation information is available to visitors. Notes taken during site visits were compared to the diagramed floor plan in order to ensure completeness of information. The notes were also used to inform the data collection instruments for the observation and interview phases. Data collected during the observation phase was manipulated using a statistical data program called SPSS. Several variables have been established in SPSS, in accordance with the tracking sheet (Appendix A). The day of week, time in and time out, and number of people in the group were input as separate variables. Visitor services were coded as either used or not used by each participant. Other participant actions like interacting with staff at the information desk, receiving paper information, viewing the mammoth and mastodon, reading the informative labels, and visually noticing the directional signs were also input as actions that were either done or not done by each participant. Other behavior that was noted regularly was input as separate variables, such as the donation of money. Finally the choice points were coded and each participants choice was input into this

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23 variable. SPSS was used to organize the data, and simple frequencies for each variable were determined. SPSS also produced the cross tabulation of frequencies by certain variables. See Chapter 4 for more information on which variables were used. The interview data was analyzed in a similar fashion to that of the observation data. The demographic information was input into SPSS. Day of the week, gender, racial identity, and number of people in the group were all separate variables. Then the audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim for each participant. A coding process was used to quantify the answers given for each open-ended question. The PI and research advisors predetermined many of the categories for each question (Appendix H). The participants answer for each question was read line by line from the transcript. If a participants answer fit into a predetermined category then it was recorded as such. It was possible for an answer to fit appropriately in more than one category. If a participants answer did not fall into any category, then their answer was placed into the other category for that question. Subsequently each other category was screened for similar answers. If there were two or more answers that were alike, then another category was established for those responses. Once each question was coded by category, simple frequencies for each category within each question were produced by SPSS. Cross-tabulation frequencies were also produced between each questions categories and the demographic information obtained for each participant. See Chapter 4 for more information on the results. Trends among participants became apparent when reading the transcripts. These trends can not always be explained by quantitative methods. Therefore, a qualitative narrative explores other nuances found in the interview data in Chapter 4.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Data was collected in three phases: 1) physical assessment phase 2) observation phase, 3) interview phase. The data from the physical assessment was compiled and analyzed. This yielded an overall floor plan, a diagrammatical floor plan and photographs of the building and Central Gallery. Data from the observation and interview phases was input into a statistical analysis program called SPSS. This program allowed the PI to compile the data and determine frequencies, cross-tabulations, percentages, and graphs for the variables. The results of these analyses are presented in this chapter. Physical Assessment Data The FLMNH is roughly 55,000 sq.ft. without the addition of the McGuire Center. It has a brick faade and a distinctive translucent sloping roof at the front entrance. It is situated in the University of Floridas cultural plaza, along with the Harn Museum of Art and the Phillips Center for the Performing Arts. The FLMNH houses several permanent exhibits, offices, research areas and multi-purpose classrooms, all of which are labeled on the overall floor plan in Appendix G. Entry Sequence Visitors approach the building from the parking areas or circular drive (Figure 4-1). The sidewalks are wide and appropriate landscaping has been planted adjacent to them. As they continue to the main entrance, colorful advertisement signs become more visible (Figures 4-2 and 4-3). Once inside the main entrance they must enter another set of interior doors (Figure 4-4). 24

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25 Figure 4-1. Street and parking area in front of FLMNH Figure 4-2. Sidewalk leading to front main entrance of FLMNH

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26 Figure 4-3. Front main entrance of FLMNH Figure 4-4. Interior doors after entering front entrance Inside the FLMNH Once inside the interior entry doors the visitor encounters several choices, amenities and objects within his or her view. The diagrammatical floor plan (Figure 4-5) displays the location of these items; and their proximity to one another. The

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27 diagrammatical floor plan was adapted and enlarged from the overall floor plan in order to show greater detail. Eight choice points were identified: a) Microbes exhibit (temporary exhibit), b) hallway to Pearsall Collection exhibit, South Florida exhibit and Florida Fossil exhibit, c) Northwest Florida exhibit, d) the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit, e) entrance to the administrative offices, f) a hallway leading to the multi-purpose classrooms, and g) the security office. Guest amenities that were identified include the information desk, the gift shop and the restrooms. The size and location of the Mammoth and Mastodon display are also outlined on the diagrammatical floor plan.

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28 Figure 4-5. Floor plan diagram of entrance and the Central Gallery

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29 Figure 4-6. Tiled entry area Figure 4-7. View of gift shop entrance (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)

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30 Figure 4-8. Closer view of information desk and donation box (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) The Central Gallery A B Figure 4-9. Two views of the information desk (A) Side view right, visitors are helped here. (B) Rear view with paper information.

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31 A B Figure 4-10. Mammoth and Mastodon fossils inside the Central Gallery, (A) Front view of both skeletons, (B) Side view of Mastodon skeleton (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) A B Figure 4-11. Interior views of Central Gallery, (A) View of left side when facing front entrance (B) View of right side when facing front entrance. Figure 4-12. Entrance to mens and womens restrooms (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)

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32 Figure 4-13. View of large directional signs, which are located at the rear of the Central Gallery.

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33 Choice points Figure 4-14. Choice point A, entrance to Microbes, temporary exhibit (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) Figure 4-15. Choice point B, hallway to other permanent exhibit halls (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)

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34 Figure 4-16. Choice point C, entrance to the Northwest Florida exhibit hall (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) Figure 4-17. Choice point D, entrance to The McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)

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35 Figure 4-18. Choice point E, entrance to the administrative offices (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) Figure 4-19. Choice point F, hallway to multi-purpose classrooms (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)

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36 Figure 4-20. Choice point G, entrance to security office, (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical floor plan.) Observation Data Results for this phase will be shown in tabular and written formats. Simple frequencies and percentages were calculated for each variable while cross-tabulations were calculated between relevant variables. Data was collected between 3/12/2005 and 4/18/2005. The data was comprised of observations for 63 participants. Data was collected from: 25 participants across various Fridays, 25 across various Saturdays, eight across various Sundays, and four participants on a single Monday during the data collection period. This section presents and summarizes the data from the observation phase, which will be more fully discussed in Chapter 5. Frequencies In summary, we know that half of the visitors are coming to the museum with their families (Table 4-1). 75% are not using the restrooms when first entering the museum

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37 (Table 4-2); nor are the majority (91%) of visitors stopping at the gift shop at the beginning of their visit (Table 4-3). Twenty-six visitors stopped at the information desk: 16 interacted with the staff person, eight picked-up paper information, six did both, two picked up paper information but did not interact with staff person, and nine visitors did neither (Cross-tabulation of Tables 4-4, 4-5, 4-6). Furthermore, of the 31 visitors who viewed the Mammoth and Mastodon display, 62.5% of them also read the text labels associated with the display (Table 4-7, 4-8). 59% of visitors did not display any behavior consistent with noticing or seeing the large directional signs (Table 4-9). An even higher percentage of visitors, 57 of the 63 observed, did not donate money (Table 4-10). Finally, 52% percent of visitors were observed entering the McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest exhibit first after leaving the Central Gallery, followed by 22% entering the Microbes exhibit. The other choice points received significantly less visitors (Table 4-11). Table 4-1. Frequency of group size. Number of people with the visitor? Group categories Frequency Percent One, single 8 12.7 Adult couple (2 only) 12 19.0 Family of 5 or fewer 26 41.3 Family of 6 or more 7 11.1 Adult group (3+) 10 15.9 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-2. Frequency of restroom use. Did visitor use restrooms? Restroom use Frequency Percent Use 16 25.4 Non-use 47 74.6 TOTAL 63 100.0

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38 Table 4-3. Frequency of gift shop use. Did visitor go into the gift shop? Gift shop use Frequency Percent Use 6 9.5 Non-use 57 90.5 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-4. Frequency of information desk use. Did visitor stop at information desk ? Stop at info. Desk Frequency Percent Yes 26 41.3 No 37 58.7 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-5. Frequency of interaction with desk staff. Did visitor interact with information desk staff? Interaction Frequency Percent Yes 16 25.4 No 47 74.6 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-6. Frequency of picking-up paper information. Did visitor pick up paper information? Paper info. Frequency Percent Yes 8 12.7 No 55 87.3 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-7. Frequency in viewing Mammoth and Mastodon. Did visitor view the Mammoth and Mastodon display? View display Frequency Percent Yes 31 49.2 No 32 50.2 TOTAL 63 100.0

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39 Table 4-8. Frequency in reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels. Did visitor read labels on the Mammoth and Mastodon display? Read labels Frequency Percent Yes 20 31.7 No 43 68.3 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-9. Frequency of noticing large directional signage. Did visitor notice large directional signage? Notice signage Frequency Percent Yes 26 41.3 No 37 58.7 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-10. Frequency of monetary donations. Did visitor donate money? Donation Frequency Percent Yes 6 9.5 No 57 90.5 TOTAL 63 100.0 Table 4-11. Frequency in choosing choice points. Which way did the visitor go after leaving the Central Gallery? Choice points Frequency Percent A. Microbes exhibit 14 22.2 B. Hallway to other exhibits 3 5.8 C. Northwest Florida exhibit 6 9.5 D. McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest 33 52.4 E. Administrative office 3 4.8 F. Hallway to multi-purpose classrooms 1 1.6 G. Security office 0 0.0 None of the above 3 4.8 TOTAL 63 100.0 The mean total time spent in the Central Gallery was three minutes, with a minimum time under one minute and a maximum time of twelve minutes. Table 4-12

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40 shows that 68% of the visitors observed spent three minutes or less in the entry area or Central Gallery. The line graph in Figure 4-21 illustrates that there were more visitors spending: 0-1 minute, 3 minutes, and 7 minutes in the Central Gallery than any other time interval. This may coincide with the streaker, stroller, and studier theory, which will be further discussed in Chapter 5. Table 4-12. Frequency of total time inside Central Gallery. Total time Frequency Percent 0:00min.-0:59min. 11 17.5 1:00min.-1:59min. 11 17.5 2:00min.-2:59min. 8 12.7 3:00min.-3:59min. 13 20.6 4:00min.-4:59min. 5 7.9 5:00min.-5:59min. 4 6.3 6:00min.-6:59min. 2 3.2 7:00min.-7:59min. 5 7.9 8:00min.-8:59min. 0 0.0 9:00min.-9:59min. 3 4.8 10:00min.-10:59min. 0 0.0 11:00min.-11:59min. 0 0.0 12:00min.-12:59min. 1 1.6 TOTAL 63 100.0 TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY0:120:090:070:060:050:040:030:020:010:00Frequency of visitors14121086420 Figure 4-21. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of total time inside Central Gallery.

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41 Cross-tabulations Cross tabulations allow us to show the frequency of certain variables within another control variable. Tables 4-13 and 4-14 look at frequency of use among the listed variables for each category in the group composition variable. Tables 4-15 and 4-16 look at frequency of use among the listed variables for each category in the total time spent variable. Tables 4-17 and 4-18 look at the frequency of use among for the group composition variable and the total time spent variable. Table 4-13. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information desk use, and picking up paper information within the group composition variable. Restroom use Gift shop use Stop at information desk Pick-up paper information Group composition Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No One, single 0 8 1 7 4 4 2 6 Adult couple (2 only) 5 7 1 11 5 7 3 9 Family of 5 or fewer 3 23 1 25 9 17 2 24 Family of 6 or more 4 3 1 6 4 3 1 6 Adult group (3+) 4 6 2 8 4 6 0 10 Table 4-14. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and Mastodon viewing, reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels, and noticing directional signage within the group composition variable. Monetary donation View Mammoth and Mastodon Read Mammoth and Mastodon Labels Notice directional signage Group composition Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No One, single 0 8 1 7 0 8 1 7 Adult couple (2 only) 0 12 4 8 4 8 7 5 Family of 5 or fewer 4 22 13 13 8 18 10 16 Family of 6 or more 1 6 5 2 4 3 2 5 Adult group (3+) 1 9 8 2 4 6 6 4

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42 Table 4-13 and 4-14 were created in order to compare how the number of people in a group affect the behavior and actions of the group members. This data will help us better understand how visitor behavior is affected by who they come with. When interpreting Table 4-13 and 4-14 it is important to look back at the frequencies for the group composition variable (Table 4-1). For example, of the eight total single visitors: none of them used the restroom or made a monetary donation, one entered the gift shop, four stopped at the information desk, two picked up paper information, one viewed the Mammoth and Mastodon display, none of them read the labels for the display and one noticed the directional signage. The comparisons and other trends will be discussed further in Chapter 5. Table 4-15. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information desk use, and picking up paper information within the total time spent variable. Restroom use Gift shop use Stop at information desk Pick-up paper information Total time spent Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No 0:00sec-0:59sec. 0 11 0 11 1 10 0 11 1:00min.-1:59min. 0 11 1 10 2 9 0 11 2:00min.-2:59min. 1 7 0 8 3 5 1 7 3:00min.-3:59min. 3 10 1 12 6 7 2 11 4:00min.-4:59min. 4 1 0 5 3 3 1 4 5:00min.-5:59min. 1 3 0 4 3 1 1 3 6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 7:00min.-7:59min. 3 2 1 4 4 1 2 3 8:00min.-8:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 9:00min.-9:59min. 3 1 3 0 2 1 0 3 10:00min.-10:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 11:00min.-11:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 12:00min.-12:59min. 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0

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43 Table 4-16. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and Mastodon viewing, reading text labels, and noticing signage within the total time spent variable. Interacted with staff person at desk View Mammoth and Mastodon Read Mammoth and Mastodon Labels Notice directional signage Total time spent Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No 0:00sec-0:59sec. 1 10 1 10 0 11 6 5 1:00min.-1:59min. 1 10 3 8 1 10 2 9 2:00min.-2:59min. 2 6 5 3 4 4 3 5 3:00min.-3:59min. 5 8 9 4 7 6 4 9 4:00min.-4:59min. 1 4 2 3 0 5 3 2 5:00min.-5:59min. 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 7:00min.-7:59min. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 5 8:00min.-8:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 9:00min.-9:59min. 0 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 10:00min.-10:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 11:00min.-11:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 12:00min.-12:59min. 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Table 4-15 and 4-16 were created in order to compare how much time people spent in the Central Gallery to what types of activities or behaviors they chose. This data will help us better understand the amount of time needed by visitors to view displays or to use the guest amenities. When interpreting Table 4-15 and 4-16 it is important to look back at the frequencies for the number in group variable (Table 4-1). For example, of the thirteen visitors who spent between three and four minutes in the Central Gallery: three used the restroom, one of them entered the gift shop, six stopped at the information desk, two picked up the paper information, five interacted with the staff person, nine viewed the Mammoth and Mastodon display, seven of those read the text labels associated with the display, and four noticed the large directional signage.

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44 Figures 4-22, 4-23, 4-24 and 4-25 display line graphs for several of the behaviors found in the cross-tab Tables 4-15 and 4-16. All of these line graphs show spiked levels of use at the 3 and 7 minute periods. Further discussion of these findings will occur in Chapter 5. TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59# OF VISITORS THAT USED RESTROOMS543210 Figure 4-22. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who used restroom for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59# OF VISITORS THAT STOPPED AT INFO D76543210 Figure 4-23. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the information desk for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.

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45 TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59# THAT VIEWED MAMMOTH/MASTODON1086420 Figure 4-24. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59# OF VISITORS WHO READ LABELS876543210 Figure 4-25. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who read the text labels for the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. Table 4-17 was created in order to see if group composition affects total time spent. This data will help us better understand how the amount of people in a visiting group can influence the amount of time the group spends in the Central Gallery. The figures that follow visually illustrate that many of the group compositions variables

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46 hover around certain ranges of time. For instance Figure 4-28 shows that the majority of visitors in adult groups of 3 or more spend greater than the mean time of three minutes. While Figure 4-29 demonstrates that the majority of visitors in the family of 5 or fewer group tend to spend less than the mean time of three minutes in the Central Gallery. Table 4-17. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between group composition variable and total time spent variable. Group Composition Total time spent Single (1) Adult Couple (2) Adult Group (3+) Family Group (5-) Family Group (6+) Total 0:00sec-0:59sec. 4 1 5 1 11 1:00min.-1:59min. 1 2 1 6 1 11 2:00min.-2:59min. 2 5 1 8 3:00min.-3:59min. 3 4 5 1 13 4:00min.-4:59min. 2 1 2 5 5:00min.-5:59min. 1 2 1 4 6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 2 7:00min.-7:59min. 2 1 2 5 8:00min.-8:59min. 9:00min.-9:59min. 2 1 3 10:00min.-10:59min. 11:00min.-11:59min. 12:00min.-12:59min. 1 1 TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59SINGLE ADULT5.04.03.02.01.00.0 Figure 4-26. Bar graph showing frequency of single visitors for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.

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47 TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59ADULT COUPLE5.04.03.02.01.00.0 Figure 4-27. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an adult couple group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59ADULT GROUP (3+)5.04.03.02.01.00.0 Figure 4-28. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an adult group of 3 or more for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery.

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48 TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59FAMILY OF 5 OR LESS76543210 Figure 4-29. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a family of 5 or fewer group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY12:00-12:599:00-9:597:00-7:596:00-6:595:00-5:594:00-4:593:00-3:592:00-2:591:00-1:590:00-0:59FAMILY OF 6 OR MORE3.02.01.00.0 Figure 4-30. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a family of 6 or more group for each one minute interval of total time spent in the Central Gallery. Interview Data Results for this phase will also be shown in tabular and written formats. Simple frequencies and percentages were calculated from the demographic information and for each category (Appendix H) within each question. Before reviewing the data for each question, the PI and museum staff members generated question-specific categories that

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49 participant answers could possibly fall into. Some of these categories seemed to be obvious from the data, while others were specifically chosen because they were themes museum educators were trying to communicate to visitors. Note that percentages are only shown for the demographic information and for Questions 2 and 3. Percentages were not calculated for the interview questions because it was possible for participant answers to fall into several categories, generating multiple responses per question. Data was collected between 3/12/2005 and 4/18/2005. The interview phase included 54 participants. Data was collected from: 19 participants across various Fridays, 18 participants across various Saturdays, 13 participants across various Sundays, and four on a single Monday during the data collection period. Demographic Information While the age of adult visitors ranged from 18 (9.3%) to age 65 and older (25.9%), the most frequent visitor age was within the range of 55-64 (38.9%) (Table 4-18). Fifty of the 54 (92.6%) visitors were identified as Caucasian/white (Table 4-19). The frequency of female to male participants was 50% each (Table 4-20). Table 4-18. Frequency of visitor age groups. Age categories Frequency Percent 18-24 5 9.3 25-34 3 5.6 35-44 7 13.0 45-54 4 7.4 55-64 21 38.9 65+ 14 25.9 TOTAL 54 100.0

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50 Table 4-19. Frequency of visitor racial identity. Racial Categories Frequency Percent African American/Black 1 1.9 Caucasian/White 50 92.6 Asian/Pacific Islander 1 1.9 Hispanic 0 0.0 Native American 0 0.0 Multiple 0 0.0 Other 2 3.7 TOTAL 54 100.0 Table 4-20. Frequency of visitor gender. Frequency Percent Male 27 50.0 Female 27 50.0 TOTAL 54 100.0 Questions 1, 2, 3 Questions 1, 2, and 3 asked visitors for more information about themselves. Question 1 asked visitors what the purpose of their visit was. The most frequent answer was a desire to see the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit (34 responses). The next frequent answer (12) was to participate in a social experience. This was indicated by the desire to bring a family member to the museum or to spend time with friends. Several participants mentioned that they were visiting Gainesville and were curious about the museum so they decided to visit. Frequencies for all these categories are found in Table 4-21. The specific responses in the other category can be found in Appendix I. Question 2 asked the visitor who they came with. The answers given were structured into the same number in group categories used for the observation data.

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51 Unlike the observation data, the most frequent group size was the adult couple group, followed by the adult group of three people or more (Table 4-22). Question 3 asked the visitor if they had been to the FLMNH before. The data found in Table 4-23 illustrates that the frequency of repeat visitors and first time visitors was not equal, with 42.6% and 57.4% respectively. Table 4-21. Frequency of responses for purpose of visit. Purpose of visit categories Frequency of responses See Microbes exhibit 2 See Butterfly Rainforest exhibit 34 See North Florida exhibit 0 See Florida Fossils exhibit 0 See South Florida exhibit 0 See Pearsall Collection Exhibit 0 Required for a UF class 3 See exhibits 1 For educational experience 0 For social experience 12 For museum experience 3 Other reasons 14 Table 4-22. Frequency of group size. Group categories Frequency Percent One, single 2 3.7 Adult couple (2 only) 26 48.1 Family of 5 or fewer 10 18.5 Family of 6 or more 1 1.9 Adult group (3+) 15 27.8 TOTAL 54 100.0

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52 Table 4-23. Frequency of repeat vs. first time visitors. Frequency Percent Repeat visitor 23 42.6 First time visitor 31 57.4 TOTAL 54 100.0 Questions 4, 5 Questions 4 and 5 asked the visitor to specifically think about the FLMNH. First they were asked what comes to mind when they think about the museum. Sixteen of the 54 participants responded that the Butterfly Rainforest comes to mind when they think of the FLMNH. Six participants said they that they never thought about it, or werent sure how to answer the question because they had never visited the museum before. The rest of the answers are widely spread among the remaining categories. The specific responses in the other category are listed in Appendix J. For Question 5 visitors were asked to describe what items/objects in the museum tell them what the museum is about. Participants found it easier to answer Question 5, because no one responded with an I dont know answer. The majority of participants, 31, chose the Mammoth and Mastodon display (Fig. 4-10A-B). While most of the participants chose one item or object for their answer, a few named multiple objects. Several of these other objects fell into three categories: the advertisement/signage (Fig. 4-3), the gift shop (Fig. 4-7), and the frog wall (Fig. 4-31), which all garnered three responses each. The other category had several responses that compared the FLMNH to other museums the participants had visited. The specific responses in the other category are listed in Appendix K.

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53 Figure 4-31. Complete view of the frog wall Questions 6 and 8 These two questions asked the visitor to describe what the current display in the Central Gallery (the Mammoth and Mastodon) and the new proposed design in Visual Aid #1 (Appendix D) makes them think about. When describing what they think about when viewing the current display, most participants (22) responded with pre-history or history. Additionally, nine other responses focused on the Mammoth and Mastodons size or other physical attribute. One visitor reported thinking about the concept of evolution, while none of the visitors reported having thoughts about the concept of extinction. In contrast, when the participants contemplated the proposed new design there were five responses for history and one for natural history. Ten other responses were tabulated for plants and/or animals where the participant did not specifically mention Florida; five were counted where Florida was specifically mentioned along with the plants and/or animals, making 15 total responses for plants and animals. Other categories like diversity, the natural environment, and evolution were cited a few times each. A large portion of the participants (19) had positive responses towards the proposed new

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54 design. Words like, beautiful, impressive, its cool, and I like it, were some of the descriptors used by these participants. Interestingly, five visitors thought the proposed new design gave them a better idea of what they might experience throughout the museum. The specific responses in the other category for Questions 6 and 8 are listed in Appendix L and N respectively. Questions 7 and 9 Both of these questions asked the participant to describe how they feel in the Central Gallery now (at the time of the interview) and after viewing Visual Aid #1 (Appendix D). Interestingly, the participants not only described how they felt, but described the physical characteristics of the space also. Answers thereby fell into either a feelings response or a physical response category, with sub-categories in each one. Some participants had both a physical and emotional answer, while others only had one or the other. Thereby many visitors gave multiple answers for these two questions. Within the feelings response category, 12 visitors responded that they were comfortable, followed by nine nice or pleasant responses. Feelings of being relaxed were cited by six visitors. Within the physical response category, the answers were similar in frequencies. There were nine responses for airy or open, nine responses for big or large, and nine responses for empty or too much extra space. After viewing Visual Aid #1 (Appendix D) participants answers became more focused on the physical characteristics of the space and fewer about their emotional feelings. Most of the participants described the proposed new design in the Visual Aid as being fuller and having more items to look at. Seven participants specifically called out details about the display, such as the color or size. The emotional answers were limited to the five responses for more welcoming or inviting. Also of interest were

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55 the non-descriptive positive answers such as I like it or this is great. Six visitors had such comments towards the space as it is now; 18 said they like the display in the Visual Aid more than what is currently in the Central Gallery. As in Question 8 above, six visitors thought the proposed new design gave them a better idea about what the museum had to offer. All the specific responses in the other category for Questions 7 and 9 are listed in Appendix M and O respectively. Question 10 Question 10 asked the participants if they received the information they needed to plan their visit. Thirty-four of the 54 visitors interviewed responded affirmatively. Follow-up questions were used to discover what was or could have been more helpful to the visitors when planning their visit. The frequency of responses was equally divided among the use of paper information, directional signs and the staff person at the information desk. Three visitors simply stated that the people they came with were helpful because their friends/family were already familiar with the space. Three visitors who had not asked for information felt that they were comfortable just wandering. This is further explained by a participant: I didnt ask for any information because we felt like we wanted to walk through. She later expressed that if she had wanted help she could have gotten it. She also acknowledged that more information might have been more helpful but (would) not (have made the visit) more enjoyable. In contrast, three visitors said they did not get the information they needed. When these participants were asked what would have been more helpful to them, two of them responded that they did not necessarily take the initiative to seek out any information, they were more or less just wandering, but they still reported a no answer. The third visitor did ask for information about the Butterfly Rainforest and was provided directions

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56 to the exhibit; yet they still responded no to Question 10. This particular visitor was still wondering whether they had to pay an entrance fee, so she felt she should have received more information from the staff person concerning the applicable fees. Four visitors reported that they simply didnt ask for any information without reporting a yes or a no answer. A few stated that they did not need any information. Of those, one said they didnt pick up any information because (they) have been here so much.and (they) get the newsletter. The other two had received information before they arrived, providing an opportunity to plan ahead. Several others (7) responded that they had not had a chance to get or ask for any information yet, but intended on doing so. All the specific responses in the other category for Questions 10 and 10a are listed in Appendix P. Questions 11, 12, and 13 The last three questions of the interview were focused on the physical orientation devices within the Central Gallery. Question 11 asked the visitor to critique the current handout map, Visual Aid # 2 (Appendix E). Several people didnt know a map existed or where it could be obtained. One such visitor stated, So you dont know these (the map) exist unless somebody points it out. He further suggests making the map available and noticeable somewhere other than the information desk. Visitors were divided on whether the map was acceptable the way it currently reads or whether color should be added. The majority of participants in favor of adding color mentioned using it as a way of coding the different spaces. Along the same lines as color use would be the addition of symbols or pictures. Others stated that the text should be bigger (6 responses) and you-are-here icon (8) should be added. Only two visitors wanted to simplify the map by having less

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57 details and text. All the specific responses in the other category for Questions 11 can be found in Appendix Q. When asked about the large directional signs (Question 12), 40 of the 54 participants acknowledged that they had seen the signage. This is in direct contrast to the observation data collected about the directional signage. For Question 13, 40 visitors also said they would use the signs to help them find a specific exhibit. Interestingly, those 40 participants were not necessarily the same visitors who acknowledged seeing the signs.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Data was collected in three phases: physical assessment phase, observation phase and interview phase. The data was carefully analyzed and reported in Chapter 4. This chapter will discuss the findings in greater depth. Possible reasons for visitor behavior will be explored, as will an assessment of the current and proposed new entrance icons, with regard to visitors conceptual orientation and the conveyance of the museums educational message. Limitations of the study and opportunities for future studies will also be discussed. Furthermore, design suggestions for the Central Gallery renovation will be outlined at the end of the chapter. Who Are the Visitors? The demographic data collected during the interview phase was not collected using a systematic sample. Therefore it cannot be used to determine if the museums visitors during this study are similar to visitors in previous studies. Thus the demographic data from this study does not necessarily reflect the true visitorship of the museum. Furthermore, the visitor demographic data can only inform the results and discussion that are inherent to this study. Further discussion of this limitation is outlined in the Limitations section. The group composition data collected during the observation phase was collected using a systematic sample; therefore it can be compared to previous studies conducted at the FLMNH. One such study was conducted during 2000-2001. Using the group composition data from the spring of 2001, we know that the previous study showed that 58

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59 31% of visitors came with one other adult (adult couple). The current study shows that 19% of visitors fell into the adult couple category. A smaller difference occurs within the family group; 46% of visitors came in a family group in 2001, while 52% came in a family group in the current study. Does this mean that the overall composition of visitor groups has changed at the FLMNH? This is unclear because the data collected about group composition during the previous study was self-reported by visitors. The data collected during the current study only reflects apparent relationships. The RA was only able to observe the group composition, with no way to verify the true nature of the relationships observed. What Are Visitors Doing? The observation data presents an accurate picture about what visitors are doing and how long they spend inside the Central Gallery. First we know from Tables 4-1 and 4-2 that visitors are unlikely to use the restroom or gift shop in the beginning of the museum experience. They may use these guest amenities at another time in their visit. Only 9.5% of visitors made a monetary contribution to the museum using the donation box. Interestingly, those visitors who came in a family group were the most frequent donors. The fact that the majority of visitors (52.4%) chose to see the Butterfly Rainforest was not surprising, since it is the newest attraction at the FLMNH. The Rainforest has been open for less than one year. Likewise, the Microbes exhibit was selected as a first stop by 14 of the 64 visitors observed. It is a temporary traveling exhibit and was only shown at the FLMNH for a limited time. It would seem that novelty was the motivator for why visitors chose these exhibits first.

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60 Table 4-4 illustrates that more than half of visitors did not stop at the information desk. This is unfortunate for several reasons: 1) the desk staff is extremely knowledgeable about public programs and the exhibits, and information that may be relevant to many visitors; 2) the handout map of the FLMNH is kept at the information desk; and 3) paper information such as brochures and handouts about the exhibits are also available at the desk. The low frequency of use could be explained by the fact that more than half of the visitors were repeat visitors. It is assumed they would not need the assistance of the desk staff or paper information because they are already familiar with the museum. Regardless, the FLMNH has many new public programs and traveling exhibits that change the museums environment on a regular basis. Therefore, the information desk always has information that may be relevant to repeat visitors. With this in mind, many other factors could be impacting the use of the information desk. These other factors are: the physical attributes of the desk, the placement if the desk, staff allocation and visitor motivation. The desk has limited physical space where guests can be assisted. As seen in Fig. 4-10B, only one side of the desk is available for visitors to stand. Therefore only a few visitors can be assisted at one time. Anecdotally this has been a problem when selling tickets for past exhibits. This is further hindered by the placement of the desk within the Central Gallery. Fig. 4-5 shows the close proximity of the desk and the Mammoth and Mastodon display. It is quite possible that there is not enough room to accommodate both visitors waiting for information and visitors viewing the display. Also many times there is only one staff person working at the information desk. It is quite possible that visitors do not want to wait to speak to the only staff person. If there were more staff to assist guests perhaps more than 9 visitors (14%) would have

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61 been able to interact with the staff person. From Tables 4-11 and 4-12 we understand that the majority of visitors were specifically motivated to see the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit. Of the 33 visitors who chose to see the Butterfly Rainforest first, 15 spent less than then the mean time of 3 minutes in the Central Gallery. It seemed like visitors had a one-track mind and headed straight for the exhibition. All of these factors may explain the low turnout at the information desk. Visitors with the one-track mind may also be considered streakers. According to Larry Klein (1986), visitors exhibit behaviors in patterns related to time. Thus he coined the terms streakers, strollers and studiers. Streakers move quickly through an area, strollers tend to move at a more leisurely pace and studiers spend the most time in an area or exhibit. When looking closely at the total time spent variable and Figure 4-21, we see that frequency of total time spent among visitors peaked at three distinct time intervals. These were 0-1minute, 3 minutes, and 7 minutes. This data correlates to Kleins theory. More specifically, visitors in each group composition group spent different amounts of time in the Central Gallery. Thus they can be classified as streakers, strollers, or studiers, or a combination of these types. From Figure 4-26, the graph shows that single visitors could be described as streakers, with some strollers. But Figure 4-27 shows that visitors in the adult couple group are streakers, strollers, and studiers; they were more evenly distributed between the three types. Figure 4-28 illustrates that visitors in the adult group of 3 or more are more likely to be strollers and studiers. On the other hand, visitors in the family group (family with 5 people or less) are more likely to be streakers, with some strollers (Figure 4-29). This suggests that the children in the group may be influencing the pace of the group.

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62 Those classified as strollers or studiers were more frequently observed doing the behaviors or actions in Tables 4-13 and 4-14, as illustrated by Figures 4-22, 4-23, 4-24, and 4-25. Therefore the majority of visitors in adult groups, not family or single groups, were more likely to partake in the behaviors that were observed. Therefore two conclusions can be drawn from this data. First, that group composition and time are inter-related factors in how visitors behave. Second, the groups tend to overlap within the stroller category, where the mean time of 3 minutes occurs. More visitors were observed spending 3 minutes in the Central Gallery than any other time interval. Thus it seems logical that the majority of museum visitors are strollers. Perhaps the museum should try to communicate the museums educational message and physically orient visitors in 3 minutes. By using 3 minutes as a benchmark the museum has the opportunity to reach the majority of visitors. The observation data alone cannot describe why visitors exhibited these behaviors. The interview data, although not directly linked to the visitors observed in the observation phase, may give us a better understanding. Question 10 of the interview asked visitors if they received the information they needed to plan their visit. Thirty four responded that they had. However, only a small percentage of visitors were observed stopping at the information desk during the observation phase. How can this difference be explained? First, equal amounts of visitors claimed they used the information desk staff, paper information and the directional signage. So we know that visitors are using other informational tools, such as signage, to get information. How does one interpret the use of the directional signage? During the interview, 75% of visitors reported noticing the signs but during the observation phase only 42% were observed noticing or looking at

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63 them. It is hard to tell whether there is a true difference in the data. It is possible that the visitors who were interviewed felt they should answer yes to Question 12, once the signage was pointed out to them. Or stronger yet is the possibility that the RA was unable to determine if a visitor really did notice the signs. Regardless, the data from either phase shows that a good portion of visitors see the signs. Of the remaining 20 visitors who did not answer yes to Question 10, many were already familiar with the space or were with people who were familiar with the space. This is corroborated by the fact that 43% of those interviewed were repeat visitors. Thus the data allows for some assumptions about physical orientation in the Central Gallery. It can be assumed that the information desk, staff person and the paper information are not the only tools that help to physically orient visitors. Signage also has a vital role in helping visitors. Furthermore, it is assumed that every physical orientation tool available is not used by every visitor, and that visitor preferences influence their method of orientation. Thus an orientation strategy that employs all of these tools to varying degrees seems most appropriate for reaching the largest percentage of visitors. Loomis (1987) validates this idea by stating, (visitors) may need to confirm or verify their orientation to the environment with more than one source of information. What Do Visitors Think? Regarding physical orientation, visitors had several suggestions to improve the FLMNHs handout map (Appendix E). Before visitors critiqued the map, many didnt know the museum had a map. This problem is inherent in the fact that many visitors did not stop at the information desk (the place where the maps are located). The museum may want to consider making the maps available at the desk and at another location within the Central Gallery. Thus, picking up a map would not be limited by whether the visitor stops

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64 at the desk. One visitor who was interviewed had the same suggestion. It is unclear among visitors who were interviewed which ones actually picked up a map because only eight people responded that they used paper information to help them plan their visit. It is possible that the paper information they spoke of was not the handout map. How can the museum make the map more usable? Visitors had several suggestions (even those who did not pick one up); they include the addition of color and a you-are-here symbol. These ideas adhere to other researched map strategies by Levine (1982). Many of those who wanted color added were in favor of using color as a coding system, matching the colors on the map to the same color at the entrance of the exhibits. It is likely that visitors are comfortable with this strategy because it is commonly used in shopping malls and airports. These comments suggest that visitors need a better way to relate the physical, three dimensional spaces, with the image of the two-dimensional space on the map. This is a keen insight in order to make the map more usable for visitors. Regarding conceptual orientation were visitors thoughts about the current entrance icon (Mammoth and Mastodon display) and the new proposed Panorama of Life entrance icon. According to the observation data 50% viewed the Mammoth and Mastodon display. One would desire even greater visitor usage for an entrance icon if planning to use it for conceptual orientation. Perhaps there is not enough, visually, to hold visitors attentions with just the Mammoth and Mastodon display. What we have learned is that the current display attracts half of all visitors and consistently delivers a message of pre-history or history. But this is not the message that the museum wants to communicate. Therefore the FMLNH will attempt to change the icon design to deliver

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65 the message (basic science concepts) it has developed, a message that better orients visitors conceptually to the museum. So does the proposed new Panorama of Life icon design suggest that it is possible to convey these science concepts? The visitor responses to Question 8 definitely illustrate the potential for greater attracting power. Visitors described the new display as having more color, more movement/excitement, and that it was more interesting to look at. It is encouraging that several visitors did think about diversity and the abundance of animals; these ideas are at the heart of learning about Biodiversity and Ecology. The results also show that several visitors thought the proposed new design was more representative of what they would see in the rest of the museum. This is interesting because it suggests that the proposed new icon design has the potential to conceptually orient visitors to the museum, unlike the current Mammoth and Mastodon display. Because the Visual Aid for the Panorama was a rendered computer drawing, there was no way for visitors to take advantage of possible text panels for the proposed new display. Text panels designed for the Panorama could fill in the gaps between what is only learned visually. But, as was determined from the observation data about the Mammoth and Mastodon display, educators cannot rely on text panels to communicate the entire message; even though a good percentage of visitors (62.5%) who viewed the display also read them. The museum now plans to develop several other entrance icon designs that build on the information gathered in this study. They will be evaluated to determine which one optimally teaches the science concepts that have been recently identified as biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Furthermore this study demonstrates that entrance icons have the

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66 power to attract and deliver messages (or content) visually to visitors. The Mammoth and Mastodon display suggested pre-history, while the Panorama suggests different messages such as diversity or wildlife. Thus from this study we know that different icon designs evoke different ideas for visitors. The goal of future studies will be to identify which designs come closest to conveying the museums educational message. Limitations There are several limitations to the data as it was collected. First, a research assistant was employed to collect all the data. Although she was trained using a prescribed set of procedures, she was not always supervised when collecting data. It is possible that her technique could have changed during the course of data collection. At times visitors were not asked the same follow-up questions nor were their answers always clarified for specific meaning. Second, the data was collected during a six week period of time. This yielded a small sample number for both phases. A longitudinal study, over several seasons of the year may have documented a larger and more diverse sample. Third, participants during the interview phase were chosen with a convenient sampling technique. Therefore the research assistant could have exhibited personal bias when choosing participants. This could account for the lack of more participants in each racial identity category and the low frequency of visitors from family groups being interviewed. Unfortunately because of the convenient sampling technique the data from the interview phase is not generalizable among all FLMNH visitors or other museums. Finally, since the principal investigator had no assistance during the analysis phase, specifically during the coding portion, inter-rater reliability could not be established. Further Studies

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67 This study explored several complex topics, in somewhat broad terms. Three of these topics should be more specifically studied: 1) the handout map, 2) the placement and size of the information desk, and 3) front-end evaluations of several more entrance icon designs. This study showed low visitor use and possible deficiencies with the current map. The suggestions by visitors could be used to change and enhance the map; several iterations of the map could be tested. This follow-up study could help the museum develop a map that is easier to use and more informative to visitors. The museum could also develop a study that tests whether having the maps available at other locations in the Central Gallery would increase use among visitors. A follow-up study more specifically aimed at better understanding the information desk might be helpful as well. Using observations that only focus on the desk could provide a more accurate picture of visitor use. This might be paired with another interview which only asks visitors specific questions about the information desk, the paper information that is provided there, and their use or non-use of the desk. Finally, another front-end evaluation will be needed to introduce other designs for the new entrance icon to visitors. This study revealed that such icons do deliver information visually, but that neither the current icon nor the proposed new design was sufficient in communicating the museums newly determined educational message. Perhaps scale models might be used in the future study, which may help visitors better understand the size, scale, and context of the designs that they are evaluating. Design Recommendations for the Central Gallery Renovation Using the information generated from this study, several recommendations have been developed. These recommendations should not be taken as discreet directions but

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68 rather loose suggestions which can be consulted during the design process. The suggestions are: Consider moving the information desk to another location within the Central Gallery. Consider changing the size and configuration of the desk. Consider adding a second or third staff person to work at the desk during high volume hours/days. If the above changes are not possible, consider a secondary information area, elsewhere in the museum where visitors can ask questions. Consider having another area (away from the information desk) where paper information can be picked up by visitors. Consider changing or enhancing the visitor handout map. Consider designing an area where a stationary map could be mounted. This display could combine the stationary map and paper information. This will become especially important in the future as the FLMNH expands and other entrances become available to guests, e.g., the new entrance into the McGuire Center. Consider making the donation box more visually attractive. Explain to visitors how their money is being used by the museum. This may increase the frequency of visitors who donate. Consider alternative designs to The Panorama of Life, which incorporate the positive comments made by visitors in this study. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for a NSF grant proposal. The grant funds will make a renovation of the FLMNHs Central Gallery possible. This study provided the baseline data needed to substantiate the museums desire to create an entrance icon, and its claim that an entrance icon has the potential to communicate the museums newly developed science concepts. The renovation could also include some possible changes to the physical orientation system currently used in the Central Gallery. The study yielded useful data about potential physical orientation problems and some

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69 suggestions on how best to make changes. This study and subsequent ones will help the museum make thoughtful, evidence-based decisions during renovation, and provide guidance as the museum expands its exhibits and square footage in the future. The most critical lessons learned are: Entrance icons have the ability to communicate content visually and at-a-glance to the visiting public. Visitors are receptive to the idea that the entrance icon can orient them to the themes within the permanent exhibits. Neither the current icon nor the proposed Panorama of Life optimally communicates the intended science concepts developed by FLMNH educators. Several physical orientation devices, like the handout map and the information desk, are infrequently used by the majority of visitors. Finding ways to enhance the frequency of use could help visitors physically orient themselves better. The renovation of the Central Gallery gives the FLMNH the unique opportunity to enhance their physical orientation system while creating an entrance icon that conceptually orients visitors to the museums educational message. By pairing both forms of orientation within the Central Gallery, the FLMNH is ensuring a quality museum experience to the 250,000 people who visit annually.

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APPENDIX A TRACKING SHEET Sample # Day: Date: Time in: Time out: Group Dynamic # of people: apparent relationships: Restroom use: yes no Giftshop use: yes no Stop at information desk: yes no Interaction with person: yes no Receive paper information: yes no View mastodon/mammoth: yes no Read labels: yes no Visually notice directional signage: yes no Other behavior: i.e. confusion, frustration Which way did the participant go first: Temp. exhibit area McGuire Center North Florida Hallway to other exhibits Classroom Area Office Area Security Office 70

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APPENDIX B STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What was the purpose of your visit today? 2. Who did you come with? 3. Have you been to the Florida Museum of Natural History before? 4. When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind? i.e., the nature of the museum or what it has to offer? 5. When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would give you an idea about what this museum is about? 6. When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do they make you think about? 7. Can you describe how you feel inside the lobby space? 8. If you saw this (use visual aid) when you walked into the museum, what would it make you think about? 9. Can you describe how this space might feel to you compared to how if feels now? 10. When you entered the museum today did you get the type of information you needed to plan your visit? a. What was helpful to you? b. What would have been more helpful to you? 11. What could we do to make this map more helpful to our visitors? 12. Did you notice the large exhibit signs inside the lobby? 13. Did you use them to help you find a specific exhibit? 71

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APPENDIX C DEMOGRAPHIC RECORD LOG Sample #: Age Group: 12-17 18-24 Racial identity: African American/Black (circle one) 25-34 35-44 (circle one) Hispanic/Latino 45-54 55-64 Asian/Pac. Islander 65-older Native Am/AK native Caucasian/White Gender:________________________ Multiple Day:___________________________ Other Date:__________________________ Time:__________________________ Sample #: Age Group: 12-17 18-24 Racial identity: African American/Black (circle one) 25-34 35-44 (circle one) Hispanic/Latino 45-54 55-64 Asian/Pac. Islander 65-older Native Am/AK native Caucasian/White Gender:________________________ Multiple Day:___________________________ Other Date:__________________________ Time:__________________________ Sample #: Age Group: 12-17 18-24 Racial identity: African American/Black (circle one) 25-34 35-44 (circle one) Hispanic/Latino 45-54 55-64 Asian/Pac. Islander 65-older Native Am/AK native Caucasian/White Gender:________________________ Multiple Day:___________________________ Other Date:__________________________ Time:__________________________ 72

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APPENDIX D VISUAL AID #1: PANORAMA OF LIFE, PROPOSED NEW DESIGN 73

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APPENDIX E VISUAL AID #2: FLMNH HANDOUT MAP 74

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APPENDIX F IRB INFORMED CONSENT FORM APPROVAL 75

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APPENDIX G FLMNH OVERALL FLOOR PLAN 76

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APPENDIX H CATEGORY LISTS FOR EACH INTERVIEW QUESTION The numbers of responses are shown for each category within each question. Question 1: What was the purpose of your visit today? See the Microbes Exhibit, 1 See McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest, 33 See North Florida Exhibit, 0 See South Florida Exhibit, 0 See Fossil Hall Exhibit, 0 See Pearsall Collection Exhibit, 0 See exhibits, 1 Social Experience, 12 Educational Experience, 0 Required for a UF class, 3 Museum Experience, 3 Other, 14 (see list of responses in Appendix I) Question 2Who did you come with? Came alone, 2 Came with one other adult, 26 Came with family of 5 or less, at least one child, 10 Came with family of 6 or more, at least one child, 1 Came with an adult group, 3 or more, 15 Question 3Have you been to the Florida Museum of Natural History before? Have NOT been before, 31 Have been before, 23 Question 4When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind? Natural History, 3 Butterfly rainforest, garden, 16 Plants and animals, non-specific, 3 Plants and animals specific to Florida, 3 See exhibits, 5 Never thought about it, 6 Memories, childhood etc., 2 77

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78 Dickinson Hall, old building, 3 History, the past, relics, 5 Fossils, skeletons, bones, 5 Dinosaurs, 2 Other, 24(see list of responses in Appendix J) Question 5When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would give you an idea about what this museum is about? Frog wall, 3 Gift shop, 3 Mammoth and Mastodon, 32 Advertisement, outside signage, 3 Donation box, 1 Butterfly "wave", 3 Other, 20 (see list of responses in Appendix K) Question 6When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do they make you think about? Pre-History, the past, 22 Fossils, Skeletons, bones, 1 Dinosaurs, 4 Imagining oneself in the past, 2 Evolution, 1 Extinction, 0 Physical attributes of the animals, 10 Cant believe they lived in Florida, or area, 3 Other, 21(see list of responses in Appendix L) Question 7Can you describe how you feel inside the lobby space? Comfortable, 12 Relaxed, peaceful, 6 Airy, open, 9 Bright, 4 Big, large, expansive, spacious, 9 Barren, sterile, 0 Empty, not enough items, extra space, 8 Nice, fine, pleasant, 9 Makes visitor feel small, 3 Other, 22 (see list of responses in Appendix M)

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79 Question 8If you saw this (use visual aid) when you walked into the museum, what would it make you think about? Natural History, 1 History, the past, 6 Plants and Animals (non-specific to Florida), 10 Plants and Animals (specific to Florida), 5 Diversity, variety, 4 Evolution, 2 Ecology, 0 Natural Environment, 2 Comments about Physical Design, 5 Scientific Classifications, 0 More Interesting, more to look at, more exciting, 3 More Comprehensive, 3 Shows what the museum is about or has to offer, 5 Positive Response: I like it, impressive, beautiful, etc., 19 Other, 25 (see list of responses in Appendix N) Question 9Can you describe how this space might feel to you (with Panorama of Life) compared to how if feels now? More items, fuller, busier, 10 More interesting, 7 Crowded, restrictive, confining, 2 More welcoming, inviting, 5 Describes what is inside museum, what the museum has to offer, 6 Comment about physical design, 7 Non-descriptive positive response to the Central gallery as it is now, 7 Non-descriptive positive response to new design, 18 Energetic, movement, more exciting, 4 Don't know, 1 Other, 23 (see list of responses in Appendix O) Question 10When you entered the museum today did you get the type of information you needed to plan your visit? No, 3 Yes, 34 Don't need any, 3 Didn't ask for any, 4 Haven't sought it out yet, 7 Other, 3 (see list of responses in Appendix P)

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80 Question 10AWhat was helpful to you? Paper information, 8 Staff person at the information desk, 8 Did not need information, 0 Already familiar with the space, 3 Directional signage, 7 Other, 9 (see list of responses in Appendix P) Question 11What could we do to make this map more helpful to our visitors? You-are-here icon, 8 Color coding, 16 Use more symbols or pictures, 3 Bigger, 6 Orient differently, 1 Show location of entrance, 2 Dont know/didnt use map, 8 Okay the way it is, no comments, 17 Other, 6 (see list of responses in Appendix Q) Question 12Did you notice the large exhibit signs inside the lobby? No, 14 Yes, 40 Question 13Did you use them to help you find a specific exhibit? No, 11 Yes, 40 Familiar, already know where to go, 1 Don't need them, just wandering, 2 Other, 0

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APPENDIX I OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 1 Question 1: What was the purpose of your visit today? 1. To look around the campus. 2. Well, I just wanted to see the sculptures. And, you know, just kind of see, you know, just kind of see what they have. 3. Well, we had some of the afternoon to kill because we were done riding our bikes and we saw the brochure for this and thought this sounds really interesting. So we came over to look at it because it sounded good in the brochure. 4. Im going to visit Charlie Corvel. He works here. 5. Were visiting Gainesville and we heard about the Museum. 6. ...to see some of the natural Florida history. 7. ... we came to the butterflies to take some pictures. 8. Just to see it, Ive never been there. 9. Oh just to see whats here. 10. Um, my son likes fossils. 11. Just recreation. 12. To see the natural history museum. 13. Oh, I have been interested to see this museum for a while. 14. To visit the museum. 81

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APPENDIX J OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 4 Question 4: When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind? 1. It has a lot of new stuff and interactive things. 2. Local natural resources, all kinds of ecosystems. 3. There's a big science museum where I'm from and it reminds me of like fun exhibits and playing with neat science toys. 4. My wife and I both enjoy museums. We travel a lot and that's the first thing we look for is the museums. 5. Gators. 6. Well, I just realized they had one. 7. Well this isnow; we were just driving up I-75 and saw the sign and decided to stop. 8. Research. 9. Uh, the mammoth. 10. Well, it's the first time we've ever walked in, this is the first exhibit I've seen, but it's a nice facility from what I've seen so far. 11. Hmmoh gosh that's a hard one. Well, my children really enjoy it, so that's why we come quite a bit for thembecause, they're pretty nature orientated so they really enjoy it. 12. Well, Ithis new Florida Museum I think is actually spectacular. The improvement is marvelous, I thought the other one was very good, but this is really outstanding. It should be considered one of the best in the country. 13. Archaeology 14. I love it! All the wonder of it I think. 15. The mastodon and the mammoth, and I thought that was pretty impressive because of how detailed they were and how complete they were, and also I liked just the 82

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83 environment was nice. A real relaxed environment, it wasn't crowded. Just kind ofa nice, comfortable place to visit. 16. Well I wasI knew the University of Florida in Gainesville was here, I didn't realize how large it was and someone told me yesterday there's 80,000 students or something like that. I like college university towns, I think the ambience and the culture's just wonderful. 17. Wellgee, I always remember this exhibit here with the mastodons, Like I saidI think of it would be kind of a child oriented museum, it's a very good place to take kids. 18. Oh, its great. 19. I dont know, just fun and relaxing. 20. Oh wellwe've been down in Fort Lauderdale, and I used to go to a museum down there, of Natural History. And we were going to go but it's closed, sowe were sort of disappointed but then we saw this one so that was it. 21. Okay, since it's associated with the University I figured it was going to have research and that it was not just going to be like some kids version. Since I'm touristing for the first time, I want something quality. 22. Well, the great deal of effort it took to put all this together. 23. Well, I think it's really educational. One thing that's different that they have, the interesting thing, is that things relate to children. 24. Prehistoric stuff that's why I was or iginally interested in coming.

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APPENDIX K OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 5 Question 5: When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would give you an idea about what this museum is about? 1. Prehistoric times 2. Some of the birds around here, yeah. And the information signs. 3. Oh God.(laughs) well other than that, umokay, my opinion was thatum, they're trying. They're trying to create this...uh, I don't think there's any other part of the University that has one of these, it's all here right? And it's more extensive than the last time I was here (at the Harn) which was about 5 years ago. 4. Uh, the art 5. Well, on the outside for one thing. And coming in the door and seeing the different, uh, things on the wall to give you an idea of whats going to be inside. And talking to the lady at the desk about the rainforest. 6. Well, your first exhibit is all I've seen, and it reminds me of our museum at home in Raleighvery similar. 7. I didn'tI just walked in, yeah, so I really haven't seen anything. I guess the first thing that caught my eye was the facthow big the whole complex is. And my son being in theater, I did notice the theaterlooked like that was pretty neat. 8. I have no idea, just visitingcuriosity 9. Andyou know, I've been coming to this museum since I was a kid, when it was at it's older locationso, Iit's harder for me to answer because I've grown up with itbut, just the atmosphere you can tell it's a learning environment. 10. Well, obviously I looked at the brochures first of all and the general information. 11. Actually, nothing until I got through the door. No, because I already knew it was hereand that exhibit, butterfly exhibit, Ive seen it before, its kind of unusual you kind of look at it and say well thats got to be different, and youve got a question mark, you knowbut I knew. Sorry about that if thats not the right answerIm giving you an honest answer. 84

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85 12. Well I have an idea what Museums of Natural History are, and I have been to another butterfly place in Callaway Gardens, Georgia. So I had some idea, I've been to the Natural History Museum in Washington D.C. and so forth so I knew there would be these skeletons and so forth. I haven't been to the rest of the museum yet 13. The big animals 14. Oh we saw everything. I dont knowits just about everything. 15. The dinosaur 16. We haven't really gotten into it yet. I just figure that it's about natural history and I'm excited about exploring the natural stuff, kind of getting some more background. 17. I'm not sure, as I've said we have been here before, so we knew sort of what to expect. But I didn't thinkhave they, I know you're the one who's supposed to be asking questions, but it seems to me that they have a lot more now then they had when we were here last, it was about 5 years ago. 18. One thing when you walk in the front door, you already know what the museum's going to be like because whatever is out here on display is always an eye catcher. It's clean, it's neat, everything, I mean it just says "Come in, we're ready for you". 19. We knew it was here because its where the butterfly exhibit is and also natural history 20. But we like the archaeology and, you know, the reconstructed fossils exhibit.

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APPENDIX L OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 6 Question 6: When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do they make you think about? 1. They make me think about the exhibit that I came and saw for the class. 2. Hmmwell, what are you looking for? What kind of aspects are you looking for? Like preservation? Well when we see them I want to tell my children about the fossils, and weve been studying the flood. And you know this is a good example of when the flood came. And especially, I guess a lot of the museums dont present one side or the other, but we can use it to tell them how the fossils are preserved. 3. Running. 4. It made me think of the natural history museum in Washington D.C., and made me curious as to what else was here. 5. Elephants 6. I guess everything that we missed. 7. The differences between the two groups of elephants. 8. I guess dead things on display. 9. So far, so farI havent had enough exposure to the rest to tell yet. Probably be better, actually if you catch them on the way out. 10. Natural history. 11. My anthropology class. 12. My childhood. Theyve been around for a whilesoits kind of a sense of excitement because when my kids come in the first thing they always say whoa, when they see that. Soits hard for me to describe, but 13. What it used to be on Earth once upon a timeand how lucky we are that were still here. 86

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87 14. Oh gee, just my love of history I guess and my love of science. 15. Just in amazement that theyre so close to where we live now, thats where they were foundand how, its just real impressive. Its one thing to read it or see it in a magazine, but when you actually see it in person its incredible. Its not abstract anymore, its real. 16. Gosh, natural history museums I guess. 17. I wouldnt want to meet them, even though they arent meat eaters. 18. I guess how small we are in the universe. 19. Hmmgood question. Actually, the first thing that came to mindwe were at the museum of Natural History in New York. Yes, they have an amazing amount of fossils. 20. Well I was thinking, how in the world did they get that preserved; where they could bring it back out today and have this much of it here. Its amazing. 21. I dont know, they remind me of Africa

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APPENDIX M OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 7 Question 7: Can you describe how you feel inside the lobby space? 1. Happy. 2. I like the space, yeah, especially because right there and you can walk right in there. 3. Theres a lot of unutilized space. It looks like a convention center, the room isnt really complete. Its a beautiful building on the outside and it has a lot of structural feature and the lighting is excellent. I think it could definitely use a lot more. 4. Wonderful, good atmosphere. 5. Its inviting except that this, um, like the bobcat and the bird thats above your head you dont notice it right away, youre drawn to the mammoth skeletons. 6. How I feel? Kind of chilly right now. 7. Itslet me look. Well, you know the look of the museum has changed from when I was a child. And its definitely, it seems more like of a lobby that you would find in a bigger city museum. Its moreslicker, almost. And it has a great design, and it definitely feels like a bigger city museum. 8. ...and it gives you a wonderful feeling. 9. Im indecisive because I dont know where to start. What should I do first? 10. Sort of overwhelmed actually. 11. Bringing the outdoors in, it gives me that sense,...friendlyits clean, its very clean. 12. ...informative, there are signs telling people whats available. And I like the mastodon and the other guy. 13. ...its a littleits got the iron girders over there, you know, so to me it looks a little unfinished. 88

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89 14. Its well organized, its very inviting. 15. I feel relaxed; I feel reallyI feel at peace. 16. ...its not cramped I guess. 17. I have no ideaLike Im about to enter those eon periods years ago. 18. Safe. Relaxed and quiet, yet theres talking going on. It doesnt bounce off the walls. 19. How I feel? I feel very interested in whats going on. 20. I guess I am really surprised at how many people are here today. It is exhibited very well; I havent been around the whole museum. 21. No, not really. 22. I dont have any feelings. 23. Well, there could be more going on.

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APPENDIX N OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 8 Question 8: If you saw this (Panorama of Life) when you walked into the museum, what would it make you think about? 1. It probably makes me think about Alexander Calder. It looks like a giant mobile. 2. the track with the butterflies and animals on it,... 3. I was trying to see what these arehmmm, all aspects of animal kingdom. Even the extinct ones. 4. It would just rekindle more thoughts about the fact that youre entering another world, and thats what the idea of a museum is, the past. 5. Lets see, it looks like flight but obviously its not all flight, its underwater and action, movement. 6. Ooh, I guess all the many creatures there are in this world that we need to know more about. 7. Im not sure. Its a lot going on. It kind ofI mean it looks nice, but its kind of disorganized to me. 8. Just what I would expect in Florida. Its not what Im used to. (What isnt what youre used to? The exhibit?) Yes. (The track?) Right. Particularly to Florida, Im used to the large exhibits in the Northeast. Thats why I like this so much, its morecosmopolitan. 9. It looks like a lot of fun. Better thenwell its the same isnt it? 10. I dont know, I dont. 11. First thing that ran through my mind was Fantasia for some reason. 12. And it definitely fills the space, it would kind of enhance, I think it would enhance the look and the feel of the museum. Definitely. 13. A forest. 90

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91 14. Ohum, justI dont knowjust a beautiful open space thats very light and airyfriendly. 15. This is an improvement, this design adds a lot. Without it, its a little more stark. I said its comfortable, but it is soothing and comfortable but this would add to it. 16. Well obviously prehistoric skeletons. 17. Confusion I think because of all thewhen you first see it. 18. Oooh, definitely its like a walk through time. 19. Its a very comfortable feelingit does look like a museum, you can see some of theyou know, the fossils. 20. Its way too busy. Too much to see, too much going on. No, thats way too busy. 21. Mastodons. Thats what your eye is drawn to first. 22. Thats a very attractive museum, fancy or whateververy attractive. 23. It would be almost overwhelming but it would definitely catch your eye; but, I mean, it would be more overwhelming to look at it. 24. I dont know, it makes me think of other museums that Ive been in. This reminds me of the dinosaur, uh well skeletons that they have in the museum in Connecticut. 25. Noahs Ark. Its a better feeling probably.

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APPENDIX O OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 9 Question 9: Can you describe how this space might feel to you (with Panorama of Life) compared to how if feels now? 1.Im not sure if I think its appropriate or not. Maybe somebody younger would appreciate it I think, I dont know. Ive been to a lot of museums in my lifeso, okay. 2. This is busier for sure than what is here now. More ideas. 3. That there, it kind of, I guess it would get you moving a little bit more. Youd be wondering what was going on exactly. 4. It feels a little more user friendly. 5. I think this room needs to say it all when you walk into the museum. It needs toyou need to have more in here, would be my opinion. 6. I think it would still feel small. 7. a little bit more finished maybe. 8. (Do you think it would feel differently at all?) If it was whatif it looked like this? (Yes.) No, I dont think so. 9. Sort ofI think it would make people, I cant think of the word, be like wowwhen they walked in, sorry I cant think of the word. 10. People might spend a more time in this area. 11. Yeah, it would really grab your attention. That would add a lot to the entryway and make it seem a lot less sterile as you walk in. 12. About the same. 13. This is more complex because of all the architectural, I mean the features here. Yes, thats a work of art. 14. I think it gives more information, it would be an improvement. Itd be nice 92

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93 if there would be a little more seating available for old people like me. 15. It would be acceptable, but this isI dont think this is any better or worse. 16. I think it would be a great improvement actually. 17. This (the picture) would give it a lot more life, a more homey, comfortable feeling. 18. Lots of talking, lots of activity. So much to see so you end up going on through because you dont want to have all of that confusion. 19. Well, theres more information here in this exhibit with the birds so it would be more informative, It would be a better utilization of space I would think, sure. Okay? 20. I think the picture is more attractive, but this one (the space now) is just as interesting. Whats aesthetic and whats interesting depends on which one you want. The big skeleton there, versus a small one, I would prefer to see a picture of more things, okay? 21. A little chaotic, maybe. I like it more the way it is now. I like the idea that theyre trying to incorporate all the different wildlife, but I think it might be too much in one area. 22. Warmer.

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APPENDIX P OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 10,10A Question 10: When you entered the museum today did you get the type of information you needed to plan your visit? 1. Oh, it was just more or less to inform ourselves what it was like. Weve never been here before 2. Well we were asked if wed like to have a map, yes, and I didnt ask for any information because we felt like we wanted to walk through. 3. The one thing is just the signage is just very hard to see around the display. Question 10a: What was helpful to you? 1. It was actually my friend that told us. She came yesterday and got the tickets for everything so she just walked us through. 2. You. (RA) 3. Everything was helpful. 4. The people were with know what were looking for. Theyve been here before. 5. Working at the museum for the last thirty-five years. 6. Nothing. 7. Well I had an unusual incident, I locked the keys in the car in the parking lot and the people were very helpful to my wife and to me, giving us information, phonebooks, information with the address of the museum and so forth. 8. In the butterfly exhibit there was a docent in there and we kept her busy for about half an hour. They need more, because there were only 2 in there. They were volunteers, well one of them was a volunteer I dont know about the other one. There were probably 100 people in there and only 2 volunteers; and we kept her busy for thirty minutes, so you need more. 94

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95 9. In the butterfly exhibit there was a docent in there and we kept her busy for about half an hour. They need more, because there were only 2 in there. They were volunteers, well one of them was a volunteer I dont know about the other one. There were probably 100 people in there and only 2 volunteers; and we kept her busy for thirty minutes, so you need more.

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APPENDIX Q OTHER CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 11 Question 11: What could we do to make this map more helpful to our visitors? 1. So are we right here? Im trying to see, I dont know. So you have the butterfly here, people environment, Indian art, waterway, wildlife. So these are temporary exhibits? I think I would appreciate some more ocean aspects of the exhibit. 2. I dont know, maybe it needs less detail. 3. Okay, now is thisare these given to everyone? (They are at the help desk.) So you dont know these exist though unless somebody points it out. You might have something when you walk in the door that says Maps here or something like that. Yeah, this would be nice. I think everyone should carry one of these with them probably, or look at it before they go through. 4. Well you know the visitors responsible for getting around themselves too, you know what I mean? Id say arrows in passageways and stuff, because I assume thats what these are? Right. Is there any sequence of seeing this stuff thats better than another, or you just go in and out of them as you go along. Its part of the mystery and then fun. (Yeah, exactly, it just shows you whats adjacent to each other.) Which is fine, theres nothing wrong with that, thats fine. No negatives here. 5. Oha little more white space. So Im not sureIve been through all of the thingsand one of the things, the last time we brought the grandchildren there was this sweet blond haired ladyan older lady(In the front desk she was sitting?) Yes, and she welcomed the children and they all wanted to pet one of the stuffed animals and were asking, Can we do that? Can we do that? I thought that was wonderful not only to welcome us, but to welcome the children. 6. Well, let me seefor me personally, its kind of like, a lot of stuff at one time. It might be more simplified some how, like maybe just a few words with each thing that gives you just a brief description of whats there, because it would take you a few minutes to read this. But thats about it. 96

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LIST OF REFERENCES Baggens, Christina. (2001). What they talk about: Conversations between child health center nurses and parents. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(5), 661-662. Bailey, E., Bronnenkant, K., Kelley, J., and Hein, G. (1997). Visitor behavior at a constructivist exhibition: Evaluating investigate! Presented at the annual meeting of the Committee for Education and Cultural Action (CECA). Bechtel, R. and Zeisel, J. (1987). Observation: The World Under Glass. In R. Bechtel, R. Marans, & W. Michelson (eds.), Introduction: Environmental Design Research (pp 11-40). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. British Psychological Society. (2000-2004). Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Subjects. Found at http://www.bps.org.uk/ on 9/23/2004. Best, G.A. (1970). Direction finding in large buildings. Architectural Psychology, 70, 72-91. Bitgood, S. (1989). Museum evaluation from a social design perspective. Center for Social Design. Technical Report No. 89-20. Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL. Bitgood, S. (2002). Environmental Psychology in Museums, Zoos and Other Exhibition Centers. In Bechtel, R and Churchman, A. (eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology (pp 461-480). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Bitgood, S. and Cota, A., (1995). Principles of orientation and circulation within exhibitions. Visitor Behavior, 10(2), 7-8. Bitgood, S. and Lankford, S. (1995). Museum Orientation and Circulation. Visitor Behavior, 10(2), 4-6. Bitgood, S. and Loomis, R. (1993). Environmental design and evaluation in museums. Environment and Behavior, 25, 683-697. Bitgood, S. and Tisdale, C. (1996). Does lobby orientation influence visitor satisfaction? Visitor Behavior, 11, 13-16. Carpman, J., Grant, M., and Simmons, D. (1984). No More Mazes: Research about Wayfinding in Hospitals. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. 97

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98 Cohen, M., Wikel, G., Olsen, R., and Wheeler, F. (1977). Board maps and directional signs. Curator, 20(2), 85-97. Corlett, E., Manenica, I., and Bishop, R. (1972). The design of direction finding systems in buildings. Applied Ergonomics, 3, 66-69. Falk, J. and Dierking, L. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press. Groat, L. and Wang, D. (2002). Architectural Research Methods. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Klein, H.J. (1993). Tracking visitor circulation in museum settings. Environment and Behavior, 25, 782-800. Klein, L. (1986). Exhibits: Planning and Design. New York, NY: Madison Square Press. Levine, M. (1982). You-are-here-maps: Psychological considerations. Environment and Behavior, 14, 221-237. Loomis, R.J. (1987). Museum Visitor Evaluation: New Tools for Management. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History. Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. MacMahon, D. (2005). Entrance icons: Creating a model for introducing science concepts. National Science Foundation grant proposal. Melton, A. (1935). Visitor behavior in museums: Some early research in environmental design. Human Factors, 14, 393-403. Nielsen, L.C. (1946). A technique for studying the behavior of museum visitors. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 37, 103-110. Passini, Romedi. (1992). Wayfinding in Architecture .New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Peponis, J., Zimring, C., and Yoon, K. (1990). Finding the building in wayfinding. Environment and Behavior, 22, 555-590. Seidel, A. (1983). Wayfinding in public spaces: The Dallas-Ft. Worth airport. J. Griffin and J. Potters (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th annual meeting of the Environmental Design Research Association. Washington, D.C. Sommers, B. and Sommers, R. (1997). A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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99 Taylor, J.B, (1963). Science on Display: A Study of the United States Science Exhibit, Seattle Worlds Fair, 1962. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Institute for Sociological Research. U.S Food and Drug Administration. (1998) Belmont Report; Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Found at http://fda/gov/oc/ohrt/IRBS/belmont.html ., on 9/23/2004. Warren, S. (1993). Map alignment. Environment and Behavior, 25, 643-666. Weisman, G.D. (1981). Evaluating architectural legibility. Environment and Behavior, 13, 189-204. Weisman, G.D. (1987). Wayfinding and architectural legibility: Considerations in housing environments for the elderly. In V. Regnier and J. Pynoos (Eds.), Housing for the Elderly: Satisfaction and Preferences. Garland, New York. Wolf, R. (1992). The missing link: The role of orientation in enriching the museum experience, Journal of Museum Education, 11(1), 17-21.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Providence LeGrand-Fenn was born in Miami, Florida, in 1975. Her family moved to Gainesville soon after so her father could attend the University of Florida. Eighteen years later, Providence was accepted to the University of Florida as well. Previously she completed a high school diploma and was awarded an International Baccalaureate degree from Eastside High School in Gainesville, Florida, in 1994. She continued her education as a fine art major. Ultimately she received a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree, with an emphasis in sculpture in 1998. Providence spent four years working in the real world, which influenced her desire to seek out a higher level of education. She returned to the University of Florida and was accepted into the MID program in the College of Construction, Design and Planning in the summer of 2002. Adjunct to her classroom education Providence received a summer internship at the Smithsonians National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C., in 2004. Upon completing her masters degree in 2005, Providence plans to pursue a career with an independent design firm that specializes in interpretive planning and exhibit design. 100


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011764/00001

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Title: The Central Gallery: Visitor Orientation at the Florida Museum of Natural History
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011764/00001

Material Information

Title: The Central Gallery: Visitor Orientation at the Florida Museum of Natural History
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0011764:00001


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THE CENTRAL GALLERY: VISITOR ORIENTATION AT
THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY















By

PROVIDENCE LEGRAND


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF INTERIOR DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Providence LeGrand



























An enormous amount of gratitude is bestowed upon my parents, who have always wanted
me to have more in this life than they had.

My husband deserves my undying appreciation. Even before he was my husband, he
assisted me financially and provided emotional support during the long nights and the
stressful times. Greg always believed in me, even when I didn't believe in myself.

I dedicate this work to all of you, with much love!















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many thanks are extended to Laura Chance, research assistant. Her contributions of

time and effort were imperative to the timely completion of this project.

Much appreciation is directed towards Betty Dunkel. Her knowledge of visitor

studies and research evaluation was an extremely helpful resource when developing this

study.

Darcie MacMahon was a supportive and patient advisor. She was always willing to

answer my questions and address my concerns. She knew when to point me in the "right"

direction. Beyond this specific project she has always encouraged and motivated my

exhibition design career goals with her own professionalism and success in the field.

The ultimate thanks go to Debra Harris, committee chairperson. Even though she

had very little academic knowledge about museum studies, she still agreed to advise me.

Like many others she was supportive and assisted me through some of the toughest points

in the master's degree process. On a less professional note, she also lent a caring ear

during some very stressful personal times.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ...................... .. ......... ......... ........................ .. viii

LIST OF FIGURES ................................. .. ... .. ..................x

ABSTRACT .............. .............................................. xii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ............................................................. .. ......... ...... .....

Introduction ...................................................................................... .. ..............1
P purpose ............................................................. . 2

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................ .............4

V isito r S tu d ie s .............................................................................................................. 4
W ayfinding .................................................................6
C onceptual O orientation .................................................................. ....................... 9
D ata C collection Strategies .................................................. .............................. 12

3 METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS............................ .... ...............16

R research D design ....................................................... 16
Setting ................................................................................ 17
Ethics and H um an Subjects .......................................................... .............. 17
D ata Collection ................................... ................................ ......... 18
R research A assistants ...................... ............................ .. ....... .... ............18
P ilo t S tu d y ...................................................................................................... 1 9
Physical Setting Assessment Phase ......................................... ...............19
O observation Phase ............................. .................... .. ........ .. .............20
In terv iew P h a se .............................................................................................. 2 1
D ata A n a ly sis ......................................................................................................... 2 2







v









4 R E SU L T S ....................................................... 24

Physical A ssessm ent D ata ................................................ .............................. 24
Entry Sequence ........................ ........ .... ........24
Inside the FLM N H .................................... ............... .... ....... 26
The Central G gallery ........ ............................ ........ ... ................30
Choice points ........... ...... ................ .................. ...... .... ....... ..33
O b servation D ata ................................................................36
Frequencies ............................................. 36
C ross-tabulations .......... .. ...................................... .. ............ 41
Interview D ata ................................................................4 8
Dem graphic Inform ation ...........................................................................49
Q u estion s 1, 2 3 .............................................................50
Q u estio n s 4 5 ...............................................................52
Q u estion s 6 and 8 ............................................................53
Q questions 7 and 9 ........................................ ................... ..... .... 54
Q u e stio n 1 0 .................................................................................................... 5 5
Q questions 11, 12, and 13 ........................... ...... ............... ........ .. .......... 56

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ............................................. ............... 58

W h o A re th e V visitors? ..................................................................... ....................5 8
W hat A re V visitors D oing? ............................................... ............................... 59
W hat D o V visitors Think? ......... ................... ......... ................................... 63
Limitations ................................... .....................66
Design Recommendations for the Central Gallery Renovation ..............................67
C o n c lu sio n s........................................................................................................... 6 8

APPENDIX

A T R A C K IN G SH E E T ......................................................................... ...................70

B STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS...................................71

C DEM OGRAPHIC RECORD LOG ................................... ....................72

D VISUAL AID #1: "PANORAMA OF LIFE", PROPOSED NEW DESIGN ............73

E VISUAL AID #2: FLMNH HANDOUT MAP ........................................................ 74

F IRB INFORMED CONSENT FORM APPROVAL............... ............... 75

G FLMNH OVERALL FLOOR PLAN ... .......................................... ........... 76

H CATEGORY LISTS FOR EACH INTERVIEW QUESTION..............................77

I "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 1....................................81









J "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 4...............................82

K "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 5...................................84

L "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 6....................................86

M "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 7...................................88

N "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 8................................90

O "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 9................................92

P "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 10,10a...........................94

Q "OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 11...............................96

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......... .. ............... .............................................................97

BIO GR A PH ICA L SK ETCH .................................... ........... ................. .....................100
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 Frequency of group size. .................................................. ............... ........... ... 37

4-2 Frequency of restroom use. .......... ........... ........ .... ......... ....... .................. 37

4-3 Frequency of gift shop use. ........................................................... .....................38

4-4 Frequency of information desk use. .............. ................................38

4-5 Frequency of interaction with desk staff. ................................................38

4-6 Frequency of picking-up paper information...................................... ...........38..38

4-7 Frequency in viewing Mammoth and Mastodon..........................................38

4-8 Frequency in reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels. ...................................39

4-9 Frequency of noticing large directional signage. ....................................................39

4-10 Frequency of monetary donations. .......................................................................... 39

4-11 Frequency in choosing choice points. ........................................... ............... 39

4-12 Frequency of total time inside Central Gallery. ........................................... ........... 40

4-13 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information
desk use, and picking up paper information within the "group composition"
v ariab le. .............................................................................. 4 1

4-14 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and
Mastodon viewing, reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels, and noticing
directional signage within the "group composition" variable ...............................41

4-15 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information
desk use, and picking up paper information within the "total time spent"
v ariab le. .............................................................................. 42

4-16 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and
Mastodon viewing, reading text labels, and noticing signage within the "total
tim e spent" variable ............................................... ..... ... .. ............ 43









4-17 Cross-tabulation of frequencies between "group composition" variable and
"total tim e spent" variable ............................................... ........................... 46

4-18 Frequency of visitor age groups. ........................................................................49

4-19 Frequency of visitor racial identity. .............................................. ............... 50

4-20 Frequency of visitor gender........................ ................................ ............... 50

4-21 Frequency of responses for "purpose of visit." ...................................................51

4-22 Frequency of group size. ...... ........................... ......................................... 51

4-23 Frequency of repeat vs. first time visitors..............................................................52
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

4-1 Street and parking area in front of FLMNH ..................................25

4-2 Sidewalk leading to front main entrance of FLMNH ............................................25

4-3 Front main entrance of FLM NH ..... .. ........................................................... 26

4-4 Interior doors after entering front entrance ................................... .................26

4-5 Floor plan diagram of entrance and the Central Gallery ............. ................28

4-6 Tiled entry area ........................... ..... ..... .. .. .. ........ ........ 29

4-7 View of gift shop entrance ..... .................... ......... ...................29

4-8 Closer view of information desk and donation box ..............................................30

4-9 Two views of the inform ation desk ................................................................. 30

4-10 Mammoth and Mastodon fossils inside the Central Gallery ...............................31

4-11 Interior view s of the Central Gallery...................................... ...................... 31

4-12 Entrance to men's and women's restrooms................................... ............... 31

4-13 View of large directional signs, which are located at the rear of the Central
G a lle ry ........................................................................... 3 2

4-14 Choice point A, entrance to Microbes, temporary exhibit ................. ................33

4-15 Choice point B, hallway to other permanent exhibit halls ....................................33

4-16 Choice point C, entrance to the Northwest Florida exhibit hall.............................34

4-17 Choice point D, entrance to The McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and
the Butterfly R ainforest exhibit..................................................... ..... .......... 34

4-18 Choice point E, entrance to the administrative offices........................................35

4-19 Choice point F, hallway to multi-purpose classrooms ..........................................35









4-20 Choice point G, entrance to security office.................................. ............... 36

4-21 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of total time inside the Central
G a lle ry ........................................................................... 4 0

4-22 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who used restroom for
each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery ...................44

4-23 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the
information desk for each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the
C central G gallery. .......................................................................44

4-24 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the
Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of "total time
spent" in the Central Gallery ........................................ ............... ............... 45

4-25 Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who read the text labels
for the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of "total
tim e spent" in the Central G allery ..................................... .................. ......... 45

4-26 Bar graph showing frequency of single visitors for each one minute interval of
"total tim e spent" in the Central Gallery ....................................... ............... 46

4-27 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an "adult couple" group for each one
minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery. ..................................47

4-28 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an "adult group of 3 or more" for
each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery ...................47

4-29 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a "family of 5 or fewer" group for
each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery ...................48

4-30 Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a "family of 6 or more" group for
each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery ...................48

4-31 Com plete view of the frog w all .......... ............. ........................... ............... 53















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Interior Design

THE CENTRAL GALLERY: VISITOR ORIENTATION AT THE FLORIDA
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.

By

Providence LeGrand

August 2005

Chair: Debra Harris
Major Department: Interior Design

The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for a National Science

Foundation Grant. The grant is needed to fund renovations to the Florida Museum of

Natural History entrance gallery, also called the Central Gallery. The Central Gallery acts

as a lobby area where visitors gather and orient themselves to the museum. Both physical

and conceptual orientation takes place there. Therefore this study addressed issues central

to both forms of orientation. The study focused on physical orientation devices in the

Central Gallery such as the handout map and information desk, and visitor perceptions

about the museum and the current entrance icon in the Central Gallery.

Using a multi-method research design, data was collected during a six week period

and in three phases. These phases were: 1) a physical assessment of the space, 2) visitor

observations, and 3) visitor interviews. The data was primarily analyzed using a statistical

program called SPSS. SPSS allowed the principal investigator to compile frequencies,

cross-tabulations, and line graphs for the data variables.









The data revealed that entrance icons have the potential to communicate content, or

in this case the museum's educational message, visually and at-a-glance. It was also

demonstrated that different icon designs can communicate different messages. The study

also showed that many of the devices that exist to help visitors physically orient

themselves to the space are under-utilized. Consequently, the study generated several

design recommendations that may alleviate this problem. This study and its

recommendations will help the FLMNH make good, evidence-based decisions about the

Central Gallery renovation.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Introduction

What is a museum? Perhaps it is a place where people can entertain themselves

through novel displays, a place of reverential experience, or a place where people make

meaning of, or connect themselves, to the world (Falk and Dierking, 2000). Regardless of

which definition is correct, we know learning takes place there, either consciously or

subconsciously (ibid.). Museums are often called informal learning places. Unlike a

traditional school setting, learners (the visitors) are free to choose what and how they will

learn (ibid.).

While the visiting public is free to choose what they will learn, the Florida Museum

of Natural History (FLMNH) has an infinitely larger choice as to what it will teach.

Entrenched in the research community of the University of Florida, the FLMNH seeks to

educate the public about complex science concepts using their abundant collection of

artifacts and their arsenal of written research. One could say that the principle goal of the

FLMNH is to teach. However, a museum's basic "message" could be just as complex as

museum theory that surrounds it. Fortunately FLMNH scientists and educators have

generated a concrete "message" that introduces visitors to the museum experience. The

museum wants to convey the importance of three science concepts. They are: 1)

biodiversity (life is diverse); 2) ecology (life is connected); and 3) evolution (life is

related) (MacMahon, 2005). The FLMNH hopes to visually incorporate this "message"

of diversity, connectedness and relationship in a new exhibit inside the museum's Central









Gallery. The objective is for the new exhibit to become an entrance icon. An entrance

icon is defined by MacMahon (2005) as specimens or sculptures that serve as focal points

inside the entrance galleries of museums. The entrance icon should convey information

visually and at-a-glance to visitors about the nature of the museum and the repeated

themes inside the permanent exhibit halls (MacMahon, 2005). Simply, the entrance icon

will serve to orient visitors conceptually to the museum.

However all the emphasis cannot be placed on conceptual orientation; physical

orientation is also of primary importance to a visitor's experience and ultimate learning.

In other words, the ability to make meaning of the physical context of the museum is

inherent to learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000).

Acting as a front-end evaluation, this study asks FLMNH visitors questions about

their physical orientation experience. It also explores the ideas and feelings expressed by

visitors when they look at the current entrance icon (Mammoth and Mastodon) in the

Central Gallery, and then, a conceptual rendering of a proposed new entrance icon.

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide baseline data for the Florida Museum of

Natural History (FLMNH) as they plan renovations to the Central Gallery (entrance

gallery). Additional studies will build on this work and will be proposed to the National

Science Foundation for funding. If awarded, the grant will provide funds needed to

enhance the Central Gallery. The enhancement seeks to improve and more closely

integrate the inherent dual function of the Central Gallery space: as a lobby space

orienting visitors physically to the building, and conceptually to the museum's

educational message.









According to Falk and Dierking (2000), "Appropriately designed exhibitions are

compelling learning tools, arguably one of the best educational mediums ever devised for

facilitating concrete understanding of the world." Consequently it is logical that

"appropriately designed" exhibits should include the integration of good physical and

conceptual tools for visitor orientation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore and

identify issues that are impacting the physical and conceptual orientation of visitors to

FLMNH. Once we understand the positive and negative impacts of these issues,

appropriate design guidelines can be developed for the Central Gallery renovation.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Visitor Studies

The visitor study is a relatively new genre within environmental behavior studies.

Such studies often encompass research that documents the behavior of people visiting

museums, zoos, aquariums or other exhibition places. Visitor studies are important

because they help museum professionals get to know and understand their visitors.

Specifically, visitor studies help gain insight into the attitudes, knowledge and

misconceptions of the target audience (Bitgood and Loomis, 1993). The studies are also

very helpful in assessing whether exhibits are communicating the desired message within

an exhibit (Bitgood and Loomis, 1993). Furthermore, when exhibit components fail to

communicate the appropriate message, visitor studies can tell us why they are failing and

suggest possible remedies to the problemss.

Very few of these studies were conducted prior to the 1960's. Edward Robinson

and Arthur Melton conducted the better known and scarce studies before 1960. However,

they were mostly concerned with the physical environment of the museum and how that

affected visitor behavior (Bitgood, 1989). Then in the 1960's and early 1970's

researchers began applying behavioral learning approaches to their research (Bitgood and

Loomis, 1993). According to Stephen Bitgood (1989), Chan Screven and Harris Shettel

were among the most prominent figures of this period. A shift occurred in the mid-1970's

when museum personnel began to play a more integrated role in conducting visitor

studies. Before this shift, all visitor studies had been conducted by researchers outside the









walls of the museum (Bitgood, 1989). This change to internal research continued into the

1980's, the 1990's and is still primarily the case today. Many examples of museums

conducting their own visitor studies can be found in Bitgood and Loomis (1993) and

other sources. The Florida Museum of Natural History utilizes internal visitor evaluation

for many reasons. Darcie MacMahon, Assistant Director for Exhibits, believes in ". ..

keeping the studies in-house due to our expertise in this area, our profound interest in

study design and research results, the ease of initiating auxiliary studies to further explore

questions, and timely turnaround of deliverables" (MacMahon, 2005). This perception

has led to the unification of the museum's goals for internal evaluation and the

completion of this Master's thesis.

As more internal researchers and independents join the growing visitor studies

revolution, many have brought with them varied methodological approaches. As outlined

by Bitgood (2002) some examples include the "naturalistic evaluation" approach, the

cognitive approach, the behavioral approach, the ethological approach, and the social

design approach. The social design approach will be discussed more in depth in the

Research Design Chapter. He contends ". .. (They) have all been integrated into the

arsenal of visitor studies methodology" (Bitgood, 1989).

Many visitor studies focus either on exhibit development or exhibit evaluation. The

studies are categorized into three types: front-end, formative, and summative evaluation.

These categories correlate to the planning stage, the preparation stage and the post

installation stage (Bitgood & Loomis, 1993). Visitor input is elicited during each stage.

This study in particular is concerned with assessing the physical orientation of the visitor

and informing the development of a new icon that will help visitors with their conceptual









orientation. Since visitor input is elicited during the planning stage, this study is

considered a front-end evaluation.

As previously stated, visitor studies encompass research that examines the behavior

of people visiting museums, zoos, aquariums or other places for entertainment or

educational purposes. Extensive research has been conducted outside museums and some

within with regards to how people interact with architecture and physically orient

themselves. We already know that the way people move throughout the interior space of

the museum and within each individual exhibit becomes crucial to the visitor's

experience (Melton, 1935). Unfortunately, much less information exists concerning the

conceptual orientation of museum visitors. First outlined below are some of the key

factors in physical wayfinding or physical orientation. Those factors most important to

this study are signage, maps and Weisman's four environmental cues (Weisman, 1981).

Then some ideas are explored concerning conceptual orientation.

Wayfinding

A simplified definition of wayfinding is offered by Peponis, Zimring and Choi

(1990). They propose that wayfinding is merely how well someone finds their destination

without undue stress or anxiety. However Passini's (1992) definition is more complex:

there are three distinct abilities needed in order for someone to find their destination.

These abilities are:

1. a cognitive mapping ability;
2. a decision making ability; and
3. an execution of the decision that results in a specific behavior.

Bitgood (1989) writes that, "... 'wayfinding' is the ability to navigate through the

museum."









In order to navigate in space it is assumed that people need information in order to

make decisions within the built environment. Therefore Weisman's four environmental

cues become influential in affecting wayfinding. These cues are: 1) visual access to

landmarks or familiar cues; 2) architectural distinctions between different parts of a

building; 3) the use of signs; and 4) plan configuration (Weisman, 1981).

The first two cues concerning landmarks and architectural distinctions are

reminiscent of Kevin Lynch's (1960) five established environmental elements. These

elements are: 1) landmarks (which Weisman specifically references); 2) paths; 3) nodes;

4) edges; and 5) districts. Although these environmental elements were first applied by

Lynch to large urban settings, a landmark could be used inside the built environment,

translating into a large architectural feature or an ornate piece of art work that is centrally

located. Thereby, a landmark in the built environment serves as "a type of point-reference

.." the same as it would in a city (Passini, 1992). Paths, nodes, edges and districts can

be architectural distinctions between parts of a building. In fact Passini translated these

elements from the large urban setting of a city to the interior built environment. His study

in 1978 asked participants to build a scale model of a particular building they had visited.

Then, they were asked to describe in detail as much as they could remember about the

building. Passini found that most participant comments centered on the five basic

elements coined by Lynch. So how is this useful in designing or evaluating circulation

within the built environment? It is the opinion of this researcher that people are not

consciously aware of these five elements. However, people subconsciously differentiate

between distinctions in the built environment and use their understanding of the

differences to help them navigate and understand an interior space.









Weisman's environmental cues continue with the use of signage. In simplest form,

signs tell people where things are. According to Passini (1992) signs come in three

forms: directional, identification, and reassurance. Directional signs show direction by

using differing forms or types of arrows to point to where something is in a general

direction. Identification signs identify a place in space. Usually these signs are located

very near or at the entrance to a place. They use text and/or symbols, and perhaps

recognizable logos. Reassurance signs are located between the desired destination and the

initial directional sign. These signs reassure the user they are headed in the correct

direction. Signs are important aids in wayfinding, but merely providing them without

thinking about their legibility, where they are located, and how many are needed, could

be a grave oversight. There have been several studies that are specific to the use of

signage. Carpman, Grant and Simmons (1984) developed a study designed to test how

long (distance) a person could go without a sign and still feel comfortable. They

discovered that any distance over 50 feet (ft) without a sign was too long. At the 50ft

mark people exhibited uncomfortable behavior and began to look for another sign. Best

discovered that signs were most effective when placed near decision points (Best, 1970).

When Best's theory was applied by Corlett, Manenica and Bishop (1972) in a renovation

study of a university building, their findings reinforced Best's original research.

And while there are several studies that advance the use of signage as a way to

enhance wayfinding performance, there are several others that show the opposite effects.

Weisman studied signage in a nursing home environment. His findings showed that only

18% of residents used the signage to help them find their way (Weisman, 1987). The

remaining 82% said that architectural cues were more helpful for orientation (Weisman,









1987). This substantiates the importance of Weisman's theory regarding architectural

distinctions discussed earlier. In addition, Seidel's (1983) large airport study showed that

30% of the participants said that there were too many signs. These adverse results show

that all signs are not useful to all people. Different populations and building types require

careful thought by a designer.

While Weisman does not specifically point out maps as an environmental cue,

maps are usually considered support material to be used in conjunction with signage

(Passini, 1992). They usually represent space two-dimensionally; they are generally

mounted to a wall for display or are accessible to the user in printed pamphlet or handout

form. Many problems occur with mounted maps. First, the user must find their position

on the map. Next, the user must understand the orientation of the map. Many maps use

cardinal north/south direction. This is easily understood by the viewer if the user is

looking the way the map is oriented. However, if the user wants to "look" the other

direction, he or she would need to mentally turn the map. Perhaps the most famous of all

mounted maps is the "you-are-here" maps. Levine's research focused on this type of

map. He determined that presenting the map rotated differently than the alignment of the

building was worse than not providing a map at all (Levine, 1982). Levine's research

demonstrated that a misaligned map created significantly more mistakes in wayfinding

(Levine, 1982). Passini (1992) recommends incorporating some or all of the five

elements described by Lynch into a map's design to prevent disorientation.

Conceptual Orientation

Conceptual orientation is described as the knowledge of what is offered at the

museum thematically, how long it may take to view, and the information needed to plan

the overall visit (Bitgood & Cota, 1995; Bitgood & Lankford, 1995). According to Wolf









(1992) conceptual orientation is important because, "people can only reap the full

educational or esthetic benefit of a museum experience when the conceptual demands of

that experience are made manifest." Wolfe contends that if a museum's orientation

efforts are "done well," "... a pleasurable and valuable learning experience will

ultimately transpire" (1992). Bitgood and Cota (1995) reiterate this theory by stating

"visitors learn more and are more satisfied when they are properly oriented."

Conceptual orientation actually begins when a visitor encounters any information

about the museum. It could be information from a billboard, website or newspaper article.

However, most critical to this study is the conceptual orientation that takes place inside

the entrance gallery space. Visitors are often disorientated when they are unable to

comprehend what the museum is about or the ideas the museum is trying to convey

(Wolf, 1992). Wolf explains that ". .. visitors are often more frustrated with the latter

kind of disorientation than they are about not finding their way around the space" (Wolf,

1992). Bitgood and Lankford (1995) have established a checklist for conceptual

orientation within lobby spaces. They are:

* Provide information about what there is to see and do at the museum;
* Provide clear directions to guest amenities such as restrooms;
* Provide information that would allow for time management; and
* Provide ways to demonstrate exhibit themes without having to enter exhibit areas.

A good strategy for conceptual orientation should be paired with an equally good

strategy for physical orientation. We know that "disorientation can occur in the absence

of effective orientation aids" (Cohen, Wikel, Olsen & Wheeler, 1977).

The checklist that Bitgood and Lankford (1995) have outlined for physical

orientation in museums is reminiscent of the wayfinding tactics explored earlier. These

recommendations are:









* Ensure the ticket booth/information desk is identifiable;

* Visitor guides should have readable maps;

* Handheld maps should be simplistic and only identify essential information;

* Mounted maps should adhere to the main principles of providing a landmark, you-
are-here symbol and forward equivalence (Up on the map should represent forward
space in the setting);

* Directional signs should be placed were they will be most easily noticed. They
should be consistent with other wayfinding devices;

* Place information at choice points; and

* Security guards should be trained to answer orientation questions and give
directions.

So beyond helping the visitor move within and understand the intent of the

museum, why is physical and conceptual orientation important? Could they affect overall

visitor satisfaction?

According to a study conducted at the St. Louis Science Center in 1996, both types

of orientation affect the overall satisfaction of its visitors (Bitgood & Tisdale, 1996). This

has widespread implications for all museums. Physically, the Center has two lobby

spaces: the Oakland Avenue lobby and Forest Park lobby. More visitors reported a

problem with wayfinding in the Forest Park lobby probably because of the complex

building configuration, lack of directional signage, and the absence of receiving a visitor

guide (Bitgood & Tisdale 1996). Most of the positive results surround the use of the

visitor guide. Those who received a visitor guide in either lobby reported a better overall

satisfaction rating than those who did not (Bitgood & Tisdale 1996). This study illustrates

that both types of orientation are essential to a good visit and that physical and conceptual

orientation are interconnected. A good strategy in one area can not overcome a poor









strategy in the other. Therefore it is logical that the study at the Florida Museum of

Natural History would need to focus on both orientation types.

Data Collection Strategies

Widely used in many other areas of research, observation and interview/survey

techniques are also widely used in museum visitor studies. They are relatively

inexpensive methods to use depending on how they are implemented. However, they can

be time-consuming for the researcher (Nielson, 1946). Observation in general allows the

researcher to collect data within a specific setting. It allows the researcher to relate the

setting to the particular behavior presented by the setting users (Sommers & Sommers,

1997). The physical means of collecting data when using observational methods can vary.

High-tech solutions are infrequent; but behavioral "mapping" and visitor tracking are a

few that are used often. Several visitor studies employing these methods will be discussed

in this section.

Several high-tech ways of physically collecting the data have been developed to

overcome the exhaustive nature of collecting observational data. One such method is

using multiple camera shots. A mounted ceiling camera takes a series of photos within

the area of interest. According to Nielsen (1946) it is a "slow-motion" record of the

behavior and movement within the area where the camera is mounted. Nielsen reports

much success with this technique at The Museum of Science and Technology in Chicago.

However, only one other reference to a similar photographic technique (Taylor, 1963)

was found in other research related to observational methods. Another technological

solution was developed by Bechtel in 1967. Called the Hodometer method, it entailed

installing a flooring system that would trigger an electric impulse to a computer when a

visitor walked on certain points. While this was helpful in determining frequency of use









of certain key points in the exhibit; it was not helpful in understanding the "big picture."

Certain behaviors exhibited by visitors could not be recorded with this method alone.

Due to high cost and the inherent limitations of these high-tech solutions, these

were not good candidates for this study. Instead a mixture of both behavioral mapping

and tracking techniques were used. More specific explanation on how these techniques

were implemented can be found in Chapter 3: Data Collection. Behavioral mapping is

often used to record and determine behavioral activities of people and how they use a

specific space (Bechtel and Ziesel, 1987). A "tracking" technique usually determines

visitor use of pre-determined points of interest and documents frequency or total time of

use within an exhibit (Bitgood, 2002). In most tracking studies, visitors are usually

followed during their visit and records are made of their behaviors. This technique was

used in a previous summative evaluation in 2004 by this researcher. However, it was not

necessary to follow participants in the current study because the area of study was small;

the participants could be easily observed anywhere in the Central Gallery from several

vantage points. As noted by Groat and Wang (2002), the most important detail when

using observational methods is to understand what to look for. The researchers of a study

conducted at the Boston Museum of Science established 39 different points of interest

and also collected time data from these areas (Bailey, Bronnenkant, Kelley, & Hein,

1998). Klein (1993) also developed points of interest in his study at a London

automobile museum. He presented his finding by using diagrams of circulation routes.

The use of diagrams was not used by this researcher because the Central Gallery space is

not a complex exhibit hall. It was understood from anecdotal evidence that participants









were exhibiting routes or walking paths that could be easily explained by denoting the

use or non-use of key points of interest only. Therefore, diagrams were not necessary.

Observational data can help a researcher identify certain behavior patterns, but it

cannot tell a researcher why a visitor chooses to behave a certain way. It cannot explain

what thoughts or feelings might have led to the behaviors observed (Bitgood, 2002).

Therefore another method must be used to obtain this type of data. An interview or

survey is most valuable for collecting complex information or ideas (Sommer & Sommer,

1997) Surveys tend to be self administering, where participants respond to the prescribed

questionnaire in a written format. Interviews also use prescribed questions but there is an

interaction between the researcher and the participant. Surveys and interviews also ask

for similar types of information, but interviews have an advantage because they allow the

interviewer/researcher to ask follow-up or more probing questions of the visitor.

Interviewing can also be advantageous because a museum visitor may be unwilling to

write a lengthy answer to a survey question, but finds verbally telling his/her answer

more acceptable. Note that this study is only concerned with the manifest content.

Manifest content is the information which is verbally conveyed in the answer. This study

does not analyze or describe information that is inherent is a participant's body language,

facial expression or emotional state, also called latent content (Sommer & Sommer,

1997).

Asking open ended interview questions requires careful analysis using a "coding"

system. A "coding" system allows open ended responses to be numerically tabulated by

frequency of response content (Sommer & Sommer, 1997). One such example is

explained in a study conducted about nurses and pediatric patients. The conversations









between nurse, parent and child patient were audio-recorded. Then the researcher

transcribed the recordings verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed line-by-line and coded

for frequency of themes. These themes were then grouped into categories (Baggens,

2001). A similar technique is used for this study, except the FLMNH staff and this

researcher predetermined the categories before reviewing the interview data.

Using a mixture of observational and interview methods can obtain information

where one method alone would not be successful. Stephen Bitgood realized this dynamic

when assessing a visitor study at the St. Louis Science Center. He comments, "no single

method would have provided a clear picture of the overall problems" (Bitgood & Tisdale,

1996).














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS


Research Design

This study was designed to use a mixed methodology strategy because of the need

to focus on both physical and conceptual orientation. The tools employed for data

collection were: physical setting assessment, structured interviews and observations. By

using a combination of these methods it was possible to illicit information that could not

have been obtained by using only one tool.

According to Groat and Wang (2002), a mixed methodology research design has

the potential to maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each design. In

this study the use of qualitative and quantitative tactics are well grounded in Social

Design evaluation. Social Design evaluation has five basic assumptions:

1. User-oriented: visitors and staff
2. Multi-disciplined
3. Theoretically eclectic
4. Methodologically scientific
5. Politically democratic

These five assumptions were outlined in 1989 by Bitgood in an attempt to define Social

Design and how it fits within the context of museum evaluation studies. This study

follows these guidelines fairly closely, with the exception of eliciting information from

staff. Other committee meetings and seminars not associated with this study are assisting

in that effort. The Social Design approach has several benefits. First it favors

participation from the community, which helps gain support for the museum at the "grass









roots level" (Bitgood, 1989). By being theoretically eclectic and methodologically

scientific, data from Social Design evaluation is inevitably gathered in a more reliable

and valid fashion.

Setting

This research is only being conducted at the Florida Museum of Natural History at

the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The Florida Museum of Natural History

is recognized as the official natural history museum of the State of Florida. It houses four

permanent exhibit halls, two rotating or flexible exhibit halls, several teaching

classrooms, the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the Central Gallery.

However the Central Gallery is the main focus of this study.

Ethics and Human Subjects

There are several "codes" of conduct governing ethical principles in research. The

British Psychological Society (2000-2004) and the Belmont Report of 1979 (updated

1998) both discuss the ethical treatment of human subjects in research. Both advocate

that subjects be given all the necessary information in order to make a self determined

judgment about whether they should participate in the research. This is usually referred to

as informed consent (USFDA, 1998). Participation in the research should be completely

voluntary and not coerced by the researcher. Both "codes" suggest that the nature or

scope of the research should be fully divulged to the participant. The participant should

also be informed of the risks associated with participating. The Institutional Review

Board (IRB) of the University of Florida governs all research conducted by faculty, staff

or students. The IRB closely follows the principles outlined above and its primary

function is to provide for the health, safety and welfare of all human subjects

participating in research at the University of Florida. This study was presented and









reviewed by the IRB. Approval was granted by the IRB on February 8th, 2004, prior to

data collection (Appendix H).

Data Collection

To collect reliable and valid data, the researcher must select appropriate data

collection methods. A physical setting assessment, observation and structured interviews

were employed for this study partly because of their widespread usage and acceptance

among the research community across disciplines and in other visitor studies. Therefore

the data was collected in three phases. A physical setting assessment entails collecting

information like floor plans, pictures or other documents that depict the physical

environment being studied. Structured interviews have a set number of questions and the

questions are preconceived. When asked in the same order and manner the structured

interview is a highly valid way of understanding what visitors think about complex topics

(Sommer & Sommer, 1997). The use of observation is important because it shows

specific visitor behavior. At times these behaviors might be in opposition to what visitors

tell researchers they are thinking about. There are several methods for observing visitors.

Here focused observation was used. Focused observation is used when problems or

specific items to be observed have already been identified (Bitgood, 2002).

Research Assistants

A research assistant (RA) helped collect data during the period of March 11, 2005

to April 17, 2005. The assistant practiced the procedures using a pilot study during the

weeks prior to March 11, 2005. Her technique and performance was assessed by the

principle investigator (PI). Incorrect procedures or mistakes were identified and

corrected prior to beginning the official data collection on March 11, 2005.









Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted on February 12th and 13th, and March 9th, 2005.

Seven participants were observed and six participants were interviewed. The purpose of

the pilot study was to test the comprehensibility of the interview questions by museum

visitors and to determine the average amount of time needed to administer the interview

questions. The pilot study also was important in determining whether the tracking sheet

was complete and effective. It was useful when estimating how much data could be

collected during the six week collection period. The data collection instruments were then

tweaked using feedback gathered during the pilot study. Wording was modified within

some of the interview questions and a choice point (see Chapter 4 for explanation) was

added to the tracking sheet for the observation phase. The ultimate decision to audio-

record the participant interview was made because of the difficulty in trying to hand-

write responses during the pilot study. Thus the pilot study was a valuable segment of

the overall data collection process.

Physical Setting Assessment Phase

The principle investigator (PI) made several site visits to the FLMNH prior to

other phases of data collection. The PI anecdotally watched visitors and their behavior

inside the Central Gallery. Notes were recorded in a notebook describing the

characteristics of the physical space and general information about how the museum

operates on a day-to-day basis. The PI also gathered documents which described the

space visually, such as the floor plan and visitor map. Photographs of the entry sequence

and the Central Gallery were also taken for later analysis and reference.









Observation Phase

For the observation phase of the study a systematic space sampling was used.

Participants were selected as they entered through the main entrance of the museum; each

third adult visitor was chosen as a participant during data collection periods. A general

sign informed all visitors to the museum that a research study was being conducted. It

explained that visitors may be observed while they are inside the FLMNH. It was

important to remain as unobtrusive as possible while monitoring the movement and

behavior of the participant. The PI or RA remained seated at designated benches within

the Central Gallery, unless their view of the participant was obstructed. The chosen

participant was not be approached by the PI or RA while he/she was inside the Central

Gallery. While inside the boundaries of the Central Gallery, the PI or RA observed the

participant's actions, movements and behavior. The tracking sheet (Appendix A) lists the

actions or behavior the PI or RA were specifically interested in documenting. However

the PI or RA was not limited to this list. They were free to document any other behavior

or action that may have been of interest even if it was not listed on the tracking sheet.

The PI or RA also documented the overall time-in and time-out for each

participant. Participants' actions or behaviors were not observed once they entered into

any space directly attached to the Central Gallery (outside the boundaries of the Central

Gallery). This includes restrooms, gift shop or offices. The PI or RA stopped observing

the participant when the participant left the boundaries of the Central Gallery and entered

exhibit areas. Exhibit areas and the boundaries of Central Gallery are identified in

Appendix G. The length of this observational period was determined by the amount of

time the Central Gallery was inhabited by each selected participant.









Interview Phase

Participants for the interview phase were a sample of convenience. Any adult

visitor (over the age of 18) inside the Central Gallery was a possible participant.

Therefore, the PI or RA was free to select any adult visitor for this phase. Thirteen

questions (Appendix B) were generated for this phase of data collection. A demographic

data form (Appendix C) was also created to document the demographic information for

each participant prior to beginning each interview. Multiple participant demographics

were recorded on a single form.

The data collection began when a convenient visitor was approached by the PI or

RA and asked if they would like to participate. The PI or RA explained the research study

and what actions were required of the participant. The PI or RA asked the participant to

give verbal consent to participate in the interview and to have the interview audio-

recorded. Once verbal consent was given the survey was administered in an interview

format. The PI or RA then began to record the interview; first they identified by voice the

sample number. Then the PI or RA began asking the survey questions beginning with

Question #1 (Appendix B). The PI or RA was able to explain the questions further or

clarify the question but were careful not to influence the potential answers given by the

participant. Two different visual aids (Appendix D, E) were used in conjunction with

Question #8, #9 and #11. The first visual aid is a computer generated rendering of a

proposed change to the Central Gallery. The concept and rendering was created by Ralph

Applebaum Associates (an exhibition design company) for FLMNH. The second aid is

the current visitor handout map. It is printed on white bond paper in black and white only.

Both the visual aids are no larger than 11" x 17" and were laminated for durability and

ease of use. The PI or RA gave the participant sufficient time to answer each question.









Once the participant answered all the questions or voluntarily ended their participation,

then the interview was concluded. Each participant was given a handout, an informed

consent form (Appendix F), which explained who they could contact if they had

questions about their participation in this study. Finally, the PI or RA thanked each visitor

for their time and participation.

Data Analysis

The information gathered during the physical setting assessment was analyzed in

several ways. First the floor plan was diagramed to show direction of travel, choice

points, visitor services locations, location of exhibit areas and the main entrance

(Appendix G). The photographs taken at the site illustrated the location of important

signage and places where orientation information is available to visitors. Notes taken

during site visits were compared to the diagramed floor plan in order to ensure

completeness of information. The notes were also used to inform the data collection

instruments for the observation and interview phases.

Data collected during the observation phase was manipulated using a statistical data

program called SPSS. Several variables have been established in SPSS, in accordance

with the tracking sheet (Appendix A). The day of week, time in and time out, and number

of people in the group were input as separate variables. Visitor services were coded as

either used or not used by each participant. Other participant actions like interacting with

staff at the information desk, receiving paper information, viewing the mammoth and

mastodon, reading the informative labels, and visually noticing the directional signs were

also input as actions that were either done or not done by each participant. Other behavior

that was noted regularly was input as separate variables, such as the donation of money.

Finally the choice points were coded and each participant's choice was input into this









variable. SPSS was used to organize the data, and simple frequencies for each variable

were determined. SPSS also produced the cross tabulation of frequencies by certain

variables. See Chapter 4 for more information on which variables were used.

The interview data was analyzed in a similar fashion to that of the observation data.

The demographic information was input into SPSS. Day of the week, gender, racial

identity, and number of people in the group were all separate variables. Then the audio-

recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim for each participant. A "coding" process

was used to quantify the answers given for each open-ended question. The PI and

research advisors predetermined many of the categories for each question (Appendix H).

The participant's answer for each question was read line by line from the transcript. If a

participant's answer fit into a predetermined category then it was recorded as such. It was

possible for an answer to fit appropriately in more than one category. If a participant's

answer did not fall into any category, then their answer was placed into the "other"

category for that question. Subsequently each "other" category was screened for similar

answers. If there were two or more answers that were alike, then another category was

established for those responses. Once each question was coded by category, simple

frequencies for each category within each question were produced by SPSS. Cross-

tabulation frequencies were also produced between each question's categories and the

demographic information obtained for each participant. See Chapter 4 for more

information on the results. Trends among participants became apparent when reading the

transcripts. These trends can not always be explained by quantitative methods. Therefore,

a qualitative narrative explores other nuances found in the interview data in Chapter 4.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Data was collected in three phases: 1) physical assessment phase 2) observation

phase, 3) interview phase. The data from the physical assessment was compiled and

analyzed. This yielded an overall floor plan, a diagrammatical floor plan and photographs

of the building and Central Gallery. Data from the observation and interview phases was

input into a statistical analysis program called SPSS. This program allowed the PI to

compile the data and determine frequencies, cross-tabulations, percentages, and graphs

for the variables. The results of these analyses are presented in this chapter.

Physical Assessment Data

The FLMNH is roughly 55,000 sq.ft. without the addition of the McGuire Center. It

has a brick facade and a distinctive translucent sloping roof at the front entrance. It is

situated in the University of Florida's "cultural plaza," along with the Ham Museum of

Art and the Phillip's Center for the Performing Arts. The FLMNH houses several

permanent exhibits, offices, research areas and multi-purpose classrooms, all of which are

labeled on the overall floor plan in Appendix G.

Entry Sequence

Visitors approach the building from the parking areas or circular drive (Figure 4-1).

The sidewalks are wide and appropriate landscaping has been planted adjacent to them.

As they continue to the main entrance, colorful advertisement signs become more

visible (Figures 4-2 and 4-3). Once inside the main entrance they must enter another set

of interior doors (Figure 4-4).



























Figure 4-1. Street and parking area in front of FLMNH


Figure 4-2. Sidewalk leading to front main entrance of FLMNH




























Figure 4-3. Front main entrance of FLMNH


Figure 4-4. Interior doors after entering front entrance

Inside the FLMNH

Once inside the interior entry doors the visitor encounters several choices,

amenities and objects within his or her view. The diagrammatical floor plan (Figure 4-5)

displays the location of these items; and their proximity to one another. The









diagrammatical floor plan was adapted and enlarged from the overall floor plan in order

to show greater detail.

Eight choice points were identified: a) Microbes exhibit (temporary exhibit), b)

hallway to Pearsall Collection exhibit, South Florida exhibit and Florida Fossil exhibit, c)

Northwest Florida exhibit, d) the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research and the

Butterfly Rainforest exhibit, e) entrance to the administrative offices, f) a hallway leading

to the multi-purpose classrooms, and g) the security office. Guest amenities that were

identified include the information desk, the gift shop and the restrooms. The size and

location of the Mammoth and Mastodon display are also outlined on the diagrammatical

floor plan.












Main
Entrance










; amy
















I
F1 t












Figure 4-5. Floor plan diagram of entrance and the Central Gallery
^ / mo / jg
| \ M~tM / d
I ,1--I \ ~ft*
VM~t ; \ / 3
vamw












<' -

,K
V. rh


Figure 4-6. Tiled entry area


Figure 4-7. View of gift shop entrance (See Figure 4-5 for location on diagrammatical
floor plan.)




























Figure 4-8. Closer view of information desk and donation box (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)


The Central Gallery


Figure 4-9. Two views of the information desk (A) Side view right, visitors are
helped here. (B) Rear view with paper information.



















Figure 4-10. Mammoth and Mastodon fossils inside the Central Gallery, (A) Front view
of both skeletons, (B) Side view of Mastodon skeleton (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)










A B

Figure 4-11. Interior views of Central Gallery, (A) View of left side when facing front
entrance (B) View of right side when facing front entrance.


Figure 4-12. Entrance to men's and women's restrooms (See Figure 4-5 for location on
diagrammatical floor plan.)


~,;r'Za~e~hPI



























Figure 4-13. View of large directional signs, which are located at the rear of the Central
Gallery.









Choice points


Figure 4-14. Choice point A, entrance to Microbes, temporary exhibit (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)


Figure 4-15. Choice point B, hallway to other permanent exhibit halls (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)





























Figure 4-16.
5


Choice point C, entrance to the Northwest Florida exhibit hall (See Figure 4-
for location on diagrammatical floor plan.)


Figure 4-17. Choice point D, entrance to The McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research
and the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit (See Figure 4-5 for location on
diagrammatical floor plan.)

































Figure 4-18. Choice point E, entrance to the administrative offices (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)


Figure 4-19. Choice point F, hallway to multi-purpose classrooms (See Figure 4-5 for
location on diagrammatical floor plan.)






























Figure 4-20. Choice point G, entrance to security office, (See Figure 4-5 for location on
diagrammatical floor plan.)



Observation Data

Results for this phase will be shown in tabular and written formats. Simple

frequencies and percentages were calculated for each variable while cross-tabulations

were calculated between relevant variables. Data was collected between 3/12/2005 and

4/18/2005. The data was comprised of observations for 63 participants. Data was

collected from: 25 participants across various Fridays, 25 across various Saturdays, eight

across various Sundays, and four participants on a single Monday during the data

collection period. This section presents and summarizes the data from the observation

phase, which will be more fully discussed in Chapter 5.

Frequencies

In summary, we know that half of the visitors are coming to the museum with their

families (Table 4-1). 75% are not using the restrooms when first entering the museum









(Table 4-2); nor are the majority (91%) of visitors stopping at the gift shop at the

beginning of their visit (Table 4-3). Twenty-six visitors stopped at the information desk:

16 interacted with the staff person, eight picked-up paper information, six did both, two

picked up paper information but did not interact with staff person, and nine visitors did

neither (Cross-tabulation of Tables 4-4, 4-5, 4-6). Furthermore, of the 31 visitors who

viewed the Mammoth and Mastodon display, 62.5% of them also read the text labels

associated with the display (Table 4-7, 4-8). 59% of visitors did not display any behavior

consistent with noticing or seeing the large directional signs (Table 4-9). An even higher

percentage of visitors, 57 of the 63 observed, did not donate money (Table 4-10). Finally,

52% percent of visitors were observed entering the McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest

exhibit first after leaving the Central Gallery, followed by 22% entering the Microbes

exhibit. The other choice points received significantly less visitors (Table 4-11).

Table 4-1. Frequency of group size.

Number of people with the visitor?
Group categories Frequency Percent
One, single 8 12.7
Adult couple (2 only) 12 19.0
Family of 5 or fewer 26 41.3
Family of 6 or more 7 11.1
Adult group (3+) 10 15.9
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-2. Frequency of restroom use.

Did visitor use restrooms?
Restroom use Frequency Percent
Use 16 25.4
Non-use 47 74.6
TOTAL 63 100.0









Table 4-3. Frequency of gift shop use.

Did visitor go into the gift shop?
Gift shop use Frequency Percent
Use 6 9.5
Non-use 57 90.5
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-4. Frequency of information desk use.

Did visitor stop at information desk?
Stop at info. Desk Frequency Percent
Yes 26 41.3
No 37 58.7
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-5. Frequency of interaction with desk staff

Did visitor interact with information desk staff?
Interaction Frequency Percent
Yes 16 25.4
No 47 74.6
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-6. Frequency of picking-up paper information.

Did visitor pick up paper information?
Paper info. Frequency Percent
Yes 8 12.7
No 55 87.3
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-7. Frequency in viewing Mammoth and Mastodon.

Did visitor view the Mammoth and Mastodon
display?
View display Frequency Percent
Yes 31 49.2
No 32 50.2
TOTAL 63 100.0









Table 4-8. Frequency in reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels.

Did visitor read labels on the Mammoth and Mastodon
display?
Read labels Frequency Percent
Yes 20 31.7
No 43 68.3
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-9. Frequency of noticing large directional signage.

Did visitor notice large directional signage?
Notice signage Frequency Percent
Yes 26 41.3
No 37 58.7
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-10. Frequency of monetary donations.

Did visitor donate money?
Donation Frequency Percent
Yes 6 9.5
No 57 90.5
TOTAL 63 100.0


Table 4-11. Frequency in choosing choice points.


Which way did the visitor go after leaving the Central Gallery?
Choice points Frequency Percent
A. Microbes exhibit 14 22.2
B. Hallway to other exhibits 3 5.8
C. Northwest Florida exhibit 6 9.5
D. McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest 33 52.4
E. Administrative office 3 4.8
F. Hallway to multi-purpose classrooms 1 1.6
G. Security office 0 0.0
None of the above 3 4.8
TOTAL 63 100.0

The mean total time spent in the Central Gallery was three minutes, with a

minimum time under one minute and a maximum time of twelve minutes. Table 4-12











shows that 68% of the visitors observed spent three minutes or less in the entry area or

Central Gallery. The line graph in Figure 4-21 illustrates that there were more visitors

spending: 0-1 minute, 3 minutes, and 7 minutes in the Central Gallery than any other time

interval. This may coincide with the "streaker, stroller, and studier" theory, which will be

further discussed in Chapter 5.


Table 4-12. Frequency of total time inside Central Gallery.


Total time Frequency Percent
0:00min.-0:59min. 11 17.5
1:00min.-1:59min. 11 17.5
2:00min.-2:59min. 8 12.7
3:00min.-3:59min. 13 20.6
4:00min.-4:59min. 5 7.9
5:00min.-5:59min. 4 6.3
6:00min.-6:59min. 2 3.2
7:00min.-7:59min. 5 7.9
8:00min.-8:59min. 0 0.0
9:00min.-9:59min. 3 4.8
10:00min.-10:59min. 0 0.0
11:00min.-11:59min. 0 0.0
12:00min.-12:59min. 1 1.6
TOTAL 63 100.0


14

12

10

8

6r

S4

0

000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 009 012
TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY


Figure 4-21. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of total time inside Central
Gallery.









Cross-tabulations

Cross tabulations allow us to show the frequency of certain variables within

another "control" variable. Tables 4-13 and 4-14 look at frequency of use among the

listed variables for each category in the "group composition" variable. Tables 4-15 and 4-

16 look at frequency of use among the listed variables for each category in the "total time

spent" variable. Tables 4-17 and 4-18 look at the frequency of use among for the "group

composition" variable and the "total time spent" variable.

Table 4-13. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use,
information desk use, and picking up paper information within the "group
composition" variable.

Stop at
information Pick-up paper
Restroom use Gift sho use desk information
Group composition Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
One, single 0 8 1 7 4 4 2 6
Adult couple (2 only) 5 7 1 11 5 7 3 9
Family of 5 or fewer 3 23 1 25 9 17 2 24
Family of 6 or more 4 3 1 6 4 3 1 6
Adult group (3+) 4 6 2 8 4 6 0 10


Table 4-14. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and
Mastodon viewing, reading Mammoth and Mastodon text labels, and
noticing directional signage within the "group composition" variable.

Read
View Mammoth and Notice
Monetary Mammoth and Mastodon directional
donation Mastodon Labels signage
Group composition Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
One, single 0 8 1 7 0 8 1 7
Adult couple (2 only) 0 12 4 8 4 8 7 5
Family of 5 or fewer 4 22 13 13 8 18 10 16
Family of 6 or more 1 6 5 2 4 3 2 5
Adult group (3+) 1 9 8 2 4 6 6 4









Table 4-13 and 4-14 were created in order to compare how the number of people in

a group affect the behavior and actions of the group members. This data will help us

better understand how visitor behavior is affected by who they come with. When

interpreting Table 4-13 and 4-14 it is important to look back at the frequencies for the

"group composition" variable (Table 4-1). For example, of the eight total single visitors:

none of them used the restroom or made a monetary donation, one entered the gift shop,

four stopped at the information desk, two picked up paper information, one viewed the

Mammoth and Mastodon display, none of them read the labels for the display and one

noticed the directional signage. The comparisons and other trends will be discussed

further in Chapter 5.

Table 4-15. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between restroom use, gift shop use, information
desk use, and picking up paper information within the "total time spent" variable.

Stop at
information Pick-up paper
Restroom use Gift shop use desk information
Total time spent Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
0:00sec-0:59sec. 0 11 0 11 1 10 0 11
1:00min.-1:59min. 0 11 1 10 2 9 0 11
2:00min.-2:59min. 1 7 0 8 3 5 1 7
3:00min.-3:59min. 3 10 1 12 6 7 2 11
4:00min.-4:59min. 4 1 0 5 3 3 1 4
5:00min.-5:59min. 1 3 0 4 3 1 1 3
6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 2
7:00min.-7:59min. 3 2 1 4 4 1 2 3
8:00min.-8:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
9:00min.-9:59min. 3 1 3 0 2 1 0 3
10:00min.-10:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
11:00min.-11:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
12:00min.-12:59min. 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0









Table 4-16. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between monetary donation, Mammoth and
Mastodon viewing, reading text labels, and noticing signage within the "total
time spent" variable.

Read
Interacted View Mammoth Notice
with staff Mammoth and Mastodon directional
person at desk and Mastodon Labels signage
Total time spent Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
0:00sec-0:59sec. 1 10 1 10 0 11 6 5
1:00min.-1:59min. 1 10 3 8 1 10 2 9
2:00min.-2:59min. 2 6 5 3 4 4 3 5
3:00min.-3:59min. 5 8 9 4 7 6 4 9
4:00min.-4:59min. 1 4 2 3 0 5 3 2
5:00min.-5:59min. 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 1
6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 2 0 2 0 2 0
7:00min.-7:59min. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 5
8:00min.-8:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
9:00min.-9:59min. 0 3 2 1 1 2 2 1
10:00min.-10:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
11:00min.-11:59min. n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
12:00min.-12:59min. 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0


Table 4-15 and 4-16 were created in order to compare how much time people spent

in the Central Gallery to what types of activities or behaviors they chose. This data will

help us better understand the amount of time needed by visitors to view displays or to use

the guest amenities. When interpreting Table 4-15 and 4-16 it is important to look back at

the frequencies for the "number in group" variable (Table 4-1). For example, of the

thirteen visitors who spent between three and four minutes in the Central Gallery: three

used the restroom, one of them entered the gift shop, six stopped at the information desk,

two picked up the paper information, five interacted with the staff person, nine viewed

the Mammoth and Mastodon display, seven of those read the text labels associated with

the display, and four noticed the large directional signage.









44



Figures 4-22, 4-23, 4-24 and 4-25 display line graphs for several of the behaviors


found in the cross-tab Tables 4-15 and 4-16. All of these line graphs show spiked levels


of use at the 3 and 7 minute periods. Further discussion of these findings will occur in


Chapter 5.


5


4


3


2


1


0


7~5QB%~
6s 6s g


%9
a \


TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY



Figure 4-22. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who used restroom for

each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.


6

5'

4

3.

2

1

0,


7o
~9 7~4


TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY



Figure 4-23. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the
information desk for each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the

Central Gallery.


I Ir


I' I7


' '

























6 qq?-, F ,
7i5 i' 5 i' 5


6 P ~,"l 7
6 P,


TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY


Figure 4-24. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who stopped at the
Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of "total time
spent" in the Central Gallery.


Po "
"9~9 7


,9 9


TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY


Figure 4-25. Interpolated line graph showing frequency of visitors who read the text
labels for the Mammoth and Mastodon display for each one minute interval of
"total time spent" in the Central Gallery.

Table 4-17 was created in order to see if "group composition" affects total time


spent. This data will help us better understand how the amount of people in a visiting


group can influence the amount of time the group spends in the Central Gallery. The


figures that follow visually illustrate that many of the "group compositions" variables


U1










hover around certain ranges of time. For instance Figure 4-28 shows that the majority of

visitors in "adult groups of 3 or more" spend greater than the mean time of three minutes.

While Figure 4-29 demonstrates that the majority of visitors in the "family of 5 or

fewer" group tend to spend less than the mean time of three minutes in the Central Gallery.

Table 4-17. Cross-tabulation of frequencies between "group composition" variable and "total
time spent" variable.


"Group Composition"
Adult Adult Family Family
Single Couple Group Group Group
Total time spent (1) (2) (3+) (5-) (6+) Total
0:00sec-0:59sec. 4 1 5 1 11
1:00min.-1:59min. 1 2 1 6 1 11
2:00min.-2:59min. 2 5 1 8
3:00min.-3:59min. 3 4 5 1 13
4:00min.-4:59min. 2 1 2 5
5:00min.-5:59min. 1 2 1 4
6:00min.-6:59min. 1 1 2
7:00min.-7:59min. 2 1 2 5
8:00min.-8:59min.
9:00min.-9:59min. 2 1 3
10:00min.-10:59min.
11:00min.-11:59min.
12:00min.-12:59min. 1 1

50

40

30

20
D
10
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10.
(U) 00


TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY
Figure 4-26. Bar graph showing frequency of single visitors for each one minute interval
of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.












50


40


30


20

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TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY


Figure 4-27. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an "adult couple" group for each
one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.


50


40


30


20
0
00



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TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY


Figure 4-28. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in an "adult group of 3 or more" for
each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.


H HHHL















rY


0 III....

% % % '3, *?% %'"

TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY

Figure 4-29. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a "family of 5 or fewer" group
for each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.



30


20

0 10

0




TOTAL TIME IN CENTRAL GALLERY

Figure 4-30. Bar graph showing frequency of visitors in a "family of 6 or more" group
for each one minute interval of "total time spent" in the Central Gallery.


Interview Data

Results for this phase will also be shown in tabular and written formats. Simple

frequencies and percentages were calculated from the demographic information and for

each category (Appendix H) within each question. Before reviewing the data for each

question, the PI and museum staff members generated question-specific categories that









participant answers could possibly fall into. Some of these categories seemed to be

obvious from the data, while others were specifically chosen because they were themes

museum educators were trying to communicate to visitors. Note that percentages are only

shown for the demographic information and for Questions 2 and 3. Percentages were not

calculated for the interview questions because it was possible for participant answers to

fall into several categories, generating multiple responses per question.

Data was collected between 3/12/2005 and 4/18/2005. The interview phase

included 54 participants. Data was collected from: 19 participants across various Fridays,

18 participants across various Saturdays, 13 participants across various Sundays, and four

on a single Monday during the data collection period.

Demographic Information

While the age of adult visitors ranged from 18 (9.3%) to age 65 and older (25.9%),

the most frequent visitor age was within the range of 55-64 (38.9%) (Table 4-18). Fifty of

the 54 (92.6%) visitors were identified as Caucasian/white (Table 4-19). The frequency

of female to male participants was 50% each (Table 4-20).

Table 4-18. Frequency of visitor age groups.

Age categories Frequency Percent
18-24 5 9.3
25-34 3 5.6
35-44 7 13.0
45-54 4 7.4
55-64 21 38.9
65+ 14 25.9
TOTAL 54 100.0









Table 4-19. Frequency of visitor racial identity.

Racial Categories Frequency Percent
African
American/Black 1 1.9
Caucasian/White 50 92.6
Asian/Pacific Islander 1 1.9
Hispanic 0 0.0
Native American 0 0.0
Multiple 0 0.0
Other 2 3.7
TOTAL 54 100.0


Table 4-20. Frequency of visitor gender.


Frequency Percent
Male 27 50.0
Female 27 50.0
TOTAL 54 100.0

Questions 1, 2, 3

Questions 1, 2, and 3 asked visitors for more information about themselves.

Question 1 asked visitors what the purpose of their visit was. The most frequent answer

was a desire to see the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit (34 responses). The next frequent

answer (12) was to participate in a social experience. This was indicated by the desire to

bring a family member to the museum or to spend time with friends. Several participants

mentioned that they were visiting Gainesville and were curious about the museum so they

decided to visit. Frequencies for all these categories are found in Table 4-21. The specific

responses in the "other" category can be found in Appendix I.

Question 2 asked the visitor who they came with. The answers given were

structured into the same "number in group" categories used for the observation data.









Unlike the observation data, the most frequent group size was the adult couple group,

followed by the adult group of three people or more (Table 4-22).

Question 3 asked the visitor if they had been to the FLMNH before. The data found

in Table 4-23 illustrates that the frequency of repeat visitors and first time visitors was

not equal, with 42.6% and 57.4% respectively.


Table 4-21. Frequency of responses for "purpose of visit."


Frequency of
"Purpose of visit" categories responses
See Microbes exhibit 2
See Butterfly Rainforest exhibit 34
See North Florida exhibit 0
See Florida Fossils exhibit 0
See South Florida exhibit 0
See Pearsall Collection Exhibit 0
Required for a UF class 3
See exhibits 1
For educational experience 0
For social experience 12
For museum experience 3
Other reasons 14



Table 4-22. Frequency of group size.

Group categories Frequency Percent
One, single 2 3.7
Adult couple (2 only) 26 48.1
Family of 5 or fewer 10 18.5
Family of 6 or more 1 1.9
Adult group (3+) 15 27.8
TOTAL 54 100.0









Table 4-23. Frequency of repeat vs. first time visitors.


Frequency Percent
Repeat visitor 23 42.6
First time visitor 31 57.4
TOTAL 54 100.0


Questions 4, 5

Questions 4 and 5 asked the visitor to specifically think about the FLMNH. First

they were asked what comes to mind when they think about the museum. Sixteen of the

54 participants responded that the Butterfly Rainforest comes to mind when they think of

the FLMNH. Six participants said they that they never thought about it, or weren't sure

how to answer the question because they had never visited the museum before. The rest

of the answers are widely spread among the remaining categories. The specific responses

in the "other" category are listed in Appendix J.

For Question 5 visitors were asked to describe what items/objects in the museum

tell them what the museum is about. Participants found it easier to answer Question 5,

because no one responded with an "I don't know" answer. The majority of participants,

31, chose the Mammoth and Mastodon display (Fig. 4-10A-B). While most of the

participants chose one item or object for their answer, a few named multiple objects.

Several of these other objects fell into three categories: the advertisement/signage (Fig. 4-

3), the gift shop (Fig. 4-7), and the frog wall (Fig. 4-31), which all garnered three

responses each. The "other" category had several responses that compared the FLMNH

to other museums the participants had visited. The specific responses in the "other"

category are listed in Appendix K.






















Figure 4-31. Complete view of the frog wall

Questions 6 and 8

These two questions asked the visitor to describe what the current display in the

Central Gallery (the Mammoth and Mastodon) and the new proposed design in Visual

Aid #1 (Appendix D) makes them think about. When describing what they think about

when viewing the current display, most participants (22) responded with "pre-history" or

"history." Additionally, nine other responses focused on the Mammoth and Mastodon's

size or other physical attribute. One visitor reported thinking about the concept of

evolution, while none of the visitors reported having thoughts about the concept of

extinction.

In contrast, when the participants contemplated the proposed new design there

were five responses for "history" and one for "natural history." Ten other responses were

tabulated for "plants and/or animals" where the participant did not specifically mention

Florida; five were counted where Florida was specifically mentioned along with the

plants and/or animals, making 15 total responses for plants and animals. Other categories

like "diversity," "the natural environment," and "evolution" were cited a few times each.

A large portion of the participants (19) had positive responses towards the proposed new


f^ Ni01









design. Words like, "beautiful," "impressive," "it's cool," and "I like it," were some of

the descriptors used by these participants. Interestingly, five visitors thought the proposed

new design gave them a better idea of what they might experience throughout the

museum. The specific responses in the "other" category for Questions 6 and 8 are listed

in Appendix L and N respectively.

Questions 7 and 9

Both of these questions asked the participant to describe how they feel in the

Central Gallery now (at the time of the interview) and after viewing Visual Aid #1

(Appendix D). Interestingly, the participants not only described how they felt, but

described the physical characteristics of the space also. Answers thereby fell into either a

"feelings" response or a physical response category, with sub-categories in each one.

Some participants had both a physical and emotional answer, while others only had one

or the other. Thereby many visitors gave multiple answers for these two questions.

Within the "feelings" response category, 12 visitors responded that they were

"comfortable," followed by nine "nice or pleasant" responses. Feelings of being relaxed

were cited by six visitors. Within the physical response category, the answers were

similar in frequencies. There were nine responses for "airy or open," nine responses for

"big or large," and nine responses for "empty or too much extra space."

After viewing Visual Aid #1 (Appendix D) participants' answers became more

focused on the physical characteristics of the space and fewer about their emotional

feelings. Most of the participants described the proposed new design in the Visual Aid as

being "fuller" and having "more items to look at." Seven participants specifically called

out details about the display, such as the color or size. The emotional answers were

limited to the five responses for "more welcoming" or "inviting." Also of interest were









the non-descriptive positive answers such as "I like it" or "this is great." Six visitors had

such comments towards the space as it is now; 18 said they like the display in the Visual

Aid more than what is currently in the Central Gallery. As in Question 8 above, six

visitors thought the proposed new design gave them a better idea about what the museum

had to offer. All the specific responses in the "other" category for Questions 7 and 9 are

listed in Appendix M and O respectively.

Question 10

Question 10 asked the participants if they received the information they needed to

plan their visit. Thirty-four of the 54 visitors interviewed responded affirmatively.

Follow-up questions were used to discover what was or could have been more helpful to

the visitors when planning their visit. The frequency of responses was equally divided

among the use of paper information, directional signs and the staff person at the

information desk. Three visitors simply stated that the people they came with were

helpful because their friends/family were already familiar with the space. Three visitors

who had not asked for information felt that they were comfortable "just wandering." This

is further explained by a participant: "...I didn't ask for any information because we felt

like we wanted to walk through." She later expressed that if she had wanted help she

could have gotten it. She also acknowledged that more information "...might have been

more helpful but (would) not (have made the visit) more enjoyable."

In contrast, three visitors said they did not get the information they needed. When

these participants were asked what would have been more helpful to them, two of them

responded that they did not necessarily take the initiative to seek out any information,

they were more or less just wandering, but they still reported a "no" answer. The third

visitor did ask for information about the Butterfly Rainforest and was provided directions









to the exhibit; yet they still responded "no" to Question 10. This particular visitor was

still wondering whether they had to pay an entrance fee, so she felt she should have

received more information from the staff person concerning the applicable fees. Four

visitors reported that they simply didn't ask for any information without reporting a "yes"

or a "no" answer. A few stated that they did not need any information. Of those, one said

they didn't pick up any information because "(they) have been here so much....and (they)

get the newsletter." The other two had received information before they arrived,

providing an opportunity to plan ahead. Several others (7) responded that they had not

had a chance to get or ask for any information yet, but intended on doing so. All the

specific responses in the "other" category for Questions 10 and 10a are listed in

Appendix P.

Questions 11, 12, and 13

The last three questions of the interview were focused on the physical orientation

devices within the Central Gallery. Question 11 asked the visitor to critique the current

handout map, Visual Aid # 2 (Appendix E). Several people didn't know a map existed or

where it could be obtained. One such visitor stated, "So you don't know these (the map)

exist unless somebody points it out." He further suggests making the map available and

noticeable somewhere other than the information desk. Visitors were divided on whether

the map was acceptable the way it currently reads or whether color should be added. The

majority of participants in favor of adding color mentioned using it as a way of coding

the different spaces. Along the same lines as color use would be the addition of symbols

or pictures. Others stated that the text should be bigger (6 responses) and "you-are-here"

icon (8) should be added. Only two visitors wanted to simplify the map by having less









details and text. All the specific responses in the "other" category for Questions 11 can be

found in Appendix Q.

When asked about the large directional signs (Question 12), 40 of the 54

participants acknowledged that they had seen the signage. This is in direct contrast to the

observation data collected about the directional signage.

For Question 13, 40 visitors also said they would use the signs to help them find a

specific exhibit. Interestingly, those 40 participants were not necessarily the same visitors

who acknowledged seeing the signs.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Data was collected in three phases: physical assessment phase, observation phase

and interview phase. The data was carefully analyzed and reported in Chapter 4. This

chapter will discuss the findings in greater depth. Possible reasons for visitor behavior

will be explored, as will an assessment of the current and proposed new entrance icons,

with regard to visitors' conceptual orientation and the conveyance of the museum's

educational message. Limitations of the study and opportunities for future studies will

also be discussed. Furthermore, design suggestions for the Central Gallery renovation

will be outlined at the end of the chapter.

Who Are the Visitors?

The demographic data collected during the interview phase was not collected using

a systematic sample. Therefore it cannot be used to determine if the museum's visitors

during this study are similar to visitors in previous studies. Thus the demographic data

from this study does not necessarily reflect the true visitorshipp" of the museum.

Furthermore, the visitor demographic data can only inform the results and discussion that

are inherent to this study. Further discussion of this limitation is outlined in the

Limitations section.

The "group composition" data collected during the observation phase was collected

using a systematic sample; therefore it can be compared to previous studies conducted at

the FLMNH. One such study was conducted during 2000-2001. Using the "group

composition" data from the spring of 2001, we know that the previous study showed that









31% of visitors came with one other adult (adult couple). The current study shows that

19% of visitors fell into the adult couple category. A smaller difference occurs within the

family group; 46% of visitors came in a family group in 2001, while 52% came in a

family group in the current study. Does this mean that the overall composition of visitor

groups has changed at the FLMNH? This is unclear because the data collected about

"group composition" during the previous study was self-reported by visitors. The data

collected during the current study only reflects apparent relationships. The RA was only

able to observe the "group composition," with no way to verify the true nature of the

relationships observed.

What Are Visitors Doing?

The observation data presents an accurate picture about what visitors are doing and

how long they spend inside the Central Gallery. First we know from Tables 4-1 and 4-2

that visitors are unlikely to use the restroom or gift shop in the beginning of the museum

experience. They may use these guest amenities at another time in their visit.

Only 9.5% of visitors made a monetary contribution to the museum using the

donation box. Interestingly, those visitors who came in a family group were the most

frequent donors.

The fact that the majority of visitors (52.4%) chose to see the Butterfly Rainforest

was not surprising, since it is the newest attraction at the FLMNH. The Rainforest has

been open for less than one year. Likewise, the Microbes exhibit was selected as a first

stop by 14 of the 64 visitors observed. It is a temporary traveling exhibit and was only

shown at the FLMNH for a limited time. It would seem that novelty was the motivator

for why visitors chose these exhibits first.









Table 4-4 illustrates that more than half of visitors did not stop at the information

desk. This is unfortunate for several reasons: 1) the desk staff is extremely

knowledgeable about public programs and the exhibits, and information that may be

relevant to many visitors; 2) the handout map of the FLMNH is kept at the information

desk; and 3) paper information such as brochures and handouts about the exhibits are also

available at the desk. The low frequency of use could be explained by the fact that more

than half of the visitors were repeat visitors. It is assumed they would not need the

assistance of the desk staff or paper information because they are already familiar with

the museum. Regardless, the FLMNH has many new public programs and traveling

exhibits that change the museum's environment on a regular basis. Therefore, the

information desk always has information that may be relevant to repeat visitors.

With this in mind, many other factors could be impacting the use of the information

desk. These other factors are: the physical attributes of the desk, the placement if the

desk, staff allocation and visitor motivation. The desk has limited physical space where

guests can be assisted. As seen in Fig. 4-10B, only one side of the desk is available for

visitors to stand. Therefore only a few visitors can be assisted at one time. Anecdotally

this has been a problem when selling tickets for past exhibits. This is further hindered by

the placement of the desk within the Central Gallery. Fig. 4-5 shows the close proximity

of the desk and the Mammoth and Mastodon display. It is quite possible that there is not

enough room to accommodate both visitors waiting for information and visitors viewing

the display. Also many times there is only one staff person working at the information

desk. It is quite possible that visitors do not want to wait to speak to the only staff person.

If there were more staff to assist guests perhaps more than 9 visitors (14%) would have









been able to interact with the staff person. From Tables 4-11 and 4-12 we understand that

the majority of visitors were specifically motivated to see the Butterfly Rainforest

exhibit. Of the 33 visitors who chose to see the Butterfly Rainforest first, 15 spent less

than then the mean time of 3 minutes in the Central Gallery. It seemed like visitors had a

"one-track mind" and headed straight for the exhibition. All of these factors may explain

the low turnout at the information desk.

Visitors with the "one-track mind" may also be considered streakers. According to

Larry Klein (1986), visitors exhibit behaviors in patterns related to time. Thus he coined

the terms streakers, strollers and studies. Streakers move quickly through an area,

strollers tend to move at a more leisurely pace and studies spend the most time in an

area or exhibit. When looking closely at the "total time spent" variable and Figure 4-21,

we see that frequency of "total time spent" among visitors peaked at three distinct time

intervals. These were 0-lminute, 3 minutes, and 7 minutes. This data correlates to Klein's

theory. More specifically, visitors in each "group composition" group spent different

amounts of time in the Central Gallery. Thus they can be classified as streakers, strollers,

or studies, or a combination of these types. From Figure 4-26, the graph shows that

single visitors could be described as streakers, with some strollers. But Figure 4-27

shows that visitors in the adult couple group are streakers, strollers, and studies; they

were more evenly distributed between the three types. Figure 4-28 illustrates that visitors

in the adult group of 3 or more are more likely to be strollers and studies. On the other

hand, visitors in the family group (family with 5 people or less) are more likely to be

streakers, with some strollers (Figure 4-29). This suggests that the children in the group

may be influencing the pace of the group.









Those classified as strollers or studies were more frequently observed doing the

behaviors or actions in Tables 4-13 and 4-14, as illustrated by Figures 4-22, 4-23, 4-24,

and 4-25. Therefore the majority of visitors in adult groups, not family or single groups,

were more likely to partake in the behaviors that were observed.

Therefore two conclusions can be drawn from this data. First, that "group

composition" and time are inter-related factors in how visitors behave. Second, the

groups tend to overlap within the stroller category, where the mean time of 3 minutes

occurs. More visitors were observed spending 3 minutes in the Central Gallery than any

other time interval. Thus it seems logical that the majority of museum visitors are

strollers. Perhaps the museum should try to communicate the museum's educational

message and physically orient visitor's in 3 minutes. By using 3 minutes as a benchmark

the museum has the opportunity to reach the majority of visitors.

The observation data alone cannot describe why visitors exhibited these behaviors.

The interview data, although not directly linked to the visitors observed in the

observation phase, may give us a better understanding. Question 10 of the interview

asked visitors if they received the information they needed to plan their visit. Thirty four

responded that they had. However, only a small percentage of visitors were observed

stopping at the information desk during the observation phase. How can this difference be

explained? First, equal amounts of visitors claimed they used the information desk staff,

paper information and the directional signage. So we know that visitors are using other

informational tools, such as signage, to get information. How does one interpret the use

of the directional signage? During the interview, 75% of visitors reported noticing the

signs but during the observation phase only 42% were observed noticing or looking at









them. It is hard to tell whether there is a true difference in the data. It is possible that the

visitors who were interviewed felt they should answer "yes" to Question 12, once the

signage was pointed out to them. Or stronger yet is the possibility that the RA was unable

to determine if a visitor really did notice the signs. Regardless, the data from either phase

shows that a good portion of visitors see the signs.

Of the remaining 20 visitors who did not answer "yes" to Question 10, many were

already familiar with the space or were with people who were familiar with the space.

This is corroborated by the fact that 43% of those interviewed were repeat visitors.

Thus the data allows for some assumptions about physical orientation in the Central

Gallery. It can be assumed that the information desk, staff person and the paper

information are not the only tools that help to physically orient visitors. Signage also has

a vital role in helping visitors. Furthermore, it is assumed that every physical orientation

tool available is not used by every visitor, and that visitor preferences influence their

method of orientation. Thus an orientation strategy that employs all of these tools to

varying degrees seems most appropriate for reaching the largest percentage of visitors.

Loomis (1987) validates this idea by stating, "(visitors) may need to confirm or verify

their orientation to the environment with more than one source of information."

What Do Visitors Think?

Regarding physical orientation, visitors had several suggestions to improve the

FLMNH's handout map (Appendix E). Before visitors critiqued the map, many didn't

know the museum had a map. This problem is inherent in the fact that many visitors did

not stop at the information desk (the place where the maps are located). The museum may

want to consider making the maps available at the desk and at another location within the

Central Gallery. Thus, picking up a map would not be limited by whether the visitor stops









at the desk. One visitor who was interviewed had the same suggestion. It is unclear

among visitors who were interviewed which ones actually picked up a map because only

eight people responded that they used paper information to help them plan their visit. It is

possible that the paper information they spoke of was not the handout map.

How can the museum make the map more usable? Visitors had several suggestions

(even those who did not pick one up); they include the addition of color and a "you-are-

here" symbol. These ideas adhere to other researched map strategies by Levine (1982).

Many of those who wanted color added were in favor of using color as a coding system,

matching the colors on the map to the same color at the entrance of the exhibits. It is

likely that visitors are comfortable with this strategy because it is commonly used in

shopping malls and airports. These comments suggest that visitors need a better way to

relate the physical, three dimensional spaces, with the image of the two-dimensional

space on the map. This is a keen insight in order to make the map more usable for

visitors.

Regarding conceptual orientation were visitors' thoughts about the current entrance

icon (Mammoth and Mastodon display) and the new proposed "Panorama of Life"

entrance icon. According to the observation data 50% viewed the Mammoth and

Mastodon display. One would desire even greater visitor usage for an entrance icon if

planning to use it for conceptual orientation. Perhaps there is not enough, visually, to

hold visitors' attentions with just the Mammoth and Mastodon display. What we have

learned is that the current display attracts half of all visitors and consistently delivers a

message of"pre-history" or history." But this is not the message that the museum wants

to communicate. Therefore the FMLNH will attempt to change the icon design to deliver









the message (basic science concepts) it has developed, a message that better orients

visitors conceptually to the museum. So does the proposed new "Panorama of Life" icon

design suggest that it is possible to convey these science concepts? The visitor responses

to Question 8 definitely illustrate the potential for greater attracting power. Visitors

described the new display as having more color, more movement/excitement, and that it

was more interesting to look at. It is encouraging that several visitors did think about

diversity and the abundance of animals; these ideas are at the heart of learning about

Biodiversity and Ecology. The results also show that several visitors thought the

proposed new design was more representative of what they would see in the rest of the

museum. This is interesting because it suggests that the proposed new icon design has the

potential to conceptually orient visitors to the museum, unlike the current Mammoth and

Mastodon display.

Because the Visual Aid for the "Panorama" was a rendered computer drawing,

there was no way for visitors to take advantage of possible text panels for the proposed

new display. Text panels designed for the "Panorama" could fill in the gaps between

what is only learned visually. But, as was determined from the observation data about the

Mammoth and Mastodon display, educators cannot rely on text panels to communicate

the entire message; even though a good percentage of visitors (62.5%) who viewed the

display also read them.

The museum now plans to develop several other entrance icon designs that build

on the information gathered in this study. They will be evaluated to determine which one

optimally teaches the science concepts that have been recently identified as biodiversity,

ecology and evolution. Furthermore this study demonstrates that entrance icons have the









power to attract and deliver messages (or content) visually to visitors. The Mammoth and

Mastodon display suggested "pre-history," while the "Panorama" suggests different

messages such as "diversity or wildlife." Thus from this study we know that different

icon designs evoke different ideas for visitors. The goal of future studies will be to

identify which designs come closest to conveying the museum's educational message.

Limitations

There are several limitations to the data as it was collected. First, a research

assistant was employed to collect all the data. Although she was trained using a

prescribed set of procedures, she was not always supervised when collecting data. It is

possible that her technique could have changed during the course of data collection. At

times visitors were not asked the same follow-up questions nor were their answers always

clarified for specific meaning. Second, the data was collected during a six week period of

time. This yielded a small sample number for both phases. A longitudinal study, over

several seasons of the year may have documented a larger and more diverse sample.

Third, participants during the interview phase were chosen with a convenient

sampling technique. Therefore the research assistant could have exhibited personal bias

when choosing participants. This could account for the lack of more participants in each

racial identity category and the low frequency of visitors from family groups being

interviewed. Unfortunately because of the convenient sampling technique the data from

the interview phase is not generalizable among all FLMNH visitors or other museums.

Finally, since the principal investigator had no assistance during the analysis phase,

specifically during the "coding" portion, inter-rater reliability could not be established.

Further Studies









This study explored several complex topics, in somewhat broad terms. Three of

these topics should be more specifically studied: 1) the handout map, 2) the placement

and size of the information desk, and 3) front-end evaluations of several more entrance

icon designs. This study showed low visitor use and possible deficiencies with the current

map. The suggestions by visitors could be used to change and enhance the map; several

iterations of the map could be tested. This follow-up study could help the museum

develop a map that is easier to use and more informative to visitors. The museum could

also develop a study that tests whether having the maps available at other locations in the

Central Gallery would increase use among visitors.

A follow-up study more specifically aimed at better understanding the information

desk might be helpful as well. Using observations that only focus on the desk could

provide a more accurate picture of visitor use. This might be paired with another

interview which only asks visitors specific questions about the information desk, the

paper information that is provided there, and their use or non-use of the desk.

Finally, another front-end evaluation will be needed to introduce other designs for

the new entrance icon to visitors. This study revealed that such icons do deliver

information visually, but that neither the current icon nor the proposed new design was

sufficient in communicating the museum's newly determined educational message.

Perhaps scale models might be used in the future study, which may help visitors better

understand the size, scale, and context of the designs that they are evaluating.

Design Recommendations for the Central Gallery Renovation

Using the information generated from this study, several recommendations have

been developed. These recommendations should not be taken as discreet directions but









rather loose suggestions which can be consulted during the design process. The

suggestions are:

* Consider moving the information desk to another location within the Central
Gallery.

* Consider changing the size and configuration of the desk.

* Consider adding a second or third staff person to work at the desk during high
volume hours/days.

* If the above changes are not possible, consider a secondary information area,
elsewhere in the museum where visitors can ask questions.

* Consider having another area (away from the information desk) where paper
information can be picked up by visitors.

* Consider changing or enhancing the visitor handout map.

* Consider designing an area where a stationary map could be mounted. This display
could combine the stationary map and paper information. This will become
especially important in the future as the FLMNH expands and other entrances
become available to guests, e.g., the new entrance into the McGuire Center.

* Consider making the donation box more visually attractive. Explain to visitors how
their money is being used by the museum. This may increase the frequency of
visitors who donate.

* Consider alternative designs to "The Panorama of Life," which incorporate the
positive comments made by visitors in this study.

Conclusions

The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for a NSF grant proposal.

The grant funds will make a renovation of the FLMNH's Central Gallery possible. This

study provided the baseline data needed to substantiate the museum's desire to create an

entrance icon, and its claim that an entrance icon has the potential to communicate the

museum's newly developed science concepts. The renovation could also include some

possible changes to the physical orientation system currently used in the Central Gallery.

The study yielded useful data about potential physical orientation problems and some









suggestions on how best to make changes. This study and subsequent ones will help the

museum make thoughtful, evidence-based decisions during renovation, and provide

guidance as the museum expands its exhibits and square footage in the future. The most

critical lessons learned are:

* Entrance icons have the ability to communicate content visually and at-a-glance to
the visiting public.

* Visitors are receptive to the idea that the entrance icon can orient them to the
themes within the permanent exhibits.

* Neither the current icon nor the proposed "Panorama of Life" optimally
communicates the intended science concepts developed by FLMNH educators.

* Several physical orientation devices, like the handout map and the information
desk, are infrequently used by the majority of visitors. Finding ways to enhance the
frequency of use could help visitors physically orient themselves better.

The renovation of the Central Gallery gives the FLMNH the unique opportunity to

enhance their physical orientation system while creating an entrance icon that

conceptually orients visitors to the museum's educational message. By pairing both forms

of orientation within the Central Gallery, the FLMNH is ensuring a quality museum

experience to the 250,000 people who visit annually.

















APPENDIX A
TRACKING SHEET

Sample # Day: Date:

Time in:
Time out:

Group Dynamic
# of people:
apparent relationships:



Restroom use: yes no
Giftshop use: yes no
Stop at information desk: yes no
Interaction with person: yes no
Receive paper information: yes no
View mastodon/mammoth: yes no
Read labels: yes no
Visually notice directional signage: yes no


Other behavior:
i.e. confusion, frustration





Which way did the participant go first:


Temp. exhibit area
McGuire Center
North Florida
Hallway to other exhibits
Classroom Area
Office Area
Security Office














APPENDIX B
STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What was the purpose of your visit today?

2. Who did you come with?

3. Have you been to the Florida Museum of Natural History before?

4. When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind?
i.e., the nature of the museum or what it has to offer?

5. When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would give you an idea
about what this museum is about?

6. When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do they make you
think about?

7. Can you describe how you feel inside the lobby space?

8. If you saw this (use visual aid) when you walked into the museum, what would it
make you think about?

9. Can you describe how this space might feel to you compared to how if feels now?

10. When you entered the museum today did you get the type of information you
needed to plan your visit?

a. What was helpful to you?
b. What would have been more helpful to you?
11. What could we do to make this map more helpful to our visitors?

12. Did you notice the large exhibit signs inside the lobby?

13. Did you use them to help you find a specific exhibit?

















APPENDIX C
DEMOGRAPHIC RECORD LOG


Sample #:
Age Group:


12-17


(circle one) 25-34
45-54


18-24

35-44
55-64


Racial identity:
(circle
one)


65-older


Gender:
Day:
Date:
Time:


Sample #:
Age Group:


12-17


(circle one) 25-34
45-54


18-24

35-44
55-64


Racial identity:
(circle
one)


65-older


Gender:
Day:_
Date:
Time:


African American/Black

Hispanic/Latino
Asian/Pac. Islander
Native Am/AK
native
Caucasian/White
Multiple
Other


African American/Black

Hispanic/Latino
Asian/Pac. Islander
Native Am/AK
native
Caucasian/White
Multiple
Other


Sample #:
Age Group:


12-17


(circle one) 25-34
45-54


18-24

35-44
55-64


Racial identity:
(circle
one)


65-older


Gender:
Day:
Date:
Time:


African American/Black

Hispanic/Latino
Asian/Pac. Islander
Native Am/AK
native
Caucasian/White
Multiple
Other















APPENDIX D
VISUAL AID #1: "PANORAMA OF LIFE", PROPOSED NEW DESIGN




















APPENDIX E
VISUAL AID #2: FLMNH HANDOUT MAP


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APPENDIX F
IRB INFORMED CONSENT FORM APPROVAL


Visitor Orientation in the FLMNH


Description and Informed Consent Statement
Florida Museum of Natural 1 nl .-rl, University of Florida, (i imeir'il



This study examines visitor behavior inside the lobby of the Florida Museum of Natural
History (FLMNH). The purpose of this study is to assess if the lobby is properly orientating the
visitor with museum services and general 'A> Ining within the museum. It also
examines perceptions of the museum visitor about the nature of the museum. This research is
exploratory in nature and could help inform future changes to the lobby/reception space.

What you will be asked to do: Once you have completed your visit to the FLMNH the
principal investigator or research assistant to the PI will ask you to answer a questionnaire. Your
answers will be recorded by an audio recording device. These questions are used to illicit your
opinion and ask about behaviors you exhibited in response to your visitor at the FLMNH.

It ill take no longer than 15 minutes to ask you the survey questions. There is no, or minimal
risk associated with these tasks. There will be no monetary compensation provided for your
participation. Also please understand there is no penalty for not participating and you do not
have to answer any questions you do not want to answer.


Whom to contact if you have questions about this study:

Darcie MacMahon, Assistant Director for Exhibits Iphone (352) 846-2000 ext 208;
dJrincmrn jhii,. iln lb nfl edi. Florida Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 112710, (..aines ililc.
Fl 32611-2710
or
Debra D. Harris, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Interior Design, CollkgI of Design,
Construction, and Planning, University of Florida, {phone: 1' 52 392-0252 ext 457;
Jlch.jharri..idg c. i P.O. Box 115705, Gainesville, FL 32611-5705
or
Providence ILeGrand. Graduate student, phone (352) 336-7659; chidii. ,'.acceLkriiirn iin;li I
Dept, of Interior Design, Cclki:.k of Design, Construction and Planniin., P.O. box 115705,
Gainesville, F loridj. 32611-5705



Whom to contact about your rights in this study: UFIRB Office (phone (352) 392-04331
University of Florida, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, Fl 32611-2250

Approved By
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Protocol # 2005-U-0139
For Use Through 2/8/2006


















APPENDIX G
FLMNH OVERALL FLOOR PLAN


Ma in


Buttety
BlvwTm


McGure
c erl ror
Resmmh
L~dOP(llbt
R-UIreI


Enlarged area of
front entrance
and the Central
Gallery, shown
in Figure 4-5.














APPENDIX H
CATEGORY LISTS FOR EACH INTERVIEW QUESTION

The numbers of responses are shown for each category within each question.

Question 1: What was the purpose of your visit today?

See the Microbes Exhibit, 1
See McGuire Center/Butterfly Rainforest, 33
See North Florida Exhibit, 0
See South Florida Exhibit, 0
See Fossil Hall Exhibit, 0
See Pearsall Collection Exhibit, 0
See exhibits, 1
Social Experience, 12
Educational Experience, 0
Required for a UF class, 3
Museum Experience, 3
Other, 14 (see list of responses in Appendix I)

Question 2- Who did you come with?

Came alone, 2
Came with one other adult, 26
Came with family of 5 or less, at least one child, 10
Came with family of 6 or more, at least one child, 1
Came with an adult group, 3 or more, 15

Question 3- Have you been to the Florida Museum of Natural History before?

Have NOT been before, 31
Have been before, 23

Question 4- When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind?

Natural History, 3
Butterfly rainforest, garden, 16
Plants and animals, non-specific, 3
Plants and animals specific to Florida, 3
See exhibits, 5
Never thought about it, 6
Memories, childhood etc., 2









Dickinson Hall, old building, 3
History, the past, relics, 5
Fossils, skeletons, bones, 5
Dinosaurs, 2
Other, 24(see list of responses in Appendix J)


Question 5- When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would
give you an idea about what this museum is about?

Frog wall, 3
Gift shop, 3
Mammoth and Mastodon, 32
Advertisement, outside signage, 3
Donation box, 1
Butterfly "wave", 3
Other, 20 (see list of responses in Appendix K)


Question 6- When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do
they make you think about?

Pre-History, the past, 22
Fossils, Skeletons, bones, 1
Dinosaurs, 4
Imagining oneself in the past, 2
Evolution, 1
Extinction, 0
Physical attributes of the animals, 10
Can't believe they lived in Florida, or area, 3
Other, 21(see list of responses in Appendix L)


Question 7- Can you describe how you feel inside the lobby space?

Comfortable, 12
Relaxed, peaceful, 6
Airy, open, 9
Bright, 4
Big, large, expansive, spacious, 9
Barren, sterile, 0
Empty, not enough items, extra space, 8
Nice, fine, pleasant, 9
Makes visitor feel small, 3
Other, 22 (see list of responses in Appendix M)










Question 8- If you saw this (use visual aid) when you walked into the museum,
what would it make you think about?

Natural History, 1
History, the past, 6
Plants and Animals (non-specific to Florida), 10
Plants and Animals (specific to Florida), 5
Diversity, variety, 4
Evolution, 2
Ecology, 0
Natural Environment, 2
Comments about Physical Design, 5
Scientific Classifications, 0
More Interesting, more to look at, more exciting, 3
More Comprehensive, 3
Shows what the museum is about or has to offer, 5
Positive Response: I like it, impressive, beautiful, etc., 19
Other, 25 (see list of responses in Appendix N)


Question 9- Can you describe how this space might feel to you (with
"Panorama of Life") compared to how if feels now?

More items, fuller, busier, 10
More interesting, 7
Crowded, restrictive, confining, 2
More welcoming, inviting, 5
Describes what is inside museum, what the museum has to offer, 6
Comment about physical design, 7
Non-descriptive positive response to the Central gallery as it is now, 7
Non-descriptive positive response to new design, 18
Energetic, movement, more exciting, 4
Don't know, 1
Other, 23 (see list of responses in Appendix 0)


Question 10- When you entered the museum today did you get the type of
information you needed to plan your visit?

No, 3
Yes, 34
Don't need any, 3
Didn't ask for any, 4
Haven't sought it out yet, 7
Other, 3 (see list of responses in Appendix P)









Question 10A- What was helpful to you?

Paper information, 8
Staff person at the information desk, 8
Did not need information, 0
Already familiar with the space, 3
Directional signage, 7
Other, 9 (see list of responses in Appendix P)


Question 11- What could we do to make this map more helpful to our visitors?

You-are-here icon, 8
Color coding, 16
Use more symbols or pictures, 3
Bigger, 6
Orient differently, 1
Show location of entrance, 2
Don't know/didn't use map, 8
Okay the way it is, no comments, 17
Other, 6 (see list of responses in Appendix Q)


Question 12- Did you notice the large exhibit signs inside the lobby?

No, 14
Yes, 40

Question 13- Did you use them to help you find a specific exhibit?

No, 11
Yes, 40
Familiar, already know where to go, 1
Don't need them, just wandering, 2
Other, 0















APPENDIX I
"OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 1



Question 1: What was the purpose of your visit today?

1. To look around the campus.

2. Well, I just wanted to see the sculptures. And, you know, just kind of see, you
know, just kind of see what they have.

3. Well, we had some of the afternoon to kill because we were done riding our bikes
and we saw the brochure for this and thought this sounds really interesting. So we
came over to look at it because it sounded good in the brochure.

4. I'm going to visit Charlie Corvel. He works here.

5. We're visiting Gainesville and we heard about the Museum.

6. ...to see some of the natural Florida history.

7. ... we came to the butterflies to take some pictures.

8. Just to see it, I've never been there.

9. Oh just to see what's here.

10. Um, my son likes fossils.

11. Just recreation.

12. To see the natural history museum.

13. Oh, I have been interested to see this museum for a while.

14. To visit the museum.














APPENDIX J
"OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 4



Question 4: When you think of the FLMNH what comes to mind?

1. It has a lot of new stuff and interactive things.

2. Local natural resources, all kinds of ecosystems.

3. There's a big science museum where I'm from and it reminds me of like fun
exhibits and playing with neat science toys.

4. My wife and I both enjoy museums. We travel a lot and that's the first thing we
look for is the museums.

5. Gators.

6. Well, I just realized they had one.

7. Well this is...now; we were just driving up 1-75 and saw the sign and decided to
stop.

8. Research.

9. Uh, the mammoth.

10. Well, it's the first time we've ever walked in, this is the first exhibit I've seen, but
it's a nice facility from what I've seen so far.

11. Hmm... oh gosh that's a hard one. Well, my children really enjoy it, so that's why
we come quite a bit for them...because, they're pretty nature orientated so they
really enjoy it.

12. Well, I...this new Florida Museum I think is actually spectacular. The
improvement is marvelous, I thought the other one was very good, but this is really
outstanding. It should be considered one of the best in the country.

13. Archaeology

14. I love it! All the wonder of it I think.

15. The mastodon and the mammoth, and I thought that was pretty impressive because
of how detailed they were and how complete they were, and also I liked just the









environment was nice. A real relaxed environment, it wasn't crowded. Just kind
of... a nice, comfortable place to visit.

16. Well I was...I knew the University of Florida in Gainesville was here, I didn't
realize how large it was and someone told me yesterday there's 80,000 students or
something like that. I like college university towns, I think the ambience and the
culture's just wonderful.

17. Well...gee, I always remember this exhibit here with the mastodons, Like I said...I
think of it would be kind of a child oriented museum, it's a very good place to take
kids.

18. Oh, it's great.

19. I don't know, just fun and relaxing.

20. Oh well...we've been down in Fort Lauderdale, and I used to go to a museum down
there, of Natural History. And we were going to go but it's closed, so...we were
sort of disappointed but then we saw this one so that was it.

21. Okay, since it's associated with the University I figured it was going to have
research and that it was not just going to be like some kids version. Since I'm
touristing for the first time, I want something quality.

22. Well, the great deal of effort it took to put all this together.

23. Well, I think it's really educational. One thing that's different that they have, the
interesting thing, is that things relate to children.

24. Prehistoric stuff that's why I was originally interested in coming.













APPENDIX K
"OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 5



Question 5: When you entered the museum today, what did you see that would give
you an idea about what this museum is about?

1. Prehistoric times

2. Some of the birds around here, yeah. And the information signs.

3. Oh God....(laughs) well other than that, um...okay, my opinion was that...um,
they're trying. They're trying to create this...uh, I don't think there's any other part
of the University that has one of these, it's all here right? And it's more extensive
than the last time I was here (at the Ham) which was about 5 years ago.

4. Uh, the art

5. Well, on the outside for one thing. And coming in the door and seeing the different,
uh, things on the wall to give you an idea of what's going to be inside. And talking
to the lady at the desk about the rainforest.

6. Well, your first exhibit is all I've seen, and it reminds me of our museum at home in
Raleigh... very similar.

7. I didn't...I just walked in, yeah, so I really haven't seen anything. I guess the first
thing that caught my eye was the fact...how big the whole complex is. And my son
being in theater, I did notice the theater...looked like that was pretty neat.

8. I have no idea, just visiting... curiosity

9. And...you know, I've been coming to this museum since I was a kid, when it was at
it's older location...so, I...it's harder for me to answer because I've grown up with
it...but, just the atmosphere you can tell it's a learning environment.

10. Well, obviously I looked at the brochures first of all and the general information.

11. Actually, nothing until I got through the door. No, because I already knew it was
here... and that exhibit, butterfly exhibit, I've seen it before, it's kind of unusual...
you kind of look at it and say "well that's got to be different", and you've got a
question mark, you know...but I knew. Sorry about that if that's not the right
answer... I'm giving you an honest answer.









12. Well I have an idea what Museums of Natural History are, and I have been to
another butterfly place in Callaway Gardens, Georgia. So I had some idea, I've
been to the Natural History Museum in Washington D.C. and so forth so I knew
there would be these skeletons and so forth. I haven't been to the rest of the
museum yet

13. The big animals

14. Oh we saw everything. I don't know...it's just about everything.

15. The dinosaur

16. We haven't really gotten into it yet. I just figure that it's about natural history and
I'm excited about exploring the natural stuff, kind of getting some more
background.

17. I'm not sure, as I've said we have been here before, so we knew sort of what to
expect. But I didn't think...have they, I know you're the one who's supposed to be
asking questions, but it seems to me that they have a lot more now then they had
when we were here last, it was about 5 years ago.

18. One thing when you walk in the front door, you already know what the museum's
going to be like because whatever is out here on display is always an eye catcher.
It's clean, it's neat, everything, I mean it just says "Come in, we're ready for you".

19. We knew it was here because it's where the butterfly exhibit is and also natural
history

20. But we like the archaeology and, you know, the reconstructed fossils exhibit.















APPENDIX L
"OTHER" CATEGORY RESPONSES FOR QUESTION 6



Question 6: When you look at the mastodon and mammoth skeletons what do they
make you think about?

1. They make me think about the exhibit that I came and saw for the class.

2. Hmm...well, what are you looking for? What kind of aspects are you looking for?
Like preservation? Well when we see them I want to tell my children about the
fossils, and we've been studying the flood. And you know this is a good example
of when the flood came. And especially, I guess a lot of the museums don't present
one side or the other, but we can use it to tell them how the fossils are preserved.

3. Running.

4. It made me think of the natural history museum in Washington D.C., and made me
curious as to what else was here.

5. Elephants

6. I guess everything that we missed.

7. The differences between the two groups of elephants.

8. I guess dead things on display.

9. So far, so far... I haven't had enough exposure to the rest to tell yet. Probably be
better, actually if you catch them on the way out.

10. Natural history.

11. My anthropology class.

12. My childhood. They've been around for a while... so...it's kind of a sense of
excitement because when my kids come in the first thing they always say "whoa",
when they see that. So...it's hard for me to describe, but...


13. What it used to be on Earth once upon a time... and how lucky we are that we're
still here.









14. Oh gee, just my love of history I guess and my love of science.

15. Just in amazement that they're so close to where we live now, that's where they
were found...and how, it's just real impressive. It's one thing to read it or see it in
a magazine, but when you actually see it in person it's incredible. It's not abstract
anymore, it's real.

16. Gosh, natural history museums I guess.

17. I wouldn't want to meet them, even though they aren't meat eaters.

18. I guess how small we are in the universe.

19. Hmm...good question. Actually, the first thing that came to mind...we were at the
museum of Natural History in New York. Yes, they have an amazing amount of
fossils.

20. Well I was thinking, how in the world did they get that preserved; where they could
bring it back out today and have this much of it here. It's amazing.


21. I don't know, they remind me of Africa