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Blending East and West: A Content Analysis of Taiwanese Award-Winning TV Commercials from 1998 to 2003

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010830/00001

Material Information

Title: Blending East and West: A Content Analysis of Taiwanese Award-Winning TV Commercials from 1998 to 2003
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Hsu, Yang-hsin ( Dissertant )
Roberts, Marilyn ( Thesis advisor )
Morton, Cynthia ( Reviewer )
Cornell, Lisa Duke ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Advertising Thesis, M.Adv.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Advertising
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Advertising in Taiwan is highly developed with a unique combination of western executional know-how and eastern cultural background. This unique combination has drawn a great interest of study in the past years yet the most distinguishing part of it, the TV commercials, had not been studied much. Thus, this study regarding Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, the ones that were considered to be with the highest standard of creativity, was triggered and conducted. By using an adapted coding framework from existing studies and the research method of content analysis, this study analyzed 542 Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (from 1998 to 2003) and explored the occurrences of certain executional elements within these TV commercials. The coding framework included 60 different variables, which were further classified into 14 categories: 1) peripheral, 2) commercial structure, 3) commercial format, 4) commercial tone and atmosphere, 5) commercial approach, 6) commercial promise, appeal, and selling proposition, 7) information content, 8) brand and product identification, 9) comparison, 10) commercial characters, 11) commercial setting, 12) visual devices, 13) auditory devices, and 14) music and dancing. The results suggested that a typical Taiwanese award-winning TV commercial would contain characteristics as follows: • Use “surprise or suspense in the middle” as commercial structure and “suspenseful” commercial tone and atmosphere • Employ emotional and positive approaches • Have no brand-differentiating message • Apply “product performance or benefits as main message”, and “results of using (either tangible or intangible)” • Contain single product but not double-branded, and both visual and auditory brand sign-offs • Present no comparison of any kind • Employ one male actor aged from 26 to 35 as principal character, and also background cast • Use either voice-over only, or both voice-over and on-camera characters to convey advertising message • Apply indoor settings • Contain substantive supers • Use Chinese (Mandarin) in both visual and auditory message presentations • Apply music that cannot be categorized as background The results also indicated that relationships existed between three most important peripheral variables, year, brand origin and agency origin, and other 54 characteristic variables. In addition, comparisons between this current study and three precursory studies were presented in order to provide more in-depth understanding of the uniqueness of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials.
Thesis: Thesis (M. Adv.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains xx 213 p.
General Note: Title from title page of documents.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010830:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010830/00001

Material Information

Title: Blending East and West: A Content Analysis of Taiwanese Award-Winning TV Commercials from 1998 to 2003
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Hsu, Yang-hsin ( Dissertant )
Roberts, Marilyn ( Thesis advisor )
Morton, Cynthia ( Reviewer )
Cornell, Lisa Duke ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Advertising Thesis, M.Adv.
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Advertising
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: Advertising in Taiwan is highly developed with a unique combination of western executional know-how and eastern cultural background. This unique combination has drawn a great interest of study in the past years yet the most distinguishing part of it, the TV commercials, had not been studied much. Thus, this study regarding Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, the ones that were considered to be with the highest standard of creativity, was triggered and conducted. By using an adapted coding framework from existing studies and the research method of content analysis, this study analyzed 542 Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (from 1998 to 2003) and explored the occurrences of certain executional elements within these TV commercials. The coding framework included 60 different variables, which were further classified into 14 categories: 1) peripheral, 2) commercial structure, 3) commercial format, 4) commercial tone and atmosphere, 5) commercial approach, 6) commercial promise, appeal, and selling proposition, 7) information content, 8) brand and product identification, 9) comparison, 10) commercial characters, 11) commercial setting, 12) visual devices, 13) auditory devices, and 14) music and dancing. The results suggested that a typical Taiwanese award-winning TV commercial would contain characteristics as follows: • Use “surprise or suspense in the middle” as commercial structure and “suspenseful” commercial tone and atmosphere • Employ emotional and positive approaches • Have no brand-differentiating message • Apply “product performance or benefits as main message”, and “results of using (either tangible or intangible)” • Contain single product but not double-branded, and both visual and auditory brand sign-offs • Present no comparison of any kind • Employ one male actor aged from 26 to 35 as principal character, and also background cast • Use either voice-over only, or both voice-over and on-camera characters to convey advertising message • Apply indoor settings • Contain substantive supers • Use Chinese (Mandarin) in both visual and auditory message presentations • Apply music that cannot be categorized as background The results also indicated that relationships existed between three most important peripheral variables, year, brand origin and agency origin, and other 54 characteristic variables. In addition, comparisons between this current study and three precursory studies were presented in order to provide more in-depth understanding of the uniqueness of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials.
Thesis: Thesis (M. Adv.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vita.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains xx 213 p.
General Note: Title from title page of documents.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010830:00001


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PAGE 1

BLENDING EAST AND WEST: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TAIWANESE AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS FROM 1998 TO 2003 By YANG-HSIN HSU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Yang-hsin Hsu

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To my family and all the people who helped me come this far.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis is actually an accomplishment of teamwork, and I am just the one with the luck and honor to put my name on the cover. In various ways, many people have helped me tremendously along the way. Wit hout them, this thesis could never been finished. For this reason, I have to express my appreciation here. The unconditional love and support from my family, especially my parents, were the most important backup to me in these tw o years. Without them, I would not have had the chance to pursue this degree in the fi rst place, let along to write this thesis. Also, I am extremely lucky to have three admirable professors as my chair and committee members: Dr. Marilyn Roberts, th e lady with a big heart (and a strong one, too) who gave me countless valuable advice s and always led me back on track when I was fallen far behind schedule; Dr. Cynthia Morton, the lady with abundant energy and cheerful laughter who gave me both the best start and the end of my two years at the University of Florida; and Dr. Lisa Duke Cornell, the lady with elegance and wisdom who always pointed out precisely th e crucial items I failed to notice. Many friends, both in Taiwan and in the United States, are also the ones I have to be grateful for. Cain (Je-ji an) Huang, my friend for so many years, helped me collect a vast part of the references that were critical to this study from the other side of the world, and Brendan (Ming-da) Du, who is like a brother to me, helped me get the show reel of the Times Advertising Awards and listened to my complaints and self-pity every now and then. In addition, I have to thank Qichao De ng for sharing his experience with me, and

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v Connie (Wan-ping) Chao and Suzie (Shu-yu) Lin for cheering me up whenever I felt down even though they were struggling with their own theses as well. Certainly, I would never forget those respectable professors in this department who laid the foundation of this study by sharing th eir expertise with me and led me further into the academic world in the first year: Dr. John Southerland, our own Professor Dumbledore in this department who teaches in a sometimes mysterious but actually inspiring way; Dr. Jorge Villegas and Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho, two great professors who have immense knowledge and the same greatness of patience; and last bu t not least, I will always be thankful for Jody Hedge, the No.1 Beatles fan who helped me solve all kinds of problems regarding deadlines and paper works. Conducting this study and writing this thesis was not easy, but it was also pleasant and fruitful because of these people. As st ated in the beginning, this is the result of teamwork, and they all deserve to be given credit for. I appreciate it from the bottom of my heart.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................xviii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................1 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................1 Research Overview.......................................................................................................3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................6 Taiwan at a Glance.......................................................................................................6 Advertising Industry in Taiwan....................................................................................7 The Evolution of Advertising in Taiwan...............................................................7 The pre-contemporary era............................................................................10 The developing era.......................................................................................12 The developed era........................................................................................16 The challenging era......................................................................................19 Agencies in Taiwan Today..................................................................................22 Advertising Awards in Taiwan...................................................................................23 Studies of Creative Executional Factors.....................................................................27 Stewart and Furses study....................................................................................27 Studies of Award-winni ng TV Commercials......................................................29 Research Questions.............................................................................................32 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................33 Variable-Analysis Framework....................................................................................33 Variables..............................................................................................................33 Coding Categories and Options of Variables......................................................34 Peripheral.....................................................................................................34 Commercial structure...................................................................................34 Commercial format......................................................................................34

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vii Commercial tone and atmosphere................................................................34 Commercial approach..................................................................................35 Promise, appeal, and selling proposition......................................................35 Information content......................................................................................35 Brand and product identification..................................................................35 Comparison..................................................................................................36 Commercial characters.................................................................................36 Commercial setting......................................................................................36 Visual devices..............................................................................................37 Auditory devices..........................................................................................37 Music and dancing.......................................................................................37 Research Questions.....................................................................................................37 Content Analysis Design............................................................................................38 Unit of Analysis..........................................................................................................39 Sampling Design.........................................................................................................40 Intercoder Reliability..................................................................................................41 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................42 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................43 Description of the Sample of Commercials................................................................43 Characteristics of Taiwanese Award-winning TV Commercials...............................50 Inferential Results of the Sample................................................................................64 Between Peripheral Elements..............................................................................64 Year as Peripheral Element.................................................................................67 Brand Origin as Peripheral Element....................................................................87 Agency Origin as Peripheral Element...............................................................101 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION......................................................................115 Discussion.................................................................................................................115 Characteristics of Taiwanese Award-winning TV Commercials......................118 Comparison with Stewart and Furses (1986) Study.........................................120 Comparisons with Dengs (2004) and Chaos (2003) Studies..........................121 Conclusion................................................................................................................125 Limitations................................................................................................................125 Suggestions for Future Research..............................................................................127 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET FOR THE TIMES AD VERTISING AWARDS WINNING TV COMMERCIALS (FROM 1998 TO 2003)..............................................................130 B OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF CODING VARIABLES..............................140 C CROSS TABULATION TABLES...........................................................................156

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viii D LIST OF THE TIMES ADVERTISING AWARDS WINNING TV COMMERCIALS.....................................................................................................194 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................209 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................213

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Events and Characteristics of the Pre-contemporary Era.........................................12 2-2 Events and Characteristi cs of the Developing Era...................................................15 2-3 Events and Characteristi cs of the Developed Era....................................................18 2-4 Events and Characteristics of the Challenging Era..................................................22 2-5 Advertising Agency Ranking in Taiwan (2003)......................................................23 2-6 Major Advertising Awards in Taiwan......................................................................25 2-7 Relation between Executional Variables and Recall................................................28 2-8 Relation between Executional Variables and Persuasion........................................28 4-1 Frequency/Percent of Year.......................................................................................44 4-2 Frequency/Percent of Product Category..................................................................45 4-3 Frequency/Percent of Awards..................................................................................46 4-4 Frequency/Percent of Brand/Product Origin............................................................47 4-5 Frequency/Percent of Agency Origin.......................................................................48 4-6 Frequency/Percent of Length of Commercial..........................................................49 4-7 Frequency/Percent of Commercial Structure...........................................................50 4-8 Frequency/Percent of Commercial Format..............................................................51 4-9 Frequency/Percent of Commercial Tone & Atmosphere.........................................52 4-10 Frequency/Percent of Commercial Approach..........................................................52 4-11 Frequency/Percent of Br and-differentiating Message..............................................53 4-12 Frequency/Percent of Commercial Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition..........53

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x 4-13 Frequency/Percent of Information Content..............................................................54 4-14 Frequency/Percent of Product a nd Brand Identification Variables..........................55 4-15 Frequency/Percent of Comparisons.........................................................................56 4-16 Frequency/Percent of Prin cipal Character Variables...............................................57 4-17 Frequency/Percent of Minor Character Variables....................................................59 4-18 Frequency/Percent of Setting...................................................................................60 4-19 Frequency/Percent of Visual Variables....................................................................61 4-20 Frequency/Percent of Auditory Variables................................................................62 4-21 Frequency/Percent of Music and Dancing Variables...............................................63 4-22 Crosstab of Brand Origin (Regional) by Year (excerpt)..........................................65 4-23 Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Year (excerpt).......................................65 4-24 Crosstab of Agency Origin by Year (excerpt).........................................................66 4-25 Crosstab of Brand Origin by Award (excerpt).........................................................66 4-26 Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Award (excerpt)....................................67 4-27 Crosstab of Agency Origin by Award (excerpt)......................................................67 4-28 Crosstab of CF Structure by Year (excerpt).............................................................68 4-29 Crosstab of CF Format by Year (excerpt)................................................................68 4-30 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Year (excerpt)...........................................69 4-31 Crosstab of CF Approach (Rationa l vs. Emotional) by Year (excerpt)...................70 4-32 Crosstab of CF Approach (Posit ive vs. Negative) by Year (excerpt)......................70 4-33 Crosstab of Brand-differentia ting Message by Year (excerpt)................................71 4-34 Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition by Year (excerpt)............71 4-35 Crosstab of Information Content by Year (excerpt).................................................72 4-36 Crosstab of Double-brande d Product by Year (excerpt)..........................................73 4-37 Crosstab of Auditory Sign-off by Year....................................................................73

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xi 4-38 Crosstab of Comparison by Year (excerpt)..............................................................74 4-39 Crosstab of Principal Character by Year (excerpt)..................................................74 4-40 Crosstab of Sex of Principa l Character by Year (excerpt).......................................75 4-41 Crosstab of Age of Principal Character by Year (excerpt)......................................75 4-42 Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Year (excerpt)..................................................76 4-43 Crosstab of Created Role by Year (excerpt)............................................................76 4-44 Crosstab of Character Relate d to Company by Year (excerpt)................................77 4-45 Crosstab of Background Cast by Year (excerpt)......................................................77 4-46 Crosstab of Minority in Mi nor Role by Year (excerpt)...........................................78 4-47 Crosstab of Real People in Minor Roles by Year (excerpt).....................................78 4-48 Crosstab of Continuous Roles by Year (excerpt).....................................................78 4-49 Crosstab of Presenter On/O ff Camera by Year (excerpt)........................................79 4-50 Crosstab of CF Setting by Year (excerpt)................................................................79 4-51 Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Year (excerpt)..........................................................80 4-52 Crosstab of Ugliness of Princi pal Character by Year (excerpt)...............................80 4-53 Crosstab of Graphic Di splay by Year (excerpt).......................................................81 4-54 Crosstab of Surreal Visuals by Year........................................................................81 4-55 Crosstab of Substantive Supers by Year (excerpt)...................................................82 4-56 Crosstab of Visual Ta glines by Year (excerpt)........................................................82 4-57 Crosstab of Memory Device by Year.......................................................................82 4-58 Crosstab of Language Spoken by Year (excerpt).....................................................83 4-59 Crosstab of Unusual Sound Effects by Year (excerpt)............................................84 4-60 Crosstab of Spoken Ta gline by Year (excerpt)........................................................84 4-61 Crosstab of Music by Year (excerpt).......................................................................85 4-62 Crosstab of Music St yle by Year (excerpt)..............................................................85

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xii 4-63 Crosstab of Music Crea tes Mood by Year (excerpt)................................................86 4-64 Crosstab of Continuous Musi cal Theme by Year (excerpt).....................................86 4-65 Crosstab of Dancing by Year (excerpt)....................................................................86 4-66 Crosstab of CF Structur e by Brand Origin (excerpt)...............................................87 4-67 Crosstab of CF Format by Brand Origin (excerpt)..................................................88 4-68 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmos phere by Brand Origin (excerpt).............................88 4-69 Crosstab of CF Approach (Positive vs. Negative) by Brand Origin (excerpt).........89 4-70 Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition by Brand Origin (excerpt)...................................................................................................................90 4-71 Crosstab of Information Cont ent by Brand Origin (excerpt)...................................90 4-72 Crosstab of Presence of Pr oduct by Brand Origin (excerpt)....................................91 4-73 Crosstab of Double-bran ded Product by Brand Origin............................................91 4-74 Crosstab of Identificatio n of Company by Brand Origin.........................................92 4-75 Crosstab of Visual Sign-o ff by Brand Origin (excerpt)...........................................92 4-76 Crosstab of Auditory Sign-off by Brand Origin (excerpt).......................................93 4-77 Cross Tabulation of Comparis on by Brand Origin (excerpt)...................................93 4-78 Crosstab of Celebrity by Brand Origin (excerpt).....................................................94 4-79 Crosstab of Actor Playing Ro le by Brand Origin (excerpt).....................................94 4-80 Crosstab of Real People by Brand Origin (excerpt).................................................95 4-81 Crosstab of Created Role by Brand Origin (excerpt)...............................................95 4-82 Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Brand Origin (excerpt)..............................96 4-83 Crosstab of Continuous Role by Brand Origin (excerpt).........................................96 4-84 Crosstab of Presenter On/Off Ca mera by Brand Origin (excerpt)...........................97 4-85 Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Brand Origin (excerpt).............................................97 4-86 Crosstab of Beauty of Principal Characters by Brand Origin..................................98 4-87 Crosstab of Graphic Display by Brand Origin (excerpt)..........................................98

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xiii 4-88 Crosstab of Visual Taglin e by Brand Origin (excerpt)............................................99 4-89 Crosstab of Language Presen ted by Brand Origin (excerpt)....................................99 4-90 Crosstab of Rhyme, Slogan, or Mnemonic Device by Brand Origin.....................100 4-91 Crosstab of Music Style by Brand Origin (excerpt)...............................................100 4-92 Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Brand Origin (excerpt).....................101 4-93 Crosstab of CF Structure by Agency Origin (excerpt)...........................................102 4-94 Crosstab of CF Format by Agency Origin (excerpt)..............................................102 4-95 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Agency Origin (excerpt)........................103 4-96 Crosstab of CF Approach (Rational vs Emotional) by Agency Origin (excerpt).103 4-97 Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition by Agency Origin (excerpt).................................................................................................................104 4-98 Crosstab of Information Content by Agency Origin (excerpt)..............................104 4-99 Crosstab of Presence of Produc t by Agency Origin (excerpt)...............................105 4-100 Crosstab of Double-bran ded Product by Agency Origin.......................................106 4-101 Crosstab of Visual Sign-off by Agency Origin......................................................106 4-102 Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Agency Origin (excerpt)................................107 4-103 Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Agency Origin (excerpt).........................107 4-104 Crosstab of Real People in Minor Role by Agency Origin (excerpt)....................108 4-105 Crosstab of Presenter On/Off Ca mera by Agency Origin (excerpt)......................108 4-106 Crosstab of Beauty of Principal Character by Agency Origin (excerpt)................109 4-107 Crosstab of Graphic Displa y by Agency Origin (excerpt).....................................109 4-108 Crosstab of Substantive Supers by Agency Origin................................................109 4-109 Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Agency Origin.......................................................110 4-110 Crosstab of Language Presente d by Agency Origin (excerpt)...............................110 4-111 Crosstab of Language Spoken by Agency Origin (excerpt)..................................111 4-112 Crosstab of Music by Agency Origin.....................................................................112

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xiv 4-113 Crosstab of Music Style by Agency Origin (excerpt)............................................112 4-114 Crosstab of Music Creates M ood by Agency Origin (excerpt)..............................113 4-115 Crosstab of Well-known Music by Agency Origin (excerpt)................................113 4-116 Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Agency Origin (excerpt)...................114 5-1 Variables Consistent throughout Years..................................................................115 5-2 Variables Consistent with Brand Origin................................................................116 5-3 Variables Consistent with Agency Origin..............................................................117 5-4 Characteristics of Taiwanes e Award-winning TV Commercials...........................119 5-5 Variables Affecting Recall, Comprehension, or Persuasion..................................120 5-6 Comparison of Taiwanese and Chin ese Award-winning TV Commercials..........121 5-7 Comparison with Chaos (2003) Study..................................................................122 A-1 Crosstab of Brand Origin (Regional) by Year.......................................................156 A-2 Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Year.....................................................156 A-3 Crosstab of Agency Origin by Year.......................................................................157 A-4 Crosstab of Brand Origin by Award......................................................................157 A-5 Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Award..................................................157 A-6 Crosstab of Agency Origin by Award....................................................................158 A-7 Crosstab of CF Structure by Year..........................................................................158 A-8 Crosstab of CF Format by Year.............................................................................159 A-9 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Year........................................................160 A-10 Crosstab of CF Approach (R ational vs. Emotional) by Year.................................161 A-11 Crosstab of CF Approach (Positive vs. Negative) by Year....................................161 A-12 Crosstab of Brand-diffe rentiating Message by Year..............................................161 A-13 Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Proposition by Year.........................162 A-14 Crosstab of Information Content by Year..............................................................162

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xv A-15 Crosstab of Double-branded Product by Year.......................................................164 A-16 Crosstab of Comparison by Year...........................................................................164 A-17 Crosstab of Principal Character by Year................................................................165 A-18 Crosstab of Sex of Principal Character by Year....................................................165 A-19 Crosstab of Age of Principal Character by Year....................................................166 A-20 Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Year................................................................167 A-21 Crosstab of Created Role by Year..........................................................................167 A-22 Crosstab of Character Related to Company by Year.............................................167 A-23 Crosstab of Background Cast by Year...................................................................167 A-24 Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Year.........................................................168 A-25 Crosstab of Real Peopl e in Minor Role by Year....................................................168 A-26 Crosstab of Continuous Role by Year....................................................................168 A-27 Crosstab of Presenter On/Off Camera by Year......................................................169 A-28 Crosstab of CF Setting by Year..............................................................................169 A-29 Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Year........................................................................169 A-30 Crosstab of Ugliness of Principal Character by Year............................................170 A-31 Crosstab of Graphic Display by Year....................................................................170 A-32 Crosstab of Substantive Supers by Year................................................................170 A-33 Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Year.......................................................................170 A-34 Crosstab of Language Spoken by Year..................................................................171 A-35 Crosstab of Unusual Sound Effect by Year...........................................................171 A-36 Crosstab of Spoken Tagline by Year......................................................................171 A-37 Crosstab of Music by Year.....................................................................................172 A-38 Crosstab of Music Style by Year............................................................................172 A-39 Crosstab of Music Creates Mood by Year.............................................................172

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xvi A-40 Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Year..................................................173 A-41 Crosstab of Dancing by Year.................................................................................173 A-42 Crosstab of CF Structure by Brand Origin.............................................................173 A-43 Crosstab of CF Format by Brand Origin................................................................174 A-44 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Brand Origin...........................................175 A-45 Crosstab of CF Approach (Pos itive vs. Negative) by Brand Origin......................176 A-46 Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition by Brand Origin............176 A-47 Crosstab of Informati on Content by Brand Origin.................................................177 A-48 Crosstab of Presence of Product by Brand Origin.................................................178 A-49 Crosstab of Visual Sign-off by Brand Origin.........................................................178 A-50 Crosstab of Auditory Sign-off by Brand Origin.....................................................179 A-51 Crosstab of Comparison by Brand Origin..............................................................179 A-52 Crosstab of Celebrity by Brand Origin..................................................................179 A-53 Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Brand Origin..................................................180 A-54 Crosstabof Real People by Brand Origin...............................................................180 A-55 Crosstab of Created Role by Brand Origin............................................................180 A-56 CrossCrosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Brand Origin..................................180 A-57 Crosstab of Continuous Role by Brand Origin......................................................181 A-58 Crosstab of Presenter On/Off Camera by Brand Origin........................................181 A-59 Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Brand Origin..........................................................181 A-60 Crosstab of Graphic Display by Brand Origin.......................................................182 A-61 Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Brand Origin..........................................................182 A-62 Crosstab of Language Presented by Brand Origin.................................................182 A-63 Crosstab of Music Style by Brand Origin..............................................................183 A-64 Crosstab of Continuous Mu sical Theme by Brand Origin.....................................183

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xvii A-65 Crosstab of CF Structure by Agency Origin..........................................................184 A-66 Crosstab of CF Format by Agency Origin.............................................................184 A-67 Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Agency Origin........................................185 A-68 Crosstab of CF Approach (Rati onal vs. Emotional) by Agency Origin.................186 A-69 Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition by Agency Origin.........187 A-70 Crosstab of Information Content by Agency Origin..............................................187 A-71 Crosstab of Presence of Product by Agency Origin...............................................189 A-72 Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Agency Origin................................................189 A-73 Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Agency Origin.........................................189 A-74 Crosstab of Real People in Minor Role by Agency Origin....................................190 A-75 Crosstab of Presenter On/Off Camera by Agency Origin......................................190 A-76 Crosstab of Beauty of Principal Character by Agency Origin...............................190 A-77 Crosstab of Graphic Display by Agency Origin....................................................191 A-78 Crosstab of Language Presented by Agency Origin..............................................191 A-79 Crosstab of Language Spoken by Agency Origin..................................................191 A-80 Crosstab of Music Style by Agency Origin...........................................................192 A-81 Crosstab of Music Creates Mood by Agency Origin.............................................192 A-82 Crosstab of Well-known Music by Agency Origin................................................193 A-83 Crosstab of Continuous Mu sical Theme by Agency Origin..................................193

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xviii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Four Eras of Advertising in Taiwan...........................................................................9 2-2 Logo of Darkie (Darlie ) Toothpaste in the 1950s....................................................11 4-2 Percent of Product Category....................................................................................45 4-3 Percent of Awards....................................................................................................46 4-4 Percent of Brand/Product Origin by Region............................................................47 4-5 Percent of Brand/Product Origin..............................................................................47 4-6 Percent of Agency Origin by Region.......................................................................48 4-7 Percent of Agency Origin.........................................................................................49 4-8 Percent of Length of Commercial............................................................................50 5-1 Comparison of Rational and Emotional Approaches.............................................124 5-2 Comparison of Cultural Dimensions of Taiwan and the United States.................128

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xix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising BLENDING EAST AND WEST: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TAIWANESE AWARD-WINNING TV COMMERCIALS FROM 1998 TO 2003 By Yang-hsin Hsu August 2005 Chair: Marilyn Sue Roberts Major Department: Advertising Advertising in Taiwan is highly developed with a uniqu e combination of western executional know-how and easte rn cultural background. This unique combination has drawn a great interest of study in the past year s yet the most distinguishing part of it, the TV commercials, had not been studied mu ch. Thus, this study regarding Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, the ones that were considered to be with the highest standard of creativity, wa s triggered and conducted. By using an adapted coding framework fr om existing studies and the research method of content analysis, this study an alyzed 542 Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (from 1998 to 2003) and explored the occurrences of certain executi onal elements within these TV commercials. The coding framework included 60 different variab les, which were further classified into 14 categories: 1) peripheral, 2) commercial structure, 3) commercial format, 4) commercial tone and atmosphere, 5) commer cial approach, 6) commercial promise,

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xx appeal, and selling proposition, 7) inform ation content, 8) brand and product identification, 9) comparison, 10) commercial characters, 11) commercial setting, 12) visual devices, 13) auditory de vices, and 14) music and dancing. The results suggested that a typical Taiwanese award-winning TV commercial would contain characteristics as follows: Use surprise or suspense in the middle as commercial structure and suspenseful commercial tone and atmosphere Employ emotional and positive approaches Have no brand-differentiating message Apply product performance or benefits as main message, and results of using (either tangible or intangible) Contain single product but not double-brande d, and both visual and auditory brand sign-offs Present no comparison of any kind Employ one male actor aged from 26 to 35 as principal character, and also background cast Use either voice-over only, or both voi ce-over and on-camera characters to convey advertising message Apply indoor settings Contain substantive supers Use Chinese (Mandarin) in both visual and auditory message presentations Apply music that cannot be categorized as background The results also indicated that relationshi ps existed between three most important peripheral variables, year, br and origin and agency origin and other 54 characteristic variables. In addition, comparisons between this current study and three precursory studies were presented in orde r to provide more in-depth understanding of the uniqueness of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study What are the characteristics of Taiwan ese award-winning TV commercials? The purpose of this study is to provide a prelim inary answer to the question by conducting a content analysis of the award-wi nning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (from 1998 to 2003) in Ta iwan. Along with answering this question, this study also intends to bestow some insights into how creative strategies and executional elements are regarded and used by advertising practitione rs. Therefore, this study will examine the occurrence of vari ous creative and executional variables appearing in these TV commercials. Taking reliability and validity of the variables into c onsideration, as well as the cross-cultural perspective, this study will derive a variable-analysis framework of TV commercials based on the one developed by Stew art and Furse (1986) in their research in Effective Television Advertisi ng: A Study of 1,000 Commercials and also the adaptation of their framework employed in a recent masters thesis Creative Execution: Content Analysis of Chinese Award-Winnin g Television Commercials in 1997-2003 conducted by Deng (2003). Significance of the Study Advertising in Taiwan is highly develope d and matured because there are offices and subsidiaries of almost all major international agencies in Taipei, the capital and economic center of Taiwan. Meanwhile, it al so possesses its own unique characteristics

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2 due to the profound influences of Chinese cult ure. As a combination of western executive know-how and traditiona l Chinese culture, there is a distinctive blend of cultures that may be observable in Taiwanese advertising content. This distinctiveness has drawn interests of many researchers in Taiwan to conduct studies on this matter. Nevertheless, these studies mostly focused on limited fields. The first field of investigation is the hist ory of advertising in this country, which includes research such as the study of tran snational advertising agencies in Taiwan by Lee (1999), the study of advertising industr y in Taiwan from 1960 to 1996 by Hu (1998), advertising and the society in Taiwan during the postwar 50 years by Cheng (1999). More recent studies includes the correlation between social change s and advertising in Taiwan during the past 40 years by Shen (2001) the research of the relationship between advertising and economic development in Taiwan by Wang (2003), and the founding of advertising in Taiwan in the 60s by Chang (2004). Another frequently studied field is the organization of advertising agencies in Taiwan, such as globalization and the depende nt development of advertising in Taiwan by Chang (1997), institutional changes in adve rtising organizational field from 1961 to 1998 by Hsiao (1998). There are also the analysis of industrial economics in advertising industry in Taiwan by Wang (1999), and the dual structure of transnational advertising group networks in Taiwan by Ko (2003). There were also some researchers who explored advertising in Taiwan from cultural aspects, such as the comparison of longitudinal advertising appeals from Taiwan and America by Jeng (1997), and the study of foreign symbols used in Taiwanese advertising by Chen (2000).

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3 As for advertising awards and award-wi nning advertisements, some research does exist. Examples include the cultural va lues reflected in award-winning print advertisements from Times Advertisi ng Awards during 1979 to 1994 by Hu (2000), the examination of advertisements made by one of the most frequent winners in the Times Advertising Awards, Ideology Advertising, by Tz ui (2001), the comparison of contents in award-winning TV commercials in Taiwan a nd Japan by Chao (2003), and the study of Ding (2003) regarding advertising awards in Taiwan and their influences. Yet, in spite of the numerous research th at has been conducted, the characteristics of award-winning TV commercials that are us ually considered to create new trends, reflect social phenomena, and provoke di scussions among the publ ic have not been examined often. It is this situation that init iated the interest and offered the motive for the researcher to carry out this study. From an academic aspect, this study fo cuses on recent Taiwanese award-winning commercials that have not been researched and therefore may offer a relatively deeper understanding of Taiwanese a dvertising industry for adver tising scholars and students. Moreover, from a practical aspect this study may provide agenci es and advertising practitioners, especially creatives, an opportunity to examine their works in a way that is more systematic and may stimulate commercials that are more reflective of the dynamics and uniqueness of advertising in Taiwan. Research Overview The chapters contained in this study are outlined as follows. Chapter two presents the literature review, which c onsists four sections. The fi rst section introduces Taiwan with basic information while the second se ction provides an ove rall understanding of advertising industry in Taiwan, including it s history, development, and remarkable

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4 milestones. The third section introduces various major advertising awards in Taiwan with emphasis on the Times Advertising Awards. The la st section is the review of research of predecessors on creative executional elements including the study of Stewart and Furse (1986) and replications of the coding framew ork from various resear chers in Taiwan, as well as in the U.S. Research questions of this study are also proposed at the end of this chapter. Chapter three outlines the variable-analysis framework, with definitions and clarifications of the operational coding categor ies and variables. In the same chapter, research questions are further clarified a nd the content analysis design is laid out. Furthermore, details on the unit of analysis, sa mpling process, the use of intercoders, and data analysis are included in this chapter. Chapter four reports the findings of the research questions proposed previously. Also presented in th is chapter are the interpretive re sults found in the analysis of characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, and the inferential results drawn from exploring the relationships between the peripheral variables and characteristic variables. Chapter five discu sses the findings and the limitations of this study, and makes suggestions for future research. Based on the overview, the procedure of this study is further illustrated in Figure 1-1 shown on the next page.

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5 Figure 1-1: The Procedure of Study

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6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The literature review comprised four sections: Taiwan at a glance, advertising industry in Taiwan, advertising awards in Taiwan (with emphasis on the Times Advertising Awards), and early studies rega rding creative executional elements and award-winning commercials. Taiwan at a Glance Taiwan, officially known as the Republic of China, R.O.C., is a small island country located in Eastern Asia off the south eastern coast of China that borders the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea and Taiwan Strait. The total area of the island is about 32 thousand square kilomete rs, which is slightly smaller than the combination of the states of Maryland and Delaware, and is inhabited by a population of nearly 23 million (2004, CIAThe World F actbookTaiwan). Despite its small area and population, which rank 135th and 48th in the world respectively, Taiwan has a remarkable gross domestic product (GDP) of US$528.6 billion (18th in the world), GDP per capita of US$23,400 (30th in the world), and has achieved a 3.2% GDP real growth rate (102nd in the world) in 2003 (2004, CIAThe Worl d FactbookTaiwan, and World Facts and Figures). Relative to the small land of Taiwan, media institutions, on the contrary, are highly dense. There are 474 newspapers, 8,140 mag azine publishers, 174 radio stations, 5 television stations, 64 cable television provide rs, 140 cable channels, 8 exclusively news channels, 186 cinemas and 4,187 audio publis hers (including record companies). In

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7 addition, the penetration rate of televisi on in Taiwan has reached 99.6% and 83.8% families have cable televisions (Hsu, 2004, and Lin, 2004). The intensity of media makes it easier than ever for advertising messages to reach the audience, and in turn provides a treme ndous stage for advert isers and advertising practitioners to exercise pers uasion and creativity. The high pe netration rate of television and long average television-watching time co mbined makes televi sion a particularly important vehicle of communications and a dvertising, and has the highest expenditure among all media (Lin, 2004). Advertising Industry in Taiwan The Evolution of Advertising in Taiwan There was plenty of research conducted re garding the evolution of advertising in Taiwan, and the most common form in this research is by chroni cle order. Wang (1989) clarified the development of a dvertising in Taiwan into four stages: the sprouting stage before 1960, developing stage in the 1960 s, developing stage in the 1970s, and internationalizing stage after the 1980s. Similarly, Liu and Liu (1998) also divided the process into four periods: brokers and sprouting period (1945~1954), incubation period of advertising agentry (1955~1963), growing period of advertising agentry (1964~1980), and internationalizing period of a dvertising agentry (1981~present). In his study exploring the relationship between the development of economy and the evolution of domestic a dvertising in Taiwan during th e post-war 50 years, Cheng (1999) divided the whole process into five chronological periods, defining each period as follows: The first period (1945~1957) can be named as the Era of Postwar . Owing to the poor commercial environment, only a fe w space brokers existed to handle the newspaper advertisements.

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8 The second period (1958~1965) is labeled as the Introduction Era of Advertising Agencies for two reasons. To begin with, the first advertising agent, the Eastern Advertising Agency, was es tablished in 1958. Secondly, mo st of the important ad agents and Taiwan's first television st ation, TTV, were founded in this era. The third period (1966~1975) is called the Growth Era, rapid economic growth pushes a higher proportion of GNP being invested into advertising business. The fourth period (197 6~1988) should be the Competitive Era since foreign advertising agencies were permitted to operate their business in Taiwan and therefore intensified competitions among the advertising industry. The fifth and current period (1989~present) is an era of Multiple Developments . Agency operation, media buying, creative a pproach and artwork formation have progressed in this era. Also, in another study about advertising aw ards in Taiwan, the researcher (Ding, 2003) segmented the development of advertising industry in Taiwan chronologically into five epochs: the initiating epoch before th e 1960s, the groundbreakin g epoch in the 1960s, the growing epoch in the 1970s, the transfor ming epoch in the 1980s, and the competing epoch after the 1990s. Scholars and researchers of advertising in Taiwan tended to agree that the development of contemporary a dvertising in this country ca n be classified as several significant periods according to the range of services ag encies provided, numbers of agencies, origins of agencies, or the devel opment of the domestic economy. In addition, an agreement had been settled that one specific event had undoubtedly marked the initiation of contemporary advertising in Taiw an, which was the opening of the very first advertising agency, Eastern Advertising, in 1958. Established by one of the early pioneers of advertising in Taiwan, Chun-xi ong Wen, Eastern Advertising was the first multi-functional agency in this country and th erefore is distinguished enough to represent the beginning of modern advertising in Taiwan.

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9 Nevertheless, the researchers failed to come to a consensus on how these individual periods should be defined and divided in the period after East ern Advertising was founded. Current categorization included di viding by historical events, by domestic economy, and by years, depending on the resear chers personal opinions and priorities. In the current study, the researcher cat egorized the history of contemporary advertising in Taiwan into four chronological eras in order to present a comprehensive, as well as comprehensible, overall picture of the development. This classification was based on several significant advertisi ng events and milestones. Be low, Figure 2-1 shows these four eras, and they are: the pre-contemporary era, the developing era, the developed era, and the challenging era. The paragraphs that follow are mo re thorough descriptions of each era. Figure 2-1: Four Eras of Advertising in Taiwan

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10 The pre-contemporary era This era began in 1945 when World Wa r II was over and the dominion of Japan over Taiwan ended. A series of unrest had put Taiwan in an extremely unstable situation, such as the 228 Incident (named afte r the date of happening, February 28th, 1947), the retreat of Kuomintang (KMT) government fr om Mainland China to Taiwan, and the onset of the Korea War. Under these chaoti c circumstances, industries and businesses were obstructed from steady growth. Afterwar d, the economy in Taiw an began struggling to recover from the damage of wars and th riving under the dominion of Chiang Kai-shek and the KMT government. In this period, advertising in Taiwan was merely some media brokers selling newspaper space to clients and earning commissions. Continental Advertising founded in 1949 was the first of so-called advertising ag ency at the time. Ot her agencies founded later, such as Iwen Advertis ing and Hsinyei Advertising in 1955 or United Advertising in 1956, also served as brokers. As for advertis ing design, some agencies at that time also provided clients with layout and package desi gn; however, brokerage still remained the major function of these agen cies (Liu and Liu, 1998). Looking back at this era of advertising in Taiwan, it was easy to find some distinctive characteristics. First of all, newspaper advertisements were the most widespread and most important medium at that time since there was no television. Secondly, advertisements were partly mandari n and partly Japanese due to the halfcentury dominion of Japan over this isla nd. Another interesting phenomenon was the anti-Communism expressions that frequently ap peared in the headlines and copies of the advertisements, even though comp letely irrelevant to the products, as a result of the

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11 common hostility toward the communists. Mean while, the visuals of advertisements were usually pictures of products, occasionally accompanied by simple illustrations. Even though simple and primitive, adver tising back then did have remarkable progress, such as the first celebrity endorsement advertis ing by the legendary Beijing opera diva, Zheng-qiu Gu in 1952. The idea of using logos to enforce brand and product images also appeared during this time. For example, the famous smiling black man logo (see Figure 2-2 below) of th e leading brand of toothpaste in Taiwan, Darlie Toothpaste (formerly named Darkie and was best known as Black Man Toothpaste) was used in the advertisement from the 1950s (2000, Sh anghai Online and ToothpasteWorld.com). Advertisements for sales promotions also c ould be seen at the time, and common appeals included buy one, get one free, lucky draw, coupon, and instant reward with purchase. Figure 2-2: Logo of Darkie (D arlie) Toothpaste in the 1950s

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12 Below, Table 2-1 shows the important so cial, political, economic and advertising events in the pre-contemporary era, as well as the characteristics of it. Table 2-1: Events and Characteri stics of the Pre-contemporary Era The Pre-contemporary Era Year Before 1957 Social Political Economic Events 1945 The end of World War II (the end of the Japanese dominion over Taiwan) 1947 The 228 Incident (February 28th, 1947) 1949 KMT government retreated to Taiwan (the split of China and Taiwan) 1950 The onset of the Korea War 1954 The inception of Government Information Office (GIO) Advertising Events 1949 The inauguration of Continental Advertising 1952 The 1st celebrity endorsement advertisement by Beijing opera diva, Zheng-qiu Gu 1954 The opening of Southeastern Advertising 1955 The founding of I-wen Adver tising and Hsin-yei Advertising 1956 The founding of United Advertising Characteristics 1. Advertising at this time was br okers selling newspaper spaces, and no contemporary agency existed 2. Creativity was limited: headlines and copies usually contained both mandarin Chinese and Japanese and expressed anti-communism messages; visuals were mostly product pictures and sometimes with illustrations 3. Celebrity endorsements, logos a nd sales promotion advertisements were started to be used Source: Advertising Magazine (1999), Advertising events in half a century. 139, 39-49 Advertising Magazine (1999), 20 important events. 139, 50-55 Brain Magazine (2000), 40 years of advertising in Taiwan. 291, 49-50 Cheng (1999), Advertising and soci al change in Taiwan: 1945-1999. The Journal of Advertising Research 13, p.19-38 The developing era As stated previously, the establishment of Eastern Advertising in 1958 declared a new era of advertising in Taiwan. Followi ng Eastern Advertising, three more local agencies, Taiwan Advertising, Huashan A dvertising and Kuohua Advertising, were founded in 1961. Advertising in Taiwan started to get on track and thus began the second stage: the developing era.

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13 The reasons behind the sprout of agencies after 1962 could be generalized into two major categories: the enactment of the Encouraging Foreign Investments Statute in 1958, and the influence of the second AdAsia Conference in Tokyo in 1960. The former offered a more open market for foreign i nvestors and transforme d Taiwan from an agricultural society to an industrial one. As a result, adve rtisers, media and agencies were able to develop synchronized. As for the la tter, it was the first time that Taiwanese advertising practitioners attende d this event. During the conference, the chairman then of the largest agency in Japan, Yoshida Hideo of Dentsu Advertising, enthusiastically imbued the massive contributions advertising could offer to the domestic economy to the Taiwanese attendees and expre ssed his willingness to help build organized advertising agentry in Taiwan. Encouraged by Yoshid a and the uptrend of economy, many of the attendees therefore esta blished various agencies afterward (Lai, 1994). During this period, the event wi th most impact and direc tly related to advertising was the opening of the first television stati on in Taiwan, Taiwan Television (TTV). The opening and broadcasting of TTV not only provided another important advertising medium, but also helped shape the advertisi ng agentry for its contracts with 11 agencies that guaranteed exclusiveness of buying and arranging advertising cues to only these agencies. The characteristics of advertising in this era were also effortless to spot. To begin with, the most noticeable one was the steady increase of agencies and media during this period of time in response of the rapid grow th of the domestic economy that created great demand of agentry services. Following TTV China Television Company (CTV) and Chinese Television System (CTS) were founded continuously in 1969 and 1971,

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14 respectively. These three television stations had been the only ch annels of television advertising for two decades. Similarly, Economy Daily (1967), Minshen Daily, Commerce Times and China Times Weekly Magazine (1978) were also founded as subsidiaries of the two leadi ng newspapers in order to meet the rising need for more advertising space. Advertising in Taiwan was deeply influenced by Japan. In addition to the fact that Yoshida had induced contemporary advertising in Taiwan, most of the agencies clients and products advertised were also from Japa n, and founders of those early agencies in Taiwan generally also received Japanese education. Thus, Japanese style predominant in internal organizations, management methods, or creative executions of the majority of agencies. Numerous advertising awards also appeared in this era, such as the Best Designed Newspaper Advertising Awards by Taiwan Shinsheng Daily in 1965, the first one in Taiwan, the Golden Tower Awards by TTV in 1968, the first TV commercial awards in Taiwan, the Golden Bridge Awards by United Daily News and the Times Advertising Design Awards by China Times in 1978. For further information regarding these advertising awards, please see later section, Advertising Awards in Taiwan in this chapter. Table 2-2 shows the critical social, political, economic and advertising events in the developing era, as well as the characteristics of it.

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15 Table 2-2: Events and Characteristics of the Developing Era The Developing Era Year From 1958 to 1979 Social Political Economic Events 1958 The enactment of the Encouraging Foreign Investments Statute 1962 The first television station in Taiwan, TTV, went on air 1964 Taiwan formally severed diplomatic ties with France Inauguration of the first highway, MacArthur Highway 1969 China Television Company (CTV) went on air 1971 Taiwan disaffiliated from the United Nations (UN) Chinese Television System (CTS) started broadcasting 1972 Taiwan formally severed diplomatic ties with Japan 1973 The beginning of the Ten Public Infrastructures Project The 1st Oil Crisis 1975 The demise of President Chiang Kai-shek The end of Vietnam War 1976 Enforcement Rules of the Broa dcasting and Television Law came into force 1979 Taiwan officially severed diplomatic ties with the U.S. Advertising Events 1958 Chun-xiong Wen founded the first contemporary agency in Taiwan, Eastern Advertising 1959 Eastern Advertising joined the AFAA (Asian Federation Advertising Associations) 1960 Taiwan representatives participated in the 2nd AdAsia conference in Tokyo 1961 Taiwan Advertising, Hu ashan Advertising, and Kuohua Advertising was founded 1965 Taiwan Shinsheng Daily News he ld the first advertising awards in TaiwanBest Designed News paper Advertising Awards 1966 Eastern Advertising joined the International Advertising Association (IAA) The 5th AdAsia Conference held in Taipei 1967 IAA Taiwan branch was founded 1968 TTV held the first advertisi ng awards for TV commercials, the Golden Tower Awards The 1st advertising program in Taiwan was opened in Hsing-wu Commercial Junior College 1972 The first full-color, full-page newspaper advertisement of Fareastern Department Store 1974 Yili Market Research and C onsulting Company was founded and started viewership survey 1977 The founding of Brain Magazine The founding of Rainmaker Media Monitoring Company

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16 Table 2-2: Continued Advertising Events 1978 The 1st Golden Bridge Awards sponsored by United Daily The 1st China Times Advertising Design Awards held by China Times Characteristics 1. Contemporary advertising began in Taiwan with the opening of first full-service agency, Eastern Advertisin g, and followers such as Taiwan Advertising, Huashan Advertis ing, and Kuohua Advertising. 2. Media including both television sta tions and newspapers steadily increased. 3. Advertising industry was deeply influenced by Japan in terms of advertisers, products, organiza tions, management methods, and creative executions. 4. The appearance of different advertising awards. Source: Advertising Magazine (1999), Advertising events in half a century. 139, 39-49 Advertising Magazine (1999), 20 important events. 139, 50-55 Brain Magazine (2000), 40 years of advertising in Taiwan. 291, 49-50 Cheng (1999), Advertising and soci al change in Taiwan: 1945-1999. The Journal of Advertising Research 13, p.19-38 The developed era Starting in 1980, advertising in Taiwan ha d reached another era, which is the developed era. The milestone th at indicated the start of th e developed era was the annual advertising expenditure exceeding 10 billion New Taiwan dollars (N T$) for the first time in history in that year. In early this era, Taiw an experienced more vigorous economic growth. To transform into a more open and competitive market, Taiwans government took several important steps to loosen regu lations on politics a nd on economics such as the eradicating of restrictions on foreign investment in se rvice industries in 1984, the lifting of Martial Law in 1987, and the abolishing of the bans on political parties and the press in 1988. Amid these steps, the eradicating of rest rictions on foreign investment in service industries could be considered as the most influential one. An article in Far Eastern Economic Review by Goldstein (1989) described the flocking of intern ational agencies into this market vividly:

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17 Under the new rules, foreign agencies were allowed to wholly own local subsidiaries. Several agencies moved quick ly to exploit the opening. Besides JWT, Saatchi & Saatchi, Leo Burnett, McCa nn-Erickson, and Ogilvy & Mather, among others, either took majority equity stakes in local agencies with which they had previously had cooperative relationships, or came in cold with wholly owned subsidiaries. By now more than a dozen top firms have piled in. Taiwans economic success has made it t oo juicy a market to ignore. With per capita income levels for this year pr ojected by the government to reach US$6,273 up from US$3,500 in 1986and rapi dly rising levels of pe rsonal expenditure, this islands streets are chocked with imported cars and its stores stuffed with designerlabeled goods. International agencies have increased staff at breakneck pace to cope with the new opportunities. Leo Burnett quadrupled its st aff to the percent total of 100 since 1985, as billings last year reached ab out US$16 million. McCann-Erickson tripled its staff to about 150 in the same period, with billings rising to US$27 million in 1988. In addition to the agencies mentioned above, other major foreign agencies also entered Taiwan during those years, incl uding BBDO in 1986, Bates in 1988, Grey in 1989, Dentsu in 1992, and many followers. Another noticeable trend in this era was the establishment of independent media buying companies. MindShare, the joint forc es of O&M and JWT, was the first one established in 1995. Despite doubts and questions about this brand new kind of agency at the beginning, MindShare successfully created a new arena within the industry. In 1997, two more media buying companies were found followed by seven more in 1999. It would be fair to say that the competition among thes e companies is no less severe than those among advertising agencies. With the abolishing of the bans on political parties and the press also came brutal competitions among media. Owing to the popularity of cable television, new channels, newspapers, radio stations, magazines, and even new media such as the Internet, the five media giants (three television stations, TTV, CTV, CTS and two newspapers, United

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18 Daily and China Times) were no longer able to monopolize advertising channels. This situation offered advertisers and advertising practitioners more choices of communication vehicles to use, as well as more diff iculties to cope with the challenges. The first characteristic of this era was competition: competition among advertisers, agencies, media companies, and media; a nd between local and foreign companies. Competition also brought the second character istic, which was the massive increase of advertisements in different media from vari ous advertisers by diverse agencies. Table 2-3 shows the critical social, political, economic a nd advertising events in the developed era, as well as the characteristics of it. Table 2-3: Events and Characteristics of the Developed Era The Developed Era Year From 1980 to 2000 Social Political Economic Events 1980 The founding of the Consumers Foundation, Taiwan 1985 The Labor Standards Law came into force. 1986 Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was founded 1987 The lifting of Martial Law in Taiwan 1988 The bans on political parties and the press were abolished 1991 The end of the Period of Communist Rebellion 1992 The Fair Trade Act came into force 1993 Open of the restriction of opening radio stations The Cable Television Law was enacted 1994 The Consumer Protection Law went into effect The founding of the Audit Bureau of Circulations, ROC (ABC) Public Television Service (PTS) went on air 1997 The forth television station, Formosa Television (FTV), went on air 1998 The Public Television went on air 1999 The enactment of the Satellite Television Law 921 earthquake (happened in September 21st) brought massive impact to Taiwan economy 2000 Democratic Progressive Party s (DPP) presidential candidate, Chen Shui-bian, won the presidential election Advertising Events 1980 Annual advertising expe nditure exceeded NT$10 billions 1981 The founding of Liberty Times 1984 International agencies started to enter Taiwan market 1985 The first time in history with negative growth

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19 Table 2-3: Continued Advertising Events 1986 The 1st academic advertising program in Taiwan in Chinese Culture University 1987 The founding of the Association of Accredited Advertising Agents of Taiwan, R.O.C. (4A) Ideology Advertising was founded 1990 Gallup Organization Taiwan branch opened The 1st Times Asia-Pacific Advertising Awards 1991 The 1st 4A Creative Awards The open of restrictions over political campaign commercials on television The activation of the Tobacco Control Act; cigarette advertisements were afterward banned 1992 The 1st Young Times Advertising Awards The 1st Times Classified Advertising Awards 1993 Taiwan advertising practitione rs backed to AdAsia Conference after three decades of forced absence 1994 The 1st Golden Slogan Awards 1995 The 1st media company, MindShare Media, was founded by O&M and JWT 1997 The first advertising progr am in graduate level opened 1998 Advertising practitioners we re included in the Labor Law 1999 Liberty Times and 4A jointed to hold the 1st 4A Liberty Creative Awards The 1st Click! Internet Advertising Awards Characteristics 1. International agencies began entering Ta iwan in forms of either wholly owned or joint ventures. 2. Media buying became independent function from full-service agencies to media companies. 3. Competitions among advertisers, agencies and media got more and more severe than ever. 4. The amount of advertising expend iture, advertisements and the vehicles they are delivered kept increasing. Source: Advertising Magazine (1999), Advertising events in half a century. 139, 39-49 Advertising Magazine (1999), 20 important events. 139, 50-55 Brain Magazine (2000), 40 years of advertising in Taiwan. 291, 49-50 Cheng (1999), Advertising and soci al change in Taiwan: 1945-1999. The Journal of Advertising Research 13, p.19-38 The challenging era After reaching the peak in the late 1990s, annual advertising expenditure in Taiwan remarkably shrank to less than NT$ 100 bil lion in 2001, thus announced the beginning of the fourth era of advertising in Taiwan: the challenging era.

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20 The main reason behind this deteriora tion of advertising expenditure was the recession of domestic economy that Taiwan had never experienced since the economic takeoff in the 1970s. Even though the country withstood the Asian financial crisis in 1998, Taiwan still suffered from the global economic downturn and other impacts. Since the United States is a very important exports partner of Taiwan, the collapse of dotcom prosperity in the United States during 2000 to 2001 inevitably affected industries, especially high-tech and computer-related ones, and caused the stagnant economy. Additionally, DDP replaced KMT as the ruling party in Taiwan after the 2000 presidential election. Their principle of advocating Taiwan independence agitated Chinese government, and aroused the uncerta inty and unstablene ss between these two countries. As a result, politics became anot her reason of causing the increase exoduses of domestic industries and the decr ease of foreign investments. The rise of China was another factor that worsened the economic recession. Ever since it opened the gate to th e western world, China had become an irresistible market and land of opportunity to fo reign investors and companies with the huge market and abundant and cheap labor power. Its impact on the advertising industry was simple and direct: more and more multi-national advertisers either regard Taiwan as only a starting point of entering this massive China market, or merely a small part of Greater China market. Therefore marketing investments in Taiwan, including advertising budgets, from these advertisers inescapably diminished. The severest winter of a dvertising brought some change s and characteristics of advertising in Taiwan. First of all, agenci es in Taiwan went through a sweeping tide of amalgamations and reorganizations in 2002 and 2003. Local agencies without foreign

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21 capital to back them up suffered more than other agencies, and some eventually got merged with international agencies. Dentsu Commex, and subsidiary of Dentsu Taiwan, acquired Brain Advertising. Ba tten Barton Durstine & Osborn (BBDO) Taiwan acquired Harvest Advertising. At the end of 2003, there were only five local agencies remaining in the top 20 listings. Some amalgamations occurred in a global s cale and affected their subsidiaries in Taiwan. Publicis Group from France acquired DArcy Advertising, and Wire and Plastic Products (WPP) Group acquire d Bates Advertising. Other reorganization included the new Qgilvy Group Taiwan, which integrated a nd moved its nine ancillaries, including Ogilvy Advertising, Ogilvy Public Relations Ogilvy Identity Enterprise, Ogilvy One, Team-Mate Marketing Development & Serv ices Ltd., Relationship Marketing Group, Results Advertising, Era Public Relations, and TeleDirect, into one building in order to provide integrated and multi-func tional services to clients. Another characteristic of this era was that agencies roles and functions were challenged and threatened. To use their ad vertising budgets more efficiently, some advertisers turned to small studios, freelan cers or in-house marketing departments to produce their advertisements, or went direc tly to media to purchase spots and spaces. Some even extended to own their own non-trad itional media, such as websites, direct mails, or in-store advertising spaces. For example, the grand prize of the 23rd Times Advertising Awards (2001) went to a TV commercial of Music Television (MTV) Channel, which was designed and produced by MTV Channel without any agency. The largest retail system in Taiwan, 7-Eleven, also started to sell advertising spaces in their more than 2,500 stores across the country to advertisers in addition to selling daily

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22 products to consumers. Table 2-4 shows th e critical social, pol itical, economic and advertising events in the challenging era, as well as its characteristics. Table 2-4: Events and Characte ristics of the Challenging Era The Pre-contemporary Era Year From 2001 to present Social Political Economic Events 2001 Taiwan economy suffered from the first recession since the 1970s. 2002 Taiwan became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) hit East Asia, including Taiwan, and caused regional economy to dramatically decline 2004 DPP and its candidate won thei r second victory in the presidential election Advertising Events 2001 Annual advertising expenditure shrank back to less than NT$ 100 billion after years of thriving 2002 Dentsu Commex acquired Brain Advertising BBDO acquired Harvest Advertising Ogilvy Group integrated and moved its ancillaries into one building 2003 DArcy Taiwan was merged with Publicis Group because of worldwide acquisition WPP Group acquired Bates Advertis ing, including Bates Taiwan Characteristics 1. Advertising industry suffered a severe decline due to the economic recession in Taiwan. 2. Amalgamations and reorganizations swept agencies; and local agencies gradually lost their places in competition. 3. Advertisers sought new advertisi ng partners; agencies no longer dominated the process of producing advertisements. 4. Advertisers planned and purchased media without agencies, and some extended to own their own non-traditional channel. Source: Advertising Magazine (November, 2003), Hurrah independence! Innovates and refuses to join the no-name club. 150, retrieved from < http://www.books.com.tw/magazine/item/advertise1126.htm > Brain Magazine (2002), Brain Advertising and Dentsu Commex officially merged. 317, retrieved from < http://magazines.sina.com.tw/brain/contents/317/317-001_1.html > Ding (2003). Advertising awards: An Explor ation of advertising awards and their influences. p. 22-23 Agencies in Taiwan Today Agencies in Taiwan today can be categor ized according five different types: 1) local agencies, such as Ideology and Eastern Ad vertising; 2) Japanese agencies, such as Dentsu and Hakuhodo; 3) American agencies, such as Ogilvy & Mather and J. Walter

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23 Thompson; 4) European agencies, such as Publics from France and Saatchi & Saatchi from the U.K.; and 5) allies of domestic a nd foreign agencies, such as Huawei & Grey and BBDO-Harvest. The only exceptions ar e Batey Advertising from Singapore, and Dentsu Young & Rubicam Wunderman Advert ising (DY&R Wunderman), which is a joint venture of agencies from Japan and the U.S. So far, there are about one 160 agencies joining the Associat ion of Accredited Advertising Agents of Taiwan, R.O.C. (4A), Taiwan, which accounts for 60% of total advertising expenditure in Ta iwan, and the top 20 agencies accounts for half of this amount. Table 2-5 presents the top 10 agencies in Taiwan in terms of their annual gross income in 2003: Table 2-5: Advertising Agency Ranking in Taiwan (2003) Ranking Agency Annual Gross Income (2003/US$ million) 1 J. Walter Thompson (JWT) 13.4 2 Dentsu Taiwan 13.3 3 McCann-Erickson 12.6 4 Ogilvy & Mather (O&M) 11.5 5 Huawei & Grey 11.4 6 Saatchi & Saatchi 11.2 7 Leo Burnett 10.0 8 Foote Cone & Belding (FCB) 8.7 9 Kuohua 6.2 10 BBDO-Harvest 5.8 Source: Brain Magazine (2004), 335 Advertising Awards in Taiwan After more than half a century of developm ent, advertising in Taiwan has reached a highly recognizable level both in quantity and in quality. Therefor e, there are many advertising awards in Taiwan with vari ous purposes and diverse specializations.

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24 The first advertising awards appeared in Taiwan in May 1965 when Taiwan Shinsheng Daily News held the first Best Designed Newspaper Advertising Awards. In the first advertising awards, there were 11 a dvertisements rewarded with first, second, third places, three special awards, and five merit mentions. As for TV commercial awards, the first one in Taiwan, the Golden To wer Awards, was held by TTV in 1968. Nevertheless, this competition was discontinue d after four years of operation in 1971 due to the opening of CTV and CTS that threatened the authority and rightfulness of TTV to sponsor the awards alone. In 1978, because of the harsh competition between newspapers, the largest two newspaper groups, United Daily and China Ti mes, announced their attempts to hold advertising awards, the Golden Bridge Awards of the former and the Times Advertising Design Awards for the latter. The Golden Bridge Awards only continued for two years, while the Times Advertising Design Awards later was renamed as the Times Advertising Awards in 1980 and still continues. In 1988, TV commercials were included in the competition of the Times Advertising Awards. In the 1990s, China Times t ook further steps to reinforce it status in holding advertising awards by increasing the Times Asia-Pacific Advertising Awards in 1990, the Young Times Advertising Awards for advertising students in 1992, the Times International Chinese Advertisin g Awards in 1993, the Click! Internet Advertising Awards with portal website PC home in 1999, and the MRT Advertising Awards with Taipei MRT (stands for Mass Rapid Transit system, the subway system in Taipei).

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25 Apart from the awards held by China Times above, there are also several other advertising awards held annually in Taiw an sponsored by different companies or organizations. Table 2-6 shows the 10 major advertising awards currently in Taiwan: Table 2-6: Major Advertising Awards in Taiwan Awards Year Contestants Categories Sponsor(s) Times Advertising Awards 1978 Advertisements produced in Taiwan TV commercials Print advertising Radio advertising Outdoors advertising Technical executions China Times Times AsiaPacific Advertising Awards 1990 Advertisements from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific countries TV commercials Print advertising Radio advertising Outdoors advertising China Times Young Times Advertising Awards 1992 Advertisements made by advertising students in Taiwan, Hong Kong and China Print advertising China Times Times International Chinese Advertising Awards 1993 Chinese advertisements from Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, Singapore, Malaysia, and North America TV commercials Print advertising Radio advertising Outdoors advertising China Times Golden Slogan Awards 1993 Advertisements produced in Taiwan Advertising slogans Brain Magazine 4A Liberty Creative Awards 1997 Advertisements produced in Taiwan TV commercials Print advertising Radio advertising Outdoors advertising Technical executions 4A Liberty Times Breakthrough Marketing Awards 1997 Marketing campaigns in Taiwan Most effective marketing campaigns Breakthrough Marketing Magazine Click! Internet Advertising Awards 1999 Internet advertisements produced in Taiwan Internet advertising China Times PC home Longxi Chinese Advertising Awards 1999 Chinese advertisements from Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, Singapore, Malaysia, and North America TV commercials Print advertising Radio advertising Outdoors advertising Independent MRT Advertising Awards 2002 Outdoors advertisements in MRT stations Outdoors advertising MRT China Times Source: Official website of Times Awards: < http://www.timesawards.com/>

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26 Official website of Brain Magazine : < www.brain.com.tw > Official website of Breakthrough Marketing Magazine : < www.breakthrough.com.tw > CNAD.com (China Advertising.com) website: < http://www.cnad.com/ > Ding (2003), Advertising awards: An Explor ation of advertising awards and their influences. p.24 As indicated in the list above, the Times Advertising Awards is the only advertising award that honors outstanding TV commercials exclusively for agencies in Taiwan and has a remarkable long history. After more than two decades of operation, the Times Advertising Awards has saluted hundreds of advertising practit ioners for their dedicated works and extraordinary achievements. At the same time, it also gained an incomparable and unquestionable legitimacy to be the single advertising event to best represent advertising and creativity in Taiwan. This was also the reason for choosing the Times Advertising Awards winning TV commercia ls as the universe of this study. In the recent annual event held in October 2004, the 27th Times Advertising Awards, there were 1,428 advertisements ente red the competition and 509 were selected as finalists; among them, 32 were honored wi th gold awards, 26 w ith silver, 43 with bronze and 180 with merit mentions that summed up to 281 in total. Among the 108 agencies that joined the competition, Ogilvy & Mather was the biggest winner with totally 58 awards, while J. Walter Thompson was another noticeable winner with 42 awards. The Best of Show this year went to the commercial, Suicide, for Sunrise Department Store produced by Ideology, a loca l agency and a frequent winner of this contest. The Times Advertising Awards (TAA) Committee also increased two categories this year: medicine and health, and political campaign in order to include the increasing TV commercials regard ing these two matters.

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27 Studies of Creative Executional Factors Stewart and Furses study The study of Stewart and Furses (1986) wa s designed to add to the descriptive literature on the effect various advertising executional devices on meas ures of advertising performance, as they stated in their book. With focus on examining the relationship between executional elements and effectiven ess, the authors developed a comprehensive coding system in which 155 unique instru mental items were identified based on predecessors works and the results of pr eliminary testing. This set of 155 items represented categories of executional items, formats, and devices (Stewart and Furse, 1986): Information content Brand/product identification Setting Visual and auditory devices Promises/appeals/propositions Tone/atmosphere Comparisons Music and dancing Structure and format Characters Timing and counting measures After coding more than 1,000 TV commerc ials using these items and comparing with corresponding performance results from a copy-testing firm, the authors drew findings that show both positive and nega tive correlations between variables and

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28 effectiveness. In terms of r ecall, the variables related to information load were found to be negatively related while those were asso ciated with obtaini ng attention, repetition, length of exposure, memory, and vividness of information were found positively related as shown in Table 2-7: Table 2-7: Relation between Executional Variables and Recall Negatively related to recall Positively related to recall Information on components/ingredients Information on nutrition/health Research information Graphic displays Substantive supers Attributes/ingredients as main message Direct comparison with competitors Time (seconds) until product category identification Time (seconds) until brand name identification Time (seconds) until product/package is shown Total information Total propositions Brand-differentiating message Information on convenience of use Visual brand sign-off Setting directly related to product use Memorable rhyme/mnemonic device Cute/adorable tone Humorous tone Puffery (unsubstantiated comparison) Demonstration (product use) format Demonstration (result) format Fantasy/surreal format Length of commercial Number of times brand name was mentioned Total time (seconds) product was on screen Number of times brand name/logo was on screen Source: Stewart and Furse, Effective Television Advertising 1986, p.22 Individual items and how they were relate d to persuasion were shown in Table 2-8: Table 2-8: Relation between Executional Variables and Persuasion Negatively related to persuasion Positively related to persuasion Information on components/ingredients Information on nutrition/health Male principal character Background cast Outdoor setting Number of on-screen characters Total propositions Total psychological appeals Brand-differentiating message Information on convenience of use Information on new product/new features Family-branded products Indirect comparison to competitors Demonstration (product use) format Demonstration (result) format Actor playing role as principal character No principal character Total time (seconds) product was on screen Source: Stewart and Furse, Effective Television Advertising 1986, p.23

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29 However, the most emphasized finding in their study was that brand-differentiating message was by far the single most important executional factor for explaining both recall and persuasion of a product. And, the presence of a brand-di fferentiating message was also found to be independent of the pres ence of other types of executional devices (Stewart and Furse, 1986, p.23) For this study, what Stewart and Furse s study provided most importantly and aspiring was the coding framework even thoug h they put a great effort to examine the effectives of TV commercials. With th e clarified purpose of this study, it was the executional variables that woul d be employed in this study. Studies of Award-winning TV Commercials As the winners of the globally recognized and respected advertising awards, the CLIO Advertising Awards, the award-winni ng TV commercials, have been most frequently studied. Based on the assumption that the form of TV commercials itself structures the message in ways that are independent of th e content, Ernst (1980) conducted a research over 59 U.S. TV commercials and 36 intern ational ones from the winners of CLIO Advertising Awards of 1976 and 1977 in order to look at the pa ttern of usage of production techniques and the frequency of o ccurrence. She categorized these techniques as basic transitions including cut and dissolve, and special effect transitions including wipe, truck, pan, fade, zoom, superimposition, motion effects, and exotic effects. Her research findings indicated that in terms of frequency of using, cuts were most commonly used, followed by dissolves, trucks, pans a nd finally zooms. International commercials used transitions more frequently although the U.S. ones used more of them in amount. In terms of specific techniques, the international ones used more cuts while the U.S. ones

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30 used more dissolves. Thus, the international ones tended to be more fast-paced than their U.S. counterparts. And finally, U.S. commer cials applied more special effects while international ones applied more basic transitions. Another study performed by Gagnard and Morris (1988) examined 121 CLIO award-winning TV commercials from 1975, 19 80 and 1985 to seek th e answer to the question of whether relationships exist between what research studies have determined to be effective techniques and what the advert ising industry holds up as examples of creative excellence. There were 151 variab les modified from the book of Stewart and Furse (1986). According to the researcher s findings, an ideal TV commercial would possess: 1) an actor playing a real person as the leading role and background cast was present, 2) continuity of action and a strong front-end imp act with a blind lead-in, 3) set indoors and strong attempts to create a mood or image, 4) humorous or suspenseful, and contemporary, 5) concern about company image or reputation and cite results of using the product, 6) both visual and auditory bra nd sign-off and strong identification of the company, 7) product benefits or performance as featured element, and 8) music omnipresented and used primarily to create cer tain mood. Their study also exposed a conflict comparing with the findings of Stewart a nd Furses (1986). Stewar t and Furses (1986) study revealed that a brand-differentiating message was the key determinant of both recall and persuasion, while the study found that it was rarely presented in these CLIO Award-winning TV commercials. This br ought up the long-asked question, could artistic achievement and effectiveness in advertising exist side by side? Likewise, Gagnard (1989) found this discre pancy again in her later study in which the same TV commercials from CLIO Awards were repeatedly examined. This time she

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31 focused on elements of timing and repe tition within commercial messages. The underlying belief of the study was that repe tition of the same message would have positive effects on a receiving audience. However, a disparity in several areas was found once again existing between elements of s upposedly effective commercials and awardwinning ones. In fact, certain creative technique s that were widely used, namely the blind lead-in and delayed product iden tification, were considered to be creative, but also were regarded as having low effectiveness. Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials were rarely studied. Research on Taiwanese award-winning advertisements has focused mostly on print advertisements, as stated previously in chapte r one. At the time of conducti ng this study, there was only one article that investigated this field availabl e through the Dissertation and Thesis Abstract System of National Central Li brary, R.O.C. This article was written by Chao (2003) in which totally 168 award-winning TV commerci als from the Times Advertising Awards in Taiwan and Dentsu Advertising Awards in Japan (109 commercials from Taiwan) from 1998 to 2001 were analyzed and compared in order to yield the similarities and differences between these two countries. In the study, Chao (2003) compared the TV commercials using 14 variables, which incl uded nationality, length, purpose, theme, appeal, target gender, target age, protagonist gender, protagonist age, protagonist occupation, presence or absence of animal char acter, tone and manner, use of music, and voice-over and lines. The study illustrated a portra it of typical Taiwanese TV commercials with several characteristics, although not absolutely but relatively, that contained shorter lengths,

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32 more rational appeals, emphasized more on adu lt targets, and the preference toward male character(s) comparing with a Japanese counterpart. Research Questions Based on the literature review, this st udy sought the answers to two research questions (RQs): RQ1: From a macro point of view, what are the typical characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials? RQ2: From a micro point of view what is the occurrence of each variable in these Taiwanese TV commercials?

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33 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Variable-Analysis Framework Variables There were 60 variables coded for Taiwan ese award-wining TV commercials in this study. All variables were further classifi ed into 14 categories: 1) peripheral, 2) commercial structure, 3) commercial format 4) commercial tone and atmosphere, 5) commercial approach, 6) promise, appeal an d selling proposition, 7) information content, 8) brand and product identification, 9) co mparison, 10) commercial characters, 11) commercial setting, 12) visual devices, 13) auditory device s, and 14) music and dancing. The coding framework and variables were derived from the codebook in the study of Stewart and Furse (1986, pp. 133-145) and th e Masters thesis of Deng (2004, pp. 1522, 70-74) with adaptations in or der to be more suitable fo r analysis of Taiwanese TV commercials. In an attempt to eliminate ambi guity and confusion th at may occur during the coding process, it was further regulated th at if any commercials should fit into more than one operational definition in any particul ar coding category or variable, it would be coded according to the most predominate one. The following coding scheme is a broad in troduction of the categories and their operational definition of variables:

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34 Coding Categories and Options of Variables Peripheral The peripheral data contained basic information of each commercial, which included year, product category, the award it received, advertised brand or products origin, winning agencys origin, and length of the TV commercial. Commercial structure Seven different structures were included in this category, which were front-end impact, surprise or suspense in the middle, su rprise or suspense at closing, unusual setting or situation, humorous clos ing, blind lead-in, and messa ge in the middle (doughnut). Commercial format Eighteen commercial formats were identified in this category: vignette, continuity of action, slice of life, testim onial by product user, endorseme nt by celebrity or authority, announcement, demonstration of product in us e or by analogy, demonstration of results of using product, comedy or satire, animati on or carton or rotoscope, photographic stills, creation of mood or image as dominant element, commercial written as serious drama, fantasy or exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element, problem and solution, interview, camera involves audien ce in situation, and new wave. Commercial tone and atmosphere Eighteen different options were coded, such as: cute or adorable, hard sell, warm and caring, modern or contemporary, wholesome or healthy, technological or futuristic, conservative or traditional, old-fashioned or nostalgic, happy or fun-loving, cool or laidback, somber or serious, uneasy or tense or irritated, relaxed or comfortable, glamorous, humorous, suspenseful, rough or rugged, and exotic.

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35 Commercial approach This category of variables explored the different approach of commercials, including rational or emotional approach, positive or negative approach, and branddifferentiating message as well. Promise, appeal, and selling proposition Fourteen different options were included under this variable, which were: attribute on ingredients as main message, product pe rformance or benefits as main message, psychological or subjective benefits of pr oduct ownership, product reminder as main message, sexual appeal, comfort appeal, safety appeal, enjoyment appeal, welfare appeal, social approval, self-esteem or self-image achievement, and exci tement, sensation or variety. Information content Twenty-six various options were included under this variable, which were: price, value, quality, economy or saving, dependability or reliability or durability, sensory information, aesthetic claims, components or contents or ingredie nts, availability, packaging, guarantees or warranty, safety, nu trition or health, i ndependent research results, company-sponsored research results, research results from unidentified source, new uses, company image or reputation, results of using, users satisfaction or dedication or loyalty, superiority claim, convenience in use, special offer or event, new product or new/improved product features, use occasion, an d characteristics or image of users. Brand and product identification Five variables were included in this cat egory, which were: presence of product in commercial, appearance of double-branded pro duct, appearance of identification of the

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36 company manufacturing and/or distributing the product, visual brand sign-off, and auditory brand sign-off. Comparison This variable presented the form of co mparison shown in the commercials, which included four options: direct comparison with other products, indi rect comparison with other products, puffery or unsubsta ntiated claim, and no comparison. Commercial characters Variables in this category covered bot h principal character(s) and minor character(s) with more detailed examination on the former one(s). Started with the presence or absence of principal character(s ), these 19 variables included the appearance of sex of principal character(s) age of principal character(s) racial or ethnic minority as principal character(s), celebrity as principal character(s), actor playing role of ordinary person as principal character(s), real people as principal character(s), created role as principal character(s), animal(s) as principa l character(s), animated role as principal character(s), character(s) identified with company, background cast, racial or ethnic minority in minor role, celebrity in minor role animal(s) in minor role, created or carton character(s) in minor role, real person in minor role, recognized continuing character(s), and presenter or spokesperson on camera. Commercial setting Options range from indoor, outdoor, combin ation of indoor and outdoor, to others (fantasy, computer animated setting, or designated studio setting), and no setting (limbo background).

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37 Visual devices Nine variables were included such as the appearance of scenic beauty, beauty of principal character(s), ugliness of principa l character(s), graphic display, surrealistic visuals, substantive supers, vi sual tagline, visual memory device, and language presented in commercial. Auditory devices Four variables were included such as la nguage spoken in commercial, presence or absence of memorable rhyme, slogan or mnemonic device, presence or absence of unusual sound effect, and presence or absence of spoken tagline. Music and dancing Seven variables in this category incl uded presence or absence of music in commercial, music style, the appearance of music as a major element, music creates mood, adaptation or employment of well-known music, recognized co ntinuing musical theme, and presence or absence of dancing. For the comprehensive definitions and expl anations of variables and/or options, please see Appendix B, Operational Definitions of Coding Variables after chapter five for additional information. Research Questions Based on previous chapter and the establis hed variable-analysis framework in this chapter, this study sought the answers to tw o research questions (RQs). From a macro point of view, the overall, typical characteri stics of these Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials were extracted using the 60 variables as criteria as stated in RQ1 below. Meanwhile, a micro level RQ2 was also explored by deconstructing these TV

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38 commercials in order to present the specifi c frequency of occurrence of the same 60 variables. RQ1: From a macro point of view, what are the typical characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials in terms of the 14 categories and 60 variables identified in the coding framework? RQ2: From a micro point of vi ew, what is the occurrence of each variable in these Taiwanese TV commercials in terms of the 14 categories and 60 variables identified in the coding framework? Content Analysis Design This study aimed to investigate the typi cal characteristics of Taiwanese awardwinning TV commercials and verifying the oc currence of various cr eative, executional variables within them based on the comparison with the TV commercials tested in the Stewart and Furse (1986) study, as well as in Deng (2004) study regarding Chinese award-winning TV commercials. In order to an swer the proposed research questions, the research method of content analys is was applied to this study. In his co-authored book with Westley, Research Method in Mass Communication Stempel (1981) quoted from Berelson (1952) and provided a clear, long-established definition of content analysis as: Content analysis is a research techni que for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the ma nifest content of communication. Additionally, other researchers also clarified quantitative content analysis as the systematic and replicable ex amination of symbols of co mmunication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationship involving those valu es using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its m eaning, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and consum ption (Riffe, Lacy and Fico, 1998, p. 20).

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39 Since the purpose of this study is to extract the common characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials whil e using certain predecessors studies as blueprints, content analysis w ould serve as the most appropriate and effective method to build the quantitative obse rvation of the given body (award-winning TV commercials) during continuous period of time (1998-2003), and to analyze them systematically and objectively. Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis in this study was th e individual award-wi nning TV commercial in Taiwan from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (1998-2003), which sum up to a sample size of 640 total commercials. Howe ver, as the coding framework of this study was adapted from previous works of predecessors, it was neither applicable nor suitable for some of the TV commercials in terms of commercial format, promise, appeal and selling proposition, and brand and product identification. In addition, the focus of this study was on the TV commercials for selli ng products or servi ces, the commercial commercials in other words. Thus, those commercials from the public service and corporation image categories were not included in this study. After excluding the first two categories, public service and corporation image as mentioned previously, the total of TV commercials analyzed was 542. The TV commercials were then split into 14 pr oduct categories including: electronics, automobile, food, beverage, household, personal care, education and culture, construction and decoration, financial service, tourism and recreation, comm unications, retailer, Internet, and others. The final sample contained the entire un iverse of winners of gold, silver, bronze, and merit mentions. For a comp lete list of these TV commercials from

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40 each year, please see Appendix D, List of the Times Advertis ing Awards Winning TV Commercials Also excluded from the sample were thos e TV commercials from years prior to the 20th Times Advertising Awards (prior to 1998). The rationale not include the first 19 competitions and begin with 20th (1998) was for the following reasons. First, from the 1st to 9th Times Advertising Awards, TV commerci als were not included in the contests; only outstanding print advertising was awarded in the first nine years. Second, the TAA Committee started to publish annuals that contain all winning print, outdoors and broadcasting advertising from 1998 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the awards. Winning advertisements prior to 1998, whethe r print, outdoors or broadcasting, were therefore not available to the researcher. Thus, this study on ly analyzed those from 1998 to 2003. Sampling Design This study is specified to the TV commercials earning awards in their corresponding categories in the Times Adver tising Awards during the given six years. The population of the sample is a specifi ed body of collections from the Times Advertising Awards annuals. Starting in 1998, TAA Committee published an annual of winners from the Times Advertising Awards. Each annua l contains three parts: a preface and greeting from the chairman of the committee, followed by the introduction of the judges names and backgrounds. The body of the boo k lists hundreds of winner s from different product categories respectively in the order of four major adver tising vehicles (print, TV commercial, radio and outdoors) and excutiona l categories (best directing, shooting, art directing, editing, computer retouching and so on).

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41 In these annuals, all the winners were list ed in a profile including the advertisement itself, its identification number, the award it received, title of the advertisement, name of advertiser, name of advertising agency, names of the creative team (c reative director, art director and copywriter), account team (account director and account executive), and, for TV commercial, production team (production house, director and producer). All the winning print advertisements were displaye d. All the photos ta ken for the outdoor advertising winners were illustrated. As for the radio winning ones, the transcripts were shown. And as for the winning TV commercial s, the major shots of each commercial were selected and displayed. The annuals al so enclosed Video Compact Disks (VCDs) featuring the video part of the TV commercials and auditory pa rt of radio advertisings as the supplemental materials. The researcher attained these VCDs feat uring the award-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (1998-200 3). The final sample of 542 winning commercials (which won gold, silver, br onze, or merit mentions) were collected from their corresponding year of VCDs and coded into a database individually. Intercoder Reliability In this study, there were two coders us ed for the content analysis design. The researcher served as the primary coder wh ile another advertising-major, bilingual, Taiwanese student performed th e role of the second coder. Before the initial coding procedure, the secondary coder was re quired to thoroughly understand the coding category system, definitions of each and every category, vari able and option, and procedure sessions in order to ac hieve the satisfied reliability. The level of acceptance (i.e. intercoder re liability) employed Scotts Pi formula amongst coders:

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42 Pi = (% observed agreement% expected agreement) / (1% expected agreement) To obtain the intercoder reliability, two code rs codied for a sample of 10 percent of the TV commercials (54 single commercial units) in this study. Th e two coders then compared their coding results for the ten pe rcent sample on 60 va riables, and pursued acceptable intercoder reliability according to the reliabilities figures in the .80 to .90 (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003). Data Analysis Data collected from coding was entered and calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS release 12.0). Chisquares was also used to determine if statistically significant relati onships existed between the 60 variables of the 542 TV commercials (Brunig and Kintz, 1996), as well as to test the significance of difference between the peripheral vari ables (year, product category, aw ard received, brand/product origin, winning agency origin, and lengt h of commercial) and other 54 executional variables.

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43 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS By conducting a content analysis of the 542 units from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards from 1998 to 2003, this stu dy aimed to examine and generalize the commonly existing characteristics of Taiwan ese award-winning TV commercials. This chapter presents the findings in terms of the 60 variables adapted from the coding framework of Stewart and Furses (1986) a nd the replication of Dengs (2004), which included peripheral information, commercials structure, commercial format, commercial tone and atmosphere, commercials approac h, promise, appeal, and selling proposition, information content, brand and product identification, comparison, commercial characters, commercials setti ng, visual devices, auditory devices, and music and dancing. Description of the Sample of Commercials The first six variables represented the peripheral information of these 542 Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, which included year, product category, award received, brand/product origin, agency origin, and the length of commercial. Table 4-1 and Figure 4-1 indi cate the year these TV commercials were awarded. The variable Year stood for not the time thes e TV commercials were aired, but the time they received an award from the Times Advertising Awards. Except the 20th one held in 1998, the Times Advertising Awards rewarded 84 to 105 of outstanding TV commercials each year. In 1999 and 2002, there were more than 100 commercials awarded when there happened to be several serial commercials.

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44 Table 4-1: Frequency/Percent of Year Year Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 1998 65 12.0 12.0 1999 104 19.2 31.2 2000 84 15.5 46.7 2001 98 18.1 64.8 2002 105 19.4 84.1 2003 86 15.9 100.0 Total 542 100.0 1998 (20th) 12% 1999 (21st) 20% 2000 (22nd) 15% 2001 (23rd) 18% 2002 (24th) 19% 2003 (25th) 16% Figure 4-1: Percent of Year Table 4-2 and Figure 4-2 show the product ca tegories of the advertised products or services in these TV commercials bel onged to. Among the 14 categories, financial service, beverage, automobile, and communica tions were the most frequently occurred ones with respectively 59 (10.9%), 58 (10.7%), 57 (10.5%), and 57 (10.5%) commercials in total during the six years. On the othe r hand, it was noticeable that the categories Internet, tourism & recreati on, and construction & decora tion were the three least awarded categories in the six years. The reas on to this situation was that these three categories existed in only one of the six years, 1999, thus summed up to a remarkably less amount than others.

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45 Table 4-2: Frequency/Per cent of Product Category Product Category Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Electronics 44 8.1 8.1 Automobile 57 10.5 18.6 Food 48 8.9 27.5 Beverage 58 10.7 38.2 Household 38 7.0 45.2 Personal care 42 7.7 53.0 Education & culture 23 4.2 57.2 Construction & decoration 13 2.4 59.6 Communications 57 10.5 70.1 Financial service 59 10.9 81.0 Tourism & recreation 11 2.0 83.0 Retailer 36 6.6 89.7 Internet 5 0.9 90.6 Others 51 9.4 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Electronics 8% Automobile 10% Food 9% Beverage 11% Household 7% Personal care 8% Education & culture 4% Construction & decoration 2% Communications 11% Financial service 11% Tourism & recreation 2% Retailer 7% Internet 1% Others 9% Figure 4-2: Percent of Product Category Table 4-3 and Figure 4-3 below indicate the various awards, gold, sliver, bronze and merit mentions, given to the TV comm ercials during the sixyear period. Ideally, each product category would have one winner of gold award, one of silver award, one of bronze award, and three of merit mentions every year. Nevertheless, gold awards, sometimes even silver awards, were often given to none due to the overall standard of the

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46 TV commercials entered had not met the judg es expectation. As a result, gold award winners, 67 ones (12.4%) in total, were noticeably less than other three. Table 4-3: Frequency/Percent of Awards Awards Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Gold 67 12.4 12.4 Silver 80 14.8 27.1 Bronze 91 16.8 43.9 Merit mentions 304 56.1 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Gold 12% Silver 15% Bronze 17% Merit mentions 56% Figure 4-3: Percent of Awards The following Table 4-4 and Figures 4-4 to 45 explain the origin of the brands or products advertised in these TV commercials. When breaking down to specific regions, it is not surprising that domestic brands or pr oducts were the most fr equently awarded one with 293 (54.1%) units, followed by those from the U.S. with 111 (20.5%) units. When divided by domestic or international, domes tic brands or products still remained the dominant one, which accounted for 54% of total.

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47 Table 4-4: Frequency/Percen t of Brand/Product Origin Brand/Product origin Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Domestic 293 54.1 54.1 International* 249 45.9 100.0 Asia & Pacific 83 15.3 69.4 America 111 20.5 89.9 Europe 52 9.6 99.4 Others 3 0.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 *Including the following four: Asia & Pacific, America, Europe, and Others Domestic 54% Asia & Pacific 15% America 20% Europe 10% Others 1% Figure 4-4: Percent of Br and/Product Origin by Region Domestic 54% International 46% Figure 4-5: Percent of Brand/Product Origin

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48 Table 4-5 and Figures 4-6 to 4-7 indicate the origin of the advertising agencies that produced these TV commercials and won awards in these six annual competitions. When breaking down to detailed regions, agencies from the U.S. were the most frequent winners in the six consecutive Times Adver tising Awards with frequency of 261 (48.2%), followed by domestic ones with frequency of 209 (38.6%). When divided by domestic and international origin, affiliations or subsid iaries of international agencies in Taiwan overwhelmingly occupied the leading positio n and accounted for 56% of total amount. Table 4-5: Frequency/Percent of Agency Origin Agency origin Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Domestic 211 38.9 38.9 International* 325 60.0 98.9 Asia 45 8.3 45.2 U.S. 261 48.2 95.4 Europe 19 3.5 98.9 Others 6 1.1 100.0 Total 542 100.0 *Including the following three: Asia, U.S. and Europe Domestic 39% Asia 8% U.S. 48% Europe 4% Others 1% Figure 4-6: Percent of Agency Origin by Region

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49 Domestic 39% International 60% Others 1% Figure 4-7: Percent of Agency Origin Table 4-6 and Figure 4-8 show the frequenc y and percent of different lengths of these award-winning TV commercials. In terms of this variable, th e results containing 160 (29.5%) short ones, 183 (33.8%) average ones and 199 (36.7%) long ones suggest that these award-winning TV commercials di d not have a tendency of preferring certain length to present their commerc ials, even though long ones (with more than 35 seconds in length) showed slightly more frequency than the other two. Table 4-6: Frequency/Percent of Length of Commercial Length of commercial Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Short 160 29.5 29.5 Average 183 33.8 63.3 Long 199 36.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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50 Short 30% Average 34% Long 36% Figure 4-8: Percent of Length of Commercial Characteristics of Taiwanese Award-winning TV Commercials The following variables 7 to 60 examin ed the executional elements of the 542 award-winning TV commercials. By analyzing these elements, the characteristics of these commercials could be further extracted and illustrated. In terms of the structure of these award-winning TV co mmercials, as shown in Table 4-7, the most widely used ones were surprise or suspense in the middle with frequency of 158 (29.2%) and then unusual set ting or situation with frequency of 107 (19.7%). There was no commercial employe d message in middle (doughnut) and only 26 (4.8%) ones used humorous clos ing throughout the six years. Table 4-7: Frequency/Percen t of Commercial Structure Commercial structure Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Front-end impact 69 12.7 12.7 Surprise or suspense in the middle 158 29.2 41.9 Surprise or suspense at closing 92 17.0 58.9 Unusual setting or situation 107 19.7 78.6 Humorous closing 26 4.8 83.4 Blind lead-in 90 16.6 100.0 Message in middle (doughnut) 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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51 Table 4-8 below suggests that the most pr eferred commercial format in these six years Times Advertising Awards was vigne tte with frequency of 112 (20.7%). Coming in second and third were creation of mood or image with frequency of 87 (16.1%) and fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism with fre quency of 78 (14.4%). This finding reflects the common preference among advertisers and advertising practitioners of employing serial commercials with up to eight single ones rather than single ones to communicate their advertising messages. Table 4-8: Frequency/Percent of Commercial Format Commercial format Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Vignette 112 20.7 20.7 Continuity of action 62 11.4 32.1 Slice of life 19 3.5 35.6 Testimonial by product user 1 0.2 35.8 Endorsement by celebrity or authority 20 3.7 39.5 Announcement 8 1.5 41.0 Demonstration of product in use or by analogy36 6.6 47.6 Demonstration of results of using product 30 5.5 53.1 Comedy or satire 50 9.2 62.4 Animation/carton/rotoscope 4 0.7 63.1 Photographic stills 1 0.2 63.3 Creation of mood or image 87 16.1 79.3 Commercial written as serious drama 6 1.1 80.4 Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism 78 14.4 94.8 Problem & solution (before/after presentation) 15 2.8 97.6 Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) 6 1.1 98.7 Camera involves audience in situation 7 1.3 100.0 New wave (product graphics) 100.0 Total 542 100.0 According to Table 4-9, one could make the implication that advertisers and advertising practitioners favored suspensefu l tone and atmosphere, which accounted for 162 (29.9%) of the total, to gr ab attention of the audien ce. Following the first one, conservative/traditional came in second with less frequency of 61 (11.3%) and then uneasy/tense/irritated with frequency of 52 (9.6%).

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52 Table 4-9: Frequency/Percent of Commercial Tone & Atmosphere Commercial tone & atmosphere Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Cute/adorable 21 3.9 3.9 Hard sell 19 3.5 7.4 Warm & caring 30 5.5 12.9 Modern/contemporary 34 6.3 19.2 Wholesome/healthy 19.2 Technological/futuristic 16 3.0 22.1 Conservative/traditional 61 11.3 33.4 Old fashioned/nostalgic 15 2.8 36.2 Happy/fun-loving 16 3.0 39.1 Cool/laid-back 4 0.7 39.9 Somber/serious 11 2.0 41.9 Uneasy/tense/irritated 52 9.6 51.5 Relaxed/comfortable 21 3.9 55.4 Glamorous 11 2.0 57.4 Humorous 47 8.7 66.1 Suspenseful 162 29.9 95.9 Rough/rugged 2 0.4 96.3 Exotic 20 3.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Commercial approaches were examined fr om two different aspects in this study: rational or emotional, and positive or negati ve. The analyzing results shown in Table 410 indicate that emotional approach was the more commonly used one with frequency of 235 (43.4%) than rational and co mbination of both. On the other hand, the analysis of positive or negative approach yielded a more significant difference among positive, negative and combination of both that posit ive approach was the dominant one with frequency of 376 (69.4%). Table 4-10: Frequency/Percen t of Commercial Approach Commercial approach Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Rational/emotional approach Rational 170 31.4 31.4 Emotional 235 43.4 74.7 Combination of rational & emotional 137 25.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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53 Table 4-10: Continued Positive/negative approach Positive 376 69.4 69.4 Negative 124 22.9 92.3 Combination of positive & negative 42 7.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Table 4-11 indicates the frequency and percent of TV commercials containing brand-differentiating message. According to the analysis, there were only 31 (5.7%) commercials in which such messages were en closed, and thus left the other 511 (94.3%) ones without such messages to be the overwhelmingly dominant one. Table 4-11: Frequency/Percent of Brand-differentiating Message Brand-differentiating message Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Presence 31 5.7 5.7 Absence 511 94.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 The preferred commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition in these six years Times Advertising Awards can be spotted easily from Table 4-12, which was product performance or benefits with frequency of 224 (41.3%). Second one was psychological or subjective benefits with a significa ntly less frequency of 120 (22.1%). Table 4-12: Frequency/Percent of Commercia l Promise, Appeal, or Selling Proposition Commercial promise, appeal or selling proposition Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Attribute on ingredients 33 6.1 6.1 Product performance or benefits 224 41.3 47.4 Psychological or subjective benefits 120 22.1 69.6 Product reminder 54 10.0 79.5 Sales promotions 57 10.5 90.0 Sexual appeal 1 0.2 90.2 Comfort appeal 2 0.4 90.6 Safety appeal 14 2.6 93.2 Enjoyment appeal 13 2.4 95.6 Welfare appeal 95.6 Social approval 7 1.3 96.9 Self-esteem or self-image 4 0.7 97.6 Achievement 3 0.6 98.2 Excitement, sensation, variety 10 1.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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54 In terms of information contents in thes e TV commercials, resu lt of using (either tangible or intangible) was the one that had been most widely used with frequency of 113 (20.8%) as shown in Table 413. Other relatively frequent ones included new product or new/improved product features a nd characteristics or images of users with frequency of 82 (15.1%) and 75 (13.8 %), respectively. Table 4-13: Frequency/Percen t of Information Content Information content Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Price 8 1.5 1.5 Value 2 0.4 1.8 Quality 13 2.4 4.2 Economy/saving 10 1.8 6.1 Dependability/reliability/durability 15 2.8 8.9 Sensory information 3 0.6 9.4 Aesthetic claims 2 0.4 9.8 Components, contents, or ingredients 40 7.4 17.2 Availability 2 0.4 17.5 Packaging 1 0.2 17.7 Guarantees or warranty 1 0.2 17.9 Safety 2 0.4 18.3 Nutrition/health 1 0.2 18.5 Independent research results 18.5 Company-sponsored research results 18.5 Research results from unidentified source 18.5 New uses 18.5 Company image or reputation 70 12.9 31.4 Results of using (either tangible or intangible) 113 20.8 52.2 User's satisfaction, dedication, or loyalty 2 0.4 52.6 Superiority claim 18 3.3 55.9 Convenience in use 7 1.3 57.2 Special offer or event 53 9.8 67.0 New product or new/improved product features 82 15.1 82.1 Use occasion 22 4.1 86.2 Characteristics or image of users 75 13.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 According to Table 4-14, more than half, 280 units (51.7%), of these 542 commercials presented single product within them, while no product and multiple products comprised the other half with frequency of 146 (26.9%) and 116 (21.4%), respectively.

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55 In terms of double-branded product, approx imately one third of these commercials presented such product with frequency of 175 (32.3%). Identifications of company manufacturing or distributing the products adve rtised were also co mmonly presented in 469 (86.5%) out of the 542 commercials. Most of these TV commercials, 506 (93.4 %), had been embodied with some kind of visual brand sign-off at the end of them. As for audito ry brand sign-o ff, commercials with auditory brand sign-offs were less than those with visual ones but still were the majority with frequency of 376 (69.4%). Table 4-14: Frequency/Percent of Produc t and Brand Identification Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Presence of product in the commercial No product 146 26.9 26.9 Single product 280 51.7 78.6 Multiple product 116 21.4 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Presence or absence of doubled-branded product Presence 175 32.3 32.3 Absence 367 67.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Presence or absence of identification of company Presence 469 86.5 86.5 Absence 73 13.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Presence or absence of visual brand sign-off Presence 506 93.4 93.4 Absence 36 6.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Presence or absence of auditory brand sign-off Presence 376 69.4 69.4 Absence 166 30.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 It was easy to notice that comparisons, either direct, indirect or puffery, were absent in most of these TV commercials. Ther e were 513 (94.6%) out of 542 contained no comparison of any form. This was because direct comparisons between competing

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56 products in commercials were banned by the Government Information Office (GIO) regulations back to early 90s when two major manufacturers of cooking oils were attacking each other with advertising and caused great confusions among consumers. Direct comparisons, even indirect ones, had b een scarce in advertising to avoid violating the regulations, initiating battles be tween competitors, or causing lawsuits. There were still exceptions among these 542 commercials, which were the three commercials of Nissan Cefir o, a top-end luxury sedan targ eting social and economic elites in Taiwan. In these commercials, the product was directly compared with Royce Rolls and Mercedes Benz to symbolize and reinforce the luxury image. There were also 19 (3.5%) indirect comparisons using symbolic image such as nicknames of competitors to convey the superiority of the advertised products or services. Table 4-15: Frequency/Percent of Comparisons Comparisons Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Direct comparison 3 0.6 0.6 Indirect comparison 19 3.5 4.1 Puffery, or unsubstantiated claim 7 1.3 5.4 No comparison presented 513 94.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 As presented in part one of Table 4-16, 343 (63.3%) commercials used only one principal character to convey the advert ising messages, while 108 (19.9%) others employed two or more principal characters in them. In terms of sex and age of principal ch aracters, nearly half 266 (49.2%), of the commercials employed males as principal char acters, and in most cases, 187 (34.5%) out of 542, the principal characters were adults aged between 26 and 35.

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57 Racial or ethnic minorities were absent, 538 (99.3%), in the role of principal characters, as well as celebrities with abse nce frequency of 491 (90.6%) as presented in parts four and five of Table 4-16. Part six to part ten of the same table s uggest that professiona l actors were favored, with frequency of 380 (70.1%), by advertisers and a dvertising practitione rs when it came to the principal characters of TV commer cials. Aside from professional actors as principal characters, only 14 (2.6%) commercials used real people, 7 (1.3%) of them used created roles, 15 (2.8%) used animals, and only 2 (0.4%) used animated roles. Table 4-16: Frequency/Percent of Principal Character Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Presence or absence of principal character(s) Presence one 343 63.3 63.3 Presence two or more 108 19.9 83.2 Absence no central character 44 8.1 91.3 Absence no principal character 47 8.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Sex of principal character(s) Male 266 49.1 49.1 Female 140 25.8 74.9 Both 44 8.1 83.0 Can not code 92 17.0 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Age of principal character(s) Infant or child (under 12) 25 4.6 4.6 Teenager/adolescent (13-19) 30 5.5 10.1 Young adult/college student (20-25) 69 12.7 22.9 Adult (26-35) 187 34.5 57.4 Pre-middle-age adult (36-45) 52 9.6 67.0 Middle-age adult (46-60) 31 5.7 72.7 Elder (over 61) 14 2.6 75.3 Can not code 134 24.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Racial/ethnic minority as principal character(s) Presence 4 0.7 0.7 Absence 538 99.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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58 Table 4-16: Continued Celebrity as principal character(s) Presence 51 9.4 9.4 Absence 491 90.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Actor playing role of ordinary person as principal character(s) Presence 380 70.1 70.1 Absence 162 29.9 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Real people as principal character(s) Presence 14 2.6 2.6 Absence 528 97.4 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Created role as principal character(s) Presence 7 1.3 1.3 Absence 535 98.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Animal as principal character(s) Presence 15 2.8 2.8 Absence 527 97.2 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Animated role as principal character(s) Presence 2 0.4 0.4 Absence 540 99.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Character(s) identified with company Presence 18 3.3 3.3 Absence 524 96.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0 As shown in Table 4-17, of the 542 commercials, 392 (72.1%) employed background cast in them. Similarly to princi pal characters, 530 (97.8%) and 537 (99.1%), respectively, of these commercials did not use racial or ethnic minorities and celebrities in minor roles. The presence of animals and cr eated characters in minor roles were also rarely used with frequency of only 27 (5.0%) and 4 (0.7%), respectively. Real people appeared more often in minor roles than in principal characters with frequency of 102 (18.8%), but were typically absent. One hundred twenty-four (22.9%) had recogn ized continuing char acters in them. These characters were both principal and minor characters and were often seen in serial

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59 or continued commercials, such as the Grim Reaper in Aetna Lifes commercials, the two salesmen in TansAsia Telecoms many commercials, or the famous Taiwanese actor Takeshi Kaneshiro in Ericssons numerous commercials. Whether the presenter or spokesperson was on or off camera, part eight of Table 417 indicates that off-camera voice-overs we re the most commonly used form with a frequency of 251 (46.3%), followed by both on a nd off-camera presenters with frequency of 197 (36.3%). Table 4-17: Frequency/Percent of Minor Character Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Background cast Presence 392 72.1 72.1 Absence 151 27.9 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Racial/ethnic minority in minor role Presence 12 2.2 2.2 Absence 530 97.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Celebrity in minor role Presence 5 0.9 0.9 Absence 537 99.1 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Animal(s) in minor role Presence 27 5.0 5.0 Absence 515 95.0 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Created or cartoon character(s) in minor role Presence 4 0.7 0.7 Absence 538 99.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Real person in minor role Presence 102 18.8 18.8 Absence 440 81.2 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Recognized continuing character Presence 124 22.9 22.9 Absence 418 77.1 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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60 Table 4-17: Continued Presenter/spokesperson on/off camera Voice-over only 251 46.3 46.3 Voice-over and on-camera characters 197 36.3 82.7 On-camera characters only 58 10.7 93.4 Neither voice-over nor on-camera 36 6.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Table 4-18 shows the frequency and percent of different settings in these commercials. Among 542 of commercials, 211 (38.9%) used indoor settings and 137 (25.3%) used outdoor ones. Table 4-18: Frequency/Percent of Setting Commercial setting Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Indoor 211 38.9 38.9 Outdoor 137 25.3 64.2 Combination of indoor & outdoor 91 16.8 81.0 Others 74 13.7 94.6 No setting 29 5.4 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Table 4-19 shows the frequency and percen t of each visual variable. Commercials presented and emphasizing scenic beauty only comprised 42 ( 7.7%) of the total. As for principal characters, only 44 (8.1%) of th e commercials presented and emphasizing beauty, and only eight (1.5%) commercials presented and emphasizing their ugliness. Graphic displays were absent in 389 (71.8%) of the comm ercials, while surrealistic visuals were also usually absent with a frequency of 335 (61.8%). Substantive supers were present in 413 (76.2%) of the commercials. Visual taglines, on the contrary, were found in fewe r commercials with a frequency of only 176 (32.5%). As for the principal language in commerci als, it was not surprising that Chinese (Mandarin) was dominant with a high frequency of 482 (88.9%).

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61 Table 4-19: Frequency/Per cent of Visual Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Scenic beauty Presence 42 7.7 7.7 Absence 500 92.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Beauty of principal character(s) Presence 44 8.1 8.1 Absence 498 91.9 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Ugliness of principal character(s) Presence 8 1.5 1.5 Absence 534 98.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Graphic display Presence 153 28.2 28.2 Absence 389 71.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Surrealistic visual(s) Presence 207 38.2 38.2 Absence 335 61.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Substantive supers Presence 413 76.2 76.2 Absence 129 23.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Visual tagline(s) Presence 176 32.5 32.5 Absence 366 67.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Visual memory device Presence 253 46.7 46.7 Absence 289 53.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Principal language presented in commercial Chinese (Mandarin) 482 88.9 88.9 Japanese 2 0.4 89.3 English 8 1.5 90.8 Combination of any two (or more) 18 3.3 94.1 Others 1 0.2 94.3 Not applicable 31 5.7 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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62 Principal language presented in comm ercials is shown above, the dominant language spoken in commercials was also Chinese (Mandari n) with a frequency of 400 (73.8%) as indicated in the following Table 4-20. There was no definite difference between the numbers of commercials with or without memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemoni c device with frequencies of 302 (55.7%) and 240 (44.3%), respectively. The analyses of the presence of unusual s ound effects and spoken taglines did yield distinctive results: the former were absent in 400 (73.8%) in commercials, and the latter were absent in 513 (94.6%) of them. Table 4-20: Frequency/Percen t of Auditory Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Principal language spoken in commercial Chinese (Mandarin) 400 73.8 73.8 Taiwanese 22 4.1 77.9 Hakka 77.9 Japanese 5 0.9 78.8 English 16 3.0 81.8 Combination of any two (or more) 56 10.3 92.1 Others 7 1.3 93.4 Not applicable 36 6.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic device Presence 302 55.7 55.7 Absence 240 44.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Unusual sound effect(s) Presence 142 26.2 26.2 Absence 400 73.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Spoken tagline(s) Presence 29 5.4 5.4 Absence 513 94.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 As shown in Table 4-21, music was genera lly present in 474 commercials (87.5%). The most used two styles were: others, whic h referred to simple r hythms or tailor-made

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63 melodies that could not be categori zed, with a frequency of 171 (31.5%) and contemporary western ones with a frequency of 149 (27.5%). Also shown in the same table was music as a major element. It rarely occurred with a frequency of only 20 (3.7%). A similar situation applied also to music creates mood with a frequency of only 74 (13.7%). There were 115 (21.2%) commercials presen ted an adaptation or employment of well-known music. This ranged from classi c symphony, jazz, country music, and folk songs to movie soundtracks. Recognized cont inuing musical themes could be found in only 95 (17.5%) of the commercials. Dancing of any kind was absent in these commercials with a frequency of absence reached 529 (97.6%). Table 4-21: Frequency/Percent of Music and Dancing Variables Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Music in commercial Presence 474 87.5 87.5 Absence 68 12.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Music style in commercial Traditional Chinese 17 3.1 3.1 Contemporary Chinese 66 12.2 15.3 Western classical 52 9.6 24.9 Contemporary western 149 27.5 52.4 Other Asia style 19 3.5 55.9 Others 171 31.5 87.5 Not applicable 68 12.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Music as a major element Presence 20 3.7 3.7 Absence 522 96.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Music creates mood Presence 74 13.7 13.7 Absence 468 86.3 100.0 Total 542 100.0

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64 Table 4-21: Continued Adaptation or employment of well-known music Presence 115 21.2 21.2 Absence 427 78.8 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Recognized continuing musical theme Presence 95 17.5 17.5 Absence 447 82.5 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Dancing Presence 13 2.4 2.4 Absence 529 97.6 100.0 Total 542 100.0 Inferential Results of the Sample In order to further investigate the charac teristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, cross tabulations were empl oyed to find the associations between peripheral elements and specific characteristic s. Four parts of infe rential results were presented in this section, including associ ations between peripheral elements, year and characteristic elements, brand origin and ch aracteristic elements, and agency origin and characteristic elements. Between Peripheral Elements Cross tabulations were performed between year and brand origin, year and agency origin, award and brand origi n, as well as award and agency origin. The results were reported in the following secti ons and Tables 4-22 to 4-27. Table 4-22 indicates that domestic brands managed to remain dominant among the different origins of brand (Asia & pacific, America, Europe, a nd others) throughout the six years. However, its dominance was challeng ed and dwindled to less than half since 2002.

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65 Table 4-22: Crosstab of Brand Orig in (Regional) by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4358534949 41293 Domestic % within Year 66.2%55.8%63.1%50.0%46.7% 47.7%54.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Brand origin (regional) Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-1 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 94.60 df = 25 p < .05 Tables 4-23 and 4-24 indicate the associa tions between year and agency origin. When looking at specific regions, agencies from the U.S. were gaining spots in the Times Advertising Awards throughout the six years. In 2000, these agencies began to outnumber their domestic counterparts in te rms of awards obtained from these competitions, and carried on till 2003, the latest year of this study. A similar situation can be seen in Table 4-24 when looking at gene ral origin of these wi nning agencies. In 2000, international agencies began to earn more awards than domes tic ones did, and continued throughout the next three years. Table 4-23: Crosstab of Agency Or igin (Regional) by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3154352936 26211 Domestic % within Year 47.7%51.9% 41.7%29.6%34.3% 30.2%38.9% Count 1843386154 47261 US % within Year 27.7%41.3% 45.2%62.2%51.4% 54.7%48.2% Count 651048498105 86542 Agency origin (regional) Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-2 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 87.15 df = 20 p < .05

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66 Table 4-24: Crosstab of Agen cy Origin by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3154352936 26211 Domestic % within Year 47.7%51.9% 41.7%29.6%34.3% 30.2%38.9% Count 2850496969 60325 International % within Year 43.1%48.1% 58.3%70.4%65.7% 69.8%60.0% Count 651048498105 86542 Agency origin Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-3 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 63.75 df = 10 p < .05 Table 4-25 suggests that an association existed between award and brand origin. Domestic brands remained the majority of winners in each and every award level, and mostly earned more than half in each level except for bronze awards, in which it occupied only 46.2%. Table 4-25: Crosstab of Bra nd Origin by Award (excerpt) Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 465142 154293 Domestic % within Award 68.7%63.8%46.2% 50.7%54.1% Count 678091 304542 Brand origin Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-4 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.48 df = 3 p < .05 Table 4-26 and 4-27 indicate the associa tion between award and agency origin (both when breaking down to specific regions and in general). Agencies from the U.S. appeared to be the most frequent winners th roughout the six years. However, the numbers also suggested that similar to Table 4-25, dom estic agencies had grea ter share of higher awards, such as gold and silver ones, compared to international agencies.

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67 Table 4-26: Crosstab of Agency Or igin (Regional) by Award (excerpt) Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 354137 98 211 Domestic % within Award 52.2%51.3% 40.7% 32.2% 38.9% Count 243346 158 261 US % within Award 35.8%41.3% 50.5% 52.0% 48.2% Count 678091 304 542 Agency origin (regional) Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Please see Table A-5 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 37.22 df = 12 p < .05 Table 4-27: Crosstab of Agency Origin by Award (excerpt) Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 354137 98211 Domestic % within Award 52.2%51.3% 40.7% 32.2%38.9% Count 293954 203325 International % within Award 43.3%48.8% 59.3% 66.8%60.0% Count 678091 304542 Agency origin Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-6 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 25.69 df = 6 p < .05 Year as Peripheral Element Significant associations were found to exist between year and commercial structure, commercial format, and commercial tone & atmosphere, commercial approach (both rational vs. emotional and positive vs. negative), brand-differentiating message, commercial promise, appeal or selling proposi tion, and information content, as shown in Table 4-28 to 4-35. Table 4-28 indicates the fre quently used commercial st ructures throughout the six years. In 1998, both surprise or suspense at closing and unusual setting or situation were equally employed, while in 1999 and 2000 the dominant one was the latter. In 2001, the preference shifted to blind lead-in, and in the last two years, surprise or suspense in the middle became the preferred one. Generally, surprise or suspense in the middle was the dominant structure in these si x years Times Advertising Awards.

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68 Table 4-28: Crosstab of CF Structure by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 1229221836 41158 2 % within Year 18.5%27.9%26.2%18.4% 34.3% 47.7%29.2% Count 146141723 1892 3 % within Year 21.5% 5.8%16.7%17.3%21.9% 20.9%17.0% Count 143229176 9107 4 % within Year 21.5%30.8%34.5% 17.3%5.7% 10.5%19.7% Count 121342526 1090 6 % within Year 18.5%12.5%4.8% 25.5% 24.8% 11.6%16.6% Count 651048498105 86542 CF structure1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-7 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 94.60 df = 25 p < .05 1 2 = Surprise or suspense in the middle 3 = Surprise or suspense at closing 4 = Unusual setting or situation 6 = Blind lead-in Table 4-29 indicates the association between year and commercial format. The numbers showed a scattered pattern: fantasy exaggeration or surr ealism as dominant element was the most frequently used in 1998 and 2002, vignette in 1999 and 2001, creation of mood or image as dominant elem ent in 2000, and both continuity of action and creation of mood or image as dominant element in 2003. Generally, vignette was the dominant one throughout the six years. Table 4-29: Crosstab of CF Format by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 193492416 10112 1 % within Year 29.2% 32.7% 10.7% 24.5% 15.2% 11.6% 20.7% Count 2791810 1662 2 % within Year 3.1%6.7%10.7%18.4%9.5% 18.6% 11.4% Count 410251616 1687 CF format1 12 % within Year 6.2%9.6% 29.8% 16.3%15.2% 18.6% 16.1%

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69 Table 4-29: Continued Count 21148619 1078 14 % within Year 32.3% 13.5%9.5%6.1% 18.1% 11.6%14.4% Count 651048498105 86542 CF format1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-8 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 179.32 df = 80 p < .05 1 1 = Vignette 2 = Continuity of action 12 = Creation of mood or image as dominant element 14 = Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element Table 4-30 shows the tendency of us e of different commercial tones & atmospheres. Suspenseful tone & atmos phere was the major ity throughout the six years, with exceptions of 1998 and 2000 in which humorous and Uneasy/tense/irritated were th e dominant ones, respectively. Table 4-30: Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 632278 652 12 % within Year 9.2%2.9% 26.2% 7.1%7.6% 7.0%9.6% Count 2212344 247 15 % within Year 33.8% 11.5%3.6%4.1%3.8% 2.3%8.7% Count 722193730 47162 16 % within Year 10.8% 21.2% 22.6% 37.8%28.6% 54.7%29.9% Count 651048498105 86542 CF tone & atmosphere1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-9 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 251.31 df = 80 p < .05 1 12 = Uneasy/tense/irritated 15 = Humorous 16 = Suspenseful Table 4-31 indicates the association between year and commercial approach (rational vs. emotional). Throughout the six year s, the emotional approach was present in Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, except of year 2000. In that year, more rational approaches were used instead of emotional ones.

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70 Table 4-31: Crosstab of CF Approach (R ational vs. Emotional) by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 2925371530 34170 1 % within Year 44.6%24.0% 44.0% 15.3%28.6% 39.5%31.4% Count 3249244741 42235 2 % within Year 49.2%47.1% 28.6% 48.0%39.0% 48.8%43.4% Count 651048498105 86542 CF approach (rational vs. emotional)1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-10 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 50.09 df = 10 p < .05 1 1 = Rational 2 = Emotional The usage pattern of positive or negative approachs in the six years commercials was illustrated in Table 4-32. Throughout the y ears, positive approaches remained the dominant one, with the peak in 2003 in which 81.4% of commercials employed this approach. Table 4-32: Crosstab of CF Approach (P ositive vs. Negative) by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3577586769 70376 1 % within Year 53.8%74.0%69.0%68.4%65.7% 81.4%69.4% Count 651048498105 86542 CF approach (positive vs. negative)1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-11 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 42.35 df = 10 p < .05 1 1 = Positive Table 4-33 suggests a strong association between year and brand-differentiating message in commercials. Brand-differentiati ng messages were usually absent in these commercials as shown in the table, with a steady growth that reached its peak in 2003 when this kind of message was completely absent.

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71 Table 4-33: Crosstab of Brand-diffe rentiating Message by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 51987994103 86511 2 % within Year 78.5%94.2%94.0%95.9%98.1% 100.0%94.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Branddifferentiating message1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-12 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 38.71 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-34 indicates the pa ttern of using commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition in these award-winni ng TV commercials. As s hown in the table, product performance or benefits as main me ssage was more used in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership was dominant in 1999. Table 4-34: Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Propositi on by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3635314450 28224 2 % within Year 55.4% 33.7% 36.9%44.9%47.6% 32.6%41.3% Count 1737301014 12120 3 % within Year 26.2% 35.6% 35.7%10.2%13.3% 14.0%22.1% Count 651048498105 86542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-13 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 189.62 df = 60 p < .05 1 2 = Product performance or benefits as main message 3 = Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership Table 4-35 shows the association betw een year and information content in commercials. The dominant one in 1998 was new product or new/improved product features; both results of using (either ta ngible or intangible) and characteristics or image of users in 1999; char acteristics or image of users again in 2000; results of using (either tangible or intangible) agai n in 2001; both company image or reputation

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72 and results of using (either tangible or intangible) in 2002; and company image or reputation again in 2003. Table 4-35: Crosstab of Inform ation Content by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 1841819 2070 18 % within Year 1.5%7.7%4.8%18.4% 18.1% 23.3% 12.9% Count 1021202919 14113 19 % within Year 15.4% 20.2% 23.8% 29.6%18.1% 16.3% 20.8% Count 20187714 1682 24 % within Year 30.8% 17.3%8.3%7.1%13.3% 18.6%15.1% Count 821211113 175 26 % within Year 12.3% 20.2%25.0% 11.2%12.4% 1.2%13.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Information Content1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-14 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 280.05 df = 105 p < .05 1 18 = Company image or reputation 19 = Results of using (either tangible or intangible) 24 = New product or new/improved product features 26 = Characteristics or image of users Tables 4-36 to 4-38 in following paragra phs show the associations between year and product or brand message in commercial s. Significant associations were found between year and double-branded product, as well as year and auditory sign-off. As Table 4-36 suggests, double-brande d products were commonly employed throughout the six years, with the lowest pe rcentage in 2003 in which the presence was just slightly more than absence.

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73 Table 4-36: Crosstab of Doublebranded Product by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 4275597572 44367 2 % within Year 64.6%72.1%70.2%76.5%68.6% 51.2%67.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Double-branded product1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-15 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 15.75 df = 5 < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-37 shows the association between year and auditory sign-off. Auditory sign-offs were commonly present in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2003. In 2002, auditory sign-offs appeared to be absent more th an present with a percentage of 52.0%. Table 4-37: Crosstab of Auditory Sign-off by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 5186734774 45376 1 % within Year 78.5%82.7%86.9% 48.0% 70.5% 52.3%69.4% Count 1418115131 41166 2 % within Year 21.5%17.3%13.1% 52.0% 29.5% 47.7%30.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Auditory Signoff1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 56.34 df = 5 p < .05 2 = Absence A strong association was found between year and comparison as indicated in Table 4-38. Comparisons were overwhelmingly absent in each and every year from 1998 to 2003. As explained previously, direct compar isons in advertising are prohibited in Taiwan. Thus, the findings are not surprising.

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74 Table 4-38: Crosstab of Co mparison by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 621007895102 76513 4 % within Year 95.4%96.2%92.9%96.9%97.1% 88.4%94.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Comparison1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-16 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 27.25 df = 15 p < .05 1 4 = No comparison presented Tables 4-39 to 4-44 present the associ ations found between year and principal character-related variables, including the pr esence of principal character, sex and age of principal character, actors playing role of ordinary people, create d role, and principal character related to company. As seen in Table 4-39, there was an association between year and the presence of principal character. In most cases throughout the six years, the presence of only one principal character was the dominant form, w ith the lowest number in 2003 in which it was slightly higher than half (51.2%). Table 4-39: Crosstab of Princi pal Character by Year (excerpt) Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 4371635468 44343 1 % within Year 66.2%68.3%75.0%55.1%64.8% 51.2%63.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Principal character1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-17 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 30.72 df = 15 p < .05 1 1 = Presence one principal character Table 4-40 shows the association between year and sex of principal character. Throughout the six years, male characters were mostly used as the principal characters.

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75 Table 4-40: Crosstab of Sex of Pr incipal Character by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2858455251 32266 1 % within Year 43.1%55.8%53.6%53.1%48.6% 37.2%49.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Sex of principal character1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-18 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 26.37 df = 15 p < .05 1 1 = Male Table 4-41 indicates the association between year and age of the principal character. Adults aged from 26 to 35 were mo st often present as the principal characters in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. In 2003, however, age of principal characters was not able to be determined in most cases when there were usually more than one principal character in one commercial. Table 4-41: Crosstab of Age of Pr incipal Character by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2133394238 14187 4 % within Year 32.3%31.7%46.4%42.9%36.2% 16.3% 34.5% Count 1626102325 34134 8 % within Year 24.6%25.0%11.9%23.5%23.8% 39.5% 24.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Age of principal character1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-19 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 64.98 df = 35 p < .05 1 4 = Adult (age from 26 to 35) 8 = Can not code (unable to determine) Table 4-42 shows the association between y ear and the use of actors playing roles as ordinary people. The result suggests that in most cases, actors playing roles were commonly present throughout the six years.

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76 Table 4-42: Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3564667583 57380 1 % within Year 53.8%61.5%78.6%76.5%79.0% 66.3%70.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Actor playing role1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-20 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 21.25 df = 5 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-43 indicates the asso ciation between year and th e use of created role as principal character. Throughout th e six years, there was a high absence of created roles in commercials. In the first th ree years, 1998, 1999, and 2000, the percentage of not having created roles in commercials reached 100.0%. Table 4-43: Crosstab of Creat ed Role by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 651048496104 82535 2 % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%98.0%99.0% 95.3%98.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Created role1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-21 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 11.45 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-44 shows the association between year and character related to the company as the principal char acter. The results suggest th at it was not common to use this kind of characters in comme rcials throughout the six years.

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77 Table 4-44: Crosstab of Character Re lated to Company by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 651038189104 82524 2 % within Year 100.0%99.0%96.4%90.8%99.0% 95.3%96.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Character related to company1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-22 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 16.85 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Tables 4-45 to 4-50 indicate the associ ations between year and other minor character-related elements. Th ese associations were found be tween year and background cast, minority in minor role, real people in minor role, the presence of continuous roles, and presenter on/off camera. Table 4-45 shows the associa tion between year and bac kground cast. According to the numbers, background cast was widely pr esent in commercials throughout the six years. Table 4-45: Crosstab of Bac kground Cast by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4287736672 51391 1 % within Year 64.6%83.7%86.9%67.3%68.6% 59.3%72.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Background cast1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-23 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 26.64 df = 5 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-46 presents the association betw een year and minority in minor role. It shows that minorities were not been commonly used in commercials, with a high absence percentage of 92.3%.

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78 Table 4-46: Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 60988498104 86530 2 % within Year 92.3%94.2%100.0%100.0%99.0% 100.0%97.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Minority in minor role1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-24 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 21.92 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-47 explains the association between year and the use of real people in a minor role. Real people were usually abse nt in minor roles of these commercials. Table 4-47: Crosstab of Real Peopl e in Minor Roles by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 5575647990 77440 2 % within Year 84.6%72.1%76.2%80.6%85.7% 89.5%81.2% Count 651048498105 86542 Real people in minor roles1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-25 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.83 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-48 indicates the association between year and the use of continuous roles. The finding suggests that continuous roles were also usually absent in these commercials. In 2001, the percentage of absence was 67.3%. Th is might be due to the large amount of serial commercials in that y ear, thus employed more continuou s roles than in other years. Table 4-48: Crosstab of Con tinuous Roles by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 5979726676 66418 2 % within Year 90.8%76.0%85.7%67.3%72.4% 76.7%77.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Continuous roles1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-26 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 17.11 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence

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79 Table 4-49 presents the association betw een year and presenter on/off camera. Voice-overs only (no on-camera characters) were more widely used in 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2003. Both voice-overs and on-camera charact ers were more frequently used in 2000. In 2001, both voice-overs only and voice -overs and on-camera characters were equally used. Table 4-49: Crosstab of Presente r On/Off Camera by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4051373843 42251 1 % within Year 61.5%49.0% 44.0% 38.8%41.0% 48.8%46.3% Count 1342383838 28197 2 % within Year 20.0%40.4% 45.2%38.8% 36.2% 32.6%36.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Presenter on/off camera1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-27 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 26.73 df = 15 p < .05 1 1 = Voice-overs only, no on-camera characters 2 = Voice-overs and on-camera characters Table 4-50 shows the association between year and commercial settings. Among the five kinds of settings, indoor set tings were most frequently used. Table 4-50: Crosstab of CF Setting by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1740323944 39211 1 % within Year 26.2%38.5%38.1%39.8%41.9% 45.3%38.9% Count 651048498105 86542 CF setting1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-28 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 54.35 df = 20 p < .05 1 1 = Indoor From Table 4-51 to Table 4-57, associati ons between year and visual elements were explained. These associations included ye ar and scenic beauty, ugliness of principal

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80 character, graphic display, surreal visual, subs tantive supers, visual tagline, and memory device. Each association is further explained in the coming paragraphs. Table 4-51 shows the association between ye ar and the use of scenic beauty in commercials. Scenic beauty was commonly ab sent throughout the six years, with the greatest percentage of absence (84.6%) in 1998. Table 4-51: Crosstab of Scen ic Beauty by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 55897893101 84500 2 % within Year 84.6%85.6%92.9%94.9%96.2% 97.7%92.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Scenic beauty1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-29 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 18.60 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-52 indicates the asso ciation between year and th e use of ugly principal characters, and shows that ug liness of principal characters was scarcely used in commercials during these six years. Table 4-52: Crosstab of Ugliness of Principal Character by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 611048497103 85534 2 % within Year 93.8%100.0%100.0%99.0%98.1% 98.8%98.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Ugliness of principal character1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-30 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.93 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-53 presents the association betw een year and graphic display. Graphic displays were usually absent during thes e six years, especially in 2003 when the percentage of absence reached 83.7%.

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81 Table 4-53: Crosstab of Gra phic Display by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3772537481 72389 2 % within Year 56.9%69.2%63.1%75.5%77.1% 83.7%71.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Graphic display1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-31 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 18.76 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-54 indicates the asso ciation between year and the use of surreal visuals. With only one exception in 2003, surreal visuals were noticeably absent in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. In 2003, however, the percen tage of presence and absence of surreal visuals had a tie that each had 50.0% of appearances. Table 4-54: Crosstab of Surreal Visuals by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2933354027 43335 1 % within Year 44.6%31.7%41.7%40.8%25.7% 50.0% 38.2% Count 3671495878 43335 2 % within Year 55.4%68.3%58.3%59.2%74.3% 50.0%61.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Surreal visuals1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 15.70 df = 5 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-55 presents the association between year and substantive supers. Substantive supers were commonly used in these commercials, and the usage pattern of substantive supers during these six years appeared as a steadil y growing trend that started with 55.4% in 1998 and gra dually reached 93.0% in 2003.

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82 Table 4-55: Crosstab of Substa ntive Supers by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3672607887 80413 1 % within Year 55.4%69.2%71.4%79.6%82.9% 93.0%76.2% Count 651048498105 86542 Substantive supers1 Total % within Year 1000%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-32 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 35.98 df = 5 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-56 indicates the asso ciation between year and th e use of visual taglines. Visual taglines were usually not used in commercials during the six years, with the greatest percentage of absence (77.4%) in 2000. Table 4-56: Crosstab of Visual Taglines by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4076656773 45366 2 % within Year 61.5%73.1%77.4%68.4%69.5% 52.3%67.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Visual taglines1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-33 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 15.53 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-57 presents the association between year and the use of memory devices in these six years. In the first four years (1998 to 2001), memory devices remained absent; however, became more present since 2002. In the following two years, 2002 and 2003, memory devices were present more than absent. Table 4-57: Crosstab of Memory Device by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2741353263 55253 1 % within Year 41.5%39.4%41.7%32.7% 60.0% 64.0% 46.7% Count 3863496642 31289 Memory device1 2 % within Year 58.5%60.6%58.3%67.3% 40.0% 36.0% 53.3%

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83 Table 4-57: Continued Count 651048498105 86542 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 29.28 df = 5 p < .05 2 = Absence Tables 4-58 to 4-60 present the associ ations found between year and auditory elements. Associations existe d between year and the princi pal language spoken, unusual sound effect, and spoken tagline. More detail ed explanations to each association is discussed. Table 4-58 supports the association be tween year and the principal language spoken. Regardless of years, Chinese (Mandarin) remained the dominant language used in commercials throughout the six years. Table 4-58: Crosstab of Langua ge Spoken by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4369687780 63400 1 % within Year 66.2%66.3%81.0%78.6%76.2% 73.3%73.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Language spoken1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-34 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 49.13 df = 30 p < .05 1 1 = Chinese (Mandarin) Table 4-59 indicates the a ssociation between year a nd the use of unusual sound effects. Generally, unusual sound effects were absent in commerci als, and the usage pattern appeared as a curve with the highest point of absence (or lo west of presence) in 2001 (82.7%).

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84 Table 4-59: Crosstab of Unusua l Sound Effects by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3578648180 62400 2 % within Year 53.8%75.0%76.2%82.7%76.2% 72.1%73.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Unusual sound effects1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-35 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 18.12 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-60 shows the association between year and the use of spoken taglines. Judging from the numbers in the table, spoke n taglines were overwhelmingly absent in most commercials during these years. Table 4-60: Crosstab of Spoke n Tagline by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 63103819595 76513 2 % within Year 96.9%99.0%96.4%96.9%90.5% 88.4%94.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Spoken tagline1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-36 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 16.46 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Tables 4-61 to 4-65 present the associa tions between year and other music and dancing-related elements. Significant associa tions were found between year and music, music style, music creates mood, continuou s musical theme, and dancing. Further examinations were provided below. Table 4-61 indicates the association be tween year and the use of music. The numbers suggest that music is widely us ed in commercials regardless of year.

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85 Table 4-61: Crosstab of Music by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 5097808790 70474 1 % within Year 76.9%93.3%95.2%88.8%85.7% 81.4%87.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Music1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-37 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 17.74 df = 5 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-62 explains the association between year and music styles. Music styles employed in these commercials could be grou ped into two different types: contemporary western (including pop music) and others. The former was dominant in 1999 and 2002, while the latter was the leading one in 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2003. Table 4-62: Crosstab of Mu sic Style by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1429243231 19149 4 % within Year 21.5% 27.9% 28.6%32.7% 29.5% 22.1%27.5% Count 2328283327 32171 6 % within Year 35.4% 26.9% 33.3%33.7% 25.7% 37.2%31.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Music style1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-38 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 60.87 df = 30 p < .05 1 4 = Contemporary western (including pop music) 6 = Others Table 4-63 presents the association betw een year and the use of music creates mood (versus background only) in these commercials. As the numbers indicate, music to create a mood was usually absent regardless of the year, with the highest absence (92.9%) in 2001 and the highest percentage of presence of 26.2% in 1998.

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86 Table 4-63: Crosstab of Music Creates Mood by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4894719192 72468 2 % within Year 73.8%90.4%84.5%92.9%87.6% 83.7%86.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Music creates mood1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-39 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 14.46 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-64 indicates the association be tween year and the use of continuous musical theme over the six years. As the numbers suggest, conti nuous musical themes were also commonly absent in these commercials. Table 4-64: Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 6481717486 71447 2 % within Year 98.5%77.9%84.5%75.5%81.9% 82.6%82.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Continuous musical theme1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-40 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 16.56 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-65 reveals the a ssociation between year a nd the use of dancing in commercials. The results imply that dancing was a rarely used element, thus was absent in most commercials over the six years. Table 4-65: Crosstab of Dancing by Year (excerpt) Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 61988497104 85529 2 % within Year 93.8%94.2%100.0%99.0%99.0% 98.8%97.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Dancing1 Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-41 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 13.32 df = 5 p < .05 1 2 = Absence

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87 Brand Origin as Peripheral Element Using brand origin as the peripheral elem ent to run cross tabulations with other characteristic elements, significant associa tions were found to exist between them. The following sections provide a more thor ough explanation of these associations. Associations were found between bra nd origin and comme rcial structure, commercial format, commercial tone & atmo sphere, commercial approach (positive vs. negative), commercial promise, appeal, or se lling proposition, and information content. Table 4-66 presents the association between brand origin and commercial structure. Surprise or suspense in the middle was present among brand from domestic, Asia & Pacific, and America; while both surprise or suspense at closing and unusual setting or situation were the leading structure for bran ds from Europe. As for brands from other areas, the blind lead-in was the main structure used mostly. Table 4-66: Crosstab of CF Stru cture by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 77304011 0 158 2 % within Brand origin 26.3%36.1%36.0% 21.2% 0.0% 29.2% Count 48111814 1 92 3 % within Brand origin 16.4%13.3%16.2% 26.9% 33.3% 17.0% Count 55162114 1 107 4 % within Brand origin 18.8%19.3%18.9% 26.9% 33.3% 19.7% Count 680138 1 90 6 % within Brand origin 23.2%0.0%11.7%15.4% 33.3% 16.6% Count 2938311152 3 542 CF structure1 Total % within Brand origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Please see Table A-42 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 53.25 df = 20 p < .05 1 2 = Surprise or suspense in the middle 3 = Surprise or suspense at closing 4 = Unusual setting or situation 6 = Blind lead-in

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88 Table 4-67 indicates the association betw een brand origin and commercial format. For brands with domestic, Asia & Pacifica, and American origins, the vignette was most often present. As for brands from Eur ope and other areas, the creation of mood or image as dominant element was the main presence. Table 4-67: Crosstab of CF Fo rmat by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 6918205 0 112 1 % within Brand Origin 23.5%21.7%18.0% 9.6% .0% 20.7% Count 5015119 2 87 12 % within Brand Origin 17.1%18.1%9.9% 17.3% 66.7% 16.1% Count 2938311152 3 542 CF format1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Please see Table A-43 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 148.24 df = 64 p < .05 1 1 = Vignette 12 = Creation of mood or image as dominant element Table 4-68 indicates the a ssociation between brand origin and commercial tone & atmosphere. Regardless of their different orig ins, the numbers show that all brands had the highest presnece of usi ng technological/futuristic as the main commercial tone & atmosphere. Table 4-68: Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 76264217 1162 16 % within Brand Origin 25.9%31.3%37.8%32.7% 33.3%29.9% Count 2938311152 3542 CF tone & atmosphere1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-44 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 185.87 df = 64 p < .05 1 16 = Technological/futuristic

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89 Table 4-69 shows the association between brand origin and commercial approach (positive vs. negative). As showed in the tabl e, domestic brands and those from Asia & Pacific, America, and Europe tend to use pos itive approaches more than negative ones. Nevertheless, brands from other areas show a strong presence of negative approaches, in opposite to their counterparts. Table 4-69: Crosstab of CF Approach (Posit ive vs. Negative) by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 180668446 0376 1 % within Brand Origin 61.4%79.5%75.7%88.5% 0.0% 69.4% Count 7915225 3124 2 % within Brand Origin 27.0%18.1%19.8%9.6% 100.0% 22.9% Count 2938311152 3542 CF approach (positive vs. negative)1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-45 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 37.26 df = 8 p < .05 1 1 = Positive 2 = Negative Table 4-70 indicates the asso ciation between bra nd origin and commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition. Results show th at product performa nce or benefits as main message remained the most preferre d one among domestic, Asia & Pacifica, American, and European brands. Brands from other areas showed a different preference that employed psychological or subjective bene fits of product ownership completely in these six years.

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90 Table 4-70: Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Proposition by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 99484928 0224 2 % within Brand Origin 33.8%57.8%44.1%53.8% 0.0% 41.3% Count 8513811 3120 3 % within Brand Origin 29.0%15.7%7.2%21.2% 100.0% 22.1% Count 2938311152 3542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-46 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 108.92 df = 48 p < .05 1 2 = Product performance or benefits as main message 3 = Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership Table 4-71 shows the association between brand origin and information content. Results of using (either tangible or inta ngible) was the dominant presence for brands from domestic, America, Europe, and other regions. Brands from Asia & Pacific had a different emphasis of new product or new/improved product feature. Table 4-71: Crosstab of Informati on Content by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 57133012 1113 19 % within Brand Origin 19.5% 15.7% 27.0%23.1% 33.3%20.8% Count 4716136 082 24 % within Brand Origin 16.0% 19.3% 11.7%11.5% 0.0%15.1% Count 2938311152 3542 Information content1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-47 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 133.05 df = 84 p < .05 1 19 = Results of using (either tangible or intangible) 24 = New product or new/improved product feature Associations were also f ound between brand origins and certain product and brandrelated elements, such as the presence of product, double-branded pr oduct, identification

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91 of company manufacturing or di stributing the product, and both visual and auditory signoffs. Paragraphs followed provided more explanations about these associations. Table 4-72 indicates associati ons between brand origin a nd the presence of product. For all brands with all kinds of origins, domestic, Asia & Pacifica, American, European or others, the dominant way of presenting their product in the commercials was by using single product. Table 4-72: Crosstab of Presence of Product by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 138535334 2280 2 % within Brand Origin 47.1%63.9%47.7%65.4% 66.7%51.7% Count 2938311152 3542 Presence of product1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-48 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 34.12 df = 8 p < .05 1 1 = Single product Table 4-73 indicates the association between brand origin and double-branded product. As shown in the table, Asia & Pacifica brands use more double-branded products. Brands with domestic, American, Eu ropean, and other orig ins usually dont use this kind of products. Table 4-73: Crosstab of Doublebranded Product by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 79473910 0175 1 % within Brand Origin 27.0% 56.6% 35.1%19.2% 0.0%32.3% Count 214367242 3367 2 % within Brand Origin 73.0% 43.4% 64.9%80.8% 100.0% 67.7% Count 2938311152 3542 Doublebranded product1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 32.19 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence

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92 Table 4-74 shows the association between brand origin and identification of company manufacturing or distributing the product. The findings suggest that this kind of identifications were widely present in co mmercials for brands from domestic, Asia & Pacific, America, and Europe. For brands fr om other regions, they were usually absent. Table 4-74: Crosstab of Identifi cation of Company by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2368110150 1469 1 % within Brand Origin 80.5%97.6%91.0%96.2% 33.3% 86.5% Count 572102 273 2 % within Brand Origin 19.5%2.4%9.0%3.8% 66.7% 13.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Identification of company1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 31.03 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-75 shows the association between br and origin and the use of visual signoff. In most cases, visual sign-off was pres ent throughout the six year s in spite of where the brands came from, domestic, Asia & Pacific, America, Europe, or others. Table 4-75: Crosstab of Visual Sign-off by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 275819751 2506 1 % within Brand Origin 93.9%97.6%87.4%98.1% 66.7%93.4% Count 2938311152 3542 Visual sign-off1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-49 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 14.21 df = 4 p < .05 1 1 = Presence As shown in Table 4-76, the associati on between brand origin and the use of auditory sign-off is explained. Similar to visual sign-offs, auditory sign-offs are present in these commercials for brands from all different origins.

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93 Table 4-76: Crosstab of Auditory Sign-off by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 204656242 3376 1 % within Brand Origin 69.6%78.3%55.9%80.8% 100.0%69.4% Count 2938311152 3542 Auditory sign-off1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-50 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 17.18 df = 4 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-77 explains the association be tween brand origin and comparison to present in commercials. Due to the regulati ons of the GIO, direct or even indirect comparisons between competing products are rarely seen in commercials. Thus, the results are not surprising that no comparison presented has most presence regardless of where these brands might be from. Table 4-77: Cross Tabulation of Comp arison by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2817710250 3513 4 % within Brand Origin 95.9%92.8%91.9%96.2% 100.0%94.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Comparison1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-51 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 21.75 df = 12 p < .05 1 4 = No comparison presented Table 4-78 to 4-81 explain the associati ons between brand origin and principal character-related variables. Table 4-78 indicates the asso ciation between bra nd origin and the use of celebrity as principal character. Among brands from various areas and countries, those from domestic, America, and other areas had had high absence of celebrities in their

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94 commercials. Brands from Asia & Pacific and Europe had relatively moderate absence of them. Table 4-78: Crosstab of Celebr ity by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2806410539 3491 2 % within Brand Origin 95.6%77.1%94.6%75.0% 100.0%90.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Celebrity1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-52 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 =43.43 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-79 shows the association between brand origin and the use of actors playing roles of ordinary people in comme rcials. Among different brands, those from Europe and Asia & Pacific had the least presen ce of using actor play ing role, which were both just slightly more than 50%. Brands from America and of domestic origin had greater preferences that reached higher than 70%, while brands from other areas had a strong fondness of it, which was 100.0%, i ndicating no other way was present. Table 4-79: Crosstab of Actor Play ing Role by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 223497827 3380 1 % within Brand Origin 76.1%59.0%70.3%51.9% 100.0%70.1% Count 2938311152 3542 Actor playing role1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-53 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 19.38 df = 4 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-80 indicates the associ ation between brand origin an d the use of real people as principal characters in commercials. Wit hout exception, domestic, Asia & Pacifica,

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95 American, European and other brands all si multaneously showed very high absence of real people as principal characters. Table 4-80: Crosstab of Real People by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2878310847 3528 2 % within Brand Origin 98.0%100.0%97.3%90.4% 100.0%97.4% Count 2938311152 3542 Real people1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-54 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.84 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-81 presents the association between brand origin and the use of created roles as principal characters. As in last table, all brands preferred no t to use created roles as principal characters in their comme rcials whatever their origins were. Table 4-81: Crosstab of Created Role by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2918310652 3535 2 % within Brand Origin 99.3%100.0%95.5%100.0% 100.0%98.7% Count 2938311152 3542 Created role1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-55 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 11.65 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Tables 4-82 to 4-84 explaine the asso ciations found between brand origin and certain minor character-related elements, such as minority in minor role, continuous role, and presenter on/off camera. Table 4-82 provides an explan ation of the association be tween brand origin and the use of minority in minor role. As the numbers suggest, brands with any of the four kinds of origins, did not include minorities in the minor roles of their commercials.

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96 Table 4-82: Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2877711152 3530 2 % within Brand Origin 98.0%92.8%100.0%100.0% 100.0%97.8% Count 2938311152 3542 Minority in minor role1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-56 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 13.44 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-83 indicates the asso ciation between brand origin and the use of continuous roles in the commercials. Without exception, brands from domestic, Asia & Pacific, America, Europe and other areas all did not use continuous roles in their commercials, with the percentage of absen ce ranging from 68.7% to 100.0%. Table 4-83: Crosstab of Continuous Role by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 241577740 3418 2 % within Brand Origin 82.3%68.7%69.4%76.9% 100.0%77.1% Count 2938311152 3542 Continuous role1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-57 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.40 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-84 shows the association between br and origin and the use of a presenter on/off camera. Brands from dome stic, Asia & Pacific, Europe and other regions preferred to use voice-overs only, no on-camera character s to other ways, while brands from America had the preference of using voiceovers and on-camera characters more often.

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97 Table 4-84: Crosstab of Presenter On /Off Camera by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 126524822 3251 1 % within Brand Origin 43.0%62.7% 43.2% 42.3% 100.0% 46.3% Count 107245016 0197 2 % within Brand Origin 36.5%28.9% 45.0% 30.8% .0%36.3% Count 2938311152 3542 Presenter on/off camera1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-58 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 25.57 df = 12 p < .05 1 1 = Voice-overs only, no on-camera characters 2 = Voice-overs and on-camera characters In terms of visual elements, associations were found between brand origin and the use of scenic beauty, beauty of principal character, graphic di splay, visual tagline, and the principal language presented in commercials. Table 4-85 indicates the asso ciation between brand origin and the use of scenic beauty in commercials. Scenic beauty was absent in most of the commercials of brands from all areas. Table 4-85: Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 2697010850 3500 2 % within Brand Origin 91.8%84.3%97.3%96.2% 100.0%92.3% Count 2938311152 3542 Scenic beauty1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-59 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.67 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-86 presents the association between brand origin and the use of beauty of principal characters. For brands from domestic, Asia & Pacific, America, and Europe, the

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98 beauty of principal characters was absent in their commercials. However, brands from other regions did employ the beau ty of principal characters. Table 4-86: Crosstab of Beauty of Principal Characters by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 20796 244 1 % within Brand Origin 6.8%8.4%8.1%11.5% 66.7% 8.1% Count 2737610246 1498 2 % within Brand Origin 93.2%91.6%91.9%88.5% 33.3% 91.9% Count 2938311152 3542 Beauty of principal characters1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 15.27 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-87 indicates the asso ciation between brand origin and the use of graphic display. Among the different brands from vari ous areas, graphic displays were highly absent in the commercials of those from othe r countries and from America. Brands with domestic, European, and Asia & Pacifica or igins showed moderate absence in using graphic displays. Table 4-87: Crosstab of Graphic Display by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 215498933 3389 2 % within Brand Origin 73.4%59.0%80.2%63.5% 100.0%71.8% Count 2938311152 3542 Graphic display1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-60 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 13.84 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-88 indicates the asso ciation between brand origin and the presence of visual taglines. Generally, visu al taglines were absent in commercials of brands from different areas. Asia & Pacifica and Americ an brands had moderate percentages of

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99 absence, domestic and European brands had higher percentages of absence, and brands from other countries had an extremely high percentage of absence that reached 100.0%. Table 4-88: Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 208447140 3366 2 % within Brand Origin 71.0%53.0%64.0%76.9% 100.0%67.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Visual tagline1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-61 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 13.76 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-89 demonstrates the association between brand origin and the principal language. Targeting the Taiwanese market these brands, whether domestic or international, all showed presence of Chinese (Mandarin) as the dominant language in their commercials. Table 4-89: Crosstab of Language Pr esented by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2676310544 3482 1 % within Brand Origin 91.1%75.9%94.6%84.6% 100.0%88.9% Count 2938311152 3542 Language presented1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-62 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 48.22 df = 20 p < .05 1 1 = Chinese (Mandarin) Cross tabulations were performed to exam ine the association be tween brand origin and auditory elements. Only one significan t association was found, the use of memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic device. Table 4-90 indicates the association between brand origin and the use of memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic devi ce. For domestic brands and those from

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100 America and other countries, memorable rhym e, slogan, or mnemonic devices tended to be present; while for brands from Asia & Pa cific and Europe, these elements were more absent. Table 4-90: Crosstab of Rhyme, Sloga n, or Mnemonic Device by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 173366922 2302 1 % within Brand Origin 59.0% 43.4% 62.2% 42.3% 66.7%55.7% Count 120474230 1240 2 % within Brand Origin 41.0% 56.6% 37.8% 57.7% 33.3%44.3% Count 2938311152 3542 Rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic device1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 12.25 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-91 shows the association betw een brand origin a nd music style in commercials. Brands with domestic, Asia & Pa cifica, American, and other origins tended to apply more other styles of music (music style that were unable to categorize) than others, yet European brands show more interests in using contemporary western (including pop music) styl e in their commercials. Table 4-91: Crosstab of Music Style by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 74133427 1149 4 % within Brand Origin 25.3%15.7%30.6% 51.9% 33.3%27.5% Count 9231379 2171 6 % within Brand Origin 31.4%37.3%33.3% 17.3% 66.7%31.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Music style1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-63 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 53.21 df = 24 p < .05 1 4 = Contemporary western (including pop music) 6 = Others

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101 Table 4-92 presents the association between brand origin and the use of continuous musical theme. Without exception, domestic brands and those from Asia & Pacific, America, Europe and other countries all were absent of continuous musical themes in their commercials. Table 4-92: Crosstab of Continuous Mu sical Theme by Brand Origin (excerpt) Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 253608348 3447 2 % within Brand Origin 86.3%72.3%74.8%92.3% 100.0%82.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Continuous musical theme1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-64 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 17.67 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Agency Origin as Peripheral Element Many significant associations were f ound between agency origin and other executional elements. Further explanations re garding these associa tions are discussed. In terms of the messages these TV commer cials contained and th e ways they were presented, strong associations were found to exist between agency origin and the variables: commercial struct ure, commercial format, comm ercial tone & atmosphere, commercial approach (rational vs. emotional) commercial promise, appeal or selling proposition, and, information content, as indicated in Tables 4-93 to 4-98. Table 4-93 shows that the commercial stru cture preferred by domestic agencies and those from other Asian countri es (Japan and Singapore), as well as those from the U.S. was surprise or suspense in the middle. Agencies with European and other origins (advertisers themselves without agencies) preferred surpris e or suspense at closing more than other types of structure.

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102 Table 4-93: Crosstab of CF Stru cture by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency origin Domestic Asia US Europe Others Total Count 5921762 0 158 2 % within Agency origin 28.0%46.7%29.1% 10.5% .0% 29.2% Count 283517 3 92 3 % within Agency origin 13.3%6.7%19.5% 36.8% 50.0% 17.0% Count 651048498 105 542 CF structure1 Total % within Agency origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Please see Table A-65 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 41.38 df = 20 p < .05 1 2 = Surprise or suspense in the middle 3 = Surprise or suspense at closing As shown is Table 4-94, among the 18 differe nt formats, agencies with domestic, European origins and advertisers themselv es preferred the vignette format, while agencies from Asian countries used more fantasy, exaggerati on or surrealism as dominant element. Those from the U.S. em ployed more creation of mood or image as dominant element. Table 4-94: Crosstab of CF Form at by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 566398 3112 1 % within Agency Origin 26.5% 13.3%14.9% 42.1% 50.0%20.7% Count 305465 187 12 % within Agency Origin 14.2%11.1% 17.6% 26.3% 16.7%16.1% Count 3410312 178 14 % within Agency Origin 16.1% 22.2% 11.9%10.5% 16.7%14.4% Count 2114526119 6542 CF format1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-66 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 90.57 df = 64 p < .05 1 1 = Vignette 12 = Creation of mood or image as dominant element 14 = Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element Table 4-95 indicates the asso ciation between agency orig in and commercial tone & atmosphere. As the findings suggest: agenci es with domestic, Asian, American and

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103 European origins favored suspenseful to ne & atmosphere than other 17 kinds. Advertisers themselves, on the other hand, app eared to prefer une asy/tense/irritated more. Table 4-95: Crosstab of CF Tone & At mosphere by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 233230 352 12 % within Agency Origin 10.9%6.7%8.8%.0% 50.0% 9.6% Count 5415858 0162 16 % within Agency Origin 25.6%33.3%32.6%42.1% 0.0%29.9% Count 2114526119 6542 CF tone & atmosphere1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-67 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 87.93 df = 64 p < .05 1 12 = Uneasy/tense/irritated 16 = Suspenseful Table 4-96 indicates the association be tween agency origin and commercial approach (rational vs. emotional). Agen cies with domestic, Asian, American, and European origins showed slight to moderate preference of emo tional approaches to rational ones; advertisers themselves, however, showed overwhelmingly strong preference of using emotional approaches, and no rational ones were used in these cases. Table 4-96: Crosstab of CF Approach (Rat ional vs. Emotional) by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 97279411 6235 2 % within Agency Origin 46.0%60.0%36.0%57.9% 100.0%43.4% Count 2114526119 6542 CF approach (rational vs. emotional)1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-68 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 23.12 df = 8 p < .05 1 2 = Emotional Table 4-97 shows the associ ation between agency origin and commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition. As indicated in the table, ag encies with domestic, Asian,

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104 American, and European origins preferred us ing product performance or benefits as main message to others, whil e advertisers themselves used more psychological or subjective benefits of produc t ownership than others. Table 4-97: Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Proposition by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 811811411 0224 2 % within Agency Origin 38.4%40.0%43.7%57.9% 0.0%41.3% Count 5810444 4120 3 % within Agency Origin 27.5%22.2%16.9%21.1% 66.7% 22.1% Count 2114526119 6542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-69 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 84.73 df = 48 p < .05 1 2 = Product performance or benefits as main message 3 = Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership Table 4-98 shows the association between agency origin and information content in commercials. It was found that the favorite of domestic agencies wa s characteristics or image of users, while new product or ne w/improved product feature was mostly used by other Asian agencies. Agencies with we stern origin (from the U.S. or Europe) preferred results of using (either tangible or intangible). Advertis ers without agencies used more new product or new/improved produ ct feature as other Asian agencies did. Table 4-98: Crosstab of Information Content by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 259736 0113 19 % within Agency Origin 11.8%20.0% 28.0%31.6% 0.0% 20.8% Count 2513365 382 24 % within Agency Origin 11.8% 28.9% 13.8%26.3% 50.0% 15.1% Count 3810232 275 Information content1 26 % within Agency Origin 18.0% 22.2%8.8%10.5% 33.3%13.8%

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105 Table 4-98: Continued Count 2114526119 6542 Information content1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-70 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 135.93 df = 84 p < .05 1 19 = Results of using (either tangible or intangible) 24 = New product or new/improved product feature 26 = Characteristics or image of users In terms of product and brand-related vari ables, associations were found between agency origin and presence of product, doublebranded product, and visual sign-offs as shown in Tables 4-99 to 4-101. Table 4-99 indicates the association be tween agency origin and presence of product. Domestic agencies and those from ot her Asia countries, the U.S., and Europe preferred using single product in commercials, while advertis ers without agencies more frequently used no product. Table 4-99: Crosstab of Presence of Product by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 693627 5146 1 % within Agency Origin 32.7%6.7%23.8%36.8% 83.3% 26.9% Count 100261449 1280 2 % within Agency Origin 47.4%57.8%55.2%47.4% 16.7% 51.7% Count 2114526119 6542 Presence of product1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-71 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 27.42 df = 8 p < .05 1 1 = No product 2 = Single product Table 4-100 shows the association between agency origin and the tendency of using double-branded product in commercials. Double-bra nded products were usually absent in commercials from agencies with domestic, American, European origins and advertisers without agencies; however, were pr esent in commercials from Asian agencies.

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106 Table 4-100: Crosstab of Double-branded Product by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 7027743 1175 1 % within Agency Origin 33.2% 60.0% 28.4%15.8% 16.7%32.3% Count 100261449 1280 2 % within Agency Origin 66.8% 40.0% 71.6%84.2% 83.3%67.7% Count 2114526119 6542 Doublebranded product1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 20.77 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-101 indicates the association betw een agency origin and visual sign-off. Agencies with domestic, Asian, American, and European origins all frequently present visual sign-offs in commercials. Advertis ers without agencies showed no special preference. Table 4-101: Crosstab of Visual Sign-off by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1994424119 3506 1 % within Agency Origin 94.3%97.8%92.3%100.0% 50.0%93.4% Count 121200 336 2 % within Agency Origin 5.7%2.2%7.7%0.0% 50.0% 6.6% Count 2114526119 6542 Visual signoff1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 21.71 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence In terms of agency origin and character -related variables, as sociations were found between agency origin and the following four: actor playing role, minority in minor role, real people in minor role, and presenter on/ off camera, as shown in Tables 4-102 to 4111.

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107 Table 4-102 indicates the asso ciation between agency orig in and the use of actors playing roles in commercials. The use of actors playing roles was present in most commercials from agencies with different origins, whether it was domestic, Asian, American, European, or advertisers themselves. Table 4-102: Crosstab of Actor Playi ng Role by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1512318912 5380 1 % within Agency Origin 71.6%51.1%72.4%63.2% 83.3%70.1% Count 2114526119 6542 Actor playing role1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-72 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 9.56 df = 4 p < .05 1 1 = Presence Table 4-103 shows the association between agency origin and minority in minor role. Without exception, minorities as minor roles were usually absent in commercials from agencies with different origins. Table 4-103: Crosstab of Minority in Mi nor Role by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 2074225818 5530 2 % within Agency Origin 98.1%93.3%98.9%94.7% 83.3%97.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Minority in minor role1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-73 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.19 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-104 indicates the association between agency origin and the use of real people in minor role. In most commercials, whether the agen cies were domestic, Asian, American, European, or advertisers themselv es, real people were generally absent.

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108 Table 4-104: Crosstab of Real People in Minor Role by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1753321317 2440 2 % within Agency Origin 82.9%73.3%81.6%89.5% 33.3%81.2% Count 2114526119 6542 Real people in minor role1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-74 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.12 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-105 shows the associ ation between agency orig in and a presenter on/off camera. Domestic, Asian, American, and European agencies had a preference of using voice-overs only. Advertisers themselves had equal preferences over voice-overs only and on-camera characters only. Table 4-105: Crosstab of Presenter On/O ff Camera by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 973011110 3251 1 % within Agency Origin 46.0%66.7%42.5%52.6% 50.0%46.3% Count 213292 358 3 % within Agency Origin 10.0%6.7%11.1%10.5% 50.0% 10.7% Count 2114526119 6542 Presenter on/off camera1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-75 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 23.09 df = 12 p < .05 1 1 = Voice-overs only, no on-camera characters 3 = On-camera characters only, no voice-overs Table 4-106 shows a strong association between agency origin and the use of beauty of principal characters. With no ex ception, beauty of principal characters was absent in commercials from agencies with all kinds of origin.

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109 Table 4-106: Crosstab of Beauty of Princi pal Character by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1953624219 6498 2 % within Agency Origin 92.4%80.0%92.7%100.0% 100.0%91.9% Count 2114526119 6542 Beauty of principal character1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-76 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 11.05 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-107 illustrates the association betw een agency origin and graphic display. For all agencies, graphic displays were usually absent in their commercials. Table 4-107: Crosstab of Graphic Di splay by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1363320015 5389 2 % within Agency Origin 64.5%73.3%76.6%78.9% 83.3%71.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Graphic display1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-77 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 9.55 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-108 indicates the association be tween agency origin and substantive supers. Among all agencies with different orig ins, European agencies were the only one that significantly had more absence of subs tantive supers. Others, however, showed more presence of them. Table 4-108: Crosstab of Substantive Supers by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 159362049 5413 1 % within Agency Origin 75.4%80.0%78.2% 47.4% 83.3%76.2% Count 5295710 1129 Substantive supers! 2 % within Agency Origin 24.6%20.0%21.8% 52.6% 16.7%23.8%

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110 Table 4-108: Continued Count 2114526119 6542 Substantive supers! Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 8.52 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence The association between agency origin and visual tagline was showed in Table 4109. Agencies with domestic, Asian, American and European origins tended to have less presence of visual taglines. Advertisers themselves contrar ily had did more presence of visual taglines. Table 4-109: Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 7220781 5176 1 % within Agency Origin 34.1%44.4%29.9%5.3% 83.3% 32.5% Count 1392518318 1366 2 % within Agency Origin 65.9%55.6%70.1%94.7% 16.7% 67.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Visual tagline! Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 = Presence 2 = 17.49 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence Table 4-110 shows the asso ciation between agency origin and language in commercials. As stated in the table, all ag encies, domestic, international or advertisers themselves, had obviously more presence of Ch inese (Mandarin) than other languages in the commercials. Table 4-110: Crosstab of Language Pr esented by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1893723812 6482 1 % within Agency Origin 89.6%82.2%91.2%63.2% 100.0%88.9% Count 2114526119 6542 Language presented1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-78 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 68.87 df = 20 p < .05 1 1 = Chinese (Mandarin)

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111 Cross tabulating found only one auditory vari able to have associ ation with agency origin, which was the principal language spoken in commercials. Table 4-111 indicates this association between agency origin and principal language spoken. It is not su rprising that Chinese (Mandarin) was the most present language spoken in these Taiwanese TV comm ercials regardless of agencies origin. However, advertisers themselves had equal usages of Chinese (Mandarin) and other language (Cantonese, in these cases) because the product advertised was the dbut album of a female singer from Hong Kong. Another inte resting finding is that domestic agencies had the least presence, 69.2%, of Chinese (M andarin) in commercials comparing with agencies from other regions. This might be because international agencies used Chinese (Mandarin) as a localizing tool, while domestic agencies on the contrary used foreign languages to appear exotic or used dialects such as Taiwanese in response of its growing importance in local society. Table 4-111: Crosstab of Language Spoken by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1463619619 3400 1 % within Agency Origin 69.2%80.0%75.1%100.0% 50.0%73.8% Count 3010 37 7 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%0.4%0.0% 50.0% 1.3% Count 2114526119 6542 Language spoken1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-79 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 138.61 df = 24 p < .05 1 1 = Chinese (mandarin) 7 = Others In terms of music and dancing elements, associations were found to exist between agency origin and music, music style, musi c creates mood, adaptation or employment of well-known music, and continuous musical th eme, as shown in Table 4-112 to 4-116.

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112 Table 4-112 shows the associ ation between agency origin and the use of music in commercials. Agencies with domestic, Asian, American and European origins had more presence of music in their commercials. Be ing the only exception, advertisers themselves had equal presence and absence of music in commercials. Table 4-112: Crosstab of Music by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1784323614 3474 1 % within Agency Origin 84.4%95.6%90.4%73.7% 50.0%87.5% Count 332255 368 2 % within Agency Origin 15.6%4.4%9.6%26.3% 50.0% 12.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Music1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 1 1 = Presence 2 = 17.58 df = 4 p < .05 2 = Absence In terms of music style, the association between agency origin and it was stated in Table 4-113. Domestic agencies and those from other Asian countries and Europe tended to use more music of other style (such as simp le melodies or repeated rhythms that could not be categorized). Agencies from the U. S. and advertisers themselves had more presence of contemporary wester n (including pop music) music. Table 4-113: Crosstab of Music St yle by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 496884 2149 4 % within Agency Origin 23.2%13.3% 33.7% 21.1% 33.3% 27.5% Count 7118747 1171 6 % within Agency Origin 33.6%40.0% 28.4% 36.8% 16.7% 31.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Music style1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-80 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 39.86 df = 24 p < .05 1 4 = Contemporary western (including pop music) 6 = Others

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113 Table 4-114 shows the associ ation between agency orig in and the use of music creates mood (versus background on ly). Regardless of their orig ins, all agencies had high absence of music to create mood; in other words, music was merely background in most commercials. Table 4-114: Crosstab of Music Create s Mood by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1713923815 5468 2 % within Agency Origin 81.0%86.7%91.2%78.9% 83.3%86.3% Count 2114526119 6542 Music creates mood1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-81 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 11.16 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-115 indicates the a ssociation between agency or igin and the adaptation or employment of well-known music. Adaptati on or employment of well-known music was noticeably absent in most commercials, rega rdless of where these agencies were from. Table 4-115: Crosstab of Well-known Music by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1742920018 6427 2 % within Agency Origin 82.5%64.4%76.6%94.7% 100.0%78.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Well-known music1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-82 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 12.48 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence Table 4-116 shows the associ ation between agency origin and the use of continuous musical theme. According to the numbers, all agencies, with domestic, Asian, American, European or other origins, te nded to have more absence of continuous musical theme in their commercials.

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114 Table 4-116: Crosstab of Continuous Musi cal Theme by Agency Origin (excerpt) Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1803021516 6447 2 % within Agency Origin 85.3%66.7%82.4%84.2% 100.0%82.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Continuous musical theme1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% Please see Table A-83 for detailed cross tabulation results 2 = 10.27 df = 4 p < .05 1 2 = Absence.

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115 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Discussion This study examined 542 Taiwanese awar d-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards (1998 to 2003) by conducting a content analysis. Six peripheral and 54 execu tional elements were investigated using a coding framework adapted from Stewart and Furses (1986) study as well as Dengs ( 2004) replication to draw the characteristics in common of these commercials. Summarizing the findings from chapter f our, Table 5-1 shows the variables that remained consistent throughout years when y ear was taken as the peripheral element. Table 5-1: Variables Cons istent throughout Years Variable Occurrence Variable Occurrence Commercial approach Positive Commercial settings Indoor Brand-differentiating messages Absent Scenic beauty Absent Comparison Absent Graphic display Absent Principal character One Substantive supers Present Sex of principal character Male Visual taglines Absent Age of principal character Adult (26-35) Language spoken Chinese (Mandarin) Actors playing roles of ordinary people Present Spoken taglines Absent Background cast Present Music Present Continuing roles Absent Dancing Absent Presenter on/off camera Voice-overs only There are also variables that changed si gnificantly with different years. These variables include: commercial structure and visual memory devices. In 1998 to 2000, the dominant commercials structure was unusual setting or situation, which changed into blind lead-ins in 2001 and surprise or suspense in the middle in 2002 and 2003.

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116 Visual memory devices were mostly absent in 1998 to 2001; however, became present more than absent in 2002 and 2003. When brand origin was taken as periph eral element, Table 5-2 indicates the variables that remained consiste nt with different brand origin. Table 5-2: Variables Consistent with Brand Origin Variable Occurrence Variable Occurrence Commercial tone and atmosphere Technological/futuristic Continuing roles Absent Presence of product Single product Scenic beauty Absent Visual brand sign-offs Present Graphic display Absent Auditory brand signoffs Present Visual taglines Absent Comparison Absent Language presented Chinese (Mandarin) Actors playing roles of ordinary people Present Continuous musical theme Absent Real people as principal characters Absent Variables inconsistent with brand orig in include: 1) commercial structure, European brands used more surprise or susp ense at closing when brands from other regions used more surprise or suspense in the middle; 2) commercials format, European brands preferred creation of mood or image as dominant element, and brand with other origins preferred the vignette. Other inconsistent variables include: 3) information content, Asia-Pacifica brands used more new product or new/improved product feature while brands fr om other areas used more results of using (either tangible or intangible); 4) presenter on/off camera, American brands used more both voice-overs and on-camera characters and brands from other regions used more voiceovers only; 5) music style, European bra nds preferred contemporary western music and other regions brands prefe rred no specific music style; and 6) memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic devices, which were mostly abse nt in commercials of Asia-Pacifica and European brands and were present in commercials of other brand origins.

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117 Table 5-3 presents the variables stayed consistent when using agency origin as peripheral element. Table 5-3: Variables Consistent with Agency Origin Variable Occurrence Variable Occurrence Commercial approach Emotional Graphic display Absent Visual brand sign-offs Present Language presented Chinese (Mandarin) Actors playing roles of ordinary people Present Language spoken Chinese (Mandarin) Presenter on/off camera Voice-overs only Music Present Beauty of principal characters Absent Continuous musical theme Absent Variables that significantly changed with different agency origin include: 1) commercial structure, European agencies pref erred surprise or suspense at closing while agencies with other origins preferred surprise or suspense in the middle; 2) commercial format, Asian agencies used more fantasy, exaggerati on, or surrealism as dominant element, while American agencies used more creation of mood or image as dominant element and agencies from ot her countries used more vignette; 3) information content, domestic agencies used more characteristics or image of users, while Asian agencies used more new pr oduct or new/improved product feature and agencies from other regions used more results of using (either tangible or intangible; 4) double-branded products, which were usuall y present in commercials from Asian agencies and were absent in most commerci als from agencies with other origins; 5) substantive supers, which were usually abse nt in European agencies commercials and were present in commercials from agencies with other origins; 6) music style, European agencies preferred contemporary western musi c and agencies from other areas did not have preferred music style.

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118 Following sections were some inductions of the findings and comparisons with the two studies mentioned above and Chaos (2003) study that also examined the characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials from the Times Advertising Awards. Characteristics of Taiwanese Award-winning TV Commercials From the findings stated in previous ch apter, a portrait of a typical Taiwanese award-winning TV commercial can be drawn, which contains these characteristics: Use surprise or suspense in the middle as commercial structure and suspenseful commercial tone and atmosphere Employ emotional and positive approach Contain no brand-differentiating message Apply product performance or benefits as ma in message, and results of using (either tangible or intangible) Contain single product but not double-branded, and both visu al and auditory brand signoffs Present no comparison of any kind Employ one male actor aged from 26 to 35 as principal character, and also background cast Use either voice-over only, or both voice-over and on-cam era characters to convey advertising message Apply indoor settings Contain substantive supers Use Chinese (Mandarin) in both visual and auditory message presentations Apply music that can not be categorized as background This portrait can also answer the first research question (RQ1) about the macro point of view characteristics of Taiwanes e award-winning TV commercials. As for the second research question (RQ2), Table 5-4 i ndicates the findings regarding each variable.

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119 Table 5-4: Characteristics of Taiw anese Award-winning TV Commercials Variables Characteristics Commercial structure Surprise or suspense in the middle Commercial format Vignette (as series of commercials) Commercials tone and atmosphere Suspenseful Commercial approach (rational/emotional) Emotional Commercial approach (positive/negative) Positive Brand-differentiating message Absent Commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition Product performance or benefits as main message Information content Results of usi ng (either tangible or intangible) Presence of product in commercials Single product Double-branded product Absent Visual sign-off Present Auditory sign-off Present Comparison Absent Principal character One Sex of principal character Male Age of principal character Adult (age from 26 to 35) Actors playing roles of ordinary people Present Created roles as principal character Absent Character related to the company Absent Background cast Present Minority in minor role Absent Real people in minor role Absent Continuous roles Absent Presenters on/off camera Voice-overs only, no on-camera characters Commercial setting Indoor Scenic beauty Absent Beauty of principal character Absent Graphic display Absent Substantive supers Present Visual taglines Absent Visual memory devices Absent Principal language spoken in commercials Chinese (Mandarin)

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120 Table 5-4: Continued Unusual sound effects Absent Spoken tag lines Absent Music Present Music style Others (music that can not be categorized) Music creates mood Absent Continuous musical theme Absent Dancing Absent Comparison with Stewart and Furses (1986) Study The purpose of Stewart and Furses (1986) study was to measure the effectiveness of 155 executional variables they genera lized on consumers related recall, comprehension, and persuasion. Employing simila r variables, this study was carried out in the same way thus could and should be compared with their benchmark study. Table 5-5 below presented the overlappi ng variables applied in both studies. According to Stewart and Furses (1986) fi ndings, these variables were significantly related to recall, comprehension, or persua sion in either positive or negative way. Table 5-5: Variables Affecting Re call, Comprehension, or Persuasion Recall Comprehension Persuasion Appearance in Taiwanese commercials Brand-differentiating message [+] [+] [+] Absent in 94.3% of total Male principal character [] [] Present in 49.1% of total Results of using [+] Present in 20.8% of total Manufacturer/distributor identified [+] Present in 86.5% of total Visual brand sign-off [+] Present in 93.4% of total Substantive supers [] Present in 76.2% of total Product performance major focus [+] Present in 41.3% of total Indoor settings [+] Present in 38.9% of total New product or new feature [+] Present in 15.1% of total Actor playing role of principal character [+] Present in 70.1%of total Background cast [] [] Present in 72.1% of total [+] or [] = 95 percent significant level; + or = 90 percent significant level Source: Stewart and Furse (1986), p.56, 58, 61, 62

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121 From the table, some conflicts could be observed by comparing the two studies. First of all, brand-differentiating messages we re found to be positivel y related to recall, comprehension and persuasion, however, were scarcely employed in these Taiwanese commercials. On the other hand, male princi pal characters were negatively related to recall, comprehension and persuasion, but also happened to be the dominant one in these commercials. Similarly, both substantive supers and background casts were proved negatively related to recall and either compre hension or persuasion; nevertheless, were frequently applied in the commercials. These conflicts were also found in Ga gnard and Morris (1988) and Gagnards (1989) studies on CLIO ward-winning commercial s as stated in chapter two previously. Thus, the question of whether creative adver tisements were also effective once again was aroused. Comparisons with Dengs (2004) and Chaos (2003) Studies As two countries with identical cultu ral background yet completely different directions in politic and ec onomic development over the last more than half century, a comparison between advertising in Taiwan an d in China might yield some interesting phenomena. Table 5-6 presents the comparison between characteristics of Taiwanese and Chinese award-winning TV commercials. Table 5-6: Comparison of Taiwanese a nd Chinese Award-winning TV Commercials Characteristics Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials Chinese award-winning TV commercials Commercial structure Surprise or suspense in the middle Blind lead-in or humorous closing Commercial format Vignette (as series of commercials) Demonstration of product in use or by analogy Commercial approach Emotional and positive Emotional and positive Brand-differentiating message Absent Present

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122 Table 5-6: Continued Commercial promise, appeal, or selling proposition Product performance or benefits as main message Product performance or benefits as main message Excitement, sensation, or variety Commercial setting Indoor Indoor Beauty of principal character Absent Present Substantive supers Present Present Visual memory device Absent Present Memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic device Absent Present Music/music style Music without identifiable genre or style Contemporary Chinese music Due to the differences in coding framewo rks of these two studies, findings of award-winning TV commercials from each country could not be compared side by side. Nevertheless, a simple comparison was effici ent enough to see that there were actually certain significant divergences existed between these two countries TV commercials. With purposes lightly different yet both examined the characteristics of Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials, a comparison between the current study and Chaos (2003) can also provide certain insights of th ese characteristics. Ho wever, because of the same reason mentioned above, the coding systems of these two studies were quite different from each other, the findings could not be compared side by side either. Table 5-7 presents the comparison between two studies. Table 5-7: Comparison w ith Chaos (2003) Study Variables The current study (N = 542) Chaos study (N = 86) Commercial length Short (25 seconds or less) 29.5% Average (30 seconds) 33.8% Long (35 seconds or more) 36.7% Averagely 37.03 seconds Commercial purpose Not measured Brand awareness 61.6% Commercial theme Product performance or benefits1 41.3% Attribute on ingredients 46.5% Commercial appeal Emotional2 43.4% Rational 58.1% Target gender Not measured No specific gender 57.0% Target age Not measured Adult 83.7% Protagonist gender Male 49.1% Male 46.5% Protagonist age Adult (26-35) 34.5% Adult3 89.5% Protagonist occupation Not measured No specific occupation 52.3%

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123 Table 5-7: Continued Presence or absence of animal character Absence 97.2% (principal characters) Absence 95.0% (minor roles) Absence 96.5% Tone and manner Suspenseful 29.9% Lively4 44.2% Use of music Other styles 31.5% Fast tempo5 37.2% Voice-over and lines Not measured Many 51.2% 1 Under the variable Commercial prom ise, appeal, or selling proposition 2 Under the variable Commercial approach 3 Options included: 1) adult or the elder, 2) child or teenager, and 3) not specific 4 Options included: 1) serious, 2) wa rm, 3) lively, and 4) exaggerating 5 Options included: 1) Fast tempo, 2) slow tempo, 3) both fast and slow tempo, and 4) no music Source: Chao (2003), Cross-culture research of advertising creative strategies: A comparison between Taiwanese and Japanese award-wi nning ads. Unpublished Masters thesis. China Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan The comparison indicates that the consistent characteristics are male as the dominant gender (sex) of protagonist (princip al character) and the absence of animal characters. Other findings presen t inconsistent or even contradictory results, such as emotional approaches in this study and rati onal appeals in Chaos (2003). The reason can be assumed to be the discrepancy in sample size, options to th e variables and product categories that were included in the studies The current study sampled 542 commercials from 14 product categories excluding public se rvice and corporation image, while Chaos (2003) included 86 commercials from all pr oduct categories but only gold and silver awards winners. In addition, differences also existed between the va riables measured in these two studies. Some were measured in on ly one study and others were given different options. With differences to such an immense degree, it is understandable that these two studies yield only limite d findings in common. Based on Chus (1995) illustration of the comparison between rational and emotional approaches, as shown in Figure 5-1, some characteristics listed in Tables 5-6 and 5-7 can be further discussed. As a highly saturated market, most kinds of consumer goods in Taiwan have reached the matured stage of product life cycle and have to battle with competing

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124 products with great similarities in functi on, performance, and price. The 14 product categories in the Times Advertising Award s also comprise many low-involvement products such as food, beverage, househol d, and personal care products. Some product categories are considered to be high-involve ment but also are matured and hard to distinguish from competitors, such as el ectronics, education a nd culture, financial services, and communication products. Furt hermore, the sample units are all TV commercials that are advertisements on broadc asting media. Hence, it is reasonable that the result of analysis showed more em otional approaches than rational ones. Figure 5-1: Comparison of Rati onal and Emotional Approaches

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125 Conclusion As the highest standard and the most honorable recognition of advertising in Taiwan for nearly three decades, The Times Advertising Awards had become not only a competition among advertising agencies, but also a widely anticipated and participated annual event for the public. Every year the ceremony woul d go on-air on television and the Internet, with viewers all over the country and also othe r Chinese societies. In fact, the awards were just a part of the yearly advertising festival in which the public was welcomed to join the seminars, commercials shows and various programs. Although it was stated previously that these Times Advertising Awards-winning TV commercials did not equal to Taiwanes e TV commercials, it was undeniable that these commercials usually lead and create both advertising and social new trends in Taiwan. By conducting this study and drawin g the overall characteristics of them, it might benefit academic scholars and students, advertisers and adver tising practitioners, and the public by providing the results and findings. Limitations There were some limitations of this study that should be taken into consideration when looking at this study a nd when conducting future resear ch. First of all, the sample size in this study could be a limitation becau se it only encompassed six years winning TV commercials from the Times Advertis ing Awards. Started from 1978, the Times Advertising Awards had been held for 27 year s, and TV commercials were included in the competition for 17 years. It was fair enough to say that th e sample here was merely a fragment of the huge amount of all winning TV commercials. As a result, this study inevitably faced the first limitation due to the unavailability of show reels prior to 1998 and after 2003 at the time of research.

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126 Furthermore, although there were characteris tics drawn from analyzing these Times Advertising Award-winning TV commercials, it did not necessarily mean that these characteristics could be projected to all Ta iwanese TV commercials. The first reason was that these award-winning TV commercials were only a sma ll fragment of commercials aired every year in this count ry. The other one was that many of the contestants, as well as the winners, were specially edited to participate in the competitions, so-called director-cuts or agency-cuts, that were di fferent from the aired versions. The judges in each years competition we re another factor to be ta ken into consideration. These judges are either experienced a dvertising practitioners, advertis ing scholars or artists and writers. Because of their experiences and expe rtise, they have better comprehension and special tastes toward these TV commercials than average Taiwanese. Their choices did not stand for the preference of the public. Thus, these award-winning TV commercials could not completely represent the real Taiwanese advertising. Another limitation came from the coding framework. Even though Stewart and Furses (1986) study was the benchmark of this study and their coding framework had been replicated many times by various research ers, it still remain ed questionable that whether this coding framework developed by western scholars based on western culture and language would be wholly appropriate to be performed over th ese Taiwanese awardwinning TV commercials given that they were from a society with different cultural background and language. Last but not least, there was also the limitation from the research method employed in this study. Content analysis served well wh en used to examine descriptive elements but was not ideal to test the effectiveness of these TV commercials. Given the nature of

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127 advertising awards that they seek and honor not the effectiveness but the creativity of advertisements, this limitation of content analys is might be reinforced thus prevented any study from investigating aspects other than characteristics contai ned in commercials. Suggestions for Future Research The purpose of this study was partly, as an old Chinese proverb says: throw a brick to get a jade, to provide a humble starti ng point for future research. In response of the limitations stated previous, future resear ch might have to take the following issues into consideration when studying Taiwanes e award-winning TV commercial (or nonaward-winning ones). First of all, the award-winning TV comm ercials of the Times Advertising Awards had accumulated to a tremendous amount throu ghout the years. To better generalize and understand the characteristics of them, future research shou ld consider including more units from more years even though it would certainly be a time-consuming and laborious work to do. Secondly, an appropriate, tailor-made codi ng framework might be necessary if one is to truly examine and reflect the characteristics of advertising in Taiwan. With profound cultural heritage and influen ce came along with 5,000 years of history, Chinese society is very different from the western world in which Stewart and Fu rse (1986), or other scholars, developed and applied their codi ng framework. Let alone that hieroglyphic Chinese (Mandarin) is a completely differe nt system of writing and expressing with unique characters and grammar. For example, one of the most frequent winners in the Times Advertising Awards, Ideology Advertising, a local agency, produced numerous outstanding and real innovative advertisements every year using their unique way to manipulate and transform wordings

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128 and visuals. Their portfolio was not only a hi story of winning awards but also a social phenomenon that provoked a lot of discussions and studies in Chinese-speaking societies such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, China and Singapor e. Nevertheless, their advertisements rarely won them trophies from international advertising awards such as CLIO Awards and Cannes Advertising Festival. The reason behind could be assumed that by mastering the use of Chinese (mandarin), Ideology al so built an impenetrable barrier for nonChinese-speaking outsiders to accurately understand and appreciate their works. Figure 5-2: Comparison of Cu ltural Dimensions of Taiwan and the United States According to Halls (1976) and Hofstedes (1980) cultural dimension categories in Figure 5-2, Taiwan is a society with high collectivism (low individualism) and high cultural context that is very different from a high individualism and low cultural context society such as the United States. With thes e qualities in society, lines in Taiwanese TV commercials are more likely to convey more and deeper meanings than in commercials from a low cultural context country. Also, Ta iwan is high in both Power Distance Index (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) in Hofstedes cultural dimensions. These

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129 qualities may explain the phenomenon that these Taiwanese award-winning TV commercials used more voice-overs than other forms of presenters, and that American brand used both voice-overs and on-camera characters more than other brands, because voice-overs played a more authority-like role and provided the avoidance from uncertainty. To address these differences in Taiwanese advertising, a coding framework that takes account of the words, phrases, and lines in commercials may be need for future research to more thoroughly understand characteristics of Taiwanese TV advertising. An additional factor should also be taken in to consideration is the target of these TV commercials, like Chao (2003) measured in his study. Undoubtedly, TV commercials that aim at different target audiences will have different corresponding strategies and executions. This factor was ne glected in Stewart and Furs es (1986) study, and was also absent in the following reduplicating studies by other researchers. Future research should pay attention to this concern and th us can produce more in-depth results.

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130 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET FOR THE TIMES ADVE RTISING AWARDS WINNING TV COMMERCIALS (FROM 1998 TO 2003) TV Commercial ID# ________________ Peripheral Variable 1: Year 1. 1998 2. 1999 3. 2000 4. 2001 5. 2002 6. 2003 Variable 2: Category 1. Electronics 2. Automobile 3. Food 4. Beverage 5. Household 6. Personal care 7. Education & culture 8. Construction & decoration 9. Communications 10. Financial service 11. Tourism & recreation 12. Retailer 13. Internet 14. Others Variable 3: Award 1. Gold 2. Silver 3. Bronze 4. Merit mentions

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131 Variable 4: Brand Origin 1. Domestic 2. Asia & Pacific (China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Korea, all Southeastern Asia countries, Australia and New Zeala nd, and Pacific island countries) 3. America (all North, Central, and South American countries) 4. Europe (all European count ries and cross-continent c ountries such as Russia and Turkey) 5. Others (India, Middle-east and African countries) Variable 5: Agency Origin 1. Domestic 2. Asia (Japan and Singapore) 3. U.S. 4. Europe 5. Others (no agency) Variable 6: Length of commercial 1. Short (25 seconds or less) 2. Average (30 seconds) 3. Long (35 seconds or more) Commercial Structure Variable 7: The domina nt commercial structure 1. Front-end impact 2. Surprise or suspense in the middle 3. Surprise or suspense at closing 4. Unusual setting or situation 5. Humorous closing 6. Blind lead-in 7. Message in middle (doughnut) Commercial Format Variable 8: The dominant commercial format 1. Vignette 2. Continuity of action 3. Slice of life 4. Testimonial by product user 5. Endorsement by celebrity or authority 6. Announcement 7. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 8. Demonstration of results of using product 9. Comedy or satire

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132 10. Animation/carton/rotoscope 11. Photographic stills 12. Creation of mood or image as dominant element 13. Commercial written as serious drama 14. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 15. Problem and solution (before/after presentation) 16. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) 17. Camera involves audience in situation 18. New wave (product graphics) Commercial Tone and Atmosphere Variable 9: Commercial tone and atmosphere 1. Cute/adorable 2. Hard sell 3. Warm and caring 4. Modern/contemporary 5. Wholesome/healthy 6. Technological/futuristic 7. Conservative/traditional 8. Old fashioned/nostalgic 9. Happy/fun-loving 10. Cool/laid-back 11. Somber/serious 12. Uneasy/tense/irritated 13. Relaxed/comfortable 14. Glamorous 15. Humorous 16. Suspenseful 17. Rough/rugged 18. Exotic Commercial Approach Variable 10: The use of ra tional/emotional approach 1. Rational 2. Emotional 3. Combination of rational and emotional Variable 11: The use of positive/negative approach 1. Positive 2. Negative 3. Combination of positive and negative

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133 Variable 12: Presence or absence of brand-differentiating message 1. Presence 2. Absence Promise, Appeal or Selling Proposition Variable 13: The dominant commercial pr omise, appeal or selling proposition 1. Attribute on ingredients as main message 2. Product performance or benefits as main message 3. Psychological or subjective be nefits of product ownership 4. Product reminder as main message 5. Sales promotions as main message 6. Sexual appeal 7. Comfort appeal 8. Safety appeal 9. Enjoyment appeal 10. Welfare appeal 11. Social approval 12. Self-esteem or self-image 13. Achievement 14. Excitement, sensation, variety Information Content Variable 14: Principal information content in commercial 1. Price 2. Value 3. Quality 4. Economy/saving 5. Dependability/reliability/durability 6. Sensory information 7. Aesthetic claims 8. Components, contents or ingredients 9. Availability 10. Packaging 11. Guarantees or warranty 12. Safety 13. Nutrition/health 14. Independent research results 15. Company-sponsored research results 16. Research results from unidentified source 17. New uses 18. Company image or reputation

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134 19. Results of using (either tangible or intangible) 20. User's satisfaction/dedication/loyalty 21. Superiority claim 22. Convenience in use 23. Special offer or event 24. New product or new/improved product features 25. Use occasion 26. Characteristics or image of users Brand and Product Identification Variable 15: Presence of product in the commercial 1. No product 2. Single product 3. Multiple products Variable 16: Presence or absence of double-branded product 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 17: Presence or absence of id entification of company manufacturing and/or distributing the product 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 18: Presence or absence of visual brand sign-off 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 19: Presence or absence of auditory sign-off 1. Presence 2. Absence Comparison Variable 20: Presence or absence of comparison 1. Direct comparison with other products 2. Indirect comparison with other products 3. Puffery, or unsubstantiated claim 4. No comparison presented

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135 Commercial Characters Variable 21: Presence or absen ce of principal character(s) 1. Presence one principal character 2. Presence two or more principal characters 3. Absence no central character(s) 4. Absence no principal character (or animal characters only) Variable 22: Sex of principal character(s) 1. Male 2. Female 3. Both (two or more principal characters) 4. Cannot code (no principal character) Variable 23: Age of principal character(s) 1. Infant or child (age under 12) 2. Teenager/adolescent (age from 13 to 19) 3. Young adult/college student (age from 20 to 25) 4. Adult (age from 26 to 35) 5. Pre-middle-age adult (age from 36 to 45) 6. Middle-age adult (age from 46 to 60) 7. Elder (age over 61) 8. Cannot code (unable to determine) Variable 24: Presence or absence of ra cial or ethnic minority as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 25: Presence or absence of celebrity as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 26: Presence or absence of acto r playing role of ordinary person as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 27: Presence or absence of rea l people as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 28: Presence or absence of created role as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence

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136 Variable 29: Presence or absence of animal as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 30: Presence or absence of anim ated role as principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 31: Presence or absence of ch aracter(s) identified with company 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 32: Presence or absence of background cast (people only) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 33: Presence or absence of raci al or ethnic minority in minor role 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 34: Presence or absence of celeb rity in minor role (cameo appearance) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 35: Presence or absence of animal(s) in minor role 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 36: Presence or absence of created or cartoon character(s) in minor role 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 37: Presence or absence of real p erson in minor role (not professional actors) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 38: Presence or absence of recognized continuing character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 39: Presence or absence of presenter/spokesperson on camera 1. Voice-overs only, no on-camera character(s) 2. Voice-overs and on-camera characters 3. On-camera character(s) only, no voice-overs 4. Neither voice-overs nor on-camera character(s)

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137 Commercial Setting Variable 40: The dominant commercial setting 1. Indoors 2. Outdoors 3. Combination of indoors and outdoors 4. Others (fantasy, computer animated setting, or designated studio setting) 5. No setting (limbo background) Visual Devices Variable 41: Presence or absence of scenic beauty 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 42: Presence or absence of beauty of principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 43: Presence or absence of ugliness of principal character(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 44: Presence or absence of graphic display 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 45: Presence or abse nce of surrealistic visuals 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 46: Presence or absence of substantive supers 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 47: Presence or ab sence of a visual tagline 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 48: Presence or absen ce of a visual memory device 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 49: Principal language presented in commercial 1. Chinese (Mandarin) 2. Japanese 3. English 4. Combination of any two (or more) above

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138 5. Others 6. Not applicable Auditory Devices Variable 50: Principal lang uage spoken in commercial 1. Chinese (Mandarin) 2. Taiwanese 3. Hakka 4. Japanese 5. English 6. Combination of any two (or more) above 7. Others 8. Not applicable Variable 51: Presence or absence of memora ble rhyme, slogan or mnemonic device 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 52: Presence o r absence of unusual sound effect(s) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 53: Presence or ab sence of a spoken tagline 1. Presence 2. Absence Music and Dancing Variable 54: Presence or absence of music in commercial 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 55: Music style in commercial 1. Traditional Chinese 2. Contemporary Chinese (including pop music) 3. Western classical 4. Contemporary western (i ncluding pop music) 5. Other Asia style (such as Indian and Japanese) 6. Others (music that cannot be categorized) 7. Not applicable (no music) Variable 56: Presence or absen ce of music as a major element 1. Presence 2. Absence

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139 Variable 57: Music creates mood (versus background only) 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 58: Presence or absence of adapta tion or employment of well-known music 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 59: Presence or absence of recognized continuing musical theme 1. Presence 2. Absence Variable 60: Presence or absence of dancing 1. Presence 2. Absence

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140 APPENDIX B OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF CODING VARIABLES Peripheral Information Year: Refers to the specific year in wh ich the commercial had won in the Times Advertising Awards. Category: Refers to the product category to which the product advertised belonged. Award: Refers to the award that the winni ng commercial obtained in the Times Advertising Awards in the given year. Brand Origin: Refers to the root country or area from which the brand or product advertised in the winning commercial came. Agency Origin: Refers to the root country or area from which the winning agency came. Length of Commercial: Refers to the total s econds the winning commercial underwent. Note that in Taiwan, the most common length of comm ercials is 30 seconds, and other length can only be purchased in 5-second or its multiple units such as 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 40, or 60 seconds. Commercial Structure Front-end impact: The first 10 seconds of the commercial creates suspense, questions, surprise, drama, or someth ing that otherwise gains attention.

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141 Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial: Something surprising, dramatic, or suspenseful occurs in th e middle of the commercial. Surprise or suspense at closing: Commercial ends with a surprise, an unexpected event, suspense, or drama. Unusual setting or situation: Product is in setting not normally associated with product purchase or use-for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient Greece. Humorous closing: Commercial ends with a joke pun, witticism, or slapstick. Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial. Commercial Format Vignettes: A series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline but several independe nt stories (which may convey the same message). Multiple interviews would be an exampl e. Has no continuity of action. Continuity of action: Commercial has a single st oryline throughout with an obvious beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character or issue ties the whole commercial together from begi nning to end. This may be an interview with a single individual, slice or life, or any other format that involves continuity of action. Slice of life: An interplay between two or more people that portrays a conceivable real-life situation. There is continuity of action. Testimonial by product user: One or more individuals, ei ther real people, actors, or celebrities, recounts his or her satisfaction with the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised.

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142 Endorsement by celebrity or authority: One or more than one individuals (or organizations) advocate or recommend the pr oduct but does not claim personal use of satisfaction. Announcement: Commercials format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales announcement. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy: A demonstration of the product in use for example, a man shaving in a co mmercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup. A demonstration of the use of the pro duct, benefit, or produc t characteristic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration. Demonstration of results of using product: Demonstration of the outcome of using the product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair. Comedy or satire: The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny. Animation/cartoon/rotoscope: The entire commercial or some substantial part of the commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the same time for ex ample, Tony Tiger for Kelloggs Cereal. Photographic stills: The use of photographic stills in part of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. Creation of mood or image as dominant element: An attempt to create a desire for the product, without offering a specific product claim by appealing to the viewers emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thru st of the commercial is the creation of a feeling or mood.

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143 Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element: The use of animation or other visual device instead of a realisti c treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on th e part of the viewer. Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the produc t eliminates or reduces the problem. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle in the commercial. Camera involves audience in situation: Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates participation in commercial. New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, montage, or high symbolism. Commercial Approach Rational approach: A fairly straightforward presentation of the products attributes and claims. Emotional approach: An approach that appeals to reason feelings rather than to reason is considered to be emotional. Combination of rational and emotional: An approach counterpoising of rational and emotional. Positive approach: The appeal to buy or use the product is based on what it will do for the consumer, the benefit offered, or how the user will be better off.

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144 Negative approach: The appeal is based on what ha ppen to the consumer if he or she does not buy the product or what will not ha ppen if the product is used (for example, wax floors wont yellow). Combination of positive and negative: An appeal counterpoising of positive and negative. Brand-differentiating message: Is the principle message of the commercial unique to the product being advertised, or could any product make this claim? The commercial must make it clear that the message is unique; that is, the commercial must explicitly indicate the uniqueness or difference of th e product with specific wording such as only, unique, or exclusive. Promise, Appeal, and Selling Proposition Attribute or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something important about how th e product is made (for example, car in manufacturing) or ingredients (for example, the only toothp aste with stannous fluoride). Product performance or benefits as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate wh at the product does (for ex ample, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter teeth) or how to use it. Psychological or subjective be nefits of product ownership: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate hidden or no n-provable benefits of having/using the product (for example, youll be more popular, sexier, or more confident). Product reminder as main message: The product or package is the primary message rather than any specific attribute or benefit of use.

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145 Sales promotions as main message: The commercial emphasizes sales promotion messages such as special price, time-lim ited offer, special discount, prizeetc. Sexual appeal: Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues. Comfort appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts (soft chairs, cool climate). Safety appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or physical danger. Enjoyment appeals: Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the fullest, having good food and drink, and so on. Welfare appeals: Main focus is on caring or providi ng for others (for example, gift giving). Social approval: Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others. Self-esteem or self-image: Main focus of commercial is on feeling better about oneself, improving oneself, or being a better person. Achievement: Main focus of commercial is on obtaining superior ity over others, getting ahead, or winning. Excitement, sensation, and variety: Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, and variet y to life, avoiding boredom. Information Content Price: Refers to the amount the consumer mu st pay for the product or service. This may be in absolute terms, like a suggested reta il price, or relative terms, like a ten percent off sale.

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146 Value: Refers to some combination of pri ce and quality or quantity, as in more volume for the money, better quality at a low price, or the best value for the dollar. Quality: Refers to how good the product or service is; may refer to craftsmanship and/or attention during manufacture, use of quality (better, best) ingredients or components, length of time to produce or create the product. Economy/saving: Refers to saving money or time e ither in the original purchase or in the use of the produc t relative to other produc ts in the category. Dependability/reliability/durability: Information concerning how long the product will last without repair service records, and so on. Sensory information (taste, fragrance, touch, comfort): Information concerning a sensory experience, such as tastes homemade, feels silky smooth, smooth taste, or luxurious comfort. Aesthetic claims (styling, color): Information concerning appearance, classic beauty, and so on of the product either when purchased or when prepared in final form. Components, contents, or ingredients: What went into the making or manufacture of the product. These conten ts should be in the product purchased, not ingredients added to the product by the consumer in preparation for use. Availability: Any information concerning the pl ace(s) the consumer may purchase or otherwise obtain the produc t. May also refer to plac es where the product is not available. Packaging: Information about the packaging of the product. Guarantees or warranty: Refers to any information concerning the presence of a guarantee or warranty, including but not restricted to money back offers, offers to repair

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147 or service the product in the ev ent of problems, or offers to replace the product if the consumer is dissatisfied or has a problem. Safety: Information concerning the safety of the product. Nutrition/health: Information concerning the nutritional or health-related characteristics of the product. Independent research results: Information offered about tests of the product or of product users that were carried out by an identified individual or organization other than the company manufacturing or distributing the product. Company-sponsored research results: Information about tests of the product or users of the product that were carried out by the company manufactur ing or contributing the product. Research results from unidentified source: Information about tests of the product or users of the product when the source of the test result s is not identified. New uses: Refers to any information about a new way to use established product. Company image or reputation: Refers to any information about the image or reputation of the company that manuf actures or distributes the product. Results of using (either tangible or intangible) : Any information concerning the outcomes associated with the use of the pr oduct. These outcomes may be in a positive form or a negative form. Users satisfaction/dedication/loyalty: Refers to any information concerning users satisfaction, preference for the brand, or length of time consumer has used the advertised product.

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148 Superiority claim: Information that claims the advertised product is better competitive products or an older version of the advertised product in some particular ways. Convenience in use: Information concerning the eas e with which the product may be obtained, prepared, used, or disposed of. Special offer or event: Information concerning special events such as sales, contests, two-for-one deals, premiums, or re bates to occur for a specified limited time. New product or new/improved product features: Refers to any information concerning a new product intr oduction, new components, i ngredients, features, or characteristics of an existing product or an im provement (qualitative or quantitative) in any feature component, ingredient, or characteristics of an existing product. Use occasion : Information that clearly suggests an appropriate use occasion or situation for the product. Characteristics or image of users : Refers to any information concerning the type(s) of individual(s) who mi ght use the advertised product. Brand and Product Identification No product: No product is identified in the commercial. Single product: A single product is the focus of the commercial. Multiple products: The commercial presents two or more distinct product lines for example, Toyota Camry sedans and Tacoma trucks. Double-branded product: The product advertised has two brand names for example, Ford Focus, IBM ThinkPad.

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149 Identification of company manufacturi ng and/or distributing the product: The company manufacturing or distri buting the product is identified in the commercial, either as part of the brand name or explicitly. No te: copyright identifiers are not included as company identifiers. Visual brand sign-off: The brand name, package, or other obvious identifier of the product is visible as the commercial ends. Auditory sign-off: The brand name is repeated within the last 3 seconds of the commercial. Comparison Direct comparison with other products : A competitor is identified by name. It may also be a direct comparison with an old version of the product advertised. Indirect comparison with other products : A comparison is made between the advertised product and a competitor, but the competitor is not named. Puffery, or unsubstantiated claim : Product is declared best better, finest without identification of dimension or attribute. No comparison presented : No any form of comparison between the advertised product and competitors was presented in commercial. Commercial Characters One principal character: Only one identifiable charac ter serves as the principal one to carry the designed me ssage in the commercial. Two (or more) principal characters: Two or more identifiable characters serve as the principal ones to carry the desi gned message in the commercial.

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150 No central character(s): No central character or set of characters delivers a major portion of the commercial message in the commercial, although there are characters performing roles on camera relevant to the message. No principal character: No character or no human character appears in the commercial. This may take form of usi ng no character at all or only animals. Sex of principal character(s): The principal character(s) carrying the major oncamera role of delivering the commercial message in the commercial is (are) male or female. Age of principal character(s): The age of the principal character(s) carrying the major on-camera role of delivering the co mmercial message in the commercial. Principal character(s) racial or ethnic minority: One or more of the principal on-camera characters in the commercial is clearl y identifiable as racial or ethnic minority in Taiwan. In this study, raci al or ethnic minority in Ta iwan refers to aboriginal Taiwanese (from the ten mountain tribes), Hakk a, or foreign inhabita nts (Thai, Pilipino, Vietnametc.). Principal character(s) celebrity: The character(s) delivering the major portion of the message on camera is well known either by na me or face. Celebrities may be athletes, movie stars, singers, or wellknown corporate figures (but not simply the identified head of a corporation). Principal character(s) actor play ing role of ordinary person: Actors play ordinary people in the commercial and mu st be delivering the major portion of the message.

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151 Principal character(s) real people: One or more of the principal characters in the commercial are identified as real people (as opposed to actors playing a role). This may take the form of a hidden camera or an interview. Principal character(s) creation: The principal character in the commercial is a created role, person, or cartoon figure, such as Ronald McDonald. Principal character(s) animal: One or more of the principal characters in the commercial is an animal (are anim als) (either real or animated). Principal character(s) animated: One or more of the principal characters in the commercial is (are) anim ated (cartoon figure). Characters identified with company: One or more of the characters in the commercial is (are) symbolic of or well identified with the company manufacturing and/or distributing the product. The characte r may be real, created, or animated but should be identified with the co mpany, not a specific product. Background cast: There are people in the commercial other than the principal characters, people who serve as scenery or background. These people are only incidental to the commercial message that is, not active in making a product claim or demonstrating a product benefit. Recognized continuing character(s): One or more of the principal or minor characters in the commercial is (are) recogni zed as a part of a continuing advertising campaign. The character is associated with th e product by virtue of previous appearances in commercials for the product.

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152 Presenter/spokesperson on camera: The audio portion of the commercial message is delivered by voice-over announ cer (person not on cam era), character(s) on camera, a combination of both, or none of both. Commercial Setting Indoor: The commercial setting, or a significant part of it, is indoors or in other human made structures (for example, a ki tchen, garage, office, stadium, airplane). Outdoor: The commercial setting, or a signifi cant part of it, is outdoors (mountain, rivers, backyard, garden, or other natura l setting). Note: do not include unnatural environments such as stadium or home driveway. Combination of indoor and outdoor: The commercial setting contains both indoors and outdoors, and none is more significant than the other. Others: The commercial setting, or a signific ant part of it, is created and unreal (fantasies, computer animated or designed studio settings). No setting: There is no particular setting for th e commercial; the setting is neutral, a simple limbo background. Visual Devices Scenic beauty: Striking scenes of natural beauty (mountains, flowing streams) were presented at some point of the commercia l. In order to be objective, determination of this variable should be based on whether or not the scenic beauty is one of the main elements of the commercial. Beauty of principal character(s): The commercial presents and emphasizes the beauty of one or more strikingly beautiful characters. For the purpose of objectiveness,

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153 determination of this vari able should be based on whet her or not the beauty of character(s) is one of the main elements of the commercial. Ugliness of principal character(s): The commercial presents and dramatizes on the ugliness of one or more strikingly ugly characters. For objectiveness purpose, determination of this variable should be based on whether or not the ugliness of character(s) is one of the main elements of the commercial. Graphic display: The commercials use graphic displa ys or charts as part of its presentation. Such graphic may be computer generated. Surrealistic visuals: The commercial presents unreal visuals, distorted visuals, and fantastic scenes for example, a watch floating through outer space. Substantive supers: A superscript (words on the sc reen) used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message for example, % stronger, out of 4 doctors recommend. Visual tagline: A visually presented statement of new information at the end of the commercial; for example, the screen shows the name of participating dealers or another product that was not the focus of the commer cial shown. Note that corporate logos or slogans do not qualify. Visual memory device: Any devices shown that rein forces product benefit, the product name, or the message delivered by th e commercial for example, time-release capsules bouncing in the air. Principal language presented in commercial : Refers to the language (words) used as visual elements in the commercial. Note that information such as brand or product names, product model number, URL of company websites, names of distributors,

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154 special product terms (such as CD, DVD, PD A, MP3), or similar items should not be included. Auditory Devices Language spoken in commercial : Refers to the language spoken as a part of auditory elements in the commercial. Memorable rhyme, slogan, or mnemonic device: Nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics may be incorporated in lyrics of a song, but must also st and alone, apart from music. Unusual sound effect(s): Out of place, unusual, or bizarre use of sound for example, the sound of a jackhamm er as someone eats a pretzel. Spoken tagline: A statement at the end of the commercial that presents new information usually unrelated to the principa l focus of the commercial for example, And try new lime flavor too. Music and Dancing Music: Music is presented in the commercial in any form. Music as a major element: The lyrics of the music used in the commercial carry a product message. Music creates mood (versus background only): Music contributes to the creation of a mood or emotion for example, suspense or sensuality. Adaptation or employment of well-known music: Music in the commercial is recognized as an adaptation (with changes) or direct employment of popular, classical, traditional, movie soundtracks or any other well-known form.

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155 Recognized continuing musical theme: Music in the commercial is clearly identified with brand or company. Dancing: Cast members dance in the commercial.

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156 APPENDIX C CROSS TABULATION TABLES Between Peripheral Elements Table A-1: Crosstab of Bra nd Origin (Regional) by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4358534949 41293 Domestic % within Year 66.2%55.8%63.1%50.0%46.7% 47.7%54.1% Count 131911615 1983 Asia Pacific % within Year 20.0%18.3%13.1%6.1%14.3% 22.1%15.3% Count 423113226 15111 US % within Year 6.2%22.1%13.1%32.7%24.8% 17.4%20.5% Count 5491014 1052 Europe % within Year 7.7%3.8%10.7%10.2%13.3% 11.6%9.6% Count 00011 13 Others % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%1.0%1.0% 1.2%0.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Brand origin (regional) Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 2 = 94.60 df = 25 p < .05 Table A-2: Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3154352936 26211 Domestic % within Year 47.7%51.9% 41.7%29.6%34.3% 30.2%38.9% Count 97539 1245 Asia % within Year 13.8%6.7%6.0%3.1%8.6% 14.0%8.3% Count 1843386154 47261 US % within Year 27.7%41.3% 45.2%62.2%51.4% 54.7%48.2% Count 10656 119 Agency origin (regional) Europe % within Year 1.5%0.0%7.1%5.1%5.7% 1.2%3.5%

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157 Table A-2: Continued Count 60000 06 Others % within Year 9.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%1.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Agency origin (regional) Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 2 = 87.15 df = 20 p < .05 Table A-3: Crosstab of Agency Origin by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3154352936 26211 Domestic % within Year 47.7%51.9% 41.7%29.6%34.3% 30.2%38.9% Count 2850496969 60325 International % within Year 43.1%48.1% 58.3%70.4%65.7% 69.8%60.0% Count 60000 06 Others % within Year 9.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%1.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Agency origin Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 2 = 63.75 df = 10 p < .05 Table A-4: Crosstab of Brand Origin by Award Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 465142 154293 Domestic % within Award 68.7%63.8%46.2% 50.7%54.1% Count 212949 150249 International % within Award 31.3%36.3%53.8% 49.3%45.9% Count 678091 304542 Brand origin Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 2 = 12.48 df = 3 p < .05 Table A-5: Crosstab of Agency Origin (Regional) by Award Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 354137 98 211 Domestic % within Award 52.2%51.3% 40.7% 32.2% 38.9% Count 066 33 45 Asia % within Award 0.0%7.5%6.6% 10.9% 8.3% Count 243346 158 261 US % within Award 35.8%41.3% 50.5% 52.0% 48.2% Count 502 12 19 Agency origin (regional) Europe % within Award 7.5%0.0%2.2% 3.9% 3.5%

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158 Table A-5: Continued Count 300 3 6 Others % within Award 4.5%0.0%0.0% 1.0% 1.1% Count 678091 304 542 Agency origin (regional) Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 2 = 37.22 df = 12 p < .05 Table A-6: Crosstab of Agency Origin by Award Award GoldSilverBronze Merit mentions Total Count 354137 98211 Domestic % within Award 52.2%51.3% 40.7% 32.2%38.9% Count 293954 203325 International % within Award 43.3%48.8% 59.3% 66.8%60.0% Count 300 36 Others % within Award 4.5%0.0%0.0% 1.0%1.1% Count 678091 304542 Agency origin Total % within Award 100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% 2 = 25.69 df = 6 p < .05 Year as Peripheral Element Table A-7: Crosstab of CF Structure by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1115101911 369 1 % within Year 16.9%14.4%11.9%19.4%10.5% 3.5%12.7% Count 1229221836 41158 2 % within Year 18.5%27.9%26.2%18.4% 34.3% 47.7%29.2% Count 146141723 1892 3 % within Year 21.5% 5.8%16.7%17.3%21.9% 20.9%17.0% Count 143229176 9107 4 % within Year 21.5%30.8%34.5% 17.3%5.7% 10.5%19.7% Count 29523 526 5 % within Year 3.1%8.7%6.0%2.0%2.9% 5.8%4.8% Count 121342526 1090 6 % within Year 18.5%12.5%4.8% 25.5% 24.8% 11.6%16.6% Count 651048498105 86542 CF structure* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 7 2 = 94.60 df = 25 p < .05

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159 Table A-8: Crosstab of CF Format by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 193492416 10112 1 % within Year 29.2% 32.7% 10.7% 24.5% 15.2% 11.6% 20.7% Count 2791810 1662 2 % within Year 3.1%6.7%10.7%18.4%9.5% 18.6% 11.4% Count 37124 219 3 % within Year 4.6%6.7%1.2%2.0%3.8% 2.3%3.5% Count 01000 01 4 % within Year 0.0%1.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 22252 720 5 % within Year 3.1%1.9%2.4%5.1%1.9% 8.1%3.7% Count 05120 08 6 % within Year 0.0%4.8%1.2%2.0%0.0% 0.0%1.5% Count 64447 1136 7 % within Year 9.2%3.8%4.8%4.1%6.7% 12.8%6.6% Count 228411 330 8 % within Year 3.1%1.9%9.5%4.1%10.5% 3.5%5.5% Count 3141196 750 9 % within Year 4.6%13.5%13.1%9.2%5.7% 8.1%9.2% Count 11200 04 10 % within Year 1.5%1.0%2.4%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.7% Count 00001 01 11 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%1.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 410251616 1687 12 % within Year 6.2%9.6% 29.8% 16.3%15.2% 18.6% 16.1% Count 11040 06 13 % within Year 1.5%1.0%0.0%4.1%0.0% 0.0%1.1% Count 21148619 1078 14 % within Year 32.3% 13.5%9.5%6.1% 18.1% 11.6%14.4% Count 12316 215 15 % within Year 1.5%1.9%3.6%1.0%5.7% 2.3%2.8% Count 00131 16 16 % within Year 0.0%0.0%1.2%3.1%1.0% 1.2%1.1% Count 00006 17 17 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%5.7% 1.2%1.3% Count 651048498105 86542 CF format* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 8 2 = 179.32 df = 80 p < .05

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160 Table A-9: Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 111601 221 1 % within Year 1.5%10.6%7.1%0.0%1.0% 2.3%3.9% Count 37240 319 2 % within Year 4.6%6.7%2.4%4.1%0.0% 3.5%3.5% Count 910134 330 3 % within Year 13.8%9.6%1.2%3.1%3.8% 3.5%5.5% Count 454108 334 4 % within Year 6.2%4.8%4.8%10.2%7.6% 3.5%6.3% Count 22326 116 6 % within Year 3.1%1.9%3.6%2.0%5.7% 1.2%3.0% Count 25111615 1261 7 % within Year 3.1%4.8%13.1%16.3%14.3% 14.0%11.3% Count 14251 215 8 % within Year 1.5%3.8%2.4%5.1%1.0% 2.3%2.8% Count 00248 216 9 % within Year 0.0%0.0%2.4%4.1%7.6% 2.3%3.0% Count 02002 04 10 % within Year 0.0%1.9%0.0%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.7% Count 03215 011 11 % within Year 0.0%2.9%2.4%1.0%4.8% 0.0%2.0% Count 632278 652 12 % within Year 9.2%2.9% 26.2% 7.1%7.6% 7.0%9.6% Count 48117 021 13 % within Year 6.2%7.7%1.2%1.0%6.7% 0.0%3.9% Count 34021 111 14 % within Year 4.6%3.8%0.0%2.0%1.0% 1.2%2.0% Count 2212344 247 15 % within Year 33.8% 11.5%3.6%4.1%3.8% 2.3%8.7% Count 722193730 47162 16 % within Year 10.8% 21.2% 22.6% 37.8%28.6% 54.7%29.9% Count 00011 02 17 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%1.0%1.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 16614 220 18 % within Year 1.5%5.8%7.1%1.0%3.8% 2.3%3.7% Count 651048498105 86542 CF tone & atmosphere* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 9 2 = 251.31 df = 80 p < .05

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161 Table A-10: Crosstab of CF Approach (Rational vs. Emotional) by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 2925371530 34170 1 % within Year 44.6%24.0% 44.0% 15.3%28.6% 39.5%31.4% Count 3249244741 42235 2 % within Year 49.2%47.1% 28.6% 48.0%39.0% 48.8%43.4% Count 430233634 10137 3 % within Year 6.2%28.8%27.4%36.7%32.4% 11.6%25.3% Count 651048498105 86542 CF approach (rational vs. emotional)* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 10 2 = 50.09 df = 10 p < .05 Table A-11: Crosstab of CF Appro ach (Positive vs. Negative) by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 3577586769 70376 1 % within Year 53.8%74.0%69.0%68.4%65.7% 81.4%69.4% Count 3577586769 70376 2 % within Year 53.8%74.0%69.0%68.4%65.7% 81.4%69.4% Count 3577586769 70376 3 % within Year 53.8%74.0%69.0%68.4%65.7% 81.4%69.4% Count 651048498105 86542 CF approach (positive vs. negative)* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 11 2 = 42.35 df = 10 p < .05 Table A-12: Crosstab of Branddifferentiating Message by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 146542 031 1 % within Year 21.5%5.8%6.0%4.1%1.9% 0.0%5.7% Count 51987994103 86511 2 % within Year 78.5%94.2%94.0%95.9%98.1% 100.0%94.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Branddifferentiating message* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 38.71 df = 5 p < .05

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162 Table A-13: Crosstab of CF Promise, Appeal, or Selling Pr oposition by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 114744 333 1 % within Year 1.5%13.5%8.3%4.1%3.8% 3.5%6.1% Count 3635314450 28224 2 % within Year 55.4% 33.7% 36.9%44.9%47.6% 32.6%41.3% Count 1737301014 12120 3 % within Year 26.2% 35.6% 35.7%10.2%13.3% 14.0%22.1% Count 2252215 854 4 % within Year 3.1%1.9%6.0%22.4%14.3% 9.3%10.0% Count 4161112 2357 5 % within Year 6.2%1.0%7.1%11.2%11.4% 26.7%10.5% Count 00010 01 6 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%1.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 01100 02 7 % within Year 0.0%1.0%1.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 10143 514 8 % within Year 1.5%0.0%1.2%4.1%2.9% 5.8%2.6% Count 27102 113 9 % within Year 3.1%6.7%1.2%0.0%1.9% 1.2%2.4% Count 14200 07 11 % within Year 1.5%3.8%2.4%0.0%0.0% 0.0%1.3% Count 10003 04 12 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%2.9% 0.0%0.7% Count 03000 03 13 % within Year 0.0%2.9%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 00022 610 14 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%2.0%1.9% 7.0%1.8% Count 651048498105 86542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 13 2 = 189.62 df = 60 p < .05 Table A-14: Crosstab of In formation Content by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 00601 18 1 % within Year 0.0%0.0%7.1%0.0%1.0% 1.2%1.5% Count 20000 02 Information Content* 2 % within Year 3.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4%

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163 Table A-14: Continued Count 26100 413 3 % within Year 3.1%5.8%1.2%0.0%0.0% 4.7%2.4% Count 00200 810 4 % within Year 0.0%0.0%2.4%0.0%0.0% 9.3%1.8% Count 03145 215 5 % within Year 0.0%2.9%1.2%4.1%4.8% 2.3%2.8% Count 00003 03 6 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%2.9% 0.0%0.6% Count 01010 02 7 % within Year 0.0%1.0%0.0%1.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 013779 440 8 % within Year 0.0%12.5%8.3%7.1%8.6% 4.7%7.4% Count 00002 02 9 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.4% Count 10000 01 10 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 10000 01 11 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 10001 02 12 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%1.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 10000 01 13 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 1841819 2070 18 % within Year 1.5%7.7%4.8%18.4% 18.1% 23.3% 12.9% Count 1021202919 14113 19 % within Year 15.4% 20.2% 23.8% 29.6%18.1% 16.3% 20.8% Count 00020 02 20 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%2.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 16623 018 Information Content* 21 % within Year 1.5%5.8%7.1%2.0%2.9% 0.0%3.3%

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164 Table A-14: Continued Count 10033 07 22 % within Year 1.5%0.0%0.0%3.1%2.9% 0.0%1.3% Count 6371411 1253 23 % within Year 9.2%2.9%8.3%14.3%10.5% 14.0%9.8% Count 20187714 1682 24 % within Year 30.8% 17.3%8.3%7.1%13.3% 18.6%15.1% Count 104202 422 25 % within Year 15.4%3.8%2.4%0.0%1.9% 4.7%4.1% Count 821211113 175 26 % within Year 12.3%20.2%25.0%11.2%12.4% 1.2%13.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Information Content* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 14 2 = 280.05 df = 105 p < .05 Table A-15: Crosstab of D ouble-branded Product by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 2329252333 42175 1 % within Year 35.4%27.9%29.8%23.5%31.4% 48.8%32.3% Count 4275597572 44367 2 % within Year 64.6%72.1%70.2%76.5%68.6% 51.2%67.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Double-branded product* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 15.75 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-16: Crosstab of Comparison by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 12000 03 1 % within Year 1.5%1.9%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 20333 819 Comparison* 2 % within Year 3.1%0.0%3.6%3.1%2.9% 9.3%3.5%

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165 Table A-16: Continued Count 02300 27 3 % within Year 0.0%1.9%3.6%0.0%0.0% 2.3%1.3% Count 621007895102 76513 4 % within Year 95.4%96.2%92.9%96.9%97.1% 88.4%94.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Comparison* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 20 2 = 27.25 df = 15 p < .05 Table A-17: Crosstab of Pr incipal Character by Year Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total Count 4371635468 44343 1 % within Year 66.2%68.3%75.0%55.1%64.8% 51.2%63.3% Count 1015112924 19108 2 % within Year 15.4%14.4%13.1%29.6%22.9% 22.1%19.9% Count 5112710 944 3 % within Year 7.7%10.6%2.4%7.1%9.5% 10.5%8.1% Count 77883 1447 4 % within Year 10.8%6.7%9.5%8.2%2.9% 16.3%8.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Principal character* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 21 2 = 30.72 df = 15 p < .05 Table A-18: Crosstab of Sex of Principal Character by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2858455251 32266 1 % within Year 43.1%55.8%53.6%53.1%48.6% 37.2%49.1% Count 1824251928 26140 2 % within Year 27.7%23.1%29.8%19.4%26.7% 30.2%25.8% Count 7441213 444 Sex of principal character* 3 % within Year 10.8%3.8%4.8%12.2%12.4% 4.7%8.1%

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166 Table A-18: Continued Count 1218101513 2492 4 % within Year 18.5%17.3%11.9%15.3%12.4% 27.9%17.0% Count 651048498105 86542 Sex of principal character* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 22 2 = 26.37 df = 15 p < .05 Table A-19: Crosstab of Age of Principal Character by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 56534 225 1 % within Year 7.7%5.8%6.0%3.1%3.8% 2.3%4.6% Count 36626 730 2 % within Year 4.6%5.8%7.1%2.0%5.7% 8.1%5.5% Count 7681316 1969 3 % within Year 10.8%5.8%9.5%13.3%15.2% 22.1%12.7% Count 2133394238 14187 4 % within Year 32.3%31.7%46.4%42.9%36.2% 16.3% 34.5% Count 6118813 652 5 % within Year 9.2%10.6%9.5%8.2%12.4% 7.0%9.6% Count 511761 131 6 % within Year 7.7%10.6%8.3%6.1%1.0% 1.2%5.7% Count 25112 314 7 % within Year 3.1%4.8%1.2%1.0%1.9% 3.5%2.6% Count 1626102325 34134 8 % within Year 24.6%25.0%11.9%23.5%23.8% 39.5% 24.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Age of principal character* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 23 2 = 64.98 df = 35 p < .05

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167 Table A-20: Crosstab of Ac tor Playing Role by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3564667583 57380 1 % within Year 53.8%61.5%78.6%76.5%79.0% 66.3%70.1% Count 3040182322 29162 2 % within Year 46.2%38.5%21.4%23.5%21.0% 33.7%29.9% Count 651048498105 86542 Actor playing role* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 21.25 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-21: Crosstab of Created Role by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 00021 47 1 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%2.0%1.0% 4.7%1.3% Count 651048496104 82535 2 % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%98.0%99.0% 95.3%98.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Created role* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 11.45 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-22: Crosstab of Charact er Related to Company by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 01391 418 1 % within Year 0.0%1.0%3.6%9.2%1.0% 4.7%3.3% Count 651038189104 82524 2 % within Year 100.0%99.0%96.4%90.8%99.0% 95.3%96.7% Count 651048498105 86542 Character related to company* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 16.85 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-23: Crosstab of Background Cast by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4287736672 51391 1 % within Year 64.6%83.7%86.9%67.3%68.6% 59.3%72.1% Count 2317113233 35151 Background cast* 2 % within Year 35.4%16.3%13.1%32.7%31.4% 40.7%27.9%

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168 Table A-23: Continued Count 651048498105 86542 Background cast* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 26.64 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-24: Crosstab of Minor ity in Minor Role by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 56001 012 1 % within Year 7.7%5.8%0.0%0.0%1.0% 0.0%2.2% Count 60988498104 86530 2 % within Year 92.3%94.2%100.0%100.0%99.0% 100.0%97.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Minority in minor role* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 21.92 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-25: Crosstab of Real People in Minor Role by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1029201915 9102 1 % within Year 15.4%27.9%23.8%19.4%14.3% 10.5%18.8% Count 5575647990 77440 2 % within Year 84.6%72.1%76.2%80.6%85.7% 89.5%81.2% Count 651048498105 86542 Real people in minor role* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.83 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-26: Crosstab of Continuous Role by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 625123229 20124 1 % within Year 9.2%24.0%14.3%32.7%27.6% 23.3%22.9% Count 5979726676 66418 2 % within Year 90.8%76.0%85.7%67.3%72.4% 76.7%77.1% Count 651048498105 86542 Continuous role* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 17.11 df = 5 p < .05

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169 Table A-27: Crosstab of Pres enter On/Off Camera by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4051373843 42251 1 % within Year 61.5%49.0% 44.0% 38.8%41.0% 48.8%46.3% Count 1342383838 28197 2 % within Year 20.0%40.4% 45.2%38.8% 36.2% 32.6%36.3% Count 4871415 1058 3 % within Year 6.2%7.7%8.3%14.3%14.3% 11.6%10.7% Count 83289 636 4 % within Year 12.3%2.9%2.4%8.2%8.6% 7.0%6.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Presenter on/off camera* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 39 2 = 26.73 df = 15 p < .05 Table A-28: Crosstab of CF Setting by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1740323944 39211 1 % within Year 26.2%38.5%38.1%39.8%41.9% 45.3%38.9% Count 1825172524 28137 2 % within Year 27.7%24.0%20.2%25.5%22.9% 32.6%25.3% Count 514192320 1091 3 % within Year 7.7%13.5%22.6%23.5%19.0% 11.6%16.8% Count 16231377 874 4 % within Year 24.6%22.1%15.5%7.1%6.7% 9.3%13.7% Count 923410 129 5 % within Year 13.8%1.9%3.6%4.1%9.5% 1.2%5.4% Count 651048498105 86542 CF setting* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 40 2 = 54.35 df = 20 p < .05 Table A-29: Crosstab of Scenic Beauty by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 1015654 242 1 % within Year 15.4%14.4%7.1%5.1%3.8% 2.3%7.7% Count 55897893101 84500 2 % within Year 84.6%85.6%92.9%94.9%96.2% 97.7%92.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Scenic beauty* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 18.60 df = 5 p < .05

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170 Table A-30: Crosstab of Ugliness of Principal Character by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 40012 18 1 % within Year 6.2%0.0%0.0%1.0%1.9% 1.2%1.5% Count 611048497103 85534 2 % within Year 93.8%100.0%100.0%99.0%98.1% 98.8%98.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Ugliness of principal character* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.93 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-31: Crosstab of Graphic Display by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2832312424 14153 1 % within Year 43.1%30.8%36.9%24.5%22.9% 16.3%28.2% Count 3772537481 72389 2 % within Year 56.9%69.2%63.1%75.5%77.1% 83.7%71.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Graphic display* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 18.76 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-32: Crosstab of S ubstantive Supers by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3672607887 80413 1 % within Year 55.4%69.2%71.4%79.6%82.9% 93.0%76.2% Count 2932242018 6129 2 % within Year 44.6%30.8%28.6%20.4%17.1% 7.0%23.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Substantive supers* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 35.98 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-33: Crosstab of Visual Tagline by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 2528193132 41176 1 % within Year 38.5%26.9%22.6%31.6%30.5% 47.7%32.5% Count 4076656773 45366 2 % within Year 61.5%73.1%77.4%68.4%69.5% 52.3%67.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Visual tagline* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 15.53 df = 5 p < .05

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171 Table A-34: Crosstab of Language Spoken by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 4369687780 63400 1 % within Year 66.2%66.3%81.0%78.6%76.2% 73.3%73.8% Count 24433 622 2 % within Year 3.1%3.8%4.8%3.1%2.9% 7.0%4.1% Count 00022 15 4 % within Year 0.0%0.0%0.0%2.0%1.9% 1.2%.9% Count 26021 516 5 % within Year 3.1%5.8%0.0%2.0%1.0% 5.8%3.0% Count 7191069 556 6 % within Year 10.8%18.3%11.9%6.1%8.6% 5.8%10.3% Count 33001 07 7 % within Year 4.6%2.9%0.0%0.0%1.0% 0.0%1.3% Count 83289 636 8 % within Year 12.3%2.9%2.4%8.2%8.6% 7.0%6.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Language spoken* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 50 2 = 49.13 df = 30 p < .05 Table A-35: Crosstab of U nusual Sound Effect by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 3026201725 24142 1 % within Year 46.2%25.0%23.8%17.3%23.8% 27.9%26.2% Count 3578648180 62400 2 % within Year 53.8%75.0%76.2%82.7%76.2% 72.1%73.8% Count 651048498105 86542 Unusual sound effect* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 18.12 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-36: Crosstab of Spoken Tagline by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 213310 1029 1 % within Year 3.1%1.0%3.6%3.1%9.5% 11.6%5.4% Count 63103819595 76513 2 % within Year 96.9%99.0%96.4%96.9%90.5% 88.4%94.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Spoken tagline* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 16.46 df = 5 p < .05

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172 Table A-37: Crosstab of Music by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 5097808790 70474 1 % within Year 76.9%93.3%95.2%88.8%85.7% 81.4%87.5% Count 15741115 1668 2 % within Year 23.1%6.7%4.8%11.2%14.3% 18.6%12.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Music* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 17.74 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-38: Crosstab of Music Style by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 20218 417 1 % within Year 3.1%0.0%2.4%1.0%7.6% 4.7%3.1% Count 42312149 466 2 % within Year 6.2%22.1%14.3%14.3%8.6% 4.7%12.2% Count 51310613 552 3 % within Year 7.7%12.5%11.9%6.1%12.4% 5.8%9.6% Count 1429243231 19149 4 % within Year 21.5% 27.9% 28.6%32.7% 29.5% 22.1%27.5% Count 24412 619 5 % within Year 3.1%3.8%4.8%1.0%1.9% 7.0%3.5% Count 2328283327 32171 6 % within Year 35.4% 26.9% 33.3%33.7% 25.7% 37.2%31.5% Count 15741115 1668 7 % within Year 23.1%6.7%4.8%11.2%14.3% 18.6%12.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Music style* Music style* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 55 2 = 60.87 df = 30 p < .05 Table A-39: Crosstab of Music Creates Mood by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 171013713 1474 1 % within Year 26.2%9.6%15.5%7.1%12.4% 16.3%13.7% Count 4894719192 72468 2 % within Year 73.8%90.4%84.5%92.9%87.6% 83.7%86.3% Count 651048498105 86542 Music creates mood* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 14.46 df = 5 p < .05

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173 Table A-40: Crosstab of Con tinuous Musical Theme by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 123132419 1595 1 % within Year 1.5%22.1%15.5%24.5%18.1% 17.4%17.5% Count 6481717486 71447 2 % within Year 98.5%77.9%84.5%75.5%81.9% 82.6%82.5% Count 651048498105 86542 Continuous musical theme* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 16.56 df = 5 p < .05 Table A-41: Crosstab of Dancing by Year Year 19981999200020012002 2003 Total Count 46011 113 1 % within Year 6.2%5.8%0.0%1.0%1.0% 1.2%2.4% Count 61988497104 85529 2 % within Year 93.8%94.2%100.0%99.0%99.0% 98.8%97.6% Count 651048498105 86542 Dancing* Total % within Year 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 13.32 df = 5 p < .05 Brand origin as peripheral element Table A-42: Crosstab of CF Structure by Brand Origin Brand origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2918175 0 69 1 % within Brand origin 9.9%21.7%15.3%9.6% 0.0% 12.7% Count 77304011 0 158 2 % within Brand origin 26.3%36.1%36.0% 21.2% 0.0% 29.2% Count 48111814 1 92 3 % within Brand origin 16.4%13.3%16.2% 26.9% 33.3% 17.0% Count 55162114 1 107 4 % within Brand origin 18.8%19.3%18.9% 26.9% 33.3% 19.7% Count 16820 0 26 5 % within Brand origin 5.5%9.6%1.8%0.0% 0.0% 4.8% Count 680138 1 90 6 % within Brand origin 23.2%0.0%11.7%15.4% 33.3% 16.6% Count 2938311152 3 542 CF structure Total % within Brand origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 7 2 = 53.25 df = 20 p < .05

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174 Table A-43: Crosstab of CF Format by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 6918205 0 112 1 % within Brand Origin 23.5%21.7%18.0% 9.6% 0.0% 20.7% Count 2513195 0 62 2 % within Brand Origin 8.5%15.7%17.1%9.6% 0.0% 11.4% Count 17101 0 19 3 % within Brand Origin 5.8%1.2%0.0%1.9% 0.0% 3.5% Count 0010 0 1 4 % within Brand Origin 0.0%0.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0% 0.2% Count 9128 0 20 5 % within Brand Origin 3.1%1.2%1.8%15.4% 0.0% 3.7% Count 3050 0 8 6 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%4.5%0.0% 0.0% 1.5% Count 111267 0 36 7 % within Brand Origin 3.8%14.5%5.4%13.5% 0.0% 6.6% Count 133113 0 30 8 % within Brand Origin 4.4%3.6%9.9%5.8% 0.0% 5.5% Count 334130 0 50 9 % within Brand Origin 11.3%4.8%11.7%0.0% 0.0% 9.2% Count 2110 0 4 10 % within Brand Origin 0.7%1.2%0.9%0.0% 0.0% 0.7% Count 0010 0 1 11 % within Brand Origin 0.0%0.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0% 0.2% Count 5015119 2 87 12 % within Brand Origin 17.1%18.1%9.9% 17.3% 66.7% 16.1% Count 3030 0 6 13 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0% 1.1% Count 4515107 1 78 14 % within Brand Origin 15.4%18.1%9.0%13.5% 33.3% 14.4% Count 7071 0 15 15 % within Brand Origin 2.4%0.0%6.3%1.9% 0.0% 2.8% Count 4011 0 6 16 % within Brand Origin 1.4%0.0%0.9%1.9% 0.0% 1.1% Count 2005 0 7 17 % within Brand Origin 0.7%0.0%0.0%9.6% 0.0% 1.3% Count 2938311152 3 542 CF format* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 8 2 = 148.24 df = 64 p < .05

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175 Table A-44: Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 12450 021 1 % within Brand Origin 4.1%4.8%4.5%0.0% 0.0%3.9% Count 10333 019 2 % within Brand Origin 3.4%3.6%2.7%5.8% 0.0%3.5% Count 19362 030 3 % within Brand Origin 6.5%3.6%5.4%3.8% 0.0%5.5% Count 12877 034 4 % within Brand Origin 4.1%9.6%6.3%13.5% 0.0%6.3% Count 4831 016 6 % within Brand Origin 1.4%9.6%2.7%1.9% 0.0%3.0% Count 46663 061 7 % within Brand Origin 15.7%7.2%5.4%5.8% 0.0%11.3% Count 9042 015 8 % within Brand Origin 3.1%0.0%3.6%3.8% 0.0%2.8% Count 8413 016 9 % within Brand Origin 2.7%4.8%0.9%5.8% 0.0%3.0% Count 3001 04 10 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.7% Count 5006 011 11 % within Brand Origin 1.7%0.0%0.0%11.5% 0.0%2.0% Count 344113 052 12 % within Brand Origin 11.6%4.8%9.9%5.8% 0.0%9.6% Count 6960 021 13 % within Brand Origin 2.0%10.8%5.4%0.0% 0.0%3.9% Count 1341 211 14 % within Brand Origin 0.3%3.6%3.6%1.9% 66.7%2.0% Count 36281 047 15 % within Brand Origin 12.3%2.4%7.2%1.9% 0.0%8.7% Count 76264217 1162 16 % within Brand Origin 25.9%31.3%37.8%32.7% 33.3%29.9% Count 1001 02 17 % within Brand Origin 0.3%0.0%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.4% Count 11351 020 18 % within Brand Origin 3.8%3.6%4.5%1.9% 0.0%3.7% Count 2938311152 3542 CF tone & atmosphere* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 9 2 = 185.87 df = 64 p < .05

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176 Table A-45: Crosstab of CF Approach (Positive vs. Negative) by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 180668446 0376 1 % within Brand Origin 61.4%79.5%75.7%88.5% 0.0% 69.4% Count 7915225 3124 2 % within Brand Origin 27.0%18.1%19.8%9.6% 100.0% 22.9% Count 34251 042 3 % within Brand Origin 11.6%2.4%4.5%1.9% 0.0%7.7% Count 2938311152 3542 CF approach (positive vs. negative)* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 11 2 = 37.26 df = 8 p < .05 Table A-46: Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Propositi on by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 175110 033 1 % within Brand Origin 5.8%6.0%9.9%0.0% 0.0%6.1% Count 99484928 0224 2 % within Brand Origin 33.8%57.8%44.1%53.8% 0.0% 41.3% Count 8513811 3120 3 % within Brand Origin 29.0%15.7%7.2%21.2% 100.0% 22.1% Count 38259 054 4 % within Brand Origin 13.0%2.4%4.5%17.3% 0.0%10.0% Count 2211222 057 5 % within Brand Origin 7.5%13.3%19.8%3.8% 0.0%10.5% Count 1000 01 6 % within Brand Origin 0.3%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 2000 02 7 % within Brand Origin 0.7%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 5180 014 8 % within Brand Origin 1.7%1.2%7.2%0.0% 0.0%2.6% Count 10030 013 9 % within Brand Origin 3.4%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%2.4% Count 5002 07 11 % within Brand Origin 1.7%0.0%0.0%3.8% 0.0%1.3% Count 3010 04 12 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0%0.7% Count 3000 03 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition* 13 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.6%

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177 Table A-46: Continued Count 3340 010 14 % within Brand Origin 1.0%3.6%3.6%0.0% 0.0%1.8% Count 2938311152 3542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 13 2 = 108.92 df = 48 p < .05 Table A-47: Crosstab of Inform ation Content by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 0314 08 1 % within Brand Origin 0.0%3.6%0.9%7.7% 0.0%1.5% Count 1010 02 2 % within Brand Origin 0.3%0.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 5530 013 3 % within Brand Origin 1.7%6.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%2.4% Count 9010 010 4 % within Brand Origin 3.1%0.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0%1.8% Count 6423 015 5 % within Brand Origin 2.0%4.8%1.8%5.8% 0.0%2.8% Count 3000 03 6 % within Brand Origin 1.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 0101 02 7 % within Brand Origin 0.0%1.2%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.4% Count 22792 040 8 % within Brand Origin 7.5%8.4%8.1%3.8% 0.0%7.4% Count 0011 02 9 % within Brand Origin 0.0%0.0%0.9%1.9% 0.0%0.4% Count 1000 01 10 % within Brand Origin 0.3%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 0100 01 11 % within Brand Origin 0.0%1.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 0110 02 12 % within Brand Origin 0.0%1.2%0.9%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 0001 01 13 % within Brand Origin 0.0%0.0%0.0%1.9% 0.0%0.2% Count 434149 070 18 % within Brand Origin 14.7%4.8%12.6%17.3% 0.0%12.9% Count 57133012 1113 Information content* 19 % within Brand Origin 19.5% 15.7% 27.0%23.1% 33.3%20.8%

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178 Table A-47: Continued Count 2000 02 20 % within Brand Origin 0.7%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 7740 018 21 % within Brand Origin 2.4%8.4%3.6%0.0% 0.0%3.3% Count 5110 07 22 % within Brand Origin 1.7%1.2%0.9%0.0% 0.0%1.3% Count 217214 053 23 % within Brand Origin 7.2%8.4%18.9%7.7% 0.0%9.8% Count 4716136 082 24 % within Brand Origin 16.0% 19.3% 11.7%11.5% 0.0%15.1% Count 20011 022 25 % within Brand Origin 6.8%0.0%0.9%1.9% 0.0%4.1% Count 441388 275 26 % within Brand Origin 15.0%15.7%7.2%15.4% 66.7%13.8% Count 2938311152 3542 Information content* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 14 2 = 133.05 df = 84 p < .05 Table A-48: Crosstab of Pres ence of Product by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 10412219 0146 1 % within Brand Origin 35.5%14.5%18.9%17.3% 0.0%26.9% Count 138535334 2280 2 % within Brand Origin 47.1%63.9%47.7%65.4% 66.7%51.7% Count 5118379 1116 3 % within Brand Origin 17.4%21.7%33.3%17.3% 33.3%21.4% Count 2938311152 3542 Presence of product* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 15 2 = 34.12 df = 8 p < .05 Table A-49: Crosstab of Visu al Sign-off by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 275819751 2506 1 % within Brand Origin 93.9%97.6%87.4%98.1% 66.7%93.4% Count 182141 136 Visual sign-off* 2 % within Brand Origin 6.1%2.4%12.6%1.9% 33.3%6.6%

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179 Table A-49: Continued Count 2938311152 3542 Visual sign-off* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 14.21 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-50: Crosstab of Aud itory Sign-off by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 204656242 3376 1 % within Brand Origin 69.6%78.3%55.9%80.8% 100.0%69.4% Count 89184910 0166 2 % within Brand Origin 30.4%21.7%44.1%19.2% 0.0%30.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Auditory sign-off1 Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 17.18 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-51: Crosstab of Comparison by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 0300 03 1 % within Brand Origin 0.0%3.6%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 8371 019 2 % within Brand Origin 2.7%3.6%6.3%1.9% 0.0%3.5% Count 4021 07 3 % within Brand Origin 1.4%0.0%1.8%1.9% 0.0%1.3% Count 2817710250 3513 4 % within Brand Origin 95.9%92.8%91.9%96.2% 100.0%94.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Comparison* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 21.75 df = 12 p < .05 Table A-52: Crosstab of Ce lebrity by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 1319613 051 1 % within Brand Origin 4.4%22.9%5.4%25.0% 0.0%9.4% Count 2806410539 3491 2 % within Brand Origin 95.6%77.1%94.6%75.0% 100.0%90.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Celebrity* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 =43.43 df = 4 p < .05

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180 Table A-53: Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 223497827 3380 1 % within Brand Origin 76.1%59.0%70.3%51.9% 100.0%70.1% Count 70343325 0162 2 % within Brand Origin 23.9%41.0%29.7%48.1% 0.0%29.9% Count 2938311152 3542 Actor playing role* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 19.38 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-54: Crosstabof R eal People by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 6035 014 1 % within Brand Origin 2.0%0.0%2.7%9.6% 0.0%2.6% Count 2878310847 3528 2 % within Brand Origin 98.0%100.0%97.3%90.4% 100.0%97.4% Count 2938311152 3542 Real people* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.84 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-55: Crosstab of Cr eated Role by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2050 07 1 % within Brand Origin 0.7%0.0%4.5%0.0% 0.0%1.3% Count 2918310652 3535 2 % within Brand Origin 99.3%100.0%95.5%100.0% 100.0%98.7% Count 2938311152 3542 Created role* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 11.65 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-56: CrossCrosstab of Minorit y in Minor Role by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 6600 012 Minority in minor role* 1 % within Brand Origin 2.0%7.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%2.2%

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181 Table A-56: Continued Count 2877711152 3530 2 % within Brand Origin 98.0%92.8%100.0%100.0% 100.0%97.8% Count 2938311152 3542 Minority in minor role* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 13.44 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-57: Crosstab of Con tinuous Role by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 52263412 0124 1 % within Brand Origin 17.7%31.3%30.6%23.1% 0.0%22.9% Count 241577740 3418 2 % within Brand Origin 82.3%68.7%69.4%76.9% 100.0%77.1% Count 2938311152 3542 Continuous role* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.40 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-58: Crosstab of Presente r On/Off Camera by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 126524822 3251 1 % within Brand Origin 43.0%62.7% 43.2% 42.3% 100.0% 46.3% Count 107245016 0197 2 % within Brand Origin 36.5%28.9% 45.0% 30.8% 0.0%36.3% Count 39577 058 3 % within Brand Origin 13.3%6.0%6.3%13.5% 0.0%10.7% Count 21267 036 4 % within Brand Origin 7.2%2.4%5.4%13.5% 0.0%6.6% Count 2938311152 3542 Presenter on/off camera* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 39 2 = 25.57 df = 12 p < .05 Table A-59: Crosstab of Scen ic Beauty by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 241332 042 1 % within Brand Origin 8.2%15.7%2.7%3.8% 0.0%7.7% Count 2697010850 3500 Scenic beauty* 2 % within Brand Origin 91.8%84.3%97.3%96.2% 100.0%92.3%

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182 Table A-59: Continued Count 2938311152 3542 Scenic beauty* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.67 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-60: Crosstab of Gra phic Display by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 78342219 0153 1 % within Brand Origin 26.6%41.0%19.8%36.5% 0.0%28.2% Count 215498933 3389 2 % within Brand Origin 73.4%59.0%80.2%63.5% 100.0%71.8% Count 2938311152 3542 Graphic display* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 13.84 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-61 Crosstab of Visu al Tagline by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 85394012 0176 1 % within Brand Origin 29.0%47.0%36.0%23.1% 0.0%32.5% Count 208447140 3366 2 % within Brand Origin 71.0%53.0%64.0%76.9% 100.0%67.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Visual tagline* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 13.76 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-62: Crosstab of Langua ge Presented by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 2676310544 3482 1 % within Brand Origin 91.1%75.9%94.6%84.6% 100.0%88.9% Count 2000 02 2 % within Brand Origin 0.7%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 4013 08 3 % within Brand Origin 1.4%0.0%0.9%5.8% 0.0%1.5% Count 71010 018 4 % within Brand Origin 2.4%12.0%0.9%0.0% 0.0%3.3% Count 0100 01 Language presented* 5 % within Brand Origin 0.0%1.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2%

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183 Table A-62: Continued Count 13945 031 6 % within Brand Origin 4.4%10.8%3.6%9.6% 0.0%5.7% Count 2938311152 3542 Language presented* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 49 2 = 48.22 df = 20 p < .05 Table A-63: Crosstab of Mu sic Style by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia PacificAmericaEurope Others Total Count 11051 017 1 % within Brand Origin 3.8%0.0%4.5%1.9% 0.0%3.1% Count 3916110 066 2 % within Brand Origin 13.3%19.3%9.9%0.0% 0.0%12.2% Count 266911 052 3 % within Brand Origin 8.9%7.2%8.1%21.2% 0.0%9.6% Count 74133427 1149 4 % within Brand Origin 25.3%15.7%30.6% 51.9% 33.3%27.5% Count 11620 019 5 % within Brand Origin 3.8%7.2%1.8%0.0% 0.0%3.5% Count 9231379 2171 6 % within Brand Origin 31.4%37.3%33.3% 17.3% 66.7%31.5% Count 4011134 068 7 % within Brand Origin 13.7%13.3%11.7%7.7% 0.0%12.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Music style* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 55 2 = 53.21 df = 24 p < .05 Table A-64: Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Brand Origin Brand Origin Domestic Asia Pacific AmericaEurope Others Total Count 4023284 095 1 % within Brand Origin 13.7%27.7%25.2%7.7% 0.0%17.5% Count 253608348 3447 2 % within Brand Origin 86.3%72.3%74.8%92.3% 100.0%82.5% Count 2938311152 3542 Continuous musical theme* Total % within Brand Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 17.67 df = 4 p < .05

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184 Agency Origin as Peripheral Element Table A-65: Crosstab of CF Structure by Agency Origin Agency origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 2211333 0 69 1 % within Agency origin 10.4%24.4%12.6%15.8% 0.0% 12.7% Count 5921762 0 158 2 % within Agency origin 28.0%46.7%29.1% 10.5% 0.0% 29.2% Count 283517 3 92 3 % within Agency origin 13.3%6.7%19.5% 36.8% 50.0% 17.0% Count 496493 0 107 4 % within Agency origin 23.2%13.3%18.8%15.8% 0.0% 19.7% Count 130111 1 26 5 % within Agency origin 6.2%0.0%4.2%5.3% 16.7% 4.8% Count 404413 2 90 6 % within Agency origin 19.0%8.9%15.7%15.8% 33.3% 16.6% Count 2114526119 6 542 CF structure* Total % within Agency origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 7 2 = 41.38 df = 20 p < .05 Table A-66: Crosstab of CF Format by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 566398 3112 1 % within Agency Origin 26.5% 13.3%14.9% 42.1% 50.0%20.7% Count 159380 062 2 % within Agency Origin 7.1%20.0%14.6%0.0% 0.0%11.4% Count 11250 119 3 % within Agency Origin 5.2%4.4%1.9%0.0% 16.7%3.5% Count 0010 01 4 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.4%0.0% 0.0%.2% Count 100100 020 5 % within Agency Origin 4.7%0.0%3.8%0.0% 0.0%3.7% Count 2060 08 6 % within Agency Origin 0.9%0.0%2.3%0.0% 0.0%1.5% Count 125190 036 7 % within Agency Origin 5.7%11.1%7.3%0.0% 0.0%6.6% Count 55173 030 CF format* 8 % within Agency Origin 2.4%11.1%6.5%15.8% 0.0%5.5%

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185 Table A-66: Continued Count 203270 050 9 % within Agency Origin 9.5%6.7%10.3%0.0% 0.0%9.2% Count 3001 04 10 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%0.0%5.3% 0.0%0.7% Count 0010 01 11 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.4%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 305465 187 12 % within Agency Origin 14.2%11.1% 17.6% 26.3% 16.7%16.1% Count 4020 06 13 % within Agency Origin 1.9%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%1.1% Count 3410312 178 14 % within Agency Origin 16.1% 22.2% 11.9%10.5% 16.7%14.4% Count 8070 015 15 % within Agency Origin 3.8%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%2.8% Count 1050 06 16 % within Agency Origin 0.5%0.0%1.9%0.0% 0.0%1.1% Count 0070 07 17 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%1.3% Count 2114526119 6542 CF format* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 8 2 = 90.57 df = 64 p < .05 Table A-67: Crosstab of CF Tone & Atmosphere by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 70122 021 1 % within Agency Origin 3.3%0.0%4.6%10.5% 0.0%3.9% Count 71110 019 2 % within Agency Origin 3.3%2.2%4.2%0.0% 0.0%3.5% Count 17570 130 3 % within Agency Origin 8.1%11.1%2.7%0.0% 16.7%5.5% Count 146131 034 4 % within Agency Origin 6.6%13.3%5.0%5.3% 0.0%6.3% Count 7432 016 6 % within Agency Origin 3.3%8.9%1.1%10.5% 0.0%3.0% Count 222352 061 7 % within Agency Origin 10.4%4.4%13.4%10.5% 0.0%11.3% Count 8150 115 CF tone & atmosphere* 8 % within Agency Origin 3.8%2.2%1.9%0.0% 16.7%2.8%

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186 Table A-67: Continued Count 6271 016 9 % within Agency Origin 2.8%4.4%2.7%5.3% 0.0%3.0% Count 2020 04 10 % within Agency Origin 0.9%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.7% Count 5060 011 11 % within Agency Origin 2.4%0.0%2.3%0.0% 0.0%2.0% Count 233230 352 12 % within Agency Origin 10.9%6.7%8.8%0.0% 50.0% 9.6% Count 8562 021 13 % within Agency Origin 3.8%11.1%2.3%10.5% 0.0%3.9% Count 4070 011 14 % within Agency Origin 1.9%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%2.0% Count 211240 147 15 % within Agency Origin 10.0%2.2%9.2%0.0% 16.7%8.7% Count 5415858 0162 16 % within Agency Origin 25.6%33.3%32.6%42.1% 0.0%29.9% Count 0020 02 17 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 60131 020 18 % within Agency Origin 2.8%0.0%5.0%5.3% 0.0%3.7% Count 2114526119 6542 CF tone & atmosphere* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 9 2 = 87.93 df = 64 p < .05 Table A-68: Crosstab of CF Approach (R ational vs. Emotional) by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 699875 0170 1 % within Agency Origin 32.7%20.0%33.3%26.3% 0.0%31.4% Count 97279411 6235 2 % within Agency Origin 46.0%60.0%36.0%57.9% 100.0%43.4% Count 459803 0137 3 % within Agency Origin 21.3%20.0%30.7%158% 0.%25.3% Count 2114526119 6542 CF approach (rational vs. emotional)* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 10 2 = 23.12 df = 8 p < .05

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187 Table A-69: Crosstab of CF Promise, App eal, or Selling Proposition by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 105180 033 1 % within Agency Origin 4.7%11.1%6.9%0.0% 0.0%6.1% Count 811811411 0224 2 % within Agency Origin 38.4%40.0%43.7%57.9% 0.0%41.3% Count 5810444 4120 3 % within Agency Origin 27.5%22.2%16.9%21.1% 66.7% 22.1% Count 210312 054 4 % within Agency Origin 10.0%0.0%11.9%10.5% 0.0%10.0% Count 138350 157 5 % within Agency Origin 6.2%17.8%13.4%0.0% 16.7%10.5% Count 1000 01 6 % within Agency Origin 0.5%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 2000 02 7 % within Agency Origin 0.9%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 11030 014 8 % within Agency Origin 5.2%0.0%1.1%0.0% 0.0%2.6% Count 7320 113 9 % within Agency Origin 3.3%6.7%0.8%0.0% 16.7%2.4% Count 3022 07 11 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%0.8%10.5% 0.0%1.3% Count 1120 04 12 % within Agency Origin 0.5%2.2%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.7% Count 0030 03 13 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%1.1%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 3070 010 14 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%2.7%0.0% 0.0%1.8% Count 2114526119 6542 CF promise, appeal, or selling proposition* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 13 2 = 84.73 df = 48 p < .05 Table A-70: Crosstab of Inform ation Content by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 3050 08 1 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%1.9%0.0% 0.0%1.5% Count 0020 02 Information content* 2 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.4%

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188 Table A-70: Continued Count 7420 013 3 % within Agency Origin 3.3%8.9%0.8%0.0% 0.0%2.4% Count 7030 010 4 % within Agency Origin 3.3%0.0%1.1%0.0% 0.0%1.8% Count 9060 015 5 % within Agency Origin 4.3%0.0%2.3%0.0% 0.0%2.8% Count 1020 03 6 % within Agency Origin 0.5%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.6% Count 1010 02 7 % within Agency Origin 0.5%0.0%0.4%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 161230 040 8 % within Agency Origin 7.6%2.2%8.8%0.0% 0.0%7.4% Count 0020 02 9 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.8%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 0100 01 10 % within Agency Origin 0.0%2.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 1000 01 11 % within Agency Origin 0.5%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 0110 02 12 % within Agency Origin 0.0%2.2%0.4%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 0010 01 13 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.4%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 302335 070 18 % within Agency Origin 14.2%4.4%12.6%26.3% 0.0%12.9% Count 259736 0113 19 % within Agency Origin 11.8%20.0% 28.0%31.6% 0.0% 20.8% Count 2000 02 20 % within Agency Origin 0.9%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.4% Count 10260 018 21 % within Agency Origin 4.7%4.4%2.3%0.0% 0.0%3.3% Count 3121 07 22 % within Agency Origin 1.4%2.2%0.8%5.3% 0.0%1.3% Count 151360 153 23 % within Agency Origin 7.1%2.2%13.8%0.0% 16.7%9.8% Count 2513365 382 24 % within Agency Origin 11.8% 28.9% 13.8%26.3% 50.0% 15.1% Count 18040 022 25 % within Agency Origin 8.5%0.0%1.5%0.0% 0.0%4.1%Count 3810232 275 Information content* 26 % within Agency Origin 18.0% 22.2%8.8%10.5% 33.3%13.8%

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189 Table A-70: Continued Count 2114526119 6542 Information content* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 14 2 = 135.93 df = 84 p < .05 Table A-71: Crosstab of Presen ce of Product by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 693627 5146 1 % within Agency Origin 32.7%6.7%23.8%36.8% 83.3% 26.9% Count 100261449 1280 2 % within Agency Origin 47.4%57.8%55.2%47.4% 16.7% 51.7% Count 4216553 0116 3 % within Agency Origin 19.9%35.6%21.1%15.8% 0.0%21.4% Count 2114526119 6542 Presence of product* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 15 2 = 27.42 df = 8 p < .05 Table A-72: Crosstab of Actor Playing Role by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1512318912 5380 1 % within Agency Origin 71.6%51.1%72.4%63.2% 83.3%70.1% Count 6022727 1162 2 % within Agency Origin 28.4%48.9%27.6%36.8% 16.7%29.9% Count 2114526119 6542 Actor playing role* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 9.56 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-73: Crosstab of Minority in Minor Role by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 4331 112 1 % within Agency Origin 1.9%6.7%1.1%5.3% 16.7%2.2% Count 2074225818 5530 2 % within Agency Origin 98.1%93.3%98.9%94.7% 83.3%97.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Minority in minor role* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.19 df = 4 p < .05

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190 Table A-74: Crosstab of Real Peopl e in Minor Role by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 3612482 4102 1 % within Agency Origin 17.1%26.7%18.4%10.5% 66.7%18.8% Count 1753321317 2440 2 % within Agency Origin 82.9%73.3%81.6%89.5% 33.3%81.2% Count 2114526119 6542 Real people in minor role1 Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.12 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-75: Crosstab of Presente r On/Off Camera by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 973011110 3251 1 % within Agency Origin 46.0%66.7%42.5%52.6% 50.0%46.3% Count 8011997 0197 2 % within Agency Origin 37.9%24.4%37.9%36.8% 0.0%36.3% Count 213292 358 3 % within Agency Origin 10.0%6.7%11.1%10.5% 50.0% 10.7% Count 131220 036 4 % within Agency Origin 6.2%2.2%8.4%0.0% 0.0%6.6% Count 2114526119 6542 Presenter on/off camera* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable39 2 = 23.09 df = 12 p < .05 Table A-76: Crosstab of Beauty of Principal Character by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 169190 044 1 % within Agency Origin 7.6%20.0%7.3%0.0% 0.0%8.1% Count 1953624219 6498 2 % within Agency Origin 92.4%80.0%92.7%100.0% 100.0%91.9% Count 2114526119 6542 Beauty of principal character* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 11.05 df = 4 p < .05

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191 Table A-77: Crosstab of Gra phic Display by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 7512614 1153 1 % within Agency Origin 35.5%26.7%23.4%21.1% 16.7%28.2% Count 1363320015 5389 2 % within Agency Origin 64.5%73.3%76.6%78.9% 83.3%71.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Graphic display* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 9.55 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-78: Crosstab of Language Presented by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1893723812 6482 1 % within Agency Origin 89.6%82.2%91.2%63.2% 100.0%88.9% Count 0011 02 2 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.4%5.3% 0.0%0.4% Count 4040 08 3 % within Agency Origin 1.9%0.0%1.5%0.0% 0.0%1.5% Count 11520 018 4 % within Agency Origin 5.2%11.1%0.8%0.0% 0.0%3.3% Count 0100 01 5 % within Agency Origin 0.0%2.2%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.2% Count 72166 031 6 % within Agency Origin 3.3%4.4%6.1%31.6% 0.0%5.7% Count 2114526119 6542 Language presented* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 49 2 = 68.87 df = 20 p < .05 Table A-79: Crosstab of Langua ge Spoken by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 1463619619 3400 1 % within Agency Origin 69.2%80.0%75.1%100.0% 50.0%73.8% Count 16150 022 2 % within Agency Origin 7.6%2.2%1.9%0.0% 0.0%4.1% Count 0000 00 3 % within Agency Origin 0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.0% Count 1130 05 Language spoken* 4 % within Agency Origin 0.5%2.2%1.1%0.0% 0.0%0.9%

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192 Table A-79: Continued Count 7090 016 5 % within Agency Origin 3.3%0.0%3.4%0.0% 0.0%3.0% Count 256250 056 6 % within Agency Origin 11.8%13.3%9.6%0.0% 0.0%10.3% Count 3010 37 7 % within Agency Origin 1.4%0.0%0.4%0.0% 50.0% 1.3% Count 131220 036 8 % within Agency Origin 6.2%2.2%8.4%0.0% 0.0%6.6% Count 2114526119 6542 Language spoken* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 50 2 = 138.61 df = 24 p < .05 Table A-80: Crosstab of Mu sic Style by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 51110 017 1 % within Agency Origin 2.4%2.2%4.2%0.0% 0.0%3.1% Count 2510292 066 2 % within Agency Origin 11.8%22.2%11.1%10.5% 0.0%12.2% Count 224251 052 3 % within Agency Origin 10.4%8.9%9.6%5.3% 0.0%9.6% Count 496884 2149 4 % within Agency Origin 23.2%13.3% 33.7% 21.1% 33.3% 27.5% Count 6490 019 5 % within Agency Origin 2.8%8.9%3.4%0.0% 0.0%3.5% Count 7118747 1171 6 % within Agency Origin 33.6%40.0% 28.4% 36.8% 16.7% 31.5% Count 332255 368 7 % within Agency Origin 15.6%4.4%9.6%26.3% 50.0%12.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Music style* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *Please see Appendix A for variable 55 2 = 39.86 df = 24 p < .05 Table A-81: Crosstab of Music Creates Mood by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 406234 174 1 % within Agency Origin 19.0%13.3%8.8%21.1% 16.7%13.7% Count 1713923815 5468 Music creates mood* 2 % within Agency Origin 81.0%86.7%91.2%78.9% 83.3%86.3%

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193 Table A-81: Continued Count 2114526119 6542 Music creates mood* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 11.16 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-82: Crosstab of Wellknown Music by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 3716611 0115 1 % within Agency Origin 17.5%35.6%23.4%5.3% 0.0%21.2% Count 1742920018 6427 2 % within Agency Origin 82.5%64.4%76.6%94.7% 100.0%78.8% Count 2114526119 6542 Well-known music* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 12.48 df = 4 p < .05 Table A-83: Crosstab of Continuous Musical Theme by Agency Origin Agency Origin DomesticAsiaUSEurope Others Total Count 3115463 095 1 % within Agency Origin 14.7%33.3%17.6%15.8% 0.0%17.5% Count 1803021516 6447 2 % within Agency Origin 85.3%66.7%82.4%84.2% 100.0%82.5% Count 2114526119 6542 Continuous musical theme* Total % within Agency Origin 100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0% *1 = Presence 2 = Absence 2 = 10.27 df = 4 p < .05

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194 APPENDIX D LIST OF THE TIMES ADVERTISING AWARDS WINNING TV COMMERCIALS 20th Times Advertising Awards (1998) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold None Silver Toshiba Air Conditioner Fans 001 Bronze Sampo O3 Anti-bacteria Washer Look Whos Talking 002 Merit Mentions Sampo Air Conditioner Coach 003 Merit Mentions Sony VCD Player Without VCD 004 Merit Mentions Esonic Portable VCD Player Bathroom 005 Automobile Gold Nissan Emergency Service Flood 006 Silver Kymco Top Boy Scooter War 007 Bronze Mitsubishi All New Lancer Chapter 2 008 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi Lancer Virage Beauty & Safety Wisdom & Quality Elegance & Control 009 010 011 Merit Mentions Nissan Cefiro Tranquility 012 Merit Mentions Nissan Sentra CE Rain 013 Food Gold None Silver I-Mei Cracker In-laws 014 Bronze Orange Stimorol Chewing Gum Punishment 015 Merit Mentions Red Stimorol Chewing Gum Chen Chang 016 Merit Mentions Uni-President Noodle SP Chicken Inside 017 Merit Mentions Uni-President Q Noodle Bus 018 Merit Mentions Nespray Milk Companion 019 Beverage Gold None Silver Laohu Yatse Energetic Drink series Lion Tank Girdle Couple Sumo Knight Trumpet Birthday 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 Bronze Rosa Walk Tea Dr. Sun Yat-sen 028 Merit Mentions Kirin Beer Hot Spring 029

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195 Merit Mentions Uni-President X-Power series Teaser Shepherd 030 031 Merit Mentions Mr. Brown Blue Mountain Coffee Train Station 032 Household Gold Sunrise Department Store 97 Spring Bookstore 033 Silver Les Enphants SP series Doggie I Doggie II 034 035 Bronze Klneex Toilet Paper Bungee Jumping 036 Merit Mentions E33 Department Store series Father Obstruction 037 038 Personal care Gold MaxFactor SK-II Closer 039 Silver Konica Color Talking 040 Bronze IBL Detergent Clean Mind 041 Merit Mentions Pacific CityPhone Lines 042 Merit Mentions Ericsson Mobile Phone series Babies Exposure 043 044 Construction & decoration Gold None Silver None Bronze Toto Toilet Bowl Museum 045 Merit Mentions EZ Set series Bathroom Fitting Room 046 047 Merit Mentions Beautiful Day Apartments series Boat Mini 048 049 Merit Mentions Huang-l ong Construction Tainan 050 Financial service Gold ChinaTrust Reward Program series Man Woman 051 052 Silver ChinaTrust Credit Card Gratitude 053 Bronze Union Bank X-Card Natural Born Shopper 054 Merit Mentions Kuang-hua Fund series Proposal Education Layoff 055 056 057 Others Gold EMI Gigi Leung teaser series Teaser I Teaser II Teaser III 058 059 060 Silver Holiday KTV series Campus Bus 061 062 Bronze NEC NEFAX 280 Crisis 063 Merit Mentions DHL Heavy Box Packing 064 Merit Mentions Acetaminophe n Cold Man with Cold 065

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196 21st Times Advertising Awards (1999) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold Panasonic Battery series Birthday Anniversary I Anniversary II 066 067 068 Silver Panasonic Air Conditioner series Mountain Island Country Road Small Town Collection 069 070 071 072 073 Bronze Toshiba Air Conditioner Fur 074 Merit Mentions Sampo Digital TV Tibet 075 Merit Mentions Sony Wega Flat TV Beyond Imagination 076 Merit Mentions Sanyo Washer Bath 077 Automobile Gold CMC Willy Duel 078 Silver Infiniti Q45 Sanctum I Sanctum II 079 080 Bronze Vespa ET-8 Museum 081 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi All New Lancer Wedding 082 Merit Mentions Nissan March Anti-bacterial Tech 083 Merit Mentions Mercedes Benz Listening 084 Food Gold Green Stimorol Chewing Gum Perfume 085 Silver Stornzon series Sleepy Worm I Sleepy Worm II 086 087 Bronze 7-11 Rice Round Dumpling Bow Mother & Daughter 088 089 Merit Mentions Kelloggs Mueslix Cereal Sunrise 090 Merit Mentions I-Mei We dding Cake New Proposal 091 Merit Mentions Abbott PediaSure series Toy Math 092 093 Beverage Gold Uni-President No.8 Farm Milk Wife Cow 094 095 Gold Heysong Darjeeling Black Tea series Hair Cut Shaving 096 097 Silver None Bronze Uni-President Sentiment Stories series 7:20 Listening 098 099 Merit Mentions Uni-President Energetic Drink Stab 100 Merit Mentions Kirin Beer series Mountain Evening Lotus 101 102 103

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197 Merit Mentions Uni-President Master Coffee series Overtime Distance 104 105 Household Gold Sunrise Department Store 98 Spring Folding 106 Silver Sakura Kitchen Appliance series Hula-Hoop Table Dance 107 108 Bronze Vidal Sassoon Shampoo Water Jumping 109 Merit Mentions 7-11 Company Image Matching 110 Merit Mentions Pert Shampoo Twins 111 Merit Mentions Pon-Pon Body Wash Actress 112 Personal care Gold Lung-Mei Fabric Sisterhood 113 Silver Kotex Running 114 Bronze MaxFactor SK II Moisturizer Invisible 115 Bronze Swear Lingerie series 3 Up I Love You 116 117 Merit Mentions Vis--vis Moisturizing Tissues Narcissism 118 Merit Mentions Ponds Whitening Lotion Tracking 119 Education & culture Gold Gigi Leung series Washing Face I Washing Face II 120 121 Silver Lets Talk In English Magazine Old Lady 122 Bronze Lets Talk In English Magazine First Step 123 Merit Mentions Very Entertainment SP Gossip 124 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi Pencil Girls Marching 125 Merit Mentions I-Shou University Image 126 Construction & decoration Gold Lung-Mei Drape Privacy 127 Silver Reun-Fu New Life Apartments Runaway 128 Bronze Sin-Yi Real Estate Have Some Tea 129 Merit Mentions Sin-Yi Real Estate Guan-Gong 130 Merit Mentions H & B Reality Lost Man & Tree 131 132 Merit Mentions ChinaTrust Real Estate Buddhas Hand 133 Tourism & travel Gold Churches Fried Chicken series Time-limited Homesick Comfort Room 134 135 136 Silver KFC Takeout Family Meal Swindle 137 Bronze KFC Original Chicken series Psychic Kid Old Man 138 139 140 Merit Mentions Formosa Fun Coast Theme Park Feet 141 Merit Mentions KFC Spicy Legs Have A Leg 142 Merit Mentions Leofoo Village Theme Park series Elevator Shower 143 144

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198 Communications Gold TransAsia Telecom series Sales Person Tailor Shop Basketball Court Baseball Field 145 146 147 148 Silver Mobitai Communications Restaurant 149 Bronze Mobitai Communications series Elevator Match 150 151 Merit Mentions Alpha Call Secret Agent 152 Merit Mentions First Internati onal Telecom (FITEL) Banana 153 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom Passport 154 Financial service Gold ChinaTrust Call-Call Card series Woman Man 155 156 Silver Fubon Credit Card Protection 157 Bronze Standard Chartered Smart Card Tony Leung 158 Merit Mentions Citibank series Mother Dream Master 159 160 161 Merit Mentions Bank SinoPac Cross-Continent 162 Merit Mentions Taishin Bank Rose Card 98 Theme 163 Others Gold Epson Printer Why Was I Absent 164 Silver Acer Computer Asian Games 165 Bronze Tsumura Chujo-to Barriers 166 Merit Mentions Holiday KTV Power Card Girls Dorm 167 Merit Mentions Salonpas Big, Big, Big 168 Merit Mentions Uni-President Petlife Birth 169 22nd Times Advertising Awards (2000) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold Sampo Anti-Bacteria Washer Doctor 170 Silver Teco Big Green Refrigerator series Mother & Daughter Husband & Wife Grandpa & Grandson 171 172 173 Bronze Sampo Anti-Bacteria Air Conditioner Sneeze 174 Merit Mentions Sampo Anti-Bact eria Air Conditioner Light 175 Merit Mentions Teco Air Conditioner Caring 176 Merit Mentions Sampo Electronics Series Little Monk 177 Automobile Gold CMC Willy Nuts 178 Silver CMC Willy Story Telling 179 Bronze Yamaha Forte 125 Scooter Comfort 180 Merit Mentions Mazda 32 Protg Appreciation 181 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi All Ne w Galant First Concertante 182

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199 Merit Mentions Nissan All New March Back Seat 183 Merit Mentions 99 New Opel Vectra Controlling 184 Food Gold Fong-Leng Fructose Sweet 185 Silver Weilih Noodles Chinese Ghost Fest 186 Bronze Napoli Pizza series Italy Honesty Last Supper 187 188 189 Merit Mentions Vedan New Era Cup Noodle Delicacy 190 Merit Mentions Weilih Big Noodle Good 191 Merit Mentions I-Mei Peanut Ice Bar Black 192 Merit Mentions Black Bridge Sausage No Artificiality 193 Merit Mentions Brands Essence of Chicken with Cordyceps Sentry 194 Merit Mentions Zespri New Zealand Kiwi Fruit Tumbler 195 Beverage Gold Uni-President X-Power Give Me Min 196 Silver Vedan Fruit Water Peach 197 Bronze Heysong Sars Stowaway 198 Merit Mentions Uni-President Pro-Sweat Fingers 199 Merit Mentions Uni-President La Seine Coffee Rain 200 Merit Mentions Uni-President Tea Collection Milk Tea After The Rain 201 Merit Mentions Uni-President No. 8 Farm Milkshake Shake it 202 Merit Mentions Coca-Cola SP Chase 203 Household Gold None Silver Lavenus Shampoo series Being Bad I Being Bad II Being Bad III 204 205 206 Bronze Tender Tissue series Saliva Pooh 207 208 Merit Mentions Vidal Sassoon Hair Ca re Products Done in 30 Seconds 209 Merit Mentions Kao Wonderful AHA Detergent Dactylology 210 Merit Mentions Head & Shoulders Shampoo Physiology Clock 211 Merit Mentions Bailan Super Detergent Cook Kuo & Wife 212 Personal care Gold None Silver Seikodo Water Balance Toner Dried Girl 213 Bronze Oil of Olay Whitening Lotion Seats 214 Merit Mentions Avon Color Make-ups series Troop Review Kiss Snow 215 216 217 Merit Mentions A-So Shoes Anniversary 218 Merit Mentions Audrey Lingerie Duel 219 Merit Mentions Allergan Cont act Lens Cleanser Puppy 220 Communications Gold Easy Talk launch series Absent Gangster 221 222

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200 Silver TransAsia Telecom series Salesmen I Salesmen II Salesmen III 223 224 225 Bronze Chunghwa Telecom 0937 Launch File 226 Merit Mentions Ericsson S868 SP BMW 227 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom 850 Protection 228 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom Sofa 229 Financial service Gold Union Bank X-Card Spendthrift 230 Silver Newa Insurance series Light Post Upside Down 231 232 Bronze ChinaTrust Bank Loan 233 Merit Mentions Newa Insurance Drivers License 234 Merit Mentions Polaris Securities series Swallow Catfish Dolphin 235 236 237 Merit Mentions HSBC Credit Card series Reunion Study Abroad 238 239 Retailer Gold Sunrise Department Store Spring Desire 240 Silver 7-11 Save Bar Chopsticks 241 Bronze Watsons Drugstore series Soap Opera I Soap Opera II Soap Opera III 242 243 244 Merit Mentions 7-11 Service On Behalf of You 245 Merit Mentions Blockbuster Water Jumping 246 Merit Mentions 21st Century Fried Chicken Mobile Phones 247 Others Gold Sin-Yi Real Estate Kids 248 Silver Epson Printer Waiting 249 Bronze Commercial Times Competence 250 Merit Mentions China Times Info-mania 251 Merit Mentions Liberty Times Clinton & Jiang Zemin 252 Merit Mentions Lotus Villa Bird Watching 253 23rd Times Advertising Awards (2001) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold None Silver None Bronze Toshiba Flat TV TV Guy 254 Merit Mentions Teco Refrigerator Ready-To-Cook 255 Automobile Gold None Silver None Bronze Mazda 323 Protg Cherish 256

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201 Merit Mentions Esso Oil Series Boy Girl 257 258 Merit Mentions Nissan Sentra 180 NAVI Competition 259 Merit Mentions VW Beetle series Daydream B&W Dream 260 261 Merit Mentions Nissan New Truck Big Duel 262 Merit Mentions GM AutoWorld Complete Trust 263 Food Gold None Silver Weilih What-Is-It Snack Curse 264 Bronze Uni-President Have-A-Cup Noodle Waiting 265 Merit Mentions Weilih Noodles Whatever You Plea 266 Merit Mentions Uni-President Watch-Out Snack Taxi 267 Merit Mentions Uni-President Watch-Out Snack Dorm 268 Merit Mentions Uni-President Wagamama Ramen Two Women 269 Beverage Gold None Silver Vitalon SP Shinning 270 Bronze Vedan Morewater Announcement 271 Merit Mentions Uni-President Tea-Collection Milk Tea Shanghai Trolley 272 Merit Mentions Uni-President Mayah Juice series Apple Bitter Gourd 273 274 Merit Mentions Uni-President Milk With Fruit series Interview I Interview II 275 276 Household Gold None Silver Lux Shampoo 98oC 277 Bronze Lavenus Hair Care Products Kiss 278 Merit Mentions Pert Shampoo Water Boy 279 Merit Mentions Lagostina Training Husband 280 Merit Mentions Andante Tissue Holy Sheet 281 Personal care Gold Nike Hip Hoop High Tattoo 282 Silver Wacoal Lingerie Series 30th Anniversary 283 Bronze Seikodo Water-Balance Face Wash Gel Bad Seed 284 Merit Mentions Audrey Lingerie Elevator 285 Merit Mentions Nike Hip Hoop High Graffiti 286 Merit Mentions De Beers It s All Diamonds Fault 287 Education & culture Gold None Silver China Times Era Of Uncertainty 288 Bronze United Daily News series Back Home Heartbreak Layoff 289 290 291 Merit Mentions Leo Koo Treasure Album National Flag 292 Merit Mentions Star News Crazy Fans 293 Merit Mentions Business Weekly CQ 294

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202 Communications Gold FarEastone Telecom *147# series Bus Bike Sedan 295 296 297 Silver Ericsson R320 series In The Line Hail 298 299 Bronze Ericsson T28 series Hummingbird Jelly Fish Impact 300 301 302 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom 099 Message 303 Merit Mentions TransAsia Telecom Old Newspaper 304 Merit Mentions Ericsson R250 Pro Anti-Dust, Water and Mud 305 Merit Mentions TransAsia Telecom series By Your Side I By Your Side II By Your Side III By Your Side IV By Your Side V By Your Side VI 306 307 308 309 310 311 Financial service Gold First Commercial Bank series Right & Left Husband & Wife 312 313 Silver Makoto Bank Female Card Power Woman 314 Bronze MasterCard Friends 315 Merit Mentions Aetna Life Insurance series God & Satan I God & Satan II God & Satan III 316 317 318 Merit Mentions Chinese Bank eCard Easy Life 319 Retailer Gold None Silver Sunrise Department Store 00 Spring Spring Collection 320 Bronze McDonalds Daily Surprise SP series Teaser Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 Merit Mentions 7-11 Photosynthesis Sandwich Day & Night 329 Merit Mentions Pizza Hut Cool Summer Combo Escalator 330 Merit Mentions 7-11 Photo Deve lopment Photo Development 331 Merit Mentions Blockbuster Press Conference 332 Internet Gold Kimo.com A Different World 333 Silver Goto99 Super Power Premier 334 Bronze City Family series Puppy Love Friendship 335 336 Merit Mentions MTV Chinese Website Bruce Lee 337

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203 Others Gold None Silver None Bronze Hit FM 91.7 Taxi Driver 338 Merit Mentions NuSkin 7-Days series Complete Change I Complete Change II Complete Change III Complete Change IV Complete Change V Complete Change VI Complete Change VII Complete Change VIII 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 Merit Mentions Epson Pr inter Yes, We Can 347 Merit Mentions Ruentex Ours Condominium series Internet Swimming Pool 348 349 Merit Mentions Yungc hing Estate Balcony Chess 350 351 24th Times Advertising Awards (2002) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold Teco Year-end SP series New Prosperity I New Prosperity II New Prosperity III 352 353 354 Silver Sampo O3 Anti-bacterial Washer Hotel 355 Bronze Sanyo Refrigerator series Ours Fast Food Pad 356 357 Merit Mentions Sampo Remote Message Control Refrigerator series Love Growing Up 358 359 Merit Mentions Pioneer DVD Player Eye Sight 360 Merit Mentions National Electronics Lovers 361 Automobile Gold Ford MAV After The Rain 362 Silver Ford Metrostar Blind Man 363 Bronze Nissan Cefiro New Leaders 364 Merit Mentions Yamaha SV Max 125 Play Same Way Engine Stand Cushion 365 366 367 368 369 Merit Mentions CMC Magic Boring 370 Merit Mentions Mazda Tribute Hotel 371 Merit Mentions Ford Metrostar Theft 372 Food Gold Uni-President Q Spicy Noodle Country 373 Silver Vedan Premium Pot Gourmet Troop 374 Bronze Uni-President Wagamama Ramen Ultimate 375

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204 Merit Mentions Vedan Karm a Vegetable Noodle Bike 376 Merit Mentions Cadina Potato Chips series Physical Exam Scratch 377 378 Merit Mentions Lian-Hwa Pea Cracker Hungry Tiger, Drooling Dragon 379 Merit Mentions Uni-President La Seine Deserts Monet 380 Merit Mentions Anchor Milk Powder Founding A Business 381 Beverage Gold Ployta Bull Energetic Drink Elevator 382 Silver Uni-President Pro-Sweat Lunch Boxes 383 Bronze Ployta Bull Energetic Drink Script 384 Merit Mentions Hey-Song Bubble 122 Test Sheet 385 Merit Mentions Vedan MoreWater Insomnia 386 Merit Mentions Uni-President Freestyle Sports Drink series Boxing Exorcism 387 388 Merit Mentions Heineken Beer Crab 389 Household Gold None Silver None Bronze Amway Water Purifier Bi-bi-bi 390 Merit Mentions 3M Air Filter Daddy 391 Merit Mentions 7-11 Duskin Mop Wig 392 Merit Mentions J & J PH 5.5 Body Wash Just Enough I Just Enough II 393 394 Merit Mentions Listerine Mouth Wash Girl 395 Merit Mentions Sujay Tissue Paper Father & Son 396 Personal care Gold justgold Dress-Up 397 Silver Nike HBL Campaign Pee-Pee Gymnastics 398 Bronze DTC Danger Collection Snake 399 Merit Mentions Swear Lingerie series A Cup Ex-lover 400 401 Merit Mentions Olay Face Wash series Bubble Nose 402 403 Merit Mentions Gillette Razor for Ladies Cutting Sleeves 404 Merit Mentions Sonada Luggage series Flight Attendant I Flight Attendant II 405 406 Education & culture Gold None Silver None Bronze China Times Wake-up 407 Merit Mentions Dawson Educati onal Institute Go to School 408 Merit Mentions Formosa Today series Newspaper Clipping Hair Cut Restroom 409 410 411 Merit Mentions Advanced Eng lish Magazine Misunderstanding 412 Merit Mentions Next Magazine series Deceit Successful Man 413 414

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205 Merit Mentions Next Magazine Insecure 415 Communications Gold Ericsson R380 Digital Assistant 416 Silver Ericsson R310 Shark 417 Bronze KG Telecom series Winding Road Honky-tonk 418 419 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom Dads Gift 420 Merit Mentions SeedNet ADSL Chairs 421 Merit Mentions Ericsson T20 Classroom/Chatroom 422 Merit Mentions TransAsia Telecom Marathon 423 Merit Mentions Chunghwa Telecom 128 Plan Wrong Number 424 Financial service Gold None Silver ABN Amro Bank Im Ready Plans series Retirement Education 425 426 Bronze New York Life Wedding 427 Merit Mentions Union Bank Cyber-X Card Show-off 428 Merit Mentions Aetna Insurance Brushing Past 429 Merit Mentions KGI Securities Tips 430 Merit Mentions Prudential Life Them atic Campaign series Ten Years Later Worry Responsibility Future Death 431 432 433 434 435 Merit Mentions Prudential Funds Charge 436 Merit Mentions Tai-Shin Bank Consuming Loan series Piano Comic 437 438 Retailer Gold None Silver KFC Takeout Family Meal Hold On 439 Bronze Sunrise Department Store Revenge 440 Merit Mentions 7-11 Chinese New Year series Photo Development Gift Food 441 442 443 Merit Mentions 7-11 Static 444 Merit Mentions Motorola Monitor 445 Merit Mentions 7-11 Lunch Service What-To-Eat Get-It-later 446 447 Others Gold Brands Essence of Chicken with Herbs Tap Dance 448 Silver Secom Security Lurking 449 Bronze Nin-Jiom Chinese Herb Great Wall 450 Merit Mentions 3M Waterp roof Bandage No Way 451 Merit Mentions Golden Slogan Awards Peeing Boys 452 Merit Mentions Secom Security Peeking 453 Merit Mentions 7-11 Travel series Hua-Tong Kinmen 454 455 Merit Mentions ViewSonic LCD Monitor Visual Communication 456

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206 25th Times Advertising Awards (2003) Award Brand/Product Title ID# Electronics Gold None Silver None Bronze None Merit Mentions Pioneer DVD Recorder Burning Tapes 457 Merit Mentions Teco Air Conditioner series Efficiency Stable Silence 458 459 460 Merit Mentions Kolin Air Conditioner Father & Son 461 Merit Mentions Sampo Air Conditioner Noise 462 Merit Mentions Sampo Plasma TV Door Crack 463 Automobile Gold Mazda 323 Protg Splash 464 Silver Formosa Matiz Versatile 465 Bronze Ford Escape Tire Prints 466 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi Sa vrin launch series Countdown I Countdown II Countdown III Countdown IV Countdown V Countdown VI CountdownVII 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 Merit Mentions CMC Commercial Car Series Busy 474 Merit Mentions Mitsubishi Series SP Bribe I Bribe II Bribe III Bribe IV 475 476 477 478 Merit Mentions Mazda Tribute 4WD Priority 479 Food Gold None Silver Rice Cracks Fire 480 Bronze Uni-President Wagamama Ramen Bride 481 Merit Mentions KFC Egg Tart Dismiss Mooncake 482 Merit Mentions Weilih Pork Paste Noodle Rhythm 483 Merit Mentions Uni-President Noodle Series Honor Guard Night Market 484 485 Merit Mentions Klim Milk Cold War 486 Beverage Gold Win Coffee Counting Sheep 487 Silver Red Flag Er-Guo-Tou Spirit Beijing Opera 488 Bronze Yoplait Drinking Yogurt Jogging 489 Merit Mentions Uni-President Maifan Stone Mineral Water series Glass I Glass II 490 491 Merit Mentions Uni-President Attraction Jelly Tea Bus 492

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207 Merit Mentions Weichuan Fresh Milk series Drunk Girl 493 494 Merit Mentions Vedan Morewater Fight 495 Merit Mentions Uni-President La Seine Coffee Coffee 496 Household Gold None Silver None Bronze None Merit Mentions Phisoderm Acne Facial Cleanser Duel 497 Merit Mentions 3M Scotch-B rite Scrubber Mr. Scrubber 498 Merit Mentions Bailan Detergent Little Hero 499 Merit Mentions Sujay Sc ott Toilet Paper Doggie 500 Personal care Gold None Silver None Bronze DTC Deut Diamond Charming Weapon 501 Merit Mentions Swear Lingerie Air Bag 502 Merit Mentions Durex Jeans Condom Jeans 503 Merit Mentions Green Oil Itching 504 Merit Mentions Lux Light Hair Jelly Pull Over 505 Communications Gold None Silver KG Telecom Talk 900 series Hit Me Unbelievable Jilt Student 506 507 508 509 Bronze HiNet ADSL Fortune Teller 510 Merit Mentions TransAsia Telecom Message 818 Free Matiz 511 Merit Mentions SonyEricsson A3618 Color 512 Merit Mentions SonyEricsson T65 Messenger 513 Merit Mentions TransAsia Telecom 2U Pre-paid Card series Boy Girl KTV 514 515 516 Merit Mentions SonyEricsson Cambridge 517 Financial service Gold None Silver ING Aetna Life Insurance series Death Finale Series I Death Finale Series II Death Finale Series III Death Finale Series IV 518 519 520 521 Bronze ChinaTrust Credit Ca rds series Road Service Ambulance 522 523 Merit Mentions Taipei Bank Lottery Caviar 524 Merit Mentions Taipei Bank Lottery Divine Advice 525 Merit Mentions Visa series Beetle Coupon 526 527 Merit Mentions ABN Amro Ba nk Preferred Banking Harvest 528

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208 Retailer Gold None Silver KFC Beijing Chicken Roll series Challenge I Challenge II 529 530 Bronze KFC Takeout Family Meal Overtime 531 Merit Mentions McDonalds Chinese New Year SP Skate 532 Merit Mentions Sunrise Department Store Poetry 533 Merit Mentions IKEA Surprise 534 Others Gold Lungyeng Funeral Contract Baseball 535 Silver Double A Copy Paper Somersault 536 Bronze JT Tobacco Mangrove Ecotourism series Crane Mudskipper Fiddler Crab 537 538 539 Merit Mentions Genesis Roller Coaster series Backpack Diagnose 540 541 Merit Mentions Genesis Roller Coaster Cinema Editions 542

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209 LIST OF REFERENCES Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) ( 2004). The World FactbookRank orderGDP. Retrieved November 2004, from: < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publicatio ns/factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html >. Central Intelligence Agen cy (CIA) (2004). The World FactbookPopulation. Retrieved November 2004, from: < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publicatio ns/factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html >. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) ( 2004). The World FactbookTaiwan. Retrieved November 2004, from website: < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publi cations/factbook/geos/tw.html >. Chang, K. C. (1997). Globalization and the depe ndent development of the advertising in Taiwan. Unpublished Masters thesis. Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan. Chang, P. C. (2004). The founding of adver tising agentry in TaiwanA review of advertising in Taiwan in the 60s. Unpub lished Masters thesis. China Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan. Chao, T. C. (2003). Cross-culture research of advertising creative strategy: A comparison between Taiwanese and Japanese award-wi nning ads. Unpublishe d Masters thesis. Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan Chen, C. S. (2000). A study of foreign sy mbols used in Taiw anese advertising. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Cheng, T. L. (1999). Advertising and social change in Taiwan: 1945-1999. The Journal of Advertising Research 13, pp 19-38. Chu, F. G. (1995). An strategy analysis of em otional appeals in commercials. The Journal of Advertising Research, 5, pp 85-112 Deng, Q. C. (2004). Creative execution: Cont ent analysis of Chinese award-winning television commercials in 1997-2003. Unpublished Masters thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Ding, P. Y. (2003). Advertising awards: An ex ploration of advertis ing awards and their influences. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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210 Editorial department (2000). 40 ye ars of advertising in Taiwan. Brain Magazine 291, pp 49-54. Taipei, Taiwan: Brain Magazine, Inc. Editorial department (2003). A dvertising annual report 2002. Advertising Magazine 142, pp 34-61. Taipei, Taiwan: Ro ck Publications, Inc. Ernst, S. B. (1998). A feature analysis of Clio-winning ads. Journalism Quarterly 57, pp 321-324. Gagnard, A. (1989). Elements of timing and repetition in award-winning TV commercials. Journalism Quarterly 66 (4), pp 965-969. Gagnard, A., & Morris, J. R. (1988). Clio commercials from 1975-1985: Analysis of 151 executional variables. Journalism Quarterly 65 (4), pp 859-865. Goldstein, C. (1989). Boomtown Taipei. Far Eastern Economic Review 144, 26, pp 6163. Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture New York: Anchor Books. Hefstede, G. (1980). Cultures consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Helgesen, T. (1994). Advertising awards and agency performance criteria. Journal of Advertising Research 34 (4), pp 43-53. Hsiao, H. C. (1998). Institutional changes in the organizational fields: The advertising agent industry in Taiwan 1961-1998. Unpublis hed Masters thesis. National Sun Yat-Sen university, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hsu, C. H. (2004). Investigating the quality of public TVThe experience of public TV in Taiwan. Retrieved October 2004, from: < http://www.rthk.org.hk/mediadigest/20040415_76_119857.html# >. Hu, G. S. (1998). The advertising industry in the Republic of China on Taiwan, 19601996. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Hu, G. S. (2000). Advertisi ng and cultural values: A cont ent analysis of awarded advertisements of China Times Advertising Award from 1979 to 1994. Journal of Communication and Culture 8, pp 285-316. Jeng, W. J. (1997). Reflections of culture: A longitudinal advertising appeals analysis from Taiwan and America. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Ko, T. T. (2003). The dual structure of transnational advertising group networks. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Taiw an Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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211 Lai, T. M. (1994). 30 years of affection toward advertising Taipei, Taiwan: Formosa Magazine Press, Inc. Lee, H. (1996). Open the treasury of advertising: The story of green fingers in United Advertising Taipei, Taiwan: Business Weekly Publications, Inc. Lee, Y. X. (1999). A historical analysis of transnational advertising agencies in Taiwan (1960-1998). Unpublished Masters thesis. Fujen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan. Lin, C. C. (2004). The myth of census: Decoding the market and find out who is strangulating the quality of TV programs. CommonWealth Magazine 309. Retrieved October 2004, from: < http://e-stock.com.tw/asp/board/ v_subject.asp?BoardID=3&ID=2387425 >. Liu, Y. C., & Liu, H. L. (1998). Advertis ing history in Taiwan: Organization and recollection. Advertising Almanac of Republic of China 10, pp 44-49, Taipei, Taiwan: Taipei 4A. Reid, L. N., Lane, W. R., We nthe, L. S., & Smith, O. W. (1985). Methods of presentation used in Clio-winning television commercials. Journalism Quarterly 62, pp 553559. Riffe, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. (1998). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Shen, W. (2001). Correlation between social changes and advertising developments in Taiwan during the past 40 years. U npublished Masters thesis. Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Shimp, T. A. (1976). Methods of commer cial presentation employed by national television advertisers. Journal of Advertising 19 (5), pp 30-36. Simon, J. L. (1971). The management of advertising Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Stempel, G. H. III., & Westley, B. H. (1981). Research methods in mass communication Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D. H. (1986). Effective television adverti sing: A study of 1,000 commercials Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Stewart, D. W., & Koslow, S. (1989). Executio nal factors and advertising effectiveness: A replication. Journal of Advertising 18 (3), pp 21-32. Times Advertising Award s (TAA) Committee (1998). 1998 Times advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times.

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212 Times Advertising Awards (TAA) Committee (1999). 1998 Times Asia-Pacific advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times. Times Advertising Awards (TAA) Committee (2000). 22nd Times advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times. Times Advertising Award s (TAA) Committee (2001). 23rd Times advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times. Times Advertising Awards (TAA) Committee (2002). 24th Times advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times. Times Advertising Awards (TAA) Committee (2003). 25th Times advertising awards annual Taipei, Taiwan: China Times. Tzui, H. (2001). Ideology adve rtising. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Wang, P. T. (2003). The relationship between advertising and econom ic development in Taiwan: 1962-2002. Unpublished Masters thesis. Nationa l Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Wang, S. M. (1999). Analysis of industrial eco nomics in advertising industry in Taiwan. Unpublished Masters thesis. National Taiw an Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Wang, T. S. (1989). A review of 40 yearsAdvertising events. Advertising Almanac of Republic of China 1, pp 97-110, Taipei, Taiwan: Taipei 4A. Wimmer, R. R., & Dominick, J. R. (2003). Mass media research: An introduction. Wadsworth, CA: Belmont. World Facts and Figures (2004). GDP per cap ita. Retrieved Novenber 2004, from World Facts and Figures website: < http://www.worldfactsandfigures.com/gdp_country_desc.php >. World Facts and Figures (2004). GDPReal grow th rate. Retrieved November 2004, from website: < http://www.worldfactsandfigures .com/gdp_country_growth_rate.php >.

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213 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yang-hsin Hsu is an interna tional student from Taipei, Taiwan, where he received his B.A. degree in advertising from Fujen Ca tholic University and then worked as a copywriter in different agencies. This thesis is a combination of what he loves and what he is studying: advertis ing, especially the creative executional elements. After finishing the study at the University of Florida, Hsu plans to go back to Taipei and keeps on working in an advertising agency as a copywriter. He looks forward to putting the academic training and everyday life experience in another country into practice to stimulate more ideas and innovative advertisements.