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The Effect of Media on Attitudes of High School Students toward the School Band and Band Members

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PAGE 1

THE EFFECT OF MEDIA ON ATTITUDE S OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARD THE SCHOOL BAND AND BAND MEMBERS By RUSSELL G. MCCUTCHEON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Russell G. McCutcheon

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To my mother, Rue Jenquin (1948 – 2003)

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research would not have been possi ble without the help and support of many colleagues, trusted advisors, family, and friends. Dr. Russell R obinson and Dr. David Waybright, chair and cochair of my superv isory committee, had an immense impact on me as a musician and scholar and have my sincere thanks. Dr. Charles Hoffer was instrumental in guiding me throughout the process of research design and methodology and deserves a great deal of credit for the successful implementation of this research. Professor Kevin Marshall, Chair of the Depa rtment of Theatre and Dance, joined my committee at a late date and has my apprec iation for his input and participation. Professor Tony Mata, also of the Department of Theatre and Dance, has been a valuable member of my committee throughout my stay at the University of Florida and continues to exert his influence from afar. Dr. Les lie Odom, doctoral advi ser in the School of Music, has been a constant s ource of both advice and laughter —she has been a source of energy for me and for many other students as well. I would like to thank my colleagues at th e University of Florida School of Music for their continued support a nd assistance. Special thanks go to Dr. Timothy Brophy of the School of Music; and Sourish Saha of the De partment of Statistics for their help with data analysis. This research would not have been po ssible without the schools, students and cooperating administration and teachers. Thanks go to all of those who gave of their time and energy.

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v Thanks go to my family for their encour agement and support (especially my sister, Jill McCutcheon; and my grandmother, Larue Crenshaw). I owe thanks to Charlene Francis and her family; it was at her encouragem ent that I returned to school and am now earning this degree. Finally, I must acknowledge Ms. Jolie Mar tin, for she was the catalyst for the completion of this research.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................x LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................xiii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Need for Study..............................................................................................................1 Purpose........................................................................................................................ .3 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................3 Limitations.................................................................................................................... 4 Delimitations.................................................................................................................4 Null Hypotheses............................................................................................................5 Statistical Analysis and Method...................................................................................5 Definitions.................................................................................................................... 5 Summary.......................................................................................................................6 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................8 Introduction................................................................................................................... 8 Psychology and the Study of Attitude..........................................................................8 Attitude Formation and Change............................................................................8 Persuasion.....................................................................................................10 Influence.......................................................................................................11 Learning Theory..................................................................................................11 Socialization........................................................................................................12 Media’s Influence on Society and Youth...................................................................14 Media and Reality................................................................................................15 Media and Attitude..............................................................................................16 Effects of Media..................................................................................................17 Television and violence................................................................................18 Media and socialization................................................................................20

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vii Media, Consumers and Advertising....................................................................21 Teens and Media..................................................................................................23 Relationship between Media and Music.....................................................................23 Music, Culture and Socialization................................................................................26 Music and Music Education.......................................................................................27 The School Wind Band...............................................................................................31 History and Background......................................................................................31 The Band Student................................................................................................32 Summary.....................................................................................................................34 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................37 Research Design.........................................................................................................37 Sample Selection........................................................................................................38 Selection of Schools............................................................................................38 Selection of Subjects...........................................................................................39 Sample Population Demographic Data...............................................................40 Research Instruments..................................................................................................44 Packet I, Part I: Biographical Data......................................................................44 Packet I, Part II: Pre-Exposure Attitudes............................................................45 Packet II: Media Examples..................................................................................45 Part III: Post-exposure Attitudes.........................................................................46 Selection and Creation of Media Examples................................................................46 Pilot Study Research Design...............................................................................46 Selection of pilot study subjects...................................................................47 Pilot study research instrument....................................................................48 Pilot Study Research Procedures.........................................................................49 Pilot study Institutional Review Board........................................................49 Pilot study survey administration.................................................................49 Analysis of Pilot Study Data...............................................................................50 Part I: Film results.......................................................................................50 Part II: Television results............................................................................51 Part III: Advertising....................................................................................52 Summary of Pilot Data........................................................................................52 Selection of media examples........................................................................52 Creation of media examples video...............................................................53 Research Procedures: Full Study................................................................................55 Full Study Institutional Review Board................................................................55 Testing Procedures..............................................................................................55 Treatment of Data................................................................................................56 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................58 Introduction.................................................................................................................58 Results of Main Effect................................................................................................59

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viii Attitude Change by Specific Media Example............................................................65 Exposure 1: Animal House ..................................................................................66 Exposure 2: The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… ............................................66 Exposure 3: American Pie I & II .........................................................................67 Exposure 5: Drumline ..........................................................................................69 Exposure 5: The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa ..........................................................69 Exposure 6: The Music Man ................................................................................70 Exposure 7: School of Rock .................................................................................71 Exposure 8: 10 Things I Hate About You ............................................................72 Exposure 9: Mean Girls .......................................................................................73 Exposure 10: Mr. Holland’s Opus .......................................................................74 Attitude Change in Subjects with Prior Band Experience versus No Prior Band Experience..............................................................................................................75 Conclusion..................................................................................................................77 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................79 Summary.....................................................................................................................79 Conclusions: Research Question 1......................................................................81 Conclusions: Research Question 2......................................................................84 Attitude Change by Specific Media Example.....................................................84 Discussion...................................................................................................................86 Recommendations.......................................................................................................90 APPENDIX A RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS..................................................................................91 B PILOT STUDY RESEARCH INSTRUMENT........................................................103 C PILOT STUDY INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION......109 Informed Consent.....................................................................................................109 Institutional Review Board Protocol........................................................................110 D PILOT STUDY INSTRUCTIONS...........................................................................112 E PILOT STUDY ADDITIONAL DATA...................................................................113 Film and Television Results.....................................................................................113 Total Media Results..................................................................................................120 F FAIR-USE CHECKLIST.........................................................................................123 G INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION................................125 Informed Consent.....................................................................................................125 Institutional Review Board Protocol........................................................................126

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ix H MEDIA EXPOSURE INSTRUCTIONS..................................................................128 I ADDITIONAL DATA.............................................................................................133 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................158 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................166

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x LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Design of quasi-experimental study.........................................................................37 3-2 School 1 descriptive data..........................................................................................38 3-3 School 2 descriptive data..........................................................................................38 3-4 School 3 descriptive data..........................................................................................39 3-5 School 4 descriptive data..........................................................................................39 3-6 School 5 descriptive data..........................................................................................39 3-7 Years of band participation am ong subjects with band experience.........................43 3-8 Music most often heard at home..............................................................................44 3-9 College majors of pilot survey subjects...................................................................48 3-10 Top twenty films with portrayals of school ba nd and/or band students...................50 3-11 Top ten television progra ms with portrayals of school band and/or band students.51 3-12 Ten media examples portraying school band and/or band students selected for inclusion in research on media attitude effects (rank order)....................................53 3-13 Media Examples in assigned random or der; relevant band plot summaries............54 4-1 Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure attitude surveys: all subjects................................................................................................................59 4-2 Change in sum of scores from prea nd post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects with and without band experience............................................................................60 4-3 Change in sum of scores from pr eand post-exposure surveys: by age..................60 4-4 Change in sum of scores from pr eand post-exposure surveys by grade................60 4-5 Change in sum of scores from pr eand post-exposure surveys by gender..............60

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xi 4-6 Change in sum of scores from pr eand post exposure surveys by media consumption: television and films............................................................................61 4-7 Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure surveys by other musical experience: in school and out of school...................................................................62 4-8 Results of paired t-test s on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: all subjects..................................................................................................63 4-9 Results of paired t-test s on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects with prior band experience...........................................................64 4-10 Results of paired t-test s on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects with no prior band experience......................................................64 4-11 Media Exposure 1 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................66 4-12 Media Exposure 2 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................67 4-13 Media Exposure 3 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................68 4-14 Media Exposure 4 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................69 4-15 Media Exposure 5 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................70 4-16 Media Exposure 6 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................71 4-17 Media Exposure 7 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................72 4-18 Media Exposure 8 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................72 4-19 Media Exposure 9 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................74 4-20 Media Exposure 10 attitude change by pair ed t-test: subjects w ith and without prior band experience........................................................................................................74 4-21 Overall attitude cha nge by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experien ce as the between factor................................................76 E-1 Combined film and television results by number of mentions...............................113

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xii E-2 Combined film and television re sults by mean of attitude survey.........................117 E-3 All film results in alphabetical order......................................................................120 E-4 Television results with respondent descriptions in alphabetical order...................121 E-5 Advertising results with respondent descriptions in alphabetical order.................122 I-1 Overall attitude cha nge by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as th e between factor sorted by age........................133 I-2 Overall attitude cha nge by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by grade.....................142 I-3 Overall attitude cha nge by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by gender...................150 I-4 Overall attitude cha nge by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the betw een factor sorted by family musical performance............................................................................................................154

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xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Sample population age.............................................................................................41 3-2 Hours of television per week by grade level............................................................42 3-3 Number of films seen in a theatr e in the last month by grade level.........................42

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xiv Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECT OF MEDIA ON ATTIT UDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARD THE SCHOOL BAND AND BAND MEMBERS By Russell G. McCutcheon August 2005 Chair: Russell L. Robinson Cochair: David A. Waybright Major Department: School of Music This research examined the effects of e xposure to media portrayals of school band and band students on the attitudes of 200 hi gh school students from the southeastern United States. The sample was divided into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in the first group had previous personal expe rience as a member of a school band, while students in the second group had no previ ous personal band experience. Using a researcher-designed instrument, subjects ra ted their pre-existing attitudes toward the school band and band students via a four-point Likert-type scale. Research suggests (Cox, 1996) this four-point scale may be more effective for surveys where time is a factor in completion and also eliminates confus ion between neutral and no opinion choices. After the pre-exposure attitude survey, subjec ts were shown a series of 10 examples of media portrayals of the school band and/or band students. The examples were selected from popular films and television programs as determined via a pilo t study. The pilot study also indicated that me dia portrayals of band and band students are generally 60%

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xv positive and 40% negative—that ratio was mainta ined in the treatment examples. Each example was approximately 2 minutes long. After each example, subjects were given time to answer five attitude que stions related to that example. At the end of the treatment period, subjects were given a post-exposure attit ude survey identical to the pre-exposure instrument with 3 additional questions to allow a self-eva luation of me dia’s potential effects. Results of paired t -tests showed a statistically sign ificant difference in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys for the group without band experience t = -5.506 and p < .05 ( p = .000) but not for the gro up with band experience (t = -1.373, p = .173). The effect was most prominent among younger subj ects and those in grades 9 and 10, while older students showed no statistically signi ficant changes. When the two groups were compared via one-way ANOVA, there was no statistically significant difference in attitude change between the tw o groups overall, but significa nt differences did exist for individual descriptors. Results suggest that media has the powe r to influence high school students’ attitudes toward the school band; potentially impacting re cruitment, retention, and the development of a future audience for the art of wind band music.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Media exists all around us. From movi es and films to television programs, advertising, and radio, we are inundated w ith images and ideas. Many researchers believe that media content has a direct imp act on its consumers. The most common types of media studies look at links between violent content and vi olent behavior; those studies find limited but constant effects of violen t media images (Anderson & Bushman, 2002; Bushman & Anderson, 2001). Othe r studies show that youth (specifically, teens) are most affected by media (Slater, Henry, Sw aim, & Cardador, 2004). What effects do media depictions of band activity (includi ng band students, music, instructors, and performances) have on perceptions and at titudes of both band members and non-band members? Many studies have examined studen ts’ reasons for choosing to participate in school bands (Adderley, Kennedy, & Berz, 200 3; McCabe, 1973; Olszewski-Kubilius & Seon-Young, 2004), but none have examined the ro le that media plays in shaping student attitudes. This research tested the effect of me dia on attitudes of both band students and non-band students in five Ameri can high schools. It further explored the differences in the way that those two groups perceived me dia content featuring band and students. Need for Study Music, band classes, and teachers face many challenges, from shrinking budgets to school boards and departments of education allocating ever-decreasing class time for music and other enrichment classes. One c onstant challenge is en rollment (engaging and

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2 retaining interested students in the study of instrumental music). Other challenges include the often-negative image of the school band and its members among both teens and society, and a perceived lack of “c ool” associated with the school band. As students progress from elementary thr ough high school, they are subjected to an ever-increasing barrage of stim uli, all vying for their attentio n. Media is one of the most pervasive forces in a young pe rson’s life, with the average child aged 8 years and older consuming some form of media content almost 40 hours per week (Wang, 1999). The effect of media is debatable, but one common th read within the research is that television and other media create “myths [that] are eff ective persuasive factors deeply influencing the cognitive process of televisi on viewers” (Metallinos, 1996). A pilot study showed that many depicti ons of band and band students in today’s media, including content specifically men tioning band and content in which the band and/or band students are merely part of the backdrop. What affect might these depictions have on students’ attitudes toward the band a nd its members? Some studies show that a person’s attitude can be transformed in as li ttle as a single medi a exposure (Drabman & Thomas, 1974; Molitor & Hirsch, 1994). In addition, Potter (2003) suggests that “over the long term, the media can reinforce and gi ve greater weight to an existing opinion, making it more and more resistant to change.” While many studies have examined medi a and its effect on children, no studies have yet examined the specific role media e xposure plays in attitudes toward the school band and its members. Certainly, student per ceptions of various extracurricular activities play a large role in their choice to participat e in those activities (Adderley et al., 2003). Of equal concern are the implied messages with in a large portion of media content that

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3 art music is not “cool” or “hip.” These depi ctions reinforce the existing paradigm where art music (“classical music”) is seen as something for the elite, beyond the abilities or interests of the common pers on (Abeles, Hoffer, & Klotman, 1994). Contrary to that view, students enrolled in band programs often are nurtured “intellectually, psychologically, emotionally, socially, and musically” by participating in performing ensembles (Adderley et al., 2003). The wind band community (including school bands, university ensembles and professional groups) works hard to build repert oire, respect, and audi ence. What effect does media play on students’ opinion of band music as quality music? Establishing the scope of the effect of media in today’s school band classroom is one tool music educators can use in their quest to maintain and impr ove the school band and music education as a whole for all students. Purpose The purpose of this research was to dete rmine whether exposure to media content featuring band and/or band stude nts would have an effect on the attitudes of high school students toward those same subjects: band and/or band students. Secondarily, this research investigated the perceptions of media content featuring band and/or band students in those teens who have participat ed in band versus those who have not. Discussion also briefly addressed positive versus negative portrayals of band and/or band students in the media. Statement of the Problem This research investigated the extent to which exposure to media content (specifically film and televi sion) affected attitudes towa rd the school band and school band students. Several studies show that expos ure to media can affect children’s attitudes

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4 (Drabman & Thomas, 1974; Molitor & Hirsch, 1 994) and that attitude plays a significant role in whether children choose to participat e in an extracurricula r activity (Adderley et al., 2003; Olszewski-Kubilius & Seon-Young, 2004). This research sought the answers to the following research questions: Research question 1. Does exposure to media portrayals of the school band and/or school band students affect high sc hool students’ attitudes toward the school band and/or band students? Research question 1. Is there any significant differe nce in the attitude change prompted by exposure to media portrayals of the school band and/or school band students between those high school students that have previous personal band experience and those that have no personal experience in band? Limitations The sample involves individuals selected at random within cl asses chosen by the in-service cooperating teacher. The same equipment was always used for the presentation of media examples but lighting and seating conditions varied at each testing site. All attempts were made to equalize presentation conditions. It was not possible to control for time of day because of constraints of the school schedule. Constraints of the school schedule limited the time available for the total project and, therefore, the length of exposure to each video segment. Some of the classrooms were very cr owded, while others allowed reasonable distance between subjects. Delimitations Subjects were selected from typical school populations in the southeastern United States. This research was restricted to high school students (grades 9-12). Media exposure was limited to ten exampl es of approximately 2 minutes each. The study was conducted without interrupti on, from pre-test through exposure to post-test in one session.

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5 Null Hypotheses Null hypothesis 1. There will be no statistically signi ficant difference in pre-/postgain scores on attitudes of high school students toward the school band and band students. Null hypothesis 2. There will be no statistically signi ficant difference in pre-/postgain scores on attitudes of students w ith band experience an d those with no band experience. Statistical Analysis and Method Minitab statistical analysis software (v ersion 14.13) and SPSS statistical analysis software (version 13) were used to accomp lish the statistical tests. A paired t -test on the difference in postand pretest answers was us ed to test the null hypothesis for Research Question 1. Multiple two-tailed paired t -tests were used to compare the pretest data with responses given for individual media examples. An alpha level of p < .05 was used to accept or reject the null hypothese s. A series of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was used to determine if Research Question 2 s howed a statistically significant difference. The above tests were run multiple times on separa te subsets of data (domains), to disclose whether there were any other une xpected variables. Descriptiv e statistics were used to show the mean responses for individual descript ors. Cross tabulations were used to show population characteristics within the sample group. Definitions Aesthetics Attention to and contemplation of any object of awareness for the sole purpose of having the experience (Schwadron, 1967). Art Music (Western) A more correct term repl acing the popular “classical music.” It usually refers to five gene ral kinds of music: church music, songs, keyboard music, orchestral or ensemb le music, and opera (Stolba, 1990). Attitude From a psychological and sociol ogical standpoint, the definition of attitude is very complex and nuanced. For purposes of this research, attitude refers to a complex mental state involving beliefs, feelings, values, and dispositions to act in certain ways (Cognitive Science Laboratory, 2005).

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6 Band experience A person is said to have ba nd experience if that person now plays or has ever played a wind or pe rcussion instrument in a school music ensemble. Consumer In this research, one who receiv es information and processes it in a meaningful way, whether act ively or subconsciously. In loco parentis To assume the duties and respon sibilities of a parent. From Latin, meaning “in the place of a pa rent” (Hirsch, Kett, & Trefil, 2002) Mass media That section of the media specif ically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as th e whole population of a nation state). Some view the mass-media audience as forming a mass society with special characteristics that render it esp ecially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda (Wales, 2005). Metacognition Awareness and knowledge about one’s own thinking and learning. These skills develop from early ch ildhood through adolescence and include thoughts about what we know and how we go about learning (Gage & Berliner, 1992). Persuasion The process of actively attempting to change attitudes, usually with the goal of changing the action behavior a ssociated with the object (Pratkanis & Aronson, 1997). Reality Personal reality is formed from th e combination of private experiences, curiosity, inquiry, and selec tivity involved in the pers onal interpretation of an event. When two or more individuals ag ree on the interpretati on and experience of a particular event, a consensus about an event and its experience begins to be formed. This being common to a few indi viduals or a larger group, then becomes the “truth” as seen and agreed on by a certa in set of people. Thus one particular group may have a certain set of agreed truths, while another group might reached consensus on yet another set of truths (Wales, 2005). School band An ensemble or combination of wind and percussion instruments in the school setting that reh earses and performs wind ba nd literature. The school band may meet during the regular day, as an after-school activity, or a combination of the two. Summary This research was designed to determine whether exposure to media depictions of school band and/or school band students affected high school students’ attitudes toward the school band and/or band students. Additionally, attitude changes among those

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7 subjects with previous band experience were compared to those with no previous band experience. Two research questions and tw o null hypotheses were presented for testing using paired t -tests and analyses of variance (ANOVAs ). The initial motivation for this research arose out of the belief that it is di fficult to build and maintain participation and interest in school wind bands and that media de pictions of the school band and/or school band students may affect students attitudes toward the school band and band students, negatively influencing their desire to become or remain a member of those programs.

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8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction Any study of media effects involves seve ral different areas of specialization, including psychology, attitude formation, and media influence. In addition, research specific to the area of concentration must be considered, including media effects on attitude, music, and media and the rise of the school wind band. Finally, since this research attempts to determine attitudes regarding the school band and/or band students, prior research on attitudes toward the band as an extracurricular activity is examined. Psychology and the Study of Attitude Promoting positive attitudes toward music and music classes is critical to the success of music education. Attitudes are not is olated feelings, but instead include three major components: the affective element of liking or disliking the cognitive element of perceiving and describing the object of the attitude, including evaluation of its relative positive-to-negative ratio an action tendency, or the tendency to beha ve in a certain way based on the attitude (Halloran, 1976). Attitude Formation and Change Abeles, Hoffer and Klotman (Abeles et al ., 1994) suggest severa l factors involved in attitude formation: Association: positive experiences tend to influence positive attitudes Reinforcement: seeing their attitude refl ected in those around them

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9 Conflicting factors: the idea that attitude formati on is rooted in choosing the option that is most bene ficial to the individual Consistency: the view that people tend to like things they know and understand and resist those with which they are less comfortable According to Halloran (1976) there are three main source s of attitudes: direct experience, explicit learning from others, and implicit learning from others. He suggests that the formation of attitudes toward object s and situations is largely guided by the culture and subcultures in wh ich the individual is a memb er. Group dynamics influence individual attitudes as much as, if not more than, personal direct experience. Over time, the cultural influences on attitude formati on among children have sh ifted considerably. Even a short time ago, the primary influences on children’s attitudes were assumed to be parents, schools, churches, and the adu lt community. These traditional sources of guidance have ceded their authority to the new definers of modern culture: the mass media (Ravitch & Viteritti, 2003). Festinge r’s “Theory of Social Comparison,” as described in Newport’s “Polling Matters” ( 2004), postulates that humans have a basic need to have their attitudes and opinions re inforced through those of others. Newport goes on to say: When it is not possible to check our attitudes, opinions, and feelings against a concrete reality (as is the case most of the time when it comes to attitudes and opinions), we are interested in compari ng them to the attitudes, opinions and feelings of others. (p. 2) Once attitudes have been formed, changing th em requires a catalyst. One theory of attitude change asserts that when the cogni tive element of perceiving or describing the object is inconsistent with one’s feelings about that object, the two options are to choose to ignore the cognitive element or to change the associated feeling (Mitchell, 1993). The greater the inconsistency be tween the two elements, the greater the likelihood that

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10 attitude change will occur (Becker, 1963). Th e third component of attitude (the action tendency) is only invoked when a feeling is activated from memory as the cognitive element is engaged and some action is pr ovoked (Herr & Fazio, 1993). Attitude invokes a tendency to a certain action path and does not predetermine acti on. Many other factors may play a role in determining the actual action taken. Persuasion Attitude change and persuasion often go hand-in-hand. Persuasion is one term for the process of actively attempti ng to change attitudes, usually with the goal of changing the action behavior associated with the object. There are two major (Pratkanis & Aronson, 1997) types of persuasi on: peripheral and central. In peripheral persuasion, the subject offers little participation in proce ssing the stimulus. An example of peripheral persuasion occurs when the television is on, but the subject’s attention is elsewhere. In the peripheral model, cues such as the attrac tiveness of the presenter account for much of the differing impacts of cognitive versus affective elements of attitude. Central persuasion relies on the subject’ s direct participation in th e message. The subject may argue against the message or may actively seek supporting information; the success of central persuasion depends on the strength of the message on careful examination. Common tactics of periphera l and central persuasion in clude repetition, rhetoric (language), and symbols (Met allinos, 1996). Tangential to the two major types of persuasion is inference, the tactic of omitting the conclusion from the message and allowing subjects to draw their own conclusion. It has been argued that these self-drawn conclusions are far more powerful than thos e suggested by the dire ct message (Kardes, 1993).

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11 Influence Media constantly exerts in fluence. While sometimes that influence is direct, usually it is neither direct nor immediate. Everyone has diffe rent interpretations of media content. Rather than think of media as e ither having influence or not, it is better to consider that each person experiences diffe rent levels of influence exerted on them, depending on multiple factors involved in indi vidual personality makeup and pattern of media consumption (Potter, 2003). The fact that a specific media example does not influence everyone equally cannot be generalized to mean that the same example is not having an effect on all who experience it. Th e degree to which we pay active attention to the media message greatly affects its potenti al influence (Pratkanis & Aronson, 1997). The arts have historically ha d great power of influence and persuasion. Their ability to impose beliefs is one of their most potent ps ychological functions. Plato first described the persuasive nature of the arts; this was a primary reason he excluded “both the artists (as irrational persuaders) and the arts (as su spicious modes of em otional expressions) from his ideal republic” (Metallinos, 1996). Learning Theory Information is stored in two ways: pro cedurally and declaratively. Procedural learning occurs through repeti tion and conditioning, while decl arative learning relies on intentionally discovered facts. Many studies of televi sion’s affects on culture suggest that television viewers under go procedural learning on a pers istent basis that much of their memories and experiences are based on th e television content th ey have repeatedly absorbed (Metallinos, 1996). Cognition is one major component of att itude formation, and the method by which people evaluate media messages is largely ba sed on their past learning. Howard Gardner

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12 developed the theory of metacognition. One me aning of the prefix metais to go beyond, to transcend (2000). This is exactly the type of thinking and learning that takes place as media content is absorbed. Metacognition is crucial to our ability to determine the relative truth or falsehood of the inform ation we receive. Metacognition involves metajudgments about many factors including fo rm, context, and tone of voice (Davies, 1997). The ability to comprehend irony and sa rcasm are examples of metacognition and are important to children in learning to eval uate the content comi ng from all types of media. Metajudgments and metacognition help children determine the reliability and reality of media messages. Children are born with a built-in capacity to learn and a need to understand their world (Davies, 1997). Social learning theo ry describes how beha viors are acquired or altered when observing others. Previous stud ies show that when models demonstrating a particular behavior are attractive or similar to the viewer and the be haviors are shown in a positive manner, the behavior is likely to be imitated by the viewer (Slater, 1999). We also seek to categorize the world around us and process information accordingly (Langer, 1997). Examples of this tendency include “h e’s a music major,” “she is tenured,” and “pianists are good at music theo ry.” Categories help people make sense of the volume of information absorbed each day. Others have postulated that all beha vior is learned and media is a primary teacher (1997). Socialization Socialization is the process of acquiring a sense of morality and of developing a conscience. Important concep ts within socialization are moral attitude, judgment and character development (Halloran, 1976). Thr ough the process of so cialization, the child grows into an adult; building experience, attitudes and values along the way. Other

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13 people are the most important models of soci alization, but Halloran suggests that media and other external forces have a large effect on children’s attitude formation. Additionally, socializatio n does not stop at any particular age. People continue to adapt and conform to expectations of groups to which they belong throughout their lives. Socialization and attitude formation are clearly linked. Social norms learned through media are of particular interest. Often, viewers generalize a pattern from media exposure without that pattern being a true social norm. Potter (2003) illustra tes this issue: For example, through repeated exposure to media violence, a person overestimates the rate of crime and the percentage of crimes that are cleared by arrest. Although these are generalizations, they are not soci al norms. Social norms are generalized patterns from social information, rather than factual information. Social norms deal more with the rules of beha vior in social situations rather than with society’s factual parameters, such at the numbers of lawyers, crimes, trials, and executions – all of which have real factual indicato rs. But social norms have no factual foundation in the sense that they are accurate or not. (p. 47-48) It becomes possible to generalize any number of things which the viewer may believe to be true, contrary to the wa y things actually exist. During early and middle childhood, socializa tion occurs without intervention from the child, more or less automatically. In adol escence, teens begin to make choices about their own socialization, accepti ng or rejecting concepts and ideas put forward by family, teachers, and peers. Adolescents are also t hought to be more open to media content. Teens experiencing alienation and victimiza tion are the most susceptible to media messages, while untroubled youth may view identical media content as a temporary source of entertainment (Slater et al., 2004). Particularly in Wester n societies, the school (both teachers and peers) is second only to the family as a socializing agent. The social system in the school reflects the society it se rves and is a key element in the passing of

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14 cultural values. Musi c education in schools provides an avenue for students to experience the human relationshi p to music (Kelly, 2002). Media’s Influence on Society and Youth Television is mass communication’s most powerful medium (Redd, 1974). A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (Wang, 1999), found that children aged 2 to 18 years spent up to 40 hours per week with one or more types of media (including films, the Internet, and video games). In contrast to video games’ 20 minutes per day average, television consumed 3 hours per day. More than 99% of American households have at least one television, and almost two-thirds have two or mo re (Nielsen Media Research, 1993). Even these figures may be substantia lly low, since survey respondents tend to have trouble estimating their own media use, especially relative to others (Salwen & Dupagne, 2001). Despite its usually negative connotat ion, television viewing and media consumption can have beneficial uses. Tele vision expands our view of our culture and the world, providing experiences that woul d otherwise be unattainable (Gordon, 1976). Media can provoke debate and discussion, a nd provide avenues for learning (Slater, 1999). Unfortunately, these benefits are a ccompanied by several burdens; among them, reality distortion (Dyson, 2000). Media critic Marshall McLuhan divides me dia into “hot” media and “cool” media (McLean, 1998). He defines hot media as thos e that contain complete visual or aural information and therefore require less involveme nt of the user in deriving meaning from them. Hot media include radio, photography, and film. Cool media contain less visual or aural information and require greater sensory input by the consumer. Examples of cool media are the telephone, comics, and televisi on. McLuhan may be off the mark in his

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15 descriptions of television’s physical neurological effects (h e believes that the sequential electronic scanning process im prints a “mosaic-like” image on our skin), but he is convinced that television leav es the viewer in an “exhauste d slump” of sensory overload. Wright (1974) also discusses differen ces in types of media based on the information that each transmits. He suggest s that audio transmissi ons are temporal in nature, leaving the consumer unable to contro l the rate of assimilation. Conversely, print media are spatial and consumers control thei r rate of assimilation completely. This suggests that print media diffe r significantly from the audiovisual media that discussed so far. Media and Reality Modern media excel at using realism in its fictional content, but realism and reality are often very different. For children, the determining factor is often not how literally true this content may be; but how authentic they perceive it to be, based on the children’s own experiences and worldview (Davies, 1997) Media does not refl ect society as is commonly believed. Instead, it creates its ow n reality that goes on to shape the very society in which it exists (Metallinos, 1996). Thus, youth need ways to choose what to accept as true, of what they see and hear. M odern media offers clue s that are universally, if subconsciously, accepted. For example, tele vision news anchors almost always address the camera (and, therefore, the viewer) direc tly; actors in a fic tional program almost never do. These types of cues must be learne d, and the process of learning to make those judgments is part of learning to interpret media (Davies). Determining just how much influence media exerts on consumers is problematic, but is a critical area of st udy (Potter, 2003). On the whole, mass media affect people indirectly, often through pe ople called “opinion leaders” (Halloran, 1976). These opinion

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16 leaders can be actors, celebrities, newscas ters, comedians, musicians, and even well-known fictional characters. Media also tend to exert influence through selective inclusion or omission of information (Entman, 1989). In a discussion of research by W. Phillips Davison, Salwen and Dupagne (2001) hi ghlight the “third-per son effect”. Most people, when asked, believe that media exposur e does affect the beha vior and morals of society, but almost always feel that it does not affect th em personally. According to Potter (2003), this belief is false. He suggests that negative effects of media go unperceived not because such effects are nonexistent; but because people do not know what evidence of the effects to seek. Media and Attitude Not long ago, parents expected to be th e primary shapers of their children’s attitudes and morals. Now, media often act in loco parentis Even the schools (once charged with transmitting not only knowledge but also values and citizenship) have given way to popular culture as defined by mass media (Ravitch & Vite ritti, 2003). The positive and negative effects of television and media on children’s behavior and attitudes have been shown in many studies (Lipsitz, 1983; Watkins, Sprafkin, & Gadow, 1988) Potter (2003) suggests that a person’s attitude can be formed or transformed with as little as a single media exposure. Halloran (1976) lists six conclusi ons regarding medi a and attitudes: It is possible to change attitudes. In order to produce change a suggestion fo r change must be received and accepted. Reception and acceptance are more likely to occur where the suggestion meets existing personality needs or drives. The suggestion is more likely to be accep ted if (a) it is in harmony with valued group norms and loyalties, (b) the sour ce of the message is perceived as

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17 trustworthy or expert, (c) the message follo ws certain rules of ‘rhetoric’ regarding order of presentation, organization of content, nature of appeal, etc. A suggestion carried by mass media plus f ace-to-face reinforcement is more likely to be accepted than a suggestion carried by either one of thes e alone, all things being equal. Change in attitude is more likely to o ccur if the suggestion is accompanied by change in other factors underlyi ng belief and attitude. (p. 59-60) Other research suggests Halloran’s six c onclusions also depend on the consumer’s receptivity to the message and prior attitudes regarding the message. Education level is a convenient, if imperfect, measure of the prior receptivity of attitude (Martinez & Scicchitano, 1998). For example, those with the least education are not very susceptible to political media messages as they tend to simply tune th em out. Conversely, those with the most education often have strongly held political positions and media messages are not likely to have much effect. Consumer s with mid-level educations are the most susceptible to political media messages due to their combination of high receptivity and attitude flexibility. Effects of Media The American Academy of Pediatrics has expressed many concerns about the amount of time children and teens spend as consumers of media and specifically, watching television (Gentile et al., 2004). Other major groups calling for children to reduce their consumption of media include th e Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Soci al Behavior, the National In stitute of Mental Health, the U.S. Attorney General’s Task Force on Fa mily Violence, the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Pe diatrics and the National Parent Teachers Association (Levine, 1999). Attempts have been made to exert external controls on children’s media use. In response to the cal ls for media control, the United States

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18 Congress passed the Telecommunications Ac t of 1996 which mandated the introduction of the “V-Chip,” a device that works in conjunction with network-implemented program ratings to allow parents to filter programming they deem inappropriate (Hoffner & Buchanan, 2002). Leo (1999) believes that the V-Chip is a “legally dubious, complicated. .solution that puts parent s in the uncomforta ble position of using technology against their children.” This legislation was seen by many as an attempt at government censorship. Research shows that support for censorship is positively correlated with subjects’ perceived affects of television violence on aggressive behavior and is, in part, related to the drive to protec t society from the eff ects of media on others (McLeod, Eveland, & Nathanson, 1997). Pare nts can also affect their children’s responses to media by discussing the content (active mediation), restricting access to it (restrictive mediation), or simply by watc hing with their children (co-viewing) (Nathanson, 2001). Television and violence Viewing violence on television has been re ported to cause both immediate and long-term effects on a person’s future aggr essive behavior (Coyne Archer, & Eslea, 2004). Leonard Eron estimates that “although te levision is only responsible for perhaps 10% of the violent behavior in this country…if we could re duce violence by ten percent, that would be a great achievement” (1997). In his 1995 testimony during hearings of the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Scie nce, and Transportation, Eron charges television and televised violence with causi ng aggression among child ren that lasts into adulthood, is not limited by age, gender, soci o-economic status, intelligence, or prior tendencies to aggression, and that a positive relationship between amount of television

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19 watched and future aggressive acts is supported by numer ous research studies (Murray, 1999). There are two major sources of vulnerability to effects of violent media content. The first is internal—personality predisposi tions that act as a catalyst for greater propensity to respond to media stimuli. The second source of vulnerabi lity is both social and developmental—youth alienated from famil y, friends and teachers may be especially susceptible to media suggestions of aggression, drug use, and antisocial acts (Slater et al., 2004). The National Television Violence Study (1999) concludes that television violence is not only common, but is also frequently presented in ways that harm consumers. It argues programs “rarely show negative consequences of violence and television characters [that] use violence often go unpunished.” Jon Katz, media critic and author of Virtuous Reality argues that media violence is not a problem and is greatly exaggerated by news media, politicians, and even the public at large. He cites a 1995 New York Times survey that found “Americans have a starkly negative view of popular culture and blame television more th an any other single factor for teenage sex and violence” (Katz, 1999). Mo st research shows that there is a link between television violence and violent behavi or, but there are also many inconsistencies in those findings. Some scholars believe in the link strongly and others have concluded that no link has been demonstrated (Felson, 1996). Marie Wynn, Amer ican educator and critic, claims that television makes relationships and realitie s encountered in real life less real; that real events will always “carr y the echoes of the television world” (Dyson, 2000). Zillman and Weaver found that violen ce in the media only affects men with high

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20 tendencies towards psychosis and that low-psychoticism men and highand low-psychoticism women were not affected (Sherry, 2004). Other research shows that the effect of me dia violence is not dire ct; that it does not always lead to actual violence. In a 1973 study by Friedrich and Stein of preschool children exposed to violent cartoons, children did display more aggr ession during their free play time than children exposed to less vi olent content. More significant were their findings that the children exposed to violence had lower tolerance for delays, lower task persistence, and were less likely to obey sc hool rules (Felson, 1996). Some research even shows television violence to have therapeuti c value. Television violence can relieve aggressive feelings for large numbers of people (Fowles, 1996). Media and socialization Overall, U.S. educators have been slow to acknowledge the po werful effects of mass media (Hepburn, 1998). Research shows the electronic medi a to be intimately intertwined in socialization from early childhood onward. Mass medi a affects children’s socialization (Halloran, 1976) through Teaching norms, status positions, and institutional functions Presenting models of behavior Providing information extending well be yond a child’s immediate experience Giving the child a wider range of role models than otherwise available Being used as a societal reference group Reducing interpersonal exchange within th e family in the socialization process Providing information a bout raising children While most research mentioned thus far has dealt with violence, media exerts a powerful influence on socializa tion in many areas. Sexuality is another area where the media influence is very strong. In general, television portrayals of women’s sexuality and men’s sexuality are very different. One common theme in programs was that men

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21 view women as sexual objects, valuing them primarily for their physical appearance, whereas women are often portrayed as the gatekeepers of sexua l activities (Aubrey, 2004). This common thread runs through almo st all mass media, including magazines directed at young women such as Seventeen and YM These magazines associate women’s sexuality with allure passivity and responsibility and men’s sexuality with aggression and urgency. Tele vision and media play a major role in emphasizing the traditional roles of men and women. For ex ample, the television sitcom Murphy Brown (1988-1998) featured a very strong woman as th e lead character, but even Murphy Brown found her career wasn’t enough and chose to have a baby (Wood, 1997). The point is not that motherhood or committing to relationshi ps is wrong, but that media practically demand this dual role of women to present them in a positive light. The range of acceptable behavior for women is very narrow in mass media. Sociologists have also begun to debate the use of media in schools for both educating and socializing ch ildren. The advent of Channel 1 Television, a set of programs designed to be sent over schools’ closed-circuit sy stems, caused an outcry due to the inclusion of advert ising within its content (Paul & Ballantine, 2002). Media, Consumers and Advertising Among types of media that influence its subjects, none is more blatant about attempting to exert influence than advertis ing. There is considerable evidence that advertising can both form and transform bra nd attitudes in media consumers directly and by intent, as opposed to other forms of medi a which exert their in fluence indirectly (Nedungadi, Mitchell, & Berger, 1993). Commercials interrupt a program in progress, thereby attracting more attention. In the case of radio commercials, they often feature verbal dialogue, music, and sound

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22 effects; television commercials use those sound s and include visual a nd verbal effects to persuade the viewer that the advertised product or service is something on which they should spend their money and time (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). In an average 30 minute television program, there are 23 minutes of programming and 7 minutes of commercials, although some programs contain as many as 12 minutes of commercials, leaving only 18 for actual programming. In a typical hour-l ong program in 2005, there are 42 minutes of programming and 18 minutes of commercials, up from 51 minutes of programming in the 1960’s (Wales, 2005). The predominant view of advertising is that it propels consumers into action through a set of mental stages—t hat advertising has a hierarchy of effects (Park & Young, 1984). Although there is some debate over their exact nature and sequence, these effects are mo st commonly described as: Cognition; learning about a brand or service Development of a favorable attitude toward the brand or service Purchase action Brand advertising often refl ects two broad themes: the r easons people make choices (brand awareness), which can be positive or negative, and the consumer’s level of involvement in the purchase decision (brand at titude), which can be high or low (Crispell & Brandenburg, 1997). For youth, the most common factor in decidi ng brand choice is that it “is for people my age” (Zollo, 1999). Adolescents favor produc ts and services directed toward their age group. Teens consistently name advertis ing as “something that makes a brand cool” (Zollo), revealing th e strong connection between teens and the media. Honda Motors sponsored a series of concerts featuring ba nds that appealed to those ages 16-30 to promote its Honda Civic. Marketing resear chers discovered a 23 to 31% increase in

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23 opinion of the vehicle in areas such as “styli sh,” “useful,” “fun to drive,” and “cool and hip” among those who had attended the concerts (Greenberg, 2002). Two-thirds of teens agree that “good advertising helps me make decisions about what to buy” and “good advertising can make me think or feel be tter about a product or company” (Zollo). Teens and Media On graduating from high school, teens will ha ve spent 50% more time in front of a television than in a classroom. Levine (1999) argues that the majority of this programming is not appropriate for children and at the same time marketed directly toward them. From reality television through MTV, everyone able to turn on the television set receives the same information, eliminating many of the traditional barriers that protected children from adult life. Teens’ favorite programs are situation comedi es. Humor is a key part of appeal to teens, whether in fictional programming or in advertising (Zollo, 1999) Cable outlets are also highly successful in attracting teen viewer s. Cable’s ability to market to small niche groups is an ideal pathway to reaching adol escents. MTV, ESPN, and USA are some of the top cable networks for teens. Music is a particular area of division between younger and older consumers of media (Goddard, 1976). Relationship between Media and Music Music and media have been closely related since their respective beginnings. Some of the first mass-produced printed material was sheet music. Recording technology was driven by musicians and the music industry and even silent films were not silent, incorporating live music into their “soundtracks” long before actors’ voices. One of the first breakthrough cable televi sion networks was MTV, or Music Television, although the MTV of today follows very different programmi ng strategies than at its inception. Oddly

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24 enough, there is very little music on today’ s MTV. Teens and adolescents use their experiences in music and media in buildi ng their self-image and the music/media combination is a strong factor in their soci alization (Mueller, 2002) Media has allowed music to become more diverse and speak to individuals and cultural subgroups in a way never possible before. Media a nd music have also combined together as a powerful force for cultural unity among subgroups. Rhythm and Blues, music originated by black Americans, crossed the race barrier in 1954 when disc jockey Alan Freed rechristened it “rock and roll” (Redd, 1974). Music, from the most esoteric art music to the simplest ditty, is available at the pre ss of a button (Bornoff & Salter, 1972). This availability revolutionized both the way we make music and the music we make. Music, film and television. Media and music are a t een’s best friends. A 1990 report by Roberts and Hendriksen asked high scho ol juniors and seniors what media they would take with them if stranded on a desert island. Music (radio and recordings were combined) was well ahead of television with over 80% of the sample ranking music as among their first three choices, and music was nu mber one for almost half (Gitlin, 2003). Television and music can combine to allow us to see performers make music, a feat that used to require a trip to the concert ha ll, assuming one was nearby. Television helps establish an intimacy with the performer neve r before possible (Bornoff & Salter, 1972). Music has also always played an important role in films, highlighting the action, underlining important dramatic moments, and providing a subconscious map for our emotions (Gordon, 1976). New trends in arts research point away from high art to ward the aestheticization of everyday life. These shifts are documented in the development of music through research

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25 on MTV (Mueller, 2002). Early research on mu sic television and music videos focused on the perceived lack of quality in the construc tion of the music itself ; in other words, the long standing argument against popular music. Since the 1990’s, music video research has looked at music video consumption as a process of musi cal identity and self-socialization in which differe nt social constructs are ascribed to sounds and images. For example, young people often derive a larg e portion of their gender role identity through music and music videos (Brown & Schulze, 1990). Teens also experience a number of other effects from viewing musi c videos, including a change in mood state which may or may not be benign (Christenson, 2003). Commercials and other advertising often us e music designed to attract and hold the consumer’s attention. This music is usually incidental to the actual advertising content, but is a central part of the marketi ng strategy (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). Some commercials make use of popular music in the hopes of associa ting positive musical associations with their product or service. Others make use of art music for its ubiquitous, yet unrecognizable nature among th e average consumer. Art music is also attractive since much of the most well-known works are public domain and the advertiser is free to use it without paying mechanical lic enses. Still other mu sicians and composers make their living writing and performing music specifically for commercials. Interestingly, marketing research shows that with some advertising messages, music can interfere instead of support the message, espe cially in advertising that requires high involvement from the consumer. Music is most effective in advertising with low-involvement messages, where it can help create positive feelings which would then

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26 be (hopefully) transferred to the brand or service via associative bonding (Park & Young, 1984). While there are many benefits to musicians thanks to media, there are also some concerns beyond those of violent lyrics and s uggestibility. One major factor in the early 21st Century has been the explosion of “pirated ” music: music recorded as a computer file and then made available via public peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. These ethical and financial concerns remain a subject of de bate in 2005 with no foreseeable end. More ephemeral are musicians’ unease with the idea that their performance can be recorded permanently for future, unlimited usage (Bor noff & Salter, 1972). From the introduction of the gramophone in 1899 through the long-pl aying record of 1948 to today’s digital music on compact disc and computer data f ile, music and media are inextricably linked. Music, Culture and Socialization Potency of music is greatest in the gr oup is one of Gaston’s eight fundamental considerations of people in relation to music (Gaston, 1968) This philosophy stresses that music “is a social phenomenon which i nvites and encourages participation…group musical experience provides peop le with opportunities to intera ct in intimate yet ordered and socially desirable ways” (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). While Gaston was referring to the group performance of music, gr oups also experience music as listeners with even greater regularity. Music is a tool in the socialization process, helpi ng to define various cultural values (Reimer, 2000). Research into the role popular musi c plays in the socialization process has increased. Reasons include the co ntroversial nature of lyrics, video imagery, and personalities associated with popular music (Christenson, 2003). The germination of this new awareness came in 1985, when a group of concerned parents led by Tipper Gore spoke on the dangers of “porn rock” before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee.

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27 These hearings prompted the recording indus try to institute a sy stem of voluntary parental warnings for content rather than be forced to accept government oversight. Senator Bob Dole began his 1995 presid ential campaign by declaring war on “Hollywood’s nightmares of depravity.” Ar tists such as Marilyn Manson have been under scrutiny after a string of tragic school shootings in the late 1990’s—apparently several of the shooters were de votees of his music. Regard less of the validity of various allegations, serious attention is being give n to the role of music in adolescent development. In a review of research (North, Harg reaves, & Tarrant, 2002), delinquency, sexual attitudes and attitudes toward violence were all found to be linked to popular music among teens, but many of those links were tenuo us at best. It was argued, for example, that young people may not become delinquent du e to their musical preferences, but that labeling people as “delinquent” on the basis of their music and fashion might drive them to deviant behavior. Popular music was found to be linked with permissive sexual attitudes, especially among females. Fina lly, although not all agreed, most felt that subjects exposed to violent music videos had a higher probability of exhibiting violent behavior and a greater acceptance of violence toward women. Music and Music Education Frank Rich, columnist and former chief th eatre critic for the New York Times, expressed his views on the arts and schools in his Americans for the Arts Address at the Kennedy Center on March 19, 2001: At the national level, the arts can bind us together in a way that perhaps no other glue can – not government and not our myriad of religions, and not even entertainment – which is now Balkanized by demographics and in most cases passing fashion. By contrast, the lasting, humane values th at inform all the arts – the beauty and catharses that lift us up well above the quot idian reality of our lives

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28 – are beyond category. They carry over from art form to art form, from generation to generation, from society to society. They speak in a language that, once understood, is never forgotten. It’s a la nguage that, like any other language, is most easily learned in childhood. It seems to me a crime that in a country as rich as ours we don’t teach it automatically to every child we have. (p. 23) Rich’s eloquent words sum up what many in the arts and education already know: the arts are a critical part of our society and to leave art edu cation to chance is to chance losing them forever. Music e ducation plays a major role in the enculturation process by using music to teach cultural values, skills, and traditions. Music education is a basic part of the cultural continuity of each culture (Kelly, 2002). Music teachers can help students learn about and be comfortabl e with art music—things that depending on the student’s background and home situation, are unlikel y to happen anywhere but the music classroom (Abeles et al., 1994). Music educa tion in the United States has been through many ups and downs since its beginnings in 1838 when Lowell Mason convinced the Boston School Committee to include music in the curriculum of the public schools. Mark (1996) suggests that music education ha s not lived up to its potential and has failed to consistently produce musically literate adul ts who appreciate and pa rticipate in musical life and culture. Other issues include federa l, state and local government mandates which limit the amount of time available for music, such as the No Child Left Behind Act and its exclusion of music from the describe d “core curriculum” (Finch & Watts, 2004). The MENC Task Force for National Standard in the Arts defined eight assumptions on which music education in Am erica should be based (1994): 1. Universal access to music education 2. A comprehensive music curriculum 3. Opportunity to learn 4. Adequate support for music education 5. Interrelatedness within the curriculum 6. Provision for exceptional students

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29 7. Utilization of community resources 8. New directions in teacher education These assumptions are at the core of mode rn music education: that every child will have access to music education at every level of schooling, that their curricula will be well-planned and will work toward defined goals that the facilities and financial support will be sufficient for music learning to take place, that their skills will truly connect across an integrated curriculum, that commun ity resources will be exploited for students’ benefit, and that they will ha ve the best trained, best educated teachers. As music and the arts are the transmitters and teachers of culture, students deserve no less. Challenges to music education. Challenges to music education in our schools can be divided into two major groups: challe nges from within the music education community and challenges from outside fo rces, including government and community pressures. Historically, American music education has faced several dilemmas and met them with varied success (Mark, 1996). Methodology and pedagogy of teaching music was often restricted to such a point that teachers had li ttle freedom in the classroom; teachers were forced to use textbooks and techniqu es that offered little in the way of true musical development. American culture is wide and varied, with students from almost every nation and every culture represented. Regardless of the makeup of the student population, music education often focused al most exclusively on Western art music without any attempt at reaching a balance poi nt between music that is meaningful to students and the art music from a 400-year pe riod of time in Western Europe. From the turn of the century through the 1960’s this wa s intentional; it was part of the “melting pot” philosophy of culture homogeneity. Ea rly music education tended to focus on passive listening, and even where music maki ng took place, students rarely continued

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30 their own musical pursuits afte r leaving school. For student s that enrolled in music classes through their seconda ry education, the product of teaching was usually performance. This focus on performance, co mbined with a history of school ensembles dominated by the drive to entertain, en couraged a misplaced focus on technical proficiency without much musical learning. Mark illustrates this concept: “The student musician who learns to play one particular part to a sy mphony or a Sousa march does not necessarily know anything else about the music, and has probably not developed much music independence…” (p. 23). External forces squeezing music educati on include government at all levels and stakeholders in education including the co mmunity and businesses, parents, and the students themselves. Statistics tell part of the story: Japa n spends almost $5 per pupil on the arts, Germany about $2.50, and Canada a nd Great Britain about $1.20, whereas the U.S. spends fifteen cents per student on ar ts education (Raessler, 1996). Kelly (2002) proposes that part of the problem stems from the popularity of the large ensemble; that the lack of individuality and emphasis on functional performance creates a situation devoid of a human connection, making it easi er to view music education as an unnecessary extra. Music educati on is often seen as such an extra. Raessler calls this phenomenon “[music education as] curricular ic ing” (p. 42). Music is one of the seven forms of intelligence as described by Howard Gardner—intelligences that are all equal. Regardless, American schools teach linguistic logical-verbal, a nd mathematics skills almost exclusively, leaving the other five forms to chance – music included (Guignon, 1998).

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31 The School Wind Band History and Background The early history of ensemble instrument al instruction began in 1910 when Albert Mitchell, a supervisor of music in the Boston schools, observed class instruction of violin in England, prompting him to write the Mitchell Class Method for the violin (Abeles et al., 1994). The idea of class instruction spr ead to all instruments and prompted other methods, such as Maddy and Gidding’s Instrumental Techniques for Orchestra and Band After the end of World War I, school boards sought recent Army bandsmen to begin band programs in the schools. This period was also the height of the early American band movement with many professi onal touring bands traveling the country, most notably the Sousa Band, led by the “Mar ch King” himself. School music and bands began to expand rapidly, and schools looked to professional musicians to fill teaching positions. The combination of the depression and the end of pit orchestras for silent films ensured a steady supply of professional musician s for the schools. This, more than any other factor, may have propelled the perfor mance-first philosophy in school bands and ensembles. The professional musicians brought in to teach music did so as they were accustomed, leading rehearsals and preparing music for performance. The school band movement continued to grow into the second half of the twentieth century, and by 1960 there were an estimated 3 million instrumentalists performing in 50,000 bands (Battisti, 2002). Along with the gr owth of bands themselves came concerns regarding the quality of music education students received in those bands. William Moody, president of the National Ba nd Association in 1968 remarked: The musical and educational significan ce of the school band movement needs critical evaluation…too little time is now being given by most directors to the general music background of band students. Most students are graduating from

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32 high school after more than six years of band, with very little knowledge of music history and music theory, and very little familiarity with the compositions of the great composers. School bands should be primarily musical and educational with most functional and entertaini ng activities limited to sc hool events. (Battisti, 2002; Moody, 1968) The Band Student A 2000 National Association of Music Merchants survey of randomly selected U.S. households cited in Kelly (2002) showed: 50% of U.S. households have at least one person age fi ve or older who currently plays a musical instrument. 92% of current players and 77% of non-pl ayers said music was a very important part of their life. 85% of non-players said they wished they had learned to play an instrument. 95% believe that music is pa rt of a well-rounded education. 93% believe that music should be pa rt of the regula r school curriculum 81% believe that participating in scho ol music corresponds with better grades 73% believe that teenagers who play a musical instrument were less likely to have discipline problems 95% believe that making music provides a sense of accomplishment The NAMM survey concluded that social att itudes are an important part of the way people view involvement in music and music ed ucation, music is a very important part of life, and that playing an instrument is someth ing an individual was always glad to have learned. A study by Adderley, Kennedy and Berz ( 2003) surveyed band students on their motivations for participation. Major reasons we re the influence of family, the desire to participate in musical activities and perform on their instrument, and the sense of balance that band offered to a math/science/language/h istory curriculum. Social benefits are

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33 highly valued as well. Other reasons incl uded perceived direct academic advantages, trips and positive self-image. Band members form lasting friendships, gain self-respect and a feeling of belonging (McCabe, 1973). When band students were asked about the way they perceived themselves and the way they were perceived by non-members, they had much to say (Adderley et al.). Mo st band students felt as though they were reasonably well supported by their peers and the school community. Some felt as though they played a role in the total school population, while othe rs saw members of the band as separate from the rest of the school. In general, band students did not believe that the efforts they put into learning their instru ment and performing as a member of the ensemble were appreciated or even unders tood by the school community as a whole. They were quick to point out the derogatory labels given to them such as “band dorks,” but seemed to revel in using those labels th emselves. Marching band was singled out as an ensemble that was especially divisive between the members and non-members. From carrying instrument cases to wearing band jack ets, some students use music as a part of their personal identity that also sets them apart from other students in the school. Kelly (2002) goes on to describe the school band as a social unit that requires a substantial time commitment both inside and ou tside of the regular school day. This time commitment allows a clear social struct ure to form among the members that often extends beyond the music classroom. Ensemble members often sit t ogether at lunch and meet socially outside of school. The same social subgroups seen in the school will form in the microcosm of the band. With variances for terminology, ther e are the brains, the popular kids, the jocks, and so on. The differe nce lies in the time sp ent together; whereas in the total school population these subgroups will rarely interact, the school band

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34 demands “regular and extens ive” interactions among its me mbers and, therefore, the same subgroups. Kelly suggests that time spent with students from different subgroups is far higher in school music performance cla sses than in many aspects of life. The ensemble identity is a main reason for student participation, but also one reason membership will never go beyond a “critical mass.” Students value the sense of belonging that comes from being a member of a special group, but for that group to remain exclusive there must be many more non-members. While sports was found to be the most frequent extracurric ular activity, band, orchestra and other music ensembles rank a close second (Olszew ski-Kubilius & SeonYoung, 2004; Quiroz, 2000). Music educators would argue that music in general and band in particular is not ex tracurricular, but neverthele ss music is included in most studies of extracurricular activities. Re search demonstrates a clear link between participation in extracurricu lar activities and de creasing dropout rates (Thomson, 2005). It also shows positive relationships between students’ extracurricular participation and other educational goals such as better academic performance, increased attendance and aspirations of higher education. Summary Attitudes are formed and transformed th rough direct experience, explicit and implicit learning from others and the forma tion of attitudes is largely guided by the culture and sub-cultures to which an indivi dual belongs. Festinger’s Theory of Social Comparison states that people ha ve a need to have their atti tudes and opinions reinforced by others. Persuasion is closely related to attitude change, and th ere are two types of persuasion: peripheral and centr al. Media often rely on peri pheral persuasion to affect

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35 attitude change. Media’s influence is differe nt for each consumer, but there is a definite link between media and attitude change. The arts hold great pow er of influence as well. Television and the media often cause pro cedural learning in their consumers, meaning that a large part of memories and experiences are rooted in content they have repeatedly absorbed. Consumers also make many metajudgments regarding media content which form the basis for deciding the re ality and reliability of that content. The effect of media on behavior is clearly associated, although th ere is much debate on both the extent of the effect and who is most affected. Many studies have been done on children, violence and television; most can re port at least a partia l connection between consumption of violent content and behavior th at deviates from accepted societal norms. One major challenge facing children and a dolescents in evaluating media and media messages is determining the nature of media re ality versus real-world reality. Research suggests that media, especially film and tele vision, creates an alte rnate reality with a skewed vision of our society and culture. It is also suggested that this alternate reality can influence society and become real. In ot her words, instead of media as a societal mirror, it becomes a societal teacher. Media has replaced many of the traditional methods of socialization in our culture, in many cases superseding parents, schools and the community. Media and musi c are closely related, as media is the primary method of music transmission and dissemination. Wh ile mass media holds great promise in advancing the art of music, it is most of ten a purveyor of popular music and culture. Music choice plays a large role in the socializ ation of adolescents, but is not necessarily a predictor of behavior.

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36 Music education has a long history in the United Stat es but also faces many challenges. The goal of music educators is a complete program of comprehensive music education for all students at all levels. Cha llenges to music education include challenges from within and external forces. The school wind band also has a long history, mostly rooted in the performance tradition due to the large numbers of professional musicians recruited to teach music in the schools. This performance philosophy both attracts members and creates a musical learning imbalan ce as students often receive little or no instruction in musical areas out side of technical and artistic proficiency as players and ensemble members. Students join the school band for a variety of reasons, but many of those reasons are not musical. Socialization, group culture and a sense of belonging are central themes in students’ reasons for ba nd membership. An overwhelming percentage of American households feel that band a nd music classes are part of a well-rounded education and should be incl uded in the curriculum.

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37 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The overall objective of this research was to determine whether media portrayals of school band and/or band students had a signi ficant effect on attitudes of high school students toward the school band and/or band students. A secondary purpose of this research was to discover whether prior ba nd experience was a factor in how high school students perceived media portrayals of sc hool band and/or band students and whether those perceptions affected attitude change with significant difference between students with band experience and thos e with no prior experience. Research Design The design of this research (Table 3-1) was a quasi-experimental comparison study (Shavelson, 1988). There was a pre-test, a ten-part media exposure with questions specific to each example, and a post-test. The study lacks tota l randomization as the classes from which subjects were drawn were selected on the basis on availability of the cooperating teacher and the school schedule. Table 3-1. Design of quasi-experimental study Pre-test Experimental Treatment Post-Test April and May of 2005 35 minute duration 200 research subjects 10 media examples Immediately after treatment 100 subjects with band experience Each example approximately 2 min Subjects equal to pre-test numbers 100 subjects with no band experience Five questions for each example 14 attitude descriptors that match pre-test 17 demographic items 14 attitude descriptors 1 to 1.5 min for responses between each example 3 attitude descriptors unique to post-test

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38 Sample Selection Selection of Schools This research was conducted using 5 high schools over three states in the southeastern United States. Of the 5 schools, 2 are described as rural, 1 as small town, 1 as mid-size central city, and 1 as large central city. Of the 5, only 1 contained grades 10-12. The other 4 were traditional grade 912 high schools. Participating schools were chosen at random from a resear cher-created list. The list of eligible schools was divided both along geographical areas and types of school, whether urban, suburban, etc. to ensure a broad sample. Tables 3-2 through 36 show descriptive da ta for the selected schools. Table 3-2. School 1 descriptive data School Characteristics Total Students Classroom Teachers Stud/Tchr Ratio Locale Charter School? Magnet School? Title I School? 1528 75 20.4 Rural No No No Enrollment Characteristics Students by Race/Ethnicity Students by Grade Students by Sex Free/Red Lunch 9 10 11 12 Amer Indian Asian Black Hisp White M F UK # % 424 380 365 359 2 29 18 30 1449771 757 0 24 0.02 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004) Table 3-3. School 2 descriptive data School Characteristics Total Students Classroom Teachers Stud/Tchr Ratio Locale Charter School? Magnet School? Title I School? 3188 148 21.5 Large City No No No Enrollment Characteristics Students by Race/Ethnicity Students by Grade Students by Sex Free/Red Lunch 9 10 11 12 Amer Indian Asian Black Hisp White M F UK # % 1219 801 591 577 0 16 164 291395 15751613 0 223470 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)

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39 Table 3-4. School 3 descriptive data School Characteristics Total Students Classroom Teachers Stud/Tchr Ratio Locale Charter School? Magnet School? Title I School? 2250 97 23.2 Med City No No No Enrollment Characteristics Students by Race/Ethnicity Students by Grade Students by Sex Free/Red Lunch 9 10 11 12 Amer Indian Asian Black Hisp White M F UK # % 888 505 491 366 3 55 385 186 162110901160 0 542 24 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004) Table 3-5. School 4 descriptive data School Characteristics Total Students Classroom Teachers Stud/Tchr Ratio Locale Charter School? Magnet School? Title I School? 1323 80.2 16.5 Rural No No No Enrollment Characteristics Students by Race/Ethnicity Students by Grade Students by Sex Free/Red Lunch 9 10 11 12 Amer Indian Asian Black Hisp White M F UK # % 439 345 282 257 3 7 327 8 978 671 652 0 349 26 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004) Table 3-6. School 5 descriptive data School Characteristics Total Students Classroom Teachers Stud/Tchr Ratio Locale Charter School? Magnet School? Title I School? 1178 75.9 15.5 Sm Town No No No Enrollment Characteristics Students by Race/Ethnicity Students by Grade Students by Sex Free/Red Lunch 9 10 11 12 Amer Indian Asian Black Hisp White M F UK # % -431 413 334 3 38 281 54 803 629 549 0 271 23 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2004) Selection of Subjects Music teachers in each chosen school we re contacted and allowed to choose the class(es), day and time of testing to accomm odate their teaching schedules. Teachers were instructed to ensure a minimum of 20 subjects with previous band experience and

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40 20 without previous band experience. Three of the music teachers collaborated with teachers of other subjects (English, etc.) in the school to recruit the non-band subjects, while the other two drew from their own nonperformance classes (m usic appreciation, etc.). In two of the schools, all testing was done in one large block for all subjects. For the remaining three, testing was spread thr oughout the day in smaller groups. In every case, the entire class undertook the tests and exposure. This was done for two main reasons: first, to create a la rge pool of data from which to draw random subjects, and second, to eliminate discipline problems fr om non-participatory st udents in the same room. The large samples were divided in to two groups: those w ith and without band experience. 20 subjects were then randomly chosen from each group. In this way, a sample population of 200 subjects was f ound, consisting of 100 subjects with band experience and 100 without wher e each school composed 20% of both the total sample population and the subgroup sample populations. Sample Population Demographic Data Subjects’ age was normally distributed, with a mean age of 16 (n=74) (Figure 3-1). Of the subjects, 24.5% (n=49) were in 9th grade, 38% (n=76) were in 10th grade, 25% (n=50) were in 11th grade, and 12.5% (n=25) were in 12th grade. School number 5 only serves Grades 10 through 12, which may have affected the number of 9th grade subjects available. Females outnumbered males; 60.5 % (n=121) to 37.5% (n=75) respectively, with 1.5% (n=3) declining to answer. Subjects were asked about their personal media consumption. Looking at the total sample population, the mean amount of televi sion per week was 11-15 hours, with a standard deviation of 2.013. The mean number of films seen in the last month in a theatre was 1-2, with a standard deviation of .742. Tests for correlation showed little

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41 relationship between age, sex, or grade leve l, and media consumption, as well as the number of films seen compared to the hours of television watched. There is a curious spike among 10th grade subjects for both hours of tele vision and films (figures 3-2 and 3-3). 19+ 18 17 16 15 14 No Answer Age 80 60 40 20 0 Frequency Figure 3-1. Sample population age

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42 30 or more 26 30 21 25 16 20 11 15 6 10 1 5 0 Hours of TV per week 25 20 15 10 5 0 Count 12th 11th 10th 9thGrade Figure 3-2. Hours of televi sion per week by grade level 6 or more 3 5 1 2 0 Number of Films per month 50 40 30 20 10 0 Count 12th 11th 10th 9thGrade Figure 3-3. Number of film s seen in a theatre in the last month by grade level

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43 Subjects were asked to detail their pr ior musical experience. By design, 50% (n=100) of the subjects had at least some prior school band experience and 50% had no prior school band experience. Looking only at those who had pr ior band experience, 77% (n=77) were still enrolled in a band course on the testing date. Table 3-7 shows the number of years subjects have participated in a band course. Among the total sample population, 36% (n=72) of subject s participate in another ( non-band) musical ensemble within the school; 28% (n=56) are students enrolled in a choral/vocal class. 28.5% (n=57) of the total population performs in another musical ensemble outside of the school. Table 3-7. Years of band participati on among subjects with band experience. Years n= Percent 1 11 11.0 2 – 3 19 19.0 4 – 5 44 44.0 6 – 7 22 22.0 8 or more4 4.0 Total 100100.0 When asked about their family and musi c, over half (57.5%, n=115) had a family member that played a musical instrument. The relationship between family instrumental experience and the student’s own band expe rience revealed a lo w correlation. The relationship between students’ years in band and main instrument also revealed a low correlation. Finally, subjects were asked to list the type of music most often heard at home as seen in table 3-8. This question pr oved problematic, as some subjects listed the music they listened to at home and others listed the music their parents chose.

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44 Table 3-8. Music most often heard at home Type of Music n=Percent Type of Music n= Percent Big Band & Swing 7 3.5 Easy Listening 2 1.0 Bluegrass & Country 24 12.0 New Age 20 10.0 R&B and Blues 13 6.5 Opera 2 1.0 Broadway & Show Tunes 2 1.0 Rap 49 24.5 Classical 6 3.0 Reggae 9 4.5 Folk Music 2 1.0 Contemp. Pop Rock1 .5 Gospel 15 7.5 Oldies 34 17.0 Jazz 3 1.5 Heavy Metal 1 .5 Latin & Salsa 10 5.0 Total 200 100.0 Research Instruments Three closely related research instrument s were developed for this research and grouped together into packets (Appendix A). P acket I consisted of two parts: Part I: Biographical Data and Part II: Pre-exposure Attitudes. Packet II was used during the media exposure treatment to record attitude s for each media example. Packet III examined post-exposure attitudes and was linked directly to the pre-e xposure survey with the exception of three additional questions related to the media examples just observed. Packet I, Part I: Biographical Data The biographical data instrument first requests information regarding subjects’ personal profile, including age, grade, and sex (Questions 1 – 3). The survey then asks subjects to self-assess their media cons umption and report both how many hours of television they watch per week and how many f ilms they have seen in a theatre in the previous month (questions 4 and 5). The re mainder of the instrume nt deals with their prior musical experiences and other school activities. Questions 7 – 10 determine whether students have ever been in the school band, if they were in the band at the time of the survey, the total number of years in the school band if any, and their main/principal instrument if any. Questions 11 – 13 seek to discover other music interests, including

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45 whether the subjects have other school ense mble experience, other ensemble experience outside of the school, or any other musical e xperience not otherwise listed. Questions 14 and 15 gather background on the musical expe riences of the respondent’s family and home life, both as listeners and performers of music. Question 16 asks for extracurricular participation information. Packet I, Part II: Pre-Exposure Attitudes The pre-exposure attitude survey contains series of 14 questions relating to the subject’s attitudes toward the school band a nd school band students. Several questions were asked twice with slightly different an swers to ensure subjects were reading and understanding questions. A four-point Likert sc ale was used to record student responses, with a fifth option of “no opinion.” The point s on the scale include strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree. For anal ysis purposes these re sponses were assigned numerical values from 1 to 4, respectively. The decision to use a four-point scale was prompted in part by texts which demonstrated the simplicity of a four-point intensity scale would be easier for subj ects to navigate as they have fewer choices and fewer decisions to make (Cox, 1996). This was part icularly important fo r the questions during the exposure period since each question had to be answered in 20 – 25 seconds. Consideration was given to ha ving two scales, one for the pr eand post-exposure surveys and another for the exposure it self – this was rejected to avoid confusing subjects during the treatment. It is noted that the four-point scale limits th e potential rang e of data, but this limitation was viewed as acceptable in light of the other factors mentioned. Packet II: Media Examples The media examples questions were desi gned to examine attitudes regarding each example separately. There are ten sections of five questions each, corresponding to the

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46 ten media examples shown as treatment. The questions are mostly drawn from the pre-exposure survey to allow comparisons between the two; however there are some questions that are germane only to specific exam ples that do not appear elsewhere. Each media example’s questions are tailored to th at specific example. For example, if the example shows band students interacting but no music, sociologically based questions were given more weight. The response scal e was identical to the pre-exposure survey. Part III: Post-exposure Attitudes The post-exposure attitude survey was identical to the pre-exposure survey, containing the same 14 questions in the sa me order. In addition, the post-exposure instrument also contained three questions as king the subject to synt hesize their feelings about the media examples shown as treatmen t and self-assess their degree of attitude change. The response scale was identic al to the previous two sections. Selection and Creation of Media Examples The choice and selection of media examples is the most important factor in this research study. To ensure the best sele ction, a pilot study was conducted using college music majors and non-majors to determ ine what media content to include. Pilot Study Research Design Initial designs suggested a survey with pre-chosen media content where the respondent was able to rank-order the examples This was rejected, because simply to create such a list would limit responses. A concept was borrowed from business and advertising called TOMA, or “top of mind aw areness” (Sherlock, 2000). The concept as it applies to the corporate world is simple : people will buy from the first business that comes to mind so, to be successful, a busin ess must work to cultivate consumer awareness even more than driving a specific purchasing message. For purposes of this

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47 media research, TOMA will allow subjects to list the media messages they remember best, without regard for a researcher-created lis t. In this way, the media that is most meaningful to each individual can be assimilate d into a whole set of data where the media with the highest percentages of mention ar e the most “top of mind” for the sample population. Selection of pilot study subjects Subjects were drawn from wind band perfor mance classes at the University of Florida. Some of these classes contained mo stly music majors and others had very few music majors, but all had students with prio r school band experience. It was assumed that people with prior band experience would be more sensitive to portrayals of the school band and/or band student s in the media and therefore more likely to remember those portrayals. Out of 200 surveys passed out to classes, th ere were 128 total subjects. 14 of those subjects (11%) neglected to complete the biographical data section of the survey instrument. Their answers were used as part of the data set but they are excluded from the demographic analysis sample set (n= 114). 17.7% (n=20) were 18 years old or younger, 38.94% (n=44) were between 19 a nd 20, 34.51% (n=39) were between 21 and 24, and 8.85% (n=10) were 25 or older. 45.13 (n=51) of subjects were male and 54.87% (n=62) were female. 34.21% (n=39) were music majors; these and other majors are detailed in table 3-9. Finally, 2.70% (n=3) of subjects have been a member of a school band between one and three years, 34.23% (n =38) between four and eight years, and 63.06% (n=70) for nine or more years. When asked about their media consumption, 75.45% (n=83) said they watched ten or fe wer hours of television per week and 24.55%

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48 (n=27) watched more than ten. 73.33% (n=66) of subjects had seen either one or two films in a theatre in the previous month and 26.66% (n=24) had seen more than two. Table 3-9. College majors of pilot survey subjects College Major n=Percent College Major N= Percent Agriculture and Life Sciences 1 .88 Journalism and Communication 3 2.63 Design and Construction 10 8.77 Li beral Arts and Sciences 24 29.82 Education 1 .88 Music 39 34.21 Engineering 14 12.28 Nursing 2 1.75 Fine Arts (not music) 1 .88 Public Health & Health Prof 1 .88 Health and Human Perf 8 7.02 Totals 104100.0 Pilot study research instrument The research survey instrument was divide d into four sections (Appendix B). The first three sections were gui ded free-response boxes for film television, and advertising as Parts I, II, and III respectively. Part I: Film asked subjects for a film title or other descriptive information (in case they coul d not think of the correct title) and a scene/portrayal description wh ere they could describe how this example shows school band or band students. Following each freeresponse box, subjects were asked to identify their example as a positive or negative portrayal of band and band students on a five-point Likert scale (very positive, some what positive, neutral, somewhat negative, and very negative). Part II: Television is identical to Part I except the guided free-response boxes for television were di vided into episode title, program title, approximate air date, network or channel, and the scene portraya l/description section. Part III: Advertising is once again identical with slightly different guided free-response boxes. Part II asks for the product or serv ice being advertised, approximate air date, network or channel, and the scene portrayal/ description box. Both Parts I and II contain

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49 the same five-point Likert scale to identify each portrayal as positive or negative. Part IV: Biographical Data was placed at the end of the survey so it would not discourage subjects from completing the instrument. Unfortunately, due its the free-response design, many subjects simply stopped turning pages when they ran out of ideas and did not realize the biographical section was there, despite its inclusion in the pre-test instructions. Part IV collected data on college major, de gree sought, students’ principal instruments, years of performance, and years of school band experience. There were check boxes for subjects to indicate which ense mbles they belong. It asked subjects for a self-analysis of media use through television consumption a nd film attendance, and collected data on subjects’ age and sex. Pilot Study Research Procedures Pilot study Institutional Review Board This pilot study was submitted to and approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. In addition to a full disclosure of the research project, the board required that each respondent complete an informed consent to act as a research subject (Appendix C). Pilot study survey administration The survey was administered by various t eaching assistants in several classes; therefore it was necessary to produce an instruction sheet and script for survey administrators to ensure identical presenta tion (Appendix D). The script gives a brief overview of the pilot study and its impact on the full research project, although some of the details regarding the proj ect changed after the completi on of the pilot study. Students were asked to complete an informed consen t, and then could begi n the survey on their own. Pencils were provided. They were cauti oned against sharing information, but also

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50 informed that frequency-of-mention would be a major criteria for selection so if they think of an example independently, they s hould write it down even if their neighbor has listed it as well. Analysis of Pilot Study Data Data from the pilot study was analyzed us ing Minitab Statistical Software Release 14.13 to run simple tallies, cross-tabu lations, and descriptive statistics. Part I: Film results Eighty films were mentioned by survey subj ects, with an over whelming percentage (75.0%) getting only one or two mentions. Among the top twenty films, the lowest scoring was American Wedding with two mentions and the highest was Drumline with 112 mentions. Table 3-10 details the top tw enty films by mention in the pilot study and also shows the mean of the positive/negative sc ale where 5 is most pos itive and 1 is most negative. Table 3-10. Top twenty films with portr ayals of school band and/or band students Rank Film Title No. of Mentions +/Mean Rank Film Title No. of Mentions +/Mean 1 Drumline 112 4.05 11 The Other Sister 8 4.38 2 Mr. Holland’s Opus 99 4.56 12 Never Been Kissed 6 2.00 3 American Pie 98 1.55 13 Revenge of the Nerds 4 2.00 4 10 Things I Hate About You 51 3.10 14 Brassed Off 3 4.33 5 American Pie II 34 1.97 15 Forrest Gump 3 3 6 Mean Girls 19 1.84 16 Grease 3 2.67 7 Animal House 17 1.77 17 The New Guy 3 3 8 School of Rock 16 4.25 18 Star Wars 3 3.67 9 Ferris Bueller’s Day Off 15 3.73 19 Amadeus 2 3.50 10 The Music Man 10 3.8 20 American Wedding 2 2.50

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51 Part II: Television results Part II had a considerably smaller pool of results – a total of 29 television programs were mentioned compared to the 80 from Pa rt I. Looking at the top ten television programs mentioned, South Park: Summer Sucks received three mentions and was number 10, while The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa received 43 mentions and was highest rated. Table 3-11 details the re sults of Part II: Television. Table 3-11. Top ten television programs w ith portrayals of school band and/or band students Rank Program Title No. of Mentions Pos/Neg Mean RankProgram Title No. of Mentions Pos/Neg Mean 1 The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa 43 3.26 6 Saved by the Bell [series] 7 2.43 2 The Family Guy: And the Wiener is… 18 1.72 7 The Family Guy: [Unknow n Title] 5 3.40 3 Spongebob Squarepants : Band Geeks 18 2.89 8 Gilmore Girls [series] 5 2.80 4 Even Stevens [series] 10 3.50 9 Macy’s Day Parade 5 4.00 5 The Family Guy: Chitty Chitty Death Bang 7 2.29 10 South Park: Summer Sucks 3 2.00

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52 Part III: Advertising Advertising results were disappointing, with only 12 me ntions. In addition, locating archive copies of each advertisement proved to be impossible given the resources available for this re search. Advertising was, ther efore, eliminated from the main study altogether. Summary of Pilot Data An examination of subjects’ positive and ne gative ratings showed that, when taken as a whole, media portrayals of band and/or band students were 57.14% positive (n=40) and 41.43% negative (n=29) after fact oring out neutral responses. Selection of media examples The media examples from Parts I and II were combined into one master list (Appendix E) and ten representa tive examples were selected from the highest fifteen. The decision to choose examples from the top fifteen was based on two major factors: first, some of the examples in the top ten were less than thirty seconds long; that was not considered to be substantial enough to test attitude change. Second, it was important the positive/negative balance of the ten media examples echoed the 60/40 percentage of the group as a whole. Six examples that receiv ed positive ratings were selected, along with four that received negative ratings. Two of the examples were combined into one, as they were part of a series of films ( American Pie I and II) The final list of media examples appears in table 3-12. Examples were each assigned numbers a nd those numbers were then randomly chosen to determine the order of the final media examples video. Those results, along with basic summaries of the relevant ba nd plot points appear in Table 3-13.

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53 Table 3-12. Ten media examples portraying sc hool band and/or band students selected for inclusion in research on medi a attitude effects (rank order) Rank Title No. of Mentions Pos/Neg Mean RankTitle No. of Mentions Pos/Neg Mean 1 Drumline 112 4.05 7 Mean Girls 19 1.84 2 Mr. Holland’s Opus 99 4.56 8 The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… 18 1.72 3/6 American Pie I and II 98/34 1.55 1.97 10 Animal House 17 1.77 4 10 Things I Hate About You 51 3.10 11 School of Rock 16 4.25 5 The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa 43 3.26 13 The Music Man 10 3.73 Creation of medi a examples video Technical issues Each media selection was ed ited into an approximately two minute video that focuses on the role of the school band and/or band students. All video was edited on Adobe Premiere Elements video editing software, version 1.0. Title slides were added to cue the beginning of each exampl e and instruction slides were added to tell students when to begin the a ppropriate attitude survey. The final compilation video was saved as a high-resolution .avi computer file for projection via a la ptop computer in the field. Legal issues The editing and showing of commercial films and television programs posed a legal hurdle. These issues were studied in conj unction with material provided through the Indiana – Purdue Univer sity Indianapolis C opyright Management

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54 Center and it was determined that this use is well within the definition of Fair Use. All reasonable efforts have been exhausted in en suring the use of this material is both acceptable ethically and legally. The Check list for Fair Use (Copyright Management Center, 2003) lists four major tests that dete rmine eligibility for fair use – the completed checklist for this research can be found in Appendix F. Table 3-13. Media Examples in assigned ra ndom order; relevant band plot summaries Position Band-related Plot Summary 1 Animal House : Fraternity members hijack a para de and march the college band down an alley into a wall (Ramis & Kenny, 1978). 2 The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… : Meg tries to become a cheerleader but opts for the second tier in social strata: the marching band color guard (Barker & Weitzman, 2001). 3 American Pie I & II : Band students are nerds and geeks who turn out to be the most sexually experienced students in school (Herz, 1999; Herz & Steinberg, 2001). 4 Drumline : College band members work to win a marching contest while the freshmen try to find their social niche in the group (Schepps & Chism, 2002). 5 The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa : Lisa has the blues because no one pays attention to her; she wants to play the blues on her saxophone in school band class but since they are preparing for a recital must play the same music as everyone else (Jean & Reiss, 1990). 6 The Music Man : A music professor comes to town selling band instruments and uniforms. It is revealed he is merely a con man with no musical knowledge or ability out to make money (Willson & Lacey, 1962). 7 School of Rock : A rock musician needs money; to earn income he pretends to be a substitute teacher at a private school. He di scovers the students are musically talented and forms an underground rock band (White, 2003). 8 10 Things I Hate About You : In a remake of Shakespeare’s “Taming of the Shrew” the male lead character bribes the drum major to use the marching band as a backing group to serenade the girl he is pursuing (Lutz & Smith, 1999). 9 Mean Girls : The new girl in school is learning her way around the cafeteria and sees several stereotypical cliques; one table of kissing teens is labeled “sexually active band geeks” (Wiseman & Fey, 2004). 10 Mr. Hollands’s Opus : A composer takes a temporary music teaching position to make money, ultimately staying for his w hole career until being forced out due to budget cuts in the music program (Duncan, 1995).

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55 Research Procedures: Full Study Full Study Institutional Review Board This research has been reviewed and accepted by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. In addition to a full disclosure of the research project, a parental version of an informed consent was created (Appendix G) and sent via priority mail to all participating teachers. This enabled students to turn in their informed consent forms on the testing day. Testing Procedures On testing day, equipment was moved in to the testing site and connected. Equipment used in the presentation included: A Compaq Presario V2000 laptop computer An Insight1024 x 768 LCD video projector Roland MA-8 Powered Speakers (2) A wireless presentation remote control device All appropriate cables and electrical supply lines When the classroom teacher indicated it was acceptable to begin, students’ informed consent documentation was collected and students were given three research packets matched via code numbers. Students we re asked to sign for th eir test packets to allow later matching between informed cons ents and research packets. After an introduction, a scripted PowerPoint (Micro soft, version 2003) pr esentation (Appendix H) was given to all subjects outlining the basic aims of the research and the rules and requirements of the study. The same material was presented verbally as well as textually via the LCD projector in an attempt to reach many types of learners. Students were asked to wait for instructions before opening or m oving into any packet or set of questions.

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56 After students complete the biographical da ta and their pre-expos ure attitudes, the PowerPoint presentation was resumed, givi ng instructions for the treatment period. Lights were dimmed to halfwa y (if possible) and the presen tation video of examples was begun. The exposure treatment consisted of ten examples of media and ten sets of questions; five for each example. In an effort to both keep the energy of the programming up and limit students’ ability to second guess themselves, 1.5 minutes total time was allowed for each set of five questions leaving about 18 seconds to answer each one. Brief instructions were repeated between the fifth and sixth examples to reset the students’ attention and awareness. Between examples 7 and 8 students were also asked to remain vigilant to th eir observations of media. Following the final media example in Part II, the PowerPoint presentation was again used to give students instructions before they moved on to the Part III post-exposure attitude survey. Part III and Part I – II were identical except that Part III contained three additional questions on attitudes and media. As students finished Part III, they were asked to wait until everyone was done before passing in their papers as a group. Treatment of Data The dependent variables in this research are the differences in students’ attitude toward the school wind band and/or band st udents between the preand post-exposure tests. The change in attitudes toward the school wind band as measured via the differences between the pre-exposure test and the media attitude questions during exposure are also of interest. Control va riables include age, grade, gender, media consumption and musical experiences.

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57 As discussed in Chapter 1, a two-tailed paired t -test on the difference in postand pretest answers was used to test the null hypot hesis for research que stion one. Multiple two-tailed paired t -tests were used to compare the pr etest data with responses given for individual media examples. An alpha level of p < .05 was used to accept or reject the null hypotheses. A series of analysis of va riance (ANOVA) tests were used to determine if research question two showed a significant difference in a pre-test/post-test (repeated measures) experimental design (Shavelson, 1988). Minitab statistical analysis software (version 14.13) and SPSS statisti cal analysis software (version 13) were used to accomplish the statistical tests.

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58 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Introduction The presentation of results is orga nized into three main sections: 1. The main effect of media on student att itudes within the sample population as a whole; as well as various sub-groupings of subjects. 2. A comparison of pre-exposure and mid-e xposure attitudes for each media example and descriptive statistical analysis of isolated examplespecific questions. 3. Results of analyses of variance test s on the difference of pre-exposure and post-exposure attitude surveys between those with band experience and those without prior band experience. Paired-samples t -tests, split-plot analyses of variance and various descriptive statistics were selected as procedures for an alysis using SPSS statisti cal analysis software version 13.0. This research contained a sample populati on of 200 subjects drawn from five high schools in the southeastern United States. 40 subjects were drawn from each school. For comparison purposes, 20 students were select ed with at least some prior school band experience were selected from each school for a total of 100 students with band experience. The remaining 20 students from each school had no prior band experience, although some did participate in other musical ensembles, including choir. There were a total of 100 subjects with no pr ior school band experience. Subjects indicated their attitudes toward the school band and band students via an attitude survey scored on a f our-point Likert scale as discus sed in Chapter 3. They were

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59 then shown a series of ten media portrayals of the school band and/or band students, drawn from popular films and television as indicated by a pilot study. Following each example, subjects indicated their feelings about the school band and/or band students with respect to that specific media example only using the same scale as the pre-exposure survey. At the conclusion of the exposur e period, subjects completed a post-exposure attitude survey identical to the pre-expos ure survey with three added questions for self-analysis of the media exampl es’ effect on their attitudes. Results of Main Effect The main effect was measured via a series of two-tailed paired t -tests run on the sums of the scores from the preand poste xposure attitude surveys. Means are reported as the difference, positive or negative, betw een the preand post-exposure surveys. The primary test was run on the scores from a ll subjects, and showed a sizable change between preand post-exposure attitude su rveys as shown in Table 4-1. Table 4-2 examines the total change between groups w ith band experience and groups with no band experience. The band experien ce group had no significant cha nge; but significant change in the non-band experience group persisted. It also looks at those students currently enrolled in a band class in contrast with those not enrolled, in effect grouping students who have ceased to participate in school ba nd with those who have never participated. The attitude change exhibited by this gr oup of non-participating students showed a significant change, whereas students curren tly enrolled in a band class did not. Table 4-1. Change in sum of scores from pr eand post-exposure attitude surveys: all subjects. 95% Confidence n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p All subjects 200 -2.386.42-3.27-1.47-5.231 199 .000

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60 Table 4-2. Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects with and without band experience 95% Confidence Subjects n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p With Band Exp 100 -0.624.52-1.520.28-1.373 99 .173 Without Band Exp 100 -4.137.50-5.62-2.64-5.506 99 .000 Tables 4-3 and 4-4 examine attitude change by age and grade in school. In both cases, the younger students exhib ited significant attitude cha nge while the older students did not. Table 4-5 shows attitude change by gender. The media consumption habits of the subjects are illustra ted in table 4-6. There were sign ificant changes in attitude for many groups, but there was no perceived rela tionship between the number of films seen, amount of television watched and attitude change. Table 4-3. Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure surveys: by age 95% Confidence Agena Mean Std. Dev Lower Upper t df p 14 19 -4.68 6.94-8.03-1.34-2.94418 .009 15 48 -3.23 5.35-4.78-1.67-4.18047 .000 16 74 -1.69 6.55-3.21-0.17-2.21973 .030 17 42 -1.60 6.34-3.570.38-1.63041 .111 18 14 -2.29 8.75-7.342.77-0.97713 .347 19+2 -4.00 1.41-16.718.71-4.0001 .156 a. One respondent did not indicate their age Table 4-4. Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure surveys by grade 95% Confidence Grade n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 9 49 -3.596.14-5.35-1.83-5.097 48 .000 10 76 -2.646.53-4.14-1.15-3.531 75 .001 11 50 -1.166.30-2.950.63-1.303 49 .199 12 25 -1.606.74-4.381.18-1.187 24 .247 Table 4-5. Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure surveys by gender 95% Confidence Gender na MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p Male 75 -2.537.09-4.16-0.90-3.10 74 .003 Female 121 -2.316.08-3.40-1.21-4.17 120 .000 a. Three subjects did not indicate gender.

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61 Table 4-6. Change in sum of scores from preand post exposure surveys by media consumption: television and films 95% Confidence Hours of TV/week n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 0 6 -0.508.87-9.818.81-0.138 5 .896 1 – 5 57 -1.026.51-2.740.71-1.180 56 .243 6 – 10 39 -2.927.34-5.30-0.54-2.487 38 .017 11 – 15 28 -3.616.63-6.18-1.04-2.879 27 .008 16 – 20 25 -3.525.70-5.87-1.17-3.087 24 .005 21 – 25 14 -2.294.20-4.710.14-2.038 13 .062 26 – 30 13 -2.386.24-6.151.39-1.378 12 .193 30+ 18 -2.675.50-5.400.07-2.058 17 .055 95% Confidence Number of films/month n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 0 62 -1.686.34-3.29-0.07-2.083 61 .041 1 – 2 103 -1.896.34-3.13-0.65-3.030 102 .003 3 – 5 30 -4.936.27-7.28-2.59-4.306 29 .000 6+ 5 -5.607.16-14.493.29-1.748 4 .155 When comparing students’ other musica l pursuits, the trend of those with instrumental experience showi ng little to no significant atti tude change held true, but those with choral and vocal experience did show the same significant attitude change exhibited by those with no sc hool band experience. In an effort to determine whether having a family member that played an in strument would affect students’ degree of attitude change, subjects were asked to i ndicate their family’s musical background. Both those subjects with and without family members that played musical instruments showed significant changes, rendering family musi cal background a non-fact or in determining attitude change. Table 4-7 outlines subjects’ other musical experiences, both in and out of school as well as within the family.

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62 Table 4-7. Change in sum of scores from preand post-exposure surveys by other musical experience: in school and out of school 95% Confidence Other school Ensembles na MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p None 127 -2.076.34-3.18-0.96-3.680 126 .000 Choir/Vocal 56 -3.956.40-5.66-2.23-4.612 55 .000 Orchestra 2 -1.001.41-13.7111.71-1.000 1 .500 Other 14 0.506.62-3.324.430.283 13 .782 95% Confidence Non-school Experience n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p None 143 -2.636.56-3.71-1.55-4.794 142 .000 Choir/Vocal 23 -3.966.26-6.66-1.25-3.033 22 .006 Orchestra 6 -1.332.58-4.04-1.38-1.265 5 .262 Rock/Pop 14 -2.297.15-1.846.411.196 13 .253 Drum Corps 7 -0.572.64-3.011.87-0.573 6 .587 Other 7 -4.003.61-7.33-0.67-2.935 6 .026 95% Confidence Fam Member Musician n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p No answer 2 -1.005.66-51.8249.82-0.250 1 .844 Yes 115 -2.355.65-3.39-1.30-4.459 114 .000 No 83 -2.457.44-4.07-0.82-2.996 82 .004 a. One respondent did not indicat e their other school experience. In addition to an examination of the su ms of the preand post-exposure scores, paired t -tests were performed on each set of que stions in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys. Six of the fourteen questions1 showed overall attitude change at a statistically significant level, and one other question appro ached significance (question 10: “Learning and performing music is an im portant aspect of participation in school band programs”: p = .59). When looking at the tota l sample population, questions 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 12 showed significant attitude change Five of those six reflected a positive shift in attitudes toward th e school band and/or band student s. Those questions were: Question 3. I am glad I am in/wish I was in my school band. Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. 1 Complete questions can be found in Appendix A.

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63 Question 7. School band is fun. Question 8. School bands perform mostly popu lar music as entertainment. Question 9. The band is an important part of the school’s identity and image. Question 12: “Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school activities” showed a mathematically positiv e shift, but as the question was phrased negatively it indicated a negative shift in student attitudes af ter media exposure. Table 4-8 shows results of a series of paired t -tests on individual pr eand post-exposure questions. Table 4-8. Results of paired t -tests on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: all subjects 95% Confidence Question Number & abbrev. description n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 1. Band is cool 200-0.101.087-0.250.06 -1.236 199.218 2. Enjoy band music 200-0.020.85-0.130.10 -0.250 199.803 3. Glad/wish in band 200-0.200.96-0.33-0.06 -2.888 199.004 4. Social development 200-0.201.31-0.38-0.01 -2.099 199.037 5. Band/good music 2000.040.89-0.090.16 0.558 199.578 6. Worthwhile social 200-0.031.13-0.190.13 -0.377 199.706 7. Band is fun 200-0.451.43-0.650.25 -4.458 199.000 8. Band/entertainment 200-0.551.10-0.700.40 -7.090 199.000 9. School’s identity 200-0.251.09-0.400.10 -3.250 199.001 10. Music imp. in band 200-0.151.08-0.300.01 -1.896 199.059 11. Mem/well-adjusted 2000.011.25-0.170.18 0.056 199.955 12. Not acc. socially 200-0.301.23-0.470.13 -3.444 199.001 13. Band/friends 200-0.131.25-0.300.05 -1.412 199.159 14. Band/learn music 200-0.670.96-0.200.07 -0.956 199.340 Just as the sums of the preand postexposure scores were examined by whether students did or did not have pr ior band experience in table 4-2, the individual questions are also examined against this criterion in tables 4-9 and 4-10. For both groups, questions eight and nine showed signifi cant positive change. These were the only questions to show significant change for the band experience group. The group with no

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64 prior band experience demonstrated attit ude change on questions 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12—just as in the group as a whole (Table 4-7) except that question 10 is now statistically significant instead of merely approaching significance ( p = .009 vs. p = .059). Table 4-9. Results of paired t -tests on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects with prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Number & abbrev. description n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 1. Band is cool 100-0.021.05-0.230.19 -0.190 99.850 2. Enjoy band music 100-0.050.80-0.110.21 0.628 99.531 3. Glad/wish in band 100-0.090.77-0.240.06 -1.174 99.243 4. Social development 1000.011.07-0.200.22 0.094 99.926 5. Band/good music 1000.120.77-0.030.27 1.560 99.122 6. Worthwhile social 1000.090.88-0.080.26 1.026 99.307 7. Band is fun 1000.050.94-0.140.24 0.534 99.594 8. Band/entertainment 100-0.571.09-0.79-0.36 -5.254 99.000 9. School’s identity 100-0.210.98-0.40-0.02 -2.148 99.034 10. Music imp. in band 1000.040.86-0.130.21 0.463 99.644 11. Mem/well-adjusted 1000.001.19-0.240.24 0.000 991.000 12. Not acc. socially 100-0.121.20-0.360.12 -1.000 99.320 13. Band/friends 1000.020.72-0.120.16 0.276 99.783 14. Band/learn music 1000.010.96-0.180.20 0.104 99.917 Table 4-10. Results of paired t -tests on each question in the preand post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects w ith no prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Number & abbrev. description n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 1. Band is cool 100-0.171.12-0.390.05 -0.190 99.132 2. Enjoy band music 100-0.080.90-0.260.10 0.628 99.374 3. Glad/wish in band 100-0.301.10-0.52-0.08 -1.174 99.008 4. Social development 100-0.401.50-0.70-0.10 0.094 99.009 5. Band/good music 100-0.050.99-0.250.15 1.560 99.614 6. Worthwhile social 100-0.151.32-0.410.11 1.026 99.259 7. Band is fun 100-0.951.65-1.28-0.62 0.534 99.000

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65 Table 4-10. Continued Question Number 95% Confidence & abbrev. description n MeanStd. Dev Lower Upper t df p 8.Band/entertainment 100-0.531.11-0.75-0.31 -5.254 990 9. School’s identity 100-0.291.19-0.53-0.05 -2.148 990.02 10. Music imp. in band 100-0.331.24-0.58-0.08 0.463 990.01 11. Mem/well-adjusted 1000.011.32-0.250.27 0 990.94 12. Not acc. socially 100-0.481.24-0.73-0.23 -1.000 990 13. Band/friends 100-0.271.61-0.590.05 0.276 990.1 14. Band/learn music 100-0.140.96-0.330.05 0.104 990.15 Attitude Change by Specific Media Example Results of media exposure’s main effect on student attitudes as calculated via the pre/post exposure survey comparison show a cl ear trend. Equally important are subjects’ reactions to each media exposure. Subjects we re asked to answer five brief questions after each example concluded. They were inst ructed to answer based solely on how that example affected thei r attitudes toward the school ba nd and/or band students without regard for their prior feelings or other exampl es. These instructions were reinforced at the halfway point in the exposure session to help guard against testing fatigue. The following sections detail result s of the mid-exposure questions compared against their corresponding pre-exposure que stions. Each example feat ured different questions selected from the pre-exposure survey based on the topics covered in the media example. Due to the discrepancies of significant attitude change between those with prior band experience and those with no prior band expe rience, results are shown divided between those groups. Finally, most examples also incl uded several isolated questions that did not appear on the pre-exposure su rvey—results of these questions are displayed via descriptive statistics.

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66 Exposure 1: Animal House In the pilot study, Animal House was ranked tenth, with 17 mentions. Its mean positive/negative score was 1.77/somewhat ne gative. Both band and non-band subjects showed significant negative at titude changes when asked if they would be more likely to attend a band concert as shown in table 411. Band students also showed a significant negative change when given the statement “I’m glad I’m a member of my school band.” Non-band students showed no negative change given their version of the question (“I wish I was a member of my school band.”), largely because the pre-exposure mean for this question was 1.14/strongly negative and while the mid-exposure mean did drop to 1.06, this was not enough change to warrant statistical significan ce. The isolated question: “This is a realistic portrayal of band and band students” was given mean scores of 1.72 and 1.92/somewhat disagree by thos e with and without band experience respectively (SD .965, 1.032). Table 4-11. Media Exposure 1 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 1000.071.31-0.190.33 0.533 99.595 2. School’s identity No 1000.111.21-0.130.34 0.913 99.364 Yes 100-0.201.30-0.460.06 -1.545 99.126 3.Band/ entertainment No 100-0.101.10-0.320.12 -0.912 99.364 Yes 1001.321.261.071.57 10.457 99.000 4. Glad/wish in band No 1000.080.97-0.110.27 0.824 99.412 Yes 1001.451.271.201.70 11.451 99.000 5. Attend concert No 1000.931.330.681.19 7.005 99.000 Exposure 2: The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… The Family Guy an animated television series, wa s named several times in the pilot study. This episode, And the Wiener Is… received the highest ra nking with 18 mentions

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67 and an overall rank of eighth in the pilot study. This episod e was judged to be somewhat negative (mean = 1.72). For students with ba nd experience, every question registered significant negative attitude cha nge with regard to attributes of the school band (Table 4-12). Question 3: “The main function of the school band is entertainment” did experience a numerically positive shift, but most music educators would agree that this is a negative view of the wind band (Battisti, 2002). The same positive/negative shift occurred on question 2: “Participation in ba nd is not as acceptable socially as other school activities.” Non-band s ubjects’ attitudes underwent numerically positive change (negative shift) on questions 2 and 3. Both groups felt that this was not a realistic portrayal of band and band st udents (mean = 1.85, SD 1.048, 1.029). Table 4-12. Media Exposure 2 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.681.190.440.925.723 99 .000 1. Music imp. in band No 100 0.111.69-0.230.450.650 99 .517 Yes 100 -0.561.26-0.81-0.31-4.452 99 .000 2. Not acc. socially No 100 -0.791.31-1.05-0.53-6.018 99 .000 Yes 100 -0.881.34-1.15-0.61-6.553 99 .000 3. Band/ entertainment No 100 -0.721.44-1.01-0.44-5.014 99 .000 Yes 100 0.771.190.531.016.482 99 .000 4. Band/ friends No 100 -0.021.52-0.320.28-0.132 99 .895 Exposure 3: American Pie I & II American Pie and its sequel, American Pie II were both highly ranked in the pilot study (third and sixth respec tively, and the free response de scriptions by pilot study subjects ranged from humorous to vulgar. The two films were bot h seen as negative portrayals of the school band and band st udents (means = 1.55/1.97), and their frank depiction of band students as very sexually active social outcast s ensured high top of

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68 mind awareness for these films. Both films we re rated R for strong sexual content. It was decided not to show the scenes involvi ng band members in sexual situations due to the complications that would introduce into th e testing and consent procedures, but even so, the reactions of the subjects was immedi ate when the example began: they began laughing and the researcher could hear them repeating the most famous and most offensive line of dialogue2 from the films to each other. In the attitude survey, subjects were asked to respond to the following st atement: “Band members are more sexually active than other school groups.” Both groups of subjects disagreed with that statement (band/non-band means 1.87, 1.41). The attitude s of band experience group toward band and band students all dropped significantly. Interestingly, for the group without band experience, they showed a significant increase in agreement with the statement “band is fun” after viewing this media example. Ta ble 4-13 details the att itude change between preand mid-exposure survey questions via paired t -test. Table 4-13. Media Exposure 3 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.461.180.230.693.913 99 .000 1. Band is fun No 100 -0.911.57-1.22-0.60-5.794 99 .000 Yes 100 0.601.210.360.844.975 99 .000 2. Music imp. in band No 100 -0.061.52-0.360.24-0.394 99 .694 Yes 100 1.181.150.951.4110.267 99 .000 4. Enjoy band music No 100 0.631.120.410.855.645 99 .000 Yes 100 1.171.440.881.468.109 99 .000 5. Glad/wish in band No 100 0.061.10-0.160.280.546 99 .586 2 MICHELLE: “This one time, at band camp, I stuck a flute in my *****. What, you think I don’t know how to get myself off?” (Herz, 1999)

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69 Exposure 5: Drumline Drumline was the most popular film mentione d in the pilot study with 87.5% of pilot study subjects (n=112) including it in thei r responses. It also received a uniformly positive portrayal rating of 4.05. Results of both exposure groups (Table 4-14) showed attitude change on three of the four questi ons. For those with no band experience, they experienced a positive shift in their attitude of band’s importance in the teaching of music. Both groups felt that this was a so mewhat realistic portrayal of band and band students (means: with ex p. = 3.12, without exp. = 2.71). Table 4-14. Media Exposure 4 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 -0.470.92-0.65-0.29-5.136 99 .000 1. School’s identity No 100 -0.461.23-0.70-0.22-3.752 99 .000 Yes 100 -0.130.81-0.290.03-1.601 99 .113 2. Band/learn music No 100 -0.271.06-0.48-0.06-2.542 99 .013 Yes 100 0.361.190.130.603.038 99 .003 4. Not acc. socially No 100 0.101.42-0.180.380.705 99 .482 Yes 100 1.621.191.381.8613.644 99 .000 5. Attend concert No 100 1.281.141.051.5111.250 99 .000 Exposure 5: The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa The Simpsons was the number one television pr ogram by top of mind mention in the pilot survey with 34% (n= 43) of subj ects including it among thei r answers. Most subjects referenced the opening credit seque nce that shows Lisa playing jazz in band class (the rest of the class is presumed to be performing something else) and being forced to leave. Many of the subjects were not awar e that the first season of the show featured an episode titled Moaning Lisa that was the germinal idea for this sequence in the credits. As the credit sequence was only 10 seconds long, the episode was used as the media

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70 example. Pilot subjects’ mean attitude sc ore was 3.26. This was seen as somewhat unrealistic by both band and non-band groups (means 2.15, 1.98). Table 4-15 shows the attitude changes by responde nt group for Exposure 5. Table 4-15. Media Exposure 5 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.701.160.470.936.039 99 .000 1. Band/learn music No 100 0.351.430.070.632.446 99 .016 Yes 100 0.721.160.490.956.185 99 .000 2. Worthwhile social No 100 0.301.59-0.020.621.884 99 .062 Yes 100 0.461.340.190.733.442 99 .001 4. School’s identity No 100 0.221.47-0.070.511.492 99 .139 Yes 100 1.621.191.381.8613.644 99 .000 5. Attend concert No 100 1.281.141.051.5111.250 99 .000 Exposure 6: The Music Man The Music Man received the lowest top of mind awareness rating among film examples chosen for this research, mentione d by 7% (n=10) of pilot study subjects. It received a mean rating of 3.8 on the positive/ne gative scale. For exposure study subjects, it is curious that for those with band experi ence they experienced a negative shift in attitudes when given the statement “band is fun,” but those wit hout band experience showed a positive shift in attitudes for that same descriptor (Table 4-16). Also, both groups showed an amazing drop in their ra tings of enjoyment of band music and likelihood of their attending a band concert with a 45.4% decrease in the non-band group and a 53.8% decrease in the band experience group.

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71 Table 4-16. Media Exposure 6 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.531.550.220.843.412 99 .001 1. School’s identity No 100 0.221.450.070.511.521 99 .131 Yes 100 -0.771.34-1.04-0.50-5.747 99 .000 2. Band/ entertainment No 100 -0.711.47-1.00-0.42-4.822 99 .000 Yes 100 0.541.320.280.804.087 99 .000 3. Band is fun No 100 -0.791.83-1.15-0.43-4.310 99 .000 Yes 100 0.571.350.300.844.221 99 .000 4. Band/ friends No 100 -0.161.69-0.500.18-0.946 99 .347 Yes 100 1.821.231.582.0714.748 99 .000 5. Attend concert No 100 1.241.290.981.509.627 99 .000 Exposure 7: School of Rock School of Rock received one of the highest attitude ratings in the pilot study with a mean positive/negative score of 4.25. While th e film does not deal primarily with the school band, there is a significant scene of the school music ensemble within the film that was included in the testing example. There is also a non-traditional rock band formed within the school and that was featured promin ently in both the film and this research. This example triggered some of the most pos itive attitude changes between the preand mid-exposure surveys. The band experience group was not affected as strongly as the group with no band experience. The band gr oup showed significant positive changes for both “band is fun” and “school bands perf orm worthwhile/good music.” The non-band group’s attitudes rose for every descriptor, and especially for “band is fun” (148.2% increase) and “I wish I was in band” (88.6% increase) as shown in table 4-17.

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72 Table 4-17. Media Exposure 7 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 -0.200.94-0.39-0.01-2.121 99 .036 1. Band/good music No 100 -0.491.15-0.72-0.26-4.260 99 .000 Yes 100 0.001.27-0.250.250.000 99 1.000 3. Glad/wish in band No 100 -1.011.45-1.30-0.72-6.951 99 .000 Yes 100 0.081.41-0.200.360.569 99 .570 4. Social development No 100 -0.591.68-0.92-0.26-3.507 99 .001 Yes 100 -0.251.10-0.47-0.03-2.283 99 .025 5. Band is fun No 100 -1.691.77-2.04-1.34-9.560 99 .000 Exposure 8: 10 Things I Hate About You 10 Things I Hate About You is a modern adaptation of William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew set in a United States high school. The school band and band students are only featured in one scene, but it was both long enough and highly rated enough (45% of pilot study subjects included it ) to warrant inclusion. Table 4-18 shows a consistent attitude cha nge between the band and non-ba nd groups. The band group did show a negative attitude change when gi ven “School band is a worthwhile social organization” whereas the nonband group showed no significant change (pre/mid means 2.56, 2.68). Table 4-18. Media Exposure 8 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.001.27-0.250.250.000 99 1.000 1. Band/good music No 100 0.061.36-0.210.330.443 99 .659 Yes 100 -1.041.23-1.28-0.80-8.454 99 .000 3. Glad/wish in band No 100 -0.701.30-0.96-0.44-5.390 99 .000 Yes 100 0.371.160.140.603.189 99 .002 4. Social development No 100 -0.121.55-0.430.56-0.776 99 .439 Yes 100 0.341.090.130.193.135 99 .002 5. Band is fun No 100 0.321.500.020.622.129 99 .036

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73 Exposure 9: Mean Girls The shortest example in the study was Mean Girls at 43 seconds. Initially, this example was not going to be included in the exposure series desp ite its 15% awareness rating in the pilot study: sixt h overall and higher than Media Exposures 1, 6 and 7 due to its short length and almost negligible me ntion of band and/or band students. After deliberation, it was included as a cross-check on Media Exposure 3: American Pie I and II. The scene in Mean Girls features a voice-over descri bing different cliques in the school cafeteria. Examples ar e “varsity jocks,” “Asian nerds” and the reason for this example’s inclusion: “sexually active band geeks.” This statement is accompanied by video of an entire table of students kissing and groping each other. Subjects were given the statement “Band students are more sexua lly active than other school groups.” The scores were mostly neutral, in betwee n somewhat disagree and somewhat agree (Band/Non-band means 2.67, 2.39). This was hi gher than those for Media Exposure 3 by 42.8% for the band experience group and 69.5% for the non-band experience group. Both groups somewhat disagreed with the stat ement: “This is a realistic portrayal of band and/or band students” (band/non-band means 1.83, 1.79). When the preand mid-exposure questions were examined (Table 4-19), the band experience group showed significant negative attitude sh ifts for the questions: “Participation in school band is a good way to develop quality friendships” and “This example makes me glad I’m in my school band.” The non-band group show ed no significant attitude shifts.

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74 Table 4-19. Media Exposure 9 at titude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 0.651.230.410.895.303 99 .000 1. Band/ friends No 100 0.041.95-0.350.430.205 99 .838 Yes 100 0.281.45-0.010.571.931 99 .056 2. Band is cool No 100 0.211.48-0.080.501.420 99 .159 Yes 100 1.081.500.781.387.223 99 .000 5. Glad/wish in band No 100 -0.121.47-0.410.17-0.815 99 .417 Exposure 10: Mr. Holland’s Opus Mr. Holland’s Opus was listed in 77% (n=99) of pilot study subjects’ surveys and received the highest positiv e rating with a mean of 4.56. Surprisingly, both band and non-band groups reflected negative attitude shifts when gi ven the statements “School bands perform mostly popular music as entertai nment” and “After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band c oncert at my school.” The non-band group’s attitudes also shifted negativel y to “Participation in band is not as acceptable socially as other school activities” (a posit ive numerical shift for this question indicated a negative attitude shift) as shown in table 4-20. Table 4-20. Media Exposure 10 attitude change by paired t -test: subjects with and without prior band experience 95% Confidence Question Num & abbv. desc. Band Exp n MeanStd. Dev LowerUpper t df p Yes 100 -0.051.36-0.320.22-0.368 99 .714 1. Not acc. socially No 100 -0.411.73-0.75-0.07-2.370 99 .020 Yes 100 -0.871.26-1.12-0.62-6.902 99 .000 2. Band/ entertainment No 100 -0.711.16-0.94-0.48-6.135 99 .000 Yes 100 0.171.39-0.110.461.227 99 .223 4. School’s identity No 100 0.031.49-0.270.330.202 99 .841 Yes 100 0.691.290.430.955.338 99 .000 5. Attend concert No 100 0.351.440.070.642.434 99 .017

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75 Attitude Change in Subjects with Prior Band Experience versus No Prior Band Experience Of special interest are the differences in media’s overall effect on the attitudes of subjects with prior school band experience as compared to those without that experience. To determine whether a significant difference was present, the differences of the means of the 14 preand post-exposure attitude surv ey scores were calculated. The mean of these new variables was calculated and a one -way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was run. Results of this test indicate that there is no signifi cant difference in the effect of media on attitudes between the band and non-band groups as whole: F = .385, p = .604. The same one-way ANOVA was then run on the difference of each pair of questions separately. Of the 14 questions, 4 s howed a significant diffe rence in the overall attitude change between band and non-band gro ups. Three of the four questions were those which depended on either firsthand know ledge or consumer assumptions of the way the band exists as a class and a social organization. They were Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. (F = 4.968, p = .027) Question 7. School band is fun. (F = 138.928, p = .000) Question 10. Learning and performing music is an important aspect of participation in school band programs. (F = 5.998, p = .015) Question 4, “Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school activities,” did not rely on inside knowle dge or assumption of knowledge, but instead relied on the subjects’ opinion of the attitudes toward the sc hool band from the outside (F = 4.342, p = .038). Table 4-21 outlines the re sults of the per-item ANOVA tests.

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76 Table 4-21. Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band expe rience as the between factor Question number and abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 1.125 1 1.125 1 0.33 Within Groups234.07 1981.182 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 235.195 199 Between Groups 0.845 1 0.845 1 0.28 Within Groups142.11 1980.718 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 142.955 199 Between Groups 2.205 1 2.205 2 0.12 Within Groups179.19 1980.905 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 181.395 199 Between Groups 8.405 1 8.405 5 0.03 Within Groups334.99 1981.692 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 343.395 199 Between Groups 1.445 1 1.445 2 0.18 Within Groups155.31 1980.784 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 156.755 199 Between Groups 2.88 1 2.88 2 0.13 Within Groups248.94 1981.257 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 251.82 199 Between Groups 216.32 1 216.32 ##0 Within Groups308.3 1981.557 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 524.62 199 Between Groups 0.08 1 0.08 0 0.8 Within Groups239.42 1981.209 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 239.5 199

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77 Table 4-21. Continued Question number and abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 0.32 1 0.32 0 0.6 Within Groups235.18 1981.188 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 235.5 199 Between Groups 6.845 1 6.845 6 0.02 Within Groups225.95 1981.141 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 232.795 199 Between Groups 0.005 1 0.005 0 0.96 Within Groups312.99 1981.581 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ welladjusted Total 312.995 199 Between Groups 6.48 1 6.48 4 0.04 Within Groups295.52 1981.493 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 302 199 Between Groups 4.205 1 4.205 3 0.1 Within Groups307.67 1981.554 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 311.875 199 Between Groups 1.125 1 1.125 1 0.27 Within Groups183.03 1980.924 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 184.155 199 Several other series of ANOVA tests were done on different domains and subgroups (Appendix I). Conclusion Three main issues were measured and repor ted. The main effect of overall attitude change after media exposure was tested a nd found to be statistically significant. Primarily, the attitudes of students without prior band experience experienced significant

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78 overall change, while those of students w ith prior band experience did not. Younger students aged 14/15 and in grades 9 and 10, de monstrated significant attitude change; older students did not. There were no unexpected differences between males and females. Hours of television viewed per w eek, number of films seen in theatres per month, and participation in other musical en sembles had little effect. Examining the immediate effect of media consumption via the mid-exposure questi ons as divided by those with and without prior band experience showed that th e amount of attitude change depended to a large extent on the media exce rpt and the question being asked. Finally, one-way ANOVAs demonstrated that ther e were no overall significant difference between those with and without prior band experience, but some individual descriptors did show a difference.

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79 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this research was to dete rmine to what degree media portrayals of school band and band students would affect the attitudes of high school students regarding band as a musi cal and social activity. Summary Most studies of media’s affect on the att itudes and behaviors of children and teens are focused on the effects of violence and other negative behaviors (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Research also supports a link between medi a consumption and attitude change, although there is consider able debate as to the scope and depth of those effects (Katz, 1999). While violence and media is mo st often studied, children and adolescents are affected by the media in many, more subtle ways. Mass media, especially television, film, and the Internet, has supplanted many of our society’s trad itional sources of information and socialization. Media is th e new definer of popular culture (Ravitch & Viteritti, 2003). Research ha s consistently shown that the effects of media are greatest on children, including teens, who often rely on the media to help them decide what is “cool” (Zollo, 1999). Media is also a driving force behind the so cialization of today’s high school students (Slater et al., 2004). A 2003 study by Adderley, Kennedy and Berz showed that music students place a great deal of importance on the social aspects of membership in school ensembles, forming sepa rate cultures and subcultures within the larger student body. Not only do ensemble memb ers see themselves as separate from the rest of the school, often the non-band memb ers in the school view the band and band

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80 members as a separate culture as well. Unde rstanding the effect of media on the attitudes of both high school band members and non-band members is important to the continued success of those programs. Five high schools in the southeastern United States were randomly selected from a list prepared to ensure broad geographic a nd economic representation. The five schools selected can be described as: School #1. An affluent rural school in north Florida with 1528 students across four grades (9 – 12) School #2. An inner city school in south Fl orida with 3188 students across four grades School #3. A suburban school on Florida’s west coast with 2250 students across four grades School #4. A rural school in northeastern Ge orgia with 1323 students across four grades School #5. A small-town school in central Al abama with 1178 students across three grades (10 – 12) Classes of both band students and non-band students were selected at each school by the cooperating teachers based on availabil ity. Responses were later divided into two groups, those with and those without prior band experience. 20 students from each group were randomly selected to create two sample populations: 100 students with band experience and 100 with no band experience. All subjects completed a researcher-des igned pre-exposure/post-exposure attitude survey. The first part of the pre-exposure survey gathered demographic information for later comparison purposes. The second part of the pre-exposure survey contained 14 statements regarding the school band and/or band students; subject s indicated the degree to which they agreed or disagreed with th ese statements based on a four-point Likert

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81 Scale that ranged from 1 (str ongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). There was a fifth option, no opinion, which received a score of zer o so as not to affect the means and other analysis. Research suggests (Cox, 1996) this four-point scal e may be more effective for surveys where time is a factor in comple tion and also eliminat es confusion between neutral and no opinion choices. Following the pre-exposure survey, subj ects were shown a total of 10 media examples featuring portrayals of school band and/or band members in film and television. Examples were approximately two minutes each, and were selected on the basis of a pilot study that examined what media featuring school band and/or band students is “top of mind” for college musicians. Subjects were as ked to complete a five -item attitude survey following each example; statements on th e mid-exposure attitude surveys varied depending on the content of the media example. These statements were either identical to or correlated with those on the pre-expos ure survey for comparis on purposes and were rated on the same four-point Likert Scale. The post-exposure survey was identical to the pre-test, containing the same 14 statements and rating scale. The post-expos ure survey also cont ained three additional attitude statements for subjects to perform a self-analysis on th e degree to which the media exposure might have affected their attitudes. Conclusions: Research Question 1 The first null hypothesis states that ther e will be no statistically significant difference in pre-/postgain scores on att itudes of high school students toward the school band and band students. The results of a paired t -test on the differences of the sums of the scores from pre-and post-e xposure attitude surveys show a statistically significant difference where p < .05 ( p = .000), therefore null hypothesis 1 is rejected.

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82 A further examination of the data with re gard to subcategories of null hypothesis 1 shows that those with band e xperience did not exhibit signifi cant difference in attitude scores overall ( p = .173), but those wit hout band experience did ( p = .000). There were no significant differences in sums of scor es as a measure of change between gender groups, as both exhibited si gnificant difference (male: p = .003, female: p = .000). There was a large gap, however, in the amount of attitude change as measured by difference in preand post-exposure scores between age grou ps and grade levels. In both cases, the younger students’ attitude scores showed signi ficant difference, where the older students’ failed to show any significant difference as shown in Chapter 4, tables 4-3 and 4-4. There was also no major difference in the significance of the am ount of difference between students with a family member who plays an instrument and those that do not ( p = .000, p = .004 respectively). Students with no band experience that are members of other musical groups fall into two categor ies: those with instrumental ensemble performance experience (no significant change in attitude) and c horal/vocal students, who exhibited the same differences as s een in the non-band population as a whole ( p = .000 for school-based vocal/choral groups; p = .006 for vocal/chora l groups outside of school). It was also thought that the amount of media consumption might be a factor in the amount of difference shown in student s’ attitudes—tests showed no correlation between the two. After the sums of the preand post-expos ure scores were tested against the null hypothesis, individual t -tests were run on each pair of questions from the preand post-exposure surveys to determin e if there were any areas of attitude more affected than others. For the group with band experience media exposure led to a 25.6 increase in

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83 agreement with question 8: “School ba nds mostly perform popular music as entertainment” (significant difference; p = .000) and a significant positive difference in agreement with question 9: “The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image” ( p = .034). These were the only questions to show significant difference for those with band experience. Subjects with no prior band experience s howed significant difference on several questions. Four of those questions reflect more positive attitudes toward the school band and band students after media exposure: Question 3. I am glad I’m in/wish I was in my school band. (26.3% increase; p = .008) Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. (19.2% increase; p = .009) Question 7. School band is fun. (83.39% increase; p = .000) Question 9. The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image. (10.5% increase; p = .017) The non-band group showed the same significant shift toward agreement with question 8: “…music as entertainment” ( p = .000) as the group with band experience. In addition, they demonstrated a marked significant shift in their attitudes given the statement: “Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school activities.” Their pe rcentage of agreement increased 24.7% ( p = .000), a seeming contradiction given their positive shift in their perceptions of the band as “fun” and creating a “healthy social development.” This contradiction seems to show that while non-band subjects now view the activities of the band more positively, they are even more likely to regard band members as less acceptable socially.

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84 Conclusions: Research Question 2 The second null hypothesis states that ther e will be no statistically significant difference in pre-/postgain scores on at titudes of students with band experience and those with no band experience. With regard to attitude scores as a w hole, the results of a one-way ANOVA support the null hypothesis, s howing there is no significant difference between the two groups (F = .385; p = .604). Further breakdowns of the two groups by preand post-exposure questions show that 4 of the 14 did show a significant difference: Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphe re of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. (F = 4.968; p = .027) Question 7. School band is fun. (F = 138.928; p = .000) Question 10. Learning and performing music is an important aspect of participation in school band programs. (F = 5.998; p = .015) Question 12. Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school activities. (F = 4.342; p = .038) As discussed in Chapter 4, the first thr ee questions depend on either firsthand knowledge of the inner workings of the ba nd class or the perception of those inner workings, creating an inherent situation where attitudes are likely to differ. Attitude Change by Specific Media Example In the exposure series there were 10 medi a examples. According to the pilot study, 6 were considered positive portrayals of the school band and/or band students and 4 were negative. This 60/40 percentage is equal to the percentage of positive to negative portrayals across the entire sample of medi a collected in the pilot study. Chapter 4 contains detailed analysis of results by each media example; here the data is examined by type of media portrayal.

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85 Among the positive examples, statements such as “The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image” and “Learning an d performing music is an important part of participation in school band programs” consistently showed significant positive attitude shifts. Contrary to expectation, attitudes on statemen ts such as “Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as othe r school activities” di d not increase after positive examples, but dropped instead. Also, statements regarding band music showed a decline in attitude after media exposure, incl uding “I enjoy listening to music performed by school bands,” “School bands perform wo rthwhile/good music,” and “After viewing this example, I would be more likely to a ttend a band concert at my school.” Possible reasons for this incongruity include the number of positive examples that also feature wind band music performed poorly, such as The Music Man and The Simpsons Negative examples showed clear negative tren ds in attitude when given statements like “I’m glad I’m in/wish I was in my school band” and “Participa tion in school band is not as socially acceptable as other school act ivities,” following expectations. The most interesting changes for both positive and ne gative examples were those of the band experience group: subjects with band experience experienced higher instances of attitude change with regard to the specific media exam ples than those without band experience at an almost two-to-one ratio. This would seem to conflict with earlier conclusions that show the band experience group to have no significant attitude change. In fact, it merely shows that the band experience group has a high degree of experi ence dealing with media’s depictions of the school band. Du ring the exposure period, subjects were asked to report their attitudes base d solely on how each media exam ple made them feel. The individual examples affected the band expe rience group more because their pre-exposure

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86 surveys were based on real-life experiences, while the media depictions showed a skewed view of the school band culture. The non-band group showed less change for the individual examples because their pre-exposur e attitudes are already formed to a large extent by the media and they are less likel y to see the skewed nature of media’s portrayals of band and band students. On th e post-exposure survey, when subjects were once again asked to describe th eir attitudes as a whole, the band group quickly returned to their pre-exposure attitude s while the non-band group show ed significant change in several areas. Discussion Previous media studies have shown that atti tudes can be transformed in as little as one media exposure (Drabman & Thomas, 1974; Molitor & Hirsch, 1994). The results of this research support that conclusion. Media does affect students’ attitudes toward the school band and/or school band students, espe cially those students without prior band experience. Age appears to be a strong factor with regard to attitude change and media exposure. This research strongly suggests that younger students (age s 14 – 16) in grades 9 and 10 exhibit attitude changes toward th e school band and band students after media exposure as measured by pre-/post-exposure su rvey results, whereas older students (ages 17 – 19+) in grades 11 and 12 did not show a ny statistically significant differences in their pre-/post-exposure results. This may mean that younger students are less likely to distinguish between the images that media pr esents of the school band and band students and the true images and behaviors that exis t within the band. As students age, they become more adept at identifying sati re and exaggeration for comic effect.

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87 Results suggest that subjects without ba nd experience react much differently to many of the questions in the attitude surv eys when compared to subjects with band experience. It is possible that the two groups see each question differently. For example, when asked whether they agree with the st atement “Band is Fun,” those without band experience may react simply to the images presented in the media example, whereas those with band experience know the effort and work that goes into a performance of any type. These differences in experience account for much of the difference in results. Media is one of the primary forces in th e socialization of today’s children and adolescents. It functions as a reference point for societal norms and status positions (Hepburn, 1998), teaching youth what parts of our culture are valued and what parts are worthy of mockery. It has been shown that teens are more susceptible to messages in media than others, and that the attitudes fo rmed during the teen y ears can have lasting effects into adulthood. Festinger’s “Theory of Social Comparison” states that humans have a basic need to have their attitudes a nd opinions reinforced through those of others. Media is a constant force in shaping those opinions, whether through explicit teaching or implicit learning. It is not important whet her a media example directly labels band students as undesirable socially; even the fleeting image of the band student as “geek” or “nerd” is enough to shape att itudes. Implicit learning and peripheral persuasion are the two factors most responsible for media’s a ffect on attitudes (Pra tkanis & Aronson, 1997), and those are also the two most common avenues school bands and band students are depicted in media. The film that features band and band students as elements central to the plot is rare. They appear in this res earch as “The Music Man,” “Drumline” and “Mr.

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88 Holland’s Opus.” The majority of media portr ayals of band are much more subtle and in a sense, more powerful. Pilot survey subjects indicated that almost 60% of media portrayals of band and/or band students were positive, citing films like “Drumline” and television programs such as “The Simpsons” as positive portrayals. Thes e examples may be better than most at showing band members as popular, well adjusted students, but they do a disservice to the wind band movement. By continuing to fo cus on marching ensembles, showing band and band music as nothing more than extrac urricular entertainment and fluff, these “positive” portrayals actually encourage th e commonly espoused view of band and music as an extra in the school day. Those powerful, supposedly positive examples do harm to the idea of the wind band as art music and wi nd band participation as a worthy curricular component. Even “Mr. Holland’s Opus,” hailed as a film that highlights the best band has to offer, shows incompetent student perfor mers playing bad music badly. To truly be a positive portrayal of the wind band, media must go beyond the clichs of teamwork and school spirit and make an effort to include good music at the cente r of the school band program. Further research has shown that behaviors shown in a positive li ght with attractive actors is more likely to be imitated by the view er, and the converse is true (Slater, 1999). If the school band and band students continue to be portrayed with a negative connotation and “geeky” actors, the band movement will continue to be maligned. School bands tend to have a wide variety of student participants and have been shown to mirror the school’s social structure (Kelly, 2002). Bands have their own cliques, incl uding popular students, jocks, nerds, and all of the rest commonly seen in the schoo l as a whole. An accurate

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89 portrayal of school bands and band members would include all of these students, not just exploit the band for comic relief. The wind band movement has undergone many changes since it first appeared in the schools. Today’s wind band has a large body of quality literature and is in the forefront of new music compositions. The art of the wind band is pe rhaps at its highest point yet. Still, membership in school bands is lower now than ever before. Some of the drop in enrollment is due to the large number of activities that our youth can choose from and the tendency to work part-time jobs, but the affect of media is pervasive and constant. Results of this research show that even positive portrayals of the band have negative effects on some components of stude nts’ attitudes toward them. Beyond the immediate issues of media’s affect on recru itment and retention li e its affects on public perception of the wind band as a worthwhile ac tivity for youth and as an art form all its own. What affect does a film th at specifically says “…that’s what half of band camp is! Sex ed!” have on parents of current and pot ential band students (Herz, 1999)? What affect is there on potential audiences’ desi re to attend a wind band concert when the image that is reinforced over and over agai n is that of the band as a marching pop music entertainment group? One type of media almost always shows bands and band students in a positive light: the news media. Local television statio ns and newspapers often do an excellent job of highlighting the wind band and band perfor mers at their best. Unfortunately, many school band directors simply do not have the tim e or experience it takes to generate this positive publicity and these local media outlets ar e equally in the dark about the activities

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90 of the band. Many media outlets feature a Sc holar of the Week and an Athlete of the Week. Where is the Performer of th e Week or Artist of the Week? The music education profession and wind band conductors will not be able to change modern media, but it is imperative th at they continue their existing efforts to advance an alternate view of band and, by ex tension, music education in the schools. Through careful cultivation of students as bot h performers and audience members, it may be possible to move societies’ view of the wind band away from one of comic relief and toward the artistic acclaim held by other musical ensembles. Recommendations Future research in the area of media’s affect on attit udes regarding the school band should consider the following: Allow students to view entire examples in co ntext, rather than short excerpts. This would necessitate a much longer testi ng period, perhaps over several days or weeks. Vary the order of examples in the pres entation to eliminate any order-effects. Conduct long-term research, perhaps returni ng days or weeks later to re-administer the post-exposure survey; this research wa s concerned only with short-term effect. Allow a free response section for students to explain their choices, attitudes, and feelings regarding the media portrayals. Test subjects in schools where the band pr ograms are at established quality levels to determine if the quality of the progr am affects attitude s at a level which overcomes media portrayals. Examine ways to study attitudes from other perspectives instead of through surveys and self-reported results. Consider a behavi orist approach to eval uate attitude. For example, students who enter a band classr oom eager to begin may show stronger positive attitudes than those who lag be hind others and seem disinterested.

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91 APPENDIX A RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Media is all around us. From movies and films to television programs, advertising and even radio, we are inundated with images and ideas. This study attempts to discover what effect depictions of the band activity, including band students, music, instructors, and performances may have on perceptions and attitudes of both musicians and non-musicians. After completing a brief questionnaire, you will be asked to watch ten examples of the wind band and its participants in various settings. After each example, you will be asked to answer several questions about that specific depiction. At the conclusion of the experience, there will be another set of brief questions regarding your attitudes as a whole. Thank you for taking part in this study and helping to further the wind band activity in our schools and concert halls. Part I: Biographical Data Directions: This section collects some basic biog raphical data on you and your prior experiences. It will be used only as aggregate data in the reporti ng of results. Your personal information will never be used, published or distributed in any way. 1. I am (check one) years old. 12/under 13 14 15 16 17 18 19+ 2. I am in the (check one) grade. 9 10 11 12 3. I am a: Male Female 4. On average, I watch about (check one) hours of television each week. 0 (none) 1 – 5 6 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 21 – 25 26 – 30 30 or more

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92 5. In the last month, I have seen (check one) movies/films IN A THEATER. 0 (none) 1 – 2 3 – 5 6 or more The following questions deal with your prior musical experiences and other school activities. 7. Have you ever (in your lifetime) been a member of a school band? Yes No 8. Are you a member of your school band NOW? Yes No 9. Total number of years you have particip ated in a school band in your lifetime (count this year as “1”): 0 (none/never) 1 2 – 3 4 – 5 6 – 7 8 or more 10. What is/was your main/principal inst rument in the school band, if any (grouped by families): None/Not in band Flute Clarinet Oboe Bassoon Saxophone Trumpet Horn Trombone Euphonium Tuba Percussion Piano/Keyboard String Bass Auxiliary (color guard/baton/flag/other) Other: _________________________ 11. Are you a member of anoth er musical ensemble at yo ur school? Which One? No/none Choral/Vocal Orchestra Other: ___________________ 12. Are you a member of a musical group outside of your school? What kind? No/none Choral/Vocal Orchestra Rock Band Drum & Bugle Corps Other: ________________

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93 13. Do you have any other musical experience not otherwise listed? No Yes (what kind): _________________________________________________ 14. Does anyone in your family play a musical instrument? Yes No If yes, who/what: ________________________________________________________ 15. What kind of music is most often heard in your home? _____________________ 16. Other than music, please briefly list your extracurricular activities, including sports and clubs: ________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Part II: Pre-exposure Attitudes Directions: The following questions examine your attitudes towards the wind band/school band and its members. When answering questions, th ink about everything you know regarding the band as an activity, its members, music, and teac hers. Answer questions as honestly as possible – your responses will never be associated with your identity in any report or otherwise used, published or distributed in any way. 1. Band members are cool. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. I enjoy listening to music performed by school bands. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. I am glad I am in/wish I was in my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. School bands perform worthwhile/good music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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94 6. The school band is a worthwhile social organization. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 7. School band is fun. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 8. School bands mostly perform po pular music as entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 9. The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 10. Learning and Performing music is an important aspect of participation in school band programs. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 11. Members of the school band are well-adjusted socially. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 12. Participation in the band is not as social ly acceptable as other school activities. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 13. Participation in school band is a good way to develop quality friendships. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 14. Participation in a school band program is a good way to learn about music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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95 Part III: Media Examples Directions: A total of ten media depictions of band, its music, students an d instructors will be presented. After each example, you will be giv en the opportunity to complete a set of five questions. Your answers should reflect how you feel about that example only If the example had no effect, indicate in the box provided. Ot herwise, please rate the degree of effect the example had on your short-term attitudes. In ot her words, if that example made you feel much better about band that would be a very positive resp onse, even if your long -term attitudes might be very different. Again, if the example has no effect, please indicate as such – do not feel pressured to “make a choice.” Please wait until the example has co mpletely stopped before beginning to respond. Example 1 1. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. School bands perform mostly po pular music as entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. This example makes me glad I’m in/wish I was a member of my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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96 Example 2 1. Music is an important part of pa rticipation in a school band program. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. Participation in band is not as acceptabl e socially as other school activities. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. The main function of the school band program is entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. Participation in the school band program is a good way to develop quality friendships. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion Example 3 1. Band is fun. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. Music is an important part of pa rticipation in a school band program. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. Band members are more sexually ac tive than other school groups. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. Based on this example, I would enjoy listening to music performed by school bands. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. This example makes me glad I’m in/wish I was a member of my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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97 Example 4 1. The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. Participation in a school band program is a good way for students to learn music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. Participation in band is not as acceptabl e socially as other school activities. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion Example 5 1. Participation in a school band program is a good way for students to learn music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. The school band is a worthwhile social organization. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This a realistic portrayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. The band is an important part of the school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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98 Example 6 1. The band is an important part of the school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. The main function of the school band program is entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. Band is fun. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. Participation in school band is a good way to develop quality friendships. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion Example 7 1. School bands perform worthwhile/good music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This example makes me glad I’m in/wish I was a member of my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. Band is fun. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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99 Example 8 1. The band is an important part of the school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. School bands perform mostly po pular music as entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. School band is a worthwhile social organization. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion Example 9 1. Participation is school band is a good way to develop quality friendships. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. Band members are cool. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. Band members are more sexually ac tive than other school groups. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. This example makes me glad I’m in/wish I was a member of my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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100 Example 10 1. Participation in band is not as acceptabl e socially as other school activities. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. School bands perform mostly po pular music as entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. This is a realistic portr ayal of band and band students. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. The band is an important part of the school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. After viewing this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion STOP HERE Please do not open the next packet until instructed to do so.

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101 Part IV: Post-exposure Attitudes Directions: This section is intended to asse ss how much the media examples you just saw effect your attitudes as a whole. When res ponding to each statement, please do not think about any specific example but in stead consider all of the examples as a whole, combined with your previously held attitudes about school band. Please DO NOT refer to any previous answer – simply give the best response you can at this time. 1. Band members are cool. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 2. I enjoy listening to music performed by my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 3. I am glad I am in/wish I was in my school band. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development and peer interaction for its members. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 5. School bands perform worthwhile/good music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 6. The school band is a worthwhile social organization. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 7. School band is fun. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 8. School bands mostly perform po pular music as entertainment. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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102 9. The band is an important part of a school’s identity and image. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 10. Music is an important aspect of pa rticipation in school band programs. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 11. Members of the school band are well-adjusted socially. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 12. Participation in the band is not as social ly acceptable as other school activities. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 13. Participation in school band is a good way to develop quality friendships. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 14. Participation in a school band program is a good way to learn about music. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 15. My attitudes about school band and band students have changed after watching the previous media examples. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 16. My attitudes about school band and band students are more positive after watching the previous media examples. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion 17. Most media portrayals of the school band and band students are realistic. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree No Opinion

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103 APPENDIX B PILOT STUDY RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Media is all around us. From movies and films to television programs, advertising and even radio, we are inundated with images and ideas. Many of those programs give false or misleading impressions of the activities they depict. This study attempts to discover what effect those depictions of the band activity, including band students, music, instructors, and performances may have on perceptions and attitudes of both musicians and non-musicians. In this survey, you will be asked to think of examples of the band activity in media. These examples can be anything you remember and need not be recent. Please include as much identifying information on each example as possible to assist in its location. There are separate sections for film, television and advertising. Please be sure to fill out all parts of the survey, including the biographical data in Part IV on the back page of this packet. Part I: Examples in Film Directions: Please take a moment to think of ex amples of the wind band depicted in films. Keep in mind that an example need not be of a band perfor ming, but could also include any portrayal of band or band students and/or faculty. You will also be asked whether you feel the portrayal in your example gives a positive, neutral or negative impression of the band activity. Film Title (or other descriptive information) Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative

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104 Film Title (or other descriptive information) Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative Film Title (or other descriptive information) Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative Film Title (or other descriptive information) Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative

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105 Part II: Examples in Television Directions: Please take a moment to think of examples of the wind band depicted in televised news and/or entertainment programming. Please do not mention advertising in this section; that will be covered in Part III. Keep in mind that an example need not be of a band performing, but could also include any portrayal of band or band stu dents and/or faculty. You will also be asked whether you feel the portrayal in your example gi ves a positive, neutral or negative impression of the band activity. Program Title Episode Title (or other de scriptive information) Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative Program Title Episode Title (or other de scriptive information) Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative

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106 Program Title Episode Title (or other de scriptive information) Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative Program Title Episode Title (or other de scriptive information) Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative

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107 Part II: Examples in Advertising Directions: Please take a moment to think of ex amples of the wind band depicted in advertising. Keep in mind that an example need not be of a band performing, but could also include any portrayal of band or band students and/or faculty. You will also be asked whether you feel the portrayal in your example gives a positive, neut ral or negative impression of the band activity. Product/Service/Item being promoted Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative Product/Service/Item being promoted Air Date (approximate is OK) Network/Channel Scene/Portrayal Description Regarding its depiction of the band ac tivity, I feel that this example is: Very Positive Somewhat Positive Neutral Somewhat Negative Very Negative

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108 Part IV: Your Biographical Information Directions: This section collects some basic biog raphical data on you and your prior experiences. It will be used only as aggregate data to aid in gro uping examples identified. Your personal data will never be used, published or distributed in any way. College Major: ___________________________________________________ Degree sought: ___________________________________________________ Principal Instrument: ___________________________ How many years have you play ed that instrument? ________ How many years have you been in band (beginning to present)? ________ Which ensembles do you participate in at UF? Marching Band Basketball and/or Volleyball Band Concert Band Symphonic Band Wind Symphony Jazz Band In general, I watch about ________ hours of television each week. In the last month I have seen (ch eck one) movies/films in the theatre. 0 (none) 1-2 3-5 6 or more I am: Male Female I am ________ years of age. Thank you very much for your time and c onsideration in completing this survey. If you think of additional examples to add or would like to discuss this material further, please contact Russell McCutcheon, Principal Investigator, at the UF School of Music. Voice: 352-392-0223 ext. 241 Email: rmccutch@ufl.edu

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109 APPENDIX C PILOT STUDY INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION Informed Consent Protocol Title: The effect of media on attitudes of musicians and non-musicians toward the wind band. (Phase I) Please read this consent document carefully befo re you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to discover portrayals of the band activity in the media. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to complete a short survey describing portrayals of the band activity in the media (film, television, etc.). Time required: 15 minutes Risks and Benefits: There are no anticipated risks or direct benefits to you as a participant in this study. Compensation: You will not be compensated for participating in this research. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file at the School of Music. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Your participation or non-participation in this st udy will not affect course grades in any way. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from th e study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Russell McCutcheon, Graduate Student, School of Music, PO Box 117900, 106 MUB, Gainesville, FL 32611, Voice: 352-392-0223 ext. 241 David Waybright, D.M.A., School of Music, PO Bo x 117900, 106 MUB, Gainesville, FL 32611, Voice: 352-392-0223 ext. 211 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Flor ida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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110 Institutional Review Board Protocol 1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: The Effect of Media on Attitudes of Musicians and Non-musicians toward the Wind Band. (Phase I) 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s): Russell G. McCutcheon, M.Ed. Graduate Student – School of Music MUB 106 PO Box 117900 Gainesville, FL 32611-7900 Voice: 352-514-0931 Email: rmccutch@ufl.edu FAX: 352-392-0461 3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT): David Waybright, D.M.A. PO Box 117900 Gainesville, FL 32611-7900 Voice: 352-392-0223 ext. 211 Email: dwaybrig@ufl.edu FAX: 352-392-0461 4. DATES OF PROP OSED PROTOCOL: From Nov 20, 2004 to Jan 15, 2005 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL: (As indicated to the Office of Researc h, Technology and Graduate Education) unfunded 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: This study aims to determine the extent to which media (film, tele vision, etc.) influence the attitudes toward and perceptions of the wind band as art music. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESE ARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. The UFIRB needs to know what will be done with or to the research participant(s). This IRB submission is only for phase I of the study; phase II will be submitted under separate cover. Phase I of the research asks participants to complete a short, fill-in-the-blank survey to 1) discover a wide range of examples of the band activity in media and 2) to determine the most well-known or remembered examples via an analysis of the frequency with which they are mentioned. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK. (If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps take n to protect participant.)

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111 There are no anticipated risk s or direct benefits to participants in this study. 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANT(S) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, A ND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): Participants will be current musicians at th e University of Florida recruited voluntarily from the following classes: MUN 1110, MUN 1120, MUN 1130, MUN 1140, MUN 1710, MUN 3113, MUN 3123, MUN 3133, M UN 3143, MUN 3713. Potential participants will all be adults over the age of 18. There will be no compensation offered to participants. 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUM ENT (if applicable). Participants will be given an informed consent document containing an overview and background of the study and instructions fo r its completion. If subjects choose to participate they will be asked to complete and sign the document Please use attachments sparingly. __________________________ Principal Investigator's Signature _________________________ Supervisor's Signature I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB: ____________________________ Dept. Chair/Center Director Date

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112 APPENDIX D PILOT STUDY INSTRUCTIONS Instructions to survey administrators 1. Explain the purposes of this re search by reading the following: Russ McCutcheon’s research focuses on the way that images of band and band members in the media affect the attit udes of both musicians and non-musicians towards us and the band activity. He is searching for portrayals of ban d and band musicians in all media, including film/movies, television and advertising. After these examples are identified, they will be categorized by both the frequency they were mentioned and the type of portrayal, either positive or negative. The most-often recalled portrayals will be combined into a 20-30 minute “clip film” and shown to subjects from various universities across Florida to test its effect on thei r perceptions of band and band musicians. 2. Pass out a copy of the informed consent, survey and pencil to everyone in the group. Whether or not they plan to complete the su rvey, try to get them to take it initially. 3. Read the following instructions: Before deciding whether to complete the survey, please keep in mind that your participation will have no affect on any course grades. In addition, your confidentiality will be maintained as de scribed in the informed consent. Every person who participates is critical to the success of this research – if the initial Phase I collection is unsuccessful it will be impossible to continue the study. If you decide to participate, please complete the informed consent document included with each survey. Sign and date the document and then DETACH it from the survey. These will be collected separately to maintain confidentiality. As you complete the survey, keep in mind t hat the frequency with which an item is mentioned is critical; even if those around you write down an example, if you recalled it independently please includ e it on your survey as well. In addition, include as much information about your examples as possible to help make locating them in media archives easier. Thank you VERY much for your participation today! 4. Collect informed consent documents a nd surveys separately and put them in appropriate envelopes. Thank you for your help.

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113 APPENDIX E PILOT STUDY ADDITIONAL DATA Film and Television Results Table E-1. Combined film and televi sion results by number of mentions Media Title Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Drumline 128 112 4.045 Mr. Holland’s Opus 128 99 4.5556 American Pie 128 98 1.551 10 Things I Hate About You 128 51 3.098 Simpsons: Lisa plays sax 128 43 3.256 American Pie II 128 34 1.971 Mean Girls 128 19 1.842 Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… 128 18 1.722 Spongebob Squarepants 128 18 2.889 Animal House 128 17 1.765 School of Rock 128 16 4.25 Ferris Bueller's Day off 128 15 3.733 Music Man, The 128 10 3.8 Even Stevens 128 10 3.5 Other Sister, The 128 8 4.375 Family Guy: Chitty Chitty… 128 7 2.286 Saved by the Bell 128 7 2.429 Never Been Kissed 128 6 2 Family Guy: Stewie… 128 5 3.4 Gilmore Girls 128 5 2.8 Macys Day Parade 128 5 4 Revenge of the Nerds 128 4 2 Brassed Off 128 3 4.333 Forrest Gump 128 3 3 Grease 128 3 2.667 New Guy, The 128 3 3 Star Wars 128 3 3.667 South Park: Fourth of July 128 3 2 Amadeus 128 2 3.5

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114 Table E-1. Continued Media Title Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey American Wedding 128 2 2.5 Austin Powers 128 2 4 First Daughter 128 2 2.5 I Still Know What You Did… 128 2 4 Jingle All the Way 128 2 3 Josie and the Pussycats 128 2 3.5 Miss Congeniality 128 2 2.5 Music of the Heart 128 2 4.5 Remember the Titans 128 2 5 Varsity Blues 128 2 2.5 Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Band... 128 2 1.5 Full House 128 2 2 Futurama 128 2 4 Jeopardy: College Night 128 2 5 Seinfeld 128 2 2 Star Trek: Voyager 128 2 4 Steve Harvey Show, The 128 2 4 Aces: Iron Eagle 128 1 3 Agent Cody Banks 128 1 3 Almost Famous 128 1 2 American President, The 128 1 3 Bad News Bears, The 128 1 4 Big Fish 128 1 3 Bring It On 128 1 2 Caddyshack 128 1 4 Ernest Goes Back to School 128 1 3 Freaky Friday 128 1 3 Gangs of New York 128 1 3 Ghostbusters 128 1 4 Head of State 128 1 3 Hello Dolly 128 1 5 Leader of the Band 128 1 2 Little Giants 128 1 3 Lucas 128 1 4 Memphis Belle 128 1 5 Naked Gun, The 128 1 3

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115 Table E-1. Continued Media Title Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Patriot, The 128 1 3 Ray 128 1 1 Red Dragon 128 1 4 Rushmore 128 1 5 Sister Act 128 1 5 Sound of Music, The 128 1 4 Spaceballs 128 1 3 What’s Eating Gilbert Grape? 128 1 1 Xanadu 128 1 5 American Dreams 128 1 4 Boston Public 128 1 1 Clarissa Explain 128 1 4 Dawson’s Creek 128 1 2 Destiny’s Child: 128 1 4 Outkast: Rosa Parks Video 128 1 4 Strangers with Candy 128 1 2 Adventures of Pete and Pete 128 1 1 TRL (MTV): Destiny’s Child 128 1 5 Wheel of Fortune 128 1 5 Big Chill, The 128 0 Dear God 128 0 Elmer Gantry 128 0 Everybody’s All-American 128 0 Game Day 128 0 Good Burger 128 0 Hero 128 0 Hiding Out 128 0 In the Line of Fire 128 0 Iron Eagle 128 0 Last Boy Scout 128 0 Little Nikita 128 0 Little Rascals, 128 0 My Blue Heaven 128 0 My Fellow Americans 128 0 Sgt. Bilko 128 0 Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts… 128 0

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116 Table E-1. Continued Media Title Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Sixth Man, The 128 0 Truman Show, The 128 0 Turk 182 128 0 Wag the Dog 128 0 Water Boy, The 128 0 Welcome Home, Roxy… 128 0 Going to the Mat 128 0

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117 Table E-2. Combined film and televisi on results by mean of attitude survey Variable Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Remember the Titans 128 2 5 Jeopardy: College Night 128 2 5 Hello Dolly 128 1 5 Memphis Belle 128 1 5 Rushmore 128 1 5 Sister Act 128 1 5 Xanadu 128 1 5 TRL (MTV): Destiny’s Child 128 1 5 Wheel of Fortune 128 1 5 Mr. Holland’s Opus 128 99 4.5556 Music of the Heart 128 2 4.5 Other Sister, The 128 8 4.375 Brassed Off 128 3 4.333 School of Rock 128 16 4.25 Drumline 128 112 4.045 Macys Day Parade 128 5 4 Austin Powers 128 2 4 I Still Know What You Did… 128 2 4 Futurama 128 2 4 Star Trek: Voyager 128 2 4 Steve Harvey Show, The 128 2 4 Bad News Bears, The 128 1 4 Caddyshack 128 1 4 Ghostbusters 128 1 4 Lucas 128 1 4 Red Dragon 128 1 4 Sound of Music, The 128 1 4 American Dreams 128 1 4 Clarissa Explain 128 1 4 Destiny’s Child: Music Video 128 1 4 Outkast: Rosa Parks Video 128 1 4 Music Man, The 128 10 3.8 Ferris Bueller’s Day Off 128 15 3.733 Star Wars 128 3 3.667 Even Stevens 128 10 3.5 Amadeus 128 2 3.5 Josie and the Pussycats 128 2 3.5

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118 Table E-2. Continued Variable Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Family Guy: Stewie… 128 5 3.4 Simpsons: Lisa plays sax 128 43 3.256 10 Things I Hate About You 128 51 3.098 Forrest Gump 128 3 3 New Guy, The 128 3 3 Jingle All the W 128 2 3 Aces: Iron Eagle 128 1 3 Agent Cody Banks 128 1 3 American President 128 1 3 Big Fish 128 1 3 Ernest Goes Back to School 128 1 3 Freaky Friday 128 1 3 Gangs of New York 128 1 3 Head of State 128 1 3 Little Giants 128 1 3 Naked Gun, The 128 1 3 Patriot, The 128 1 3 Spaceballs 128 1 3 Spongebob Squarepants 128 18 2.889 Gilmore Girls 128 5 2.8 Grease 128 3 2.667 American Wedding 128 2 2.5 First Daughter 128 2 2.5 Miss Congeniality 128 2 2.5 Varsity Blues 128 2 2.5 Saved by the Bell 128 7 2.429 Family Guy: Chit 128 7 2.286 Never Been Kissed 128 6 2 Revenge of the Nerds 128 4 2 South Park: Fourth of July 128 3 2 Full House 128 2 2 Seinfeld 128 2 2 Almost Famous 128 1 2 Bring It On 128 1 2 Leader of the Band 128 1 2 Dawson’s Creek 128 1 2

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119 Table E-2. Continued Variable Total N Number of mentions Mean of attitude survey Strangers with Candy 128 1 2 American Pie II 128 34 1.971 Mean Girls 128 19 1.842 Animal House 128 17 1.765 Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… 128 18 1.722 American Pie 128 98 1.551 Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Band…128 2 1.5 Ray 128 1 1 What’s Eating Gilbert Grape? 128 1 1 Boston Public 128 1 1 Adventures of Pete and Pete 128 1 1 Big Chill, The 128 0 Dear God 128 0 Elmer Gantry 128 0 Everybody’s All-American 128 0 Game Day 128 0 Good Burger 128 0 Hero 128 0 Hiding Out 128 0 In the Line of Fire 128 0 Iron Eagle 128 0 Last Boy Scout 128 0 Little Nikita 128 0 Little Rascals, The 128 0 My Blue Heaven 128 0 My Fellow American 128 0 Sgt. Bilko 128 0 Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts… 128 0 Sixth Man, The 128 0 Truman Show, The 128 0 Turk 182 128 0 Wag the Dog 128 0 Water Boy, The 128 0 Welcome Home Roxy… 128 0 Going to the Mat 128 0

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120 Total Media Results Table E-3. All film results in alphabetical order Film Title 10 Things I Hate About You Aces: Iron Eagle III Agent Cody Banks Almost Famous Amadeus American Pie American Pie II American President, The American Wedding Animal House Austin Powers Bad News Bears, The Big Chill, The Big Fish Brassed Off Bring It On Caddyshack Dear God Drumline Elmer Gantry Ernest Goes Back to High School Everybody's All-American Ferris Bueller's Day Off First Daughter Forrest Gump Freaky Friday (original) Game Day Gangs of New York Ghostbusters Good Burger Grease Head of State Hello Dolly Hero Hiding Out I Still Know What You Did Last Summer In the Line of Fire Iron Eagle Jingle All the Way Josie and the Pussycats Film Title Last Boy Scout Leader of the Band Little Giants Little Nikita Little Rascals, The Lucas Mean Girls Memphis Belle Miss Congeniality Mr. Holland's Opus Music Man, The Music of the Heart My Blue Heaven My Fellow Americans Naked Gun, The Never Been Kissed New Guy, The Patriot, The Ray Red Dragon Remember the Titans Revenge of the Nerds Rushmore School of Rock Sgt. Bilko Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts… Sister Act Sixth Man, The Sound of Music, The Spaceballs Star Wars The Other Sister Truman Show, The Turk 182 Varsity Blues Wag the Dog Water Boy, The Welcome Home, Roxy Carmichael What's Eating Gilbert Grape Xanadu

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121 Table E-4. Television results with responde nt descriptions in alphabetical order Program Title Band portrayal description American Dreams lead female in marching band Boston Public indoor drumline/hazing Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Band Candy season 2 band candy Clarissa Explains it All clari ssa plays in a flute recital Dawson's Creek Joey and Dawson talking in bedroom about how they never got involved with school activities Destiny's Child: Bugaboo they dressed up as colorguard Even Stevens Ren tries out fo r guard and doesn't make it Family Guy: And the Wiener Is… Family Guy: Chitty Chitty Death Bang Family Guy: Stewie's First Birthday Full House brad plays sax Futurama: The Devil's Hands final episode of series Gilmore Girls "Lane" plays flute Going to the Mat Disney TV Movie march 2004 Jeopardy: College Week college band category Macy's Day Parade bands march Outkast: Rosa Parks marching band in music video Saved by the Bell: Dance Contest at The Max Seinfeld: The Maestro Simpsons Lisa plays sax South Park: 4th of July "giant snake" Spongebob Squarepants Squidward gets invited to play at football game Star Trek: Voyager Harry Kim plays clarinet Steve Harvey Show, The main character teaches music class Strangers with Candy Jeri gets sexually harassed The Adventures of Pete and Pete TRL (MTV) Destiny's Child (song w/ drumline) Wheel of Fortune band plays in the audience

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122 Table E-5. Advertising resu lts with respondent descrip tions in alphabetical order Advertising Ad Description Chevy band chases guy in car Duracell band kids on a trip/CD player ESPN majorette sets band on fire ESPN band on field/football player running through Fanta Drinks 2004 Fanta girls give marching band drinks MTV Promo 2004 sex meter band kid hits 0 Radio Shack 2004 cell phone comm ercial: sale announced, band runs off field Sunny Delight band friends get home and mom gives them drink to refresh Tampax: Always There band dancing Tide band runs through mud in uniform Unknown dot com wolves released on marching band VH-1: Save the Music/AMEX Blue raising $ for band and the arts

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123 APPENDIX F FAIR-USE CHECKLIST Checklist for Fair Use Name: Russell G. McCutcheon Institution: University of Florida Project: The Effect of Media on Attitudes... Date: October 25, 2004 Prepared by: Russell G. McCutcheon PURPOSE Favoring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use Teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use) Commercial activity Research Profiting from the use Scholarship Entertainment N onprofit Educational Institution Bad-faith behavior Criticism Denying credit to original author Comment N ews reporting Transformative or Productive use (changes the work for new utility) Restricted access (to students or other appropriate group) Parody

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124 NATURE Favoring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use Published work Unpublished work Factual or nonfiction based Highly creative work (art, music, novels, films, plays) Important to favored educational objectives Fiction AMOUNT Favoring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use Small quantity Large portion or whole work used Portion used is not central or significant to entire work Portion used is central to work or "heart of the work" Amount is appropriate for favored educational purpose EFFECT Favoring Fair Use Opposing Fair Use User owns lawfully acquired or p urchased copy of original wor k Could replace sale of copyrighted work One or few copies made Significantly impairs market or potential market for copyrighted work or derivative N o significant effect on the market or p otential market for copyrighted work Reasonably available licensing mechanism for use of the copyrighted work N o similar product marketed by the copyright holder Affordable permission available for using work Lack of licensing mechanism N umerous copies made You made it accessible on Web or in other public forum Repeated or long term use Copyright 2002 Indiana University (Copyright Management Center, 2003)

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125 APPENDIX G INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION Informed Consent April, 2005 Dear Parent/Guardian: I am a graduate student in the University of Florida School of Music, conducting research on the effects of media on the attitudes of musicians and non-musicians towards school band programs and students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether media portrayals affect attitudes, either positively or negatively. The results of this study may help discover reasons students choose to participate in school band programs and the effects that their participation has on both their development as musicians and citizens. These results may not directly help your child today, but may benefit future students. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. Students who choose to participate will answer a brief pre-questionnaire on their current attitudes toward the school band program and its students. The questionnaire will also contain a section for general biographical data, but will contain no identifying information. Student information will be used only as aggregate data in the reporting of results and will never be used, published or distributed in any way. Following the pre-questionnaire, students will see ten media examples of the school band and/or its students drawn from popular films and television programs. Segments will be no longer than two minutes each and will be drawn from PG/PG-13 content only. Students will be asked to complete one last questionnaire several weeks after exposure to determine whether media effects (if any) are long-term. Student identities will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Participation in this study will not affect the student’s grades or placement in any program. You and your child have the right to withdraw consent for your child’s participation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. Group results of this study will be available in September upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at 352-514-0931 or my faculty advisor, Dr. Charles Hoffer, at 352-392-0223 extension 224. Questions or concerns about your child’s rights as a research participant may be directed to the UF IRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, Florida 32611, (352) 392-0433. Best Regards, Russell McCutcheon I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, ___________________________________________, to participate in Russell McCutcheon’s study of media effects on attitudes toward of media on the attitudes of musicians and non-musicians towards school band programs and students. I have received a copy of this description. ______________________________________________ __________________________________ Parent/Guardian Date

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126 Institutional Review Board Protocol 1. TITLE OF PROTOCOL: The Effect of Media on Attitudes of Musicians and Non-musicians toward the Wind Band 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s): Russell G. McCutcheon, M.Ed. Graduate Student – School of Music MUB 106 PO Box 117900 Gainesville, FL 32611-7900 Voice: 352-514-0931 Email: rmccutch@ufl.edu FAX: 352-392-0461 3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT): Charles Hoffer, Ph.D. PO Box 117900 Gainesville, FL 32611-7900 Voice: 352-392-0223 ext. 224 FAX: 352-392-0461 4. DATES OF PROP OSED PROTOCOL: From April 7, 2005 to June 30, 2005 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROTOCOL: (As indicated to the Office of Researc h, Technology and Graduate Education) unfunded 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: This study aims to determine the extent to which media (film, tele vision, etc.) influence the attitudes toward and perceptions of the wind band as art music. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESE ARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. The UFIRB needs to know what will be done with or to the research participant(s). Participants will be asked to complete a s hort pre-test regarding their attitudes toward school band programs and the students who partic ipate in them. They will then be shown ten brief media portrayals of school bands a nd band students taken fr om popular film and television. No excerpt will last longer than 2 minutes and proper examination has been made of fair use statues and copyright laws Following each example, participants will be asked a set of five questi ons that pertain to that exam ple only. At the conclusion of the treatment, participants will again have an opportunity to answer the pre-test questions as a post-test to determine if ther e was any change in overall attitude.

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127 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK. (If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps take n to protect participant.) There are no anticipated risk s or direct benefits to participants in this study. 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANT(S) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, A ND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): Participants will be high school students drawn regionally from schools in the southeastern United States. A pproval to invite those students to be participants will be gained from the appropriate school boards and campus administrations before any attempt to recruit subjects will begin. Twen ty participants from five school s will be recruited for a total of 200 subjects. Th ere will be no compensation offered to participants. 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUM ENT (if applicable). Informed consent letters shall be sent to ev ery parent prior to the testing day. Student participants will be reminded of their rights ag ain before the testing begins as well at at its conclusion. The informed consent document will contain an overview and background of the study and what to expect on test day. Please use attachments sparingly. __________________________ Principal Investigator's Signature _________________________ Supervisor's Signature I approve this protocol for submission to the UFIRB: ____________________________ Dept. Chair/Center Director Date

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128 APPENDIX H MEDIA EXPOSURE INSTRUCTIONS

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133 APPENDIX I ADDITIONAL DATA Table I-1. Overall attit ude change by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by age Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .197 1 .197 .069 .796 Within Groups 48.750 17 2.868 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 48.947 18 Between Groups 1.014 1 1.014 .720 .408 Within Groups 23.933 17 1.408 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 24.947 18 Between Groups 1.201 1 1.201 1.410 .251 Within Groups 14.483 17 .852 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 15.684 18 Between Groups .001 1 .001 .001 .982 Within Groups 29.683 17 1.746 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 29.684 18 Between Groups .197 1 .197 .179 .678 Within Groups 18.750 17 1.103 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 18.947 18 Between Groups .126 1 .126 .056 .816 Within Groups 38.400 17 2.259 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 38.526 18 14

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134 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 4.934 1 4.934 2.165 .159 Within Groups 38.750 17 2.279 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 43.684 18 Between Groups 10.232 1 10.232 8.526 .010 Within Groups 20.400 17 1.200 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 30.632 18 Between Groups .106 1 .106 .057 .814 Within Groups 31.683 17 1.864 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 31.789 18 Between Groups 1.404 1 1.404 .639 .435 Within Groups 37.333 17 2.196 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 38.737 18 Between Groups .022 1 .022 .012 .913 Within Groups 30.083 17 1.770 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 30.105 18 Between Groups 1.404 1 1.404 .639 .435 Within Groups 37.333 17 2.196 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 38.737 18 Between Groups .014 1 .014 .003 .954 Within Groups 70.933 17 4.173 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 70.947 18 Between Groups .351 1 .351 .179 .678 Within Groups 33.333 17 1.961 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 33.684 18

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135 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .000 1 .000 .000 1.000 Within Groups 58.000 46 1.261 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 58.000 47 Between Groups .350 1 .350 .433 .514 Within Groups 37.129 46 .807 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 37.479 47 Between Groups .308 1 .308 .311 .580 Within Groups 45.608 46 .991 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 45.917 47 Between Groups 7.507 1 7.507 2.820 .100 Within Groups 122.472 46 2.662 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 129.979 47 Between Groups .674 1 .674 1.069 .307 Within Groups 28.993 46 .630 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 29.667 47 Between Groups 1.637 1 1.637 1.249 .270 Within Groups 60.280 46 1.310 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 61.917 47 Between Groups 44.714 1 44.714 40.170.000 Within Groups 51.203 46 1.113 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 95.917 47 Between Groups 1.795 1 1.795 1.651 .205 Within Groups 50.017 46 1.087 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 51.813 47 15

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136 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .000 1 .000 .000 .990 Within Groups 43.479 46 .945 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 43.479 47 Between Groups .001 1 .001 .001 .970 Within Groups 43.311 46 .942 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 43.313 47 Between Groups .245 1 .245 .115 .736 Within Groups 98.234 46 2.136 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 98.479 47 Between Groups .009 1 .009 .008 .928 Within Groups 52.657 46 1.145 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 52.667 47 Between Groups .425 1 .425 .417 .521 Within Groups 46.825 46 1.018 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 47.250 47 Between Groups .018 1 .018 .023 .880 Within Groups 34.962 46 .760 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 34.979 47 Between Groups .566 1 .566 .795 .375 Within Groups 51.218 72 .711 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 51.784 73 Between Groups .828 1 .828 1.322 .254 Within Groups 45.118 72 .627 16 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 45.946 73

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137 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 6.186 1 6.186 8.120 .006 Within Groups 54.854 72 .762 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 61.041 73 Between Groups 5.092 1 5.092 4.121 .046 Within Groups 88.962 72 1.236 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 94.054 73 Between Groups .453 1 .453 .564 .455 Within Groups 57.885 72 .804 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 58.338 73 Between Groups 1.695 1 1.695 1.810 .183 Within Groups 67.440 72 .937 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 69.135 73 Between Groups 113.027 1 113.027 71.623.000 Within Groups 113.622 72 1.578 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 226.649 73 Between Groups .404 1 .404 .346 .558 Within Groups 83.880 72 1.165 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 84.284 73 Between Groups .595 1 .595 .457 .501 Within Groups 93.622 72 1.300 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 94.216 73 Between Groups 6.749 1 6.749 6.825 .011 Within Groups 71.197 72 .989 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 77.946 73

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138 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .299 1 .299 .344 .559 Within Groups 62.579 72 .869 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 62.878 73 Between Groups 5.815 1 5.815 4.099 .047 Within Groups 102.145 72 1.419 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 107.959 73 Between Groups .691 1 .691 .590 .445 Within Groups 84.296 72 1.171 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 84.986 73 Between Groups 1.969 1 1.969 1.968 .165 Within Groups 72.031 72 1.000 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 74.000 73 Between Groups .024 1 .024 .031 .862 Within Groups 31.048 40 .776 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 31.071 41 Between Groups .595 1 .595 1.179 .284 Within Groups 20.190 40 .505 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 20.786 41 Between Groups .595 1 .595 .535 .469 Within Groups 44.476 40 1.112 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 45.071 41 Between Groups .857 1 .857 .600 .443 Within Groups 57.143 40 1.429 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 58.000 41 17

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139 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .381 1 .381 .409 .526 Within Groups 37.238 40 .931 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 37.619 41 Between Groups .095 1 .095 .080 .779 Within Groups 47.524 40 1.188 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 47.619 41 Between Groups 34.381 1 34.381 21.080.000 Within Groups 65.238 40 1.631 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 99.619 41 Between Groups .857 1 .857 .911 .345 Within Groups 37.619 40 .940 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 38.476 41 Between Groups .381 1 .381 .708 .405 Within Groups 21.524 40 .538 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 21.905 41 Between Groups 1.167 1 1.167 1.300 .261 Within Groups 35.905 40 .898 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 37.071 41 Between Groups .095 1 .095 .071 .792 Within Groups 53.905 40 1.348 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 54.000 41 Between Groups 3.429 1 3.429 2.796 .102 Within Groups 49.048 40 1.226 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 52.476 41

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140 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .214 1 .214 .133 .718 Within Groups 64.571 40 1.614 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 64.786 41 Between Groups .214 1 .214 .486 .490 Within Groups 17.619 40 .440 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 17.833 41 Between Groups 2.381 1 2.381 .857 .373 Within Groups 33.333 12 2.778 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 35.714 13 Between Groups .149 1 .149 .379 .549 Within Groups 4.708 12 .392 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 4.857 13 Between Groups .214 1 .214 .224 .645 Within Groups 11.500 12 .958 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 11.714 13 Between Groups .214 1 .214 .109 .747 Within Groups 23.500 12 1.958 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 23.714 13 Between Groups .149 1 .149 .218 .649 Within Groups 8.208 12 .684 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 8.357 13 Between Groups .214 1 .214 .122 .732 Within Groups 21.000 12 1.750 18 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 21.214 13

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141 Table I-1. Continued Age Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 9.524 1 9.524 4.511 .055 Within Groups 25.333 12 2.111 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 34.857 13 Between Groups .095 1 .095 .034 .856 Within Groups 33.333 12 2.778 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 33.429 13 Between Groups .054 1 .054 .031 .864 Within Groups 20.875 12 1.740 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 20.929 13 Between Groups .214 1 .214 .120 .735 Within Groups 21.500 12 1.792 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 21.714 13 Between Groups 5.720 1 5.720 1.395 .260 Within Groups 49.208 12 4.101 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 54.929 13 Between Groups 2.625 1 2.625 .726 .411 Within Groups 43.375 12 3.615 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 46.000 13 Between Groups 9.054 1 9.054 4.550 .054 Within Groups 23.875 12 1.990 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 32.929 13 Between Groups .024 1 .024 .028 .871 Within Groups 10.333 12 .861 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 10.357 13

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142 Table I-2. Overall attit ude change by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by grade Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .011 1 .011 .007 .931 Within Groups 71.662 47 1.525 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 71.673 48 Between Groups .065 1 .065 .052 .820 Within Groups 58.343 47 1.241 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 58.408 48 Between Groups .001 1 .001 .001 .975 Within Groups 41.060 47 .874 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 41.061 48 Between Groups 2.584 1 2.584 1.045 .312 Within Groups 116.191 47 2.472 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 118.776 48 Between Groups .110 1 .110 .174 .679 Within Groups 29.890 47 .636 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 30.000 48 Between Groups .024 1 .024 .015 .904 Within Groups 76.752 47 1.633 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 76.776 48 Between Groups 48.828 1 48.828 28.102.000 Within Groups 81.662 47 1.737 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 130.490 48 9

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143 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .395 1 .395 .302 .585 Within Groups 61.441 47 1.307 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 61.837 48 Between Groups .016 1 .016 .011 .917 Within Groups 65.984 47 1.404 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 66.000 48 Between Groups 2.680 1 2.680 1.880 .177 Within Groups 66.993 47 1.425 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 69.673 48 Between Groups .000 1 .000 .000 1.000 Within Groups 106.000 47 2.255 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 106.000 48 Between Groups .946 1 .946 .540 .466 Within Groups 82.441 47 1.754 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 83.388 48 Between Groups .418 1 .418 .213 .647 Within Groups 92.398 47 1.966 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 92.816 48 Between Groups .434 1 .434 .338 .564 Within Groups 60.260 47 1.282 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 60.694 48 Between Groups 1.293 1 1.293 1.095 .299 Within Groups 87.378 74 1.181 10 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 88.671 75

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144 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .864 1 .864 1.416 .238 Within Groups 45.136 74 .610 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 46.000 75 Between Groups .001 1 .001 .001 .979 Within Groups 60.670 74 .820 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 60.671 75 Between Groups 9.799 1 9.799 6.654 .012 Within Groups 108.977 74 1.473 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 118.776 75 Between Groups 2.189 1 2.189 2.484 .119 Within Groups 65.219 74 .881 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 67.408 75 Between Groups 4.022 1 4.022 3.485 .066 Within Groups 85.386 74 1.154 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 89.408 75 Between Groups 94.501 1 94.501 68.095.000 Within Groups 102.696 74 1.388 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 197.197 75 Between Groups .754 1 .754 .593 .444 Within Groups 94.128 74 1.272 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 94.882 75 Between Groups 1.680 1 1.680 1.573 .214 Within Groups 79.057 74 1.068 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 80.737 75

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145 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 4.632 1 4.632 4.510 .037 Within Groups 76.000 74 1.027 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 80.632 75 Between Groups 1.080 1 1.080 .947 .334 Within Groups 84.446 74 1.141 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 85.526 75 Between Groups 1.876 1 1.876 1.353 .248 Within Groups 102.545 74 1.386 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 104.421 75 Between Groups 3.058 1 3.058 2.769 .100 Within Groups 81.719 74 1.104 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 84.776 75 Between Groups 2.374 1 2.374 2.024 .159 Within Groups 86.784 74 1.173 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 89.158 75 Between Groups .008 1 .008 .015 .903 Within Groups 26.812 48 .559 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 26.820 49 Between Groups .452 1 .452 .874 .355 Within Groups 24.828 48 .517 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 25.280 49 Between Groups 5.511 1 5.511 4.668 .036 Within Groups 56.669 48 1.181 11 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 62.180 49

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146 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 1.515 1 1.515 .941 .337 Within Groups 77.305 48 1.611 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 78.820 49 Between Groups .379 1 .379 .452 .505 Within Groups 40.201 48 .838 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 40.580 49 Between Groups .013 1 .013 .014 .906 Within Groups 43.987 48 .916 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 44.000 49 Between Groups 45.515 1 45.515 26.870.000 Within Groups 81.305 48 1.694 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 126.820 49 Between Groups .731 1 .731 .839 .364 Within Groups 41.769 48 .870 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 42.500 49 Between Groups 1.247 1 1.247 1.400 .243 Within Groups 42.773 48 .891 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 44.020 49 Between Groups .601 1 .601 .640 .428 Within Groups 45.019 48 .938 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 45.620 49 Between Groups .188 1 .188 .246 .622 Within Groups 36.532 48 .761 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 36.720 49

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147 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 3.283 1 3.283 2.370 .130 Within Groups 66.497 48 1.385 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 69.780 49 Between Groups 1.351 1 1.351 .869 .356 Within Groups 74.669 48 1.556 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 76.020 49 Between Groups .618 1 .618 2.272 .138 Within Groups 13.062 48 .272 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 13.680 49 Between Groups 1.384 1 1.384 .697 .412 Within Groups 45.656 23 1.985 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 47.040 24 Between Groups .021 1 .021 .074 .788 Within Groups 6.539 23 .284 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 6.560 24 Between Groups .051 1 .051 .091 .766 Within Groups 12.909 23 .561 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 12.960 24 Between Groups 1.273 1 1.273 1.563 .224 Within Groups 18.727 23 .814 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 20.000 24 12

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148 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .162 1 .162 .270 .608 Within Groups 13.838 23 .602 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 14.000 24 Between Groups .757 1 .757 .636 .433 Within Groups 27.403 23 1.191 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 28.160 24 Between Groups 23.689 1 23.689 13.176.001 Within Groups 41.351 23 1.798 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 65.040 24 Between Groups .058 1 .058 .034 .856 Within Groups 39.942 23 1.737 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 40.000 24 Between Groups .006 1 .006 .004 .948 Within Groups 33.994 23 1.478 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 34.000 24 Between Groups .094 1 .094 .065 .801 Within Groups 33.266 23 1.446 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 33.360 24 Between Groups .966 1 .966 .271 .608 Within Groups 81.994 23 3.565 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 82.960 24 Between Groups .337 1 .337 .191 .666 Within Groups 40.623 23 1.766 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 40.960 24

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149 Table I-2. Continued Grade Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 19.500 1 19.500 15.871.001 Within Groups 28.260 23 1.229 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 47.760 24 Between Groups .395 1 .395 .489 .491 Within Groups 18.565 23 .807 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 18.960 24

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150 Table I-3. Overall attit ude change by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by gender Sex Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .008 1 .008 .007 .935 Within Groups 90.578 73 1.241 Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 90.587 74 Between Groups 2.187 1 2.187 3.015 .087 Within Groups 52.960 73 .725 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 55.147 74 Between Groups 2.808 1 2.808 4.152 .045 Within Groups 49.378 73 .676 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 52.187 74 Between Groups 4.776 1 4.776 2.634 .109 Within Groups 132.344 73 1.813 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 137.120 74 Between Groups 1.123 1 1.123 1.073 .304 Within Groups 76.397 73 1.047 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 77.520 74 Between Groups 2.262 1 2.262 1.861 .177 Within Groups 88.725 73 1.215 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 90.987 74 Between Groups 123.747 1 123.747 88.623.000 Within Groups 101.933 73 1.396 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 225.680 74 Male

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151 Table I-3. Continued Sex Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .061 1 .061 .050 .823 Within Groups 88.526 73 1.213 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 88.587 74 Between Groups 1.058 1 1.058 .903 .345 Within Groups 85.529 73 1.172 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 86.587 74 Between Groups 3.770 1 3.770 3.053 .085 Within Groups 90.150 73 1.235 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 93.920 74 Between Groups 1.472 1 1.472 .990 .323 Within Groups 108.475 73 1.486 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 109.947 74 Between Groups 6.881 1 6.881 5.162 .026 Within Groups 97.306 73 1.333 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 104.187 74 Between Groups 1.635 1 1.635 .854 .358 Within Groups 139.751 73 1.914 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 141.387 74 Between Groups 2.882 1 2.882 3.896 .052 Within Groups 53.998 73 .740 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 56.880 74 Between Groups 2.339 1 2.339 1.980 .162 Within Groups 140.587 119 1.181 Female Difference of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 142.926 120

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152 Table I-3. Continued Sex Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .063 1 .063 .087 .768 Within Groups 85.111 119 .715 Difference of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 85.174 120 Between Groups .478 1 .478 .476 .491 Within Groups 119.538 119 1.005 Difference of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 120.017 120 Between Groups 3.980 1 3.980 2.402 .124 Within Groups 197.160 119 1.657 Difference of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 201.140 120 Between Groups 1.553 1 1.553 2.611 .109 Within Groups 70.778 119 .595 Difference of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 72.331 120 Between Groups .759 1 .759 .568 .453 Within Groups 158.944 119 1.336 Difference of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 159.702 120 Between Groups 90.086 1 90.086 56.704.000 Within Groups 189.055 119 1.589 Difference of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 279.140 120 Between Groups .298 1 .298 .240 .625 Within Groups 147.603 119 1.240 Difference of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 147.901 120 Between Groups .002 1 .002 .002 .965 Within Groups 146.444 119 1.231 Difference of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 146.446 120

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153 Table I-3. Continued Sex Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 3.819 1 3.819 3.404 .068 Within Groups 133.536 119 1.122 Difference of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 137.355 120 Between Groups 1.527 1 1.527 .945 .333 Within Groups 192.176 119 1.615 Difference of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 193.702 120 Between Groups 2.358 1 2.358 1.464 .229 Within Groups 191.692 119 1.611 Difference of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 194.050 120 Between Groups 2.702 1 2.702 1.974 .163 Within Groups 162.901 119 1.369 Difference of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 165.603 120 Between Groups .001 1 .001 .001 .981 Within Groups 124.611 119 1.047 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 124.612 120

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154 Table I-4. Overall attit ude change by ANOVA on the difference of preand post-exposure scores using band experien ce as the between fa ctor sorted by family musical performance Family Musical Performance? Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 3.283 1 3.283 3.320 .071 Within Groups 111.760113 .989 Diff of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 115.043114 Between Groups .006 1 .006 .011 .916 Within Groups 64.985 113 .575 Diff of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 64.991 114 Between Groups 2.808 1 2.808 2.996 .086 Within Groups 105.939113 .938 Diff of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 108.748114 Between Groups 9.034 1 9.034 5.850 .017 Within Groups 174.496113 1.544 Diff of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 183.530114 Between Groups .088 1 .088 .112 .739 Within Groups 88.903 113 .787 Diff of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 88.991 114 Between Groups 2.625 1 2.625 2.048 .155 Within Groups 144.819113 1.282 Diff of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 147.443114 Between Groups 156.5761 156.576 96.625.000 Within Groups 183.111113 1.620 Diff of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 339.687114 Family Member Plays Instrument

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155 Table I-4. Continued Family Musical Performance? Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .288 1 .288 .257 .613 Within Groups 126.199113 1.117 Diff of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 126.487114 Between Groups .151 1 .151 .145 .704 Within Groups 117.379113 1.039 Diff of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 117.530114 Between Groups 5.278 1 5.278 6.895 .010 Within Groups 86.496 113 .765 Diff of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 91.774 114 Between Groups .124 1 .124 .098 .754 Within Groups 142.658113 1.262 Diff of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 142.783114 Between Groups 1.929 1 1.929 1.589 .210 Within Groups 137.167113 1.214 Diff of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 139.096114 Between Groups 6.058 1 6.058 5.302 .023 Within Groups 129.107113 1.143 Diff of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 135.165114 Between Groups .889 1 .889 1.270 .262 Within Groups 79.111 113 .700 Diff of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 80.000 114

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156 Table I-4. Continued Family Musical Performance? Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .237 1 .237 .175 .677 Within Groups 109.71581 1.355 Diff of Q1: Post/Pre Band is Cool Total 109.95282 Between Groups 2.317 1 2.317 2.481 .119 Within Groups 75.635 81 .934 Diff of Q2: Post/Pre Enjoy band music Total 77.952 82 Between Groups .000 1 .000 .000 .989 Within Groups 70.217 81 .867 Diff of Q3: Post/Pre Glad/wish in band Total 70.217 82 Between Groups 2.638 1 2.638 1.419 .237 Within Groups 150.59181 1.859 Diff of Q4: Post/Pre Social development Total 153.22982 Between Groups 3.295 1 3.295 4.229 .043 Within Groups 63.115 81 .779 Diff of Q5: Post/Pre Band/good music Total 66.410 82 Between Groups 1.050 1 1.050 .868 .354 Within Groups 97.938 81 1.209 Diff of Q6: Post/Pre Worthwhile social Total 98.988 82 Between Groups 57.592 1 57.592 40.775.000 Within Groups 114.40881 1.412 Diff of Q7: Post/Pre Band is fun Total 172.00082 Between Groups .035 1 .035 .026 .873 Within Groups 112.47181 1.389 No Family Members That Play Instruments Diff of Q8: Post/Pre Band/ entertainment Total 112.50682

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157 Table I-4. Continued Family Musical Performance? Question number & abbrev. desc. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 3.344 1 3.344 2.609 .110 Within Groups 103.83781 1.282 Diff of Q9: Post/Pre School’s identity Total 107.18182 Between Groups 2.843 1 2.843 1.798 .184 Within Groups 128.07381 1.581 Diff of Q10: Post/Pre Music imp. in band Total 130.91682 Between Groups .003 1 .003 .001 .971 Within Groups 156.88981 1.937 Diff of Q11: Post/Pre Mem/ well-adjusted Total 156.89282 Between Groups 4.254 1 4.254 2.279 .135 Within Groups 151.21581 1.867 Diff of Q12: Post/Pre Not acc. socially Total 155.47082 Between Groups .248 1 .248 .115 .736 Within Groups 174.64481 2.156 Diff of Q13: Post/Pre Band/friends Total 174.89282 Between Groups .042 1 .042 .033 .856 Within Groups 102.22381 1.262 Difference of Q14: Post/Pre Band/learn music Total 102.26582

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158 LIST OF REFERENCES Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1994). Foundations of Music Education (2nd ed.). New York: Schirmer Books. Adderley, C., Kennedy, M., & Berz, W. ( 2003). "A Home Away from Home": The World of the High School Music Classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51 (3), 190-205. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). The Effects of Media Violence on Society. Science, 295 2377-2379. Aubrey, J. S. (2004). Sex and Punishment: An Examination of Sexual Consequences and the Sexual Double Standard in Teen Programming. Sex Roles, 50 (7/8), 505-514. Barker, M., & Weitzman, M. (Writer), & B. Ri ng (Director) (2001). And the Wiener Is. In D. Zuckerman (Producer), The Family Guy USA: 20th Century Fox. Battisti, F. L. (2002). The Winds of Change: The Evol ution of the Contemporary American Wind Band/Ensemble and Its Conductor .Galesville, MD: Meredith Music Publications. Becker, S. L. (1963). The Relationships of Interest and Attention to Retention and Attitude Change .Iowa City: University of Iowa. Bornoff, J., & Salter, L. (1972). Music and the Twentieth Century Media (English ed. Vol. 3). Florence: Leo S. Olschki. Brown, J. D., & Schulze, L. (1990). The Effects of Race, Gender and Fandom on Audience Interpretations of Madonna's Music Videos. Journal of Communications, 40 88-102. Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation. American Psychologist, 56 477489. Christenson, P. G. (2003). Equipment for Livi ng: How Popular Music Fits in the Lives of Youth. In D. Ravitch & J. P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid Stuff: Marketing Sex and Violence to America's Children (pp. 96-124). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Cognitive Science Laboratory. (2005). WordNet Search: Attitude Retrieved June 8, 2005, from http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/ cgi-bin/webwn2.1?s=attitude

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159 Copyright Management Ce nter. (2003, March 10). Checklist for Fair Use Retrieved October 15, 2004, from http://www.copyright.iupui.edu Cox, J. (1996). Your Opinion, Please! Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, Inc. Cox, J. B. (1996). Your Opinion, Please! How to Build the Best Questionnaires in the Field of Education .Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Coyne, S. M., Archer, J., & Eslea, M. (2004). Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression In crease Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression? Journal of Experiment al Child Psychology, 88 234-253. Crispell, D., & Brandenburg, K. (1997). What 's in a Brand? In M. H. Davis (Ed.), Social Psychology 97/98 (pp. 74-78). Guilford: Brown & Benchmark. Davies, M. M. (1997). Fake, Fact, and Fantasy .Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Davis, M. H. (1997). Televised Violence and Kids: A Public Health Problem? Guilford: Brown & Benchmark. Drabman, R. S., & Thomas, M. H. (1974). Does Media Violence Increase Children's Toleration of Real-life Aggression. Developmental Psychology, 10 418-421. Duncan, P. S. (Writer), & S. Herek (Directo r) (1995). Mr. Holland's Opus. In R. W. Cort (Producer). USA: Interscope Communications. Dyson, R. A. (2000). Mind Abuse: Media Violence in an Information Age .Montreal: Black Rose Books. Entman, R. M. (1989). How the Media Aff ect What People Think: An Information Processing Approach. Journal of Politics, 51 (2), 347-370. Farlex Inc. (2000, 2003). The American Heritage Dic tionary of the English Language Retrieved May 15, 2005, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/metaFelson, R. B. (1996). Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior. Annual Review of Sociology, 22 103-128. Finch, A., & Watts, H. (2004). Poll Shows P ublic Support for Art in Schools, Unease with No Child Left Behind. Teaching Artist Journal, 2 (1), 50-51. Fowles, J. (1996). The Therapeutic Value of Television Violence. Television Quarterly, 28 (1). Gage, N. L., & Berliner, D. C. (1992). Educational Psychology (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gaston, E. T. (1968). Man and Music. In E. T. Gaston (Ed.), Music in Therapy (pp. 7-29). New York: MacMillan.

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160 Gentile, D. A., Oberg, C., Sherwood, N. E., Story, M., Walsh, D. A., & Hogan, M. (2004). Well-Child Visits in the Video Age: Pediatricians and the American Academy of Pediatrics' Guidelines for Childrens; Media Use. Pediatrics, 114 (5), 1235-1241. Gitlin, T. (2003). Teaching amid the Torrent of Popular Culture. In D. Ravitch & J. P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid Stuff: Marketing Sex and Vi olence to America's Children (pp. 19-95). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Goddard, P. (1976). Violence and Popular Music. In C. K. Marchant (Ed.), Report of The Royal Commission on Violence in the Communi cations Industry: Violence in Print and Music (Vol. 4). Ontario: J. C. Thatcher. Gordon, L. (1976). Music and the Modern Media of Transmission .New York: Gordon Press. Greenberg, K. (2002). A Teen's Civic Duty. Brandweek, 43, 24-26. Guignon, A. (1998, February 16, 1998). Multiple Intelligences: A Theory for Everyone Retrieved June 1, 2005, from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml Halloran, J. D. (1976). Attitude Formation and Change .Westport: Greenwood Press. Hepburn, M. A. (1998). The Power of the Elect ronic Media in the So cialization of Young Americans: Implications for Social Studies Education. Social Studies, 89 (2), 71-76. Herr, P. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1993). The Attit ude-to-Behavior Proce ss: Implications for Consumer Behavior. In A. A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advertising Exposure, Memory and Choice (pp. 119-140). Hillsdale: Lawr ence Erlbaum Associates. Herz, A. (Writer), & P. Weitz (Director) (1999) American Pie. In C. Moore & C. Weitz (Producer). USA: Universal Studios. Herz, A., & Steinberg, D. H. (Writer), & J. B. Rogers (Director) ( 2001). American Pie 2. In C. Moore & C. Weitz (Produ cer). USA: Universal Studios. Hirsch, E. D., Kett, J. F., & Trefil, J. (Eds.). (2002). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Hoffner, C., & Buchanan, M. (2002). Parent s' Responses to Television Violence: The Third-Person Perception, Parental Mediation, and Support for Censorship. Media Psychology, 4 (3), 231-252. Jean, A., & Reiss, M. (Writer), & W. Archer (Director) (1990). Moani ng Lisa. In A. Jean (Producer), The Simpsons USA: 20th Century Fox.

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161 Kardes, F. R. (1993). Consumer Infere nce: Determinants, Consequences, and Implications for Advertising. In A. A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advertising Exposure, Memory, and Choice (pp. 163-191). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Katz, J. (1999). Media Violence Does Not Harm Children. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Media Violence: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 37-42). San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Kelly, S. N. (2002). A Sociologi cal Basis for Music Education. International Journal of Music Education, 39 40-49. Langer, E. (1997). Mindfulness and Mi ndlessness. In M. H. Davis (Ed.), Social Psychology 97/98 (pp. 91-95). Guilford: Brown & Benchmark. Leo, J. (1999). The Amount of Violence on Television has been Exaggerated. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Media Violence: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 24-27). San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Levine, M. (1999). Media Violence Ha rms Children. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Media Violence: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 28-36). San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Lipsitz, A. (1983). Television and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill. Lutz, K. M., & Smith, K. (Writer), & G. Junger (Director) (1999) 10 Things I Hate About You. In A. Lazar (Producer ). USA: Touchstone Pictures. Mark, M. L. (1996). Contemporary Music Education (3rd ed.). New York: Schirmer Books. Martinez, M. D., & Scicchitano, M. J. (1998). Who Listens to Trash Talk? Education and Public Media Effects on Recycling Behavior. Social Science Quarterly, 79 (2), 287300. McCabe, D. W. (Ed.). (1973). The ASBDA Curriculum Guide: A Reference for School Band Directors .Miami: Volkwein Bros., Inc. McLean, A. L. (1998, Summer). Media Effect s: Marshall McLuhan, Television Culture, and "The X-Files". Film Quarterly, 51, 2-11. McLeod, D. M., Eveland, W. P. J., & Nathan son, A. I. (1997). Support for Censorship of Violent and Misogynic Rap Lyrics: An An alysis of the Third Person Effect. Communication Research, 24 153-174. MENC Task Force for National Standards in the Arts. (1994). The School Music Program: A New Vision .Reston: Music Educators National Conference. Metallinos, N. (1996). Television Aesthetics: Perceptual, Cognitive and Compositional Bases .Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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162 Mitchell, A. A. (1993). Attitude Toward th e Advertisment Effects Over Time and in Attitude Change Situations. In A. A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advertising, Exposure, Memory, and Choice (pp. 209-238). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Molitor, F., & Hirsch, K. W. (1994). Children' s Toleration of Real-l ife Aggression after Exposure to Media Violence: A Replicati on of the Drabman and Thomas Studies. Child Study Journal, 24 (3), 191-207. Moody, W. (1968, November). Tradition and the Band's Future. The Instrumentalist, 23, 80. Mueller, R. (2002). Perspectives from the Sociology of Music. In R. Colwell & C. Richardson (Eds.), The New Handbook of Rese arch on Music Teaching and Learning (pp. 584-603). New York: Oxford University Press. Murray, J. P. (1999). Studies Have Establishe d that Media Violence Causes Violence. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Media Violence: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 43-48). San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Nathanson, A. I. (2001). Parents Versus P eers: Exploring the Si gnificance of Peer Mediation of Antisocial Television. Communication Research, 28 (3), 251-274. National Center for Edu cation Statistics. (2004). CCD Public School District Data for the 2002-2003 School Year: School ID 130198000890 Retrieved May 9, 2005, from http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/schoolsearch/school _detail.asp?Search=1 &InstName=effing ham+county+high+school&State=13&Sc hoolType=1&SchoolType=2&SchoolTyp e=3&SchoolType=4&SpecificSchlTyp es=all&IncGrade=-1&LoGrade=1&HiGrade=-1&ID=130198000890 National Television Violence Study. (1999). Summary of Findings and Recommendations. In W. Dudley (Ed.), Media Violence: Opposing Viewpoints (pp. 17-23). San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Nedungadi, P., Mitchell, A. A., & Berger, I. E. (1993). A Framework for Understanding the Effects of Advertising Exposure on Choice. In A. A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advertising, Memory and Choice (pp. 89-116). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Newport, F. (2004). Polling Matters .New York: Warner Bros. Nielsen Media Research. (1993). 1992-1993 Report on Television .New York: A. C. Nielsen. North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & Tarrant M. (2002). Social Psychology and Music Education. In R. Colwell & C. Richardson (Eds.), The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning (pp. 604-625). New York: Oxford University Press.

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163 Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Seon-Young, L. (2004). The Role of Particip ation in In-School and Outside-of-School Activities in the Ta lent Development of Gifted Students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15 (3), 107-123. Park, C. W., & Young, S. M. (1984). The Effects of Involvement and Executional Factors of a Television Commercial on Brand Attitude Formation .Cambridge: Marketing Science Institute. Paul, S. J., & Ballantine, J. H. (2002). Th e Sociology of Educati on and Connections to Music Education Research. In R. Colwell & C. Richardson (Eds.), The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning (pp. 566-583). New York: Oxford University Press. Potter, W. J. (2003). The 11 Myths of Media Violence .Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Pratkanis, A., & Aronson, E. (1997). Mindl ess Propaganda, Thoughtful Persuasion. In M. H. Davis (Ed.), Social Psychology 97/98 (pp. 79-81). Guilford: Brown & Benchmark. Quiroz, P. (2000). A Comparison of the Or ganizational and Cultu ral Contexts of Extracurricular Participation and Sponsorship in Two High Schools. Educational Studies, 31 (3), 249-275. Radocy, R. E., & Boyle, J. D. (1997). Psychological Foundations of Music Behavior (3rd ed.). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, Ltd. Raessler, K. (1996). American Educ ation: A Half-Brained Approach. Journal of Singing The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, 52 (3), 41-47. Ramis, H., & Kenny, D. (Writer), & J. Landi s (Director) (1978). Anim al House. In I. Reitman (Producer). USA: Universal Studios. Ravitch, D., & Viteritti, J. P. (2003). Toxic Lessons. In D. Rav itch & J. P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid Stuff: Marketing Sex and Vi olence to America's Children (pp. 1-18). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Redd, L. N. (1974). Rock is Rhythm and Blues (The Impact of Mass Media) .East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. Reimer, B. (2000). Why do Humans Value Music? In C. K. Madsen (Ed.), Vision 2020: The Housewright Symposium on th e Future of Music Education (pp. 25-48). Reston: MENC: The National Association for Music Education. Rich, F. (2001). Arts and the Me dia: A Strategic Complaint. American Theatre, 18, 2023.

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164 Salwen, M. B., & Dupagne, M. (2001). Thir d-Person Perception of Television Violence: The Role of Self-P erceived Knowledge. Media Psychology, 3 (3), 211-236. Schepps, S., & Chism, T. G. (Writer), & C. S. III (Director) (2002). Drumline. In D. Austin (Producer). USA: 20th Century Fox. Schwadron, A. A. (1967). Aesthetics: Dimensions for Music Education .Washington: Music Educators National Conference. Shavelson, R. (1988). Statistical Reasoning for the Behavioral Sciences .Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Sherlock, J. M. (2000). Management Newsletter 16.0: TOMA Retrieved May 7, 2005, from http://www.joesherlock.com/nwsltr16.html Sherry, J. L. (2004). Media Effects Theory a nd the Nature/Nurture Debate: A Historical Overview and Directions for Future Research. Media Psychology, 6 83-109. Slater, M. D. (1999). Integrating Application of Media Effects, Pers uasion, and Behavior Change Theories to Communication Camp aigns: A Stages-of-Change Framework. Health Communication, 11 (4B), 335-354. Slater, M. D., Henry, K. L., Swaim, R. C., & Cardador, J. M. (2004). Vulnerable Teens, Vulnerable Times: How Sensation S eeking, Alienation, and Victimization Moderate the Violent Media C ontent-Aggressiveness Relation. Communication Research, 31 (6), 642-688. Stolba, K. M. (1990). The Development of Western Music: A History .Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown. Thomson, S. (2005). Engaging St udents with Social Life. Youth Studies Australia, 24 (1), 10-15. Wales, J. (2005, June 2, 2005). Mass Media Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media Wales, J. (2005, June 2, 2005). Reality Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reality Wales, J. (2005, June 2, 2005). Television Commercials Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercials Wang, K. S. (1999, Nov 22). For Kids, TV Still Tops Media. Electronic Media, 18, 3-4. Watkins, L. T., Sprafkin, J., & Gadow, K. D. (1988). Effects of a Critical Viewing Skills Curriculum on Elementary School Children's Knowledge and Attitudes About Television. Journal of Educational Research, 81 (3), 165-170.

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165 White, M. (Writer), & R. Linklater (Directo r) (2003). The School of Rock. In S. Rudin (Producer). USA: Paramount Pictures. Willson, M., & Lacey, F. (Writer), & M. DaCo sta (Director) (1962). The Music Man. In M. DaCosta (Producer). USA: Warner Brothers Pictures. Wiseman, R., & Fey, T. (Writer) (2004). Mean Girls. In L. Michaels (Producer). USA: Paramount Pictures. Wood, J. T. (1997). Gendered Media: The Infl uence of Media on Views of Gender. In M. H. Davis (Ed.), Social Psychology 97/98 (pp. 162-171). Guilford: Brown & Benchmark. Wright, P. L. (1974). Analyzing Medi a Effects on Advertising Responses. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38 (2), 192-205. Zollo, P. (1999). Wise Up to Teens: Insights into Ma rketing and Advertising to Teenagers (2nd ed.). Ithaca: New Strate gist Publications, Inc.

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166 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH As of this writing, Russell McCutcheon is an Assistant Professor of Music Education at Otterbein College in Westervi lle, Ohio, where he teaches instrumental methods, conducting, instrumental pedagogy, an d conducts the concert and marching bands. He is also the technology coordinator fo r the Department of Music; and advisor to the Otterbein College chapte r of MENC: The National Association for Music Education. At the University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville, he served as an assistant conductor of the Wind Symphony; and as tec hnology coordinator for both the band and music education areas. While at UF, Mr McCutcheon conducted the Concert Band, taught Instrumental Material s and Methods, assisted with undergraduate conducting, and taught private conducting lessons. His music education advisor was Dr. Russell Robinson and he was in the conducting st udio of Dr. David Waybright. He received his Master of Science in Mu sic Education from Troy State University in Troy, Alabama, where he studied with R obert W. Smith and Ralph Ford. He holds a Bachelor of Music degree in music edu cation from UF. During his undergraduate and masters' work, Mr. McCutcheon focused on s econdary instrumental music education and conducting. Before returning to UF, Mr. McCutcheon wa s Director of Bands at Belleview High School in Belleview Florida. At Belleview High, he conducted the Diamondback Wind Ensemble, Symphonic Band, Jazz Band, and Percussion Ensemble. In addition, he taught Music Appreciation/History, Mu sic Theory, and Stagecraft/Tec hnical Theatre. In 1999,

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167 he was chosen as one of the top five new teachers of the year in Marion County. His bands at Belleview High School have performe d in New York City and at Walt Disney's EPCOT Center, and his jazz bands have ope ned for Maynard Ferguson and played for Vice-President Dick Cheney. Mr. McCutcheon has performed as a perc ussionist with the Gainesville Symphony Orchestra, the Central Florida Symphony Orch estra, the University of Florida Wind Symphony, and the University of Florid a Symphonic Band. Mr. McCutcheon is a member of the College Band Directors Nationa l Association, the College Music Society, Florida Bandmasters' Association, Florida Mu sic Educators Associa tion, the International Association of Jazz Education, Percussive Arts Society, the National Band Association, MENC: The National Association for Musi c Education, Kappa Kappa Psi (National Honorary Fraternity for College Bandmemb ers), and the academic honor society Phi Kappa Phi.


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THE EFFECT OF MEDIA ON ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
TOWARD THE SCHOOL BAND AND BAND MEMBERS














By

RUSSELL G. MCCUTCHEON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Russell G. McCutcheon


































To my mother, Rue Jenquin (1948 2003)
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research would not have been possible without the help and support of many

colleagues, trusted advisors, family, and friends. Dr. Russell Robinson and Dr. David

Waybright, chair and cochair of my supervisory committee, had an immense impact on

me as a musician and scholar and have my sincere thanks. Dr. Charles Hoffer was

instrumental in guiding me throughout the process of research design and methodology

and deserves a great deal of credit for the successful implementation of this research.

Professor Kevin Marshall, Chair of the Department of Theatre and Dance, joined my

committee at a late date and has my appreciation for his input and participation.

Professor Tony Mata, also of the Department of Theatre and Dance, has been a valuable

member of my committee throughout my stay at the University of Florida and continues

to exert his influence from afar. Dr. Leslie Odom, doctoral adviser in the School of

Music, has been a constant source of both advice and laughter--she has been a source of

energy for me and for many other students as well.

I would like to thank my colleagues at the University of Florida School of Music

for their continued support and assistance. Special thanks go to Dr. Timothy Brophy of

the School of Music; and Sourish Saha of the Department of Statistics for their help with

data analysis.

This research would not have been possible without the schools, students and

cooperating administration and teachers. Thanks go to all of those who gave of their time

and energy.









Thanks go to my family for their encouragement and support (especially my sister,

Jill McCutcheon; and my grandmother, Larue Crenshaw). I owe thanks to Charlene

Francis and her family; it was at her encouragement that I returned to school and am now

earning this degree.

Finally, I must acknowledge Ms. Jolie Martin, for she was the catalyst for the

completion of this research.






















TABLE OF CONTENTS


IM Le


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... iv


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............x............ ....


LIST OF FIGURES ...._.._ ................ .......__. .........xi


AB STRAC T ................ .............. xiv


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......


Need for Study ................. ...............1.................

Purpose ...................... ...............3.
Statement of the Problem ................. ...............3................
Limitations ................. ...............4.................
Delimitations ................. ...............4...............

Null Hypotheses.................... .. ............
Statistical Analysis and Method .............. ...............5.....
D efinitions .............. ...............5.....

Summary ................. ...............6.................


2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................. ...............8.......... .....


Introducti on.................... ................. ...............8.......

Psychology and the Study of Attitude ................ ............... ......... ........ ..8
Attitude Formation and Change .............. ...............8.....
Persuasion............... ...............1
Influence ................. ...............11.................

Learning Theory ................. ...............11.......... .....
Socialization .............. ..... .. .... ... ...........1
Media's Influence on Society and Youth .............. ...............14....
Media and Reality............... ...............15
Media and Attitude ................ ...............16......_.._ ....
Effects of M edia ................. ...............17..............
Television and violence ......... ......._.._.._ ...............18.....
Media and socialization............... .............2












Media, Consumers and Advertising .............. ...............21....
Teens and M edia............... .. ..... .............2
Relationship between Media and Music............... ...............23.
Music, Culture and Socialization............... .............2
Music and Music Education .............. ...............27....
The School Wind Band ................. ...............31...___ .....
History and Background ........._.___..... .___ ...............3 1...
The Band Student .............. ...............32....
Summary ........._.___..... ._ __ ...............34.....


3 METHODOLOGY .............. ...............37....


Research Design .............. ...............37....
Sample Selection .............. ...............38....
S el section of School s .............. ...............3 8....
Selection of Subj ects .................. ........__ ...............39...
Sample Population Demographic Data .............. ...............40....
Research Instruments ........._..... ......._ ...............44.....
Packet I, Part I: Biographical Data .....___.....__.___ .......____ ...........4
Packet I, Part II: Pre-Exposure Attitudes .............. ...............45....
Packet II: Media Examples............... ...............45
Part III: Post-exposure Attitudes .............. ...............46....
Selection and Creation of Media Examples. .....__.___ ..... .._. __ ......_.... .......46
Pilot Study Research Design .............. ...............46....
Selection of pilot study subj ects .....__.___ ........___ ....._.._.........4
Pilot study research instrument .............. ...............48....
Pilot Study Research Procedures................ ..............4
Pilot study Institutional Review Board .............. ...............49....
Pilot study survey administration ................. ....................__........49
Analysis of Pilot Study Data ................. ........._._ ...._._..... .._.....50
Part I: Film results ................. ...............50....._._ ....
Part II: Television results .............. ...............51....
Part III: Advertising .............. ...............52....
Summary of Pilot Data ................ ...............52......_._._....
Selection of media examples ...._..._._ ...._._._......._._ ................52
Creation of media examples video ......._ ......... ___ ........._ ......53
Research Procedures: Full Study ............_ ......___ .....___ ...........5
Full Study Institutional Review Board ....__ ......_____ ...... ......_........5
Testing Procedures .............. ...............55....
Treatment of Data ............ ..... .._ ...............56...


4 RE SULT S .............. ...............58....


Introducti on ............ __... ... ._ ...............58....
Results of Main Effect ............_ ..... ..__ ...............59..












Attitude Change by Specific Media Example .............. ...............65....
Exposure 1: Animal House .................. ........... .......... ......................66
Exposure 2: The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is ........... ............ ....... ........66
Exposure 3: American Pie I & II................ ...............67..
Exposure 5: Drumline. ................ .......... ........... ..........................69
Exposure 5: The Simpsons: M~oaning Lisa ........._._ ....... ...............69
Exposure 6: The M~usic Man ....._..__ .......__ ....._ ...........7
Exposure 7: School of Rock ............_......_ ...............71.
Exposure 8: 10 Things I Hate About You .............. ...............72....
Exposure 9: M~ean Girls............... ...............73.
Exposure 10: M~r. Holland's~~~ll1~~~~111~~~ Opus. ........._. ....... ..... ....__ ..........7
Attitude Change in Subj ects with Prior Band Experience versus No Prior Band
Exp eri ence ................. ...............75........... ....
Conclusion ................ ...............77.................


5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................. ................79


Sum m ary ................ .. ........... ... ........ .............7
Conclusions: Research Question 1 .............. ...............81....
Conclusions: Research Question 2 .............. ...............84....
Attitude Change by Specific Media Example .............. ..... ............... 8
Discussion ................. ...............86.................
Recommendations............... ............9


APPENDIX


A RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS .............. ...............91....


B PILOT STUDY RESEARCH INSTRUMENT ................ .......... ................1 03


C PILOT STUDY INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION...... 109


Informed Consent ..................... .... .............10
Institutional Review Board Protocol ................. ...............110...............


D PILOT STUDY INSTRUCTIONS ................. ...............112...............


E PILOT STUDY ADDITIONAL DATA ................. ...............113........... ...


Film and Television Results ................. ......... ...............113 ....
Total Media Results ................. ...............120................


F FAIR-USE CHECKLIST .............. ...............123....


G INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD DOCUMENTATION .............. .... .........._.125


Informed Consent ..................... .... .............12
Institutional Review Board Protocol .............. ...............126....












H MEDIA EX PO SURE IN STRUCTIONS S................ ...............128...............


I ADDITIONAL DATA ................ ...............133................


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............158................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............166......... ......


















LIST OF TABLES


Table pg

3-1 Design of quasi-experimental study ................. ...............37........... ...

3-2 School 1 descriptive data............... ...............38..

3-3 School 2 descriptive data............... ...............38..

3-4 School 3 descriptive data............... ...............39..

3-5 School 4 descriptive data............... ...............39..

3-6 School 5 descriptive data............... ...............39..

3-7 Years of band participation among subj ects with band experience. .....................43

3-8 Music most often heard at home .............. ...............44....

3-9 College maj ors of pilot survey subj ects ................. .....___............ ......4

3-10 Top twenty films with portrayals of school band and/or band students ................... 50

3-11 Top ten television programs with portrayals of school band and/or band students.51

3-12 Ten media examples portraying school band and/or band students selected for
inclusion in research on media attitude effects (rank order) .............. ..................53

3-13 Media Examples in assigned random order; relevant band plot summaries ............54

4-1 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure attitude surveys:
all subjects. ............. ...............59.....

4-2 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure attitude surveys: subjects
with and without band experience ....._.___ .... ... .___ ...._._ ...........6

4-3 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys: by age ........._.......60

4-4 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by grade ...............60

4-5 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by gender ..............60










4-6 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post exposure surveys by media
consumption: television and films............... ...............61.

4-7 Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by other musical
experience: in school and out of school .............. ...............62....

4-8 Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure attitude
surveys: all subjects............... ...............63

4-9 Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure attitude
surveys: subj ects with prior band experience ........................... ........._.._.. ..64

4-10 Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure attitude
surveys: subj ects with no prior band experience ....__. ................. ................64

4-11 Media Exposure 1 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............66........ ......

4-12 Media Exposure 2 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............67........ ......

4-13 Media Exposure 3 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............68........ ......

4-14 Media Exposure 4 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............69........ ......

4-15 Media Exposure 5 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............70........ ......

4-16 Media Exposure 6 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............71........ ......

4-17 Media Exposure 7 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............72........ ......

4-18 Media Exposure 8 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............72........ ......

4-19 Media Exposure 9 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............74........ ......

4-20 Media Exposure 10 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without prior
band experience ................. ...............74........ ......

4-21 Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and post-exposure
scores using band experience as the between factor .............. ....................7

E-1 Combined film and television results by number of mentions ............... .... ...........1 13










E-2 Combined film and television results by mean of attitude survey ................... ......1 17

E-3 All film results in alphabetical order .....__................. ..... .......... .....12

E-4 Television results with respondent descriptions in alphabetical order ................... 121

E-5 Advertising results with respondent descriptions in alphabetical order .................1 22

I-1 Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and post-exposure
scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by age ................... .....133

I-2 Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and post-exposure
scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by grade ................... ..142

I-3 Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and post-exposure
scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by gender...................150

I-4 Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and post-exposure
scores using band experience as the between factor sorted by family musical
performance ................. ...............154................

















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pg

3-1 Sample population age .............. ...............41....

3-2 Hours of television per week by grade level .....__.___ .... ... ._._ ........_.... ....42

3-3 Number of films seen in a theatre in the last month by grade level ........._..............42
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE EFFECT OF MEDIA ON ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
TOWARD THE SCHOOL BAND AND BAND MEMBERS

By

Russell G. McCutcheon

August 2005

Chair: Russell L. Robinson
Cochair: David A. Waybright
Major Department: School of Music

This research examined the effects of exposure to media portrayals of school band

and band students on the attitudes of 200 high school students from the southeastern

United States. The sample was divided into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in

the first group had previous personal experience as a member of a school band, while

students in the second group had no previous personal band experience. Using a

researcher-designed instrument, subj ects rated their pre-existing attitudes toward the

school band and band students via a four-point Likert-type scale. Research suggests

(Cox, 1996) this four-point scale may be more effective for surveys where time is a factor

in completion and also eliminates confusion between neutral and no opinion choices.

After the pre-exposure attitude survey, subj ects were shown a series of 10 examples

of media portrayals of the school band and/or band students. The examples were selected

from popular films and television programs as determined via a pilot study. The pilot

study also indicated that media portrayals of band and band students are generally 60%










positive and 40% negative--that ratio was maintained in the treatment examples. Each

example was approximately 2 minutes long. After each example, subjects were given

time to answer five attitude questions related to that example. At the end of the treatment

period, subj ects were given a post-exposure attitude survey identical to the pre-exposure

instrument with 3 additional questions to allow a self-evaluation of media' s potential

effects.

Results of paired t-tests showed a statistically significant difference in the pre- and

post-exposure attitude surveys for the group without band experience t = -5.506 and

p < .05 (p = .000) but not for the group with band experience (t = -1.373, p = .173). The

effect was most prominent among younger subj ects and those in grades 9 and 10, while

older students showed no statistically significant changes. When the two groups were

compared via one-way ANOVA, there was no statistically significant difference in

attitude change between the two groups overall, but significant differences did exist for

individual descriptors.

Results suggest that media has the power to influence high school students'

attitudes toward the school band; potentially impacting recruitment, retention, and the

development of a future audience for the art of wind band music.















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Media exists all around us. From movies and films to television programs,

advertising, and radio, we are inundated with images and ideas. Many researchers

believe that media content has a direct impact on its consumers. The most common types

of media studies look at links between violent content and violent behavior; those studies

find limited but constant effects of violent media images (Anderson & Bushman, 2002;

Bushman & Anderson, 2001). Other studies show that youth (specifically, teens) are

most affected by media (Slater, Henry, Swaim, & Cardador, 2004). What effects do

media depictions of band activity (including band students, music, instructors, and

performances) have on perceptions and attitudes of both band members and non-band

members? Many studies have examined students' reasons for choosing to participate in

school bands (Adderley, Kennedy, & Berz, 2003; McCabe, 1973; Olszewski-Kubilius &

Seon-Young, 2004), but none have examined the role that media plays in shaping student

attitudes.

This research tested the effect of media on attitudes of both band students and

non-band students in five American high schools. It further explored the differences in

the way that those two groups perceived media content featuring band and students.

Need for Study

Music, band classes, and teachers face many challenges, from shrinking budgets to

school boards and departments of education allocating ever-decreasing class time for

music and other enrichment classes. One constant challenge is enrollment (engaging and









retaining interested students in the study of instrumental music). Other challenges

include the often-negative image of the school band and its members among both teens

and society, and a perceived lack of "cool" associated with the school band.

As students progress from elementary through high school, they are subjected to an

ever-increasing barrage of stimuli, all vying for their attention. Media is one of the most

pervasive forces in a young person's life, with the average child aged 8 years and older

consuming some form of media content almost 40 hours per week (Wang, 1999). The

effect of media is debatable, but one common thread within the research is that television

and other media create "myths [that] are effective persuasive factors deeply influencing

the cognitive process of television viewers" (Metallinos, 1996).

A pilot study showed that many depictions of band and band students in today's

media, including content specifically mentioning band and content in which the band

and/or band students are merely part of the backdrop. What affect might these depictions

have on students' attitudes toward the band and its members? Some studies show that a

person's attitude can be transformed in as little as a single media exposure (Drabman &

Thomas, 1974; Molitor & Hirsch, 1994). In addition, Potter (2003) suggests that "over

the long term, the media can reinforce and give greater weight to an existing opinion,

making it more and more resistant to change."

While many studies have examined media and its effect on children, no studies

have yet examined the specific role media exposure plays in attitudes toward the school

band and its members. Certainly, student perceptions of various extracurricular activities

play a large role in their choice to participate in those activities (Adderley et al., 2003).

Of equal concern are the implied messages within a large portion of media content that










art music is not "cool" or "hip." These depictions reinforce the existing paradigm where

art music ("classical music") is seen as something for the elite, beyond the abilities or

interests of the common person (Abeles, Hoffer, & Klotman, 1994). Contrary to that

view, students enrolled in band programs often are nurtured "intellectually,

psychologically, emotionally, socially, and musically" by participating in performing

ensembles (Adderley et al., 2003).

The wind band community (including school bands, university ensembles and

professional groups) works hard to build repertoire, respect, and audience. What effect

does media play on students' opinion of band music as quality music? Establishing the

scope of the effect of media in today's school band classroom is one tool music educators

can use in their quest to maintain and improve the school band and music education as a

whole for all students.

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to determine whether exposure to media content

featuring band and/or band students would have an effect on the attitudes of high school

students toward those same subj ects: band and/or band students. Secondarily, this

research investigated the perceptions of media content featuring band and/or band

students in those teens who have participated in band versus those who have not.

Discussion also briefly addressed positive versus negative portrayals of band and/or band

students in the media.

Statement of the Problem

This research investigated the extent to which exposure to media content

(specifically film and television) affected attitudes toward the school band and school

band students. Several studies show that exposure to media can affect children's attitudes










(Drabman & Thomas, 1974; Molitor & Hirsch, 1994) and that attitude plays a significant

role in whether children choose to participate in an extracurricular activity (Adderley et

al., 2003; Olszewski-Kubilius & Seon-Young, 2004). This research sought the answers

to the following research questions:

* Research question 1. Does exposure to media portrayals of the school band
and/or school band students affect high school students' attitudes toward the school
band and/or band students?

* Research question 1. Is there any significant difference in the attitude change
prompted by exposure to media portrayals of the school band and/or school band
students between those high school students that have previous personal band
experience and those that have no personal experience in band?

Limitations

* The sample involves individuals selected at random within classes chosen by the
in-service cooperating teacher.

* The same equipment was always used for the presentation of media examples but
lighting and seating conditions varied at each testing site. All attempts were made
to equalize presentation conditions.

* It was not possible to control for time of day because of constraints of the school
schedule.

* Constraints of the school schedule limited the time available for the total proj ect
and, therefore, the length of exposure to each video segment.

* Some of the classrooms were very crowded, while others allowed reasonable
distance between subj ects.

Delimitations

* Subj ects were selected from typical school populations in the southeastern United
States.

* This research was restricted to high school students (grades 9-12).

* Media exposure was limited to ten examples of approximately 2 minutes each.

* The study was conducted without interruption, from pre-test through exposure to
post-test in one session.










Null Hypotheses

* Null hypothesis 1. There will be no statistically significant difference in pre-/post-
gain scores on attitudes of high school students toward the school band and band
students.

* Null hypothesis 2. There will be no statistically significant difference in pre-/post-
gain scores on attitudes of students with band experience and those with no band
experience.

Statistical Analysis and Method

Minitab statistical analysis software (version 14.13) and SPSS statistical analysis

software (version 13) were used to accomplish the statistical tests. A paired t-test on the

difference in post- and pretest answers was used to test the null hypothesis for Research

Question 1. Multiple two-tailed paired t-tests were used to compare the pretest data with

responses given for individual media examples. An alpha level of p < .05 was used to

accept or rej ect the null hypotheses. A series of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was

used to determine if Research Question 2 showed a statistically significant difference.

The above tests were run multiple times on separate subsets of data (domains), to disclose

whether there were any other unexpected variables. Descriptive statistics were used to

show the mean responses for individual descriptors. Cross tabulations were used to show

population characteristics within the sample group.

Definitions

* Aesthetics. Attention to and contemplation of any obj ect of awareness for the sole
purpose of having the experience (Schwadron, 1967).

* Art Music (Western). A more correct term replacing the popular "classical
music." It usually refers to five general kinds of music: church music, songs,
keyboard music, orchestral or ensemble music, and opera (Stolba, 1990).

* Attitude. From a psychological and sociological standpoint, the definition of
attitude is very complex and nuanced. For purposes of this research, attitude refers
to a complex mental state involving beliefs, feelings, values, and dispositions to act
in certain ways (Cognitive Science Laboratory, 2005).










* Band experience. A person is said to have band experience if that person now
plays or has ever played a wind or percussion instrument in a school music
ensemble.

* Consumer. In this research, one who receives information and processes it in a
meaningful way, whether actively or subconsciously.

* Inz loco parents. To assume the duties and responsibilities of a parent. From
Latin, meaning "in the place of a parent" (Hirsch, Kett, & Trefil, 2002)

* Mass media. That section of the media specifically conceived and designed to
reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a
nation state). Some view the mass-media audience as forming a mass society with
special characteristics that render it especially susceptible to the influence of
modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda (Wales, 2005).

* Metacognition. Awareness and knowledge about one's own thinking and learning.
These skills develop from early childhood through adolescence and include
thoughts about what we know and how we go about learning (Gage & Berliner,
1992).

* Persuasion. The process of actively attempting to change attitudes, usually with
the goal of changing the action behavior associated with the obj ect (Pratkanis &
Aronson, 1997).

* Reality. Personal reality is formed from the combination of private experiences,
curiosity, inquiry, and selectivity involved in the personal interpretation of an
event. When two or more individuals agree on the interpretation and experience of
a particular event, a consensus about an event and its experience begins to be
formed. This being common to a few individuals or a larger group, then becomes
the "truth" as seen and agreed on by a certain set of people. Thus one particular
group may have a certain set of agreed truths, while another group might reached
consensus on yet another set of truths (Wales, 2005).

* School band. An ensemble or combination of wind and percussion instruments in
the school setting that rehearses and performs wind band literature. The school
band may meet during the regular day, as an after-school activity, or a combination
of the two.

Summary

This research was designed to determine whether exposure to media depictions of

school band and/or school band students affected high school students' attitudes toward

the school band and/or band students. Additionally, attitude changes among those










subj ects with previous band experience were compared to those with no previous band

experience. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were presented for testing

using paired t-tests and analyses of variance (ANOVAs). The initial motivation for this

research arose out of the belief that it is difficult to build and maintain participation and

interest in school wind bands and that media depictions of the school band and/or school

band students may affect students attitudes toward the school band and band students,

negatively influencing their desire to become or remain a member of those programs.















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

Any study of media effects involves several different areas of specialization,

including psychology, attitude formation, and media influence. In addition, research

specific to the area of concentration must be considered, including media effects on

attitude, music, and media and the rise of the school wind band. Finally, since this

research attempts to determine attitudes regarding the school band and/or band students,

prior research on attitudes toward the band as an extracurricular activity is examined.

Psychology and the Study of Attitude

Promoting positive attitudes toward music and music classes is critical to the

success of music education. Attitudes are not isolated feelings, but instead include three

maj or components:

* the affective element of liking or disliking

* the cognitive element of perceiving and describing the obj ect of the attitude,
including evaluation of its relative positive-to-negative ratio

* an action tendency, or the tendency to behave in a certain way based on the attitude
(Halloran, 1976).

Attitude Formation and Change

Abeles, Hoffer and Klotman (Abeles et al., 1994) suggest several factors involved

in attitude formation:

* Association: positive experiences tend to influence positive attitudes

* Reinforcement: seeing their attitude reflected in those around them










* Conflicting factors: the idea that attitude formation is rooted in choosing the
option that is most beneficial to the individual

* Consistency: the view that people tend to like things they know and understand
and resist those with which they are less comfortable

According to Halloran (1976) there are three main sources of attitudes: direct

experience, explicit learning from others, and implicit learning from others. He suggests

that the formation of attitudes toward obj ects and situations is largely guided by the

culture and subcultures in which the individual is a member. Group dynamics influence

individual attitudes as much as, if not more than, personal direct experience. Over time,

the cultural influences on attitude formation among children have shifted considerably.

Even a short time ago, the primary influences on children's attitudes were assumed to be

parents, schools, churches, and the adult community. These traditional sources of

guidance have ceded their authority to the new definers of modern culture: the mass

media (Ravitch & Viteritti, 2003). Festinger' s "Theory of Social Comparison," as

described in Newport' s "Polling Matters" (2004), postulates that humans have a basic

need to have their attitudes and opinions reinforced through those of others. Newport

goes on to say:

When it is not possible to check our attitudes, opinions, and feelings against a
concrete reality (as is the case most of the time when it comes to attitudes and
opinions), we are interested in comparing them to the attitudes, opinions and
feelings of others. (p. 2)

Once attitudes have been formed, changing them requires a catalyst. One theory of

attitude change asserts that when the cognitive element of perceiving or describing the

obj ect is inconsistent with one's feelings about that obj ect, the two options are to choose

to ignore the cognitive element or to change the associated feeling (Mitchell, 1993). The

greater the inconsistency between the two elements, the greater the likelihood that










attitude change will occur (Becker, 1963). The third component of attitude (the action

tendency) is only invoked when a feeling is activated from memory as the cognitive

element is engaged and some action is provoked (Herr & Fazio, 1993). Attitude invokes

a tendency to a certain action path and does not predetermine action. Many other factors

may play a role in determining the actual action taken.

Persuasion

Attitude change and persuasion often go hand-in-hand. Persuasion is one term for

the process of actively attempting to change attitudes, usually with the goal of changing

the action behavior associated with the obj ect. There are two maj or (Pratkanis &

Aronson, 1997) types of persuasion: peripheral and central. In peripheral persuasion, the

subj ect offers little participation in processing the stimulus. An example of peripheral

persuasion occurs when the television is on, but the subj ect' s attention is elsewhere. In

the peripheral model, cues such as the attractiveness of the presenter account for much of

the differing impacts of cognitive versus affective elements of attitude. Central

persuasion relies on the subj ect' s direct participation in the message. The subj ect may

argue against the message or may actively seek supporting information; the success of

central persuasion depends on the strength of the message on careful examination.

Common tactics of peripheral and central persuasion include repetition, rhetoric

(language), and symbols (Metallinos, 1996). Tangential to the two maj or types of

persuasion is inference, the tactic of omitting the conclusion from the message and

allowing subj ects to draw their own conclusion. It has been argued that these self-drawn

conclusions are far more powerful than those suggested by the direct message (Kardes,

1993).









Influence

Media constantly exerts influence. While sometimes that influence is direct,

usually it is neither direct nor immediate. Everyone has different interpretations of media

content. Rather than think of media as either having influence or not, it is better to

consider that each person experiences different levels of influence exerted on them,

depending on multiple factors involved in individual personality makeup and pattern of

media consumption (Potter, 2003). The fact that a specific media example does not

influence everyone equally cannot be generalized to mean that the same example is not

having an effect on all who experience it. The degree to which we pay active attention to

the media message greatly affects its potential influence (Pratkanis & Aronson, 1997).

The arts have historically had great power of influence and persuasion. Their ability to

impose beliefs is one of their most potent psychological functions. Plato first described

the persuasive nature of the arts; this was a primary reason he excluded "both the artists

(as irrational persuaders) and the arts (as suspicious modes of emotional expressions)

from his ideal republic" (Metallinos, 1996).

Learning Theory

Information is stored in two ways: procedurally and declaratively. Procedural

learning occurs through repetition and conditioning, while declarative learning relies on

intentionally discovered facts. Many studies of television's affects on culture suggest

that television viewers undergo procedural learning on a persistent basis that much of

their memories and experiences are based on the television content they have repeatedly

absorbed (Metallinos, 1996).

Cognition is one maj or component of attitude formation, and the method by which

people evaluate media messages is largely based on their past learning. Howard Gardner









developed the theory of metacognition. One meaning of the prefix meta- is to go beyond,

to transcend (2000). This is exactly the type of thinking and learning that takes place as

media content is absorbed. Metacognition is crucial to our ability to determine the

relative truth or falsehood of the information we receive. Metacognition involves

metajudgments about many factors including form, context, and tone of voice (Davies,

1997). The ability to comprehend irony and sarcasm are examples of metacognition and

are important to children in learning to evaluate the content coming from all types of

media. Metajudgments and metacognition help children determine the reliability and

reality of media messages.

Children are born with a built-in capacity to learn and a need to understand their

world (Davies, 1997). Social learning theory describes how behaviors are acquired or

altered when observing others. Previous studies show that when models demonstrating a

particular behavior are attractive or similar to the viewer and the behaviors are shown in a

positive manner, the behavior is likely to be imitated by the viewer (Slater, 1999). We

also seek to categorize the world around us and process information accordingly (Langer,

1997). Examples of this tendency include "he's a music major," "she is tenured," and

"pianists are good at music theory." Categories help people make sense of the volume of

information absorbed each day. Others have postulated that all behavior is learned and

media is a primary teacher (1997).

Socialization

Socialization is the process of acquiring a sense of morality and of developing a

conscience. Important concepts within socialization are moral attitude, judgment and

character development (Halloran, 1976). Through the process of socialization, the child

grows into an adult; building experience, attitudes and values along the way. Other










people are the most important models of socialization, but Halloran suggests that media

and other external forces have a large effect on children's attitude formation.

Additionally, socialization does not stop at any particular age. People continue to adapt

and conform to expectations of groups to which they belong throughout their lives.

Socialization and attitude formation are clearly linked.

Social norms learned through media are of particular interest. Often, viewers

generalize a pattern from media exposure without that pattern being a true social norm.

Potter (2003) illustrates this issue:

For example, through repeated exposure to media violence, a person overestimates
the rate of crime and the percentage of crimes that are cleared by arrest. Although
these are generalizations, they are not social norms. Social norms are generalized
patterns from social information, rather than factual information. Social norms deal
more with the rules of behavior in social situations rather than with society's
factual parameters, such at the numbers of lawyers, crimes, trials, and executions -
all of which have real factual indicators. But social norms have no factual
foundation in the sense that they are accurate or not. (p. 47-48)

It becomes possible to generalize any number of things which the viewer may believe to

be true, contrary to the way things actually exist.

During early and middle childhood, socialization occurs without intervention from

the child, more or less automatically. In adolescence, teens begin to make choices about

their own socialization, accepting or rej ecting concepts and ideas put forward by family,

teachers, and peers. Adolescents are also thought to be more open to media content.

Teens experiencing alienation and victimization are the most susceptible to media

messages, while untroubled youth may view identical media content as a temporary

source of entertainment (Slater et al., 2004). Particularly in Western societies, the school

(both teachers and peers) is second only to the family as a socializing agent. The social

system in the school reflects the society it serves and is a key element in the passing of









cultural values. Music education in schools provides an avenue for students to

experience the human relationship to music (Kelly, 2002).

Media's Influence on Society and Youth

Television is mass communication's most powerful medium (Redd, 1974). A study

by the Kaiser Family Foundation (Wang, 1999), found that children aged 2 to 18 years

spent up to 40 hours per week with one or more types of media (including films, the

Internet, and video games). In contrast to video games' 20 minutes per day average,

television consumed 3 hours per day. More than 99% of American households have at

least one television, and almost two-thirds have two or more (Nielsen Media Research,

1993). Even these figures may be substantially low, since survey respondents tend to

have trouble estimating their own media use, especially relative to others (Salwen &

Dupagne, 2001).

Despite its usually negative connotation, television viewing and media

consumption can have beneficial uses. Television expands our view of our culture and

the world, providing experiences that would otherwise be unattainable (Gordon, 1976).

Media can provoke debate and discussion, and provide avenues for learning (Slater,

1999). Unfortunately, these benefits are accompanied by several burdens; among them,

reality distortion (Dyson, 2000).

Media critic Marshall McLuhan divides media into "hot" media and "cool" media

(McLean, 1998). He defines hot media as those that contain complete visual or aural

information and therefore require less involvement of the user in deriving meaning from

them. Hot media include radio, photography, and film. Cool media contain less visual or

aural information and require greater sensory input by the consumer. Examples of cool

media are the telephone, comics, and television. McLuhan may be off the mark in his










descriptions of television' s physical neurological effects (he believes that the sequential

electronic scanning process imprints a "mosaic-like" image on our skin), but he is

convinced that television leaves the viewer in an "exhausted slump" of sensory overload.

Wright (1974) also discusses differences in types of media based on the

information that each transmits. He suggests that audio transmissions are temporal in

nature, leaving the consumer unable to control the rate of assimilation. Conversely, print

media are spatial and consumers control their rate of assimilation completely. This

suggests that print media differ significantly from the audio-visual media that discussed

so far.

Media and Reality

Modem media excel at using realism in its fictional content, but realism and reality

are often very different. For children, the determining factor is often not how literally

true this content may be; but how authentic they perceive it to be, based on the children's

own experiences and worldview (Davies, 1997). Media does not reflect society as is

commonly believed. Instead, it creates its own reality that goes on to shape the very

society in which it exists (Metallinos, 1996). Thus, youth need ways to choose what to

accept as true, of what they see and hear. Modern media offers clues that are universally,

if subconsciously, accepted. For example, television news anchors almost always address

the camera (and, therefore, the viewer) directly; actors in a fictional program almost

never do. These types of cues must be learned, and the process of learning to make those

judgments is part of learning to interpret media (Davies).

Determining just how much influence media exerts on consumers is problematic,

but is a critical area of study (Potter, 2003). On the whole, mass media affect people

indirectly, often through people called "opinion leaders" (Halloran, 1976). These opinion









leaders can be actors, celebrities, newscasters, comedians, musicians, and even

well-known fictional characters. Media also tend to exert influence through selective

inclusion or omission of information (Entman, 1989). In a discussion of research by W.

Phillips Davison, Salwen and Dupagne (2001) highlight the "third-person effect". Most

people, when asked, believe that media exposure does affect the behavior and morals of

society, but almost always feel that it does not affect them personally. According to

Potter (2003), this belief is false. He suggests that negative effects of media go

unperceived not because such effects are nonexistent; but because people do not know

what evidence of the effects to seek.

Media and Attitude

Not long ago, parents expected to be the primary shapers of their children' s

attitudes and morals. Now, media often act in loco parents. Even the schools (once

charged with transmitting not only knowledge but also values and citizenship) have given

way to popular culture as defined by mass media (Ravitch & Viteritti, 2003). The

positive and negative effects of television and media on children' s behavior and attitudes

have been shown in many studies (Lipsitz, 1983; Watkins, Sprafkin, & Gadow, 1988) .

Potter (2003) suggests that a person's attitude can be formed or transformed with as little

as a single media exposure.

Halloran (1976) lists six conclusions regarding media and attitudes:

* It is possible to change attitudes.

* In order to produce change a suggestion for change must be received and accepted.

* Reception and acceptance are more likely to occur where the suggestion meets
existing personality needs or drives.

* The suggestion is more likely to be accepted if (a) it is in harmony with valued
group norms and loyalties, (b) the source of the message is perceived as









trustworthy or expert, (c) the message follows certain rules of 'rhetoric' regarding
order of presentation, organization of content, nature of appeal, etc.

* A suggestion carried by mass media plus face-to-face reinforcement is more likely
to be accepted than a suggestion carried by either one of these alone, all things
being equal.

* Change in attitude is more likely to occur if the suggestion is accompanied by
change in other factors underlying belief and attitude. (p. 59-60)

Other research suggests Halloran's six conclusions also depend on the consumer' s

receptivity to the message and prior attitudes regarding the message. Education level is a

convenient, if imperfect, measure of the prior receptivity of attitude (Martinez &

Scicchitano, 1998). For example, those with the least education are not very susceptible

to political media messages as they tend to simply tune them out. Conversely, those with

the most education often have strongly held political positions and media messages are

not likely to have much effect. Consumers with mid-level educations are the most

susceptible to political media messages due to their combination of high receptivity and

attitude flexibility.

Effects of Media

The American Academy of Pediatrics has expressed many concerns about the

amount of time children and teens spend as consumers of media and specifically,

watching television (Gentile et al., 2004). Other maj or groups calling for children to

reduce their consumption of media include the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory

Committee on Television and Social Behavior, the National Institute of Mental Health,

the U.S. Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence, the American Psychological

Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Parent Teachers

Association (Levine, 1999). Attempts have been made to exert external controls on

children's media use. In response to the calls for media control, the United States










Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which mandated the introduction

of the "V-Chip," a device that works in conjunction with network-implemented program

ratings to allow parents to filter programming they deem inappropriate (Hoffner &

Buchanan, 2002). Leo (1999) believes that the V-Chip is a "legally dubious,

complicated. .solution that puts parents in the uncomfortable position of using

technology against their children." This legislation was seen by many as an attempt at

government censorship. Research shows that support for censorship is positively

correlated with subj ects' perceived affects of television violence on aggressive behavior

and is, in part, related to the drive to protect society from the effects of media on others

(McLeod, Eveland, & Nathanson, 1997). Parents can also affect their children's

responses to media by discussing the content (active mediation), restricting access to it

(restrictive mediation), or simply by watching with their children (co-viewing)

(Nathanson, 2001).

Television and violence

Viewing violence on television has been reported to cause both immediate and

long-term effects on a person's future aggressive behavior (Coyne, Archer, & Eslea,

2004). Leonard Eron estimates that "although television is only responsible for perhaps

10% of the violent behavior in this country...if we could reduce violence by ten percent,

that would be a great achievement" (1997). In his 1995 testimony during hearings of the

U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Eron charges

television and televised violence with causing aggression among children that lasts into

adulthood, is not limited by age, gender, socio-economic status, intelligence, or prior

tendencies to aggression, and that a positive relationship between amount of television









watched and future aggressive acts is supported by numerous research studies (Murray,

1999).

There are two maj or sources of vulnerability to effects of violent media content.

The first is internal-personality predispositions that act as a catalyst for greater

propensity to respond to media stimuli. The second source of vulnerability is both social

and developmental--youth alienated from family, friends and teachers may be especially

susceptible to media suggestions of aggression, drug use, and antisocial acts (Slater et al.,

2004). The National Television Violence Study (1999) concludes that television violence

is not only common, but is also frequently presented in ways that harm consumers. It

argues programs "rarely show negative consequences of violence and television

characters [that] use violence often go unpunished."

Jon Katz, media critic and author of Virtuous Reality, argues that media violence is

not a problem and is greatly exaggerated by news media, politicians, and even the public

at large. He cites a 1995 New York Times survey that found "Americans have a starkly

negative view of popular culture and blame television more than any other single factor

for teenage sex and violence" (Katz, 1999). Most research shows that there is a link

between television violence and violent behavior, but there are also many inconsistencies

in those findings. Some scholars believe in the link strongly and others have concluded

that no link has been demonstrated (Felson, 1996). Marie Wynn, American educator and

critic, claims that television makes relationships and realities encountered in real life less

real; that real events will always "carry the echoes of the television world" (Dyson,

2000). Zillman and Weaver found that violence in the media only affects men with high









tendencies towards psychosis and that low-psychoticism men and high- and

low-psychoticism women were not affected (Sherry, 2004).

Other research shows that the effect of media violence is not direct; that it does not

always lead to actual violence. In a 1973 study by Friedrich and Stein of preschool

children exposed to violent cartoons, children did display more aggression during their

free play time than children exposed to less violent content. More significant were their

findings that the children exposed to violence had lower tolerance for delays, lower task

persistence, and were less likely to obey school rules (Felson, 1996). Some research even

shows television violence to have therapeutic value. Television violence can relieve

aggressive feelings for large numbers of people (Fowles, 1996).

Media and socialization

Overall, U.S. educators have been slow to acknowledge the powerful effects of

mass media (Hepburn, 1998). Research shows the electronic media to be intimately

intertwined in socialization from early childhood onward. Mass media affects children's

socialization (Halloran, 1976) through

* Teaching norms, status positions, and institutional functions
* Presenting models of behavior
* Providing information extending well beyond a child's immediate experience
* Giving the child a wider range of role models than otherwise available
* Being used as a societal reference group
* Reducing interpersonal exchange within the family in the socialization process
* Providing information about raising children

While most research mentioned thus far has dealt with violence, media exerts a

powerful influence on socialization in many areas. Sexuality is another area where the

media influence is very strong. In general, television portrayals of women's sexuality

and men's sexuality are very different. One common theme in programs was that men









view women as sexual obj ects, valuing them primarily for their physical appearance,

whereas women are often portrayed as the gatekeepers of sexual activities (Aubrey,

2004). This common thread runs through almost all mass media, including magazines

directed at young women such as Seventeen and YM. These magazines associate

women's sexuality with allure, passivity and responsibility and men's sexuality with

aggression and urgency. Television and media play a maj or role in emphasizing the

traditional roles of men and women. For example, the television sitcom Murphy Brown

(1988-1998) featured a very strong woman as the lead character, but even Murphy Brown

found her career wasn't enough and chose to have a baby (Wood, 1997). The point is not

that motherhood or committing to relationships is wrong, but that media practically

demand this dual role of women to present them in a positive light. The range of

acceptable behavior for women is very narrow in mass media.

Sociologists have also begun to debate the use of media in schools for both

educating and socializing children. The advent of Channel 1 Television, a set of

programs designed to be sent over schools' closed-circuit systems, caused an outcry due

to the inclusion of advertising within its content (Paul & Ballantine, 2002).

Media, Consumers and Advertising

Among types of media that influence its subj ects, none is more blatant about

attempting to exert influence than advertising. There is considerable evidence that

advertising can both form and transform brand attitudes in media consumers directly and

by intent, as opposed to other forms of media which exert their influence indirectly

(Nedungadi, Mitchell, & Berger, 1993).

Commercials interrupt a program in progress, thereby attracting more attention. In

the case of radio commercials, they often feature verbal dialogue, music, and sound









effects; television commercials use those sounds and include visual and verbal effects to

persuade the viewer that the advertised product or service is something on which they

should spend their money and time (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). In an average 30 minute

television program, there are 23 minutes of programming and 7 minutes of commercials,

although some programs contain as many as 12 minutes of commercials, leaving only 18

for actual programming. In a typical hour-long program in 2005, there are 42 minutes of

programming and 18 minutes of commercials, up from 51 minutes of programming in the

1960's (Wales, 2005). The predominant view of advertising is that it propels consumers

into action through a set of mental stages--that advertising has a hierarchy of effects

(Park & Young, 1984). Although there is some debate over their exact nature and

sequence, these effects are most commonly described as:

* Cognition; learning about a brand or service
* Development of a favorable attitude toward the brand or service
* Purchase action

Brand advertising often reflects two broad themes: the reasons people make choices

(brand awareness), which can be positive or negative, and the consumer' s level of

involvement in the purchase decision (brand attitude), which can be high or low (Crispell

& Brandenburg, 1997).

For youth, the most common factor in deciding brand choice is that it "is for people

my age" (Zollo, 1999). Adolescents favor products and services directed toward their

age group. Teens consistently name advertising as "something that makes a brand cool"

(Zollo), revealing the strong connection between teens and the media. Honda Motors

sponsored a series of concerts featuring bands that appealed to those ages 16-30 to

promote its Honda Civic. Marketing researchers discovered a 23 to 31% increase in










opinion of the vehicle in areas such as "stylish," "useful," "fun to drive," and "cool and

hip" among those who had attended the concerts (Greenberg, 2002). Two-thirds of teens

agree that "good advertising helps me make decisions about what to buy" and "good

advertising can make me think or feel better about a product or company" (Zollo).

Teens and Media

On graduating from high school, teens will have spent 50% more time in front of a

television than in a classroom. Levine (1999) argues that the majority of this

programming is not appropriate for children and at the same time marketed directly

toward them. From reality television through MTV, everyone able to turn on the

television set receives the same information, eliminating many of the traditional barriers

that protected children from adult life.

Teens' favorite programs are situation comedies. Humor is a key part of appeal to

teens, whether in fictional programming or in advertising (Zollo, 1999). Cable outlets are

also highly successful in attracting teen viewers. Cable's ability to market to small niche

groups is an ideal pathway to reaching adolescents. MTV, ESPN, and USA are some of

the top cable networks for teens. Music is a particular area of division between younger

and older consumers of media (Goddard, 1976).

Relationship between Media and Music

Music and media have been closely related since their respective beginnings. Some

of the first mass-produced printed material was sheet music. Recording technology was

driven by musicians and the music industry and even silent films were not silent,

incorporating live music into their "soundtracks" long before actors' voices. One of the

first breakthrough cable television networks was MTV, or Music Television, although the

MTV of today follows very different programming strategies than at its inception. Oddly










enough, there is very little music on today's MTV. Teens and adolescents use their

experiences in music and media in building their self-image and the music/media

combination is a strong factor in their socialization (Mueller, 2002). Media has allowed

music to become more diverse and speak to individuals and cultural subgroups in a way

never possible before. Media and music have also combined together as a powerful force

for cultural unity among subgroups. Rhythm and Blues, music originated by black

Americans, crossed the race barrier in 1954 when disc jockey Alan Freed rechristened it

"rock and roll" (Redd, 1974). Music, from the most esoteric art music to the simplest

ditty, is available at the press of a button (Bornoff & Salter, 1972). This availability

revolutionized both the way we make music and the music we make.

Music, film and television. Media and music are a teen's best friends. A 1990

report by Roberts and Hendriksen asked high school juniors and seniors what media they

would take with them if stranded on a desert island. Music (radio and recordings were

combined) was well ahead of television with over 80% of the sample ranking music as

among their first three choices, and music was number one for almost half (Gitlin, 2003).

Television and music can combine to allow us to see performers make music, a feat that

used to require a trip to the concert hall, assuming one was nearby. Television helps

establish an intimacy with the performer never before possible (Bornoff & Salter, 1972).

Music has also always played an important role in films, highlighting the action,

underlining important dramatic moments, and providing a subconscious map for our

emotions (Gordon, 1976).

New trends in arts research point away from high art toward the aestheticization of

everyday life. These shifts are documented in the development of music through research









on MTV (Mueller, 2002). Early research on music television and music videos focused

on the perceived lack of quality in the construction of the music itself; in other words, the

long standing argument against popular music. Since the 1990's, music video research

has looked at music video consumption as a process of musical identity and

self-socialization in which different social constructs are ascribed to sounds and images.

For example, young people often derive a large portion of their gender role identity

through music and music videos (Brown & Schulze, 1990). Teens also experience a

number of other effects from viewing music videos, including a change in mood state

which may or may not be benign (Christenson, 2003).

Commercials and other advertising often use music designed to attract and hold the

consumer' s attention. This music is usually incidental to the actual advertising content,

but is a central part of the marketing strategy (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). Some

commercials make use of popular music in the hopes of associating positive musical

associations with their product or service. Others make use of art music for its

ubiquitous, yet unrecognizable nature among the average consumer. Art music is also

attractive since much of the most well-known works are public domain and the advertiser

is free to use it without paying mechanical licenses. Still other musicians and composers

make their living writing and performing music specifically for commercials.

Interestingly, marketing research shows that with some advertising messages, music can

interfere instead of support the message, especially in advertising that requires high

involvement from the consumer. Music is most effective in advertising with

low-involvement messages, where it can help create positive feelings which would then










be (hopefully) transferred to the brand or service via associative bonding (Park & Young,

1984).

While there are many benefits to musicians thanks to media, there are also some

concerns beyond those of violent lyrics and suggestibility. One major factor in the early

21st Century has been the explosion of "pirated" music: music recorded as a computer

file and then made available via public peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. These ethical and

financial concerns remain a subject of debate in 2005 with no foreseeable end. More

ephemeral are musicians' unease with the idea that their performance can be recorded

permanently for future, unlimited usage (Bomnoff & Salter, 1972). From the introduction

of the gramophone in 1899 through the long-playing record of 1948 to today's digital

music on compact disc and computer data file, music and media are inextricably linked.

Music, Culture and Socialization

Potency of music is greatest in the group is one of Gaston' s eight fundamental

considerations of people in relation to music (Gaston, 1968). This philosophy stresses

that music "is a social phenomenon which invites and encourages participation... group

musical experience provides people with opportunities to interact in intimate yet ordered

and socially desirable ways" (Radocy & Boyle, 1997). While Gaston was referring to the

group performance of music, groups also experience music as listeners with even greater

regularity. Music is a tool in the socialization process, helping to define various cultural

values (Reimer, 2000). Research into the role popular music plays in the socialization

process has increased. Reasons include the controversial nature of lyrics, video imagery,

and personalities associated with popular music (Christenson, 2003). The germination of

this new awareness came in 1985, when a group of concerned parents led by Tipper Gore

spoke on the dangers of "pomn rock" before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee.









These hearings prompted the recording industry to institute a system of voluntary

parental warnings for content rather than be forced to accept government oversight.

Senator Bob Dole began his 1995 presidential campaign by declaring war on

"Hollywood's nightmares of depravity." Artists such as Marilyn Manson have been

under scrutiny after a string of tragic school shootings in the late 1990's-apparentlyy

several of the shooters were devotees of his music. Regardless of the validity of various

allegations, serious attention is being given to the role of music in adolescent

development.

In a review of research (North, Hargreaves, & Tarrant, 2002), delinquency, sexual

attitudes and attitudes toward violence were all found to be linked to popular music

among teens, but many of those links were tenuous at best. It was argued, for example,

that young people may not become delinquent due to their musical preferences, but that

labeling people as "delinquent" on the basis of their music and fashion might drive them

to deviant behavior. Popular music was found to be linked with permissive sexual

attitudes, especially among females. Finally, although not all agreed, most felt that

subj ects exposed to violent music videos had a higher probability of exhibiting violent

behavior and a greater acceptance of violence toward women.

Music and Music Education

Frank Rich, columnist and former chief theatre critic for the New York Times,

expressed his views on the arts and schools in his Americans for the Arts Address at the

Kennedy Center on March 19, 2001:

At the national level, the arts can bind us together in a way that perhaps no other
glue can not government and not our myriad of religions, and not even
entertainment which is now Balkanized by demographics and in most cases
passing fashion. By contrast, the lasting, humane values that inform all the arts -
the beauty and catharses that lift us up well above the quotidian reality of our lives










are beyond category. They carry over from art form to art form, from generation
to generation, from society to society. They speak in a language that, once
understood, is never forgotten. It's a language that, like any other language, is
most easily learned in childhood. It seems to me a crime that in a country as rich as
ours we don't teach it automatically to every child we have. (p. 23)

Rich's eloquent words sum up what many in the arts and education already know:

the arts are a critical part of our society and to leave art education to chance is to chance

losing them forever. Music education plays a maj or role in the enculturation process by

using music to teach cultural values, skills, and traditions. Music education is a basic part

of the cultural continuity of each culture (Kelly, 2002). Music teachers can help students

learn about and be comfortable with art music--things that, depending on the student's

background and home situation, are unlikely to happen anywhere but the music

classroom (Abeles et al., 1994). Music education in the United States has been through

many ups and downs since its beginnings in 1838 when Lowell Mason convinced the

Boston School Committee to include music in the curriculum of the public schools.

Mark (1996) suggests that music education has not lived up to its potential and has failed

to consistently produce musically literate adults who appreciate and participate in musical

life and culture. Other issues include federal, state and local government mandates which

limit the amount of time available for music, such as the No Child Left Behind Act and

its exclusion of music from the described "core curriculum" (Finch & Watts, 2004).

The MENC Task Force for National Standard in the Arts defined eight assumptions

on which music education in America should be based (1994):

1. Universal access to music education
2. A comprehensive music curriculum
3. Opportunity to learn
4. Adequate support for music education
5. Interrelatedness within the curriculum
6. Provision for exceptional students









7. Utilization of community resources
8. New directions in teacher education

These assumptions are at the core of modern music education: that every child will

have access to music education at every level of schooling, that their curricula will be

well-planned and will work toward defined goals, that the facilities and financial support

will be sufficient for music learning to take place, that their skills will truly connect

across an integrated curriculum, that community resources will be exploited for students'

benefit, and that they will have the best trained, best educated teachers. As music and the

arts are the transmitters and teachers of culture, students deserve no less.

Challenges to music education. Challenges to music education in our schools can

be divided into two maj or groups: challenges from within the music education

community and challenges from outside forces, including government and community

pressures. Historically, American music education has faced several dilemmas and met

them with varied success (Mark, 1996). Methodology and pedagogy of teaching music

was often restricted to such a point that teachers had little freedom in the classroom;

teachers were forced to use textbooks and techniques that offered little in the way of true

musical development. American culture is wide and varied, with students from almost

every nation and every culture represented. Regardless of the makeup of the student

population, music education often focused almost exclusively on Western art music

without any attempt at reaching a balance point between music that is meaningful to

students and the art music from a 400-year period of time in Western Europe. From the

turn of the century through the 1960's this was intentional; it was part of the "melting

pot" philosophy of culture homogeneity. Early music education tended to focus on

passive listening, and even where music making took place, students rarely continued









their own musical pursuits after leaving school. For students that enrolled in music

classes through their secondary education, the product of teaching was usually

performance. This focus on performance, combined with a history of school ensembles

dominated by the drive to entertain, encouraged a misplaced focus on technical

proficiency without much musical learning. Mark illustrates this concept: "The student

musician who learns to play one particular part to a symphony or a Sousa march does not

necessarily know anything else about the music, and has probably not developed much

music independence..." (p. 23).

External forces squeezing music education include government at all levels and

stakeholders in education including the community and businesses, parents, and the

students themselves. Statistics tell part of the story: Japan spends almost $5 per pupil on

the arts, Germany about $2.50, and Canada and Great Britain about $1.20, whereas the

U.S. spends fifteen cents per student on arts education (Raessler, 1996). Kelly (2002)

proposes that part of the problem stems from the popularity of the large ensemble; that

the lack of individuality and emphasis on functional performance creates a situation

devoid of a human connection, making it easier to view music education as an

unnecessary extra. Music education is often seen as such an extra. Raessler calls this

phenomenon "[music education as] curricular icing" (p. 42). Music is one of the seven

forms of intelligence as described by Howard Gardner-intelligences that are all equal.

Regardless, American schools teach linguistic, logical-verbal, and mathematics skills

almost exclusively, leaving the other five forms to chance music included (Guignon,

1998).









The School Wind Band

History and Background

The early history of ensemble instrumental instruction began in 1910 when Albert

Mitchell, a supervisor of music in the Boston schools, observed class instruction of violin

in England, prompting him to write the M~itchell Cla~ss M~ethod for the violin (Abeles et

al., 1994). The idea of class instruction spread to all instruments and prompted other

methods, such as Maddy and Gidding's Instrumental Techniques for Orchestra and

Band. After the end of World War I, school boards sought recent Army bandsmen to

begin band programs in the schools. This period was also the height of the early

American band movement with many professional touring bands traveling the country,

most notably the Sousa Band, led by the "March King" himself. School music and bands

began to expand rapidly, and schools looked to professional musicians to fi11 teaching

positions. The combination of the depression and the end of pit orchestras for silent films

ensured a steady supply of professional musicians for the schools. This, more than any

other factor, may have propelled the performance-first philosophy in school bands and

ensembles. The professional musicians brought in to teach music did so as they were

accustomed, leading rehearsals and preparing music for performance.

The school band movement continued to grow into the second half of the twentieth

century, and by 1960 there were an estimated 3 million instrumentalists performing in

50,000 bands (Battisti, 2002). Along with the growth of bands themselves came concerns

regarding the quality of music education students received in those bands. William

Moody, president of the National Band Association in 1968 remarked:

The musical and educational significance of the school band movement needs
critical evaluation...too little time is now being given by most directors to the
general music background of band students. Most students are graduating from










high school after more than six years of band, with very little knowledge of music
history and music theory, and very little familiarity with the compositions of the
great composers. School bands should be primarily musical and educational with
most functional and entertaining activities limited to school events. (Battisti, 2002;
Moody, 1968)

The Band Student

A 2000 National Association of Music Merchants survey of randomly selected U. S.

households cited in Kelly (2002) showed:

* 50% of U. S. households have at least one person age five or older who currently
plays a musical instrument.

* 92% of current players and 77% of non-players said music was a very important
part of their life.

* 85% of non-players said they wished they had learned to play an instrument.

* 95% believe that music is part of a well-rounded education.

* 93% believe that music should be part of the regular school curriculum

* 81% believe that participating in school music corresponds with better grades

* 73% believe that teenagers who play a musical instrument were less likely to have
discipline problems

* 95% believe that making music provides a sense of accomplishment

The NAMM survey concluded that social attitudes are an important part of the way

people view involvement in music and music education, music is a very important part of

life, and that playing an instrument is something an individual was always glad to have

learned.

A study by Adderley, Kennedy and Berz (2003) surveyed band students on their

motivations for participation. Maj or reasons were the influence of family, the desire to

participate in musical activities and perform on their instrument, and the sense of balance

that band offered to a math/science/l anguage/history curriculum. Social benefits are










highly valued as well. Other reasons included perceived direct academic advantages,

trips and positive self-image. Band members form lasting friendships, gain self-respect

and a feeling of belonging (McCabe, 1973). When band students were asked about the

way they perceived themselves and the way they were perceived by non-members, they

had much to say (Adderley et al.). Most band students felt as though they were

reasonably well supported by their peers and the school community. Some felt as though

they played a role in the total school population, while others saw members of the band

as separate from the rest of the school. In general, band students did not believe that the

efforts they put into learning their instrument and performing as a member of the

ensemble were appreciated or even understood by the school community as a whole.

They were quick to point out the derogatory labels given to them such as "band dorks,"

but seemed to revel in using those labels themselves. Marching band was singled out as

an ensemble that was especially divisive between the members and non-members. From

carrying instrument cases to wearing band j ackets, some students use music as a part of

their personal identity that also sets them apart from other students in the school.

Kelly (2002) goes on to describe the school band as a social unit that requires a

substantial time commitment both inside and outside of the regular school day. This time

commitment allows a clear social structure to form among the members that often

extends beyond the music classroom. Ensemble members often sit together at lunch and

meet socially outside of school. The same social subgroups seen in the school will form

in the microcosm of the band. With variances for terminology, there are the brains, the

popular kids, the j ocks, and so on. The difference lies in the time spent together; whereas

in the total school population these subgroups will rarely interact, the school band










demands "regular and extensive" interactions among its members and, therefore, the

same subgroups. Kelly suggests that time spent with students from different subgroups is

far higher in school music performance classes than in many aspects of life. The

ensemble identity is a main reason for student participation, but also one reason

membership will never go beyond a "critical mass." Students value the sense of

belonging that comes from being a member of a special group, but for that group to

remain exclusive there must be many more non-members.

While sports was found to be the most frequent extracurricular activity, band,

orchestra and other music ensembles rank a close second (Olszewski-Kubilius & Seon-

Young, 2004; Quiroz, 2000). Music educators would argue that music in general and

band in particular is not extracurricular, but nevertheless music is included in most

studies of extracurricular activities. Research demonstrates a clear link between

participation in extracurricular activities and decreasing dropout rates (Thomson, 2005).

It also shows positive relationships between students' extracurricular participation and

other educational goals such as better academic performance, increased attendance and

aspirations of higher education.

Summary

Attitudes are formed and transformed through direct experience, explicit and

implicit learning from others and the formation of attitudes is largely guided by the

culture and sub-cultures to which an individual belongs. Festinger' s Theory of Social

Comparison states that people have a need to have their attitudes and opinions reinforced

by others. Persuasion is closely related to attitude change, and there are two types of

persuasion: peripheral and central. Media often rely on peripheral persuasion to affect









attitude change. Media's influence is different for each consumer, but there is a definite

link between media and attitude change. The arts hold great power of influence as well.

Television and the media often cause procedural learning in their consumers,

meaning that a large part of memories and experiences are rooted in content they have

repeatedly absorbed. Consumers also make many metajudgments regarding media

content which form the basis for deciding the reality and reliability of that content. The

effect of media on behavior is clearly associated, although there is much debate on both

the extent of the effect and who is most affected. Many studies have been done on

children, violence and television; most can report at least a partial connection between

consumption of violent content and behavior that deviates from accepted societal norms.

One maj or challenge facing children and adolescents in evaluating media and media

messages is determining the nature of media reality versus real-world reality. Research

suggests that media, especially film and television, creates an alternate reality with a

skewed vision of our society and culture. It is also suggested that this alternate reality

can influence society and become real. In other words, instead of media as a societal

mirror, it becomes a societal teacher. Media has replaced many of the traditional

methods of socialization in our culture, in many cases superseding parents, schools and

the community. Media and music are closely related, as media is the primary method of

music transmission and dissemination. While mass media holds great promise in

advancing the art of music, it is most often a purveyor of popular music and culture.

Music choice plays a large role in the socialization of adolescents, but is not necessarily a

predictor of behavior.










Music education has a long history in the United States but also faces many

challenges. The goal of music educators is a complete program of comprehensive music

education for all students at all levels. Challenges to music education include challenges

from within and external forces. The school wind band also has a long history, mostly

rooted in the performance tradition due to the large numbers of professional musicians

recruited to teach music in the schools. This performance philosophy both attracts

members and creates a musical learning imbalance as students often receive little or no

instruction in musical areas outside of technical and artistic proficiency as players and

ensemble members. Students j oin the school band for a variety of reasons, but many of

those reasons are not musical. Socialization, group culture and a sense of belonging are

central themes in students' reasons for band membership. An overwhelming percentage

of American households feel that band and music classes are part of a well-rounded

education and should be included in the curriculum.















CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The overall objective of this research was to determine whether media portrayals of

school band and/or band students had a significant effect on attitudes of high school

students toward the school band and/or band students. A secondary purpose of this

research was to discover whether prior band experience was a factor in how high school

students perceived media portrayals of school band and/or band students and whether

those perceptions affected attitude change with significant difference between students

with band experience and those with no prior experience.

Research Design

The design of this research (Table 3-1) was a quasi-experimental comparison study

(Shavelson, 1988). There was a pre-test, a ten-part media exposure with questions

specific to each example, and a post-test. The study lacks total randomization as the

classes from which subj ects were drawn were selected on the basis on availability of the

cooperating teacher and the school schedule.

Table 3-1. Design of quasi-experimental study
Pre-test Experimental Treatment Post-Test
April and May of 2005 35 minute duration Immediately after treatment
200 research subjects 10 media examples
100 subj ects with band Each example Subj ects equal to pre-test
experience approximately 2 min numbers
100 subj ects with no band Five questions for each 14 attitude descriptors that
experience example match pre-test
17 demographic items 1 to 1.5 min for responses 3 attitude descriptors unique
14 attitude descriptors between each example to post-test












Selection of Schools

This research was conducted using 5 high schools over three states in the

southeastern United States. Of the 5 schools, 2 are described as rural, 1 as small town, 1

as mid-size central city, and 1 as large central city. Of the 5, only 1 contained grades

10-12. The other 4 were traditional grade 9-12 high schools. Participating schools were

chosen at random from a researcher-created list. The list of eligible schools was divided

both along geographical areas and types of school, whether urban, suburban, etc. to

ensure a broad sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-6 show descriptive data for the selected

schools.

Table 3-2. School 1 descriptive data
School Characteristics
Total Classroom Stud/Tchr Locale Charter Magnet Title I
Students Teachers Ratio School? School? School?
1528 75 20.4 Rural No No No

Enrollment Characteristics
Students by Race/Ethnicity Free/Red
Students by Grade Amer Asian Black Hisp White Students by Sex Lunch
9 10 11 12 IninM F UK # %
424 380 365 359 2 29 18 30 1449 771 757 0 24 0.02
(National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)

Table 3-3. School 2 descriptive data
School Characteristics
Total Classroom Stud/Tchr Locale Charter Magnet Title I
Students Teachers Ratio School? School? School?
3188 148 21.5 Large City No No No

Enrollment Characteristics
Students by Race/Ethnicity Free/Red
Students by Grade Amer Asian Black Hisp White Students by Sex Lunch
9 10 11 12 IninM F UK # %
1219 801 591 577 0 16 164 2913 95 1575 1613 0 2234 70
(National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)


Sample Selection










Table 3-4. School 3 descriptive data
School Characteristics
Total Classroom Stud/Tchr Locale Charter Magnet Title I
Students Teachers Ratio School? School? School?
2250 97 23.2 Med City No No No

Enrollment Characteristics
Students by Race/Ethnicity Free/Red
Students by Grade Amer Asian Black Hisp White Students by Sex Lunch
9 10 11 12 IninM F UK # %
888 505 491 366 3 55 385 186 1621 1090 1160 0 542 24
(National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)

Table 3-5. School 4 descriptive data
School Characteristics
Total Classroom Stud/Tchr Locale Charter Magnet Title I
Students Teachers Ratio School? School? School?
1323 80.2 16.5 Rural No No No

Enrollment Characteristics
Students by Race/Ethnicity Free/Red
Students by Grade Amer Asian Black Hisp White Students by Sex Lunch
9 10 11 12 IninM F UJK # %
439 345 282 257 3 7 327 8 978 671 652 0 349 26
(National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)

Table 3-6. School 5 descriptive data
School Characteristics
Total Classroom Stud/Tchr Locale Charter Magnet Title I
Students Teachers Ratio School? School? School?
1178 75.9 15.5 Sm Town No No No

Enrollment Characteristics
Students by Race/Ethnicity Free/Red
Students by Grade Amer Asian Black Hisp White Students by Sex Lunch
Indian
9 10 11 12 M F UK # %
-- 431 413 334 3 38 281 54 803 629 549 0 271 23
(National Center for Education Statistics, 2004)

Selection of Subjects

Music teachers in each chosen school were contacted and allowed to choose the

classess, day and time of testing to accommodate their teaching schedules. Teachers

were instructed to ensure a minimum of 20 subjects with previous band experience and









20 without previous band experience. Three of the music teachers collaborated with

teachers of other subjects (English, etc.) in the school to recruit the non-band subjects,

while the other two drew from their own non-performance classes (music appreciation,

etc.). In two of the schools, all testing was done in one large block for all subjects. For

the remaining three, testing was spread throughout the day in smaller groups. In every

case, the entire class undertook the tests and exposure. This was done for two main

reasons: first, to create a large pool of data from which to draw random subjects, and

second, to eliminate discipline problems from non-participatory students in the same

room. The large samples were divided into two groups: those with and without band

experience. 20 subjects were then randomly chosen from each group. In this way, a

sample population of 200 subjects was found, consisting of 100 subjects with band

experience and 100 without where each school composed 20% of both the total sample

population and the subgroup sample populations.

Sample Population Demographic Data

Subj ects' age was normally distributed, with a mean age of 16 (n=74) (Figure 3-1).

Of the subj ects, 24.5% (n=49) were in 9th grade, 3 8% (n=76) were in 10th grade, 25%

(n=50) were in 11Ith grade, and 12.5% (n=25) were in 12th grade. School number 5 only

serves Grades 10 through 12, which may have affected the number of 9th grade subj ects

available. Females outnumbered males; 60.5% (n=121) to 37.5% (n=75) respectively,

with 1.5% (n=3) declining to answer.

Subj ects were asked about their personal media consumption. Looking at the total

sample population, the mean amount of television per week was 1 1-15 hours, with a

standard deviation of 2.013. The mean number of films seen in the last month in a

theatre was 1-2, with a standard deviation of .742. Tests for correlation showed little









relationship between age, sex, or grade level, and media consumption, as well as the

number of films seen compared to the hours of television watched. There is a curious

spike among 10th grade subj ects for both hours of television and films (figures 3-2 and

3-3).


80-





60-





0" 40-





20-


"~I
No Answer


16

Age


Figure 3-1. Sample population age


nII








42




25- Grade
9th
10th
O 11th
20- g 12th




15-

O











0 1 5 6 -10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 300or
more

Hours of TV per week


Figure 3-2. Hours of television per week by grade level



Grade

10th
O 11th
12th





















0 1 2 3 -5 6 or more

Number of Films per month


Figure 3-3. Number of films seen in a theatre in the last month by grade level










Subjects were asked to detail their prior musical experience. By design, 50%

(n=100) of the subj ects had at least some prior school band experience and 50% had no

prior school band experience. Looking only at those who had prior band experience,

77% (n=77) were still enrolled in a band course on the testing date. Table 3-7 shows the

number of years subjects have participated in a band course. Among the total sample

population, 36% (n=72) of subjects participate in another (non-band) musical ensemble

within the school; 28% (n=56) are students enrolled in a choral/vocal class. 28.5%

(n=57) of the total population performs in another musical ensemble outside of the

school .

Table 3-7. Years of band participation among subjects with band experience.
Years n= Percent
1 11 11.0
2 -3 19 19.0
4 -5 44 44.0
6 -7 22 22.0
8 or more 4 4.0
Total 100 100.0



When asked about their family and music, over half (57.5%, n=115) had a family

member that played a musical instrument. The relationship between family instrumental

experience and the student' s own band experience revealed a low correlation. The

relationship between students' years in band and main instrument also revealed a low

correlation. Finally, subj ects were asked to list the type of music most often heard at

home as seen in table 3-8. This question proved problematic, as some subjects listed the

music they listened to at home and others listed the music their parents chose.









Table 3-8. Music most often heard at home
peof2usic n= Percent peof2usic n= Percent
Big Band & Swing 7 3.5 Easy Listening 2 1.0
Bluegrass & Country 24 12.0 New Age 20 10.0
R&B and Blues 13 6.5 Opera 2 1.0
Broadway & Show Tunes 2 1.0 Rap 49 24.5
Classical 6 3.0 Reggae 9 4.5
Folk Music 2 1.0 Contemp. Pop Rock 1 .5
Gospel 15 7.5 Oldies 34 17.0
Jazz 3 1.5 Heavy Metal 1 .5
Latin & Salsa 10 5.0 Total 200 100.0


Research Instruments

Three closely related research instruments were developed for this research and

grouped together into packets (Appendix A). Packet I consisted of two parts: Part I:

Biographical Data and Part II: Pre-exposure Attitudes. Packet II was used during the

media exposure treatment to record attitudes for each media example. Packet III

examined post-exposure attitudes and was linked directly to the pre-exposure survey with

the exception of three additional questions related to the media examples just observed.

Packet I, Part I: Biographical Data

The biographical data instrument first requests information regarding subj ects'

personal profile, including age, grade, and sex (Questions 1 3). The survey then asks

subj ects to self-assess their media consumption and report both how many hours of

television they watch per week and how many films they have seen in a theatre in the

previous month (questions 4 and 5). The remainder of the instrument deals with their

prior musical experiences and other school activities. Questions 7 10 determine

whether students have ever been in the school band, if they were in the band at the time

of the survey, the total number of years in the school band if any, and their main/principal

instrument if any. Questions 1 1 13 seek to discover other music interests, including









whether the subj ects have other school ensemble experience, other ensemble experience

outside of the school, or any other musical experience not otherwise listed. Questions 14

and 15 gather background on the musical experiences of the respondent' s family and

home life, both as listeners and performers of music. Question 16 asks for extracurricular

participation information.

Packet I, Part II: Pre-Exposure Attitudes

The pre-exposure attitude survey contains series of 14 questions relating to the

subj ect' s attitudes toward the school band and school band students. Several questions

were asked twice with slightly different answers to ensure subj ects were reading and

understanding questions. A four-point Likert scale was used to record student responses,

with a fifth option of "no opinion." The points on the scale include strongly disagree,

disagree, agree, and strongly agree. For analysis purposes these responses were assigned

numerical values from 1 to 4, respectively. The decision to use a four-point scale was

prompted in part by texts which demonstrated the simplicity of a four-point intensity

scale would be easier for subj ects to navigate as they have fewer choices and fewer

decisions to make (Cox, 1996). This was particularly important for the questions during

the exposure period since each question had to be answered in 20 25 seconds.

Consideration was given to having two scales, one for the pre- and post-exposure surveys

and another for the exposure itself this was rej ected to avoid confusing subj ects during

the treatment. It is noted that the four-point scale limits the potential range of data, but

this limitation was viewed as acceptable in light of the other factors mentioned.

Packet II: Media Examples

The media examples questions were designed to examine attitudes regarding each

example separately. There are ten sections of five questions each, corresponding to the










ten media examples shown as treatment. The questions are mostly drawn from the

pre-exposure survey to allow comparisons between the two; however there are some

questions that are germane only to specific examples that do not appear elsewhere. Each

media example's questions are tailored to that specific example. For example, if the

example shows band students interacting but no music, sociologically based questions

were given more weight. The response scale was identical to the pre-exposure survey.

Part III: Post-exposure Attitudes

The post-exposure attitude survey was identical to the pre-exposure survey,

containing the same 14 questions in the same order. In addition, the post-exposure

instrument also contained three questions asking the subj ect to synthesize their feelings

about the media examples shown as treatment and self-assess their degree of attitude

change. The response scale was identical to the previous two sections.

Selection and Creation of Media Examples

The choice and selection of media examples is the most important factor in this

research study. To ensure the best selection, a pilot study was conducted using college

music maj ors and non-maj ors to determine what media content to include.

Pilot Study Research Design

Initial designs suggested a survey with pre-chosen media content where the

respondent was able to rank-order the examples. This was rej ected, because simply to

create such a list would limit responses. A concept was borrowed from business and

advertising called TOMA, or "top of mind awareness" (Sherlock, 2000). The concept as

it applies to the corporate world is simple: people will buy from the first business that

comes to mind so, to be successful, a business must work to cultivate consumer

awareness even more than driving a specific purchasing message. For purposes of this









media research, TOMA will allow subj ects to list the media messages they remember

best, without regard for a researcher-created list. In this way, the media that is most

meaningful to each individual can be assimilated into a whole set of data where the media

with the highest percentages of mention are the most "top of mind" for the sample

population.

Selection of pilot study subjects

Subj ects were drawn from wind band performance classes at the University of

Florida. Some of these classes contained mostly music maj ors and others had very few

music majors, but all had students with prior school band experience. It was assumed

that people with prior band experience would be more sensitive to portrayals of the

school band and/or band students in the media and therefore more likely to remember

those portrayals.

Out of 200 surveys passed out to classes, there were 128 total subj ects. 14 of those

subjects (1 1%) neglected to complete the biographical data section of the survey

instrument. Their answers were used as part of the data set but they are excluded from

the demographic analysis sample set (n=114). 17.7% (n=20) were 18 years old or

younger, 38.94% (n=44) were between 19 and 20, 34.51% (n=39) were between 21 and

24, and 8.85% (n=10) were 25 or older. 45.13 (n=51) of subjects were male and 54.87%

(n=62) were female. 34.21% (n=39) were music majors; these and other majors are

detailed in table 3-9. Finally, 2.70% (n=3) of subj ects have been a member of a school

band between one and three years, 34.23% (n=3 8) between four and eight years, and

63.06% (n=70) for nine or more years. When asked about their media consumption,

75.45% (n=83) said they watched ten or fewer hours of television per week and 24.55%










(n=27) watched more than ten. 73.33% (n=66) of subj ects had seen either one or two

films in a theatre in the previous month and 26.66% (n=24) had seen more than two.

Table 3-9. College majors of pilot survey subjects
College Maor n= Percent College Maor N= Percent
Agriculture and Life 1 .88 Journalism and 3 2.63
Sciences Communication
Design and Construction 10 8.77 Liberal Arts and Sciences 24 29.82
Education 1 .88 Music 39 34.21
Engineering 14 12.28 Nursing 2 1.75
Fine Arts (not music) 1 .88 Public Health & Health 1 .88
Prof
Health and Human Perf 8 7.02 Totals 104 100.0


Pilot study research instrument

The research survey instrument was divided into four sections (Appendix B). The

first three sections were guided free-response boxes for film, television, and advertising

as Parts I, II, and III respectively. Part I: Film asked subjects for a film title or other

descriptive information (in case they could not think of the correct title) and a

scene/portrayal description where they could describe how this example shows school

band or band students. Following each free-response box, subjects were asked to identify

their example as a positive or negative portrayal of band and band students on a

five-point Likert scale (very positive, somewhat positive, neutral, somewhat negative,

and very negative). Part II: Television is identical to Part I except the guided

free-response boxes for television were divided into episode title, program title,

approximate air date, network or channel, and the scene portrayal/description section.

Part III: Advertising is once again identical with slightly different guided free-response

boxes. Part II asks for the product or service being advertised, approximate air date,

network or channel, and the scene portrayal/description box. Both Parts I and II contain









the same five-point Likert scale to identify each portrayal as positive or negative. Part

IV: Biographical Data was placed at the end of the survey so it would not discourage

subjects from completing the instrument. Unfortunately, due its the free-response design,

many subj ects simply stopped turning pages when they ran out of ideas and did not

realize the biographical section was there, despite its inclusion in the pre-test instructions.

Part IV collected data on college major, degree sought, students' principal instruments,

years of performance, and years of school band experience. There were check boxes for

subjects to indicate which ensembles they belong. It asked subjects for a self-analysis of

media use through television consumption and film attendance, and collected data on

subjects' age and sex.

Pilot Study Research Procedures

Pilot study Institutional Review Board

This pilot study was submitted to and approved by the University of Florida

Institutional Review Board. In addition to a full disclosure of the research project, the

board required that each respondent complete an informed consent to act as a research

subject (Appendix C).

Pilot study survey administration

The survey was administered by various teaching assistants in several classes;

therefore it was necessary to produce an instruction sheet and script for survey

administrators to ensure identical presentation (Appendix D). The script gives a brief

overview of the pilot study and its impact on the full research proj ect, although some of

the details regarding the proj ect changed after the completion of the pilot study. Students

were asked to complete an informed consent, and then could begin the survey on their

own. Pencils were provided. They were cautioned against sharing information, but also










informed that frequency-of-mention would be a maj or criteria for selection so if they

think of an example independently, they should write it down even if their neighbor has

listed it as well.

Analysis of Pilot Study Data

Data from the pilot study was analyzed using Minitab Statistical Software Release

14.13 to run simple tallies, cross-tabulations, and descriptive statistics.

Part I: Film results

Eighty films were mentioned by survey subj ects, with an overwhelming percentage

(75.0%) getting only one or two mentions. Among the top twenty films, the lowest

scoring was American Wedding with two mentions and the highest was Drumline with

112 mentions. Table 3-10 details the top twenty films by mention in the pilot study and

also shows the mean of the positive/negative scale where 5 is most positive and 1 is most

negative .

Table 3-10. Top twenty films with portraya s of school band and/or band students
Rank Film Title No. of +/- RankRRRRR~~~~~~~RRRRRR Film Title No. of +/-
M~entions M~ean Mentions M~ean
1 Drumline 112 4.05 11 The Other 8 4.38
Sister
2 Mlr. Holland 's 99 4.56 12 Never Been 6 2.00
Opus Kissed
3 American Pie 98 1.55 13 Revenge of the 4 2.00
Nerds
4 10 Things I 51 3.10 14 Brassed Off 3 4.33
Hate About
You
5 American Pie 34 1.97 15 Forrest Gump, 3 3

6 Mean Girls 19 1.84 16 Grease 3 2.67
7 Animal House 17 1.77 17 The New Guy 3 3
8 School of Rock 16 4.25 18 Star Wars 3 3.67
9 Ferris 15 3.73 19 Amadeus 2 3.50
Bueller 's
Day Off
10 The M~usic 10 3.8 20 American 2 2.50
M~an Wedding












Part II: Television results

Part II had a considerably smaller pool of results a total of 29 television programs

were mentioned compared to the 80 from Part I. Looking at the top ten television

programs mentioned, .Liahl Park: Summer Sucks received three mentions and was

number 10, while The Simpsons: M~oaning Lisa received 43 mentions and was highest

rated. Table 3-11 details the results of Part II: Television.

Table 3-11. Top ten television programs with portrayals of school band and/or band
students
Rank Programn No. of Pos/Neg Rank Programn No. of Pos/N~eg
Title M~entions M~ean Title M~entions M~ean


, ,


1 The
Simpsons:
Moaning
Lisa

2 The FamFFFFFFFF~~~~~~~~~ily
Guy: And
the Wiener
is...



3 Spongebob
Squarepants
: Band
Geeks

4 Even Stevens
[series]


5 The FamFFFFFFFF~~~~~~~~~ily
Guy: Chitty
Chitty
Death Bang


3.26


6 Saved by
the Bell
[series]


7 The
Family
Guy:
[Unknow
n Title]

8 Gilmore
Girls
[series]


9 Macy's
Day
Parade

10 .ih
Park:
Summer
Sucks


2.43


1.72






2.89





3.50




2.29


3.40


2.80


4.00


2.00









Part III: Advertising

Advertising results were disappointing, with only 12 mentions. In addition,

locating archive copies of each advertisement proved to be impossible given the

resources available for this research. Advertising was, therefore, eliminated from the

main study altogether.

Summary of Pilot Data

An examination of subj ects' positive and negative ratings showed that, when taken

as a whole, media portrayals of band and/or band students were 57.14% positive (n=40)

and 41.43% negative (n=29) after factoring out neutral responses.

Selection of media examples

The media examples from Parts I and II were combined into one master list

(Appendix E) and ten representative examples were selected from the highest fifteen.

The decision to choose examples from the top fifteen was based on two major factors:

first, some of the examples in the top ten were less than thirty seconds long; that was not

considered to be substantial enough to test attitude change. Second, it was important the

positive/negative balance of the ten media examples echoed the 60/40 percentage of the

group as a whole. Six examples that received positive ratings were selected, along with

four that received negative ratings. Two of the examples were combined into one, as

they were part of a series of films (American Pie la~ndllI). The Einal list of media

examples appears in table 3-12.

Examples were each assigned numbers and those numbers were then randomly

chosen to determine the order of the Einal media examples video. Those results, along

with basic summaries of the relevant band plot points appear in Table 3-13.










Table 3-12. Ten media examples portraying school band and/or band students selected
for inclusion in research on media attitude effects (rank order)
Rank Title No. of Pos/Neg RankRRRRR~~~~~~~RRRRRR Title No. of Pos/N~eg
Mentions M~ean Mentions M~ean
1 Drumline 112 4.05 7 M~ean 19 1.84
Girls
2 M.99 4.56 8 The 18 1.72
Holland's~~~ll1~~~~111~~~ FamFFFFFFFF~~~~~~~~~ily
Opus G~uy:
And the
Wiener
Is...
3/6 American 98/34 1.55 10 Animal 17 1.77
Pie I and 1.97 House

4 10 Things I 51 3.10 11 School of 16 4.25
Hate Rock
About You
5 The 43 3.26 13 The Music 10 3.73
Simpsons: Ma'~n
Moaning
Lisa



Creation of media examples video

Technical issues. Each media selection was edited into an approximately two

minute video that focuses on the role of the school band and/or band students. All video

was edited on Adobe Premiere Elements video editing software, version 1.0. Title slides

were added to cue the beginning of each example and instruction slides were added to tell

students when to begin the appropriate attitude survey. The final compilation video was

saved as a high-resolution .avi computer file for proj section via a laptop computer in the

field.

Legal issues. The editing and showing of commercial films and television

programs posed a legal hurdle. These issues were studied in conjunction with material

provided through the Indiana Purdue University Indianapolis Copyright Management










Center and it was determined that this use is well within the definition of Fair Use. All

reasonable efforts have been exhausted in ensuring the use of this material is both

acceptable ethically and legally. The Checklist for Fair Use (Copyright Management

Center, 2003) lists four maj or tests that determine eligibility for fair use the completed

checklist for this research can be found in Appendix F.

Table 3-13. Media Examples in assigned random order; relevant band plot summaries
Position Band-related Plot~BB~BB~~B~~B Summary
1 Animal House: Fratemnity members hijack a parade and march the college band down
an alley into a wall (Ramis & Kenny, 1978).
2 The Family Guy: And the Wiener Is...: Meg tries to become a cheerleader but opts
for the second tier in social strata: the marching band color guard (Barker &
Weitzman, 2001).
3 American Pie I & HI: Band students are nerds and geeks who turn out to be the most
sexually experienced students in school (Herz, 1999; Herz & Steinberg, 2001).
4 Drumline: College band members work to win a marching contest while the freshmen
try to find their social niche in the group (Schepps & Chism, 2002).
5 The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa: Lisa has the blues because no one pays attention to
her; she wants to play the blues on her saxophone in school band class but since they
are preparing for a recital must play the same music as everyone else (Jean & Reiss,
1990).
6 The Music Man : A music professor comes to town selling band instruments and
uniforms. It is revealed he is merely a con man with no musical knowledge or ability
out to make money (Willson & Lacey, 1962).
7 School ofRock: A rock musician needs money: to eamn income he pretends to be a
substitute teacher at a private school. He discovers the students are musically talented
and forms an underground rock band (White, 2003).
8 10 Things IHate About You: In a remake of Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew"
the male lead character bribes the drum major to use the marching band as a backing
group to serenade the girl he is pursuing (Lutz & Smith, 1999).
9 Mean Girls: The new girl in school is learning her way around the cafeteria and sees
several stereotypical cliques: one table of kissing teens is labeled "sexually active
band geeks" (Wiseman & Fey, 2004).
10 Mr. Hollands's Opus: A composer takes a temporary music teaching position to
make money, ultimately staying for his whole career until being forced out due to
budget cuts in the music program (Duncan, 1995).









Research Procedures: Full Study

Full Study Institutional Review Board

This research has been reviewed and accepted by the University of Florida

Institutional Review Board. In addition to a full disclosure of the research project, a

parental version of an informed consent was created (Appendix G) and sent via priority

mail to all participating teachers. This enabled students to turn in their informed consent

forms on the testing day.

Testing Procedures

On testing day, equipment was moved into the testing site and connected.

Equipment used in the presentation included:

* A Compaq Presario V2000 laptop computer
* An Insightl024 x 768 LCD video proj ector
* Roland MA-8 Powered Speakers (2)
* A wireless presentation remote control device
* All appropriate cables and electrical supply lines


When the classroom teacher indicated it was acceptable to begin, students'

informed consent documentation was collected and students were given three research

packets matched via code numbers. Students were asked to sign for their test packets to

allow later matching between informed consents and research packets. After an

introduction, a scripted PowerPoint (Microsoft, version 2003) presentation (Appendix H)

was given to all subj ects outlining the basic aims of the research and the rules and

requirements of the study. The same material was presented verbally as well as textually

via the LCD proj ector in an attempt to reach many types of learners. Students were asked

to wait for instructions before opening or moving into any packet or set of questions.










After students complete the biographical data and their pre-exposure attitudes, the

PowerPoint presentation was resumed, giving instructions for the treatment period.

Lights were dimmed to halfway (if possible) and the presentation video of examples was

begun. The exposure treatment consisted of ten examples of media and ten sets of

questions; five for each example. In an effort to both keep the energy of the

programming up and limit students' ability to second guess themselves, 1.5 minutes total

time was allowed for each set of five questions, leaving about 18 seconds to answer each

one. Brief instructions were repeated between the fifth and sixth examples to reset the

students' attention and awareness. Between examples 7 and 8 students were also asked

to remain vigilant to their observations of media.

Following the final media example in Part II, the PowerPoint presentation was

again used to give students instructions before they moved on to the Part III

post-exposure attitude survey. Part III and Part I II were identical except that Part III

contained three additional questions on attitudes and media. As students finished Part III,

they were asked to wait until everyone was done before passing in their papers as a

group.

Treatment of Data

The dependent variables in this research are the differences in students' attitude

toward the school wind band and/or band students between the pre- and post-exposure

tests. The change in attitudes toward the school wind band as measured via the

differences between the pre-exposure test and the media attitude questions during

exposure are also of interest. Control variables include age, grade, gender, media

consumption and musical experiences.









As discussed in Chapter 1, a two-tailed paired t-test on the difference in post- and

pretest answers was used to test the null hypothesis for research question one. Multiple

two-tailed paired t-tests were used to compare the pretest data with responses given for

individual media examples. An alpha level of p < .05 was used to accept or rej ect the

null hypotheses. A series of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to determine

if research question two showed a significant difference in a pre-test/post-test (repeated

measures) experimental design (Shavelson, 1988). Minitab statistical analysis software

(version 14.13) and SPSS statistical analysis software (version 13) were used to

accomplish the statistical tests.















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS



Introduction

The presentation of results is organized into three main sections:

1. The main effect of media on student attitudes within the sample population as a
whole; as well as various sub-groupings of subj ects.

2. A comparison of pre-exposure and mid-exposure attitudes for each media example
and descriptive statistical analysis of isolated example-specific questions.

3. Results of analyses of variance tests on the difference of pre-exposure and
post-exposure attitude surveys between those with band experience and those
without prior band experience.

Paired-samples t-tests, split-plot analyses of variance and various descriptive

statistics were selected as procedures for analysis using SPSS statistical analysis software

version 13.0.

This research contained a sample population of 200 subj ects drawn from five high

schools in the southeastern United States. 40 subjects were drawn from each school. For

comparison purposes, 20 students were selected with at least some prior school band

experience were selected from each school for a total of 100 students with band

experience. The remaining 20 students from each school had no prior band experience,

although some did participate in other musical ensembles, including choir. There were a

total of 100 subjects with no prior school band experience.

Subj ects indicated their attitudes toward the school band and band students via an

attitude survey scored on a four-point Likert scale as discussed in Chapter 3. They were









then shown a series of ten media portrayals of the school band and/or band students,

drawn from popular films and television as indicated by a pilot study. Following each

example, subj ects indicated their feelings about the school band and/or band students

with respect to that specific media example only using the same scale as the pre-exposure

survey. At the conclusion of the exposure period, subjects completed a post-exposure

attitude survey identical to the pre-exposure survey with three added questions for

self-analysis of the media examples' effect on their attitudes.

Results of Main Effect

The main effect was measured via a series of two-tailed paired t-tests run on the

sums of the scores from the pre- and post- exposure attitude surveys. Means are reported

as the difference, positive or negative, between the pre- and post-exposure surveys. The

primary test was run on the scores from all subj ects, and showed a sizable change

between pre- and post-exposure attitude surveys as shown in Table 4-1. Table 4-2

examines the total change between groups with band experience and groups with no band

experience. The band experience group had no significant change; but significant change

in the non-band experience group persisted. It also looks at those students currently

enrolled in a band class in contrast with those not enrolled, in effect grouping students

who have ceased to participate in school band with those who have never participated.

The attitude change exhibited by this group of non-participating students showed a

significant change, whereas students currently enrolled in a band class did not.

Table 4-1. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure attitude surveys: all
subj ects.
n M~ean Std. Dev 95% Confidence t df p
Lower Upper
All subjects 200 -2.38 6.42 -3.27 -1.47 -5.231 199 .000










Table 4-2. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure attitude surveys:
subj ects with and without band experience
Subjects n M~ean Std Dev 95% Confdence t df p
Lower Upper
With Band Exp 100 -0.62 4.52 -1.52 0.28 -1.373 99 .173
Without Band Exp 100 -4.13 7.50 -5.62 -2.64 -5.506 99 .000

Tables 4-3 and 4-4 examine attitude change by age and grade in school. In both

cases, the younger students exhibited significant attitude change while the older students

did not. Table 4-5 shows attitude change by gender. The media consumption habits of

the subjects are illustrated in table 4-6. There were significant changes in attitude for

many groups, but there was no perceived relationship between the number of films seen,

amount of television watched and attitude change.

Table 4-3. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys: by age
Age no M~ean Std Dev 95% Confdencet df p
Lower Upper
14 19 -4.68 6.94 -8.03 -1.34 -2.944 18 .009
15 48 -3.23 5.35 -4.78 -1.67 -4.180 47 .000
16 74 -1.69 6.55 -3.21 -0.17 -2.219 73 .030

17 42 -1.60 6.34 -3.57 0.38 -1.630 41 .111
18 14 -2.29 8.75 -7.34 2.77 -0.977 13 .347
19+ 2 -4.00 1.41 -16.71 8.71 -4.000 1 .156
a. One respondent did not indicate their age

Table 4-4. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by grade
Grade n M~ean Std Dev 95% Confdence t df p
Lower Upper
9 49 -3.59 6.14 -5.35 -1.83 -5.097 48 .000
10 76 -2.64 6.53 -4.14 -1.15 -3.531 75 .001
11 50 -1.16 6.30 -2.95 0.63 -1.303 49 .199
12 25 -1.60 6.74 -4.38 1.18 -1.187 24 .247

Table 4-5. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by gender
Gender no Mean Std Dev 95% Confdence t df p
Lower Upper
Male 75 -2.53 7.09 -4.16 -0.90 -3.10 74 .003
Female 121 -2.31 6.08 -3.40 -1.21 -4.17 120 .000
a. Three subj ects did not indicate gender.










Table 4-6. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post exposure surveys by media
consumption: television and films
Hours of n M~ean Std. Dev 95% Confidence tdf p
TY/week Lower Upper


-0.138
-1.180
-2.487

-2.879
-3.087
-2.038

-1.378
-2.058

t

-2.083
-3.030

-4.306
-1.748


.896
.243
.017

.008
.005
.062

.193
.055

p

.041
.003

.000
.155


0
1 5
6 -10

11 -15
16 20
21 25

26 30
30+

Number of
films/month
0
1 2

3 5
6+


-0.50
-1.02
-2.92

-3.61
-3.52
-2.29

-2.38
-2.67

Mean

-1.68
-1.89

-4.93
-5.60


8.87
6.51
7.34

6.63
5.70
4.20

6.24
5.50

Std. Dev

6.34
6.34

6.27
7.16


-9.81 8.81
-2.74 0.71
-5.30 -0.54

-6.18 -1.04
-5.87 -1.17
-4.71 0.14

-6.15 1.39
-5.40 0.07

95% Confidence
Lower Upper
-3.29 -0.07
-3.13 -0.65

-7.28 -2.59
-14.49 3.29


When comparing students' other musical pursuits, the trend of those with

instrumental experience showing little to no significant attitude change held true, but

those with choral and vocal experience did show the same significant attitude change

exhibited by those with no school band experience. In an effort to determine whether

having a family member that played an instrument would affect students' degree of

attitude change, subjects were asked to indicate their family's musical background. Both

those subjects with and without family members that played musical instruments showed

significant changes, rendering family musical background a non-factor in determining

attitude change. Table 4-7 outlines subjects' other musical experiences, both in and out

of school as well as within the family.










Table 4-7. Change in sum of scores from pre- and post-exposure surveys by other
musical experience: in school and out of school
Other school if Mean Std. Dev 95% Confidence t df p
Ensembles Lower Upper
None 127 -2.07 6.34 -3.18 -0.96 -3.680 126 .000
Choir/Vocal 56 -3.95 6.40 -5.66 -2.23 -4.612 55 .000
Orchestra 2 -1.00 1.41 -13.71 11.71 -1.000 1 .500
Other 14 0.50 6.62 -3.32 4.43 0.283 13 .782

Non-school n Mean Std. Dev 95% Confidence t df p
Experience Lower Upper


No answer 2 -1.00 5.66 -51.82 49.82 -0.250 1 .844
Yes 115 -2.35 5.65 -3.39 -1.30 -4.459 114 .000
No 83 -2.45 7.44 -4.07 -0.82 -2.996 82 .004
a. One respondent did not indicate their other school experience.

In addition to an examination of the sums of the pre- and post-exposure scores,

paired t-tests were performed on each set of questions in the pre- and post-exposure

attitude surveys. Six of the fourteen questions showed overall attitude change at a

statistically significant level, and one other question approached significance (question

10: "Learning and performing music is an important aspect of participation in school

band programs": p = .59). When looking at the total sample population, questions 3, 4, 7,

8, 9, and 12 showed significant attitude change. Five of those six reflected a positive

shift in attitudes toward the school band and/or band students. Those questions were:

* Question 3. I am glad I am in/wish I was in my school band.

* Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development
and peer interaction for its members.


-4.794
-3.033
-1.265
1.196
-0.573
-2.935
t


.000
.006
.262
.253
.587
.026


None
Choir/Vocal
Orchestra
Rock/Pop
Drum Corps
Other
Fam Member
Musician


-2.63
-3.96
-1.33
-2.29
-0.57
-4.00
Mean


6.56
6.26
2.58
7.15
2.64
3.61
Std. Dev


-3.71 -1.55
-6.66 -1.25
-4.04 -1.38
-1.84 6.41
-3.01 1.87
-7.33 -0.67
95% Confidence
Lower Upe


SComplete questions can be found in Appendix A.










*Question 7. School band is fun.

*Question 8. School bands perform mostly popular music as entertainment.

*Question 9. The band is an important part of the school's identity and image.

Question 12: "Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school

activities" showed a mathematically positive shift, but as the question was phrased

negatively it indicated a negative shift in student attitudes after media exposure. Table

4-8 shows results of a series of paired t-tests on individual pre- and post-exposure

questions.

Table 4-8. Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure
attitude surveys: all subjects
Question Number n M~ean Std.Dev 95% Confidence t df p
& abbrev. description Lower Upper
1. Band is cool 200 -0.10 1.087 -0.25 0.06 -1.236 199 .218
2. Enj oy band music 200 -0.02 0.85 -0.13 0.10 -0.250 199 .803
3. Glad/wish in band 200 -0.20 0.96 -0.33 -0.06 -2.888 199 .004
4. Social development 200 -0.20 1.31 -0.38 -0.01 -2.099 199 .037
5. Band/good music 200 0.04 0.89 -0.09 0.16 0.558 199 .578

6. Worthwhile social 200 -0.03 1.13 -0.19 0.13 -0.377 199 .706
7. Band is fun 200 -0.45 1.43 -0.65 0.25 -4.458 199 .000
8. Band/entertainment 200 -0.55 1.10 -0.70 0.40 -7.090 199 .000
9. School's identity 200 -0.25 1.09 -0.40 0.10 -3.250 199 .001
10. Music imp. in band 200 -0.15 1.08 -0.30 0.01 -1.896 199 .059

11. Mem/well-adjusted 200 0.01 1.25 -0.17 0.18 0.056 199 .955
12. Not acc. socially 200 -0.30 1.23 -0.47 0.13 -3.444 199 .001
13. Band/friends 200 -0.13 1.25 -0.30 0.05 -1.412 199 .159
14. Band/learn music 200 -0.67 0.96 -0.20 0.07 -0.956 199 .340


Just as the sums of the pre- and post-exposure scores were examined by whether

students did or did not have prior band experience in table 4-2, the individual questions

are also examined against this criterion in tables 4-9 and 4-10. For both groups,

questions eight and nine showed significant positive change. These were the only

questions to show significant change for the band experience group. The group with no










prior band experience demonstrated attitude change on questions 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, and

12--just as in the group as a whole (Table 4-7) except that question 10 is now

statistically significant instead of merely approaching significance (p = .009 vs. p = .059).

Table 4-9. Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure
attitude surveys: subj ects with prior band experience
Question Number n M~ean Std.Dev 95% Confidence t df p
& abbrev. description Lower Upper
1. Band is cool 100 -0.02 1.05 -0.23 0.19 -0.190 99 .850
2. Enj oy band music 100 -0.05 0.80 -0.11 0.21 0.628 99 .531
3. Glad/wish in band 100 -0.09 0.77 -0.24 0.06 -1.174 99 .243
4. Social development 100 0.01 1.07 -0.20 0.22 0.094 99 .926
5. Band/good music 100 0.12 0.77 -0.03 0.27 1.560 99 .122

6. Worthwhile social 100 0.09 0.88 -0.08 0.26 1.026 99 .307
7. Band is fun 100 0.05 0.94 -0.14 0.24 0.534 99 .594
8. Band/entertainment 100 -0.57 1.09 -0.79 -0.36 -5.254 99 .000
9. School's identity 100 -0.21 0.98 -0.40 -0.02 -2.148 99 .034
10. Music imp. in band 100 0.04 0.86 -0.13 0.21 0.463 99 .644

11. Mem/well-adjusted 100 0.00 1.19 -0.24 0.24 0.000 99 1.000
12. Not acc. socially 100 -0.12 1.20 -0.36 0.12 -1.000 99 .320
13. Band/friends 100 0.02 0.72 -0.12 0.16 0.276 99 .783
14. Band/learn music 100 0.01 0.96 -0.18 0.20 0.104 99 .917


Table 4-10. Results of paired t-tests on each question in the pre- and post-exposure
attitude surveys: subj ects with no prior band experience
Question Number n M~ean Std.Dev 95% Confidence t df p
& abbrev. description Lower Upper
1. Band is cool 100 -0.17 1.12 -0.39 0.05 -0.190 99 .132
2. Enj oy band music 100 -0.08 0.90 -0.26 0.10 0.628 99 .374
3. Glad/wish in band 100 -0.30 1.10 -0.52 -0.08 -1.174 99 .008
4. Social development 100 -0.40 1.50 -0.70 -0.10 0.094 99 .009
5. Band/good music 100 -0.05 0.99 -0.25 0.15 1.560 99 .614

6. Worthwhile social 100 -0.15 1.32 -0.41 0.11 1.026 99 .259
7. Band is fun 100 -0.95 1.65 -1.28 -0.62 0.534 99 .000










Table 4-10. Continued
Question Number n M~ean Std. 95% Confidence tdf p
& abbrev. description Dv Lower Upper
8.Band/entertainment 100 -0.53 1.11 -0.75 -0.31 -5.254 99 0
9. School's identity 100 -0.29 1.19 -0.53 -0.05 -2.148 99 0.02
10. Music imp. in band 100 -0.33 1.24 -0.58 -0.08 0.463 99 0.01
11. Mem/well-adjusted 100 0.01 1.32 -0.25 0.27 0 99 0.94

12. Not acc. socially 100 -0.48 1.24 -0.73 -0.23 -1.000 99 0
13. Band/friends 100 -0.27 1.61 -0.59 0.05 0.276 99 0.1
14. Band/learn music 100 -0.14 0.96 -0.33 0.05 0.104 99 0.15


Attitude Change by Specific Media Example

Results of media exposure' s main effect on student attitudes as calculated via the

pre/post exposure survey comparison show a clear trend. Equally important are subjects'

reactions to each media exposure. Subj ects were asked to answer five brief questions

after each example concluded. They were instructed to answer based solely on how that

example affected their attitudes toward the school band and/or band students without

regard for their prior feelings or other examples. These instructions were reinforced at

the halfway point in the exposure session to help guard against testing fatigue. The

following sections detail results of the mid-exposure questions compared against their

corresponding pre-exposure questions. Each example featured different questions

selected from the pre-exposure survey based on the topics covered in the media example.

Due to the discrepancies of significant attitude change between those with prior band

experience and those with no prior band experience, results are shown divided between

those groups. Finally, most examples also included several isolated questions that did not

appear on the pre-exposure survey--results of these questions are displayed via

descriptive statistics.










Exposure 1: Animal House

In the pilot study, Animal House was ranked tenth, with 17 mentions. Its mean

positive/negative score was 1.77/somewhat negative. Both band and non-band subjects

showed significant negative attitude changes when asked if they would be more likely to

attend a band concert as shown in table 4-11. Band students also showed a significant

negative change when given the statement "I'm glad I'm a member of my school band."

Non-band students showed no negative change given their version of the question ("I

wish I was a member of my school band."), largely because the pre-exposure mean for

this question was 1.14/strongly negative and while the mid-exposure mean did drop to

1.06, this was not enough change to warrant statistical significance. The isolated

question: "This is a realistic portrayal of band and band students" was given mean scores

of 1.72 and 1.92/somewhat disagree by those with and without band experience

respectively (SD .965, 1.032).

Table 4-11. Media Exposure 1 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std. 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Dev Confidence
Lower Upper
2. School's Yes 100 0.07 1.31 -0.19 0.33 0.533 99 .595
identity No 100 0.11 1.21 -0.13 0.34 0.913 99 .364
3.Band/ Yes 100 -0.20 1.30 -0.46 0.06 -1.545 99 .126
entertainment No 100 -0.10 1.10 -0.32 0.12 -0.912 99 .364
4. Glad/wish Yes 100 1.32 1.26 1.07 1.57 10.457 99 .000
in band No 100 0.08 0.97 -0.11 0.27 0.824 99 .412
5. Attend Yes 100 1.45 1.27 1.20 1.70 11.451 99 .000
concert No 100 0.93 1.33 0.68 1.19 7.005 99 .000


Exposure 2: The Family Guy: And the Wifener Is...

The Famnily Guy, an animated television series, was named several times in the pilot

study. This episode, And the Wiener Is... received the highest ranking with 18 mentions










and an overall rank of eighth in the pilot study. This episode was judged to be somewhat

negative (mean = 1.72). For students with band experience, every question registered

significant negative attitude change with regard to attributes of the school band (Table

4-12). Question 3: "The main function of the school band is entertainment" did

experience a numerically positive shift, but most music educators would agree that this is

a negative view of the wind band (Battisti, 2002). The same positive/negative shift

occurred on question 2: "Participation in band is not as acceptable socially as other

school activities." Non-band subjects' attitudes underwent numerically positive change

(negative shift) on questions 2 and 3. Both groups felt that this was not a realistic

portrayal of band and band students (mean = 1.85, SD 1.048, 1.029).

Table 4-12. Media Exposure 2 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Music imp. Yes 100 0.68 1.19 0.44 0.92 5.723 99 .000
in band No 100 0.11 1.69 -0.23 0.45 0.650 99 .517
2. Not acc. Yes 100 -0.56 1.26 -0.81 -0.31 -4.452 99 .000
socially No 100 -0.79 1.31 -1.05 -0.53 -6.018 99 .000
3. Band/ Yes 100 -0.88 1.34 -1.15 -0.61 -6.553 99 .000
entertainment No 100 -0.72 1.44 -1.01 -0.44 -5.014 99 .000
4. Band/ Yes 100 0.77 1.19 0.53 1.01 6.482 99 .000
friends No 100 -0.02 1.52 -0.32 0.28 -0.132 99 .895



Exposure 3: American Pie I &~ H

American Pie and its sequel, American Pie II were both highly ranked in the pilot

study (third and sixth respectively, and the free response descriptions by pilot study

subjects ranged from humorous to vulgar. The two films were both seen as negative

portrayals of the school band and band students (means = 1.55/1.97), and their frank

depiction of band students as very sexually active social outcasts ensured high top of










mind awareness for these films. Both films were rated R for strong sexual content. It

was decided not to show the scenes involving band members in sexual situations due to

the complications that would introduce into the testing and consent procedures, but even

so, the reactions of the subj ects was immediate when the example began: they began

laughing and the researcher could hear them repeating the most famous and most

offensive line of dialogue fTOm the films to each other. In the attitude survey, subjects

were asked to respond to the following statement: "Band members are more sexually

active than other school groups." Both groups of subj ects disagreed with that statement

(band/non-band means 1.87, 1.41). The attitudes of band experience group toward band

and band students all dropped significantly. Interestingly, for the group without band

experience, they showed a significant increase in agreement with the statement "band is

fun" after viewing this media example. Table 4-13 details the attitude change between

pre- and mid-exposure survey questions via paired t-test.

Table 4-13. Media Exposure 3 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Band is fun Yes 100 0.46 1.18 0.23 0.69 3.913 99 .000
No 100 -0.91 1.57 -1.22 -0.60 -5.794 99 .000
2. Music imp. Yes 100 0.60 1.21 0.36 0.84 4.975 99 .000
in band No 100 -0.06 1.52 -0.36 0.24 -0.394 99 .694
4. Enjoy band Yes 100 1.18 1.15 0.95 1.41 10.267 99 .000
music No 100 0.63 1.12 0.41 0.85 5.645 99 .000
5. Glad/wish Yes 100 1.17 1.44 0.88 1.46 8.109 99 .000
in band No 100 0.06 1.10 -0.16 0.28 0.546 99 .586






SMICHELLE: "This one time, at band camp, I stuck a flute in my *****. What, you think I don't know
how to get myself off?" (Herz, 1999)










Exposure 5: Drumline

Drumline was the most popular film mentioned in the pilot study with 87.5% of

pilot study subjects (n=112) including it in their responses. It also received a uniformly

positive portrayal rating of 4.05. Results of both exposure groups (Table 4-14) showed

attitude change on three of the four questions. For those with no band experience, they

experienced a positive shift in their attitude of band's importance in the teaching of

music. Both groups felt that this was a somewhat realistic portrayal of band and band

students (means: with exp. = 3.12, without exp. = 2.71).

Table 4-14. Media Exposure 4 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. School's Yes 100 -0.47 0.92 -0.65 -0.29 -5.136 99 .000
identity No 100 -0.46 1.23 -0.70 -0.22 -3.752 99 .000
2. Band/learn Yes 100 -0.13 0.81 -0.29 0.03 -1.601 99 .113
music No 100 -0.27 1.06 -0.48 -0.06 -2.542 99 .013
4. Not acc. Yes 100 0.36 1.19 0.13 0.60 3.038 99 .003
socially No 100 0.10 1.42 -0.18 0.38 0.705 99 .482
5. Attend Yes 100 1.62 1.19 1.38 1.86 13.644 99 .000
concert No 100 1.28 1.14 1.05 1.51 11.250 99 .000


Exposure 5: The Simpsons: Moaning Lisa

The Simpsons was the number one television program by top of mind mention in

the pilot survey with 34% (n= 43) of subj ects including it among their answers. Most

subj ects referenced the opening credit sequence that shows Lisa playing j azz in band

class (the rest of the class is presumed to be performing something else) and being forced

to leave. Many of the subj ects were not aware that the first season of the show featured

an episode titled M~oaning Lisa that was the germinal idea for this sequence in the credits.

As the credit sequence was only 10 seconds long, the episode was used as the media










example. Pilot subjects' mean attitude score was 3.26. This was seen as somewhat

unrealistic by both band and non-band groups (means 2.15, 1.98). Table 4-15 shows the

attitude changes by respondent group for Exposure 5.

Table 4-15. Media Exposure 5 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num Band n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Band/learn Yes 100 0.70 1.16 0.47 0.93 6.039 99 .000
music No 100 0.35 1.43 0.07 0.63 2.446 99 .016
2. Worthwhile Yes 100 0.72 1.16 0.49 0.95 6.185 99 .000
social No 100 0.30 1.59 -0.02 0.62 1.884 99 .062
4. School's Yes 100 0.46 1.34 0.19 0.73 3.442 99 .001
identity No 100 0.22 1.47 -0.07 0.51 1.492 99 .139
5. Attend Yes 100 1.62 1.19 1.38 1.86 13.644 99 .000
concert No 100 1.28 1.14 1.05 1.51 11.250 99 .000


Exposure 6: The Music Man

The M~usic Man received the lowest top of mind awareness rating among film

examples chosen for this research, mentioned by 7% (n=10) of pilot study subjects. It

received a mean rating of 3.8 on the positive/negative scale. For exposure study subjects,

it is curious that for those with band experience they experienced a negative shift in

attitudes when given the statement "band is fun," but those without band experience

showed a positive shift in attitudes for that same descriptor (Table 4-16). Also, both

groups showed an amazing drop in their ratings of enj oyment of band music and

likelihood of their attending a band concert with a 45.4% decrease in the non-band group

and a 53.8% decrease in the band experience group.










Table 4-16. Media Exposure 6 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. School's Yes 100 0.53 1.55 0.22 0.84 3.412 99 .001
identity No 100 0.22 1.45 0.07 0.51 1.521 99 .131
2. Band/ Yes 100 -0.77 1.34 -1.04 -0.50 -5.747 99 .000
entertainment No 100 -0.71 1.47 -1.00 -0.42 -4.822 99 .000
3. Band is fun Yes 100 0.54 1.32 0.28 0.80 4.087 99 .000
No 100 -0.79 1.83 -1.15 -0.43 -4.310 99 .000
4. Band/ Yes 100 0.57 1.35 0.30 0.84 4.221 99 .000
friends No 100 -0.16 1.69 -0.50 0.18 -0.946 99 .347
5. Attend Yes 100 1.82 1.23 1.58 2.07 14.748 99 .000
concert No 100 1.24 1.29 0.98 1.50 9.627 99 .000



Exposure 7: School of Rock

School of Rock received one of the highest attitude ratings in the pilot study with a

mean positive/negative score of4.25. While the film does not deal primarily with the

school band, there is a significant scene of the school music ensemble within the film that

was included in the testing example. There is also a non-traditional rock band formed

within the school and that was featured prominently in both the film and this research.

This example triggered some of the most positive attitude changes between the pre- and

mid-exposure surveys. The band experience group was not affected as strongly as the

group with no band experience. The band group showed significant positive changes for

both "band is fun" and "school bands perform worthwhile/good music." The non-band

group's attitudes rose for every descriptor, and especially for "band is fun" (148.2%

increase) and "I wish I was in band" (88.6% increase) as shown in table 4-17.










Table 4-17. Media Exposure 7 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Band/good Yes 100 -0.20 0.94 -0.39 -0.01 -2.121 99 .036
music No 100 -0.49 1.15 -0.72 -0.26 -4.260 99 .000
3. Glad/wish Yes 100 0.00 1.27 -0.25 0.25 0.000 99 1.000
in band No 100 -1.01 1.45 -1.30 -0.72 -6.951 99 .000
4. Social Yes 100 0.08 1.41 -0.20 0.36 0.569 99 .570
development No 100 -0.59 1.68 -0.92 -0.26 -3.507 99 .001
5. Band is fun Yes 100 -0.25 1.10 -0.47 -0.03 -2.283 99 .025
No 100 -1.69 1.77 -2.04 -1.34 -9.560 99 .000

Exposure 8: 10 Things I Hate About You

10 Things IHate About You is a modern adaptation of William Shakespeare' s The

Tamning of the .\hid w~1 set in a United States high school. The school band and band

students are only featured in one scene, but it was both long enough and highly rated

enough (45% of pilot study subjects included it) to warrant inclusion. Table 4-18 shows

a consistent attitude change between the band and non-band groups. The band group did

show a negative attitude change when given "School band is a worthwhile social

organization" whereas the non-band group showed no significant change (pre/mid means

2.56, 2.68).

Table 4-18. Media Exposure 8 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std. Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Band/good Yes 100 0.00 1.27 -0.25 0.25 0.000 99 1.000
music No 100 0.06 1.36 -0.21 0.33 0.443 99 .659
3. Glad/wish Yes 100 -1.04 1.23 -1.28 -0.80 -8.454 99 .000
in band No 100 -0.70 1.30 -0.96 -0.44 -5.390 99 .000
4. Social Yes 100 0.37 1.16 0.14 0.60 3.189 99 .002
development No 100 -0.12 1.55 -0.43 0.56 -0.776 99 .439
5. Band is fun Yes 100 0.34 1.09 0.13 0.19 3.135 99 .002
No 100 0.32 1.50 0.02 0.62 2.129 99 .036










Exposure 9: Mean Girls

The shortest example in the study was M~ean Girls, at 43 seconds. Initially, this

example was not going to be included in the exposure series despite its 15% awareness

rating in the pilot study: sixth overall and higher than Media Exposures 1, 6 and 7 due to

its short length and almost negligible mention of band and/or band students. After

deliberation, it was included as a cross-check on Media Exposure 3: American Pie I and

II. The scene in M~ean Girls features a voice-over describing different cliques in the

school cafeteria. Examples are "varsity jocks," "Asian nerds" and the reason for this

example's inclusion: "sexually active band geeks." This statement is accompanied by

video of an entire table of students kissing and groping each other. Subj ects were given

the statement "Band students are more sexually active than other school groups." The

scores were mostly neutral, in between somewhat disagree and somewhat agree

(Band/Non-band means 2.67, 2.39). This was higher than those for Media Exposure 3 by

42.8% for the band experience group and 69.5% for the non-band experience group.

Both groups somewhat disagreed with the statement: "This is a realistic portrayal of band

and/or band students" (band/non-band means 1.83, 1.79). When the pre- and

mid-exposure questions were examined (Table 4-19), the band experience group showed

significant negative attitude shifts for the questions: "Participation in school band is a

good way to develop quality friendships" and "This example makes me glad I'm in my

school band." The non-band group showed no significant attitude shifts.










Table 4-19. Media Exposure 9 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and without
prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Band/ Yes 100 0.65 1.23 0.41 0.89 5.303 99 .000
friends No 100 0.04 1.95 -0.35 0.43 0.205 99 .838
2. Band is Yes 100 0.28 1.45 -0.01 0.57 1.931 99 .056
cool No 100 0.21 1.48 -0.08 0.50 1.420 99 .159
5. Glad/wish Yes 100 1.08 1.50 0.78 1.38 7.223 99 .000
in band No 100 -0.12 1.47 -0.41 0.17 -0.815 99 .417

Exposure 10: Mr. Holland's Opus

Mr. Holland's~~~ll1~~~~111~~~ Opus was listed in 77% (n=99) of pilot study subj ects' surveys and

received the highest positive rating with a mean of 4.56. Surprisingly, both band and

non-band groups reflected negative attitude shifts when given the statements "School

bands perform mostly popular music as entertainment" and "After viewing this example,

I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school." The non-band group's

attitudes also shifted negatively to "Participation in band is not as acceptable socially as

other school activities" (a positive numerical shift for this question indicated a negative

attitude shift) as shown in table 4-20.

Table 4-20. Media Exposure 10 attitude change by paired t-test: subjects with and
without prior band experience
Question Num BandBBBBB~~~~~~~BBBBBB n M~ean Std.Dev 95% t df p
& abby. desc. Exp Confidence
Lower Upper
1. Not acc. Yes 100 -0.05 1.36 -0.32 0.22 -0.368 99 .714
socially No 100 -0.41 1.73 -0.75 -0.07 -2.370 99 .020
2. Band/ Yes 100 -0.87 1.26 -1.12 -0.62 -6.902 99 .000
entertainment No 100 -0.71 1.16 -0.94 -0.48 -6.135 99 .000
4. School's Yes 100 0.17 1.39 -0.11 0.46 1.227 99 .223
identity No 100 0.03 1.49 -0.27 0.33 0.202 99 .841
5. Attend Yes 100 0.69 1.29 0.43 0.95 5.338 99 .000
concert No 100 0.35 1.44 0.07 0.64 2.434 99 .017










Attitude Change in Subjects with Prior Band Experience
versus No Prior Band Experience

Of special interest are the differences in media's overall effect on the attitudes of

subj ects with prior school band experience as compared to those without that experience.

To determine whether a significant difference was present, the differences of the means

of the 14 pre- and post-exposure attitude survey scores were calculated. The mean of

these new variables was calculated and a one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA)

was run. Results of this test indicate that there is no significant difference in the effect

of media on attitudes between the band and non-band groups as whole: F = .385,

p =.604.

The same one-way ANOVA was then run on the difference of each pair of

questions separately. Of the 14 questions, 4 showed a significant difference in the overall

attitude change between band and non-band groups. Three of the four questions were

those which depended on either firsthand knowledge or consumer assumptions of the way

the band exists as a class and a social organization. They were

* Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development
and peer interaction for its members. (F = 4.968, p = .027)

* Question 7. School band is fun. (F = 138.928, p = .000)

* Question 10. Learning and performing music is an important aspect of
participation in school band programs. (F = 5.998, p = .015)

Question 4, "Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school

activities," did not rely on inside knowledge or assumption of knowledge, but instead

relied on the subj ects' opinion of the attitudes toward the school band from the outside

(F = 4.342, p = .03 8). Table 4-21 outlines the results of the per-item ANOVA tests.
















Groups
Within Groups 234.07 198 1.182
Total 235.195 199

Between 0.845 1 0.845 1 0.28
Groups
Within Groups 142.11 198 0.718
Total 142.955 199

Between 2.205 1 2.205 2 0.12
Groups
Within Groups 179.19 198 0.905
Total 181.395 199

Between 8.405 1 8.405 5 0.03
Groups
Within Groups 334.99 198 1.692


Within Groups 155.31 198 0.784
Total 156.755 199

Between 2.88 1 2.88 2 0.13
Groups
Within Groups 248.94 198 1.257
Total 251.82 199

Between 216.32 1 216.32 ## 0
Groups
Within Groups 308.3 198 1.557
Total 524.62 199


Table 4-21. Overall attitude change by ANOVA on the difference of pre- and
post-exposure scores using band experience as the between factor
Question number Sum of df M~ean F; Sig.
and abbrev. desc. Squares Square
Difference of Q1: Between 1.125 1 1.125 1 0.33


Post/Pre
Band is Cool


Difference of Q2:
Post/Pre
Enjoy band
music

Difference of Q3:
Post/Pre
Gl ad/wi sh
in band

Difference of Q4:
Post/Pre
Social
development


343.395


Total


Difference of Q5:
Post/Pre
Band/good
music

Difference of Q6:
Post/Pre
Worthwhile
social

Difference of Q7:
Post/Pre
Band is fun


Difference of Q8:
Post/Pre
Band/
entertainment


Between
Group


1.445


1 1.445


2 0.18


Between
Groups
Within Groups
Total


0.08


1 0.08


0 0.8


239.42
239.5


1.209









Table 4-21. Continued
Question number Sum of df M~ean F Sig.
and abbrev. desc. Squares Square
Difference of Q9: Between 0.32 1 0.32 0 0.6
Post/Pre Groups
School's Within Groups 235.18 198 1.188
identity Total 235.5 199

Difference of Q10: Between 6.845 1 6.845 6 0.02
Post/Pre Groups
Music imp. Within Groups 225.95 198 1.141
in band Total 232.795 199

Difference of Q1 1: Between 0.005 1 0.005 0 0.96
Post/Pre Groups
Mem/ Within Groups 312.99 198 1.581
well adjusted Total 312.995 199



Difference of Q12: Between 6.48 1 6.48 4 0.04
Post/Pre Groups
Not acc. Within Groups 295.52 198 1.493
socially Total 302 199

Difference of Q13: Between 4.205 1 4.205 3 0.1
Post/Pre Groups
Band/friends Within Groups 307.67 198 1.554
Total 311.875 199

Difference of Q14: Between 1.125 1 1.125 1 0.27
Post/Pre Groups
Band/learn Within Groups 183.03 198 0.924
music Total 184.155 199

Several other series of ANOVA tests were done on different domains and

subgroups (Appendix I).

Conclusion

Three main issues were measured and reported. The main effect of overall attitude

change after media exposure was tested and found to be statistically significant.

Primarily, the attitudes of students without prior band experience experienced significant









overall change, while those of students with prior band experience did not. Younger

students aged 14/15 and in grades 9 and 10, demonstrated significant attitude change;

older students did not. There were no unexpected differences between males and

females. Hours of television viewed per week, number of films seen in theatres per

month, and participation in other musical ensembles had little effect. Examining the

immediate effect of media consumption via the mid-exposure questions as divided by

those with and without prior band experience showed that the amount of attitude change

depended to a large extent on the media excerpt and the question being asked. Finally,

one-way ANOVAs demonstrated that there were no overall significant difference

between those with and without prior band experience, but some individual descriptors

did show a difference.















CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The purpose of this research was to determine to what degree media portrayals of

school band and band students would affect the attitudes of high school students

regarding band as a musical and social activity.

Summary

Most studies of media' s affect on the attitudes and behaviors of children and teens

are focused on the effects of violence and other negative behaviors (Anderson &

Bushman, 2002). Research also supports a link between media consumption and attitude

change, although there is considerable debate as to the scope and depth of those effects

(Katz, 1999). While violence and media is most often studied, children and adolescents

are affected by the media in many, more subtle ways. Mass media, especially television,

film, and the Internet, has supplanted many of our society's traditional sources of

information and socialization. Media is the new definer of popular culture (Ravitch &

Viteritti, 2003). Research has consistently shown that the effects of media are greatest on

children, including teens, who often rely on the media to help them decide what is "cool"

(Zollo, 1999). Media is also a driving force behind the socialization of today's high

school students (Slater et al., 2004). A 2003 study by Adderley, Kennedy and Berz

showed that music students place a great deal of importance on the social aspects of

membership in school ensembles, forming separate cultures and subcultures within the

larger student body. Not only do ensemble members see themselves as separate from the

rest of the school, often the non-band members in the school view the band and band










members as a separate culture as well. Understanding the effect of media on the attitudes

of both high school band members and non-band members is important to the continued

success of those programs.

Five high schools in the southeastern United States were randomly selected from a

list prepared to ensure broad geographic and economic representation. The five schools

selected can be described as:

* School #1. An affluent rural school in north Florida with 1528 students across four
grades (9 12)

* School #2. An inner city school in south Florida with 3188 students across four
grades

* School #3. A suburban school on Florida' s west coast with 2250 students across
four grades

* School #4. A rural school in northeastern Georgia with 1323 students across four
grades

* School #5. A small-town school in central Alabama with 1178 students across three
grades (10 12)

Classes of both band students and non-band students were selected at each school

by the cooperating teachers based on availability. Responses were later divided into two

groups, those with and those without prior band experience. 20 students from each group

were randomly selected to create two sample populations: 100 students with band

experience and 100 with no band experience.

All subj ects completed a researcher-designed pre-exposure/post-exposure attitude

survey. The first part of the pre-exposure survey gathered demographic information for

later comparison purposes. The second part of the pre-exposure survey contained 14

statements regarding the school band and/or band students; subj ects indicated the degree

to which they agreed or disagreed with these statements based on a four-point Likert









Scale that ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). There was a fifth

option, no opinion, which received a score of zero so as not to affect the means and other

analysis. Research suggests (Cox, 1996) this four-point scale may be more effective for

surveys where time is a factor in completion and also eliminates confusion between

neutral and no opinion choices.

Following the pre-exposure survey, subj ects were shown a total of 10 media

examples featuring portrayals of school band and/or band members in film and television.

Examples were approximately two minutes each, and were selected on the basis of a pilot

study that examined what media featuring school band and/or band students is "top of

mind" for college musicians. Subj ects were asked to complete a five-item attitude survey

following each example; statements on the mid-exposure attitude surveys varied

depending on the content of the media example. These statements were either identical

to or correlated with those on the pre-exposure survey for comparison purposes and were

rated on the same four-point Likert Scale.

The post-exposure survey was identical to the pre-test, containing the same 14

statements and rating scale. The post-exposure survey also contained three additional

attitude statements for subj ects to perform a self-analysis on the degree to which the

media exposure might have affected their attitudes.

Conclusions: Research Question 1

The first null hypothesis states that there will be no statistically significant

difference in pre-/post- gain scores on attitudes of high school students toward the school

band and band students. The results of a paired t-test on the differences of the sums of

the scores from pre-and post-exposure attitude surveys show a statistically significant

difference where p < .05 (p = .000), therefore null hypothesis 1 is rejected.










A further examination of the data with regard to subcategories of null hypothesis 1

shows that those with band experience did not exhibit significant difference in attitude

scores overall (p = .173), but those without band experience did (p = .000). There were

no significant differences in sums of scores as a measure of change between gender

groups, as both exhibited significant difference (male: p = .003, female: p = .000). There

was a large gap, however, in the amount of attitude change as measured by difference in

pre- and post-exposure scores between age groups and grade levels. In both cases, the

younger students' attitude scores showed significant difference, where the older students'

failed to show any significant difference as shown in Chapter 4, tables 4-3 and 4-4.

There was also no maj or difference in the significance of the amount of difference

between students with a family member who plays an instrument and those that do not

(p = .000, p = .004 respectively). Students with no band experience that are members of

other musical groups fall into two categories: those with instrumental ensemble

performance experience (no significant change in attitude) and choral/vocal students,

who exhibited the same differences as seen in the non-band population as a whole (p =

.000 for school-based vocal/choral groups; p = .006 for vocal/choral groups outside of

school). It was also thought that the amount of media consumption might be a factor in

the amount of difference shown in students' attitudes-tests showed no correlation

between the two.

After the sums of the pre- and post-exposure scores were tested against the null

hypothesis, individual t-tests were run on each pair of questions from the pre- and

post-exposure surveys to determine if there were any areas of attitude more affected than

others. For the group with band experience, media exposure led to a 25.6 increase in










agreement with question 8: "School bands mostly perform popular music as

entertainment" significantt difference; p = .000) and a significant positive difference in

agreement with question 9: "The band is an important part of a school's identity and

image" (p = .034). These were the only questions to show significant difference for those

with band experience.

Subj ects with no prior band experience showed significant difference on several

questions. Four of those questions reflect more positive attitudes toward the school band

and band students after media exposure:

* Question 3. I am glad I'm in/wish I was in my school band. (26.3% increase; p =
.008)

* Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development
and peer interaction for its members. (19.2% increase; p = .009)

* Question 7. School band is fun. (83.39% increase; p = .000)

* Question 9. The band is an important part of a school's identity and image. (10.5%
increase; p =.017)

The non-band group showed the same significant shift toward agreement with

question 8: ..music as entertainment" (p = .000) as the group with band experience. In

addition, they demonstrated a marked significant shift in their attitudes given the

statement: "Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school

activities." Their percentage of agreement increased 24.7% (p = .000), a seeming

contradiction given their positive shift in their perceptions of the band as "fun" and

creating a "healthy social development." This contradiction seems to show that while

non-band subj ects now view the activities of the band more positively, they are even

more likely to regard band members as less acceptable socially.









Conclusions: Research Question 2

The second null hypothesis states that there will be no statistically significant

difference in pre-/post- gain scores on attitudes of students with band experience and

those with no band experience. With regard to attitude scores as a whole, the results of a

one-way ANOVA support the null hypothesis, showing there is no significant difference

between the two groups (F = .385; p = .604). Further breakdowns of the two groups by

pre- and post-exposure questions show that 4 of the 14 did show a significant difference:

* Question 4. The school band creates an atmosphere of healthy social development
and peer interaction for its members. (F = 4.968; p = .027)

* Question 7. School band is fun. (F = 138.928; p = .000)

* Question 10. Learning and performing music is an important aspect of
participation in school band programs. (F = 5.998; p = .015)

* Question 12. Participation in the band is not as socially acceptable as other school
activities. (F = 4.342; p = .038)

As discussed in Chapter 4, the first three questions depend on either firsthand

knowledge of the inner workings of the band class or the perception of those inner

workings, creating an inherent situation where attitudes are likely to differ.

Attitude Change by Specific Media Example

In the exposure series there were 10 media examples. According to the pilot study,

6 were considered positive portrayals of the school band and/or band students and 4 were

negative. This 60/40 percentage is equal to the percentage of positive to negative

portrayals across the entire sample of media collected in the pilot study. Chapter 4

contains detailed analysis of results by each media example; here the data is examined by

type of media portrayal.










Among the positive examples, statements such as "The band is an important part of

a school's identity and image" and "Learning and performing music is an important part

of participation in school band programs" consistently showed significant positive

attitude shifts. Contrary to expectation, attitudes on statements such as "Participation in

the band is not as socially acceptable as other school activities" did not increase after

positive examples, but dropped instead. Also, statements regarding band music showed a

decline in attitude after media exposure, including "I enj oy listening to music performed

by school bands," "School bands perform worthwhile/good music," and "After viewing

this example, I would be more likely to attend a band concert at my school." Possible

reasons for this incongruity include the number of positive examples that also feature

wind band music performed poorly, such as The M~usic Man and The Simpsons.

Negative examples showed clear negative trends in attitude when given statements

like "I'm glad I'm in/wish I was in my school band" and "Participation in school band is

not as socially acceptable as other school activities," following expectations. The most

interesting changes for both positive and negative examples were those of the band

experience group: subj ects with band experience experienced higher instances of attitude

change with regard to the specific media examples than those without band experience at

an almost two-to-one ratio. This would seem to conflict with earlier conclusions that

show the band experience group to have no significant attitude change. In fact, it merely

shows that the band experience group has a high degree of experience dealing with

media's depictions of the school band. During the exposure period, subjects were asked

to report their attitudes based solely on how each media example made them feel. The

individual examples affected the band experience group more because their pre-exposure