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Subaqueous Pedology: Expanding Soil Science to Near-Shore Subtropical Marine Habitats

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PAGE 1

SUBAQUEOUS PEDOLOGY: EXPANDING SOIL SCIENCE TO NEAR-SHORE SUBTROPICAL MARINE HABITATS By LARRY R. ELLIS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Larry R. Ellis

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To everyone in my family: especially my wi fe, son, and any future children who bless my life

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I must acknowledge God, for everythi ng. May all those who walk this earth feel as blessed as I have felt. I thank all of my teachers, from the earliest years through the most recent in college. They all had an impact that individually is difficult to quantify, but collectively is apparent. They inspired me to be a teacher. I wish to recognize some individually, base d on singular events th at I will always remember. I recall a comment Wade Hurt made about his passion for soil, I love soils because they make sense. That sums up the essence of a problem solver. On the subject of being an interdisciplinary scientist and being spread too thin, Tom Frazer once told me, Make sure you know who you claim to be, and be at least that. Thats the perfect advice for a person with as many interests as I have. During a c onversation in which I expressed frustration about my progress beca use I was just floating around poking holes in the seagrass beds without hypotheses or much direction, Mark Clark said, All science begins with observations. You have to ge nerate observations be fore you can hypothesize something. I guess it is easy to get caught up in the publish or perish mentality and forget that its the science that is important, not our personal progress. During my qualifying exams, Mike Binfor d asked me about my research by posing the question, Rex, whats your grain size? S cale is everything. On the subject of my work having quite a bit of qualitative data, Willie Harris told me, I wouldnt apologize for what youve done, no one else has done it. That made me feel important, an often atypical emotion among graduate students. Fina lly, instead of a quote, it is the actions of

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v Mary Collins that Ill always remember. Ever y semester she has nearly 100 students, yet she takes each of their pictures in order to l earn their names. About two-thirds of the way through the semester, she hangs up this sign wi th the words dont quit and a short poem underneath. The last day of class, she brings a cake and the entire cl ass enjoys their last day together. I wonder if she has any idea how many students appreciate the personal level on which she knows them. I wonder if she has any idea how many have taken to heart the words of the poem. Thats being a teacher. My first teacher I remember was my dad. He sat on the edge of the tub while I took a bath and I remember him trying to e xplain to me how many atoms were in a drop of water. I was fascinated by the idea there could be millions of anything in a drop of water. My mom, who is the employed teacher of the family and the original super-mom, taught me to read at a young age. In turn, I taught my brother to read using the same books. My cousins learned to read on those boo ks before I did. All of these people get my thanks for being part of my life. Most importantly, I again thank God. This time, I thank God for my loving, beau tiful, and dedicated wife, Susy. She has given me many years of happiness as a girlfriend and now a few years of bliss as a wife. Most recently she has given me a glimpse of h eaven in the form of our son, Austin. Ive never had anyone or anything consume my every waking thought as both my wife and son have. Also deserving of thanks are my good fr iends Allen Cligenpeel, Mark Lander, and Todd Osborne. Each of them have spent many years as my friend, and for that I am also very thankful. Thanks also go to the many graduate students whom I have befriended in classes and labs. Finally, I thank my f unding agencies. The Florida Association of

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vi Environmental Soil Scientists funded my pilot study, which provided the foundation for my Florida Department of Tr ansportation grant. Both these groups funded my work because they believed in it. I thank them.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................xiii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................xvi i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA..........................1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 1 Concept of Subaqueous Soil..................................................................................1 Previous Subaqueous Pedological Research.........................................................2 Subaqueous Pedology: Applying the Pe dological Paradigm to Aquatic Habitats..............................................................................................................3 Objectives of the Study.................................................................................................5 Hypotheses....................................................................................................................6 Rationale and Dissertation Format...............................................................................6 Study Area....................................................................................................................7 Climate..................................................................................................................8 Geology and Soils..................................................................................................9 2 THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SOIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUBAQUEOUS SOIL SCIENCE..........................................................................................................12 Introduction.................................................................................................................12 Historical Concepts of Soil.........................................................................................13 Different Concepts of Soil...................................................................................13 Greek Concept of Soil.........................................................................................14 Roman Concept of Soil.......................................................................................15 Russian Concepts of Soil.....................................................................................15 Early American Concepts of Soil........................................................................16 Contemporary American Concept of Soil: Soil Taxonomy ........................................17 Pedons and Polypedons.......................................................................................17 Soil Defined in the First Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1975 to 1999)...................17 Soil Defined in the Second Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1999 to Present)...........20

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viii Implications for Subaqueous Soil Science.................................................................22 Shallow Subaqueous Areas Not Considered Soil................................................22 Subaqueous Soil Survey Efforts..........................................................................23 Discussion...................................................................................................................25 Conclusions.................................................................................................................27 3 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBAQUE OUS SOILS AND SEAGRASSES......29 Introduction.................................................................................................................29 Subaqueous Soils.................................................................................................29 Seagrass Productivity..........................................................................................30 Organic Matter Cycling in Seagrasses................................................................32 A Horizon Formation in Terrestrial Soils............................................................34 A Horizons in Subaqueous Soils.........................................................................34 Initially Investigating Soil/Vegetation Relationships in an Aquatic Environment.....................................................................................................35 Objectives...................................................................................................................36 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................37 Aerial Photography..............................................................................................37 Satellite Imagery..................................................................................................37 Seagrass Mapping........................................................................................39 Soil Sampling and Analyses.........................................................................42 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................47 Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Mapping...........................................................47 Landscape and Seagrass Patterns........................................................................52 Upper-Pedon and Vegetation Relationships........................................................58 Upper-pedon Soil Morphologies.........................................................................65 Subaqueous A Horizons......................................................................................73 Genesis of Upper-Pedon Organic Matter............................................................73 Subtropical Subaqueous Soils: Indi cators of Historical Conditions....................79 Conclusions.................................................................................................................83 4 CREATING AND EVALUATING SU BAQUEOUS DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS....................................................................................................................87 Introduction.................................................................................................................87 Basemaps in Soil Survey.....................................................................................87 Creating Basemaps for Subaqueous Soil Survey................................................88 Data Density and Digital El evation Model Cell Size..........................................89 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................91 Bathymetry and Equipment.................................................................................92 Data Modeling.....................................................................................................95 Interpolation Noise Analysis...............................................................................96 Results and Discussion...............................................................................................98 Data Acquisition..................................................................................................98 Determining the Best Method for Crea ting a Digital Elevation Model from Transect Data...................................................................................................98

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ix Using the Best Model........................................................................................102 Interpolation Noise Analysis.............................................................................109 Conclusions...............................................................................................................116 5 SUBAQUEOUS SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORY OF A NEARSHORE SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY....................................................................................119 Evolution of Soil Survey in the United States..........................................................119 Historical Soil Survey........................................................................................119 Contemporary Soil Survey................................................................................119 Future Soil Survey: The Addition of a Subaqueous Soil Survey Program.......121 Updating Soil Surveys with Subaqueous Surveys.............................................123 Current Status of Subaqueous Soil Research....................................................123 Objectives.................................................................................................................124 Material and Methods...............................................................................................125 Soil Morphology................................................................................................125 Laboratory Analyses..........................................................................................125 Data Collection..................................................................................................126 Results and Discussion.............................................................................................131 Spatial Distribution of Vegetation and Landforms...........................................131 The Flats............................................................................................................133 Drowned Soils...................................................................................................143 Buried Soils.......................................................................................................149 General Subaqueous Soil-forming Factors........................................................150 Landscape Units................................................................................................154 Modal Pedons....................................................................................................174 Combinations of Soil-forming Factors..............................................................174 The Subaqueous Soil Survey and its Potential Uses................................................189 Summary and Conclusions.......................................................................................192 Vegetation..........................................................................................................192 Landforms..........................................................................................................193 Soils...................................................................................................................193 The Subtropical Subaqueous Soil Survey.........................................................194 6 SYNTHESIS.............................................................................................................196 Subtropical Subaqueous Soils...................................................................................196 Soil/Vegetation Relationships...........................................................................196 Soil/Landscape Relationships............................................................................196 The Pedological Paradigm in a Subaqueous Environment.......................................197 Pedological Theory............................................................................................197 Pedological Tools..............................................................................................200 Pedological Approach.......................................................................................202 Overall Conclusions..................................................................................................203

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x APPENDIX A SOIL CHARACTERIZATION DATA....................................................................204 B SUBAQUEOUS SOIL SURVEY.............................................................................216 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................229 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................234

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xi LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Summary statistics of Levy County soils.................................................................10 3-1 Land classification scheme based on water depth....................................................48 3-2 Upper-pedon average organic matter c ontent and particle-s ize distribution for sites located in four seagrass cover classes..............................................................64 4-1 Error statistics for several combina tions of interpolation techniques and parameters..............................................................................................................100 4-2 Statistics for the population of distance: Cell size ratios........................................114 5-1 List and approach of the steps necess ary to create the in itial soil survey..............127 5-2 Landscape units presen t within the study area.......................................................155 5-3 Soil descriptions from E dge of Channel Bar (MUID 3)........................................159 5-4 Soil descriptions of soils in the Erosional Unvegetated Flats (MUID 5)...............160 5-5 Soil descriptions for soils occurring on the Near Bar Grassflat landscape units (MUID 7)................................................................................................................162 5-6 Soil descriptions for the Drow ned Flatwoods map unit (MUID 8)........................163 5-7 Soil descriptions for the Near shore Grassflat map unit (MUID 9)........................165 5-8 Pedon descriptions from the Offs hore Grass Flat map unit (MUID 10)................166 5-9 Soil descriptions from an Oyster Bar map unit (MUID 11)...................................169 5-10 Soil descriptions from the Sa lt Marsh Flat map unit (MUID 13)..........................170 5-11 Soil descriptions for the Unve getated Flat map unit (MUID 14)...........................172 5-12 Modal pedon description for North Key................................................................175 5-13 Modal pedon description for Hornet......................................................................176

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xii 5-14 Modal pedon description for Nebar.......................................................................177 5-15 Modal pedon description for Atsena Otie..............................................................178 5-16 Modal pedon description of Snake Key.................................................................179 5-17 Modal pedon description for Seahorse Key...........................................................180 5-18 Modal pedon description for Reddrum..................................................................181 5-19 Modal pedon description for Shell Mound............................................................182 5-20 Modal pedon descriptio n for Lighthouse Point......................................................183 A-1 Organic matter (OM) contents and partic le size distributions for sites located in four vegetation cover classes..................................................................................205 A-2 Soil physical and chemical data for selected locations..........................................206

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xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Location of the study area..........................................................................................8 1-2 Water temperature record for National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration tidal station 8727520 at Cedar Key, FL..........................................10 3-1 Bands 5-4-3 composite of Landa sat 7 ETM+ scene: Path 17, Row 40....................40 3-2 Comparison of Landsat 7 ETM+ imager y acquired for study area (Path 17, Row 40) A) at low tide, B) and high tide..........................................................................41 3-3 Location map of soils sampled according to seagrass species.................................43 3-4 Example of a ped from the C horizon of an unvegetated subtropical subaqueous soil showing the oxidized exterior and gleyed (reduced) interior............................45 3-5 Locations of modal upper-pedons resprese nting the soils sampled in the different seagrasses.................................................................................................................46 3-6 Subaqueous landscape showing the waterward extent of soil..................................48 3-7 Satellite image of study area near Ceda r Key, FL showing the classification of vegetation.................................................................................................................49 3-8 Normalized Vegetative Difference Index (NDVI) vi ew of the study area (A) calculated from a Landsat 7 ETM+ scene (B)..........................................................51 3-9 Benthic classificat ion of the study area....................................................................53 3-10 Monotypic stands of Thalassia testudinum growing on a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL.....................................................................................................................54 3-11 Mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme growing on a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL..............................................................................55 3-12 Typical edge of a shallow seagrass flat near Cedar Key, FL...................................56 3-13 Monotypic stand of Halodule wrightii growing on a raised portion of a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL............................................................................................57

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xiv 3-14 Negative relationship between OM content and soil color value.............................59 3-15 Relationship between silt and sa nd contents related to soil color............................60 3-16 Strong linear relationship between the amount of OM in the soil and percent sand (A)....................................................................................................................61 3-17 Strong linear relationship between the sand and silt contents of all sites sampled..63 3-18 Upper-pedons of a soil occurring at location UNVEG-T........................................66 3-19 Upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T................................................68 3-20 Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T.................................69 3-21 Side-by-side comparison of upper-pe dons from HAL-T (A) and THAL-T (B) soils.......................................................................................................................... .70 3-22 Upper-pedon at location THAL/SYR-T...................................................................71 3-23 Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location THAL/SYR-T......................72 3-24 Depth distributions of silt (A), Organi c Matter (OM) (B), an d biogenic silica (C) for a pedon supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium ....................75 3-25 Rooting-zone morphology of an unve getated soil recently colonized by Thalassia ..................................................................................................................77 3-26 Isolated body of dark soil material typically found in the upper-pedons of areas supporting Halodule wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia testudinum ................................................................................................................78 3-27 Upper-pedon of a freshwater s ubaqueous soil containing dark bodies....................80 3-28 Aerial photograph showing lo cations of burie d seagrasses......................................81 3-29 Buried A horizons in a subtropical subaqueous soil near Cedar Key, FL...............82 4-1 Location of bathymetric transects............................................................................93 4-2 Location of a transect (yellow line) used to compare slopes of DEM at different cell sizes...................................................................................................................97 4-3 Example of an artifact used in the interpolation noise analysis...............................99 4-4 Digital elevation model calculated usi ng the Inverse Distance Weighted method, with a power of 2....................................................................................................101

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xv 4-5 Smoothed landscape that results from modeling with a medium-size search neighborhood (50% local)......................................................................................103 4-6 Over-generalized landscape that results from too large of a search neighborhood when employing the local polynomial techniques.................................................104 4-7 Digital elevation model using Univer sal Kriging with a 50% local polynomial removed prior to Kriging........................................................................................105 4-8 Digital elevation model using universal kriging (50% local polynomical trend removed) and a cell size of 30 m............................................................................106 4-9 Digital elevation model using unive rsal kriging (50% local polynomial removed) and a cell size of 60 m............................................................................107 4-10 Visual comparison of two digital el evations model, 15 m and 60 m cell sizes, both created using the same bathymetric da ta set and identical parameter settings of universal kriging................................................................................................108 4-11 Three-dimensional view of two digita l elevation models (DEM) of identical origin, but different cell sizes.................................................................................110 4-12 Slope maps calculated from three digita l elevation models using different cell sizes........................................................................................................................11 1 4-13 Cross-section of a channel modeled us ing universal kriging at a 60 m cell size and a 15 m cell size................................................................................................112 4-14 Histogram of rations comparing the mini mum distance from an artifact to a data point to the cell size................................................................................................114 4-15 General spatial structure of bathym etry collected within the study area...............115 4-16 Comparison of a digital elevation m odels (DEMs) created using Universal Kriging at three cell sizes.......................................................................................117 5-1 Status of county soil surveys in Florida, 2005.......................................................120 5-2 Locations of validation and modal soil sampling locations for all landscape units130 5-3 Subaqueous topography of the study area..............................................................132 5-4 General locations of se veral types of landforms....................................................134 5-5 Identification of vegetated and unvegetated portions of the study area.................135 5-6 Location of nearshore and offshore flats in close proximity to Seahorse Key, FL137 5-7 Low energy shore (A) vs. high ener gy shore (B), Seahorse Key, FL....................138

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xvi 5-8 An erosional beach that grad es into a nearshore grass flat....................................139 5-9 An offshore subaqueous la ndscape near Cedar Key, FL........................................140 5-10 Coastal forest retreat over a forty year period: 1961 to 2001.................................146 5-11 Sample of a soil that occurs on a beac h that is, in fact, a drowned flatwoods.......147 5-12 Field test to determin e if material is spodic...........................................................148 5-13 Buried A horizon from an area near Seahorse Key, FL currently supporting Halodule wrightii ...................................................................................................151 5-14 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the combined silt and clay size fractions from the rooting zone of tw o vegetated subaqueous soils.....................................153 5-15 Spatial landscape model.........................................................................................156 5-16 Portion of the Levy County Soil Survey................................................................173 5-17 The Northwestern corner of the subaqueous soil survey.......................................191 B-1 Index map for the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................216 B-2 Tile 1 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................217 B-3 Tile 2 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................218 B-4 Tile 3 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................219 B-5 Tile 4 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................220 B-6 Tile 5 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................221 B-7 Tile 6 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................222 B-8 Tile 7 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................223 B-9 Tile 8 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................224 B-10 Tile 9 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.............................................................225 B-11 Tile 10 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey...........................................................226 B-12 Tile 11 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey...........................................................227 B-13 Tile 12 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey...........................................................228

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xvii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SUBAQUEOUS PEDOLOGY: EXPANDING SOIL SCIENCE TO NEAR-SHORE SUBTROPICAL MARINE HABITATS By Larry R. Ellis May 2006 Chair: Mary E. Collins Major Department: Soil and Water Science Historically, geologists (such as se dimentologists and geochemists), along with limnologists, biologists, botanists and ecologists have been th e scientists to answer the call to study shallow-water, permanently submerged areas. Only since the mid 1990s have soil scientists attempted to follow suit. Currently, subaqueous soil science is at a very early stage, with only two publishe d studies: one from Maryland and one from Rhode Island (USA). Expanding soil science into subtropical subaqueous habitats was the focus of my study. The shallow grassflats southwest of Cedar Key, FL were chosen for study. First, the evolving concept of soil was exam ined to provide a context for this new, subaqueous direction of soil scie nce. It was determined that the historical concepts of soil were congruent with the c oncept of underwater soil, provid ed that support for rooted vegetation was possible.

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xviii Second, the idea of subaqueous soil/vegeta tion relationships was explored and it was found that soil properties determined in th e field and in the laboratory were related to vegetation type. Organic matter and silt cont ents increased in proportion to vegetative cover. The dark colors of th e soil (particularly in the rooting zone) predictably reflected this relationship. Third, the soil properties below the rooting zone were investigated. A bathymetric map was created as a landscape visualization tool. Procedures for creating the map were documented. The spacing of the bathymetri c transects relative to the map cell size affected map quality. The map was used to interpret the landscape. The landscape interpretations explained the spatial dist ribution of soils throughout the study area. Water energy, proximity to land, water depth, and vegetative cover were the primary soil-forming factors considered. In tegrating these factor s with the landscape model and aerial photography, a subaqueous soil survey was created for the study area. Ten unique combinations of soil forming factor s were identified to create a total of ten subtropical subaqueous soil map units. Res earch on the shallow, open nature of the Cedar Key flats provided a va luable addition to existing lagoonal subaqueous pedology.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA Introduction Concept of Subaqueous Soil Many definitions or concepts of soil exis t. Generally, soils are considered the clastic upper portion of the earth’s surface that supports plant growth. Rocks, man-made structures such as roads, and large organisms such as trees are not considered soil. The remainder of the land, if it can support rooted plant growth, is soil. Applying this concept to wet and aquatic areas is less straightforw ard than applying it to terrestrial areas. Land that is under water is continuous with land that is not under water. If the land is continuous, shouldn’t the soils also be conti nuous? If rooted vegetation is supported by underwater land, then that land is soil. These areas, until recently, have been ignored by pedologists. Recently, the term “subaqueous soil” was proposed by Demas (1993). The term “subaqueous” is typically used as an adjectiv e to describe objects that occur or are adapted for underwater. Therefore, “subaqueous soils” are generally considered soils that occur underwater. Although some pedologica l research has been carried out on “subaqueous soils” the field the field is still in its infanc y. Many fundamental concepts have yet to be developed, and even the defini tion of subaqueous soil has not been widely accepted within the field of soil science. Th ere is no consensus as to the frequency and duration of flooding for a soil to be considered “subaqueous.”

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2 Previous Subaqueous Pedological Research While there has been no official definition of “subaqueous soil,” such as the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) definiti on of “soil” in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), the main pedological rese arch focused on subaqueous soils thus far (Demas and Rabenhorst 1999; Bradley and St olt, 2003) has been centered on shallow marine habitats (lagoon estuaries). Typicall y, most of the water in these lagoons ranges from intertidal to a few meters deep. Deeper areas have not been investigated. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) investigated Sinepuxent Bay, MD while Bradley and Stolt (2003) investigated Nini gret Pond, RI. Bradley and St olt (2003) specified that the soils they investigated were marine subaqueous. Using this label, the soils in Sinepuxent Bay would be marine subaqueous also. Brad ley and Stolt (2003) defined subaqueous as the depth range, “immediately below the inte rtidal zone to wate r depths of 2.5 m at extreme low tide.” So far this is the only at tempt to define the depth limit of subaqueous soils. The research conducted in both Sinepuxe nt Bay and Ninigret Pond focused on landscape-level pedology. The pedological a pproach of conducting a second order (e.g., 1:20,000 scale) soil survey was used in both ar eas. Additionally, the soils in those areas were characterized by analyzi ng for typical soil characteriza tion properties (e.g., particle size distribution, pH, and organi c matter content) using standa rd soil science techniques. Other pedologically-based research that could be considered subaqueous pedology has focused on inland subaqueous soils in Florid a rather than marine subaqueous soils. Ellis (2002) investigated lake-fringe hydric and subaqueous soils of Sandhill Lake in Clay County (FL), by examining the continuous soil morphologies of the lower portion of a landscape that extended from above the highest recorded lake stage to an elevation that

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3 was flooded more than 95% of the time. Expanding this work, the St. Johns River Water Management District is inves tigating more lakes in Florida and then developing a set of soils-based indicators that could be used to predict lake stag e in Florida’s sandhill lakes. Regardless of setting (marine or inland) the previously mentioned landscapes in Maryland, Rhode Island, and Flor ida are underwater most of th e time. Therefore they are subaqueous and have subaqueous soils. Subaqueous Pedology: Applying the Pedol ogical Paradigm to Aquatic Habitats Pedology, a discipline within soil science, has its own paradigm. The pedological paradigm can be divided into three parts: theory, tools, and approach Theory: a set of empirically testable stat ements and observations used to explain and understand systems Tools: A set of research tools for observing, measuring, and modeling systems Approach: together, the theory and the t ools help form the approach(s) used for solving a problem or answering questions. The theory part of the paradigm consists mainly of the concepts of soil, the soil individual (poly-pedon), soil-forming f actors, soil genesis, and soil/landscape relationships. The tools part consists of items such as soil pits, augers and shovels, Munsell color charts, existing soil landscap e models, as well as standard methods of analysis and standard soil parameters of inte rest (e.g., particle-size distribution and pH as outlined in Soil Survey Staff, 1996). The approach part is more difficult to define because it is largely controlled by the scale of the pedological inve stigation. Typically, for investigations at second soil-survey order scales (e.g., 1:24,000), the approach is to build a conceptual soil/landscape model using a small number of direct soil observations, and then apply that model by delineating lands cape units on basemaps. The view that the

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4 land is soil and that pedons ar e related to the landscape via the soil-forming factors is central to the pedological paradigm. To study subaqueous soils from a pedol ogical perspective re quires applying the pedological paradigm. The current pedol ogical theory, pedological tools, and pedological approach therefore would all be used to observe, describe, measure, and model aquatic habitats. Doing so assumes that the theory, tools, and approach are valid in an aquatic environment. Demas and Ra benhorst (1999) examined these assumptions first by testing the definition of soil a nd later (Demas and Rabenhorst, 2001) by modifying the five soil-forming factors (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka 1927; Jenny, 1941) to fit the subaqueous environment studied. De mas and Rabenhorst also modified the tools portion of the paradigm by using a vibracore to sample soils, rather than more traditional soil augers. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) a nd Bradley and Stolt (2002; 2003) created topographic basemaps from bathymetric data. This was not a major modification, since elevation basemaps have been previously used by terrestrial pedologists. However, the methods used to create the basemaps (e.g., acquisition of bathymetry via acoustical sounder) were new to pedology. The approach part of the pedological para digm has not been significantly modified for aquatic habitats. Both the Sinepuxent Bay and Ninigret P ond studies modeled the subaqueous soils by delineating the lands cape based on the soil/landscape models developed for those lagoons. Doing so in an aquatic environmen t assumes that the subaqueous landscape is stable. Bradley and Stolt tested that assumption by creating a contemporary elevation map based on measur ed elevations and a historical basemap based on nautical charts with historical point soundings. They determined the landscapes

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5 to be very similar, thus the landscape was j udged to be stable over the time interval of interest. Based on past subaqueous pedology and th e pedological paradigm, the study of aquatic bottoms as soil appears promising. In cautious application of the paradigm to subtropical aquatic habitats, the foll owing questions must be addressed: Do soils exist in a subtropical aquatic habitat? Do soil-forming factors exist in a subtropical aquatic habitat? Can those factors be considered to create a conceptual subtropical subaqueous soil / landscape model? Can that model be expressed in the form of a subaqueous soil survey? What portions of the pedological paradigm need further testing and/or refinement? Objectives of the Study This research is an effort to apply and re fine the pedological para digm for a subtropical subaqueous environment. Overall objective: Apply the pedological paradigm to a subtropical shallow-water marine habitat. Specific aim 1: Determine and compare chemi cal and physical properties of subaqueous soils and relate these properti es to the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Specific aim 2: Construct a digital te rrain model of the subaqueous topography in the study area. Specific aim 3: Build and evaluate a conceptual soil/vegetation/landscape model in a marine environment. Specific aim 4: Create and demonstrate the n eed for a subaqueous soil survey.

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6 Hypotheses The general hypothesis for this research was that the terrest rial pedological concepts may be applied to subtropical subaque ous soils. It is proposed that soil-forming factors exist in shallow marine environmen ts along the Gulf Coast of Florida. Hypothesis 1: Soil morphologies as well as ch emical and physical properties within the rooting zone are related to SAV. Hypothesis 2: A conceptual soil/landscape model can be used to predict the morphologies of the pedons based on th e subaqueous soil-forming factors. Hypothesis 3: That soil/landscape conceptual model can be expressed as a subaqueous soil survey at a s econd-order scal e (e.g., 1: 20,000). Rationale and Dissertation Format It has been claimed that the concept of so il needed to be revised to include aquatic bottoms (Demas 1993; Demas et al. 1996; Demas and Rabenhorst 1999). The USDA revised its definition of soil as a result of these claims (S oil Survey Staff 1998; 1999). At first, it appears that a major change has ta ken place within soil science creating a new view that underwater areas are soil, not sedime nt. Therefore, a revi ew of historical and contemporary concepts of soil and the implica tions of that evolution for subaqueous soil science are the focus of Chapter 2. Pedogenic theory dictates soil-forming factors, specifically biota (e.g., native vegetation), will have an influence on the soil morphology and associated physical and chemical properties. Because of this a nd because of the ecological and economical importance of seagrasses, the soil / vegetati on relationships within the upper portion of the soil (e.g., the rooting zone of seag rasses) will be the focus of Chapter 3. The creation of subaqueous terrain models is a necessary step in the application of the pedological paradigm to a quatic habitats. In these habitats, it is difficult to obtain

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7 elevations by traditional survey methods. Also, methodology for collecting and modeling those elevation observations to create a subaqueous terrain model has not been standardized. Therefore, the collecti on and modeling of subaqueous elevation observations will be the focus of Chapter 4. The focus of Chapter 5 will be the combin ation of the elevation map created in Chapter 4, the soil/vegetation re lationships discovered in Chap ter 3, and investigations of soils and landscapes to create a conceptual soil/landscape model and a subaqueous soil survey. The conceptual soil/landscape mode l will be based on considerations of soilforming factors. Traditional soil-forming f actors will be considered as well as those proposed by Demas and Rabenhorst (2001). New soil-forming factors are proposed. Study Area The study area is approximately 6 km by 4 km (Figure 1-1). The study area selected represents a system of shallow (1 to 2 m deep at mean high water, 0 to 1 m at mean low water) flats 5 km southwest of Cedar Key, FL (Center of study area: 29o5’49”N, 83o5’49”W) (Figure 1-1). Mean High er High Water (MHHW), Mean High Water (MHW), Mean Low Water (MLW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) are defined by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administ ration (NOAA) based on NOAA Tidal Station 8727520 located at Cedar Key. The area was selected for study because of its extensive seagrass beds adjacent to both deep water and land. Most portions of the flats were heavily vegetated with Thalassia testudinum Syringodium filiforme and Halodule wrightii The average tidal fluctuation is 1.5 m with a period of 11 hours. This “Big Bend” area of Florida is called a a low or zero energy coast. This area repr esents the large portion of the Gulf Coast of Florida that has shallow and exte nsive off-shore seagrass flats.

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8 Figure 1-1. Location of th e study area. The white and black box is the study approximately five km southwest of Cedar Key, FL. Image source is the United States Geological Survey’s 1:100,000 Topographic maps. Climate The term subtropical is used to describe the clim ate of the study area. Specific climate classes and exact de finitions of those classes differ among various climate classification systems. Many systems are based on the Kppen classification system proposed in the early 1900s. In these syst ems, a subtropical climate is generally considered similar to a tropical, but with less rain and colder temperatures in the winter months. This is typical of Levy County, FL. Slabaugh et al (1996) reported average temperatures in Cross City (Levy County) of 11oC in January (winter) and 25oC in July N 2 km

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9 and August (summer). Winter freezes o ccur annually throughout Levy County. However, the study area exists near the upper la titude limit of two Caribbean (tropical) species of seagrasses: Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme (Zieman and Zieman, 1989). Despite the presence of tropical seagrasses, the water temperature fluctuates about 20oC annually (Figure 1-2). Geology and Soils The following description of Levy County ge ology and soils is based mainly on the United Stated Department of Agriculture ’s (USDA’s) Soil Survey of Levy County (Slabaugh et al 1996). Levy County geology is typica l of counties in the “Big Bend” region. The geology is karst, typically limest one overlain by sands of variable thickness. In low-lying areas, the sand veneer is thi nner than in the higher, dune areas. The limestone consists mainly of Ocala and Avon Park formations. The overlying sands consist of undifferentiated quartz Plio-Pleistocene sands. Isolated patches of the Miocene-aged Hawthorn group occur throughout the county. All seven soil orders that occur in Florid a occur in Levy County: Alfisols, Entisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, and Ultisols (Table 1-1). Typically, the Mollisols, Histosols, and Spodosols occur in the low-lying portions of the landscape.

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10 0 10 20 30 40 200220032004 DateTemperature (oC) Figure 1-2. Water temperature record fo r National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration tidal station 8727520 at Cedar Key, FL. For the period of record, January 2002 to October 2003, the maximum water temperature was 35oC in July 2003 and the minimum water temperature was 7oC in January 2002. In both years, there was a marked water temperature shift from the cold winter months of temperatures near 10oC to the warm summer months with temperatures near 30oC. This fluctuation in water temperature follows a similar fluctuation in air temperature. Table 1-1. Summary statistics of Levy County soils. Source data from the Levy County soil survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996). Soil Orde r Alfisols 2328 Entisols 1325 Histosols 42 Inceptisols 317 Mollisols 37 Spodosols 1019 Ultisols 63 Percent o f Mapped Soil N umber o f Mapped Series Summer2002 Summer2003 Winter Winter

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11 Histosols also occur in the coastal marshes along southwestern Levy County. Some of the Entisols occur in well drained ar eas such as sand dunes while others occur in wetter areas in and ar ound the salt marshes.

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12 CHAPTER 2 THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SOIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUBAQUEOUS SOIL SCIENCE Introduction Almost all terrestrial vegeta tion is rooted and grows in soil, or is attached to something that grows in soil. As the most biologically active porti on of the lithosphere, soils have become the focus of an entire scien tific discipline (i.e. so il science). Early in the discipline, many were concerned with defini ng the concept of soil. This activity was necessary because soil is not a single object, rather a cont inuum on the Earth’s surface. Thus, it is more difficult to identify a soil. Soils are not individual objects, thus we must conceive of ways to compartmentalize soil in to observable units that can be identified, described, and studied. How one perceives soil determines how one analyzes it. Thus, the concept of soil is very important to its science. Concepts of soil have evolved over time and so have the paradigms of soil science. Generally, though, concepts of soil have been ce ntered on the growth of rooted plants as a main function of soil. R ecently, it has been proposed that the concept of soil be expanded to include submerged areas, calle d “subaqueous soils” (Demas, 1993). This suggestion fostered soils-based rese arch in submerged areas (Demas et al ., 1996; Demas, 1998; Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999) and then le d to a change in the United Stated Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) wording of its definition of soil (Soil Survey Staff, 1998; Soil Survey Staff 1999). This recent development raises several questions. How has the concept of soil evolved through time?

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13 Prior to 1993, what was the official position of the USDA, as outlined in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), on semi-permanently and permanently submerged lands; what is soil and what is not? What are the specific differences in th e USDA’s current concept of soil, as expressed in second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), when compared to the previous concept as expressed in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975)? To comply with traditio nal themes of soil as supporting vegetation, does the USDA’s current concept of soil allow for sufficient inclusion of all submerged areas that can or do supp ort rooted vegetation? How will the wording in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) affect and soil research a nd U.S. soil survey efforts? What is the current directi on of subaqueous soil science? These questions are proposed because they focus on the where soil science has come from and where it is going with respect to a quatic areas. To maintain congruency with the traditional concept of soil as a medium for plant growth, a goal of subaqueous soil science should be the prope r inclusion of all subaqueous areas that fit within this concept of soil. Specifically, this is the incl usion of all subaqueous areas that can or do support rooted vegetation. Historical Concepts of Soil Different Concepts of Soil There are as many concepts of soil as there ar e uses for it. One of the earliest uses of soil was for growth of crops to sustain human life. Today, soils are still used to grow life-sustaining crops. Because of this, it is most often defined as the upper portion of the earth that supports plant grow th. As various disciplines of earth-based science have evolved (e.g., geology, geography, e ngineering, etc.), so to have their concepts of soil. To every earth-based science, the various portions of the earth each have a function within the system of interest. The focus of a particular discipline necessarily shapes that

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14 discipline’s view of the soil’s function. For example, an engi neer might consider soil to be surficial particles with a collective plas ticity, bearing capacity, mass, and infiltration rate. In contrast, a geologist might consider soil to be the clastic products of weathered bedrock or the wind/water/glacial transported clasts that co mprise sedimentary and other geological layers. A biologist or botanist mi ght consider the soil as a home for burrowing organisms and the medium in which plants are rooted. All of these concepts are correct. However, none of the above view the soil holistically as the soil system. The discipline of soil science focuses on the soil as the system, rather than a component of another system. Generally, so il scientists view soils as independent, natural bodies (pedons and polypedons) with identifiable physica l, chemical, and biological characteristics. These soil i ndividuals make up many sub-populations that, when combined, comprise the upper portion of the earth. This population is called soil. The evolution of this concep t is best understood by examini ng the historical concept of soil. In this respect, previ ous soil classification schemes provide valuable insight The following are examples of soils-based concepts/c lassifications. Much of this summary is based on Arnold’s (1983) review of th e historical concepts of soil. Greek Concept of Soil Aristotle (384 to 322 BC) view ed everything to be made of four elements: fire, air, water, and earth. The earth has attributes of warm or cold, dry or we t, heavy or light, and hard or soft. This could be viewed as a r ecognition of soil’s variab le moisture content, bulk density, and bearing capacity. Theophras tus (371 to 286 BC) viewed the earth as two parts: the edaphos and the tartarus. Th e edaphos is a comprised of two layers: the surface stratum and the subsoil. The surface stratum contains variable amounts of humus while the subsoil provided nutri ents and “juices” to the plan ts. The “taratarus” is the

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15 “realm of the darkness,” which could be vi ewed as analogous to the bedrock underlying soil. Theophrastus grouped soil into six cl asses based on crop suitability. Thus, the Greeks concept of soil was that it was (i) part of the earth, (ii) variable in weight, compaction, and mass, and that variability coul d be (iii) classified to better understand plant growth. Roman Concept of Soil Cato (234 to 149 BC) classified soil into nine major classes and 21 subclasses based on farming suitability. Varro (116 to 27 BC) was reported to have focused on the physical composition of soil while Columella (4 to 70 AD) focused on physical properties of soil, and Plinius (23 to 79 AD) focused on geology as a mineral source for soil formation. The Roman concept of soil thus evolved into a more sophisticated focus on soil attributes, while still recogni zing soil’s importanc e to agriculture. Russian Concepts of Soil V.V. Dokuchaev (1846 to 1903) is the Russian credited with maturing the concept of soil into a pedological concept. He stated that surface layers of the earth should be considered soil, and that the parent material was transformed by organisms and climate as a function of relief and time (Dokuchaev, 1883). K.D. Glinka (1867 to 1927) (1927) summarized Dokuchaev’s ideas, but added that transported soil shoul d not be considered soil, but instead as parent ma terial that will become soil upon the action of forces that form soil. Dokuchaev’s writings were in Russi an but translated to German. Glinka then translated the German writings to English. Marbut (1863 to 1935) read those works and was greatly inspired by them introduci ng them into the soil survey program. Quite often, however, it is H. Jenny (1904 to 1972) who is cited when soil-forming factors are discussed. While not a Russian, Jenny’s work is included here because he

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16 proposed the quantification of soil formati on by considering each of Dokuchaev’s soilforming factors as independent variables in th e formation of soils. Out of the Russians’ concept of soil came the sub-discipline of pe dology. From hereafter, soils have been considered by pedologists to be indivi dual bodies upon which the five soil-forming factors operate. Soil forming factor 1: Biota Soil forming factor 2: Climate Soil forming factor 3: Parent material Soil forming factor 4: Relief Soil forming factor 5: Time Early American Concepts of Soil Arnold (1983) pointed out that Hilgard’ s (1833-1916) (1906) vi ew was that soils are the physically and chemica lly weathered products of rock, highlighted the support for plant growth. Additionally, Hilgard acknow ledged the affect of climate on plant distribution. This acknowledged three of D okuchaev’s soil-forming factors. King (1848 to 1911) (1902) considered soil to be not only important for agriculture but to the support of all life on earth. A more geol ogical view was communicated by Lyon et al (1916) that soils’ past and future was rock, but th at soils provided a medi um for crop production. Coffey (1912) focused on landscape controls of soils while Whitney (1925) focused on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Marbut (1921) suggested th at soil mapping was helping to refine the concept of soils by focusing on the spatial inventory of soil horizons and the focus on soil classification. Later, Marbut (1922) emphasized the idea of soils as natural bodies. Weir (1928) echoed the concept of soils as natura l bodies by explaining that soil individuals

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17 are described, while the common characteri stics of soil populati ons are defined. Throughout civilizations and cu ltures the concept of soil has evolved, but support for plant growth has remained an important function of soil. Contemporary American Concept of Soil: Soil Taxonomy Pedons and Polypedons From the Russian thought that soils are na tural bodies shaped by the five factors has grown the concept of a polypedon. Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; 1999) outlines the concept in detail. A polypedon repr esents the soil individual that exists on the landscape, and is comprise d of at least two pedons. A pedon is considered to be the smallest volume of soil that captures the soil variability. The minimum breadth of a pedon is 1 m2 and the maximum about 10 m2. Note that a pedon is defined as the smallest volume that can be called soil but its size is given in an area. The reason for this is that the depth (t hird dimension) is not defined but allowed to vary. The minimum depth of a pedon is ge nerally considered the lower limit of biological activity or pedogenesis. Practically, 2 m has been applied as a lower limit of pedons due to suggestions in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; 1999). It is openly conceded in Soil Taxonomy that the lower limit of soil is difficult to define as the vertical boundary between soil and parent ma terial can be very gradual. Soil Defined in the First Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1975 to 1999) Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) guides soil survey and soil research activities in the U.S. The first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975 page 1), discusses defining soil. Soil, as used in this text, is the collection of natural bodi es on the earth's surface, in places modified or even made by man of earthy materials, containing living matter and supporting or capable of supporting plants out-of-doors. Its upper limit is air or

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18 shallow water. At its margins it grades to deep water or to barren areas of rock or ice… Based on this, the Greek and Roman them e of soils providing the function of support for plant growth persists. Soil is not restricted to natu ral, undisturbed settings “in places modified or even made by man of earthy materials”. Soil is bound by various types of non-soil: rock, ice, or deep water. The top of soil is suggested to be air or shallow water. Where “deep water” exists, soil does not. Here, “deep” is not defined, but the passage discusses the support of plants “out-of-doors” so it can be inferred that deep is in reference to the support of plants. Therefore, in 1975 areas under shallow water were identified as soil. The function of soil to support plants is reiterated in subsequent paragraphs of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975, page 1) The word “soil,” like many common old words, has several meanings … Soil, in its traditional meaning, is the natural medium fo r the growth of land plants, whether or not it has discernible soil horizons. This m eaning, as old as the word soil itself, is still the common meaning, and the greatest interest in soil is centered on this meaning … The support for plants is identified as the defining characteristic of soil. Whether or not the soil has undergone pedogenesis to a large e nough degree that soil horizons have formed is not considered in the 1975 definition of soil. Soil Taxonomy clarified the term “plants” to mean “land plants.” This was not defined as an exclusion of aquatic plants. Regarding pedogenesis, Soil Taxonomy (page 1) states that soil formation as expressed by soil horizons is not a requirement of soil. Soil, as used in this text, does not need to have discernible horizons, although the presence or absence of horizons and thei r nature is of extreme importance to its classification. Soil is a na tural thing out-of-doors. It has many properties that fluctuate with the seasons …

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19 Soil Taxonomy also addresses the difficulty of defining the boundary between soil and non-soil and therefore the difficulty in cl assifying some soils. This is done by addressing soils as they grade into e xposed bedrock in deep water (page 1) Since one cannot distinguish precisely under all conditions between what is and is not a part of the soil, a short, precise, general definition is perhaps impossible … Some soil landscapes that support plants gra dually thin to open water or to lichencovered rock and finally to ba re rock with no clear separa tion that applies generally between soil and not-soil. Areas are not considered to have soil if the surface is permanently covered by water deep enough that only floating plants are present or if survival conditions are so unfavorable that only lichens can exis t, as on bare rock. Yet soil does not necessarily have plants grow ing on it at all times … The point is that the soil that concerns us when making soil surveys must be capable of supporting plants out-ofdoors. Soils are simultaneously a continuum of f eatures (e.g., expansive horizontal layers of clay and sand), a population of individua l natural bodies across the landscape, and a collection of countless particles, liq uid, gas, humus, and organisms. Soil Taxonomy essentially reiterates two previously stated poin ts. First, if surface water is too deep for rooted plants to survive, no soil exists in th at area. Second, the so il’s primary importance is the support of “plants out-of-doors.” Furthermore Soil Taxonomy states that the support for plants, not the presen ce of plants, which is required for soil to exist. Finally, Soil Taxonomy states that the purpose of Soil Taxonomy is to facilitate soil survey. That fact is also explicitly stated in the subtitle of the text: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys The opening pages of Soil Taxonomy illustrated an important co ncept of soil. This concept was that soils are natural bodies of the earth that support rooted plants. If it can be demonstrated that rooted vegetation can grow, then regardless of hydrology, soil exists according to the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff,

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20 1975). Demas (1993) suggested submerged ar eas be considered soils instead of sediments. He focused on a popular interpre tation of the definiti on of soil; the support for rooted plants refers to emergent root ed plants. The soils Demas investigated supported submerged rooted plants. He concl uded with a suggestion th at the definition of soil be modified to include soils suppor ting submerged plants: subaqueous soils. Strictly adhering to the wording in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) these areas were already considered soil. These areas were, however ignored by soil scientists until Demas studied them in 1993. Why? Pr obably because the concept of soil was directed to the functions of the soil survey program. Those functions were agronomically based. Demas (1993) also discussed the importan ce of submerged aquatic vegetation. Demas et al. (1996) continued to study subaqueous soils, producing the first subaqueous pedon descriptions. In 1998, the USDA’s m odified the definition of soil. This modification was published in the seventh edition of Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1998) and in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999). In 1999, the research leading to those cha nges was published (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999). Soil Defined in the Second Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1999 to Present) The USDA’s guidance on the concept of soil was updated to highlight shallow water soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1999, page 9) The word “soil,” like many common words, ha s several meanings. In its traditional meaning, soil is the natural medium for the growth of land plants, whether or not it has discernable horizons. Soil in this text is a natu ral body comprised of solids (minerals and organic matter), liquid, and gases that occurs on the la nd surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the follo wing: horizons, or layers, that are

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21 distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers, and transformations of energy and matter or th e ability to support rooted plants in a natural environment. This definition is e xpanded from the previous version of Soil Taxonomy to include soils in areas of An tarctica where pedogenesis occurs but where the climate is too harsh to support the higher plant forms. The upper limit of soil is the boundary between soil and air, shallow water, live plants, or plan materials that have not begun to decompose. Areas are not considered to have soil if the surface is permanently covered by water too deep (typically more than 2.5 m) for the grow th of rooted plants. The horizontal boundaries of soil are areas wher e the soil grades to deep water. In some places the separation between soil and nonsoil is so gr adual that clear distinctions cannot be made. The traditional spirit of the soil definition is left partially in tact. Soils are still considered to be a natural body. However, it is quite clear that a shif t in focus from plant growth to soil genesis has taken place. The wording in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) emphasizes horizon formation and pedogenesis, via reference to soil-forming processes while still allowing for the option of plant growth. It is explicitly stated that th is change is meant to include Antarctic soils because it is difficult for plants to grow there. This clar ification on what soil is could be applied to subaqueous soils. Evidence of pedogenesis ca n qualify a subaqueous po rtion of the earth as soil, regardless of the support for ve getation, as is the case in Antarctica. In addition to the importance of vegetati on support apparently being reduced, the term “shallow water” was retained from the fi rst edition. However the phrase “typically more than 2.5 m” was included as guidance as to what is too deep. This depth guidance follows the spirit of the pedon descripti on limit of 2 m found in both editions of Soil Taxonomy In that spirit, the purpose could be viewed as a guideline, from the experts, as to what one should expect as a reasonab le depth. There are clearly exceptions. Harris et al. (2005) pointed out examples of where the 2 m hinders the interpretation of the landscap e. Areas of Florida where Bh horizons were present at 3.3

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22 m were identified as Entisols in the county-level soil survey. These soils were considered to have undergone little pedogenesis because no pedogenesis was observable within 2 m. In fact, the upper 3.3 m of the soil was severely leached and had undergone much pedogenesis. This was likely not dis cernable during the mapping process because observations below 2 m do not routinely occur. In this situation, the 2 m depth guidance of Soil Taxonomy was not deemed appropriate. Similarly, the 2.5 m limit of “deep water” is suggested in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) but may not be appropriate in many areas where plants can grow in water deeper than 2.5 m. The USDA does concede the fuzzy nature of the resultant water-ward limit of soil by stating that “clear distinct ions cannot be made” in situations where the transition from soil to non-soil is gradual. However, the guidance of “typically 2.5 m” stands out as a target depth which may be used to delineate subaqueous soil from sediment. If broadly accepted by soil scientists as the maximum depth of water allowed for soil to exist, then the extent of soil may be underestimated in some geographic areas and over estimated in others. Implications for Subaqueous Soil Science Shallow Subaqueous Areas Not Considered Soil Conceptually, aquatic areas that are sha llow enough to support rooted vegetation have been considered so il in both editions of Soil Taxonomy The changes in the USDA’s definition of soil (Soil Survey Sta ff, 1999) may appear to better incorporate subaqueous areas, but actually restrict thei r inclusion within th e pedosphere. This restriction is generated by the quantitative guidance of th e 2.5 m water depth as the typical water-ward extent of soil.

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23 Areas “greater than 2.5 m” deep, are not technically excluded in the updated definition of soil (Soil Survey Staff, 1999). The phrase “typically greater than 2.5 m” means that atypical situations can exist. However, this quantitative advice on water depth has already had an effect on pedologists’ conception of what subaqueous soils are. For estuarine environments, Bradley and Stolt (1993) defined subaque ous soils as those occurring in areas with a wate r depth ranging from intertidal to 2.5 m. The deeper areas could support SAV, depending on water clarity. On the othe r hand, the areas between the intertidal and 2.5 m at low tide may not support SAV if th ey occur in sy stems with low water clarity such as salt marshes. In some cases, the intertidal areas could be considered a zone of non-soil between terrestrial soils and subaqueous soils. Ho wever, in many such cases, evidence of pedogenesis could likely be observed. Ther efore, based on the s upport for soil, the 1999 definition of soil does include these intertidal areas, but the 1975 defi nition did not. In all likelihood, these intertid al areas will be considered in subaqueous soil survey efforts because they are the connection between subaqueous and terrestrial landscapes. Subaqueous Soil Survey Efforts Currently, subaqueous soil survey is in its early stages. Demas’ doctoral research (1998) was a subaqueous soil su rvey of Sinepuxent Bay, MD. Bradley and Stolt (2003) identified subaqueous landforms in Ninigret Pond, RI at a scale s lightly finer than a typical U.S county soil survey. These e fforts exemplify the application of the pedological paradigm to subaqueous habitats They focused on the classification of landscapes into units and reporting the soil patterns related to those units. The deliverables of the results were prototype suba queous soil surveys. Much more work is needed to identify subaqueous landscape units and resultant soil patterns that occur in

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24 other geographic areas. In addition to the soil /landscape relationships that were the focus of the aforementioned research, emphasis n eeds to be placed on the A horizons of subaqueous soils. Typically, for example we take for grante d that a soil will have accumulations of organic matter in the surface, resulting in O and/or A horizons. When accumulations of organic matter are encountered under water, th ey are assumed to be the result of the same processes that formed these horizons on land. Testing assumptions such as this will be a necessary part of subaque ous soil survey efforts. Clearly defining the purpose of a soil su rvey is of paramount importance to the success of the survey (Smith, 1986). Initially, terrestrial soil survey s were intended for the agronomic interpretation of soil productivit y. In later years, so il surveys have been used for non-agronomic purposes such as engi neering (e.g., on-site waste water systems). In these cases, a different application of the survey means that different data are needed (Fanning and Fanning, 1989). For instance, a so il description may only be reported for the upper 100 cm if it was a soil known to have restrictive layers that resulted in being very poorly suited for crops. Designing a shopping mall in an area having shrink-swell clays would require much deeper soil inventor ies. If the original purpose of the survey was multi-use, then all observations would need to be tailored to its objectives. So, the question is: What is the purpose(s) of subaqueous soil surveys? The majority of subaqueous areas are not going to be used for traditional agriculture or construction, especially not the marine areas. Of immediate concern in Florida is the inventory of seagrass resources. Soils that can or do support seag rasses are valuable resources that need protecting. In the Flor ida Keys example, the vegetation grows at

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25 depths much greater than along the west coas t of Florida. Should all surveys extend out to the same depth to preserve contiguity? Discussion The recent changes to the USDA’s definiti on of soil resulting from some initial subaqueous pedology and preceding other suba queous pedology raised the following questions: How has the concept of soil evolved through time? It appears that the concept of soil has not changed much through time. It has been and still is seen as the upper portion of th e earth that supports plant growth. What has changed is the acknowledgement of the nonagronomic role of soil. Support for nonagronomic plants such as seagrasses has recen tly become of interest to soil scientists. Additionally, soil science as a discipline ha s developed a more quantitative focus. Prior to 1993, what was the official position of the USDA, as outlined in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), on semi-permanently and permanently submerged lands: what is soil and what is not? The official position of the USDA was that if vegetation growth was or could be supported by the earth, out-of-doors, in natura l conditions, then soil was present. Semipermanently and permanently submerged lands were specifically addressed as needing to have shallow enough water for rooted plants to grow. Emergent plants may have been assumed by readers of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), but no distinction was made between submerged and emergent plan ts. The distinction that was made was between floating and rooted pl ants. Therefore, any land und er water with the support for plants or the potential for plant supp ort would have been considered soil. What are the specific differences in th e USDA’s current concept of soil, as expressed in second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), when

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26 compared to the previous concept as expressed in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975)? The primary difference is the inclusi on of “evidence of pedogenesis” as an indicator that soil is present. The requirement that soils support vegetation was deemphasized. Instead, soil-forming processes we re discussed. Technically, this is an expansion of the pedosphere because now ar eas can either provide plant support, the potential for plant support, or show eviden ce of pedogenesis. Generally, this focus on soil-forming factors and pedogenesis could be interpreted as a more quantitative concept of soil. The most notable difference with re spect to subaqueous areas is the guidance that “shallow” water is “typically 2.5 m” deep. Th is was not stated as a requirement, but its mention is significant as soil scientis ts may adhere to this guidance. To comply with traditio nal themes of soil as supporting vegetation, does the USDA’s current concept of soil allow for sufficient inclusion of all submerged areas that can or do supp ort rooted vegetation? Assuming the 2.5 m water depth guidance represents the USDA’s belief that vegetation in water deeper than this does not grow, then no. All submerged areas that can or do support rooted vegetation would not be sufficiently included. In Florida, rooted vegetation can grow in water deeper than 2.5 m. Many sandhill lakes as well as marine areas have clear enough wate r to allow plant growth in water below 2.5 m deep. How will the wording in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) affect and soil research a nd U.S. soil survey efforts? It is too early to conclude the effects of this revised definition. Only a few published studies have followed this defi nition: Demas and Rabenhorst (2001), Ellis, (2002), and Bradley and Stolt ( 2002; 2003). Bradley and Stolt, in both of their papers, state that subaqueous soils oc cur in water depths up to 2.5 m (Bradley and Stolt 2002; 2003). If others follow this interpretation, th en one effect of the new wording would be

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27 the exclusion of subaqueous soils that occur und er water > 2.5 m deep. In Florida, this could be a considerable amount of soil. As ide from this, the likely effect of the new wording will be increased awareness of suba queous areas as soil. This should foster more research in these areas. The more quant itative nature of the wording could inspire subaqueous research focused on soil-forming pro cess, but this remains to be seen. Given the purpose of Soil Taxonomy is to facilitate soil survey in the U.S., then these surveys will likely include at least some subaqueous areas. The tone of the 1999 definition has decidedly more focus on subaqueous areas than the 1975 definition. Research and survey efforts should follow this focus. What is the current directi on of subaqueous soil science? To date, the marine subaqueous pedologica l research has focused on the soil survey aspect of pedology (Demas, 1993; Demas et al. 1996; Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999; Bradley and Stolt, 2002; 2003). Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) modified Jenny’s (1941) model of soil formation and stated the mode l needs testing and quantification. They highlighted the use of this model in subaqueous soil survey. Based on the marine subaqueous pedology thus far, the direction appe ars to be toward subaqueous soil survey. No pedological research has been presented to address subaqueous soil formation, such as A horizon formation. Conclusions The early Greek and Roman concept of so il as a medium for plant growth has remained central to soil science. The c oncept of soil has evolved with time not by rejecting this view, but rather adding to it. As the understanding of soil-forming processes has grown, the view of soils as objects of study has formed. Soils are now viewed as individuals who s upport the growth of plants.

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28 Soil science has matured as a science. It has a paradigm, which places at the center of focus, the soil as an in dividual body. Soil scientists attempt to isolate, observe, describe, sample, manipulate, and model soil to improve our understanding of it. With the recent focus on subaqueous soils, the applica tion of this paradigm will require testing, quantification, and likely m odification of fundamental pedological principles. Currently, the focus of suba queous soil science is pedologi cal. Specifically, the focus is on subaqueous soil survey. As advanc ements are made in this area of pedology, perhaps more process-based research will reciprocate ideas so that subaqueous soils are better understood.

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29 CHAPTER 3 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBAQUE OUS SOILS AND SEAGRASSES Introduction Subaqueous Soils Near-shore marine as well as estuarine e nvironments are often home to marine angiosperms, or seagrasses. These seagrasse s are rooted in the “bottom” of marine environments. This bottom, typically refe rred to as sediment, provides a medium for both anchoring via roots and the uptake of nutrien ts. This is parallel to the role that terrestrial soils serve for terrestrial plants, wh ich is a holdfast for r ooting and a source of nutrients. In recogniti on of this, soil scientists have recognized marine bottoms capable of supporting plants to be included in the definition of soil (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999; and Chapter 2). Within the field of soil science, this represents a major expansion of pedology because the traditional paradigm was unconcerned with aquatic soils. Within the field of sedimentology, this represents a position th at aquatic bottoms ar e stable, since soil formation and rooted plant growth occur on stab le substrates. Within the field of marine botany, this will hopefully add to the understand ing of the role sediments/soils have in seagrass ecosystems. Although soil science is gene rally concerned with the upper few meters of the earth’s surface, the focus on the rooting zone is a natural place to begin subaqueous soil science, as it is the most likely portion of th e soil to be influenced by rooted vegetation. Vegetation is an important terrestrial soilforming factor (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka,

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30 1927; Jenny 1941) and is likely an important subaqueous soil-forming factor (Demas, 1993; Demas et al ., 1996). This had previously been acknowledged by the USDA in 1975 (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; Chapter 2) but was demonstrated, in principle, by Demas and Rabenhorst (1999; 2001). However, thei r research was limited to the temperate seagrasses occurring in the Mid-Atlantic Unit ed States. Along the Southeastern and Gulf coasts of the U.S., Caribbean specie s of seagrasses exist in the warmer, subtropical/tropical, environm ent. These species include Thalassia testudinum Syringodium filiforme Halodule wrightii and various species of Halophilia Soils supporting Caribbean grasses in the subtropical Southeastern U.S. are likely to be different from the other suba queous soils in the U.S. Cl imate, water clarity, parent material, biota, and age of landforms are uniqu e to each area of the world. Because of the general role soil has in supporting vegetation physically (e.g., root support) and chemically (e.g., nutrients), the focus of this chapter will be studying the soil properties within the rooting zone of Caribbean seagrasses occurri ng in the Gulf of Mexico. Seagrass Productivity Seagrasses are highly productive marine an giosperms. Generally, seagrasses are considered to be among the highest producti on ecosystems in the world. Phillips and McRoy (1980) report an average productivity of 500 to 1000 g C m-1 yr-1 for seagrasses, based on Wood et al. (1969). Wood et al. (1969) also acknowl edged the additional productivity of the epiphytes on seagrass leaves which were reported to rival the seagrass blades in biomass. Duarte and Chiscano (1999) similarly reported a productivity rate of 1012 g C m-1 yr-1 for seagrasses. In an estuary in Beaufort, North Carolina, Zostera marina covered only 17% of area bu t contributed 64% of the to tal primary production in the estuary (Williams, 1973).

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31 These numbers can be misleading as seag rass production and biomass within and between species vary with geography (D uarte and Chiscano, 1999). Additionally, estimates of seagrass production can vary based of time of year and method used (Zieman, 1982). Production estimates based on O2 liberation are likely to be high since the oxygen evolved is the product of the s eagrass plant community. This community may include epiphytes and other algae. Additionally, organic matter (OM) based estimates of productivity are probably low, since seagrasses can internally cycle CO2 to supplement C uptake from the water column (Phillips and McRoy 1980; Zieman 1982). In fact, Zieman (1975) reported a doub ling of seagrass blade volume due to CO2 build up. Zieman (1982) suggested leaf marking as a technique for directly measuring seagrass growth. This focus on the blade/pr oductivity relationship of seagrasses assumes that the increases in blade length are pr oportional to primary pr oduction. Below-ground biomass is also storage for C. Variability in C partitioning may confound comparisons of productivity based on leaf marking. Supporti ng the assumption that blade growth is proportional to productivity, Dawson and De nnison (1996) reported UV photo damage caused stress and reduced productivity. T hus, in shallow water grasses can be less productive due to photo-stress and, therefore, have relatively shor ter blades than the deeper water grasses. An alternate explanation of blade-length/water-depth relationships is that in shallow water, where light is more availabl e, seagrasses may need less surface area to perform adequate photosynthesis. Where li ght is ample, a short blade may provide enough surface area for adequate photosynthesis. It would follow that long blades would

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32 be required to perform the same amount of photosynthesis in deeper water where less light is available. Compiling existing productivity estimates to gain an overall understanding of seagrass productivity is difficult due to th e production variability within and between species coupled by the differences in methodol ogies. However, it can be assumed that seagrass ecosystems are very productive, ge nerating a considerable amount of OM in shallow marine systems. The fate of the OM has impacts on the seagrass, the soil, and surrounding aquatic systems. Organic Matter Cycling in Seagrasses Depending on the species and density of seagrass, time of year, and level of disturbance to the grasses, the export of seagrass blades to surrounding aquatic systems can vary. During times of high seagrass biom ass, typically summer and fall, racks of seagrass leaves are usually visible along proximate shorelines (Zieman, 1982; Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemminga and Duarte, 2000). While some of the seagrass-derived organic matter (OM) is lost due to leaf export, much of it can remain within the system. Additionally, seagrasses act as traps for suspended particles (Phillips and McRoy, 1980; Ward et al 1984; Zieman 1982; Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Duarte and Chscano, 1999; Gacia et al 1999; Barron et al ., 2004; Papadimitriou et al ., 2005). These suspended particles can be particulate OM. In addition to the initial trapping of sestonic material imported into a seagrass bed, the squelching of particulate export can be aff ected by seagrasses. Gacia et al (1999) determined that within Posidonia oceanica beds, the trapping of re-s uspended material was more important that the trapping of imported material.

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33 Since most seagrasses beds occur near land, they are near the influence of that land. The export of particulate OM from the land to the seagrasses is an important influence. Hemming and Duarte (2000) point out that productive vegetative systems on land, such as salt marshes and mangrove forests, e xport leaf litter to the seagrasses (Hemminga et al 1995; Slim et al .1996). It is generally accepted that seagrasses tr ap and bind suspended particles much of which is organic in nature. If a sediment accreting scenario is assumed, which is typically the case when seagrass substrat es are viewed from a sedimentological perspective, then the fate of some of the trapped OM is burial by sedimentation. From a soils perspective, sedimentation is not soil formation. Rather, it is the accumulation of parent material that could later undergo pe dogenesis. Post-depositional changes to the sediment are considered soil formation. However, if deposition is amplified by vegetation rooted in and supported by the soil, then the soil is essent ially feeding itself sedimentary material. This should be c onsidered soil formation. Whether organic particles settling out is labe led soil formation or sediment ation may be particularly important to the study of seagrasses simply because it changes the perspective, set of biases, and approach (the paradigm) fr om which one views the marine bottom. In an environment where the accretion of sedimentary material is uniform in amount and composition, the concentration of OM should decrease with depth in the sediment simply because the deeper OM has been subjected to decomposition for a longer period than the shallower OM. An ex ample of this OM depth distribution in a subaqueous soil was given by Demas and Rabenhor st (1999). The explanation given for the OM depth distribution was not a sedimentar y process. Instead, it was inferred that the

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34 carbon concentration indicated th e formation of an A horizon. The A horizon concept is terrestrially based, but was invoked in this instance due to the perspective of soil scientists that surficial accumulations of OM are indicative of A horizon development. In terrestrial environments this is almost al ways the case. Is it the case for subaqueous environments? A Horizon Formation in Terrestrial Soils In terrestrial soils, the surface horizons ar e usually highest in OM concentration. This is because rooting and ot her biological activity (bioturb ation) is the highest in the surface of the soil. These are the vector s for organic additions to the soil. As the collective action of the five soil-fo rming factors varies across the landscape, so too does the concentration of A horizon OM. Typically, however, the vertical profile of soil OM is consistent acr oss the landscape. Soil OM is highest at the surface and decreases with depth. Most soils support biot a that add OM to the soil, thus most soils have A horizons. Subaqueous soils support bot h vegetative and burrowing biota. Do these soils have A horizons as well? A Horizons in Subaqueous Soils A fundamental difference between terrestri al and subaqueous environments is the density of the fluid above the soil surface. The density of water is much greater than air, thus more material can be su spended above an aquatic soil th an above a terrestrial soil. This decreases the stability of subaqueous soils relative to terrestrial soils. An enhanced ability to suspend material results in more source material for sedimentation. Thus, sedimentation is more pronounced in an aquatic environment. To what degree, then, does sedimentation contribute to the surficial accu mulation of OM? To what degree do plant inputs contribute to the accumulation of OM? Are the surficial accumulations of OM in

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35 subaqueous soils actually A horizons? Addr essing these questions will likely be the goals of future subaqueous research. Current ly, there is a need to document the nature and distribution of subaqueous “A horiz ons” as they relate to seagrasses. Initially Investigating Soil/Vegetation Re lationships in an Aquatic Environment In aquatic areas, because of the likel ihood of re-suspending soil material and because of the lack of vertical drainage, the terrestrial model of leaching/translocation of soil material, cannot be assumed as it is for terr estrial soils. Because vertical drainage is probably absent in subaqueous soils, subsur face horizons such as spodic or argillic horizons are likely to reflect past terrestrial conditions not present subaqueous conditions. The most likely portion of soil that will re flect the contemporary intersection of the five soil-forming factors (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka, 1927; Jenny, 1941) is the soil surface horizon. The injection of OM via root s, the vertical move ment of OM due to animal burrowing, and the burial of OM due to sedimentation can all occur in a seagrass bed (Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemm inga and Duarte, 2000; Barron et al ., 2004). These processes add OM to the soil, thus forming A horizons. Before undertaking large pedological effo rts such as subaqueous soil surveys or before making interpretations/i nferences based on soil morphology, it is important to first understand, among other things, how and why th e soil properties of the surficial horizon are related to organic-ground c over. Some relationships ha ve already been established. Demas (1993) pointed out that the firm ness of the bottom was related to the presence/absence of Zostera marina but did not state what that relationship was. Most reviews of seagrass ecol ogy state that seagrasses trap and bind particles, some of which are high in OM (Phillips and McRoy, 1980; McRoy and Helfferich, 1980; Zieman, 1982;

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36 Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemm inga and Duarte, 2000; Dawes et al. 2004). In terrestrial soils, most rooted plants deposit OM into the soil, creating A horizons. These A horizons are typically darker in color than the horizons below (e.g., A horizon color of 10YR 3/1 and E horizon color of 10YR 6/1). Demas et al (1996) reported dark soil colors 5YR 3/1 and 3/2 where Zostera marina was present, but did not compare to colors of adjacent unvegetated areas. Demas and Ra benhorst (1999) offered an explanation of surficial subaqueous soil morphologies: “Elevated levels of OC in the surface layers accompanied by (sometimes irregular) decreases with depth are exactly what ar e found in terrestrial analogs. These data suggest that epipedons are forming as a result of pedogenic processes.” The suggestion here is that high levels of OM and dark colors are identified at the surface of vegetated subaqueous soils as is in the case with terrestrial vegetated soils; A horizon formation. Objectives Florida is a predominantly subtropical st ate with over 1200 km of coastline, much of which supports seagrasses. The subaqueous soils that occur there have yet to be investigated from a pedological perspectiv e. Because these soils support rooted vegetation it is important to understand the soi l/vegetation relationships. The most likely place to observe soil/vegetation relationships should be within the rooting zone. To avoid confusion with the term “epipedon” which has strict taxonom ic implications (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) the term upper-pedon is used to refer to the upper portion of the soil (0 to 30 cm) in which vegetation can be rooted. Objective 1: Determine spatial patterns in species of seagrasses in the study area. Objective 2: Determine the usefulness of Lands at satellite in mapping seagrass extent.

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37 Objective 3: Document the morphology of th e soil within the upper-pedon Objective 4: Document physical and chemical pr operties of the soils within the upper-pedon Objective 5: Determine relationships between soil properties and seagrasses supported by the soil. Materials and Methods A description of the study area can be found in Chapter 1. Aerial Photography The Suwannee River Water Management Di strict supplied scanned and rectified, 1:24,000 true-color aerial photography for th e Cedar Key area. This imagery was projected in State Plane No rth, Feet, NAD 88 HARN with a cell size of approximately 1 m. The photographs were used as the basemap for the rectification of satellite imagery. Satellite Imagery Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery ( http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov ) was acquired for the study area (Path 17, Row 40). Landsat 7 ETM+ is a multispectral dataset which allows for the visualization of landscapes by combinations of the individual bands and/or statistical classification of those bands. Vegetation, urbanized areas, water, etc. are identifiable because of the unique spectral signature that various land-covers/l and-uses impart on the landscape. Landsat imagery is delivered the form of band-layer scenes. Each Landsat 7 ETM+ scene covers approximately 35,000 km2 of the earth’s surface with a 6-day period of return. Each band-layer is a regularly spaced grid of spectral values. The data on six of the bands (Bands 1-5, and 7) are spaced by 30 m. The thermal band (Band 6) data are spaced 60 m and the panchromatic band (Band 8) data are spaced 15 m. The light

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38 attenuation by water restricts the use of all ba nds in aquatic systems, but more so for the bands of longer wavelength (Bands 4 to 7). Scene Selection: Attenuation of bands by water or cloud cover within the study area was minimized using a set of th ree criteria for scene selection: Criteria 1: Scene acquisition time coinciding with low turbidity and long seagrass blade length Criteria 2: Scene acquisition time coinciding with low water levels Criteria 3: No cloud cover visible within th e study area portion of the scene Scene selection was narrowed starting w ith Criteria 1. Near Cedar Key, FL low turbidity months are generally occur when wa ters are cold and phytopl ankton growth is at a minimum (November-March, with January and February being the clearest). Within the study area it was observed that seagrass bl ades are the shortest during the winter months (January through March). Therefore, November and December were selected as possible months of clear wate r and long seagrass blade length. To satisfy Criteria 2, National Oceanogr aphic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tidal records for Cedar Key, FL were used to determine which of the available November and December Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes were acquired at low tide. Prior to purchase, scene prev iews are made available ( http://www.landsat.org ). These previews were used to determine whic h scenes satisfied Cr iteria 3. Additionally, cloud cover percent was reported in the metadata for all Landsat scenes. Scenes with a cloud cover of greater than 10% were excluded from the visual inspection. The most recent scene with the no visible cloud cover within the study area and satisfying all three criteria was purchased for analysis.

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39 The Landsat 7 ETM+ scene for November 7, 2002 (path 17, row 40) satisfied all the selection criteria and was therefore purchased (Figure 3-1) This scene was compared to another path 17 row 40 scene (10-30-1999) that was acquired near high tide (Figure 32). Visual inspection of 54-3 band layer composites of both scenes showed that upland vegetation was visible at both tides but SAV was only visible at low tide (Figure 3-2a). This confirmed that the 2002 scene was acquired at a low enough tide to observe seagrasses. Pre-analysis data configuration: Before analysis, the scene was rectified to the aerial photography. The scene was radiometrica lly corrected so that vegetation indices would produce meaningful values. The procedures for correcting the scene are outlined in Thome et at (1994) with modifications made by Teillet and Fedosejevs (1995). Also, prior to analysis, portions of the scene greater than 20 km outside the study area were removed to expedite analysis. The 1990 Unite d States Census Bureau TIGER/Line File layer was converted to raster (30 m cell size) then used to remove upland portions of the scene. The remaining areas of the scene were determined to be aquatic. Seagrass Mapping Patterns in seagrass distribution were visu ally observed in the field when water levels were at or below MLW. Specific attention was placed on vegetative gradient where elevation changed (e.g., around bars and on the edges of flats). This information was used to interpret aerial and satellite im agery. Seagrass distributions were initially investigated using photo tone of the ae rial photography coupled with the field observations. Although high quality color aerial photogr aphy was available for the entire study area, it was desirable to determine the us efulness of Landsat satellite imagery for

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40 Figure 3-1. Bands 5-4-3 composite of La ndasat 7 ETM+ scene: Path 17, Row 40. The date of the scene was November 7, 2002. Projection shown is UTM Zone 17 NAD83. The study area 5 km southwest of Ce dar Key, FL and is approximately identified by the yellow arrow. N 20 km Study Area Cloud Cover Aquatic Habitats Terrestrial Habitats

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41 Figure 3-2. Comparison of Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery acquired for study area (Path 17, Row 40) A) at low tide, B) and high tide. Images are composites (Band 5 = red display colors, Band 4 = green di splay colors, Band 3 = blue display colors) designed to color vegetation gree n. Because of the high attenuation of near-infrared (Band 4: 0.76-0.90 m) and mid-infrared (Band 5: 1.55-1.75 m) by water, composites of Bands 5, 4, and 3 do not penetrate very well into the deeper aquatic portions (>1 m depth) of the study area. The result is a dominance of blue display co lors from Band 3 red: (0.63 m 0.69 m) in the deeper areas. A B N 2 km Date: 11-07-2002 Date: 10-30-1999 S S t t u u d d y y A A r r e e a a S S t t u u d d y y A A r r e e a a

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42 mapping seagrasses. Since the seagrass blades were likely exposed at the time of scene acquisition, a Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated to enhance photosynthetically active areas (Rouse et al. 1974; Deering et al. 1975; Huete et al. 2002). Using the aerial photography, locations where seagrasses transitioned into unvegetated areas and where shallow water tran sitioned into deep wa ter were identified. Within these zones, 100 deep-shallow water locations were digitized and 30 seagrassunvegetated locations were di gitized. The reason less se agrass-unvegetated locations were digitized is that there were fewer areas where these transitions occurred. These locations were then used to extract the NDVI values. The average NDVI values for the seagrass-unvegetated and the deep-shallow water transitions were used as threshold NDVI values These threshold values were then used to classify the study area into three classes: deep water, seagrass, and unvegetated. A fourth class, uplands, wa s pre-determined by using the TIGER county boundaries. The final NDVI-derived seagrass map, the aerial photography, and the field observations were used to characterize the distribution of seagra sses within the study area. This understanding was then used to construct a sampling design for soil analysis. Soil Sampling and Analyses Sampling design: For soil sampling, seagrass-cover of the shallow-water soils (< 1 m deep MLLW) was divided into four classes: 1) Halodule wrightii (HAL), 2) Thalassia testudinum (THAL), 3) Thalassia / Syringodium filiforme mixed stand (THAL/SYR) and 4) unvegetated (UNVEG). For each of the four seagrass cover classes, five random locations were chosen for soil sa mpling (Figure 3-3). No soil samples were collected in deep (>1 m at MLLW) water areas. At each site the upper 30 cm of the soil

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43 Figure 3-3. Location map of soils sampled accord ing to seagrass species. The cover site abbreviations are: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule wrightii (HAL), Thalassia testudinum (THAL), and Thalassia / Syringodium filiforme mixed stand (THAL/SYR). The X locates a pedon (THAL-REP) that was sampled to represent Thalassia testudinum areas. X THAL REP

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44 (hereto referred to as the “upper-pedon”) wa s sampled using a spade shovel with a 40 cm long, 10 cm wide blade. The term upper-pedon is used to avoid confusion with the term epipedon which has a strict taxonomic definition. The design of the shovel allowed the retrieval of an in-tact uppe r-pedon. The upper pedon was split into three samples: 0 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm, 20 to 30 cm. An additional site, THAL-REP was chosen for deeper analysis. The pedon was sampled from the surface to a depth of 160 cm, at 15 cm intervals. Soil morphology: To provide a single assessment of soil color for each depth zone sampled, the immediate, crushed colors of th e upper pedons samples were determined. A uniform soil mixture was obtained by gently rubbing a portion of the soil three times between the thumb and forefinger. This was done to achieve a soil color that represented all the soil material in the sample. The r ubbed soil was visually compared to a Munsell Color Book (Gretag/Macbeth, 2000). It was important to determine soil color immediately because inundated soils often ch ange color when exposed to oxygen (Figure 3-4). Once soil color was determined for a ll upper-pedon samples, those and the THALREP samples were collected for laboratory analysis Laboratory analyses: All samples were analyzed for particle-size distribution (PSD) using the pipette method (Gee and Ba uder, 1986) and organic matter content by weight loss on ignition (Donkin, 1991). Soils we re not acidified to remove carbonates. Additionally, the THAL-REP samples were an alyzed for biogenic silica (Hallmark, et al ., 1986). After the sampling was conducted and soils /landscapes observed, a representative soil location was chosen for each cover class (Figure 3-5). At each representative

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45 Figure 3-4. Example of a ped from the C horizon of an unvegetated subtropical subaqueous soil showing the oxidized exteri or and gleyed (reduced) interior. The ped was immediately removed from the soil after sampling and exposed to air for 30 min prior to sectioning. Note the gleyed colors in the interior of the ped and the oxidized colors on the out side of the ped. The entire ped was one color (the gleyed color of the inte rior) prior to the 30 min of air exposure. G G l l e e y y e e d d O O x x i i d d i i z z e e d d

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46 Figure 3-5. Locations of modal upper-pedons respresenting the soils sampled in the different seagrasses. Upper-pedon HALT was located on the protected side of a bar that typically occu rs on the edge of grassflats adjacent to channels. The vegetative cover was Halodule wrightii Upper-pedon THAL-T was located 30 m away from HAL, in the direc tion of the grassflat. The vegetative cover was Thalassia testudinum Upper-pedon THAL/SYR-T was located in the interior of a grassflat. The vegetative cover was a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium filiforme Upper-pedon UNVEG-T was located on an unvegetated area adjacent to an erosional beach. UNVEG-T THAL-T THAL/SYR-T Seahorse Key Bar Grassflat Channel

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47 location, the in-tact upper-pedon was sampled w ith the spade and immediately described. Soil descriptions included USDA textural cla ss, which was estimated in the field. After describing an upper-pedon, it was placed in-tact into a plastic tray for storage and transport. After five days of exposure to air, the upper-pedons were photographed and described to document changes in soil color. Additionally, to inves tigate the genesis of the OM in soils, a soil supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium was sampled every 15 cm to a depth of 160 cm. These samples were analyzed for OM content, biogenic silica, particle size distribution (PSD), and C:N ratios. OM and PSD were determined as previously described. Biogenic silica was determined colormetrically (Hallmark et al ., 1986). C:N ratios were determined from Total Carbon and Total Nitrogen measured using a Costech Model 4010 Elemental Analyzer. Results and Discussion Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Mapping Ground-truth observations revealed that most vegetated areas had a water depth of approximately 10 cm at MLLW. Areas that were slightly exposed (< 20 cm above MLLW) were unvegetated to vegetated sparse ly. Areas higher in elevation were not vegetated. The shallow, vegetated areas were arranged as extensive flats. Vegetation was ubiquitous across these flats. Deep areas (> 1 m deep at MLLW) adjacent to the flats were not vegetated. The elevation range of seagrass vegetation was therefore 100 cm below MLLW to 20 cm above MLLW. These ar eas are referred to as “shallow-vegetated areas”. The areas greater than 100 cm deep at MLLW are referred to as “deep water”. The remaining areas, greater than 20 cm a bove MLLW, are therefore referred to as “shallow-unvegetated” (Table 3-1).

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48 Table 3-1. Land classification sc heme based on water depth. Thus, deep water was considered to be a ny area greater than 1 m deep at MLLW. Shallow water areas were the remainder. For this study, “non-soil” wa s considered to be unvegetated areas too deep to currentl y support seagrass growth (Figure 3-6). A visual analysis of the study area and surrounding areas using the 5-4-3 composite of the Landsat scene revealed that an appreciable amount of the aquatic area was vegetated and thus very shallow at low tide (Figure 3-7). Shallow areas extended from land but also occur as isolat ed areas. The shallow porti ons of the study area were dissected by channels of deep water. Soil Non-Soil LCP MLW MHW SAV Figure 3-6. Subaqueous landscape showing the wa terward extent of soil. The red dashed line is a conceptual representation of light compensation point (LCP) where the soil does not receive enough light to support submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The zone between Mean Low Water (MLW) and Mean High Water (MHW) is dominantly unvegetated, how ever rising sea level may allow for vegetation to spread into these areas. Water Depth Range (relative to MLLW) Depth ClassificationSoil/Non-soil? < 20 cmshallow unvegetatedsoil 20-100 cmshallow-vegetate d soil > 100cmdeep wate r non-soil

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49 Figure 3-7. Satellite image of study area near Cedar Key, FL showing the classification of vegetation. The basemap is a Landsat 7 ETM+ 5-4-3 composite (November 7, 2002) which was acquired at an extreme low tide. Terrestrial areas mapped by the US Census Bureau are colored gr ey and the shorelines are outlined in black. The 5-4-3 band composite imparts green colors to vegetated areas. Therefore, green areas in the figure are mostly submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds that are exposed at low tide or under less than ~ 50 cm of water. At normal high tide, the water is 1.5 m hi gher. Note the presence of seagrass around each of the barrier islands. Some vegetated areas are protected and influenced by the islands while other areas are more isolated from land and thus more exposed to wind and waves. Darker blue areas are deep water and light blue or white areas are shallow sand bars. Unvegetated (Deep) SAV Unvegetated (Shallow) Land 1 km N Unvegetated cove Vegetated cove Vegetated flat

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50 Visual inspection of the seagrass flats at MLLW revealed that seagrass coverage was extensive and dense in most shallow, open portions of the study area away from Seahorse Key. There are two coves, one was vegetated and one unvegetated. The unvegetated cove had deeper water than th e flats. Where it merged with land, it supported a salt marsh community. The vegetate d cove was similar in elevation to the flats (Figure 3-7). Vegetate d areas ranged in water depths from 20 cm above water at MLLW to 100 cm at MLLW. No vegetati on was observed in the areas deeper or shallower than the flats. At MLLW, it wa s confirmed that the water level was low enough for the seagrass leaves to be exposed to air. The NDVI derived from the satellite imagery was also used to classify the aquatic portions of the study area into shallow ve getated, shallow unvegetated, or deep unvegetated. This classifi cation was based on an NDVI th reshold of 0.25. This value was determined by comparing NDVI values at several locations along the shallow vegetated to deep water tran sition and the shallow vegetate d to unvegetated transition. These points were identified us ing aerial photography and the coordinates were used to extract the NDVI values from the NDVI map (Figure 3-8). The average NDVI value at the shallow vegetated to deep water transi tion was 0.23. The average NDVI value at the shallow vegetated unvegetated transition was 0.26. A threshold value of 0.25 was therefore used to identify th e shallow vegetated areas. Areas with an NDVI > 0.25 were classified as shallow vegeta ted. Manual inspection of ma ny shallow unvegetated pixels revealed that NDVI values were not belo w 0. Therefore areas with NDVI values between 0 and 0.25 were classified as unve getated. NDVI could not be used to differentiate between shallow unvegetated and th e unvegetated fringe sl ightly deeper than

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51 Figure 3-8. Normalized Vegeta tive Difference Index (NDVI) view of the study area (A) calculated from a Landsat 7 ETM+ scene (B). Generally, seagrasses exist in shallow areas with NDVI > 0.25. The unvegetated areas, both shallow and deep have NDVI values ranging from 0 to 0.25. Deep water areas have NDVI values < 0. Yellow circles represent poi nts at the transition from deep to shallow water. Red triangles represent points at the transition from seagrass to unvegetated These locations were determined visually using aerial photography (C). Deep Water Seagrass Unvegetated 0.7 0.7 0 Seagrass Unvegetated Deep Water 0.2 5 Land 500 m N B A C5-4-3 composite

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52 the vegetated areas (Figure 3-9) The ratio of shallow area to deep area was 0.23, thus the extent of soil within the study area is 23% of the total aquatic area. Landscape and Seagrass Patterns Field observations revealed subtle patterns in the landscape and vegetation. The interior portions of the grass flats were s lightly higher in elevation (~10 cm) than the outer portions. The interi ors were vegetated with Thalassia (Figure 3-10) while outer portions of the flats were vegetated with a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium (Figure 3-11). Thalassia displayed a phenotypic plasticity with shorter blades where it occurred in the shallow, inner portions of the flats and had longer blades where it occurred in the deep, outer portions of the flat s. The edges of the fl ats sharply graded in elevation to deep, unvegeta ted areas (Figure 3-12). Along some channel edges and near some shores of Seahorse Key raised bars occurred. The shallowest portions of the bars were more than 20 cm above MLLW and were unvegetated. The deep portions of th e bars were a few cm above and below MLLW. These deeper areas were sparsely vegetated with Halodule Adjacent to and a few cm lower in elevation than the bars, were areas of dense Halodule (Figure 3-13). Adjacent to those areas and grading down into the flats were areas of monotypic, shortbladed Thalassia These bar-to-flat transitions of landscape and vegetation were consistent for most of the flats that were adjacent to channels. Within a range of elevation of 20 cm above MLLW and 1 m below MLLW, SAV was ubiquitous. Some small patches of unvegetated soil occurred in the grass beds, but these were of minor extent.

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53 Figure 3-9. Benthic classifi cation of the study area. Th e classification was conducted using a Normalized Vegetation Differe nce Index (NDVI) calculated from a Landsat 7 ETM+ scene acquired at low tide. The following NDVI ranges were used: Deep water (< 0), Unvegeta ted (0 to 0.25), and Seagrass (> 0.25). Upland areas were not included in the analysis. 500 m N Deep Water Unvegetated Seagrass Upland

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54 Figure 3-10. Monotypic stands of Thalassia testudinum growing on a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL. Pictures were taken at mean low water. A) Long grass blades. B) Short grass blades. A B

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55 Figure 3-11. Mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme growing on a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL. Pict ures were taken with water elevation 50 cm above mean low tide. Photograph A was taken above water and photograph B was taken below water. A B

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56 Figure 3-12. Typical edge of a shallow seagra ss flat near Cedar Key, FL. Vegetation is a mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme The picture was taken with a water depth 50 cm a bove mean low tide. The lower right portion of the picture is typical of the deep, unvegetated areas that exist on the edge of the grass flats. D D e e e e p p ( ( 2 2 m m ) ) u u n n v v e e g g e e t t a a t t e e d d a a r r e e a a S S h h a a l l l l o o w w ( ( 0 0 . 5 5 m m ) ) g g r r a a s s s s f f l l a a t t E E d d g g e e o o f f g g r r a a s s s s f f l l a a t t

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57 Figure 3-13. Monotypic stand of Halodule wrightii growing on a raised portion of a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL. A) the grass bed shows the dense coverage of Halodule The white arrow in A points to the location of the underwater picture (B). A B

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58 Upper-Pedon and Vegetation Relationships The three soils sampled at each site were analyzed for OM content and PSD. These data were averaged to provide a composite estimate of soil properties at each site (Appendix A-1). Soil color(s) was also describe d. It is possible to average Munsell color parameters. For example, the averag e Munsell color of the five UNVEG samples in Appendix A-1 is 4.0Y 6.8/1.0. The closest Mu nsell color chip available for visual comparison is 5Y 7/1. The parameters of this chip are determined by rounding the average parameters. Hue is rounded from 4.0 to 5, value is rounded from 6.8 to 7, and chroma is rounded from 1.0 to 1. This is done simply to provide a M unsell color that is available in the Munsell color book to acco mpany the average soil properties reported in Table 3-1. The chroma values for all sites were either 1 or 2, except for one site which had a chroma of 3 (Appendix A-1). The soil values however, ranged from 2.5 to 7. Soils, therefore, ranged from dark to light, low chro ma colors. Soil colo r value was negatively correlated with OM content (Figure 3-14) and silt content (Figure 3-15a), but positively correlated with sand contents (Figure 3-15b). While no quantitative assessment of above seagrass biomass, blade length, or percent cover was conducted, it was evident in the field that HAL areas had the shortest blades, lowest percent cover, and lowest above-ground seagrass biomass. THAL had a moderate blade length, per cent cover, and above-ground seagrass biomass. THAL/SYR had the greatest blade lengt h, percent cover, and above-g round seagrass biomass. The sand and OM contents were negatively correlated (Figure 3-16a) while the silt and OM of contents were positively correlated (Figure 3-16b). Care must be taken when interpreting PDS values, however, because clay contents were very low for all soils

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59 %OM = -0.8661 Value + 6.3565 R2 = 0.78 0 2 4 6 8 10 02468 Munsell ValuePercent OM All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) Figure 3-14. Negative relationship between OM content and soil color value. The clustering of points at a value of 2.5 is an artifact of th e visual soil color technique. The 2.5 value color chip is the lowest value on the 5Y and 2.5Y pages in the Munsell Color book (Gre tag/Macbeth, 2000), thus soil colors darker than this chip were assi gned a value of 2.5. Ground cover class abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia / Syringodium (THAL/HAL).

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60 % Silt = -2.1148 Value + 16.484 R2 = 0.81 0 5 10 15Percent Silt All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) % Sand = 2.1371 Value + 83.217 R2 = 0.81 82 87 92 97 02468 Munsell ValuePercent Sand All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) Figure 3-15. Relationship between silt and sand c ontents related to soil color. Note that silt (A) and sand (B) show equally as strong but opposite linear relationships with soil color value. Ground cove r class abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia / Syringodium (THAL/HAL). B A

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61 %OM = -0.3932 %Sand + 38.967 R2 = 0.91 0 2 4 6 8 80859095100 Percent SandPercent OM All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) %OM = 0.3962 %Silt 0.2926 R2 = 0.91 0 2 4 6 8 05101520 Percent SiltPercent OM All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) Figure 3-16. Strong linear relationship between the amount of OM in the soil and percent sand (A). An inverse relationship exis ts with percent clay (B). Ground cover class abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia / Syringodium (THAL/HAL). A B

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62 sampled. Because silt was calculated as the residual mass once sand and clay contents had been measured, the sand and silt were strong ly correlated for all s ites (Figure 3-17). Being a residual, silt would also be sensitiv e to experimental error. Sand contents, however, are directly measured, so the rela tionship between sand and OM contents is valid. The strong linear re lationships between soil co lor and OM content and PSD suggest that for this area, so il properties may be confidently inferred simply by observing soil color. If this relationship exists fo r other subaqueous soils, pedologists can simply observe soil as it occurs in the field a nd infer the OM contents and PSD values. Visual inspection of Figures 3-14 thr ough 3-17 reveals strong clustering of soil properties according to seagrass cover class. Therefore, th e soil properties of each site (Appendix A-1) were averaged for each seag rass cover class to summarize the soil properties as they relate to s eagrass cover type (Table 3-2). To determine the average soil color for each cover class, the hue, value, and chroma of all five si tes were averaged, and that average was rounded to the nearest Muns ell color chip. A lthough Munsell colors can exist for hue-value-chroma combinations other than those in a Munsell color book, rounding to the nearest chip pr ovided a single color designation that was consistent with how soil colors are reported. Moving from one portion of the landscape to another, vegetati ve characteristics changes from unvegetated to Halodule to single stands or mixed stands of Thalassia and Syringodium The averages in Table 3-2 show that soil properties therefore grade across the landscape with vegetati on. The heavier cover of Thalassia and Syringodium mixed stands may be contributing to the larger amount s of OM and silt, thus resulting in darker colors in the soil (Table 3-2). Alterna tively, the high amounts of OM and silt may

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63 %Silt = -0.99 %Sand + 98.875 R2 = 0.99 0 5 10 15 20 80859095100 Percent SandPercent Silt All Locations UNVEG HAL THAL THAL/SYR Linear (All Locations) Figure 3-17. Strong linear relationship betw een the sand and silt contents of all sites sampled. This resulted because silt was calculated as a residual after determining clay and sand contents. Clay contents were very low for all samples. Ground cover class abbr eviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia / Syringodium (THAL/ HAL).

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64Table 3-2. Upper-pedon average organic matte r content and particle-size distribution for sites located in four seagrass cover classes: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule wrightii (HAL), Thalassia testudinum (THAL), and Thalassia / Syringodium filiforme mixed stand (THAL/SYR). Averages are based on five locations per seagrass cover class (See A ppendix A-1 for site data). The numbers in parentheses are standard deviations of th e five observations. Cover Class Estimate d Biomass Organic Matte r % by LOI ClaySilt Sand HueValueChroma UNVEG N one 0.5 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)2.3 (1.1)97.5 (1.0)5Y 71 HAL Low 2.1 (0.2)0.2 (0.0)5.8 (0.3)94.0 (0.3)2.5Y 52 THAL Medium 3.3 (0.4)0.2 (0.0)9.5 (1.6)90.3 (1.6)2.5Y 31 THAL/SY R High 5.1 (0.7)0.2 (0.0)13.0 (1.2)86.8 (1.2)2.5Y 2.51 Particle Size Distribution % Soil Colo r Moist Rubbed

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65 encourage the growth of thick cover plants. In either case, the following generalizations can be made: The upper-pedon of soils are related to the vegetation they support. Soil OM increases as the vegetative biomass increases. Percent silt increases as the vegetative biomass increases. Upper-pedon Soil Morphologies Detailed investigations of the morphologies of soils occurring at the modal locations (Figure 3-5) revealed that the patterns of colors are related to seagrass species. The UNVEG-T soil was similar in oxidized color to the soils on the nearby land (Seahorse Key), a likely source of sedimentar y material to the subaqueous environment. The colors of the soil were 5Y 7/1 when immediately sampled (Figure 3-18a), but changed to 10YR 7/4 when oxi dized (Figure 3-18b). No OM roots, or shells were visible within the upper-pedon. The USDA Soil Survey Report for Levy County, FL (Slabaugh et al. 1996) depicts Orsino, a hyperthermic, uncoated, Spodic Quartzipsamment, as the dominant soil on th e island. The Bw horizon (94 cm to 175 cm depth) was reported to have a color of 10Y R 7/6 while the C horizon (> 175 cm depth) was reported as 10YR 7/4. The similarity in soil color between the unvegetated areas and the Orsino on the adjacent island indicates the soils of the island are most likely a contributor of parent material via erosion to these unvegetated soils. The HAL-T soil occurring in the areas vegetated by Halodule had a matrix color of 2.5Y 6/1 when reduced and 10YR 7/2 when oxi dized. Light areas (5Y 7/1 reduced;10YR 7/3 oxidized) and dark areas (5YR 3/1 reduced; 10YR 3/1 oxidized) were apparent throughout the upper-pedon (0 to 10 cm). The colors of the upper-pedon increased in value and chroma upon exposure to air along with changing to a redder hue, but retained

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66 Figure 3-18. Upper-pedons of a soil occu rring at location UNVEG-T: a shallow unvegetated area adjacent to an erosi onal beach on Seahorse Key. The photograph on the left (A) was taken imme diately after the soil was retrieved, therefore colors are of th e moist soil in its natura l state. The photograph on the right (B) was taken of moistened soil, one day after the soil sampling. Therefore colors are of the moist soil in its oxidized state. The colors closely resemble those of the sands from the adjacent land, Seahorse Key. No evidence of pedogenesis is evident within the soil. The so il was extracted 20 m from a mangrove tree that had begun to take root. Thus potential support for vegetation was offered by this soil. 5 cm 1 cm A BTop of Soil

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67 the contrast between matrix, light, and dark ar eas. Generally, the dark areas occurred as small spheroid or cylindrical areas, occupying less than 50% of the total area of a soil profile. Typically, the spheroids were a few mm in diameter while the cylindrical dark areas were a few mm in diamet er and a few cm in length. The THAL-T location was 30 m from the HAL-T location. The soil was vegetated with short-bladed Thalassia The oxidized and reduced co lors of the upper-pedon were identical to those in the HAL-T soil. The patte rn of dark and light areas was also similar, but the dark areas were more numerous, typically occupying up to 70% of the area in a profile. This gave the soil a dark appearan ce in its oxidized (Figure 3-19) and reduced states (Figure 3-20). The gr eater volume of darker soil when compared to HAL-T (Figure 3-21) is probably the reason for diffe rences in average value along with average OM, silt, and sand contents between the HAL and THAL soils. The THAL/SYR-T soil was dark in matrix color (5YR 3/1 reduced; 10YR 3/1 oxidized) throughout the upper pedo n (Figure 3-22 for reduced colors and Figure 3-23 for oxidized colors). Of minor extent in the upper-pedon were small areas of light color soil (5Y 5/1 reduced; 10YR 6/2 oxidized). Mollusk shells were observed through the upperpedon, possibly indicating a larg e amount of bioturbaton or sedimentation. Clams are burrowing organisms, so the presence of clam shells suggested bioturbation was taking place resulting in light colored areas in the so il. Scallops reside on the benthic surface, therefore the presence of these shells throughout the upper-pedon suggest past soil surfaces were buried through sedimentation. Combined, the lab and field data show th at OM and silt contents are high where dense beds of seagrass (mixed stands of Thalassia and Syringodium ) are rooted in the

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68 Figure 3-19. Upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T: a soil occurring on a bar near Cedar Key, FL vegetated with Halodule wrightii Note the polychromatic nature of the soil. A she ll is visible about 7 cm deep in the soil (A), probably indicating bioturbation as a possible reason for the intermingled colors. Diffuse boundaries exist between the dark splotches and the lighter matrix (B). This indicates a gradient of material (e.g., organic matter) within the soil. Dead roots are also apparent within the profile, possibly contributing to soil organic matter. Near Cedar Key, this morphology seems to be consistent with the presence of Halodule wrightii This photograph was taken immediately after the soil was sa mpled. Therefore, colors are of the moist soil in its natural state. 0 cm 5 cm 10 cm B A Top of Soil

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69 Figure 3-20. Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T: a soil occurring on a bar near Cedar Key, FL vegetated with Halodule wrightii The red streaks are dead Halodule roots. The dark splotch (B) located within the lighter portion of the matrix is a feature common to soils associated with Halodule These features seem to most frequently occur in and around live or dead roots (A). Where occuring be low the rooting zone, they are not necessarily accompanied by visible dead roots. This photograph was taken after the soil had been expos ed to air for a week. Therefore, colors are of the soil in its oxidized state. B A 1cm Top of Soil

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70 Figure 3-21. Side-by-side comparison of upper-pedons from HAL-T (A) and THAL-T (B) soils. These soils oc curred on a bar near a channel. Note the polyvalue appearance of both soils. The matrix co lor and color of dark and light areas are identical in both soils. There is a hi gher concentration of dark areas in B. This photograph was taken after the soil ha d been exposed to air for a week. Therefore, colors are of th e soil in its oxidized state. 10cm A B Top of Soil Top of Soil

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71 Figure 3-22. Upper-pedon at location THAL/S YR-T: a soil occurring underneath a mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme near Cedar Key, FL. Note the dark colors throughout the soil. Shells and dead roots are visible in the soil suggesting bioturbation from the mollusks and rooting throughout the upper 10 cm by the seagrasses. This so il appears to be typical of flats supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium This photograph was taken immediately after the soil was samp led. Therefore, colors are of the soil in its natural state. 0 cm 5 cm 10 cm Top of Soil ShellsRoots

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72 Figure 3-23. Oxidized upper-pedon of a so il occurring at location THAL/SYR-T: a soil occurring underneath a mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme near Cedar Key, FL. Note the da rk colors throughout the soil. Some linear streaks are evident within the soil as are mollusk and clam shells. The yellow arrow points to dead roots th at occur throughout the soil. This photograph was taken after the soil had b een exposed to air for five days. Therefore, colors are of th e soil in its oxidized state. 5cm Top of Soil

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73 soil. The dark colors values of the soil refl ect the high concentrati ons of OM and silt. Sparse vegetation ( Halodule and monotypic Thalassia ) are associated with moderate amounts of silt and OM. The light color va lues compared to soils supporting dense vegetation reflects the low concentrations of OM and silt. The unvegetated areas are devoid of rooted seagrasses and almost devoid of concentrations of OM and silt. The extremely light soil color values reflect this. Subaqueous A Horizons The upper-pedons of all vegetate d soils are dark in color and have elevated levels of OM compared to the unvegeta ted soils. It appears as if these soils have A horizons. Much discussion has been made of A horizon formation in terrestrial soils (Dokuchaev, 1883; Simonson, 1959; Soil Survey Staff, 1975; Soil Survey Staff, 1993) resulting from rooted plants that add bioma ss (e.g., roots, leaves) to the so il. The A horizon concept is fundamental to soil science. One can assu me that most terrestrial soils supporting vegetation will have an A horizon. For the pur poses of this research, it will be assumed that these horizons are A horizons. The pres ence of rooted vegetation and elevated OM within the rooting zone support this assumption. To dem onstrate that these horizons are A horizons and not just organi c rich C horizons, the genesis of the upper-pedons must be studied. Genesis of Upper-Pedon Organic Matter Silt-sized particles and OM were related for the upper 30 cm of all soils sampled (Figure 3-16b). These soil prop erties were also related to seagrass cover, suggesting the OM and silt were derived mainly from the trap ping and settling. If the nature of the siltsized particles was planktonic, a nd if that is where the soil OM originated from, then the

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74 concentration of biogenic silica (from diatoms) in the soil would be related to soil OM. Therefore, the biogenic silica in selected soils was studied. Biogenic silica: Depth trends in silt, biogenic sili ca, and OM contents are shown in Figure 3-24 for a representative soil occurr ing at a random locati on that supported mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium (29o6’36”N, 83o4’12”W). Silt, biogenic silica, and OM all fluctuate similarly within the pedon. Statistically, OM content is positively correlated with biogenic silica (R2 = 0.74) and with silt content (R2 = 0.68) for this pedon. The OM / silt relationships of the upper-p edons from the UNVEG, HAL, THAL, and THAL/SYR sites along with this relationshi p between OM, silt, and biogenic silica suggest that OM is caused by the trapping a nd binding of silt-sized biogenic silica particles. These partic les are likely plankton. A Young Soil: On the unvegetated fl at east of Seahorse Key (Figure 3-25a), a circular mound of sand, ~30 m in diameter, ha d built up from what appeared to be wave action. Similar but non-circular mounds of sand were present throughout the flat, suggesting wave action created these mounds On MLLW, it was observed that the unvegetated portion of the flat was completely drained excep t for the area inside the circle. The mound impeded the surface drainage of tide water from within the circle. Thalassia was present inside the circle, suggest ing that this small portion of the unvegetated flat remained wet enough th roughout all tide cycles to support Thalassia The shape of the unvegetated flat and of the adjacent shoreline suggests that erosion from Seahorse Key to the flat has oc curred. In fact, the erosion from the unstable shore to the flat is probabl y still occurring. Therefore, it can be inferred that the

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75 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 0510 %SiltElevation (cm) 050100150 [Si] (mg/L) 01234 % OM Figure 3-24. Depth distributions of silt (A), Organic Matter (OM) (B), and biogeni c silica (C) for a pedon supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium Elevations are in cm relative to the soil surface. Note how silt, OM, and Silica (Si) follow similar depth trends.A B C

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76 Thalassia inside the circle has recen tly colonized the soil. If this is the case, then the morphology of the soil would reflect the effects of Thalassia on an unvegetated soil. In the upper-pedon of this soil, a splotc hy pattern similar to those of soils supporting Halodule and monotypic Thalassia was observed. The amount of dark splotches (approximately 30%) was similar to the amounts of the HAL soils (Figure 3-25 c and d). Like all unvegetat ed areas observed in this st udy, the soils of the unvegetated areas adjacent to this soil were de void of these morphological features. It can therefore be inferred that Thalassia has begun to impart the polychromatic morphology evident in the other vegetated HAL and THAL soils. Bioturbation did not appear to be the cause of these featur es as no crotovena, and very few macroinvertebrates were observed in the patch of seagrass or in the adjacent unvegetated soil. It is possible that root pro cesses such as root exudation cause a build up of OM in the rooting zone of the soil. The presence of adhered dark soil areas to the roots (Figure 3-26) combined with the occurrence of these dark features throughout the rooting zone of this and all HAL and THAL soils is eviden ce that the roots of seagrasses cause these features. These features do not seem to be re stricted to a single seagrass species, as they occur within the ro oting zone of both Thalassia and Halodule The fact that there were less of these dark areas in the rooting zone of a Thalassia patch believed to be of recent age could mean that these features build up over time. Not only do these features seem to be inde pendent of seagrass species, but they are also independent of salinity. An upper-pedon from a subaqueous soil occurring along the fringe of a sandhill lake in Volusia Count, FL. (28o51’58”N, 81o10’49”W) shows these features can occur in terrest rial, fresh water subaqueous soils that support rooted

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77 Figure 3-25. Rooting-zone morphology of an unvegetated soil recently colonized by Thalassia The area shown in A was unvegetated in 2001. At some point within the next three years, seagra ss colonized the area (B). The soil morphology reflects the age of the soil in that the rooti ng zone is not as dark as other patches of Thalassia testudinum (C). Within the rooting zone, spheroids of darker colored soil were ubiquitous (D). Several more upperpedons were sampled to confirm this phenomenon and all had similar morphologies. These features ar e noted in most upper-pedons of Halodule wrightii as well, suggesting this is not a species-specific process. These features do not appear to be associat ed with crotovena from bioturbation. A B C DThalassia 2001 2004

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78 Figure 3-26. Isolated body of dark soil mate rial typically found in the upper-pedons of areas supporting Halodule wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia testudinum White arrow points toward the soil.

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79 vegetation (Figure 3-27). The morphological features shown in Fi gures 3-25 and 3-27 are similar in size, color, and placement within the rooting zone. Like the subaqueous soils near Cedar Key, FL, the texture of this freshwater subaqueous soil shown in Figure 3-27 is sand. This freshwater subaqueous soil is similar to the Cedar Key subaqueous soils in texture (both are sa ndy), hydrology (both are submerge d), and in vegetative cover (both support rooted vegetation). The fact that dark splotches occur in both soils highlights the probability that rooted vegetation cause these features to form in the soil. This is A horizon formation. The nature and distribution of these f eatures in both marine and freshwater subaqueous soils needs to be investigated. Subtropical Subaqueous Soils: Indicato rs of Historical Conditions Further exploration of unvegetated bars along channels revealed the presence of dark (e.g 2.5Y 2.5/1) soil material, similar in morphology to that in the surface soils of HAL, THAL, and THAL/SYR areas. It was hypothesized that these were buried A horizons. To test this hypothesis, aerial photography from 2001 and 1961 were compared to determine the vegetative history of the bars. These bars were the edges of seagrass flats in 1961 (Figure 3-28 a and b). Expansion of the bar from 1961 to 2001 to c over vegetated areas can be seen in the imagery. Additionally, some areas vegetate d in 1961 were near eroding shorelines and, therefore, buried by 2001 (Figure 3-28 c and d). The upper-pedon of the soil that occurs in the area located in Figure 3-28 a and b is shown in Figure 3-29a. The dark colors in the lower portion of the uppe r-pedon indicate that the area was once vegetated with Thalassa The gradual decrease of dark splotches from deeper portions of the pedon to the top of the soil can be infe rred as a gradual burial of Thalassia and subsequent

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80 Figure 3-27. Upper-pedon of a freshwater s ubaqueous soil containing dark bodies. The soil occurs on the fringe of a sandhill lake in Volusia County, FL. These features are typically found in th e upper-pedons of areas supporting Halodule wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia testudinum in Cedar Key, FL. The red arrows point toward the dark features in the soil. 1cm

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81 Figure 3-28. Aerial photograph showing locatio ns of buried seagrasses. The edge of the grassflat in 1961 (A) appears unvegetate d, likely due to wave action and high energy due to the proximity of the channel. From 1961 to 2001 (B) the unvegetated area spread. The green a rrows in A and B indicate a location where the seagrass bed was buried sometime between 1961 and 2001. In 2004, that location was vegetated with Halodule wrightii The dynamic nature of some high-energy areas is evident through the er osion that took place between 1961 (C) and 2001 (D). Th e red arrow indicates a location where a seagrass bed was buried by eroding sands. This area was unvegetated in 2004. At this location, an A horizon was buried beneath a C horizon. eroding sands. This area was unvegeta ted in 2004. At this location, an A horizon was buried beneath a C horizon. 200m A Channel Grassflat Channel Grassflat B CD2001 1961 2001 1961 Channel Channel

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82 Figure 3-29. Buried A horizons in a subtr opical subaqueous soil near Cedar Key, FL. The soil on the left (A) is an upper-pedon of a soil occurring on a vegetated flat where soil had been eroded from land into the seagrass over the past 40 years. The seagrass present at the time of excavation was Halodule wrightii but the darker colors at depth suggest Thalassia testudinum was the previously supported grass. This photograph was take n after the soil had been exposed to air for a week. Therefore, colors are of the soil in its oxidized state. The soil on the right (B) occurred in an unvegeta ted area proximate to an erosional shoreline. 10 cm 5 cm ABA horizon Ab horizon Ab horizon C horizon

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83 conversion to Halodule In contrast, the upper pedon of th e soil that occurs in the area located in Figure 3-28c and d is shown in Figure 3-29b. Note the abrupt boundary between the C and the Ab horizons. This suggests a catastrophic burial, kil ling all seagrasses suppor ted by that soil. In 1961, the flat appears be vegetated (Figure 3-28c). By 2001, the shor eline has retreated, likely due to erosion from wave action, and the vegetation has disa ppeared, likely due to burial from this erosion (Figure 3-28d). The aerial photographs shown in Figure 3-28 c and d support the soil morphology based inference that the soils ha ve been catastrophically buried. In both the cases of the migrating ba r and the eroding shoreline, th e history of the area can be inferred from the soil morphology. Similar in ferences could be made in other areas where the vegetative history is not known pr ovided the soil/vegetation relationships are understood. Conclusions Relationships between seagrasses and the upper-pedons of soils are apparent near Cedar Key, FL. Based on the data presented, si lt and OM contents are related to seagrass vegetation. A commonly invoke d sedimentologically-based explanation for this phenomenon is that high silt concentrations in the soil protected OM from oxidation. The small pores help preserve OM (Personal communication: John Jaeger, Professor, Department of Geology, University of Florida) While this may e xplain the persistence of OM in the soil and the correlation between silt and OM, it does not explain the genesis of the OM. The source of the soil OM could be additions to the soil by seagrasses in the form of root die off, root exudates, leaf litter, or a combination of the three. This mechanism strongly mimics the formation of A horizons de veloped by terrestrial grasses. Thus, it is

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84 possible that the dark, high OM portions of the upper-pedons of marine subaqueous soils are due to plant additions to th e soil via root processes. If this is the case, these are OM additions to the soil directly from the plants Therefore, the surf icial horizons of these vegetated soils should be labeled A horizons. Another explanation is that th e source of the OM could be silt-sized particulate OM that settled with mineral silt. In this case, the OM would still be preserved via the smaller pores, but the genesis of the so il would be sedimentary, making the surface of the soil a C horizon, not an A horizon. If the seagrasses o ccur in an environment that is low energy due to the geomorphology of the area, then the ho rizons should be labeled as C horizons. Instead, if the seagrasses engineer the ecosyst em to create a lower energy environment, then it could be viewed that the soil is feed ing itself material that would otherwise not have settled. This trapping of suspended particulat e OM is a widely accepted phenomenon by seagrass ecologists (Zieman, 1982; Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; Koch, 2001; Barron et al, 2004). Thalassia has significantly longer and thicker blades than Halodule The baffling effect of blades should be proportional to the surface area of the blades. Conseque ntly, the larger blades of Thalassia could provide an increased baffling effect compared to Halodule soils or unvegetat ed soils. The subsequently low energy environment of soils supporting Thalassia should enhance deposition of allocthonous material which is likely higher in silt and OM contents than the quartz soils of the beaches and sand bars Less baffling would occur in the soils supporting Halodule and none should occur in the unvege tated soils. This would explain the OM and silt concentrations of the UNVEG, HAL, THAL, and THAL/SYR soils.

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85 Further studies of current velocities a nd sedimentation rates among these soils may provide a better understandi ng of this phenomenon. Of course, these three proposed mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. Seagrasses can grow in protected, naturall y low-energy environments. Their growth blade growth could enhance deposition and r oot processes could add OM to the soil. Furthermore, bioturbation from the supporte d benthic communities could provide the mixing needed to create the relatively homogeneous morphology observed in the THAL/SYR compared to the HAL and THAL soils. None of these explanations excluded these substrates from the USDA’s definition of soil as outlined in either edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975 and 1999). While these areas may conceptually be soil, the genesis of the upper-pedons of those soils is still in question and should be the subject of future study. In the case of the buried soils, interpretation of the marine subaque ous soil morphology was possible due to the empirical relationship between soil mor phology and vegetative cover demonstrated throughout the study area. A better understa nding of the upper-pedon genesis would facilitate interpretations of soil morphology. The issue of the genesis of the OM and silt in the soil is just one example of the many questions pedologists need to address in the future. Questions such as this are important precursors to the successful appl ication of the pedological paradigm in subaqueous environments. These empirical relationships between seagrasses and soils are promising for soil scientists since relationships such between soils, vegetation, and landscapes are central to their concept of soil. Given the ubiquitous na ture of seagrasses on the Cedar Key flats,

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86 landscape/seagrass/soil relationships may be the focus of future subtropical subaqueous pedology. These relationships would be best constructed on research focused on better understanding the processes that occur in the benthic environment. Those are the processes of subaqueous soil formation.

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87 CHAPTER 4 CREATING AND EVALUATING SUBAQUEOUS DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS Introduction Basemaps in Soil Survey Soil/landscape relationships are the co rnerstone of pedology. V.V Dokuchaev’s soil-forming factors (Dokuchaev, 1883; G linka, 1927; Jenny, 1941), the catena concept (Milne, 1935), and the landscap e unit (Soil Survey Staff, 1993) all demonstrate the fundamental idea that soil properties vary pr edictably with the la ndscape. Visualizing landscapes is therefore useful to the creation of a soil survey. In a terrestrial environment, much of the landscape can be visualized in the field. This allows for the direct observation of soils and landscapes so that soil/landscape conceptual models can be developed. Large areas such as counties cannot be directly observed in an efficient manner. Mapping the so ils at the county scale therefore requires the use of basemaps such as topographic ma ps and aerial photographs. These basemaps contain landscape information that can be us ed to model the landscape and thus the soils. In the United States, the elevations of landscapes have been mapped at a 1:24,000 scale by the United States Geological Servi ce (USGS) in the form of topographical quadrangle sheets. Most Unite d States Department of Agri culture / Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA/ NRCS) county-level soil surveys are conducted at a map scale close to 1:20,000. Because of the sma ller mapping scale of the USGS topographic quadrangles, these data are used less frequently by the USDA/NRCS than photographically derived terrain info rmation (Soil Survey Staff, 1993).

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88 Recently, the concept of pedology has been expanded into aquatic areas (Demas 1993). Subsequently, the topic of subaqueous so il survey in these areas has risen (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999; Bradley and Stolt, 2002; 2003). As Bradley and Stolt (2002) pointed out, soil survey in these subaque ous areas is hindered by the difficulty of visualizing the inundated landscap es. Direct observation of the soils is possible using traditional soil sampling equipment such as soil augers (Chapter 3), but direct observation of the landscape is impeded by water. In a marine environment, the visual impedance of water can be minimizes by conducting observati ons low tide events, but there is still a great need to use basemaps to obtain enough te rrain information to build the conceptual subaqueous soil/landscape model. Whether the conceptual soil/landscape model requires a basemap, the mapping of the subaqueous land relies on basemaps. As with terrestrial soil surveys, the landscape is mapped efficiently by delineating the landscape using the basemaps and the conceptual soil/landscape model. Terrain data suitable for soil survey (e.g., topographic maps) are usually not available for subaqueous areas. Aerial phot ographs and satellite imagery of shallow areas can provide some information about th e landscape, but comple te visualization of the subaqueous landscape is greatly enha nced by bathymetric terrain models. Creating Basemaps for Subaqueous Soil Survey Since bathymetric terrain models are not usually available at typical soil survey scales (e.g., 1:20,000), they must be create d. Generally, this is done by collecting bathymetric data, converting thos e data to elevations, and in terpolating thos e elevations into a “continuous” elevation surface. From this surface, the terrain can be analyzed visually in two and three dimensions, comb ined with aerial photography, and used to

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89 calculate terrain attributes such as slope a nd aspect. In a subaqueous environment, the collection of bathymetry typically uses an acoustical sounder, gl obal positioning system (GPS), and a watercraft. Collecting these da ta can be time consuming. No standards have been established to determine the amount of data needed as a f unction of map scale. This is currently an important question for subaqueous soil survey because base maps are important and the collection of data to create those maps can be resource intensive. Additionally, traditional GPS and sounder equipment has been bulky and expensive, further consuming the resources that may be allocated to the creation of a basemap. Recent advances such as Light Detec ting and Ranging (LIDAR) show promise for efficiently gathering terrestrial terrain data, but currently require si gnificant resources to deploy the airborne sensor. In aquatic environments, LIDAR technology is not as advanced as in terrestrial e nvironments. LIDAR could provide an excellent alternative to the field collection of bathymetry in the futu re. Currently, however, the field collection of bathymetric data is still the most widely employed method. This is especially true for surveys of smaller survey areas such as i ndividual coves and bays, where the resources necessary for the airborne equipment may exceed the resources allocated for the project. Data Density and Digital Elevation Model Cell Size A digital elevation model (DEM) can be any fo rm of elevation model that is digital, however, a majority of DEM products used ar e raster-based. The use of the term DEM herafter assumes a raster data format with a square cell shape. This research will focus on DEMs created by interpola ting point values of el evation into a raster. The spacing of the input data affects the inte rpolated values in th e raster as does the method of interpolation. For a given location, the more clos ely spaced and numerous the data points are, the higher the likelihood that the interpolated value at that point will

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90 reflect the actual value. Point accuracy, howev er, is not the only important metric of a digital elevation model. Since surface proper ties such as slope and aspect are affected by the change in elevation over a distance, model smoothness is important. The actual terrain being modeled may not be smooth. But if the DEM that represents that terrain is to have a rough surface, then that roughness sh ould reflect the actua l terrain roughness. Instead, many interpolation methods will indu ce a surface roughness if too small of a cell size is chosen. This roughness may confound terrain analysis, esp ecially if the analysis is less visual and mo re quantitative. DEM accuracy and smoothness are therefore affected by the spacing of the input data points. What is the data spacing needed to achieve a certain level of accuracy and/or smoothness? Bradley and Stolt (2002) addressed this questio n using point density. They compared their model to others and conclude d that their model provided more detail. The conclusion was based on the larger data dens ity, 14 data points/ha, of the survey data compared to the NOAA density, 4.5 points/ha. This attempt at assessing DEM quality is necessary (Wilson and Gallant, 2000), however th e metric of points/ha used requires an assumption that the pattern of data sp acing is consistent between DEMs in the comparison. For example, a DEM generated fr om 100 data points that are concentrated in the center of a 10 ha study area will pr oduce better results in the center, and worse along the edges when compared to a DEM genera ted from 100 data points that are evenly distributed throughout a 10 ha study area. In both situati ons, the point density is 10 points/ha. The situation is even more drastic in the case of bathymetric data, as these data are often collected along transects. The local data density in the areas n ear transects is much

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91 higher than in areas away from transects. If one assumes that a surplus of data are collected along a transect, then it is the distance between bathymetric transects that should affect DEM accuracy and roughness. These issues associated with creating DEMs by interpolating bathymetric point data raise the following questions: What is the relationship between bath ymetric transect spacing and surface roughness? Can this relationship be quantified into a metric that can be used in DEM creation? To minimize resources required for the collection of an adequate amount of bathymetric data in the basemap creation process, what is the maximum distance between bathymetric transects, assumi ng surface roughness is to be avoided? To address these questions, the obj ectives of this study were to: Create a digital elevation model (DEM) of the shallow, subaqueous terrain near Cedar Key, FL. Determine the optimum cell size of the DE M relative to the spacing of the input data. The optimum cell size will be the sma llest that does not result in a DEM with significant interpolation artif acts (described later). Materials and Methods A description of the study are can be f ound in Chapter 1. Bathymetric data were collected throughout the study area along transe cts. Those data were exported to a Geographical Information System (GIS) to be modeled into a DEM using several interpolation methods. The resu ltant models were compared to determine the best model. The final model was used to generate a DEM at various cell sizes: 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, 30 m, and 60 m. The nature of the interpolation noise, referred to here as artifacts, was investigated visually by inspecting DEM at th e various cell sizes and quantitatively by examining profiles of DEM-de rived slope along a transect.

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92 The 10 m and 15 m DEMs were used to quantify the rela tionship between interpolation noise (expressed as artifacts) a nd transect spacing. A me tric was created to allow the determination of optimal cell size gi ven a known transect spacing. This metric was called the scale ratio. Bathymetry and Equipment Bottom elevations were determined by first collecting bathymetric sounding via acoustical sounder. The water depths were corrected for tidal fluctuations using a National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Admi nistration (NOAA) tidal gauge located in Cedar Key, FL. Because the gauge was less than five km away from the study and because of the open nature of the water, levels recorded by NOAA were assumed to be equal to the water levels throughout the study area. Bathymetric soundings were collected usi ng a transom mount transducer mounted on the stern of a 5 m, shallow-draft skiff. Bathymetry was collected along transects oriented north-south and east-west (Figure 4-1). Transect sp acing was held constant for the initial data collection, then additional transects were added to intensify sampling in certain areas. The bathymetric transects are shown in Figure 4-1. Since most transects were run in an east-west and north-south orientation (Figure 4-1), the transect intersections served as a check to see how the unit was performing. The transducer specifications were : Garmin part number 010-10249-00, 200 kHz frequency, 20o cone angle, plastic co nstruction, and transom mount orientation. The data logger used to pair the sounding information with positional information was a Garmin GPSMap 178C with internal antenna. This unit contained all GPS hardware and mapping software necessary for the collection of positional coordinates using the wide area augmentation system (WAAS), which consta ntly reported an accuracy of +/3 m

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93 Bathymetric transects DEM Boundary Figure 4-1. Location of bathymetric transects. N 300m

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94 throughout the study. The unit communicated with the transducer, pr oviding control over settings such as signal gain and water sali nity and collected depth soundings, +/3 cm that were internally paired with WAAS GPS derived positional coordinates. The transducer was positioned such that at r unning speed, 35 km/hr, it was level and submersed. The data logger was able to store 10,000 soundings in the internal memory, but Garmin data cards were used to hold the data so the logger memory could be purged. This, allowed for additional mapping without re quiring a computer to download the data, thus enhancing efficiency. The logger was compatible with a Microsoft Windows PC. The software used to model the data was the Geostatistical Analyst extension of Environmental Systems Research Institute’s ArcGIS 9.0. The internal settings of the logger were used to adjust the transducer gain to achieve maximum signal strength in the shallow seagrass flats. A keel offset feature in the logger was used to calibrate the transdu cer to the depth of water at a measured location. Depths were converted to elevations after correctin g for tidal fluctuations using logs from a NOAA tidal gauge located 5 km aw ay at Cedar Key, Fl. Data were acquired on days with calm winds (<15 km/hr) and subsequently small (<30 cm amplitude) waves. The data logger calculates a running averag e of soundings (persona l communication with Garmin technical staff) and the skiff was de signed to cut through sm all waves at higher speeds, so post-processing of data to remove wave noise was not necessary. In confined areas, such as those near the shore or insi de of coves, speeds of 35km/hr were not practical. Soundings in these areas were acquire d after readjusting th e transducer position and recalibrating the keel offset to account for the different attitude of the skiff. These soundings were recorded at 5 km/hr.

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95 The interval between soundings can be specified by time or by distance. The targeted data spacing was 10m between point s along the transects, so the collection interval was set to one so unding per second on the 35 km/hr transects and one sounding every seven seconds on the 5km/hr transects. Temporal spacing was chosen instead of distance spacing of the data after Garmin r ecommended this to avoid any lags due to the data logger’s internal co mputer calculating distances (personal communication with Garmin, 2002). Data Modeling Data were first imported to the GIS and inspected for errors. At speeds above 35 km/hr, transducer function was impaired resu lting in either null data or erroneously shallow depths. The data points collected at speeds above 35 km/hr were identified using the speed attribute of the data, and subseque ntly deleted from the data set. Visual inspection was used to identif y soundings recorded when th e boat changed directions or speeds drastically, such as at the end of a tr ansect. Under these circumstances, the angle of the transducer was not vert ical. Thus, recorded depths we re greater than actual depths. Once these problematic data were remove d, the residual data were modeled using several interpolation technique s at a cell size of 10 m: i nverse distance weighted (IDW), polynomial, radial basis functi ons (RBFs), and kriging. E ach interpolation method was used with the default settings to provide a baseline set of models. High quality color aerial photography acquired at a 1:24,000 scale pr ovided a qualitative tool to determine whether the edges of subaqueous features such as the channels, holes, bars, and seagrass flats were correctly reproduced. Once it was determined which methods produc ed superior results, the parameters of these methods were optimized to produ ce the best possible model. Within each

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96 method, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used to choose the best model. Among methods, models were compared based on f itting of edge features to the aerial photograph, RMSE, presence of gross over a nd under predictions, and interpolation noise. The “best” technique was chosen to be the one that minimized all these parameters. Interpolation Noise Analysis Qualitative Assessments of Interpolation Noise : Interpolation noise was visually inspected for a 5 m DEM and a 30 m to visua lize the effect of ce ll size on the DEM. Additionally, a transect bridgi ng two flats across a deep chan nel was established (Figure 4-2). For the previously determined best DEM at two cell sizes, 15 m and 60 m, the slope was calculated. The elevation and sl ope values of the 15 m and 60 m DEM that occurred along the transect were plotted to visualize the eff ect of cell size on the elevation model. Quantitative assessment of int erpolation noise, the scale ratio: The scale ratio was a metric created to measure the relations hip between interpolati on noise and cell size. The scale ratio was define d as using Equation 4-1. SR = D / C (4-1) Variables: SR = Scale Ratio D = Distance to nearest data point used in th e interpolation C = Cell size of the DEM This ratio represents the minimum distan ces from data points at which artifacts occur at a DEM cell size. Fifty artifacts were identified in the 15 m and 10 m versions of the DEM. Along each artifact, several points were digitized within a GIS environment. The distance between these artifact points and the nearest bathym etric data point was

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97 Figure 4-2. Location of a tran sect (yellow line) used to compare slopes of DEM at different cell sizes. Seahorse Key N 500m

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98 calculated (Figure 4-3). This scale ratio was then applied to the bathymetric data set to determine a DEM cell size that would st rike a balance between maximizing DEM resolution and minimizing the num ber of artifacts in the DEM. This final DEM was used as a basemap in Chapter 5. Results and Discussion Data Acquisition All intersections where the boat was moving at a constant velocity were identical in measured depth once corrected for tide. Additionally, transects that were proximate to visual landmarks were inspected within the GI S and proved to be of sufficient accuracy at the 1:20,000 scale. The consistency of this in strument both in the horizontal and vertical directions appeared to be ad equate for collecting bathymetry at the 1:20,000 scale. This represents a technological advancement for suba queous soil survey as it greatly enhances the efficiency, with respect to both time and cost, of collecting bathymetric data. Finer scale work (e.g., 1:2,000) would likel y be better suited for traditional surveying or other more precise methods su ch as LIDAR. Considering the size of the study area, the spacing of the transects, and the scale of mapping, the accuracy this equipment provided was adequate. Determining the Best Method for Creating a Digital Elevation Model from Transect Data The RMSE of all models were compiled to determine which model was the most accurate throughout the study area (Table 4-1) Several models had low RMSE but did not visually appear to be good models. One such model was the Inverse Distance Weighted 2nd Power (Figure 4-4). A “bullseye” eff ect was noticeable at finer scales. This was expected, due to the nature of the model.

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99 Figure 4-3. Example of an artifact used in the interpolation noise analysis. Typically, these artifacts are present where dat a are spaced far apart relative to the cell size. The blue dots represent the bathymetric data used as the elevation source for the interpolation. The interpolat ion method used was Universal Kriging. The ye llow dots represent locatio ns along the artifact where the distance to the nearest input data point was measure d. The yellow lines represent the vectors of shortest path from the artifact to the input data. Bath y metric data A rtifact

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100 Table 4-1. Error statistics for several comb inations of interpolation techniques and parameters. Judging by lowest root mean square error, the universal kriging model with a 0th order, 50% local trend remove d was the best. It, like many other models, had a mean of the residuals equal to zero. Other models are inverse distance weighted (IDW), lo cal polynomial (LP), radial basis funcitions completely regularized spline (RBF CRS), radial basis funcitions spline with tension (RBF SWT), ordinary kriging (OK), and universal kriging (UK). Model Meano f Residuals Root Mean Square Erro r IDW 1st Power 0.001.00 IDW 2nd Power 0.000.64 LP 0th order 100% local-0.02 0.99 LP 0th order 75% local 0.010.95 LP 0th order 50% local 0.001.26 LP 0th order 25% local 0.453.11 LP 1st order 100% local 2.30350.90 LP 1st order 75% local 0.010.84 LP 1st order 50% local-0.04 1.48 LP 1st order 25% local-0.51 2.96 LP 2nd order 100% local 0.2247.71 LP 2nd order 75% local-0.01 0.88 LP 2nd order 50% local 0.001.38 LP 2nd order 25% local 0.102.83 OK 0.000.76 RBF CRS 0.003.75 RBF SWT 0.011.43 UK 0th order, 75% local 0.011.23 UK 0th order, 50% local 0.000.48

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101 Figure 4-4. Digital elevation model calcula ted using the Inverse Distance Weighted method, with a power of 2.

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102 Some models, such as the 50% local pol ynomials (LP), simplified the landscape (Figure 4-5) by generally di splaying only the major landscape features such as the channels and flats. Others such as 25% LP greatly ove r-generalized the landscape (Figure 4-6). Based on these three models, it appears that a trade-off exists between crispness of the model and unwanted surface text ure. Originally, it was not planned to calculate a Universal Kriging (UK) mode l with a 50% local polynomial removed. However, visual observations of the 50% LP model suggested that removing this trend might enhance the UK model. The result wa s the lowest RMSE among all the models (Table 4-1). Visually, this model appeared to offer a great deal of cripnesss, but does suffer somewhat form unwanted surface texture (Figure 4-7). Using the Best Model Since it was desired to use the “best” model, the UK-50% model was chosen by virtue of its low RMS. Additionally, it appe ared to strike a visual balance between crispness of the landscape feat ures and surface noise. The model was exported in three cell sizes: 15 m, 30 m, and 60 m. The 30m cell size is generally appropriate for 1:24,000 scale investigations. Many GIS users wish to work with smaller cell sizes because of the additional spatial information small cell sizes deliver. To determine whether information is lost at larger cell sizes, Figures 4-8 and 4-9 can be visually compared to Figure 4-7. The 30 m model appears coarser, but still a llows for adequate re presentation of the subaqueous landscape. The 60 m model is even coarser, but at th is resolution, some landscape information is lost. The 15 m model does not app ear to add any additional, useful information about the landscape. Additionally, Figure 4-10 shows that the subaqueous landform features lik ely to be of interest in a subaqueous soil survey are visible at even a 60 m scale. The 15 m model in Figure 4-10 does not appear to offer any

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103 Figure 4-5. Smoothed landscape that results from modeling with a medium-size search neighborhood (50% local).

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104 Figure 4-6. Over-generalized landscape th at results from too large of a search neighborhood when employing the local polynomial techniques.

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105 Figure 4-7. Digital elevation model usi ng Universal Kriging with a 50% local polynomial removed prior to Kr iging. The cell size is 15m.

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106 Figure 4-8. Digital elevation model using universal kriging (50% local polynomical trend removed) and a cell size of 30 m. Notice the crispness offered along the edges of the channels and the overall low amount of noise or texture across the study area. Channel edges

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107 Figure 4-9. Digital elevation model using universal kriging (50% local polynomial removed) and a cell size of 60 m. No tice the crispness offered along the edges of the channels and the absence of noise or texture acr oss the study area. Channel edges

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108 Figure 4-10. Visual comparison of two di gital elevations model, 15 m and 60 m cell sizes, both created using the same bathym etric data set and identical parameter settings of universal kriging. Both mode ls have a hillshade applied in order to highlight subtle spatial patterns in varia tions of elevation. The source data for the interpolation were collected along transects that were spaced approximately 200 m apart. The fine-scal e surface undulations apparent in the 15 m are likely artif acts of the interp olation method used. These are not visible in the 60 m model. Both models allow for visual identification of several subaqueous landforms: channe l, channel bank, and offshore barrier bar. The additional crispness of the 15 m model does not assist in the identification or delineat ion of these landforms 15m 60m 500m N Channel bank Channel Offshore barrier bar Channel bank Channel Offshore barrier bar

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109 additional, useful information about the landscape. A surface roughness is apparent in the 15 m model. This roughness is not visible in the 60 m model. Interpolation Noise Analysis Qualitative Assessments of Interpolation Noise: The 15 m model in Figure 4-10 was interpolated at a fine scale relative to the spacing of the data. The result was a texture or roughness across the landscape. Th is roughness can be seen when applying a hillshade to any DEM. Visualization in 3-D enhances this effect (Figure 4-11). More than just an aesthetical consider ation, this roughness repr esents quantitative anomolies in the DEM. These are actual fluc tuations in predicted value, in this case elevation. At finer scales, th ese fluctuations can be reporte d via the numerous cells. At coarser scales, these fluctuations occur spatially within the confines of a cell, thus they are averaged out. The “up and down” nature of this surface te xture creates a repea ting pattern of long slopes and short slopes on an otherwise gently sloping surface. Calc ulating slope can be a quantitative method of identify ing areas that have these inte rpolation artifacts (Figure 412). Ignoring these artifacts doe s not just create a visually rough DEM, it results in the erroneous derivation of surface properties. (Figure 4-13). What can be learned from these examples is that while “finer” cell size models contain more spatial information, much of th at information is likely misleading due to increased topographic noise. “Coarser” ce ll models, while they contain less spatial information, can communicate a clearer picture of the landscape. “Coarse” and “fine” are relative terms. Thus, the choice of cell size is also relative. It is the spacin g of the input data used to generate the DEM relative to the cell size of the DEM that determines whether the model is “coarse” or “fine.”

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110 Figure 4-11. Three-dimensional view of two digital elevation models (DEM) of identical origin, but different cell sizes: 30 m (A ) and 5 m (B). The 30 m DEM appears smooth while the 5 m appears rough. The input data used to generate these DEMs were spatially dense enough to s upport depiction of such fine scale topographic variability. Therefore, the 5 m model communicates the same coarse scale topographic variability and falsely communicates fine scale surface noise. 30m 5m A B

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111 Figure 4-12. Slope maps calculated from thr ee digital elevation m odels using different cell sizes. It is evident that the 60 m slope map does the best to identify the general areas of long and short slopes. The increased resolution of the 30 m and 15 m models only add confusi on. The 60 m model is better for calculating slopes. The location A, B, and C are shown in D, and E.A: 60 m B: 30 m C: 15 m D E

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112 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0Interpolated Elevation (m NAD88) 60m 15m 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1 2 050010001500 Distance Along Transect (m)Slope Figure 4-13. Cross-section of a channel m odeled using universal kriging at a 60 m cell size and a 15 m cell size. Note the erra tic nature of the elevation model (top graph in A) at the 15 m cell size whic h is highlighted by calculating slope (bottom graph in B). These graphs were based on a transect of elevation data (yellow line in B). Slope units are in percent. 15m grid 60m grid A B Slo p e Transect

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113 Quantitative Assessment of Interp olation Noise, the Scale Ratio: The distributions of ratios were similar for both the 15 m and 10 m grids (Figure 414). Average and standard deviations of ratio s were calculated for both cell sizes (Table 4-2). The smallest data spacing that should typically result in artifacts was defined as the average minus one standard deviation. For bot h models, this ratio was similar (Table 42). The lowest of the two ratios, 4.2 was select ed as the threshold sc ale ratio. This ratio was then rounded down to 4 so that it would conceptually match a cell of a DEM. Based on these results, artifacts should begin to occu r at distances greater than 4 cells away from the source data. In the case of the bathymetry collected along transects spaced in a grid-like pattern, which is a typical scenario, Equa tion 4-1 can be solved for cell size (C). The distance (D) can then be re-defined as one half the transect spacing. The transect spacing, in areas where artifacts are to be avoided, is theref ore the maximum distance between transects. Using the previously determined scale rati o of 4, the calculated cell size becomes the minimum cell size (Cmin) that avoids most interpol ation artifacts (Equation 4-2). Cmin = (0.5 TS) / SR (4-2) Variables: Cmin = Minimum cell size of the DEM that will avoid most interpolation artifacts. TS = Transect spacing. The ma ximum distance between transects SR = Scale Ratio For the shallow landscapes of interest in the study area, TS = 250 m (Figure 4-15). Applying Equation 4-2 to the study area, Cmin = (0.5 250) / 4 = 31.25. Therefore, the minimum cell size that should a void interpolation artifacts in the shallow portions of the study area is 31.25. Usually, DEMs are saved in cell sizes in multiple s of 5 (e.g., 15 m,

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114 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0246810121414+ Min Dist to Data : Cell SizeCount 15m 10m Figure 4-14. Histogram of rations comparing the minimum distance from an artifact to a data point to the cell size. For both ce ll sizes, the average ratio was the same. This is strong evidence that this ratio will work for a wide range of cell sizes. Table 4-2. Statistics for the populat ion of distance: Cell size ratios. Grid Cell Size (m) Average Ratio Average Ratio 1 standard deviation 10 8.14.5 15 6.44.2

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115 Figure 4-15. General spatial st ructure of bathymetry collected within the study area. Typica lly, the largest spacing between transects is 250 m. Therefore, the furthest position from a neighboring ba thymetric point is halfway betw een two transects. In this case, that position re sults in: shortest distan ce to nearest bathymetric point = 125 m. Using the equation, Scale Ratio = Distance to Nearest Bathymetric Point / DEM Cell Size, the size can be calculated to be 31.25. Therefore, the smallest cell size DEM that would avoid the occurrence of inter polation artifacts is 31.25. 250 m Bathymetric transects X 125 m

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116 30 m, 35 m, etc.). Therefore, a 30m ce ll size was chosen as the acceptable balance between DEM resolution and smoothness. A vi sual inspection of the DEM at the 15 m, 30 m, and 60 m sizes confirms th is assessment (Figure 4-16). Conclusions Recent advances in consumer grade G PS and sounding equipment allow for the acquisition of adequate positional and bathymetric data at speeds of 35 km/hr. This greatly reduces the time required to adequate ly collect bathymetric data compared to traditional, high precision sounding and GPS equi pment. Given the increased efficiency, it therefore possible to collect much more data in a given study area using the same resources. Many spatial interpolation methods are ava ilable in contemporary GIS packages. It is advisable to test many methods on a given dataset. For these da ta, Universal Kriging with a 50% local polynomial removed offere d the best combination of model accuracy (low RMS) and model smoothness. Therefore, Universal Kriging should be considered when modeling similar data. At small cell sizes, surface roughness was no ticeably greater than at larger cell sizes. When considering the relationship be tween the roughness featur es, called artifacts, and the cell size of the DEM, a Scale Ratio of 4 was cal culated. When applied to bathymetric data that are collect ed along a regularly spaced grid of transects, the cell size of the DEM should be about 1/8 the distance betw een transects. At cell sizes greater than this, landscape resolution is compromised. At cell sizes smaller than this, interpolation artifacts occur. This analysis was based on the threshold scale ratio (4.2) calculated from the Universal Kriging model. As previously demonstrated, some models such as Local Polynomial are smoother by nature. More res earch need is needed to determine the

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117 Figure 4-16. Comparison of a digital eleva tion models (DEMs) created using Universa l Kriging at three cel l sizes: 15 m, 30 m a nd 60 m. Source data were bathymetry obtained on a grid of transect s. For most of the area shown, transects were not spaced apart further than 300 m. To avoid surface artifacts, the cell size should be 8.4 times smaller than the transect spacing. Therefore, cell size of approximately 30 m should offer the crispest view of the la ndscape without artifacts. Visually, the 30 m DEM does appear to offer this. Th e 15 m DEM does offer more landscape deta il than either the 30 m or 60 m, but some artifacts are visible. Blue arrows i ndicate some of these artif acts. The black area represen ts the Seahorse Key island. 15m 60m 30m 500 m N

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118 nature of threshold scale ratios for the ot her interpolation met hods. Additionally, the spatial structure of the data may affect in terpolation artifacts. Randomly, stratified random, and regular grid are data spatial distributions that ne ed to be investigated using the scale ration approach. Despite this lack of information, the general threshold scale ration of 4 can be used for the planning of future bathymetry collection and modeling. For subaqueous soil survey, these findings coul d be used to better estimate the necessary resources for developing suba queous bathymetric base maps.

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119 CHAPTER 5 SUBAQUEOUS SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORY OF A NEARSHORE SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY Evolution of Soil Survey in the United States Historical Soil Survey Soil survey in the United States has evol ved from the geological “balance sheet” approaches of the early 1900s. Milton Whitney started the national Soil Survey program in the United States Department of Agricu lture (USDA) (Soil Survey Staff, 1993). The early program focused on soil survey for the pur pose of agriculture with geological bias. Curtis F. Marbut was the leader of the pr ogram that brought soil survey to the United States. Early soil surveys focused on inventorying th e land for the benefit of agriculture. The support of plant growth has always been a central theme in most concepts of soil (Chapter 2) and plant growth for food purposes is vital to society. It is not surprising that historically, soil surveys have focused on agricultural use. Contemporary Soil Survey Contemporary soil surveys in the United St ates have three main functions: 1) interpret the soil properties; 2) classify the so ils; and 3) map the extent of the soils. The scale of any particular survey must be at a resolution sufficient to allow soils to be mapped, interpreted, and classified according to its intended use. Thus the use of the soil survey is important to consider.

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120 The initial scale of soil surveys in the United States was 1:63,360, where one inch equals one mile. Soil maps at this scale c ould be considered general soil association maps. Little detail is provided in these maps. Today, the USDA soil surveys are usually published at scales near 1:20,000. At this scal e the smallest area that can be accurately mapped is 1.6 ha (Soil Survey Staff, 1993). Mo st terrestrial areas of the United States have a published soil survey. Today, most counties in Florida have a completed soil survey (Figure 5-1). Figure 5-1. Status of county soil surveys in Florida, 2005. Reproduced from the United States Department of Agriculture’s 2005 status of soil survey map ( http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/produc ts/soil-survey/status-maps.html ). Cedar Key

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121 The theoretical lower limit of soil has been suggested as the lower limit of biological activity and/or bedrock (Soil Su rvey Staff, 1975). The general limit of taxonomic and soil survey investigation was or iginally set at 2 m (Soil Survey Staff, 1975). For taxonomic and survey purposes, soil properties below these depths were not considered, but may be very important in understanding the genesis of the soil. In Florida, because of its climate and dominan tly sandy parent materials, soils may have pedogenic horizons to depths of tens of meters (Harris et al 2005). A knowledge soil property below 2 m is not usually essential for agronomic purposes such as crop production. Furthermore, in many areas of the U.S., the C horizon in the soil is well above a 2 m depth. Conse quently, investigations below the C horizons have been considered to be of geologi cal interest. Today there are more non agronomic applications of soil survey (e.g., septic tank suitability, engineering properties, urban and regional planning). Soil properties below 2 m can be of importance in these non agronomic applications. Therefore, th is arbitrary 2 m limit may hinder the non agronomic use of the soil survey. Since it is unlikely that subaqueous areas will be farmed, such may be the case with subaqueous soil surveys. However, until a set of applications for subaqueous soil survey are defined, it is difficult to recommend a lower limit of soil investigation for subaqueous su rvey purposes. Until that time comes, the default of 2 m will likely be adopted by soil scientists mapping subaqueous areas. Future Soil Survey: The Addition of a Subaqueous Soil Survey Program Subaqueous soil surveys are in the early stages of development by the USDANRCS in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeas tern U.S. regions. In 2005, the National Cooperative Soil Survey Program (NCSS) formed an ad-hoc committee charged with defining terminology and methods of investig ation specific to subaqueous soils. The

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122 purpose of this task force is to, “formulate a plan to incorporate standards of subaqueous soil properties and conditions in the New Soil Survey through National Cooperative Soil Survey partnerships.” Specifically, this is to be accomplished by the following items: 1. “Soil properties relevant to assessment of the State of the Nation’s Ecosystems and National Resource Inventory should be considered 2. The task force should consider the pu rpose and strategy of sampling soil and analyzing properties nationally 3. Catalog terms and proposals for techni ques and standards for subaqueous soil mapping of incorporation into Soil Survey Handbook” ( http://soils.usda.gov/partnerships/nc ss/conferences/national_2005/committees.html ) A new purpose of soil survey is implied when discussing subaqueous soil survey. These areas will likely not be used for terr estrial agriculture. Aquiculture such as clamming is an agricultural us e of subaqueous lands. This and other uses would be the focus of a subaqueous soil survey program. For instance, predicting the impacts of channel dredging on adjacent, sensitive seagrasses would require not only an inventory of subaqueous bottom cover, but an assessment of the particle size distribution of soils in the channel. If the particle size distribution of the soils in the channel is too small, then dredging impacts could elevate turbidity levels, negatively impacting seagrasses. Planning future clam leases would also be nefit from a subaqueous soil survey, as would ecological modeling of estuaries. These non-tr aditional, non-terrestrial-agricultural uses of the land will likely be the focus of a subaqueous soil survey program. Since subaqueous soils occur mainly in pr otected, shallow areas, it is these areas that will benefit the most from this program. According to general statistics provided by the state of Florida, approximately 29% of Florida’s 3700 km of tidal shores are considered beaches ( http://www.stateofflorida.com ). The remaining 71% of these tidal

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123 shores can be assumed to be dominantly lo w-energy. Florida woul d greatly benefit from a subaqueous soil survey program. From preservation, restoration, and mitigation perspectives, the detailed knowledge of suba queous soil properties that a soil survey would provide would be invaluable to Florida as well as other coastal areas of the U.S. Updating Soil Surveys with Subaqueous Surveys The Levy County, FL soil survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996) is an example of one that would need modification if a subaqueous soil survey program were to be established. Levy County is located along the “Big-Bend” area of Florida’s Gulf coast. The southwestern portion of the county is dominantly salt ma rsh coastline adjacent to intertidal and subaqueous habi tats. An inventory of thes e habitats may occur if a subaqueous soil survey program is forme d. However, some adjustments to soil delineations along the edges to be joined will likel y occur. It is also possible, that with a new interest in very-wet lands, that more effort will be placed on mapping the salt marsh areas. Hopefully, subaqueous soil surveys wi ll be considered within the context of existing soil surveys to avoid duplication of effort, overlap of surveys, and mixing of scales. While these details are being discu ssed within the USDA/NRCS (a program is in the early stages of development), continued research on subaqueous soils will add much needed understanding into the nature, distri bution, and formation of the soils to be mapped. Current Status of Subaqueous Soil Research Recent pedological explorations have led to an interest in subaqueous pedology of coastal areas along Maryland and Delaware (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999) and Rhode Island (Bradley and Stolt, 2003). These work s have focused specifically on the creation of subaqueous soil surveys. Like terrestrial soil surveys, these efforts investigated soils

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124 to a depth of approximately 2 m. Th ese surveys should provide much needed information for those who manage these coas tal areas, but also serves as a model for creating subaqueous soil surveys. No subaqueou s research is published for other areas of the U.S, although subaqueous soil surveys ar e underway in Texas. Much of the subaqueous U.S. needs pedological attention to assist the USDA/NRCS’s subaqueous soil survey efforts. The purpose of this research is to produce a soil survey for the nearshore environment near Cedar Key, FL. This is done in an attempt to emphasize the subtropical subaqueous soil/la ndscape/vegetation relationships and to aid in the establishment of methodologies to construct such surveys. Objectives The general objective of the re search presented in this chapter is to investigate soil/vegetation/landscape relationships with in the study area in order to produce a subaqueous soil survey. Specific objective 1: Determine mappable patterns in vegetation and landforms. Specific objective 2: Identify soils associated with those patterns Specific objective 3: Construct a subtropical subaqueous soil model. Specific objective 4: Express that model in the form of a subaqueous soil survey, similar to USDA terrestrial county soil surveys. Accomplishing these objectives will dem onstrate the possibilities of subtropical subaqueous pedology, and highlight unique landforms that are present in the Gulf of Mexico.

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125 Material and Methods A description of the stud y area is provided in Chapter 1. The soil survey encompasses the entire study area. Soil Morphology Soils were described using Dutch and Russian augers. Soil color was determined in the field immediately after sampling by vi sual comparison to a Munsell Color Book (Gretag/Macbeth, 2000). Soil text ures were determined in the field (Soil Survey Staff, 1993). Percent of soil features su ch as shells were estimated visually (Soil Survey Staff, 2002). The n value was estimated in the fiel d (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). Laboratory Analyses Soil samples were collected for laboratory analyses. Bulk soils were air-dried and sieved to remove particles gr eater than 2 mm. Particle size was determining using the pipette method (Gee and Bauder, 1986). Electri cal conductivity and pH were determined using 1:2 soil to water. Some chemical an alyses were performed at the University of Florida Analytical Research Lab. These anal yses included Mehlich-1 extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, and Fe determined by inducti vely coupled plasma. Organic matter was determined by weight loss on ignition me thod (Donkin, 1991). Also determined on selected samples were 15N and 13C using a Costech Model 4010 Elemental Analyzer and Finnigan MAT DeltaPlusXL Mass Spectromete r. The raw data are presented in Appendix 1 (Table A-2). Additionally, the silt+clay fractions of se lected soils were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). A soil supporting Thalassia and Syringodium was analyzed using XRD before and after treatment with dilute HCl (0.5M) to remove carbonates. A soil

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126 supporting Halodule was analyzed using XRD with no HCl treatment. The resulting XRD patterns were used to infer the mineralogy of the silt+clay fraction of the soil. Data Collection A subaqueous soil survey, like its terrestrial counterpart, is a spatial model of soilforming factors. Therefore, observing the so ils and determining th e soil-forming factors related to the soils comprised the initial po rtion of the survey effort. Relating those factors to the landscape to identify unique combinations of soil-forming factors identifiable by landscape units comprised th e second portion of the survey. The final portion of the survey was th e delineation of these units using aerial photography. These efforts are outlined as steps in Table 5-1. Steps 1 to 2: patterns in vegetation, landforms, and soil. The Florida Geological Survey publications for the state of Florid a and for Levy County, FL; the geologic spatial data layers publicly available through th e Florida Geographic Data Library and the Florida Department of Environmental Pr otection (FDEP); and the USDA Soil Survey Report for Levy County (Slabaugh et al ., 1996) were each consulted to gain a better understanding of local geology. True co lor 1:24,000 aerial photography flown in 2001 was provided by the Suwannee River Water Mana gement District, Florida Department of Agriculture archived aerial photography housed by the Univer sity of Florida’s Map and Image Library, and the Landsat imagery were digitized and rectified within a GIS to provide a spatial base map for observing pa tterns in vegetation and landforms. The terrain model created (Chapter 4) was used in combination with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 and 1: 100,000 scale topographic maps and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Admi nistration (NOAA) nautical charts to assist in visualizing the spatial distri bution of landforms within the study area.

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127 Table 5-1. List and approach of the steps ne cessary to create the initial soil survey. Step Approach 1. Observe patterns in vegetation and landf orms using aerial photography, digital elevation models, and field observations. 2. Observe patterns in soil properties via field observations as related to the vegetation and landform patterns. 3. Superimpose patterns of soils, vegeta tion, and landscape on the local geology to develop a conceptual soil/landscape model. 4. Describe and define the soil map units. 5. Create a physical representation of the con ceptual soil/landscape model by spatially delineating aerial photography into units that represent the various landforms and associated soils. 6. Validate the spatial model and soil map units by randomly selecting locations for testing. 7. If necessary, refine the concep tual and/or spatial model. 8. Based on the finalized delineations, choose the locations for modal pedon description. 9. Finalize the soil/landscape m odel by populating each map un it with a soil identifier and soil description based on the modal pedon. 10. Distribute the finalized soil/landscape mode l as a subaqueous soil survey in digital and analog format to the target audience.

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128 A basic understanding of the vegetation patt erns within the study area was obtained from the study reported in Chapter 3. A Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from the Landsat imager y to provide a quantitative assessment of the vegetation throughout the study area. This information was then used to interpret the tone, color, and contrast of the aerial photography for the purpo se of inferring vegetative and landscape patterns. After analysis of the imagery was complete, the general distribution of vegetation at a scale of 1:20,000 was identified. Steps 3 to 7: creation and validation of soil models. A conceptual soil/landscape model was created to explain the observed patterns of soil as sociated with vegetation and landscape, all within th e context of the local geology. True color aerial photography was delineated into landscape units (hereto referr ed to as map units) at a scale of 1:20,000. Map units were created to effectively capture unique combinations of four terrestrial soilforming factors: parent material, biota, topog raphy, and time. Because of the size of the study area, climate, the fifth soil-forming fact or, was considered constant for the area. Two additional soil-forming factors: 1) flow re gime and 2) water column attributes were incorporated into map unit design and delineation. Map units were delineated by hand on 1: 20,000 reprints of the 2001 true color aerial photography. Although the goal was a digital model, the extra step of delineating by hand on paper photographs allowed for delinea tions to be made both in the field as well as in the office. Furthermore, the ever -present temptation to “zoom-in” that occurs when delineating on a computer was remove d from this initial mapping effort. Delineations were made only at the speci fied scale: 1:20,000. Once the analog mapping was complete, it was converted to digital via digitizing in a GIS environment with the

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129 geo-referenced 2001 aerial photography as th e basemap. The GIS software used was ESRI’s ArcView 3.2 and the digital format was an ESRI proprietary vector format of a polygon shapefile. During the digitization proc esses, map-scale was held constant at 1:20,000. This ensured that the lines in itially drawn by hand on the paper aerial photographs were preserved in the digital model. A spatially random point generator availabl e within the GIS was used to generate the positional coordinates of five locatio ns within each map unit type for model validation (Figure 5-2). At each of these vali dation points, the soil was described to 2 m. Where delineations did not result in soil mor phological differences, the delineations were removed and combined with other map units in ArcView. Once the delineations were finalized, one representative location for each map unit type was chosen for detailed morphological description. The pedons selected at these representative locations were the modal pedons and used to describe each map unit. Steps 8 to 9: completion of the soil /landscape model and distribution as a subaqueous soil survey. The digital soil/landscape model was completed within ArcView by relating map unit names, modal pedon descriptions, and modal pedon taxonomies to the spatial data. The final pr oduct, a subaqueous soil survey, consisted of a shapefile with associated polygon attribute table containing the map unit identification (MUID). Supplemental tables containing th e modal pedon descriptive data, which also contained MUID for database relating within the GIS were also part of the final digital product. In the near future, th ese digital files will be placed on a University of Florida World Wide Web site ( http://pedology.ifas.ufl.edu ), with the intent of encouraging distribution of the survey. An analog form of the survey is included in Appendix B of

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130 Figure 5-2. Locations of validation and moda l soil sampling locations for all landscape units. The basemap is a 1:24,000 true color aerial photograph (Source: Suwannee River Water Management District ). The contrast has been reduced and tone lightened to allo w viewing of sample locations and labels along with landscape unit delineations (gray lines). The name of each point consists of a series of letters denoting the landsc ape unit and a sample number (see Table 5-2 for explanation of abbreviations).

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131 this document in the form of map tiles a nd data tables. Additionally, a 1:20,000 scale poster of the survey was printed and archived along with the printed attribute tables. Thus, a multifaceted approach of distributi ng the soil survey via analog and digital formats was designed to facilitate delivery of the survey to th e target audience (i.e. those who wish to understand how and why to create a subaqueous soil survey). Results and Discussion Spatial Distribution of Ve getation and Landforms The aquatic portion of the st udy area is about 25% shallow (< 1 m deep at Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW): green areas in Figu re 5-3) and 75% deep (> 1 m deep at MLLW: blue areas in Figure 5-3). The im mediate areas surrounding Seahorse Key were shallow flats. The area immediately north of the island was a low energy cove salt marsh. The area immediately north-west of the island was another cove, but it appeared to have more wave energy and tidal excha nge. This cove was vegetated. The area immediately south of the island was a shallow vegetated flat. The area immediately east of the island was a flat with vegetated a nd unvegetated areas. The wave energy in the immediate south and east appeared higher than in the coves of the immediate north. In all these areas, except the salt marsh cove, Halodule was the dominant seagrass in the shallowest vegetated areas. A mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium occurred in the deeper vegetated areas of the northwestern cove. Thalassia occurred in the deeper vegetated areas of the southern flat. Patches of either Thalassia or Halodule were present in shallow and deep areas of the eastern flat However, one very shallow, depressional area of Thalassia was present. The elevation of this patch was similar to adjacent Halodule patches. This was assumed to be an artifact since Thalassia was not identified at this elevation anywhere el se in the study area. It was observed, at MLLW, that the

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132 Figure 5-3. Subaqueous topogra phy of the study area. The gr een areas are shallow (< 1 m deep at Mean Lower Low Water). The black area is upland. Elevation units are in meters relative to the 1988 North American Datum (NAD 88). -7 -3 -3 -2 -2 -1 -1 0 Elevation (m NAD88) N 1 kmN N o o r r t t h h F F l l a a t t W W e e s s t t F F l l a a t t S S o o u u t t h h F F l l a a t t N N e e a a r r s s h h o o r r e e S S o o u u t t h h FF l l a a t t O O f f f f s s h h o o r r e e

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133 depression held water at all tidal cycles. It is likely that this depression is suitable habitat for Thalassia by virtue of its hydrology. Away from the island were vegetated flats. To the north and to the west these flats were bounded by channels of deep water. Th e flats were punctuated by holes of deep water. Near the edges of these flats, wher e channels were present, bars were built up. The tops of most bars were unvegetated. Th e channel side of the bars was unvegetated but the inside of the bar, the portion ad jacent to the flat, was vegetated with Halodule and Thalassia The flats were vegetate d with a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium In the north and west flats, vegetation was ubiquitous. No patchy vegetation was observed. In contrast, the southern fl at that occurred away from the shore was only slightly vegetated. Patches of Halodule were present throughout the ba r. The bar had a rippled topography suggesting frequent disturban ce from wave energy. Wave action was observed to be much greater on this flat th an in any of the other portions of the study area. The study area was conceptually divided into several classes of landforms: uplands, bars, coves, deep water, erosional beaches and flats (Figure 5-4). The flats were dominantly vegetated with mixed stands of Thalassia and Syringodium The distribution of seagrass can be seen in th e aerial photography (Figure 5-4 and 5-5) as dark gray and brown areas. Unvegetated areas can be seen as areas of either white or light brown (Figure 5-5). The Flats Initial flats classification: To better understand the na ture of vegetative and soil distributions, the flats were divided into two classes based on position relative to

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134 Figure 5-4. General locations of several types of landforms : Uplands (A), Bars (B), Coves (C), Deep Water (D), Erosional B eaches (E), and Flats (F). Landforms B, C, D, and F are subaqueous. Basemap imagery provided by the Suwannee River Water Management District. F F B C D D E F F F F F A D F N 1 kmC

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135 Figure 5-5. Identification of vegetated and unvegetated portions of the study area. Dark areas are mostly vegetated with seag rasses (V) while light and deep water areas are unvegetated (U). Some areas are mixed (V/U). Basemap imagery provided by the Suwannee River Water Management District. U U V U U U V U V V V V/U U V/U U N 1 km U

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136 Seahorse Key: nearshore and offshore (Figure 5-6). Nearshore flats were those within 500 m of the south and east shores of Seahor se Key. The north shore was a salt marsh. In this low energy area, wave action was neglig ible (Figure 5-7a). In the nearshore flats wave action was greater. Wave induced soil erosion was observed to move soil from the uplands through the beach and on to the flats (Figure 5-7b). The remaining flats were classified as offshore flats (Figure 5-6). These flats were generally more than 500 m away from the erosional shores of Seahorse Key. Therefore, the soil properties of the offshore flats were assumed to be much less dependent on the soil properties of the island. The nearshore flats were unvegetated in the shallowest areas near the beach. Slightly deeper areas were vegetated with Halodule The remaining portions of the nearshore flats were vegetated with Thalassia or a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium (Figure 5-8). The offshore flats were unvegetated in the shallowest areas, which were the bars near the channels. Deeper areas that graded into the channel were unvegetated. The deeper portions that graded into a flat were vegetated with Halodule in the shallower portions which transitioned into Thalassia and a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syingodium (Figure 5-9). The north fl at terminated at the salt marsh cove of Seahorse Key. In this cove, terrestrial and wetland ve getation growing right up to the edge of the water along with lack of beach provided eviden ce that upland soil erosion to the flats was minimal (Figure 5-7a). Soil/vegetation relationships on the flats: Previously documented upperpedon/vegetation relationshi ps (Chapter 3) sugges ted the soils supporting Thalassia and

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137 Figure 5-6. Location of nearshor e and offshore flats in clos e proximity to Seahorse Key, FL. The offshore landscapes are those that are not under the direct influence of land either in the form of protect ion from wind or from the deposit of terrestrial erosional material. Nearsh ore landscapes are those occurring close to land and are thus influenced by th e proximity. Basemap imagery provided by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Nearshore Offshore Offshore N 1 km

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138 Figure 5-7. Low energy shore (A) vs. high en ergy shore (B), Seahorse Key, FL. Along the low energy shore, are the merging of upland, wetland, and subaqueous habitats within a very close proximity to each other. Typical of most salt marshes, very little wave energy is present near the shore under normal circumstances. In contrast, the high energy shore is characterized by a beach that slowly erodes via wave action on each high tide (B). It also receives a large supply of sand from the eroded upl ands above (see scarp in B). Notice the downed trees indicating the severity of the erosion that has taken place in the past. Erosion has probably occurred along the low energy shore in A A B A: Low Energy B: High Energy Uplands Wetlands Subaqueous Downed Tree Scarp Beach

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139 LCP MLW MHW Beach and Intertidal Grass Flat Deep Water Thalassia Halodule Figure 5-8. An erosional beach that grades into a nearshore grass flat. The transect of a to a’ is shown from a perspective view (A), a cross section view (B), and an aerial view (C). The conceptual la ndscape cross-section represents the landscape from a to a’. An extensive grass flat is the transition from the erosional beach to deeper water. On this grassflat, SAV grades from Halodule to Thalassia Mean high water (MHW), m ean low water (MLW), and the hypothetical light compensation poin t (LCP) are displayed in B. a ’ a a ’ a a ’ a A B C

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140 MLW MHW Thalassia Grass Flat Deep Water LCP Hole Grass near-bar Bar near channel Halodule Figure 5-9. An offshore suba queous landscape near Cedar Ke y, FL. Transect a-a’ is shown from a perspective vi ew (A), an aerial view (B), and a cross-section view (C). Submerged aquatic vegeta tion (SAV) grows within a narrow depth range of 1 m below mean low water (MLW) and 20 cm above MLW. Mean high water (MHW) is 1 m above MLW. At the edge of the channels, an unvegetated bar is usually built up. On th e other (protected) side of the bar, Halodule wrightii typically grows in the shallow portions and Thalassia testudinum in the slightly deeper portions. Away from the bar, Thalassia testudinum is often mixed with Syringodium filiforme both of which densely cover the soil at all depths up to th e light compensation point, which is encountered in deeper water. a a ’ a a ’Bar near channel Bar near channel Grassflat a a’ Grass near bar Grass near bar A B C

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141 Soil/vegetation relationships on the flats: Previously documented upperpedon/vegetation relationshi ps (Chapter 3) sugges ted the soils supporting Thalassia and Syringodium to the north of Seahorse Key were highe r in OM and silt and darker in color than soils in other areas. This is could be due to the lack of inputs high in sand to the soil from erosional areas such as the beaches of Seahorse Key or the edges of channels. Energy on the flats: On high tides, it was observed that wave heights on the offshore flats north of Seahorse Key were less than half of those occurring in the deep waters of the channels and three fourths the size of the waves occurring on the nearshore grass flats south of Seahorse Key. From these observations, it was inferred that the offshore grass flats represent a re latively low energy environment. This low energy probably facilitates the de position of suspended fine particles and inhibits erosion of soil onto or off of the fl ats. Even during time s of high winds (e.g., > 5 m/s) and choppy waves in the channel, the water on the flats was much calmer than adjacent deep waters. In fact, it was almost stagnant at tides below MLW. In the winter, tides 0.5 m below MLLW frequently occur exposing the flats to sheet flow and channel flow on falling tides. Th e sheet flow occurred on the smooth portions of the flats. Channel flow occurred al ong shallow trenches caused by motor boats plowing the seagrass bed (prop-scars). This channel erosion on winter low tides could be a mechanism for the persistence of prop-scars. Although some erosion of soil within the flat and from the flat to deeper water wa s observed during the wi nter low tides, these offshore flats are inferred to be low-energy, stab le areas. Mineral a nd organic inputs to this soil are likely aquatic in nature. Base d on observations presented in Chapter 3, soils in these areas should be consistently dark (e.g., 5Y 2.5/1) with relatively high amounts of

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142 OM (e.g., 3 to 6%) within the upper-pedon. Sinc e these areas have been vegetated for a relatively long time (see grass flat in Figure 3-29a and b), substant ial trapping of fine particles and OM has likely occurred during that period. Therefore, the deep soil horizons should look similar to the surficial hor izons if either mixing or accretion occurred. On the south side of Seahorse Key, the soil (THAL-2) had poly-va lue matrix colors with low OM and silt contents. This finding coincides with observations that the south shore grass flats are a relativ ely high energy system subject due to wave action. The erosional inputs of the island probably do not extend beyond the nearshore flats. Thus, the nearshore flats are areas with poly-value matrices and moderate amounts (1 to 3%) of OM. Because erosion was observed onto these flats, it was inferred that the nearshore flats were younger in age and built up quicker than the offshore flats. Therefore, the soil colors at depths greater than 30 cm were predicted to be poly-value unless a buried horizon (most likely an Ab horizon) was present. This Ab horizon would, therefore, be indicative of the environmental (e.g., vegetation) conditions prior to erosional deposition. Also, previously documented in Chapter 3 were the properties of unve getated soils. Soils that did not support vegetation did not have appreciable amo unts of silt, clay, organic matter, or dark colors. Low-energy, unvegetated coves are unique due to the dis tinct intersection of soilforming factors in these areas. In the c ove areas, parent materials may be more dominantly aquatic because the low ener gy cannot transport sand. The absence of vegetation would mean that th e effect of vegetation as a trapping mechanism and as an input of OM would not exist. Because of their proximity to the shore, the soils may not

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143 have been subaqueous for as long as the expos ed soils. Therefore, these soils may have been terrestrial in previous times. Some offshore flats areas appeared to be exposed to high wave energies. On the north of Seahorse Key, this was mainly along the edges of the channels. South and west of Seahorse Key, the majority of the flats were observed to be under high wave energies. This may explain the patchy appearance of th e flats (U/V portions of Figure 5-6). Drowned Soils In some aquatic portions of the study area, subaqueous soil formation was negligible as evident by the preservation of te rrestrial soil morphologies. In these areas, terrestrial soils had been “drowned” by rising se a levels (Figure 5-10). A drowned soil is defined here as a soil that has been expos ed to rising water, but has undergone minimal burial as a result of that water. In a situ ation where rising water enhances sedimentation and/or erosion onto a soil, the so il is then buried. Soils in portions of the study area were inferred to have been drowned by rising sealevels because a degrading spodic horizon that was present just below the surface (Figure 5-11). Spodic horizons are diagnostic subsurface horizons. Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) defines a spodic horizon as a “s ubsurface horizon underlying an O, A, Ap, or E horizon. A spodic horizon must have 85% of spodic materials in a layer 2.5 cm or more thick that is not part of any Ap hor izon.” A spodic horizon is dominated by active amorphous materials that are illuvial and have OM and Al with or without Fe. Most importantly, the soil must have a pH of 5.9 (1:1 water) or less, and organic carbon content of 0.6% or more. The pH criteria we re undoubtedly established to identify the Al associated with the OM in the spodic. In a terrestrial soil, a pH less than 5.9 as determined by 1:1 soil:water does occur in th e presence of spodic materials. However,

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144 the high pH of seawater due to the high con centration of carbonates buffers the pH of drowned spodic materials. It may be possibl e to avoid this by obtaining an undisturbed core of a spodic horizons and flushing with de-ionized water. In this study, however, soils were not flushed, therefore pH meas urements of drowned spodic horizons were similar to other subaqueous soils (Table A-2). Commonly associated with spodic horizons are albic horizons. Although the soils of beaches with and without spodic horizons we re not sampled for color analysis, it was visually noted that beaches with drowned spodi c horizons were brighter (higher in value, lower in chroma) than those w ithout drowned spodic horizons. It is reasonable to assume that beaches in the areas w ith drowned spodic horizons are exposed or re-worked albic horizons. Labeling using the current structure of Soil Taxonomy requires knowledge of the degree of re-working that has taken place. When these horizons form as part of a Spodosol, they were E horizons. Rising sea-le vels and the resultant wave action has reworked these E horizons to an unknown degree. If disturbance is minimal, these horizons should continue to be labeled E. If they ha ve been completely re-worked, they should be labeled C. For this portion of the study ar ea (Figure 10), th ey were labeled CE to denote a belief that some of the E horizon remains, but that a majority of the soil has been locally re-worked. A transect of soil borings (yellow and bl ack lines in Figure 5-10) were made to determine the lateral and continuous nature of the spodic horizon. This transect was from the upland flatwoods to the drowned soil. Th e drowned spodic horizon was verified to be laterally continuous with the terrestrial spodic horizon. Fu rthermore, the color of the drowned spodic horizon was similar (7.5YR 2.5/1) to the terres trial spodic horizon.

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145 Several chemical analyses are necessary to de termine if this horizon classifies as a spodic horizon. When chemical analyses are not ava ilable, it is necessary to depend on field identification of a spodic horizon. As a consequence, a simple field test to determine if a soil has a drowned spodic horizon was developed. Field test for determining the pres ence of a drowned Spodic horzion: Due to rising sea levels (Ross et al 1994; Williams et al. 1999) and the extent of flatwoods along the Gulf Coast of Florida, drowned flat woods are likely to o ccur in this area of Florida (Figures 5-10 and 5-11) Lawrence (1974) studied th e Gulf Coast near Panama City, FL. His research documented the exis tence of submerged “hardpan” material under several meters of gulf water. A simple test that differentiates between subaqueous soil material and spodic soil material is needed to facilitate field identific ation of these horizons (Figure 5-12). It was noted that 7.5YR 2.5/1 colored solution was l eaching out of the shore on low tide. This leachate was emanating from the spodic horizon just beneath the soil surface. Following this observation, it was hypothesized that th e spodic materials from the horizon would cloud and stain the water column if a ped was placed in the water and crushed. The clouding likely occurs because of the elevated clay content in spodic horizons while the staining likely occurs because of the organic acids (fulvics and humics) present in spodic horizons. The procedure to test if the subaqueous so il material is a drowned spodic horizon is as follows: 1. Obtain ped from the horizon in question and from an A horizon that is not suspected to be spodic. 2. Determine color of peds. Soils with colo rs of red or yellow-red hues and dark values (e.g., 7.5YR 3/1) should be suspected to be spodic.

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146 Figure 5-10. Coastal forest retreat over a forty year period: 1961 to 2001. The white arrow points to an isthmus that was for ested in 1961 but was a salt marsh in 2001. The yellow and black line is the location of a transect of soil borings to confirm the continuity of the terrestrial spodic horizon with the s ubaqueous spodic horizon. 19612001 N 1 km

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147 Figure 5-11. Sample of a soil that occurs on a beach that is, in fact, a drowned flatwoods. This soil was a Spodosol at one time. Th e dark, reddish-brown colors (7.5YR 2.5/1) of the Bh horizon in (B) are diagnos tic of terrestrial sp odic horizons. In Florida, spodic horizons such as these dominantly form under hydrologic conditions that occur in the poorly-dra ined flatwoods landscapes (a highly fluctuating water table). This morp hology is evidence that areas now under water were once forested. To the side of the shovel is the stump of a tree that likely fell when it died from rising s ea levels. The locati on of the drowned flatwoods soil relative to the island is shown in (C). The CE horizon is not recognized by in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999). It is used here to denote a re-worked E horizon. A B A Bh horizon CE horizon Bh horiozn Stump C

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148 Figure 5-12. Field test to determ ine if material is spodic. Pl ace soil ped into water (A). It spodic materials are present, the clay and organic acids in the spodic material will cloud the water crea ting a reddish-brown stain (B). A B

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149 3. Are the soils sandy? If not, the clay cont ent may be too high for the test to be accurate. If the soils are a loamy sand or coarser, place peds in water and crush between thumb and forefinger. 4. The spodic ped should cloud the water for a significantly longer amount of time than the non spodic ped (e.g., less than 10 seconds for the non spodic, 20 to 40 seconds for the spodic). 5. Repeat test several times to obtain a repeatable result. Drowned spodic horizons were frequently encountered throughout course of the study. Each time a soil with a reddish hue was encountere d, the test determined the material was spodic. Although no known s ubaqueous podzoliziation occurs, subaqueous soils can theoretically contain high amounts of clay. These soils, unlike the subaqueous A horizons at occurring near Cedar Key, FL w ould likely cloud the water if clay content was above a few percent. The reddish-brown stain in the water would likely not occur, however, unless the soil contained spodic materi als (fulvic and humic acids). This field test for differentiating drowned spodic horiz ons from subaqueous A horizons needs to be tested in areas outside Cedar Key, FL before it can be more generally applied. Buried Soils Terrestrial horizons are not the only horizons that can be buried or drowned. In Chapter 3, it was documented that Ab horiz ons occur in areas where vegetation has undergone change from dense to sparse or no cover. All soil s associated with Halodule should be suspected to have Ab horizons. This is because Halodule grows in soils slightly higher in elevati on than those that support Thalassia and/o r Syringodium Burial of soils vegetated with Thalassia and/o r Syringodium would create a habitat suitable for Halodule if the resultant soil elevation is not to o high (see Chapter 3 for a discussion of soil elevations). Generally, these soils occur on bars vegetated with Halodule Therefore, the inference can be made that the bar had built on top of seagrass flat and

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150 then Halodule colonized the bar. A typical exam ple of this phenomenon is shown in Figure 5-13. General Subaqueous Soil-forming Factors Flow regime (energy): Flow regime is a new soil-forming factor proposed by Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) fo r subaqueous soils. They described “flow regime” as the energy of the water in which the soils form They mainly referred to the “shaping” of the subaqueous terrain through the build up of bars under high energy environments. Along the low energy areas of the Gulf Coast of Florida the converse situation is equally important. Low energy environments provide an opportunity for the settling of fine particles. On shallow vegetated flats, low energies ar e not likely to carry sand-sized or larger particles. Areas of dense ve getation could enhance the low en ergy nature of the flat by baffling water flow, thus encouraging the settling of the fine particles. Climate: The subtropical climate allows for the growth of Caribbean species of seagrasses. Given the relationships between seagrasses and soils documented in Chapter 3 and in this chapter, climate has an eff ect on soil properties. This study did not investigate areas outside Cedar Key, FL, theref ore the effects of c limate on soil properties are beyond the scope of this study. Relief (bathymetry or elevation): The elevation of the soil was related to vegetative cover. Therefore, elevation was related to soil propert ies of the upper-pedon. The flats were vegetated at mo st elevations except for the sh allowest portions. The soil properties of the upper-pedon varied accordingly. Biota: Another soil-forming factor, biota, in cludes both vegetation and animals. Generally, benthic invertebrate s will burrow deep in less reduced soils (Valiela, 1995).

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151 Figure 5-13. Buried A horizon from an area near Seahorse Key, FL currently supporting Halodule wrightii The presence of dark soil ma terial that appears similar to that occurring under dense beds of Thalassia testudinum suggests this area was once heavily vegetated. Early loss of the Thalassia could have been caused by sedimentation. Alternativly, the overbur den could have resulted from the lack of dense vegetation to tr ap other fine particles and add organic matter to the soil. Ab A C/A Overburden Buried soil 5 cm

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152 Shallow nearshore areas that are unvegetated are likely mo re oxygenated due to exposure at low tide and contained large soil pores th at allow free water flow. Therefore, these areas should have evidence of bioturbation leading to polyvalue matrices. Additionally, the high energy of these areas on high tide co uld remove fine particles that may have settled at low water. Thus, removing most of the detrital OM inputs to the soil. Bioturbation in these areas would probably not be masked by large OM inputs. Consequently, the poly-value nature of the soil would be preserved. Parent material: Parent material is another soil -forming factor that significantly influences the soil properties throughout the study area. The dominant sand-size mineralogy of the parent material of Le vy County terrestrial so ils (Slabaugh, 1996) is quartz. Except for sand-sized shell fragments the sand fraction in the subaqueous soils is also overwhelmingly quartz (see Chapter 3 for a discussion of soil components). X-ray diffraction of a soil supporting Thalassia and Syringodium and a soil supporting Halodule revealed the nature of the silt and clay sized soil components. The identification of carbonates (Cal cite, Dolomite, and Aragonite) in the untreated soil and the lack of these peaks in th e treated soil suggested that th ese minerals are components of the soil. Additionally, these peaks were abse nt in an XRD profile of a nearshore soil supporting Halodule suggesting these components are no t present in thes e soils (Figure 5-14). Iron oxide and kaolinitic coatings were pres ent on the terrestrial soils (e.g., Orsino series) and are evident in th e subaqueous soils as noted by the color of unvegetated soils (10YR 7/4) and by XRD analys is (Figure 5-14). Also, not iceable in the XRD analysis were carbonates such as calcite, aragonite, a nd dolomite. These were present in an

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153 Figure 5-14. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patte rns of the combined silt and clay size fractions from the rooting zone of tw o vegetated subaqueous soils. Pattern A represents a soil that o ccurred near a bar supporting Halodule wrightii Patterns B (carbonates removed) and C ( carbonates not removed) represent a soil that occurred on an offshore gr assflat supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme Prior to the XRD analysis for pattern B, the sample was trea ted with excess 1N HCl to remove carbonates. The d-spacing of each the p eaks allowed for the identification of the following minerals: kaolinite, quartz, aragonite, calcite, dolomite. Additionally, it is possible that pyrite is present. Neiher the calcite, dolomite, nor Aragonite peaks are present in pattern B, further supporting their identification from the XRD patterns. In pattern A, those carbonate minerals are also not present. Soil supporting Halodule (no HCl treatment) Soil supporting Thalassia and Syringodium (HCl treatment) Soil supporting Thalassia and Syringodium C B A

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154 offshore vegetated soil but not in a nearshore ve getated soil. This suggests that the parent material in the offshore areas was of aqua tic origin. The abse nce of carbonates along with the direct observations of terrestrial soil erosion suggests the parent material of these nearshore areas is te rrestrial in nature. Time: Time on both a geological scale (millions of years) and a historical scale (100s of years), is an important factor in so il formation. Histori cal air photo analysis shows that some offshore areas near bars and some nearshore areas near erosional beaches have only been recently vegetated (F igure 3-29 a and b). The soil morphologies in these areas are probably much less wellexpressed and could be inferred as light (values 6-8) matrix colors and only slightly po ly-value. Other areas such as much of the offshore vegetated flats have been vegetated for at least the last 40 years (Figure 3-29 a and b). In Chapter 3, the soils of these areas were reported to be dark in color, and high in OM and silt contents. These soils could be inferred to be more developed. Some areas of these nearshore flats occur in high energy environments and are temporally unstable (Figure 3-29 c and d). It coul d be inferred that the morphologi es of these soils are similar to those in unvegetated and recen tly (< 40 years) vegetated areas. Landscape Units The study area was conceptually divided in to landscape units (Table 5-2) that isolated unique combinations of subaqueous the soil-forming factors. Each landscape unit was assigned a map unit identification (MUID) numb er and was hypothesized to have soils unique to that unit. Once estab lished, these units were delineated throughout the study area on the 2001 true color aerial photography reprin ted at a scale of 1:20,000. Those delineations were then re-digitized in a GIS (Figure 5-15). The randomly selected validation points were distributed throughout most of the study ar ea (Figure 5-2) and

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155 Table 5-2. Landscape units pres ent within the study area. Each landscape unit was assigned a unique map unit identifier (MUID). MUID Landscape Unit Abbreviation 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / Near Channel Bar Complex EUF/NCB 2 Deep Water DW 3 Edge of Channel Ba r ECB 4 Erosional BeachEB 5 Erosional Unvegetated Fla t EUF 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N BG 8 Drownded FlatwoodsDF 9 N earshore Grassfla t N SG 10 Offshore Grassfla t OFGF 11 Oyster Ba r OB 12 Saltmarsh SM 13 Saltmarsh FlatSMF 14 Unvegetated Fla t UF 15 Uplands U

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156 Figure 5-15. Spatial landscape model. Each number on the model re presents a landscape unit type. The original scale of the model is 1:20,000. This figure appears approximately 1:28,000. Some map units are indistinguishable at thid scale. The legend of landscape unit name and a ssociated MUID is in Table 5-2.

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157 generally, the soil morphologies within map un its were consistent. The within map unit variability appeared low fo r most map units. One exception was Map Unit 13 (Salt marsh flats). After devising the map unit numbering scheme, it was decided that Map Unit 6, a barrier bar was better described by Map Unit 1 (Erosional unvegetated flat/Near channel bar complex), thus all areas identif ied as Map Unit 6 were changed to Map Unit 1. Map Unit 1, Erosional Unvegetated Fl at / Near Channel Bar Complex: Areas classified as Map Unit 1 are areas of intermingled Map Un its 5 and 7. At the 1:20,000 map scale, these intermingled areas were t oo small to be delineated individually. Thus they were collectively delineated as Map Unit 1. Map Unit 1 occurs away from shore. While terrestrial soil erosion to the subaque ous soil was not inferred, the re-working of subaqueous soil due to wa ve action was directly observed. The dominant process occurring in these units was the burial of Halodule by wave action. Subsequently, some areas support Halodule and other areas do not. Buried A horizons were frequently observed in the unvegetated areas. Since burial of the vegetation was considered to be more freque nt than occurs along the channel bars, Map Unit 1 was viewed as more similar to the er osional unvegetated flat areas (Map Unit 5). Thus Map Unit 1 was considered to be a complex of 80% Map Unit 5 and 20% Map Unit 7. Individual areas of vege tated and unvegetated could not be separated at the scale selected. Individual areas could be shown on a much la rger map scale (e.g., 1:5:000). Map Unit 2, Deep Water: These areas are unvegetated and under deep water. They do not meet the definition of soil by virtue of support for vegetation and were

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158 assumed not to display soil morphology. Theref ore, no soil observations were made for this map unit. Map Unit 3, Edge of Channel Bar: These areas occur along the edges of deep water (Figure 5-9). These areas are inferred to be wave deposited sand originating from the deep water. The protected po rtions of this map unit support Halodule wrightii Soils in Map Unit 3 have poly-value colors in th e upper-pedon. These ba rs likely formed by burial of offshore grass flats (Map Unit 10). The depth to the Ab horizon varies. The depth to the Ab horizon may suggest that some bars may be relatively older (more burial had occurred) than others (Table 5-3). Map Unit 4, Beaches: Most soil surveys of coastal counties delineate the beaches and thus identify them as beaches map unit. This standard was adopted to facilitate the joining of a subaqueous soil surv ey with a terrestrial survey. No soil descriptions were made for this map unit. Map Unit 5, Erosional Unvegetated Flat: As documented in Chapter 3, the upper-pedons of unvegetated areas are consisten tly devoid of OM and dark colors. In areas that are unvegetated due to the burial of seagrass from unstable beaches, buried A horizons occur. These buried A horizons reflec t the past vegetative history of the area. The morphologies of the Ab horizons in Ma p Unit 5 suggest the pr evious vegetation was Halodule or Thalassia (Table 5-4). Map Unit 6, Barrier Bar: After delineation and digitization of the map delineations, it was decided that barrier bars were best described as a complex of Map Unit 5 and 7: Map Unit 1. Thus all areas in itially delineated as Map Unit 6 were reclassified as Map Unit 1. Soil surveys are a work in progress, and missing map units can

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159 Table 5-3. Soil descriptions from Edge of Channel Bar (MUID 3). Textural class abbreviations: loamy sand (LS), sand (S). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes ECB-1 C10-2LS5Y 3/11shells in medium p ieces C22-45S2.5Y 6/1 Ab1 45-69S2.5Y 2.5/1 Ab269-200S2.5Y 4/1 ECB-2 C0-15S5Y 5/1 Ab 15-200S2.5Y 2.5/1 ECB-3 C10-4LS5Y 3/1 C24-85S2.5Y 6/1 Ab85-200S 5Y 2.5/1 ECB-4 C10-8S5Y 5/1 C28-35S2.5Y 6/1 C335-72S2.5Y 7/1 Ab72-200S 2.5Y 2.5/1 ECB-5C0-61S 5Y 5/1 Ab61-200S5Y 3/1

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160 Table 5-4. Soil descriptions of soils in the Erosional Unvegetated Flats (MUID 5). Textural class abbreviations: loam (L), sand (S). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes EUF-1C0-31S5Y 6/22 Ab31-39S2.5Y 2.5/2 Ab/C39-200S5Y 4/22010% 5Y 7/2 EUF-2C0-78S10YR 6/2 Ab78-200L5Y 5/1 EUF-3C10-42S5Y 6/3 C242-200S 5Y 5/1 EUF-4C0-22S5Y 7/22 Ab22-39S2.5Y 2.5/2 Ab/C39-200S5Y 3/21020% 5Y 5/2 EUF-5C0-18S5Y 7/22 Ab18-57S2.5Y 2.5/2 Ab/C57-200S2.5Y 3/2520% 5Y 5/2

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161 be frequently found in published surveys. For example, Map Unit 20 does not appear in the Levy County Soil Survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996). The practice of preserving the existing ma p unit numbering scheme rather than renumbering to maintain a consecutive number ing scheme is deliberate. The reason for doing so is mainly to eliminate confusion as soil surveys are updated. Consider again the Levy County Soil Survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996). Map Unit 20 in the Levy County Soil Survey does not exist and th e highest map unit number is 78. When updated, if a new map unit is added to the survey, it will be designated Map Unit 79 instead of Map Unit 20. This maintains a consistency between old and new surveys. Map Unit 7, Near Bar Grassflat: The portions of either nearshore or offshore grass flats occuring near the ba rs of Map Unit 3 are dominantly Halodule and occasionally monotypic Thalassia Because these areas are adjacent to the bars and channels, some wash-over of sand from Map Unit 3 to Map Unit 7 has occurred. The resultant buried A horizons pr esent in all these soils suggests that before wash-over, either nearshore or offshore grass flats were present (Table 5-5). Map Unit 8, Drowned Flatwoods: This map unit occupies the same landscape position as Map Unit 4, but occurs on the north side of the island in the salt marsh cove. These areas are unvegetated. A degrading spodic horizon was present in all soils observed in this map unit (Table 5-6). Thes e horizons were confirmed to be spodic using the previously mentioned field test. Sin ce they were documented to be laterally continuous with terrestrial Spodosols in the ad jacent uplands, it was inferred that soils in this map unit were once upland flatwoods. The degrading spodic was also observed in some of the soils in Map Unit 9 and Map Un it 11. A shell midden was observed on the

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162 Table 5-5. Soil descriptions for soils occu rring on the Near Bar Grassflat landscape units (MUID 7). Textural class abbrev iations: loamy sand (LS), sand (S). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes NBGF-1 C/A 0-18 S2.5Y 6/4 20% 2.5Y 2.5/1 C 18-34 S2.5Y 6/4 Ab 34-200 LS2.5Y 2.5/15 NBGF-2 C/A 0-28 S2.5Y 7/4 5% 2.5Y 2.5/1 C 28-44 S2.5Y 7/4 Ab 44-200 S2.5Y 2.5/1 NBGF-3 C/A 0-22 S2.5Y 5/3 15% 2.5Y 2.5/1 C 22-53 S2.5Y 5/3 Ab 53-200 LS2.5Y 2.5/1 2 NBGF-4 C/A 0-15 S2.5Y 6/3 20% 2.5Y 2.5/1 C 15-62 S2.5Y 6/3 Ab 62-200 LS2.5Y 2.5/15 NBGF-5 C/A 0-25 S2.5Y 6/4 10% 2.5Y 2.5/1 C 25-59 S2.5Y 6/4 Ab 59-200 LS2.5Y 2.5/110

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163 Table 5-6. Soil descriptions for the Drowne d Flatwoods map unit (MUID 8). Textural class abbreviations: sand (S). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes DF-1 C0-18S5Y 7/2 25Shell fragment from Bw18-31S7.5YR 6/3 adjacent midden Bh31-82S7.5YR 2.5/2 DF-2 C0-21S5Y 7/225 Shell fragment from Bw21-29S7.5YR 6/3 adjacent midden Bh29-110S7.5YR 2.5/2 DF-3 C0-35S5Y 7/225 Shell fragment from Bw35-45S7.5YR 6/3 adjacent midden Bh45-105S7.5YR 2.5/2 DF-4 C0-12S5Y 7/225 Shell fragment from Bw12-24S7.5YR 6/3 adjacent midden Bh24-97 S7.5YR 2.5/2 DF-5 C0-17S5Y 7/225 Shell fragment from Bw17-26S7.5YR 6/3 adjacent midden Bh26-89S7.5YR 2.5/2

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164 terrestrial Spodosols in the adjacent uplands. These shells were also present in the soils of Map Unit 8. Map Unit 9, Nearshore Grassflat: Soils in this landscape unit were observed to be vegetated with either Halodule or Thalassia The vegetation was zonated according to distance from shore as the depth increased. Ne arest the shore, soils were unvegetated. In the next zone, Halodule was present. These two zone s could not be delineated at 1:20,000. No soils in either of these zones were described, but we re observed to have upper-pedons consistent with those described in Chapter 3. The remainder of the map unit has water deep enough to support Thalassia while the edges supported Thalassia and Syringodium A drowned and and buried spodic horizon wa s observed in two of the five soils (NSGF-2 and NSGF-5) described in Map Un it 9 (Table 5-7). These horizons were confirmed to be drowned spodic using the prev iously mentioned field test. These soils occurred closer to the island and were t hus closer to the terrestrial Spodosols. Map Unit 10, Offshore Grassflat: Areas of this map un it support mixed stands of Thalassia and Syringodium In the offshore grass flats, water currents were slow to stagnant at low tide but currents were faster during tidal transition. A flocculent layer was observed in all the soils, but was only a few cm thick. This floc layer could be detrial material either produced in the gra ss bed or trapped from the water column. The components (e.g., mineralogy, N and C isotopes, etc.) of this material were not determined. It is possible that benthic organisms provide a mechanism for downward movement of this material. Also, it is possi ble that much of the material is removed due to erosion on low tides (Table 5-8).

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165 Table 5-7. Soil descriptions for the Nears hore Grassflat map unit (MUID 9). Textural class abbreviations: loamy sand (LS), sand (S). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes NSGF-1 C0-5LS2.5Y 6/4 A2-20S2.5Y 2.5/15 A / C g 20-200S2.5Y 2.5/1540% 5Y 5/1 NSGF-2 C0-2LS2.5Y 6/4 A2-32S2.5Y 2.5/12 A / C g 32-138S2.5Y 2.5/1230% 5Y 5/1 Bhb138-200S7.5YR 2.5/3 NSGF-3 C0-2LS2.5Y 6/4 A2-20S2.5Y 2.5/1 A / C g 20-150S2.5Y 2.5/120% 5Y 5/1 NSGF-4 C0-2LS2.5Y 6/4 A2-22S2.5Y 2.5/1520% 5Y 5/1 A /Cg22-200S 2.5Y 2.5/140% 5Y 5/1 NSGF-5 C0-2LS2.5Y 6/4 A / Cg20-150S2.5Y 2.5/1220% 5Y 5/1 Bhb150-200S7.5YR 2.5/3

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166 Table 5-8. Pedon descriptions from the Offshore Grass Flat map unit (MUID 10). Textural class abbreviations: loamy sa nd (LS), sand (S), and sandy loam (SL). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes OSGF-1 Al0-5LS5Y 2.5/1Ver y low n value A25-17S5Y 2.5/1 A317-22S5Y 3/1 A422-200S5Y 3/170 OSGF-2 Al0-12LS2.5Y 2.5/2 A212-43LS2.5Y 3/22 A / Cg43-200LS2.5Y 3/22 2% 2.5Y 5/2 splotches OSGF-3 A10-11S L N2/02Ver y hi g h n value A211-20LS5YR 2.5/14 A320-60LS5Y 3/112 A460-91LS5Y 3/1 A591-200SL5Y 2.5Y/1 OSGF-4 Al0-25LS2.5Y 2.5/2 5 A225-200LS2.5Y 3/2 5 OSGF-5 Al0-15LS2.5Y 2.5/2 A215-89LS2.5Y 3/21 A / Cg89-200S2.5Y 3/212% 2.5Y 4/2 splotches

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167 A Mollic epipedon is defined in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) as having the following general characteristics (see Soil Taxonomy for exact requirements): Dark Color: Value of 3 or le ss (moist) and 5 or less (dry) High organic carbon content: > 0.6% High base saturation: > 50 % Thickness: 10 to 25 cm depe nding on other soil properties n value < 0.7. Although dry colors are not reported in Table 5-8, they typically were on the 5Y and 2.5Y pages with a value of 5 or 4 and a chroma of 1. Organic carbon content can generally be assumed to be half of OM c ontent. The THAL/SYR soils analyzed in Chapter 3 occurred on offshore grass flats. A ll of these soils had OM contents above 4% Table A-1), therefore it can be assumed that their OC contents were above 0.6%. Base saturation was not measured, however, the extr emely high concentrations of bases (Ca, M, and K) measured in all subaqueous soils in this study (Table A-2) coupled with active acidity measurements around pH 8 (Table A-2), support the assumption that base saturation exceeds 50% for all soils. Table 58 shows the dark colored A horizons extend well below the 25-cm depth. Although some soils had surface horizons of a high n value (OSGF-1 and OSGF-3), most soils had n values less than 0.7. Furthermore, these horizons that were of high n value were not thick enough to exclude these soils from having a Mollic epipedon. Given this evidence the soils occuring in offshore grass flats should be considered Mollisols. While some may consider subaqueous soils to be outside the concept of Mollisols, others may not. One’s concept of a soil taxa is likely formed vi a one’s experience and training. If much time is spent dealing with the Mollisols of the Mi dwestern U.S., then certainly the seagrass flats of the Southeastern U.S. is “outside” that experience. On the

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168 other hand, if one’s experience with Mollisols were exclusive to Florida, then the aquolls that occur in Florida’s we tlands may seem more simila r to these soils occuring on offshore seagrass flats. Regardless of one’s perspective, Soil Taxonomy was established to allow the classification of soils based on properties, not concepts of genesis. Guy Smith, the founder of Soil Taxonomy explicitly states this in his interviews (Smith, 1986). The soils of these offshore grass flats meet the criteria of a Mollisol and should be classified as such. Map Unit 11, Oyster Bar: These soils support and occurr underneath oyster bars. This map unit occurs adjacent to Salt Mars h Flats (Map Unit 13). The soils of Map Unit 11 are sandier and have a much lower n value than the Salt Marsh Flats. In one of the soils described in this map unit, a buried and degrading spodic horizon was observed. This horizon was confirmed as a spodic horizon using the previously mentioned field test. This soil was proximate to terre strial Spodosols (Table 5-9). Map Unit 12, Salt Marsh: Areas of this map unit support typical salt marsh vegetation: Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus These soils were previously mapped as Wulfert (Sandy or sandy-skelet al, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfisaprists) in the Levy County Soil Survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996). The boundaries of these map units were re-delineated to be c onsistent with this s ubaqueous soil survey. Pedons of this map unit were not described as they were described in the terrestrial soil survey of Levy County. Map Unit 13, Salt Marsh Flat: Areas of this map unit do not support vegetation. Soils in this landscape map unit occur in th e subaqueous areas associated with salt marshes (Table 5-10). The variability of th eir properties below the upper-pedon is such

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169 Table 5-9. Soil descriptions from an Oyster Bar map unit (MUID 11). Textural class abbreviations: loam (L), loamy sand (LS), sand (S), and sandy loam (SL). Site No.Horizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix colorShells (%)Notes OB-1 Cl0-5S5Y 3/199 C25-52LS5Y 3/135 C352-220S L 5Y 2.5/150 OB-2 Cl0-3 L 5Y 2.5/199 C23-75 L 5Y 2.5/110 C355-200LS2.5Y 2.5/1 30 OB-3 Cl0-7 L 2.5Y 2.5/199 C27-100 L 2.5Y 2.5/135 C3100-158LS2.5Y 2.5/135 Bw158-200S10YR 4/1 OB-4 Cl0-5L5Y 2.5/199 C25-24L5Y 2.5/110 C324-112LS2.5Y 2.5/1 30 C4112-200LS2.5Y 2.5/110 OB-5 C10-7LS5Y 3/180 C27-45S5Y 3/120 C/Bhb45-60S5Y 3/140% 7.5YR Bhb160-69S7.5YR 3/1 Bhb269-101S10YR 2/2 Bhb3101-109S5YR 3/1 C1 Horizon is mostl y shell C1 Horizon is mostl y shell C1 Horizon is mostl y shell C1 Horizon is mostly shell

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170 Table 5-10. Soil descriptions from the Salt Marsh Flat map unit (MUID 13). Textural class abbreviations: loam (L), loam y sand (LS), sand (S), and sandy loam (SL). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix colorShells (%)Notes SMF-1 Cl0-10L5Y 3/1Ver y hi g h n value C210-41LS2.5Y 2.5/1 C341-80LS2.5 Y 2.5/110 C480-104SL5Y 2.5/125 C5104-200LS5Y 2.5/110 SMF-2 Cl0-8L5Y 3/1Ver y hi g h n value C28-200L2.5Y 2.5/1Ver y hi g h n value SMF-3 Cl0-12L5Y 3/1Ver y hi g h n value C212-200L2.5Y 2.5/1Ver y hi g h n value SMF-4 Cl0-14L2.5 Y 2.5/1Very high n value C214-153LS5Y 2.5/1 Bh1b143-171 S 7.5YR 2.5/1 Bh2b171-200 S 7.5YR 2.5/3 SMF-5 Cl0-25L2.5 Y 2.5/1Ver y hi g h n value C225-200L2.5 Y 2.5/15Ver y hi g h n value

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171 that some soils have a high n value (>>0.7) to a depth of 2 m while other soils have a high value in only the upper few cm. This high n value material is probably depositional in nature. Therefore, its th ickness would be inversely rela ted to the elevation of the previous soil surface. In areas where terrestr ial soils have been drowned and left in place instead of eroded down to a lower elevation, the depositional material is thin (e.g., SMF4). In areas where the paleos ol surface was low in elevation, the depositional material is thicker (e.g., SMF-2). This trend is difficult to predict because the presence of a drowned vs. eroded soils is not always straight forw ard. In the case of SMF-4, the soil was close to other map unit soils that contained buried and/or de grading spodic horizons, thus leading to a prediction that SM F-4 would have a thin depositi onal layer over a paleosol. Although it is possible to spend the time in SMF map units to improve one’s ability to predict the depth to a paleosol, it is not practical for soil survey purposes. Map Unit 14, Unvegetated Flat: This map unit was of small extent. Because of this, the soils described were located close together (Table 5-11). UF-2 had a 24 cm accumulation of dark and loamy soil material at the surface. It was first thought that this layer was an A horizon. After noting that no evidence of vegetation was present anywhere in the unit, it was de signated as a C horizon. Other clues that this might be an A horizon, such as dead roots, were not present in the soil. Map Unit 15, Upland Soils: Soils within this map unit were previously mapped for the Levy County Soil Survey (Slabaugh et al ., 1996) and are shown in Figure 5-16. For the purposes of this subaqueous soil surve y, they were classified as labeled Map Unit 15, Upland Soils. The boundaries of this map unit were delineated du ring the subaqueous

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172 Table 5-11. Soil descriptions for the Unvege tated Flat map unit (MUID 14). Textural class abbreviations: loamy sand (L S), sand (S), and loam (L). SiteHorizon Depth (cm) USDA texture class Matrix color Shells (%) Notes UF-1 C10-6LS5Y 3/1 C26-35S C335-200S UF-2 C10-5 L 5Y 3/1 C25-24LS5Y 3/120% 2.5Y 2/1 s p lothces C324-50S10YR 4/120% 2.5Y 6/1 s p lothces C450-80S10YR 4/12 C580-200S2.5Y 6/13520% 10YR 6/1 mottles UF-3 C10-8LS5Y 3/1 C28-45S2.5Y 6/1 C345-110S2.5Y 6/1 C4110-200S2.5Y 6/1 UF-4 C10-3LS5Y 3/1 C23-72S5Y 6/2 C372-130S2.5Y 6/1 C4130-200S2.5Y 1/1 UF-5 C10-20S2.5Y 6/2 C220-200S2.5Y 5/1

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173 Map UnitNameTaxonomy 3Orsino fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes:Hyperthermic, uncoated Spodic Quartzipsamments 21Pompano fine sandSilicious, hy perthermic Typic Psammaquents 23Zolfo fine sandSandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods 33Wulfert muck, frequently floodedSandy or sandy-skel etal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemist 57Paola fine sand, gently rollingHyperthermic, uncoated Spodic Quartzipsamments Figure 5-16. Portion of the Levy County Soil Survey: Seahorse Key on Inset A fr om Map Tile 60 (Slabaugh et al ., 1996). Below the scanned map is compiled information a bout the soils mapped on Seahorse Key.

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174 survey so that the terrestria l and subaqueous soils would join to form a seamless coverage throughout the study area. Modal Pedons The modal pedons for most map units were described to 2 m. These descriptions (Tables 5-12 through 5-20) were formatted si milar to those in the USDA soil survey reports. For all subaqueous map units, an appropriate existing series could not be identified, so a new series name was created. Combinations of So il-forming Factors Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) modified the Jenny’s (1941) soil equation by replacing relief with bathymetry and flow regime. They also added water column attributes and catastrophic events as factors. Within the study area, flow regime can be conceptualized as water energy. This is a broader view that inco rporates currents and wave action. Additionally, geographic Based on this research, ten unique combina tions of the soil-forming factors were documented to form ten soil map units. Below, these combinations are outlined by identifying the soil-forming factors. The factors considered are a combination of Dokuchaev’s (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka 1927; Jenny 1941), Demas and Rabenhorst’s (2001) and a new soil-forming fact or. Dokuchaev’s factors that are considered are parent material (P), climate (C), vegetation (V), and time (T). Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) proposed the replacement of relief with bat hymetry (B) and flow regime. Within the study area, flow regime can be conceptualized as water energy (E). This is a broader view that incorporates wate r currents and wave action. Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) also suggested that water column attributes be included as a factor, but this factor was not

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175 Table 5-12. Modal pedon de scription for North Key Map Unit 3: Edge of Channel Bar. Proposed Series Name: North Key Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents C / A 0-50 cm; mixed dark gray (5Y 4/1) and light olive brow n (2.5Y 5/4) fine sand; single grained; loos e; no roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. C 50-58 cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/ 3) loamy sand; very fluid; abrupt wavy boundary. Ab 58-73 cm; black (2.5Y 2.5/1) and very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sand; weak fine and medium subangular st ructure; very friable; many fine and medium live roots; 8% shell fr agments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Ab / Cg 73-84 cm; 80% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) an d 30% olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sand; weak fine and medium subangular st ructure and single grained; very friable to loose; common fine and medium live roots; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / Ab1 84-111 cm; 50% dark grayish brow n (2.5Y 4/2), 10% gray (2.5Y 6/1), and 40% very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sa nd; single grained; loose; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionize d water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / Ab2 111-134 cm; 70% gray (2.5Y 6/1) and 30% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) sand; single grained; loose; 1% shel l fragments; dried soil w ith deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg 134-200 cm; 90% gray (2.5Y 6/1), and 10% dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) fine sand; single grai ned; loose; few shell fr agments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary.

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176 Table 5-13. Modal pedon description for Hornet Map Unit 5: Erosional Unvegetated Flat. Proposed Series Name: Hornet Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents C 0-3 cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; very fluid; abrupt wavy boundary. Cg 3-40 cm; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; abrupt wavy boundary. Ab 40-48 cm; black (2.5Y 2.5/1) and very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sand; common fine and medium live roots; 2% shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Ab / Cgb 48-62 cm; 80% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) an d 30% olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sand; weak fine and medium subangular st ructure and single grained; very friable to loose; common fine and me dium live roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized wate r pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cgb / Ab 62-200 cm; 60% dark grayish brow n (2.5Y 4/2), 20% gray (2.5Y 6/1), and 20% very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sa nd; single grained; loose; 5% shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2.

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177 Table 5-14. Modal pedon description for Nebar Map Unit 7: Near Bar Grassflat. Proposed Series Name: Nebar Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents C 0-3 cm.; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) loamy sand; very fluid; abrupt wavy boundary. A 3-15 cm; 60% dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) and 40% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) organic bodies; fine sand; weak fine and me dium subangular structure; very friable; many fine and medium live roots; common verti cal and horizontal rhizomes; 2% shell fragments; drie d soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / A 15-25 cm; 80% gray (10YR 6/1) and 20% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) fine sand; weak fine and medium subangular st ructure and single grained; very friable to loose; common fine and me dium live and dead roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionize d water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg1 25-39 cm; 95% gray (10YR 6/1) a nd 5% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine and medium liv e and dead roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with de ionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg2 39-50 cm; 90% gray (10YR 6/1) and 10% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) gravelly fine sand; single grained; loose; co mmon fine and medium live and dead roots; 20% shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg3 50-121 cm.; 90% gray (10YR 6/1) and 10% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; 5% shell frag ments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg4 121-200 cm.; 90% gray (10YR 6/1) and 10% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) gravelly fine sand; single graine d; loose; 20% shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary.

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178 Table 5-15. Modal pedon desc ription for Atsena Otie Map Unit 8: Drowned Flatwoods. Proposed Series Name: Atsena Otie Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents C 0-30 cm; light grey (5Y 7/ 2) sand; abrupt wavy boundary. Bw 30-40 cm; pink (7.5YR 7/3) sand; gradual smooth boundary Bh 40-200 cm; very dark brown (7.5YR 2.5/3) fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very fr iable; common black (7.5YR 2.5/1) dead roots; dried soil wi th deionized water pH 7.2.

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179 Table 5-16. Modal pedon de scription of Snake Key Map Unit 9: Nearshore Grassflat. Proposed Series Name: Snake Key Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents C 0-3 cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) loamy sand; very fluid; abrupt wavy boundary. A 3-9 cm; black (2.5Y 2.5/1) fine sa nd; weak fine and medium subangular structure; very friable; common fine and medium live roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionize d water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A / Cg 9-23 cm; 70% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) an d 30% dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) fine sand; weak fine and medium subangular st ructure and single grained; very friable to loose; common fine and me dium live roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized wate r pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / A1 23 -90 cm; 40% dark gray (2.5Y 4/1), 20% gray (2.5Y 6/1), and 20% very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized wate r pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / A2 90-140 cm; 40% dark gray (2.5Y 4/ 1), 20% gray (2.5Y 6/1), and 20% very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; 5% shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; common black (7.5YR 2.5/1) dead roots; abrupt smooth boundary. Bhb 140-200 cm; very dark brown (7.5Y R 2.5/3) fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very fr iable; few shell fragments; common black (7.5YR 2.5/1) dead roots; drie d soil with deionized water pH 7.2.

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180 Table 5-17. Modal pedon desc ription for Seahorse Key Map Unit 10: Offshore Grassflat. Proposed Series Name: Seahorse Key Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls. C 0-3 cm; 90% black (2.5Y 2.5/1) and 10% olive gray (5Y 4/2) fine sand; very fluid; ab rupt wavy boundary. A1 3-10 cm; 90% black (5Y 2.5/1) and 10% olive gray (5Y 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine and medium subangular stru cture; very fria ble; common fine and medium live roots; 5% shell fr agments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A2 10-25 cm; 90% black (5Y 2.5/1) and 10% olive gray (5Y 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine and medium subangular stru cture; very fria ble; common fine and medium live roots; 10% shell fr agments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A3 25-61 cm; 90% black (5Y 2.5/1) and 10% olive gray (5Y 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine and medium subangular stru cture; very fria ble; common fine and medium dead roots; 5% shell fr agments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A / Cg 61-122 cm.; 70% very dark gray (5Y 3/1) and 30% very dark gray (5Y 3/1) loamy sand; weak fine and medi um subangular structure and single grained; very friable to loose; fe w shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2. Cg 122-200 cm; no sample could be taken; soil material with high n value is suspected to occur here.

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181 Table 5-18. Modal pedon description for Reddrum Map Unit 11: Oyster Bar. Proposed Series Name: Reddrum Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls A 0-6 cm; very dark grey (5Y 3/1) lo amy fine sand; horizon is mostly whole or crushed oyster shell; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A / Cg 6-51 cm; 75% very dark gray (5Y 3/1) and 25% gray (5 Y 6/1) fine sand; 20% oyster shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg / Bw 51-65 cm.; 60% black (5Y 2.5/ 1) and 40% brown (7.5YR 5/3) fine sand; loose; non fluid; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Bhb1 65-90 cm; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) dr ied soil with deionized water pH 7.3; gradual smooth boundary. Bhb2 90-200 cm; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) dried soil with deionized water pH 7.3.

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182 Table 5-19. Modal pedon de scription for Shell Mound Map Unit 13: Salt Marsh Flat. Proposed Series Name: Shell Mound Classification: Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents A1 0-13 cm.; black (N 2.5/0) loamy fi ne sand; very fluid, soil flows easily between fingers when squeezed leaving a residue of some mineral soil material and organic materials; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. A2 13-23 cm; 95% very dark gray (5Y 3/ 1) and 5% gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; very fluid, soil flows easily between fingers when squeezed leaving a residue of some mineral soil material and organic materials; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionize d water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg 23-56 cm; 70% gray (5Y 6/1) and 30% black (5Y 2.5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; non fluid; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Ab 56-100 cm; mixed very dark gray (5 Y 3/1) and black (2.5Y 2.5/1) fine sand; single grained; lo ose; non fluid; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; abrupt smooth boundary. Bh 100116 cm; black (7.5YR 2.5/1) fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; non fl uid; few shell frag ments; dried soil with deionized water pH 7.2; clear wavy boundary. Cg / Bw 116-200 cm; gray (10YR 6/1) and ol ive brown (2.5Y 4/3) fine sand; single grained; loose; non fluid; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2.

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183 Table 5-20. Modal pedon desc ription for Lighthouse Point Map Unit 14: Unvegetated Flat. Proposed Series Name: Lighthouse Point Classification: sandy, siliceous, hype rthermic Typic Psammaquents C / A1 0-8 cm; mixed gray (5Y 5/1) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) fine sand; single grained; loos e; no roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. C / A2 8-18 cm; mixed gray (5Y 5/1), light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3), and very dark grayish brown (5Y 3/2) fine sand ; single grained; l oose; no roots; few shell fragments; dried soil with de ionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg1 26-66 cm; mixed gray (5Y 5/1), grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2), and very dark grayish brown (5Y 3/2) fine sa nd; single grained; loose; no live roots; common medium dead roots; fe w shell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2; clear smooth boundary. Cg2 66-200 cm; mixed dark gray (5Y 4/1), grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2), and very dark grayish brown (5Y 3/2) fine sand ; single grained; l oose; no live roots; common medium dead roots; few sh ell fragments; dried soil with deionized water pH 8.2.

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184 considered for Cedar Key. In addition to th ese factors, geographi c position (GP) relative to barrier islands was a new factor consider ed. The Map Unit soil (S) is conceptually predicted by the Equation 5-1. S = f (P, C, V, B, E, GP, T) (5-1) Variables S = soil f ( ) = function of ( ) P = parent material C = climate V = vegetation B = bathymetry (elevation) E = water energy GP = geographic position relative to land T = time The combinations of each map unit are list ed below in map unit numerical order. Following the list is a short summary repeati ng the main points of soil genesis for the map unit. For all combinations of soil-form ing factors in this st udy, C is subtropical. Unlike Jenny’s (1941) contention that soil-forming factors are independent, some of these are not, such as parent material, geographic position relative to la nd, and water energy. These variables should become more indepe ndent, however, as the size of the study area is expanded. The values given for each of these variables are qualitative and were subjectively determined. They c ould, in theory, be quantified. Parent material as used here is not the same term as parent material in Soil Taxonomy which as a pre-defined set of classes (e.g., loess or glacial ti ll). Here it is a qualitative de scription of the particle size and mineralogy of the soil material. Combination 1: Map Unit 1, Erosional Un vegetated Flat / Grass Near Channel Bar Complex C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from deep water, some shell fragments

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185 V = Mostly unvegetated, some Halodule B = Exposed on MLW E = High energy on most tidal cycles GP = Offshore T = Greater than 40 years old, some portions are younger This is a map unit that is a complex of Map Units 5 and 7. The concept behind this map unit is that where barrier flats exist, en ergy is high enough to burry vegetation. This happens catastrophically as it does in an Er osional Unvegetated Flat. About 20% of the area is protected, so pockets of Halodule can be found as it is in the Grass Near Channel Bar units. Near Cedar Key, this map unit or a barrier island is proba bly necessary for the offshore grassflats to exis t in their current form. Combination 2: Map Unit 3, Edge of Channel Bar C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from channel, some shell fragments V = Mostly unvegetated, some Halodule B = Exposed on MLW E = Medium energy on most tidal cycles GP = Offshore, the edges of grassflats bordered by deep channels T = Greater than 40 years old This map unit is a bar that builds up along the edges of Map Unit 10, Offshore Grassflats where bordered by a channel. Wave deposition of sand from the bottom of the channel during times of high ener gy is the likely cause of this bar. The highest portions are unvegetated and provide protection fo r Map Unit 7, Grass Near Channel Bar. Combination 3: Map Unit 5, Erosional Unvegetated Flat C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from nearby land V = Mostly unvegetated, some Halodule occasionally Thalassia in depressions B = Exposed on MLW E = Low to medium energy GP = Near unstable shore T = Greater than 40 years old, vegetati on buried within the past 40 years.

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186 This map unit occurs where a shore has become unstable and eroded onto grasses. Combination 4: Map Unit 7, Near Bar Grassflat C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from deep water, some shell fragments V = Mostly vegetated with Halodule, some Thalassia B = Exposed on MLW E = Low energy GP = Offshore, protected side of bar near channel T = Greater than 40 years old This map unit exists on the protected side of the bars that comprise Map Unit 3. The grasses currently growing in these areas, mainly Halodule were likely not the grasses growing before the bar was formed. Combination 5: Map Unit 8, Drowned Flatwoods C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from drowned Spodosol. Some shells in upper-pedon V = Unvegetated B = Exposed on MLW E = Low energy GP = Protected shore, drowned shore near contemporary Spodosols T = Greater than 40 years old, inferred to be as old as the adjacent uplands This map unit occurs anywhere soils that were once Spodosols are near the shore and energy is not high. The resu lt of sea level rise is that flatwoods have been drowned and coastal forest retreat has and is occurr ing. These soils were once coastal forests, probably pine flatwoods. Combination 6: Map Unit 9, Nearshore Grassflat C = Subtropical P = Upper-pedon is mostly quartz sands from beach, supplied by eroding uplands; aquatic fine particles that settle P = Pedon below is either the same or quartz sand from a drowned Spodosol V = Mostly vegetated with Thalassia Halodule occurs in the shallower, nearshore B = Exposed only at MLLW, but exposed MLW where Halodule occurs E = Low energy GP = Nearshore, adjacent to beaches

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187 T = Greater than 40 years old This map unit occurs near beaches that are fed by upland erosion, and provide a slow, constant supply of this sand to the soils within the map unit. The current vegetation grades from Halodule in shallow water to Thalassia in areas with deeper water. Soils are poly-value in the upper-pedon as a result. Beneath the upper podon is the same soil material unless a buried and degrading spodic ho rizon is present. This would most likely occur if soils that were once Spodosols were near the shore. Combination 7: Map Unit 10, Offshore Grassflat C = Subtropical P = Quartz sands, probably from channel or de eper water; aquatic fine particles that settle V = Vegetated with a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium B = Exposed only on MLLW E = Very low energy GP = Nearshore, adjacent to beaches T = Greater than 40 years old This map unit occurs as flats away fr om the erosional influence of land. Thalassia and Syringodium grow on these map units because the energy is low. In this area, the low energy is due partially to the presence of ba rrier flats and barrier islands, but also due to the gentle slope of this por tion of the Gulf of Mexico. Also, these flats are extensive enough that their size creates a zone of shallow water and thus low energy. Combination 8: Map Unit 11, Oyster Bar C = Subtropical P = Upper-pedon is mostly quartz sands from land, oyster shell fragments, aquatic fine particles that settle P = Pedon below is either the same or quartz sand from a drowned Spodosol V = Unvegetated B = Well exposed at MLW E = Low energy GP = Nearshore; near salt mars hes, flatwoods, and grassflats T = Greater than 40 years old

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188 This map unit can occur in almost any low en ergy area near a shore. If a beach is not present, then the energy is likely to be low enough for oyster bars to be present. They can occur in the same areas as Map Un it 8, Drowned Flatwoods and Map Unit 13, Salt Marsh Flats. When near drowned flatwoods a buried degrading spodic will likely occur at depth. The soil material above will be co mprised of quartz sand from the nearby shore, oyster shell fragments, and aqua tic particles that settle out. This material comprises the entire pedon when near salt marsh flats. Combination 9: Map Unit 13, Salt Marsh Flat C = Subtropical P = Upper-pedon is mostly quartz sands fr om land and aquatic fines that settle P = Pedon below is either the same or quartz sand from a drowned Spodosol V = Unvegetated B = Exposed at MLW E = Very low energy GP = Nearshore, protected areas of salt marshes T = Greater than 40 years old This map unit occurs in the very low energy areas around salt marshes. The dominant process here is the settling of aquatic particles to create a high n value soil in the upper pedon. This persists to a depth at which a paleosol is present. If near flatwoods, a buried and degrading spodic horiz on is present. Otherwise the upper-pedon extends to a depth of 2 m. Combination 10: Map Unit 14, Unvegetated Flat C = Subtropical P = Mostly quartz sands from closest source V = Unvegetated B = Ranges from never exposed to exposed on MLW E = Low energy GP = Nearshore, in protected cove T = Greater than 40 years old

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189 Within the study area, the only unvegetated ar eas are the barrier bars, the erosional flats, and the soils inside the cove. Those cove soils that ar e not salt marsh flats, drowned flatwoods, or oyster bars are basically just quartz sand for a depth of 2 m. Generally, these soils have water too deep to support vegetation. The Subaqueous Soil Survey and its Potential Uses The final soil survey was completed within ArcView and saved as a spatial data layer format of shapefile with additional attribute tables (T able 5-21, Figure 5-17, Figures B-1 to B-13). For archival purposes, a hard copy of the map was prin ted at the scale of 1:20,000 in the form of a poster. The map unit attributes were also printed and included with the map. This survey represents the first soil survey of subtropical subaqueous areas. As such, it serves as a model for future surveys in concept, scale, and methodology. In addition to serving as a model for futu re subaqueous soil survey efforts, this survey offers useful information about th e subaqueous bottom in and around Seahorse Key. For instance, Map Unit 5: Hornet comm unicates, by virtue of its Ab horizons, that burial of seagrasses has take plac e in the recent (e.g., < 40 years) past. If historical aerial

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190Table 5-21. Map unit listing fo r the subaqueous soil survey. MUIDLandscape UnitSeries Name N ew Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Co m plex Hornet / Nebar ComplexYesSandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional BeachBeaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated Fla t Hornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyterthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded FlatwoodsAstenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N earshore Grassfla t Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassfla t Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddrum Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 SaltmarshWulfert N oSandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell Mount Yes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Fla t Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N oMisc. Entisols and Spodosols

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191 Figure 5-17. The Northwestern corner of the subaqueous soil survey. Note that each delineation has map unit identification number. That number relates to a landscape unit name and modal soil attributes. A complete set of map tiles can be found in Appendix B. The image source is 2001 true color aerial photography acquired from the Suwannee River Water Management District. 2 4 6 4 6 5 3 7 2 6 6 2 2 2 E E x x t t e e n n t t o o f f S S u u r r v v e e y y E E x x t t e e n n t t o o f f S S u u r r v v e e y y 4 4 2

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192 photography were not available, as can often be the case, th ese soils would serve as the only record of this event. Not only does Horn et inform the reader that seagrasses have been lost, but by virtue of the abrupt uppe r boundary of the Ab, suggests the event may have been a catastrophic burial. The user of this survey would then be aware that such an event had or is taking place, such as an eroding shore line. This information would be invaluable if user was investigating the area as a seagrass mitigati on site. Burial would surely be detrimental to planted seagrasses. Additionally, the user could speculate that if the cata strophic event were stopped (e.g., the shoreline stabi lized) then the soil could be excavat ed to the elevation of the top of the Ab prior to seagrass planting. This would not guarantee success, but it would certainly improve the chances simply due to th e additional information that soils provide. In general, estuarine habitat managers w ould greatly benefit from the systematic, fine-scale, three dimensional benthic model th at a subaqueous soil survey would provide. Whether it’s using the soils information to understand the past and forecast the future, inputting the survey into an ecological model, or simply observing the survey to gain insight into the spatial distribution of suba queous terrain for the planning of activities such as clam leases and dredging, a subaqueous soil survey would be a valuable tool for those who are involved in usi ng and managing estuaries and nearshore coastal habitats. Summary and Conclusions Vegetation The shallow flats are vegetated with dens e seagrasses in all but the highest and lowest energy areas. The highest energy ar eas experienced erosion onto and off of the flats. The lowest energy areas were prot ected coves dominated by salt marshes. The remainder of the flats and coves were ubiquitous ly vegetated with seagrasses. Vegetative

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193 species seemed to strictly adhere to elevati on constraints. Grading from shallow to deep was Halodule wrightii Thalassia testudinum and mixed stands of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme Landforms Flats are the dominant landform in the study area. As mentioned before, these flats were densely vegetated in all but the ex tremely high or low energy environments. Elevated bars typically occurred on the edges of these flats where channels were present. In both the high energy flats and the bars, buria l of seagrasses has occurred. These areas are of minimal extent compared to the vegetate d flats. Thus, for a majority of the shallow areas, the landforms appear to be very st able. Also occuring in the study area are drowned upland landforms. Deep water, al so a dominant landform, occurred where channels or holes are present. Soils Soil morphology was predictable when all so il-forming factors were considered. Although geographic position has not been forma lly proposed as a soil-forming factor, its consideration allowed for the separation of flats that were inferred to be of different ages: the nearshore (young) and the offshore (old) flats. Accounting for this difference explained upper-pedon morphology (the offshore flats were higher in OM, darker in color, and loamier in textur e than the nearshore flats) and morphology deeper in the profile (buried spodic horizons occurred in some nearshore flats). Geographic position thus encompasses the Time soil-forming fact or. It also helps explain Energy, as the nearshore flats were slightly higher and appeared to receiv e more erosional imputs from land than the offshore flats. More research is needed to determine whether geographic

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194 position relative to islands or land is an importa nt soil-forming factor in other geographic areas. Some of the subaqueous soils that occurre d in the study area were Entisols, which is similar to the findings of Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) an d Bradley and Stolt (2003). Extensive Mollisols occurred in the offshore grassflats, however. This is the first identification of subaqueous Mollisols. Although these soils occur unde r the extensive pr airie-like seagrass meadows, their acceptance within the pedosphere as Mollisols w ill likely meet resistance. More research is needed to address the nature and propert ies of soil organic matter in these subaqueous Mollisols. This will further the understanding of the genesis of these soils. If it can be demonstrated that the OM comes from, at leas t in part, the seagrasse s (e.g., the soils have A horizons at the surface), then these soils will better fit into the concept of the Mollisol. If instead, it can be demonstrated that the OM is similar in amount and composition to other low-energy unvegetated subaqueous area s (e.g., the soils have C horizons at the surface), then the soils will likel y be considered by most as Entisols. The fact remains, however, that these soils do meet the taxonomic requirements of a Mollisol. The Subtropical Subaqueous Soil Survey This was not the first subaqueous soil surv ey created. In fact, the approach to creating this survey was m odeled after Demas and Rabenhor st’s (1999). What was unique about this survey was the open nature of the system, the subtropical climate, and the ubiquitous nature of Caribb ean species of seagrasses. The west coast of Florida has many areas that are similarly characterized by expansive, offshore grass flats. The soil/landscape relationships presented here ma y apply to those areas as well. Also, the

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195 approach of creating a subaqueous soil survey can be further refined by additional subaqueous soil surveys. These results add corroborating evidence th at subaqueous bottoms are predictably related to the subaqueous la ndscape when soil-forming factors are considered. These relationships can be modeled using the con ceptual model along w ith aerial photography, satellite imagery, and digital elev ation models to create a soil survey similar in nature to those that exist for terrestrial areas. The terrestrial approach of using base maps to delineate the land based on field confirmed soil/landscape relationships wa s applied to the study area to create a subtropical subaqueous soil survey. The appr oach, just like on land, strikes a unique balance between observing soil, mapping soil, and achieving accuracy and precision. This time-tested approach has thus far demons trated the best way to map land at scales near 1:20,000 with a reasonable amount of resources. The same appears now to be true for the subaqueous areas near Cedar Key, FL. Whether the USDA/NRCS pursues a statewide or nation-wide subaqueous soils mapping effort remains to be seen. Regardless, this survey demonstrates the applicability of the pedological paradigm in subtropical subaqueous areas. More importantly, it calls attention to soil/seagra ss relationships. Soils are obviously related to seagrasses. Exactly what the processes are that lead to the pol y-value matrices, the OM and biogenic silica are future research questions pedologists need to address. This is A horizon formation in a submerged environment. It is subaqueous soil genesis.

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196 CHAPTER 6 SYNTHESIS Subtropical Subaqueous Soils The subtropical subaqueous soils investigated in this res earch are different from the temperate soils of the Mid-Atlantic and No rtheastern U.S. not only in climate and vegetation, but in landscapes as well. The ba rrier island/lagoon system of the East coast of the U.S. was not typical of Cedar Key, FL. Instead, the study area was open, yet low enough in energy to support extensive, thic k seagrass beds. The unique landforms and soil/vegetation relationships described in this research demonstrate the need for more research on subaqueous soil in the Southeaste rn US, especially those along the Gulf Coast. Soil/Vegetation Relationships The upper parts (0 to 30 cm) of the subaqueous soils investigated in this research were related to the vegetation they supporte d. The soil morphology consistently reflected the vegetative cover. Seagrasses with high biomass appeared to impart a dark color, caused by increases of soil OM in the upper part of the soil. Low biomass seagrasses appeared to impart a poly-valu e color on the upper part of the soil. Unvegetated soils appeared to be uniformly light in color in the upper part. The mo rphologies of the lower parts (30 to 200 cm) of the soil were re lated to the landform type and setting. Soil/Landscape Relationships The landform type (e.g., flat or bar) combined with the se tting (position relative to barrier islands) were important to consider because they were related to the soil-forming

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197 factors. For the entire st udy area, the soil was classified by considering seven soilforming factors: parent material, vege tation, bathymetry, water energy, geographic position relative to land, time, a nd climate. Because the study area consisted only of soils near Cedar Key, FL, the last so il-forming factor, climate, was considered constant for all soils. As a result of these considerations, ten subaqueous map units were created. These map units were delineated throughout the st udy area at a scale of 1:20,000. The final product was a subtropical subaqueous soil survey. Subaqueous soils studied by pedologists thus far (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999; Bradley and Stolt 2003) exist in systems characterized by lo ng barrier islands protecting lagoons. The soils observed in this investigation were unique because of the extensive, vegetated offshore system of flats that co mprised a majority of the landscapes. Additional research of open systems is n eeded explore the ideas presented herein. The Pedological Paradigm in a Subaqueous Environment A paradigm can be divided in to three parts: 1) Theory: a set of beliefs or theory used to explain and understand systems, 2) T ools: A set of research tools for observing, measuring, and modeling systems, 3) Approach : together, the theory and the tools help form the approach(s) used for solving a probl em or answering questions. This research was presented in an effort to apply/refine the pedological paradigm in a subtropical subaqueous environment. Based on this re search, it appears that the pedological paradigm is, in part, applicable in a subtropical subaqueous environment. Pedological Theory With the recent expansion of soil resear ch and survey efforts into subaqueous environments it has become clear that some pe dological concepts need to be tested and/or refined. The concept of soil, the soil-formi ng factors, and the ma ster horizon concepts

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198 have not been thoroughly tested in aquatic e nvironments. More research is needed to address how each of these important parts of pedological theory can be applied to subaqueous soils. The concept of soil: The most obvious and fundament al concept in soil science and especially pedology is the assumption or position that th e upper portion of the earth is soil. Specifically, soil is considered to be the clastic substrates that comprise the upper portion of the earth’s surface which support vegetative growth. This position is highlighted when one is asked the question a bout an aquatic bottom; is it soil or is it sediment? Answering this quest ion is certainly not a formal requirement for the study of the soil or sediment, but the answer reveals one’s direction of rese arch. Pedologists, of course, will generally think of the earth’s surface as soil. The portions of the earth that are underwate r have been technically considered soil as long as vegetative support existed or was pos sible. The recent change of the United States Department of Agriculture ’s (USDA) definition of soil in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1999), along with the subaqueous pedological research that has occurred since the mid 1990s, signifies a movement towards recognizing such areas as soil. Soil-forming factors: Another fundamental concept in pedology is the idea that soils are individuals (polypedons) that can be studied and modeled as functions of soilforming factors. Demas and Rabenhorst (2001 ) began the refinement of the soil-forming factors concept by replacing some factors a nd adding others so that subaqueous soils could better be modeled. Additional refi nements will likely occur as pedologists continue to study subaqueous soils, especi ally from a soil genesis point of view.

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199 Subaqueous A horizons: Another fundamental concept in pedology is the idea of A horizons. Most of the terr estrial surface soils are indeed enriched in plant-derived humus and are therefore A horizons. Previ ous subaqueous pedological research has not tested this concept. Instead, it has been a ssumed, as it usually is on land, that elevated concentrations of OM at the soil surface sign ify the presence of A horizons. This concept warrants further investigation of subaqueous environments so that the master horizon designations for subaqueous will soils communicate the soil-forming processes that occur. Sedimentary materials can be high in OM and that OM can be preserved in the aquatic environment. A depth profile of OM concentration in a sediment can look very similar to a depth profile of OM concentration in a soil with a well developed A horizon. A similarity between sedimentary and soil OM accumulations is that postdepositional processes create the decrease of carbon with soil/sediment depth. The fundamental difference between the two scenario s is that in soils, rooted vegetation adds the OM, and downward leaching translocates some of the OM to deeper portions of the soil. This is A horizon formation. In the cas e of sediments, the OM is deposited with the mineral material, not after. This material is initially a C horizon. A master horizon designation other than C would communicat e that soil formation has occurred. Perhaps a subordinate horizon (e.g., lowercase L: “l” indicating the limnic, or aquatic, nature of the soil surface) could be created to designate subaqueous soil surfaces that appear to be A horizons, but are not dominated by plantderived OM, More research is needed to determine the nature and genesis of OM in subaqueous “A” horizons.

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200 Pedological Tools The set of pedological tools also need s attention. Sampling, description, and analysis of subaqueous soils has to date, been conducted with th e terrestrial set of pedological tools. A notable exception, howev er, is the use of a vibracore by Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) and the use of acoustic al sounding equipment and geographical information systems to create subaqueous basemaps (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999; Bradley and Stolt, 2002, 2003; Chapter 4 and 5). Soil Sampling: For observing and sampling soil soil scientists typically use manually operated tools such as shovels and au gers where soil pits are not available or feasible. In a subaqueous environment, soil pits are obviously not feasible. The spade shovel used in Chapter 3 allowed for the effi cient and effective retrieval of the upper 30 cm of the soil. The Dutch and Russian augers used in the deeper soil investigations of Chapter 5 were more difficult to utilize. They required tremendous manual effort to retrieve soils at depths great er than 1m. Perhaps sedime ntological tools such as the vibracores used by Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) are better suited for subaqueous investigations if available resources and th e sampling environment permit the use of this relatively larger, resource consuming equipment. Soil Description and Analysis: For describing soils, soil scientists use both qualitative and quantitative tools in both the field and laboratory. For soil color, Munsell colors charts are most often used. These provide an efficient and repeatable measure of soil color. These charts require few resources to acquire and can be employed by most any one in the field or laboratory. Soil colors reported for terrestrial soils ar e typically moist color determined in the field. Occasionally, dry colors are reporte d for epipedon or hydric soil purposes.

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201 Subaqueous soils can be poly value (Chapter s 3 and 5) and can rapidly change color (Chapter 3). Despite this, th ere is no current standard for how long after initial sampling one should wait before coloring the soil. Wa iting too long could result in a reported color that is different from the init ially observed soil color. In other situations, allowing the soil to re-oxidize before coloring could provide useful information. For example, it was suggested in Chapte r 5 that some of the subaqueous soils received a large input of parent material fr om nearby eroding terrestr ial soil. In these cases, allowing the subaqueous soil to re-oxi dize may allow them to revert to a color similar to the nearby parent material source. Why color is reporte d for subaqueous soils needs to be defined so that standard met hods of reporting soil color can be established. Soil texture is also an impor tant part of soil descripti ons. Texture is qualitatively described by textural classes. Placement with in a class can be determined by quantitative measurement of soil fractions in the laboratory or by estimati on in the field. Neither the standard field nor the standard laborato ry methods for determining particle-size distribution have been tested in a subaqueous environment. Instead, previous subaqueous pedology, including this research, has assumed th at existing terrestrial techniques provide accurate, repeatable results. Research is needed to test the applicability of these and other standard laboratory techniques for de scribing and analyzing subaqueous soils. Soil Survey: The soil survey is another impor tant tool used by soil scientists. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) we re the first to apply the same approach used by the USDA in county-level soil surveys to a subaqueous environment in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. Bradley and Stolt (2003) applied the approach to subaqueous areas in the Northeastern U.S. Chapter 5 applied the approach to suba queous areas in the Southeastern U.S. As

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202 the soil survey approach is applied to more subaqueous areas of the U.S. the approach will continue to be tested and probably refined to better suit new uses for soil survey. An important part of the soil survey appr oach is the basemap. In a subaqueous environment, topographic basemaps are often not available, so they must be created. Collecting and modeling bathymetric data to create a digital elevation model (DEM) is currently the method being employed in the su baqueous soil survey efforts. Generation of DEMs is resource intensive, thus more research is needed to determine acceptable levels of input data spacing, acceptable levels of data variability, and appropriate method of modeling those data. Now that underwater soils are a focus of pedologists, the applicability of pedological tools should be que stioned and tested. Testing and refinement of pedological tools will allow for better application of the pedological paradigm to subaqueous environments. Pedological Approach The approach of soil science, specifically pedology, begins with a view of the earth’s surface as soil. Using time-tested t ools and techniques, the earth’s surface can be studied at multiple scales for multiple purposes. Often, the fine scale study of the soil focuses on soil processes, which feeds the coar se scale study of soils and landscapes. Findings from the coarse-scale soil investiga tions pose new questions for the fine-scale research, and so on. In subaqueous soil science, the coarse-scale research has begun in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and now Southeastern U.S. R eciprocal fine-scale rese arch of soil-forming processes is needed so that subaqueous soil ge nesis is better understood. This will allow for better landscape-level subaqueous soil inve stigations. The pedological approach is

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203 based on the assumption that soils and la ndscapes are related. In a subaqueous environment, this assumption must also a ssume subaqueous landscapes are stable enough for soils to develop. The definition of soil includes any areas that support or could support the growth of rooted plants. Should unstable s ubaqueous landscapes that periodically support se agrass growth be considered soil also? If so, should they be studied with the same approach as that used for soil survey? Overall Conclusions Subaqueous pedology signifies recognition by pedologists that underwater areas are soil if the support for vegetation is possible. This concept is not new, as soils have always been considered the support for vegetation. This support has traditionally been understood to be both physical a nd nutritional. Aquatic bottoms provide this function for rooted plants as well. These plants are submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). In a marine environment, which has been the focus of subaqueous research thus far, SAV is in the form of seagrasses. Se agrasses exist throughout the world and their existence has been documented to be very im portant to marine systems as both primary producers and as engineers of ecosystems. Subaqueous pedology that focuses on seagrasses should add to our understanding of seagrass habitats. Hopefully, subaqueous pedology will contribute to the protec tion of seagrass ecosystems via better understanding of the soils in which they are rooted. As subaqueous pedology continues, cha nges to the pedological paradigm will probably continue so that the best theory, t ools, and approaches ar e applied to the study of subaqueous soils.

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APPENDIX A SOIL CHARACTERIZATION DATA

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205Table A-1. Organic matter (OM) co ntents and particle size distri butions for sites located in f our vegetation cover classes: un vegetated (UNVEG), Halodule wrightii (HAL), Thalassia testudinum (THAL), and Thalassia / Syringodium filiforme mixed stand (THAL/SYR). Geographic coordinates are referenced to the WGS 84 datum. Numb ers in ( ) are standard deviations. Site Organic Matte r % by LOI ClaySil t Sand HueValueChroma LatitudeLongitude UNVEG-1 0.4 (0.2)0.2 (0.0)1.2 (0.2)98.6 (0.2) 2.5Y 7 1 -83.07511 29.10050 UNVEG-2 0.5 (0.3)0.2 (0.0)2.5 (0.3)97.4 (0.3) 5Y 7 1 -83.06071 29.09924 UNVEG-3 0.4 (0.2)0.2 (0.0)2.1 (0.7)97.7 (0.7) 2.5Y 7 1 -83.06054 29.10087 UNVEG-4 0.7 (0.4)0.1 (0.0)1.8 (1.2)98.1 (1.2) 5Y 6 1 -83.07487 29.10106 UNVEG-5 0.6 (0.3)0.1 (0.0)4.0 (0.4)95.9 (0.4) 5Y 7 1 -83.07662 29.10113 HAL-1 2.4 (1.8)0.2 (0.0)6.0 (0.7)93.8 (0.7) 5Y 5 2 -83.06070 29.09888 HAL-2 2.3 (1.6)0.2 (0.0)6.2 (1.8)93.6 (1.8) 2.5Y 5 2 -83.07486 29.10112 HAL-3 2.1 (1.0)0.2 (0.0)6.0 (2.2)93.8 (2.2) 2.5Y 4 3 -83.07580 29.09989 HAL-4 1.9 (0.9)0.2 (0.0)5.4 (0.5)94.4 (0.5) 2.5Y 5 2 -83.06363 29.10651 HAL-5 1.9 (1.2)0.2 (0.0)5.6 (0.8)94.2 (0.8) 2.5Y 4 3 -83.06471 29.10244 THAL-1 3.3 (0.4)0.3 (0.1)11.5 (0.9)88.2 (0.9) 5Y 2.5 1 -83.07357 29.10078 THAL-2 3.5 (0.6)0.2 (0.0)8.0 (0.5)91.8 (0.5) 2.5Y 3 1 -83.06744 29.09427 THAL-3 3.7 (0.5)0.2 (0.0)10.9 (0.7)88.9 (0.7) 2.5Y 2.5 2 -83.06920 29.10426 THAL-4 2.7 (0.1)0.2 (0.0)8.9 (0.7)90.9 (0.7) 2.5Y 3 1 -83.07498 29.10180 THAL-5 3.1 (0.6)0.2 (0.0)8.2 (1.1)91.6 (1.1) 5Y 2.5 1 -83.06864 29.10337 THAL/SYR-15.2 (0.3)0.2 (0.0)14.4 (1.5)85.4 (1.5) 5Y 2.5 1 -83.06804 29.10686 THAL/SYR-24.6 (0.70.2 (0.0)13.2 (0.5)86.6 (0.5) 2.5Y 2.5 2 -83.06320 29.10453 THAL/SYR-36.2 (1.8)0.3 (0.1)12.1 (0.7)87.5 (0.7) 2.5Y 2.5 2 -83.06940 29.10660 THAL/SYR-45.2 (2.40.2 (0.0)13.8 (0.6)85.9 (0.6) 2.5Y 3 1 -83.07538 29.10357 THAL/SYR-54.2 (1.1)0.2 (0.0)11.3 (0.7)88.5 (0.7) 5Y 2.5 1-83.06648 29.10403 Soil Colo r Moist Rubbed Particle Size Distributio n % Site Coordinates WGS 84

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206Table A-2. Soil physical and chemical data for selected locations. Geographic coordi nates are referenced to the WGS 84 datum. Sample Cover Class % Cover Sample Interval (in) pHEC P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Al (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) %OM 101TS1000-68.3311.74 1.60418.807640.00830.000.000.004068.006.04 102TS1006-128.3810.23 1.92363.207712.00739.600.000.003712.00 None 103TS10012-188.389.39 2.90369.207616.00732.800.000.003832.005.68 104TS1000-6NoneNone 2.78460.407492.00922.000.660.004552.004.43 105TS1006-128.338.96 5.89382.006712.00782.005.843.5336.125.77 106TS10012-188.338.98 6.84362.006836.00742.006.183.674000.005.39 107TS1000-68.2210.90 3.95481.207304.001115. 201.820.007144.006.16 108TS1006-128.308.38 10.87371.607228.00789.20 11.7221.003596.004.41 109TS10012-188.359.03 12.16376.007456.00774.40 13.3927.163480.003.11 110TS1000-68.099.99 12.82432.007148.00943.20 15.7731.523948.007.08 111TS1006-128.198.83 9.54422.806376.00894.0011.5314.6095.686.80 112TS10012-188.227.80 11.82397.606640.00869. 6010.3914.40108.844.59 113TS750-68.279.28 36.32430.406484.00907.60 39.5694.123696.002.65 114TS756-128.288.40 6.99416.007236.00903.608.974.973756.004.18 115TS7512-18NoneNone 26.32364.806184.00720.00 29.9281.804152.003.75 116T500-68.2310.00 21.08482.006936.001203.6 020.5648.364552.003.86 117T506-128.287.59 53.16318.804668.00847.60 51.92106.083736.003.38 118T5012-188.299.16 14.34435.607156.001206.4 014.6119.534664.002.63 119NONE00-68.365.29 34.56148.76456.00354.0 019.2013.252324.000.31 120NONE06-128.615.19 16.76159.601376.80430.80 27.5628.442512.000.54 121NONE012-188.177.39 33.20279.202548.00734.40 49.0077.363464.001.90

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207Table A-2 continued. Sample% Clay% Silt% Sand d15Nd13C LongitudeLatitude % VC% C% M% F% VF 101NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1103 9556-83.06498523 102NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1103 9556-83.06498523 103NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1103 9556-83.06498523 104 0.2415.0984.671.184.49 39.5948.905.84NoneNone29 .10685589-83.06804026 105 0.2514.8784.880.753.53 37.1851.796.74NoneNone29 .10685589-83.06804026 106 0.2613.1886.553.840.50 38.1351.625.92NoneNone29 .10685589-83.06804026 107 0.2716.0983.641.102.82 35.3455.145.60NoneNone29 .10453217-83.06319997 108 0.2512.6387.121.192.89 32.0956.936.89NoneNone29 .10453217-83.06319997 109 0.2210.7489.040.131.98 32.1259.076.69NoneNone29 .10453217-83.06319997 110 0.3611.8887.760.002.78 32.0457.207.98NoneNone29 .10659630-83.06939612 111 0.2312.6687.110.222.11 29.1159.379.18NoneNone29 .10659630-83.06939612 112 0.3611.8887.760.002.78 32.0457.207.98NoneNone29 .10659630-83.06939612 113 0.229.8289.970.233.78 44.1547.804.04NoneNone29 .10386229-83.07111257 114 0.2713.1586.571.204.55 40.5749.274.41NoneNone29 .10386229-83.07111257 115 0.2612.0187.730.424.24 45.2846.873.19NoneNone29 .10386229-83.07111257 116NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1007 7993-83.07357081 117 0.2511.5188.240.002.95 34.2754.857.93NoneNone29 .10077993-83.07357081 118NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1007 7993-83.07357081 119 0.161.5698.280.004.07 45.2650.510.16NoneNone29 .10050333-83.07511300 120 0.170.8598.980.957.56 39.6850.960.84NoneNone29 .10050333-83.07511300 121 0.196.5793.230.424.20 41.2751.532.57NoneNone29 .10050333-83.07511300 Sand Fraction

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208Table A-2 continued. Sample Cover Class % Cover Sample Interval (in) pHEC P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Al (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) %OM 122TS1000-68.189.68 4.79474.007196.00954.402.240.005616.004.11 123TS1006-128.238.46 9.93390.407272.00802.8011.0717.203492.005.88 124TS10012-188.219.26 10.00505.607068.001121 .607.116.506516.005.64 125TS1000-6NoneNone 28.08572.006184.001368.8 039.72102.566964.004.33 126TS1006-117.678.31 32.32317.601149.60771.20 69.72109.963876.003.76 127TS10011-147.577.40 21.00286.80692.80722.0 054.2874.723564.002.31 128TS10014-18NoneNone 17.35247.20924.80608.8 049.9659.083428.001.08 129T1000-68.098.39 35.80360.402048.00779.60 73.1698.444288.003.44 130T1006-127.977.83 29.16315.601567.60811.60 61.3695.443740.004.09 131T10012-187.607.26 28.32323.20805.60848.0 054.9676.924216.002.99 132H500-27.758.62 100.84439.602492.001112.0083.96104.483404.004.53 133H502-108.386.57 90.96238.001649.60576.80 47.4043.923496.000.92 134H5010-138.338.92 94.92213.202660.00589.2042.8859.402976.00 None 135H5013-188.226.71 61.80232.802408.00666.40 45.9667.603044.001.78 136NONE00-68.545.50 80.52162.20958.80415.6 030.6425.082500.000.66 137NONE06-128.585.02 53.92109.24515.60302.0 018.1914.411757.200.30 138NONE012-158.525.14 127.44157.24917.20402.40 21.7620.722544.000.40 139NONE015-208.286.28 99.12214.002764.00607.60 50.4867.082664.002.18 140NONE00-58.115.45 26.88196.521422.80404.80 47.9223.962336.000.76 141NONE05-128.187.86 16.27438.406928.001128.0 015.6022.963880.004.26 142NONE012-188.247.65 14.85308.806752.00653.20 13.0518.663000.003.75

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209Table A-2 continued. Sample% Clay% Silt% Sand d15Nd13C LongitudeLatitude % VC% C% M% F% VF 122 0.2414.4085.361.734.26 34.2155.484.31NoneNone29 .10357420-83.07538088 123 0.2412.9686.801.523.78 32.9056.645.16NoneNone29 .10357420-83.07538088 124 0.2114.1185.680.562.85 30.8659.346.40NoneNone29 .10357420-83.07538088 125 0.2311.1988.570.254.05 32.6158.354.74NoneNone29 .09516422-83.07150509 126 0.228.7091.080.225.09 36.1956.611.89NoneNone29 .09516422-83.07150509 127 0.239.5190.270.135.76 37.8456.100.17NoneNone29 .09516422-83.07150509 128 0.057.1892.780.165.65 41.2652.820.11NoneNone29 .09516422-83.07150509 129 0.217.9591.841.593.86 30.6660.893.01NoneNone29 .09427146-83.06744398 130 0.218.4791.320.003.46 29.7963.033.72NoneNone29 .09427146-83.06744398 131 0.187.5892.240.093.86 34.8258.762.47NoneNone29 .09427146-83.06744398 132 0.2410.8488.921.985.35 34.5953.584.50NoneNone29 .09888243-83.06069579 133 0.183.4396.380.158.59 44.2045.901.16NoneNone29 .09888243-83.06069579 134 0.164.3595.480.259.30 39.0449.521.89NoneNone29 .09888243-83.06069579 135 0.195.2694.551.096.64 31.1457.114.02NoneNone29 .09888243-83.06069579 136 0.174.2495.590.123.68 42.3553.100.75NoneNone29 .09898167-83.06077508 137 0.161.5598.290.0012.01 44.6842.930.38NoneNone29 .09898167-83.06077508 138 0.161.6798.170.6114.06 46.4538.750.13NoneNone29 .09898167-83.06077508 139 0.222.2297.560.001.27 31.0466.830.86NoneNone29 .09898167-83.06077508 140NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1017 8081-83.06611947 141 0.209.8289.980.202.8932.9458.195.78 NoneNone29.10178081-83.06611947 142 0.2011.0988.710.302.7130.4457.858.70 NoneNone29.10178081-83.06611947 Sand Fraction

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210Table A-2 continued. Sample Cover Class % Cover Sample Interval (in) pHEC P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Al (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) %OM 143TS750-68.0012.20 8.04478.007316.001008.4010.355.854116.006.96 144TS756-128.169.90 17.99394.006468.00884.0018.4438.088.213.17 145TS7512-188.198.60 14.30422.807176.00893.60 15.5027.123216.002.59 146TS750-68.1311.81 7.18443.207388.00941.607.655.644392.004.41 147 TS75 6-128.149.28 23.40398.406156.00910.80 26.0468.764292.005.44 148TS7512-188.149.85 14.37364.806196.00662.40 17.3345.084160.006.05 149TS100-68.119.67 12.67374.406372.00845. 6014.7427.8435.203.90 150TS106-128.159.51 5.06405.206456.00846.8 03.410.00103.125.33 151TS1012-188.219.26 10.00410.806592.00888. 8012.1512.7413.273.31 152T1000-68.199.79 4.43416.807436.00877.205.130.004048.003.43 153T1006-128.217.56 18.12390.807332.00854.80 21.2045.043516.003.46 154T10012-188.198.30 17.30351.606340.00743.20 18.6241.323720.004.31 155TS1000-68.118.50 4.33374.006620.00750.401.930.004128.005.24 156TS1006-128.149.00 17.74351.606340.00744.40 18.0442.004024.003.78 157TS10012-188.149.49 8.17409.606444.00916 .008.093.056.014.06 158T500-68.098.48 32.32426.804484.00886.80 49.6498.284368.002.63 159T506-128.177.68 35.00318.404212.00788.40 48.7694.523520.002.65 160T5012-188.157.72 35.40316.803228.00810.40 56.1694.043524.002.78 161H500-3NoneNone 38.24447.203892.001125.2 074.2888.404224.003.02 162H503-98.226.52 25.80201.202484.00510.40 42.9649.162748.001.29 163H509-188.306.90 37.04289.603736.00738.40 46.6883.003320.002.71

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211Table A-2 continued. Sample% Clay% Silt% Sand d15Nd13C LongitudeLatitude % VC% C% M% F% VF 143 0.2513.5586.200.233.1635.6453.087.89 NoneNone29.10403445-83.06648056 144 0.1810.8289.000.001.6237.3053.847.24 NoneNone29.10403445-83.06648056 145 0.249.4890.280.004.0339.9250.555.49 NoneNone29.10403445-83.06648056 146NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1070 8941-83.06580389 147 0.2211.7688.020.162.2735.6756.625.27 NoneNone29.10708941-83.06580389 148 0.2412.7187.050.293.4541.1350.824.32 NoneNone29.10708941-83.06580389 149NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1053 1420-83.06777959 150 0.2213.0786.710.293.2038.5752.315.63 NoneNone29.10531420-83.06777959 151 0.2111.1488.660.476.3243.4545.754.02 NoneNone29.10531420-83.06777959 152NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1042 6328-83.06919596 153 0.2111.5388.260.203.0837.1654.075.48 NoneNone29.10426328-83.06919596 154 0.2110.2389.560.405.0945.3845.203.93 NoneNone29.10426328-83.06919596 155 0.2212.4887.290.152.8431.7657.008.25 NoneNone29.10331612-83.07350149 156 0.2211.2288.561.134.2936.0053.844.74 NoneNone29.10331612-83.07350149 157 0.2213.5886.210.193.2934.1055.686.73 NoneNone29.10331612-83.07350149 158NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1018 0110-83.07498316 159NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1018 0110-83.07498316 160 0.168.9090.940.094.4441.9249.833.72 NoneNone29.10180110-83.07498316 161NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1011 2292-83.07485517 162 0.183.9595.870.122.1337.8858.041.84 NoneNone29.10112292-83.07485517 163 0.208.5091.300.152.8537.9855.293.72 NoneNone29.10112292-83.07485517 Sand Fraction

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212Table A-2 continued. Sample Cover Class % Cover Sample Interval (in) pHEC P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Al (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) %OM 164NONE00-3NoneNone 44.60162.081021.20396.00 28.2817.532664.000.69 165NONE03-98.357.02 31.24248.402940.00631.20 41.2467.123356.003.00 166NONE09-188.307.19 26.88293.603348.00692.0039.0476.883728.00 None 167TS1000-2NoneNone 3.12591.607072.001462. 400.540.008320.006.73 168TS1002-78.169.88 5.02445.607336.001107. 205.030.284508.005.29 169TS1007-188.119.90 27.92444.006748.001154.0 031.0080.244160.005.97 170TS1000-3NoneNone 11.69600.407400.001054.4 015.6325.004596.005.91 171TS1003-148.098.62 28.08396.006316.00880.00 38.24101.764176.004.01 172TS10014-208.098.65 24.76394.405616.00915. 6034.6884.9299.443.74 173TS500-2.5NoneNone 4.00536.807312.001232. 405.310.317648.004.10 174TS502.5-10.58.1010.12 4.82449.607120.001069. 202.680.004720.004.66 175TS5010.5-208.199.23 7.46430.407340.00894.006.982.864164.006.54 176TS1000-3NoneNone 6.38529.607284.001006. 009.243.754012.005.02 177TS1003-108.079.01 14.94403.206684.00890.80 17.8636.044352.003.95 178TS10010-208.138.47 23.36415.606328.00915.20 26.9268.404564.002.84 179NONE00-38.167.26 18.52224.40914.80441.2 047.7228.362828.001.07 180NONE03-98.536.42 35.52215.201693.60469.20 39.5224.483652.000.63 181NONE09-208.555.97 27.56186.642588.00502.40 41.5244.282616.001.12 182OS1003-188.288.63 5.53351.607460.00732.000.640.003320.003.63 183OS10018-248.016.65 31.64313.203188.00810.00 47.8090.123452.002.23 184OS10024-287.876.17 16.23227.20983.20605.6 031.7654.763088.001.70

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213Table A-2 continued. Sample% Clay% Silt% Sand d15Nd13C LongitudeLatitude % VC% C% M% F% VF 164 0.121.8098.080.042.4941.9255.060.49 NoneNone29.10106055-83.07487269 165 0.156.9392.920.112.6336.1257.124.03 NoneNone29.10106055-83.07487269 166 0.219.9689.830.122.7236.2057.003.96 NoneNone29.10106055-83.07487269 167NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1097 3138-83.07504670 168 0.2119.6680.131.014.4939.7949.525.19 NoneNone29.10973138-83.07504670 169 0.2012.7687.041.015.7039.4850.053.77 NoneNone29.10973138-83.07504670 170NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1074 0976-83.07529790 171 0.2213.1786.610.104.3436.6255.103.83 NoneNone29.10740976-83.07529790 172 0.1310.3989.480.0010.3034.0945.939.68 NoneNone29.10740976-83.07529790 173 0.0013.6886.320.934.6335.9153.245.28 NoneNone29.10582265-83.07568154 174NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1058 2265-83.07568154 175 0.2212.5987.200.875.5034.5054.964.17 NoneNone29.10582265-83.07568154 176NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1068 3569-83.07220087 177 0.1512.1487.701.263.8335.3554.365.20 NoneNone29.10683569-83.07220087 178 0.2110.3989.400.634.5639.2452.213.36 NoneNone29.10683569-83.07220087 179NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1061 2188-83.07056707 180 0.1313.4686.420.812.4135.7851.619.40 NoneNone29.10612188-83.07056707 181 0.163.8695.980.338.3458.0532.970.31 NoneNone29.10612188-83.07056707 182 0.2212.7487.042.024.2332.8654.876.02 NoneNone29.09997904-83.06856304 183 0.197.5392.280.135.0340.0151.243.60 NoneNone29.09997904-83.06856304 184 0.125.3094.580.008.3747.2042.971.461.353-18.469 29.09997904-83.06856304 Sand Fraction

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214Table A-2 continued. Sample Cover Class % Cover Sample Interval (in) pHEC P (mg/kg) K (mg/kg) Ca (mg/kg) Mg (mg/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Al (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) %OM 185OS10028-407.425.97 14.73258.801242.80845.60 23.4087.243300.001.86 186TS800-47.9912.17 1.809.5472.4854.600.294.29206.404.56 187TS804-88.039.61 8.84494.007312.001142.8010.363.834616.003.94 188TS808-248.178.17 8.27400.806816.00791.205.680.813860.002.46 189TS8024-368.098.58 32.44466.006172.001069 .6036.1651.3697.163.17 190TS8036-72NoneNone 7.12468.807428.00936.402.620.004348.002.46 191OS253-108.186.88 7.71353.607204.00638.800.010.003080.004.20 192OS2510-168.219.20 3.74437.207860.00875.600.000.003920.003.35 193 OS25 16-368.355.97 28.84242.806888.00610.80 27.8848.842516.001.62

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215Table A-2 continued. Sample% Clay% Silt% Sand d15Nd13C LongitudeLatitude % VC% C% M% F% VF 185 0.171.7598.082.657.6743.9645.230.491.212-19.245 29.09997904-83.06856304 186NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNon eNoneNone29.1030 9769-83.06893813 187 0.2111.5588.242.453.3539 .4848.146.571.399-11.514 29.10309769-83.06893813 188 0.2111.1088.690.333.3841 .3651.323.610.954-10.617 29.10309769-83.06893813 189NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone 1.015-10.935 29.10309769-83.06893813 190 0.2112.2387.560.282.8336.4554.226.21 NoneNone29.10309769-83.06893813 191 0.2010.8089.008.047.7828.9449.845.39 NoneNone29.10254700-83.06917677 192 0.2113.0386.763.414.6629.5155.237.19 NoneNone29.10254700-83.06917677 193 0.166.8493.000.994.3043.7848.562.370.795-10.687 29.10254700-83.06917677 Sand Fraction

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216 APPENDIX B SUBAQUEOUS SOIL SURVEY Figure B-1. Index map for the subaqueous soil survey.

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217 Figure B-2. Tile 1 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. MUID Landscape Unit Series Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex YesSandy, siliceous, hypert hermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Bar N orth Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional BeachBeaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated Flat Hornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded FlatwoodsAstenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassfla t Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthe rmic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore GrassflatSeahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Bar Reddrum Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 SaltmarshWulfert N oSandy or sandy-skeletal, s iliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh Flat Shell Mount YesLoamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Poin t Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N oMisc. Entisols and Spodosols

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218 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-3. Tile 2 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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219 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-4. Tile 3 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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220 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-5. Tile 4 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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221 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-6. Tile 5 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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222 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-7. Tile 6 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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223 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-8. Tile 7 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

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224 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-9. Tile 8 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

PAGE 243

225 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-10. Tile 9 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

PAGE 244

226 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-11. Tile 10 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

PAGE 245

227 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-12. Tile 11 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

PAGE 246

228 MUID Landscape UnitSeries Name New Series? Current USDA Classification 1 Erosional Unvegetated Flat / N ear Channel Bar Complex Hornet / Nebar Complex Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 2 Deep Water Deep Water N o N on-soil 3 Edge of Channel Ba r N orth Ke y Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 4 Erosional Beac h Beaches Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 5 Erosional Unvegetated FlatHornet Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents 7 N ear Bar Grassflat N eba r Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 8 Drownded Flatwoods Astenie Otie Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents 9 N ear Shore Grassflat Snake Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents 10 Offshore Grassflat Seahorse Key Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Cumulic Endoaquolls 11 Oyster Ba r Reddru m Yes Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Endoaquolls 12 Saltmars h Wulfert N o Sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric Sulfihemists 13 Saltmarsh FlatShell MountYes Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Sulfic Hydraquents 14 Unvegetated Flat Lighthous Point Yes Siliceous, hyperthermic, Typic Psammaquents 15 UplandsUplands N o Misc. Entisols and Spodosols Figure B-13. Tile 12 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey.

PAGE 247

229 LIST OF REFERENCES Arnold, R.W. 1983. Concepts of soils and pedology. p.1–19. In Pedogenesis and soil taxonomy. Wilding, L.P., Smeck, N.E., and G.F. Hall (ed.). Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., New York, NY. Barron, C., H. Kennedy, and C.M. Duarte 2004. Community metabolism and carbon budget along a gradient of seagrass ( Cymodocea nodosa ) colonization. Limnology and Oceanography 49:1642–1651. Bradley, M.P. and M.H. Stolt. 2002. Evalua ting methods to create a base map for a subaqueous soil inventory. Soil Science 167:222–228. Bradley, M.P. and M.H. Stolt. 2003. Subaqueous soil-landscape relatio nships in a Rhode Island estuary. Soil Science Societ y of America Journal 65:1487–1495. Coffey, G.N. 1912. A study of the soils of the United States. United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils Bulletin 85:7–40. Dawes, C.J., R.C. Phillips, and G.Morrison. 2004. Seagrass communities of the ulf Coast of Florida: Status and ecology. Fl orida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program. St. Petersburg, FL. iv + 74 pp. Dawson, S.P., W.C. Dennison. 199 6. Effects of ultraviolet a nd photosynthetically active radiation on five seagrass species. Marine Biology 125:629–638. Deering, D.W., J.W. Rouse, R.H. Haas, and J.A. Schell. 1975. Measuring forage production of grazing units from La ndsat MSS data. Proceedings, 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. 2:1169–1178. Demas, G.P. 1993. Submerged soil s: a new frontier in soil su rvey. Soil Survey Horizons 34:44–46. Demas, G.P. 1998. Subaqueous soils of Sinepuxe nt Bay. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. Demas, G.P. and M.D. Rabenhorst. 1999. Subaqueous soils: pedogenesis in a submersed environment. Soil Science Societ y of America Journal 63:1250–1257. Demas, G.P. and M.D. Rabenhorst. 2001. Factor s of subaqueous soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology for submersed environments. Geoderma 102:189–204.

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230 Demas, G.P., M.C. Rabenhorst, and J.C. Stevenson. 1996. Subaqueous soils: a pedological approach to the study of sh allow water habitats. Estuaries 19:229–237. Dokuchaev V.V. 1883. Russian Chernozems (R usskii Chernozems). Israel Prog. Sci. Trans., Jerusalem, 1967. Translated from Russian by N. Kaner. Available from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, VA. Donkin, M.J. 1991. Loss-on-ignition as an esti mate of soil organic matter in A-horizon forestry soils. Communications in So il Science and Plant Analysis 22:233–241. Duarte, C.M. and C.L. Chiscano. 1999. Seagra ss biomass and production: a reassessment. Aquatic Botany 65:159–174. Ellis, L.R. 2002. Investigation of hydric and sub-aqueous soil morphologies to determine Florida sandhill lake stage fluctuations. Masters Thesis. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. Fanning, D.S., and M.C.B. Fanning. 1989. Soil mo rphology, genesis, and classification. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. Gacia, E., T.C. Granata, and C.M. Duarte. 1999. An approach to measurement of particle flux and sediment retention within seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) meadows. Aquatic Botany 65:255–268. Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder. 1986. Particle-size analysis. p. 383–411. In Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods Second Edition. Klute, A. (ed.) American Society of Agronomy Inc. and Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison, WI. Glinka, D.K. 1927. The great soil groups of the world and their development. Translated from German by C.F. Marbut. Edwards Brothers. Ann Arbor, MI. GretagMacbeth. 1994. Munse ll Soil Color Charts: 1994 Revised Edition. GetagMacbeth. New Windsor, NY. Hallmark, C.T., L.P. Wilding, and N.E. Smeck. 1986. Silicon. p. 270–271. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part2 Chemical and Minerological Pr operties. A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, D.R. Keeney. (ed.). American So ciety of Agronomy Inc. and Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison, WI. Harris, W.G., S.H. Crownover, and J. Hinch ee. 2005. Problems arising from fixed-depth assessment of deeply weathe red sandy soils. Geoderma 126:161–165. Hemminga, M.A. and C.M. Duarte. 2000. Seag rass ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

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231 Hemminga, M.A., P. Grada, F.J. Slim, P. Dekoeyer, J. Kazungu. 1995. Leaf production and nutrient contents of the seagrass Thalassodendron -Cilatum in the proximity of a mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Aquatic Botany 50:159–170. Hillgard, E.W. 1906. Soils. Macmillan, New York, NY. Huete, A.R., K. Didan, T. Miura, E.P. Rodriguez, X. Gao, and G. Ferreira. 2002. Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Se nsing of Environment 83:195–213 Jenny, H. 1941. Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology. McGrawHill Book Company, New York, NY. King, F.H. 1902. The soil. Macmillan, New York, NY. Koch, E.W. 2001. Beyond light physical, geol ogical, and geochemical parameters as possible submersed aquatic vegetation ha bitat requirements. Estuaries 24:1–17 Lawrence, M.C. 1974. The submerged forest s of the Panama City, Florida, area a paleoenvironmental interpretation. Mast ers Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Lyon, T.L., E.O. Fippin, and H.O. Buckman. 1916. Soils, their properties and management. Second Edition. Macmillan, New York, NY. Marbut, C.F. 1921. The contribution of soil surveys to soil science. Society Promoting Agriculture Science Proceedings:116–142. Marbut, C.F. 1922. Soil classification. American Soil Survey Society Bulletin III:24–32. McRoy, C.P. and C. Helfferich. 1980. Applied aspects of seagrasses. In Handbook of seagrass biology: An ecosystem perspect ive. R.C Phillips and C.P. McRoy (ed.). Garland STPM Press, New York, NY. Milne G. 1935. Some suggested units of cla ssification and mapping, particularly for East African soils. Soil Research 4:183–198. Papadimitriou, S., H. Kennedy, D.P. Kennedy C.M. Duarte, and N. Marba. 2005. Sources of organic matter in seagrasscolonized sediments: a stable isotope study of the silt and clay fraction from Posidonia oceanica meadows in the western Mediterranean. Organic Geochemistry 36:949–961. Phillips, R.C. and C.P. McRoy (ed.). 1980. Handbook of seagrass biology: an ecosystem perspective. Garland STPM Press, New York, NY. Ross, M. S., J.J. O'Brien, and L. da S. L. Sternberg. 1994. Sea-level rise and the reduction in pine forests in the Florida Keys. Ecological Applications 4:144–156.

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232 Rouse, J.W., R.H. Haas, J.A. Schell, a nd D.W. Deering. 1974. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. Third Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS) Symposium Proceedings 1:48–62. Simonson R.W. 1959. Outline of a generalized th eory of soil genesis. Soil Science Society of America Procedings 23:152–156 Slabaugh, J.D., A.O. Jones, W.E. Puckett, and J.N. Schuster. 1996. Soil survey of Levy County, Florida. United States Departme nt of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. U.S. G ov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Slim, F.J., M.A. Hemminga, E. Cocheret de la Moriniere, and G. Van der Velde. 1996. Tidal exchange of macrolitter between a mangrove forest and adjacent seagrass beds (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Netherlands of Journal of Aquatic Ecology 30:119–128. Smith, G.D. 1986. The Guy Smith interviews: rationale for concepts in Soil Taxonomy. Soil Management Support Services Tec hnical Monograph 11. Cornell University, New York. Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil survey. United Stat es Department of Agriculture Soil Conversation Service Agriculture Handbook 436. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil survey manual. Un ited States Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 18. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Soil Survey Staff. 1996. Soil survey laborator y method manual. Soil Survey Investigation Report No. 42. Version 3.0. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Soil Survey Staff. 1998. Keys to soil taxonomy, 7th Edition. United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conversation Service. U. S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil survey. United Stat es Department of Agriculture Soil Conversation Service Agriculture Handbook 436. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Soil Survey Staff. 2002. Field book for desc ribing and sampling soils. Version 2.0. National Soil Survey Center. United Stat es Department of Agriculture. Natural Resource Conservation Service. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington D.C. Teillet, P.M. and G. Fedosejeus. 1995, On th e Dark Target Approach to Atmospheric Correction of Remotely Sensed Data, Cana dian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.21, no.4, p.374-387.

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233 Thome, K.J., S.F. Biggar, D.I. Gellman, P.N. and Slater. 1994, Absolute-Radiometric Calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mappe r and The Proposed Calibration of the Advanced SpaceborneThermal Emmission and Reflection Radiometer, in Proceedings IGARSS 1994: 2 295-229. Ward, L.G., W. M. Kemp, and W.R. Boynt on. 1984. The influence of waves and seagrass communities on suspended particulates in an estuarine embayment. Marine Geology 59:85–103. Weir, W.W. 1928. What is the relative weight that should be give n field and laboratory data in the definition of the several cate gories in a comprehensive scheme of soil classification? First International Co ngress of Soil Science. Commission V Proceedings:113–121. Whitney, M. 1925. Soil and civilization. Van Nostrand. New York, NY. Williams, K., K.C. Ewel, R.P. Stumpf, F.E. Putz, and T.W. Workman. 1999. Sea-level rise and coastal forest retreat on the we st coast of Florida, USA. Ecology 80:2045– 2063. Williams, R.B. 1973. Nutrient le vels and phytoplankton productivity in the estuary. p.5989. In Proceedings of Coastal Marsh and Es tuary Management Symposium. R.H. Chabreck (ed.). Louisiana State Un iversity Press. Baton Rouge, LA. Wilson, J.P., and J.C. Gallant. 2000. Terrain an alysis: Principles and applications. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY. Wood, E.J.F., W.E. Odul, and J.C. Ziema n. 1969. Influence of seagrasses on the productivity of coastal lagoons. p. 495–502. In Coastal Lagoons, A Symposium. UNAM-UNESCO. Valiela, I. 1995. Marine ecological proce sses. Second Edition. Springer Verlag, New York, NY. Zieman, J.C. 1975. Quantitative and dynamic as pects of the ecology of turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum p.541–562. In Estuarine Research. Volume 1. Chemistry, Biology, and the Estuarine System. Academic Press, New York, NY. Zieman, J.C. 1982. The ecology of seagrass m eadows of South Florida: a community profile. Minerals Management Service and Fish and Wildlife Service: U.S. Department of the Interior. FWS/OBS-82/25. Zieman, J.C. and Zieman, R.T. 1989. The ecology of seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: a community profile. Minera ls Management Service and Fish and Wildlife Service: U.S. Department of the Interior. Biological Report 85.

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234 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Larry Richard Ellis, “Rex,” was born and raised a Florida native. His roots run deep, as most of his immediate and extended family are within a few hours drive. He was fortunate to have attended excellent schoo ls. His last school, the University of Florida, saw Rex bounce from one major to anothe r, and from one interest to another, but ultimately zeroing in on a lifel ong pursuit to understand soil. Rex’s good fortune did not stop with his proxi mity to family and a wonderful state in which to grow up. He was able to comb ine an unbridled passion for the water with his newfound passion for soil: subaqueous soils. This dissertation topic brought him good fortune and good times, for both of which he is grateful beyond words. Rex eagerly awaits his postdoctoral life which he hopes w ill be filled with even more family, friends, and good fortune. Rex’s wife and son also eag erly await his imminent graduation as the three of them (and hopefully more in the near future) begin a wonderful journey together as a new family. Rex is very grateful fo r all he has, most importantly, his family.


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SUBAQUEOUS PEDOLOGY: EXPANDING SOIL SCIENCE TO NEAR-SHORE
SUBTROPICAL MARINE HABITATS
















By

LARRY R. ELLIS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006

































Copyright 2006

by

Larry R. Ellis

































To everyone in my family: especially my wife, son, and any future children who bless my
life















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I must acknowledge God, for everything. May all those who walk this earth

feel as blessed as I have felt. I thank all of my teachers, from the earliest years through

the most recent in college. They all had an impact that individually is difficult to

quantify, but collectively is apparent. They inspired me to be a teacher.

I wish to recognize some individually, based on singular events that I will always

remember. I recall a comment Wade Hurt made about his passion for soil, "I love soils

because they make sense." That sums up the essence of a problem solver. On the subject

of being an interdisciplinary scientist and being spread too thin, Tom Frazer once told

me, "Make sure you know who you claim to be, and be at least that." That's the perfect

advice for a person with as many interests as I have. During a conversation in which I

expressed frustration about my progress because I was just floating around poking holes

in the seagrass beds without hypotheses or much direction, Mark Clark said, "All science

begins with observations. You have to generate observations before you can hypothesize

something." I guess it is easy to get caught up in the "publish or perish" mentality and

forget that it's the science that is important, not our personal progress.

During my qualifying exams, Mike Binford asked me about my research by posing

the question, "Rex, what's your grain size?" Scale is everything. On the subject of my

work having quite a bit of qualitative data, Willie Harris told me, "I wouldn't apologize

for what you've done, no one else has done it." That made me feel important, an often

atypical emotion among graduate students. Finally, instead of a quote, it is the actions of









Mary Collins that I'll always remember. Every semester she has nearly 100 students, yet

she takes each of their pictures in order to learn their names. About two-thirds of the way

through the semester, she hangs up this sign with the words "don't quit" and a short poem

underneath. The last day of class, she brings a cake and the entire class enjoys their last

day together. I wonder if she has any idea how many students appreciate the personal

level on which she knows them. I wonder if she has any idea how many have taken to

heart the words of the poem. That's being a teacher.

My first teacher I remember was my dad. He sat on the edge of the tub while I

took a bath and I remember him trying to explain to me how many atoms were in a drop

of water. I was fascinated by the idea there could be "millions" of anything in a drop of

water. My mom, who is the employed teacher of the family and the original super-mom,

taught me to read at a young age. In turn, I taught my brother to read using the same

books. My cousins learned to read on those books before I did. All of these people get

my thanks for being part of my life. Most importantly, I again thank God.

This time, I thank God for my loving, beautiful, and dedicated wife, Susy. She has

given me many years of happiness as a girlfriend, and now a few years of bliss as a wife.

Most recently she has given me a glimpse of heaven in the form of our son, Austin. I've

never had anyone or anything consume my every waking thought as both my wife and

son have.

Also deserving of thanks are my good friends Allen Cligenpeel, Mark Lander, and

Todd Osbome. Each of them have spent many years as my friend, and for that I am also

very thankful. Thanks also go to the many graduate students whom I have befriended in

classes and labs. Finally, I thank my funding agencies. The Florida Association of









Environmental Soil Scientists funded my pilot study, which provided the foundation for

my Florida Department of Transportation grant. Both these groups funded my work

because they believed in it. I thank them.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TA BLES .................................................................... ............ .. xi

L IST O F FIG U R E S .............. ............................ ............. ........... ... ........ xiii

ABSTRACT ........ .......................... .. ...... .......... .......... xvii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA ..........................1

In tro d u ctio n ......................................................... ............... ................. .
C concept of Subaqueous Soil ............................................................. ..........1
Previous Subaqueous Pedological Research ......................... ........................2
Subaqueous Pedology: Applying the Pedological Paradigm to Aquatic
H a b ita ts .............................................................................................................. 3
Objectives of the Study .................. ............................ .. ..... ................ .5
H ypotheses ............................................. 6
R ationale and D issertation Form at ........................................ .......... ............... 6
Stu dy A rea ......................................................................... . 7
C lim ate ....................................................... 8
G eology and Soils .................................................. 9

2 THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SOIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUBAQUEOUS
SOIL SCIEN CE ......... ...... ................................. .............. 12

Introduction ............ ... ........... .. .......... ...............12
H historical C concepts of Soil ............................................. ................. ............... 13
Different Concepts of Soil .............. ..... ........ ................... 13
G reek C on cept of S oil .............................................................. .................... 14
R om an C concept of Soil ............................................... ............................ 15
R ussian C oncepts of Soil ...................... .. .. ............................... ............... 15
Early American Concepts of Soil ......... .. ...... ................... ...............16
Contemporary American Concept of Soil: Soil Taxonomy .................... ........ 17
Pedons and Polypedons .............................................................. ............ 17
Soil Defined in the First Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1975 to 1999) ................. 17
Soil Defined in the Second Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1999 to Present)..........20









Im plications for Subaqueous Soil Science .................................................... 22
Shallow Subaqueous Areas Not Considered Soil............... .. ..... .............22
Subaqueous Soil Survey Efforts................................... .................................... 23
D iscu ssio n ...................................... ................................................. 2 5
C o n clu sio n s..................................................... ................ 2 7

3 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBAQUEOUS SOILS AND SEAGRASSES......29

In tro d u ctio n ................................................... .................. ................ 2 9
Subaqueous Soils................... .. ................ ........ ......29
Seagrass Productivity .................................... ................. ......... 30
Organic M atter Cycling in Seagrasses ..................................... ............... ..32
A H orizon Form ation in Terrestrial Soils................................. ............... 34
A H orizons in Subaqueous Soils .................................................... .................34
Initially Investigating Soil/Vegetation Relationships in an Aquatic
E n v iro n m en t .................................................... ............ ................ 3 5
O b j ectiv es .................. .............................................................. .........3 6
M materials and M methods ....................................................................... ..................37
A erial Photography ............ ............................... .. .. ...... .............. ... 37
Satellite Im agery ................................ ......... ..................... ......... 37
Seagrass M apping ............................................. ............ ............. 39
Soil Sam pling and A nalyses..................................... ......... ............... 42
R results and D discussion ............... .. ........................................ .. .. .....47
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation M apping ................................. ............... 47
Landscape and Seagrass Patterns ............................................. ............... 52
Upper-Pedon and Vegetation Relationships.....................................58
Upper-pedon Soil M orphologies ...................................................................... 65
Subaqueous A Horizons .................... ................................... 73
Genesis of Upper-Pedon Organic Matter .................................................73
Subtropical Subaqueous Soils: Indicators of Historical Conditions..................79
C o n c lu sio n s..................................................... ................ 8 3

4 CREATING AND EVALUATING SUBAQUEOUS DIGITAL ELEVATION
M ODEL S ....... .. ................ ................................. 87

Introduction ............... .... .. ..... ................ .............................87
B asem aps in Soil Survey .............. .......................................................87
Creating Basemaps for Subaqueous Soil Survey .........................................88
Data Density and Digital Elevation Model Cell Size ............... .....................89
M materials and M methods ....................................................................... ..................9 1
B athym etry and E quipm ent............................................................ ............... 92
D ata M o d elin g .................................................................................. 9 5
Interpolation N oise A analysis .......................................................... ............... 96
R results and D iscu ssion ................................. .............. ................ ..... .......... 98
D ata A acquisition ....................... ... ..... ........ ....................... .......... 98
Determining the Best Method for Creating a Digital Elevation Model from
Transect Data ............. .............. ...... .. ........... 98


viii









Using the Best M odel ............ ....... .............. .......................... 102
Interpolation N oise A analysis ..................................................... ... ............... 109
C o n c lu sio n s......................................................................................................... 1 1 6

5 SUBAQUEOUS SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORY OF A NEARSHORE
SU BTROPICAL ESTU A RY ......................................................... ...............1. 19

Evolution of Soil Survey in the United States................................................... 119
H historical Soil Survey ............. ................................... ...... ........ ... ......... 19
C ontem porary Soil Survey ........................................................... .................. 119
Future Soil Survey: The Addition of a Subaqueous Soil Survey Program .......121
Updating Soil Surveys with Subaqueous Surveys........................................123
Current Status of Subaqueous Soil Research .......................................... 123
O bjectiv es ................................................................................................. ..... 12 4
M material and M methods .......................................................................... ............... 125
Soil M orphology .................. ..................................... .. ........ .... 125
Laboratory Analyses .................. ........................... ...... ................125
Data Collection .................................... .......................... ... ........126
Results and Discussion .................. ............. .......... ...... .. .............. 131
Spatial Distribution of Vegetation and Landforms ..........................................131
The Flats ..................................... ................................ .......... 133
D row ned Soils ....................................................... .......... .. ......... 143
B uried Soils .......................... ....................................... ................ 149
General Subaqueous Soil-forming Factors............................................150
L landscape U nits ........................................ ... .... .. ....... ......... 154
M odal Pedons ................................. ............. ........ ........... 174
Com binations of Soil-form ing Factors.............................................................174
The Subaqueous Soil Survey and its Potential Uses .............................................189
Sum m ary and Conclusions ......................................................... .............. 192
V eg etatio n ................................................................................ 19 2
L an dform s ...................................... ............................................ 193
Soils .................................... .......................... ..... ..... ......... 193
The Subtropical Subaqueous Soil Survey ............................... ............... .194

6 SY N TH ESIS ...................................................................... ......... 196

Subtropical Subaqueous Soils........................................................ ............... 196
Soil/V egetation R relationships ........................................ ........ ............... 196
Soil/Landscape Relationships................. .............................. 196
The Pedological Paradigm in a Subaqueous Environment ............. ... ...............197
P edological T heory ............ ................................... .............. .. .... .... 197
Pedological Tools ....................... ................ ................... ........ 200
Pedological A approach ............................................... ............................ 202
O overall C onclusions......... .......................................................... ... ... .... ..... 203










APPENDIX

A SOIL CHARACTERIZATION DATA .......................................... ..............204

B SUBAQUEOU S SOIL SURVEY .................................................... ....... ........ 216

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................... ..............229

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................... ...........................................234
















































x
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

1-1 Summary statistics of Levy County soils...................................... ............... 10

3-1 Land classification scheme based on water depth............... .............................48

3-2 Upper-pedon average organic matter content and particle-size distribution for
sites located in four seagrass cover classes ................................... ............... ..64

4-1 Error statistics for several combinations of interpolation techniques and
p a ra m ete rs ..............................................................................................................1 0 0

4-2 Statistics for the population of distance: Cell size ratios .............. ............... 114

5-1 List and approach of the steps necessary to create the initial soil survey. .............127

5-2 Landscape units present within the study area................................................... 155

5-3 Soil descriptions from Edge of Channel Bar (MUID 3) ....................................... 159

5-4 Soil descriptions of soils in the Erosional Unvegetated Flats (MUID 5)............... 160

5-5 Soil descriptions for soils occurring on the Near Bar Grassflat landscape units
(M U ID 7) .......................................................................... 162

5-6 Soil descriptions for the Drowned Flatwoods map unit (MUID 8)......................163

5-7 Soil descriptions for the Nearshore Grassflat map unit (MUID 9) ......................165

5-8 Pedon descriptions from the Offshore Grass Flat map unit (MUID 10)...............166

5-9 Soil descriptions from an Oyster Bar map unit (MUID 11)................................169

5-10 Soil descriptions from the Salt Marsh Flat map unit (MUID 13) ........................170

5-11 Soil descriptions for the Unvegetated Flat map unit (MUID 14).........................172

5-12 M odal pedon description for N orth K ey ........................................ .....................175

5-13 M odal pedon description for Hornet ........................................ ......... ............... 176









5-14 M odal pedon description for N ebar ............................................ ............... 177

5-15 M odal pedon description for Atsena Otie ................................... .................178

5-16 M odal pedon description of Snake Key ...................................... ............... 179

5-17 Modal pedon description for Seahorse Key .............. .................................180

5-18 M odal pedon description for Reddrum ...................................... ............... 181

5-19 M odal pedon description for Shell M ound .................................... ............... 182

5-20 Modal pedon description for Lighthouse Point.................... ........................... 183

A-1 Organic matter (OM) contents and particle size distributions for sites located in
four vegetation cover classes....................................................... ............... 205

A-2 Soil physical and chemical data for selected locations .......................................206
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1-1 L location of the study area ......... ................. .............. .................................8

1-2 Water temperature record for National Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration tidal station 8727520 at Cedar Key, FL .................................10

3-1 Bands 5-4-3 composite ofLandasat 7 ETM+ scene: Path 17, Row 40....................40

3-2 Comparison of Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery acquired for study area (Path 17, Row
40) A ) at low tide, B ) and high tide.................................... ........................ 41

3-3 Location map of soils sampled according to seagrass species.............. ...............43

3-4 Example of a ped from the C horizon of an unvegetated subtropical subaqueous
soil showing the oxidized exterior and gleyed (reduced) interior............................45

3-5 Locations of modal upper-pedons representing the soils sampled in the different
se a g ra sse s ......................................................................... 4 6

3-6 Subaqueous landscape showing the waterward extent of soil..............................48

3-7 Satellite image of study area near Cedar Key, FL showing the classification of
v e g eta tio n ......................................................................... 4 9

3-8 Normalized Vegetative Difference Index (NDVI) view of the study area (A)
calculated from a Landsat 7 ETM + scene (B)............................... ............... 51

3-9 Benthic classification of the study area..........................................53

3-10 Monotypic stands of Thalassia testudinum growing on a shallow flat near Cedar
K ey F L ............................................................................. 5 4

3-11 Mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodiumfiliforme growing on a
shallow flat near Cedar K ey, FL ........................................ ......................... 55

3-12 Typical edge of a shallow seagrass flat near Cedar Key, FL .................................56

3-13 Monotypic stand ofHalodule wrightii growing on a raised portion of a shallow
flat n ear C edar K ey F L ......................................... .............................................57









3-14 Negative relationship between OM content and soil color value.............................59

3-15 Relationship between silt and sand contents related to soil color............................60

3-16 Strong linear relationship between the amount of OM in the soil and percent
sand (A ) .................................... ............... ................ ........... 61

3-17 Strong linear relationship between the sand and silt contents of all sites sampled..63

3-18 Upper-pedons of a soil occurring at location UNVEG-T .....................................66

3-19 Upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T.................. ..... ... .............68

3-20 Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T .................................69

3-21 Side-by-side comparison of upper-pedons from HAL-T (A) and THAL-T (B)
s o ils ..............................................................................7 0

3-22 Upper-pedon at location THAL/SYR-T....................... ...... ..............71

3-23 Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location THAL/SYR-T......................72

3-24 Depth distributions of silt (A), Organic Matter (OM) (B), and biogenic silica (C)
for a pedon supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium ....................75

3-25 Rooting-zone morphology of an unvegetated soil recently colonized by
T h a la ssia ............................................................................. 7 7

3-26 Isolated body of dark soil material typically found in the upper-pedons of areas
supporting Halodule wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia
testud in um ........................................................................... 7 8

3-27 Upper-pedon of a freshwater subaqueous soil containing dark bodies....................80

3-28 Aerial photograph showing locations of buried seagrasses............... ..................81

3-29 Buried A horizons in a subtropical subaqueous soil near Cedar Key, FL ...............82

4-1 Location ofbathym etric transects ........................................ ........................ 93

4-2 Location of a transect (yellow line) used to compare slopes of DEM at different
c e ll siz e s .......................................................................... 9 7

4-3 Example of an artifact used in the interpolation noise analysis ............................99

4-4 Digital elevation model calculated using the Inverse Distance Weighted method,
with a power of 2.................... .... ...................... ......... 101









4-5 Smoothed landscape that results from modeling with a medium-size search
neighborhood (50% local) ............................................................... ............... 103

4-6 Over-generalized landscape that results from too large of a search neighborhood
when employing the local polynomial techniques ............................................... 104

4-7 Digital elevation model using Universal Kriging with a 50% local polynomial
rem oved prior to K riging ......................................................... ............... 105

4-8 Digital elevation model using universal kriging (50% local polynomical trend
removed) and a cell size of 30 m................................ 106

4-9 Digital elevation model using universal kriging (50% local polynomial
removed) and a cell size of 60 m................................ 107

4-10 Visual comparison of two digital elevations model, 15 m and 60 m cell sizes,
both created using the same bathymetric data set and identical parameter settings
of universal kriging ...................... ...................... .................... ...... 108

4-11 Three-dimensional view of two digital elevation models (DEM) of identical
origin, but different cell sizes ...................................... ......... .............. ... 110

4-12 Slope maps calculated from three digital elevation models using different cell
siz e s ............................................................ .......................... . ......1 1 1

4-13 Cross-section of a channel modeled using universal kriging at a 60 m cell size
and a 15 m cell size .............. .... ............. ............ .. .............. 112

4-14 Histogram of rations comparing the minimum distance from an artifact to a data
point to the cell size ........... .. ................................ ....... .. ...... ...... .... 114

4-15 General spatial structure of bathymetry collected within the study area .............15

4-16 Comparison of a digital elevation models (DEMs) created using Universal
K riging at three cell sizes ..................................................................... .......... 117

5-1 Status of county soil surveys in Florida, 2005 ......................................................120

5-2 Locations of validation and modal soil sampling locations for all landscape unitsl30

5-3 Subaqueous topography of the study area ......................................................132

5-4 General locations of several types of landforms ......................................... 134

5-5 Identification of vegetated and unvegetated portions of the study area ...............135

5-6 Location of nearshore and offshore flats in close proximity to Seahorse Key, FL137

5-7 Low energy shore (A) vs. high energy shore (B), Seahorse Key, FL .................... 138









5-8 An erosional beach that grades into a nearshore grass flat ..................................139

5-9 An offshore subaqueous landscape near Cedar Key, FL....................................140

5-10 Coastal forest retreat over a forty year period: 1961 to 2001..............................146

5-11 Sample of a soil that occurs on a beach that is, in fact, a drowned flatwoods .......147

5-12 Field test to determ ine if m material is spodic .......................................................... 148

5-13 Buried A horizon from an area near Seahorse Key, FL currently supporting
H alodule w rightii ...................... .................... .. .. ............... ....... 151

5-14 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the combined silt and clay size fractions
from the rooting zone of two vegetated subaqueous soils .................................... 153

5-15 Spatial landscape m odel ................................................... ........ ............... .156

5-16 Portion of the Levy County Soil Survey ..................................... .................173

5-17 The Northwestern corner of the subaqueous soil survey ......................................191

B-1 Index map for the subaqueous soil survey. ................................. .................216

B-2 Tile 1 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............217

B-3 Tile 2 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............218

B-4 Tile 3 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............219

B-5 Tile 4 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............220

B-6 Tile 5 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............221

B-7 Tile 6 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............222

B-8 Tile 7 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............223

B-9 Tile 8 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ................................... .. .............224

B-10 Tile 9 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey. ....................................... ...............225

B-11 Tile 10 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey... .................. ............... .........226

B-12 Tile 11 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey... .................. ............... .........227

B-13 Tile 12 of 12 in the subaqueous soil survey... .................. ............... .........228















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

SUBAQUEOUS PEDOLOGY: EXPANDING SOIL SCIENCE TO NEAR-SHORE
SUBTROPICAL MARINE HABITATS

By

Larry R. Ellis

May 2006

Chair: Mary E. Collins
Major Department: Soil and Water Science

Historically, geologists (such as sedimentologists and geochemists), along with

limnologists, biologists, botanists, and ecologists have been the scientists to answer the

call to study shallow-water, permanently submerged areas. Only since the mid 1990s

have soil scientists attempted to follow suit. Currently, subaqueous soil science is at a

very early stage, with only two published studies: one from Maryland and one from

Rhode Island (USA). Expanding soil science into subtropical subaqueous habitats was

the focus of my study. The shallow grassflats southwest of Cedar Key, FL were chosen

for study.

First, the evolving concept of soil was examined to provide a context for this new,

subaqueous direction of soil science. It was determined that the historical concepts of

soil were congruent with the concept of underwater soil, provided that support for rooted

vegetation was possible.









Second, the idea of subaqueous soil/vegetation relationships was explored and it

was found that soil properties determined in the field and in the laboratory were related to

vegetation type. Organic matter and silt contents increased in proportion to vegetative

cover. The dark colors of the soil (particularly in the rooting zone) predictably reflected

this relationship.

Third, the soil properties below the rooting zone were investigated. A bathymetric

map was created as a landscape visualization tool. Procedures for creating the map were

documented. The spacing of the bathymetric transects relative to the map cell size

affected map quality. The map was used to interpret the landscape. The landscape

interpretations explained the spatial distribution of soils throughout the study area.

Water energy, proximity to land, water depth, and vegetative cover were the

primary soil-forming factors considered. Integrating these factors with the landscape

model and aerial photography, a subaqueous soil survey was created for the study area.

Ten unique combinations of soil forming factors were identified to create a total of ten

subtropical subaqueous soil map units. Research on the shallow, open nature of the

Cedar Key flats provided a valuable addition to existing lagoonal subaqueous pedology.


xviii














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

Introduction

Concept of Subaqueous Soil

Many definitions or concepts of soil exist. Generally, soils are considered the

plastic upper portion of the earth's surface that supports plant growth. Rocks, man-made

structures such as roads, and large organisms such as trees are not considered soil. The

remainder of the land, if it can support rooted plant growth, is soil. Applying this concept

to wet and aquatic areas is less straightforward than applying it to terrestrial areas. Land

that is under water is continuous with land that is not under water. If the land is

continuous, shouldn't the soils also be continuous? If rooted vegetation is supported by

underwater land, then that land is soil. These areas, until recently, have been ignored by

pedologists.

Recently, the term subaqueouss soil" was proposed by Demas (1993). The term

subaqueouss" is typically used as an adjective to describe objects that occur or are

adapted for underwater. Therefore, subaqueouss soils" are generally considered soils that

occur underwater. Although some pedological research has been carried out on

subaqueouss soils" the field the field is still in its infancy. Many fundamental concepts

have yet to be developed, and even the definition of subaqueous soil has not been widely

accepted within the field of soil science. There is no consensus as to the frequency and

duration of flooding for a soil to be considered subaqueouss."









Previous Subaqueous Pedological Research

While there has been no official definition of"subaqueous soil," such as the United

States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) definition of "soil" in Soil Taxonomy (Soil

Survey Staff, 1999), the main pedological research focused on subaqueous soils thus far

(Demas and Rabenhorst 1999; Bradley and Stolt, 2003) has been centered on shallow

marine habitats (lagoon estuaries). Typically, most of the water in these lagoons ranges

from intertidal to a few meters deep. Deeper areas have not been investigated.

Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) investigated Sinepuxent Bay, MD while Bradley and

Stolt (2003) investigated Ninigret Pond, RI. Bradley and Stolt (2003) specified that the

soils they investigated were marine subaqueous. Using this label, the soils in Sinepuxent

Bay would be marine subaqueous also. Bradley and Stolt (2003) defined subaqueous as

the depth range, "immediately below the intertidal zone to water depths of 2.5 m at

extreme low tide." So far this is the only attempt to define the depth limit of subaqueous

soils.

The research conducted in both Sinepuxent Bay and Ninigret Pond focused on

landscape-level pedology. The pedological approach of conducting a second order (e.g.,

1:20,000 scale) soil survey was used in both areas. Additionally, the soils in those areas

were characterized by analyzing for typical soil characterization properties (e.g., particle

size distribution, pH, and organic matter content) using standard soil science techniques.

Other pedologically-based research that could be considered subaqueous pedology

has focused on inland subaqueous soils in Florida rather than marine subaqueous soils.

Ellis (2002) investigated lake-fringe hydric and subaqueous soils of Sandhill Lake in

Clay County (FL), by examining the continuous soil morphologies of the lower portion of

a landscape that extended from above the highest recorded lake stage to an elevation that









was flooded more than 95% of the time. Expanding this work, the St. Johns River Water

Management District is investigating more lakes in Florida and then developing a set of

soils-based indicators that could be used to predict lake stage in Florida's sandhill lakes.

Regardless of setting (marine or inland) the previously mentioned landscapes in

Maryland, Rhode Island, and Florida are underwater most of the time. Therefore they are

subaqueous and have subaqueous soils.

Subaqueous Pedology: Applying the Pedological Paradigm to Aquatic Habitats

Pedology, a discipline within soil science, has its own paradigm. The pedological

paradigm can be divided into three parts: theory, tools, and approach

* Theory: a set of empirically testable statements and observations used to explain
and understand systems

* Tools: A set of research tools for observing, measuring, and modeling systems

* Approach: together, the theory and the tools help form the approaches) used for
solving a problem or answering questions.

The theory part of the paradigm consists mainly of the concepts of soil, the soil

individual (poly-pedon), soil-forming factors, soil genesis, and soil/landscape

relationships. The tools part consists of items such as soil pits, augers and shovels,

Munsell color charts, existing soil landscape models, as well as standard methods of

analysis and standard soil parameters of interest (e.g., particle-size distribution and pH as

outlined in Soil Survey Staff, 1996). The approach part is more difficult to define

because it is largely controlled by the scale of the pedological investigation. Typically,

for investigations at second soil-survey order scales (e.g., 1:24,000), the approach is to

build a conceptual soil/landscape model using a small number of direct soil observations,

and then apply that model by delineating landscape units on basemaps. The view that the









land is soil and that pedons are related to the landscape via the soil-forming factors is

central to the pedological paradigm.

To study subaqueous soils from a pedological perspective requires applying the

pedological paradigm. The current pedological theory, pedological tools, and

pedological approach therefore would all be used to observe, describe, measure, and

model aquatic habitats. Doing so assumes that the theory, tools, and approach are valid

in an aquatic environment. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) examined these assumptions

first by testing the definition of soil and later (Demas and Rabenhorst, 2001) by

modifying the five soil-forming factors (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka 1927; Jenny, 1941) to

fit the subaqueous environment studied. Demas and Rabenhorst also modified the tools

portion of the paradigm by using a vibracore to sample soils, rather than more traditional

soil augers. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) and Bradley and Stolt (2002; 2003) created

topographic basemaps from bathymetric data. This was not a major modification, since

elevation basemaps have been previously used by terrestrial pedologists. However, the

methods used to create the basemaps (e.g., acquisition of bathymetry via acoustical

sounder) were new to pedology.

The approach part of the pedological paradigm has not been significantly modified

for aquatic habitats. Both the Sinepuxent Bay and Ninigret Pond studies modeled the

subaqueous soils by delineating the landscape based on the soil/landscape models

developed for those lagoons. Doing so in an aquatic environment assumes that the

subaqueous landscape is stable. Bradley and Stolt tested that assumption by creating a

contemporary elevation map based on measured elevations and a historical basemap

based on nautical charts with historical point soundings. They determined the landscapes









to be very similar, thus the landscape was judged to be stable over the time interval of

interest.

Based on past subaqueous pedology and the pedological paradigm, the study of

aquatic bottoms as soil appears promising. In cautious application of the paradigm to

subtropical aquatic habitats, the following questions must be addressed:

* Do soils exist in a subtropical aquatic habitat?

* Do soil-forming factors exist in a subtropical aquatic habitat?

* Can those factors be considered to create a conceptual subtropical subaqueous soil /
landscape model?

* Can that model be expressed in the form of a subaqueous soil survey?

* What portions of the pedological paradigm need further testing and/or refinement?

Objectives of the Study

This research is an effort to apply and refine the pedological paradigm for a subtropical

subaqueous environment.

* Overall objective: Apply the pedological paradigm to a subtropical shallow-water
marine habitat.

* Specific aim 1: Determine and compare chemical and physical properties of
subaqueous soils and relate these properties to the submerged aquatic vegetation
(SAV).

* Specific aim 2: Construct a digital terrain model of the subaqueous topography in
the study area.

* Specific aim 3: Build and evaluate a conceptual soil/vegetation/landscape model in
a marine environment.

* Specific aim 4: Create and demonstrate the need for a subaqueous soil survey.









Hypotheses

The general hypothesis for this research was that the terrestrial pedological

concepts may be applied to subtropical subaqueous soils. It is proposed that soil-forming

factors exist in shallow marine environments along the Gulf Coast of Florida.

* Hypothesis 1: Soil morphologies as well as chemical and physical properties
within the rooting zone are related to SAV.

* Hypothesis 2: A conceptual soil/landscape model can be used to predict the
morphologies of the pedons based on the subaqueous soil-forming factors.

* Hypothesis 3: That soil/landscape conceptual model can be expressed as a
subaqueous soil survey at a second-order scale (e.g., 1: 20,000).

Rationale and Dissertation Format

It has been claimed that the concept of soil needed to be revised to include aquatic

bottoms (Demas 1993; Demas et al. 1996; Demas and Rabenhorst 1999). The USDA

revised its definition of soil as a result of these claims (Soil Survey Staff 1998; 1999). At

first, it appears that a major change has taken place within soil science creating a new

view that underwater areas are soil, not sediment. Therefore, a review of historical and

contemporary concepts of soil and the implications of that evolution for subaqueous soil

science are the focus of Chapter 2.

Pedogenic theory dictates soil-forming factors, specifically biota (e.g., native

vegetation), will have an influence on the soil morphology and associated physical and

chemical properties. Because of this and because of the ecological and economical

importance of seagrasses, the soil / vegetation relationships within the upper portion of

the soil (e.g., the rooting zone of seagrasses) will be the focus of Chapter 3.

The creation of subaqueous terrain models is a necessary step in the application of

the pedological paradigm to aquatic habitats. In these habitats, it is difficult to obtain









elevations by traditional survey methods. Also, methodology for collecting and modeling

those elevation observations to create a subaqueous terrain model has not been

standardized. Therefore, the collection and modeling of subaqueous elevation

observations will be the focus of Chapter 4.

The focus of Chapter 5 will be the combination of the elevation map created in

Chapter 4, the soil/vegetation relationships discovered in Chapter 3, and investigations of

soils and landscapes to create a conceptual soil/landscape model and a subaqueous soil

survey. The conceptual soil/landscape model will be based on considerations of soil-

forming factors. Traditional soil-forming factors will be considered as well as those

proposed by Demas and Rabenhorst (2001). New soil-forming factors are proposed.

Study Area

The study area is approximately 6 km by 4 km (Figure 1-1). The study area

selected represents a system of shallow (1 to 2 m deep at mean high water, 0 to 1 m at

mean low water) flats 5 km southwest of Cedar Key, FL (Center of study area:

2905'49"N, 83o5'49"W) (Figure 1-1). Mean Higher High Water (MHHW), Mean High

Water (MHW), Mean Low Water (MLW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) are

defined by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) based

on NOAA Tidal Station 8727520 located at Cedar Key.

The area was selected for study because of its extensive seagrass beds adjacent to

both deep water and land. Most portions of the flats were heavily vegetated with

Thalassia testudinum, Syringodiumfiliforme, and Halodule wrightii. The average tidal

fluctuation is 1.5 m with a period of 11 hours. This "Big Bend" area of Florida is called a

a low or zero energy coast. This area represents the large portion of the Gulf Coast of

Florida that has shallow and extensive off-shore seagrass flats.











Ceda r

arit Hye km sh oCr KL. surc. ~ is. h -
i- 7T--' Wcr,-
_- _.,;,r ,; .._. ..O


Cli. m -te te^kteg :K~ "




S xarly e I sth este, a lmagte iso g




i te e l 1 I. .tice i
1-1 7
















months. This is typical of Levy County, FL. Slabaugh etal. (1996) reported average

















temperatures in Cross City (Levy County) of 11oC in January (winter) and 25oC in July
prpoed oxinithe.early 190s In sothesesstems dr, aL. cImatee is generally















months. This is typical of Levy County, FL. Slabaugh eta !. (1996) reported average

temperatures in Cross City (Levy County) of 1 1VC in January (winter) and 250C in July









and August (summer). Winter freezes occur annually throughout Levy County.

However, the study area exists near the upper latitude limit of two Caribbean (tropical)

species of seagrasses: Thalassia testudinum and Syringodiumfiliforme (Zieman and

Zieman, 1989). Despite the presence of tropical seagrasses, the water temperature

fluctuates about 20C annually (Figure 1-2).

Geology and Soils

The following description of Levy County geology and soils is based mainly on the

United Stated Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Soil Survey of Levy County

(Slabaugh et al, 1996). Levy County geology is typical of counties in the "Big Bend"

region. The geology is karst, typically limestone overlain by sands of variable thickness.

In low-lying areas, the sand veneer is thinner than in the higher, dune areas. The

limestone consists mainly of Ocala and Avon Park formations. The overlying sands

consist of undifferentiated quartz Plio-Pleistocene sands. Isolated patches of the

Miocene-aged Hawthorn group occur throughout the county.

All seven soil orders that occur in Florida occur in Levy County: Alfisols, Entisols,

Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, and Ultisols (Table 1-1). Typically, the

Mollisols, Histosols, and Spodosols occur in the low-lying portions of the landscape.










Summer 2002


Summer 2003



0


j III,


Winter


2003

Date


Figure 1-2. Water temperature record for National Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Administration tidal station 8727520 at Cedar Key, FL. For the period of
record, January 2002 to October 2003, the maximum water temperature was
35C in July 2003 and the minimum water temperature was 7C in January
2002. In both years, there was a marked water temperature shift from the cold
winter months of temperatures near 10C to the warm summer months with
temperatures near 30C. This fluctuation in water temperature follows a
similar fluctuation in air temperature.


Table 1-1. Summary statistics of Levy County soils.
soil survey (Slabaugh et al., 1996).


Source data from the Levy County


Number of Percent of
Soil Order
Mapped Series Mapped Soil
Alfisols 23 28
Entisols 13 25
Histosols 4 2
Inceptisols 3 17
Mollisols 3 7
Spodosols 10 19
Ultisols 6 3


Winter


2002


2004






11


Histosols also occur in the coastal marshes along southwestern Levy County.

Some of the Entisols occur in well drained areas such as sand dunes while others occur in

wetter areas in and around the salt marshes.














CHAPTER 2
THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SOIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUBAQUEOUS SOIL
SCIENCE

Introduction

Almost all terrestrial vegetation is rooted and grows in soil, or is attached to

something that grows in soil. As the most biologically active portion of the lithosphere,

soils have become the focus of an entire scientific discipline (i.e. soil science). Early in

the discipline, many were concerned with defining the concept of soil. This activity was

necessary because soil is not a single object, rather a continuum on the Earth's surface.

Thus, it is more difficult to identify a soil. Soils are not individual objects, thus we must

conceive of ways to compartmentalize soil into observable units that can be identified,

described, and studied. How one perceives soil determines how one analyzes it. Thus,

the concept of soil is very important to its science.

Concepts of soil have evolved over time and so have the paradigms of soil science.

Generally, though, concepts of soil have been centered on the growth of rooted plants as

a main function of soil. Recently, it has been proposed that the concept of soil be

expanded to include submerged areas, called subaqueouss soils" (Demas, 1993). This

suggestion fostered soils-based research in submerged areas (Demas et al., 1996; Demas,

1998; Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999) and then led to a change in the United Stated

Department of Agriculture's (USDA) wording of its definition of soil (Soil Survey Staff,

1998; Soil Survey Staff 1999). This recent development raises several questions.

* How has the concept of soil evolved through time?









* Prior to 1993, what was the official position of the USDA, as outlined in the first
edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), on semi-permanently and
permanently submerged lands; what is soil and what is not?

* What are the specific differences in the USDA's current concept of soil, as
expressed in second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), when
compared to the previous concept as expressed in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy
(Soil Survey Staff, 1975)?

* To comply with traditional themes of soil as supporting vegetation, does the
USDA's current concept of soil allow for sufficient inclusion of all submerged
areas that can or do support rooted vegetation?

* How will the wording in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff,
1999) affect and soil research and U.S. soil survey efforts?

* What is the current direction of subaqueous soil science?

These questions are proposed because they focus on the where soil science has

come from and where it is going with respect to aquatic areas. To maintain congruency

with the traditional concept of soil as a medium for plant growth, a goal of subaqueous

soil science should be the proper inclusion of all subaqueous areas that fit within this

concept of soil. Specifically, this is the inclusion of all subaqueous areas that can or do

support rooted vegetation.

Historical Concepts of Soil

Different Concepts of Soil

There are as many concepts of soil as there are uses for it. One of the earliest uses

of soil was for growth of crops to sustain human life. Today, soils are still used to grow

life-sustaining crops. Because of this, it is most often defined as the upper portion of the

earth that supports plant growth. As various disciplines of earth-based science have

evolved (e.g., geology, geography, engineering, etc.), so to have their concepts of soil.

To every earth-based science, the various portions of the earth each have a function

within the system of interest. The focus of a particular discipline necessarily shapes that









discipline's view of the soil's function. For example, an engineer might consider soil to

be surficial particles with a collective plasticity, bearing capacity, mass, and infiltration

rate. In contrast, a geologist might consider soil to be the plastic products of weathered

bedrock or the wind/water/glacial transported clasts that comprise sedimentary and other

geological layers. A biologist or botanist might consider the soil as a home for burrowing

organisms and the medium in which plants are rooted. All of these concepts are correct.

However, none of the above view the soil holistically as the soil system.

The discipline of soil science focuses on the soil as the system, rather than a

component of another system. Generally, soil scientists view soils as independent,

natural bodies (pedons and polypedons) with identifiable physical, chemical, and

biological characteristics. These soil individuals make up many sub-populations that,

when combined, comprise the upper portion of the earth. This population is called soil.

The evolution of this concept is best understood by examining the historical concept of

soil. In this respect, previous soil classification schemes provide valuable insight The

following are examples of soils-based concepts/classifications. Much of this summary is

based on Arnold's (1983) review of the historical concepts of soil.

Greek Concept of Soil

Aristotle (384 to 322 BC) viewed everything to be made of four elements: fire, air,

water, and earth. The earth has attributes of warm or cold, dry or wet, heavy or light, and

hard or soft. This could be viewed as a recognition of soil's variable moisture content,

bulk density, and bearing capacity. Theophrastus (371 to 286 BC) viewed the earth as

two parts: the edaphos and the tartarus. The edaphos is a comprised of two layers: the

surface stratum and the subsoil. The surface stratum contains variable amounts of humus

while the subsoil provided nutrients and "juices" to the plants. The "taratarus" is the









"realm of the darkness," which could be viewed as analogous to the bedrock underlying

soil. Theophrastus grouped soil into six classes based on crop suitability. Thus, the

Greeks concept of soil was that it was (i) part of the earth, (ii) variable in weight,

compaction, and mass, and that variability could be (iii) classified to better understand

plant growth.

Roman Concept of Soil

Cato (234 to 149 BC) classified soil into nine major classes and 21 subclasses

based on farming suitability. Varro (116 to 27 BC) was reported to have focused on the

physical composition of soil while Columella (4 to 70 AD) focused on physical

properties of soil, and Plinius (23 to 79 AD) focused on geology as a mineral source for

soil formation. The Roman concept of soil thus evolved into a more sophisticated focus

on soil attributes, while still recognizing soil's importance to agriculture.

Russian Concepts of Soil

V.V. Dokuchaev (1846 to 1903) is the Russian credited with maturing the concept

of soil into a pedological concept. He stated that surface layers of the earth should be

considered soil, and that the parent material was transformed by organisms and climate as

a function of relief and time (Dokuchaev, 1883). K.D. Glinka (1867 to 1927) (1927)

summarized Dokuchaev's ideas, but added that transported soil should not be considered

soil, but instead as parent material that will become soil upon the action of forces that

form soil. Dokuchaev's writings were in Russian but translated to German. Glinka then

translated the German writings to English. Marbut (1863 to 1935) read those works and

was greatly inspired by them introducing them into the soil survey program.

Quite often, however, it is H. Jenny (1904 to 1972) who is cited when soil-forming

factors are discussed. While not a Russian, Jenny's work is included here because he









proposed the quantification of soil formation by considering each of Dokuchaev's soil-

forming factors as independent variables in the formation of soils. Out of the Russians'

concept of soil came the sub-discipline of pedology. From hereafter, soils have been

considered by pedologists to be individual bodies upon which the five soil-forming

factors operate.

* Soil forming factor 1: Biota

* Soil forming factor 2: Climate

* Soil forming factor 3: Parent material

* Soil forming factor 4: Relief

* Soil forming factor 5: Time

Early American Concepts of Soil

Arnold (1983) pointed out that Hilgard's (1833-1916) (1906) view was that soils

are the physically and chemically weathered products of rock, highlighted the support for

plant growth. Additionally, Hilgard acknowledged the affect of climate on plant

distribution. This acknowledged three of Dokuchaev's soil-forming factors. King (1848

to 1911) (1902) considered soil to be not only important for agriculture, but to the support

of all life on earth. A more geological view was communicated by Lyon et al. (1916)

that soils' past and future was rock, but that soils provided a medium for crop production.

Coffey (1912) focused on landscape controls of soils while Whitney (1925) focused on

the physical and chemical properties of soil.

Marbut (1921) suggested that soil mapping was helping to refine the concept of

soils by focusing on the spatial inventory of soil horizons and the focus on soil

classification. Later, Marbut (1922) emphasized the idea of soils as natural bodies. Weir

(1928) echoed the concept of soils as natural bodies by explaining that soil individuals









are described, while the common characteristics of soil populations are defined.

Throughout civilizations and cultures the concept of soil has evolved, but support for

plant growth has remained an important function of soil.

Contemporary American Concept of Soil: Soil Taxonomy

Pedons and Polypedons

From the Russian thought that soils are natural bodies shaped by the five factors

has grown the concept of a polypedon. Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; 1999)

outlines the concept in detail. A polypedon represents the soil individual that exists on

the landscape, and is comprised of at least two pedons. A pedon is considered to be the

smallest volume of soil that captures the soil variability.

The minimum breadth of a pedon is 1 m2 and the maximum about 10 m2. Note that

a pedon is defined as the smallest volume that can be called soil but its size is given in an

area. The reason for this is that the depth (third dimension) is not defined but allowed to

vary. The minimum depth of a pedon is generally considered the lower limit of

biological activity or pedogenesis. Practically, 2 m has been applied as a lower limit of

pedons due to suggestions in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; 1999). It is openly

conceded in Soil Taxonomy that the lower limit of soil is difficult to define as the vertical

boundary between soil and parent material can be very gradual.

Soil Defined in the First Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1975 to 1999)

Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) guides soil survey and soil research

activities in the U.S. The first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975 page 1),

discusses defining soil.

Soil, as used in this text, is the collection of natural bodies on the earth's surface, in
places modified or even made by man of earthy materials, containing living matter
and supporting or capable of supporting plants out-of-doors. Its upper limit is air or









shallow water. At its margins it grades to deep water or to barren areas of rock or
ice...

Based on this, the Greek and Roman theme of soils providing the function of

support for plant growth persists. Soil is not restricted to natural, undisturbed settings "in

places modified or even made by man of earthy materials". Soil is bound by various

types of non-soil: rock, ice, or deep water. The top of soil is suggested to be air or

shallow water. Where "deep water" exists, soil does not. Here, "deep" is not defined,

but the passage discusses the support of plants "out-of-doors" so it can be inferred that

deep is in reference to the support of plants. Therefore, in 1975 areas under shallow

water were identified as soil. The function of soil to support plants is reiterated in

subsequent paragraphs of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975, page 1)

The word "soil," like many common old words, has several meanings ... Soil, in its
traditional meaning, is the natural medium for the growth of land plants, whether or
not it has discernible soil horizons. This meaning, as old as the word soil itself, is
still the common meaning, and the greatest interest in soil is centered on this
meaning ...

The support for plants is identified as the defining characteristic of soil. Whether

or not the soil has undergone pedogenesis to a large enough degree that soil horizons

have formed is not considered in the 1975 definition of soil. Soil Taxonomy clarified the

term "plants" to mean "land plants." This was not defined as an exclusion of aquatic

plants. Regarding pedogenesis, Soil Taxonomy (page 1) states that soil formation as

expressed by soil horizons is not a requirement of soil.

Soil, as used in this text, does not need to have discernible horizons, although the
presence or absence of horizons and their nature is of extreme importance to its
classification. Soil is a natural thing out-of-doors. It has many properties that
fluctuate with the seasons ...









Soil Taxonomy also addresses the difficulty of defining the boundary between soil

and non-soil and therefore the difficulty in classifying some soils. This is done by

addressing soils as they grade into exposed bedrock in deep water (page 1)

Since one cannot distinguish precisely under all conditions between what is and is
not a part of the soil, a short, precise, general definition is perhaps impossible ...
Some soil landscapes that support plants gradually thin to open water or to lichen-
covered rock and finally to bare rock with no clear separation that applies generally
between soil and not-soil.

Areas are not considered to have soil if the surface is permanently covered by water
deep enough that only floating plants are present or if survival conditions are so
unfavorable that only lichens can exist, as on bare rock. Yet soil does not
necessarily have plants growing on it at all times ... The point is that the soil that
concerns us when making soil surveys must be capable of supporting plants out-of-
doors.

Soils are simultaneously a continuum of features (e.g., expansive horizontal layers

of clay and sand), a population of individual natural bodies across the landscape, and a

collection of countless particles, liquid, gas, humus, and organisms. Soil Taxonomy

essentially reiterates two previously stated points. First, if surface water is too deep for

rooted plants to survive, no soil exists in that area. Second, the soil's primary importance

is the support of "plants out-of-doors." Furthermore Soil Taxonomy states that the

support for plants, not the presence of plants, which is required for soil to exist. Finally,

Soil Taxonomy states that the purpose of Soil Taxonomy is to facilitate soil survey. That

fact is also explicitly stated in the subtitle of the text: A Basic System of Soil

Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. The opening pages of Soil

Taxonomy illustrated an important concept of soil. This concept was that soils are natural

bodies of the earth that support rooted plants.

If it can be demonstrated that rooted vegetation can grow, then regardless of

hydrology, soil exists according to the first edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff,









1975). Demas (1993) suggested submerged areas be considered soils instead of

sediments. He focused on a popular interpretation of the definition of soil; the support

for rooted plants refers to emergent rooted plants. The soils Demas investigated

supported submerged rooted plants. He concluded with a suggestion that the definition of

soil be modified to include soils supporting submerged plants: subaqueous soils.

Strictly adhering to the wording in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) these

areas were already considered soil. These areas were, however, ignored by soil scientists

until Demas studied them in 1993. Why? Probably because the concept of soil was

directed to the functions of the soil survey program. Those functions were agronomically

based.

Demas (1993) also discussed the importance of submerged aquatic vegetation.

Demas et al. (1996) continued to study subaqueous soils, producing the first subaqueous

pedon descriptions. In 1998, the USDA's modified the definition of soil. This

modification was published in the seventh edition of Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey

Staff, 1998) and in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999). In

1999, the research leading to those changes was published (Demas and Rabenhorst,

1999).

Soil Defined in the Second Edition of Soil Taxonomy (1999 to Present)

The USDA's guidance on the concept of soil was updated to highlight shallow

water soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1999, page 9)

The word "soil," like many common words, has several meanings. In its traditional
meaning, soil is the natural medium for the growth of land plants, whether or not it
has discernable horizons.

Soil in this text is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals and organic matter),
liquid, and gases that occurs on the land surface, occupies space, and is
characterized by one or both of the following: horizons, or layers, that are









distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers,
and transformations of energy and matter or the ability to support rooted plants in a
natural environment. This definition is expanded from the previous version of Soil
Taxonomy to include soils in areas of Antarctica where pedogenesis occurs but
where the climate is too harsh to support the higher plant forms.

The upper limit of soil is the boundary between soil and air, shallow water, live
plants, or plan materials that have not begun to decompose. Areas are not
considered to have soil if the surface is permanently covered by water too deep
(typically more than 2.5 m) for the growth of rooted plants. The horizontal
boundaries of soil are areas where the soil grades to deep water. In some places the
separation between soil and nonsoil is so gradual that clear distinctions cannot be
made.

The traditional spirit of the soil definition is left partially in tact. Soils are still

considered to be a natural body. However, it is quite clear that a shift in focus from plant

growth to soil genesis has taken place. The wording in the second edition of Soil

Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) emphasizes horizon formation and pedogenesis, via

reference to soil-forming processes while still allowing for the option of plant growth. It

is explicitly stated that this change is meant to include Antarctic soils because it is

difficult for plants to grow there. This clarification on what soil is could be applied to

subaqueous soils. Evidence of pedogenesis can qualify a subaqueous portion of the earth

as soil, regardless of the support for vegetation, as is the case in Antarctica.

In addition to the importance of vegetation support apparently being reduced, the

term "shallow water" was retained from the first edition. However the phrase "typically

more than 2.5 m" was included as guidance as to what is too deep. This depth guidance

follows the spirit of the pedon description limit of 2 m found in both editions of Soil

Taxonomy. In that spirit, the purpose could be viewed as a guideline, from the experts, as

to what one should expect as a reasonable depth. There are clearly exceptions.

Harris et al. (2005) pointed out examples of where the 2 m hinders the

interpretation of the landscape. Areas of Florida where Bh horizons were present at 3.3









m were identified as Entisols in the county-level soil survey. These soils were considered

to have undergone little pedogenesis because no pedogenesis was observable within 2 m.

In fact, the upper 3.3 m of the soil was severely leached and had undergone much

pedogenesis. This was likely not discernable during the mapping process because

observations below 2 m do not routinely occur. In this situation, the 2 m depth guidance

of Soil Taxonomy was not deemed appropriate. Similarly, the 2.5 m limit of "deep water"

is suggested in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) but may not be appropriate in

many areas where plants can grow in water deeper than 2.5 m.

The USDA does concede the fuzzy nature of the resultant water-ward limit of soil

by stating that "clear distinctions cannot be made" in situations where the transition from

soil to non-soil is gradual. However, the guidance of "typically 2.5 m" stands out as a

target depth which may be used to delineate subaqueous soil from sediment. If broadly

accepted by soil scientists as the maximum depth of water allowed for soil to exist, then

the extent of soil may be underestimated in some geographic areas and over estimated in

others.

Implications for Subaqueous Soil Science

Shallow Subaqueous Areas Not Considered Soil

Conceptually, aquatic areas that are shallow enough to support rooted vegetation

have been considered soil in both editions of Soil Taxonomy. The changes in the

USDA's definition of soil (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) may appear to better incorporate

subaqueous areas, but actually restrict their inclusion within the pedosphere. This

restriction is generated by the quantitative guidance of the 2.5 m water depth as the

typical water-ward extent of soil.









Areas "greater than 2.5 m" deep, are not technically excluded in the updated

definition of soil (Soil Survey Staff, 1999). The phrase "typically greater than 2.5 m"

means that atypical situations can exist. However, this quantitative advice on water depth

has already had an effect on pedologists' conception of what subaqueous soils are. For

estuarine environments, Bradley and Stolt (1993) defined subaqueous soils as those

occurring in areas with a water depth ranging from intertidal to 2.5 m. The deeper areas

could support SAV, depending on water clarity. On the other hand, the areas between the

intertidal and 2.5 m at low tide may not support SAV if they occur in systems with low

water clarity such as salt marshes.

In some cases, the intertidal areas could be considered a zone of non-soil between

terrestrial soils and subaqueous soils. However, in many such cases, evidence of

pedogenesis could likely be observed. Therefore, based on the support for soil, the 1999

definition of soil does include these intertidal areas, but the 1975 definition did not. In all

likelihood, these intertidal areas will be considered in subaqueous soil survey efforts

because they are the connection between subaqueous and terrestrial landscapes.

Subaqueous Soil Survey Efforts

Currently, subaqueous soil survey is in its early stages. Demas' doctoral research

(1998) was a subaqueous soil survey of Sinepuxent Bay, MD. Bradley and Stolt (2003)

identified subaqueous landforms in Ninigret Pond, RI at a scale slightly finer than a

typical U.S county soil survey. These efforts exemplify the application of the

pedological paradigm to subaqueous habitats. They focused on the classification of

landscapes into units and reporting the soil patterns related to those units. The

deliverables of the results were prototype subaqueous soil surveys. Much more work is

needed to identify subaqueous landscape units and resultant soil patterns that occur in









other geographic areas. In addition to the soil/landscape relationships that were the focus

of the aforementioned research, emphasis needs to be placed on the A horizons of

subaqueous soils.

Typically, for example we take for granted that a soil will have accumulations of

organic matter in the surface, resulting in O and/or A horizons. When accumulations of

organic matter are encountered under water, they are assumed to be the result of the same

processes that formed these horizons on land. Testing assumptions such as this will be a

necessary part of subaqueous soil survey efforts.

Clearly defining the purpose of a soil survey is of paramount importance to the

success of the survey (Smith, 1986). Initially, terrestrial soil surveys were intended for

the agronomic interpretation of soil productivity. In later years, soil surveys have been

used for non-agronomic purposes such as engineering (e.g., on-site waste water systems).

In these cases, a different application of the survey means that different data are needed

(Fanning and Fanning, 1989). For instance, a soil description may only be reported for

the upper 100 cm if it was a soil known to have restrictive layers that resulted in being

very poorly suited for crops. Designing a shopping mall in an area having shrink-swell

clays would require much deeper soil inventories. If the original purpose of the survey

was multi-use, then all observations would need to be tailored to its objectives.

So, the question is: What is the purposes) of subaqueous soil surveys? The

majority of subaqueous areas are not going to be used for traditional agriculture or

construction, especially not the marine areas. Of immediate concern in Florida is the

inventory of seagrass resources. Soils that can or do support seagrasses are valuable

resources that need protecting. In the Florida Keys example, the vegetation grows at









depths much greater than along the west coast of Florida. Should all surveys extend out

to the same depth to preserve contiguity?

Discussion

The recent changes to the USDA's definition of soil resulting from some initial

subaqueous pedology and preceding other subaqueous pedology raised the following

questions:

* How has the concept of soil evolved through time?

It appears that the concept of soil has not changed much through time. It has been

and still is seen as the upper portion of the earth that supports plant growth. What has

changed is the acknowledgement of the non-agronomic role of soil. Support for non-

agronomic plants such as seagrasses has recently become of interest to soil scientists.

Additionally, soil science as a discipline has developed a more quantitative focus.

* Prior to 1993, what was the official position of the USDA, as outlined in the first
edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), on semi-permanently and
permanently submerged lands: what is soil and what is not?

The official position of the USDA was that if vegetation growth was or could be

supported by the earth, out-of-doors, in natural conditions, then soil was present. Semi-

permanently and permanently submerged lands were specifically addressed as needing to

have shallow enough water for rooted plants to grow. Emergent plants may have been

assumed by readers of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975), but no distinction was

made between submerged and emergent plants. The distinction that was made was

between floating and rooted plants. Therefore, any land under water with the support for

plants or the potential for plant support would have been considered soil.

* What are the specific differences in the USDA's current concept of soil, as
expressed in second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), when









compared to the previous concept as expressed in the first edition of Soil Taxonomy
(Soil Survey Staff, 1975)?

The primary difference is the inclusion of "evidence of pedogenesis" as an

indicator that soil is present. The requirement that soils support vegetation was de-

emphasized. Instead, soil-forming processes were discussed. Technically, this is an

expansion of the pedosphere because now areas can either provide plant support, the

potential for plant support, or show evidence of pedogenesis. Generally, this focus on

soil-forming factors and pedogenesis could be interpreted as a more quantitative concept

of soil. The most notable difference with respect to subaqueous areas is the guidance that

"shallow" water is "typically 2.5 m" deep. This was not stated as a requirement, but its

mention is significant as soil scientists may adhere to this guidance.

* To comply with traditional themes of soil as supporting vegetation, does the
USDA's current concept of soil allow for sufficient inclusion of all submerged
areas that can or do support rooted vegetation?

Assuming the 2.5 m water depth guidance represents the USDA's belief that

vegetation in water deeper than this does not grow, then no. All submerged areas that can

or do support rooted vegetation would not be sufficiently included. In Florida, rooted

vegetation can grow in water deeper than 2.5 m. Many sandhill lakes as well as marine

areas have clear enough water to allow plant growth in water below 2.5 m deep.

* How will the wording in the second edition of Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff,
1999) affect and soil research and U.S. soil survey efforts?

It is too early to conclude the effects of this revised definition. Only a few

published studies have followed this definition: Demas and Rabenhorst (2001), Ellis,

(2002), and Bradley and Stolt (2002; 2003). Bradley and Stolt, in both of their papers,

state that subaqueous soils occur in water depths up to 2.5 m (Bradley and Stolt 2002;

2003). If others follow this interpretation, then one effect of the new wording would be









the exclusion of subaqueous soils that occur under water > 2.5 m deep. In Florida, this

could be a considerable amount of soil. Aside from this, the likely effect of the new

wording will be increased awareness of subaqueous areas as soil. This should foster

more research in these areas. The more quantitative nature of the wording could inspire

subaqueous research focused on soil-forming process, but this remains to be seen. Given

the purpose of Soil Taxonomy is to facilitate soil survey in the U.S., then these surveys

will likely include at least some subaqueous areas. The tone of the 1999 definition has

decidedly more focus on subaqueous areas than the 1975 definition. Research and survey

efforts should follow this focus.

* What is the current direction of subaqueous soil science?

To date, the marine subaqueous pedological research has focused on the soil survey

aspect of pedology (Demas, 1993; Demas et al., 1996; Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999;

Bradley and Stolt, 2002; 2003). Demas and Rabenhorst (2001) modified Jenny's (1941)

model of soil formation and stated the model needs testing and quantification. They

highlighted the use of this model in subaqueous soil survey. Based on the marine

subaqueous pedology thus far, the direction appears to be toward subaqueous soil survey.

No pedological research has been presented to address subaqueous soil formation, such

as A horizon formation.

Conclusions

The early Greek and Roman concept of soil as a medium for plant growth has

remained central to soil science. The concept of soil has evolved with time not by

rejecting this view, but rather adding to it. As the understanding of soil-forming

processes has grown, the view of soils as objects of study has formed. Soils are now

viewed as individuals who support the growth of plants.









Soil science has matured as a science. It has a paradigm, which places at the center

of focus, the soil as an individual body. Soil scientists attempt to isolate, observe,

describe, sample, manipulate, and model soil to improve our understanding of it. With

the recent focus on subaqueous soils, the application of this paradigm will require testing,

quantification, and likely modification of fundamental pedological principles.

Currently, the focus of subaqueous soil science is pedological. Specifically, the

focus is on subaqueous soil survey. As advancements are made in this area of pedology,

perhaps more process-based research will reciprocate ideas so that subaqueous soils are

better understood.














CHAPTER 3
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUBAQUEOUS SOILS AND SEAGRASSES

Introduction

Subaqueous Soils

Near-shore marine as well as estuarine environments are often home to marine

angiosperms, or seagrasses. These seagrasses are rooted in the "bottom" of marine

environments. This bottom, typically referred to as sediment, provides a medium for

both anchoring via roots and the uptake of nutrients. This is parallel to the role that

terrestrial soils serve for terrestrial plants, which is a holdfast for rooting and a source of

nutrients. In recognition of this, soil scientists have recognized marine bottoms capable

of supporting plants to be included in the definition of soil (Demas and Rabenhorst, 1999;

and Chapter 2).

Within the field of soil science, this represents a major expansion of pedology

because the traditional paradigm was unconcerned with aquatic soils. Within the field of

sedimentology, this represents a position that aquatic bottoms are stable, since soil

formation and rooted plant growth occur on stable substrates. Within the field of marine

botany, this will hopefully add to the understanding of the role sediments/soils have in

seagrass ecosystems.

Although soil science is generally concerned with the upper few meters of the

earth's surface, the focus on the rooting zone is a natural place to begin subaqueous soil

science, as it is the most likely portion of the soil to be influenced by rooted vegetation.

Vegetation is an important terrestrial soil-forming factor (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka,









1927; Jenny 1941) and is likely an important subaqueous soil-forming factor (Demas,

1993; Demas et al., 1996). This had previously been acknowledged by the USDA in

1975 (Soil Survey Staff, 1975; Chapter 2) but was demonstrated, in principle, by Demas

and Rabenhorst (1999; 2001). However, their research was limited to the temperate

seagrasses occurring in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Along the Southeastern and Gulf

coasts of the U.S., Caribbean species of seagrasses exist in the warmer,

subtropical/tropical, environment. These species include Thalassia testudinum,

Syringodium filiforme, Halodule wrightii, and various species of Halophilia. Soils

supporting Caribbean grasses in the subtropical Southeastern U.S. are likely to be

different from the other subaqueous soils in the U.S. Climate, water clarity, parent

material, biota, and age of landforms are unique to each area of the world. Because of the

general role soil has in supporting vegetation physically (e.g., root support) and

chemically (e.g., nutrients), the focus of this chapter will be studying the soil properties

within the rooting zone of Caribbean seagrasses occurring in the Gulf of Mexico.

Seagrass Productivity

Seagrasses are highly productive marine angiosperms. Generally, seagrasses are

considered to be among the highest production ecosystems in the world. Phillips and

McRoy (1980) report an average productivity of 500 to 1000 g C m-1 yr-1 for seagrasses,

based on Wood et al. (1969). Wood et al. (1969) also acknowledged the additional

productivity of the epiphytes on seagrass leaves, which were reported to rival the seagrass

blades in biomass. Duarte and Chiscano (1999) similarly reported a productivity rate of

1012 g C m-1 yr- for seagrasses. In an estuary in Beaufort, North Carolina, Zostera

marina covered only 17% of area but contributed 64% of the total primary production in

the estuary (Williams, 1973).









These numbers can be misleading as seagrass production and biomass within and

between species vary with geography (Duarte and Chiscano, 1999). Additionally,

estimates of seagrass production can vary based of time of year and method used

(Zieman, 1982). Production estimates based on 02 liberation are likely to be high since

the oxygen evolved is the product of the seagrass plant community. This community

may include epiphytes and other algae. Additionally, organic matter (OM) based

estimates of productivity are probably low, since seagrasses can internally cycle CO2 to

supplement C uptake from the water column (Phillips and McRoy 1980; Zieman 1982).

In fact, Zieman (1975) reported a doubling of seagrass blade volume due to CO2 build up.

Zieman (1982) suggested leaf marking as a technique for directly measuring

seagrass growth. This focus on the blade/productivity relationship of seagrasses assumes

that the increases in blade length are proportional to primary production. Below-ground

biomass is also storage for C. Variability in C partitioning may confound comparisons of

productivity based on leaf marking. Supporting the assumption that blade growth is

proportional to productivity, Dawson and Dennison (1996) reported UV photo damage

caused stress and reduced productivity. Thus, in shallow water grasses can be less

productive due to photo-stress and, therefore, have relatively shorter blades than the

deeper water grasses.

An alternate explanation of blade-length/water-depth relationships is that in

shallow water, where light is more available, seagrasses may need less surface area to

perform adequate photosynthesis. Where light is ample, a short blade may provide

enough surface area for adequate photosynthesis. It would follow that long blades would









be required to perform the same amount of photosynthesis in deeper water where less

light is available.

Compiling existing productivity estimates to gain an overall understanding of

seagrass productivity is difficult due to the production variability within and between

species coupled by the differences in methodologies. However, it can be assumed that

seagrass ecosystems are very productive, generating a considerable amount of OM in

shallow marine systems. The fate of the OM has impacts on the seagrass, the soil, and

surrounding aquatic systems.

Organic Matter Cycling in Seagrasses

Depending on the species and density of seagrass, time of year, and level of

disturbance to the grasses, the export of seagrass blades to surrounding aquatic systems

can vary. During times of high seagrass biomass, typically summer and fall, racks of

seagrass leaves are usually visible along proximate shorelines (Zieman, 1982; Zieman

and Zieman, 1989; Hemminga and Duarte, 2000).

While some of the seagrass-derived organic matter (OM) is lost due to leaf export,

much of it can remain within the system. Additionally, seagrasses act as traps for

suspended particles (Phillips and McRoy, 1980; Ward et al. 1984; Zieman 1982; Zieman

and Zieman, 1989; Duarte and Chscano, 1999; Gacia et al. 1999; Barron et al., 2004;

Papadimitriou et al., 2005). These suspended particles can be particulate OM. In addition

to the initial trapping of sestonic material imported into a seagrass bed, the squelching of

particulate export can be affected by seagrasses. Gacia et al. (1999) determined that

within Posidonia oceanica beds, the trapping of re-suspended material was more

important that the trapping of imported material.









Since most seagrasses beds occur near land, they are near the influence of that land.

The export of particulate OM from the land to the seagrasses is an important influence.

Hemming and Duarte (2000) point out that productive vegetative systems on land, such

as salt marshes and mangrove forests, export leaf litter to the seagrasses (Hemminga et al,

1995; Slim et al. 1996).

It is generally accepted that seagrasses trap and bind suspended particles much of

which is organic in nature. If a sediment accreting scenario is assumed, which is

typically the case when seagrass substrates are viewed from a sedimentological

perspective, then the fate of some of the trapped OM is burial by sedimentation. From a

soils perspective, sedimentation is not soil formation. Rather, it is the accumulation of

parent material that could later undergo pedogenesis. Post-depositional changes to the

sediment are considered soil formation. However, if deposition is amplified by

vegetation rooted in and supported by the soil, then the soil is essentially feeding itself

sedimentary material. This should be considered soil formation. Whether organic

particles settling out is labeled soil formation or sedimentation may be particularly

important to the study of seagrasses simply because it changes the perspective, set of

biases, and approach (the paradigm) from which one views the marine bottom.

In an environment where the accretion of sedimentary material is uniform in

amount and composition, the concentration of OM should decrease with depth in the

sediment simply because the deeper OM has been subjected to decomposition for a

longer period than the shallower OM. An example of this OM depth distribution in a

subaqueous soil was given by Demas and Rabenhorst (1999). The explanation given for

the OM depth distribution was not a sedimentary process. Instead, it was inferred that the









carbon concentration indicated the formation of an A horizon. The A horizon concept is

terrestrially based, but was invoked in this instance due to the perspective of soil

scientists that surficial accumulations of OM are indicative of A horizon development. In

terrestrial environments this is almost always the case. Is it the case for subaqueous

environments?

A Horizon Formation in Terrestrial Soils

In terrestrial soils, the surface horizons are usually highest in OM concentration.

This is because rooting and other biological activity (bioturbation) is the highest in the

surface of the soil. These are the vectors for organic additions to the soil.

As the collective action of the five soil-forming factors varies across the landscape,

so too does the concentration of A horizon OM. Typically, however, the vertical profile

of soil OM is consistent across the landscape. Soil OM is highest at the surface and

decreases with depth. Most soils support biota that add OM to the soil, thus most soils

have A horizons. Subaqueous soils support both vegetative and burrowing biota. Do

these soils have A horizons as well?

A Horizons in Subaqueous Soils

A fundamental difference between terrestrial and subaqueous environments is the

density of the fluid above the soil surface. The density of water is much greater than air,

thus more material can be suspended above an aquatic soil than above a terrestrial soil.

This decreases the stability of subaqueous soils relative to terrestrial soils. An enhanced

ability to suspend material results in more source material for sedimentation. Thus,

sedimentation is more pronounced in an aquatic environment. To what degree, then, does

sedimentation contribute to the surficial accumulation of OM? To what degree do plant

inputs contribute to the accumulation of OM? Are the surficial accumulations of OM in









subaqueous soils actually A horizons? Addressing these questions will likely be the

goals of future subaqueous research. Currently, there is a need to document the nature

and distribution of subaqueous "A horizons" as they relate to seagrasses.

Initially Investigating Soil/Vegetation Relationships in an Aquatic Environment

In aquatic areas, because of the likelihood of re-suspending soil material and

because of the lack of vertical drainage, the terrestrial model of leaching/translocation of

soil material, cannot be assumed as it is for terrestrial soils. Because vertical drainage is

probably absent in subaqueous soils, subsurface horizons such as spodic or argillic

horizons are likely to reflect past terrestrial conditions, not present subaqueous

conditions.

The most likely portion of soil that will reflect the contemporary intersection of the

five soil-forming factors (Dokuchaev, 1883; Glinka, 1927; Jenny, 1941) is the soil

surface horizon. The injection of OM via roots, the vertical movement of OM due to

animal burrowing, and the burial of OM due to sedimentation can all occur in a seagrass

bed (Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; Barron et al., 2004).

These processes add OM to the soil, thus forming A horizons.

Before undertaking large pedological efforts such as subaqueous soil surveys or

before making interpretations/inferences based on soil morphology, it is important to first

understand, among other things, how and why the soil properties of the surficial horizon

are related to organic-ground cover. Some relationships have already been established.

Demas (1993) pointed out that the firmness of the bottom was related to the

presence/absence of Zostera marina but did not state what that relationship was. Most

reviews of seagrass ecology state that seagrasses trap and bind particles, some of which

are high in OM (Phillips and McRoy, 1980; McRoy and Helfferich, 1980; Zieman, 1982;









Zieman and Zieman, 1989; Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; Dawes et al. 2004). In

terrestrial soils, most rooted plants deposit OM into the soil, creating A horizons. These

A horizons are typically darker in color than the horizons below (e.g., A horizon color of

10YR 3/1 and E horizon color of 10YR 6/1). Demas et al. (1996) reported dark soil

colors 5YR 3/1 and 3/2 where Zostera marina was present, but did not compare to colors

of adjacent unvegetated areas. Demas and Rabenhorst (1999) offered an explanation of

surficial subaqueous soil morphologies:

"Elevated levels of OC in the surface layers accompanied by (sometimes irregular)
decreases with depth are exactly what are found in terrestrial analogs. These data
suggest that epipedons are forming as a result of pedogenic processes."

The suggestion here is that high levels of OM and dark colors are identified at the

surface of vegetated subaqueous soils as is in the case with terrestrial vegetated soils; A

horizon formation.

Objectives

Florida is a predominantly subtropical state with over 1200 km of coastline, much

of which supports seagrasses. The subaqueous soils that occur there have yet to be

investigated from a pedological perspective. Because these soils support rooted

vegetation it is important to understand the soil/vegetation relationships. The most likely

place to observe soil/vegetation relationships should be within the rooting zone. To avoid

confusion with the term "epipedon" which has strict taxonomic implications (Soil Survey

Staff, 1999) the term upper-pedon is used to refer to the upper portion of the soil (0 to 30

cm) in which vegetation can be rooted.

* Objective 1: Determine spatial patterns in species of seagrasses in the study area.

* Objective 2: Determine the usefulness of Landsat satellite in mapping seagrass
extent.









* Objective 3: Document the morphology of the soil within the upper-pedon

* Objective 4: Document physical and chemical properties of the soils within the
upper-pedon

* Objective 5: Determine relationships between soil properties and seagrasses
supported by the soil.

Materials and Methods

A description of the study area can be found in Chapter 1.

Aerial Photography

The Suwannee River Water Management District supplied scanned and rectified,

1:24,000 true-color aerial photography for the Cedar Key area. This imagery was

projected in State Plane North, Feet, NAD 88 HARN with a cell size of approximately 1

m. The photographs were used as the basemap for the rectification of satellite imagery.

Satellite Imagery

Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery

(http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov) was acquired for the study area (Path 17, Row 40). Landsat

7 ETM+ is a multispectral dataset which allows for the visualization of landscapes by

combinations of the individual bands and/or statistical classification of those bands.

Vegetation, urbanized areas, water, etc. are identifiable because of the unique spectral

signature that various land-covers/land-uses impart on the landscape.

Landsat imagery is delivered the form of band-layer scenes. Each Landsat 7 ETM+

scene covers approximately 35,000 km2 of the earth's surface with a 6-day period of

return. Each band-layer is a regularly spaced grid of spectral values. The data on six of

the bands (Bands 1-5, and 7) are spaced by 30 m. The thermal band (Band 6) data are

spaced 60 m and the panchromatic band (Band 8) data are spaced 15 m. The light









attenuation by water restricts the use of all bands in aquatic systems, but more so for the

bands of longer wavelength (Bands 4 to 7).

Scene Selection: Attenuation of bands by water or cloud cover within the study

area was minimized using a set of three criteria for scene selection:

* Criteria 1: Scene acquisition time coinciding with low turbidity and long seagrass
blade length

* Criteria 2: Scene acquisition time coinciding with low water levels

* Criteria 3: No cloud cover visible within the study area portion of the scene

Scene selection was narrowed starting with Criteria 1. Near Cedar Key, FL low

turbidity months are generally occur when waters are cold and phytoplankton growth is at

a minimum (November-March, with January and February being the clearest). Within

the study area it was observed that seagrass blades are the shortest during the winter

months (January through March). Therefore, November and December were selected as

possible months of clear water and long seagrass blade length.

To satisfy Criteria 2, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

(NOAA) tidal records for Cedar Key, FL were used to determine which of the available

November and December Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes were acquired at low tide.

Prior to purchase, scene previews are made available (http://www.landsat.org).

These previews were used to determine which scenes satisfied Criteria 3. Additionally,

cloud cover percent was reported in the metadata for all Landsat scenes. Scenes with a

cloud cover of greater than 10% were excluded from the visual inspection. The most

recent scene with the no visible cloud cover within the study area and satisfying all three

criteria was purchased for analysis.









The Landsat 7 ETM+ scene for November 7, 2002 (path 17, row 40) satisfied all

the selection criteria and was therefore purchased (Figure 3-1). This scene was compared

to another path 17 row 40 scene (10-30-1999) that was acquired near high tide (Figure 3-

2). Visual inspection of 5-4-3 band layer composites of both scenes showed that upland

vegetation was visible at both tides but SAV was only visible at low tide (Figure 3-2a).

This confirmed that the 2002 scene was acquired at a low enough tide to observe

seagrasses.

Pre-analysis data configuration: Before analysis, the scene was rectified to the

aerial photography. The scene was radiometrically corrected so that vegetation indices

would produce meaningful values. The procedures for correcting the scene are outlined

in Thome et at. (1994) with modifications made by Teillet and Fedosejevs (1995). Also,

prior to analysis, portions of the scene greater than 20 km outside the study area were

removed to expedite analysis. The 1990 United States Census Bureau TIGER/Line File

layer was converted to raster (30 m cell size) then used to remove upland portions of the

scene. The remaining areas of the scene were determined to be aquatic.

Seagrass Mapping

Patterns in seagrass distribution were visually observed in the field when water

levels were at or below MLW. Specific attention was placed on vegetative gradient

where elevation changed (e.g., around bars and on the edges of flats). This information

was used to interpret aerial and satellite imagery. Seagrass distributions were initially

investigated using photo tone of the aerial photography coupled with the field

observations.

Although high quality color aerial photography was available for the entire study

area, it was desirable to determine the usefulness of Landsat satellite imagery for





















S Aquatic Habitats .

Terrestrial Habitats



N


20 km






S I *.. "
Figure 3-1. Bands 5-4-3 composite ofLandasat 7 ETM+ scene: Path 17, Row 40. The date of the scene was November 7, 2002.
Projection shown is UTM Zone 17 NAD83. The study area 5 km southwest of Cedar Key, FL and is approximately
identified by the yellow arrow.

















































Figure 3-2. Comparison ofLandsat 7 ETM+ imagery acquired for study area (Path 17,
Row 40) A) at low tide, B) and high tide. Images are composites (Band 5 =
red display colors, Band 4 = green display colors, Band 3 = blue display
colors) designed to color vegetation green. Because of the high attenuation of
near-infrared (Band 4: 0.76-0.90 [tm) and mid-infrared (Band 5: 1.55-1.75
[tm) by water, composites of Bands 5, 4, and 3 do not penetrate very well into
the deeper aquatic portions (>1 m depth) of the study area. The result is a
dominance of blue display colors from Band 3 red: (0.63 |tm 0.69 [tm) in the
deeper areas.









mapping seagrasses. Since the seagrass blades were likely exposed at the time of scene

acquisition, a Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated to enhance

photosynthetically active areas (Rouse et al., 1974; Deering et al., 1975; Huete et al..

2002).

Using the aerial photography, locations where seagrasses transitioned into

unvegetated areas and where shallow water transitioned into deep water were identified.

Within these zones, 100 deep-shallow water locations were digitized and 30 seagrass-

unvegetated locations were digitized. The reason less seagrass-unvegetated locations

were digitized is that there were fewer areas where these transitions occurred. These

locations were then used to extract the NDVI values.

The average NDVI values for the seagrass-unvegetated and the deep-shallow water

transitions were used as threshold NDVI values. These threshold values were then used

to classify the study area into three classes: deep water, seagrass, and unvegetated. A

fourth class, uplands, was pre-determined by using the TIGER county boundaries.

The final NDVI-derived seagrass map, the aerial photography, and the field

observations were used to characterize the distribution of seagrasses within the study

area. This understanding was then used to construct a sampling design for soil analysis.

Soil Sampling and Analyses

Sampling design: For soil sampling, seagrass-cover of the shallow-water soils (<

1 m deep MLLW) was divided into four classes: 1) Halodule wrightii (HAL), 2)

Thalassia testudinum (THAL), 3) Thalassia / Syringodiumfiliforme mixed stand

(THAL/SYR) and 4) unvegetated (UNVEG). For each of the four seagrass cover classes,

five random locations were chosen for soil sampling (Figure 3-3). No soil samples were

collected in deep (>1 m at MLLW) water areas. At each site the upper 30 cm of the soil






























V'i


Figure 3-3. Location map of soils sampled according to seagrass species. The cover site
abbreviations are: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule wrightii (HAL),
Thalassia testudinum (THAL), and Thalassia /Syringodium fliforme mixed
stand (THAL/SYR). The X locates a pedon (THAL-REP) that was sampled
to represent Thalassia testudinum areas.









(hereto referred to as the "upper-pedon") was sampled using a spade shovel with a 40 cm

long, 10 cm wide blade. The term upper-pedon is used to avoid confusion with the term

epipedon, which has a strict taxonomic definition. The design of the shovel allowed the

retrieval of an in-tact upper-pedon. The upper pedon was split into three samples: 0 to 10

cm, 10 to 20 cm, 20 to 30 cm. An additional site, THAL-REP was chosen for deeper

analysis. The pedon was sampled from the surface to a depth of 160 cm, at 15 cm

intervals.

Soil morphology: To provide a single assessment of soil color for each depth zone

sampled, the immediate, crushed colors of the upper pedons samples were determined. A

uniform soil mixture was obtained by gently rubbing a portion of the soil three times

between the thumb and forefinger. This was done to achieve a soil color that represented

all the soil material in the sample. The rubbed soil was visually compared to a Munsell

Color Book (Gretag/Macbeth, 2000). It was important to determine soil color

immediately because inundated soils often change color when exposed to oxygen (Figure

3-4). Once soil color was determined for all upper-pedon samples, those and the THAL-

REP samples were collected for laboratory analysis

Laboratory analyses: All samples were analyzed for particle-size distribution

(PSD) using the pipette method (Gee and Bauder, 1986) and organic matter content by

weight loss on ignition (Donkin, 1991). Soils were not acidified to remove carbonates.

Additionally, the THAL-REP samples were analyzed for biogenic silica (Hallmark, et al.,

1986).

After the sampling was conducted and soils/landscapes observed, a representative

soil location was chosen for each cover class (Figure 3-5). At each representative










































figure j-4. Example or a pea Irom me norizon or an unvegetatea suotropical
subaqueous soil showing the oxidized exterior and gleyed (reduced) interior.
The ped was immediately removed from the soil after sampling and exposed
to air for 30 min prior to sectioning. Note the gleyed colors in the interior of
the ped and the oxidized colors on the outside of the ped. The entire ped was
one color (the gleyed color of the interior) prior to the 30 min of air exposure.











































Figure 3-5. Locations of modal upper-pedons representing the soils sampled in the
different seagrasses. Upper-pedon HAL-T was located on the protected side
of a bar that typically occurs on the edge of grassflats adjacent to channels.
The vegetative cover was Halodule wrightii. Upper-pedon THAL-T was
located 30 m away from HAL, in the direction of the grassflat. The vegetative
cover was Thalassia testudinum. Upper-pedon THAL/SYR-T was located in
the interior of a grassflat. The vegetative cover was a mixed stand of
Thalassia and Syringodiumfiliforme. Upper-pedon UNVEG-T was located
on an unvegetated area adjacent to an erosional beach.









location, the in-tact upper-pedon was sampled with the spade and immediately described.

Soil descriptions included USDA textural class, which was estimated in the field. After

describing an upper-pedon, it was placed in-tact into a plastic tray for storage and

transport. After five days of exposure to air, the upper-pedons were photographed and

described to document changes in soil color.

Additionally, to investigate the genesis of the OM in soils, a soil supporting a

mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium was sampled every 15 cm to a depth of 160

cm. These samples were analyzed for OM content, biogenic silica, particle size

distribution (PSD), and C:N ratios. OM and PSD were determined as previously

described. Biogenic silica was determined colormetrically (Hallmark et al., 1986). C:N

ratios were determined from Total Carbon and Total Nitrogen measured using a Costech

Model 4010 Elemental Analyzer.

Results and Discussion

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Mapping

Ground-truth observations revealed that most vegetated areas had a water depth of

approximately 10 cm at MLLW. Areas that were slightly exposed (< 20 cm above

MLLW) were unvegetated to vegetated sparsely. Areas higher in elevation were not

vegetated. The shallow, vegetated areas were arranged as extensive flats. Vegetation

was ubiquitous across these flats. Deep areas (> 1 m deep at MLLW) adjacent to the flats

were not vegetated. The elevation range of seagrass vegetation was therefore 100 cm

below MLLW to 20 cm above MLLW. These areas are referred to as "shallow-vegetated

areas". The areas greater than 100 cm deep at MLLW are referred to as "deep water".

The remaining areas, greater than 20 cm above MLLW, are therefore referred to as

"shallow-unvegetated" (Table 3-1).









Table 3-1. Land classification scheme based on water depth.

Water Depth Range
(relative to MLLW) Depth Classification Soil/Non-soil?
< 20 cm shallow unvegetated soil
20-100 cm shallow-vegetated soil
> 100cm deep water non-soil

Thus, deep water was considered to be any area greater than 1 m deep at MLLW.

Shallow water areas were the remainder. For this study, "non-soil" was considered to be

unvegetated areas too deep to currently support seagrass growth (Figure 3-6).

A visual analysis of the study area and surrounding areas using the 5-4-3 composite

of the Landsat scene revealed that an appreciable amount of the aquatic area was

vegetated and thus very shallow at low tide (Figure 3-7). Shallow areas extended from

land but also occur as isolated areas. The shallow portions of the study area were

dissected by channels of deep water.


MHW

SAV -
Ullllill **fk I *lUfl U.U=UlIfi dkl, *fu_ i-^


MLW

LCP



-. Non-Soil


Figure 3-6. Subaqueous landscape showing the waterward extent of soil. The red dashed
line is a conceptual representation of light compensation point (LCP) where
the soil does not receive enough light to support submerged aquatic vegetation
(SAV). The zone between Mean Low Water (MLW) and Mean High Water
(MHW) is dominantly unvegetated, however rising sea level may allow for
vegetation to spread into these areas.


~aulin~r;B~e~B~e~YI


v










































Unvegetated (Deep) SAV

,Unvegetated (Shallow) Land
Figure 3-7. Satellite image of study area near Cedar Key, FL showing the classification of
vegetation. The basemap is a Landsat 7 ETM+ 5-4-3 composite (November 7,
2002) which was acquired at an extreme low tide. Terrestrial areas mapped
by the US Census Bureau are colored grey and the shorelines are outlined in
black. The 5-4-3 band composite imparts green colors to vegetated areas.
Therefore, green areas in the figure are mostly submerged aquatic vegetation
(SAV) beds that are exposed at low tide or under less than 50 cm of water.
At normal high tide, the water is 1.5 m higher. Note the presence of seagrass
around each of the barrier islands. Some vegetated areas are protected and
influenced by the islands while other areas are more isolated from land and
thus more exposed to wind and waves. Darker blue areas are deep water and
light blue or white areas are shallow sand bars.









Visual inspection of the seagrass flats at MLLW revealed that seagrass coverage

was extensive and dense in most shallow, open portions of the study area away from

Seahorse Key. There are two coves, one was vegetated and one unvegetated. The

unvegetated cove had deeper water than the flats. Where it merged with land, it

supported a salt marsh community. The vegetated cove was similar in elevation to the

flats (Figure 3-7). Vegetated areas ranged in water depths from 20 cm above water at

MLLW to 100 cm at MLLW. No vegetation was observed in the areas deeper or

shallower than the flats. At MLLW, it was confirmed that the water level was low

enough for the seagrass leaves to be exposed to air.

The NDVI derived from the satellite imagery was also used to classify the aquatic

portions of the study area into shallow vegetated, shallow unvegetated, or deep

unvegetated. This classification was based on an NDVI threshold of 0.25. This value

was determined by comparing NDVI values at several locations along the shallow

vegetated to deep water transition and the shallow vegetated to unvegetated transition.

These points were identified using aerial photography and the coordinates were used to

extract the NDVI values from the NDVI map (Figure 3-8). The average NDVI value at

the shallow vegetated to deep water transition was 0.23. The average NDVI value at the

shallow vegetated unvegetated transition was 0.26. A threshold value of 0.25 was

therefore used to identify the shallow vegetated areas. Areas with an NDVI > 0.25 were

classified as shallow vegetated. Manual inspection of many shallow unvegetated pixels

revealed that NDVI values were not below 0. Therefore areas with NDVI values

between 0 and 0.25 were classified as unvegetated. NDVI could not be used to

differentiate between shallow unvegetated and the unvegetated fringe slightly deeper than











































-0.7 0 0.25 0.7


Deep Water Unvegetated Seagrass Land
Figure 3-8. Normalized Vegetative Difference Index (NDVI) view of the study area (A)
calculated from a Landsat 7 ETM+ scene (B). Generally, seagrasses exist in
shallow areas with NDVI > 0.25. The unvegetated areas, both shallow and
deep have NDVI values ranging from 0 to 0.25. Deep water areas have NDVI
values < 0. Yellow circles represent points at the transition from deep to
shallow water. Red triangles represent points at the transition from seagrass
to unvegetated These locations were determined visually using aerial
photography (C).


I









the vegetated areas (Figure 3-9). The ratio of shallow area to deep area was 0.23, thus the

extent of soil within the study area is 23% of the total aquatic area.

Landscape and Seagrass Patterns

Field observations revealed subtle patterns in the landscape and vegetation. The

interior portions of the grass flats were slightly higher in elevation (-10 cm) than the

outer portions. The interiors were vegetated with Thalassia (Figure 3-10) while outer

portions of the flats were vegetated with a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium

(Figure 3-11). Thalassia displayed a phenotypic plasticity with shorter blades where it

occurred in the shallow, inner portions of the flats and had longer blades where it

occurred in the deep, outer portions of the flats. The edges of the flats sharply graded in

elevation to deep, unvegetated areas (Figure 3-12).

Along some channel edges and near some shores of Seahorse Key raised bars

occurred. The shallowest portions of the bars were more than 20 cm above MLLW and

were unvegetated. The deep portions of the bars were a few cm above and below

MLLW. These deeper areas were sparsely vegetated with Halodule. Adjacent to and a

few cm lower in elevation than the bars, were areas of dense Halodule (Figure 3-13).

Adjacent to those areas and grading down into the flats were areas of monotypic, short-

bladed Thalassia. These bar-to-flat transitions of landscape and vegetation were

consistent for most of the flats that were adjacent to channels. Within a range of

elevation of 20 cm above MLLW and 1 m below MLLW, SAV was ubiquitous. Some

small patches of unvegetated soil occurred in the grass beds, but these were of minor

extent.












































M Deep Water M Unvegetated E Seagrass M Upland

Figure 3-9. Benthic classification of the study area. The classification was conducted
using a Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI) calculated from a
Landsat 7 ETM+ scene acquired at low tide. The following NDVI ranges
were used: Deep water (< 0), Unvegetated (0 to 0.25), and Seagrass (> 0.25).
Upland areas were not included in the analysis.



























p~IC~J


V,


Figure 3-10. Monotypic stands of Thalassia testudinum growing on a shallow flat near
Cedar Key, FL. Pictures were taken at mean low water. A) Long grass
blades. B) Short grass blades.


^-.-tf^ <^
tCf^ b~ r'"^ ^pC
A^^- "/*.O^
iterft/ .^ .v ^


~1

































cP^m ?5

^.f "


Figure 3-11. Mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodiumfiliforme growing on
a shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL. Pictures were taken with water elevation
50 cm above mean low tide. Photograph A was taken above water and
photograph B was taken below water.


r 1


Ih 4Qq


''i*



































igure 3-12. Typical edge of a shallow seagrass flat near Cedar Key, FL. Vegetation is a
mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodiumfiliforme. The picture
was taken with a water depth 50 cm above mean low tide. The lower right
portion of the picture is typical of the deep, unvegetated areas that exist on the
edge of the grass flats.
























































Figure 3-13. Monotypic stand of Halodule wrightii growing on a raised portion of a
shallow flat near Cedar Key, FL. A) the grass bed shows the dense coverage
of Halodule. The white arrow in A points to the location of the underwater
picture (B).









Upper-Pedon and Vegetation Relationships

The three soils sampled at each site were analyzed for OM content and PSD. These

data were averaged to provide a composite estimate of soil properties at each site

(Appendix A-i). Soil colors) was also described. It is possible to average Munsell

color parameters. For example, the average Munsell color of the five UNVEG samples

in Appendix A-i is 4.0Y 6.8/1.0. The closest Munsell color chip available for visual

comparison is 5Y 7/1. The parameters of this chip are determined by rounding the

average parameters. Hue is rounded from 4.0 to 5, value is rounded from 6.8 to 7, and

chroma is rounded from 1.0 to 1. This is done simply to provide a Munsell color that is

available in the Munsell color book to accompany the average soil properties reported

in Table 3-1.

The chroma values for all sites were either 1 or 2, except for one site which had a

chroma of 3 (Appendix A-i). The soil values, however, ranged from 2.5 to 7. Soils,

therefore, ranged from dark to light, low chroma colors. Soil color value was negatively

correlated with OM content (Figure 3-14) and silt content (Figure 3-15a), but positively

correlated with sand contents (Figure 3-15b).

While no quantitative assessment of above seagrass biomass, blade length, or

percent cover was conducted, it was evident in the field that HAL areas had the shortest

blades, lowest percent cover, and lowest above-ground seagrass biomass. THAL had a

moderate blade length, percent cover, and above-ground seagrass biomass. THAL/SYR

had the greatest blade length, percent cover, and above-ground seagrass biomass.

The sand and OM contents were negatively correlated (Figure 3-16a) while the silt

and OM of contents were positively correlated (Figure 3-16b). Care must be taken when

interpreting PDS values, however, because clay contents were very low for all soils






59


10
%OM = -0.8661 Value + 6.3565
R2 = 0.78

8



S6 A x UNVEG
o o HAL
A A
(D THAL
(D A THAL/SYR
0 4 -
n Linear (All Locations)


2 80



0
0 2 4 6 8
Munsell Value


Figure 3-14. Negative relationship between OM content and soil color value. The
clustering of points at a value of 2.5 is an artifact of the visual soil color
technique. The 2.5 value color chip is the lowest value on the 5Y and 2.5Y
pages in the Munsell Color book (Gretag/Macbeth, 2000), thus soil colors
darker than this chip were assigned a value of 2.5. Ground cover class
abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL,
and Thalassia/Syringodium (THAL/HAL).







60


15
A % Silt = -2.1148* Value + 16.484 A
A R2 = 0.81
A


10 -
*3 *.*
10
E *

5_


x UNVEG
o HAL
THAL
A THAL/SYR x
Linear (All Locations)
0 -

% Sand = 2.1371 Value + 83.217 X
R2 = 0.81
97





I 92 x
0o





87 a X UNVEG
A o HAL
A THAL
A THALSYR
Linear (All Locations)
82
0 2 4 6 8
Munsell Value

Figure 3-15. Relationship between silt and sand contents related to soil color. Note that
silt (A) and sand (B) show equally as strong but opposite linear relationships
with soil color value. Ground cover class abbreviations: unvegetated
(UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia/Syringodium
(THAL/HAL).











8




6



0
4-
C-



2




0


90
Percent Sand


%OM = 0.3962 *%Silt 0.2926
R2= 0.91

A



A





Sex UNVEG
O HAL
THAL

A THAL/SYR
Linear (All Locations)

5 10 15
Percent Silt


Figure 3-16. Strong linear relationship between the amount of OM in the soil and percent
sand (A). An inverse relationship exists with percent clay (B). Ground cover
class abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule (HAL), Thalassia
THAL, and Thalassia/Syringodium (THAL/HAL).


%OM = -0.3932 %Sand + 38.967
R2 =0.91

A



A




\ UNVEG
o HAL
THAL
A THAL/SYR
- Linear (All Locations)









sampled. Because silt was calculated as the residual mass once sand and clay contents

had been measured, the sand and silt were strongly correlated for all sites (Figure 3-17).

Being a residual, silt would also be sensitive to experimental error. Sand contents,

however, are directly measured, so the relationship between sand and OM contents is

valid. The strong linear relationships between soil color and OM content and PSD

suggest that for this area, soil properties may be confidently inferred simply by observing

soil color. If this relationship exists for other subaqueous soils, pedologists can simply

observe soil as it occurs in the field and infer the OM contents and PSD values.

Visual inspection of Figures 3-14 through 3-17 reveals strong clustering of soil

properties according to seagrass cover class. Therefore, the soil properties of each site

(Appendix A-i) were averaged for each seagrass cover class to summarize the soil

properties as they relate to seagrass cover type (Table 3-2). To determine the average soil

color for each cover class, the hue, value, and chroma of all five sites were averaged, and

that average was rounded to the nearest Munsell color chip. Although Munsell colors

can exist for hue-value-chroma combinations other than those in a Munsell color book,

rounding to the nearest chip provided a single color designation that was consistent with

how soil colors are reported.

Moving from one portion of the landscape to another, vegetative characteristics

changes from unvegetated to Halodule to single stands or mixed stands of Thalassia and

Syringodium. The averages in Table 3-2 show that soil properties therefore grade across

the landscape with vegetation. The heavier cover of Thalassia and Syringodium mixed

stands may be contributing to the larger amounts of OM and silt, thus resulting in darker

colors in the soil (Table 3-2). Alternatively, the high amounts of OM and silt may






63


20
%Silt = -0.99 %Sand + 98.875
R2 = 0.99


15



FO
( 10
(D_


x UNVEG
5 O HAL
THAL
A THAL/SYR
Linear (All Locations)
0 -
80 85 90 95 100
Percent Sand

Figure 3-17. Strong linear relationship between the sand and silt contents of all sites
sampled. This resulted because silt was calculated as a residual after
determining clay and sand contents. Clay contents were very low for all
samples. Ground cover class abbreviations: unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule
(HAL), Thalassia THAL, and Thalassia/Syringodium (THAL/ HAL).












Table 3-2. Upper-pedon average organic matter content and particle-size distribution for sites located in four seagrass cover classes:
unvegetated (UNVEG), Halodule wrightii (HAL), Thalassia testudinum (THAL), and Thalassia /Syringodium filiforme
mixed stand (THAL/SYR). Averages are based on five locations per seagrass cover class (See Appendix A-i for site data).
The numbers in parentheses are standard deviations of the five observations.

Estimated Organic Matter Particle Size Distribution Soil Color
Cover Class
Biomass % by LOI % Moist Rubbed

Clay Silt Sand Hue Value Chroma
UNVEG None 0.5 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) 2.3(1.1) 97.5 (1.0) 5Y 7 1
HAL Low 2.1(0.2) 0.2 (0.0) 5.8 (0.3) 94.0 (0.3) 2.5Y 5 2
THAL Medium 3.3 (0.4) 0.2(0.0) 9.5(1.6) 90.3(1.6) 2.5Y 3 1
THAL/SYR High 5.1(0.7) 0.2 (0.0) 13.0(1.2) 86.8(1.2) 2.5Y 2.5 1









encourage the growth of thick cover plants. In either case, the following generalizations

can be made:

* The upper-pedon of soils are related to the vegetation they support.
* Soil OM increases as the vegetative biomass increases.
* Percent silt increases as the vegetative biomass increases.

Upper-pedon Soil Morphologies

Detailed investigations of the morphologies of soils occurring at the modal

locations (Figure 3-5) revealed that the patterns of colors are related to seagrass species.

The UNVEG-T soil was similar in oxidized color to the soils on the nearby land

(Seahorse Key), a likely source of sedimentary material to the subaqueous environment.

The colors of the soil were 5Y 7/1 when immediately sampled (Figure 3-18a), but

changed to 10YR 7/4 when oxidized (Figure 3-18b). No OM, roots, or shells were

visible within the upper-pedon. The USDA Soil Survey Report for Levy County, FL

(Slabaugh et al., 1996) depicts Orsino, a hyperthermic, uncoated, Spodic

Quartzipsamment, as the dominant soil on the island. The Bw horizon (94 cm to 175 cm

depth) was reported to have a color of 10YR 7/6 while the C horizon (> 175 cm depth)

was reported as 10YR 7/4. The similarity in soil color between the unvegetated areas and

the Orsino on the adjacent island indicates the soils of the island are most likely a

contributor of parent material via erosion to these unvegetated soils.

The HAL-T soil occurring in the areas vegetated by Halodule had a matrix color of

2.5Y 6/1 when reduced and 10YR 7/2 when oxidized. Light areas (5Y 7/1 reduced;10YR

7/3 oxidized) and dark areas (5YR 3/1 reduced; 10YR 3/1 oxidized) were apparent

throughout the upper-pedon (0 to 10 cm). The colors of the upper-pedon increased in

value and chroma upon exposure to air along with changing to a redder hue, but retained

















Top of Soil


*~**' I.'.
Vi


II


I

'I


1 cn /
I I
Tcrm '
^ 'N


Figure 3-18. Upper-pedons of a soil occurring at location UNVEG-T: a shallow
unvegetated area adjacent to an erosional beach on Seahorse Key. The
photograph on the left (A) was taken immediately after the soil was retrieved,
therefore colors are of the moist soil in its natural state. The photograph on
the right (B) was taken of moistened soil, one day after the soil sampling.
Therefore colors are of the moist soil in its oxidized state. The colors closely
resemble those of the sands from the adjacent land, Seahorse Key. No
evidence of pedogenesis is evident within the soil. The soil was extracted 20
m from a mangrove tree that had begun to take root. Thus potential support
for vegetation was offered by this soil.


'.1


ii./ q .
#


r









the contrast between matrix, light, and dark areas. Generally, the dark areas occurred as

small spheroid or cylindrical areas, occupying less than 50% of the total area of a soil

profile. Typically, the spheroids were a few mm in diameter while the cylindrical dark

areas were a few mm in diameter and a few cm in length.

The THAL-T location was 30 m from the HAL-T location. The soil was vegetated

with short-bladed Thalassia. The oxidized and reduced colors of the upper-pedon were

identical to those in the HAL-T soil. The pattern of dark and light areas was also similar,

but the dark areas were more numerous, typically occupying up to 70% of the area in a

profile. This gave the soil a dark appearance in its oxidized (Figure 3-19) and reduced

states (Figure 3-20). The greater volume of darker soil when compared to HAL-T

(Figure 3-21) is probably the reason for differences in average value along with average

OM, silt, and sand contents between the HAL and THAL soils.

The THAL/SYR-T soil was dark in matrix color (5YR 3/1 reduced; 10YR 3/1

oxidized) throughout the upper pedon (Figure 3-22 for reduced colors and Figure 3-23 for

oxidized colors). Of minor extent in the upper-pedon were small areas of light color soil

(5Y 5/1 reduced; 10YR 6/2 oxidized). Mollusk shells were observed through the upper-

pedon, possibly indicating a large amount of bioturbaton or sedimentation. Clams are

burrowing organisms, so the presence of clam shells suggested bioturbation was taking

place resulting in light colored areas in the soil. Scallops reside on the benthic surface,

therefore the presence of these shells throughout the upper-pedon suggest past soil

surfaces were buried through sedimentation.

Combined, the lab and field data show that OM and silt contents are high where

dense beds of seagrass (mixed stands of Thalassia and Syringodium) are rooted in the









0 cm -


5 cm


A










10 cm -


Figure 3-19. Upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T: a soil occurring on a
bar near Cedar Key, FL vegetated with Halodule wrightii. Note the
polychromatic nature of the soil. A shell is visible about 7 cm deep in the soil
(A), probably indicating bioturbation as a possible reason for the intermingled
colors. Diffuse boundaries exist between the dark splotches and the lighter
matrix (B). This indicates a gradient of material (e.g., organic matter) within
the soil. Dead roots are also apparent within the profile, possibly contributing
to soil organic matter. Near Cedar Key, this morphology seems to be
consistent with the presence of Halodule wrightii. This photograph was
taken immediately after the soil was sampled. Therefore, colors are of the
moist soil in its natural state.











































Figure 3-20. Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location HAL-T: a soil
occurring on a bar near Cedar Key, FL vegetated with Halodule wrightii. The
red streaks are dead Halodule roots. The dark splotch (B) located within the
lighter portion of the matrix is a feature common to soils associated with
Halodule. These features seem to most frequently occur in and around live or
dead roots (A). Where occurring below the rooting zone, they are not
necessarily accompanied by visible dead roots. This photograph was taken
after the soil had been exposed to air for a week. Therefore, colors are of the
soil in its oxidized state.










SiW


7 --

Figure 3-21. Side-by-side comparison of upper-pedons from HAL-T (A) and THAL-T
(B) soils. These soils occurred on a bar near a channel. Note the polyvalue
appearance of both soils. The matrix color and color of dark and light areas
are identical in both soils. There is a higher concentration of dark areas in B.
This photograph was taken after the soil had been exposed to air for a week.
Therefore, colors are of the soil in its oxidized state.


i ~ill;-~i i









0 cm -


5 cm














10 cm
Figure 3-22. Upper-pedon at location THAL/SYR-T: a soil occurring underneath a mixed
stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodiumfiliforme near Cedar Key, FL.
Note the dark colors throughout the soil. Shells and dead roots are visible in
the soil suggesting bioturbation from the mollusks and rooting throughout the
upper 10 cm by the seagrasses. This soil appears to be typical of flats
supporting a mixed stand of Thalassia and Syringodium. This photograph was
taken immediately after the soil was sampled. Therefore, colors are of the soil
in its natural state.


















































Figure 3-23. Oxidized upper-pedon of a soil occurring at location THAL/SYR-T: a soil
occurring underneath a mixed stand of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium
filiforme near Cedar Key, FL. Note the dark colors throughout the soil. Some
linear streaks are evident within the soil as are mollusk and clam shells. The
yellow arrow points to dead roots that occur throughout the soil. This
photograph was taken after the soil had been exposed to air for five days.
Therefore, colors are of the soil in its oxidized state.









soil. The dark colors values of the soil reflect the high concentrations of OM and silt.

Sparse vegetation (Halodule and monotypic Thalassia) are associated with moderate

amounts of silt and OM. The light color values compared to soils supporting dense

vegetation reflects the low concentrations of OM and silt. The unvegetated areas are

devoid of rooted seagrasses and almost devoid of concentrations of OM and silt. The

extremely light soil color values reflect this.

Subaqueous A Horizons

The upper-pedons of all vegetated soils are dark in color and have elevated levels

of OM compared to the unvegetated soils. It appears as if these soils have A horizons.

Much discussion has been made of A horizon formation in terrestrial soils (Dokuchaev,

1883; Simonson, 1959; Soil Survey Staff, 1975; Soil Survey Staff, 1993) resulting from

rooted plants that add biomass (e.g., roots, leaves) to the soil. The A horizon concept is

fundamental to soil science. One can assume that most terrestrial soils supporting

vegetation will have an A horizon. For the purposes of this research, it will be assumed

that these horizons are A horizons. The presence of rooted vegetation and elevated OM

within the rooting zone support this assumption. To demonstrate that these horizons are

A horizons and not just organic rich C horizons, the genesis of the upper-pedons must be

studied.

Genesis of Upper-Pedon Organic Matter

Silt-sized particles and OM were related for the upper 30 cm of all soils sampled

(Figure 3-16b). These soil properties were also related to seagrass cover, suggesting the

OM and silt were derived mainly from the trapping and settling. If the nature of the silt-

sized particles was planktonic, and if that is where the soil OM originated from, then the









concentration of biogenic silica (from diatoms) in the soil would be related to soil OM.

Therefore, the biogenic silica in selected soils was studied.

Biogenic silica: Depth trends in silt, biogenic silica, and OM contents are shown in

Figure 3-24 for a representative soil occurring at a random location that supported mixed

stand of Thalassia and Syringodium (296'36"N, 83o4' 12"W). Silt, biogenic silica, and

OM all fluctuate similarly within the pedon. Statistically, OM content is positively

correlated with biogenic silica (R2 = 0.74) and with silt content (R2 = 0.68) for this pedon.

The OM / silt relationships of the upper-pedons from the UNVEG, HAL, THAL, and

THAL/SYR sites along with this relationship between OM, silt, and biogenic silica

suggest that OM is caused by the trapping and binding of silt-sized biogenic silica

particles. These particles are likely plankton.

A Young Soil: On the unvegetated flat east of Seahorse Key (Figure 3-25a), a

circular mound of sand, -30 m in diameter, had built up from what appeared to be wave

action. Similar but non-circular mounds of sand were present throughout the flat,

suggesting wave action created these mounds. On MLLW, it was observed that the

unvegetated portion of the flat was completely drained except for the area inside the

circle. The mound impeded the surface drainage of tide water from within the circle.

Thalassia was present inside the circle, suggesting that this small portion of the

unvegetated flat remained wet enough throughout all tide cycles to support Thalassia.

The shape of the unvegetated flat and of the adjacent shoreline suggests that

erosion from Seahorse Key to the flat has occurred. In fact, the erosion from the unstable

shore to the flat is probably still occurring. Therefore, it can be inferred that the











0


-50


E

o -100

LU

-150


-200 5 I 0I 1 ---- I 5 I I
0 5 10 0 1 2 3 4 0 50 100 150


%Silt


% OM


[Si] (mg/L)


Figure 3-24. Depth distributions of silt (A), Organic Matter (OM) (B), and biogenic silica (C) for a pedon supporting a mixed stand of
Thalassia and Syringodium. Elevations are in cm relative to the soil surface. Note how silt, OM, and Silica (Si) follow
similar depth trends.


0-


a




a,
a









Thalassia inside the circle has recently colonized the soil. If this is the case, then the

morphology of the soil would reflect the effects of Thalassia on an unvegetated soil.

In the upper-pedon of this soil, a splotchy pattern similar to those of soils

supporting Halodule and monotypic Thalassia was observed. The amount of dark

splotches (approximately 30%) was similar to the amounts of the HAL soils (Figure 3-25

c and d). Like all unvegetated areas observed in this study, the soils of the unvegetated

areas adjacent to this soil were devoid of these morphological features.

It can therefore be inferred that Thalassia has begun to impart the polychromatic

morphology evident in the other vegetated HAL and THAL soils. Bioturbation did not

appear to be the cause of these features as no crotovena, and very few macro-

invertebrates were observed in the patch of seagrass or in the adjacent unvegetated soil.

It is possible that root processes such as root exudation cause a build up of OM in

the rooting zone of the soil. The presence of adhered dark soil areas to the roots (Figure

3-26) combined with the occurrence of these dark features throughout the rooting zone of

this and all HAL and THAL soils is evidence that the roots of seagrasses cause these

features. These features do not seem to be restricted to a single seagrass species, as they

occur within the rooting zone of both Thalassia and Halodule. The fact that there were

less of these dark areas in the rooting zone of a Thalassia patch believed to be of recent

age could mean that these features build up over time.

Not only do these features seem to be independent of seagrass species, but they are

also independent of salinity. An upper-pedon from a subaqueous soil occurring along the

fringe of a sandhill lake in Volusia Count, FL. (2851'58"N, 8110'49"W) shows these

features can occur in terrestrial, fresh water subaqueous soils that support rooted

















































Figure 3-25. Rooting-zone morphology of an unvegetated soil recently colonized by
Thalassia. The area shown in A was unvegetated in 2001. At some point
within the next three years, seagrass colonized the area (B). The soil
morphology reflects the age of the soil in that the rooting zone is not as dark
as other patches of Thalassia testudinum (C). Within the rooting zone,
spheroids of darker colored soil were ubiquitous (D). Several more upper-
pedons were sampled to confirm this phenomenon and all had similar
morphologies. These features are noted in most upper-pedons ofHalodule
wrightii as well, suggesting this is not a species-specific process. These
features do not appear to be associated with crotovena from bioturbation.










Vi, ,
-.', .'i


'9~h


Figure 3-26. Isolated body of dark soil material typically found in the upper-pedons of
areas supporting Halodule wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia
testudinum. White arrow points toward the soil.









vegetation (Figure 3-27). The morphological features shown in Figures 3-25 and 3-27

are similar in size, color, and placement within the rooting zone. Like the subaqueous

soils near Cedar Key, FL, the texture of this freshwater subaqueous soil shown in Figure

3-27 is sand. This freshwater subaqueous soil is similar to the Cedar Key subaqueous

soils in texture (both are sandy), hydrology (both are submerged), and in vegetative cover

(both support rooted vegetation). The fact that dark splotches occur in both soils

highlights the probability that rooted vegetation cause these features to form in the soil.

This is A horizon formation. The nature and distribution of these features in both marine

and freshwater subaqueous soils needs to be investigated.

Subtropical Subaqueous Soils: Indicators of Historical Conditions

Further exploration of unvegetated bars along channels revealed the presence of

dark (e.g 2.5Y 2.5/1) soil material, similar in morphology to that in the surface soils of

HAL, THAL, and THAL/SYR areas. It was hypothesized that these were buried A

horizons. To test this hypothesis, aerial photography from 2001 and 1961 were compared

to determine the vegetative history of the bars.

These bars were the edges of seagrass flats in 1961 (Figure 3-28 a and b).

Expansion of the bar from 1961 to 2001 to cover vegetated areas can be seen in the

imagery. Additionally, some areas vegetated in 1961 were near eroding shorelines and,

therefore, buried by 2001 (Figure 3-28 c and d). The upper-pedon of the soil that occurs

in the area located in Figure 3-28 a and b is shown in Figure 3-29a. The dark colors in

the lower portion of the upper-pedon indicate that the area was once vegetated with

Thalassa. The gradual decrease of dark splotches from deeper portions of the pedon to

the top of the soil can be inferred as a gradual burial of Thalassia and subsequent
















































Figure 3-27. Upper-pedon of a freshwater subaqueous soil containing dark bodies. The
soil occurs on the fringe of a sandhill lake in Volusia County, FL. These
features are typically found in the upper-pedons of areas supporting Halodule
wrightii and areas recently colonized by Thalassia testudinum in Cedar Key,
FL. The red arrows point toward the dark features in the soil.








































Figure 3-28. Aerial photograph showing locations of buried seagrasses. The edge of the
grassflat in 1961 (A) appears unvegetated, likely due to wave action and high
energy due to the proximity of the channel. From 1961 to 2001 (B) the
unvegetated area spread. The green arrows in A and B indicate a location
where the seagrass bed was buried sometime between 1961 and 2001. In
2004, that location was vegetated with Halodule wrightii. The dynamic
nature of some high-energy areas is evident through the erosion that took
place between 1961 (C) and 2001 (D). The red arrow indicates a location
where a seagrass bed was buried by eroding sands. This area was unvegetated
in 2004. At this location, an A horizon was buried beneath a C horizon.
eroding sands. This area was unvegetated in 2004. At this location, an A
horizon was buried beneath a C horizon.
















































Figure 3-29. Buried A horizons in a subtropical subaqueous soil near Cedar Key, FL.
The soil on the left (A) is an upper-pedon of a soil occurring on a vegetated
flat where soil had been eroded from land into the seagrass over the past 40
years. The seagrass present at the time of excavation was Halodule wrightii
but the darker colors at depth suggest Thalassia testudinum was the previously
supported grass. This photograph was taken after the soil had been exposed to
air for a week. Therefore, colors are of the soil in its oxidized state. The soil
on the right (B) occurred in an unvegetated area proximate to an erosional
shoreline.