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Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Gender Roles among Agricultural Communications Practitioners


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PERCEPTIONS OF JOB SATISFAC TION AND GENDER ROLES AMONG AGRICULTURAL COMMUNICA TIONS PRACTITIONERS By REBECCA L. MCGOVNEY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Rebecca L. McGovney

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This document is dedicated to my parents, thank you for giving me the right to dream.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I must thank and apol ogize to Dr. Tracy Irani. She not only encouraged my research and ideas, she helped me to grow both as a person and a writer. Her endless patience helped to keep me some what sane, all the while I was driving her crazy. The many arguments over feminist theo ry notwithstanding, she is truly my mentor and my friend. I must also thank Dr. Ricky Telg for his tremendous editing skills and sense of humor in my direction and Dr. Connie Shehan for encouraging my feminist thought even when I was ready to give up. I would like to thank th e Association for Commu nication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences for allowing me to survey their members, especially Tom Knecht a nd AshelyWood. I would also like to thank Amanda Chambliss for her unending help in this survey process. Thanks are also necessary for my cowork ers at IFAS Communi cation Services who listened and understood, and allowed me to write. I would also like to thank my colleagues in the Department of Agricultur al Education and Comm unication, especially those who allowed me to thi nk I was causing trouble. Above all, I must thank my fianc Kyle for his love and support: first for encouraging me to move to Florida no matte r what the circumstances were at the time, and second for forcing me to stay here afte r everything had changed. For all the ranting and raving he endured with my feminist ideal s, he should be receiv ing a portion of this

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v degree. Finally I must thank my family --my parents Scott and Roberta McGovney, my sister Second Lieutenant Elizabeth Mc Govney, and my aunt Pat Rainey-Day for encouraging me to follow my dreams no matter how crazy they or I seemed to them.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Justification.................................................................................................................. .3 Pay/Salary..............................................................................................................4 Position/Advancement...........................................................................................7 Job Satisfaction....................................................................................................10 Problem Statement......................................................................................................13 Purpose and Objectives...............................................................................................13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................................................16 Overview.....................................................................................................................16 Theoretical Framework...............................................................................................16 Feminism/Gender................................................................................................16 Gendered Work...................................................................................................18 Job Satisfaction....................................................................................................21 Social Cognitive Theory......................................................................................25 Cognitive Dissonance..........................................................................................27 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................32 Research Design.........................................................................................................32 Subject Selection........................................................................................................33 Instrumentation...........................................................................................................34 Instrument--Part One...........................................................................................34 Instrument--Part Two..........................................................................................37 Instrument--Part Three........................................................................................39 Data Collection...........................................................................................................40 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................41

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vii 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS......................................................................................43 Objective One.............................................................................................................45 Objective Two............................................................................................................49 JIG/JDI................................................................................................................50 PRSA...................................................................................................................51 Job Satisfaction and Respondents’ Gender.........................................................52 Objective Three..........................................................................................................57 PRSA...................................................................................................................57 Gender Roles and Respondents’ Gender.............................................................63 Researcher Developed Cate gorical Response Questions....................................69 Researcher Developed Open -Ended Response Questions..................................71 5 CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION..................................................................................82 Summary.....................................................................................................................82 Key Findings and Implications...................................................................................82 Limitations..................................................................................................................89 Discussion...................................................................................................................90 Recommendations.......................................................................................................92 Recommendations For Practitioners And Managers...........................................92 Recommendations For Future Research..............................................................94 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL STATEMENT...............................................................................96 B SURVEY INSTRUMENT..........................................................................................97 C INITIAL CONTACT LETTER (1ST WAVE)..........................................................105 D SURVEY COVER LETTER (2ND WAVE).............................................................106 E INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT.................................................................107 F THANK YOU/REMINDER POSTCARD (3RD WAVE)........................................108 G SURVEY REMINDER EMAIL (4TH WAVE).........................................................109 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................110 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................116

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1. Average earnings of male and female media workers...............................................6 3-1. Reliability values for the JDI and JIG......................................................................35 3-2. Questions from the JDI pay subscale.......................................................................36 3-3. Questions describing job satisfaction.......................................................................38 3-4. Questions describing perceptions of gender in professional situations....................39 4-1. Comparison of early and late respondents’ age and education................................44 4-2. T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents.....................45 4-3. Age of respondents...................................................................................................46 4-4. Respondents’ highest level of education..................................................................46 4-5. Respondents’ organization and agri cultural communications coworkers................47 4-6. Respondents’ salary and time spent working in agricultu ral communications........48 4-7. ACE special interest group with closest relation to respondents’ job......................49 4-8. Cronbach’s alpha values for JDI subscales..............................................................50 4-9. Mean scores for the JIG and JDI..............................................................................51 4-10. Respondents’ perceptions of job satisfaction...........................................................52 4-11. Mean scores for JIG and JDI by gender...................................................................53 4-12. Mean difference of JIG and JDI scores by gender...................................................54 4-13. Female respondents’ perceptions of job satisfaction................................................55 4-14. Male respondents’ perceptions of job satisfaction...................................................56 4-15. Respondents’ perceptions of gende r roles within their organization.......................59

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ix 4-16. Respondents’ perceptions of ge nder roles throughout agricultural communications.......................................................................................................61 4-17. Mean difference of respondents’ pe rceptions of gender roles in their organization and throughout ag ricultural communications......................................63 4-18. Female and male respondents’ perceptions of gender roles in their organizations..65 4-20. Responses to researcher-devel oped gender experience questions...........................69 4-21. Female respondents’ answers to researcher-developed gender experience questions...................................................................................................................70 4-22. Male respondents’ answ ers to researcher-developed gender experience questions.71

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Traditional job satisfaction model............................................................................23 2-2 Motivator-hygiene job satisfaction model................................................................23 2-3 Basic model of human behavior...............................................................................24

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xi Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PERCEPTIONS OF JOB SATISFAC TION AND GENDER ROLES AMONG AGRICULTURAL COMMUNICA TIONS PRACTITIONERS By Rebecca L. McGovney August, 2005 Chair: Tracy Irani Major Department: Agricultur al Education and Communication Agricultural communications is a speciali zed area of communications in which practitioners function as comm unicators on behalf of agricult urally orientated academic institutions, industry and media outlets. Although at one time male-dominated, in the last 20 years agricultural communications has seen an increasing number of women enter the field. The purpose of this study was to e xplore attitudes towards job satisfaction and gender of those currently working in the agri cultural communications field, specifically focusing on members of the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE). The objectives of the study were to descri be the demographics of the population of current, active, US-based agricultural comm unications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, education, marital status, and position; describe their perceived job satisfaction level in terms of overall job satisfaction and faceted job satisfaction; and to describe respondents’ perceptions of gende r roles. Perceptions of job

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xii satisfaction and gender roles were then further described in terms of respondents’ gender. The research design for this study was a descri ptive census survey of the population of all current, active ACE members located within the United St ates for 2004 (n=510). The overall response rate for this study wa s 35.1% (n=179). The gender breakdown of respondents was 58.8% female (n=104) and 41.2 % male (n=73), and almost all of the respondents were Caucasian (94.9%, n=168). Results of this study showed that respondent s were satisfied with their agricultural communications jobs overall, based on the Job in General (JIG) scale. Interestingly, although respondents were satisfied with the job satisfaction facets “work,” “supervision,” and “coworkers,” as measured by the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), they were dissatisfied with the facets “pay” and “ opportunities for promotion.” In addition to the quantitative portions of this study, the researcher include d a set of nominal “yes/no” questions, followed by an opportunity for open-ended qualitative responses. A key finding for this section of the study was that the majority of respondents (79.1%) stated they had not experienced any form of inequal ity in their field due to gender in the last five years. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses yielded several common themes. They were “agriculture=male,” “sex or gender roles,” “good old boys,” “discrimination,” “societal problem,” and “rationalizations.” A key counterevidence theme was statements that gender is not a f actor at all in agricultural communications. A major implication of this study is that ther e does seem to still be a glass ceiling of sorts for some women in agricultural comm unications employment as experienced by ACE member respondents that affects pos itions, salary, rais es, and promotion opportunities.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Originating in the early 1800s, agricultura l communications is one of the newer sectors of the agriculture industry (Buck & Paulson, 1995). Members of the profession are defined not as “agriculturalists primaril y, but communicators who have a specialty” (Sprecker & Rudd, 1998, p. 40). It is a profession that applies the tec hniques and theories of communications to the agri culture industry (Sprecker & Rudd, 1998). The agricultural communications industry developed to meet the needs of scientists, who at the time asked for help responding to questions from the publ ic as “agriculture out grew the ability to pass information by word-of-mouth” (Buck & Pa ulson, 1995, p. 3). Thes e scientists were on the forefront of the extensi on systems that would evolve with the Federal Land-Grant Act of 1862 and the state colleges of agricultu re the bill provided (Boone, Meisenbach, & Tucker 2000; Buck & Paulson, 1995). “The Un ited States agricultural college and extension system developed to fulfill a need for scientific information that could improve farming efforts” (B uck & Paulson, 1995, p. 3 ). As state extension services grew in size and purpose in the early 20th Century, agricultural communications became recognized as a field of study at the university level (Buck & Paulson, 1995; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998). It has been a “professional field in the United States for approximately 100 years” with “professionals who combine 1) knowledge of agriculture, 2) skills in comm unications, and 3) intere st in working with people” (Buck & Paulson, 1995, p. 2-3). Th ere are currently over 30 agricultural

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2 communications programs throughout the United States, most of which do not date back to the early 1900s, but are instead less than 20 years old (Scherler, 2001). Today, agricultural communications is a hybr id of most of the media industries with practitioners working in news/reporti ng, editing, broadcast (including radio and television), electronic and we b-based media, marketing, a nd public relations (ACE, 2004; Bowen & Cooper, 1989; Buck & Paulson, 1995; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998; Terry & Bailey-Evans, 1995). Studies in which agricultural communications practitioners were asked to list their primar y job descriptions/job skills produced a list centered around writing, editing, reporting, public relations, public speaking, and broadcast (Bowen & Cooper, 1989; Buck & Paulson, 1995; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998; Terry & Bailey-Evans, 1995). However, a major change has been occurr ing within agricultural communications in the last 20 years that has had little study: the “fem inization” of agricultural communications. Similar to the employment trends within other media industries (Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Tot h, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999; Toth & Cline, 1989), this involves an increasing number of wo men moving into the field (Scherler, 2001). Although past studies or discussions of agricu ltural communications employment trends have touche d on some aspects of this issu e, such as the number of women in undergraduate programs, the number of women in the industry, or how women moving into the industry might be perceive d by farmers, there has been no single study on how female practitioners are treated by and within agricultural communications (Jeffers, 1987; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998; Women at Work, 1976).

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3 Jeffers (1987) presented the results of a study on the impact of gender on job satisfaction and status within livestock ma gazines. “As communications professions become female-dominated, salary and status within these profe ssions will decrease—as they have with other female dominated pr ofessions such as nursing and teaching” (Jeffers, 1987, p. 4). The study showed a dist inct difference in opinion between men and women responding to statements such as “men get promoted faster,” “men earn more than women,” and “men get raises faster.” Most of the male respondents did not believe these statements to be true, while most of the female respondents did (Jeffers, 1987). Interviews with female agricultural communi cators, both past and present, show an awareness of the perceived differences betw een men and women within the field. JoAnn Bell Pierce was one of the first female agricu lture writers/editors in the U.S. and has described her first job with Farm Quarterly as being an inexpensive investment for the magazine because they could pay her 50% le ss than another new male employee (Pierce, 1998). In 1973, Colleen Callahan Burns became the first full-time woman farm broadcaster, but only after an swering questions like “’O.K., let’s say we hire you. What are all these farm men going to think of a woman giving th e farm price quotations and talking about production ag—which is traditionally a man’s job?’” (Women at Work 1976. p. 17). More recently Mila Shah, the Amer ican Agricultural Editors’ Association 2001 intern, stated; “I think it is very hard for women starting out because there still is a ‘good old boys’ network” (Sapp, 2002, p. 1). Justification As in many other communications fields, th e field of agricultural communications may be experiencing a demographic shift towa rds females representing the majority of practitioners. Media researchers state that whenever an occupation becomes “female,”

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4 meaning a higher number of female workers th an male workers, the value of the work decreases (Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Gr unig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999; Toth & Cline, 1989). Traditional female o ccupations in which this trend has been documented include nursing, teaching, and cl erical work (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Kimmel, 2004). This devaluing process can be seen in many ways, but media researchers focus on the gender-based inequalities that a sh ift in female numbers brings about. These include, but are not limited to, unequal pay/salary, unequal op portunity for advancement, unequal distribution in areas of work, and per ceptions of worker relations and the work itself (Creedon, 1989; Gallagher, 1981; Gr unig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001;Toth & Cline, 1989). Pay/Salary Salary differences exist between men a nd women in many parts of the media, including journalism/news, broadcasting (i ncluding television and radio), and public relations (American Society of Newspa per Editors, 1999; Cr eedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999; St one, 2000a,b,c,d; Toth & Cline, 1989; US Census, 2004a,b; Weaver, Beam, Brownlee, Voakes, & Wilhoit, 2003). A look at earnings data from the 2000 United States Ce nsus shows differences ranging from $8,000 to $20,000 between male and female salaries within media occupa tional categories (US Census, 2004a; US Census, 2004b). (See Table 1-1.) For the occupational category of news analysts, reporters and correspondents, the average ma le salary is $55,000 while the average female salary is $11, 000 lower based on the almost 60,000 people who are considered full-time workers in this cate gory. Although men slight ly outnumber women in this category, women do make up a great por tion of this media area. Public relations data from the 2000 Census shows around 17,000 more women than men in the

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5 occupation, while salary for men is an av erage $19,000 higher. Women also outnumber men as full-time workers in th e occupational categor ies of editors and technical writers. Male and female editors make an av erage salary of $53,000 and $42,000 respectively, while male and female technical writers ar e separated by an $8,000 difference in their salaries. Broadcast media shows similar salary differences, although men far outnumber women in these technical occupation categorie s. (See Table 1-1.) The category including broadcast and sound engineeri ng technicians and radio opera tors showed men’s average salaries to be $10,000 higher than that of women working in the same profession (US Census, 2004a,b). More than 63,000 photographers participated in the 2000 Census with male salaries averaging $43,000 and fema le salaries averaging $29,000. A second technical position of television and video camera operators and editors has 10,000 more men than women and a $10,000 difference between their salaries. The final occupational category of miscellaneous media and communica tion workers is not clear as to what job descriptions are accounted for, but doe s show a $10,000 difference between male and female salaries.

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6 Table 1-1. Average earnings of male and female media workers Occupation Salary Difference Male Female News analysts, reporter s and correspondents $55,000 n=34,530 $44,000 n=25,340 $11,000 Public relations specialists $65,000 n=39,290 $46,000 n=56,410 $19,000 Editors $53,000 n=59,560 $42,000 n=61,320 $11,000 Technical Writers $55,000 n=25,150 $47,000 n=26,560 $8,000 Broadcast/sound engineering techs & radio operators $46,000 n=49,700 $36,000 n=6,860 $10,000 Photographers $43,000 n=45,920 $29,000 n=17,400 $14,000 Television & video camera operators & editors $51,000 n=12,740 $41,000 n=2,200 $10,000 Miscellaneous media & communication workers $45,000 n=10,070 $35,000 n=14,020 $10,000 Note: based on number of year-round full-time workers (US Census, 2004a,b) It has been argued that any differences be tween the salaries of men and women in media jobs are due to factors such as level of education, years of experience, age, or work-related training, instead of gender. Ho wever, many media studies have shown this to be false, finding differences in male/female salary levels still exist when these variables are held constant (Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Toth & Cline, 1989 Weaver et al., 2003). A lthough this was most likely not done for the 2000 Census data, the size of the sample sugge sts that these differences between male and female salaries do exist. A related ar ea of study indicates th at women’s roles as

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7 mothers, both childbearing and childreari ng, has an effect on their level of pay. “Employers may justify giving women lower sala ries because of their belief that women are less loyal than men, quicker to leave th e organization, largely because of family considerations” (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 91). According to Harkness and Waldfogel “The fact that women with child ren are lower paid …may reflect employer preferences or discrimi nation” (1999, p. 9). Position/Advancement Another trend seen within media research is uneq ual opportunity or unequal advancement for men and women. Many studi es have shown that men and women do different types of work within the individua l media industries. Although described in different ways, such as vertical job segregation or public relations roles, the reality is that women tend to be clustered around the lower le vel of jobs in an industry while men are more likely to hold high-level decision making positions (American Society of Newspaper Editors, 2004; Arnold & Hendr ickson, 2003; Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2002, Fall, Winter, 2004; Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Jamieson, 2001; Marlane, 1999). There is a connection from this division of jobs between men and women back to the pay gap discussed earlier. Those who ar gue against the existence of a gendered pay gap claim that men make more than women because they are in the higher levels of the organization (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). But these arguments do not take into account the limited movement women have within the media industries. “Backlash against women, which Rosen (1982) defined as men’s resentment toward groups given access to managerial positions (typically through affirmative action), represents an important barrier” (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 92).

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8 Public relations studies have found that women face unique problems within their industry, including a double standard fo r men and women, unequal advancement opportunity, and discrimination on the basis of sex or gender (Toth & Cline, 1989). Using focus groups of men and women in 1990 and 1995, Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) found that women feel men get promoted more quickly than women do, and that respondents considered it harder for women to reach the top of an organization than for men. A 2002 PR Week survey demonstrated the divisi on of men and women into higher and lower job roles within public relations. While 8% of the men surveyed were chairmen, presidents, or CEOs of their co mpanies, only 3% of the women were (Echo Research Inc., 2002). At the se nior vice president level, 7% of the male respondents held the position, while only 2% of the women di d. This trend is reversed for the lower position/role of account executive where 27% of the women surveyed work versus 18% of the men (Echo Research Inc., 2002). Studies in broadcast media, both radio and television, have shown the same scarcity of women in high-ranking positions (Comm unication Research Associates, Inc., 2004; Creedon, 1989; Jamieson, 2001; Marlane, 1999). While women hold 26.5% of the news director positions in local television news, according to th e 2003 Radio and Television News Directors Association Survey, this is up from only 14% in 1987 (Creedon, 1989). In addition, women only hold 13.9% of general manager positi ons at television stations (Papper, 2003). Patterns are similar in radi o, with only 14.4% of news director positions for local radio news being held by women a nd only 7% of the general manager positions (Papper, 2003). Jamieson (2001) found women ho ld larger numbers in positions such as

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9 anchors (52% local and 44% national) and promotions managers (46% television and 43% radio). This trend extends past the individual tele vision and radio stations and up into the broadcast and cable companies that own th em (Jamieson, 2001). Of the five major network news networks (ABC, CBS, CNBC, CN N, and Fox), only 20% (13 out of 64) of the executives are women (Jamieson, 2001). As for major media/entertainment companies such as AOL/Time Warner, Cl ear Channel Communications, GE, Viacom, and Disney, only 10% of all company ex ecutives are women (Jamieson, 2001). In addition to these small numbers, Jamies on (2001) found that around half of female executives in both categories are in “traditi onal” female departments such as human resources, public relatio ns, communications and govern ment relations which are considered outside of the promotions ladder. Newspaper studies highlight the gendered di vision of labor, as well. According to the 2004 American Society of Newspaper Edit ors survey, 49% of women hold jobs as reporters in newsrooms while only 18% of women hold titles of president, publisher, or CEO in newspapers (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003). In addition, only 16% of executive vice presidents and general managers are women (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003). Women do comprise 63% and 73% of personnel senior vice presiden t/vice president or director of human resource posi tions and senior vice presiden t/vice president or director of community affairs, respectively, in ne wspapers or newspaper groups (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003). These again are the positions that are considered female and outside of the “line of succession” (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003, p. 53).

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10 The reasons for this restriction of women to the lower job categories are rooted in sociological methods and theo ries that focus on the concept of “gender bias.” Gender bias is defined as “unequal treatment in employment opportunity (such as promotion, pay, benefits and privileges), a nd expectations due to attitudes on the sex of an employee or a group of employees” (Hill & Hill, 2003). Many researchers have cited the “good old boys” network described by American Agricultur al Editors’ Associati on intern Mila Shah (Sapp, 2002). According to Grunig, Tot h, and Hon (2001), “Almost all of our interviewees and focus group participants talk ed about women’s isolation from the inner circle where important business gets done” (p. 293). Female public re lations practitioners also stated that this networ k “shuts them out at the management table as well as on the basketball court or on the golf course” (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 293-294). Arnold and Hendrickson (2003) also found evidence of th is male network in their 2003 survey of newspapers and newspaper groups. Jamieson described the media companies in her 2001 study as “innovating in technology, ways of sending and receiving information, and economic models for the 21st century—but their executive suites and boardrooms still largely resemble the stereotyped practices of the 1950s” (p. 13). Job Satisfaction One way to look at an individual in the wo rkplace is through job satisfaction. This provides a method to determine how a person f eels about his or her job, and if factors such as those listed above have any imp act on those feelings. Although variously defined, job satisfaction is simp ly “the degree to which peopl e like their jobs” (Scherler, 2001, p. 11). DeFleur (1992) conducted a study on job satisfaction between the media industries. Within the media careers she st udied she found that practitioners were most satisfied with the prestige and creativity of their jobs and least satisfied with the control

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11 and income they received (DeFleur, 1992). She ranked nine media occupations on their job satisfaction levels from high to lo w—photography (highest), public relations, magazine, advertising, journalism/electroni c, film, television, radio, and finally journalism/newspaper (lowest) (DeFleur, 1992). A large number of studies have been co mpleted on job satisfaction within the media with varying results (Serini, Toth, Wright, & Emig, 1997). While some studies have shown that gender is related to the j ob satisfaction of media workers (Barrett, 1984; Communication Research Associates, Inc ., 2004; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001), others have shown that no such re lation exists (Ser ini et al., 1997; Stone, 2000a,b,c,d). One consistent finding is that both men and women are satisfied with th eir jobs as a whole (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & W ilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997; Stone, 2004a,b,c,d). The difference lies, then, in cert ain facets or variable s related to a job. “The result of the inquiry into job satisfaction, although freque ntly contradictory, leads to an overall understanding that there are ind eed differences between men’s and women’s levels of satisfaction with a variety of variab les related to the work environment” (Serini et al., 1997, p. 101). These variables include the work itself; job leve l, job security and promotions; pay; supervision and coworkers; and amount of work (Barret, 1984; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wils on, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997). Selnow and Wilson (1985) found in their study that women were less favorable on their salary satisfaction scores than men. Si milar results on salary satisfaction differences between men and women in public relations ar e presented in studies by Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) and Serini et al. (1997). Another facet of j ob satisfaction that female respondents indicated they are less satisfied with is the am ount of work. In a 1990 study,

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12 public relations practitio ners were questioned if they were asked within their job to do excessive amounts of work. Female respondent s “were less apt to agree that they were not asked to do excessive amounts of work” a nd “less satisfied with the amount of time they have to get the job done” (Rentner & Bissland, 1990, p. 954). Women have been found to be less satisfied with their jobs when their supervisor is male, citing exclusion and isolation (Serini et al., 1997). Job satisfaction in broadcast media is similar between men and women, according to Stone (2000c,d). Slightly more men are sati sfied or very satisfied with their jobs in television than women, 79% vs. 74%. In radi o, more women than men are satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs, 78% vs. 72%. Broadcast communication tends to pay lower than most other communicat ion fields, and this is seen in the influence facets such as salary and position were found to have th e most influence on job satisfaction of both genders (T. Irani, personal communicati on, March 7, 2004; Stone, 2000a,b,c,d). Fiftyfour percent of women in televi sion said their current salaries are less than they expected when they entered the field while 67% of wo men in radio said the same (Stone, 2000a,b). Forty-four percent of men in television and 62% of men in radio said their current salaries are less than they expected when they entered the field (Stone, 2000a,b). Women in news/journalism are also less sa tisfied with these f acets of their jobs (Communication Research Associates, Inc ., 2004). A 2002 study showed that women reported lower job satisfaction with salary and relationships with their bosses, as well as lower satisfaction with salary levels when they held low ranking positions within the newsroom (Communication Research Associat es, Inc., 2004). In addition, women are four times more likely than men to predict they will leave the newspaper industry to work

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13 in another field (Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004). The 2002 American Journalist Survey showed that only 71.7% of female journalists were “fairly” or “very” satisfied with their jobs, while 86.6% of ma le journalists were (Weaver et al., 2003). Barrett (1984) studied job satisfaction among newspaperwomen and found high overall job satisfaction levels. However, low job satisfaction was expressed by the women in regards to opportunity to advance and salary. Problem Statement The literature suggests that the feminiza tion of any industry produces inequalities as demonstrated above in public relations, news, radio, and televi sion. Although a great number of women work in these fields, men are primarily still in charge. As agricultural communications is a field comprised of a hybrid of media occupations, it is important to explore any possible implications feminizati on has had on the industry and those working within it. This demographics shift c ould result in inequalities in pay, position, advancement, and job satisfaction, which coul d have an effect on current and future employment trends within agricultural communications. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study is to explore at titudes towards job satisfaction and gender of those currently working in the agricultura l communications field, specifically focusing on members of the Association for Communi cation Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE). Like many other industries, agricultural communications has professional organizati ons in which its members participate. ACE is the oldest and perhaps largest of those in agricultural communications with 674 members across th e United States and the world (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988).

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14 The association began in 1913 with a meeti ng of six land-grant college agricultural editors at the University of Illinois (Carna han, 2000; Hilt, 1988). Originally called American Association of Agricultural College Editors (AAACE), the organization changed names in 1978 to Agricultural Co mmunicators in Education (ACE) and once again in 2003 to the current name. They me t annually so practitioners could discuss and review the work of their peers (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). Members of this organization range in job de scriptions from writers a nd photographers to graphic designers and electronic media producers, as well as marketing, pub lic relations, editors, and web designers representing most, if not all, of the agricultural communications industry (ACE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988) They work in both private sector in companies and firms, as well as the public sector within unive rsities, government agencies, and research organizations (A CE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). In addition, a comparison of ACE me mbers’ job descriptions with those listed by corporate leaders in a national study as used in priv ate industry showed similarity--marketing, advertising, public relations, writing/publishin g, internet/web, and broadcast (ACE, 2004; Doerfert, Akers, Davis, Compt on, Irani, & Rutherford, 2004). By studying this large group of agricultu ral communicators, their responses and attitudes towards these subjects in relation to their jobs and the industry will go far to illuminate the role of gender within the profession. The following research objectives guided this study: Describe the demographics of the popul ation of current, active, US-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, education, ma rital status, and position.

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15 Describe the perceived j ob satisfaction level of agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall j ob satisfaction (JIG) and faceted job satisfaction (JDI). o Describe respondents’ job satisfactio n as measured by the items in the PRSA job satisfaction scale. o Describe these items in terms of respondents’ gender. Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents’ perceptions of gender roles. o Further describe in term s of respondents’ gender.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Overview This chapter describes the theoretical fram ework used to base this research study. It covers fundamentals of feminism and gende r, including important definitions related to this area. Work as a gendered entity is also described, as well as job satisfaction, both general and faceted. Finally, social c ognitive theory and cognitive dissonance are explored specifically in re lationship to the media. Theoretical Framework Feminism/Gender “If we are going to successfully understa nd the ‘feminization’ of public relations and the response it has involved, first we need to develop a sophist icated understanding of gender” (Toth & Cline, 1989, p. 288). The same can be said for understanding the feminization of agricultural communications. Feminism is a theory that describes and explains the devalued position of women throughout history and the current world and then sets out to change that position. The basis for feminist theories is grounded in the idea of a patriarchal society in which men occupy great power positions and can access items of value, such as money, through t hose positions. “In consequence of these asymmetries, feminists demonstrated, men (i.e. affluent white men) in such societies have license to shape and control many aspect s of women’s lives” (Code, 2000, p. xix). History has shown through its record keeping and literary works that the society most

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17 industrialized countries rely upon is a patr iarchal one (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). There have been, and are, many waves of fe minist political movement and theory. These theories vary in themes and time fram es, but all acknowledge the inequality in society between men and women (Steeves, 1987) Equality is therefore the foundation of feminism. “In general it [equality] has been interpreted as women possessing the same essential capacities as men such that bo th sexes should enjoy access to the same opportunities and activities and be valued as of equal worth” (Code, 2000, p. 174). Code wrote that education was a value item, or e ssential capacity, denied to women because of their undervalued or lesser status. Fe minists hoped that once women had access to education and qualifications to make them co mpetitive with men, the inequality in work would end (Code, 2000). However, this does not seem true even in current society. “One of the assumptions has always been that once women had access to education, salary inequities would decrease. Not so” (Benokraitis, 1997, p. 8). A difference exists between the terms “sex” and “gender,” which needs to be addressed. Sex is the natural or biol ogical categories humans are born into by reproductive organ, or chromosomes, genera lly resulting in man and woman (Kimmel, 2004). Gender, male/female, is the meaning a ssigned to the different sexes by the society they live in (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Kimmel 2004). A step further is gender roles, or “social practices associat ed with masculinity or femininity” (Code, 2000, p. 223). The difference in these terms is rooted in the di fferent explanations of gender that theorists use. Since the sexes have been given gende red meanings in American society, and this study will be working with people who may c onsider gender and sex to be the same, for

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18 the purpose of this study the term “gender bi as” will be interchangeable with the terms “sexual inequality” and “sexual discrimination.” The same will be true for “male” and “man” as well as “female” and “woman.” Gendered Work “The pay differential between men and wo men may have been mentioned first in the book of Leviticus (27:3-4). God told Mose s that the work of women was worth threefifths the pay of men, or 30 shekels of silv er versus 50. Considerably more recently, Kaufman and Richardson (1982) concluded th at women historically have held lowerstatus positions than have men” (Grunig, 2001, p. 35-36). Men and women have worked in some form or another, whether unpaid, compensated, or paid for as long as they have walked the earth (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Mu rphy, 2000). And as long as there has been work, in some societies there has been a divi sion of labor that places more value on the work of the male than the female (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). There have been many explanations given for this division of labor. The first is the biological explanation of gender and the division of labor. It states that men and women are naturally different at the anatomical, ch emical and chromosomal levels (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Ki mmel, 2004). Meanings are attached to these two categories within each society that show the differences between man and woman (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimm el, 2004). Since man and woman are naturally different, then they are better suited for different types of work, such as the hunter-gatherer arrangement (K immel, 2004). The cross-cultural explanation of gender shows that there is a great variation of gende r across cultures and throughout time, so it is not as natural and consistent as the biological explanation explains (Kimmel, 2004). The

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19 type of work men and women do varies acro ss cultures and time as well, but the division of labor between them stay s constant (Kimmel, 2004). The social constructionist explanation of gender says that gender in western societies is socially reprodu ced through processes called gend er relations that shape ideas of appropriate and inappr opriate sex roles (Clevela nd, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). These processes occur through in teractions within institutions that are gendered, such as schools and the workpl ace (Cleveland, Stoc kdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). Since institutions are gendere d and characterized by a male power, there is a division of labor within them (C leveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). Gender differences then come to be seen as natural through the process of reproducing the differences that exist in these institutions (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). “It is through our experiences in the workplace…that the differences between women and men are re produced and by which the inequality between women and men is legitimated” (Kimmel, 2004, p. 104). Women nationally earn 74 to 75 cents to each dollar a man earns as shown by both government and private research (Benokraitis, 1997; DeLaat, 1999). This means that for every $10,000 a man earns a woman will only earn $7,400-7,500. In addition to pay inequality, women experience other forms of bias and discrimination in work. “The workplace is an important arena for sex ine quality in our society” (Padavic & Reskin, 1994, p. 31). It sustains gende r differentiation by focusing men and women into certain occupations and then at differe nt levels within these occupations; which leads to unequal pay, authority and status; and subjects wome n to physical and verbal expressions of gender inequality (Padavic & Reskin, 1994). In 1987, writer Ann Morrison first used the

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20 phrase “glass ceiling” to desc ribe the invisible barrier th at keeps women out of upperlevel management positions and keeps them from advancing at the same speed and in the same way their male counterparts do. “Res earch has repeatedly demonstrated that men are more likely to be hired for professional and managerial positions than similarly qualified women” (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000, p. 57). For the women who do make it up to the management arena, according to Morrison there are “glass walls” present to keep them from interacting with th e males at that level. In 1991, the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission was created to resear ch this problem, and one of the findings showed that top level managers assess male and female workers differently, adding to evidence that gender bias is still present in work (DeLaat, 1999). Code describes the separation of women in the job market as occupational gender segregation; “the concentra tion of women and men into di fferent occupations, jobs and places of work” (2000, p. 499). Crompton and Sanderson (1990) described this division of labor as the most universal form of la bor. “Occupational segregation reflects this division of labor; men are concentrated into ‘men’s’ occupations, women, into ‘women’s’. Gender affects not only what ki nds of jobs people do, but also the kinds of rewards accruing to the occ upation in question” (Cromp ton & Sanderson, 1990, p. 6). There are two types of occupational gende r segregation: horizontal and vertical (Benokraitis, 1997; Crompton & Sanderson, 1990; Padavic & Reskin, 1994). “Horizontal occupational segreg ation refers to the fact th at women and men predominate in different kinds of occupation. Most wo men tend to be concentrated in certain occupations” such as personal services, cl erical, health and education (Code, 2000, p. 499). These areas then become connected in people’s minds as being “female” or “male”

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21 jobs (Hartmann & Reskin, 1986; Padavic & Reskin, 1994). This labeling can then influence the expectations of employers and workers as to who should work those jobs, circling back to gender bias (Padavic & Reskin, 1994). In addition, jobs that are thought of as “female” are thought to be easier, require less ability and deserve less pay than identical work in a “male” job (Rhode, 1997). Vertical occupational segregat ion says that within an o ccupation women are grouped at the lower level of positions, includi ng pay and duties (Code, 2000; Crompton & Sanderson, 1990; Padavic & Reskin, 1994). Thes e occupational hierar chies can then be set as gender hierarchies, according to Code The grouping of women into certain fields, such as education and health care, has long b een referred to as “female ghettos” or “job ghettos.” The high number of women trying to get into and move up in these areas causes competition that decreases their earnings to between 30-40% less than men (Code, 2000). Crompton and Sanderson (1990) stated th at all forms of occupational segregation explain the lower earnings of women comp ared to men, while Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) stated that 30-45% of the pay ga p between men and women is explained by occupational segregation. Job Satisfaction Studies of job satisfaction ha ve been around for many years, with some of the first organized attempts to study the subject dati ng to the early 1930’s (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951). “Job satisfaction refers to an ove rall affective orient ation on the part of individuals toward work roles which they are presently employed in” (Kalleberg, 1977, p. 126). It has been estimated that over 5,000 ar ticles have been writt en on job satisfaction in fields from psychology to human resour ces and personnel management (Higgins & Staples, 1998). Most job satis faction instruments assume that a person’s satisfaction with

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22 his or her job can be reached through their attitude toward their work, and so have questions of this manner (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951; Kalleberg, 1977). Studying job satisfaction is important because the majority of people spend most of their time at work and by knowing what provides satisfaction and what does not, changes could be made within work organizations that could benefit society as a whole (Kalleberg, 1977). Even with so straightforward a question--are people satisfied with their jobs--there are still many theories on job satisfaction. The concept of job satisfaction traditionally has been of great interest to social scientists…Many have been interested in job satisfaction, for example, as a result of a personal value system which assumes that work which enables satisfaction of one’s needs furthers the di gnity of the human individual, whereas work without these characteristics limits the developmen t of personal potential and is, therefore, to be negatively valued…Other social scien tists have been interested in this concept because of evidence that has linked the de gree of satisfaction with work to the quality of one’s life outside the work role …Still others were motivated to study job satisfaction out of a desire to improve productivity and organizational functioning (Kalleberg, 1977, p. 124). Traditional job satisfaction theory set out to measure job satisfaction and develop measurement instruments while establishing ba sic theory (Burr, 1980). Certain aspects of traditional job satisfaction theory set it apar t from others. The first aspect is referred to as expectancy, in that not only does the job pr ovide the worker with satisfaction but also that a worker expects the job to provide this satisfaction (Gro seth, 1978). A second aspect utilized by Smith, Kendall and Hulin is that job content and situation cannot be held separately of the overall environment the worker exists in when determining job satisfaction (Groseth, 1978). A nother aspect of traditional job satisfaction theory is that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are trea ted as if on a single continuum, where job satisfaction is the opposite of job dissatisfa ction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). (See Figure 2-1.)

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23 Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction Figure 2-1. Traditional job satis faction model (Groseth, 1978) The basis of Herzberg’s Motivator-hygiene Theory, also referred to as the twomodel theory, is that this is not true--job satisfacti on is not the opposite of job dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). Rather there are two continuums, with job satisfaction on one and job dissatisfaction on the other (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). (See Figure 2-2.) The opposite of j ob satisfaction, then, is the ab sence of job satisfaction, and the opposite of job dissatisfaction is the ab sence of job dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). Motivators Absence of Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Hygienes Dissatisfaction Ab sence of Dissatisfaction Figure 2-2. Motivator-hygiene job satisfaction model (Groseth, 1978) This idea of two continuums came about when Herzberg reviewed over 2,000 job satisfaction studies and determined that the fa ctors that cause job sa tisfaction are different than those that cause job dissa tisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groset h, 1978). Factors that cause job satisfaction encompass the feelings a person has towards a job and were termed motivators (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). They include achievement, recognition, responsibility, and the work itself. Factors that caused job dissatisfaction were outside factors not directly related to a job and were termed hygienes (Burr, 1982; Groseth, 1978). They include company policy, rela tionships, status, salary, and working conditions. “The primary function of ‘hygienes ’ is to prevent or avoid pain or hunger or

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24 to fulfill the other basic biological needs of man…In comparison, ‘motivators’ function to provide the individual with personal ps ychological growth” (Burr, 1980, p. 20). In slight contrast to these job satisfact ion theories is organizational management theory. Although the focus is st ill on the attitudes/satisfaction of the worker, it is a means to an end. “The widely-held belief that in creased job satisfaction will lead to increased productivity also provides an important ince ntive for organizations to investigate job satisfaction” (Kalleberg, 1977, p. 211-212). The theory focuses then on how the attitudes of a worker will affect their workplace behavi or, and how that can affect the organization they work for (Barrick & Ryan, 2003; Mowd ay, Porter, & Steers, 1982; Tosi & Mero, 2003). (See Figure 2-3.) If job satisfaction/attitude can be improved with a reward (i.e. pay increase, etc.) then behavior can be pos itively changed to acquire a better outcome for the company (Tosi & Mero, 2003). The Environment Other People Objects Behaviors Consequences Events The Person Task Performance Productivity Ethical Behavior Workplace Injury Heredity Knowledge Personality Attitudes Values Needs Ability Figure 2-3. Basic model of huma n behavior (Tosi & Mero, 2003)

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25 Although “no really substantial, reliable, or general corr elation between satisfaction and productivity has been established” the ideas have been “sold” to management (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969, p. 3). Organizational ma nagement theory of job satisfaction has been taught to managers as a way to increas e the production of their business the focus is not on the workers but how to put the workers to better use. Becau se this link does not exist (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969) the theory and its associ ated behaviors have been questioned. Social Cognitive Theory When studying forms of gender inequality within a sector of the media, it is important to note the influence these gender roles can have on the rest of society (Gallagher, 1981). Gallagher (1981) stated “that there is a link between media output and the producers of that output: since the presen ce of women—particularly in creative and decision-making positions—in media organi zations is severely imbalanced in relation to that of men, the assumption is that the images of women disseminated by mass media reflect and express male concepts and interp retations (p. 79). Due to the large number of people that are exposed to the media, as an institution it can perpetuate ideas of gender inequality on a large scale. When men and women go to work in the media industry, they are producing words and images that are distributed into the public sphere. If these wo rds and images reproduce a gender inequality that is present within the media workplace they could have an effect on gender within society as a whole (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). Social cognitive theory is a process th rough which individuals adopt behaviors or ideas such as gender (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). A person sees a behavior--referred to as a model--such as gende r in the job, in the school environment, or on television or hears it through the radi o, by storytelling, or any number of ways

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26 (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). Af ter witnessing the model, a person then compares it to previous knowledge he or she held on the subject and then decides whether to accept the new model (if it is differe nt) or to reject it a nd stay with the old model (Bandura, 2001: Entman & Rojecki, 2001 ). The third step in social cognitive theory is spreading the behavior after it is adopted through a social network such as the ones where the model was witnessed in the first place (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). Models which are accessible, are extremely attractive, or unattractive to a person, stand out or are noticea ble, usually draw attention wh ich is integral to the first step of acquiring knowledge (Bandura, 2001; Fiske, 1995). One problem with this process is that human s desire simplicity. This desire results in people taking shortcuts in the process. Ra ther than compare new models with pre-held knowledge as the theory contends, to weigh the pros and cons of both sets of information, people have presumptions about the world around them that th ey use as shortcuts in the process. These presumptions are called sche mas (Fiske, 1995). Schemas exist for almost everything, including people, pla ces, things, words, and charact eristics. “Organized prior knowledge or preconceptions—schemas of all types—smooth our information management and social experiences. The poi nt is that people seek simplicity and goodenough accuracy understanding the world around them, and schemas are guides” (Fiske, 1995, p. 163). As shortcuts, schemas tend to categorize people and events and lead to stereotypes and role casting within society. “Schemas for roles are equivalent to stereotypes people’s expectations about people who fall into partic ular social categories” (Fiske, 1995, p 162).

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27 The mass media are integral to social c ognition in many ways. Media are easily accessible because they comes into people’s personal and professional lives in multiple formats. Mass media also have tremendous reach, both in the numbers of people they can contact as well as the wide range of pl aces they can serve (Bandura, 2001). Studies have shown that media portrayals shape the beliefs and views of the audience (Bandura, 2001; Dines & Humez, 2003). “Indeed, many of the shared misconceptions about occupation pursuits, ethnic groups, minorities, th e elderly, social and sex roles, and other aspects of life are at least partially cultivat ed through symbolic m odeling of stereotypes” (Bandura, 2001, p. 138). The mass media provide this symbolic m odeling. They serve as both a behavior model and a setting to witness a modeled beha vior, while at the same time serving as a place to spread a modeled behavior (Bandura, 2001). At the same time the media models can serve as a reinforcement of a separately witnessed m odeled behavior, which is the second step in social cognition (Bandura, 2001) According to Bandura, “Verification of thought by comparison with distor ted media versions of social reality can foster shared misconceptions of people, pl aces, and things” (2001, p. 269). Cognitive Dissonance There is a trend within gender work resear ch that must be acknowledged because of what it implies not only about American soci ety, but also the people who currently hold jobs. “Much of the problem of [gender] inequa lity is rooted in perceptions that there is no problem” (Toth & Cline, 1989, p. 1). Studies have shown an outright denial of the existence of gender inequality, even when faced with hard statistics such as salary and promotion data (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Rhode, 1997; Toth & Cline, 1989). There are two versions of this denial that are closely related; that there is no problem or there

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28 was a problem but the problem has been fi xed. According to Rhode (1987), the most common response to gender inequality is to disagree with the bread th of the problem. “Women’s growing opportunities are taken as evidence that the ‘woman problem’ has been solved” (p. 1). Many men fail to r ecognize the presence of gender inequality because they do not have to deal with it, and so deny there is a problem (Rhode, 1997). Women, as well as men, are beginning to rej ect the idea of gende r inequality (Rhode, 1997). Female public relations pract itioners have been quick to publicly deny gender inequality in public, as demonstrated in focus groups conducted by Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) and Toth and Cline (1989). Both studies showed that women were truthful about their work situations in regard to ge nder inequality on anonymous items such as the questionnaires used, but were embarrassed or hostile about admitting the same in front of others (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Toth & Cline, 1989). Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) theorized that this is related to the negative images related to bei ng a feminist and that women do not want to associate themselves with being a feminist or aligned with feminist causes. Another form of denial is that women who are not pa id equally or do not advance equally did not deserve to receive these things (Rhode, 1997). If a woman had done the work to deserve a raise or a promoti on, then she would have received it. Since she did not receive a raise or a promotion, instead of it being based on gender inequality, she must have done something wrong (Rhode, 1997). This form of denial places the burden at the individual level, rather than as a societal problem of gender inequality (Rhode, 1997). Instead of fixing society, the individual woman can correct her behavior or work ethic to receive the rewa rd (Grunig, 1992; Rhode, 1997).

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29 These denial attitudes can be explained in part by Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance theory star ts with the idea of cognitions--pieces of knowledge that people hold that include thei r ideas, opinions and beliefs on any given subject (Festinger, 1957). At any given tim e, these cognitions can be consonance or dissonance with other cognitions a person holds (Festinger, 1957). Stated simply, pieces of knowledge or cognitions are consonance with one another when they are consistent. An example is that 1) it is raining and 2) pe ople will get wet as a re sult. These items are consonance. Cognitions are dissonant if they do not fit together, are inconsistent or contradictory (Festinger, 1957). An example of dissonance is that 1) it is raining and a person does not have an umbrella to walk outside but 2) they will not get wet in the rain. Cognitive dissonance has similarities to social cognitive theory in the manner in which new cognitions are introduced to a person. A ccording to Festinger, new information can come from any number of sources incl uding the home, the environment and the workplace (1957). The importance of understanding cognitive disso nance is the resulting effect that dissonance can have on human behavior. Although the magnitude of dissonance between cognitions can vary, Festinger states that humans will strive for consistency in their knowledge (1957). “The important point to rememb er is that there is pressure to produce consonant relations among cognitions and to avoid and reduce dissonance” (Festinger, 1957, p. 9). This effort to reduce cognitive dissonance can take many formats, depending on the power of the previously held c ognition or the power of the environment surrounding the person (Festinger, 1957). Ways to reduce dissonance include avoidance of new information that would conflict with a currently held belief, changing a behavior

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30 related to a cognition (i.e. not going out in the rain), cha nging a social environment a person is in or adding new cognitive elements to reaffirm a consonance relationship and to negate the dissonance cognition (Festinger, 1957). How then does this explain what is occu rring within public relations where women will privately admit to a problem but refuse to publicly, or even become openly hostile? According to Festinger (1957), these actions can be explained by forced compliance theory and the resulting cognitive dissonance felt. “There are circumstances in which persons will behave in a manner counter to their convictions or will publicly make statements which they do not really believ e” (Festinger, 1957, p. 84). Forced compliance is enacted through an implied or real threat of punishment for not complying with the social or group ideas, or through a promised reward for complying with the social or group ideas (Festinger, 1957). An important not e is that while forced compliance results in a change in public behavior, it does not alwa ys affect privately held beliefs (Festinger, 1957). Spiral of silence, a more recent theo ry, takes a similar perspective, positing that individuals who think they hold a minority opin ion tend to remain sile nt and conceal their views (Stone, Singletary, & Richmond, 1999). When a topic comes into conversation, individuals will internally assess how they believe those around them think and then choose to either voice their opinion or rema in silent based on this assessment. This motivation to self-censor is based on the in dividual’s fear of is olation from the group (Stone, Singletary, & Richmond, 1999). Because of this inconsistency, forced compliance can be identified by measuring and comparing public actions and/or beliefs with private actions and/or beliefs (Festinger, 1957). “In addition to observing the public beha vior, it is also possible to identify a

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31 discrepancy between public and private opinion by eliciting a statement under circumstances where the person is assured of anonymity” (Festinger, 1957, p. 87). These comparison methods were used by the public re lations researchers pr eviously described who showed an inconsistency between priv ate and public opinion on the presence of gender inequality with in the industry. Although replication of Festinge r’s original theory and re sulting behaviors has been established, many criticize his work (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Festinger worked under controlled laboratory conditions and would never fully share a ll of the specifics of these conditions or his experimental procedures. Later research found that dissonance could be made to appear and disappear by changing some of the experimental methods and so the theory was adapted to include “a much narrowe r range of situations than Festinger had originally envisioned” (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, p. 511). Therefore a direct link between Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theories a nd the behaviors he s uggested people perform in order to reduce their dissonance may not exist. If these behavior patterns do exist they will be hard to measure.

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32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter will describe the methods and procedures of this study as they relate to 1) research design, 2) subject selection, 3) instrumentation, 4) data collection, and 5) data analysis. The following objectives, established in Chapter One, guided this research study: Describe the demographics of the popul ation of current, active, US-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, education, marital status, and position Describe the perceived j ob satisfaction level of agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall j ob satisfaction (JIG) and faceted job satisfaction (JDI). o Describe respondents’ job satisfactio n as measured by the items in the PRSA job satisfaction scale. o Describe these items in terms of respondents’ gender. Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents’ perceptions of gender roles. o Further describe in term s of respondents’ gender. Research Design The research design for this study was a de scriptive census survey of the population of all current, active ACE me mbers located within the United States for 2004 (n=510). The survey was conducted via mail using Dillm an’s Tailored Design method procedures (2000). Although largely quantitative in nature, the survey did allow for some qualitative responses. For the purpose of the study, the in strument was used to assess the dependent

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33 variables (job satisfaction and perceptions of gender) and independent variables (demographics, education, and employment factors). Subject Selection To conduct this study, a census population of current, active ACE members within the United States was used. As discussed in Chapter One, ACE is the oldest and possibly the largest organization of agricultural communicators (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). ACE members work throughout th e industry, in both the privat e and public sector, with occupations ranging from writers to photographers, graphic de signers to educators, and electronic media producers to marketing sp ecialists (ACE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). The goal of the organization is to deve lop the “professional skills of its members to extend knowledge about agriculture, natura l resources and life a nd human sciences to people worldwide” (ACE, 2004). The total number of 2004 ACE members was 674 people. Due to the nature of the study and its focus on job satisfaction (i.e. asking about current job and perceptions related to it), the retired and lifetime members were excluded from the population. NonU.S. members were also excluded since ge nder studies and job satisfaction studies outside of the United States tend to be base d on a different theoretical framework. This resulted in a population definition of cu rrent, active United States ACE members (n=510). To develop the population used in this st udy, the ACE coordinator at the University of Florida provided the names and addresses of the members. Permission to do so was received from two ACE presidents, as th is study overlapped two executive years (T. Knecht, personal communication, March 2004; J. Winn, personal communication, August 2005).

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34 Instrumentation The 154-item questionnaire used for this survey was made up of three portions. The first portion consisted of two job satisfac tion scales--the Job in General scale (JIG) and the Job Descriptive Index. The second portion consisted of items taken from the Glass Ceiling Survey used by the Public Relatio ns Society of America. The third portion of the survey was designed by the researcher to gather demographic information, as well as open-ended responses to gender related expe riences. A panel of experts reviewed the instrument for content and face validity. A pilot test was conducted September 2004 with current, active Florida ACE members (n=24). Re sponses from the pilot test were used to refine the survey instrument (McGovney, Irani, & Telg, 2005). Instrument--Part One Within job satisfaction research there are di fferent types of job satisfaction that can be studied: faceted, or variable job satisfact ion, and overall job satisfaction. Faceted job satisfaction deals with specific areas or char acteristics of a job, and asks a person how he/she feels specifically about a single area (Bissland & Rentner, 1990; Selnow & Wilson, 1985). These facets are meant to be homogeneous (Ironson et. al., 1989). Several facets or areas are usually teste d, including pay, job security, job comfort, financial rewards, support, and promoti ons (Bissland & Rent ner, 1990; Selnow & Wilson, 1985). Overall job satisfaction deals with how people feel about their job as a whole, all things included (Bissland & Rentner, 1990; Se lnow & Wilson, 1985). These general scales “estimate the respondents overa ll feelings about the job” and “are widely used as indexes of organizational effec tiveness” (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Givson, & Paul, 1989, p. 194).

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35 The Job in General, or JIG (Ironson, Sm ith, Brannick, Givson, & Paul, 1989), and the Job Descriptive Index, or JDI (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969), were chosen as the primary job satisfaction indexes for the surv ey instrument. The JDI measures five specific facets of job satisfaction--"work on present job,” “pay,” “opportunities for promotion,” “supervision,” and “coworkers.” Ac cording to Balzer et al (1997) “The JDI has remained the most popular standardized measure of job satisfaction and has been used by hundreds of organizations…it has been called ‘the gold standard’ of measuring job satisfaction” (p. 15). With this instru ment, the facets measured stand alone, meaning they cannot be added together to get an overa ll level of job satisfact ion. For this reason, the JIG was chosen to measure participant’s overall job satisfaction. Reliability for the five JDI scales, as well as the JIG, was dete rmined in 1997 using national data (Balzer et al, 1997). (See Table 3-1 for reliability values.) Table 3-1. Reliability values for the JDI and JIG Cronbach's alpha n Job Descriptive Index (JDI) -Work .90 1623 -Pay .86 1603 -Opportunities for Promotion .87 1611 -Supervision .91 1613 -coworkers .91 1615 Job in General (JIG) .92 1629 Note: “n” is national norm data us ed to calculate reliability The JDI contains a total of 72 items. The work, supervision, and coworkers subscales have 18 items apiece, while the pay and promotion subscales each have nine. There are 18 items for the JIG scale. Res pondents are given a brief explanation of each scale before the items. For example, before the work subscale items the instrument reads

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36 “Think of the work you do at present. How well does each of the following words or phrases describe your work?” The words or short phrases are evaluative adjectives used to describe an individual’s job. Participants can respond in three ways--"yes” the word or phrase applies to their job, “no” the word or phrase does not apply to their job, or “?” they are uncertain/cannot decide if the word of phrase applie s to their job. (See Table 3-2 for example of questions.) Table 3-2. Questions from the JDI pay subscale Question Scale Think of the pay you get now. How well does each of the following describe your present pay? -Fair Y N ? -Barely live on income Y N ? -Less than I deserve Y N ? -Well paid Y N ? Around half of the items for each scale ar e worded favorably (i.e. “excellent”), while the remaining items are unfavorable desc riptions (i.e. “dull”). Job satisfaction scores result by assigning numeri cal values to “yes,” “no,” and “cannot decide.” For the favorable items, a “yes” receives 3 points, a “no” receives 0 points and “?” receives 1 point. The scoring is changed for the unfavorable items, where “yes” indicates dissatisfaction rather than satisfaction. A “yes” receives 0 points a “no” receives 3 points, and a “?” receives 1 point. Both the JIG and the JDI are copyrigh ted by Bowling Green University. The researcher received permission to utilize these scales from personnel in the Department of Psychology who oversee the instrument, in re turn for sending entry-level JIG and JDI data from this study to the department (I. Little, personal co mmunication, February 2004).

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37 Instrument--Part Two The survey instrument used by the Public Relations Society of America for its 1990 and 1995 glass ceiling surveys was chosen due to its relevance as a gender study of a large communication organization (Grunig, To th, & Hon, 2001). According to Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001) the instrument was init ially developed by the Women’s Task Force of the Public Relations Society of America to determine “the status of women in public relations” (p. vii). During th ese first five years of gender research in PRSA, there were two groups of researchers. The main resear chers for the first group included Linda Hon, Donald Wright, Elizabeth Toth, Larissa Gr unig, and Jeffrey Springs ton (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). The second group of researchers included Donald Wri ght, Elizabeth Toth, Shirley Serini, and Arthur Emig (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). In 1990, the survey was mailed to a la rge random sample of PRSA members (n=2,785) with a 37% usable return rate (n=1,027) (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). In 1995, the survey was again mailed randomly to a sample of PRSA members with a 45% usable return rate (n=678) (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). Most of the questions addressed gende r-related professional issues such as participants’ perceptions of the impact of gender-related professional issues within their organization and throughout the overa ll field of public relations. The questionnaire included a job satisfac tion index, as well as questions about demographic and organization characte ristics (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 362). Reliability for the PRSA survey instrument subscale indices has been reported as follows: for the gender percep tion scale (relating to inside one’s organization), r = .73 and r= .56 (with respect to the industry as a whole) (Grunig, Tot h, & Hon, 2001); and for the job satisfaction scale, r = .85 (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). The researcher received permission to use and adapt this survey instrument from two of the original researchers, Larissa Gruni g and Elizabeth Toth, as well as one of the

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38 current researchers in possessi on an electronic copy of the instrument, Linda Aldoory (L. Grunig, personal communication, June 2004; E. Toth, personal communication, June 2004; L. Aldoory, personal communication, June 2004). Thirty-eight items from this instrument were included in the researcher’s survey. To adapt them for this study, the researcher replaced the words “public rela tions” with “agricultural communications.” The first 14 items came from the job satisfa ction scale mentione d above. Respondents were asked to consider their satisfaction with bot h faceted and overall job satisfaction on a five-point Likert scale; where “1” e qualed “extremely dissatisfied,” “2” equaled “dissatisfied,” “3” equaled “uncertain/don’ t know,” “4” equaled “satisfied,” and “5” equaled “extremely satisfied.” (See Ta ble 3-2 for example of questions.) Table 3-3. Questions de scribing job satisfaction Question Scale How satisfied are you with… -your present job in ag ricultural communications? 1 2 3 4 5 -your knowledge of agricultu ral communications skills? 1 2 3 4 5 -the value of your job to society? 1 2 3 4 5 -job security in your present position? 1 2 3 4 5 The other 24 items taken from the PRSA su rvey addressed perceptions of gender in professional situations, both in the indivi dual’s own organization and then throughout the agricultural communications indus try. Participants were asked to respond to twelve gender-related statements, once for their orga nization and then agai n for the industry. These items were on a five-point Likert scal e; where “1” equaled “s trongly disagree,” “2” equaled “disagree,” “3” equa led “uncertain/don’t know,” “4” equaled “agree,” and “5” equaled “strongly agree.” (See Table 34 for example of questions.)

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39 Table 3-4. Questions descri bing perceptions of gender in professional situations Question Scale In your organization Throughout Agricultural communications -Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 -Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural communications employment situations. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 -Women are often hired as a result of affirmative action policies. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 -Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Instrument--Part Three The third portion of the instrument main ly consisted of demographic questions. These included gender, age, ethnicity, mar ital status, number of children (if any), and highest level of education. Employment status/h istory questions were also asked in this section, including current orga nization, number of people in organization, status as a manger and how many people supervised, le ngth of agricultural communications employment, and current salary level. Most of these questions were adapted from similar demographic/employment que stions found in the PRSA survey instrument. There were four researcher-developed ques tions in this section. The first asked respondents to identify which ACE Special Inte rest Group (SIG) relate s to their current job the closest. There are 14 SIGs av ailable to ACE memb ers, ranging from “photography” to “media relations” to “dis tance education and in structional design” (ACE, 2004). SIGs are described as groups that “provide a community of common

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40 interests and expertise, and an addi tional way to sharpen…skills and grow professionally” (ACE, 2004). The remaining three researcher-devel oped questions were items based on the gender-related professional questions adapted from the PRSA survey. Due to time/monetary limitations, the research er was not able to conduct focus groups or personal interviews as the glass ceiling resear chers did. Because mixed-methods is “one of the hallmarks of feminist scholarship” that produces “new and better (more comprehensive) research” (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 361), the researcher worked with experts to develop qualita tive-type questions to include in the study. One of these questions was “Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender or sexual harassment within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years?” Respondents were asked to first select “yes” or “no”, and th en to provide a qualitative response if they so desired. Data Collection The researcher submitted a detailed research protocol to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) July 2004. After making suggested changes to more fully describe the gender situations involved in the nature of the study, full approval was given on August 9, 2004. This approval by th e IRB board confirmed that the research presented minimal risk to the participants (Appendix A). Dillman’s Tailored Design (2000) survey procedures were used for this study. Due to the large number of items in the instrument as well as the large number of participants, the survey was formatted to be used with a Scantron. Each questionnaire (Appendix B) and Scantron was coded to identify non-respond ents. The first wave sent to respondents was an initial contact letter, written by the researcher for th e 2005-2006 ACE President Judy Winn (Appendix C). It was sent by em ail on October 1, 2004 to the entire ACE

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41 listserv, maintained by the University of Flor ida. It introduced bot h the researcher and the research, and advised ACE members when they would be receiving the survey. The second wave was mailed on October 8, 2004. The packet contained a cover letter (Appendix D), two informed consent st atements with the IRB approval stamp/study number--one for the participants to sign and re turn to the researcher and one for them to keep (Appendix E), the survey instrument a nd a Scantron answer sheet. Two postagepaid, self-addressed campus envelopes were incl uded in this packet so that participants could return their signed informed consent st atements separately from their completed surveys if they wished. A reminder/thank you postcard was sent as a third wave to all participants two weeks afte r the survey packet was se nt on October 19, 2004 (Appendix F). The fourth wave was a reminder email sent by the ACE coordinator on behalf of the researcher to the full ACE listserv (Appendix G). This email, sent November 2, 2004, reminded ACE members of the study underway and asked them to please complete and return their survey if they had not already done so. Data Analysis Data was coded by computer for those it ems on the Scantron answer sheet by the University of Florida Academic Technology Forms Processing Office. These included demographics/employment questions, JIG s cale, JDI subscales, and the PRSA job satisfaction questions. This data was then tran sferred into Statistical Software for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 12.0 for Windows. Pa rticipants were aske d to respond to the gender-related situation questions from the PR SA survey, both in their organization and throughout agricultural communications, on the survey instrument. These items, along with the three researcher-dev eloped gender “yes/no” quest ions were coded by hand and

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42 entered into SPSS by the researcher. The quali tative responses to the three researcherdeveloped questions were entered in to Microsoft Word (Appendix H). SPSS was used to develop and calculate frequencies and descriptive statistics, such as means and standard deviations. Relia bility of the JIG scale, the JDI subscales, and the PRSA job satisfaction index were cal culated in the form of Cronbach’s alpha. The researcher hand-coded the qualitativ e responses to find common groupings and themes using a modified inductive analysis technique based on Ha tch’s (2002) inductive analysis methods for qualitative responses.

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43 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND RESULTS The major findings of this study, along with data analysis procedures, are described in this chapter. The order of this chapter will follow the objectives laid out in Chapters One and Three, which are: Describe the demographics of the popul ation of current, active, US-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, education, ma rital status, and position. Describe the perceived j ob satisfaction level of agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall j ob satisfaction (JIG) and faceted job satisfaction (JDI). o Describe respondents’ job satisfactio n as measured by the items in the PRSA job satisfaction scale. o Describe these items in terms of respondents’ gender. Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents’ perceptions of gender roles. o Further describe in term s of respondents’ gender. The overall response rate for this stu dy was 35.1% (n=179) of the 510 current, active ACE members located in the US that defined the accessible population. To control for nonresponse error, the re searcher compared early a nd late respondents. This comparison was conducted first by splitting resp ondents into quartiles, so that the first 25% who returned completed questionnaires were grouped as “early ” respondents and the last 25% were grouped as “late” respondent s (Rhoades, 2004). Forty-five respondents were selected for each group.

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44 Frequency distributions were used to analyze early ve rsus late respondents in terms of gender, age, ethnicity, highest level of education, and job satisfaction. The gender breakdown of early and late respondents was exactly the same, with 43.2% (n=19) male and 56.8% (n=25) female. One person from each group declined to list their gender. One hundred percent of early res pondents listed their ethnicity as Caucasian compared to 93.3% (n=42) of late respondents. The majority of early respondents, 75% (n =33), listed their age as 40 years or above as did 79.5% (n=35) of the late respondent s. (See Table 4-1.) There were twice as many late respondents (n=6) between the ages of 20-29 years old, and three times as many early respondents between the ages of 30-39 (n=8). Fifty percent of early respondents (n=22) indicated they held a master’s degree, while only 39.5% of late respondents (n=17) did. There were slightly more respondents with bachelor’s degrees in the late respondents group, and slightly more respondents w ith doctoral de grees in the early respondents group. Table 4-1. Comparison of early and late respondents’ age and education Early Respondents Late Respondents n % N % Age -20-29 years old 36.86 13.6 -30-39 years old 818.23 6.8 -40-49 years old 1636.412 27.3 -50-59 years old 920.516 36.4 -60+ years old 818.27 15.9 Highest Level of Education -bachelor’s degree 1022.714 32.6 -master’s degree 2250.017 39.5 -doctoral degree 1227.310 23.3

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45 Overall job satisfaction levels of early and late respondents were also similar. The grand mean for early respondents on the JI G scale was 42.44 while the grand mean for late respondents was 43.87. The researcher us ed independent samples t-test to compare early and late respondents and no significant differences were obser ved. (See Table 4-2.) Table 4-2. T-test for signi ficant differences between ear ly and late respondents Early Respondents Late Respondents nmnm Sig. t Value Gender 441.57441.57 1.00 .00 Age 443.25443.34 .72 -.36 Ethnicity 441.00451.11 .09 -1.68 Highest Level of Education 443.05433.00 .79 .27 JIG 4545.934543.87 2.07 1.03 Objective One Describe the demographics of the po pulation of current, active, US-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, education, ma rital status, and position. The literature suggests an employment trend in communication fields toward higher numbers of female employees, which was also the case in this study; the majority of the respondents were female. The ge nder breakdown was 58.8% female (n=104) and 41.2% male (n=73), with two missing respons es. An overwhelming majority of the respondents listed their ethnicity as Cau casian, 94.9% (n=168). Four respondents selected African American, three respondent s selected Hispanic/L atin American, two respondents selected other, and two respondent s did not answer. Respondents were asked to give their age by choosing from five, ni ne-year age ranges. (See Table 4-3.) The majority of respondents selected either th e 40-49 years old range (29.0%, n=51) or the 50-59 years old range (29.5%, n=52).

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46 Table 4-3. Age of respondents Age Range N% 20-29 years old 2111.9 30-39 years old 2614.8 40-49 years old 5129.0 50-59 years old 5229.5 60+ years old 2614.8 Total 176100.0 A majority of the respondents (79.7%, n=141) were married or have a live-in partner. Eighteen (10.2%) of the study participants stated th ey are single, 15 are divorced (8.5%), two are widowed (1.1%), one is sepa rated (0.6%), and two participants did not respond to the question. Most of the res pondents (60.6%, n=106) answered “no” when asked if they have children under 18 years old living at their ho me. Of those who do have children under 18 living at their home (n=69), the majority have one child (n=29) or two children (n=31). Almost half of the respondents reported having a master’s de gree (41.6%, n=72), followed closely by those holding a bachelor’s degree as their highest form of education (34.7%, n=60). Table 4-4 presents this information. Table 4-4. Respondents’ highe st level of education Degree N% High school diploma 21.2 Bachelor’s degree 6034.7 Master’s degree 7241.6 Doctoral degree 3922.5 Total 173100.0 One hundred and fifty-one, or 85.8%, of th e respondents work for an agricultural institution of higher education. (See Table 4-5.) The next highest response for work organization was government agency with 9.1% (n=16). To further understand the

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47 organizations the study participants work ed for, respondents were asked how many agricultural communications prac titioners worked in their office, excluding themselves. Almost half, 42.9%, n=75) stated there we re more than 11 other agricultural communications practitioners in their department. Table 4-5. Respondents’ organization a nd agricultural communications coworkers N % Work organization Agricultural institution of higher education 151 85.8 Government agency 16 9.1 Other 5 2.8 For profit company 2 1.1 Trade or professional organization 2 1.1 Total 176 100.0 Number of Agricultural Communicators in Office 0 practitioners 19 10.9 1 practitioner 13 7.4 2-5 practitioners 38 21.7 6-10 practitioners 30 17.1 11+ practitioners 75 42.9 Total 153 100.0 Participants were asked to report their curr ent salary levels within an approximate $20,000 range. Of the 175 who responded, 41.7% (n =73) stated that their salary was between $41,000-60,000, and 29.1% (n=51) stat ed their salary was between $20,00040,000. Respondents were then asked to select how long they had worked in agricultural communications: less than two years, 2-5 year s, 6-10 years, 11-20 y ears or 21-30 years. Responses to this question were distributed evenly across these ranges, 20.2% (n=35) worked in agricultural communications for 2-5 years, 22.5% (n=39) worked in agricultural communications for 6-10 year s, 23.1% (n=40) work ed in agricultural

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48 communications for 11-20 years, and 30.1% wo rked in agricultural communications for 21-30 years. (See Table 4-6.) Table 4-6. Respondents’ salary and time sp ent working in agricu ltural communications N % Current Salary $20,000-40,000 51 29.1 $41,000-60,000 73 41.7 $61,000-80,000 28 16.0 $81,000-100,000 9 5.1 $101,000+ 14 8.0 Total 175 100.0 How long worked in agricultural communications Less than 2 years 7 4.0 2-5 years 35 20.2 6-10 years 39 22.5 11-20 years 40 23.1 21-30 years 52 30.1 Total 173 100.0 When asked to select the ACE Special In terest Group (SIG) to which their current job function most closely relate d, responses were distributed somewhat evenly across the board. For this question, the researcher grouped similar SIGs together, and the Writing/Media Relations/Marketing SIGs were selected by most of the participants (30.6%, n=53) followed closely by the Pub lishing/Graphic Design/Photography SIGs (26.0%, n=45). Six participants did not respond to the question. (See Table 4-7.)

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49 Table 4-7. ACE special interest group w ith closest relation to respondents’ job SIG N % Writing/Media Relations/Marketing 53 30.6 Academic Programs/Research 22 12.7 Electronic Media/Distance E ducation and Instructional Design/Information Technology 33 19.1 Communications Management 20 11.6 Publishing/Graphic Design/Photography 45 26.0 Total 173 100.0 The majority of participants do not curre ntly hold management positions in their organizations (63.1%, n=111). Of the 65 respondents (36.9%) who are currently managers, the majority have been in the position for one to five years (n=27) and supervise two to five people (n=28). Objective Two Describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in term s of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and faceted job satisfaction (JDI). Describe respondents’ job satisfaction as measured by the items in the PRSA job satisfaction scale. Describe these items in terms of respondents’ gender. Two scales were used to determine partic ipants’ overall job satisfaction. The first was the Job in General (JIG) from Bowling Green University, which is comprised of 18 items. The researcher conducted scale reli ability analysis with the population data collected using Chronbach’s al pha. The standardized item alpha for the JIG was .89. The second scale used by the re searcher to test participants ’ overall job satisfaction was the 14-item job satisfaction index taken fr om the PRSA glass ceiling instrument. Reliability analysis for this scale was al so conducted using Cronbach’s alpha. The standardized item alpha for the PRSA job satisfaction scale was .83.

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50 Respondents’ faceted job satisfaction le vels were measured using the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) from Bowling Green University. The JDI is divided into five subscales that measure specific facets of job satisfaction—work, pay, opportunities for promotion, supervision, and coworkers. Ther e are a total of 72 items for the JDI, the work, supervision, and coworkers subscales have 18 items apiece, while the pay and promotion subscales each have nine. Standard ized item alphas for the five subscales are listed in Table 4-8. These were also calculated using scale reliability analysis. Table 4-8. Cronbach’s alpha values for JDI subscales Cronbach’s alphaN Work .86176 Pay .83176 Opportunities for Promotion .86177 Supervision .85159 Coworkers .83177 JIG/JDI The average grand mean for all particip ants on the JIG scale was 45.88 on a scale that ranges from 0 to 54. (See Table 4-9.) According to Balz er et al (1997) the midpoint of the JIG and the JDI scales is 27, and scores at 32 or above indica te satisfaction while scores of 22 or below indicat e dissatisfaction. Because th e JDI is divided into five distinct subscales, an individual grand mean was calculated for each one. Participants’ responses seemed to show higher satisfaction with the work they currently do (M=45.46), the supervision they received (M=40.92), and their coworkers (M=43.67). Respondents indicated they were less satis fied with their current pay (M=33.66) and dissatisfied with their opportunities for promotion (M=18.28). Table 4-9 presents this information

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51 Table 4-9. Mean scores for the JIG and JDI NM SD JIG 17945.88 8.23 JDI -Work 17945.46 9.36 -Coworkers 17743.67 9.17 -Supervision 17740.92 10.96 -Pay 17733.66 14.53 -Opportunities for Promotion 17718.28 14.49 Note: Based on a 0-54 scale, where 22 or le ss indicates dissatisfaction and 32 or more indicates satisfaction. PRSA For these items, respondents were asked to indicate their own satisfaction levels on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1=extremely dissati sfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3= uncertain/don’t know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied. Respondents indicated highest satisfaction (M=4.28, n=178) with the freedom and autonomy they have in their present job. (See Table 4-10.) Participants stated they were sa tisfied with their presen t job in agricultural communications (M=4.12, n=175) and agricu ltural communications as an occupation (M=3.99, n=176). Respondents also indicated satisfaction with their knowledge of agricultural communications skills (M=4.09, n=177) and th eir overall knowledge of agricultural communications (M =4.07, n=177) and the value of their job to society (M=3.90, n=178). Respondents’ indicated they were moderately satisfied with prospects for their future with their present employer (M=3.57, n=177) and prospects for their future in agricultural communications (M=3.59, n=176). Participan ts were also somewhat satisfied with job security in their pres ent position (M=3.63, n=177) and recognition they get from their superiors (M=3.56, n=178). Re spondents indicated moderate satisfaction with their income as an agricultural communications pr actitioner (M=3.38, n=176), the

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52 prestige of working in agricultural comm unications (M=3.30, n=176), and opportunities for advancement with their present empl oyer (M=3.02, n=176). This information is presented in Table 4-10. Table 4-10. Respondents’ perc eptions of job satisfaction NM SD How satisfied are you with… -the freedom and autonomy you have in your present job? 178 4.28 .81 -your present job in agricultural communications? 1754.12 .74 -your knowledge of agricultural communications skills? 177 4.09 .65 -your overall knowledge of agricultural communications? 1774.07 .69 -agricultural communicati ons as an occupation? 176 3.99 .69 -the value of your job to society? 1783.90 .83 -how your family and/or friends feel about your working in agricultural communications? 175 3.86 .76 -job security in your present position? 1773.63 1.06 -prospects for your future in agricultural communications? 176 3.59 .95 -prospects for your future with your present employer? 1773.57 1.05 -recognition you get from your superiors? 178 3.56 1.04 -your income as an agricultural communications practitioner? 1763.38 1.10 -the prestige of working in agricultural communications? 176 3.30 .93 -opportunities for advancement with your present employer? 1763.02 .98 Note: Job Satisfaction scale where 1= extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied Job Satisfaction and Respondents’ Gender After reviewing the complete data sets the researcher divided respondents by gender and analyzed the resulting data for each job satisfaction scale. For the JIG scale the average grand mean for male respondent s was 47.12, and the average grand mean for female respondents was 45.05. (See Table 4-11.)

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53 On the JDI subscales, male respondents i ndicated they were most satisfied with their current work (M=46.12), their coworkers (M=43.78), and the supervision they receive in their current pos ition (M=46.12). Female respondent s indicated they were also the most satisfied with th eir current work (M=45.11), their coworkers (M=43.51), and their supervision (M=39.66). The average gra nd means for the pay subscale were similar for female and male respondents (32.45 and 34.89, respectively). These means are at the low end of the satisfaction scale, as the cu toff for satisfaction is 32. Both male and female respondents indicated they were di ssatisfied with their opportunities for promotion. The grand mean for female re spondents was M=16.33, and the grand mean for male respondents was M=20.97. Tabl e 4-11 presents this information. Table 4-11. Mean scores for JIG and JDI by gender NM SD Female Respondents JIG 10445.05 9.20 JDI -Work 10445.11 9.79 -Coworkers 10343.51 9.20 -Supervision 10339.66 11.17 -Pay 10332.45 14.60 -Opportunities for Promotion 10316.33 13.12 Male Respondents JIG 17947.12 6.40 JDI -Work 17946.12 8.64 -Coworkers 17743.78 9.20 -Supervision 17742.64 10.56 -Pay 17734.89 14.29 -Opportunities for Promotion 17720.97 16.00 Note: Based on a 0-54 scale, where 22 or le ss indicates dissatisfaction and 32 or more indicates satisfaction.

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54 The researcher then calculated the mean differences between female and male respondents’ JIG and JDI scores. (See Tabl e 4-12.) Differences were calculated by subtracting mean responses for female res pondents from the mean respondents for male respondents. A mean difference of 2.07 was found between male and female respondents’ JIG scores. (See Table 4-12.) For the JDI subscales, the greatest mean difference between male and female scores was 4.64 for “opportunities for promotion.” The next greatest difference between ma les and females was for the subscale “supervision” followed by the “pay” subscale. The lowest mean difference between male and female respondents was 0.27 for the “coworkers” subscale. Table 4-12. Mean difference of JIG and JDI scores by gender Mean Difference JIG 2.07 JDI -Work 1.01 -Coworkers 0.27 -Supervision 2.98 -Pay 2.44 -Opportunities for Promotion 4.64 For the PRSA job satisfaction scale, female respondents indicated the highest levels of satisfaction with the freedom and autonom y they have in thei r present job (M=4.19, n=103), their present job in agricult ural communications (M=4.13, n=101), and agricultural communications as an occupation (M=4.10, n=101). Female respondents also indicated satisfaction w ith their knowledge of agricultural communications skills (M=4.10, n=102) and their overall knowledge of agricultural comm unications (M=4.02, n=102). Moderate job satisfaction levels we re stated by female respondents for their income as an agricultural communications practitioner (M=3.37, n= 101), the prestige of

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55 working in agricultural communications (M =3.23, n=101), recognition they get from their superiors (M=3.46, n=103), and opportunitie s for advancement with their current employer (M=2.98, n=102). This information is presented in Table 4-13. Table 4-13. Female respondents’ perceptions of job satisfaction NM SD How satisfied are you with… -the freedom and autonomy you have in your present job? 103 4.19 .83 -your present job in agricultural communications? 1014.13 .76 -agricultural communicati ons as an occupation? 101 4.10 .69 -your knowledge of agricultural communications skills? 1024.10 .64 -your overall knowledge of agricultural communications? 102 4.02 .74 -the value of your job to society? 1033.96 .82 -how your family and/or friends feel about your working in agricultural communications? 101 3.86 .78 -prospects for your future in agricultural communications? 1013.57 .98 -job security in your present position? 102 3.54 1.12 -prospects for your future with your present employer? 1033.50 1.07 -recognition you get from your superiors? 103 3.46 1.09 -your income as an agricultural communications practitioner? 1013.37 1.07 -the prestige of working in agricultural communications? 101 3.23 .93 -opportunities for advancement with your present employer? 1022.98 1.02 Note: Job Satisfaction scale where 1= extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied Male respondents indicated similar satisfact ion levels as female respondents with their present job in agricultural communi cations (M=4.14, n=72), their knowledge of agricultural communications skills (M=4.11, n=73), and th eir overall knowledge of agricultural communications (M=4.16, n=73). High satisfaction levels were also indicated by male respondents for the freedom and autonomy they ha ve in their present

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56 job (M=4.41, n=73), the recognition they get from their superiors (M=3.71, n=73), job security in their present position (M=3.74, n=73), and agricu ltural communications as an occupation (M=3.86, n=73). When asked their satisfaction with their income as an agricultural communications pr actitioner, male respondent s indicated moderate job satisfaction (M=3.37, n=73). Moderate job sa tisfaction levels were also indicated by male respondents with prospects for their fu ture in agricultural communications (M=3.59, n=73) and opportunities for advancement w ith their present employer (M=3.07, n=72). This information is presented in Table 4-14. Table 4-14. Male respondents’ perceptions of job satisfaction NM SD How satisfied are you with… -the freedom and autonomy you have in your present job? 73 4.41 .78 -your overall knowledge of agricultural communications? 734.16 .60 -your present job in agricultural communications? 72 4.14 .70 -your knowledge of agricultural communications skills? 734.11 .64 -agricultural communicati ons as an occupation? 73 3.86 .67 -how your family and/or friends feel about your working in agricultural communications? 723.85 .74 -the value of your job to society? 73 3.82 .86 -job security in your present position? 733.74 .97 -recognition you get from your superiors? 73 3.71 .95 -prospects for your future with your present employer? 723.67 1.02 -prospects for your future in agricultural communications? 73 3.59 .93 -the prestige of working in agricultural communications 733.40 .94 -your income as an agricultural communications practitioner? 73 3.37 1.15 -opportunities for advancement with your present employer? 723.07 .95 Note: Job Satisfaction scale where 1= extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied

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57 Objective Three Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents’ perceptions of gender roles. Further describe gender roles in terms of respondents’ gender. PRSA Respondents’ perceptions of gender roles were measured using the PRSA gender roles scale. This scale is comprised of 12 gender-related items, which respondents answer for both their organization and agri cultural communications as an industry. Respondents are asked to state their agreement or disagreement with the statement on a 1 to 5 scale, where 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=uncertain/ don’t know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree. Scale reliability analys is was conducted on the organization items and the agricultural communications industry items using Cronbach’s alpha with the population data. The standardized item alpha for the gender-related it ems as they related to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization was .6 9. The standardized item alpha for the gender-related items as they related to respondents’ perceptions for agricultural communications as an industry was. 62. Alt hough these alpha values are slightly low, they are comparable to the alpha values from this scale in the original PRSA surveys; r=.73 for organization and r=.53 fo r industry as a whole (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). As in the original survey instrument these items were analyzed individually for descriptives. Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization, the respondents indicated the high est level of agreement with the statements “there are more women than men in ag ricultural communications today” (M=3.43, n=167) and “there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communi cations environments

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58 today than there was five years ago” (M =3.23, n=168). (See Table 4-15.) Respondents indicated uncertainty (M=3.04, n=167) for the statement “women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communi cations staff positions involving mainly communication skills.” In addition, respondent s indicated “uncertain /don’t know” for the statement “women in agricultural communicati ons positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs” (M=3.01, n=168) and the stat ement “it is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agri cultural communications” (M=3.01, n=167). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization, respondents indicated they disagr eed the most with the statement “members of my audience prefer to wo rk with male agricultural communicators” (M=2.33, n=168) and “men are more apt than women to back down or seek compro mises in agricultural communications office conflict situations” (M =2.33, n=168). Respondents also indicated disagreement with the statement “women ar e more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making” (M=2.40, n=167).

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59 Table 4-15. Respondents’ perceptions of gender roles within their organization N MSD There are more women than men in agricultural communications 167 3.43 1.02 There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago 168 3.23.76 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills 167 3.04 1.13 It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications 168 3.011.24 Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs 168 3.01 1.11 Men are promoted more quickly th an women in most agricultural communications employment situations 168 2.811.07 Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work 168 2.74 1.28 If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural communications j ob, the woman would be hired 168 2.541.00 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problemsolving and decision-making 167 2.40 .90 Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies 168 2.351.07 Men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural co mmunications office conflict situations 168 2.33 .95 Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators 168 2.33.87 Note: Likert scale where 1=strongly disa gree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree. Of the gender-related items relating to re spondents’ perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, respondents again indicated the highest level of agreement (M=3.38, n=167) with the statement “there are more women than men in agricultural communications.” (See Table 4-16.) Agreement was also indicated by respondents for the statements “women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs” (M=3.28, n=168) and “generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work” (M=3.27, n=168). Res pondents showed uncertainty with the

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60 statements “women are more likely than men to be hired for agri cultural communications staff positions involving mainly communica tion skills” (M=3.14, n=168) and “there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communi cations environments today than there was five years ago” (M=3.16, n=168). Of the ge nder-related items rela ting to respondents’ perceptions of agricultural communicatio ns as an industry, respondents indicated disagreement (M=2.51, n=168) with the statem ent “men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict situations.” They also indicated disagr eement (M=2.57, n=167) with “women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultu ral communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making.”

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61 Table 4-16. Respondents’ perceptions of gender roles throughout agricultural communications N MSD There are more women than men in agricultural communications 167 3.38 .76 Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs 168 3.28.85 Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work 168 3.27 .88 There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago 168 3.16.70 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills 167 3.14 .94 It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications 168 3.111.08 Men are promoted more quickly th an women in most agricultural communications employment situations 168 3.11 .91 If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural communications j ob, the woman would be hired 168 2.69.85 Women often are hired as a resu lt of affirmative action policies 168 2.68 .98 Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators 168 2.66.84 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problemsolving and decision-making 167 2.57 .82 Men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural co mmunications office conflict situations 168 2.51.81 Note: Likert scale where 1=strongly disa gree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree. Due to the nature of the double scale, th e researcher calculated the difference between the means of each answer for res pondents’ perceptions of the gender-related items within their own organi zation and their perceptions of the gender-related items for agricultural communications as an industry. Differences we re calculated by subtracting mean responses for each item throughout agricultural communications from the mean responses for each item in their organization. The researcher then ranked the absolute mean differences from largest to smallest.

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62 The greatest mean difference between res pondents’ answers for their organization and agricultural communications as an i ndustry was .53 for the statement “generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work.” (See Tale 4-17.) A mean difference of .33 was found for “members of my audience pref er to work with male agricultural communicators” and “women are often hired as a result of affi rmative action policies.” The lowest mean differences between respondents’ answer for their organization and throughout agricultural communications as an industry were .05 for “there are more women than men in agricultural communications” and .07 fo r “there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago.”

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63 Table 4-17. Mean difference of respondents’ perceptions of gender roles in their organization and throughout ag ricultural communications Mean Difference Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work .53 Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators .33 Women often are hired as a resu lt of affirmative action policies .33 Men are promoted more quickly th an women in most agricultural communications employment situations .30 Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs .27 Men are more apt than women to b ack down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict situations .18 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making .17 If an equally capable woman and ma n applied for the same agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired .15 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills .10 It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications .10 There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago .07 There are more women than men in agricultural communications .05 Gender Roles and Respondents’ Gender Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization, female respondents indicated hi ghest agreement with the statement “there are more women than men in agricultural communications” (M=3.52, n=94). (See Table 4-18.) Female respondents also agreed with the statements “it is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications” (M=3.39, n=95) and “women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men doing comparable jobs” (M=3.32, n=95) Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization, female respondents indicated they

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64 disagreed with “men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict situations” (M=2.17, n=95) and “women often are hired as a result of affirm ative action policies” (M=2.28, n=95). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of their own organization, male respondents indica ted highest agreement (M=3.37, n=71) for responses within their organization for the stat ement “there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications envi ronments today than there was five years ago.” (See Table 4-18.) They also indicated agreement with the statement “there are more women than men in agricultural co mmunications” (M=3.30, n=71). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ per ceptions of their own organi zation male respondents indicated they disagreed with the statements “generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultura l communications work” (M=2.31, n=71) and “men are promoted more quickly than wo men in most agricultural communications employment situations” (M=2.31, n=71). Male respondents indicated uncertainty for the statements “women are more likely than me to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communica tions skills” (M=2.87, n=70) and “if an equally capable woman and man applied for th e same agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired” (M=2.75, n=71).

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65Table 4-18. Female and male re spondents’ perceptions of gender roles in their organizations FemaleMale N MSDNMSD Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work 95 3.05 1.34 71 2.31 1.08 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills 95 3.151.23702.87.98 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making 95 2.33 .94 71 2.48 .84 Men are promoted more quickly th an women in most agricultural communications employment situations 95 3.191.07 71 2.31.85 Men are more apt than women to b ack down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict situations 95 2.17 .92 71 2.54 .95 If an equally capable woman and ma n applied for the same agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired 95 2.40.94 71 2.751.05 Women often are hired as a resu lt of affirmative action policies 95 2.28 1.09 71 2.45 1.05 There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago 95 3.12.78 71 3.37.72 It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications 95 3.39 1.23 71 2.51 1.08 Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs 95 3.321.09 71 2.581.01 There are more women than men in agricultural communications 94 3.52 1.08 71 3.30 .95 Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators 95 2.35.88702.32.86 Note: Likert scale where 1=strongly di sagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.

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66 Of the gender-related items relating to re spondents’ perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, female respond ents showed highest agreement with the statement “women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs” (M=3.49, n=95). (See Table 4-19.) Female respondents also indicated agreement with the statements “generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultura l communications work” (M=3.46, n=95) and “men are promoted more quickly than wo men in most agricultural communications employment situations” (M=3.43, n=95). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents’ perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, female respondents indicated disagreement with the st atements “men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural communications employment situations” (M=2.40, n=95) and “women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making” (M=2.46, 95). Of the gender-related items relating to re spondents’ perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, male respondents indicated they agreed the most with the statements “there are more women than men in agricultural communications” (M=3.37, n=71) and “there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago” (M=3.31, n=71). Male respondents indicated uncertainty with the statements that “gener ally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communi cations work” (M=3.01, n=71) and “women in agricultural communications manageme nt positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs” (M=3.00, n=71). Of the ge nder-related items relating to respondents’

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67 perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, male respondents indicated disagreement with the statement “members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators” (M =2.54, n=71). Table 4-19 pres ents this information.

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68Table 4-19 Female and male respondents’ perceptions of gender roles throughout agri cultural communications FemaleMale N MSDNMSD Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work 95 3.46 .90 71 3.01 .80 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills 95 3.201.04703.07.80 Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making 95 2.46 .92 71 2.69 .67 Men are promoted more quickly th an women in most agricultural communications employment situations 95 3.43.91712.69.75 Men are more apt than women to b ack down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict situations 95 2.40 .83 71 2.66 .77 If an equally capable woman and ma n applied for the same agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired 95 2.62.87712.79.84 Women often are hired as a resu lt of affirmative action policies 95 2.64 .99 71 2.75 .98 There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago 95 3.04.71713.31.67 It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications 95 3.39 1.09 71 2.75 .97 Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs 95 3.49.84713.00.81 There are more women than men in agricultural communications 95 3.37 .80 71 3.37 .70 Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators 95 2.77.88702.54.77 Note: Likert scale where 1=strongly di sagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don’t know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.

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69 Researcher Developed Categorical Response Questions Respondents were asked to answer three re searcher-developed questions relating to gender situations, first by providing a “yes” or “no” response to th e question and then by providing a qualitative explanat ion if the respondent desired. When asked “have you experienced any situa tions within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender wa s an issue in the last five years” the majority of respondents (75.1%, n=130) answer ed no. (See Table 4-20.) The majority of respondents (79.1%, n=136) also answered no when asked “have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years?” Respondents were then asked “do you feel gender is a factor within ag ricultural communications,” and the majority (60.0%, n=102) again answered no. Table 4-20. Responses to researcher-d eveloped gender experience questions N % Yes No Have you experienced any situa tions within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years? 173 24.9 75.1 Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years? 172 20.9 79.1 Do you feel gender is a f actor within agricultural communications? 170 40.0 60.0 The majority of female respondents (68.4% n=67) answered no when asked “have you experienced any situations within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years?” (See Table 4-21.) In

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70 addition, 72.2% (n=70) of female respondents answered no when asked “have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communicati ons in the last five years?” However, the responses of female respondents were split almost even ly between yes (45.8%, n=44) and no (54.2%, n=52) when asked “do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural communications?” Table 4-21. Female respondents’ answers to researcher-developed gender experience questions N % Yes No Have you experienced any situa tions within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years? 98 31.6 68.4 Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years? 97 27.8 72.2 Do you feel gender is a f actor within agricultural communications? 96 45.8 54.2 When male respondents were asked “have you experienced any s ituations within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years,” the majority said no ( 83.6%, n=61). (See Table 4-22.) The majority of male respondents (87.7%, n=64) also an swered no when asked “have you experienced and form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years?” The majority of male respondents (66.7%, n=48) also answered no when asked “do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural communications?”

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71 Table 4-22. Male respondents’ answers to researcher-develop ed gender experience questions N % Yes No Have you experienced any situa tions within your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years? 73 16.4 83.6 Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years? 73 12.3 87.7 Do you feel gender is a f actor within agricultural communications? 73 33.3 66.7 Researcher Developed Open-Ended Response Questions The researcher analyzed respondents’ qua litative responses to the three genderrelated situation questions using a modified inductive analysis technique based on Hatch’s (2002) inductive analysis method. “Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general . Induc tive data analysis is a sear ch for patterns of meaning in data so that general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made” (Hatch, 2002, p. 161). The responses were transcribed by the researcher from the returned surveys. The researcher was careful to ensure the integrity of these responses by including spelling and punctuat ion errors, italic a nd underlined emphases, and shorthand notations, as is the current qualitative paradigm. Although the researcher made every effort to include all qualitative response s, three were dropped from the study due to difficulty deciphering the respondent’s handwri ting. In addition, one response was edited to protect the identifying information of a respondent who described a federal discrimination court case.

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72 The researcher read through the data multiple times to identify frames or analyzable units. A second analysis was then conducte d by the researcher to identify domains, which Hatch (2002) describes as “a set of categories of meaning…that reflects relationships represented in th e data” (p. 164). The researcher then re-read the responses to identify the most significant domains a nd to identify broader themes across the domains. Because similar domains were f ound within responses to all three questions, the researcher chose to combin e these and treat them as larger themes as suggested by Hatch (2002) rather than anal yzing the responses on an indi vidual question basis. After these had been identified, the researcher sel ected those responses wh ich best highlighted the domains and themes. Theme 1, “Agriculture=Male” The first theme found by th e researcher was that of “agriculture=male.” Respondents referred to agricu lture, or subsets of agricu lture such as production agriculture, as being male-dominated or ma le environments and described problematic behaviors related to this. One female responde nt wrote, “Agriculture is still a very male environment and sometimes I find it is hard to get older men to respect and trust me. This is not a problem with my cowork ers in communications, but with faculty, researchers, farmers, etc.” Another female respondent wrote, “Sometimes specialists in the traditional ag disciplines (crops, animal sc ience) act differently (macho) than in other disciplines such as horticulture, wildlife.” A male respondent wrote, “In dealing with some very traditional farmers and ranchers being male was an advantage.” Because agricultural communications is unique in its focu s on agriculture, it is necessary to look at perceptions of how those invol ved in agriculture behave. One female respondent wrote, “I sense that farmers, in general, are male and prefer to work w/ men. You generally

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73 have to prove yourself if you’re a female,” while another female respondent stated, “It’s almost been inevitable because agriculture is still only gradually evolving from being a ‘man’s field’--in part due to strength require ments, inheritance traditions, living in the Midwest/Bible Belt….” Another female respondent wrote, “I think gender is a factor in any job situation but perhaps more so in jobs relating to agriculture.” Theme 2, “Gender or Sex Roles” The second theme found by the researcher was that of “gender or sex roles,” which closely related to the first theme. Responses in this theme focused on women’s roles both in the workplace, agricultural communication, and in the field of agriculture both past and present. As discussed in the previous theme, agriculture tends to be a maledominated field and also tends to more tradit ional sex/gender roles. A female respondent wrote, Ag producers are strongly male oriented. A small example: he’s a farmer, she’s a farmer’s wife (though she puts in many hour on tractor, etc) This has changed a bit for the better in the past 30 years but still has quite a way to go. Witness: I work mainly with two Extension program areas : forestry and family and community development. All the faculty in the former are male, all in the later, female. To me, that signals that gender-neutral ity still will be a long time coming. Another female respondent stat ed, “I find that older men wo rking in agriculture talk more directly to the males on my staff than to me and I believe it’s because I’m a young female.” A male respondent wrote, “Som e commentators and audience groups see traditional sex roles--who works most in the fields and does most of the bookkeeping--as ‘givens’, and are more receptive to informa tion and ideas that confirm these roles.” Many respondents indicated that they felt th ese roles spilled over into agricultural communications, perhaps because of the ties to traditional agriculture. One female respondent wrote, “My experience is that ‘ag’ equates to ‘male.’ Women are viewed as

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74 accessories that provide needed support and services,” while another female respondent stated, “A client I had was extremely difficult to deal with. He l oved my work but only when he thought my male co-worker did the job.” This theme also included respondents’ desc riptions of agricultural communications or communications positions being “women’s j obs.” One female respondent wrote, “The management/board of directors of this organization see communications work as a ‘woman’s role,’ based on attention to deta ils, creativity, and transmitting decisions.” Another female respondent stat ed, “I think agricultural co mmunications jobs are seen strongly as women’s jobs—kind of like the ‘beauty queen’ of an organization.” A female respondent described a situation, “when trave ling with male admini strator, along with female administrative assistant, I felt the administrator was expressing shock when I did my job of talking with news reporters. The administrator thought I was to do registration, with the administrative assistants, not gi ve reporters information.” One female respondent wrote that her, “D irector tends to dismiss wome n’s concerns as ‘personal issues’ instead of taking them seriously as ‘professional concerns’,” while another female respondent stated, “Our administ rators are all men—very ‘old school.’ They tend to view my disagreement with them as being becau se I’m a woman. They are clearly more comfortable with my male colleagues.” One fe male respondent indicated that she felt she had been denied a promotion based on ideas of traditional gender roles within her organization. I applied for a management position that included responsibility for a publications distribution center (a traditionally male en vironment), often referred to as ‘the warehouse.’ I was qualified for the position, and was one of two final candidates. The job went to the other candidate, a ma n. I feel like I was not offered the job because upper management could not ‘p icture’ a woman in charge of that operation, which had been run by a very traditional, old-school man for many

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75 years. One year later, I applied fo r a management position in the same organization, but within an office setting, and I got the job. In some ways I think my skills and experience were more suited to the first position, but the organization was more comfortable with me (as a female) in the office-oriented environment. It has worked out well—I have been successful in this role, and I enjoy it, but I still feel like I missed the first promotion due to stereotypical ideas about women’s roles in the workplace. Theme 3, “Good Old Boys” The third theme found in th e responses by the research er related to both the “agriculture=male” and “gender and sex roles” themes. This theme was the “good old boys” theme, wherein respondents stated they felt gender shut people out of the power structure of agricultural comm unications. One of the domains within this theme was specifically that of responde nts referring to agricultural communications in this way. One female respondent wrote, “Good ol ‘boy network,” while another stated, “Ag comm. historically is a “good old boy” profession.” Another female respondent wrote, “Farmers agriculturalists are mainly old white guys who like to deal with old white guys.” Other respondents described specific situations in which they felt this way. One female respondent wrote, This sounds whiney, but here goes: I’ve se rved under two department heads in < 6 yrs, both male, both longtime employees in the dept. Nearly every day, they go to coffee for 35-45 min with their buddies in the department—all male. That’s where the bonds are-the old boy’s network at work -and while they are all very polite to the women in the department it seems to me that we constitute a separate, and lesser, situation. Another female respondent stated, “Supervisor did not support my role in a regional publishing consortium. Decisions were base d instead on ‘good old boy’ agreements.” Two female respondents wrote how this made them feel not only slighted, but invisible in situations. One wrote, “N o sexual harassment, but definite gender bias, good ole boys talk to each othe r as if you are not even in the room,” while the second

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76 wrote, “Even though I stood in line and waited my turn to meet the top candidate to lead an agricultural program, the candidate and ot her men in line stepped in front of me repeatedly to shake hands. It was as if I was invisible.” The second domain the researcher found fo r this “good old boys” theme was that respondents stated the leaders, senior level staff, and management in agricultural communications tend to be male. A female respondent stated, “Y ou are perceived as providing a service only—‘I tell you what to do and how to do as opposed to collaborating and identifying creative soluti ons. Ag Comm units have been dominated by white males and a culture of exclusion ha s permeated their organization.” Another female respondent stated that she experienced, “Bullying or intimidation by senior faculty that I’m not sure would have occurred for a man in the same position.” Similar to this statement, a female respondent wrote, “I ha d a department head who thought intelligent women needed to be brought down a pe g or two—not only found fault with, but ‘controlled’.” One female res pondent stated, “The top decisi ons are still mostly made by males and spoon fed to females for disse mination, public communications,” while another female respondent wrot e, “Women do not seem to have an equal voice in the administrative and policy-making d ecisions of this organization.” Other responses for this domain included a female respondent who stated, “There are still far more males at th e top of the profession, which is ironic given the large # of women in the profession.” Another female re spondent wrote, “Ag comm. is part of the college, extension, and the university. In each arena, gender bias still operates. In each arena, there are still more men in positions of authority than there are women in those positions.” And, another female respondent st ated “I think we still work in a male

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77 dominated arena and until more women reach the top and begin helping other women, which is uncommon, an equality will not be reached in ag comm.” Two female respondents addressed the issu e of including women in lead ership positions within agricultural communication. The first wrot e, “When women were being submitted for consideration to serve on a large board (whi ch traditionally has been white male), I suggested that we be sensitive to creating a balance by including wo men and minorities. Several men laughed out loud and one rolled his eyes.” The second female respondent stated, “I work in a university and organization where all the top administrators are male. It affects the culture. While we often h ear calls for appointing minorities, no one suggests we need more women in leadership.” Theme 4, “Discrimination” The fourth theme found by the researcher was the “discrim ination” theme, wherein respondents wrote about their pe rceptions of gender discrimination or sexual harassment. The first domain found for this theme were the responses describing perceived gender discrimination for salary, leave time, and ra ises. A female respondent wrote, “When I noted years back that I was the lowest paid faculty in Extension, th e explanation was that I wasn’t the breadwinner (although at the time I was). All women Extension faculty got a raise a few years back as part of a court se ttlement, but I still make less than my male peers—salary and rank.” Another female re spondent stated, “Despite some efforts to equalize pay, there are men in this offi ce making significantly more than women in similar work and experience situations. I’v e seen travel discrepancies— where men would have single rooms but women would be told to double.” While one female respondent simply wrote, “Salary inequalities, ” another female respondent stated, “I think pay equity is the area where gender comes into play in agricultural communications. I

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78 think women are generally paid less for th e same work.” Another female respondent wrote, “Lower pay for females, and fewer management positions and promotion opportunities.” Other female respondents described differences within specific situations they had witnessed. One female respondent wrote, “As pay is a mater of public record, it’s fairly obvious that women are paid less for what (in my view) is work of comparable worth.” Another female respondent stat ed, “I make less money than a male associate with a similar job description—we've been at this institution for roughly the same amount of time, have similar duties, and I have a master’s degree while he just has a bachelor’s.” A female respondent wrote, “One of my male co workers got a raise when his wife had their first child. I’m a single woman who would have adopted a child if I could afford it.” Another female respondent stated, “The curr ent female director is doing a much better job than the former male director. However, she is getting paid much less than he was getting to do the very same job.” While one female respondent wrote, “A younger male with less experience was paid more than two older females, each with more experience,” another female respondent stated, “Annual pay increase has generally favored the men in this department.” In addition, a female respondent stated, “Ig noring accomplishments, NO raises, No recognition.” Another female respondent wrote, “Some men were unfairly “given” leave time that had not been earned.” The second domain within the “discrimination” theme was the respondents’ descriptions of specific situations in whic h they witnessed sexist or discriminatory behavior within their work environment. On e female respondent described a situation in which, “Coworker made sexist statements, ogl ed females, including students. I reported

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79 it and a supervisor discussed with him why it made for an uncomfortable work environment. It seems to have improved the situation.” A second female respondent wrote, “On a university campus, there are al ways male professors with larger-than necessary egos who will take advantage of perceived power differentials.” A female respondent stated, “…am dealing with a sexua l harassment case as an administrator,” while two male respondents wrote, “Deal with sexual harassment issue sometimes,” and “Discrimination complaints, harassment accusati ons.” Another female respondent stated that, “Our department has become much more ‘politically correct’ and does not discriminate outwardly as it once did. Disc rimination is therefore much more subtle now.” One female respondent wrote, “Male su pervisor’s attitude relating to unexpected pregnancy of a female manager—lessened responsibilities and access to upper management.” Another female respondent stated, “As a female supervisor, I have experienced difficult situations that probabl y would not have occurred with a male supervisor.” In addition, one female re spondent chose to describe in full the discrimination case she had experi enced within her workplace. A woman suffered a work injury and subsequent disabilit y. A male unit leader and male department head failed to manage the injury adequately, and, once the disability was diagnosed, failed to provi de disability accommodations ordered by the state. A federal complaint was filed, i nvestigated and served. It took more than three years to resolve these issues. The injured female has returned to work and continues to contribute at a high level. She has, however, con tinued to experience occasional retaliation and discriminati on, and has required assistance from a University ombudsperson. The woman sought counseling during the ordeal. The counselor, whose office is near the Univer sity, said she has seen “a pattern” among her clients: ‘In the College of Agriculture, if a woma n complains about a man, it’s the woman who usually is made to leave’.

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80 Theme 5, “Societal Problem” The fifth theme found by th e researcher involved re spondents attributing genderrelated differences or problems to “society.” One female respondent wrote that, “Gender is a factor in every segment of human endeavor involving 2+ people.” A male respondent stated, “It is a fact or everywhere in society, not just ag comm.” Another male respondent wrote, “It’s a consta nt factor regardless of the field or profession. Whether someone is male or female, others make a ssumptions about that person. If one is sensitized to gender issues, these things are not difficult to discern.” One male respondent stated, “There will always be bi ases and differences,” while another male respondent wrote, “To the extent that it is a factor in the surrounding society.” Another male respondent stated, “The same issues seen dividing men and women in society, in general, apply to this job sector as well.” Theme 6, “Rationalizations” The final theme, “rationalizations,” found by the researcher included male responses describing women and advancemen t. A male respondent wrote, “Women hiring women because ‘men aren’t good at multitasking.’ However, the women hired was the best candidate, anyway.” One male respondent stated, “Underqualified female supervisor, difficult to work for,” while a second male responde nt stated, ”Female administrator who is uneasy, and somewhat distrustful, of males.” Another male respondent described a situation in which a, “Colleague used sexuality to receive promotion into management position.” One male respondent stated, “In our unit-yes. Affirmative action—.” In addition, a male res pondent wrote, “As a white, male, the dept. is quick to ‘please’ women than to deny them of advancement, afraid of someone yelling ‘sexual harassment.’ Creates an unfair advancement structure.”

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81 Counterevidence According to Hatch’s (2002) inductive an alysis method, it was also necessary for the researcher to find and re port responses which are “coun terevidence” to the salient domains. The domain found by the research er in identifying and analyzing the counterevidence was simply “no.” These respo ndents stated they did not perceive gender to be a factor within agricu ltural communications. One female respondent stated, “I have experienced it, nor have I observed it. Th e field seems to operate on a professional level.” Another female respondent wrote, “N o, I don’t think it is. Where I work men and women are treated pretty equa l and I’ve never seen otherwise.” One male respondent stated, “Probably not so much today as in past,” while anot her male respondent answered similarly, “No any longer. The most succes sful communicators I personally know are female.” A female respondent wrote, “It has been my experience that we always hire the most qualified individual—regardless of ge nder.” Another female respondent stated, “No, I don’t think it is. where I work men a nd women are treated pr etty equal and I’ve never seen otherwise.” A male respondent stated, “As I look around at my peers, I see a pretty good gender balance, including leadersh ip positions.” Other responses for this domain included three male respondents who wrote, “Never witnessed gender being a factor,” “Haven’t noticed it to be...,” and “I do not see this as an issue in ag communications, at all—.” Another male respondent stated, “No, because everyone (male or female) has an opportunity to complete each task to their ab ilities, not gender.”

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82 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION Summary This study was a descriptive census survey of current, active U.S. ACE members’ perceptions of job satisfaction, as well as th eir perceptions of gender roles within their organizations, and throughout the agricu ltural communications industry. A mailed questionnaire was utilized to collect data from respondents about their overall job satisfaction, their faceted job satisfaction (“work,” “supervision,” “coworkers,” “pay,” and “opportunities for promotion”), and their perceptions of gender-related situations. Data analysis and results were presented in Chapter 4. Of the 510-member accessible population of current, active U.S. ACE memb ers, 35.1% responded. This chapter will describe the key findings and implications of this study, organized by research objective, followed by discussion, limitations of th e study, and recommendations for future research. Key Findings and Implications Objective One of this study was to descri be the demographics of the population of current, active, U.S.-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age, income level, educat ion, marital status, and position. Based upon analysis of this objective, conducted by calculating frequency distributions of respondents’ demographics, re sults indicated that a majo rity of respondents (85.8%, n=151) work for an agricultural institution of higher education. The gender breakdown of respondents was 58.8% female (n=104) and 4 1.2% male (n=73), and almost all of the

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83 respondents were Caucasian (94.9%, n=168). Because this was a census study of the ACE membership, this finding suggests that employment trends within ACE are similar to other communications fields in which num bers of women are increasing (Scherler, 2001). Another key finding was that the majority of respondents listed their age as between 40 and 49 years old (29.0%, n=51) or between 50-59 year s old (29.5%, n=52). Salary data gathered in this study showed that 29.1% of re spondents said th eir salary fell between $20,000-40,000, while 41.7 % of respondent s said their salary fell between $41,000-60,000. Although no specific question on respondents’ job description was included, respondents were asked to choose fr om a list of ACE Speci al Interest Groups (SIGs) which closest describe d their current job; 30.6% (n=5 3) selected “writing/media relations/marketing,” and 26.0% (n= 45) selected “publishing/graphic design/photography.” A review of the salary data of media workers across communications fields presented in Chap ter One showed that public relations practitioners had an average salary of $46,000-65,000 (US Census Bureau, 2000). Technical writers had an average salary of $47,000-55,000 and news reporters had an average salary of $44,000-55,000 (US Census Bu reau, 2000). Editors had an average salary of $42,000-53,000 and photographers had an average salary of $29,000-43,000 (US Census Bureau, 2000). Objective Two was to describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and faceted job satisfacti on (JDI). Respondents’ job sa tisfaction was also described in terms of individual items included in the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)

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84 job satisfactions scale. Finally, scaled and individual items from the three scales were described in terms of respondents’ gender. A key finding with respec t to perceptions of job satisfaction was that res pondents indicated that they were satisfied with their agricultural communications jobs overall, based on the Job in General (JIG) scale. This is similar to evidence presented in Chap ter One suggesting that both men and women tend to be satisfied with th eir jobs overall in communica tions fields (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Seri ni et. al, 1997; Stone, 2004a,b,c,d). Interestingly, although respondents were satisfied with the job satisfaction facets “work,” “supervision,” and “coworkers,” as measured by the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), they were not satisfied with the facets “pay” and “opportunities for promotion.” An implication of this finding may be that, simila r to other studies of job satisfaction using the JIG and JDI, individuals may perceive a general level of satisfaction based on perceived satisfaction with some facets but not others (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Scherler, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997; Stone, 2004a,b,c,d) It may also be the case that although pay and promotion opportunities in an academic environment may not be proportionate with i ndustry, individuals who choose to work in an academic setting may value other facets, such as supervision, work, or coworkers more. As with the JIG scale, res pondents’ responses to items in the PRSA job satisfaction scale indicated general satisfac tion with their present job in agricultural communications. Respondents indicated moderate satisfaction with their in come as an agricultural communications practitioner and with opportun ities for advancement with their present

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85 employer. Similar to the JDI facets of pay and promotion, items corresponding to these two indexes were among the lowest in terms of respondents’ perceptions of satisfaction. To further analyze this objective, res pondents were grouped by gender in order to re-analyze their perceptions of job satisfaction based on the JIG, JDI, and PRSA job satisfaction scales. Results in dicated that both female a nd male respondent groups were generally satisfied with their jobs, based on the JIG and PRSA scales. Both female and male respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the JDI facets of “pay” and “opportunities for promotion,” and moderate satisfaction on the corresponding indivi dual PRSA items. Many job satisfaction studies w ithin communication fields s uggested that women tend to be less satisfied than men with these facets as was the case in this study (Barret, 1984; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997). On the JDI scale, female respondents’ satisfaction sc ores were M=16.33 for promotion and M=32.45 for pay, while male respondents’ satisfac tion scores were M=20.97 for promotion and M=34.89 for pay. Although not statistically si gnificant, the low scores for the female group do correspond to the findings of the communication job satisfaction research reviewed for this study. Objective Three was to describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents’ perceptions of gende r roles. Perceptions of gender roles were then further described in terms of respondents’ gender. Items used to measure gender roles were designed to be answered by re spondents first in terms of th eir own work organization and then in terms of the agricu ltural communications industry as a whole. Based on the above, respondents in this study indicated they did believe there were more women than

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86 men in agricultural communications, both in their work organi zations and throughout agricultural communications as an industry. In general, however, respondents did not indicate strong agreement or disagreement with most of the gender role items for either scale (in their own work organization and for the agricultural communications industry as a whole). For the PRSA items based on perceptions of gender roles for the agricultural communicat ions industry as a whole, responses with the highest level of agreemen t were for items stating that men receive higher salaries than women for comparable agricultural communications work, and for agricultural communications management pos itions. In addition, respondents disagreed the most with the item stating that in th e agricultural communications industry, women are more likely than men to be hired in management positions that involve problemsolving and decision-making. An implicati on of these findings is that respondents seemed to agree, to some extent, at least in some situations, women may earn less and be less likely to be hired for some management positions in agricultural communications. For the PRSA items based on perceptions of gender roles for the agricultural communications industry as a whole, female respondents indicated th eir highest level of agreement with the statement “women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs.” Male respondents indicated their highest agreement for the items based on per ceptions of gender roles for the agricultural communications industry as a whole with the statement “there are more women than men in agricultural communications.” The female respondents group disagreed the most with the statement “men are more likely than women to back down from an office confrontation situation in agricultural communications.” Male respondents, however,

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87 disagreed the most with the statement “members of my audience pref er male agricultural communicators.” For the PRSA items based on perceptions of gender roles within their own work organizations, female respondents agreed the most that there are more women than men in agricultural communications, while male respondents agreed the most with the statement there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications today. As with their responses to the gender role items for the agricultura l communications industry as whole, female respondents indicated the mo st disagreement with men being more likely than women to back down from an office confrontation situation in their own work organization. Male respondents, however, di sagreed the most with the item indicating that women received lower salaries than men for comparable work. In addition to the quantitative portions of this study, the research er included a set of nominal “yes/no” questions, followed by an opportunity for open-ended qualitative responses. A key finding for this section of the study was that the majority of respondents (75.1%) stated they had not expe rienced any situations in agricultural communications in the last five years in wh ich they felt their gender was a factor. In addition, the majority of res pondents (79.1%) stated they have not experienced any form of inequality in their field due to gender in the last five year s. Finally, 60% of respondents stated they did not feel ge nder was a factor w ithin agricultural communications. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended re sponses yielded several common themes. The first was “agriculture=male,” in which re spondents described agriculture workplaces as being male-dominated environments, and described problematic behaviors related to

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88 this. The second theme was “sex or gender roles” and included responses on women’s roles both in the workplace, agricultural co mmunication, and in the fi eld of agriculture. The third theme in this section was th e “good old boys” theme, wherein respondents stated they felt gender sh ut people out of the power structure of agricultural communications. Finally, the fourth theme was “discrimination,” in which respondents described both perceptions and experien ces of gender discrimination or sexual harassment. Key counterevidence themes from this section included descriptions of women’s advancement, attributing any genderrelated problems to society as a whole, and finally that gender is not a factor at all in agricu ltural communications. As described in Chapter Two, one of the trends found in gender/work research is the denial of gender problems or inequali ty (Toth & Cline, 19 89; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Rhode, 1997). According to Rhode ( 1997), both women and men fail to recognize and even reject the idea of ge nder inequality. This is important to understand because the quantitative results in this section show that the majority of the respondents do not feel gender is an issue within agricultural comm unications, but once the qualitative responses were analyzed, a somewhat different pict ure emerged. Although not a majority, many female respondents provided examples of the “good old boys” network, how they felt agriculture is male-dominated, how women ca nnot reach higher positions in agricultural communications, that women are paid less th an men for similar work, and that men receive promotions/raises where women do not. In addition, the responses under the counterevidence domain suggested any gender pr oblem belongs to “society” rather than agricultural communication. A few male responde nts even stated that this study was not something that should be researched because there were other things that were needed

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89 instead (although they did not list ideas). This difference in quantitative and qualitative evidence can be possibly attributed in part to some respondents’ cognitive dissonance, especially the idea of forced compliance th rough which individuals will change their behaviors or opinions in order to fit the social norm (Festinger, 1957). Similar to spiral of silence theory, the threat of punishment for not complying with the social group’s ideas or the promise of a reward for comp lying with them can motivate a change in public behavior (Festinger, 1957). Limitations Although this study presents several key fi ndings with respect to perceptions of gender and gender roles within agricultural communications, there are some limitations which must be addressed. One limitation of this study was the adap tation of the PRSA job satisfaction and gender roles scales. Thes e instruments were originally developed for the public relations field, and were somewhat generic in nature. As a result, given the uniqueness of agricultural communications, some items might have been less specifically applicable to agricultural communications prac titioners. To address this, the researcher did clarify and revise any areas of confusion that were not ed during the pilot study with the instrument (McGovney, Irani, & Telg, 2005). The overall response rate for this study of was 35.1%, which, while considered acceptable for a first-time gender study within agricultural communications, does not represent a majority of active, U.S. ACE memb ers. Every attempt was made to increase the response rate, but limita tions were found. Surveying me dia practitioners, including writers, editors, graphic designers, who tend to have hectic schedules and deadlines is notoriously difficult. Second, due to the 2004 hurricane season, th e time frame during

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90 which the research was conducted spread unavoidably over the holiday season, specifically Thanksgiving, perhaps affecti ng the response rate as well. A final limitation to this study was its natu re as a census survey of active, U.S. ACE members in 2004. The results found in th is study, therefore, cannot be generalized to all of ACE, including retired or intern ational members, or even to agricultural communications as a whole. They do, however allow for insight into the influence of gender in the agricultural co mmunications domain, and to what could be occurring for agricultural communicators with similar demogr aphics and employment situations. Discussion Based on the data collected in this study, members of ACE are predominantly white females working for land-grant universitie s. In addition, ACE members realize that there is a shifting demographic within agri cultural communications, moving to a greater number of women being employed in ag ricultural communicati ons positions. This study indicates that ACE member res pondents, on the whole, are satisfied with their current jobs, but are dissatisfied with their pay and opportunities for promotion. This is not surprising, given that the majority work for higher education institutions. It can be assumed that most people do not wo rk in higher education for the money, but rather for the fulfillment they receive fr om their work. In addition, comparable agricultural communications jobs in private i ndustry tend to pay more. Added to that, communications workers in general tend to be satisfied with their jobs as a whole. Although female ACE members indicated greate r dissatisfaction with the facets of pay and promotion, male respondents also indica ted dissatisfaction with these items which was somewhat surprising. It could be th e case that both women and men working in agricultural communications pe rceive their promotion opportunities and pay as lower

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91 than the norm, based on their understanding of the pay and promotional differential within the industry, but still find their positions satisfying in other ways that compensate for these dissatisfaction areas. That this may be true for both male and female agricultural communicators may be a sign of progress in the field. Despite conflicting data, there does seem to still be a glass ceiling of sorts, at least to some extent for some women, in ag ricultural communications employment as experienced by ACE member respondents that affects positions, salary, raises, and promotion opportunities. Most of the fe male respondents who provided qualitative responses discussed aspects of the glass ceili ng they have experienced. However, it is important to note that fewer respondents gave qualitative responses than answered the similar quantitative researcher-developed items. Education is one of th e original fields in which a greater number of female workers en tering the profession resulted in lowered pay, opportunities for promotion, and loss of prestige for the j ob. Because the majority of ACE members studied work in a higher educati on environment, it is possible that they are affected by this on two fronts—that of communications and education. The discussion by female ACE member respond ents with respect to the qualitative themes of “agriculture=male” and a “good ol d boys” network is an important one to acknowledge for agriculture as a whole. Since many subsets of agriculture are now also becoming female-dominated, as seen in agricultural universities across the U.S., (Telg, personal communication, April 200 5), many of the concerns listed throughout this study by both the literature in th e field and the ACE member respondents need to be considered. How will this growing demographi c of women in the traditional male world

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92 of agriculture work together? Will there be changes, so that those women who do feel excluded in this world will come to f eel more accepted in the workplace? What is interesting is the level of diss onance seen in the differences between the responses of the quantitative a nd qualitative portions of the study. This is important to discuss, because this could suggest that ge nder inequality or gender issues are not as overt as they once were. Instead, they may be below the surface, where they could be perceived as normal, which is problematic fo r any social or work environment. No longer is gendered behavior a nd interactions in the profe ssional world a black-and-white discussion. Instead, the varying shades of gray serve to conf use the discourse. Added to this, a few of the male ACE members demonstr ated in their qualitative responses that they are resentful of women being promot ed, citing affirmative action and political correctness. Based on these findings, the idea that gender is a factor which needs to be addressed is unquestionable. Recommendations Recommendations For Practitioners And Managers The first recommendation from this study’s findings is that agricultural communications practitioners need to understand that gender can still be a factor within the work environment. Based on the result s of this study, agricu ltural communications practitioners should look to their own behavi or first to ensure they are working in a professional manner. Also, practitioners shoul d never hesitate to call attention to any situation within the agricultural communications work environment in which they feel something is inappropriate. A lthough most respondents did not feel gender was an issue, qualitative responses indicated some questiona ble behavior and bias does still exist, at

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93 least for some practitioners. In a modern profession like agricultural communications, a policy of zero tolerance for this type of behavior is always th e wisest course of action. Managers and leaders within agricultural communications should be open to first understanding what inappropriate gender-rela ted behavior consists of and second to supporting employees who may feel they have experienced an unfair gender-related work situation. In addition, as wo rking communicators, ACE memb ers and other agricultural communicators should understand that they can inadvertently replicate unequal gender roles within their communications work and therefore should make a special effort to ensure they do not do so. Another recommendation is that gender w ithin the work environment should be at least addressed in the curriculum of agri cultural communications departments across the U.S. Preferably, as part of the struct ured curriculum, there should be required coursework that would allow agricultural co mmunications instructors and students to enter into a discussion to highlight the aspects of a growing female employment demographic and gendered work roles. This discussion should also include addressing gender-related work situations within an empl oyment situation so that students, if they come to experience them, do not feel bound by subversive gender perceptions and actions. Although many agricultu ral communications departme nts have a larger number of female students than male students, it is im portant to address these issues with both for a more full understanding (Scherler, 2001; Sp recker & Rudd, 1998). This discussion should take place within pre or post internsh ip courses and/or capstone courses if a department has these courses available to st udents. Because not all departments have these types of courses available, a work shop should be developed by the student

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94 professional group Agricultural Communicat ors of Tomorrow with which most departments are associated. This works hop should be available for member and nonmember institutions alike, so faculty can ad dress still discuss this important topic with agricultural communica tions students. A similar workshop should also be de veloped on the professional level by ACE and then provided to its members at th e annual meeting as an individual session. This professional workshop should also be av ailable to ACE members year-round so they can conduct it on their own. Because some agricultural communications departments are combined (ex Agricultural Education a nd Communications) the faculty and staff participating in this workshop could then shar e the information with other faculty within their department. Recommendations For Future Research One recommendation for future study that arises out of this study is to conduct more qualitative research with the census population, both in focus groups and in phone interviews, to allow ACE members to more fu lly express their ideas and perceptions of gender. Qualitative research may limit potentia l response bias seen in survey research, where respondents may try to answer in ways they perceive to be more socially acceptable. In addition, qualitative research allows for the introduction of related or new topics that respondents may wish to bring into the discussion. Another recommendation for future research is to expand the scope of this study to include a larger population of agricultural communicators. This could start with members of other agricultural communications professional organizations such as the Ag Relations Council, American Agricultural Ed itors Association, Nati onal Association of Farm Broadcasters, Livestoc k Publications Council, and National Agri-Marketing

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95 Association. Because not all agricultural communicators choose to join professional organizations, it is also recommended that fu ture researchers use th e graduation lists of agricultural communications academic depart ments to expand the study population. As agricultural communications becomes mo re and more feminized, it is important to look at the experiences from this employme nt trend in other comm unications fields. If we want a different outcome for agricultu ral communications, the job satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, findings of this study must be recognized and then addressed. That both male and female agricultural communicators indicated dissatisfaction with their pay and promotion opportunities is signifi cant. Opportunities must be available to address these issues at all levels (student s, faculty, practitione rs) if we want to continue to build agricultural communicati ons as a field.

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96 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL STATEMENT

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97 APPENDIX B SURVEY INSTRUMENT Instructions—Thank you for your participation in this survey. Your identity will not be disclosed and will be protected to the extent of the law and your answer s will be confidential. Please take your time in answering questions on this survey and select the answer that is most accurate for you and your own experiences. The beginning of this survey should be answered on the scantron provided. Do not fill out any of the personal information on the scantron. Please bubble the corresponding response on the scantron as instructed with each set of questions. Answers for the last two sections should be given on this form. I. Please indicate the one category that best describes your organization by bubbling the corresponding answer on the scantron by question number one. 1 For profit company 2 Trade or professional organization 3 Agricultural Institution of Higher Education 4 Government Agency 6 Other II. Please answer the next set of questions by bu bbling a number 1 through 5 on the scantron, where: 1=extremely dissatisfied 2=dissatisf ied 3=uncertain/don't know 4= satisfied 5=extremely satisfied How satisfied are you with… 2 your present job in agricultural communications? 1 2 3 4 5 3 agricultural communications as an occupation? 1 2 3 4 5 4 your income as an agricultural communication practitioner? 1 2 3 4 5 5 the prestige of working in agricultural communications? 1 2 3 4 5 6 your knowledge of agricultural communications skills? 1 2 3 4 5 7 your overall knowledge of agricultural communications? 1 2 3 4 5 8 prospects for your future with your present employer? 1 2 3 4 5 9 the value of your job to society? 1 2 3 4 5 10 the freedom and autonomy you have in your present job? 1 2 3 4 5 11 prospects for your future in agricultural communication? 1 2 3 4 5 12 opportunities for advancement with your present employer? 1 2 3 4 5 13 job security in your present position? 1 2 3 4 5 14 recognition you get from superiors? 1 2 3 4 5 15 how your family and/or friends feel about your working in agricultural communication? 1 2 3 4 5

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98 III. Please answer the next set of questions by bu bbling a 1, 2 or 3 for each word or phrase on the scantron, where: 1 =yes 2 =no 3 =you cannot decide Think of your job in general. All in all, what is it like most of the time? On the scantron next to each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word or phrase describes your job, 2 if it does not describe your job, or 3 if you cannot decide. 16___Pleasant 17___Bad 18___Ideal 19___Waste of Time 20___Good 21___Undesirable 22___Worthwhile 23___Worse than most 24___Acceptable 25___Superior 26___Better than Most 27___Disagreeable 28___Makes me content 29___Inadequate 30___Excellent 31___Rotten 32___Enjoyable 33___Poor Think of the work you do at presen t. How well does each of the followi ng words or phrases describe your work? On the scantron next to each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word or phrase describes your work, 2 if it does not describe it, or 3 if you cannot decide. 34___Fascinating 35___Routine 36___Satisfying 37___Boring 38___Good 39___Gives sense of accomplishment 40___Respected 41___Uncomfortable 42___Pleasant 43___Useful 44___Challenging 45___Simple 46___Repetitive 47___Creative 48___Dull 49___Uninteresting 50___Can see results 51___Uses my abilities

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99 Think of the pay you get no w. How well does each of the following words or phrases describe your present pay? On the scantron next to each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word or phrase describes your present pay, 2 if it does not, or 3 if you cannot decide. 52___Income adequate for normal expenses 53___Fair 54___Barely live on income 55___Bad 56___Income provides luxuries 57___Less than I deserve 58___Well paid 59___Insecure 60___Underpaid Think of the opportunities for promotion that you have now. How well does each of the following words or phrases describe these? On the scantron beside each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word or phrase describes your opportunities for promotion, 2 if it does not, or 3 if you cannot decide. 61___Good opportunities for promotion 62___Opportunities somewhat limited 63___Promotion on ability 64___Dead-end job 65___Good chance for promotion 66___Unfair promotion policy 67___Infrequent promotions 68___Regular promotions 69___Fairly good chance for promotion Think of the kind of supervision th at you get on your job. How well do es each of the fo llowing words or phrases describe this? On the scantron beside each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word or phrase describes the supervision you get on the job, 2 if it does not describe it, or 3 if you cannot decide. 70___Asks my advice 71___Hard to please 72___Impolite 73___Praises good work 74___Tactful 75___Influential 76___Up-to-date 77___Doesn’t supervise enough 78___Has favorites 79___Tells me where I stand 80___Annoying 81___Stubborn 82___Knows job well 83___Bad 84___Intelligent 85___Poor planner 86___Around when needed 87___Lazy

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100 Think of the majority of people with whom you work or meet in connection with your work. How well does each of the following words or phrases describe these people? On the scantron beside each corresponding number, bubble a 1 if the word of phrase describes these people, 2 if it does not describe it, or 3 if you cannot describe. 88___Stimulating 89___Boring 90___Slow 91___Helpful 92___Stupid 93___Responsible 94___Fast 95___Intelligent 96___Easy to make enemies 97___Talk too much 98___Smart 99___Lazy 100___Unpleasant 101___Gossipy 102___Active 103___Narrow interests 104___Loyal 105___Stubborn IV. We would like you to answer a series of quest ions to help us understand the demographics of ACE members. Please bubble the most appropriate answer for each question. 106 Are you currently a manager in your organi zation or institution (ie supervising one or more employees)? 1 yes 2 no (if no, skip to question 109) 107 If you answered yes, how many y ears have you been in this position? 1 Less than a year 2 1-5 years 3 6-10 years 4 11-20 years 5 30-40 years 108 If so, how many people do you supervise? 1 1 person 2 2-5 people 3 6-10 people 4 11-15 people 5 16+ people 109 What is your gender? 1 male 2 female

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101 110 What is your age? 1 20-29 2 30-39 3 40-49 4 50-59 5 60+ 111 What is your ethnicity? 1 Caucasian 2 African American 3 Hispanic/Latin American 4 Asian 5 Other__________________________________ 112 Please bubble your marital/partner status: 1 Single 2 Married/live-in partner 3 Divorced 4 Widowed 5 Separated 113 Do you have any children (below 18 years) living at home? 1 Yes 2 No (if no, skip to question 115) 114 If yes, how many? 1 1 child 2 2 children 3 3 children 4 4 children 5 5+ children 115 What is the highest level of formal education you have achieved? 1 High school diploma 2 Bachelor’s degree 3 Master’s degree 4 Doctoral degree 116 How long have you worked in agricultural communication? 1 Less than 2 years 2 2-5 years 3 6-10 years 4 11-20 years 5 21-30 years 117 With which ACE SIG do you most closely relate your job function? 1 Writing/ Media Relations/ Marketing 2 Academic Programs/ Research 3 Electronic Media/ Distance Educatio n and Instructional Design/ Information Technology 4 Communications Management 5 Publishing/Graphic Design/ Photography

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102 118 How many agricultural communications practitioners are there in your department (excluding yourself)? 1 0 2 1 3 2-5 4 6-10 5 11+ 119 In what range does your current salary fall? 1 $20,000-40,000 2 $41,000-60,000 3 $61,000-80,000 4 $81,000-100,000 5 $101,000+ 120 If you have held full-time agricultural communications employment since your graduation from college or your 21st birthday (whichever came later), has this employment ever been interrupted? 1 yes 2 no (if no, skip to question 125) 121 If yes, why was your agricultural communications ca reer interrupted? (please bubble all that apply) 1 illness/injury 2 layoff 3 child bearing/child rearing 4 work in another field 5 additional education 122 What is the longest period you have been without gainful agricultural communications employment since your 21st birthday or college graduation? If you have had no interruptions in agricultural communications employment, please bubble in the number “5” on the scantron. 1 less than 6 months 2 7 months-2 years 3 3-5 years 4 6-10 years 5 10+ years 123 If your career was interrupted and you resumed working sometime later, did you re-enter with the same agricultural communications organization? 1 yes 2 no 124 If you had an agricultural communications career interruption and resumed working, did you return to a position at a higher level, the same level or a lower level? 1 higher level 2 same level 3 lower level The remaining questions are NOT on the scantron. Please provide your responses on the survey as directed, by circling a number or word, or providing a response.

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103 VII. With this next set of questions we are s eeking responses in terms of your perceptions of the way things are, both at your current place of emp loyment and throughout th e field of agricultural communications. Please respond by circling the appropriate number. Your answers in Column A should reflect your perceptions of how things are at your current place of employment. Your answers in Column B should reflect your perceptions of how things are thro ughout agricultural communication. Please circle a number in both columns. 1=strongly disagree(SD) 2=disag ree 3=uncertain/don’t know 4=ag ree 5=strongly agree(SA) COLUMN A COLUMN B In Your Throughout Organization Agricultural Communication SD SA SD SA 125 Generally women receive lower 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural communication work. 126 Women are more likely than men to be hired 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills (writing, editing, graphics, etc.). 127 Women are more likely than men to be hired 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 for agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and decision-making. 128 Men are promoted more quickly than 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 women in most agricultural communications employment situations. 129 Men are more apt than women to back 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 down or seek compromi ses in agricultural communications office conflict situations. 130 If an equally capable woman and man 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 applied for the same agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired. 131 Women often are hired as a result of 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 affirmative action policies. 132 There is less sexual harassment in 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago. 133 It is more difficult for women than it is 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 for men to reach the top in agricultural communications. 134 Women in agricultural communications 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 management positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs.

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104 135 There are more women than men 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 in agricultural communications. 136 Members of my audience prefer 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 to work with male agricultural communicators. VIII. For the following questions, mark either yes or no, and then please provide a detailed response when asked. 137 Have you experienced any situations within your work in agricultural communication in which you felt your gender was a factor in the last five years? ___Yes ___No If yes, please describe the situation _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 138 Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender or sexual harassment within your work in agricultural communication in the last five years? ___Yes ___No If yes, please describe the situation _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 139 Do you feel gender is a fact or within agricultural communication? ___Yes ___No Please elaborate_________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

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105 APPENDIX C INITIAL CONTACT LETTER (1ST WAVE) Dear ACE Members: You will soon be receiving a mail survey fr om one of our members, Rebecca McGovney. Rebecca is a master’s student at the Universi ty of Florida in agricultural communications and this survey is for her th esis, which is a study of the Pe rceptions of Job Satisfaction and Gender Bias Among Agricultur al Communications Practitioners. The survey, which will only take 20 minutes of your time, contains questions on your role as an agricultural comm unicator, your perceptions of job satisfaction both in your organization and the industry, as well as some questions on your perceptions on gender roles within agricultural communications. Your answers on this survey are completely co nfidential and will be written in her thesis with no identifying information whatsoever. Pl ease be assured that your identity will be will not be disclosed and will be protected to th e extent of the law. Your participation in Rebecca’s survey is completely voluntary, and truly appreciated. Sincerely, Judy Winn ACE President

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106 APPENDIX D SURVEY COVER LETTER (2ND WAVE) October 8, 2004 Dear ACE Member, My name is Rebecca McGovney and I am a fe llow ACE member and a graduate student pursuing a master’s degree in agricultural comm unications at the University of Florida. For my thesis, I am studying ACE members and their perceptions of many aspects of our industry, including job satisfac tion, workplace behavior and gender roles. My committee members include Dr. Tracy Irani and Dr. Ricky Telg. As an ACE member, your input a nd participation in this survey is highly valued, whether you are currently working in ag ricultural communications or not. Your participation in this survey is voluntary, t hough greatly appreciated. The enclosed survey includes questions to be answered by bubbli ng in your answer on the enclosed scantron, as well as some toward the end that are to be answered directly on the questionnaire booklet. Pleas e return the completed survey and scantron form to me in the provided envelope by October 20. Y our identity will not be disclosed during any portion of this study, but we have provided a second business size envelope if you wish to return your signed informed consent statemen t separately from your completed survey. If you have any questions, please contact me at (352) 392-0502 Ext. 244 or by email at RLMcGovney@ifas.ufl.edu. Thank you for helping us to learn about ACE members. Sincerely, Rebecca L. McGovney Graduate Assistant Department of Agricultural Education and Communication University of Florida

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107 APPENDIX E INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT Please read this consent document carefully befo re deciding to participate in this study. Once you have read the following, sign and return with your completed survey. My name is Rebecca McGovney and I am a gr aduate student in the Department of Agricultural Education and Co mmunication at the University of Florida. I am studying the perceptions of job satis faction and the roles of agricultural communications practitioners. Your participation in this study is complete ly voluntary, and trul y appreciated. If you choose to participate, your identity will not be disclosed and will be protected to the extent of the law and your answers will be confid ential. However, if this data was to be subpoenaed by a court your identity will be revealed. This survey will take around 30 minutes to complete. You can stop at any time without penalty and you do not have to answer any que stions you do not want to answer. There are no known risks for participating in th is study and there is no compensation or benefits. Due to the nature of some of the questions on gender discrimination and/or sexual harassment situations, you may experi ence some discomfort while answering them. If you have any questions or concern, please contact myself or my committee chair, Dr. Tracy Irani, at 352-392-0502. Mailing addr ess is PO Box 110540, Gainesville, FL 32611-0540. Any questions or concerns about your rights as a resear ch participant can be answered by the UF Institutional Review Board (IRB) office, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250 or by phone at 352-392-0433. By returning this signed form I agree that I have read and re ceived a copy of the procedure described above. In signi ng I voluntarily agree to participate. _______________________________________________________________ Participant Signature Date

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108 APPENDIX F THANK YOU/REMINDER POSTCARD (3RD WAVE) Department of Agricultural Education and Communication PO Box 110540 Gainesville, FL 32611-0450 Hello ACE Member! Last week we sent you a questionnaire as king for your opinion on certain aspects of working within agricultural communicatio ns. If you have already completed and returned the survey, then please accept our thanks for your participation. If you have not had the chance to complete th e survey, we would encourage you to do so now. As an ACE member, your opinion on the industry is valued for our study. Thank you so much for your help in this mater. Rebecca L. McGovney Project Director

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109 APPENDIX G SURVEY REMINDER EMAIL (4TH WAVE) Hello ACE Members! I know as things get busy toward s the end of the year things can pile up on our desks. Each of you received a copy of my master’s survey a few weeks ago that may have gotten lost among the piles. If you have comp leted my survey…thank you very much. If you have not had the chance yet, I would apprec iate it if you could ta ke a few minutes to help me with my research. If you would like a new copy of the survey, feel free to contact me at RLMcGovney@ifas.ufl.edu or 352-392-1773. Thanks again for your help and I look forward to hearing from you. Rebecca L. McGovney Graduate Assistant Department of Agricultural Education and Communication University of Florida

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110 LIST OF REFERENCES Arnold, M. & Hendrickson, M. (2003). Women in newspapers 2003 challenging the status quo. Retrieved June 20, 2004, from http://www.mediamanagementcenter. org/center/web/publications/win2003.htm American Society of Newspaper Editors. (2004, April). Newsroom employment Ccensus 2003. Retrieved June 12, 2004, from http ://www.asne.org/indes.cfm?id=1138 Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE). Retrieved June 26, 2004, from http://www.aceweb.org Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology 3 265-299. Barrett, G. (1984, Autumn). Job sa tisfaction among newspaperwomen. Journalism Quarterly, 61( 3), 593-599. Barrick, M. & Ryan, A. (Eds.). (2003). Personality and work San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. Benokraitis, N. (1997). Subtle sexism, current prac tice and prospects for change Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. Boone, K., Meisenbach, T. & Tucker, M. (2000). Agricultural communications: Changes and challenges. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. Brayfield, A. & Rothe, H. (1951, Oct ober). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35 (5), 307-311. Bowen, B. & Cooper, B. (1989). A profile of agricultural communications graduates of The Ohio State University (Report No. OSU-SR-52). Columbus, Ohio: Department of Agricultural Education (ERIC Docu ment Reproduction Service No. ED 308 291). Buck, C. & Paulson, C. (1995). Character istics, educational preparation, and membership in professional organiza tions of agricultural communicators. Journal of Applied Communications, 79 (2), 1-13.

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111 Burr, R. (1980). Job satisfaction determinants for sele cted administrators in Florida’s community colleges and universities: an application of Herzberg’s motivatorhygiene theory. Unpublished doctoral disserta tion, University of Florida, Gainesville. Carnahan, W. (2000). A br ief history of ACE. Journal of Applied Communications, 84 (3): 7-19. Obtained July 10, 2004, fro m Agricultural Communications Documentation Center. Cleveland, J., Stockdale, M. & Murphy, K. (2000). Women and men in organizations. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Code, L. (2000). Encyclopedia of feminist theory New York, New York: Routledge. Communication Research Associates, Inc. (2002, Fall). Women pessimistic about moving up at newspapers, Plan Fresh Starts. Media Report to Women, 30 (4), 1-3. Communication Research Associates, Inc. ( 2002, Winter). Progress stalled for newspaper Women; greater numbers but not greater advancement. Media Report to Women, 30 (1), 1, 3-4. Communication Research Associates, Inc. (2004, Spring). U.S. newsroom employment falls; small gains for women, minorities. Media Report to Women, 32 (2), 1-2. Creedon, P. (Ed.). (1989). Women in mass communication challenging gender values Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc. Crompton, R. & Sanderson, K. (1990). Gendered jobs and social change London, England: Unwin Hyman Ltd. DeFleur, M. (1992, Spring). Foundations of j ob satisfaction in the media industries. Journalism Educator, 47 (1), 3-15. DeLaat, J. (1999). Gender in the workplace: A case study approach Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. Dillman, D. (2000). Mail and internet Surveys, the tailored design New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dines, G. & Humez, J. (Eds.). (2003). Gender, race, and class in media Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. Doerfert, D., Akers, C., Davis, C., Compton, K., Irani, T., & Rutherford, T. (2004, June). A national needs assessment for the pre paration and development of agricultural communications professionals. Presented at the 2004 National Agricultural Communications Summit. Lake Tahoe, Nevada.

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112 Eagly, A. & Chaiken, S. (1993 ). The psychology of attitudes Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Echo Research Inc. (2002, March). PR Week salary survey 2002 New York, New York: Echo Research Inc. Retrieved October 2004, from http://www.fpraorlando.org/PRWeek%202002%20Survey.pdf Entman, R. & Rojecki, A. (2001). The black image in the white mind: media and race in America Chicago, Illinois: Chi cago University Press. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance White Plains, New York: Row, Peterson and Company. Fiske, S. (1995). Social cognition In Abraham Tesser (Ed.), Advanced social psychology (pp. 148-193). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Gallagher, M. (1981). Unequal opportunities the ca se of women and the media Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Sc ientific and Cultura l Organization. Groseth, R. (1978). An investigation of the motivator-hygiene theory of job satisfaction among selected student affairs administrators Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Grunig, J. (Ed.). (1992). Excellence in public relations and communication management Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Grunig, L., Toth, E. & Hon, L. (2001). Women in public relations New York, New York: The Guilford Press. Harkness, S. & Waldfogel, J. (1999, November). The family gap in pay: evidence from seven industrialized countries. London, England: Economic and Social Research Council Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Hartmann, H. & Reskin, B. (Eds.). (1986). Women’s work, men’s work: sex segregation on the job Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Hatch, A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Higgins, C. & Staples, C. (1998, Winter). A study of the impact of factor importance weightings on job satisfaction measures. Journal of Business and Psychology, 13 (2), 211-232. Hill, G & Hill, K. Law.com dictionary Obtained December 12, 2003, from the world wide web: www.law.com.

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113 Hilt, M. (1988, April). Agricultural Communicators in Education (ACE) to celebrate 75th Birthday United States Department of Agri culture News Division. Obtained July 10, 2004, from the Agricultural Communications Documentation Center. Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Givson, & Paul. (1989). Construction of a job in general scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74 (2), 193-200. Jamieson, K. (2001). Progress or no room at the top? the role of women in telecommunications, broadcast, cable and e-companies. Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org/ 02_reports_releases/report_2001.htm Jeffers, D. (1987, August). A descriptive study of pe rceived impact of gender on employment status, type of work, industry relationships, working environment and job satisfaction in livestock industry magazines Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. San Antonio, Texas. Kalleberg, A. (1977, February). Work valu es and job rewards: a theory of job satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 42 124-143. Kimmel, M. (2004). The gendered society New York, New York: Oxford University Press. Marlane, J. (1999). Women in television news revisited Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. Mowday, R., Porter, L. & Steers, R. (1982). Employee-organization linkages: the psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover New York, New York: Academic Press, Inc. McGovney, R., Irani, T., & Telg, R. (2005, February). Perceptions of j ob satisfaction and gender roles among select Florida agri cultural communication practitioners. Presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Associati on of Agricultural Scientists. Little Rock, Arkansas. Padavic, I. & Reskin, B. (1994). Women and men at work Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press. Papper, B. (2003, July/August). Women and mi norities one step fo rward and two steps back. Communicator, 21-25. Pierce, J. (1998, February). Personal co rrespondence obtained March 8, 2004, from the Agricultural Communications Documentation Center. Rentner, T.L., & Bissland, J.H. (1990, Winte r). Job satisfaction and its correlates among public relations workers. Journalism Quarterly, 67 (4), 950-955.

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114 Rhoades, E. (2004). An examination of the adoption of the internet in agriculture magazines. Unpublished master’s thesis, Univer sity of Florida, Gainesville. Rhode, D. (1997). Speaking of sex Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Sapp, M. (2002, February). Are there e qual opportunities for female journalists? The ByLine. Obtained March 8, 2004, from the Agricultural Communications Documentation Center. Scherler, C. (2001). Job satisfaction of University of Florida agricultural communication alumni. Unpublished master’s thesis, Universi ty of Florida, Gainesville. Selnow, G.W. & Wilson, S. (1985). Sex roles and job satisfaction in public relations. American Psychologist, 11 (4), 38-47. Serini, S., Toth, E., Wright, D. & Emi g, A. (1997). Watch for falling glass…women, men, and job satisfaction in public relations: A Preliminary Analysis. Journal of Public Relations Research, 9 (2), 99-118. Smith, P., Kendall, L. & Hulin, C. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement; a strategy for the study of attitudes. Chicago, Illinois: Rand McNally. Sprecker, K. & Rudd, R. (1998). Opinions of practitioners concerning curricula Requirements of agricultural communication students of the University of Florida. Journal of Applied Communications, 82 (1), 31-41. Steeves, H.L. (1987, June). Femini st theories an d media studies Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4 (2), 95-135. Stone, G., Singletary, M., & Richmond, V. (1999). Clarifying communication theories a hands-on approach Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. Stone, V. (2000a). Gender gaps and factors in radio news salaries Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.missouri.edu/~jourvs/ Stone, V. (2000b). Gender gaps and factors in television news salaries Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.missouri.edu/~jourvs/ Stone, V. (2000c). Job satisfaction in radio news Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.missouri.edu/~jourvs/ Stone, V. (2000d). Job satisfaction in TV news Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.missouri.edu/~jourvs/ Terry, Jr., R. & Bailey-Evans, F.J. (1995). Competencies needed for graduates of agricultural communications programs Presented at of the 44th Annual Southern Agricultural Education Researcher Meet ing. Wilmington, North Carolina.

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115 Tosi, H. & Mero, N. (2003). The fundamental of organizational behavior Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Toth, E. & Cline, C. (Eds.). (1989). Beyond the velvet ghetto San Francisco, California: IABC Research Foundation. United States Census Bureau. (2004a, June). Earnings distribution of female U.S. yearround full-time workers by occupation: 1999 Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t33.html United States Census Bureau. (2004b, June). Earnings distribution of male U.S. yearround full-time workers by occupation: 1999 Retrieved July 10, 2004, from http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t33.html Weaver, D., Beam, R., Brownlee, B., Vo akes, P., & Wilhoit, G. (2003, April). Indiana University School of Journa lism American journalist survey Retrieved June 20, 2004, from http://www.poynter.org/cont ent/content_view.asp?id=28235 Women at work. (1976, September). AgriMarketing 17. Obtained March 8, 2004, from the Agricultural Communications Documentation Center.

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116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rebecca Lynn McGovney was born in Houston, Texas, on December 27, 1979. She grew up in Spring, Texas, where she gra duated from Klein Oak High School in 1998. Rebecca attended Stephens College in Colu mbia, Missouri, where she received a Bachelor of Science in Mass Communication: Journalism in December of 2002. She also attended the University of Missouri-Columb ia part-time to take courses relating to agricultural journalism. During this time Rebecca was a member of Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow at the University of Missouri, serving one semester as club treasurer. She also worked her way through th e newsroom staff of St ephens Life, starting as a staff writer and ending as the pape r’s news editor. Rebecca worked as a communications intern for Texas Cooperati ve Extension, Texas A&M University, in Harris County writing press releas es and working on publications. After completing her bachelor’s degree, Rebecca spent time working as a beat reporter for the Conroe Courier before moving to Gainesville, Florida, to attend the University of Florida. While completing her Master of Science in agricultural communications, Rebecca served as a teaching assistant for a technical writing class and a Web and print design course. She also serv ed as a research assistant for Dr. Tracy Irani, and completed several media research projects on her own including two media framing pieces--one on same-sex marriage a nd a second on medicinal marijuana. In addition to her master’s, Rebecca earned a Grad uate Certificate in Women’s Studies from the University of Florida. She also worked part-time as a news writer for the Institute of

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117 Food and Agricultural Sciences Communication Services throughout her last year in the program. Rebecca is a member of Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow (ACT), Alpha Tau Alpha and Gamma Sigma Delta honor soci eties, National Asso ciation of Science Writers, and the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE ) in which she holds the position of ViceChair Elect of the Diversity Special Interest Group.


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Title: Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Gender Roles among Agricultural Communications Practitioners
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010803/00001

Material Information

Title: Perceptions of Job Satisfaction and Gender Roles among Agricultural Communications Practitioners
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010803:00001


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PERCEPTIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND GENDER ROLES AMONG
AGRICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS PRACTITIONERS
















By

REBECCA L. MCGOVNEY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005






























Copyright 2005

by

Rebecca L. McGovney

































This document is dedicated to my parents, thank you for giving me the right to dream.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I must thank and apologize to Dr. Tracy Irani. She not only

encouraged my research and ideas, she helped me to grow both as a person and a writer.

Her endless patience helped to keep me somewhat sane, all the while I was driving her

crazy. The many arguments over feminist theory notwithstanding, she is truly my mentor

and my friend.

I must also thank Dr. Ricky Telg for his tremendous editing skills and sense of

humor in my direction and Dr. Connie Shehan for encouraging my feminist thought even

when I was ready to give up.

I would like to thank the Association for Communication Excellence in

Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences for allowing me to survey

their members, especially Tom Knecht and AshelyWood. I would also like to thank

Amanda Chambliss for her unending help in this survey process.

Thanks are also necessary for my coworkers at IFAS Communication Services who

listened and understood, and allowed me to write. I would also like to thank my

colleagues in the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication, especially

those who allowed me to think I was causing trouble.

Above all, I must thank my fiance Kyle for his love and support: first for

encouraging me to move to Florida no matter what the circumstances were at the time,

and second for forcing me to stay here after everything had changed. For all the ranting

and raving he endured with my feminist ideals, he should be receiving a portion of this









degree. Finally I must thank my family--my parents Scott and Roberta McGovney, my

sister Second Lieutenant Elizabeth McGovney, and my aunt Pat Rainey-Day for

encouraging me to follow my dreams no matter how crazy they or I seemed to them.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .................. ..................... ........ ................... .. viii

LIST OF FIGURES .............. ..............................................x

ABSTRACT ........ ........................... ..... .......... .......... xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ............................................................. .. ......... ...... .....

Ju stific a tio n ............................................................................... 3
Pay/Salary ................................................... 4
Position/A dvancem ent........................................................... .............7
Job S atisfactio n ................................................................... ......... ..... .10
Problem Statem ent .................. ............................ ...... ......... .. ....... .... 13
Purpose and O bjectives........................................................................... ............... 13

2 LITERA TURE REVIEW ............................................................................ 16

O v erv iew ......................................................................................................... ... 16
T heoretical F ram ew ork .............................................. ....................................... 16
Fem inism /G ender .................. ............................. ............ ...... ...... 16
Gendered W ork .................................. ... .. ........ .............. 18
Job S atisfactio n ................................................................... ......... ..... ..2 1
Social C ognitive Theory ............................................. .................................. 25
C ognitive D issonance ............................................................................. 27

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................. ................... 32

R e se arch D e sig n .................................................................................................... 3 2
Su object S election ................................................................3 3
Instrumentation .............. ... ......... ..... ........................ ..... .......... 34
Instrum ent--P art O ne ................................................................. ........ .......34
Instrum ent--P art T w o ................................................................................... 37
In strum ent--P art T hree ............................................................... ....................39
D ata C o lle ctio n ...................................................................................................... 4 0
D ata A nalysis.................................................. 41









4 FIN D IN G S A N D R E SU L T S........................................................... .....................43

Objective One ............................................................................. ...................... ........45
O bjectiv e T w o ................................................................4 9
JIG /JD I ................................................................5 0
PRSA ................ ..... .................. .................. ............... 51
Job Satisfaction and Respondents' Gender ............................... ................52
O objective T three ................................................... .. .... ......... ........ 57
PR SA .................................. ... ..................................................................57
Gender Roles and Respondents' Gender................................................63
Researcher Developed Categorical Response Questions ....................................69
Researcher Developed Open-Ended Response Questions ................................71

5 CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION ........................................................................... 82

S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................... 8 2
K ey Findings and Im plications........................................................ ............... 82
L im stations ............................................................... ..... ..... .. ..... 89
D isc u ssio n ............................................................................................................. 9 0
Recommendations....................... ...............................92
Recommendations For Practitioners And Managers................ ..................92
Recommendations For Future Research.............................................. ........94

APPENDIX

A IRB APPROVAL STATEMENT................................ ....................96

B SU R V E Y IN STR U M EN T ............................................................... .....................97

C INITIAL CONTACT LETTER (1ST WAVE).................................... ...................105

D SURVEY COVER LETTER (2ND WAVE) .................................. ...............106

E INFORM ED CONSENT STATEM ENT ........................................ .....................107

F THANK YOU/REMINDER POSTCARD (3RD WAVE) .......................................108

G SURVEY REMINDER EMAIL (4TH WAVE) ................................................. 109

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......... .. ............. .............................................................. 110

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH ............ .................................................... .....................116
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

1-1. Average earnings of male and female media workers .............................................6

3-1. Reliability values for the JDI and JIG ..................... ...... ................. ............ .... 35

3-2. Questions from the JDI pay subscale ............................................ ............... 36

3-3. Questions describing job satisfaction......................... .............. 38

3-4. Questions describing perceptions of gender in professional situations ...................39

4-1. Comparison of early and late respondents' age and education .............................44

4-2. T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents ...................45

4-3. Age of respondents ............................. ... .... ............ ..... ...............46

4-4. Respondents' highest level of education........ ........... .......... ............... 46

4-5. Respondents' organization and agricultural communications coworkers ...............47

4-6. Respondents' salary and time spent working in agricultural communications........48

4-7. ACE special interest group with closest relation to respondents' job...................49

4-8. Cronbach's alpha values for JDI subscales.................................. .................. ....50

4-9. Mean scores for the JIG and JDI ................................................ 51

4-10. Respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction................ ..... ..... ................52

4-11. Mean scores for JIG and JDI by gender ........... ........ ..................53

4-12. Mean difference of JIG and JDI scores by gender..................... ............... 54

4-13. Female respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction.....................................55

4-14. M ale respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction................................................ 56

4-15. Respondents' perceptions of gender roles within their organization .....................59









4-16. Respondents' perceptions of gender roles throughout agricultural
com m unications ......................... ......... .. ......... ...... ........ .. 61

4-17. Mean difference of respondents' perceptions of gender roles in their
organization and throughout agricultural communications................................ 63

4-18. Female and male respondents' perceptions of gender roles in their organizations..65

4-20. Responses to researcher-developed gender experience questions .........................69

4-21. Female respondents' answers to researcher-developed gender experience
q u e stio n s .................................... .................................. ................ 7 0

4-22. Male respondents' answers to researcher-developed gender experience questions.71
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pge

2-1 Traditional job satisfaction m odel................................ ................... ...... ....... 23

2-2 Motivator-hygiene job satisfaction model ............. ....................................23

2-3 Basic m odel of hum an behavior................................ ........................24















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

PERCEPTIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND GENDER ROLES AMONG
AGRICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS PRACTITIONERS

By

Rebecca L. McGovney

August, 2005

Chair: Tracy Irani
Major Department: Agricultural Education and Communication

Agricultural communications is a specialized area of communications in which

practitioners function as communicators on behalf of agriculturally orientated academic

institutions, industry and media outlets. Although at one time male-dominated, in the last

20 years agricultural communications has seen an increasing number of women enter the

field. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes towards job satisfaction and

gender of those currently working in the agricultural communications field, specifically

focusing on members of the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture,

Natural Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE).

The objectives of the study were to describe the demographics of the population of

current, active, US-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE

in terms of age, income level, education, marital status, and position; describe their

perceived job satisfaction level in terms of overall job satisfaction and faceted job

satisfaction; and to describe respondents' perceptions of gender roles. Perceptions of job









satisfaction and gender roles were then further described in terms of respondents' gender.

The research design for this study was a descriptive census survey of the population of all

current, active ACE members located within the United States for 2004 (n=510). The

overall response rate for this study was 35.1% (n=179). The gender breakdown of

respondents was 58.8% female (n=104) and 41.2% male (n=73), and almost all of the

respondents were Caucasian (94.9%, n=168).

Results of this study showed that respondents were satisfied with their agricultural

communications jobs overall, based on the Job in General (JIG) scale. Interestingly,

although respondents were satisfied with the job satisfaction facets "work,"

"supervision," and coworkerss," as measured by the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), they

were dissatisfied with the facets "pay" and "opportunities for promotion." In addition to

the quantitative portions of this study, the researcher included a set of nominal "yes/no"

questions, followed by an opportunity for open-ended qualitative responses. A key

finding for this section of the study was that the majority of respondents (79.1%) stated

they had not experienced any form of inequality in their field due to gender in the last

five years. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses yielded several common

themes. They were "agriculture=male," "sex or gender roles," "good old boys,"

"discrimination," "societal problem," and "rationalizations." A key counterevidence

theme was statements that gender is not a factor at all in agricultural communications.

A major implication of this study is that there does seem to still be a glass ceiling of

sorts for some women in agricultural communications employment as experienced by

ACE member respondents that affects positions, salary, raises, and promotion

opportunities.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Originating in the early 1800s, agricultural communications is one of the newer

sectors of the agriculture industry (Buck & Paulson, 1995). Members of the profession

are defined not as "agriculturalists primarily, but communicators who have a specialty"

(Sprecker & Rudd, 1998, p. 40). It is a profession that applies the techniques and theories

of communications to the agriculture industry (Sprecker & Rudd, 1998). The agricultural

communications industry developed to meet the needs of scientists, who at the time asked

for help responding to questions from the public as "agriculture outgrew the ability to

pass information by word-of-mouth" (Buck & Paulson, 1995, p. 3). These scientists were

on the forefront of the extension systems that would evolve with the Federal Land-Grant

Act of 1862 and the state colleges of agriculture the bill provided (Boone, Meisenbach, &

Tucker 2000; Buck & Paulson, 1995). "The United States agricultural college and

extension system developed to fulfill a need for scientific information that could improve

farming efforts" (Buck & Paulson, 1995, p. 3).

As state extension services grew in size and purpose in the early 20th Century,

agricultural communications became recognized as a field of study at the university level

(Buck & Paulson, 1995; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998). It has been a "professional field in the

United States for approximately 100 years" with "professionals who combine 1)

knowledge of agriculture, 2) skills in communications, and 3) interest in working with

people" (Buck & Paulson, 1995, p. 2-3). There are currently over 30 agricultural









communications programs throughout the United States, most of which do not date back

to the early 1900s, but are instead less than 20 years old (Scherler, 2001).

Today, agricultural communications is a hybrid of most of the media industries

with practitioners working in news/reporting, editing, broadcast (including radio and

television), electronic and web-based media, marketing, and public relations (ACE, 2004;

Bowen & Cooper, 1989; Buck & Paulson, 1995; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998;

Terry & Bailey-Evans, 1995). Studies in which agricultural communications

practitioners were asked to list their primary job descriptions/job skills produced a list

centered around writing, editing, reporting, public relations, public speaking, and

broadcast (Bowen & Cooper, 1989; Buck & Paulson, 1995; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker &

Rudd, 1998; Terry & Bailey-Evans, 1995).

However, a major change has been occurring within agricultural communications

in the last 20 years that has had little study: the "feminization" of agricultural

communications. Similar to the employment trends within other media industries

(Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999; Toth &

Cline, 1989), this involves an increasing number of women moving into the field

(Scherler, 2001). Although past studies or discussions of agricultural communications

employment trends have touched on some aspects of this issue, such as the number of

women in undergraduate programs, the number of women in the industry, or how women

moving into the industry might be perceived by farmers, there has been no single study

on how female practitioners are treated by and within agricultural communications

(Jeffers, 1987; Scherler, 2001; Sprecker & Rudd, 1998; Women at Work, 1976).









Jeffers (1987) presented the results of a study on the impact of gender on job

satisfaction and status within livestock magazines. "As communications professions

become female-dominated, salary and status within these professions will decrease-as

they have with other female dominated professions such as nursing and teaching"

(Jeffers, 1987, p. 4). The study showed a distinct difference in opinion between men and

women responding to statements such as "men get promoted faster," "men earn more

than women," and "men get raises faster." Most of the male respondents did not believe

these statements to be true, while most of the female respondents did (Jeffers, 1987).

Interviews with female agricultural communicators, both past and present, show an

awareness of the perceived differences between men and women within the field. JoAnn

Bell Pierce was one of the first female agriculture writers/editors in the U.S. and has

described her first job with Farm Quarterly as being an inexpensive investment for the

magazine because they could pay her 50% less than another new male employee (Pierce,

1998). In 1973, Colleen Callahan Burns became the first full-time woman farm

broadcaster, but only after answering questions like "'O.K., let's say we hire you. What

are all these farm men going to think of a woman giving the farm price quotations and

talking about production ag-which is traditionally a man's job?'" (Women at Work,

1976. p. 17). More recently Mila Shah, the American Agricultural Editors' Association

2001 intern, stated; "I think it is very hard for women starting out because there still is a

'good old boys' network" (Sapp, 2002, p. 1).

Justification

As in many other communications fields, the field of agricultural communications

may be experiencing a demographic shift towards females representing the majority of

practitioners. Media researchers state that whenever an occupation becomes "female,"









meaning a higher number of female workers than male workers, the value of the work

decreases (Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999;

Toth & Cline, 1989). Traditional female occupations in which this trend has been

documented include nursing, teaching, and clerical work (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001;

Kimmel, 2004). This devaluing process can be seen in many ways, but media researchers

focus on the gender-based inequalities that a shift in female numbers brings about. These

include, but are not limited to, unequal pay/salary, unequal opportunity for advancement,

unequal distribution in areas of work, and perceptions of worker relations and the work

itself (Creedon, 1989; Gallagher, 1981; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001;Toth &

Cline, 1989).

Pay/Salary

Salary differences exist between men and women in many parts of the media,

including journalism/news, broadcasting (including television and radio), and public

relations (American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1999; Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992;

Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Marlane, 1999; Stone, 2000a,b,c,d; Toth & Cline, 1989; US

Census, 2004a,b; Weaver, Beam, Brownlee, Voakes, & Wilhoit, 2003). A look at

earnings data from the 2000 United States Census shows differences ranging from $8,000

to $20,000 between male and female salaries within media occupational categories (US

Census, 2004a; US Census, 2004b). (See Table 1-1.) For the occupational category of

news analysts, reporters and correspondents, the average male salary is $55,000 while the

average female salary is $11, 000 lower based on the almost 60,000 people who are

considered full-time workers in this category. Although men slightly outnumber women

in this category, women do make up a great portion of this media area. Public relations

data from the 2000 Census shows around 17,000 more women than men in the









occupation, while salary for men is an average $19,000 higher. Women also outnumber

men as full-time workers in the occupational categories of editors and technical writers.

Male and female editors make an average salary of $53,000 and $42,000 respectively,

while male and female technical writers are separated by an $8,000 difference in their

salaries.

Broadcast media shows similar salary differences, although men far outnumber

women in these technical occupation categories. (See Table 1-1.) The category including

broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators showed men's average

salaries to be $10,000 higher than that of women working in the same profession (US

Census, 2004a,b). More than 63,000 photographers participated in the 2000 Census with

male salaries averaging $43,000 and female salaries averaging $29,000. A second

technical position of television and video camera operators and editors has 10,000 more

men than women and a $10,000 difference between their salaries. The final occupational

category of miscellaneous media and communication workers is not clear as to what job

descriptions are accounted for, but does show a $10,000 difference between male and

female salaries.









Table 1-1. Average earnings of male and female media workers
Occupation Salary Difference

Male Female
News analysts, reporters and correspondents $55,000 $44,000 $11,000
n=34,530 n=25,340

Public relations specialists $65,000 $46,000 $19,000
n=39,290 n=56,410

Editors $53,000 $42,000 $11,000
n=59,560 n=61,320

Technical Writers $55,000 $47,000 $8,000
n=25,150 n=26,560

Broadcast/sound engineering techs & radio $46,000 $36,000 $10,000
operators n=49,700 n=6,860

Photographers $43,000 $29,000 $14,000
n=45,920 n=17,400

Television & video camera operators & editors $51,000 $41,000 $10,000
n=12,740 n=2,200

Miscellaneous media & communication workers $45,000 $35,000 $10,000
n=10,070 n=14,020

Note: based on number of year-round full-time workers (US Census, 2004a,b)


It has been argued that any differences between the salaries of men and women in

mediajobs are due to factors such as level of education, years of experience, age, or

work-related training, instead of gender. However, many media studies have shown this

to be false, finding differences in male/female salary levels still exist when these

variables are held constant (Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001;

Toth & Cline, 1989 Weaver et al., 2003). Although this was most likely not done for the

2000 Census data, the size of the sample suggests that these differences between male

and female salaries do exist. A related area of study indicates that women's roles as









mothers, both childbearing and childrearing, has an effect on their level of pay.

"Employers may justify giving women lower salaries because of their belief that women

are less loyal than men, quicker to leave the organization, largely because of family

considerations" (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 91). According to Harkness and

Waldfogel "The fact that women with children are lower paid ... may reflect employer

preferences or discrimination" (1999, p. 9).

Position/Advancement

Another trend seen within media research is unequal opportunity or unequal

advancement for men and women. Many studies have shown that men and women do

different types of work within the individual media industries. Although described in

different ways, such as vertical job segregation or public relations roles, the reality is that

women tend to be clustered around the lower level of jobs in an industry while men are

more likely to hold high-level decision making positions (American Society of

Newspaper Editors, 2004; Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003; Communication Research

Associates, Inc., 2002, Fall, Winter, 2004; Creedon, 1989; Grunig, 1992; Grunig, Toth, &

Hon, 2001; Jamieson, 2001; Marlane, 1999).

There is a connection from this division of jobs between men and women back to

the pay gap discussed earlier. Those who argue against the existence of a gendered pay

gap claim that men make more than women because they are in the higher levels of the

organization (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). But these arguments do not take into account

the limited movement women have within the media industries. "Backlash against

women, which Rosen (1982) defined as men's resentment toward groups given access to

managerial positions (typically through affirmative action), represents an important

barrier" (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 92).









Public relations studies have found that women face unique problems within their

industry, including a double standard for men and women, unequal advancement

opportunity, and discrimination on the basis of sex or gender (Toth & Cline, 1989).

Using focus groups of men and women in 1990 and 1995, Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001)

found that women feel men get promoted more quickly than women do, and that

respondents considered it harder for women to reach the top of an organization than for

men. A 2002 PR Week survey demonstrated the division of men and women into higher

and lower job roles within public relations. While 8% of the men surveyed were

chairmen, presidents, or CEOs of their companies, only 3% of the women were (Echo

Research Inc., 2002). At the senior vice president level, 7% of the male respondents held

the position, while only 2% of the women did. This trend is reversed for the lower

position/role of account executive where 27% of the women surveyed work versus 18%

of the men (Echo Research Inc., 2002).

Studies in broadcast media, both radio and television, have shown the same scarcity

of women in high-ranking positions (Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004;

Creedon, 1989; Jamieson, 2001; Marlane, 1999). While women hold 26.5% of the news

director positions in local television news, according to the 2003 Radio and Television

News Directors Association Survey, this is up from only 14% in 1987 (Creedon, 1989).

In addition, women only hold 13.9% of general manager positions at television stations

(Papper, 2003). Patterns are similar in radio, with only 14.4% of news director positions

for local radio news being held by women and only 7% of the general manager positions

(Papper, 2003). Jamieson (2001) found women hold larger numbers in positions such as









anchors (52% local and 44% national) and promotions managers (46% television and

43% radio).

This trend extends past the individual television and radio stations and up into the

broadcast and cable companies that own them (Jamieson, 2001). Of the five major

network news networks (ABC, CBS, CNBC, CNN, and Fox), only 20% (13 out of 64) of

the executives are women (Jamieson, 2001). As for major media/entertainment

companies such as AOL/Time Warner, Clear Channel Communications, GE, Viacom,

and Disney, only 10% of all company executives are women (Jamieson, 2001). In

addition to these small numbers, Jamieson (2001) found that around half of female

executives in both categories are in "traditional" female departments such as human

resources, public relations, communications and government relations which are

considered outside of the promotions ladder.

Newspaper studies highlight the gendered division of labor, as well. According to

the 2004 American Society of Newspaper Editors survey, 49% of women hold jobs as

reporters in newsrooms while only 18% of women hold titles of president, publisher, or

CEO in newspapers (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003). In addition, only 16% of executive

vice presidents and general managers are women (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003).

Women do comprise 63% and 73% of personnel senior vice president/vice president or

director of human resource positions and senior vice president/vice president or director

of community affairs, respectively, in newspapers or newspaper groups (Arnold &

Hendrickson, 2003). These again are the positions that are considered female and outside

of the "line of succession" (Arnold & Hendrickson, 2003, p. 53).









The reasons for this restriction of women to the lower job categories are rooted in

sociological methods and theories that focus on the concept of "gender bias." Gender

bias is defined as "unequal treatment in employment opportunity (such as promotion,

pay, benefits and privileges), and expectations due to attitudes on the sex of an employee

or a group of employees" (Hill & Hill, 2003). Many researchers have cited the "good old

boys" network described by American Agricultural Editors' Association intern Mila Shah

(Sapp, 2002). According to Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001), "Almost all of our

interviewees and focus group participants talked about women's isolation from the inner

circle where important business gets done" (p. 293). Female public relations practitioners

also stated that this network "shuts them out at the management table as well as on the

basketball court or on the golf course" (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 293-294). Arnold

and Hendrickson (2003) also found evidence of this male network in their 2003 survey of

newspapers and newspaper groups. Jamieson described the media companies in her 2001

study as "innovating in technology, ways of sending and receiving information, and

economic models for the 21st century-but their executive suites and boardrooms still

largely resemble the stereotyped practices of the 1950s" (p. 13).

Job Satisfaction

One way to look at an individual in the workplace is through job satisfaction. This

provides a method to determine how a person feels about his or her job, and if factors

such as those listed above have any impact on those feelings. Although variously

defined, job satisfaction is simply "the degree to which people like their jobs" (Scherler,

2001, p. 11). DeFleur (1992) conducted a study on job satisfaction between the media

industries. Within the media careers she studied she found that practitioners were most

satisfied with the prestige and creativity of their jobs and least satisfied with the control









and income they received (DeFleur, 1992). She ranked nine media occupations on their

job satisfaction levels from high to low-photography (highest), public relations,

magazine, advertising, journalism/electronic, film, television, radio, and finally

journalism/newspaper (lowest) (DeFleur, 1992).

A large number of studies have been completed on job satisfaction within the

media with varying results (Serini, Toth, Wright, & Emig, 1997). While some studies

have shown that gender is related to the job satisfaction of media workers (Barrett, 1984;

Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004; Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001), others

have shown that no such relation exists (Serini et al., 1997; Stone, 2000a,b,c,d). One

consistent finding is that both men and women are satisfied with their jobs as a whole

(Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997; Stone,

2004a,b,c,d). The difference lies, then, in certain facets or variables related to a job.

"The result of the inquiry into job satisfaction, although frequently contradictory, leads to

an overall understanding that there are indeed differences between men's and women's

levels of satisfaction with a variety of variables related to the work environment" (Serini

et al., 1997, p. 101). These variables include the work itself; job level, job security and

promotions; pay; supervision and coworkers; and amount of work (Barret, 1984; Grunig,

Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997).

Selnow and Wilson (1985) found in their study that women were less favorable on

their salary satisfaction scores than men. Similar results on salary satisfaction differences

between men and women in public relations are presented in studies by Grunig, Toth, and

Hon (2001) and Serini et al. (1997). Another facet of job satisfaction that female

respondents indicated they are less satisfied with is the amount of work. In a 1990 study,









public relations practitioners were questioned if they were asked within their job to do

excessive amounts of work. Female respondents "were less apt to agree that they were

not asked to do excessive amounts of work" and "less satisfied with the amount of time

they have to get the job done" (Rentner & Bissland, 1990, p. 954). Women have been

found to be less satisfied with their jobs when their supervisor is male, citing exclusion

and isolation (Serini et al., 1997).

Job satisfaction in broadcast media is similar between men and women, according

to Stone (2000c,d). Slightly more men are satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs in

television than women, 79% vs. 74%. In radio, more women than men are satisfied or

very satisfied with theirjobs, 78% vs. 72%. Broadcast communication tends to pay

lower than most other communication fields, and this is seen in the influence facets such

as salary and position were found to have the most influence on job satisfaction of both

genders (T. Irani, personal communication, March 7, 2004; Stone, 2000a,b,c,d). Fifty-

four percent of women in television said their current salaries are less than they expected

when they entered the field while 67% of women in radio said the same (Stone, 2000a,b).

Forty-four percent of men in television and 62% of men in radio said their current

salaries are less than they expected when they entered the field (Stone, 2000a,b).

Women in news/journalism are also less satisfied with these facets of their jobs

(Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004). A 2002 study showed that women

reported lower job satisfaction with salary and relationships with their bosses, as well as

lower satisfaction with salary levels when they held low ranking positions within the

newsroom (Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004). In addition, women are

four times more likely than men to predict they will leave the newspaper industry to work









in another field (Communication Research Associates, Inc., 2004). The 2002 American

Journalist Survey showed that only 71.7% of female journalists were "fairly" or "very"

satisfied with their jobs, while 86.6% of male journalists were (Weaver et al., 2003).

Barrett (1984) studied job satisfaction among newspaperwomen and found high overall

job satisfaction levels. However, low job satisfaction was expressed by the women in

regards to opportunity to advance and salary.

Problem Statement

The literature suggests that the feminization of any industry produces inequalities

as demonstrated above in public relations, news, radio, and television. Although a great

number of women work in these fields, men are primarily still in charge. As agricultural

communications is a field comprised of a hybrid of media occupations, it is important to

explore any possible implications feminization has had on the industry and those working

within it. This demographics shift could result in inequalities in pay, position,

advancement, and job satisfaction, which could have an effect on current and future

employment trends within agricultural communications.

Purpose and Objectives

The purpose of this study is to explore attitudes towards job satisfaction and gender

of those currently working in the agricultural communications field, specifically focusing

on members of the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural

Resources, and Life and Human Sciences (ACE). Like many other industries,

agricultural communications has professional organizations in which its members

participate. ACE is the oldest and perhaps largest of those in agricultural

communications with 674 members across the United States and the world (Carnahan,

2000; Hilt, 1988).









The association began in 1913 with a meeting of six land-grant college agricultural

editors at the University of Illinois (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). Originally called

American Association of Agricultural College Editors (AAACE), the organization

changed names in 1978 to Agricultural Communicators in Education (ACE) and once

again in 2003 to the current name. They met annually so practitioners could discuss and

review the work of their peers (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). Members of this

organization range in job descriptions from writers and photographers to graphic

designers and electronic media producers, as well as marketing, public relations, editors,

and web designers representing most, if not all, of the agricultural communications

industry (ACE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). They work in both private sector in

companies and firms, as well as the public sector within universities, government

agencies, and research organizations (ACE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988). In

addition, a comparison of ACE members' job descriptions with those listed by corporate

leaders in a national study as used in private industry showed similarity--marketing,

advertising, public relations, writing/publishing, internet/web, and broadcast (ACE, 2004;

Doerfert, Akers, Davis, Compton, Irani, & Rutherford, 2004).

By studying this large group of agricultural communicators, their responses and

attitudes towards these subjects in relation to their jobs and the industry will go far to

illuminate the role of gender within the profession.

The following research objectives guided this study:

* Describe the demographics of the population of current, active, US-based
agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age,
income level, education, marital status, and position.






15


* Describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications
practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and
faceted job satisfaction (JDI).

o Describe respondents' job satisfaction as measured by the items in the
PRSA job satisfaction scale.

o Describe these items in terms of respondents' gender.

* Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents' perceptions
of gender roles.

o Further describe in terms of respondents' gender.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Overview

This chapter describes the theoretical framework used to base this research study.

It covers fundamentals of feminism and gender, including important definitions related to

this area. Work as a gendered entity is also described, as well as job satisfaction, both

general and faceted. Finally, social cognitive theory and cognitive dissonance are

explored specifically in relationship to the media.

Theoretical Framework

Feminism/Gender

"If we are going to successfully understand the 'feminization' of public relations

and the response it has involved, first we need to develop a sophisticated understanding

of gender" (Toth & Cline, 1989, p. 288). The same can be said for understanding the

feminization of agricultural communications. Feminism is a theory that describes and

explains the devalued position of women throughout history and the current world and

then sets out to change that position. The basis for feminist theories is grounded in the

idea of a patriarchal society in which men occupy great power positions and can access

items of value, such as money, through those positions. "In consequence of these

asymmetries, feminists demonstrated, men (i.e. affluent white men) in such societies have

license to shape and control many aspects of women's lives" (Code, 2000, p. xix).

History has shown through its record keeping and literary works that the society most









industrialized countries rely upon is a patriarchal one (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy,

2000; Kimmel, 2004).

There have been, and are, many waves of feminist political movement and theory.

These theories vary in themes and time frames, but all acknowledge the inequality in

society between men and women (Steeves, 1987). Equality is therefore the foundation of

feminism. "In general it [equality] has been interpreted as women possessing the same

essential capacities as men such that both sexes should enjoy access to the same

opportunities and activities and be valued as of equal worth" (Code, 2000, p. 174). Code

wrote that education was a value item, or essential capacity, denied to women because of

their undervalued or lesser status. Feminists hoped that once women had access to

education and qualifications to make them competitive with men, the inequality in work

would end (Code, 2000). However, this does not seem true even in current society. "One

of the assumptions has always been that once women had access to education, salary

inequities would decrease. Not so" (Benokraitis, 1997, p. 8).

A difference exists between the terms "sex" and "gender," which needs to be

addressed. Sex is the natural or biological categories humans are born into by

reproductive organ, or chromosomes, generally resulting in man and woman (Kimmel,

2004). Gender, male/female, is the meaning assigned to the different sexes by the society

they live in (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Kimmel, 2004). A step further is gender roles,

or "social practices associated with masculinity or femininity" (Code, 2000, p. 223). The

difference in these terms is rooted in the different explanations of gender that theorists

use. Since the sexes have been given gendered meanings in American society, and this

study will be working with people who may consider gender and sex to be the same, for









the purpose of this study the term "gender bias" will be interchangeable with the terms

"sexual inequality" and "sexual discrimination." The same will be true for "male" and

"man" as well as "female" and "woman."

Gendered Work

"The pay differential between men and women may have been mentioned first in

the book of Leviticus (27:3-4). God told Moses that the work of women was worth three-

fifths the pay of men, or 30 shekels of silver versus 50. Considerably more recently,

Kaufman and Richardson (1982) concluded that women historically have held lower-

status positions than have men" (Grunig, 2001, p. 35-36). Men and women have worked

in some form or another, whether unpaid, compensated, or paid for as long as they have

walked the earth (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000). And as long as there has been

work, in some societies there has been a division of labor that places more value on the

work of the male than the female (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel,

2004).

There have been many explanations given for this division of labor. The first is the

biological explanation of gender and the division of labor. It states that men and women

are naturally different at the anatomical, chemical and chromosomal levels (Cleveland,

Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). Meanings are attached to these two

categories within each society that show the differences between man and woman

(Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). Since man and woman are

naturally different, then they are better suited for different types of work, such as the

hunter-gatherer arrangement (Kimmel, 2004). The cross-cultural explanation of gender

shows that there is a great variation of gender across cultures and throughout time, so it is

not as natural and consistent as the biological explanation explains (Kimmel, 2004). The









type of work men and women do varies across cultures and time as well, but the division

of labor between them stays constant (Kimmel, 2004).

The social constructionist explanation of gender says that gender in western

societies is socially reproduced through processes called gender relations that shape ideas

of appropriate and inappropriate sex roles (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000;

Kimmel, 2004). These processes occur through interactions within institutions that are

gendered, such as schools and the workplace (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000;

Kimmel, 2004). Since institutions are gendered and characterized by a male power, there

is a division of labor within them (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000; Kimmel,

2004). Gender differences then come to be seen as natural through the process of

reproducing the differences that exist in these institutions (Cleveland, Stockdale, &

Murphy, 2000; Kimmel, 2004). "It is through our experiences in the workplace...that the

differences between women and men are reproduced and by which the inequality

between women and men is legitimate" (Kimmel, 2004, p. 104).

Women nationally earn 74 to 75 cents to each dollar a man earns as shown by both

government and private research (Benokraitis, 1997; DeLaat, 1999). This means that for

every $10,000 a man earns a woman will only earn $7,400-7,500. In addition to pay

inequality, women experience other forms of bias and discrimination in work. "The

workplace is an important arena for sex inequality in our society" (Padavic & Reskin,

1994, p. 31). It sustains gender differentiation by focusing men and women into certain

occupations and then at different levels within these occupations; which leads to unequal

pay, authority and status; and subjects women to physical and verbal expressions of

gender inequality (Padavic & Reskin, 1994). In 1987, writer Ann Morrison first used the









phrase "glass ceiling" to describe the invisible barrier that keeps women out of upper-

level management positions and keeps them from advancing at the same speed and in the

same way their male counterparts do. "Research has repeatedly demonstrated that men

are more likely to be hired for professional and managerial positions than similarly

qualified women" (Cleveland, Stockdale, & Murphy, 2000, p. 57). For the women who

do make it up to the management arena, according to Morrison there are "glass walls"

present to keep them from interacting with the males at that level. In 1991, the Federal

Glass Ceiling Commission was created to research this problem, and one of the findings

showed that top level managers assess male and female workers differently, adding to

evidence that gender bias is still present in work (DeLaat, 1999).

Code describes the separation of women in the job market as occupational gender

segregation; "the concentration of women and men into different occupations, jobs and

places of work" (2000, p. 499). Crompton and Sanderson (1990) described this division

of labor as the most universal form of labor. "Occupational segregation reflects this

division of labor; men are concentrated into 'men's' occupations, women, into

'women's'. Gender affects not only what kinds of jobs people do, but also the kinds of

rewards accruing to the occupation in question" (Crompton & Sanderson, 1990, p. 6).

There are two types of occupational gender segregation: horizontal and vertical

(Benokraitis, 1997; Crompton & Sanderson, 1990; Padavic & Reskin, 1994).

"Horizontal occupational segregation refers to the fact that women and men predominate

in different kinds of occupation. Most women tend to be concentrated in certain

occupations" such as personal services, clerical, health and education (Code, 2000, p.

499). These areas then become connected in people's minds as being "female" or "male"









jobs (Hartmann & Reskin, 1986; Padavic & Reskin, 1994). This labeling can then

influence the expectations of employers and workers as to who should work those jobs,

circling back to gender bias (Padavic & Reskin, 1994).

In addition, jobs that are thought of as "female" are thought to be easier, require

less ability and deserve less pay than identical work in a "male" job (Rhode, 1997).

Vertical occupational segregation says that within an occupation women are grouped at

the lower level of positions, including pay and duties (Code, 2000; Crompton &

Sanderson, 1990; Padavic & Reskin, 1994). These occupational hierarchies can then be

set as gender hierarchies, according to Code. The grouping of women into certain fields,

such as education and health care, has long been referred to as "female ghettos" or "job

ghettos." The high number of women trying to get into and move up in these areas

causes competition that decreases their earnings to between 30-40% less than men (Code,

2000). Crompton and Sanderson (1990) stated that all forms of occupational segregation

explain the lower earnings of women compared to men, while Grunig, Toth, and Hon

(2001) stated that 30-45% of the pay gap between men and women is explained by

occupational segregation.

Job Satisfaction

Studies of job satisfaction have been around for many years, with some of the first

organized attempts to study the subject dating to the early 1930's (Brayfield & Rothe,

1951). "Job satisfaction refers to an overall affective orientation on the part of

individuals toward work roles which they are presently employed in" (Kalleberg, 1977, p.

126). It has been estimated that over 5,000 articles have been written on job satisfaction

in fields from psychology to human resources and personnel management (Higgins &

Staples, 1998). Most job satisfaction instruments assume that a person's satisfaction with









his or her job can be reached through their attitude toward their work, and so have

questions of this manner (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951; Kalleberg, 1977). Studying job

satisfaction is important because the majority of people spend most of their time at work

and by knowing what provides satisfaction and what does not, changes could be made

within work organizations that could benefit society as a whole (Kalleberg, 1977). Even

with so straightforward a question--are people satisfied with their jobs--there are still

many theories on job satisfaction.

The concept of job satisfaction traditionally has been of great interest to social
scientists... Many have been interested in job satisfaction, for example, as a result
of a personal value system which assumes that work which enables satisfaction of
one's needs furthers the dignity of the human individual, whereas work without
these characteristics limits the development of personal potential and is, therefore,
to be negatively valued... Other social scientists have been interested in this concept
because of evidence that has linked the degree of satisfaction with work to the
quality of one's life outside the work role... Still others were motivated to study job
satisfaction out of a desire to improve productivity and organizational functioning
(Kalleberg, 1977, p. 124).

Traditional job satisfaction theory set out to measure job satisfaction and develop

measurement instruments while establishing basic theory (Burr, 1980). Certain aspects

of traditional job satisfaction theory set it apart from others. The first aspect is referred to

as expectancy, in that not only does the job provide the worker with satisfaction but also

that a worker expects the job to provide this satisfaction (Groseth, 1978). A second

aspect utilized by Smith, Kendall and Hulin is that job content and situation cannot be

held separately of the overall environment the worker exists in when determining job

satisfaction (Groseth, 1978). Another aspect of traditional job satisfaction theory is that

job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are treated as if on a single continuum, where job

satisfaction is the opposite of job dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). (See Figure

2-1.)









Job Dissatisfaction P Job Satisfaction

Figure 2-1. Traditional job satisfaction model (Groseth, 1978)

The basis of Herzberg's Motivator-hygiene Theory, also referred to as the two-

model theory, is that this is not true--job satisfaction is not the opposite of job

dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). Rather there are two continuums, with job

satisfaction on one and job dissatisfaction on the other (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). (See

Figure 2-2.) The opposite of job satisfaction, then, is the absence of job satisfaction, and

the opposite of job dissatisfaction is the absence of job dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980;

Groseth, 1978).

Motivators

Absence of Satisfaction 4 o Job Satisfaction

Hygienes

Dissatisfaction -> Absence of Dissatisfaction

Figure 2-2. Motivator-hygiene job satisfaction model (Groseth, 1978)

This idea of two continuums came about when Herzberg reviewed over 2,000 job

satisfaction studies and determined that the factors that cause job satisfaction are different

than those that cause job dissatisfaction (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). Factors that cause

job satisfaction encompass the feelings a person has towards a job and were termed

motivators (Burr, 1980; Groseth, 1978). They include achievement, recognition,

responsibility, and the work itself. Factors that caused job dissatisfaction were outside

factors not directly related to a job and were termed hygienes (Burr, 1982; Groseth,

1978). They include company policy, relationships, status, salary, and working

conditions. "The primary function of 'hygienes' is to prevent or avoid pain or hunger or









to fulfill the other basic biological needs of man...In comparison, 'motivators' function

to provide the individual with personal psychological growth" (Burr, 1980, p. 20).

In slight contrast to these job satisfaction theories is organizational management

theory. Although the focus is still on the attitudes/satisfaction of the worker, it is a means

to an end. "The widely-held belief that increased job satisfaction will lead to increased

productivity also provides an important incentive for organizations to investigate job

satisfaction" (Kalleberg, 1977, p. 211-212). The theory focuses then on how the attitudes

of a worker will affect their workplace behavior, and how that can affect the organization

they work for (Barrick & Ryan, 2003; Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982; Tosi & Mero,

2003). (See Figure 2-3.) If job satisfaction/attitude can be improved with a reward (i.e.

pay increase, etc.) then behavior can be positively changed to acquire a better outcome

for the company (Tosi & Mero, 2003).



The Environment

Other People
Objects Behaviors Consequences
Events -

The Person Task Performance Productivity
Ethical Behavior Workplace Injury
Heredity
Knowledge
Personality
Attitudes
Values
Needs
Ability


Figure 2-3. Basic model of human behavior (Tosi & Mero, 2003)









Although "no really substantial, reliable, or general correlation between satisfaction

and productivity has been established" the ideas have been "sold" to management (Smith,

Kendall, & Hulin, 1969, p. 3). Organizational management theory of job satisfaction has

been taught to managers as a way to increase the production of their business the focus is

not on the workers but how to put the workers to better use. Because this link does not

exist (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969) the theory and its associated behaviors have been

questioned.

Social Cognitive Theory

When studying forms of gender inequality within a sector of the media, it is

important to note the influence these gender roles can have on the rest of society

(Gallagher, 1981).

Gallagher (1981) stated "that there is a link between media output and the
producers of that output: since the presence of women-particularly in creative and
decision-making positions-in media organizations is severely imbalanced in
relation to that of men, the assumption is that the images of women disseminated
by mass media reflect and express male concepts and interpretations (p. 79).

Due to the large number of people that are exposed to the media, as an institution it

can perpetuate ideas of gender inequality on a large scale. When men and women go to

work in the media industry, they are producing words and images that are distributed into

the public sphere. If these words and images reproduce a gender inequality that is present

within the media workplace they could have an effect on gender within society as a

whole (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001).

Social cognitive theory is a process through which individuals adopt behaviors or

ideas such as gender (Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). A person sees a

behavior--referred to as a model--such as gender in the job, in the school environment, or

on television or hears it through the radio, by storytelling, or any number of ways









(Bandura, 2001; Entman & Rojecki, 2001). After witnessing the model, a person then

compares it to previous knowledge he or she held on the subject and then decides

whether to accept the new model (if it is different) or to reject it and stay with the old

model (Bandura, 2001: Entman & Rojecki, 2001). The third step in social cognitive

theory is spreading the behavior after it is adopted through a social network such as the

ones where the model was witnessed in the first place (Bandura, 2001; Entman &

Rojecki, 2001). Models which are accessible, are extremely attractive, or unattractive to

a person, stand out or are noticeable, usually draw attention which is integral to the first

step of acquiring knowledge (Bandura, 2001; Fiske, 1995).

One problem with this process is that humans desire simplicity. This desire results

in people taking shortcuts in the process. Rather than compare new models with pre-held

knowledge as the theory contends, to weigh the pros and cons of both sets of information,

people have presumptions about the world around them that they use as shortcuts in the

process. These presumptions are called schemas (Fiske, 1995). Schemas exist for almost

everything, including people, places, things, words, and characteristics. "Organized prior

knowledge or preconceptions-schemas of all types-smooth our information

management and social experiences. The point is that people seek simplicity and good-

enough accuracy understanding the world around them, and schemas are guides" (Fiske,

1995, p. 163). As shortcuts, schemas tend to categorize people and events and lead to

stereotypes and role casting within society. "Schemas for roles are equivalent to

stereotypes, people's expectations about people who fall into particular social categories"

(Fiske, 1995, p 162).









The mass media are integral to social cognition in many ways. Media are easily

accessible because they comes into people's personal and professional lives in multiple

formats. Mass media also have tremendous reach, both in the numbers of people they

can contact as well as the wide range of places they can serve (Bandura, 2001). Studies

have shown that media portrayals shape the beliefs and views of the audience (Bandura,

2001; Dines & Humez, 2003). "Indeed, many of the shared misconceptions about

occupation pursuits, ethnic groups, minorities, the elderly, social and sex roles, and other

aspects of life are at least partially cultivated through symbolic modeling of stereotypes"

(Bandura, 2001, p. 138).

The mass media provide this symbolic modeling. They serve as both a behavior

model and a setting to witness a modeled behavior, while at the same time serving as a

place to spread a modeled behavior (Bandura, 2001). At the same time the media models

can serve as a reinforcement of a separately witnessed modeled behavior, which is the

second step in social cognition (Bandura, 2001). According to Bandura, "Verification of

thought by comparison with distorted media versions of social reality can foster shared

misconceptions of people, places, and things" (2001, p. 269).

Cognitive Dissonance

There is a trend within gender work research that must be acknowledged because of

what it implies not only about American society, but also the people who currently hold

jobs. "Much of the problem of [gender] inequality is rooted in perceptions that there is

no problem" (Toth & Cline, 1989, p. 1). Studies have shown an outright denial of the

existence of gender inequality, even when faced with hard statistics such as salary and

promotion data (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Rhode, 1997; Toth & Cline, 1989). There

are two versions of this denial that are closely related; that there is no problem or there









was a problem but the problem has been fixed. According to Rhode (1987), the most

common response to gender inequality is to disagree with the breadth of the problem.

"Women's growing opportunities are taken as evidence that the 'woman problem' has

been solved" (p. 1). Many men fail to recognize the presence of gender inequality

because they do not have to deal with it, and so deny there is a problem (Rhode, 1997).

Women, as well as men, are beginning to reject the idea of gender inequality (Rhode,

1997).

Female public relations practitioners have been quick to publicly deny gender

inequality in public, as demonstrated in focus groups conducted by Grunig, Toth, and

Hon (2001) and Toth and Cline (1989). Both studies showed that women were truthful

about their work situations in regard to gender inequality on anonymous items such as the

questionnaires used, but were embarrassed or hostile about admitting the same in front of

others (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Toth & Cline, 1989). Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2001)

theorized that this is related to the negative images related to being a feminist and that

women do not want to associate themselves with being a feminist or aligned with

feminist causes. Another form of denial is that women who are not paid equally or do not

advance equally did not deserve to receive these things (Rhode, 1997). If a woman had

done the work to deserve a raise or a promotion, then she would have received it. Since

she did not receive a raise or a promotion, instead of it being based on gender inequality,

she must have done something wrong (Rhode, 1997). This form of denial places the

burden at the individual level, rather than as a societal problem of gender inequality

(Rhode, 1997). Instead of fixing society, the individual woman can correct her behavior

or work ethic to receive the reward (Grunig, 1992; Rhode, 1997).









These denial attitudes can be explained in part by Festinger's theory of cognitive

dissonance. Cognitive dissonance theory starts with the idea of cognitions--pieces of

knowledge that people hold that include their ideas, opinions and beliefs on any given

subject (Festinger, 1957). At any given time, these cognitions can be consonance or

dissonance with other cognitions a person holds (Festinger, 1957). Stated simply, pieces

of knowledge or cognitions are consonance with one another when they are consistent.

An example is that 1) it is raining and 2) people will get wet as a result. These items are

consonance. Cognitions are dissonant if they do not fit together, are inconsistent or

contradictory (Festinger, 1957). An example of dissonance is that 1) it is raining and a

person does not have an umbrella to walk outside but 2) they will not get wet in the rain.

Cognitive dissonance has similarities to social cognitive theory in the manner in which

new cognitions are introduced to a person. According to Festinger, new information can

come from any number of sources including the home, the environment and the

workplace (1957).

The importance of understanding cognitive dissonance is the resulting effect that

dissonance can have on human behavior. Although the magnitude of dissonance between

cognitions can vary, Festinger states that humans will strive for consistency in their

knowledge (1957). "The important point to remember is that there is pressure to produce

consonant relations among cognitions and to avoid and reduce dissonance" (Festinger,

1957, p. 9). This effort to reduce cognitive dissonance can take many formats, depending

on the power of the previously held cognition or the power of the environment

surrounding the person (Festinger, 1957). Ways to reduce dissonance include avoidance

of new information that would conflict with a currently held belief, changing a behavior









related to a cognition (i.e. not going out in the rain), changing a social environment a

person is in or adding new cognitive elements to reaffirm a consonance relationship and

to negate the dissonance cognition (Festinger, 1957).

How then does this explain what is occurring within public relations where women

will privately admit to a problem but refuse to publicly, or even become openly hostile?

According to Festinger (1957), these actions can be explained by forced compliance

theory and the resulting cognitive dissonance felt. "There are circumstances in which

persons will behave in a manner counter to their convictions or will publicly make

statements which they do not really believe" (Festinger, 1957, p. 84). Forced compliance

is enacted through an implied or real threat of punishment for not complying with the

social or group ideas, or through a promised reward for complying with the social or

group ideas (Festinger, 1957). An important note is that while forced compliance results

in a change in public behavior, it does not always affect privately held beliefs (Festinger,

1957). Spiral of silence, a more recent theory, takes a similar perspective, positing that

individuals who think they hold a minority opinion tend to remain silent and conceal their

views (Stone, Singletary, & Richmond, 1999). When a topic comes into conversation,

individuals will internally assess how they believe those around them think and then

choose to either voice their opinion or remain silent based on this assessment. This

motivation to self-censor is based on the individual's fear of isolation from the group

(Stone, Singletary, & Richmond, 1999).

Because of this inconsistency, forced compliance can be identified by measuring

and comparing public actions and/or beliefs with private actions and/or beliefs (Festinger,

1957). "In addition to observing the public behavior, it is also possible to identify a









discrepancy between public and private opinion by eliciting a statement under

circumstances where the person is assured of anonymity" (Festinger, 1957, p. 87). These

comparison methods were used by the public relations researchers previously described

who showed an inconsistency between private and public opinion on the presence of

gender inequality within the industry.

Although replication of Festinger's original theory and resulting behaviors has been

established, many criticize his work (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Festinger worked under

controlled laboratory conditions and would never fully share all of the specifics of these

conditions or his experimental procedures. Later research found that dissonance could be

made to appear and disappear by changing some of the experimental methods and so the

theory was adapted to include "a much narrower range of situations than Festinger had

originally envisioned" (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, p. 511). Therefore a direct link between

Festinger's cognitive dissonance theories and the behaviors he suggested people perform

in order to reduce their dissonance may not exist. If these behavior patterns do exist they

will be hard to measure.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter will describe the methods and procedures of this study as they relate to

1) research design, 2) subject selection, 3) instrumentation, 4) data collection, and 5) data

analysis.

The following objectives, established in Chapter One, guided this research study:

* Describe the demographics of the population of current, active, US-based
agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age,
income level, education, marital status, and position

* Describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications
practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and
faceted job satisfaction (JDI).

o Describe respondents' job satisfaction as measured by the items in the
PRSA job satisfaction scale.

o Describe these items in terms of respondents' gender.

* Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents' perceptions
of gender roles.

o Further describe in terms of respondents' gender.

Research Design

The research design for this study was a descriptive census survey of the population

of all current, active ACE members located within the United States for 2004 (n=510).

The survey was conducted via mail using Dillman's Tailored Design method procedures

(2000). Although largely quantitative in nature, the survey did allow for some qualitative

responses. For the purpose of the study, the instrument was used to assess the dependent









variables (job satisfaction and perceptions of gender) and independent variables

(demographics, education, and employment factors).

Subject Selection

To conduct this study, a census population of current, active ACE members within

the United States was used. As discussed in Chapter One, ACE is the oldest and possibly

the largest organization of agricultural communicators (Carnahan, 2000; Hilt, 1988).

ACE members work throughout the industry, in both the private and public sector, with

occupations ranging from writers to photographers, graphic designers to educators, and

electronic media producers to marketing specialists (ACE, 2004; Carnahan, 2000; Hilt,

1988). The goal of the organization is to develop the "professional skills of its members

to extend knowledge about agriculture, natural resources and life and human sciences to

people worldwide" (ACE, 2004).

The total number of 2004 ACE members was 674 people. Due to the nature of the

study and its focus on job satisfaction (i.e. asking about current job and perceptions

related to it), the retired and lifetime members were excluded from the population. Non-

U.S. members were also excluded since gender studies and job satisfaction studies

outside of the United States tend to be based on a different theoretical framework. This

resulted in a population definition of current, active United States ACE members

(n=510).

To develop the population used in this study, the ACE coordinator at the University

of Florida provided the names and addresses of the members. Permission to do so was

received from two ACE presidents, as this study overlapped two executive years (T.

Knecht, personal communication, March 2004; J. Winn, personal communication, August

2005).









Instrumentation

The 154-item questionnaire used for this survey was made up of three portions.

The first portion consisted of two job satisfaction scales--the Job in General scale (JIG)

and the Job Descriptive Index. The second portion consisted of items taken from the

Glass Ceiling Survey used by the Public Relations Society of America. The third portion

of the survey was designed by the researcher to gather demographic information, as well

as open-ended responses to gender related experiences. A panel of experts reviewed the

instrument for content and face validity. A pilot test was conducted September 2004 with

current, active Florida ACE members (n=24). Responses from the pilot test were used to

refine the survey instrument (McGovney, Irani, & Telg, 2005).

Instrument--Part One

Within job satisfaction research there are different types of job satisfaction that can

be studied: faceted, or variable job satisfaction, and overall job satisfaction. Faceted job

satisfaction deals with specific areas or characteristics of a job, and asks a person how

he/she feels specifically about a single area (Bissland & Rentner, 1990; Selnow &

Wilson, 1985). These facets are meant to be homogeneous (Ironson et. al., 1989).

Several facets or areas are usually tested, including pay, job security, job comfort,

financial rewards, support, and promotions (Bissland & Rentner, 1990; Selnow &

Wilson, 1985). Overall job satisfaction deals with how people feel about theirjob as a

whole, all things included (Bissland & Rentner, 1990; Selnow & Wilson, 1985). These

general scales "estimate the respondents overall feelings about the job" and "are widely

used as indexes of organizational effectiveness" (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Givson, &

Paul, 1989, p. 194).









The Job in General, or JIG (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Givson, & Paul, 1989), and

the Job Descriptive Index, or JDI (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969), were chosen as the

primary job satisfaction indexes for the survey instrument. The JDI measures five

specific facets of job satisfaction--"work on present job," "pay," "opportunities for

promotion," "supervision," and coworkerss." According to Balzer et al (1997) "The JDI

has remained the most popular standardized measure of job satisfaction and has been

used by hundreds of organizations...it has been called 'the gold standard' of measuring

job satisfaction" (p. 15). With this instrument, the facets measured stand alone, meaning

they cannot be added together to get an overall level of job satisfaction. For this reason,

the JIG was chosen to measure participant's overall job satisfaction. Reliability for the

five JDI scales, as well as the JIG, was determined in 1997 using national data (Balzer et

al, 1997). (See Table 3-1 for reliability values.)

Table 3-1. Reliability values for the JDI and JIG
Cronbach's alpha n

Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
-Work .90 1623
-Pay .86 1603
-Opportunities for Promotion .87 1611
-Supervision .91 1613
-coworkers .91 1615

Job in General (JIG) .92 1629
Note: "n" is national norm data used to calculate reliability


The JDI contains a total of 72 items. The work, supervision, and coworkers

subscales have 18 items apiece, while the pay and promotion subscales each have nine.

There are 18 items for the JIG scale. Respondents are given a brief explanation of each

scale before the items. For example, before the work subscale items the instrument reads









"Think of the work you do at present. How well does each of the following words or

phrases describe your work?" The words or short phrases are evaluative adjectives used

to describe an individual's job. Participants can respond in three ways--"yes" the word or

phrase applies to their job, "no" the word or phrase does not apply to their job, or "?"

they are uncertain/cannot decide if the word of phrase applies to their job. (See Table 3-2

for example of questions.)

Table 3-2. Questions from the JDI pay subscale
Question Scale

Think of the pay you get now. How well does each
of the following describe your present pay?
-Fair Y N ?
-Barely live on income Y N ?
-Less than I deserve Y N ?
-Well paid Y N ?


Around half of the items for each scale are worded favorably (i.e. "excellent"),

while the remaining items are unfavorable descriptions (i.e. "dull"). Job satisfaction

scores result by assigning numerical values to "yes," "no," and "cannot decide." For the

favorable items, a "yes" receives 3 points, a "no" receives 0 points, and "?" receives 1

point. The scoring is changed for the unfavorable items, where "yes" indicates

dissatisfaction rather than satisfaction. A "yes" receives 0 points, a "no" receives 3

points, and a "?" receives 1 point.

Both the JIG and the JDI are copyrighted by Bowling Green University. The

researcher received permission to utilize these scales from personnel in the Department of

Psychology who oversee the instrument, in return for sending entry-level JIG and JDI

data from this study to the department (I. Little, personal communication, February

2004).









Instrument--Part Two

The survey instrument used by the Public Relations Society of America for its 1990

and 1995 glass ceiling surveys was chosen due to its relevance as a gender study of a

large communication organization (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). According to Grunig,

Toth, and Hon (2001) the instrument was initially developed by the Women's Task Force

of the Public Relations Society of America to determine "the status of women in public

relations" (p. vii). During these first five years of gender research in PRSA, there were

two groups of researchers. The main researchers for the first group included Linda Hon,

Donald Wright, Elizabeth Toth, Larissa Grunig, and Jeffrey Springston (Grunig, Toth, &

Hon, 2001). The second group of researchers included Donald Wright, Elizabeth Toth,

Shirley Serini, and Arthur Emig (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001).

In 1990, the survey was mailed to a large random sample of PRSA members

(n=2,785) with a 37% usable return rate (n=1,027) (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001). In

1995, the survey was again mailed randomly to a sample of PRSA members with a 45%

usable return rate (n=678) (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001).

Most of the questions addressed gender-related professional issues such as
participants' perceptions of the impact of gender-related professional issues within
their organization and throughout the overall field of public relations. The
questionnaire included ajob satisfaction index, as well as questions about
demographic and organization characteristics (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 362).

Reliability for the PRSA survey instrument subscale indices has been reported as

follows: for the gender perception scale (relating to inside one's organization), r = .73

and r= .56 (with respect to the industry as a whole) (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001); and for

the job satisfaction scale, r = .85 (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001).

The researcher received permission to use and adapt this survey instrument from

two of the original researchers, Larissa Grunig and Elizabeth Toth, as well as one of the









current researchers in possession an electronic copy of the instrument, Linda Aldoory (L.

Grunig, personal communication, June 2004; E. Toth, personal communication, June

2004; L. Aldoory, personal communication, June 2004). Thirty-eight items from this

instrument were included in the researcher's survey. To adapt them for this study, the

researcher replaced the words "public relations" with "agricultural communications."

The first 14 items came from the job satisfaction scale mentioned above. Respondents

were asked to consider their satisfaction with both faceted and overall job satisfaction on

a five-point Likert scale; where "1" equaled "extremely dissatisfied," "2" equaled

"dissatisfied," "3" equaled "uncertain/don't know," "4" equaled "satisfied," and "5"

equaled "extremely satisfied." (See Table 3-2 for example of questions.)

Table 3-3. Questions describing job satisfaction
Question Scale
How satisfied are you with...
-your present job in agricultural communications? 1 2 3 4 5
-your knowledge of agricultural communications skills? 1 2 3 4 5
-the value of your job to society? 1 2 3 4 5
-job security in your present position? 1 2 3 4 5

The other 24 items taken from the PRSA survey addressed perceptions of gender in

professional situations, both in the individual's own organization and then throughout the

agricultural communications industry. Participants were asked to respond to twelve

gender-related statements, once for their organization and then again for the industry.

These items were on a five-point Likert scale; where "1" equaled "strongly disagree," "2"

equaled "disagree," "3" equaled "uncertain/don't know," "4" equaled "agree," and "5"

equaled "strongly agree." (See Table 3-4 for example of questions.)









Table 3-4. Questions describing perceptions of gender in professional situations
Question Scale
In your organization Throughout
Agricultural
communications

-Generally women receive lower
salaries than men for doing 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
comparable agricultural
communications work.
-Men are promoted more quickly
than women in most agricultural 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
communications employment
situations.
-Women are often hired as a result of
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 45
affirmative action policies.
-Members of my audience prefer to
work with male agricultural 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
communicators.


Instrument--Part Three

The third portion of the instrument mainly consisted of demographic questions.

These included gender, age, ethnicity, marital status, number of children (if any), and

highest level of education. Employment status/history questions were also asked in this

section, including current organization, number of people in organization, status as a

manger and how many people supervised, length of agricultural communications

employment, and current salary level. Most of these questions were adapted from similar

demographic/employment questions found in the PRSA survey instrument.

There were four researcher-developed questions in this section. The first asked

respondents to identify which ACE Special Interest Group (SIG) relates to their current

job the closest. There are 14 SIGs available to ACE members, ranging from

"photography" to "media relations" to "distance education and instructional design"

(ACE, 2004). SIGs are described as groups that "provide a community of common









interests and expertise, and an additional way to sharpen...skills and grow

professionally" (ACE, 2004). The remaining three researcher-developed questions were

items based on the gender-related professional questions adapted from the PRSA survey.

Due to time/monetary limitations, the researcher was not able to conduct focus groups or

personal interviews as the glass ceiling researchers did. Because mixed-methods is "one

of the hallmarks of feminist scholarship" that produces "new and better (more

comprehensive) research" (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001, p. 361), the researcher worked

with experts to develop qualitative-type questions to include in the study. One of these

questions was "Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender or sexual

harassment within your work in agricultural communications in the last five years?"

Respondents were asked to first select "yes" or "no", and then to provide a qualitative

response if they so desired.

Data Collection

The researcher submitted a detailed research protocol to the University of Florida

Institutional Review Board (IRB) July 2004. After making suggested changes to more

fully describe the gender situations involved in the nature of the study, full approval was

given on August 9, 2004. This approval by the IRB board confirmed that the research

presented minimal risk to the participants (Appendix A).

Dillman's Tailored Design (2000) survey procedures were used for this study. Due

to the large number of items in the instrument, as well as the large number of participants,

the survey was formatted to be used with a Scantron. Each questionnaire (Appendix B)

and Scantron was coded to identify non-respondents. The first wave sent to respondents

was an initial contact letter, written by the researcher for the 2005-2006 ACE President

Judy Winn (Appendix C). It was sent by email on October 1, 2004 to the entire ACE









listserv, maintained by the University of Florida. It introduced both the researcher and

the research, and advised ACE members when they would be receiving the survey.

The second wave was mailed on October 8, 2004. The packet contained a cover

letter (Appendix D), two informed consent statements with the IRB approval stamp/study

number--one for the participants to sign and return to the researcher and one for them to

keep (Appendix E), the survey instrument and a Scantron answer sheet. Two postage-

paid, self-addressed campus envelopes were included in this packet so that participants

could return their signed informed consent statements separately from their completed

surveys if they wished. A reminder/thank you postcard was sent as a third wave to all

participants two weeks after the survey packet was sent on October 19, 2004 (Appendix

F). The fourth wave was a reminder email sent by the ACE coordinator on behalf of the

researcher to the full ACE listserv (Appendix G). This email, sent November 2, 2004,

reminded ACE members of the study underway and asked them to please complete and

return their survey if they had not already done so.

Data Analysis

Data was coded by computer for those items on the Scantron answer sheet by the

University of Florida Academic Technology Forms Processing Office. These included

demographics/employment questions, JIG scale, JDI subscales, and the PRSA job

satisfaction questions. This data was then transferred into Statistical Software for Social

Sciences (SPSS) Version 12.0 for Windows. Participants were asked to respond to the

gender-related situation questions from the PRSA survey, both in their organization and

throughout agricultural communications, on the survey instrument. These items, along

with the three researcher-developed gender "yes/no" questions were coded by hand and









entered into SPSS by the researcher. The qualitative responses to the three researcher-

developed questions were entered into Microsoft Word (Appendix H).

SPSS was used to develop and calculate frequencies and descriptive statistics,

such as means and standard deviations. Reliability of the JIG scale, the JDI subscales,

and the PRSA job satisfaction index were calculated in the form of Cronbach's alpha.

The researcher hand-coded the qualitative responses to find common groupings and

themes using a modified inductive analysis technique based on Hatch's (2002) inductive

analysis methods for qualitative responses.














CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS AND RESULTS

The major findings of this study, along with data analysis procedures, are described

in this chapter. The order of this chapter will follow the objectives laid out in Chapters

One and Three, which are:

* Describe the demographics of the population of current, active, US-based
agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age,
income level, education, marital status, and position.

* Describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications
practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and
faceted job satisfaction (JDI).

o Describe respondents' job satisfaction as measured by the items in the
PRSA job satisfaction scale.

o Describe these items in terms of respondents' gender.

* Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents' perceptions
of gender roles.

o Further describe in terms of respondents' gender.

The overall response rate for this study was 35.1% (n=179) of the 510 current,

active ACE members located in the US that defined the accessible population. To control

for nonresponse error, the researcher compared early and late respondents. This

comparison was conducted first by splitting respondents into quartiles, so that the first

25% who returned completed questionnaires were grouped as "early" respondents and the

last 25% were grouped as "late" respondents (Rhoades, 2004). Forty-five respondents

were selected for each group.









Frequency distributions were used to analyze early versus late respondents in terms

of gender, age, ethnicity, highest level of education, and job satisfaction. The gender

breakdown of early and late respondents was exactly the same, with 43.2% (n=19) male

and 56.8% (n=25) female. One person from each group declined to list their gender.

One hundred percent of early respondents listed their ethnicity as Caucasian compared to

93.3% (n=42) of late respondents.

The majority of early respondents, 75% (n=33), listed their age as 40 years or

above as did 79.5% (n=35) of the late respondents. (See Table 4-1.) There were twice as

many late respondents (n=6) between the ages of 20-29 years old, and three times as

many early respondents between the ages of 30-39 (n=8). Fifty percent of early

respondents (n=22) indicated they held a master's degree, while only 39.5% of late

respondents (n=17) did. There were slightly more respondents with bachelor's degrees in

the late respondents group, and slightly more respondents with doctoral degrees in the

early respondents group.

Table 4-1. Comparison of early and late respondents' age and education
Early Respondents Late Respondents
n % N %

Age
-20-29 years old 3 6.8 6 13.6
-30-39 years old 8 18.2 3 6.8
-40-49 years old 16 36.4 12 27.3
-50-59 years old 9 20.5 16 36.4
-60+ years old 8 18.2 7 15.9

Highest Level of Education
-bachelor's degree 10 22.7 14 32.6
-master's degree 22 50.0 17 39.5
-doctoral degree 12 27.3 10 23.3









Overall job satisfaction levels of early and late respondents were also similar. The

grand mean for early respondents on the JIG scale was 42.44 while the grand mean for

late respondents was 43.87. The researcher used independent samples t-test to compare

early and late respondents and no significant differences were observed. (See Table 4-2.)

Table 4-2. T-test for significant differences between early and late respondents
Early Late
Respondents Respondents

n m n m Sig. t Value

Gender 44 1.57 44 1.57 1.00 .00
Age 44 3.25 44 3.34 .72 -.36
Ethnicity 44 1.00 45 1.11 .09 -1.68
Highest Level of Education 44 3.05 43 3.00 .79 .27
JIG 45 45.93 45 43.87 2.07 1.03


Objective One

Describe the demographics of the population of current, active, US-based
agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of age,
income level, education, marital status, and position.

The literature suggests an employment trend in communication fields toward

higher numbers of female employees, which was also the case in this study; the majority

of the respondents were female. The gender breakdown was 58.8% female (n=104) and

41.2% male (n=73), with two missing responses. An overwhelming majority of the

respondents listed their ethnicity as Caucasian, 94.9% (n=168). Four respondents

selected African American, three respondents selected Hispanic/Latin American, two

respondents selected other, and two respondents did not answer. Respondents were asked

to give their age by choosing from five, nine-year age ranges. (See Table 4-3.) The

majority of respondents selected either the 40-49 years old range (29.0%, n=51) or the

50-59 years old range (29.5%, n=52).









Table 4-3. Age of respondents
Age Range N %
20-29 years old 21 11.9
30-39 years old 26 14.8
40-49 years old 51 29.0
50-59 years old 52 29.5
60+ years old 26 14.8

Total 176 100.0


A majority of the respondents (79.7%, n=141) were married or have a live-in

partner. Eighteen (10.2%) of the study participants stated they are single, 15 are divorced

(8.5%), two are widowed (1.1%), one is separated (0.6%), and two participants did not

respond to the question. Most of the respondents (60.6%, n=106) answered "no" when

asked if they have children under 18 years old living at their home. Of those who do

have children under 18 living at their home (n=69), the majority have one child (n=29) or

two children (n=31).

Almost half of the respondents reported having a master's degree (41.6%, n=72),

followed closely by those holding a bachelor's degree as their highest form of education

(34.7%, n=60). Table 4-4 presents this information.

Table 4-4. Respondents' highest level of education
Degree N %
High school diploma 2 1.2
Bachelor's degree 60 34.7
Master's degree 72 41.6
Doctoral degree 39 22.5
Total 173 100.0


One hundred and fifty-one, or 85.8%, of the respondents work for an agricultural

institution of higher education. (See Table 4-5.) The next highest response for work

organization was government agency with 9.1% (n=16). To further understand the









organizations the study participants worked for, respondents were asked how many

agricultural communications practitioners worked in their office, excluding themselves.

Almost half, 42.9%, n=75) stated there were more than 11 other agricultural

communications practitioners in their department.

Table 4-5. Respondents' organization and agricultural communications coworkers
N %

Work organization

Agricultural institution of higher education 151 85.8
Government agency 16 9.1
Other 5 2.8
For profit company 2 1.1
Trade or professional organization 2 1.1
Total 176 100.0

Number of Agricultural Communicators in Office

0 practitioners 19 10.9
1 practitioner 13 7.4
2-5 practitioners 38 21.7
6-10 practitioners 30 17.1
11+ practitioners 75 42.9
Total 153 100.0


Participants were asked to report their current salary levels within an approximate

$20,000 range. Of the 175 who responded, 41.7% (n=73) stated that their salary was

between $41,000-60,000, and 29.1% (n=51) stated their salary was between $20,000-

40,000. Respondents were then asked to select how long they had worked in agricultural

communications: less than two years, 2-5 years, 6-10 years, 11-20 years or 21-30 years.

Responses to this question were distributed evenly across these ranges, 20.2% (n=35)

worked in agricultural communications for 2-5 years, 22.5% (n=39) worked in

agricultural communications for 6-10 years, 23.1% (n=40) worked in agricultural









communications for 11-20 years, and 30.1% worked in agricultural communications for

21-30 years. (See Table 4-6.)

Table 4-6. Respondents' salary and time spent working in agricultural communications
N %

Current Salary

$20,000-40,000 51 29.1
$41,000-60,000 73 41.7
$61,000-80,000 28 16.0
$81,000-100,000 9 5.1
$101,000+ 14 8.0
Total 175 100.0

How long worked in agricultural communications

Less than 2 years 7 4.0
2-5 years 35 20.2
6-10 years 39 22.5
11-20 years 40 23.1
21-30 years 52 30.1
Total 173 100.0


When asked to select the ACE Special Interest Group (SIG) to which their current

job function most closely related, responses were distributed somewhat evenly across the

board. For this question, the researcher grouped similar SIGs together, and the

Writing/Media Relations/Marketing SIGs were selected by most of the participants

(30.6%, n=53) followed closely by the Publishing/Graphic Design/Photography SIGs

(26.0%, n=45). Six participants did not respond to the question. (See Table 4-7.)









Table 4-7. ACE special interest group with closest relation to respondents' job
SIG N %
Writing/Media Relations/Marketing 53 30.6
Academic Programs/Research 22 12.7
Electronic Media/Distance Education and Instructional
Design/Information Technology
Communications Management 20 11.6
Publishing/Graphic Design/Photography 45 26.0
Total 173 100.0


The majority of participants do not currently hold management positions in their

organizations (63.1%, n=l 11). Of the 65 respondents (36.9%) who are currently

managers, the majority have been in the position for one to five years (n=27) and

supervise two to five people (n=28).

Objective Two

Describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural communications
practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction (JIG) and
faceted job satisfaction (JDI).

Describe respondents' job satisfaction as measured by the items in the PRSA
job satisfaction scale.

Describe these items in terms of respondents' gender.

Two scales were used to determine participants' overall job satisfaction. The first

was the Job in General (JIG) from Bowling Green University, which is comprised of 18

items. The researcher conducted scale reliability analysis with the population data

collected using Chronbach's alpha. The standardized item alpha for the JIG was .89.

The second scale used by the researcher to test participants' overall job satisfaction was

the 14-item job satisfaction index taken from the PRSA glass ceiling instrument.

Reliability analysis for this scale was also conducted using Cronbach's alpha. The

standardized item alpha for the PRSA job satisfaction scale was .83.









Respondents' faceted job satisfaction levels were measured using the Job

Descriptive Index (JDI) from Bowling Green University. The JDI is divided into five

subscales that measure specific facets of job satisfaction-work, pay, opportunities for

promotion, supervision, and coworkers. There are a total of 72 items for the JDI, the

work, supervision, and coworkers subscales have 18 items apiece, while the pay and

promotion subscales each have nine. Standardized item alphas for the five subscales are

listed in Table 4-8. These were also calculated using scale reliability analysis.



Table 4-8. Cronbach's alpha values for JDI subscales
Cronbach's alpha N
Work .86 176
Pay .83 176
Opportunities for Promotion .86 177
Supervision .85 159
Coworkers .83 177


JIG/JDI

The average grand mean for all participants on the JIG scale was 45.88 on a scale

that ranges from 0 to 54. (See Table 4-9.) According to Balzer et al (1997) the midpoint

of the JIG and the JDI scales is 27, and scores at 32 or above indicate satisfaction while

scores of 22 or below indicate dissatisfaction. Because the JDI is divided into five

distinct subscales, an individual grand mean was calculated for each one. Participants'

responses seemed to show higher satisfaction with the work they currently do (M=45.46),

the supervision they received (M=40.92), and their coworkers (M=43.67). Respondents

indicated they were less satisfied with their current pay (M=33.66) and dissatisfied with

their opportunities for promotion (M=18.28). Table 4-9 presents this information.









Table 4-9. Mean scores for the JIG and JDI
N M SD
JIG 179 45.88 8.23
JDI
-Work 179 45.46 9.36
-Coworkers 177 43.67 9.17
-Supervision 177 40.92 10.96
-Pay 177 33.66 14.53
-Opportunities for Promotion 177 18.28 14.49
Note: Based on a 0-54 scale, where 22 or less indicates dissatisfaction and 32 or more
indicates satisfaction.


PRSA

For these items, respondents were asked to indicate their own satisfaction levels on

a scale of 1 to 5, where extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied, 3=uncertain/don't know,

4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied. Respondents indicated highest satisfaction

(M=4.28, n=178) with the freedom and autonomy they have in their present job. (See

Table 4-10.) Participants stated they were satisfied with their present job in agricultural

communications (M=4.12, n=175) and agricultural communications as an occupation

(M=3.99, n=176). Respondents also indicated satisfaction with their knowledge of

agricultural communications skills (M=4.09, n=177) and their overall knowledge of

agricultural communications (M=4.07, n=177) and the value of their job to society

(M=3.90, n=178).

Respondents' indicated they were moderately satisfied with prospects for their

future with their present employer (M=3.57, n=177) and prospects for their future in

agricultural communications (M=3.59, n=176). Participants were also somewhat

satisfied with job security in their present position (M=3.63, n=177) and recognition they

get from their superiors (M=3.56, n=178). Respondents indicated moderate satisfaction

with their income as an agricultural communications practitioner (M=3.38, n=176), the









prestige of working in agricultural communications (M=3.30, n=176), and opportunities

for advancement with their present employer (M=3.02, n=176). This information is

presented in Table 4-10.

Table 4-10. Respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction
N M SD

How satisfied are you with...
-the freedom and autonomy you have in your present 178 4.28 .81
178 4.28 .81
job?
-your present job in agricultural communications? 175 4.12 .74
-your knowledge of agricultural communications
177 4.09 .65
skills?
-your overall knowledge of agricultural 177 4.07 .69
communications?
-agricultural communications as an occupation? 176 3.99 .69
-the value of your job to society? 178 3.90 .83
-how your family and/or friends feel about your 175 3.86 .76
working in agricultural communications?
-job security in your present position? 177 3.63 1.06
-prospects for your future in agricultural 176 3.59 .95
communications?
-prospects for your future with your present 177 3.57 1.05
employer?
-recognition you get from your superiors? 178 3.56 1.04
-your income as an agricultural communications 16 38
176 3.38 1.10
practitioner?
-the prestige of working in agricultural 176 3.30 .93
communications?
-opportunities for advancement with your present 176 3.02 .98
employer?
Note: Job Satisfaction scale where l=extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied,
3=uncertain/don't know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied


Job Satisfaction and Respondents' Gender

After reviewing the complete data sets, the researcher divided respondents by

gender and analyzed the resulting data for each job satisfaction scale. For the JIG scale

the average grand mean for male respondents was 47.12, and the average grand mean for

female respondents was 45.05. (See Table 4-11.)









On the JDI subscales, male respondents indicated they were most satisfied with

their current work (M=46.12), their coworkers (M=43.78), and the supervision they

receive in their current position (M=46.12). Female respondents indicated they were also

the most satisfied with their current work (M=45.11), their coworkers (M=43.51), and

their supervision (M=39.66). The average grand means for the pay subscale were similar

for female and male respondents (32.45 and 34.89, respectively). These means are at the

low end of the satisfaction scale, as the cutoff for satisfaction is 32. Both male and

female respondents indicated they were dissatisfied with their opportunities for

promotion. The grand mean for female respondents was M=16.33, and the grand mean

for male respondents was M=20.97. Table 4-11 presents this information.



Table 4-11. Mean scores for JIG and JDI by gender
N M SD

Female Respondents
JIG 104 45.05 9.20
JDI
-Work 104 45.11 9.79
-Coworkers 103 43.51 9.20
-Supervision 103 39.66 11.17
-Pay 103 32.45 14.60
-Opportunities for Promotion 103 16.33 13.12

Male Respondents
JIG 179 47.12 6.40
JDI
-Work 179 46.12 8.64
-Coworkers 177 43.78 9.20
-Supervision 177 42.64 10.56
-Pay 177 34.89 14.29
-Opportunities for Promotion 177 20.97 16.00
Note: Based on a 0-54 scale, where 22 or less indicates dissatisfaction and 32 or more
indicates satisfaction.









The researcher then calculated the mean differences between female and male

respondents' JIG and JDI scores. (See Table 4-12.) Differences were calculated by

subtracting mean responses for female respondents from the mean respondents for male

respondents. A mean difference of 2.07 was found between male and female

respondents' JIG scores. (See Table 4-12.) For the JDI subscales, the greatest mean

difference between male and female scores was 4.64 for "opportunities for promotion."

The next greatest difference between males and females was for the subscale

"supervision" followed by the "pay" subscale. The lowest mean difference between male

and female respondents was 0.27 for the coworkerss" subscale.


Table 4-12. Mean difference of JIG and JDI scores by gender
Mean Difference
JIG 2.07
JDI
-Work 1.01
-Coworkers 0.27
-Supervision 2.98
-Pay 2.44
-Opportunities for Promotion 4.64


For the PRSA job satisfaction scale, female respondents indicated the highest levels

of satisfaction with the freedom and autonomy they have in their present job (M=4.19,

n=103), their present job in agricultural communications (M=4.13, n=101), and

agricultural communications as an occupation (M=4.10, n=101). Female respondents

also indicated satisfaction with their knowledge of agricultural communications skills

(M=4.10, n=102) and their overall knowledge of agricultural communications (M=4.02,

n=102). Moderate job satisfaction levels were stated by female respondents for their

income as an agricultural communications practitioner (M=3.37, n=101), the prestige of









working in agricultural communications (M=3.23, n=101), recognition they get from

their superiors (M=3.46, n=103), and opportunities for advancement with their current

employer (M=2.98, n=102). This information is presented in Table 4-13.

Table 4-13. Female respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction
N M SD

How satisfied are you with...
-the freedom and autonomy you have in your present 103 4.19 .83
job?
-your present job in agricultural communications? 101 4.13 .76
-agricultural communications as an occupation? 101 4.10 .69
-your knowledge of agricultural communications
102 4.10 .64
skills?
-your overall knowledge of agricultural 102 4.02 .74
communications?
-the value of your job to society? 103 3.96 .82
-how your family and/or friends feel about your 101 3.86 .78
working in agricultural communications?
-prospects for your future in agricultural 101 3.57 .98
communications?
-job security in your present position? 102 3.54 1.12
-prospects for your future with your present 103 3.50 1.07
employer?
-recognition you get from your superiors? 103 3.46 1.09
-your income as an agricultural communications
practitioner?
-the prestige of working in agricultural 101 3.23 .93
communications?
-opportunities for advancement with your present 102 2.98 1.02
employer?
Note: Job Satisfaction scale where l=extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied,
3=uncertain/don't know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied


Male respondents indicated similar satisfaction levels as female respondents with

their present job in agricultural communications (M=4.14, n=72), their knowledge of

agricultural communications skills (M=4.11, n=73), and their overall knowledge of

agricultural communications (M=4.16, n=73). High satisfaction levels were also

indicated by male respondents for the freedom and autonomy they have in their present









job (M=4.41, n=73), the recognition they get from their superiors (M=3.71, n=73), job

security in their present position (M=3.74, n=73), and agricultural communications as an

occupation (M=3.86, n=73). When asked their satisfaction with their income as an

agricultural communications practitioner, male respondents indicated moderate job

satisfaction (M=3.37, n=73). Moderate job satisfaction levels were also indicated by

male respondents with prospects for their future in agricultural communications (M=3.59,

n=73) and opportunities for advancement with their present employer (M=3.07, n=72).

This information is presented in Table 4-14.


Table 4-14. Male respondents' perceptions of job satisfaction
N M SD

How satisfied are you with...
-the freedom and autonomy you have in your present 73 4.41 .78
job?
-your overall knowledge of agricultural 73 4.16 .60
communications?
-your present job in agricultural communications? 72 4.14 .70
-your knowledge of agricultural communications
kil? 73 4.11 .64
skills?
-agricultural communications as an occupation? 73 3.86 .67
-how your family and/or friends feel about your 72 3.85 .74
working in agricultural communications?
-the value of your job to society? 73 3.82 .86
-job security in your present position? 73 3.74 .97
-recognition you get from your superiors? 73 3.71 .95
-prospects for your future with your present 72 3.67 1.02
72 3.67 1.02
employer?
-prospects for your future in agricultural 73 3.59 .93
communications?
-the prestige of working in agricultural 73 3.40 .94
communications
-your income as an agricultural communications
practitioner?
-opportunities for advancement with your present 72 3.07 .95
employer?
Note: Job Satisfaction scale where l=extremely dissatisfied, 2=dissatisfied,
3=uncertain/don't know, 4=satisfied, and 5=extremely satisfied









Objective Three

Describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner respondents' perceptions
of gender roles.

Further describe gender roles in terms of respondents' gender.

PRSA

Respondents' perceptions of gender roles were measured using the PRSA gender

roles scale. This scale is comprised of 12 gender-related items, which respondents

answer for both their organization and agricultural communications as an industry.

Respondents are asked to state their agreement or disagreement with the statement on a 1

to 5 scale, where strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don't know, 4=agree, and

5=strongly agree. Scale reliability analysis was conducted on the organization items and

the agricultural communications industry items using Cronbach's alpha with the

population data. The standardized item alpha for the gender-related items as they related

to respondents' perceptions of their own organization was .69. The standardized item

alpha for the gender-related items as they related to respondents' perceptions for

agricultural communications as an industry was. 62. Although these alpha values are

slightly low, they are comparable to the alpha values from this scale in the original PRSA

surveys; r=.73 for organization and r=.53 for industry as a whole (Grunig, Toth, & Hon,

2001). As in the original survey instrument, these items were analyzed individually for

descriptives.

Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of their own

organization, the respondents indicated the highest level of agreement with the statements

"there are more women than men in agricultural communications today" (M=3.43,

n=167) and "there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments









today than there was five years ago" (M=3.23, n=168). (See Table 4-15.) Respondents

indicated uncertainty (M=3.04, n=167) for the statement "women are more likely than

men to be hired for agricultural communications staff positions involving mainly

communication skills." In addition, respondents indicated "uncertain/don't know" for the

statement "women in agricultural communications positions are paid less than men in

comparable jobs" (M=3.01, n=168) and the statement "it is more difficult for women than

it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications" (M=3.01, n=167).

Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of their own

organization, respondents indicated they disagreed the most with the statement "members

of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators" (M=2.33, n=168)

and "men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in agricultural

communications office conflict situations" (M=2.33, n=168). Respondents also indicated

disagreement with the statement "women are more likely than men to be hired for

agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and

decision-making" (M=2.40, n=167).









Table 4-15. Respondents' perceptions of gender roles within their organization
N M SD
There are more women than men in agricultural communications 167 3.43 1.02
There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications 1 .
168 3.23 .76
environments today than there was five years ago
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications staff positions involving mainly communication 167 3.04 1.13
skills
It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in
agricultural communications
Women in agricultural communications management positions 168 3.01 1.11
are paid less than men in comparable jobs
Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural 168 2.81 1.07
communications employment situations
Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing 168 2.74 1.28
comparable agricultural communications work
If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same
168 2.54 1.00
agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications management positions involving problem- 167 2.40 .90
solving and decision-making
Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies 168 2.35 1.07
Men are more apt than women to back down or seek
compromises in agricultural communications office conflict 168 2.33 .95
situations
Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural 168 2.33 .87
168 2.33 .87
communicators
Note: Likert scale where strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don't know,
4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.


Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of agricultural

communications as an industry, respondents again indicated the highest level of

agreement (M=3.38, n=167) with the statement "there are more women than men in

agricultural communications." (See Table 4-16.) Agreement was also indicated by

respondents for the statements "women in agricultural communications management

positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs" (M=3.28, n=168) and "generally

women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural

communications work" (M=3.27, n=168). Respondents showed uncertainty with the









statements "women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications

staff positions involving mainly communication skills" (M=3.14, n=168) and "there is

less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments today than there was

five years ago" (M=3.16, n=168). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents'

perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, respondents indicated

disagreement (M=2.51, n=168) with the statement "men are more apt than women to

back down or seek compromises in agricultural communications office conflict

situations." They also indicated disagreement (M=2.57, n=167) with "women are more

likely than men to be hired for agricultural communications management positions

involving problem-solving and decision-making."









Table 4-16. Respondents' perceptions of gender roles throughout agricultural
communications
N M SD
There are more women than men in agricultural communications 167 3.38 .76
Women in agricultural communications management positions 168 3.28 .85
are paid less than men in comparable jobs
Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing 168 3.27 .88
comparable agricultural communications work
There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications 18 3
168 3.16 .70
environments today than there was five years ago
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications staff positions involving mainly communication 167 3.14 .94
skills
It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in
168 3.11 1.08
agricultural communications
Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural 168 3.11 .91
communications employment situations
If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same
168 2.69 .85
agricultural communications job, the woman would be hired
Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies 168 2.68 .98
Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural 168 2.66 .8
168 2.66 .84
communicators
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications management positions involving problem- 167 2.57 .82
solving and decision-making
Men are more apt than women to back down or seek
compromises in agricultural communications office conflict 168 2.51 .81
situations
Note: Likert scale where strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don't know,
4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.


Due to the nature of the double scale, the researcher calculated the difference

between the means of each answer for respondents' perceptions of the gender-related

items within their own organization and their perceptions of the gender-related items for

agricultural communications as an industry. Differences were calculated by subtracting

mean responses for each item throughout agricultural communications from the mean

responses for each item in their organization. The researcher then ranked the absolute

mean differences from largest to smallest.









The greatest mean difference between respondents' answers for their organization

and agricultural communications as an industry was .53 for the statement "generally

women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable agricultural

communications work." (See Tale 4-17.) A mean difference of .33 was found for

"members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural communicators" and

"women are often hired as a result of affirmative action policies." The lowest mean

differences between respondents' answer for their organization and throughout

agricultural communications as an industry were .05 for "there are more women than men

in agricultural communications" and .07 for "there is less sexual harassment in

agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago."









Table 4-17. Mean difference of respondents' perceptions of gender roles in their
organization and throughout agricultural communications
Mean
Difference
Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable
agricultural communications work
Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural .33
communicators
Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies .33
Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural 30
communications employment situations
Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less
than men in comparable jobs
Men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in1
agricultural communications office conflict situations
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications management positions involving problem-solving and .17
decision-making
If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural 15
communications job, the woman would be hired
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills
It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in
agricultural communications
There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications 07
environments today than there was five years ago
There are more women than men in agricultural communications .05


Gender Roles and Respondents' Gender

Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of their own

organization, female respondents indicated highest agreement with the statement "there

are more women than men in agricultural communications" (M=3.52, n=94). (See Table

4-18.) Female respondents also agreed with the statements "it is more difficult for

women than it is for men to reach the top in agricultural communications" (M=3.39,

n=95) and "women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less

than men doing comparable jobs" (M=3.32, n=95). Of the gender-related items relating

to respondents' perceptions of their own organization, female respondents indicated they









disagreed with "men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in

agricultural communications office conflict situations" (M=2.17, n=95) and "women

often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies" (M=2.28, n=95).

Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of their own

organization, male respondents indicated highest agreement (M=3.37, n=71) for

responses within their organization for the statement "there is less sexual harassment in

agricultural communications environments today than there was five years ago." (See

Table 4-18.) They also indicated agreement with the statement "there are more women

than men in agricultural communications" (M=3.30, n=71). Of the gender-related items

relating to respondents' perceptions of their own organization male respondents

indicated they disagreed with the statements "generally women receive lower salaries

than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work" (M=2.31, n=71) and

"men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural communications

employment situations" (M=2.31, n=71). Male respondents indicated uncertainty for the

statements "women are more likely than me to be hired for agricultural communications

staff positions involving mainly communications skills" (M=2.87, n=70) and "if an

equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural communications job,

the woman would be hired" (M=2.75, n=71).












Table 4-18. Female and male respondents' perceptions of gender roles in their organizations


N M SD


N M SD


Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable
agricultural communications work
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications management positions involving problem-solving and
decision-making
Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural
communications employment situations
Men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in
agricultural communications office conflict situations
If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural
communications job, the woman would be hired
Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies
There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications
environments today than there was five years ago
It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in
agricultural communications
Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid
less than men in comparable jobs
There are more women than men in agricultural communications
Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural
communicators


95 3.05

95 3.15


95 2.33


95 3.19

95 2.17

95 2.40
95 2.28
95 3.12

95 3.39

95 3.32
94 3.52
95 2.35


1.34

1.23


.94


1.07

.92

.94
1.09
.78

1.23

1.09
1.08
.88


71 2.31

70 2.87


71 2.48


2.31

2.54

2.75
2.45
3.37

2.51

2.58


71 3.30
70 2.32


Note: Likert scale where strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don't know, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.


Female


Male


1.08

.98


.84


.85

.95

1.05
1.05
.72

1.08

1.01
.95
.86









Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of agricultural

communications as an industry, female respondents showed highest agreement with the

statement "women in agricultural communications management positions are paid less

than men in comparable jobs" (M=3.49, n=95). (See Table 4-19.) Female respondents

also indicated agreement with the statements "generally women receive lower salaries

than men for doing comparable agricultural communications work" (M=3.46, n=95) and

"men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural communications

employment situations" (M=3.43, n=95). Of the gender-related items relating to

respondents' perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, female

respondents indicated disagreement with the statements "men are more apt than women

to back down or seek compromises in agricultural communications employment

situations" (M=2.40, n=95) and "women are more likely than men to be hired for

agricultural communications management positions involving problem-solving and

decision-making" (M=2.46, 95).

Of the gender-related items relating to respondents' perceptions of agricultural

communications as an industry, male respondents indicated they agreed the most with the

statements "there are more women than men in agricultural communications" (M=3.37,

n=71) and "there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications environments

today than there was five years ago" (M=3.31, n=71). Male respondents indicated

uncertainty with the statements that "generally women receive lower salaries than men

for doing comparable agricultural communications work" (M=3.01, n=71) and "women

in agricultural communications management positions are paid less than men in

comparable jobs" (M=3.00, n=71). Of the gender-related items relating to respondents'






67


perceptions of agricultural communications as an industry, male respondents indicated

disagreement with the statement "members of my audience prefer to work with male

agricultural communicators" (M=2.54, n=71). Table 4-19 presents this information.












Table 4-19
Female and male respondents' perceptions of gender roles throughout agricultural communications

Female Male

N M SD N M SD


Generally women receive lower salaries than men for doing comparable
agricultural communications work
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications staff positions involving mainly communication skills
Women are more likely than men to be hired for agricultural
communications management positions involving problem-solving and 95
decision-making
Men are promoted more quickly than women in most agricultural
communications employment situations
Men are more apt than women to back down or seek compromises in
agricultural communications office conflict situations
If an equally capable woman and man applied for the same agricultural
communications job, the woman would be hired
Women often are hired as a result of affirmative action policies 95
There is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications
95
environments today than there was five years ago
It is more difficult for women than it is for men to reach the top in
agricultural communications
Women in agricultural communications management positions are paid
less than men in comparable jobs
There are more women than men in agricultural communications 95
Members of my audience prefer to work with male agricultural 95
communicators
Note: Likert scale where strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain/don't know, 4=


3.46

3.20


2.46


3.43

2.40

2.62
2.64
3.04

3.39

3.49
3.37
2.77


.90 71 3.01


1.04


.92


.91

.83

.87


70 3.07


71 2.69


71 2.69

71 2.66

71 2.79


.99 71 2.75


.71

1.09

.84


71 3.31

71 2.75

71 3.00


.80 71 3.37
.88 70 2.54


.80

.80


.67


.75

.77

.84
.98
.67

.97

.81
.70
.77


=agree, and 5=strongly agree.









Researcher Developed Categorical Response Questions

Respondents were asked to answer three researcher-developed questions relating to

gender situations, first by providing a "yes" or "no" response to the question and then by

providing a qualitative explanation if the respondent desired.

When asked "have you experienced any situations within your work in agricultural

communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years" the

majority of respondents (75.1%, n=130) answered no. (See Table 4-20.) The majority of

respondents (79.1%, n=136) also answered no when asked "have you experienced any

form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural

communications in the last five years?" Respondents were then asked "do you feel

gender is a factor within agricultural communications," and the majority (60.0%, n=102)

again answered no.


Table 4-20. Responses to researcher-developed gender experience questions
N %
Yes No
Have you experienced any situations within your work in
agricultural communications in which you felt your gender 173 24.9 75.1
was an issue in the last five years?

Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender,
or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural 172 20.9 79.1
communications in the last five years?

Do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural 170 40.0 60.0
communications?


The majority of female respondents (68.4%, n=67) answered no when asked "have

you experienced any situations within your work in agricultural communications in

which you felt your gender was an issue in the last five years?" (See Table 4-21.) In









addition, 72.2% (n=70) of female respondents answered no when asked "have you

experienced any form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your

work in agricultural communications in the last five years?" However, the responses of

female respondents were split almost evenly between yes (45.8%, n=44) and no (54.2%,

n=52) when asked "do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural communications?"


Table 4-21. Female respondents' answers to researcher-developed gender experience
questions
N %
Yes No
Have you experienced any situations within your work in
agricultural communications in which you felt your gender 98 31.6 68.4
was an issue in the last five years?

Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender,
or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural 97 27.8 72.2
communications in the last five years?

Do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural 96 45.8 54.2
communications?


When male respondents were asked "have you experienced any situations within

your work in agricultural communications in which you felt your gender was an issue in

the last five years," the majority said no (83.6%, n=61). (See Table 4-22.) The majority

of male respondents (87.7%, n=64) also answered no when asked "have you experienced

and form of inequality due to gender, or sexual harassment, within your work in

agricultural communications in the last five years?" The majority of male respondents

(66.7%, n=48) also answered no when asked "do you feel gender is a factor within

agricultural communications?"









Table 4-22. Male respondents' answers to researcher-developed gender experience
questions
N %
Yes No
Have you experienced any situations within your work in
agricultural communications in which you felt your gender 73 16.4 83.6
was an issue in the last five years?

Have you experienced any form of inequality due to gender,
or sexual harassment, within your work in agricultural 73 12.3 87.7
communications in the last five years?

Do you feel gender is a factor within agricultural 73 33.3 66.7
communications?


Researcher Developed Open-Ended Response Questions

The researcher analyzed respondents' qualitative responses to the three gender-

related situation questions using a modified inductive analysis technique based on

Hatch's (2002) inductive analysis method. "Inductive thinking proceeds from the

specific to the general ... Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaning in

data so that general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made"

(Hatch, 2002, p. 161). The responses were transcribed by the researcher from the

returned surveys. The researcher was careful to ensure the integrity of these responses by

including spelling and punctuation errors, italic and underlined emphases, and shorthand

notations, as is the current qualitative paradigm. Although the researcher made every

effort to include all qualitative responses, three were dropped from the study due to

difficulty deciphering the respondent's handwriting. In addition, one response was edited

to protect the identifying information of a respondent who described a federal

discrimination court case.









The researcher read through the data multiple times to identify frames or analyzable

units. A second analysis was then conducted by the researcher to identify domains,

which Hatch (2002) describes as "a set of categories of meaning...that reflects

relationships represented in the data" (p. 164). The researcher then re-read the responses

to identify the most significant domains and to identify broader themes across the

domains. Because similar domains were found within responses to all three questions,

the researcher chose to combine these and treat them as larger themes as suggested by

Hatch (2002) rather than analyzing the responses on an individual question basis. After

these had been identified, the researcher selected those responses which best highlighted

the domains and themes.

Theme 1, "Agriculture=Male"

The first theme found by the researcher was that of "agriculture=male."

Respondents referred to agriculture, or subsets of agriculture such as production

agriculture, as being male-dominated or male environments and described problematic

behaviors related to this. One female respondent wrote, "Agriculture is still a very male

environment and sometimes I find it is hard to get older men to respect and trust me.

This is not a problem with my coworkers in communications, but with faculty,

researchers, farmers, etc." Another female respondent wrote, "Sometimes specialists in

the traditional ag disciplines (crops, animal science) act differently (macho) than in other

disciplines such as horticulture, wildlife." A male respondent wrote, "In dealing with

some very traditional farmers and ranchers, being male was an advantage." Because

agricultural communications is unique in its focus on agriculture, it is necessary to look at

perceptions of how those involved in agriculture behave. One female respondent wrote,

"I sense that farmers, in general, are male and prefer to work w/ men. You generally









have to prove yourself if you're a female," while another female respondent stated, "It's

almost been inevitable because agriculture is still only gradually evolving from being a

'man's field'--in part due to strength requirements, inheritance traditions, living in the

Midwest/Bible Belt...." Another female respondent wrote, "I think gender is a factor in

any job situation but perhaps more so in jobs relating to agriculture."

Theme 2, "Gender or Sex Roles"

The second theme found by the researcher was that of "gender or sex roles," which

closely related to the first theme. Responses in this theme focused on women's roles both

in the workplace, agricultural communication, and in the field of agriculture both past

and present. As discussed in the previous theme, agriculture tends to be a male-

dominated field and also tends to more traditional sex/gender roles. A female respondent

wrote,

Ag producers are strongly male oriented. A small example: he's a farmer, she's a
farmer's wife (though she puts in many hour on tractor, etc) This has changed a bit
for the better in the past 30 years but still has quite a way to go. Witness: I work
mainly with two Extension program areas: forestry and family and community
development. All the faculty in the former are male, all in the later, female. To
me, that signals that gender-neutrality still will be a long time coming.

Another female respondent stated, "I find that older men working in agriculture talk

more directly to the males on my staff than to me and I believe it's because I'm a young

female." A male respondent wrote, "Some commentators and audience groups see

traditional sex roles--who works most in the fields and does most of the bookkeeping--as

'givens', and are more receptive to information and ideas that confirm these roles."

Many respondents indicated that they felt these roles spilled over into agricultural

communications, perhaps because of the ties to traditional agriculture. One female

respondent wrote, "My experience is that 'ag' equates to 'male.' Women are viewed as









accessories that provide needed support and services," while another female respondent

stated, "A client I had was extremely difficult to deal with. He loved my work but only

when he thought my male co-worker did the job."

This theme also included respondents' descriptions of agricultural communications

or communications positions being "women's jobs." One female respondent wrote, "The

management/board of directors of this organization see communications work as a

'woman's role,' based on attention to details, creativity, and transmitting decisions."

Another female respondent stated, "I think agricultural communications jobs are seen

strongly as women's jobs-kind of like the 'beauty queen' of an organization." A female

respondent described a situation, "when traveling with male administrator, along with

female administrative assistant, I felt the administrator was expressing shock when I did

my job of talking with news reporters. The administrator thought I was to do registration,

with the administrative assistants, not give reporters information." One female

respondent wrote that her, "Director tends to dismiss women's concerns as 'personal

issues' instead of taking them seriously as 'professional concerns'," while another female

respondent stated, "Our administrators are all men-very 'old school.' They tend to view

my disagreement with them as being because I'm a woman. They are clearly more

comfortable with my male colleagues." One female respondent indicated that she felt she

had been denied a promotion based on ideas of traditional gender roles within her

organization.

I applied for a management position that included responsibility for a publications
distribution center (a traditionally male environment), often referred to as 'the
warehouse.' I was qualified for the position, and was one of two final candidates.
The job went to the other candidate, a man. I feel like I was not offered the job
because upper management could not 'picture' a woman in charge of that
operation, which had been run by a very traditional, old-school man for many









years. One year later, I applied for a management position in the same
organization, but within an office setting, and I got the job. In some ways I think
my skills and experience were more suited to the first position, but the organization
was more comfortable with me (as a female) in the office-oriented environment. It
has worked out well-I have been successful in this role, and I enjoy it, but I still
feel like I missed the first promotion due to stereotypical ideas about women's roles
in the workplace.

Theme 3, "Good Old Boys"

The third theme found in the responses by the researcher related to both the

"agriculture=male" and "gender and sex roles" themes. This theme was the "good old

boys" theme, wherein respondents stated they felt gender shut people out of the power

structure of agricultural communications. One of the domains within this theme was

specifically that of respondents referring to agricultural communications in this way.

One female respondent wrote, "Good ol 'boy network," while another stated, "Ag comm.

historically is a "good old boy" profession." Another female respondent wrote, "Farmers

agriculturalists are mainly old white guys who like to deal with old white guys." Other

respondents described specific situations in which they felt this way. One female

respondent wrote,

This sounds whiney, but here goes: I've served under two department heads in < 6
yrs, both male, both longtime employees in the dept. Nearly every day, they go to
coffee for 35-45 min with their buddies in the department-all male. That's where
the bonds are-the old boy's network at work-and while they are all very polite to
the women in the department it seems to me that we constitute a separate, and
lesser, situation.

Another female respondent stated, "Supervisor did not support my role in a

regional publishing consortium. Decisions were based instead on 'good old boy'

agreements." Two female respondents wrote how this made them feel not only slighted,

but invisible in situations. One wrote, "No sexual harassment, but definite gender bias,

good ole boys talk to each other as if you are not even in the room," while the second









wrote, "Even though I stood in line and waited my turn to meet the top candidate to lead

an agricultural program, the candidate and other men in line stepped in front of me

repeatedly to shake hands. It was as if I was invisible."

The second domain the researcher found for this "good old boys" theme was that

respondents stated the leaders, senior level staff, and management in agricultural

communications tend to be male. A female respondent stated, "You are perceived as

providing a service only-'I tell you what to do and how to do as opposed to

collaborating and identifying creative solutions. Ag Comm units have been dominated

by white males and a culture of exclusion has permeated their organization." Another

female respondent stated that she experienced, "Bullying or intimidation by senior faculty

that I'm not sure would have occurred for a man in the same position." Similar to this

statement, a female respondent wrote, "I had a department head who thought intelligent

women needed to be brought down a peg or two-not only found fault with, but

'controlled'." One female respondent stated, "The top decisions are still mostly made by

males and spoon fed to females for dissemination, public communications," while

another female respondent wrote, "Women do not seem to have an equal voice in the

administrative and policy-making decisions of this organization."

Other responses for this domain included a female respondent who stated, "There

are still far more males at the top of the profession, which is ironic given the large # of

women in the profession." Another female respondent wrote, "Ag comm. is part of the

college, extension, and the university. In each arena, gender bias still operates. In each

arena, there are still more men in positions of authority than there are women in those

positions." And, another female respondent stated "I think we still work in a male









dominated arena and until more women reach the top and begin helping other women,

which is uncommon, an equality will not be reached in ag comm." Two female

respondents addressed the issue of including women in leadership positions within

agricultural communication. The first wrote, "When women were being submitted for

consideration to serve on a large board (which traditionally has been white male), I

suggested that we be sensitive to creating a balance by including women and minorities.

Several men laughed out loud and one rolled his eyes." The second female respondent

stated, "I work in a university and organization where all the top administrators are male.

It affects the culture. While we often hear calls for appointing minorities, no one

suggests we need more women in leadership."

Theme 4, "Discrimination"

The fourth theme found by the researcher was the "discrimination" theme, wherein

respondents wrote about their perceptions of gender discrimination or sexual harassment.

The first domain found for this theme were the responses describing perceived gender

discrimination for salary, leave time, and raises. A female respondent wrote, "When I

noted years back that I was the lowest paid faculty in Extension, the explanation was that

I wasn't the breadwinner (although at the time I was). All women Extension faculty got a

raise a few years back as part of a court settlement, but I still make less than my male

peers-salary and rank." Another female respondent stated, "Despite some efforts to

equalize pay, there are men in this office making significantly more than women in

similar work and experience situations. I've seen travel discrepancies- where men

would have single rooms but women would be told to double." While one female

respondent simply wrote, "Salary inequalities," another female respondent stated, "I think

pay equity is the area where gender comes into play in agricultural communications. I









think women are generally paid less for the same work." Another female respondent

wrote, "Lower pay for females, and fewer management positions and promotion

opportunities."

Other female respondents described differences within specific situations they had

witnessed. One female respondent wrote, "As pay is a mater of public record, it's fairly

obvious that women are paid less for what (in my view) is work of comparable worth."

Another female respondent stated, "I make less money than a male associate with a

similar job description-we've been at this institution for roughly the same amount of

time, have similar duties, and I have a master's degree while he just has a bachelor's." A

female respondent wrote, "One of my male coworkers got a raise when his wife had their

first child. I'm a single woman who would have adopted a child if I could afford it."

Another female respondent stated, "The current female director is doing a much better

job than the former male director. However, she is getting paid much less than he was

getting to do the very same job." While one female respondent wrote, "A younger male

with less experience was paid more than two older females, each with more experience,"

another female respondent stated, "Annual pay increase has generally favored the men in

this department." In addition, a female respondent stated, "Ignoring accomplishments,

NO raises, No recognition." Another female respondent wrote, "Some men were unfairly

"given" leave time that had not been earned."

The second domain within the "discrimination" theme was the respondents'

descriptions of specific situations in which they witnessed sexist or discriminatory

behavior within their work environment. One female respondent described a situation in

which, "Coworker made sexist statements, ogled females, including students. I reported









it and a supervisor discussed with him why it made for an uncomfortable work

environment. It seems to have improved the situation." A second female respondent

wrote, "On a university campus, there are always male professors with larger-than

necessary egos who will take advantage of perceived power differentials." A female

respondent stated, "...am dealing with a sexual harassment case as an administrator,"

while two male respondents wrote, "Deal with sexual harassment issue sometimes," and

"Discrimination complaints, harassment accusations." Another female respondent stated

that, "Our department has become much more 'politically correct' and does not

discriminate outwardly as it once did. Discrimination is therefore much more subtle

now." One female respondent wrote, "Male supervisor's attitude relating to unexpected

pregnancy of a female manager-lessened responsibilities and access to upper

management." Another female respondent stated, "As a female supervisor, I have

experienced difficult situations that probably would not have occurred with a male

supervisor." In addition, one female respondent chose to describe in full the

discrimination case she had experienced within her workplace.

A woman suffered a work injury and subsequent disability. A male unit leader and
male department head failed to manage the injury adequately, and, once the
disability was diagnosed, failed to provide disability accommodations ordered by
the state. A federal complaint was filed, investigated and served. It took more than
three years to resolve these issues. The injured female has returned to work and
continues to contribute at a high level. She has, however, continued to experience
occasional retaliation and discrimination, and has required assistance from a
University ombudsperson. The woman sought counseling during the ordeal. The
counselor, whose office is near the University, said she has seen "a pattern" among
her clients: 'In the College of Agriculture, if a woman complains about a man, it's
the woman who usually is made to leave'.









Theme 5, "Societal Problem"

The fifth theme found by the researcher involved respondents attributing gender-

related differences or problems to "society." One female respondent wrote that, "Gender

is a factor in every segment of human endeavor involving 2+ people." A male

respondent stated, "It is a factor everywhere in society, not just ag comm." Another male

respondent wrote, "It's a constant factor regardless of the field or profession. Whether

someone is male or female, others make assumptions about that person. If one is

sensitized to gender issues, these things are not difficult to discern." One male

respondent stated, "There will always be biases and differences," while another male

respondent wrote, "To the extent that it is a factor in the surrounding society." Another

male respondent stated, "The same issues seen dividing men and women in society, in

general, apply to this job sector as well."

Theme 6, "Rationalizations"

The final theme, "rationalizations," found by the researcher included male

responses describing women and advancement. A male respondent wrote, "Women

hiring women because 'men aren't good at multitasking.' However, the women hired

was the best candidate, anyway." One male respondent stated, "Underqualified female

supervisor, difficult to work for," while a second male respondent stated, "Female

administrator who is uneasy, and somewhat distrustful, of males." Another male

respondent described a situation in which a, "Colleague used sexuality to receive

promotion into management position." One male respondent stated, "In our unit-yes.

Affirmative action-." In addition, a male respondent wrote, "As a white, male, the dept.

is quick to 'please' women than to deny them of advancement, afraid of someone yelling

'sexual harassment.' Creates an unfair advancement structure."











Counterevidence

According to Hatch's (2002) inductive analysis method, it was also necessary for

the researcher to find and report responses which are "counterevidence" to the salient

domains. The domain found by the researcher in identifying and analyzing the

counterevidence was simply "no." These respondents stated they did not perceive gender

to be a factor within agricultural communications. One female respondent stated, "I have

experienced it, nor have I observed it. The field seems to operate on a professional

level." Another female respondent wrote, "No, I don't think it is. Where I work men and

women are treated pretty equal and I've never seen otherwise." One male respondent

stated, "Probably not so much today as in past," while another male respondent answered

similarly, "No any longer. The most successful communicators I personally know are

female." A female respondent wrote, "It has been my experience that we always hire the

most qualified individual-regardless of gender." Another female respondent stated,

"No, I don't think it is. where I work men and women are treated pretty equal and I've

never seen otherwise." A male respondent stated, "As I look around at my peers, I see a

pretty good gender balance, including leadership positions." Other responses for this

domain included three male respondents who wrote, "Never witnessed gender being a

factor," "Haven't noticed it to be...," and "I do not see this as an issue in ag

communications, at all-." Another male respondent stated, "No, because everyone

(male or female) has an opportunity to complete each task to their abilities, not gender."














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION

Summary

This study was a descriptive census survey of current, active U.S. ACE members'

perceptions of job satisfaction, as well as their perceptions of gender roles within their

organizations, and throughout the agricultural communications industry. A mailed

questionnaire was utilized to collect data from respondents about their overall job

satisfaction, their faceted job satisfaction ("work," "supervision," coworkerss," "pay,"

and "opportunities for promotion"), and their perceptions of gender-related situations.

Data analysis and results were presented in Chapter 4. Of the 510-member accessible

population of current, active U.S. ACE members, 35.1% responded. This chapter will

describe the key findings and implications of this study, organized by research objective,

followed by discussion, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future

research.

Key Findings and Implications

Objective One of this study was to describe the demographics of the population of

current, active, U.S.-based agricultural communications practitioner respondents in ACE

in terms of age, income level, education, marital status, and position. Based upon

analysis of this objective, conducted by calculating frequency distributions of

respondents' demographics, results indicated that a majority of respondents (85.8%,

n=151) work for an agricultural institution of higher education. The gender breakdown

of respondents was 58.8% female (n=104) and 41.2% male (n=73), and almost all of the









respondents were Caucasian (94.9%, n=168). Because this was a census study of the

ACE membership, this finding suggests that employment trends within ACE are similar

to other communications fields in which numbers of women are increasing (Scherler,

2001).

Another key finding was that the majority of respondents listed their age as

between 40 and 49 years old (29.0%, n=51) or between 50-59 years old (29.5%, n=52).

Salary data gathered in this study showed that 29.1% of respondents said their salary fell

between $20,000-40,000, while 41.7 % of respondents said their salary fell between

$41,000-60,000. Although no specific question on respondents' job description was

included, respondents were asked to choose from a list of ACE Special Interest Groups

(SIGs) which closest described their current job; 30.6% (n=53) selected "writing/media

relations/marketing," and 26.0% (n=45) selected "publishing/graphic

design/photography." A review of the salary data of media workers across

communications fields presented in Chapter One showed that public relations

practitioners had an average salary of $46,000-65,000 (US Census Bureau, 2000).

Technical writers had an average salary of $47,000-55,000 and news reporters had an

average salary of $44,000-55,000 (US Census Bureau, 2000). Editors had an average

salary of $42,000-53,000 and photographers had an average salary of $29,000-43,000

(US Census Bureau, 2000).

Objective Two was to describe the perceived job satisfaction level of agricultural

communications practitioner respondents in ACE in terms of overall job satisfaction

(JIG) and faceted job satisfaction (JDI). Respondents' job satisfaction was also described

in terms of individual items included in the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)









job satisfactions scale. Finally, scaled and individual items from the three scales were

described in terms of respondents' gender. A key finding with respect to perceptions of

job satisfaction was that respondents indicated that they were satisfied with their

agricultural communications jobs overall, based on the Job in General (JIG) scale. This

is similar to evidence presented in Chapter One suggesting that both men and women

tend to be satisfied with their jobs overall in communications fields (Grunig, Toth, &

Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997; Stone, 2004a,b,c,d).

Interestingly, although respondents were satisfied with the job satisfaction facets "work,"

"supervision," and coworkerss," as measured by the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), they

were not satisfied with the facets "pay" and "opportunities for promotion." An

implication of this finding may be that, similar to other studies of job satisfaction using

the JIG and JDI, individuals may perceive a general level of satisfaction based on

perceived satisfaction with some facets but not others (Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001;

Scherler, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997; Stone, 2004a,b,c,d) It may

also be the case that although pay and promotion opportunities in an academic

environment may not be proportionate with industry, individuals who choose to work in

an academic setting may value other facets, such as supervision, work, or coworkers

more.

As with the JIG scale, respondents' responses to items in the PRSAjob satisfaction

scale indicated general satisfaction with their present job in agricultural communications.

Respondents indicated moderate satisfaction with their income as an agricultural

communications practitioner and with opportunities for advancement with their present









employer. Similar to the JDI facets of pay and promotion, items corresponding to these

two indexes were among the lowest in terms of respondents' perceptions of satisfaction.

To further analyze this objective, respondents were grouped by gender in order to

re-analyze their perceptions of job satisfaction based on the JIG, JDI, and PRSA job

satisfaction scales. Results indicated that both female and male respondent groups were

generally satisfied with their jobs, based on the JIG and PRSA scales. Both female and

male respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the JDI facets of "pay" and "opportunities

for promotion," and moderate satisfaction on the corresponding individual PRSA items.

Many job satisfaction studies within communication fields suggested that women tend to

be less satisfied than men with these facets as was the case in this study (Barret, 1984;

Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001; Selnow & Wilson, 1985; Serini et. al, 1997). On the JDI

scale, female respondents' satisfaction scores were M=16.33 for promotion and M=32.45

for pay, while male respondents' satisfaction scores were M=20.97 for promotion and

M=34.89 for pay. Although not statistically significant, the low scores for the female

group do correspond to the findings of the communication job satisfaction research

reviewed for this study.

Objective Three was to describe ACE agricultural communications practitioner

respondents' perceptions of gender roles. Perceptions of gender roles were then further

described in terms of respondents' gender. Items used to measure gender roles were

designed to be answered by respondents first in terms of their own work organization and

then in terms of the agricultural communications industry as a whole. Based on the

above, respondents in this study indicated they did believe there were more women than









men in agricultural communications, both in their work organizations and throughout

agricultural communications as an industry.

In general, however, respondents did not indicate strong agreement or disagreement

with most of the gender role items for either scale (in their own work organization and for

the agricultural communications industry as a whole). For the PRSA items based on

perceptions of gender roles for the agricultural communications industry as a whole,

responses with the highest level of agreement were for items stating that men receive

higher salaries than women for comparable agricultural communications work, and for

agricultural communications management positions. In addition, respondents disagreed

the most with the item stating that in the agricultural communications industry, women

are more likely than men to be hired in management positions that involve problem-

solving and decision-making. An implication of these findings is that respondents

seemed to agree, to some extent, at least in some situations, women may earn less and be

less likely to be hired for some management positions in agricultural communications.

For the PRSA items based on perceptions of gender roles for the agricultural

communications industry as a whole, female respondents indicated their highest level of

agreement with the statement "women in agricultural communications management

positions are paid less than men in comparable jobs." Male respondents indicated their

highest agreement for the items based on perceptions of gender roles for the agricultural

communications industry as a whole with the statement "there are more women than men

in agricultural communications." The female respondents group disagreed the most with

the statement "men are more likely than women to back down from an office

confrontation situation in agricultural communications." Male respondents, however,









disagreed the most with the statement "members of my audience prefer male agricultural

communicators."

For the PRSA items based on perceptions of gender roles within their own work

organizations, female respondents agreed the most that there are more women than men

in agricultural communications, while male respondents agreed the most with the

statement there is less sexual harassment in agricultural communications today. As with

their responses to the gender role items for the agricultural communications industry as

whole, female respondents indicated the most disagreement with men being more likely

than women to back down from an office confrontation situation in their own work

organization. Male respondents, however, disagreed the most with the item indicating

that women received lower salaries than men for comparable work.

In addition to the quantitative portions of this study, the researcher included a set of

nominal "yes/no" questions, followed by an opportunity for open-ended qualitative

responses. A key finding for this section of the study was that the majority of

respondents (75.1%) stated they had not experienced any situations in agricultural

communications in the last five years in which they felt their gender was a factor. In

addition, the majority of respondents (79.1%) stated they have not experienced any form

of inequality in their field due to gender in the last five years. Finally, 60% of

respondents stated they did not feel gender was a factor within agricultural

communications.

Qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses yielded several common themes.

The first was "agriculture=male," in which respondents described agriculture workplaces

as being male-dominated environments, and described problematic behaviors related to









this. The second theme was "sex or gender roles" and included responses on women's

roles both in the workplace, agricultural communication, and in the field of agriculture.

The third theme in this section was the "good old boys" theme, wherein respondents

stated they felt gender shut people out of the power structure of agricultural

communications. Finally, the fourth theme was "discrimination," in which respondents

described both perceptions and experiences of gender discrimination or sexual

harassment. Key counterevidence themes from this section included descriptions of

women's advancement, attributing any gender-related problems to society as a whole,

and finally that gender is not a factor at all in agricultural communications.

As described in Chapter Two, one of the trends found in gender/work research is

the denial of gender problems or inequality (Toth & Cline, 1989; Grunig, Toth, & Hon,

2001; Rhode, 1997). According to Rhode (1997), both women and men fail to recognize

and even reject the idea of gender inequality. This is important to understand because the

quantitative results in this section show that the majority of the respondents do not feel

gender is an issue within agricultural communications, but once the qualitative responses

were analyzed, a somewhat different picture emerged. Although not a majority, many

female respondents provided examples of the "good old boys" network, how they felt

agriculture is male-dominated, how women cannot reach higher positions in agricultural

communications, that women are paid less than men for similar work, and that men

receive promotions/raises where women do not. In addition, the responses under the

counterevidence domain suggested any gender problem belongs to "society" rather than

agricultural communication. A few male respondents even stated that this study was not

something that should be researched because there were other things that were needed