<%BANNER%>

Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil with Co-Flow Jet Flow Control

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101123_AAAABV INGEST_TIME 2010-11-23T10:40:40Z PACKAGE UFE0011656_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 834513 DFID F20101123_AAAZED ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH wells_a_Page_44.jp2 GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
9da281057fd9ab397a75e8b61b3111b7
SHA-1
e96870a50ab49d95c37a3b6aa651a0004d1da724
45385 F20101123_AAAYYI wells_a_Page_71.jpg
a2041e2810d24ea67fcff01fece43d9f
4ac4008097b8908079be52fcdf01a21f3e6416c2
780692 F20101123_AAAZEE wells_a_Page_45.jp2
beccfe18910809ea6a005f114e518708
486bde2dfd6e1deb5d0686b40c3a5d91a789fc85
72590 F20101123_AAAZDP wells_a_Page_30.jp2
1283d71087633066a7cbf594ad451972
072d51ed6aad114bf3f1aa2a84560f76fe95eda2
50187 F20101123_AAAYYJ wells_a_Page_55.pro
8c952710d69371d24457e7214093a64a
d1dfba1980ba5e0b1537f23b133629f76669377d
699898 F20101123_AAAZEF wells_a_Page_46.jp2
bf9b75c7bc2b00f8d98960b09d6fd542
99c3bf64ea36417c4f272ef3851c6903c6249eb2
1029292 F20101123_AAAZDQ wells_a_Page_31.jp2
917c88689ea19ad9ec3fe4cc0987ec79
3ce0ea24b242cbe3846d122385590d6d47a28814
3347 F20101123_AAAYYK wells_a_Page_02.QC.jpg
b1b89b65fd68fc4589a34b2acfbe65ae
d069aae15061d2f2b5374a84ac4b12fab7fee555
541775 F20101123_AAAZEG wells_a_Page_47.jp2
7da14bd0378a2737748477f155264aac
f81f293c25a5ce7d11ba0f4f57893f1b38967b71
58364 F20101123_AAAYZA wells_a_Page_27.jpg
200923e84bdbc96592423429d898a61b
51ca300030fd075eed63083ec1d04a12ed5ff430
106985 F20101123_AAAZDR wells_a_Page_32.jp2
ea7ab0d15795c4a5b7681e9a6a06d0ee
a2fde016c5eb0c58bb401c1df179090538131bc0
17913 F20101123_AAAYYL wells_a_Page_22.QC.jpg
675e985fe04265b28792815f33831ff1
ee0c7203e82f286dbf273e820501eb8bfd0f1ae5
680209 F20101123_AAAZEH wells_a_Page_48.jp2
8fad723d44a794b75d3195d3e78fba34
cd61cfc727dbc0ee9d4f6266f4cd32b892c82591
22549 F20101123_AAAYZB wells_a_Page_43.QC.jpg
b1541761adae6e50103a21cc016bb07b
02c77c0d2eb14709b6c358b9f687ed5b3ab481fb
77114 F20101123_AAAZDS wells_a_Page_33.jp2
4c2a204153417596bbe4992396b571f8
5102cb4fa5279ca2bd39e21eb436afc5c8da93fc
3345 F20101123_AAAYYM wells_a_Page_65thm.jpg
cb313a28b72e638cd5518c1e371ec872
b667021779d8035df6d63f4828f4b6e344705740
103008 F20101123_AAAZEI wells_a_Page_49.jp2
67570c39ab3299f521f17596a6d59881
1aead6295e9bd37f62bc421f34769ede703f390e
5237 F20101123_AAAYZC wells_a_Page_22thm.jpg
b4913719d688978c5df0a11f0bb550de
90c978193ca3ecc213a3181b02b63d4c9fc4c285
77827 F20101123_AAAZDT wells_a_Page_34.jp2
5768e22c753002df5b37c6e2b0500bd1
d87e608aab029c67427954db257325630c341b99
1053954 F20101123_AAAYYN wells_a_Page_32.tif
9a40fd89c22b4e84dc49a8e927ced00c
8c37f6455aa182192822a43a52a6411cbf514bb7
433210 F20101123_AAAZEJ wells_a_Page_50.jp2
f5123a74bc222adf9847a12a90be722c
f8070b4e31ee40a8962b903ae22242c2814ef840
F20101123_AAAYZD wells_a_Page_76.tif
9bc4cd55016aaeee3d352d4fe15dc92f
7c81fe7b3032a255ab5f4091ed0e3e9029eca03a
70189 F20101123_AAAZDU wells_a_Page_35.jp2
f0be069205c11dfa499606b318de45ad
4f5580e90c8bae1d082cebe437d6d4208e51fee6
33032 F20101123_AAAYYO wells_a_Page_85.jpg
7a24597a64c9257e0bfed9e3c1cfa0e8
e741f9a2d4c43754d87a1d74339af9b19b807f96
533482 F20101123_AAAZEK wells_a_Page_51.jp2
e79ca7de569dcb39ae6a425c7dbfe629
33717cdcd6a6f601f4e56ab1369147722da631bf
103256 F20101123_AAAYZE UFE0011656_00001.mets FULL
df49c0a5b4afd54485f02cc4cb68bd3d
b5baec81fa37c051febca4b6f68c4c03d9e770e7
80307 F20101123_AAAZDV wells_a_Page_36.jp2
0bc995eb3534309a5d360de93ba3e3c4
ba60dccce11d1a48d65fbe170afa0c9a3c609b64
25271604 F20101123_AAAYYP wells_a_Page_08.tif
31bb5d1484f3a2fbae918d7a2f645c78
f16425a302e9a53fb142a325f88c52fed142ff18
546690 F20101123_AAAZEL wells_a_Page_52.jp2
b3fcdd6414d7c86a51c02afbc5399ebc
65d3d47ff265060c0ff5b9d5b609768b67c7ee89
88493 F20101123_AAAZDW wells_a_Page_37.jp2
1b02b0c59584e15aaceb8f1e7a00fd90
ee9c84d3801cdeff4b18ab06789396ffce81ac9d
83386 F20101123_AAAYYQ wells_a_Page_76.jpg
f75de0080858a6ff4137cb62fa5f8d61
21e0482f22e7ee6787a7fc81407478fcf2610c3d
480477 F20101123_AAAZEM wells_a_Page_53.jp2
95489a148143844342f4f924c0058f09
abe1bd9184e7cf3d8375345f50004be0438eb194
88053 F20101123_AAAZDX wells_a_Page_38.jp2
ce7ae1079422a250e26431ebf8d9c40c
edccd1c1ddb181103551c6c17d3bb2d1117c2eeb
68370 F20101123_AAAYYR wells_a_Page_23.jpg
a839f40e1daa3fb6d5f41c5de013bae1
9bdad098ecb866ca57f51e1b8a6be391f81f4806
113349 F20101123_AAAZFA wells_a_Page_68.jp2
da96e5b37f5651b12972139449fce2be
2a3cc4139414918ccaadadb954dd215feb0e386e
409910 F20101123_AAAZEN wells_a_Page_54.jp2
6f867acb22ac62af0b7b7bbd20573aea
67f7ba9e21846e074032a75c5c756aa861907a21
29359 F20101123_AAAZDY wells_a_Page_39.jp2
fbfc96775612ff169f2421b9ed35f1fd
e46ef615b263e1afcd126c66386261eb1fc710d2
F20101123_AAAYYS wells_a_Page_83.tif
9e0598b1ca0d733fad7dca87d03489ea
23ea75298bd18b2087a12d30fdc24c1c43d26b32
36730 F20101123_AAAZFB wells_a_Page_69.jp2
62c1f2c291c5993d08211bdbc6a9d1f1
53f38517a1f58ad6242a03e6613a9a9538985e42
941609 F20101123_AAAZEO wells_a_Page_56.jp2
a454ec760462a458af34c68bb8f3641a
9993ed1075adf70a27c524a441894f5cded99891
22123 F20101123_AAAYZH wells_a_Page_01.jpg
1d3a100749e6397ac03105b93b5081d2
1d3cbca4675e59fa32248f3890a0bbf60034242d
90437 F20101123_AAAZDZ wells_a_Page_40.jp2
cd596b87fe520d8ed7721f817514b719
235e19d9113a4d9b36eca39432f0009c9514e2c8
1621 F20101123_AAAYYT wells_a_Page_34.txt
83aa2386b9396887a55ba0f1510de3b7
a42c03c13d498f38722a857cb8307fea2e9bcfe6
63035 F20101123_AAAZFC wells_a_Page_70.jp2
3052c38ca78cd806a88c5d7d75055e76
e470dd27fd9e4cd5e106944c6d13dcda7e296781
888856 F20101123_AAAZEP wells_a_Page_57.jp2
a78b4ead13394fe8907405c5abf384e0
6e10bd014fc98a1b8c07a520448960d621c4b64f
10562 F20101123_AAAYZI wells_a_Page_02.jpg
e0f778d8b48cc725c2d058d54cded310
6a5b3ec7b2957a72b58d4d9f87f47faa3296c45a
6717 F20101123_AAAYYU wells_a_Page_24thm.jpg
b4d94430b2a0ae781e94d1360f66cd8e
083751373e2373d8ae2ff074b1b4fa6ecf090c43
62796 F20101123_AAAZFD wells_a_Page_71.jp2
133c36240a5f44a6606e683e61b464cc
ff5583b7200b952be53ac11cfac3575d14d4f237
25855 F20101123_AAAYZJ wells_a_Page_03.jpg
e835d9519d61bb6ce3e8d98664b7c882
1a9a85b576165dd29e307f3e90ba2d4a3c4b3579
F20101123_AAAYYV wells_a_Page_51.tif
4963c9f83c8f99c722a148212c997a66
cccc9773c139d495808454deb3aa0a67faa001e7
121357 F20101123_AAAZFE wells_a_Page_72.jp2
3cbf1b6ba2b3cc6246a392088b44fa1a
130e0479af145bf3bc6a3272c4462fbcd0e169c4
786912 F20101123_AAAZEQ wells_a_Page_58.jp2
3147a225c5812acd16a8a7084c53ff8d
05ca593ac0220a592e93a88cc3609cfaefe157eb
61443 F20101123_AAAYZK wells_a_Page_04.jpg
f4b2eed9d626febc1aff191ccb3ea365
7e4db7dc36d3586eb196f9f3d23f6c2a1172bbb0
F20101123_AAAYYW wells_a_Page_05.tif
bb60eb01b32a4a38ae1f62d52429098f
6a668bdc29ce3ce721aa342c02a0383cfee9fdac
124560 F20101123_AAAZFF wells_a_Page_73.jp2
a591cecd148988fa17c3734b49bdc89c
4f544b5cfb36213d01af3c3f302bcaf79e0b0c80
966911 F20101123_AAAZER wells_a_Page_59.jp2
9544db2d0317c1c00e45316de3be7c3d
f6a8f15e626e4da9a3cb73673de2d0af69f9353a
23393 F20101123_AAAYZL wells_a_Page_05.jpg
0efb333966ccbb88fa9f6b4cc0f6bb3a
e192ec303d41eee1e164b672fb95a1e590d8dfd6
28753 F20101123_AAAYYX wells_a_Page_06.jpg
c09ea12098676f72961634d73ea90911
a0a8cecefafff182aa8c99d4d2af58b0487acd83
57062 F20101123_AAAZFG wells_a_Page_74.jp2
d846e6776bdc00ceedbe807796dbf1cc
1afc22a4395a57eed1da35952c74561d0471b74d
950064 F20101123_AAAZES wells_a_Page_60.jp2
514b84390db1f28d3123c0e361d1e970
b84ae6a812268f7ab6df2f2f3dbba910997857d3
63996 F20101123_AAAYZM wells_a_Page_07.jpg
ced875891013ba2366460b9fe7114445
8ffc522ee1fbe63c3616e33e491c18d99a014d9b
302067 F20101123_AAAYYY wells_a_Page_81.jp2
c52c5fdc89df498a0664d0a23280fc0a
33f2f2cb8c6ff66d95fddf4b2454099722538ebf
96846 F20101123_AAAZFH wells_a_Page_75.jp2
688cd1d4d701068dfec87695e270c3b5
02436bc1f5a56d974c4e41b9c02b3c5ec25772a9
908741 F20101123_AAAZET wells_a_Page_61.jp2
cc4eedc7714f2f8a991db0193ef90ab5
6901560959e65505b93def193f969345c3e0861b
97923 F20101123_AAAYZN wells_a_Page_08.jpg
6f18f5f494d533fc2741889456055078
5440d127b513be50fa10270b292bc8a4c6516b8b
1014998 F20101123_AAAYYZ wells_a_Page_55.jp2
42829e83aa302a0a2f7e05d5c6a95aef
b6f14f24d6ea925e461999ae71abddce51fd54d7
121210 F20101123_AAAZFI wells_a_Page_76.jp2
53e476bbbc92aa6058d9171d62b07705
d55df9773912f0b55e8bed1f761dc58b4acbed86
58310 F20101123_AAAYZO wells_a_Page_09.jpg
a10e85e1403f1c205eb4e705730954d9
17d6974e64601ac075203767e4879b40a72b7ba8
26866 F20101123_AAAZFJ wells_a_Page_77.jp2
795a22083ddbab3716b8b4e2baff003a
1a380e3996484d86390b18f16bcf4c9470255038
942587 F20101123_AAAZEU wells_a_Page_62.jp2
8e693c91967b5c18f269176a64b00584
1e18bf2c1bcb0953f982173c31696a39d743e940
42962 F20101123_AAAYZP wells_a_Page_10.jpg
626773dfb2150e180ee49fb9f1c91858
6dbfbfde924c31a5ccde8d57dfff8940c000f8ef
268025 F20101123_AAAZFK wells_a_Page_78.jp2
96edfcee0fd2fe6e1a47a9a739741db0
396a7d103e5ecb3918e3c2bb81c4f8ee7448e3b5
724725 F20101123_AAAZEV wells_a_Page_63.jp2
1bae6335c6a9ba7965f1b28a78eedb6b
6f1b570f79fb7ba0cc5c385baaaf3a791e04b263
63527 F20101123_AAAYZQ wells_a_Page_11.jpg
33fe7a9b4b07eb748d0731d7d142eafd
47afa84cf7c4d06b4d04d52bd069a02b4dc54a70
322675 F20101123_AAAZFL wells_a_Page_79.jp2
efbc0d8964cd68ff24c720d50f5474bf
e71b5c0768e6d4e01b4d67bf7a7dcdb86990f11a
827451 F20101123_AAAZEW wells_a_Page_64.jp2
70e7b5de9401f94b78cedcda6df6b5ef
46ce42ae620b71cec27d94d3219452f558028759
47172 F20101123_AAAYZR wells_a_Page_12.jpg
886d2a4766abc8260ba6ece88dc617bb
cbed7a3471bf1c73f163cfa4f5447eb1b942e399
F20101123_AAAZGA wells_a_Page_07.tif
d9b739b583bcc3de60d7747224f7a8bc
cc1051b5bb9a65b03fb2eafe9bf945b13a86f256
313456 F20101123_AAAZFM wells_a_Page_80.jp2
1c167270ab167915b0973d91c94ba7d6
8f18bf4956af0b09885ead600214f6a2a978c45c
339234 F20101123_AAAZEX wells_a_Page_65.jp2
e7813577587116370e697a93efb7f712
11a109152a1721357a77ec8bad225b3cb8d8763d
64744 F20101123_AAAYZS wells_a_Page_13.jpg
662fdb6511dc5f867a0d8307a1eeaecf
ad8200c015424a4f9b1c67b7e2e6e7de3aba94e1
F20101123_AAAZGB wells_a_Page_09.tif
402ce9a5afe6823139cb849f71327da1
8e46cdee2e72e0dbcef31e7d806aa0811bbba4d8
367788 F20101123_AAAZFN wells_a_Page_82.jp2
797c56aa9fc869c93dfcc19306f6557d
b9bb3be5bbf40b695b7e6495ba5cb4d4671603c8
92708 F20101123_AAAZEY wells_a_Page_66.jp2
b02649aa482ec8e0e5b0c577b72c8d10
7bfb070ed0e1594dfd92f5daa7c19eb8861317cb
51782 F20101123_AAAYZT wells_a_Page_14.jpg
482fe9c60f8a0fc5824f5f37428230d3
bb2de2e0056863fae3cc159878fc66bbc4358e94
F20101123_AAAZGC wells_a_Page_10.tif
e83ba1c3d45ca0ad4022d584a591bae6
7426e7fa7a002c567a2c554eebc354a71c74b610
347188 F20101123_AAAZFO wells_a_Page_83.jp2
77409e5c1f6e4b888970291fdcdbe746
429fd635e324595a52e12ef2e22a2c4fdf050fe7
72365 F20101123_AAAZEZ wells_a_Page_67.jp2
adf6a7a281acde66856bd2444046f722
6e52e8d43f53063a8da3bfdd05f2125d7adf7cf8
64536 F20101123_AAAYZU wells_a_Page_15.jpg
298563ba69e60be986fd64d8e4dfab74
f65845ec4bba6ba80fcf241305588ab9111e076e
F20101123_AAAZGD wells_a_Page_11.tif
2a630f844cbaf19c0d79b6dd3f510b1c
e520d71ce8d46db162a48687fd5fa8aa9387ac1e
316146 F20101123_AAAZFP wells_a_Page_84.jp2
dee8ab3ceb8f838b1fc9187175ec1e32
f1375ded49065230f03b1252be80e8053c28fd40
67638 F20101123_AAAYZV wells_a_Page_16.jpg
68989611a3e86ca594da44803e595c0b
3c2a2ea115d332d6ba42a90b8bdb25535ed01a54
F20101123_AAAZGE wells_a_Page_12.tif
83de4d52e191045654fe2a64b4eb8737
7ba0670d41d4d95c0534c843e5d3684c9f7316b7
348224 F20101123_AAAZFQ wells_a_Page_85.jp2
b94dd0d4fd8aa9803aa8c496bae5c644
3f1290d550c0f7822bcef07c8ee324f06adca27f
67784 F20101123_AAAYZW wells_a_Page_17.jpg
5d8177df4d4a8fb55ff718539a28b976
41fc83a8d92e63fb19152ed016719c48aaa675ae
F20101123_AAAZGF wells_a_Page_13.tif
a238b66b6f781535f573b73a9d567b9e
422b66cba34e263a0daf492f5b30e41cb2ba4ac5
55757 F20101123_AAAYZX wells_a_Page_18.jpg
29d208fee54b0932fca7eb3abfd4068c
05eb5f019a38c36d36a14a6fb27af09e46488cc1
F20101123_AAAZGG wells_a_Page_14.tif
ad084353b28ddf74b1ce0604602da9ae
4fd47f42711a42ab8acd332819a9d60204145fde
357828 F20101123_AAAZFR wells_a_Page_86.jp2
b2db1fa3caec586ddf00bc678234769a
2d1bcb993de615146d98afdd2b8c84ff857e0026
68985 F20101123_AAAYZY wells_a_Page_19.jpg
84c46f1a6cec76ac2ee4f43931b00cb2
44ff9272974887cafaebf32ca80a008f19d47a82
F20101123_AAAZGH wells_a_Page_15.tif
400164639d6ef2583798744f8deca5f8
03d51db7c1b7894a7c42b6c18f222a2ac2781b18
110197 F20101123_AAAZFS wells_a_Page_87.jp2
7167ffcb92725c5eca8bf855f422e4e1
c83b4a5347de8f8bd3788fa236b3a715d45398fc
70205 F20101123_AAAYZZ wells_a_Page_20.jpg
b7909f84552446ef5ed3d2ee2226cd73
cc7370308ca0a03552ce463076fe557daf0a0f4a
F20101123_AAAZGI wells_a_Page_16.tif
dac3bca6218e79209e2e5ab831071942
66df284f3d250dc449d2c458e9e4e6bdcadff074
38300 F20101123_AAAZFT wells_a_Page_88.jp2
e1ff7d18b691b118e52f825346bd4073
ea4b91bb437979c1bc2b6cede1d748a8d9ad3d12
F20101123_AAAZGJ wells_a_Page_17.tif
2b14cf68999fed8788514be015da392a
de4b57811efb8811c57afb1a5a17370fda0a6d49
61778 F20101123_AAAZFU wells_a_Page_89.jp2
cea7d54e5813c24d9c360c5fb33b0fbd
84a9efb49bf5034fb1d96c260615bc3f62b7dd45
F20101123_AAAZGK wells_a_Page_18.tif
b5a1651a890306dd678c9464aaeb77ac
31e4ab2b38fe69eac248580daa1320246edfcf45
F20101123_AAAZFV wells_a_Page_01.tif
4036145bec04c305122832cd8cb7b51e
916aa6aa9e84f060ab54a21e6e9e959da58ba332
F20101123_AAAZGL wells_a_Page_19.tif
fa13b7b22e47a8eaa8fa7483c816ea3a
e6b1747f88ade853b143e3533ed73ae38c807c9b
F20101123_AAAZFW wells_a_Page_02.tif
88edb00261e0d6b2c6fcc855c08ac0e4
901fef2e515e31a747720a21b8429520d35544f4
F20101123_AAAZGM wells_a_Page_20.tif
388d295afd6a469ac9fc6238617141c9
e4c8d11646526b5e74b66592a0fde99a8579226b
F20101123_AAAZFX wells_a_Page_03.tif
52adec49cbb55c3ba47d8e2dd217f1a6
e93347c8d391b86a7a24ea9729567f67c23876b5
F20101123_AAAZHA wells_a_Page_35.tif
2c72ca30a96cd7a50c3d0e4380f660fb
490fd8807f12135eb1986b3418f5acef9df69d27
F20101123_AAAZGN wells_a_Page_21.tif
24416789adb8a1a0c0b449ab6c9c10d3
2e1758bd2356573e0384db9eef27babad9544006
F20101123_AAAZFY wells_a_Page_04.tif
698e7b3a223fc036127589f0919b0886
85ac210563ac3d54eb342909085097930af57762
F20101123_AAAZHB wells_a_Page_36.tif
092a4cbe0204e1472658c9f164ccea18
9a035bca0ee54c9f8de928f504ae60dbb66b5f31
F20101123_AAAZGO wells_a_Page_22.tif
fd43af9bd7f515e735cc32793f7ac5ae
744cc7e9a391d6d835b7723181e70dd60284657d
F20101123_AAAZFZ wells_a_Page_06.tif
2dd8dc4c82c77e96a394f2d63300ed48
db2a8fef41b717a2280d7e94b4a073b02ba5a523
F20101123_AAAZHC wells_a_Page_37.tif
640c40fa8b4496a20d981c323f76a2cf
c90c3dad0335b69efb2b2297bf77c670dfcc1b8e
F20101123_AAAZGP wells_a_Page_23.tif
6be5fb754725ee5b46e2b16df1bbd6e4
97fdaaf6180cb9fd5e20a350562e5923cde13cdd
F20101123_AAAZHD wells_a_Page_38.tif
4c0759c1ec1cc1ae0ebaee196639320b
ea97ac83d5eb606494e38a415d807e95e22d7c8f
F20101123_AAAZGQ wells_a_Page_24.tif
f0505d001fb2f4e4e2dcd4198cb96854
2fc5397ee3c9a5257d84dfe3ff2c612a6f20367a
F20101123_AAAZHE wells_a_Page_39.tif
743eb42a62589cbfab9a4881e1424e93
8f2809d507c6c35339c94a4f51eed9f92124e8e2
F20101123_AAAZGR wells_a_Page_25.tif
5e2b13d0ed0330332a802314fe0adbd9
079fed7095c9900fd60737f01b28999e3af7851e
F20101123_AAAZHF wells_a_Page_40.tif
e8e145ecfed34f86ae65f8456323ec50
4de63f78357877f1f70cef3f98026a1e77e1f51a
F20101123_AAAZHG wells_a_Page_41.tif
d9005c62c890d3a69e6338386afbaaea
a39f64bed481b75ddc4b4e69215d623ee03626eb
F20101123_AAAZGS wells_a_Page_26.tif
bd2521d85a0c5c232b72eaf8c219c16e
1b47fac0a53e6f9cb387c7941282315b8460ec7e
F20101123_AAAZHH wells_a_Page_42.tif
8747a323e15c9afb7a3f388f0d7db51b
8de53e3d7b79569128d264c2f5affcc2c26e4e17
F20101123_AAAZGT wells_a_Page_27.tif
b20e7705233f14958bb8c6b76fee055a
9ab171e162659d856c256510ecce708b10694cce
F20101123_AAAZHI wells_a_Page_43.tif
90ae39cddd0069307af29031ff31e62f
312a681cc90976a4a1755d294a4c0cee39efcdc5
F20101123_AAAZGU wells_a_Page_28.tif
b57816f9f2785c470cc8fa0821fb289e
4940dd392024f5dc8ab19a1dbd12cb08ebcc6866
F20101123_AAAZHJ wells_a_Page_44.tif
afbfacfb4f0b3bb5e679952522cb4fad
321214787aa11dd6a26f056575174bdc48639cbc
F20101123_AAAZGV wells_a_Page_29.tif
aa771a4ca63edba6e934be61b41e81ad
f6debb7835ced554778a743707e85b6023f6c8c0
F20101123_AAAZHK wells_a_Page_45.tif
c45eb1eb1c67abadea18b2df1e8deadb
8938cc4e8e8323d825cf5ebca08e8ee423226ae7
F20101123_AAAZGW wells_a_Page_30.tif
22c5d62c27631b1755b03e26e1943ffa
8cf7c03bf88b980df321ff0a1e98cfe46359f9c2
8423998 F20101123_AAAZHL wells_a_Page_46.tif
a316dbefe3534fc1cd314e9b2360758c
1cdee1510ad1ec56cadfc502c84d5f2728a876de
F20101123_AAAZGX wells_a_Page_31.tif
8b0f2f033d83c30dd1c6361b029c7d71
3980555426d7f1c0d08ceca1af49929b0c2990f2
F20101123_AAAZIA wells_a_Page_62.tif
b91e4f9227ab7eb797c9d008964e2b2f
2ff4756296533cbfe76e74d695d2cb7f9205103c
F20101123_AAAZHM wells_a_Page_47.tif
4f1c94aa0f75419bd81ade9f9fcb7490
829a4ee64d7c4c82ed0c4936d78cc0614122cdf2
F20101123_AAAZGY wells_a_Page_33.tif
8b04e92372b31b69a93eae226a135b33
6f28787cf456a1e955da1c8287d09e5aed894213
F20101123_AAAZIB wells_a_Page_63.tif
1e2e5313e1712b9006240486fbd5e36b
d0d11158ce35f29713f48dcb2b48a79072d5aab4
F20101123_AAAZHN wells_a_Page_48.tif
3a4bf561caf1257145efca1745542237
2034d956ba8961ab0e6e7640534734a0c14d0f38
F20101123_AAAZGZ wells_a_Page_34.tif
eb664e566a30a08eacbf0a9302980f2e
77a3f3ccf234951b95f42aa105de165497f67d23
F20101123_AAAZIC wells_a_Page_64.tif
2464eadcc03518f619d22ac12a24c5cb
944806b774745e17de78109cbd8bd89a48e1d899
F20101123_AAAZHO wells_a_Page_49.tif
900e254269644c48f998948ca50229e6
aa21bb26295bf86710238cfee8903683d9f0ae66
F20101123_AAAZID wells_a_Page_65.tif
184ff8af9505b1a5583fe0d8b7eabed9
7382ae93fe999210bd2182519cccbc0575b08254
F20101123_AAAZHP wells_a_Page_50.tif
0a56a1f01077862cce2ad149919dde51
80af1e44743432c876302b86341301611824fd74
F20101123_AAAZIE wells_a_Page_66.tif
299bc901bf25a40aab4fc48083ee4e2c
1907fc286630ff88bd4f4bbe43f63fd5f518b0a0
F20101123_AAAZHQ wells_a_Page_52.tif
0f0dbdaacf394882274285a18aaec165
7e6196717a230d11c8dc4fb36f357a7a214934e5
F20101123_AAAZIF wells_a_Page_67.tif
5d90395253d04fb6f95eb3816c40307b
569b0560e2ae7e0d07bd74c120dad734d9d7c590
F20101123_AAAZHR wells_a_Page_53.tif
c7129ee0420e2cb196ebdf83a86e5d7b
bb5d3cb662372343c37c464961c707451b6ecd37
F20101123_AAAZIG wells_a_Page_68.tif
294a0543ae0e8d8763b4929c3bbdf875
5a5da3b7867c246c264a87dd1421c0bedc9139e0
F20101123_AAAZHS wells_a_Page_54.tif
efa725c4a331f2398dd8ca869b2bfa56
b6f1226c9a29572925f79fd8fa87faebbaf92071
F20101123_AAAZIH wells_a_Page_69.tif
7762587cd65eb74ca026e418ce18d7e0
04718ee7c613300a6b74323b572164071506e640
F20101123_AAAZII wells_a_Page_70.tif
3e6f1d8f3d2a1bdc801eb406edf2851e
87b1537eeee9757ad498b8a598b2c7fc7568cef3
F20101123_AAAZHT wells_a_Page_55.tif
89def8030fea9bc75ad2a4d8299d1542
6f2565ec38b716fcdaab3f6773c945fc7fd813ad
F20101123_AAAZIJ wells_a_Page_71.tif
ce536162788b987f6c5dd8a8b9754eaa
514489276c05f720f5ff36e8c7711f4004a59147
F20101123_AAAZHU wells_a_Page_56.tif
fe1152b1809bd0ee20ef2df8317fccf3
3bb5cba8665cf3ad14d0831e48f28a9e9237560e
F20101123_AAAZIK wells_a_Page_72.tif
17a03a68a690f6205e3ec51a2496c411
bf6becf2e35b891d494af781309873b696a8663c
F20101123_AAAZHV wells_a_Page_57.tif
c12462908de561ed0f32e375c6c6112c
46c4c552990ee99b866f7ec88618d7a3a327234c
F20101123_AAAZIL wells_a_Page_73.tif
729fe64012dedbe51449e7622bf845ee
d7de22853f97ba11efe565abff41733ee3437f4c
F20101123_AAAZHW wells_a_Page_58.tif
7dbc184a19d5bb39c84a567fa15a5bfd
b9416112c053dfacda420002723dab2ef6532bf0
7653 F20101123_AAAZJA wells_a_Page_01.pro
49d96777b016b5d7608bab464b2109d6
8528c979b2f58e8747d4ab08ba77012688b97b72
F20101123_AAAZIM wells_a_Page_74.tif
2aae5ebbe27c368fcaf7a86d1f8db7c2
140808bdbc6da2a41173e856fb09ba3970536b38
F20101123_AAAZHX wells_a_Page_59.tif
eca84c68199e74aa70b09cadc1ddb6f1
62920283d95021e267c256e50c7caff7578ef154
1224 F20101123_AAAZJB wells_a_Page_02.pro
86a79b7f8a305208ee3153ec585d6b5f
006c3d84043bc36809fb0d6fb288e84b2783c406
F20101123_AAAZIN wells_a_Page_75.tif
7360375fc97c8aee25869379ca6bd4dc
fd6694dc4a4274ed4b27fea84426e61b759dd587
F20101123_AAAZHY wells_a_Page_60.tif
95248ccd04bd600c55815155c5ca2d96
b2fdaec3393b38e4d18f6f9a86d36dc10459ae44
13270 F20101123_AAAZJC wells_a_Page_03.pro
6f8161307ed084730d78d2403afe05e8
c51518156f2315c7eb403e2330f833ce8891f55f
F20101123_AAAZIO wells_a_Page_77.tif
dfb05630bb7abaf4400fb7b2ea064d8b
149272e9173ecaf84e48b88ed0a6bc8724d83501
F20101123_AAAZHZ wells_a_Page_61.tif
2d4e895f7fdb6444efa595f4abaca4fa
67417c79d6cffbbf3d512e0af798e8813a985f37
65478 F20101123_AAAZJD wells_a_Page_04.pro
8814a650bf7cd581332e76ec08eea063
752514350c439a3c722a9d0c27d9925be63db866
F20101123_AAAZIP wells_a_Page_78.tif
057c37f594e4bb015cf9481759a25b98
1c30f41d4fa6e9bf0e5f3e5cbab0746b1ab8567f
17655 F20101123_AAAZJE wells_a_Page_05.pro
33e04021dadd8f0be2237515e2b3a66c
68cb4ea9ab2b1c7456554e03e34e938d5884234a
F20101123_AAAZIQ wells_a_Page_79.tif
2115f42711e2c7f6b8921885df0a9564
efb4a2b1b51d3242a668536832b190dad24a5e08
22428 F20101123_AAAZJF wells_a_Page_06.pro
398a477ea2f1a2f4640df652cce12f13
ad5775dbed894e9c00be988ee15495a572d8102c
F20101123_AAAZIR wells_a_Page_80.tif
b94a410fa6fc6e33339c8a15f51bf78c
407b74ca9f839258d15311e19cf215ff5d7767cd
61270 F20101123_AAAZJG wells_a_Page_07.pro
bbe5485602907e5de4c5e32d4bea0ef7
6dd51cf5c10fc1bf835bbc613b08936aebf82512
F20101123_AAAZIS wells_a_Page_81.tif
f80127b6fe2aed0d47b79b3a4aac9cbc
1535645a0d109d3f76d448dd538586fdb2b1d902
72935 F20101123_AAAZJH wells_a_Page_08.pro
9886cbe9d2320497661a8c3a39d4dbb7
35bb796942814c432639a3e8472dcbf9195884f6
F20101123_AAAZIT wells_a_Page_82.tif
8fefaaadd7df58df2342fc05a476ff76
71e29a322b42f0df3e8d2f0e3503937c9530e8cc
38316 F20101123_AAAZJI wells_a_Page_09.pro
b10569e0576bb1602cfff385eafed2e9
6cbb421d200a62f932238dfcf0c8e7aab5b10d26
27401 F20101123_AAAZJJ wells_a_Page_10.pro
f6ecf5b3c0bcb119edc6dd690e6e5377
2ec406643a932960d25c2df814139890292f11ea
F20101123_AAAZIU wells_a_Page_84.tif
b9daefea5a5cc8dc7ace9593fa27f513
f28546268555581a9801bf453c299554045f47eb
43789 F20101123_AAAZJK wells_a_Page_11.pro
eb2eb8631cc80a092dbf5a1a6a7c92c4
9db3df114a6d9e6e841439fbe72a6d2dbc983bac
F20101123_AAAZIV wells_a_Page_85.tif
a26fd55b88da8cda42ad22305f6f0365
9656e4c5a459dd65d6fb7aaed29e6173ceac3d1b
30436 F20101123_AAAZJL wells_a_Page_12.pro
04c69c87443ee2c3cd3d1e62c8998506
7eebebe2bc07a24e3d4d0ec5aa7d42a7af241436
F20101123_AAAZIW wells_a_Page_86.tif
52f8e4cf3228db9a7e90a8aadb20d388
aee8965b094897915d5a78efcc23ff1747ac94a8
43946 F20101123_AAAZJM wells_a_Page_13.pro
527caca4fa8760d9c1fab42ef5fadd23
5f2d7396132e32a260b5773517e31df208bb1956
F20101123_AAAZIX wells_a_Page_87.tif
d7829b7dcc2c22c75eeca265eaa4f11f
51dc3d8e227f94cd1af46408ba6caed7c57c4b7a
30505 F20101123_AAAZKA wells_a_Page_27.pro
e73c86c07dfa4a7d3492b278ddab3983
f8ae54f63201d909191ca2e3c4c9f91a525cac1b
24346 F20101123_AAAZJN wells_a_Page_14.pro
f8a3398bd3d5b3ed24cac7c512685db9
44372d237ac9c3010473668d6e4126460bc6533d
F20101123_AAAZIY wells_a_Page_88.tif
45335b942dd739d16e9718ab2b1d7241
c2b5495f1edbecaecb5225f588528b11c700ce63
25281 F20101123_AAAZKB wells_a_Page_28.pro
5b80f846de96e2a930278235c30de5ed
c8d11844688480eec5398b773ad6255cea8f5e5a
24529 F20101123_AAAZJO wells_a_Page_15.pro
bd87a3bfa7e596e6a498a0490980ee41
bd51cd720ada3e7f55a05da67187f09300c87fb8
F20101123_AAAZIZ wells_a_Page_89.tif
22048675d717f41ff6df6f4591a35039
7d9c6bfd1103a9d4d300679ac7ee84a03015ca26
39014 F20101123_AAAZKC wells_a_Page_29.pro
d511c8bc23fa53f9045b36921703b0b4
591056b252110e9e2ac3f879f4133262ecb72681
23345 F20101123_AAAZJP wells_a_Page_16.pro
be8fede63c575033ae5731c74c9c9dbe
55a176e84462c06dcd6a5faa5aea7bded7a9ae24
33833 F20101123_AAAZKD wells_a_Page_30.pro
a2d1c6d8240426e376df24859c89a9d8
98107fff84fa89c9df7232a577dc45f7cc16047d
28515 F20101123_AAAZJQ wells_a_Page_17.pro
5126981218eac0b51708fc2b3b87e214
754a623d3e67ff31e71b14094290e4aca206d77f
34207 F20101123_AAAZKE wells_a_Page_31.pro
b4314defc950f23b30acdf327da1cc23
8f7b71f3dbdd903cdc9705f75909a1927fa24a30
5602 F20101123_AAAZJR wells_a_Page_18.pro
6478a8ad4ddd34e716b679d39e1dd1d3
4159664e8cad706190d01b29da8aa4748b67f740
49575 F20101123_AAAZKF wells_a_Page_32.pro
e0db2f5ce46a849ad6db13098649a76e
95e8133afe7955daa9b4e5a9d8cc1922cb80a1a6
36407 F20101123_AAAZKG wells_a_Page_33.pro
c0a29f66ca2e7f9f5db299ef02f0d4cc
17f2cf6e28208613df4bcb2765a8887a7d7c7226
26469 F20101123_AAAZJS wells_a_Page_19.pro
f63b52c7c6685e57385d6cfa63e67c71
6ec57e2bb1151e99d070a83b37c2d03e43e8de73
37467 F20101123_AAAZKH wells_a_Page_34.pro
dfe043bf4a22574e317723f73f0181b1
0c1311781b82ecc5b1be257b276abbd45227c911
26824 F20101123_AAAZJT wells_a_Page_20.pro
597894fa9f5dc70f8ee12e9f2526ce32
717ebd44c112db7ef7d8b4b902aac750d0d71c68
30621 F20101123_AAAZKI wells_a_Page_35.pro
52735b7e54133cd63e367e2b001b8b49
947b72d880c0138f2983a5332f91780ae6aa231d
51262 F20101123_AAAZJU wells_a_Page_21.pro
6d9015941148792e7984feb6b2de8693
551a3cc011f7fb0f3306fb4d4a677d69853da60b
36446 F20101123_AAAZKJ wells_a_Page_36.pro
275f8997b6f989add2bc2b29b44e76d7
4c5dbd9519bf167f347e1225ad9df109466c5fce
41520 F20101123_AAAZKK wells_a_Page_37.pro
a82bc5a354ea4a9f7aaeac6e5c1f814f
075858783d227bb9bb10d41732f301b82b79cda2
38969 F20101123_AAAZJV wells_a_Page_22.pro
43f823d82647aaa914eea2bc9b06ad48
aa5b79fe07c51984ecf2856f4d27a3c3c81ad67c
43886 F20101123_AAAZKL wells_a_Page_38.pro
e52b311ae156ad92f65b29f3dfa1a9fc
951701a6a61c6676fa9c6ba129586b3ebc0e3938
47670 F20101123_AAAZJW wells_a_Page_23.pro
28bdcb74f2c7c3f1910bba29e3da85c8
052bf98665c9e1d97c3c75d78964490e50b980b3
12575 F20101123_AAAZLA wells_a_Page_53.pro
85fe9ed9c3c27982d68ca5890f371cc0
5fffd16556ae3f858db8b5793c64e40532752cf7
13493 F20101123_AAAZKM wells_a_Page_39.pro
f9a0a868e492c444cabb635da295689a
518471a981f0f4f7be3ea566492ce0f1a3af900d
51735 F20101123_AAAZJX wells_a_Page_24.pro
69e0ea68ea68ff13944370ca8caace44
af12ad988ee24b5021e040621aea23765543e587
8197 F20101123_AAAZLB wells_a_Page_54.pro
3bd9e6e66843af00b0b7957047b10f5f
0fb388b2ca668789c5948d0902641260888fb791
42701 F20101123_AAAZKN wells_a_Page_40.pro
9ebd633c2ce2f82b7fcda21b7dae6438
bd94c4896bd6fa7358d9ff43ec919a46e0f5d765
47929 F20101123_AAAZJY wells_a_Page_25.pro
9c3f37c1596a36d9a5f662ee908c4b49
6c94740d07d79531a6658f1ef61b9422fd2d2b04
22150 F20101123_AAAZLC wells_a_Page_56.pro
b65701c8c4188883c587647f84b811bf
74538efdecbedfc35bbd07913880a226ab80ba63
20423 F20101123_AAAZKO wells_a_Page_41.pro
1f52a890803c5f170f736a17bd058b24
6ad8f923ea4bae4b4b347eae8e408285f3dccc86
14612 F20101123_AAAZJZ wells_a_Page_26.pro
06dce6f9282e069d23d09bf02bee3706
e6f2bb0ea94f7dfd9e6f5f322a8607ea9e80e51b
38479 F20101123_AAAZLD wells_a_Page_57.pro
68a1209aeb4d173a1e837ad551518327
1211285b1789a517b2e00ec490b85734e88346cc
9755 F20101123_AAAZKP wells_a_Page_42.pro
27c7a069e3203cd5a3197c8e7293cabc
46f0463c81f7560e2cd3917e0f583dc8257da95f
45462 F20101123_AAAZLE wells_a_Page_58.pro
29d6d4fd28fd3d9f9b4335aa1ecc727b
2cf5a2cda027fcae025e5ce84d641ced24662806
48768 F20101123_AAAZKQ wells_a_Page_43.pro
343f5b0f71245c0fd02bbec57b848562
f7c0ebf4cd4f1123c74985c92c72d10e2dd2e859
31835 F20101123_AAAZLF wells_a_Page_59.pro
aa4c624aaf175d14854eaef5e5225ecc
38b56addd3c003c5ef0c83feb6bedb99d45e7dc5
36396 F20101123_AAAZKR wells_a_Page_44.pro
bb9b71b4f872f6550e66763f2504a489
1d7716500df8f6a1d19ec55fe5e60093669e3bb9
30013 F20101123_AAAZLG wells_a_Page_60.pro
e018ca8bd365868e89ccddb722f96142
c567fdc8087fb4d6fd8acbc4303b465737856334
35931 F20101123_AAAZKS wells_a_Page_45.pro
1706814f89ff8c6201bc65101bdeee09
f362039bd59191658620632d3b2349a84f9a64a4
44358 F20101123_AAAZLH wells_a_Page_61.pro
3faba056f2d829545f2229eab87b87dc
e37273e5b4d1097b3d47c203765064098c036ac6
31961 F20101123_AAAZKT wells_a_Page_46.pro
8fcf10acf3ad520282adfda89572c450
54c3f55b41718ab88a04224d1505c8ae21dad215
30348 F20101123_AAAZLI wells_a_Page_62.pro
cce39fe53b579bfb38269c26b434b980
4b741f08dc18c3613952b50c202864f34410ce75
22014 F20101123_AAAZKU wells_a_Page_47.pro
16debbef0f282d3f5bba1dc870378ac1
08646b206628d82d8379d5ce74a10f844d9b2aa3
22269 F20101123_AAAZLJ wells_a_Page_63.pro
d443d803b4bd68251bad12b6cc8544ca
dbb52d3ecb392fce4efc0d9585b35f15e2cb4a46
31538 F20101123_AAAZKV wells_a_Page_48.pro
5db2afe69e5c274913196812b283c044
cf033936c7de693f23cc448cfb05490e5ead1f2c
35494 F20101123_AAAZLK wells_a_Page_64.pro
2fd5a1b52206b051a4385769fdb41d63
7fbd0addf108273d733aab484b9cf6f6766f28a2
11221 F20101123_AAAZLL wells_a_Page_65.pro
cd5861537cee57a14fb16e6b16722888
0bc9ea88d71a1da236e1601dca0a16310d595165
48369 F20101123_AAAZKW wells_a_Page_49.pro
35f85b25a819582e68ecfbb003df3bea
da97bfda68e25aa4cce68adf11b6d20451ea89ee
44017 F20101123_AAAZLM wells_a_Page_66.pro
1f61cc247ffe9b3df2153cb62b35600a
a7ed3929eff56f5b7e2914d7e01b6d61283f2cb5
15932 F20101123_AAAZKX wells_a_Page_50.pro
5df1fc65a33b2a043d6470585672a3b5
3aca41c0687696ea738119c7be34ae71e5981134
6271 F20101123_AAAZMA wells_a_Page_80.pro
77622929bc7e8fda4620bb7d16882425
bda59b4b6b0dc482faeaf1c716b8615940527a8d
33036 F20101123_AAAZLN wells_a_Page_67.pro
2349bae420232a45f8a645be8e77c312
128ce47bea5866e47807460d187e9f2d3a9aa390
22879 F20101123_AAAZKY wells_a_Page_51.pro
c34ebb58412712b8780db3dda0099d9e
ee274b0389a03c7448ba9dae04cabc3574d831d5
6754 F20101123_AAAZMB wells_a_Page_81.pro
faa45f070337f45596a69fd5de804973
f6a147bc8692be4a3ef9cfa02edbc143b0e7dbc4
57060 F20101123_AAAZLO wells_a_Page_68.pro
0a39f2685c6b5777d319b45d914126e4
aa5773ec1732ddef0492a993c29f04053522b8a7
14715 F20101123_AAAZKZ wells_a_Page_52.pro
77ab958c7bf70ff6821d928dc1ebbb56
3ff304b42050396c7a1abc0a3bc8faf60528aa98
5630 F20101123_AAAZMC wells_a_Page_82.pro
bd72e4cf5fd8391b5cd5c98649e6f45d
09b035dd4701384946b79c4dcb8e90088354659e
17016 F20101123_AAAZLP wells_a_Page_69.pro
cd5e7850887a48e949a92ab0d8f7dbc8
d8c1921c35862409a9dc6e8f730b274a6daff24f
5390 F20101123_AAAZMD wells_a_Page_83.pro
a18fa5fec4b8df9906256b5d506cea71
566de31f22837bd3cfba21e788fffac2a452d694
25127 F20101123_AAAZLQ wells_a_Page_70.pro
ec67a1467a57746b24e6254e012472a7
1c03350a40da6faf32596260868f627a9f6eb1ef
5183 F20101123_AAAZME wells_a_Page_84.pro
357038bf609c1de33c67c5c5af6c6db6
667074f58be73f4aa53d65be6f8d9aca16517c05
25706 F20101123_AAAZLR wells_a_Page_71.pro
047a7cf0b2190b3ddb2c3c987ec2226f
b585cb2d8c258377c9e9d896c9391f4ac9b28142
11833 F20101123_AAAZMF wells_a_Page_85.pro
0645d40bc141499ec02a9d6c3b0ab958
baeba61d0bff12652d93057bdaf377f4a582fec1
62225 F20101123_AAAZLS wells_a_Page_72.pro
9dfe8be40cfc9348be05a7be869cd87d
7218de9d85a756321f87dcba8037ace016c6ab7d
9210 F20101123_AAAZMG wells_a_Page_86.pro
44a05dbe032a126e6bb684bb3b75d044
4d87560879980899a911bd5ded259caadc3caac4
64563 F20101123_AAAZLT wells_a_Page_73.pro
788fa67642fc585d21efb18c9e72263c
850ac5fa1dc8f5218c337bfe6d497bc2682dae9b
52102 F20101123_AAAZMH wells_a_Page_87.pro
c75a4e89374584b56e237e57e4500e2d
a4dec328bd952179ba99f7d98fe7f7f54a44454c
27387 F20101123_AAAZLU wells_a_Page_74.pro
691cb49d3057e010ddd8333c3148a27a
d0b25e4cb98e0cd3a8762fe87637db2a68df93e4
17102 F20101123_AAAZMI wells_a_Page_88.pro
2a467a7d3081fbf6870f7853c6d313c9
5030c80c50a920885ebb6074534c9aa8a7d5ff5c
48409 F20101123_AAAZLV wells_a_Page_75.pro
3c770113f7ac891a7033ad73e79d89c6
4cfcfe68d1c6a6741e8e7a62cc9398f885aeb6c4
26257 F20101123_AAAZMJ wells_a_Page_89.pro
694af85283c7c8734fb81d938e25d5d0
883bc78c52483bfed9f3c8ed0ea5d236c352aaa4
62366 F20101123_AAAZLW wells_a_Page_76.pro
3db29f565aaff29958bf727c29a2b2f1
3031c5aa8acb957aa185848f7dbd778ef9218693
421 F20101123_AAAZMK wells_a_Page_01.txt
91546d3305fdac01788e359164fa2aaf
a49c27f4c33c92ff20438d67fbfbcafdd3a0f1c3
110 F20101123_AAAZML wells_a_Page_02.txt
ac6e67da2edce84a57d62c7924954e31
9dada451ebcb4e3888f12d925df920a967543968
11723 F20101123_AAAZLX wells_a_Page_77.pro
d8d0a1fa43df71f3698b8d99fc5211a7
e7c7bf3c99f1d950aaed3ab1442b5f3b53216874
1158 F20101123_AAAZNA wells_a_Page_17.txt
2a0671128b1fe6177b51211f8c758243
1406c92018024ad82b62485a465e82b2abf7be41
576 F20101123_AAAZMM wells_a_Page_03.txt
476d6477762eac5f9a94fb8876c564f8
65c9bf50f79ba4b9617f6b30295b39c8498f4bc9
7412 F20101123_AAAZLY wells_a_Page_78.pro
4a34018d80c6c7b1d6c71a2c4a062a0d
3ad2262bb9c1d42755a6948336a23dc59eb591c6
288 F20101123_AAAZNB wells_a_Page_18.txt
204f980fec410395cb3e0ea11efced70
20e33307d20bbf7c71f4c34d459dd8026d073cd0
2690 F20101123_AAAZMN wells_a_Page_04.txt
256558e407c8f1153c534bf1c4d446b3
3a30df2ed478c2b780e8484060e91d0630df74da
5355 F20101123_AAAZLZ wells_a_Page_79.pro
1d9febcbd2cbf907e3fe7a8c5004f43a
e3be3bc2ebcb760dc9c4b20bd8b9fbcb5282af7b
1051 F20101123_AAAZNC wells_a_Page_19.txt
17224f60ccaea71f8e33f9dd8b499bfe
486066635d6f7754215970f86f18a857ba5413a9
655 F20101123_AAAZMO wells_a_Page_05.txt
2a8eabf2fb258070a08a915863dcfe8f
5d2477ed90df03dfccc93e82c3288eef78929a95
1142 F20101123_AAAZND wells_a_Page_20.txt
b914a41b745e7e7c0c601ac8298d74f8
d58621eba6d1be7b596a9ad815cbf57f0fbe2e67
966 F20101123_AAAZMP wells_a_Page_06.txt
d29e29b8ae06becdd07ba6ccb0c2e81d
6fc3cbfaf4d6419e3f9d446ef071956805da04fe
2023 F20101123_AAAZNE wells_a_Page_21.txt
aa28667c051a13b48bfe4db7931a9692
2b16d917d1c0b0711b1b1ab4489139909c566821
2432 F20101123_AAAZMQ wells_a_Page_07.txt
4d3b824482d71d269becbfd62c739efe
552e234c3466509bfe53379b69b2b53b3118a9da
1797 F20101123_AAAZNF wells_a_Page_22.txt
9a35e36b86b535c27c10df94df643893
b1dced2b33a9b69690255c60878dcd97f17a3c37
2893 F20101123_AAAZMR wells_a_Page_08.txt
3bdac6e9493dacadf9fd7bd97c0c98a3
bfd7faa5ef92c082e3bc93199260b108449869e1
2062 F20101123_AAAZNG wells_a_Page_23.txt
0bd4248e5da226dc47d0340fb2012092
1e2b315ba0c55ab5a9ed81039e017fb1b32da4f9
1721 F20101123_AAAZMS wells_a_Page_09.txt
7ea80bfd452d3682ce9fbde2e9f672a2
71d3b1807d7202a9954f7788feb8debb08e9f2d7
2087 F20101123_AAAZNH wells_a_Page_24.txt
34d2db56b18e23d5d1e0a5ea8330987c
8ce6569f0b401e22ffc525473bfcb23818ca20b0
1095 F20101123_AAAZMT wells_a_Page_10.txt
04b8044ecb60364da41fd5e148cc644f
5a23f8c1975b130ad37f55f5b280cf9302880fde
1905 F20101123_AAAZNI wells_a_Page_25.txt
32615983e9cc6959ace9bb7564c9ee7c
dc00d56908a68c04467e05d0c0e3a874a72923f8
1812 F20101123_AAAZMU wells_a_Page_11.txt
f3f93228bcde44ddd5640519ffcc4970
2fe83210017e28b6f2b6cf469d53922b38671381
637 F20101123_AAAZNJ wells_a_Page_26.txt
5c0f9f255f70abd7fcb81cf632b28ee5
2ff9716c61bf105325fe52fde08050f2d2c810f9
1223 F20101123_AAAZMV wells_a_Page_12.txt
e972bbf4e04ddfd6b5c2e675df1c8b15
5d37a2306c1a5d157c8fa981225442a27e1a8db2
1386 F20101123_AAAZNK wells_a_Page_27.txt
1b065e3f110e98f28d3d41584dc8df48
5f86ebf33b1225589c1781c94d85ab7e83b4647e
1823 F20101123_AAAZMW wells_a_Page_13.txt
c9467470157c92d1d55bd77d9e11d6cd
f507043b4f9dbd896649fefce74a03c604bd6deb
1199 F20101123_AAAZNL wells_a_Page_28.txt
1d6b76d4d21ae32e6f49e038d979d405
14c2879fcd699d8fada3c1d2a01b0128fdd059a6
1265 F20101123_AAAZMX wells_a_Page_14.txt
ca047f4926155c2cee9159f6c06ce909
10df7da4f24a7f7ed5e5a7d056e088eafc3d0c47
1535 F20101123_AAAZOA wells_a_Page_44.txt
1ca0ac50dc419cf939122c9ae52c39bc
0eeab0af0613cc8a44964b6c77078b090023af3a
1908 F20101123_AAAZNM wells_a_Page_29.txt
f6e1645e2f9e2ef04b3b80e1fed69d87
869a089d82e6f63e0c62aa10ea7861066b98a17f
1825 F20101123_AAAZOB wells_a_Page_45.txt
1a53d577f5a9ce6b1b63e6a1d2f1c6a0
04b7a87f0a56c041f74beda8cea29ef84a3b4266
1556 F20101123_AAAZNN wells_a_Page_30.txt
3a60d64c150f275ade5b11baafc5478d
2deda97971d27beaf3666bbf349f4d9c55e099fb
1038 F20101123_AAAZMY wells_a_Page_15.txt
1a20060112f8c53a6b12cca08d88a69b
76721e7bcc54353a28a10763bf4e9999cd6cc0e9
1456 F20101123_AAAZOC wells_a_Page_46.txt
dbbce71f8bda0a0bb0434c61a3fe941b
6143a9ab1f3eccffdc2901ef4f6869085cf31278
1489 F20101123_AAAZNO wells_a_Page_31.txt
d91c14d4e449f612021bfae0152e8039
f01c945da353b4514f20dde90745daee343f89da
942 F20101123_AAAZMZ wells_a_Page_16.txt
28df2a6cd105617cf7ee093c2b4fde28
35a01ed7bb13cd130a0b1162569da6c0d3df380c
F20101123_AAAZOD wells_a_Page_47.txt
f3a4166bcd0690c528a8fe550f67fe9b
ec94c9cea9ca0249e3af5f5b5337f6a262121d7c
1965 F20101123_AAAZNP wells_a_Page_32.txt
2eed4b795c7569fba06f63349a3e1956
7f68db99a3d8aac6ceda9418e654c5c3b78d4170
1485 F20101123_AAAZOE wells_a_Page_48.txt
3a5546eaffad28d95af58d7cf66437d1
b2b3043bb8689955f2963eee8d6dc2e5b1c9f235
1803 F20101123_AAAZNQ wells_a_Page_33.txt
b9dbfe57525d24ce41416c4769fa8284
392cc6267d5f047d4a2ef07196b2e1e42a74dcfd
1983 F20101123_AAAZOF wells_a_Page_49.txt
58c936e00c12865120b4f46722634051
e43c13e9069f09a3c8b0aa6a7d20bc8b4db2270c
1439 F20101123_AAAZNR wells_a_Page_35.txt
f0b84fe5d80657ad8c51bfde53d8677c
75cb6cdfbd0d3a0ffeee66acb30b49978d901506
792 F20101123_AAAZOG wells_a_Page_50.txt
40f5d4060b93f37102ed4eaaa50d0215
01d6a4d93b774bb7e301806292acaa07b3773cef
1597 F20101123_AAAZNS wells_a_Page_36.txt
3c9dfe52c7db8371142c28d72270c944
26f20071424aa0125ebb7d9c3185b25debd1cf44
1076 F20101123_AAAZOH wells_a_Page_51.txt
803b5feb222d2ce284b78347f941c3e8
9054d0dee1528e61c0b481084d62e9746de37e47
1743 F20101123_AAAZNT wells_a_Page_37.txt
d831dc0591b8abc454263f1f386c92cb
ff46589a249a909f621dce37ec056b4861a8f505
928 F20101123_AAAZOI wells_a_Page_52.txt
4d810c0f7558bb7d97d8fdd45057e4f5
87b15e80f10e39bf7595237f432da5fa59b3d608
1790 F20101123_AAAZNU wells_a_Page_38.txt
40b2e62d92698d2f5aa204f27a57ff8d
f782ae900d6065b5b8c4e58f8d8e2d588d28900f
797 F20101123_AAAZOJ wells_a_Page_53.txt
cbaa3e1d119b851e8e8bb4244bd80b1f
f86b3352774273984c93f97469c0576b5c76138e
592 F20101123_AAAZNV wells_a_Page_39.txt
6012a6be54db921dbd890f5d17bf843d
b12528609f4fa6546e28ddc0b4f4b2d12a41a2fc
489 F20101123_AAAZOK wells_a_Page_54.txt
2e7ed10fae99b2a3a72d64269790d9c1
07de6d116580cae5814f0bd1cf9d67325c99234f
1806 F20101123_AAAZNW wells_a_Page_40.txt
93c88e08cc7d210c8f0eb0fc03bff7e8
3585c652dfbea4c606d2dbcbd2d6269d85cbbde9
2475 F20101123_AAAZOL wells_a_Page_55.txt
c6c99ccbb9f10e4d11309b142888f6c2
221a89e7c78785eed0638fe97346947bb1430884
855 F20101123_AAAZNX wells_a_Page_41.txt
f51fa2cc92dd7d1b44ea4d8bbc7face1
1bbf2c43868c9776864db76f4b7ab6a0e7b153be
975 F20101123_AAAZOM wells_a_Page_56.txt
7304ed4cfd429df43272283163e02df8
69219fe4ad361285737601f67baf5ae2bba55d00
596 F20101123_AAAZNY wells_a_Page_42.txt
ca3cf36410b1e51e57aa8ff10481365c
ede8573d21747b5ee2ccaeafdf1921b9519e9394
1090 F20101123_AAAZPA wells_a_Page_70.txt
647e739d5e39c8493e3b2b10c1ba52b8
c4632848fc7563454b1bf88007323e8748d9cc04
1557 F20101123_AAAZON wells_a_Page_57.txt
cdb6273ecc0755b9e1b378e97a379eb9
d0511f215522610bf74bb4a0ca403a368c7c7bc5
1116 F20101123_AAAZPB wells_a_Page_71.txt
f80860519a692a7149db1df54a5739a2
07cba84dc6aceb3b9a8a12051b807d019a5a8161
2436 F20101123_AAAZOO wells_a_Page_58.txt
2bf87a5abab1080bae399f9d2e2c8681
a6a3aee20900d9f3e5d80a0f59e6818b8686b233
1995 F20101123_AAAZNZ wells_a_Page_43.txt
45e015c70fdcfe86a48000bb20d0dd80
15484d9b7ac65f8125dddd7d2d88981c6c011e2a
2616 F20101123_AAAZPC wells_a_Page_72.txt
1538898270a3151e30d0cea6e7bbfe15
67af6e889486a5484984776c677b39327e852622
2813 F20101123_AAAZPD wells_a_Page_73.txt
bae3ab0cc37cf8f9135d38ae156d8c80
8b72ce86247dec8ba3b4488229be982fe8c00e40
1679 F20101123_AAAZOP wells_a_Page_59.txt
b9ebebfeffc93548e5f7f5d91ab644f3
406aca5d2c5dd4010ace2e887e0db43efc2d587a
1165 F20101123_AAAZPE wells_a_Page_74.txt
25e4fb975abfd5987de07b13955f2b1e
99a8a6065683b4b9bf6e109ce54f5251464b955a
1567 F20101123_AAAZOQ wells_a_Page_60.txt
750f7dc47b30abcff58d799624fc2452
57794e0472f8d9e5665f9db19f7b35cef77d453d
2135 F20101123_AAAZPF wells_a_Page_75.txt
e9bdaee83b4fad35935f88df55c1c925
64aaa973e99e4896481a0b9195b27e7b5d467123
2252 F20101123_AAAZOR wells_a_Page_61.txt
9b68ef478ef11d2d14f82824d906178c
61f125e6bae613112aa15be413bd01c52218a2a0
2732 F20101123_AAAZPG wells_a_Page_76.txt
11fa766d45885ec8a98f069e1757bb43
c2403f85a0fd75b081e81697da37b2155cc49243
1719 F20101123_AAAZOS wells_a_Page_62.txt
c3157be0118d11391c1693eb4eba2549
9fc4df2a7277db1189d79384c532ed8d30850ed3
501 F20101123_AAAZPH wells_a_Page_77.txt
bc4a1bcc95fadc29dc809b53541e9278
99c9c820d8091becd311b0405de71b4931c0c85d
1243 F20101123_AAAZOT wells_a_Page_63.txt
d0d0649d59a5fa46ac1e45a3201b9ba3
1847350894cf9fef6436907fbddb6a566c8d6928
757 F20101123_AAAZPI wells_a_Page_78.txt
17ae9d2aa8cd6262cacfc599984d7c0f
fbfd6e2189223c99397125ad8226322c4b502935
F20101123_AAAZOU wells_a_Page_64.txt
39cbe8d9ce70d9e653ea3063167c6c23
15b73b823017b926b28625b5f4a6c794f53f0189
286 F20101123_AAAZPJ wells_a_Page_79.txt
96a82363158050da33ab6c6ed2b1d4e3
84d0264dca67a151b6cc18706f0669784e12be6d
682 F20101123_AAAZOV wells_a_Page_65.txt
dabe6499f227fe2f002b7f4e188484a9
594482961e8331d42ac37ea6effadd813024957b
360 F20101123_AAAZPK wells_a_Page_80.txt
47095e6960b72853f4c8e72f20e5f883
f81ea655fdf4440a3a1bef004c4d3096bcfe4c51
1826 F20101123_AAAZOW wells_a_Page_66.txt
8414c22fcb1db5d3555da7cec7ba4c1f
1937b0c2bd12d06e7133186439e5e878ec8b6471
388 F20101123_AAAZPL wells_a_Page_81.txt
d09677037fa2b57dc75dadc6fd0f00af
9ae6271295a457bc55c128485575f83d3acd79a8
1334 F20101123_AAAZOX wells_a_Page_67.txt
7f0a850ab909cbaae0b3b9f77cfab37b
8825bf368546c081f4b1219a580d28e6e3677b5f
5600 F20101123_AAAZQA wells_a_Page_27thm.jpg
e710cf8e7b82d6c223572e05e3d073e6
6ede48abcb7a4bf2e6f900139536d1689817b472
322 F20101123_AAAZPM wells_a_Page_82.txt
27973778d7c7340c2dbba7c7b6790f3d
2e442a73b276402633c7abb6d76041548139b7ad
2332 F20101123_AAAZOY wells_a_Page_68.txt
c0aacab6d193693eb898d73b6019a2e5
55a2270c40041aeb96e29e35bb966b518ffd6d1b
6290 F20101123_AAAZQB wells_a_Page_73thm.jpg
d4f5f6f5d4de2b1e81a0e13f334063a3
9a05c9680a611ba3c0699f17e77af7e00dc1c61d
299 F20101123_AAAZPN wells_a_Page_83.txt
9115312ef8fda858c59159562a8960cd
92bbd4e025a1116457fef2f5487cbe3bb00cc483
713 F20101123_AAAZOZ wells_a_Page_69.txt
eb01db3c3b51911e0c01c8c129aff101
6e694fb505ac93ca198d6f22e5df1abe171a3fc0
5737 F20101123_AAAZQC wells_a_Page_55thm.jpg
ac7063a1807951b9b8a979daa353f9cb
b5bf7c7020effc912901d96a088c7ea262123951
546 F20101123_AAAZPO wells_a_Page_84.txt
5925f64341b6c1c2f99dcd031ab586d0
632a56983b02972015ac7577d9bb2f6adca99cdb
5436 F20101123_AAAZQD wells_a_Page_45thm.jpg
229c695db6505252cd80091b18a78cb7
549f455b4845d85e525a74224f7a63536c6d289a
354 F20101123_AAAZPP wells_a_Page_85.txt
6626e843e52a36da4be1c5dab5f20380
4c26a8f71108296bee23259dd7b44537e432317e
4380 F20101123_AAAZQE wells_a_Page_47thm.jpg
779680afa247b854e8fc5d5e8aad950c
4218efa9c13783e0150868da2589494f4ffc517b
402 F20101123_AAAZPQ wells_a_Page_86.txt
7dd7ecabeba5e9567916582e64875331
71f0c0b79b39651cda0aa5a9468cd8b6ece7d02b
21356 F20101123_AAAZQF wells_a_Page_19.QC.jpg
abdc6bb2d9f556c4ffa41635979e2c62
8a5385985771620204dfe43226ff4a0631320065
2155 F20101123_AAAZPR wells_a_Page_87.txt
e5711d8517683bec6f30777ec09da628
ba525f174a704cc6251744e15958f63c60bf3072
5952 F20101123_AAAZQG wells_a_Page_40thm.jpg
26d924a50578785ce6537cab19e021d7
1ebde5252326392278181db9ce4386a9896a5e89
750 F20101123_AAAZPS wells_a_Page_88.txt
5e392ef704e202d224c820bfe824fd59
55f3e0d067c5a27ef3923164682d3b5a3c0eea7d
18641 F20101123_AAAZQH wells_a_Page_56.QC.jpg
921c68522c455af8ef86bc5fb3e08a1e
1e934b6490c866d9ce87b6e640d8274af9d34e02
1089 F20101123_AAAZPT wells_a_Page_89.txt
a0ea53f957f932c56eb4c6473597ef53
9f01e0dd0727e285c593f17138c6eccb31f5f6d3
8556 F20101123_AAAZQI wells_a_Page_03.QC.jpg
9d22caab36a5f7646d8b050fe9ff9a18
3005feaa111137112d2b3cf10e47ebab4d0ab82c
2348 F20101123_AAAZPU wells_a_Page_01thm.jpg
ec966c2276d1291fcf4bb81ec8196d9a
e1561751109b6cf387918c41081e3a0e8e58071e
5298 F20101123_AAAZQJ wells_a_Page_56thm.jpg
f8e8fd79c60453dadddd01abb7e1877c
72f3165d6a54986a346af4a355abc8638228abee
2126272 F20101123_AAAZPV wells_a.pdf
352592edfc180dc68d4c609c11bf5dc9
233a7e5234d13eed9bd4625ddf0560b50ae03bbc
22569 F20101123_AAAZQK wells_a_Page_87.QC.jpg
97eac794505c1d1e482712398be56fb8
c0206d1ab1dd73e365bbfc43a2c5dd75551e8f4d
19625 F20101123_AAAZPW wells_a_Page_44.QC.jpg
627aedc5d575c5cc77c10a01f6fdd4ef
9ebd810aff978d38981043ad5ebf2f9e19741f1d
6548 F20101123_AAAZQL wells_a_Page_20thm.jpg
5a6e9596c9294057376045756f5439fa
14a34d1f79324efc67f122835c9d6db2cd4cd78d
5674 F20101123_AAAZPX wells_a_Page_15thm.jpg
12b9744cf04a8486575a3d11bd777162
ebcc219b0c008ac8fba906b3628b1bdb613726b6
6655 F20101123_AAAZQM wells_a_Page_32thm.jpg
c23c788864d3bce0cb8fe8bf167277c3
8a0549b7dea11640b28549aeb3ea9fafb36e2f37
13542 F20101123_AAAZPY wells_a_Page_53.QC.jpg
1e131182cd9566f4037d7d2b46531a3a
d0f8c53447da28d7b49a22f85f4476ceaa35d2ba
5054 F20101123_AAAZRA wells_a_Page_59thm.jpg
afffb190f65a148dc73131ea8f73d754
40313552f9252fd4287b70864094b3f68ee6b12a
5104 F20101123_AAAZQN wells_a_Page_75thm.jpg
554dd9d318e66de2d174e476b3f35731
5ed86d3da11bf02103a2f5431c097894498ab657
6940 F20101123_AAAZPZ wells_a_Page_01.QC.jpg
609dc5283222779cdbeabde03b95a102
08523b23463fef92f35756b701f2a8badbed4898
5671 F20101123_AAAZRB wells_a_Page_18thm.jpg
a88b2d9067c696dab8f667c2e95996ec
e12b258a5cfe646695678bc28c7ff08d61b6be8f
5744 F20101123_AAAZQO wells_a_Page_11thm.jpg
9e9a156f491927413e863476078fa8eb
403e38227cb9c94a7db374e5cc15cbe20fb498a4
21560 F20101123_AAAZRC wells_a_Page_17.QC.jpg
a1f460a97256a70c3d62ecb85b37b0bb
9e50c08ad82d5b00524e3807d3abbc83a6ba032b
18369 F20101123_AAAZQP wells_a_Page_29.QC.jpg
3c91d37c3db130c733728f1602b4e893
fcaa20fd4e46a6c69b34b3bff64ac95d040e8975
4173 F20101123_AAAZRD wells_a_Page_54thm.jpg
7af5434bf5dcf83ed683207f87b1ca10
834b3268e72bd2c71a17db8c6b9e259397f1af51
4391 F20101123_AAAZQQ wells_a_Page_12thm.jpg
6d462fbbb37dd241072a28d313e50ef0
bc46c44db5d1759610622256315e16ec132d429f
20606 F20101123_AAAZRE wells_a_Page_66.QC.jpg
323c2183f959fbdb11eec185019d1726
b61783d845debde244a289805cf62f18146ea914
16620 F20101123_AAAZQR wells_a_Page_67.QC.jpg
ec46aab369a312ec5e7f957040ad3cd9
c91eb66978b3f79f9599dc6c22ced9a649457c82
5517 F20101123_AAAZRF wells_a_Page_37thm.jpg
313d6e721d685d5853dc2e88a26370d6
000cb20eafc301cd5cd042d47355148351976e9a
2358 F20101123_AAAZQS wells_a_Page_05thm.jpg
d1865a8d38eab944c5650682c8d02cf0
8e9be11d0fde65e509a3276b295251bd9dcf4c9c
21213 F20101123_AAAZRG wells_a_Page_16.QC.jpg
cebc0b9ee6b9d76554fd55035a50abf7
4ed060820b1615edac197860ccd986f272f6d882
19849 F20101123_AAAZQT wells_a_Page_15.QC.jpg
d46d52b63b8a41e9a66263ecd31e776a
00ec7f0e5643aef8c0a0b21ce30486ba3173c7d7
6586 F20101123_AAAZRH wells_a_Page_21thm.jpg
df84840f707250bb4f3536151cdc9e7d
c6a5882a4d1d0a8e2b45cc16ea9c575aefb0cbd0
6538 F20101123_AAAZQU wells_a_Page_17thm.jpg
491876e713a59a634b2f02b37b77bd90
f87162b18335376d9d53526e6037acd63140473c
2429 F20101123_AAAZRI wells_a_Page_39thm.jpg
6decaefb99ee80de1229352c482c2af0
42df0794461a060f8cd35df479fd94305299ebda
13940 F20101123_AAAZQV wells_a_Page_10.QC.jpg
615fa3699771ef0f2f49930ba66dd52a
95a1ad215fcf64d81c1675ebf12d64d176c3c72c
20070 F20101123_AAAZRJ wells_a_Page_40.QC.jpg
3680f74e94d0797911982a5fcd32ebac
37b9e033a1938811b3a006938eae55a32b70dd70
24378 F20101123_AAAZQW wells_a_Page_73.QC.jpg
9288a4b81ca31d65fbf7ac74650ddd16
8a4c3dad1fe81e440e24fbd08f96af4024cd34f0
17754 F20101123_AAAZRK wells_a_Page_33.QC.jpg
cb0762fbcdb3d4dfb6a247108430b234
75c62fb2026b5d4d7278ca0e977e10bfc83d3b45
18093 F20101123_AAAZQX wells_a_Page_35.QC.jpg
f4945a8ac5411c7ae2b0e960fd4bf8d0
b27837bdb77025fd181c6ec67d35c742ff3d9c9b
4085 F20101123_AAAZRL wells_a_Page_81thm.jpg
6c57ccc8f15e56d54cbe6f019c265d17
89e67dc6e01ff4337904dc04bf28cb355f429a21
2627 F20101123_AAAZQY wells_a_Page_69thm.jpg
d28bc217195efe0e7042f4cb0cd76ab6
ddd63077d6b08e1a93b12cc81901b14d4fbf68f0
11008 F20101123_AAAZSA wells_a_Page_85.QC.jpg
9fc9b051c9570b00d7a9e672ec385f12
ddf36d6ea825a27885977bb8655436ac45b7e59e
7030 F20101123_AAAZRM wells_a_Page_08thm.jpg
fdac923311e9d3b801f3aa673ba89ef7
64bd5dff0b024d6ff903433215b27a069397550d
17395 F20101123_AAAZQZ wells_a_Page_18.QC.jpg
cbeb64495ad6d84c212f0917fb1f5a61
4da841e702062c7db741ed0e1a983f6a22a501cd
12041 F20101123_AAAZSB wells_a_Page_74.QC.jpg
4eab4dae04aa7d3885d7f6da733fc92b
6ab8c050c0f7efca74408871e230c5638b4cdbaf
4210 F20101123_AAAZRN wells_a_Page_82thm.jpg
337af9f7ddda0525d2b8207cbae02467
6ae4dfca282d83a3c32a3a700a2a0837c206a6f0
22435 F20101123_AAAZSC wells_a_Page_25.QC.jpg
f0267ac52decf97224857ea18a61bcaf
7cb31f909ce6764efad0df57b2e93ed7b9b5cd10
18588 F20101123_AAAZRO wells_a_Page_09.QC.jpg
e7757c96eb3035ac32256e19aaf815f4
f1f0ce6792c47b50fcf6040ead3d46c8d059a403
18587 F20101123_AAAZSD wells_a_Page_62.QC.jpg
7e408c9bdb9176209600e339ca5c46e4
d0e168a32d8c6c513e1934cf5d67b60bdeac2f60
18461 F20101123_AAAZRP wells_a_Page_61.QC.jpg
2cfd1001b2479e9201b99ab02cfd2440
17f28fcf3b4b70dc3faf1886e68f82410813d34e
2854 F20101123_AAAZSE wells_a_Page_88thm.jpg
0c05a0a9f721c54534cf0b356cd37b1e
75690a9e17b4b8b0917121df195ee3448946a444
6205 F20101123_AAAZRQ wells_a_Page_16thm.jpg
c3ee521c769c194f8801a2361eac2365
adc65fae040e20b7a5c4300063bb762429a41b40
18804 F20101123_AAAZSF wells_a_Page_37.QC.jpg
e4fc2c96832549fb7bb899dcc3a21ab6
3badc616e2fe1c58476099d3a1ac0ecf3d19b63a
5186 F20101123_AAAZRR wells_a_Page_33thm.jpg
d8a4ecd1fe2dd3588467d2a9d65f1c4d
f886a201a2c024c348149f936713a05fc7e664df
6449 F20101123_AAAZSG wells_a_Page_49thm.jpg
7af32d0e045a929abec9fd1fcdfd95be
0fd99e2c757183767dd97e09109247475775a9c8
6378 F20101123_AAAZRS wells_a_Page_57thm.jpg
067708f01ade0dc247f17972e51353d0
aab7f5f90cd89b4ec8a77582a22635f6d2e9649a
19291 F20101123_AAAZSH wells_a_Page_07.QC.jpg
592d422768c9739ddd2cc050d68c2b4f
de6f2a8dbe361c508526b20d4b9bc936ee3b0edc
22955 F20101123_AAAZRT wells_a_Page_72.QC.jpg
dd01f47f64ce087099d762101076c75a
b3cd97de8096a79e50549e07080f925e1feb4233
5239 F20101123_AAAZSI wells_a_Page_14thm.jpg
6ec2cded2fd72704234f54353c784771
b2dbbbdd19865c050d3e83c2107e76fb19d08b68
4406 F20101123_AAAZRU wells_a_Page_53thm.jpg
c986a680b0b89e67ecb82d6e7f42093d
215d84dc4b8d2f6737c866cbc6644244886d3faf
4945 F20101123_AAAZSJ wells_a_Page_52thm.jpg
9868e77911f5d248bdebf11e1c9e296f
0eed0c105489706b9985bdb7ad32ba854cb31b6b
6289 F20101123_AAAZRV wells_a_Page_23thm.jpg
bc26d573af44a818ed71d9f0d0f85216
a6dc4a7ca69a906b00bcf9293a19fd43d620c0de
27331 F20101123_AAAZSK wells_a_Page_08.QC.jpg
63c0679b58c4c04a4206ecf0474860e9
65a2d02114f001f0a855f823f7876a7a90d9d928
11247 F20101123_AAAZRW wells_a_Page_79.QC.jpg
d83a7f62b658c3c0c4c8c3a666412606
5cab1598378510aebac94ecac129175ed337362a
12902 F20101123_AAAZSL wells_a_Page_54.QC.jpg
aeda5f88213f44cadeb6a4f8015fdbc6
c24edb228d949a570dcf898fdca95a8b8b4c63a0
16220 F20101123_AAAZRX wells_a_Page_48.QC.jpg
9ff16ec75c2bdacb1e3d540587112882
7e9bf26784cf4154885e5e84a7692f3108d98dc2
14800 F20101123_AAAZTA wells_a_Page_12.QC.jpg
8df5bc512c31ab93c08fdcff79a614f6
575e4584d3ead561be28cf023d6fee70c81baf95
18115 F20101123_AAAZSM wells_a_Page_45.QC.jpg
b0132c791afa9d7f65defdeb21c62f4a
b91e85bd36278a855e550bbec4d4daf90d56c1f9
7410 F20101123_AAAZRY wells_a_Page_39.QC.jpg
e35b6d9c1d68d861f633e88ad7681467
b4a4064b8a39e184377090439f82e367d03f2754
4270 F20101123_AAAZTB wells_a_Page_89thm.jpg
948e5f1d37b5577535178c3fd6202762
9c3c10208c92ec493fc0dea5282931409369cad5
3855 F20101123_AAAZSN wells_a_Page_80thm.jpg
aea3bd3a50fd12063085584dfe30094c
16e9a9164e99851eeef42eda172c20095505a4f2
17188 F20101123_AAAZRZ wells_a_Page_38.QC.jpg
8a2ecaef133559f83964c75ac19f56c1
a205222ebf5979fc64a79985ee666b83a45a1fff
5013 F20101123_AAAZTC wells_a_Page_34thm.jpg
cabdc8ae52a5fbc3b062cc99291102df
6039ba4a9ecc4fb7a065a89e2648da730e26c351
5461 F20101123_AAAZSO wells_a_Page_62thm.jpg
7829a573fe5285f860983dfafca96e57
c534a72ad39df0ab17945e10ffcc46cd4865f1bc
2648 F20101123_AAAZTD wells_a_Page_03thm.jpg
23d936ebee9b5e5637df757ac1714ae2
d60f50bb28e2497f787709872f475d0c07f352cd
23767 F20101123_AAAZSP wells_a_Page_21.QC.jpg
8f8e03e05fd16ad5244ba6033982d620
a880498dcce732d8efea879bbd81b29824b4e2fd
16124 F20101123_AAAZTE wells_a_Page_46.QC.jpg
9578aae992d3cf33fa82d816bb23c0fb
cd712109dee77ddeca9906611a938ae6cd468f95
14068 F20101123_AAAZSQ wells_a_Page_42.QC.jpg
11766810df9e6c0e1432f5136a3eb538
7e97d22399fa5e7a8a93c72c31f44de686cb3f77
3343 F20101123_AAAZTF wells_a_Page_78thm.jpg
698b9d65837a4abce44cc13cbb167ec0
6b4e016b37ee5a1a8b97223c2419eeaffed0e34f
22933 F20101123_AAAZSR wells_a_Page_31.QC.jpg
ed7d5c3a17aa915116ac5b6e346e3858
04528216d683229cdf4a2ce00104bdec3809cfc0
5380 F20101123_AAAZTG wells_a_Page_07thm.jpg
a49f9578000e8aa11af79e2fb92adee7
055fe6620220bf2278d85643324a17f76a60948a
3496 F20101123_AAAZSS wells_a_Page_74thm.jpg
e498761b847d7d4d161e1eb239c8681a
d86741914317ea0dedb43c3331c2c4f4f2ceedce
3544 F20101123_AAAZTH wells_a_Page_42thm.jpg
2ca1bceb15ac08c5bebf8ec10528d4f4
3cf8e3cc344d6e9cff14ecfb00721c70fe52b6e4
6964 F20101123_AAAZST wells_a_Page_77.QC.jpg
e3e8e6f08b518ccf76ccef7c44de8b42
e67ab9ddcce385d57336a425cb336a3568eaa425
5220 F20101123_AAAZTI wells_a_Page_09thm.jpg
3d5f7f46bc1186da460a9bb7dcfd2500
67c6efb9cd9e8f8608e9b4c5c02f795af2de6505
11064 F20101123_AAAZSU wells_a_Page_83.QC.jpg
fca166bc9ddaac034d86c74942e8a686
ba246c89166fe872513ae51ff82659b599c2cabf
4036 F20101123_AAAZTJ wells_a_Page_10thm.jpg
23ff13983960d4651945018397d5ded7
8823706c343d8acc4ffc0444498953279a9b74b4
17853 F20101123_AAAZSV wells_a_Page_34.QC.jpg
67c350220116be72cdb1c0bc306deeb3
2be3219729310082c7d4e818a95661e95c930b77
14443 F20101123_AAAZTK wells_a_Page_51.QC.jpg
127be4ac8dcc841bc5acee08b8b1b4ce
32fe575b119d4046988aab559298be87363f87d3
4068 F20101123_AAAZSW wells_a_Page_26thm.jpg
69bb3bbab58080e5afeb743198183bb1
40fdd6a133183c274605cebfd3a98c4a778d11a7
6274 F20101123_AAAZTL wells_a_Page_87thm.jpg
6c36cc8134a4ec978f06970983748d87
d8602ab8f484f351c869715b3e075c45b799626e
15568 F20101123_AAAZSX wells_a_Page_58.QC.jpg
db30999e49f7d8ade0afc8060d44b35f
e9b556230ee9c27df963f547f67c08c5d709b236
4623 F20101123_AAAZSY wells_a_Page_04thm.jpg
a444c80972b132eea55d87b336c41694
509e0013255653b22facfe33d488bdd9a5f9a6f5
16965 F20101123_AAAZUA wells_a_Page_04.QC.jpg
7b98d6279510e485279486b45b632a7d
126652b9d4421ad8f4e32e56c54a08140888544a
14296 F20101123_AAAZTM wells_a_Page_70.QC.jpg
82c415f9a8b2aebec7669c47e5b1d7c5
444047c661d6b11e86f8c5778b516ccfb8f99f80
5845 F20101123_AAAZSZ wells_a_Page_72thm.jpg
43d5eb401143cd5f2b479b073b36eeb1
fd1889db1955c325e8774b295394d071f829ee8b
4598 F20101123_AAAZUB wells_a_Page_58thm.jpg
1d3f9b0a054510180b3d955ba2712f87
dbbea467db040316b271d886dd08f82a86dbb0cf
5414 F20101123_AAAZTN wells_a_Page_29thm.jpg
193ecd254c3d3bdbcc5a067f98ea11f3
eb828ebdb680201a8ffb2bd2f8d190e798e6c7a4
20973 F20101123_AAAZUC wells_a_Page_13.QC.jpg
9904daf0d48d1f39d9149352051437a9
1fdce00056972f3241f690e8cd6255f8df26042b
F20101123_AAAZTO wells_a_Page_49.QC.jpg
ff4d0abc3c21f5681d6309b6b7673b50
86c60a961a66720620ba5e73e4fe75123673069e
3927 F20101123_AAAZUD wells_a_Page_79thm.jpg
6bd1bfa62f0fbc92bb05d9ccf63d9321
685cab906008e88b66be3458ada806a39087ae9d
14881 F20101123_AAAZTP wells_a_Page_63.QC.jpg
a2bb04f61fe8d8941249a81dfc650fcd
82f237eb26a3b0743c4b6f5677b30f6a77bad523
4352 F20101123_AAAZUE wells_a_Page_70thm.jpg
9057f522f3231d656128589c2e7fafb9
29c0888ff378229575ac372067d92e68d7142b3e
23858 F20101123_AAAZTQ wells_a_Page_24.QC.jpg
aa97a150863fbe092b093c73e5587fc1
7c7a2575cbfdeeaef42a7a69cbbeccfbe87f85c7
18984 F20101123_AAAZUF wells_a_Page_27.QC.jpg
df0206ec35a4f5db04eda251da4e873e
7bd5348a6a6696716c225a72d785888714f6792d
16296 F20101123_AAAZTR wells_a_Page_30.QC.jpg
54cb41302c8b4d21ca0e333dbcb249b1
f90b818203fec1b178cc9a87347c0a3712e40c38
7007 F20101123_AAAZUG wells_a_Page_05.QC.jpg
ff0ae1e2a1b976bbf48bb6bcef298376
38637d25d4f6d130a7d30721b853792eb1b9a2b9
8408 F20101123_AAAZTS wells_a_Page_69.QC.jpg
5fb915aa8d511bed2de7679cabb5d533
1e6205458814bd3f58fe7a2dff30de28bb6bab8f
16775 F20101123_AAAZUH wells_a_Page_14.QC.jpg
6d49f540b012f5d198e3a43c2100ef50
3f102fca5f29d113e2bc8d5a3a54848e409b5fd0
20762 F20101123_AAAZTT wells_a_Page_11.QC.jpg
7dae09915b6cfe398b88491303d9cbc3
ee9f70232b820ad9e7f12628870deb061c609d1e
21693 F20101123_AAAZUI wells_a_Page_68.QC.jpg
0b36a9530a0e13b303c41d6fe63c60a7
1e954c79084e2a821ed7b22d94c4fa6c116516ab
4417 F20101123_AAAZTU wells_a_Page_50thm.jpg
581e94fbf07455dbef21fe281af2eddd
ed3029b5194cf07c5dda25e7314db572b813f8f6
14403 F20101123_AAAZUJ wells_a_Page_47.QC.jpg
927bef682aede3db55b6c232ee87647d
bd272d7bf7892bc9c489a8f69e9f34c236539cfb
19353 F20101123_AAAZTV wells_a_Page_75.QC.jpg
841a585cd7fa113f9a1dc4b02197f55b
1ce2dc49b30a9b7ff2acf61db131f394dec5a152
13637 F20101123_AAAZUK wells_a_Page_71.QC.jpg
203650b61c899ea45a3743c219007874
8334ea70e6b8e1eeebba19bf2d5b2ca1e2ea62e1
6423 F20101123_AAAZTW wells_a_Page_31thm.jpg
8fefdd294e7bdc3b1660dd0925f59b95
ee05ae08b25226a308746278c859f8111429c935
3967 F20101123_AAAZVA wells_a_Page_41thm.jpg
40aabc529915d94a44f6b76cd35b37e0
885970d47c612b564daa7d6376362ddeb15096eb
4721 F20101123_AAAZUL wells_a_Page_30thm.jpg
517219c2037f7a505bc9c84641ce9a50
517a98210486fe38e2c0cbf47e6461c3240f980f
5167 F20101123_AAAZTX wells_a_Page_35thm.jpg
f3b776d056deb874c13d3c3a579f48fe
0689ba666b4560c6c2ee644b2f0857d81634e742
2814 F20101123_AAAZUM wells_a_Page_06thm.jpg
757b41c219fdf171f9631ef707327f22
13d76d42d9a785d976f1682c75e5971a8c91edf5
6526 F20101123_AAAZTY wells_a_Page_19thm.jpg
8516ac5b648a7e57a6e8fa2e97a90c25
14a5eb5878ce5d137bc9cef669049b7e68483fa8
6195 F20101123_AAAZVB wells_a_Page_25thm.jpg
cfb748f957d10edc0454b993dcb2742c
8c5b0232256ebafcff13fe90a5c5fd7a380e2959
4694 F20101123_AAAZUN wells_a_Page_51thm.jpg
2ed7950e46c06d11129b836f0a579439
a3581801b97f5cd3a98136c6a4cab4130c01bd66
6397 F20101123_AAAZTZ wells_a_Page_43thm.jpg
216d7263f20d74a4862fd87b5a2a7a86
3aefcf633bf4c350d84696aaa35e9c2089e5157f
23236 F20101123_AAAZVC wells_a_Page_32.QC.jpg
9be4a6c5d2b400ba838bf51d75a2c58f
6d9db5e761be5e3003baf669fdaa6620b51800ae
4163 F20101123_AAAZUO wells_a_Page_86thm.jpg
37f4d03c0c63b5a560cb0d02d63fbd22
3a858bbc450ceb8196fff9fd4bfd023a2ebdc3fb
4065 F20101123_AAAZVD wells_a_Page_83thm.jpg
7f9a45658044a3caa1e04f16e0ef54fa
f11a4a1b27ec6ab94e593474e084725497a063c9
9759 F20101123_AAAZUP wells_a_Page_65.QC.jpg
ff10bcd0ce46e057b667ee6ab8aba7b3
c4fe5582bb712fafb32710a6d7c9b982fb3e5f62
4781 F20101123_AAAZVE wells_a_Page_46thm.jpg
97e18449f9c4f1e3521f00a95ac9660d
500b1f84f4968d1437b30e7186f6618548cffcea
5972 F20101123_AAAZUQ wells_a_Page_13thm.jpg
48a5e7f0cf7c0e6de6537a2c7357a999
01c2c4271a9a6e6286839882c848027e29cb57e1
9349 F20101123_AAAZVF wells_a_Page_78.QC.jpg
8f3386ed9b4a5d76aa71148819f289f2
968fdcfad1a8b3c6aac6c90333a73d4943d73ec2
F20101123_AAAZUR wells_a_Page_38thm.jpg
d30dc1383830d5b78afa4b16a30c3066
229c71ce562a9f8a8d6f2585979285490e5639eb
16672 F20101123_AAAZVG wells_a_Page_28.QC.jpg
777bbfe8f4a5bdf28822914e5a3ab6e6
9f317e175ad8172deb19fd6703b8bac4e7b6832a
4100 F20101123_AAAZUS wells_a_Page_85thm.jpg
222870e834be3aa19ef96f2876d60c54
6248d2f1aaa084724dcc1e1d6c77208fd60a67ea
22323 F20101123_AAAZVH wells_a_Page_20.QC.jpg
c7995a19155d804fa7372296e0af07dc
67c369f866b17b75d43021f25f410f8cb9a69557
14399 F20101123_AAAZUT wells_a_Page_41.QC.jpg
79962465314d6928aaef0e131fe8d9a7
6297c00ed97bae278bcc00c7b75d64e236821e49
22573 F20101123_AAAZVI wells_a_Page_23.QC.jpg
e009c9567590232a2c74c8f8ddfd8c85
bfdb8f5c9629db7ec88d23cacffb8b8125ef6bbd
10851 F20101123_AAAZUU wells_a_Page_80.QC.jpg
2cb9bca6875197c8d4fec8103f3dd3d7
0120c8a4d35f612f977c63bff737fd0817031f28
5175 F20101123_AAAZVJ wells_a_Page_28thm.jpg
7ceb8cb1ad203629e826a00cb100cd5c
7e277731f2443eb884c895ddfeae878c3d43c52c
3955 F20101123_AAAZUV wells_a_Page_84thm.jpg
8b665e00eef1af02860189acae67b7bb
91083460b08828c47c4f454930f77a612902a676
5276 F20101123_AAAZVK wells_a_Page_60thm.jpg
6ff64c026206776ad61315736a2b351b
fcbfba02a2aab0b99e8409256c5f4cf18c55bbde
5411 F20101123_AAAZUW wells_a_Page_61thm.jpg
96ee24f29fca0c69d0d3557b4cfffb5f
92df471bc30e2e59c839b39f2662aca314d748f1
17963 F20101123_AAAZVL wells_a_Page_60.QC.jpg
690a5ad9031bc1e12afba4b0fb54bdc7
c5508dedb8d69a92758436a1516a6f64fbdab890
5479 F20101123_AAAZUX wells_a_Page_64thm.jpg
c86649e77a800697a6f40917c69f86f9
7f35b056ef38a44e43a7d6b2501489e35dff384e
5828 F20101123_AAAZWA wells_a_Page_66thm.jpg
e250b5d56a53eee397be608fe8b24c59
a4d031e253f82010cfc9ee8e5411991e91ddfdb4
23042 F20101123_AAAZVM wells_a_Page_76.QC.jpg
c43a5d28f51c05226e56fb735c80a756
30eb0dcc6e2522d9480c90f492f064519b8cc04d
5640 F20101123_AAAZUY wells_a_Page_68thm.jpg
32a5e876a4753fcee9b549e5e650451d
ba6a1e4c8463d5d0566540da2d41609782b14158
4681 F20101123_AAAZWB wells_a_Page_67thm.jpg
9a069bff7bbfd3eec16dd99cbec6b23f
bb885833afd398f43ab742a319377571aacf67f3
133417 F20101123_AAAZVN UFE0011656_00001.xml
0b5f6ce1bb8d5af511e3095780607f7d
2a313c1ec8604938aaaa6c64cccf15b78ee265f1
10510 F20101123_AAAZUZ wells_a_Page_84.QC.jpg
0023b220eb343c1e5be0785cc40fdfbd
5a8373c59e2f06359f60fb1b5807635a190d1bc2
8739 F20101123_AAAZVO wells_a_Page_06.QC.jpg
e1fa8412d25393a387dbdefab86bfa9c
4c1275de87591bf7ca11a243c5fd8ccf44b81254
4194 F20101123_AAAZWC wells_a_Page_71thm.jpg
60db8a4b8e5e7eb7c43dd19420b1e30b
1f5c535221cdd2bd7e8218ce79cb3d34cb9cbbd4
1415 F20101123_AAAZVP wells_a_Page_02thm.jpg
3d7938167949c8bb379b3a044250a383
c7d71f70d6c7d566f4a648202bcee1ccb87b3a13
5758 F20101123_AAAZWD wells_a_Page_76thm.jpg
c66f4a9d2ad7251ba72a3785eea6257a
83b707be8f84bc8b42d5b0189a105d01e6d7f812
18515 F20101123_AAAZVQ wells_a_Page_36.QC.jpg
98a5535f66b3ea99639a422305d3e1cc
d67d10991aa6e0ad7e542c421029296eea8a29e5
2229 F20101123_AAAZWE wells_a_Page_77thm.jpg
6617429baa9250b94e76244036569c67
94738a532cda318e90c3d634979c3378654a6738
5391 F20101123_AAAZVR wells_a_Page_36thm.jpg
ef7a1ee01897b9444bc2e25a2b5f582a
71460a8a9074cf4a69db9e42f62fdadf12d97143
10451 F20101123_AAAZWF wells_a_Page_81.QC.jpg
34833d6a2562fc3aa941c9e69d086497
c56608e7d2f0a97152e3ff8da3a6b37470ec7b88
4890 F20101123_AAAZVS wells_a_Page_48thm.jpg
6a6d4adf733592ee401f04c62da0a804
d5cbe91613ed96c72cf81f1586304b828c991d2e
11255 F20101123_AAAZWG wells_a_Page_82.QC.jpg
c32933dd1959c93d8c224a0baffc918d
5a7d3e5b2d461567dc8a75a3b06d5a236901969d
13147 F20101123_AAAZVT wells_a_Page_50.QC.jpg
c61c268b4308dccca9e3d0a5de7c73c5
64ff478b80ce95402d3b620c508aa1066f2a1139
11081 F20101123_AAAZWH wells_a_Page_86.QC.jpg
f432a789046b8582ae62c350825e7d7d
1352eba1c6f773c297b95c808c178a429f8b4255
15049 F20101123_AAAZVU wells_a_Page_52.QC.jpg
cb0a9272f2a9538b54a00e3255730260
149c15cb01dd533eff2a3e6302399490584aec9f
9522 F20101123_AAAZWI wells_a_Page_88.QC.jpg
9696ba94655251000e379d92bccd6e1f
5bcd7c40a710e220f3a87ee06a5b30542edc855a
19850 F20101123_AAAZVV wells_a_Page_55.QC.jpg
dd7274772dde2f3ce3cc7c8d77db344b
63b2504540365c1a545c1222def293f5f0477538
14211 F20101123_AAAZWJ wells_a_Page_89.QC.jpg
7b365f86ae86844936ddd92e418ceb52
0bef7efeb2d4c7f420adff09bbc9d9f4a4b0e0a3
21404 F20101123_AAAZVW wells_a_Page_57.QC.jpg
684a3fd1f007b7e99ec536f9aefad41c
1236f5d09689cff672f41df5107c8ddd300ecb82
18010 F20101123_AAAZVX wells_a_Page_59.QC.jpg
c1612152b742c141f5559392fa15af68
48e5945a241727f5eb7564b1f9bae952fce15800
4503 F20101123_AAAZVY wells_a_Page_63thm.jpg
050da2ae81dd1c41b16d8c354de5e43f
eab2f256acc1f8f4da7417a9978f5eedbdeaf561
18417 F20101123_AAAZVZ wells_a_Page_64.QC.jpg
5cca86bc9d166b3e8976002076474b8e
531fbe1a2dddf3b5a3023b0485403168fce0b913
71981 F20101123_AAAZAA wells_a_Page_21.jpg
2447472a38fbf6a65b8fa03afb7f5193
297e26542ed646c4e73a84a1b63ab968df7936ad
55444 F20101123_AAAZAB wells_a_Page_22.jpg
b04e8687cadcedb36625263e6a9a132b
d9e9387e2bc79d7eb901fe6bb8e9aab780a374b0
72816 F20101123_AAAZAC wells_a_Page_24.jpg
5f5fd71b63d013ec6b443891a5e4b787
11a05ae0222b5b09d8770f7381b1f7811a96e64e
68645 F20101123_AAAZAD wells_a_Page_25.jpg
49ed89380fdf22a0b29fef96a205588e
797d7c2a3cbacec79133a269a79e36dd97c9da0f
39429 F20101123_AAAZAE wells_a_Page_26.jpg
b673654a38431210096d5562a65540cf
9395006eee0c6e79e2125301240d08fa29944537
51284 F20101123_AAAZAF wells_a_Page_28.jpg
175aaa5d166e61bcb2767ee928465b90
ed92bae5952fae7d9d5a76fe54054b04cabe6772
56548 F20101123_AAAZAG wells_a_Page_29.jpg
cf2e07cbf65ec954f460728c085a3b43
12009c9097e8cde112381deeda0f25b2f80698aa
49126 F20101123_AAAZAH wells_a_Page_30.jpg
1b2df5cfa1bacee19ffe0b34848ccc10
ead100c4b4d90e9950d88760141a337101aa2a07
72111 F20101123_AAAZAI wells_a_Page_31.jpg
9e7a0317afdf169e5944c51f89d602cc
94c30560a38654212c11925b4f32b44e6c27f1e0
70878 F20101123_AAAZAJ wells_a_Page_32.jpg
b1f2dbb29176c9f3e1ad421627baf479
163e25ae52b1b24016467ca69916ec3bf9b3951b
53037 F20101123_AAAZAK wells_a_Page_33.jpg
fae63f9fb3ed6c3b88faf9b9619314e9
1543b6d5e02016a6e63bcb9c218f295984183142
58666 F20101123_AAAZAL wells_a_Page_34.jpg
c88914a0949a4418faa6b0d8e9d7ea60
b333bf54cf032bc35054e149c9f3825b590fa93b
68330 F20101123_AAAZBA wells_a_Page_49.jpg
e04f707dc854ece8be821b3f6728b61a
5635f4ee04d65eb5e6caac4641a83d4d1fb51477
38049 F20101123_AAAZBB wells_a_Page_50.jpg
6c63ab1c95c3a7d9d8c1345f7962dac9
722dc88693100bb5e7648b66055c5dd99ab1eff7
53929 F20101123_AAAZAM wells_a_Page_35.jpg
231feffbf04aeb867f5eb188bf6c82d6
9930ea00162c7a803fbccd25c815365ed7265562
44336 F20101123_AAAZBC wells_a_Page_51.jpg
a42374881dd57628e5a999e924d5d52a
96fd7682dd8272fd552753d8d8e8c8e38808ed83
55651 F20101123_AAAZAN wells_a_Page_36.jpg
239369d99d945fdcd9b2941537cbdde2
cc602a0b16e8aec1c6776eb7b44182a2ce5be820
44414 F20101123_AAAZBD wells_a_Page_52.jpg
3982ed5f4a105dbd57195ad871ae4134
0d9c2a1e8af3a352e723a9fb7951964a413f8896
59990 F20101123_AAAZAO wells_a_Page_37.jpg
96f67bc9da229989ddb591dc1baeff84
3640402b2a1742ec8748ee1c3ba0c4451323e887
40048 F20101123_AAAZBE wells_a_Page_53.jpg
c35a30baed2af31f128990d39ab0a6e3
323a4fcd7c9d1922bd263c39c85f0937d1bc27bb
59630 F20101123_AAAZAP wells_a_Page_38.jpg
466429f2c78ebba51ed5ab29055005d1
0da6461ebddbb42155421735b1ecc93c86f2fa47
36901 F20101123_AAAZBF wells_a_Page_54.jpg
211e823ea9cc01cc02919a9b888dc41c
e308c40242b6d46ccb0dd1365c9ae1202e3df493
24782 F20101123_AAAZAQ wells_a_Page_39.jpg
d24dc38174dcaddf2dd0c67fe81dc54c
2e15f2cfdd4e6b02ff9ec20396ff8d9cabd36998
65024 F20101123_AAAZBG wells_a_Page_55.jpg
3571fa7c3d529af10744ab2d25655e81
19b613ce2551f68b71ac62cd718b97a7ac309401
61411 F20101123_AAAZAR wells_a_Page_40.jpg
655019d63fbb48cd132ee1e00c4ca334
acac79ba23835a0bcd2cb48bbd0b6f5c8cdd24d5
57568 F20101123_AAAZBH wells_a_Page_56.jpg
b957185cce2e7b58b3039b9f8fb14c65
50a726f0d70da7ad4ec98c34b3f06ea2adbdcd8d
52451 F20101123_AAAZAS wells_a_Page_41.jpg
f44325af320f1b02b8fcfe6cbe382c93
9ee0e71f890db1c92aa632b033c0fa9d79e85b2a
66539 F20101123_AAAZBI wells_a_Page_57.jpg
0c785d082b7fe0ab20e2b71a14e03044
91706c1ea8d96015216a961513b693f7591311d2
44544 F20101123_AAAZAT wells_a_Page_42.jpg
7e35cf3bcb5c6153d7e410470ac891db
bb9193204c6867ff046fafbe1bac495608d9f0dc
52605 F20101123_AAAZBJ wells_a_Page_58.jpg
8b5639482646db792b69a0021255da4d
ded87454db3becae1e5fd7110cf56144d8ed5420
70152 F20101123_AAAZAU wells_a_Page_43.jpg
50fa5f3df9c32817253cd53ad2098432
c706566154e54d352c0cf3d2aa72565192e9fc1b
58941 F20101123_AAAZBK wells_a_Page_59.jpg
fdc2d3b06e5a8f9e5d7e5298812fb8db
59278105583ec4ce47b12120379fe2d77377bb28
61881 F20101123_AAAZAV wells_a_Page_44.jpg
914f69a574878a2b65ee91331f277083
10bea94203d2283c8ffb6fe2fd332e8f6f1db042
58295 F20101123_AAAZBL wells_a_Page_60.jpg
314b4d62abbf66ae8b3634f849b279fd
3e80027f6e15046fed2c1b873d54ef61ad7ab5fb
59313 F20101123_AAAZAW wells_a_Page_45.jpg
f6f20d13adc3bb73e06d79e8e4d6cca5
a1d89bbf0b968f80ab1f97608b5c65fb5ce48e15
58874 F20101123_AAAZBM wells_a_Page_61.jpg
2ae9ab298afb043c9f9f1c842511ce6d
2bfdf8ed93636a5a919b66c43e0e773a48bf89de
51660 F20101123_AAAZAX wells_a_Page_46.jpg
e1f4af99dc6787fb140115ee2bcdb4bd
93511cf8efe6ec59487da542786f915ca9bd329e
23190 F20101123_AAAZCA wells_a_Page_77.jpg
dbf69b18ebde55d3456608ad8d4ae462
77b0d93aec363b5fb48364f1a55972b177908777
45289 F20101123_AAAZAY wells_a_Page_47.jpg
691a90c557651816b7f977119652628e
29097f4fefd06209a800025003ab7d5a1e61a17d
27150 F20101123_AAAZCB wells_a_Page_78.jpg
b97b5435580cb83abc57e5ca06b85fb5
dbcc3496d6adfafcb07f1a7d8898a024b89e9356
61307 F20101123_AAAZBN wells_a_Page_62.jpg
ecec02feafed48fb3af3133429efc6b8
822faceddd9e09036072d8da56cb99b48ebc353b
53231 F20101123_AAAZAZ wells_a_Page_48.jpg
5594f6e3d1c2412d71e7cfa9401e4c24
16f8520a8e05b7cceed0af269a6fd3a251d362d9
32471 F20101123_AAAZCC wells_a_Page_79.jpg
d8cef0ba719fadaba0f5af8b36fdf2d1
7da5f5175c050c2bdf163479426133d45062f648
45413 F20101123_AAAZBO wells_a_Page_63.jpg
84164148b728ac4e011aaa116dd21fa0
2c0a4d228195f628f9093c920cccf9831deaa0dc
31016 F20101123_AAAZCD wells_a_Page_80.jpg
898609f66f27cb30f1a689559f8fa95f
6af7e5095e7dfbf0855e87c2666d9695605369e8
58799 F20101123_AAAZBP wells_a_Page_64.jpg
40b758fec5d9aac095b78b819ea7b2c6
9b1985e42d786bc589436a3b1ab059bf9075e547
30566 F20101123_AAAZCE wells_a_Page_81.jpg
d4e09bc8e6ea350c367ccab95815b3ae
f416108f412db350c74b8cea7dc02311fd1ae773
29493 F20101123_AAAZBQ wells_a_Page_65.jpg
cad49030ef2e18864b2e2ee82c7573c2
ecc54ccd8e8ff56ca511c03e3154d0c0909ba60c
34601 F20101123_AAAZCF wells_a_Page_82.jpg
b021f886d62770433eb3d70b450be171
06820635fa0c1c4b793c2f6c0bd374996d30bad2
62674 F20101123_AAAZBR wells_a_Page_66.jpg
6541fa4b8c26be341064afa42c4ba2bd
7a34b88c74bd5a224b97fabf354b7c943cd4ab71
33118 F20101123_AAAZCG wells_a_Page_83.jpg
da7e2a5e54adb61a88f5de2a45aea8e2
1e72904d4a7c01ecacd45896c2f10c6bd603cee6
49851 F20101123_AAAZBS wells_a_Page_67.jpg
067e7ac8f009e38b5590492c3cce01cd
5ee6299b29993f0cef1e3646bd10480841a21c0c
31098 F20101123_AAAZCH wells_a_Page_84.jpg
266fcfa8dc7704be3d74ca311f7fec8e
8cbd6cd9ccc4d3c088298fd44a471fe937c39797
77435 F20101123_AAAZBT wells_a_Page_68.jpg
bb57d4c1ad52a05f82140c2697b73792
aa7987b5c626f9be6078a53a91b2e3ee7112ad84
33851 F20101123_AAAZCI wells_a_Page_86.jpg
fda04d270cfc96baf2ef02c07539276c
769b26e89a1db30d52c6000283da7d8b7e5d02d0
28683 F20101123_AAAZBU wells_a_Page_69.jpg
e3aa8fe8575f1af48e1fd8a9cc4cf458
e1cd8995b6d11e670cbdb2ecdb391c21365fb81b
74613 F20101123_AAAZCJ wells_a_Page_87.jpg
ad2157a62cb0a0e0be3115e3bbf104f8
8de7003aceff0c504196b7f3f95a2d74cb7fb8b1
46442 F20101123_AAAZBV wells_a_Page_70.jpg
20972462dc9616483f29504c842c5c4e
874af733aa681f3402eef20a9ab1e90e14c9840c
32492 F20101123_AAAZCK wells_a_Page_88.jpg
e0bc523ca7103d94592d042444269748
62a5021676322d989e852eab8c8a864c0c9f5bf7
82673 F20101123_AAAZBW wells_a_Page_72.jpg
683668a8e897528b318755c560bd8ee8
2794381932b36e26c967391513c4ac8bccf0293c
44221 F20101123_AAAZCL wells_a_Page_89.jpg
0e5ac4f796171fa7d6c70884f46edd98
c2e2acde97081f62b7ee015b178da6e650601371
85423 F20101123_AAAZBX wells_a_Page_73.jpg
484ef384db6e101bef64c5efec0ce472
729f7f3fb12648bfdfd76bd6e7e72e18cdc6f3de
1051780 F20101123_AAAZDA wells_a_Page_15.jp2
3e07ae20ef470eb29cf46e9d1713e3f2
771af43e1871b21ff849234fc6de73689567f580
22530 F20101123_AAAZCM wells_a_Page_01.jp2
be420a1406d6f7f323581e9b9b304a51
9be5f27205ea0675c107bd41af532d8cf9ebd5c5
42575 F20101123_AAAZBY wells_a_Page_74.jpg
d18805173e629310abe95dc99d85230e
1dc94fab44f24caf27c22497e0e7fc0bfcc668f6
1051961 F20101123_AAAZDB wells_a_Page_16.jp2
4b5db784ee36b6f7b2faa1f53033b136
01f18767e4f73010e8fc559330fb367b6d723a5c
6162 F20101123_AAAZCN wells_a_Page_02.jp2
79ff8c22a03b5348556869fd0129ab4a
f7916b367d6b43687be324243136ea117402af09
67964 F20101123_AAAZBZ wells_a_Page_75.jpg
fa0a69f34e724f13ce1a5fea68d2a5ff
b25cc92f81a8e67b969f47809b2efe5e233a4acc
1051977 F20101123_AAAZDC wells_a_Page_17.jp2
14f1fe825e9b0936c6778d3439330907
3cd806c6f81feac02ae449563bb1eba395931104
1051984 F20101123_AAAZDD wells_a_Page_18.jp2
7d6e450c94f20b576ade701e5f8e70ec
e7f8a899b03fbca1e897c19f16a39b01df5c5183
32476 F20101123_AAAZCO wells_a_Page_03.jp2
ad4dc7e0f0c23f61bc45fdb2f544e4fe
8240a34ffb4eac7be6f08228c8998ec5d36c73b2
F20101123_AAAZDE wells_a_Page_19.jp2
e6cf9940b56a507004b5d4a2c64d42a7
d35465f7f220b3fe81a6c21175d90bafc1e1c6d9
1051960 F20101123_AAAZCP wells_a_Page_04.jp2
aa203b86ee24124d0d1293071caf579a
f7cf29708608b1e17b28e19feefa823b37eb43cd
1051955 F20101123_AAAZDF wells_a_Page_20.jp2
87c1401aabdfbb85c3272aab22d4a815
760f2bb32a08e2a39efd6bc3ed464ae3778dca3d
498375 F20101123_AAAZCQ wells_a_Page_05.jp2
6e80fbca970440501939dc5d39a50612
65d0422b2c3c1635378e7a27c6810feca34a891d
109073 F20101123_AAAZDG wells_a_Page_21.jp2
5c73a3fda537ebbe6de0ac54996e4d6a
3ba8545492e98137e6cbfe1186979e7b171bc54a
599592 F20101123_AAAZCR wells_a_Page_06.jp2
6f066b7e15d7a0652b4a697f6bd72629
f5f3d1d9b1018cdbb8913b128241ee4d6be7ed34
80797 F20101123_AAAZDH wells_a_Page_22.jp2
092c8dc5b00403c940cbe14651dd5fe0
01c2999e6843e2f2463f00804917634461fe5915
1051985 F20101123_AAAZCS wells_a_Page_07.jp2
a04cee968c479cacf45fb50123e598da
425ca48ec8c631cd9ea86b203096d7eed940f407
101341 F20101123_AAAZDI wells_a_Page_23.jp2
bc111a3cd19412a30d284a2448b1d582
e5bdcb68ab405c30cf563b51c22d9cfd423d53d0
1051979 F20101123_AAAZCT wells_a_Page_08.jp2
c244d5e667b677c1b566dadd8c81f8d8
602d81c66adb5c6818756cfa0e07e413c06a26e0
108219 F20101123_AAAZDJ wells_a_Page_24.jp2
e225c98e58b72cc6827d1001c529856d
bd5fff66a61902a764d0dbbc5a4fb1396dd8c64b
83824 F20101123_AAAZCU wells_a_Page_09.jp2
8411363dc1740f9249430866bf7c0e89
ffc0b783aa9b441ca190ba14bf207aa5f2695955
103756 F20101123_AAAZDK wells_a_Page_25.jp2
3967fec95bce787a64c1b3ad5092b3d4
c36caaaab6f34eb27fea32f5533cdad397acbb52
61138 F20101123_AAAZCV wells_a_Page_10.jp2
3aed28e625564e36fa36beafa5dd4ea3
41d4e34917198d6aa516291a7ef496fa31979e23
740459 F20101123_AAAZDL wells_a_Page_26.jp2
2ab741feeb33b851940951200f57f7e4
991fa6bf39f08abdcb99041ee8957e56828d90e0
94348 F20101123_AAAZCW wells_a_Page_11.jp2
ea871a09d2eae3f1bf06aab75de5f567
e57e4b42897f2d9370cadab23129755f3d525896
F20101123_AAAZEA wells_a_Page_41.jp2
db2463b01a7f1824fb9d7996e7010abd
817fc07b8e7df57f239e3f8e41577df56e9d7952
782847 F20101123_AAAZDM wells_a_Page_27.jp2
2ae19fd1b2f4f122cede3b6d117fa89c
ad6bccf3f956264c68bc387d90606338b3b94914
66802 F20101123_AAAZCX wells_a_Page_12.jp2
21cdf537105d3eb0e8ad6ee086de0c63
663ea785f9cd01f950b2ebe2547dac4eb0b26ce1
788950 F20101123_AAAZEB wells_a_Page_42.jp2
108fac1b893e5870ba2fedc00877e929
dfd71c50054147da44ca711f9e3107fdea66f97e
690253 F20101123_AAAZDN wells_a_Page_28.jp2
2a26394edbf1db079b931f85906a0d9e
3f7a09198c9173d414c7b1473a581ce5b9c0b625
13658 F20101123_AAAYYG wells_a_Page_26.QC.jpg
0ce0e7d044f5efd8804e7fa15192cae7
6f00c68da137ecb09a00d41f5d603c31c42b844a
94756 F20101123_AAAZCY wells_a_Page_13.jp2
73e007398300cc6c494684b9bb9e47ee
43b169329af318f69c8f507fdbb83fc3399fc00e
103350 F20101123_AAAZEC wells_a_Page_43.jp2
052eb78317d556ae5fa1095eb71e6709
3bc22b4e379e9a3cbcef482269d8d934f031e034
83284 F20101123_AAAZDO wells_a_Page_29.jp2
238556f402c4452ebef72facb84bddd9
d521c6ef62de69652d8a86d2156b3d3ab86a5313
5613 F20101123_AAAYYH wells_a_Page_44thm.jpg
686e48a63eee58b9e8b33f0d22dac269
cfe7998106ba3ebe156d60070b0d01eea0520eee
692977 F20101123_AAAZCZ wells_a_Page_14.jp2
d15106bbef615020f638d3e60c7155b2
07340219545d6b3a8b5f933239f0e68edcffc50f



PAGE 1

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIRFOIL WITH CO-FLOW JET FLOW CONTROL By ADAM JOSEPH WELLS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

PAGE 2

Copyright 2005 by ADAM JOSEPH WELLS

PAGE 3

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author expresses special thanks to the supervisory committee chairman, Dr. Bruce F. Carroll, for his continued guidance, encouragement and de votion. Appreciation is also due to Dr. Ge-Cheng Zha, whose passi on for the co-flow airfoil is contagious. Gratitude is also addresse d to the other supervisory committee members, Dr. Lou Cattafesta and Dr. William Lear Jr., for their support. The author also wishes to acknowledge all family and friends th at helped make this possible.

PAGE 4

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 APPARATUS MODIFICATIONS AND ASSEMBLY..............................................3 Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Description...................................................................................3 Wind Tunnel Modifications..........................................................................................6 Mass Flow Rate Controls............................................................................................10 Balance Modifications................................................................................................13 Calibration of Airfoil..................................................................................................14 Instrumentation and Measurements............................................................................18 Uncertainty Analysis..................................................................................................23 3 PROCEDURE.............................................................................................................27 4 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS....................................................................................30 Different Tests Conducted..........................................................................................30 Improved Lift, Drag and Stall.....................................................................................33 Instability of the Jet....................................................................................................38 Stagnation Point Location...........................................................................................39 PIV Results.................................................................................................................39 Drag Determination From Wake Measurements........................................................54 5 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................56 APPENDIX A DETAILED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE............................................................58

PAGE 5

v B LIST OF INSTRUMENT ATION AND EQUIPMENT.............................................60 C DETAILED AIRFOIL A SSEMBLY PROCEDURE.................................................62 D DETAILED WINDTUNNEL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE......................................65 E PIV IMAGES..............................................................................................................68 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................79

PAGE 6

vi LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1. Orifice plate 1494 coefficients.................................................................................12 2-2. List of the uncertainties of the measured values......................................................24 2-3. Uncertainty in orif ice plate calculation....................................................................25 4-1. Lift and drag test matrix...........................................................................................31 4-2. PIV test matrix.........................................................................................................32 4-3. Ratio of lift with tunnel off to lift with tunnel on.....................................................33 4-4. Comparison between CFJ airf oils and baseline airfoil.............................................35

PAGE 7

vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 2-D cross section of CFJ airfoils................................................................................4 2-2. How CFJ0025-131-196 turns into NACA 0025........................................................5 2-3. Unmodified Aerolab wind tunnel...............................................................................6 2-4. Modified Aerolab wind tunnel...................................................................................7 2-5. Hose/clamp attachment to cylinder and balance mechanism. Airfoil is attached in horizontal position inside tunnel.............................................................................8 2-6. Connection between the bala nce cylinder and the airfoil..........................................8 2-7. Connection between the sucti on manifold and the airfoil..........................................9 2-8. Plexiglas box and suction manifold with airfoil located to the left and external suction connection to the right.................................................................................10 2-9. Normal force calibration curves...............................................................................16 2-10. Axial force calibration curves..................................................................................16 2-11. Lift correction curve.................................................................................................17 2-12. Drag correction curve...............................................................................................18 2-13. Program used in wind tunnel testing........................................................................21 4-1. Lift coefficient verse angl e of attack for CFJ0025-065-196....................................34 4-2. Drag polar for CFJ0025-065-196.............................................................................35 4-3. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-065-196.........................................................36 4-4. Lift coefficient verse angl e of attack for CFJ0025-131-196....................................37 4-5. Drag polar for CFJ0025-131-196.............................................................................37 4-6. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-131-196.........................................................38

PAGE 8

viii 4-7. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025065-196 at 20 degrees angle of attack and A) high and B) low mass flow rates.........................................................................40 4-8. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025065-196 at 30 degrees angle of attack and A) high and B) low mass flow rates.........................................................................41 4-9. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-065-196 A) 40 deg and B) 43 deg......................42 4-10. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-131-196 A) 36 deg and B) 43 deg......................43 4-11. PIV image of flow over baseline airfoil A) 10 deg and B) 20 deg...........................44 4-12. Velocity profiles of baseline ai rfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 at 10 degree AOA and various chord locations A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%............................................................................................................45 4-13. Velocity profiles of baseline airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 combined into single graph (10 degree AOA).........................................................46 4-14. Positions from where velocity profiles where taken. The arrows designate the location of the injection and suction slots................................................................47 4-15. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065196 and CFJ 0025-131-196 at 30 degree AOA and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75%....................48 4-16. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-1 96 and CFJ0025-131-196 combined into single graph (30 degree AOA).................................................................................49 4-17. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%........................................................49 4-18. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA combined into single graph.........................................................................................................................5 0 4-19. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%........................................................51 4-20. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA combined into single graph.........................................................................................................................5 2 4-21. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 0 deg AOA.....................53 4-22. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 10 deg AOA...................53 4-23. Wake profiles of CFJ airfoils at 30 deg AOA..........................................................54 4-24. Control volume over airfoil......................................................................................55

PAGE 9

ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIRFOIL WITH CO-FLOW JET FLOW CONTROL By Adam Joseph Wells August 2005 Chair: Bruce F. Carroll Major Department: Mechanic al and Aerospace Engineering This thesis describes the effort to ex perimentally verify the high performance characteristics of the co-flow jet (CFJ) airfoil. The CFJ utilizes tangentially injected air at the leading edge and tangent ially removed air at the trailing edge to increase lift and stall margin and also decrease drag. The mass flow rates of the inje ction and suction are equal, so there is a zero net mass flow ra te. The existing MAE subsonic Aerolab wind tunnel with a one-foot by one-foot test section was modified to accommodate the injection and suction needed for the CFJ ai rfoils. The compressor and vacuum systems were reconfigured so the mass flow rate of air could be measured and controlled. The sting balance used to hold the airfoil in the test sec tion and gather lift and drag information was also modified from a previous design. Two airfoils were tested at the University of Florida. One airfoil had an injection slot size of 0.65% chord le ngth (chord length was six inch es) and the other had an injection slot size twice as la rge or 1.31% chord length. Both airfoils had a suction slot

PAGE 10

x size of 1.96% chord length. The smaller in jection slot size performed superior for increased lift and stall margin, whereas the la rger injection slot size performed superior for decreased drag. The smaller injection sl ot airfoil had an increase in maximum lift of 113% to 220% and an increase in stall margin of 100% to 132% when compared to the baseline airfoil. When the mass flow rate was run at high levels negative drag (i.e., thrust) was measured for both airfoils. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was us ed to quantify the flow field over the suction surface of the CFJ airfoils. The sta gnation point was also studied from the PIV images. Although the movement due to variatio ns in the mass flow rate could be seen, the exact location of the stagnation point could not be seen with the current setup because it lies on the pressure surface of the airfoil. The PIV images also helped in studying the wake of the airfoils. A wake surplus coul d be seen in the CFJ airfoils, whereas a conventional airfoil would have a wake deficit.

PAGE 11

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The objective of the wind tunnel experiments desc ribed in this thesis is to verify the high performance capabilities of the co-flow jet (CFJ) airfoil. This new flow control technique was suggested by Zha and Paxton [1]. The CFJ uses circulation control to achieve this high performance. More specifi cally, the CFJ uses leading edge blowing and trailing edge suction. This thes is also presents the effort it took to set up and test the CFJ airfoil. Many modifications were made to existing system to implement the injection and suction needs of the CFJ airfoil. Flow control offers many benefits to aircraft for both commercial and military uses. The primary advantage of these control tech niques is the enhanced lift and suppressed separation. Results of these benefits are shorter take-off and landing distances, increased maneuverability, increased payloads, reduced fuel consumption and reduced weight. There are a number of flow control techniques that ar e being used today. These include rotating cylinders at th e leading and trailing edge [2], blowing at the leading edge [3,4], blowing at the trailing edge [5-7], pul sating jets [8-10] and multi-element airfoils [11,12]. The CFJ has advantages over the flow c ontrol methods mentioned by requiring no moving parts, not requiring a f eedback control system and having a net mass flow rate of zero. Moving parts add weight to the aircraft. Feedback control systems add complexity and could also add weight to the aircraft. Bl owing air has a direct and adverse effect on the propulsion system if it is taken from th e compressor stage of the engine or adds

PAGE 12

2 weight to the aircraft if a compressor syst em is added. The mentioned control systems are limited by one or more of these constraints. Another advantage of the CFJ is that it can be implemented on any airfoil shape. It can be used on a thick subsonic airfoil as well as a thin supersonic airfoil. Some of the other flow control techniques need thick leading or traili ng edges, which drastically increase the drag force during cruise and limit the number of airfoils to which the technique is applicable. The CFJ has proven to be effective at increasing lift and stall margin while decreasing drag at the same time [13]. This is accomplished with little penalty to the propulsion system by having a net mass flow rate of zero as mentioned earlier. The mass of air that is injected at the leading edge is equal to the mass of air that is removed at the trailing edge. The pulsed jet or synthetic jet, another zero mass flow rate technique, increases max LC by about 35% and has little effect on the stall angle for a jet momentum coefficient of 0.022 [9]; the CFJ increases max LC by 220% and the stall angle by 132% for a jet momentum coefficient of 0.28.

PAGE 13

3 CHAPTER 2 APPARATUS MODIFICATIONS AND ASSEMBLY This chapter is dedicated to the descripti on of the CFJ airfoil and the modifications made to the existing systems to enable testing of the CFJ airfoil. This section will also include the instrumentation and measurem ent techniques used in the wind tunnel experiments. An uncertainty analysis on all measured and calculated values is included at the end. Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Description The CFJ airfoils used in testing at the University of Florida were a modified NACA 0025. The NACA 0025 airfoil was chosen for its ease of manufacturing and relative thickness. The thickness made it easier to fit all instrumentation and duct work into the airfoil given the size constraints imposed by the one-foot by one-foot wind tunnel test section; however the CFJ concept can be implemented on any airfoil geometry. The modified NACA 0025 airfoil used in testing had a span of 0.3m and a chord length of 0.1527m. As shown in figure 21, the airfoil was modified by recessing the suction surface (upper surface). This recession opened up a slot towards the leading edge of the airfoil (injection slot) and another slot towards the trailing edge (suction slot). The slot towards the leading edge was used to in ject air tangentially ove r the suction surface, while the slot towards the trailing edge was used to remove air tangentially from the suction surface. Two airfoils were manufactured with this modification. The first had a 1mm or 0.65% chord length injection slot he ight. The second had a 2mm or 1.31% chord length injection slot height. Both airfoils had a 3mm or 1.96% chord length suction slot

PAGE 14

4 height. The airfoils are named by their inje ction and suction slot sizes according to the convention CFJ4digit-INJ-SUC. So the airf oil with the 1mm injection slot was named CFJ0025-065-196. Similarly, the airfoil with the 2mm injection slot was named CFJ0025-131-196. The reason the suction slot size was larger than the injection slot is because the density of the air being removed by the sucti on slot is less than the density of the air being injected. Therefore, to balance the mass flow rates, the suction area has to be larger or the velocity greater. But the velo city is limited because the flow will eventually become choked. Figure 2-1 2-D cross section of CFJ airfoils

PAGE 15

5 The location of the injection slot and suction slot are respectively, 7.11% and 83.18% of the chord length from the leading ed ge. The slots are positioned perpendicular to the suction surface making them parallel to the flow direction. The support pins shown in figure 2-1 are to reinforce the suction surface of the airfoil because computer simulations indicate d the suction surface might deflect in that area. The Duocel aluminum foam is used to create a backpressure in the high-pressure cavity ensuring an even distribution of air across the suction surface. A filler piece was fabricated to fill the recessed portion of the CFJ0025-131-196. With the recession filled in, the airfoil wa s a NACA 0025. This was referred to as the baseline airfoil and was used as a comparis on for the CFJ airfoils. Figure 2-2 shows how the filler piece fits into the CFJ0025-131-196. Figure 2-2. How CFJ0025131-196 turns into NACA 0025

PAGE 16

6 Wind Tunnel Modifications An open loop Aerolab wind tunnel was used to test the CFJ airfoils. The wind tunnel has a test section that measures 0.305m x 0.305m (12 inches x 12 inches) and is 0.610m (24 inches) long. The tunnel is 4.57m (15 feet) long overall and has an operating speed from 0-65 m/s (0-145 miles per hour). This is made possible by a 10-horse power motor that drives a fan. Figure 2-3 shows a picture of the unmodified Aerolab wind tunnel. Figure 2-3. Unmodified Aerolab wind tunnel In order to operate the injection and suc tion of the CFJ airfoils, many modifications had to be made to the existing Aerolab wind tunnel. The wind tunnel had to be equipped with a system to inject the desired mass flow of air. The tunnel also needed the capability to remove the air from the suction slot of the airfoil. Injecti ng air through the sting

PAGE 17

7 balance that supports the airfoil in the wind tunnel and building a Plexiglas box on the opposite side overcame these two problems. Figure 2-4 shows the modified Aerolab wind tunnel. Figure 2-4. Modified Aerolab wind tunnel An existing sting balance used to measure li ft and drag forces was modified for the new wind tunnel needs. The balance is discusse d in more detail later in the chapter. The cylinder of the balance, whic h attaches the airfoil to the rest of the balance, was lengthened so it would completely pass through the mounting components of the balance. With the extension, there was room to attach a pressure hose and clamp (figure 2-5 shows the hose/clamp and cylinder attachment). Compressed air is then forced through the hollow cylinder into the airfoil where it passes through porous alum inum foam and is injected tangentially over the airfoil (the connection between the ba lance cylinder and the airfoil can be seen in figure 2-6). The fo am creates backpressure and ensures uniform distribution of air across th e span of the airfoil.

PAGE 18

8 Figure 2-5. Hose/clamp attachment to cyli nder and balance mechan ism. Airfoil is attached in horizontal position inside tunnel Figure 2-6. Connection between the balance cylinder and the airfoil

PAGE 19

9 The opposite side of the wind t unnel originally had a flat Plexiglas wall. This was removed in order to accommodate the suction system. A suction manifold was installed on this side of the airfoil (f igure 2-7 shows the connection between the suction manifold and the airfoil). The manifold extends beyond the limits of the test section. A Plexiglas box was designed to encompass the manifold. The outside of the box was sealed as to not let air leak into the test section. The inside circular wall of the box was cut out around the manifold and stagnati on pressure probe (figure 28 shows the circular wall and suction manifold inside of the Plex iglas box). The circul ar wall allowed enough clearance to accommodate any deflections of th e airfoil from the lift and drag forces. If the airfoil deflected into the wall, some for ces would be imposed onto the wall; therefore the lift and drag measurements would not be accurate. Figure 2-7. Connection between the su ction manifold and the airfoil

PAGE 20

10 Figure 2-8. Plexiglas box and suction manifold w ith airfoil located to the left and external suction connection to the right Mass Flow Rate Controls The enhanced performance of the CFJ airfoil comes from the air that is injected at the leading edge and removed at the trailing e dge; therefore it is critical to control the injection and suction mass flow rates of air. The two mass flow rate s were controlled in different manners due to the different sy stems available at the time of testing. A compressor supplied the air that was injected at the leading edge. The compressor, located outside of the building, is attached to two reservoir tanks of 3700 gallons volume each. The rese rvoir tanks are pressured up to 200 psig. The compressor is designed to hold the tanks at this pressu re. The amount of air that passes through the injection slot is much less than the capabi lity of the compressor (950 scfm). Therefore the stagnation pressure inside the reservoir tanks is always constant.

PAGE 21

11 From the reservoir tanks, the air flow s into the building and passes through two valves before it makes it to the airfoil. The fi rst valve acts to thrott le the air to a lower pressure; this is done with a ball valve th at is manually cracked open. The valve is usually opened about a quarter of the way but is adjusted depending on the desired mass flow rate. The second valve acts to control the mass flow rate and/ or injection stagnation pressure. This valve is a pneumatic control valve that is operated through a computer in an open loop control system. The valve was adjusted to dial in the desired mass flow rate, which was measured with an orifice plate. The suction mass flow rate was designed enti rely different. The f acilities at UF did not include a vacuum pump designed to disp lace a large volume of air. Two vacuum pumps were available but they were designe d to obtain a low pressure and hold it; to solve the problem, vacuum tanks were added onto the existing system. The total volume of the tanks would have to be large enough for the suction to last at least 15 seconds at the highest mass flow rate. UF already had around 480 gallons of vacuum tank space between three different tanks. An additional three tanks of 240 gallons each were added, bringing the total vacuum ta nk space to around 1200 gallons. The addition of the tanks solved the v acuum pump deficiency, however the mass flow rate still needed to be controlled. The idea of choking the pipe prior to the vacuum tanks was chosen as the solution. A two-valv e system was designed to accomplish this. The first valve was to open and close the pipe This valve can be thought of as an on/off switch and was always in the fully open or fully closed position. The second valve, located closer to the vacuum tanks, was used to control the mass flow rate. This valve was a gate valve. A gate valve was chosen because of the greater accuracy in adjusting

PAGE 22

12 the effective flow area. Since the upstream stagnation pressure is constant, the inside area of the pipe is the only variable that effects the mass flow rate. The vacuum system must always be used in a choked condition to have a constant mass flow rate. The requirement for a choked system is the ratio of static pressure downstream of the valve to the stagnation pre ssure upstream of the va lve to be less than .5283. So the system could only run until this requirement was no longer met. The injection and the suction mass flow rate s were measured using orifice plates. Equation 2-1 relates the mass flow rate to the differential pressure across the orifice plate and the upstream density. Table 2-1 gives values for all constants in equation 2-1. 2 12 4mCEdp q Eqn 2-1 where, qm Mass flow rate C Discharge coefficient 41 1 E Velocity approach factor D Inner pipe diameter Ratio of orifice diameter to inner pipe diameter Gas expansion factor d Orifice diameter 1 Upstream density p Differential pressure across orifice plate Table 2-1. Orifice plate 1494 coefficients Coefficient Injection Side Suction Side C 0.6079 0.6117 E 1.048 1.111 0.9949 0.9659 d 1.682 in 2.026 in The differential pressure was measured from the flanges housing the orifice plate. The upstream density was found by measuring the upstream temperature and pressure.

PAGE 23

13 Once the temperature, T, and pressure, P, were found, the density was obtained from the ideal gas law given in equation 2-2 with R being the gas constant for air. P R T Eqn 2-2 A 0-50 inH2O differential pressure tr ansducer was used to measure the differential pressure across the orifice plate. Only one 0-50 inH2O differential pressure transducer was available at the time of testing. Theref ore it was impossible to measure two different mass flow rates simultaneously. A manual swit ch was implemented to go back and forth from measuring the injection a nd suction mass flow rates. Balance Modifications The balance used to measure lift and dr ag forces in the Aerolab wind tunnel was modified from a balance previ ously designed at the Universi ty of Florida. The main features of the balance will be described here. For an in-depth description of the balance and the calibration of the balance, the aut hor refers the reader to reference 14. The balance was designed in such a way that when the angle of attack is changed, the airfoil does not cause a severe blockage in the wind tunnel. Although at extremely high angle of attacks, some blockage eff ects were unavoidable. The extent of the blockage was not taken into account. The fr ee stream velocity was calculated from the dynamic pressure of the test section upstream the airfoil. The balance was designed in such a way th at the airfoil woul d not deflect more than 1mm on the free end. This was to en sure the strain on th e cylinder supporting the airfoil was within the limits of the strain gauges (where lift and drag measurements are taken). In experiments, this 1mm deflec tion was exceeded. The deflection of the CFJ airfoil is estimated to be 3mm; however exceeding this design parameter is not a concern.

PAGE 24

14 The deflection is still small enough to allow for a small angle approximation for lift and drag. That is, lift is still assumed in the nor mal direction to the floor of the wind tunnel test section and drag is still assumed in the direction of the free stream. More importantly, the limitations of the strain gauges were not exceeded. The balance was designed in such a way that the wires from the strain gauges could transverse through the side of the wind tunnel wh ile the wind tunnel itsel f kept an airtight seal. The wind tunnel velocity is calculated from the dynamic pressure of the tunnel, so any air leaks into the tunnel could falsify the ve locity reading. If there were airflow into the tunnel, the aerodynamic performance of the test airfoil would also be jeopardized. The basic design of the balance was kept. The same canister, cullet and tunnel wall were all used. The airfoil is connected to the cylinder in the same manner, although, a new endplate and cylinder was designed to meet the air injection needs. The original cylinder was de signed to fit flat on the endplate. A gasket was sandwiched between the two to form an airtight seal. A new cylinder and endplate were fabricated so the cylinder would travel through the endplate. The new cylinder was lengthened so it would extend 10 inches past th e endplate; this was necessary to inject compressed air into the airfoil. Compressed ai r was injected into the cylinder from a hose that was clamped on the free end outside the balance. The hole in the middle of the endplate was made large enough to accommodate the width of the cylinder. An o-ri ng was seated into a small rece ss in the endplate hole. The o-ring sealed the balance and made th e side of the wind tunnel airtight. Calibration of Airfoil The calibration of the airfoil was modified from a previous calib ration procedure. The calibration procedure calibrates for lift, dr ag and pitching moment. However, it was

PAGE 25

15 later found the pitching moment was unreliable due to the latex tubes attached at the suction side of the airfoil. The calibrati on procedure is outlined here. A detailed calibration procedure can be found in appendix A. The hollow cylinder from the balance was fixed in position at an appropriate angle. An appropriate angle corresponds to an angle inside the airfoi l's angle of attack margin. The CFJ was tested from -10 deg to 45 deg, so an appropriate angle would fall anywhere between these two limits. A metal calibration bar was then attached to the end of the cylinder that holds the airfoil. The angle of the calibration bar was entered into a Labview program. The calibration bar has a hole in it (a know distance from the cylinder) from which a known weight was hung. The program converts the we ight to the appropria te load measurement (normal force, axial force and pitching moment ). The voltage from the strain gauge's Wheatstone bridge is recorded. More weight is then added. This process is repeated until the weight has exceeded the maximum aerodynamic force expected. The whole process was then repeated for different angle of attacks. The entire calibration process was then performed again to check for repeatability in the calibration curves. The variations in calibration curves are due to imperfection in the placement of the strain gauges on the metal cylinder and bonding of the strain gauges to the metal cylinder. Other imperfections include the solder joints and minute differences in the strain gauges themselves. Once a number of calibration curves were gathered, the slopes were averaged to come up with a calibration that was applicable to all angle of attacks. Figures 2-9 and 210 are samples of calibration curves for the normal force and axial force respectively.

PAGE 26

16 Figure 2-9. Normal force calibration curves Figure 2-10. Axial force calibration curves

PAGE 27

17 After the initial calibration, the airfoil needs to be pl aced into the wind tunnel so the effect of the latex tubes can be accounted for. The airfoil is first placed in the wind tunnel with the suction surface facing down so the load to be added acts in the positive lift direction. Known weights are then pl aced on the center span of the airfoil (the program converts normal and axial forces to lif t and drag forces). The known weight is recorded along with the indicated force from th e Labview VI used in the testing. Again, this process is repeated, adding more weight until the load exc eeds the expected lift force. A calibration factor is then found from the slope of the curve that plotted the known weight verse the force read from the Labview VI used in testing. A similar process is performed for the drag direction. Figures 2-11 and 2-12 are samp les of the correction curves; the first is for lift and the second is for drag. Figure 2-11. Lift correction curve

PAGE 28

18 Figure 2-12. Drag correction curve It was found the latex tubes have a small imp act on the lift and drag. The impact of the latex tubes was linear in both the lift and drag directions and therefore easily corrected. However, the impact of the late x tubes was significant in the pitching moment and therefore the measurement was considered unreliable. The reason for this is the pitching moment is greatly influenced by the defl ection in both the lift and drag direction. After the airfoil is calibrated in side the test section of th e wind tunnel, the airfoil is righted and testing proceeds. Instrumentation and Measurements This section describes the measurements took during wind tunnel testing and the instrumentation used to take the measurements. A detailed list of all instrumentation can be found in appendix B.

PAGE 29

19 The wind tunnel velocity was calculated from the dynamic pressure, 21 2 v of the test section. A 0-15 inH2O differential pressure transduc er was used to measure the dynamic pressure by measuring the difference be tween the static pressure in the test section upstream of the airfoil and the stagnation pressure in the room. The velocity was multiplied by a correction factor, found from previous experiments, to account for the losses in stagnation pressure that occur in the tunnel inlet. The mass flow rate was calculated using e quation 2-1. All the values in this equation are constants except the upstream de nsity and differential pressure across the orifice plate. As described earlier in the chapter, the dens ity was found by measuring the upstream temperature and pressu re and the differential pressu re was measured directly by a 0-50 inH2O differential pres sure transducer. The injection velocity was also calculated and recorded in wind tunnel testing. To calculate this velocity, the ratio of the loca l duct area to the sonic throat area must be found. This relation can be seen in equation 2-3. 0 0*mjetKPA A A qT Eqn 2-3 where, K 0.040416 sK m 0P Total pressure in injection slot jet A Injection slot area mq Mass flow rate 0T Total temp injection slot Second the area-Mach number relation must be found; this was done by a linear interpolation of A/A* and Mach number. Th e interpolation was incremented from Mach

PAGE 30

20 number 0.1 to 1 at intervals of 0.02. On ce the Mach number was found, the velocity was calculated using equation 2-4. jetvMRT Eqn 2-4 where, jetv Injection velocity M Mach number Specific heat ratio R Gas constant T Static temperature The jet momentum coefficient was another item calculated and recorded by the program. The jet momentum coefficient is defined in equation 2-5. 20.5mjetqv C vS Eqn 2-5 where, C Jet momentum coefficient qm Mass flow rate Free stream density v Free stream velocity S Airfoil surface area The flow was assumed incompressible, so th e free stream density was equal to the ambient density and the free stream veloci ty was equal to the wind tunnel velocity. The lift and drag forces were measured with strain gauges located on the hollow cylinder of the sting balance. There were a total of 12 strain ga uges on the cylinder. Four were for pitching moment, four for drag and four for lif t. However, the pitching moment measurements were considered unreliabl e due to the latex tubes. Out of the four strain gauges for drag, two were placed on one side of the cylinder and two on the side directly opposite allowing for a full Wheatst one bridge configuration to be used.

PAGE 31

21 Therefore, two gauges will be in compression wh ile the other two will be in tension. The same is true of the strain gauges used to m easure lift. The voltage across the lift and drag bridges were measured with a data acquisition/switch unit. A Labview program was written to record a nd calculate the above information. To maximize the time efficiency of the program, it was separated into two different loops. One loop read all temperature and pressu re probes and performed all necessary calculations. Again, to maximize the time effi ciency, not every temperature and pressure probe was read each iteration. This loop ran at approximately 4 Hz. The other loop read the voltage from the strain gauges and converted it to the appropriate load (lift, drag or pitching moment). This loop ran at approxi mately 2/3 Hz. Figure 2-13 shows the front panel of the program designed for the wind t unnel tests at the University of Florida. Figure 2-13. Program used in wind tunnel testing

PAGE 32

22 The two Heise pressure transducers were sampled at approximately 2 Hz each. The pressures measured from the Heise include th e injection static pressure, suction static pressure, the differential pressure across the or ifice plates and the dynamic pressure of the wind tunnel. All values sampled from the Heis e were averaged with the previous sample to filter out some of the noise. The Druck pressure transducer was sample d at approximately 1 Hz. The pressure measurements from the Druck include the stagnation pressure in the injection slot and the static pressure in the suction manifold. All values sampled from the Druck were averaged with the previous sample to filter out some of the noise. All temperature measurements were from a National Instruments SCXI -1000 unit. The program sampled this at approximately 1 Hz. The SCXI was connected to three T type and one K type thermocouples. The T type thermocouples were located in the injection duct of the airfoil, the suction duct of the airfoi l and the suction pipe. The K type thermocouple was located in the injecti on pipe. The two thermocouples located in the pipes were used to gather the static te mperature information for density calculations that went into mass flow rate calculations. Each temperature reading was given as a single value into the program from an average of 20 readings. The second loop in the Labview program was used to sample the strain gauges used to calculate lift and drag. Th e strain measurements were given as a single value into the program. This number comes from the average of 5 integrations of a digital signal with a two-power line cycle integration time. Th e sampling rate is 300Hz. Two power line cycles is equal to 33.3ms; this comes to 10 samples for each integration. So, the voltage read into the program come from an aver age of 50 samples from the appropriate

PAGE 33

23 Wheatstone bridge. The voltage is then turn ed into a force from the calibration curve previously found. This loop r uns at approximately 2/3 Hz. PIV images were also taken to better unde rstand the flow field. The PIV images were taken separate from the other data recorded. The La bview program described above was used only to determine the wind tunnel velocity and mass flow rates for the PIV experiments. All other calculations were done on the computer designated for the PIV system. Uncertainty Analysis This section is dedicated to the uncertainty analysis of all measured and calculated values. The uncertainties of the measured valu es are determined first. The uncertainties of the calculated values are th en found using the uncertainties of the measured values. The measured uncertainties were found using equations 2-6, 2-7 and 2-8. In the equations U represents the total uncertainty, B represents the bias uncertainty and P represents the precision uncertainty. The uncertainties of the measured values are summarized in table 2-2. 22 ,95()vUBtP Eqn 2-6 222 12...M B BBB Eqn 2-7 222 12...NPPPP Eqn 2-8 The calculated uncertainties were f ound using equations 2-9 and 2-10. 12,,...,j R Rxxx Eqn 2-9 122 22 12...jRxxx jRRR UUUU xxx Eqn 2-10

PAGE 34

24 Table 2-2. List of the uncertainties of the measured values Measurement Uncertainty Dynamic pressure from wind tunnel 0.014 inH2O Differential pressure across orifice plate 0.134 inH2O Static pressure in in jection pipe 0.102 psi Static pressure in suction pipe 0.092 psi Stagnation pressure in injection slot 0.553 kPa Static pressure in suction manifold 0.295 kPa Static temperature in injection pipe 1.170 C Static temperature in suction pipe 0.730 C Static temperature in inje ction duct of airfoil 0.730 C Static temperature in suc tion duct of airfoil 0.730 C Lift force, Cl 0.0088-0.043 Drag force, Cd 0.0088-0.043 The wind tunnel velocity is found from th e dynamic pressure. The velocity was calculated using equation 2-11. 2 q v Eqn 2-11 where, v Wind tunnel velocity q Dynamic pressure Density of free stream The uncertainty in the velocity measurement reduces to equations 2-12. The uncertainty in the velocity measurement is 0. 748 m/s or 2.08%. The velocity of the wind tunnel was also checked with PIV. The ve locity measured from PIV was within the uncertainty. 2 2 vqvv UUU q Eqn 2-12 The mass flow rate was given by equation 21. The uncertainty of the mass flow rate can be reduced to equation 2-13. Table 2-3 shows values for the given uncertainties.

PAGE 35

25 1 2 2 222222 4 2 1 44 12211 1144m mq CDdp qCDdp Eqn 2-13 Table 2-3. Uncertainty in orifice plate calculation Coefficient Uncertainty of Injection Side, % Uncertainty of Suction Side, % C C 0.06 0.06 0.144 0.144 2 2 4 42 1 D D 0 0 2 2 42 1 d d 0 0 p p 1.914 2.197 22 111 111pT pT 0.562 0.870 The uncertainty in the mass flow rate measurement is 1.01% for the injection and 1.19% for the suction. The uncertainty in A/A* needs to be found before the uncertainty of the injection velocity can be determined. Equation 2-3 defi ned A/A*. The uncertainty of this ratio is given in equation 2-14. 0 0222 /* 00(/*)(/*)(/*)mAAPqT mAAAAAA UUUU PqT Eqn 2-14 The uncertainty in A/A* is calculated to be 1.37 %. This relates to an uncertainty in the Mach number of 1.65%. This uncertainty relates directly to the uncertainty of the velocity because the speed of sound, a, is cons idered constant. So the uncertainty of the injection velocity is 1.65%.

PAGE 36

26 The jet momentum coefficient is the last quantity for which the uncertainty needs to be calculated. The jet momentum coeffi cient was defined in equation 2-5. The uncertainty of the jet momentum coefficient is given by equation 2-15. 2 2 2()()()jetmCvqv jetmCCC UUUU vqv Eqn 2-15 The uncertainty of the jet momentum co efficient is calculated to be 4.59%. The uncertainty of the lift and drag was calculated using Stud ent's t-distribution [15], which is given in equati on 2-16. Student's t-distributio n gives the uncertainty of the true mean. t n Eqn 2-16 where, Uncertainty t t-value for corre sponding confidence level Standard deviation n Number of samples For a 95% confidence level and 50 samples, the t-value is equal to 2.0105. The standard deviation for both lift and drag at lower angle of attacks is 1 N and at higher angle of attacks is 5 N. This corresp onds to standard devi ation in terms of Cl and Cd of 0.031-0.153. So, the uncertainty in Cl and Cd would then be 0.0088 at lower angle of attacks and 0.043 at higher angle of attacks. The uncertainty of the PIV measurements was calculated as well. The pixel resolution of the camera and the resolution of the calibration ruler were the dominant terms of the uncertainty; they were .1mm and .25mm respectively. This results in an uncertainty of 1.00 m/s or 2.79%.

PAGE 37

27 CHAPTER 3 PROCEDURE This chapter describes the experimental procedure followed during the testing of the CFJ airfoils. The airfoils were tested in three configurations. The CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 were tested along with a baseline airfoil. The baseline airfoil was really the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil w ith an insert that slides into the in jection and suction slots and fills the recessed portion. The profile of the airfoil with the filler piece installed was a NACA 0025. The airfoils were also test ed in two different manners. The airfoils were tested for lift and drag characteristics with strain gauges and flow field visualization with particle image velocimetry. The lift and drag testing is discussed first. A rigorous airfoil assembly procedure and testing procedure can be found in appendix C and appendix D respectively. The airfoil to be tested would have to be assembled and placed into the wind tunnel. Although there were two different airf oils, they shared the same endplates and aluminum foam insert. Therefore changing ai rfoils was somewhat laborious. The airfoil would have to be disassembled and the new ai rfoil reassembled. Once the airfoil was in the wind tunnel, the procedure was as follows: 1. Turn on vacuum pump and begin pulling vacuum 2. Start compressor 3. Connect different probes to appropriate transducers 4. Turn on all instrumentation and computer 5. Start Labview program written for testing 6. Make sure all probes are r eading correctly in Labview VI 7. Set zero degree angle of attack

PAGE 38

28 8. Rotate airfoil to desired angle of attack 9. Enter necessary information into the program 10. Turn on wind tunnel 11. Start air injection 12. Dial in suction mass flow rate 13. Only continue after the suc tion mass flow rate is desirable 14. Start air suction and sampling The Labview program recorded the following measured values: 1. Static pressure upstream of injection orifice plate 2. Static temperature upstream of injection orifice plate 3. Differential pressure across injection orifice plate 4. Static pressure upstream of suction orifice plate 5. Static temperature upstream of suction orifice plate 6. Differential pressure acro ss suction orifice plate 7. Static temperature in airfoil injection duct 8. Static temperature in airfoil suction duct 9. Stagnation pressure at injection slot 10. Static pressure in suction manifold 11. Lift force 12. Drag force The Labview program recorded th e following calculated values: 1. Mass flow rate of air push ed through injection slot 2. Mass flow rate of air pu lled through suction slot 3. Wind tunnel velocity 4. Injection jet velocity 5. Injection jet momentum coefficient Other useful information the Labview program recorded: 1. The time of the primary loop 2. The time of the secondary loop 3. Angle of attack The times of the primary loop and secondary loop were important because the two loops run at different speeds. The time was then a way to relate the information in both loops together. The angle of attack was also convenient to have in the file. The only other place the angle of attack was save d was in the file name itself.

PAGE 39

29 The PIV testing was similar to the lift and drag testing. The testing procedure was as follows: 1. Steps 1-13 are identical 2. Adjust laser light sheet to illuminate desired plane 3. Set the laser and camera timing for wind tunnel velocity and spatial resolution 4. Calibrate PIV with ruler by placing it in the light sheet and focus camera on ruler 5. Turn on fog machine 6. Adjust seeding particles until imag es are clear and filled with fog 7. Turn on suction and capture PIV images

PAGE 40

30 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS This chapter is dedicated to the results from the wind tunnel tests conducted at the University of Florida. This chapter includes tests taken for lift and drag measurements as well as tests taken for flow field visualization. The CFJ airfoil was tested in many ways. These will all be described in detail in this chapter. Different Tests Conducted The three different airfoils were tested in many different manners. The airfoils were tested to study things such as lift, drag, stall angle, velocity pr ofile, stagnation point location, effects of leading edge trip, separa tion due to high injecti on mass flow rate and effects of lift and drag due to altered mass flow rates. Two test matrices are shown in tables 4-1 and 4-2. The matrices are a comp lete record of all wi nd tunnel tests conducted at the University of Florida. Many of the different testing manners are discussed in the following sections. The two tests that are not discussed later are the l eading edge trip and th e tests run without the wind tunnel on. The reasons for these test s will be explained in this section. The airfoils were tested with and without a leading edge trip. The trip was applied by spraying the leading edge of the airfoil with a strip of photo adhesive. The width of the strip was 1/2" or 8.33% chord length. Immediately after the adhesive was applied, fine sand was sprinkled over it. Th e trip was then left to dry. The purpose of the leading edge trip was to transition the flow from laminar to turbulent. The 0.1527m chord length gi ves the airfoil a Reynolds number around

PAGE 41

31 Table 4-1. Lift and drag test matrix

PAGE 42

32 Table 4-2. PIV test matrix

PAGE 43

33 380,000. The injection jet's tur bulence would easily tu rn this laminar flow to a turbulent flow where as the flow over the NACA 0025 would remain in the laminar region the majority of the distance over the airfoil. Comparing a dominantly laminar flow to a turbulent flow would then l ead to erroneous conclusions. The airfoil was also tested with and without the wind t unnel turned on. The reason for this was to see the contribution of the jets momentum on the lift measurement. The ratio of lift with th e jets on and tunnel off to lift with jets on and tunnel on was summarized in table 4-3. It was concluded th e overall aerodynamics of the airfoil are to be credited with the lift measurement and not the momentum flux of the injection and suction jets. Table 4-3. Ratio of lift with t unnel off to lift with tunnel on Description/AOA 0 deg 20 deg 30 deg 36 deg CFJ0025-065-196 0.269 0.076 0.069 0.063 CFJ0025-131-196 0.358 0.088 0.099 N/A Improved Lift, Drag and Stall During the lift and drag measurements, the stagnation pressure of the injection jet dictated the mass flow rate. For both airfoils, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196, the desired mass flow rate was dialed in wh en the airfoil was at 30 degrees angle of attack. This stagnation pressure was the pressu re at which all other an gles of attack were run. So, the mass flow rate did vary slightly depending on the angle of attack. Figure 4-1 is a summary of the CFJ0025-065-19 6 lift performance. It can be seen that the higher mass flow rates have a higher lift coefficient and stall margin. This is not a surprising result. When the mass flow wa s raised, the jet momentum coefficient was raised; meaning the amount of momentum inj ected into the flow was higher. Also plotted is the performance of the NACA 0025 for comparison.

PAGE 44

34 Figure 4-1. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-065-196 The effect of the boundary layer trip can al so be seen in figure 4-1. The stall margin of the NACA 0025 and the CFJ0025-065196 (stagnation pressure ratio of 1.19) was increased by 4 degrees each when the leading edge trip was applied. The bottom curve in the figure is the CFJ0025-065-196 w ith no boundary layer trip and the jets turned off. It is easy to see the effect th e jets have on the aerodyna mics of the airfoil. Table 4-4 is a comparison betw een all three airfoil confi gurations. The values for the CFJ0025-065-196 are from the maximum flow rate tested, which corresponds to a stagnation pressure ratio of 1.27. It can be seen the maximum lift coefficient for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil is 3.2 times as large as the maximum lift coefficient for the NACA 0025. This is an improvement of 220% Other important parameters are the angle of attack at which se paration occurs is increased by 132% and the minimum drag coefficient goes from positive to negative.

PAGE 45

35 Table 4-4. Comparison between CFJ airfoils and baseline airfoil Airfoil 0LCAOA (deg) max LCAOA (deg) maxLC minDC NACA 0025 0 19 1.57 0.128 CFJ0025-065-196 -4 44 5.04 -0.036 CFJ0025-131-196 -6.5 38 4.90 -0.263 The drag polar is also plotted for th e CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil in figure 4-2. The most notable aspect of the drag polar is the negative drag for the CFJ airfoil at low angles of attack. Negative drag is equivalent to thrust. The injection jet momentum coefficient that enabled these dramatic increases in lift and stall margin and d ecrease in drag are given in figure 4-3. The same plots were constructed with the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil. Again, the CFJ0025-131-196 is a similar airfoil with twice as large of an injection slot. The suction slots are the same size. Because the injection jet is twice as large, the mass flow rates are about twice as large. Figure 4-2. Drag polar for CFJ0025-065-196

PAGE 46

36 Figure 4-3. Injection jet co efficients of CFJ0025-065-196 The performance of the CFJ0025-131-196 airf oil was very similar to the CFJ0025065-196 airfoil. The main differences being a slightly lower maxLC max LCAOA and minDC The CFJ0025-131-196 was also compared to the ot her two airfoils conf igurations in table 4-4. Figure 4-4 is a summary of the CFJ 0025-131-196 lift performance. The drag polar is also plotted for the CFJ0025-131-196 airf oil in figure 4-5. The injection jet momentum coefficient that enabled these dram atic increases in lift and stall margin and decrease in drag are given in figure 4-6. It can be seen the CFJ airfoils dramatica lly increase lift, increase stall margin and decrease drag. The CFJ0025-065196 airfoil appears superior for increa sed lift and stall margin, while the CFJ0025-131-196 appears superi or for decreased drag. There is still much future optimization that needs to be done.

PAGE 47

37 Figure 4-4. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-131-196 Figure 4-5. Drag polar for CFJ0025-131-196

PAGE 48

38 Figure 4-6. Injection jet co efficients of CFJ0025-131-196 Instability of the Jet As the mass flow rate of the jets was increased, the performance of the CFJ airfoil increased. But for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil, there was a maximum to this mass flow rate. The injection jet lost th e ability to stay attached to the airfoil when it was forced passed this maximum. The flow would become separated from the airfoil and recirculation would occur. The result was loss of lift and increased drag. The mass flow rate of the suction jet was not capable of being adjusted accurately while tests were being conducted. For this r eason, only the injection jet was used in the tests that looked at the stability of the flow. It is still unknown what ex actly is causing this instabil ity. It is thought that the tangential momentum of the in jection jet becomes too large and the flow can no longer follow the curvature to the airfoil.

PAGE 49

39 It is unknown if the same would be true for the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil. Limitations on the orifice plate and differen tial pressure transdu cer, which were both used to measure the mass flow rate, made it impossible to force separation. The mass flow rate just could not be pushed high enough and measured with the current setup. Stagnation Point Location The stagnation point was also looked at for different mass flow rates. The stagnation point lies on the pressure surface of the CFJ airfoil. Due to limitations with the PIV set up, only the flow field over the su ction surface could be viewed. Therefore, the exact location of the stagnation point coul d not be captured; however, evidence of the movement from altering the mass flow rates was. Figure 4-7 and 4-8 show the flow fi eld of the CFJ0025-065-196 at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack, respectiv ely. It can be seen that th e stagnation point shifts along the pressure surface of the airfoi l as the mass flow rate is increased. This is apparent in both cases. The result of the stagnation point shifting, as the mass flow rate increases, is higher velocities at th e leading edge and over the sucti on surface, which leads to higher lift. Future design will include a way to capture PIV images on the pressure surface of the airfoil. PIV Results Too much PIV data was taken to include it a ll in this thesis. Because of this only a few interesting cases will be shown (appendi x E includes additional images). The PIV images in this thesis have had the appr opriate airfoil superimposed onto them. The placement of the airfoil is not exact but a best estimate of the proper location. The images are also averaged from 75-120 images A fog machine was used to generate seeding particle on the order of 1-10 microns The camera used to capture the images

PAGE 50

40 had a resolution of 1600x1200 pixels. This re sults in a resoluti on of approximately 1.7mm for the PIV images of the whole ai rfoil using an inte rrogation region of 16x16 pixels. A B Figure 4-7. Stagnation point location for CF J0025-065-196 at 20 degree s angle of attack and A) high and B) low mass flow rates

PAGE 51

41 A B Figure 4-8. Stagnation point location for CF J0025-065-196 at 30 degree s angle of attack and A) high and B) low mass flow rates It can be seen from the streamlines in figure 4-9 that the flow is attached at 40 degrees angle of attack and separated at 43 degrees for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil. The airfoils did not utilize a bounda ry layer trip. The trip adds about 4 degrees to the stall angle; therefore the data is in agreement with the data form the lift and drag tests for the stall angle. Figure 4-10 shows the flow ove r the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil is attached at

PAGE 52

42 36 degrees angle of attack and detached at 43 degrees. Figure 4-11 show the same for the NACA 0025, attached at 10 degr ees angle of attack and detached at 20 degrees. A B Figure 4-9. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-065-196 A) 40 deg and B) 43 deg

PAGE 53

43 A B Figure 4-10. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-131-196 A) 36 deg and B) 43 deg

PAGE 54

44 A B Figure 4-11. PIV image of flow over baseline airfoil A) 10 deg and B) 20 deg

PAGE 55

45 Velocity profiles were constructed from the PIV data as well. Figure 4-12 is a group of velocity profiles comparing the flow over the baseline, the CFJ0025-065-196 and the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoils at 10 degr ees angle of attack and various chord locations (5%, 15%, 30%, 50%, 75%, 100%). The profiles were taken perpendicular to the airfoil's surface. The x-axis in the profiles is a dimensionl ess velocity. It is the local velocity over the airfoil normalized by the free st ream velocity. The y-axis is the distance from the surface of the airfoil given in percent chord length. In the legend, base refers to the baseline airfoil, 0.65% refers to the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil and 1.31% refers to the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil. A B C D Figure 4-12. Velocity profiles of base line airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131196 at 10 degree AOA and various chord lo cations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%

PAGE 56

46 E F Figure 4-12. Continued Figure 4-13 groups all velocity profiles into a single graph so the flow trend is more visible and figure 4-14 illustrates the position where the prof iles were taken from. Figure 4-13. Velocity profiles of base line airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131196 combined into single graph (10 degree AOA)

PAGE 57

47 Figure 4-14. Positions from where velocity pr ofiles where taken. The arrows designate the location of the injection and suction slots. The effects of the injection and suction jets can be seen in the velocity profiles. The CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil has a larger veloci ty over the fore ha lf of the airfoil compared to the baseline. The CFJ0025-131-196 has a significantly la rger velocity over the entire airfoil compared to the baseline and CFJ0025065-196 airfoils. It should be noted that the reason that some of the velocity profiles are discontinuous around 0-5% chord lengths is not necessarily due to any boundary condition or the jets, but instea d it is a result of the PIV camera and seeding particle. There was a considerable amount of reflection that comes off the aluminum airfoil that caused excess noise. Also no seeding particle s were used in the injection system. Figure 4-15 is a group of velocity prof iles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025065-196 airfoil and the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil at the same locations as before and 30 degrees angle of attack. The pr ofile at the trailing edge is not included because the image had a lot of reflection from the Plexiglas and ba ck walls. Therefore the data is considered invalid. Figure 4-16 is all of the profiles grouped together so the flow trend is more visible. Again it can be seen that the result of the larger injection slot is a greater velocity over the entire airfoil.

PAGE 58

48 A B C D E Figure 4-15. Velocity profiles of CFJ 0025-065-196 and CFJ 0025-131-196 at 30 degree AOA and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% Figure 4-17 is a group of velocity prof iles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025065-196 airfoil at different angles of attack. Figure 4-18 is all of the profiles grouped together so the flow trend is more visible. It can be seen the greater the angle of attack the higher the velocity of air over the airfoil.

PAGE 59

49 Figure 4-16. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 combined into single graph (30 degree AOA) A B C D Figure 4-17. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025065-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%

PAGE 60

50 E F Figure 4-17. Continued Figure 4-18. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065196 at various AOA combined into single graph Figure 4-19 is a group of velocity prof iles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025131-196 airfoil at different angles of attack. Figure 4-20 is all of the profiles grouped

PAGE 61

51 together so the flow trend is more visible. It can be seen the greater the angle of attack the higher the velocity of air over the airfoil. For both the CFJ0025-065-196 and the CFJ 0025-131-196 airfoils, the velocities on the fore half of the airfoil are much differe nt than the velocities on the aft half as the angle of attack is increased. The non-dime nsional velocities at 15% chord length are very spread, ranging from about 1.3-2.3 and 1.5-2.5 for the CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 respectively. The range beco mes smaller towards the trailing edge were it is about 1-1.4 for the CFJ0025-065196 airfoil and is 1.2 for the CFJ0025-131196 airfoil. A B C D Figure 4-19. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025131-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%

PAGE 62

52 E F Figure 4-19. Continued Figure 4-20. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131196 at various AOA combined into single graph. Another important piece of information that was taken from the PIV data was from the wake images. The NACA 0025 had a wake deficit. The CFJ airfoils on the other hand had a wake surplus. Figures 4-21 and 422 show the differences in the wakes at 0

PAGE 63

53 and 10 degrees angle of attack, respectively, for all three airfoil configurations. The wake images were taken approximately one chord length downstream of the airfoil. Again, there was no net mass being injected in to the flow. The wake surplus was a result of the momentum being added to the flow. Figure 4-21. Wake profiles of three differe nt airfoil configurations at 0 deg AOA Figure 4-22. Wake profiles of three differe nt airfoil configurations at 10 deg AOA

PAGE 64

54 A velocity profile of the wake was also taken at 30 degrees for the two airfoils utilizing the CFJ flow control technique. It can be seen in figure 4-23 that the wake profile is significantly different. There is no longer a simple wake shape as was seen in the lower angles of attack. Figure 4-23. Wake profiles of CFJ airfoils at 30 deg AOA Drag Determination From Wake Measurements An attempt was made to calculate the drag from the wake profiles with the PIV data. A control volume approach was chosen for this task. The control surfaces encompassed the airfoil and were drawn in such a way as no mass passed through the sides as in figure 4-24. The momentum fl ux and area exiting the control volume was known from the wake profile. The momentum flux into the control volume was assumed uniform with a velocity equal to the free st ream. The inlet area of control volume was adjusted to satisfy the continuity equation; the mass into the control volume had to equal the mass out. The pressure acting on all sides of the control volume was found by equations 4-1 and 4-2. It was assumed totalT was constant and equal to 300K.

PAGE 65

55 Figure 4-24. Control volume over airfoil 21 2totalV TT R Eqn 4-1 PRT Eqn 4-2 The above approach did not yield valid results. It is t hought calculating the pressures acting on the control vo lume from velocity measurem ents alone is not enough. Future work will include taking pressure re adings along the boundaries of the control volume as well as velocity measurements.

PAGE 66

56 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The research described in this thesis successfully demonstrated how the CFJ airfoil transitioned from CFD modeling to wind tunnel testing. Th e research proved the high performance capabilities of the CFJ airfoil. It was shown the smaller injection slot airfoil performed better than the larger injection slot airfoil with respect to maximum lift and stall margin. It was also shown the larger in jection slot airfoil pe rformed better than the smaller injection slot airfoil with respect to lift for a given angle of attack and drag reduction. The PIV data revealed evidence of how the stagnation point location moves with varying mass flow rates. The movement of the stagnation point results in different lift and drag characteristics. The PIV data taken was used to make velo city profiles of the CFJ airfoil and compare them to a conventiona l airfoil. The data also was used to compare velocity profiles of the two different CFJ airfoils used in wind tunnel tests. Although the research conducted in this thesis was successful, much work lies ahead. The PIV setup will need to be im proved to better understand the location and movement of the stagnation point. The instabil ity of the jet also n eeds to be looked into further as the exact cause is still unknown at this time. Much optimization still remains for the CFJ airfoil geometry. The geometry of the airfoil was chosen from CFD simulations. Only two different injection slot sizes were tested in the wind tunnel. Many differe nt slot heights should be tried, both for the injection and for the suction. The slot location will also have a significant effect on the

PAGE 67

57 performance of the airfoil. In future work, it is planned to have an injection slot that can be adjusted for both location and height. The amount of mass injected can be contro lled by a number of different means. It is not know which of these is the best method to obtain the peak performance. The mass injected can be controlled by a direct measurement of the ma ss flow rate. The stagnation pressure of the injection jet or the jet mo mentum coefficient can also control the mass injected. It might also be beneficial to control the velocity of the injection jet. An in-depth study of the shear-mixing region would also be advantageous to the success of the CFJ airfoil. It is known the CF J airfoil suppresses sepa ration and increases lift from the addition of momentum and the induced mixing with the free stream. The mechanics of the turbulent shear layer mixi ng the free stream and the jet is largely unknown. Future work also consists of investig ating three-dimensional effects of a wing utilizing a CFJ. Work here would include l ooking at tip effects due to the CFJ. Other items to be looked at include the length th e slots should extend towards the wingtips and if there should be any variation is the slot height or loca tion along the wingspan.

PAGE 68

58 APPENDIX A DETAILED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE 1. Plug in power supply and data acquisition/switch unit 2. Check the power supplies 5V output with the Multimeter to make sure the output is indeed 5V 3. Connect all appropriate connections a. Connect nine pin to BNC breakout box b. Connect power supply to BNC breakout box c. Connect BNC cables from breakout box to appropriate connections on data acquisition/switch unit d. Connect data acquisition/s witch unit to computer 4. If this calibration has alr eady been preformed and the experimentalist wants only to check the accuracy of the calibration or reading, go to step 17 5. Rigidly attach balance cylinder to fi xed object such as an optical table 6. Attach metal calibration bar to end of cylinder where the airfoil attaches 7. Rotate the cylinder until it reaches an appr opriate angle (an appropriate angle is one in which the normal and axial for ces are in the range of expected experimental normal and axial forces) 8. Measure the angle with an inclinometer 9. Open up Labview VI previously made fo r balance calibration and enter necessary information a. Angle b. Run number c. Number of samples to take d. Data folder to save information to 10. Press the tare button. This will nullify any voltage currently being read. 11. Take a reading at zero load 12. Hang a 1kg mass from the hole in the me tal bar, take care to steady any oscillatory motion of the mass 13. Increase the mass to 1kg in the Labview program 14. Take a reading at th is load condition 15. Increase the mass hanging from the hole in the metal bar 1kg at a time until the maximum expected experimental force is ach ieved. Be sure to take readings for each increment and change the mass in the Labview program accordingly. 16. Plot the voltage verse force to come up with an initial calibration curve for the normal and axial force 17. Place the fully assembled airfoil into the wind tunnel suction side down 18. Press the tare button in the Labview program written for wind tunnel testing 19. Place a 1kg weight in the center of the span of the airfoil 20. Record the force the program is reading for lift

PAGE 69

59 21. Repeat steps 19 and 20 increasing the wei ght until it exceeds the maximum force expected 22. Turn the airfoil so the LE is pointing straight up 23. Place a 1kg weight in the center of the span of the airfoil for this orientation too 24. Record the force the program is reading for drag 25. Plot the known load verse indica ted load for both lift and drag 26. The slopes of the curves are the corrections needed for the latex tubes. Adjust the initial calibration accordingly. 27. Check to see if the airfoil is now cal ibrated correctly by placing known weights on the center span making sure the program is reading the correct force

PAGE 70

60 APPENDIX B LIST OF INSTRUMENT ATION AND EQUIPMENT Instrumentation Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment Pressure Measurements: Heise ST-2H SN 50520 Model HQS-1 Range 0-15” H2O SN HQS-15557 Model HQS-2 Range 0-30 psia SN HQS-18121 Heise ST-2H SN 50841 Model HQS-1 Range 0-50” H2O SN HQS-17943 Model HQS-2 Range 0-250 psia SN HQS-18120 Druck DPI 145 Multifunction pressure indicator SN 0721/98-08 Temperature Measurements: National Instruments SCXI-1000 Mainframe SN 002894 National Instruments SCXI-1303 SN A18FE3 Force Measurements: Tektronix PS280 DC Power Supply SN PS280 TW58011 Hewlett Packard 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch Unit Agilent 34901A 20-channel armature multiplexer Ninepin-to-BNC breakout box Power to control valve: Tektronix PS280 DC Power Supply SN PS280 TW11432 National Instruments SCB-68 Breakout Box SN BAD24C PIV Measurements: TSI Power View Camera Model 630151 SN 14250 TSI Laser Pulse Synchronizer Model 610032 SN 220

PAGE 71

61Equipment Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment Aerolab Educational Wind tunnel Open circuit 12" x 12" test section, 24" long 0-145 mph capability from 10 hp drive fan Measurement Group, Inc. Type EA-13-125MK-120 strain gauge Type EA-06-125TK-350 shear gauge Applied with M-Line products: CSM-1A degresser M-Prep Conditioner A M-Prep Neutralizer 5A M-Bond 200 Gauze sponges Cotton swabs PCT-2A cellophane tape M-Coat A Rosin solvent 400-grit sand paper T type thermocouple from Omega K type thermocouple from Omega Quincy Compressor Division, Model QSI-1000ANA3HP SN 3N93685H Welsh Vacuum Pump, Model 1398 SN 083D Heraeus Vacuum Pump, Type E35 Fabrication# 03501409 Fisher 667 Control Valve SN 15940894 LeMaitre G150 Fog Machine SN G15C00280 Computers and Software Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment Lift and drag measurements: AMD Athlon XP 1800+ Microsof t Windows XP Professional Labview 6.1 PIV measurements: AMD Athlon XP 2500+ Mi crosoft Windows 2000 Insight

PAGE 72

62 APPENDIX C DETAILED AIRFOIL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE 1. Attach L-brackets to optical table wi th 1/4-20 allen screws and washers 2. Attach rear canister plate and sting co llet to L-brackets with 1/4-20 screws 3. Attach sting cylinder to sting cylinder clamp a. Orient the clamp so the open side will point towards the TE of the airfoil b. Clamp should be flush with the end of the cylinder c. Attach clamp directly to cylinder using M2/6 screws d. Tighten clamp around cyli nder with M3/12 screw 4. Attach sting clamp/cylinder a ssembly to injection side airfoil endplate with M4/18 screws 5. Attach airfoil to injection side as sembly (cylinder, clamp, endplate) a. Clamp will fit inside airfoil with clamping section facing TE b. Attach airfoil first with M4/40 screws then M2/20 c. Tighten all screws firmly 6. Attach Kiel stagnation pr essure probe to sucti on side airfoil endplate a. Thread the mounting chuck into th e external side of the endplate b. Feed the probe from the internal si de of the endplate through the mounting chuck c. Tighten the mounting chuck comp ression fitting onto the probe d. Make sure the probe faces the normal direction to the flow e. Lock in place 7. Make sure Duocel aluminum foam is in airfoil, if not place in now 8. Attach suction side airfoil endp late to the airfoil assembly a. Attach airfoil first with M4/40 screws then M2/20 b. Tighten all screws firmly 9. Slide the tunnel wall circular plate onto the cylinder a. The tunnel wall should have the insi de of the wall f acing the airfoil b. Being careful to feed the strain gaug e wires through the center of the wall c. Being careful not to damage the strain gauges or their solder connections 10. Slide the cylinder into the collet th at is attached to the optical table a. Make sure collet is in fully open position b. Being careful not to jostle tunnel wall and strain gauges c. Make sure the o-ring in the cente r of the endplate stays in place d. Push the cylinder into the collet until it aligns with pr eviously marked location (this ensures prope r alignment in tunnel) e. Tighten collet to lo ck cylinder in place 11. Remove airfoil assembly from optical table 12. Attach endplate to collet with 1/4-20 screws 13. Attach strain gauge nine pin conne ction to adapter fixed to endplate 14. Attach the canister to th e endplate/collet assembly

PAGE 73

63 a. Slide the canister over th e endplate/collet assembly b. Line up the bolt holes in the canister with the bolts of the tunnel wall c. Slide the canister up until it touches the endplate d. Make sure not to pinch any strain gauge wires e. Tighten the endplate with the canis ter with 1/4-20 allen screws f. Tighten the tunnel wa ll to the canister 15. Attach entire assembly to the wind tunnel a. Pass the assembly through the side of tunnel opposite the side the assemble is to be fixed to b. Place the assembly such that the tunnel wall circular plate fits into the circular cut out in the tunnel c. Attach optical clamps on the outsi de of the tunnel wall to hold the assembly in place 16. Replace Plexiglas tunnel wall wi th Plexiglas box tunnel wall 17. Attach internal box suction manifold to ci rcular box wall and ex ternal box suction manifold a. Line up the box external suction ma nifold on the outside of the box circular plate with the oval opening b. Line up the box internal suction ma nifold on the outside of the box circular plate with the oval opening c. Make sure the internal and external manifolds are lined up with only the box circular plate between them d. Bolt these three components together with four 1/4-20 nuts and bolts 18. Prepare latex tubes to be attach ed to airfoil suction manifold a. Stretch the tubes over the three rece iver ports on the suction manifold b. Fix in place with hose clamps c. Stretch the tubes over the three receiv er ports on the internal box suction manifold d. Fix in place with hose clamps e. Check spacing of metal rings inside the tubes, move as necessary f. Glue into place and let glue dry 19. Attach suction manifold to th e airfoil already in wind tunnel a. Slide airfoil suction manifold through the hole in the suc tion side tunnel wall circular plate b. Place the tunnel wall circular plate to th e suction side of the airfoil such that the Kiel probe assembly prot rudes through the small hole in the circular plate c. Also the suction manifold should be lined up with the suction slot on the airfoil endplate d. Screw the suction manifold to the suction side airfoil endplate with M4/20 screws 20. Secure the Plexiglas box side of the wind tunnel a. The suction side circular tunnel wall will fit into the r ecess of the tunnel side door when the box is closed b. The suction side circular box wall will fit into the recess of the box when the side door is closed

PAGE 74

64 c. Lock the side door with the leve r attachment on the wind tunnel d. Lock the box wall and tunnel wall in place with optical brackets 21. Attach static pressure pr obe to suction manifold a. Feed the static probe through the hole on the bottom of the airfoil suction manifold b. Slide mounting chuck over the probe and into the hole c. Thread the mounting chuck into the hole and tighten the mounting chuck compression fitting d. Be sure to face the probe normal to flow direction e. Lock in place 22. Attach probes to appropriat e connections inside of box a. Kiel probe to stagna tion pressure tube b. Static suction probe to static pressure tube c. Injection thermocouple to in jection thermocouple wires d. Suction thermocouple to su ction thermocouple wires 23. Place the lid on the box and screw down with M2/10 screws 24. Replace ceiling and floor of wind tunnel if removed 25. Attach injection hose to hollow cylinder and secure with hose clamp 26. Attach PVC suction pipe to external mani fold and wrap connection with duct tape

PAGE 75

65 APPENDIX D DETAILED WINDTUNNEL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE 1. Turn on vacuum pump and begin pulling vacuum a. Close all valves open to the atmosphere b. Open all valves to the vacuum tanks both rooms c. Turn on vacuum breaker d. Go to pump located outside of MAE-A e. Close valves directly after pump f. Push start buttons on wall behind pumps g. Open valve after pump a quarter of th e way (opening the this valve more than this will result in lots of smoke from the oil becoming too hot) h. Fully open valves to Room 119 and Room 125 2. Start compressor a. Check with other labs to see if they are using the compressor b. Close valve coming out of the compressor house c. Fill out the log in the compressor house d. Turn on main power supply e. Make sure stop button is pulled out f. Push start button (NEED HEARING PROTECTION) g. Watch for a couple of minutes to see if any warni ng lights come on h. Open valve coming out of the compressor house 3. Assemble and mount airfoil as de scribed in assembly procedure 4. Connect different probes to appropriate transducers a. Thermocouples b. Pressure transducers c. Strain gauges 5. Turn on all instrumentation and computer a. Heise x 2 b. SCXI c. Druck d. Power supply for strain gauges e. HP switch unit 6. Start Labview program made for this experiment 7. Make sure all probes are reading corr ectly in Labview VI (Tare if needed) 8. Set zero degree angle of attack a. Make sure the airfoil is securely in place and the circular wind tunnel plate is flush with the tunnel wall b. Adjust the airfoil so the TE is 6" from the wind tunnel floor c. Mark circular wind tunnel plate to indicate zero degrees angle of attack 9. Rotate airfoil to desired angle of attack a. Loosen optical clamps on the circul ar tunnel walls and circular box wall

PAGE 76

66 b. Rotate all three in unison until reached desired angle of attack c. Tighten all three with optical clamps 10. Enter necessary information into program a. Angle of attack b. Ambient pressure c. Ambient temperature d. Area of injection jet 11. Turn on wind tunnel a. Turn on wind tunnel breaker b. Push forward run button on wind tunnel c. Switch to Front Panel control on wind tunnel display d. Rotate Fan Speed Control until desired velocity is reached 12. Start air injection a. Make sure switch above wind tunnel is turned in the direction to measure injection mass flow rate b. Let pressure reach 200 psi in tanks c. Make sure control valve is closed d. Fully open valve downstream of control valve e. Open valve upstream of c ontrol valve a quarter way f. Slowly open control valve until clos e to the desired mass flow rate g. Slightly adjust the valve upstream of the control valve to fine tune the mass flow rate 13. Dial in suction mass flow rate a. Make sure the tank pressure is alwa ys reading below 15 in Hg through out the run, this ensures the flow is choked at the gate valve creating a constant mass flow rate, wait until the pressure lowers if necessary b. Once the injection mass flow rate is desirable and steady turn the switch above the wind tunnel to measure the suction mass flow rate c. Open the gate valve next to the vacuum tanks slightly d. Fully and quickly open ball valve above the gate valve to start suction (NEED HEARING PROTECTION) e. The mass flow rate then needs to be adjusted to the desired rate, this can be done by: i. Short bursts of vacuum (just l ong enough to achieve a reading), then adjust the gate valve with the vacuum is off and repeat ii. Continuous vacuum while ad justing the gate valve f. Refer to a. if the desired mass flow is not achieved after 15 seconds of vacuum 14. Only continue after the suction mass flow rate is desirable 15. Start air suction and sampling a. Make sure the tank pressure is alwa ys reading below 15 in Hg through out the run, this ensures the flow is choked at the gate valve creating a constant mass flow rate, wait until the pressure lowers if necessary b. Double check that all probe measurements are working correctly c. Turn switch above wind tunnel to measure mass flow of injection d. Make sure injection flow rate is still desirable

PAGE 77

67 e. Make sure Start Sampling and Stop Sampling buttons are not lit up. If they are click on the button to turn off f. Push Start Sampling button in VI g. Fully and quickly open ball valve above the gate valve to start suction (NEED HEARING PROTECTION) h. After 5 seconds, turn valve above wi nd tunnel to measure injection mass flow rate i. Continue to sample for desired time, keep in mind a. j. Push Stop Sampling button to save data

PAGE 78

68 APPENDIX E PIV IMAGES

PAGE 79

69

PAGE 80

70

PAGE 81

71

PAGE 82

72

PAGE 83

73

PAGE 84

74

PAGE 85

75

PAGE 86

76

PAGE 87

77 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Zha, G.-C. and Paxton C., "A Novel Airf oil Circulation Augm ent Flow Control Method Using Co-Flow Jet." AIAA Pa per 2004-2208, 2nd AIAA Flow Control Conference, Portland, Oregon, June 28-1, 2004. 2. Modi V., Fernando M., and Yokomizo T., "Drag Reduction of Bluff Bodies Through Moving Surface Boundary Layer Control." AIAA Paper No. 1990-298, 28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 8-11, 1990. 3. Wood N., Robert L., and Celik Z., "Contro l of Asymmetric Vortical Flows over Delta Wings at High Angle of Attack," Journal of Aircraft vol. 27, pp. 429-435, 1990. 4. Wood N. and Robert L., "C ontrol of Vortical Lift on Delta Wings by Tangential Leading-Edge Blowing," Journal of Aircraft vol. 25, pp. 236-243, 1988. 5. Wood N. and Nielsen J., "Circu lation Control Airfoils-Pas t, Present, Future." AIAA Paper 85-0204, 23rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 14-17, 1985. 6. Englar R. J., Trobaugh L. A., and Hemmersly R., "STOL Potential of the Circulation Control Wing for High-Performance Aircraft," Journal of Aircraft vol. 14, pp. 175-181, 1978. 7. Englar R. J., "Circulation Control fo r High Lift and Drag Generation on STOL Aircraft," Journal of Aircraft vol. 12, pp. 457-463, 1975. 8. Wygnanski I., "The Variables Affecti ng The Control Separation by Periodic Excitation." AIAA 2004-2625, AIAA Flui d Dynamics Conference, Portland Oregon, June 2004. 9. McManus K. and Magill J., "Airfoil Performance Enhancement Using Pulsed Jet Separation Control." AIAA Paper 1997-1971, 4th Shear Flow Control Conference, Snowmass Village, Colorado, June 29-July 2, 1997. 10. Johari H. and McManus K., "Visualization of Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets for Active Control of Boundary Layer Separation." AIAA Paper 1997-2021, 28th Fluid Dynamic Conference, Snowmass Village, Colorado, June 29-July 2, 1997. 11. Smith A., "High-Lift Aerodynamics," Journal of Aircraft vol. 12, pp. 501-530, 1975.

PAGE 88

78 12. Lin J., Robinson S., McGhee R., and Vala rezo W., "Separation Control on High Reynolds Number Multi-Element Airfo ils." AIAA Paper 92-2636, 10th Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Palo Alto, California, June 22-14, 1992. 13. Zha, G.-C., Carroll, B., Paxton, C., Conl ey, C., Wells, A., "High Performance Airfoil Using Co-Flow Jet Flow Control." AIAA Paper 2005-1260, 43rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 10-13, 2005. 14. Griffin, B., "Three-Component Wind-Tunnel Balance." B.S. Thesis, University of Florida, 2003. 15. Holman, J., Experimental Methods for E ngineers. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001: 100.

PAGE 89

79 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Adam Joseph Wells was born on July 7, 1979, in Kankakee, IL. After graduating Herscher High School in 1997, he attended Kankakee Community College (KCC) where he earned an associate degree in engineering science in 2000. Adam worked full time at Cognis Corporation during his studies at KCC. Because of the job, he wanted to continue his education at a school within commuting di stance from Kankakee. Purdue University Calumet (PUC) was the school that was chos en. Adam attended PUC for one year studying mechanical engineering. At this time, the Cognis Corpor ation started to down size and have voluntary layoffs. Adam took th is opportunity to change his educational focus to aerospace engineering and move to Fl orida. Adam earned his bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering at the University of Florida in 2003 gra duating cum laude. He continued his education at the University of Florida where he earned his Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering in 2005.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011656/00001

Material Information

Title: Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil with Co-Flow Jet Flow Control
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0011656:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0011656/00001

Material Information

Title: Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil with Co-Flow Jet Flow Control
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0011656:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIRFOIL
WITH CO-FLOW JET FLOW CONTROL















By

ADAM JOSEPH WELLS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005





























Copyright 2005

by

ADAM JOSEPH WELLS















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author expresses special thanks to the supervisory committee chairman, Dr.

Bruce F. Carroll, for his continued guidance, encouragement and devotion. Appreciation

is also due to Dr. Ge-Cheng Zha, whose passion for the co-flow airfoil is contagious.

Gratitude is also addressed to the other supervisory committee members, Dr. Lou

Cattafesta and Dr. William Lear Jr., for their support. The author also wishes to

acknowledge all family and friends that helped make this possible.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ......... ............................................. ..... ........ vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ....................... ............. ........... vii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... .......... .......... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................................................. .............. ...

2 APPARATUS MODIFICATIONS AND ASSEMBLY ............................................3

Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Description ...........................................................................3
W ind Tunnel M odifications.............................................................................. 6
M ass F low R ate C ontrols............................................. ......................................... 10
B balance M modifications .................. .................................... .. ........ .... 13
C alibration of A irfoil .................. ..................................... .. ........ .... 14
Instrum entation and M easurem ents............................................. ......... ... ............... 18
U uncertainty A analysis .......................................... ................... ........ 23

3 PROCEDURE ......... ................................................. ............. 27

4 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ............................................................................. 30

D different Tests C conducted ........... .................................. .................. ............... 30
Improved Lift, Drag and Stall ............. .... ........ ............................33
Instability of the Jet .................................... ........ ...... ............ .. ........ .... 38
Stagnation Point L ocation................................................. .............................. 39
P IV R results ............................ ....... ....................... ............ .......... 39
Drag Determination From Wake Measurements ...................................................... 54

5 CON CLU SION S .................................. .. .......... .. .............56

APPENDIX

A DETAILED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE............................... ...............58









B LIST OF INSTRUMENTATION AND EQUIPMENT ...................................60

C DETAILED AIRFOIL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE........................ ....................62

D DETAILED WINDTUNNEL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE............... .................. 65

E P IV IM A G E S .................................................................................. ................... 6 8

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ............................................................................. .............. 77

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ...................................................................... ..................79
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

2-1. O rifice plate 1494 coefficients ............................ ....................... ................... 12

2-2. List of the uncertainties of the measured values ................................................24

2-3. U uncertainty in orifice plate calculation ........................................ .....................25

4-1. L ift and drag test m atrix ........................................................................31

4-2. PIV test m atrix ................. .................................. .. ........ .. ............. 32

4-3. Ratio of lift with tunnel off to lift with tunnel on ................................................33

4-4. Comparison between CFJ airfoils and baseline airfoil...........................................35
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

2-1. 2-D cross section of CFJ airfoils ...................................................... .................4

2-2. How CFJ0025-131-196 turns into NACA 0025 ...................... ............................ 5

2-3. U nm odified A erolab w ind tunnel................................................................... ......6

2-4. M odified Aerolab wind tunnel ............................................................................7

2-5. Hose/clamp attachment to cylinder and balance mechanism. Airfoil is attached
in horizontal position inside tunnel............................ ........................ ...... ......... 8

2-6. Connection between the balance cylinder and the airfoil .........................................8

2-7. Connection between the suction manifold and the airfoil ............... ....................9

2-8. Plexiglas box and suction manifold with airfoil located to the left and external
suction connection to the right ......................... .................... ............. .. 10

2-9. Normal force calibration curves...................................... ........ .......... 16

2-10. A xial force calibration curves ............................................................................ 16

2-11. L ift correction curve ........... ..... ................................................................ 17

2-12 D rag correction curve ....................................................................... ..................18

2-13. Program used in wind tunnel testing ..................................................... 21

4-1. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-065-196.............. .....................34

4-2. D rag polar for CFJ0025-065-196............... ..................................... ......... ........35

4-3. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-065-196................................. ... ..................36

4-4. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-131-196........................ 37

4-5. D rag polar for CFJ0025-131-196 ......... ................. ........................ ............... 37

4-6. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-131-196................................................... 38









4-7. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025-065-196 at 20 degrees angle of attack and
A ) high and B ) low m ass flow rates........................................................ .............. 40

4-8. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025-065-196 at 30 degrees angle of attack and
A ) high and B ) low m ass flow rates........................................................ .............. 41

4-9. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-065-196 A) 40 deg and B) 43 deg......................42

4-10. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-131-196 A) 36 deg and B) 43 deg....................43

4-11. PIV image of flow over baseline airfoil A) 10 deg and B) 20 deg...........................44

4-12. Velocity profiles of baseline airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 at
10 degree AOA and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E)
75% F) 100% ............... .............................. ............................... ................... 45

4-13. Velocity profiles of baseline airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196
combined into single graph (10 degree AOA) ............................... ............... .46

4-14. Positions from where velocity profiles where taken. The arrows designate the
location of the injection and suction slots .........................................47

4-15. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ 0025-131-196 at 30 degree AOA
and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% ....................48

4-16. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 combined into
single graph (30 degree A O A ) ........................................... .......................... 49

4-17. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A)
5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100% ........................................ .......... 49

4-18. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA combined into single
graph .................. ................. .............................................50

4-19. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA and chord locations, A)
5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100% ........................................ .......... 51

4-20. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA combined into single
graph ......... ..... ............. ..................................... ........................... 52

4-21. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 0 deg AOA.................53

4-22. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 10 deg AOA...................53

4-23. W ake profiles of CFJ airfoils at 30 deg AOA ......... ...................... ...................54

4-24. Control volume over airfoil ....................................... 55















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIRFOIL
WITH CO-FLOW JET FLOW CONTROL

By

Adam Joseph Wells

August 2005

Chair: Bruce F. Carroll
Major Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

This thesis describes the effort to experimentally verify the high performance

characteristics of the co-flow jet (CFJ) airfoil. The CFJ utilizes tangentially injected air

at the leading edge and tangentially removed air at the trailing edge to increase lift and

stall margin and also decrease drag. The mass flow rates of the injection and suction are

equal, so there is a zero net mass flow rate. The existing MAE subsonic Aerolab wind

tunnel with a one-foot by one-foot test section was modified to accommodate the

injection and suction needed for the CFJ airfoils. The compressor and vacuum systems

were reconfigured so the mass flow rate of air could be measured and controlled. The

sting balance used to hold the airfoil in the test section and gather lift and drag

information was also modified from a previous design.

Two airfoils were tested at the University of Florida. One airfoil had an injection

slot size of 0.65% chord length (chord length was six inches) and the other had an

injection slot size twice as large or 1.31% chord length. Both airfoils had a suction slot









size of 1.96% chord length. The smaller injection slot size performed superior for

increased lift and stall margin, whereas the larger injection slot size performed superior

for decreased drag. The smaller injection slot airfoil had an increase in maximum lift of

113% to 220% and an increase in stall margin of 100% to 132% when compared to the

baseline airfoil. When the mass flow rate was run at high levels, negative drag (i.e.,

thrust) was measured for both airfoils.

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to quantify the flow field over the

suction surface of the CFJ airfoils. The stagnation point was also studied from the PIV

images. Although the movement due to variations in the mass flow rate could be seen,

the exact location of the stagnation point could not be seen with the current setup because

it lies on the pressure surface of the airfoil. The PIV images also helped in studying the

wake of the airfoils. A wake surplus could be seen in the CFJ airfoils, whereas a

conventional airfoil would have a wake deficit.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The objective of the wind tunnel experiments described in this thesis is to verify the

high performance capabilities of the co-flow jet (CFJ) airfoil. This new flow control

technique was suggested by Zha and Paxton [1]. The CFJ uses circulation control to

achieve this high performance. More specifically, the CFJ uses leading edge blowing and

trailing edge suction. This thesis also presents the effort it took to set up and test the CFJ

airfoil. Many modifications were made to existing system to implement the injection and

suction needs of the CFJ airfoil.

Flow control offers many benefits to aircraft for both commercial and military uses.

The primary advantage of these control techniques is the enhanced lift and suppressed

separation. Results of these benefits are shorter take-off and landing distances, increased

maneuverability, increased payloads, reduced fuel consumption and reduced weight.

There are a number of flow control techniques that are being used today. These

include rotating cylinders at the leading and trailing edge [2], blowing at the leading edge

[3,4], blowing at the trailing edge [5-7], pulsating jets [8-10] and multi-element airfoils

[11,12].

The CFJ has advantages over the flow control methods mentioned by requiring no

moving parts, not requiring a feedback control system and having a net mass flow rate of

zero. Moving parts add weight to the aircraft. Feedback control systems add complexity

and could also add weight to the aircraft. Blowing air has a direct and adverse effect on

the propulsion system if it is taken from the compressor stage of the engine or adds









weight to the aircraft if a compressor system is added. The mentioned control systems

are limited by one or more of these constraints.

Another advantage of the CFJ is that it can be implemented on any airfoil shape. It

can be used on a thick subsonic airfoil as well as a thin supersonic airfoil. Some of the

other flow control techniques need thick leading or trailing edges, which drastically

increase the drag force during cruise and limit the number of airfoils to which the

technique is applicable.

The CFJ has proven to be effective at increasing lift and stall margin while

decreasing drag at the same time [13]. This is accomplished with little penalty to the

propulsion system by having a net mass flow rate of zero as mentioned earlier. The mass

of air that is injected at the leading edge is equal to the mass of air that is removed at the

trailing edge. The pulsed jet or synthetic jet, another zero mass flow rate technique,

increases CLmax by about 35% and has little effect on the stall angle for a jet momentum

coefficient of 0.022 [9]; the CFJ increases CLmax by 220% and the stall angle by 132%

for a jet momentum coefficient of 0.28.














CHAPTER 2
APPARATUS MODIFICATIONS AND ASSEMBLY

This chapter is dedicated to the description of the CFJ airfoil and the modifications

made to the existing systems to enable testing of the CFJ airfoil. This section will also

include the instrumentation and measurement techniques used in the wind tunnel

experiments. An uncertainty analysis on all measured and calculated values is included

at the end.

Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Description

The CFJ airfoils used in testing at the University of Florida were a modified

NACA 0025. The NACA 0025 airfoil was chosen for its ease of manufacturing and

relative thickness. The thickness made it easier to fit all instrumentation and duct work

into the airfoil given the size constraints imposed by the one-foot by one-foot wind tunnel

test section; however the CFJ concept can be implemented on any airfoil geometry.

The modified NACA 0025 airfoil used in testing had a span of 0.3m and a chord

length of 0.1527m. As shown in figure 2-1, the airfoil was modified by recessing the

suction surface (upper surface). This recession opened up a slot towards the leading edge

of the airfoil (injection slot) and another slot towards the trailing edge (suction slot). The

slot towards the leading edge was used to inject air tangentially over the suction surface,

while the slot towards the trailing edge was used to remove air tangentially from the

suction surface. Two airfoils were manufactured with this modification. The first had a

1mm or 0.65% chord length injection slot height. The second had a 2mm or 1.31% chord

length injection slot height. Both airfoils had a 3mm or 1.96% chord length suction slot










height. The airfoils are named by their injection and suction slot sizes according to the

convention CFJ4digit-INJ-SUC. So the airfoil with the Imm injection slot was named

CFJ0025-065-196. Similarly, the airfoil with the 2mm injection slot was named

CFJ0025-131-196.

The reason the suction slot size was larger than the injection slot is because the

density of the air being removed by the suction slot is less than the density of the air

being injected. Therefore, to balance the mass flow rates, the suction area has to be

larger or the velocity greater. But the velocity is limited because the flow will eventually

become choked.




NACA0025





Injection Slot High Pressure Ca-ry
Suction Slot



Support Pin
Duocel Aluminum Foam D-ow Presure Cavity

CFJ0025-065-196

Injection Slot High Pssuree Cavity




Support Pin
Duocel Aluminum Foam Low Pressure Cavity

CFJ0025-131-196


Figure 2-1. 2-D cross section of CFJ airfoils









The location of the injection slot and suction slot are respectively, 7.11% and

83.18% of the chord length from the leading edge. The slots are positioned perpendicular

to the suction surface making them parallel to the flow direction.

The support pins shown in figure 2-1 are to reinforce the suction surface of the

airfoil because computer simulations indicated the suction surface might deflect in that

area. The Duocel aluminum foam is used to create a backpressure in the high-pressure

cavity ensuring an even distribution of air across the suction surface.

A filler piece was fabricated to fill the recessed portion of the CFJ0025-131-196.

With the recession filled in, the airfoil was a NACA 0025. This was referred to as the

baseline airfoil and was used as a comparison for the CFJ airfoils. Figure 2-2 shows how

the filler piece fits into the CFJ0025-131-196.

























Figure 2-2. How CFJ0025-131-196 turns into NACA 0025









Wind Tunnel Modifications

An open loop Aerolab wind tunnel was used to test the CFJ airfoils. The wind

tunnel has a test section that measures 0.305m x 0.305m (12 inches x 12 inches) and is

0.610m (24 inches) long. The tunnel is 4.57m (15 feet) long overall and has an operating

speed from 0-65 m/s (0-145 miles per hour). This is made possible by a 10-horse power

motor that drives a fan. Figure 2-3 shows a picture of the unmodified Aerolab wind

tunnel.


Figure 2-3. Unmodified Aerolab wind tunnel

In order to operate the injection and suction of the CFJ airfoils, many modifications

had to be made to the existing Aerolab wind tunnel. The wind tunnel had to be equipped

with a system to inject the desired mass flow of air. The tunnel also needed the capability

to remove the air from the suction slot of the airfoil. Injecting air through the sting









balance that supports the airfoil in the wind tunnel and building a Plexiglas box on the

opposite side overcame these two problems. Figure 2-4 shows the modified Aerolab

wind tunnel.






















Figure 2-4. Modified Aerolab wind tunnel

An existing sting balance used to measure lift and drag forces was modified for the

new wind tunnel needs. The balance is discussed in more detail later in the chapter. The

cylinder of the balance, which attaches the airfoil to the rest of the balance, was

lengthened so it would completely pass through the mounting components of the balance.

With the extension, there was room to attach a pressure hose and clamp (figure 2-5 shows

the hose/clamp and cylinder attachment). Compressed air is then forced through the

hollow cylinder into the airfoil where it passes through porous aluminum foam and is

injected tangentially over the airfoil (the connection between the balance cylinder and the

airfoil can be seen in figure 2-6). The foam creates backpressure and ensures uniform

distribution of air across the span of the airfoil.

















U















Figure 2-5. Hose/clamp attachment to cylinder and balance mechanism. Airfoil is
attached in horizontal position inside tunnel


Figure 2-6. Connection between the balance cylinder and the airfoil









The opposite side of the wind tunnel originally had a flat Plexiglas wall. This was

removed in order to accommodate the suction system. A suction manifold was installed

on this side of the airfoil (figure 2-7 shows the connection between the suction manifold

and the airfoil). The manifold extends beyond the limits of the test section. A Plexiglas

box was designed to encompass the manifold. The outside of the box was sealed as to

not let air leak into the test section. The inside circular wall of the box was cut out

around the manifold and stagnation pressure probe (figure 2-8 shows the circular wall

and suction manifold inside of the Plexiglas box). The circular wall allowed enough

clearance to accommodate any deflections of the airfoil from the lift and drag forces. If

the airfoil deflected into the wall, some forces would be imposed onto the wall; therefore

the lift and drag measurements would not be accurate.


Figure 2-7. Connection between the suction manifold and the airfoil


































Figure 2-8. Plexiglas box and suction manifold with airfoil located to the left and external
suction connection to the right

Mass Flow Rate Controls

The enhanced performance of the CFJ airfoil comes from the air that is injected at

the leading edge and removed at the trailing edge; therefore it is critical to control the

injection and suction mass flow rates of air. The two mass flow rates were controlled in

different manners due to the different systems available at the time of testing.

A compressor supplied the air that was injected at the leading edge. The

compressor, located outside of the building, is attached to two reservoir tanks of 3700

gallons volume each. The reservoir tanks are pressured up to 200 psig. The compressor

is designed to hold the tanks at this pressure. The amount of air that passes through the

injection slot is much less than the capability of the compressor (950 scfm). Therefore

the stagnation pressure inside the reservoir tanks is always constant.









From the reservoir tanks, the air flows into the building and passes through two

valves before it makes it to the airfoil. The first valve acts to throttle the air to a lower

pressure; this is done with a ball valve that is manually cracked open. The valve is

usually opened about a quarter of the way but is adjusted depending on the desired mass

flow rate. The second valve acts to control the mass flow rate and/or injection stagnation

pressure. This valve is a pneumatic control valve that is operated through a computer in

an open loop control system. The valve was adjusted to dial in the desired mass flow

rate, which was measured with an orifice plate.

The suction mass flow rate was designed entirely different. The facilities at UF did

not include a vacuum pump designed to displace a large volume of air. Two vacuum

pumps were available but they were designed to obtain a low pressure and hold it; to

solve the problem, vacuum tanks were added onto the existing system. The total volume

of the tanks would have to be large enough for the suction to last at least 15 seconds at

the highest mass flow rate. UF already had around 480 gallons of vacuum tank space

between three different tanks. An additional three tanks of 240 gallons each were added,

bringing the total vacuum tank space to around 1200 gallons.

The addition of the tanks solved the vacuum pump deficiency, however the mass

flow rate still needed to be controlled. The idea of choking the pipe prior to the vacuum

tanks was chosen as the solution. A two-valve system was designed to accomplish this.

The first valve was to open and close the pipe. This valve can be thought of as an on/off

switch and was always in the fully open or fully closed position. The second valve,

located closer to the vacuum tanks, was used to control the mass flow rate. This valve

was a gate valve. A gate valve was chosen because of the greater accuracy in adjusting









the effective flow area. Since the upstream stagnation pressure is constant, the inside

area of the pipe is the only variable that effects the mass flow rate.

The vacuum system must always be used in a choked condition to have a constant

mass flow rate. The requirement for a choked system is the ratio of static pressure

downstream of the valve to the stagnation pressure upstream of the valve to be less than

.5283. So the system could only run until this requirement was no longer met.

The injection and the suction mass flow rates were measured using orifice plates.

Equation 2-1 relates the mass flow rate to the differential pressure across the orifice plate

and the upstream density. Table 2-1 gives values for all constants in equation 2-1.


qm =CE-rd2 P Eqn 2-1
4
where,

qm Mass flow rate
C Discharge coefficient

E = Velocity approach factor

D Inner pipe diameter
P Ratio of orifice diameter to inner pipe diameter
E Gas expansion factor
d Orifice diameter
pl Upstream density
Ap Differential pressure across orifice plate

Table 2-1. Orifice plate 1494 coefficients
Coefficient Injection Side Suction Side
C 0.6079 0.6117
E 1.048 1.111
E 0.9949 0.9659
d 1.682in 2.026in


The differential pressure was measured from the flanges housing the orifice plate.

The upstream density was found by measuring the upstream temperature and pressure.









Once the temperature, T, and pressure, P, were found, the density was obtained from

the ideal gas law given in equation 2-2 with R being the gas constant for air.

P
p = Eqn 2-2
RT

A 0-50 inH20 differential pressure transducer was used to measure the differential

pressure across the orifice plate. Only one 0-50 inH20 differential pressure transducer

was available at the time of testing. Therefore it was impossible to measure two different

mass flow rates simultaneously. A manual switch was implemented to go back and forth

from measuring the injection and suction mass flow rates.

Balance Modifications

The balance used to measure lift and drag forces in the Aerolab wind tunnel was

modified from a balance previously designed at the University of Florida. The main

features of the balance will be described here. For an in-depth description of the balance

and the calibration of the balance, the author refers the reader to reference 14.

The balance was designed in such a way that when the angle of attack is changed,

the airfoil does not cause a severe blockage in the wind tunnel. Although at extremely

high angle of attacks, some blockage effects were unavoidable. The extent of the

blockage was not taken into account. The free stream velocity was calculated from the

dynamic pressure of the test section upstream the airfoil.

The balance was designed in such a way that the airfoil would not deflect more

than 1mm on the free end. This was to ensure the strain on the cylinder supporting the

airfoil was within the limits of the strain gauges (where lift and drag measurements are

taken). In experiments, this 1mm deflection was exceeded. The deflection of the CFJ

airfoil is estimated to be 3mm; however exceeding this design parameter is not a concern.









The deflection is still small enough to allow for a small angle approximation for lift and

drag. That is, lift is still assumed in the normal direction to the floor of the wind tunnel

test section and drag is still assumed in the direction of the free stream. More

importantly, the limitations of the strain gauges were not exceeded.

The balance was designed in such a way that the wires from the strain gauges could

transverse through the side of the wind tunnel while the wind tunnel itself kept an airtight

seal. The wind tunnel velocity is calculated from the dynamic pressure of the tunnel, so

any air leaks into the tunnel could falsify the velocity reading. If there were airflow into

the tunnel, the aerodynamic performance of the test airfoil would also be jeopardized.

The basic design of the balance was kept. The same canister, cullet and tunnel wall

were all used. The airfoil is connected to the cylinder in the same manner, although, a

new endplate and cylinder was designed to meet the air injection needs.

The original cylinder was designed to fit flat on the endplate. A gasket was

sandwiched between the two to form an airtight seal. A new cylinder and endplate were

fabricated so the cylinder would travel through the endplate. The new cylinder was

lengthened so it would extend 10 inches past the endplate; this was necessary to inject

compressed air into the airfoil. Compressed air was injected into the cylinder from a hose

that was clamped on the free end outside the balance.

The hole in the middle of the endplate was made large enough to accommodate the

width of the cylinder. An o-ring was seated into a small recess in the endplate hole. The

o-ring sealed the balance and made the side of the wind tunnel airtight.

Calibration of Airfoil

The calibration of the airfoil was modified from a previous calibration procedure.

The calibration procedure calibrates for lift, drag and pitching moment. However, it was









later found the pitching moment was unreliable due to the latex tubes attached at the

suction side of the airfoil. The calibration procedure is outlined here. A detailed

calibration procedure can be found in appendix A.

The hollow cylinder from the balance was fixed in position at an appropriate angle.

An appropriate angle corresponds to an angle inside the airfoil's angle of attack margin.

The CFJ was tested from -10 deg to 45 deg, so an appropriate angle would fall anywhere

between these two limits.

A metal calibration bar was then attached to the end of the cylinder that holds the

airfoil. The angle of the calibration bar was entered into a Labview program. The

calibration bar has a hole in it (a know distance from the cylinder) from which a known

weight was hung. The program converts the weight to the appropriate load measurement

(normal force, axial force and pitching moment). The voltage from the strain gauge's

Wheatstone bridge is recorded. More weight is then added. This process is repeated

until the weight has exceeded the maximum aerodynamic force expected.

The whole process was then repeated for different angle of attacks. The entire

calibration process was then performed again to check for repeatability in the calibration

curves. The variations in calibration curves are due to imperfection in the placement of

the strain gauges on the metal cylinder and bonding of the strain gauges to the metal

cylinder. Other imperfections include the solder joints and minute differences in the

strain gauges themselves.

Once a number of calibration curves were gathered, the slopes were averaged to

come up with a calibration that was applicable to all angle of attacks. Figures 2-9 and 2-

10 are samples of calibration curves for the normal force and axial force respectively.











Normal Force vs Output Voltage


Figure 2-9. Normal force calibration curves


Figure 2-10. Axial force calibration curves


2-50E+01


2.00E+01 -


S1.50E+01 -


E 1-OO.E+01 -
I-

0

5.00E+00


000E+00
0.00E+00


2.00E-04 4.00E-04 6.00E-04 8.00E-04 1.00E-03
Wheatstone Bndge Output {V)


Axial Force vs Output Voltage


1.80E+01
1.60E+01
1.40E+01
1.20E+01
1.00E+01
8.00E+00
6.00E+00


4.00E+00 -

2.00E+00 ,
O.OOE+00 .--
0.00E+00 2.00E-04 4.00E-04 6.00E-04 8.00E-04 1.00E-03
Wheatstone Bridge Output (V}









After the initial calibration, the airfoil needs to be placed into the wind tunnel so

the effect of the latex tubes can be accounted for. The airfoil is first placed in the wind

tunnel with the suction surface facing down so the load to be added acts in the positive

lift direction. Known weights are then placed on the center span of the airfoil (the

program converts normal and axial forces to lift and drag forces). The known weight is

recorded along with the indicated force from the Labview VI used in the testing. Again,

this process is repeated, adding more weight until the load exceeds the expected lift force.

A calibration factor is then found from the slope of the curve that plotted the known

weight verse the force read from the Labview VI used in testing. A similar process is

performed for the drag direction. Figures 2-11 and 2-12 are samples of the correction

curves; the first is for lift and the second is for drag.


Lift Force Tube Calibration

90





60o
"O
S50-





40 20 40 60 80 100 120
0Known Load
e 30

20

10

1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Krown Load H


Figure 2-11. Lift correction curve






18



Drag Force Tube Calibration

60

50-

z 40

30


20

10



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Known Load (N)


Figure 2-12. Drag correction curve

It was found the latex tubes have a small impact on the lift and drag. The impact of

the latex tubes was linear in both the lift and drag directions and therefore easily

corrected. However, the impact of the latex tubes was significant in the pitching moment

and therefore the measurement was considered unreliable. The reason for this is the

pitching moment is greatly influenced by the deflection in both the lift and drag direction.

After the airfoil is calibrated inside the test section of the wind tunnel, the airfoil is

righted and testing proceeds.

Instrumentation and Measurements

This section describes the measurements took during wind tunnel testing and the

instrumentation used to take the measurements. A detailed list of all instrumentation can

be found in appendix B.









1
The wind tunnel velocity was calculated from the dynamic pressure, pv, of the
2

test section. A 0-15 inH20 differential pressure transducer was used to measure the

dynamic pressure by measuring the difference between the static pressure in the test

section upstream of the airfoil and the stagnation pressure in the room. The velocity was

multiplied by a correction factor, found from previous experiments, to account for the

losses in stagnation pressure that occur in the tunnel inlet.

The mass flow rate was calculated using equation 2-1. All the values in this

equation are constants except the upstream density and differential pressure across the

orifice plate. As described earlier in the chapter, the density was found by measuring the

upstream temperature and pressure and the differential pressure was measured directly by

a 0-50 inH20 differential pressure transducer.

The injection velocity was also calculated and recorded in wind tunnel testing. To

calculate this velocity, the ratio of the local duct area to the sonic throat area must be

found. This relation can be seen in equation 2-3.

A KP,A,
A KP -et Eqn 2-3
A* q

where,


K 0.040416
m
P, Total pressure in injection slot
Aje Injection slot area
q, Mass flow rate
T, Total temp injection slot

Second the area-Mach number relation must be found; this was done by a linear

interpolation of A/A* and Mach number. The interpolation was incremented from Mach









number 0.1 to 1 at intervals of 0.02. Once the Mach number was found, the velocity was

calculated using equation 2-4.

vi = MJyRT Eqn 2-4

where,

viet Injection velocity
M Mach number
y Specific heat ratio
R Gas constant
T Static temperature

The jet momentum coefficient was another item calculated and recorded by the

program. The jet momentum coefficient is defined in equation 2-5.

S= qmvjet Eqn 2-5
C 0.5pyV2 S

where,

C Jet momentum coefficient
qm Mass flow rate
pm Free stream density
v. Free stream velocity
S Airfoil surface area

The flow was assumed incompressible, so the free stream density was equal to the

ambient density and the free stream velocity was equal to the wind tunnel velocity.

The lift and drag forces were measured with strain gauges located on the hollow

cylinder of the sting balance. There were a total of 12 strain gauges on the cylinder.

Four were for pitching moment, four for drag and four for lift. However, the pitching

moment measurements were considered unreliable due to the latex tubes. Out of the four

strain gauges for drag, two were placed on one side of the cylinder and two on the side

directly opposite allowing for a full Wheatstone bridge configuration to be used.









Therefore, two gauges will be in compression while the other two will be in tension. The

same is true of the strain gauges used to measure lift. The voltage across the lift and drag

bridges were measured with a data acquisition/switch unit.

A Labview program was written to record and calculate the above information. To

maximize the time efficiency of the program, it was separated into two different loops.

One loop read all temperature and pressure probes and performed all necessary

calculations. Again, to maximize the time efficiency, not every temperature and pressure

probe was read each iteration. This loop ran at approximately 4 Hz. The other loop read

the voltage from the strain gauges and converted it to the appropriate load (lift, drag or

pitching moment). This loop ran at approximately 2/3 Hz. Figure 2-13 shows the front

panel of the program designed for the wind tunnel tests at the University of Florida.


F-7,



:F I I




'rl-
. i .. '.Llr.


suction flow rate


0.0000











,,,,


IF : IF :
I I _


Figure 2-13. Program used in wind tunnel testing


" .l.r11 H -.J. I 1 ^ 3 -
: FI- h',l--- I ',,


.. |. i j ,,[ :


S Ir-


11 11 H r.1
r 1 "
.. .." 'I


f :


-I r -I
r-,

II ,I t


ri

- '".4, .n









The two Heise pressure transducers were sampled at approximately 2 Hz each. The

pressures measured from the Heise include the injection static pressure, suction static

pressure, the differential pressure across the orifice plates and the dynamic pressure of the

wind tunnel. All values sampled from the Heise were averaged with the previous sample

to filter out some of the noise.

The Druck pressure transducer was sampled at approximately 1 Hz. The pressure

measurements from the Druck include the stagnation pressure in the injection slot and the

static pressure in the suction manifold. All values sampled from the Druck were

averaged with the previous sample to filter out some of the noise.

All temperature measurements were from a National Instruments SCXI -1000 unit.

The program sampled this at approximately 1 Hz. The SCXI was connected to three T

type and one K type thermocouples. The T type thermocouples were located in the

injection duct of the airfoil, the suction duct of the airfoil and the suction pipe. The K

type thermocouple was located in the injection pipe. The two thermocouples located in

the pipes were used to gather the static temperature information for density calculations

that went into mass flow rate calculations. Each temperature reading was given as a

single value into the program from an average of 20 readings.

The second loop in the Labview program was used to sample the strain gauges used

to calculate lift and drag. The strain measurements were given as a single value into the

program. This number comes from the average of 5 integration of a digital signal with a

two-power line cycle integration time. The sampling rate is 300Hz. Two power line

cycles is equal to 33.3ms; this comes to 10 samples for each integration. So, the voltage

read into the program come from an average of 50 samples from the appropriate









Wheatstone bridge. The voltage is then turned into a force from the calibration curve

previously found. This loop runs at approximately 2/3 Hz.

PIV images were also taken to better understand the flow field. The PIV images

were taken separate from the other data recorded. The Labview program described above

was used only to determine the wind tunnel velocity and mass flow rates for the PIV

experiments. All other calculations were done on the computer designated for the PIV

system.

Uncertainty Analysis

This section is dedicated to the uncertainty analysis of all measured and calculated

values. The uncertainties of the measured values are determined first. The uncertainties

of the calculated values are then found using the uncertainties of the measured values.

The measured uncertainties were found using equations 2-6, 2-7 and 2-8. In the

equations U represents the total uncertainty, B represents the bias uncertainty and P

represents the precision uncertainty. The uncertainties of the measured values are

summarized in table 2-2.

U = + B (i5P) Eqn 2-6


B = B+B2 +...+B2 Eqn 2-7

P= p2+P,2 +...+P, Eqn 2-8
P P2P2 P2 Eqn2-8

The calculated uncertainties were found using equations 2-9 and 2-10.

R = R(x, x,...,x) Eqn 2-9


UR U RU 2 +...+ RU, Eqn2-10
xi, a 2x ax









Table 2-2. List of the uncertainties of the measured values
Measurement Uncertainty
Dynamic pressure from wind tunnel 0.014 inH20
Differential pressure across orifice plate 0.134 inH20
Static pressure in injection pipe 0.102 psi
Static pressure in suction pipe 0.092 psi
Stagnation pressure in injection slot 0.553 kPa
Static pressure in suction manifold 0.295 kPa
Static temperature in injection pipe 1.170 C
Static temperature in suction pipe 0.730 C
Static temperature in injection duct of airfoil 0.730 C
Static temperature in suction duct of airfoil 0.730 C
Lift force, Ci 0.0088-0.043
Drag force, Cd 0.0088-0.043

The wind tunnel velocity is found from the dynamic pressure. The velocity was

calculated using equation 2-11.


V P


Eqn 2-11


where,


Wind tunnel velocity
Dynamic pressure
Density of free stream


The uncertainty in the velocity measurement reduces to equations 2-12. The

uncertainty in the velocity measurement is 0.748 m/s or 2.08%. The velocity of the wind

tunnel was also checked with PIV. The velocity measured from PIV was within the

uncertainty.


Uv = i)?p av
U, "= + -"
r8q p +; "J


Eqn 2-12


The mass flow rate was given by equation 2-1. The uncertainty of the mass flow

rate can be reduced to equation 2-13. Table 2-3 shows values for the given uncertainties.









22 422 2 222
a, (^ l f2P D 2 Al 1i 8p lf^p 2
K ( ) )2 4( )2 A ( E qn 2-13

Table 2-3. Uncertainty in orifice plate calculation
Coefficient Uncertainty of Uncertainty of
Injection Side, % Suction Side, %
OC
0.06 0.06
C
0.144 0.144

2 p4 )2 -12 00
1- P4 D



Ap
1.914 2.197
2 (>2
Op 1 + T 0.562 0.870


The uncertainty in the mass flow rate measurement is 1.01% for the injection and

1.19% for the suction.

The uncertainty in A/A* needs to be found before the uncertainty of the injection

velocity can be determined. Equation 2-3 defined A/A*. The uncertainty of this ratio is

given in equation 2-14.

\U (A / A*) ) ((A / A*) )+ (A/A*) ) Eqn2-14
UA=/A* Up + U + o U Eqn 2-14

The uncertainty in A/A* is calculated to be 1.37 %. This relates to an uncertainty

in the Mach number of 1.65%. This uncertainty relates directly to the uncertainty of the

velocity because the speed of sound, a, is considered constant. So the uncertainty of the

injection velocity is 1.65%.









The jet momentum coefficient is the last quantity for which the uncertainty needs to

be calculated. The jet momentum coefficient was defined in equation 2-5. The

uncertainty of the jet momentum coefficient is given by equation 2-15.


U ( UV +i ()U + ( U Eqn 2-15


The uncertainty of the jet momentum coefficient is calculated to be 4.59%.

The uncertainty of the lift and drag was calculated using Student's t-distribution

[15], which is given in equation 2-16. Student's t-distribution gives the uncertainty of the

true mean.

tA= Eqn 2-16


where,

A Uncertainty
t t-value for corresponding confidence level
o Standard deviation
n Number of samples

For a 95% confidence level and 50 samples, the t-value is equal to 2.0105. The

standard deviation for both lift and drag at lower angle of attacks is 1 N and at higher

angle of attacks is 5 N. This corresponds to standard deviation in terms of C1 and Cd of

0.031-0.153. So, the uncertainty in Ci and Cd would then be 0.0088 at lower angle of

attacks and 0.043 at higher angle of attacks.

The uncertainty of the PIV measurements was calculated as well. The pixel

resolution of the camera and the resolution of the calibration ruler were the dominant

terms of the uncertainty; they were .1mm and .25mm respectively. This results in an

uncertainty of 1.00 m/s or 2.79%.














CHAPTER 3
PROCEDURE

This chapter describes the experimental procedure followed during the testing of

the CFJ airfoils. The airfoils were tested in three configurations. The CFJ0025-065-196

and CFJ0025-131-196 were tested along with a baseline airfoil. The baseline airfoil was

really the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil with an insert that slides into the injection and suction

slots and fills the recessed portion. The profile of the airfoil with the filler piece installed

was a NACA 0025.

The airfoils were also tested in two different manners. The airfoils were tested for

lift and drag characteristics with strain gauges and flow field visualization with particle

image velocimetry.

The lift and drag testing is discussed first. A rigorous airfoil assembly procedure

and testing procedure can be found in appendix C and appendix D respectively.

The airfoil to be tested would have to be assembled and placed into the wind

tunnel. Although there were two different airfoils, they shared the same endplates and

aluminum foam insert. Therefore changing airfoils was somewhat laborious. The airfoil

would have to be disassembled and the new airfoil reassembled. Once the airfoil was in

the wind tunnel, the procedure was as follows:

1. Turn on vacuum pump and begin pulling vacuum
2. Start compressor
3. Connect different probes to appropriate transducers
4. Turn on all instrumentation and computer
5. Start Labview program written for testing
6. Make sure all probes are reading correctly in Labview VI
7. Set zero degree angle of attack









8. Rotate airfoil to desired angle of attack
9. Enter necessary information into the program
10. Turn on wind tunnel
11. Start air injection
12. Dial in suction mass flow rate
13. Only continue after the suction mass flow rate is desirable
14. Start air suction and sampling

The Labview program recorded the following measured values:

1. Static pressure upstream of injection orifice plate
2. Static temperature upstream of injection orifice plate
3. Differential pressure across injection orifice plate
4. Static pressure upstream of suction orifice plate
5. Static temperature upstream of suction orifice plate
6. Differential pressure across suction orifice plate
7. Static temperature in airfoil injection duct
8. Static temperature in airfoil suction duct
9. Stagnation pressure at injection slot
10. Static pressure in suction manifold
11. Lift force
12. Drag force

The Labview program recorded the following calculated values:

1. Mass flow rate of air pushed through injection slot
2. Mass flow rate of air pulled through suction slot
3. Wind tunnel velocity
4. Injection jet velocity
5. Injection jet momentum coefficient

Other useful information the Labview program recorded:

1. The time of the primary loop
2. The time of the secondary loop
3. Angle of attack

The times of the primary loop and secondary loop were important because the two

loops run at different speeds. The time was then a way to relate the information in both

loops together. The angle of attack was also convenient to have in the file. The only


other place the angle of attack was saved was in the file name itself.






29


The PIV testing was similar to the lift and drag testing. The testing procedure was

as follows:

1. Steps 1-13 are identical
2. Adjust laser light sheet to illuminate desired plane
3. Set the laser and camera timing for wind tunnel velocity and spatial resolution
4. Calibrate PIV with ruler by placing it in the light sheet and focus camera on ruler
5. Turn on fog machine
6. Adjust seeding particles until images are clear and filled with fog
7. Turn on suction and capture PIV images














CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

This chapter is dedicated to the results from the wind tunnel tests conducted at the

University of Florida. This chapter includes tests taken for lift and drag measurements as

well as tests taken for flow field visualization. The CFJ airfoil was tested in many ways.

These will all be described in detail in this chapter.

Different Tests Conducted

The three different airfoils were tested in many different manners. The airfoils

were tested to study things such as lift, drag, stall angle, velocity profile, stagnation point

location, effects of leading edge trip, separation due to high injection mass flow rate and

effects of lift and drag due to altered mass flow rates. Two test matrices are shown in

tables 4-1 and 4-2. The matrices are a complete record of all wind tunnel tests conducted

at the University of Florida.

Many of the different testing manners are discussed in the following sections. The

two tests that are not discussed later are the leading edge trip and the tests run without the

wind tunnel on. The reasons for these tests will be explained in this section.

The airfoils were tested with and without a leading edge trip. The trip was applied

by spraying the leading edge of the airfoil with a strip of photo adhesive. The width of

the strip was 1/2" or 8.33% chord length. Immediately after the adhesive was applied,

fine sand was sprinkled over it. The trip was then left to dry.

The purpose of the leading edge trip was to transition the flow from laminar to

turbulent. The 0.1527m chord length gives the airfoil a Reynolds number around








31










s i i



a 0


' i oi Q o I I I I

S i 0











P 0 Q Ql Qa M
n n0 nflnQ I I n


R I | I | I I oIo 0 Q
0 0









I I I I
on
a a Q | | a a ao Q' !Q3!QQ Q|
oo
00








coa noon noo




0 o
o o on o,
S0 0 00I 0
Ia,





o0 0



a 00 a


a I o Ia I I o n
S I ooooo on o a









0000 I0 0
aa
a o a o a roa






0 0| 01 0 0 I _d- -



s E S1


ai C l ;a.-B'S **rlBI^, .' *'" 1"". u1" S '"S
o*-3= ~ ~~ c L^ i'.i s p ;'^1^ t i.. :i'_i.t n '3' (n ^ ^^
_^ C 4 >C -^ C =^ 1 ^* t m *'*-s l "; "*
g ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i LL~n^^S^SI;r^ ^




















CiCi


CD
Q o Ej Lia
.F-9


-c


.--



--








- C Ci Ci Ci C- -
c7:

o CICJCJCU


SLcn
flw m




-i- o
c


Oi ^
r ncn


l r

ll

i-r
aLr

mEE
ru EE
CD T- -


cn






m
23
0

Ln
zi


M r


--' j ClJ


CiCi C Ci CI Ci


EEEE
EEEE
It I IrT


--C




E E
E E
C'-C'


k-
.1 .--
L L
0 --




*-N-


CU i Mi


m 0M


C ll


II II
0-,


D Cj









380,000. The injection jet's turbulence would easily turn this laminar flow to a turbulent

flow where as the flow over the NACA 0025 would remain in the laminar region the

majority of the distance over the airfoil. Comparing a dominantly laminar flow to a

turbulent flow would then lead to erroneous conclusions.

The airfoil was also tested with and without the wind tunnel turned on. The reason

for this was to see the contribution of the jets momentum on the lift measurement. The

ratio of lift with the jets on and tunnel off to lift with jets on and tunnel on was

summarized in table 4-3. It was concluded the overall aerodynamics of the airfoil are to

be credited with the lift measurement and not the momentum flux of the injection and

suction jets.

Table 4-3. Ratio of lift with tunnel off to lift with tunnel on
Description/AOA 0 deg 20 deg 30 deg 36 deg
CFJ0025-065-196 0.269 0.076 0.069 0.063
CFJ0025-131-196 0.358 0.088 0.099 N/A


Improved Lift, Drag and Stall

During the lift and drag measurements, the stagnation pressure of the injection jet

dictated the mass flow rate. For both airfoils, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196,

the desired mass flow rate was dialed in when the airfoil was at 30 degrees angle of

attack. This stagnation pressure was the pressure at which all other angles of attack were

run. So, the mass flow rate did vary slightly depending on the angle of attack.

Figure 4-1 is a summary of the CFJ0025-065-196 lift performance. It can be seen

that the higher mass flow rates have a higher lift coefficient and stall margin. This is not

a surprising result. When the mass flow was raised, the jet momentum coefficient was

raised; meaning the amount of momentum injected into the flow was higher. Also

plotted is the performance of the NACA 0025 for comparison.












............. CFJO0025-065-196- no trip-119
- A- CFJO25-065-196- wtrlp-1.04
S- CFJO025-065-196- wttrip-1.19
-- -- CFJO02-068-196- w/trip-1.27
- 4- CFJO0025-065-196no trip-Jet off
- NACA0025 w/trip
- *- NACA0025 no trip


* A~


C2 )2/ /






0o



-10 0 10 20 30 40
AOA


Figure 4-1. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-065-196

The effect of the boundary layer trip can also be seen in figure 4-1. The stall

margin of the NACA 0025 and the CFJ0025-065-196 (stagnation pressure ratio of 1.19)

was increased by 4 degrees each when the leading edge trip was applied. The bottom

curve in the figure is the CFJ0025-065-196 with no boundary layer trip and the jets

turned off. It is easy to see the effect the jets have on the aerodynamics of the airfoil.

Table 4-4 is a comparison between all three airfoil configurations. The values for

the CFJ0025-065-196 are from the maximum flow rate tested, which corresponds to a

stagnation pressure ratio of 1.27. It can be seen the maximum lift coefficient for the

CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil is 3.2 times as large as the maximum lift coefficient for the

NACA 0025. This is an improvement of 220%. Other important parameters are the

angle of attack at which separation occurs is increased by 132% and the minimum drag

coefficient goes from positive to negative.










Table 4-4. Comparison between CFJ airfoils and baseline airfoil
Airfoil AOAcL (deg) AOALA. (deg) CLmax CDm
NACA 0025 0 19 1.57 0.128
CFJ0025-065-196 -4 44 5.04 -0.036
CFJ0025-131-196 -6.5 38 4.90 -0.263

The drag polar is also plotted for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil in figure 4-2. The

most notable aspect of the drag polar is the negative drag for the CFJ airfoil at low angles

of attack. Negative drag is equivalent to thrust. The injection jet momentum coefficient

that enabled these dramatic increases in lift and stall margin and decrease in drag are

given in figure 4-3.

The same plots were constructed with the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil. Again, the

CFJ0025-131-196 is a similar airfoil with twice as large of an injection slot. The suction

slots are the same size. Because the injection jet is twice as large, the mass flow rates are

about twice as large.


5






3 \






: .. F 25-65-19- no trp-1.19
CFJ025-065.196- wlMp-1.04
-1- - CFJO025-065-196- wtrip-1 .19
i ---- CFJ0025-065-196- wtrip-1.27
-- CFJ0025-065-196-no trip-Jet off
0 NACA0025 witrip
r---- NACA0025 no trip


0 0.5 1 1.5 2
CD

Figure 4-2. Drag polar for CFJ0025-065-196












0.3 ..... CFJ0025-065-196-notrip-1.19
-- CFJ0025-065-196-wlrlp-1.04
-- -- CFJ0025-065-196-w/'lp-1.19
-- CFJ0025-065-196- w/tr1p-1.27
0.25



0.2

......... "...e."*E"
O 0.15 .....


0.1 -
,,... ,-

0.05-



-10 0 10 20 30 40
AOA


Figure 4-3. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-065-196

The performance of the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil was very similar to the CFJ0025-

065-196 airfoil. The main differences being a slightly lower CLmax, AOAc, and CDmn.


The CFJ0025-131-196 was also compared to the other two airfoils configurations in table

4-4. Figure 4-4 is a summary of the CFJ0025-131-196 lift performance. The drag polar

is also plotted for the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil in figure 4-5. The injection jet

momentum coefficient that enabled these dramatic increases in lift and stall margin and

decrease in drag are given in figure 4-6.

It can be seen the CFJ airfoils dramatically increase lift, increase stall margin and

decrease drag. The CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil appears superior for increased lift and stall

margin, while the CFJ0025-131-196 appears superior for decreased drag. There is still

much future optimization that needs to be done.


















.-w...-..... CFJ0025-131-196 no trip -1.24
S- -- CFJ0025-131-196witrip-1.04
-- -- CFJ0025-131-196 wltrlp-1.09
4 -- CFJ0025-131-196wltrip- 1.24
S- CFJ0025-131-196 notrip- Jet off
--*-..- CFJ0025-131-196witrip-Jetoff
z- NACA0025 trip
- NACA0025 no trlp


A A


AOA


Figure 4-4. Lift coefficient verse angle of attack for CFJ0025-131-196


- -


a
A.


v --


0o-ay--
*^ .-*
.-f^y


CFJ0025-131-196 no trip -1.24
CFJ0025-1-31-196 trip -1.04
CFJ0025-131-196 w/trqp -1.09
CFJ0025-131-196 w/trip 1.24
CFJ0025-131-196 no trip Jet off
CFJOO25-131 -196 w trip Jet ofl
NACA0025 w/trip
NACA0025 no trip


Figure 4-5. Drag polar for CFJ0025-131-196


-- Jb- --
-- -- .--
------- -------
.9.
- A- -


- -
----- ----
-4--
---.---


.0-01_V,0 60











0.7-
--......... CFJ0025-131-196 no trip-1.24
A CFJ0025-131-196 w/tlp-1.04
CFJ0025-13-196 w/lrp -1.09
S- CFJ0025-131-196 w/trip -1.24


0.5


0.4


0.3 -


0.2
P-- -

0.1



-10 0 10 20 30 40
AOA


Figure 4-6. Injection jet coefficients of CFJ0025-131-196

Instability of the Jet

As the mass flow rate of the jets was increased, the performance of the CFJ airfoil

increased. But for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil, there was a maximum to this mass flow

rate. The injection jet lost the ability to stay attached to the airfoil when it was forced

passed this maximum. The flow would become separated from the airfoil and

recirculation would occur. The result was loss of lift and increased drag.

The mass flow rate of the suction jet was not capable of being adjusted accurately

while tests were being conducted. For this reason, only the injection jet was used in the

tests that looked at the stability of the flow.

It is still unknown what exactly is causing this instability. It is thought that the

tangential momentum of the injection jet becomes too large and the flow can no longer

follow the curvature to the airfoil.









It is unknown if the same would be true for the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil.

Limitations on the orifice plate and differential pressure transducer, which were both

used to measure the mass flow rate, made it impossible to force separation. The mass

flow rate just could not be pushed high enough and measured with the current setup.

Stagnation Point Location

The stagnation point was also looked at for different mass flow rates. The

stagnation point lies on the pressure surface of the CFJ airfoil. Due to limitations with

the PIV set up, only the flow field over the suction surface could be viewed. Therefore,

the exact location of the stagnation point could not be captured; however, evidence of the

movement from altering the mass flow rates was.

Figure 4-7 and 4-8 show the flow field of the CFJ0025-065-196 at 20 and 30

degrees angle of attack, respectively. It can be seen that the stagnation point shifts along

the pressure surface of the airfoil as the mass flow rate is increased. This is apparent in

both cases. The result of the stagnation point shifting, as the mass flow rate increases, is

higher velocities at the leading edge and over the suction surface, which leads to higher

lift. Future design will include a way to capture PIV images on the pressure surface of

the airfoil.

PIV Results

Too much PIV data was taken to include it all in this thesis. Because of this only a

few interesting cases will be shown (appendix E includes additional images). The PIV

images in this thesis have had the appropriate airfoil superimposed onto them. The

placement of the airfoil is not exact but a best estimate of the proper location. The

images are also averaged from 75-120 images. A fog machine was used to generate

seeding particle on the order of 1-10 microns. The camera used to capture the images







40


had a resolution of 1600x1200 pixels. This results in a resolution of approximately


1.7mm for the PIV images of the whole airfoil using an interrogation region of 16x16


pixels.


CFJ0025-065-196 High Mass Flow Rate


120 -


100


U/Uinf
2.2





S0I


I I I I
20 40 60 80
X mm


100 120 140
100 120 140


CFJ0025-065-196 Low Mass Flow Rate


120 |-


UIUinf
2.2




S1.



20 40 60 80
X mm


100 120 140 I
100 120 140


Figure 4-7. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025-065-196
and A) high and B) low mass flow rates


at 20 degrees angle of attack












CFJ0025-065-196 High Mass Flow Rate


120


100


80
E
E
> 60


40


20


U/Uinf
2.2


1.1


0


20 40 60 80 100 120 140
X mm


CFJ0025-065-196 Low Mass Flow Rate


U/Uinf
2.2



fl


20 40 60 80
X mm


100 120 140
100 120 140


B


Figure 4-8. Stagnation point location for CFJ0025-065-196 at 30 degrees angle of attack
and A) high and B) low mass flow rates


It can be seen from the streamlines in figure 4-9 that the flow is attached at 40


degrees angle of attack and separated at 43 degrees for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil. The


airfoils did not utilize a boundary layer trip. The trip adds about 4 degrees to the stall


angle; therefore the data is in agreement with the data form the lift and drag tests for the


stall angle. Figure 4-10 shows the flow over the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil is attached at


I I I







42


36 degrees angle of attack and detached at 43 degrees. Figure 4-11 show the same for the


NACA 0025, attached at 10 degrees angle of attack and detached at 20 degrees.



CFJ0025-065-196 40 deg AOA


150 -
U/Uinf
25


-2.
10050 10

E m

0 .. .. 0









50 100 150
Xmm


CFJ0025-065-196 43 deg AOA


U/Uinf
25

20

S16

112


20 40 60 80
X mm


100 120 140


Figure 4-9. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-065-196 A) 40 deg and B) 43 deg


IIIIIIIIII II II Ir I







43



CFJ0025-131-196 36deg AOA


140 -

U/Uinf
120 25


12
100 20





60 ....


40 04
4 o


Xmm


CFJ0025-131-196 43 deg AOA


120 -


U/Uinf
25

20


16


20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Xmm
B


Figure 4-10. PIV image of flow over CFJ0025-131-196 A) 36 deg and B) 43 deg


I II I I I I I I I I I I.I I













Baseline 10 deg AOA


140 -


120 M


100


E 80
E
>-

60


40


20


Xmm


Baseline 20 deg AOA


140


120


100


E 80
E

60


40


20


Xmm


Figure 4-11. PIV image of flow over baseline airfoil


B


A) 10 deg and B) 20 deg


UIUinf
25

20

1 6

12

O8

04

00


UIUinf
25

20

16

12

08

04

00










Velocity profiles were constructed from the PIV data as well. Figure 4-12 is a

group of velocity profiles comparing the flow over the baseline, the CFJ0025-065-196

and the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoils at 10 degrees angle of attack and various chord

locations (5%, 15%, 30%, 50%, 75%, 100%). The profiles were taken perpendicular to

the airfoil's surface. The x-axis in the profiles is a dimensionless velocity. It is the local

velocity over the airfoil normalized by the free stream velocity. The y-axis is the distance

from the surface of the airfoil given in percent chord length. In the legend, base refers to

the baseline airfoil, 0.65% refers to the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil and 1.31% refers to the

CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil.

S Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
S --base base
S--- O5% O--- 5% \
.0 30 30o1%
1.31% 0 1.31%
25 .25
". v. .......... \-* **""
20 20
-15 -15
20
10 10

0 .. ~Q..-...-". ."N
00 0:5 v.o1 (uj 2.5 O 0:5 I ) 25
0locity (UU Velocity .UlUJ 2
35,l............. V e l normal frosm e airfoil r Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
F -b base
I -.-193%6 a 30 "0.o :l o |
5 0%... ..................... E )
1.31% 1.31



15 i i15
al10 \-10
o i
I5-


....... I __o..
oV ly I 15 2 2.5 0 05 1 1. 2 25
VekcIty (liU Velociry (JtUUJ D
Figure 4-12. Velocity profiles of baseline airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-
196 at 10 degree AOA and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D)
50% E) 75% F) 100%










35 Velocrty profile normal FIrm F irfoil surface
base
230 ---. 0.65%
S 1.................. 31%
=25
E20
15
S10


0 5 1 5 2
VelociNv (LUJ)


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
- bas
.-... 0 65;
1 31% h


0.5 1 1.5
Velocity (U/UJ


Figure 4-12. Continued

Figure 4-13 groups all velocity profiles into a single graph so the flow trend is

more visible and figure 4-14 illustrates the position where the profiles were taken from.


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


20 40
Axial Distance (%


60
Chord); U/U


80 100
= 5% Chord


Figure 4-13. Velocity profiles of baseline airfoil, CFJ0025-065-196
196 combined into single graph (10 degree AOA)


and CFJ0025-131-


2 2.5


35


230
O

=25


E20
E

-15
E
0
c 10
(a
C)
a 5
0l






















Figure 4-14. Positions from where velocity profiles where taken. The arrows designate
the location of the injection and suction slots.

The effects of the injection and suction jets can be seen in the velocity profiles.

The CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil has a larger velocity over the fore half of the airfoil

compared to the baseline. The CFJ0025-131-196 has a significantly larger velocity over

the entire airfoil compared to the baseline and CFJ0025-065-196 airfoils.

It should be noted that the reason that some of the velocity profiles are

discontinuous around 0-5% chord lengths is not necessarily due to any boundary

condition or the jets, but instead it is a result of the PIV camera and seeding particle.

There was a considerable amount of reflection that comes off the aluminum airfoil that

caused excess noise. Also no seeding particles were used in the injection system.

Figure 4-15 is a group of velocity profiles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025-

065-196 airfoil and the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoil at the same locations as before and 30

degrees angle of attack. The profile at the trailing edge is not included because the image

had a lot of reflection from the Plexiglas and back walls. Therefore the data is considered

invalid. Figure 4-16 is all of the profiles grouped together so the flow trend is more

visible. Again it can be seen that the result of the larger injection slot is a greater velocity

over the entire airfoil.










Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35 35
-- 065".% 0655'.
0 131% 30 131 %

25 =25
o -
E20 20






0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 00 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Velocity (U/UJ A velocity (U/UJ B
Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35 35
.-.-- 0 65"o ,, .---- 0 65"o
M30l 1.31% % 30 1.31%

=25 =25

E20 20
15 -15 :

C10 10


- | -------- 7
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Velocity (Ul/U C Velocity (U/UJ D
Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35
.--- 065".5







130 1,31%



E20,
*15 *25












W15
E.
S10




0 0.5 1 1:5 2 2.5 3
Velocity (U/UJ E

Figure 4-15. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ 0025-131-196 at 30 degree
AOA and various chord locations, A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75%

Figure 4-17 is a group of velocity profiles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025-

065-196 airfoil at different angles of attack. Figure 4-18 is all of the profiles grouped

together so the flow trend is more visible. It can be seen the greater the angle of attack

the higher the velocity of air over the airfoil.
the higher the velocity of air over the airfoil.








49



Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


. 30


=25


E20
0
4--
o

-15
E
o


CD
,0

o 5
wZ


-- 0.65%
1.31%


-1[















20 40
Axial Distance (%
I -




1 -




20 40
Axial Distance (%


t
i-



I:








/ E

S-
j,IS
i





60
Chord); U/U


Figure 4-16. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 and CFJ0025-131-196 combined into
single graph (30 degree AOA)


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
3 5 .. ..........................
O-deg
30 -- 10 deg
S30 deg
v25

20



10 N


00
a


35
-c-
030

=25

E20

15



aS
0
0
0


0.5 1 15 2 2,5
Velocity (U/U)
Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


- Odeg
----- 10 deg
30 deg


0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Velocity (U/U)


35

130
o
25

20

15

c10

I5
i3


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Velocity (UfU)
Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


35
m- deg
30---- 10 deg
S30 deg
=25

S20

15

c10

I5

0 0.5
o01 75s


1 1.5
Velocity (U/UJ


2.5 3


Figure 4-17. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA and chord locations,
A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%


80 100
= 5% Chord
=5% Chord











Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
3 5 .. ............. .......
OOdeg
30 I---- 10 deg
Q 30 deg
I25

S20
Cc
15

10


I
"n -S = ^


0o 0.


Figure 4-17



35



230
o


=25



20



-15



S10

0

1 5

E


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35
Odeg
30 l- 10deg
Q 30 deg
Z25

E20

S15

10


1. -- 1


0 20 40 60 80 100
Axial Distance (% Chord); U/U = 5% Chord


Figure 4-18. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-065-196 at various AOA combined into single
graph

Figure 4-19 is a group of velocity profiles comparing the flow over the CFJ0025-


131-196 airfoil at different angles of attack. Figure 4-20 is all of the profiles grouped


5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Velocity (U/UJ E Velocity (UIU)


. Continued


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


O deg I
--- 10 deg I

30 deg










--
rA
II Il
I I I ll

i I I II
I iI
I I
a Ir I 1l
I I-I
I II I-

I I I -
I_ I I
I I:


I I" 'I

I I
-r










together so the flow trend is more visible. It can be seen the greater the angle of attack

the higher the velocity of air over the airfoil.

For both the CFJ0025-065-196 and the CFJ0025-131-196 airfoils, the velocities on

the fore half of the airfoil are much different than the velocities on the aft half as the

angle of attack is increased. The non-dimensional velocities at 15% chord length are

very spread, ranging from about 1.3-2.3 and 1.5-2.5 for the CFJ0025-065-196 and

CFJ0025-131-196 respectively. The range becomes smaller towards the trailing edge

were it is about 1-1.4 for the CFJ0025-065-196 airfoil and is 1.2 for the CFJ0025-131-

196 airfoil.


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35 35
30 deg0 deg
f f 1 .-- 10 deg
30 2 30
30 deg
25 25 ....

E20 -20

10 .. C10 \ -
315 15




1 dg 1 Odeg
o o



Velocity (U/) A Velocity (U/U) B
Velocity profile normal from airfCil surface Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface

30 35 1 5 F .
S. 0 deg 0. 30deg
25 =25
E20 20






%0 0.5 2 2.5 %O 05 1 15 2 25 3
Velocity (U/u) C Velocity (U/U) D

Figure 4-19. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA and chord locations,
A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75% F) 100%
A) 5% B) 15% C) 30% D) 50% E) 75%F) 10000










Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
3 5 .. ..........................
M30 -- 10deg cle
ig ------------
Q 30 deg
.25

E20
Cc
15

0


0 0.


Figure 4-19



35

-c

230


=25


40-



0


=10

0


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface
35
deg
.30 1O9de /

Z25

E20

,15

10
W5
"0.
dO-


0 20 40 60 80 100
Axial Distance (% Chord); U/U = 5% Chord


Figure 4-20. Velocity profiles of CFJ0025-131-196 at various AOA combined into single
graph.

Another important piece of information that was taken from the PIV data was from

the wake images. The NACA 0025 had a wake deficit. The CFJ airfoils on the other

hand had a wake surplus. Figures 4-21 and 4-22 show the differences in the wakes at 0


5 1 1,5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1,5 2 2.5
Velocity (U/UJ E Velocity (UIU)


.Continued


Velocity profile normal from airfoil surface


IOdeg I; I|
0 deg
--- 10 deg

30 deg
t i-
Stt

SI IE

Si"
IF

S-E

---
IEr
I F F


1 t
I E



I\ I I

I/ t t











and 10 degrees angle of attack, respectively, for all three airfoil configurations. The


wake images were taken approximately one chord length downstream of the airfoil.


Again, there was no net mass being injected into the flow. The wake surplus was a result


of the momentum being added to the flow.


Velocity profile of wake

base
S--- 0.65%

I 1.31%




.. ...... ..... .... .
,f,


60


40 -


2C

0


Cu
-40
1-40
C
a1


9 ? 1 11 1 2 1 1I 1E 16 17
Velocity (U/U)


Figure 4-21. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 0 deg AOA

Velocity profile of wake

base
S\ .----- 0.65%





zo-a






ai-
a.i i





U,

I ., I, i
I II 1 I1 16 17
Velocity (U/U)

Figure 4-22. Wake profiles of three different airfoil configurations at 10 deg AOA










A velocity profile of the wake was also taken at 30 degrees for the two airfoils

utilizing the CFJ flow control technique. It can be seen in figure 4-23 that the wake

profile is significantly different. There is no longer a simple wake shape as was seen in

the lower angles of attack.

Velocity profile of wake
.. 0.65%
E .; .. 1.31%

o .



o oit

-2
t-
-40-




C -80i


,C
0-

,, I I 13 4 15i 16 1 7
Velocity (U/U)
Figure 4-23. Wake profiles of CFJ airfoils at 30 deg AOA

Drag Determination From Wake Measurements

An attempt was made to calculate the drag from the wake profiles with the PIV

data. A control volume approach was chosen for this task. The control surfaces

encompassed the airfoil and were drawn in such a way as no mass passed through the

sides as in figure 4-24. The momentum flux and area exiting the control volume was

known from the wake profile. The momentum flux into the control volume was assumed

uniform with a velocity equal to the free stream. The inlet area of control volume was

adjusted to satisfy the continuity equation; the mass into the control volume had to equal

the mass out. The pressure acting on all sides of the control volume was found by

equations 4-1 and 4-2. It was assumed To,, was constant and equal to 300K.




















/ --7-










Figure 4-24. Control volume over airfoil

y-lV2
T = tal R Eqn 4-1
2 yR

P = pRT Eqn 4-2

The above approach did not yield valid results. It is thought calculating the

pressures acting on the control volume from velocity measurements alone is not enough.

Future work will include taking pressure readings along the boundaries of the control

volume as well as velocity measurements.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

The research described in this thesis successfully demonstrated how the CFJ airfoil

transitioned from CFD modeling to wind tunnel testing. The research proved the high

performance capabilities of the CFJ airfoil. It was shown the smaller injection slot airfoil

performed better than the larger injection slot airfoil with respect to maximum lift and

stall margin. It was also shown the larger injection slot airfoil performed better than the

smaller injection slot airfoil with respect to lift for a given angle of attack and drag

reduction.

The PIV data revealed evidence of how the stagnation point location moves with

varying mass flow rates. The movement of the stagnation point results in different lift

and drag characteristics. The PIV data taken was used to make velocity profiles of the

CFJ airfoil and compare them to a conventional airfoil. The data also was used to

compare velocity profiles of the two different CFJ airfoils used in wind tunnel tests.

Although the research conducted in this thesis was successful, much work lies

ahead. The PIV setup will need to be improved to better understand the location and

movement of the stagnation point. The instability of the jet also needs to be looked into

further as the exact cause is still unknown at this time.

Much optimization still remains for the CFJ airfoil geometry. The geometry of

the airfoil was chosen from CFD simulations. Only two different injection slot sizes

were tested in the wind tunnel. Many different slot heights should be tried, both for the

injection and for the suction. The slot location will also have a significant effect on the









performance of the airfoil. In future work, it is planned to have an injection slot that can

be adjusted for both location and height.

The amount of mass injected can be controlled by a number of different means. It

is not know which of these is the best method to obtain the peak performance. The mass

injected can be controlled by a direct measurement of the mass flow rate. The stagnation

pressure of the injection jet or the jet momentum coefficient can also control the mass

injected. It might also be beneficial to control the velocity of the injection jet.

An in-depth study of the shear-mixing region would also be advantageous to the

success of the CFJ airfoil. It is known the CFJ airfoil suppresses separation and increases

lift from the addition of momentum and the induced mixing with the free stream. The

mechanics of the turbulent shear layer mixing the free stream and the jet is largely

unknown.

Future work also consists of investigating three-dimensional effects of a wing

utilizing a CFJ. Work here would include looking at tip effects due to the CFJ. Other

items to be looked at include the length the slots should extend towards the wingtips and

if there should be any variation is the slot height or location along the wingspan.














APPENDIX A
DETAILED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE

1. Plug in power supply and data acquisition/switch unit
2. Check the power supplies 5V output with the Multimeter to make sure the output
is indeed 5V
3. Connect all appropriate connections
a. Connect nine pin to BNC breakout box
b. Connect power supply to BNC breakout box
c. Connect BNC cables from breakout box to appropriate connections on
data acquisition/switch unit
d. Connect data acquisition/switch unit to computer
4. If this calibration has already been preformed and the experimentalist wants only
to check the accuracy of the calibration or reading, go to step 17
5. Rigidly attach balance cylinder to fixed object such as an optical table
6. Attach metal calibration bar to end of cylinder where the airfoil attaches
7. Rotate the cylinder until it reaches an appropriate angle (an appropriate angle is
one in which the normal and axial forces are in the range of expected
experimental normal and axial forces)
8. Measure the angle with an inclinometer
9. Open up Labview VI previously made for balance calibration and enter necessary
information
a. Angle
b. Run number
c. Number of samples to take
d. Data folder to save information to
10. Press the tare button. This will nullify any voltage currently being read.
11. Take a reading at zero load
12. Hang a 1kg mass from the hole in the metal bar, take care to steady any
oscillatory motion of the mass
13. Increase the mass to 1kg in the Labview program
14. Take a reading at this load condition
15. Increase the mass hanging from the hole in the metal bar 1kg at a time until the
maximum expected experimental force is achieved. Be sure to take readings for
each increment and change the mass in the Labview program accordingly.
16. Plot the voltage verse force to come up with an initial calibration curve for the
normal and axial force
17. Place the fully assembled airfoil into the wind tunnel suction side down
18. Press the tare button in the Labview program written for wind tunnel testing
19. Place a 1kg weight in the center of the span of the airfoil
20. Record the force the program is reading for lift






59


21. Repeat steps 19 and 20 increasing the weight until it exceeds the maximum force
expected
22. Turn the airfoil so the LE is pointing straight up
23. Place a 1kg weight in the center of the span of the airfoil for this orientation too
24. Record the force the program is reading for drag
25. Plot the known load verse indicated load for both lift and drag
26. The slopes of the curves are the corrections needed for the latex tubes. Adjust the
initial calibration accordingly.
27. Check to see if the airfoil is now calibrated correctly by placing known weights
on the center span making sure the program is reading the correct force















APPENDIX B
LIST OF INSTRUMENTATION AND EQUIPMENT

Instrumentation Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment
Pressure Measurements:
Heise ST-2H SN 50520
Model HQS-1 Range 0-15" H20 SNHQS-15557
Model HQS-2 Range 0-30 psia SN HQS-18121

Heise ST-2H SN 50841
Model HQS-1 Range 0-50" H20 SN HQS-17943
Model HQS-2 Range 0-250 psia SN HQS-18120

Druck DPI 145 Multifunction pressure indicator SN 0721/98-08

Temperature Measurements:
National Instruments SCXI-1000 Mainframe SN 002894
National Instruments SCXI-1303 SN A18FE3

Force Measurements:
Tektronix PS280 DC Power Supply SN PS280 TW58011

Hewlett Packard 34970A Data Acquisition/Switch Unit
Agilent 34901A 20-channel armature multiplexer

Ninepin-to-BNC breakout box

Power to control valve:
Tektronix PS280 DC Power Supply SN PS280 TW11432

National Instruments SCB-68 Breakout Box SN BAD24C

PIV Measurements:
TSI Power View Camera Model 630151 SN 14250

TSI Laser Pulse Synchronizer Model 610032 SN 220









Equipment Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment
Aerolab Educational Wind tunnel
Open circuit
12" x 12" test section, 24" long
0-145 mph capability from 10 hp drive fan

Measurement Group, Inc.
Type EA-13-125MK-120 strain gauge
Type EA-06-125TK-350 shear gauge
Applied with M-Line products:
CSM-1A degresser
M-Prep Conditioner A
M-Prep Neutralizer 5A
M-Bond 200
Gauze sponges
Cotton swabs
PCT-2A cellophane tape
M-Coat A
Rosin solvent
400-grit sand paper

T type thermocouple from Omega

K type thermocouple from Omega

Quincy Compressor Division, Model QSI-1000ANA3HP SN 3N93685H

Welsh Vacuum Pump, Model 1398 SN 083D

Heraeus Vacuum Pump, Type E35 Fabrication# 03501409

Fisher 667 Control Valve SN 15940894

LeMaitre G150 Fog Machine SN G15C00280

Computers and Software Used for Wind Tunnel Experiment
Lift and drag measurements:
AMD Athlon XP 1800+ Microsoft Windows XP Professional

Labview 6.1

PIV measurements:
AMD Athlon XP 2500+ Microsoft Windows 2000

Insight














APPENDIX C
DETAILED AIRFOIL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE

1. Attach L-brackets to optical table with 1/4-20 allen screws and washers
2. Attach rear canister plate and sting collet to L-brackets with 1/4-20 screws
3. Attach sting cylinder to sting cylinder clamp
a. Orient the clamp so the open side will point towards the TE of the airfoil
b. Clamp should be flush with the end of the cylinder
c. Attach clamp directly to cylinder using M2/6 screws
d. Tighten clamp around cylinder with M3/12 screw
4. Attach sting clamp/cylinder assembly to injection side airfoil endplate with M4/18
screws
5. Attach airfoil to injection side assembly (cylinder, clamp, endplate)
a. Clamp will fit inside airfoil with clamping section facing TE
b. Attach airfoil first with M4/40 screws then M2/20
c. Tighten all screws firmly
6. Attach Kiel stagnation pressure probe to suction side airfoil endplate
a. Thread the mounting chuck into the external side of the endplate
b. Feed the probe from the internal side of the endplate through the mounting
chuck
c. Tighten the mounting chuck compression fitting onto the probe
d. Make sure the probe faces the normal direction to the flow
e. Lock in place
7. Make sure Duocel aluminum foam is in airfoil, if not place in now
8. Attach suction side airfoil endplate to the airfoil assembly
a. Attach airfoil first with M4/40 screws then M2/20
b. Tighten all screws firmly
9. Slide the tunnel wall circular plate onto the cylinder
a. The tunnel wall should have the inside of the wall facing the airfoil
b. Being careful to feed the strain gauge wires through the center of the wall
c. Being careful not to damage the strain gauges or their solder connections
10. Slide the cylinder into the collet that is attached to the optical table
a. Make sure collet is in fully open position
b. Being careful not to jostle tunnel wall and strain gauges
c. Make sure the o-ring in the center of the endplate stays in place
d. Push the cylinder into the collet until it aligns with previously marked
location (this ensures proper alignment in tunnel)
e. Tighten collet to lock cylinder in place
11. Remove airfoil assembly from optical table
12. Attach endplate to collet with 1/4-20 screws
13. Attach strain gauge nine pin connection to adapter fixed to endplate
14. Attach the canister to the endplate/collet assembly









a. Slide the canister over the endplate/collet assembly
b. Line up the bolt holes in the canister with the bolts of the tunnel wall
c. Slide the canister up until it touches the endplate
d. Make sure not to pinch any strain gauge wires
e. Tighten the endplate with the canister with 1/4-20 allen screws
f. Tighten the tunnel wall to the canister
15. Attach entire assembly to the wind tunnel
a. Pass the assembly through the side of tunnel opposite the side the
assemble is to be fixed to
b. Place the assembly such that the tunnel wall circular plate fits into the
circular cut out in the tunnel
c. Attach optical clamps on the outside of the tunnel wall to hold the
assembly in place
16. Replace Plexiglas tunnel wall with Plexiglas box tunnel wall
17. Attach internal box suction manifold to circular box wall and external box suction
manifold
a. Line up the box external suction manifold on the outside of the box
circular plate with the oval opening
b. Line up the box internal suction manifold on the outside of the box
circular plate with the oval opening
c. Make sure the internal and external manifolds are lined up with only the
box circular plate between them
d. Bolt these three components together with four 1/4-20 nuts and bolts
18. Prepare latex tubes to be attached to airfoil suction manifold
a. Stretch the tubes over the three receiver ports on the suction manifold
b. Fix in place with hose clamps
c. Stretch the tubes over the three receiver ports on the internal box suction
manifold
d. Fix in place with hose clamps
e. Check spacing of metal rings inside the tubes, move as necessary
f. Glue into place and let glue dry
19. Attach suction manifold to the airfoil already in wind tunnel
a. Slide airfoil suction manifold through the hole in the suction side tunnel
wall circular plate
b. Place the tunnel wall circular plate to the suction side of the airfoil such
that the Kiel probe assembly protrudes through the small hole in the
circular plate
c. Also the suction manifold should be lined up with the suction slot on the
airfoil endplate
d. Screw the suction manifold to the suction side airfoil endplate with M4/20
screws
20. Secure the Plexiglas box side of the wind tunnel
a. The suction side circular tunnel wall will fit into the recess of the tunnel
side door when the box is closed
b. The suction side circular box wall will fit into the recess of the box when
the side door is closed









c. Lock the side door with the lever attachment on the wind tunnel
d. Lock the box wall and tunnel wall in place with optical brackets
21. Attach static pressure probe to suction manifold
a. Feed the static probe through the hole on the bottom of the airfoil suction
manifold
b. Slide mounting chuck over the probe and into the hole
c. Thread the mounting chuck into the hole and tighten the mounting chuck
compression fitting
d. Be sure to face the probe normal to flow direction
e. Lock in place
22. Attach probes to appropriate connections inside of box
a. Kiel probe to stagnation pressure tube
b. Static suction probe to static pressure tube
c. Injection thermocouple to injection thermocouple wires
d. Suction thermocouple to suction thermocouple wires
23. Place the lid on the box and screw down with M2/10 screws
24. Replace ceiling and floor of wind tunnel if removed
25. Attach injection hose to hollow cylinder and secure with hose clamp
26. Attach PVC suction pipe to external manifold and wrap connection with duct tape















APPENDIX D
DETAILED WINDTUNNEL ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE

1. Turn on vacuum pump and begin pulling vacuum
a. Close all valves open to the atmosphere
b. Open all valves to the vacuum tanks both rooms
c. Turn on vacuum breaker
d. Go to pump located outside of MAE-A
e. Close valves directly after pump
f Push start buttons on wall behind pumps
g. Open valve after pump a quarter of the way (opening the this valve more
than this will result in lots of smoke from the oil becoming too hot)
h. Fully open valves to Room 119 and Room 125
2. Start compressor
a. Check with other labs to see if they are using the compressor
b. Close valve coming out of the compressor house
c. Fill out the log in the compressor house
d. Turn on main power supply
e. Make sure stop button is pulled out
f. Push start button (NEED HEARING PROTECTION)
g. Watch for a couple of minutes to see if any warning lights come on
h. Open valve coming out of the compressor house
3. Assemble and mount airfoil as described in assembly procedure
4. Connect different probes to appropriate transducers
a. Thermocouples
b. Pressure transducers
c. Strain gauges
5. Turn on all instrumentation and computer
a. Heisex 2
b. SCXI
c. Druck
d. Power supply for strain gauges
e. HP switch unit
6. Start Labview program made for this experiment
7. Make sure all probes are reading correctly in Labview VI (Tare if needed)
8. Set zero degree angle of attack
a. Make sure the airfoil is securely in place and the circular wind tunnel plate
is flush with the tunnel wall
b. Adjust the airfoil so the TE is 6" from the wind tunnel floor
c. Mark circular wind tunnel plate to indicate zero degrees angle of attack
9. Rotate airfoil to desired angle of attack
a. Loosen optical clamps on the circular tunnel walls and circular box wall









b. Rotate all three in unison until reached desired angle of attack
c. Tighten all three with optical clamps
10. Enter necessary information into program
a. Angle of attack
b. Ambient pressure
c. Ambient temperature
d. Area of injection jet
11. Turn on wind tunnel
a. Turn on wind tunnel breaker
b. Push forward run button on wind tunnel
c. Switch to Front Panel control on wind tunnel display
d. Rotate Fan Speed Control until desired velocity is reached
12. Start air injection
a. Make sure switch above wind tunnel is turned in the direction to measure
injection mass flow rate
b. Let pressure reach 200 psi in tanks
c. Make sure control valve is closed
d. Fully open valve downstream of control valve
e. Open valve upstream of control valve a quarter way
f Slowly open control valve until close to the desired mass flow rate
g. Slightly adjust the valve upstream of the control valve to fine tune the
mass flow rate
13. Dial in suction mass flow rate
a. Make sure the tank pressure is always reading below 15 in Hg through out
the run, this ensures the flow is choked at the gate valve creating a
constant mass flow rate, wait until the pressure lowers if necessary
b. Once the injection mass flow rate is desirable and steady turn the switch
above the wind tunnel to measure the suction mass flow rate
c. Open the gate valve next to the vacuum tanks slightly
d. Fully and quickly open ball valve above the gate valve to start suction
(NEED HEARING PROTECTION)
e. The mass flow rate then needs to be adjusted to the desired rate, this can
be done by:
i. Short bursts of vacuum (just long enough to achieve a reading),
then adjust the gate valve with the vacuum is off and repeat
ii. Continuous vacuum while adjusting the gate valve
f. Refer to a. if the desired mass flow is not achieved after 15 seconds of
vacuum
14. Only continue after the suction mass flow rate is desirable
15. Start air suction and sampling
a. Make sure the tank pressure is always reading below 15 in Hg through out
the run, this ensures the flow is choked at the gate valve creating a
constant mass flow rate, wait until the pressure lowers if necessary
b. Double check that all probe measurements are working correctly
c. Turn switch above wind tunnel to measure mass flow of injection
d. Make sure injection flow rate is still desirable






67


e. Make sure Start Sampling and Stop Sampling buttons are not lit up. If
they are click on the button to turn off
f Push Start Sampling button in VI
g. Fully and quickly open ball valve above the gate valve to start suction
(NEED HEARING PROTECTION)
h. After 5 seconds, turn valve above wind tunnel to measure injection mass
flow rate
i. Continue to sample for desired time, keep in mind a.
j. Push Stop Sampling button to save data


















APPENDIX E
PIV IMAGES


NACA 0025 Odeg AOA


120
UIUinf
25
100
11 25

80 I
E
E
> 60


40


20


20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Xmm


NACA 0025 1 Odeg AOA


140


120 U/Uinf
25

100 25


E 80
E

60


40


20


50 100 150
Xmm










NACA 0025 10deg AOA


120


100


80
E
E
S60


40


20


U/Uinf
2 5


1 25

n


20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Xmm


CFJ0025-065-196 Odeg AOA


150 F


U/Uinf
25

1 25

i


Xmm







70



CFJ0025-065-196 Odeg AOA


140


120


100


E 80
E
>-
60


40


20 -


I I I I I I I
50 100 150
Xmm


CFJ0025-065-196 Odeg AOA




30





E 20
E




10


Xmm


U/Uinf
25


U/Uinf
2 5


11 2
0







71




CFJ0025-065-196 10deg AOA


140


120


100


E 80
E
>-

60


40


20


Xmm


CFJ0025-065-196 10deg AOA


140


120


100


E 80
E
>-
60


40


20


Xmm


U/Uinf
25


1 25
0


U/Uinf
25

1 25

0


IIIIIII IIII


S I I I I







72



CFJ0025-065-196 20deg AOA


Xmm


CFJ0025-065-196 30deg AOA


150 F


U/Uinf
125



O


50 100 150
Xmm


30 -


25


E 20
E
>-
15


10


5


U/Uinf
25


1125

n


100 -


50 I-







73



CFJ0025-065-196 30deg AOA


150


U/Uinf
25

1 25

El


I I I


Xmm


CFJ0025-131-196 Odeg AOA


120 -


U/Uinf
25


125
0


100 120 140
100 120 140


Xmm







74



CFJ0025-131-196 Odeg AOA

140


120
U/Uinf
25
100


1 1 25
E 80

60


40


20


50 100 150
Xmm


CFJ0025-131-196 Odeg AOA



30
UlUinf

25


20 iF


15-


10-


5


Xmm











CFJ0025-131-196 10deg AOA


120 I


U/Uinf
25


10


I I I I I I I I I I I I i I


Xmm


CFJ0025-131-196 10degAOA
120


100


80 i t


E I'30
E60 .k^ ^



40


20


60
Xmm


U/Uinf
25

1 25

So


100 120







76



CFJ0025-131-196 20deg AOA


30


NX


E 20
E




10


Xmm


CFJ0025-131-196 30degAOA


140


120


K ,


I I I I i I I


Xmm


U/Uinf
2 5


1 25

0


U/Uinf
. 25


11125
I B<2
1^0
















LIST OF REFERENCES


1. Zha, G.-C. and Paxton C., "A Novel Airfoil Circulation Augment Flow Control
Method Using Co-Flow Jet." AIAA Paper 2004-2208, 2nd AIAA Flow Control
Conference, Portland, Oregon, June 28-1, 2004.

2. Modi V., Fernando M., and Yokomizo T., "Drag Reduction of Bluff Bodies
Through Moving Surface Boundary Layer Control." AIAA Paper No. 1990-298,
28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 8-11, 1990.

3. Wood N., Robert L., and Celik Z., "Control of Asymmetric Vortical Flows over
Delta Wings at High Angle of Attack," Journal ofAircraft, vol. 27, pp. 429-435,
1990.

4. Wood N. and Robert L., "Control of Vortical Lift on Delta Wings by Tangential
Leading-Edge Blowing," Journal ofAircraft, vol. 25, pp. 236-243, 1988.

5. Wood N. and Nielsen J., "Circulation Control Airfoils-Past, Present, Future." AIAA
Paper 85-0204, 23rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 14-17,
1985.

6. Englar R. J., Trobaugh L. A., and Hemmersly R., "STOL Potential of the
Circulation Control Wing for High-Performance Aircraft," Journal ofAircraft, vol.
14, pp. 175-181, 1978.

7. Englar R. J., "Circulation Control for High Lift and Drag Generation on STOL
Aircraft," Journal ofAircraft, vol. 12, pp. 457-463, 1975.

8. Wygnanski I., "The Variables Affecting The Control Separation by Periodic
Excitation." AIAA 2004-2625, AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, Portland
Oregon, June 2004.

9. McManus K. and Magill J., "Airfoil Performance Enhancement Using Pulsed Jet
Separation Control." AIAA Paper 1997-1971, 4th Shear Flow Control Conference,
Snowmass Village, Colorado, June 29-July 2, 1997.

10. Johari H. and McManus K., "Visualization of Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets for
Active Control of Boundary Layer Separation." AIAA Paper 1997-2021, 28th Fluid
Dynamic Conference, Snowmass Village, Colorado, June 29-July 2, 1997.

11. Smith A., "High-Lift Aerodynamics," Journal ofAircraft, vol. 12, pp. 501-530,
1975.






78


12. Lin J., Robinson S., McGhee R., and Valarezo W., "Separation Control on High
Reynolds Number Multi-Element Airfoils." AIAA Paper 92-2636, 10th Applied
Aerodynamics Conference, Palo Alto, California, June 22-14, 1992.

13. Zha, G.-C., Carroll, B., Paxton, C., Conley, C., Wells, A., "High Performance
Airfoil Using Co-Flow Jet Flow Control." AIAA Paper 2005-1260, 43rd Aerospace
Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, January 10-13, 2005.

14. Griffin, B., "Three-Component Wind-Tunnel Balance." B.S. Thesis, University of
Florida, 2003.

15. Holman, J., Experimental Methods for Engineers. Seventh Edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2001: 100.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Adam Joseph Wells was born on July 7, 1979, in Kankakee, IL. After graduating

Herscher High School in 1997, he attended Kankakee Community College (KCC) where

he earned an associate degree in engineering science in 2000. Adam worked full time at

Cognis Corporation during his studies at KCC. Because of the job, he wanted to continue

his education at a school within commuting distance from Kankakee. Purdue University

Calumet (PUC) was the school that was chosen. Adam attended PUC for one year

studying mechanical engineering. At this time, the Cognis Corporation started to down

size and have voluntary layoffs. Adam took this opportunity to change his educational

focus to aerospace engineering and move to Florida. Adam earned his bachelor's degree

in aerospace engineering at the University of Florida in 2003 graduating cum laude. He

continued his education at the University of Florida where he earned his Master of

Science degree in aerospace engineering in 2005.