|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help|
This item has the following downloads:
IMPACT OF MOOD ON RECALL OF BRAND PLACEMENTS IN THE MOVIES
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
This thesis is dedicated to my family, friends, and professors for their unwavering
support and encouragement throughout my life and academic pursuits. First, I would like
to thank Dr. Michael Weigold for being a fantastic thesis supervisory committee chair. It
means a lot to me that he stepped up when I needed him the most and took on the
responsibility of guiding me in the right direction. Furthermore, he pushed me to think
outside the box and challenged me to look beyond what is right in front of me. Without
him I would not have been able to complete this thesis. For these reasons and many
more, I will be forever grateful. I would also like to thank my thesis committee members
Dr. John Sutherland and Dr. Lisa Duke for their endurance and support.
Lastly, I would like to thank my family and friends who have always supported me,
even when I may not have been aware of it. I would like to thank my best friend, Pam,
who always listens and provided me with motivation. She has inspired me with her
determination and success and has shown me what sheer will power can achieve. I would
like to thank my sister, Dawn, for her encouragement and for believing in me. In
addition, I would like to thank my brother, Champ, who has always looked out for me
and taken care of me. Finally, I would like to thank my parents for their continued
support of me throughout my life, financially and emotionally, and for instilling in me
their morals and values.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .......................................................................... ....................3
LIST OF TABLES ............... ................ ........................... ........ ...... .... vi
ABSTRACT .............. ............................................. vii
1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........
2 LITER A TU R E R EV IEW ............................................................... ...................... 5
H history of B rand P lacem ent............................................................................ ...... 6
W hy B rand Placem ent is Im portant.......................................................................... 8
C controversy over Placem ent.................................................................................. 10
P previous R research .............................................................. .......... .......... 11
M o o d ...................................................................................................................... 1 4
M ood and Behavioral Effects ........................................................ .............. 15
Mood and Affective Reactions and Judgments ................................. ...............17
M ood and Effects on R ecall ................................................ ............................. 19
M ood-Congruity ........................... ........ .. .............. .... .. ... 21
B rand Placem ent and M ood................................................. ............................. 22
H ypotheses ................................................. 24
3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................. ................... 25
P ro c e d u re ..................................................................2 5
O v erv iew ....................................................... 2 5
P re te st ................................................................2 6
P ro c e d u re ........................................................................................................ 2 6
R research In stru m ents ............................................................................................. 2 8
M ood Item s ................................................................. .................. 2 8
F ree R call Item .............................................................2 8
C u ed -R call Item s .......................................................................................... 2 9
Research Stimuli .................................. ............................... ........29
S a m p le ................................................................ 3 1
4 R E SU L T S ....................................................... 33
P re te st ...........................................................3 3
Prim ary Experim ent .................. ............................... ....... .......... ..... 34
C oding of Q uestionnaire.......................................................... ............... 34
M ood M manipulation Check............................................ ........... ............... 35
D em graphics ............................................ 35
Questionnaire Results ........................................... ........ ..................37
F re e R e c a ll ..................................................................................................... 3 8
C u e d R e c a ll ................................................................................................... 3 9
D differences in R ecall ................................................... .. ........ ...... ............40
5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ............................................. ............... 41
Sum m ary of R esults......... .............................................................. ..... .... .... .. 42
L im itatio n s .......................................................................................4 4
Further R research ...................................................... .. .... ...............45
A INFORMED CONSENT DISCLOSURE FOR MOTION PICTURE STUDY.........47
B ARTICLE FOR CON TROL GROUP ............................................. .....................48
C ARTICLE FOR MOOD-CONGRUITY GROUP........................................................49
D MOTION PICTURE STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE.................................................50
R E F E R E N C E S ........................................ ............................................ ................. .. 5 4
B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................59
LIST OF TABLES
4-1. Paired sam ple statistics and test......... ............................................ ............... 34
4-2. Means score for mood manipulation check........... ................ ............... 35
4-3. D em graphic statistics ...................................................................... ............. ...36
4-4. Frequencies of free recall ................................................ .............................. 37
4-5. F requencies of cued recall .............................................................. .....................37
4-6. Chi square tests for free and cued recall.................. .. .... ................ 40
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising
IMPACT OF MOOD ON RECALL OF BRAND PLACEMENTS IN THE MOVIES
Chair: Michael Weigold
Major Department: Advertising
Brand placement is placing a brand name, logo, package, signage, or some other
distinguishing trademark in a motion picture, television, music video, song, and so on.
With conventional means of advertising on the decline, marketers and advertisers have
begun to look into alternative ways of reaching target audiences; and one of these
alternatives is brand placement. Research on brand placement has only begun to pick up
pace, but previous research focuses on the practice's effects on consumers and its
influence on recall, recognition, attitude and awareness.
Mood is a feeling state that is perceived by each individual; mood is time and
situation dependent. Previous research shows that a person's mood can strongly affect a
person's thoughts and behaviors. Mood and its effects is an important research area for
While a vast amount of research exists on brand placement and mood, no known
research has studied the effects of mood on brand placement. The purpose of our study
was to determine if mood had an influence on audience's recall of brand placement in a
movie after exposure. Participants were split up into two groups: control and Mood-
Congruity. We aimed to determine if one group would have higher recall of the products
placed in one scene than in another. A total of 64 students participated.
Overall, the participants in both groups were able to recall approximately the same
number of products placed in the movie scene. Results were not significant, perhaps
because of the study limitations. Future research might yield more conclusive results.
Technology is making it easier for audiences to ignore, skip, or delete
advertisements. This creates a challenge for marketers and advertisers who are forced to
find alternative forms of advertising. One alternative is "brand placement." The term
brand placement is used interchangeably with "product placement" in the advertising and
marketing literature. However, referring to the practice as product placement is incorrect,
because placements generally spotlight a specific brand rather than a product (Karrh,
1998). In our study, the term brand placement is used interchangeably with product
Brand placement is defined as "a paid product message aimed at influencing movie
(or television) audiences via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into
a movie (or television program)" (Karrh, 1998). Even this definition is incomplete
because brand placement is also practiced in music videos, radio programs, songs, video
games, plays, novels, magazines and more (Gupta & Gould, 1997).
Brand placements can be dated as far back as at least 1950s, when Gordon's Gin
paid to have Katherine Hepburn's character in The African Queen toss loads of the brand
overboard (Neer). For many years the use of brand placements was often an afterthought
for marketers and a low priority for studios (McCarthy, 1994). A turning point came in
1982 when a brand placement for Reese's Pieces candy appeared in the movie E. T.
Subsequent candy sales rose by 70%, leading marketers to take notice. The once casual
business then began to grow into a multimillion-dollar enterprise.
Increased interest in brand placement has evoked a mixed reaction. Some critics
argue that because audiences may be unaware that they are viewing advertisements,
brand placements are deceptive or even a kind of subliminal advertising. But at least one
study supports the idea that consumer attitudes toward brand placement are positive
(d'Astous and Chartier, 2000). This is because the audience is exhausted by the
conventional means of advertising commercials and therefore, marketers are looking for
new ways to reach consumers, such as brand placement. Marketers and movie producers
regard placements positively because they believe that such use can add realism or
familiarity to their projects and can offset production costs for both film producers and
marketers. Brand placements are often subtle and they are rarely used as the sole channel
of a campaign. Instead, product placements are a part of a larger marketing tie-in, in
which a company comes to an agreement that they will produce an advertising campaign,
a sweepstakes, or some other form of a promotional campaign to match the marketing
efforts that the film is creating for the film (Farhi, 1998).
Such placements are increasing faster than accompanying scholarship about how
they can be used effectively. While current theories of advertising effects are helpful in
formulating hypotheses about placement effectiveness, there are important contextual
differences between viewing a product during a movie and seeing the same product while
watching television commercials. To focus on just one of the many possible differences,
while film and television can both evoke a variety of moods and emotions from viewers,
the impact of watching a film in a theater is sustained and uninterrupted, whereas the
impact of television viewing is "broken" by commercial pods. This difference may be
especially important for understanding the role of affect as a moderator of placement
effectiveness. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship has examined brand placement
and affect, especially mood.
The term "mood" has a variety of meanings and usages. Mood is defined and
thought of as "a feeling state subjectively perceived by individuals" (Gardner, 1985).
Forgas (1995) states that moods are "low-intensity, diffuse and relatively enduring
affective states without a salient antecedent cause and therefore little cognitive content
(e.g., feeling good or feeling bad)." However one defines mood, researchers are more
concerned with mood's influence on the outcome.
One should not confuse mood with emotions; one is almost always aware of one's
emotions and their effects, whereas one may or may not be aware of one's mood and its
effects (Gardner, 1985). Clark and Isen (1982) state that moods are usually more intense,
attention-getting and tied to a specific behavior.
Studying moods, and the effects that a mood has, is important for marketers. Mood
states are a particularly important set of affective factors, because they form a part of
marketing situations and may influence consumer behavior in many contexts (i.e.,
advertisement exposure and brand selection) (Gardner, 1985). Mood has been evaluated
in three major areas in a psychological context. These three areas are behavioral effects,
effects on affective reactions and judgments, and effects on recall.
While there is a growing amount of research on brand placement and mood, no
known research has studied the effects of mood on brand placement. Yet, an
understanding of this relationship can help marketers gain a better understanding of the
potential impact that brand placements have on consumers and their perceptions of a
brand. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible role of mood on audience
recall of brand placements in a movie.
In the movie Austin Powers Goldmember, Michael Caine drives BMW's new
Mini Cooper; and in the movie Big, Tom Hanks keeps a Pepsi machine in his living
room. The brands did not appear in these movies by accident. To find an alternative way
to reach their respective audiences, marketers and advertisers turned to a type of
promotion called "brand placement." Brand placement involves integrating brands into a
movie in return for money or for some promotional means. The term "brand placement"
is more commonly referred to as "product placement" in most literary and academic
readings. In the context of this paper, the term brand placement is used interchangeably
with product placement.
There are several definitions of brand placement. Steortz (1987) defined brand
placement as, "the practice of including a brand-name product, package, signage, or other
trademark merchandise within a motion picture, television show or music video."
Balasubramanian (1991) defined it as, "a paid messages) that seek to influence
audiences via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a movie or
television program." However, because brand placement is also practiced in music
videos, literature, radio programs, songs, video games, plays, and so on, the traditional
definition applied to the practice may necessitate re-evaluation (Gupta & Lord, 1998).
Karrh (1998) defines brand placement as, "the paid inclusion of branded products or
brand identifiers, through audio and/or visual means, within mass media programming."
"Placement is now often the first step toward a back-end promotion which is
where the real marketing jackpot lies for both marketers and movie makers" (McCarthy,
1994). For example, McDonald's did not only have mega-placement in the movie The
Flintstones, they maximized their position by launching a major summer Flintstones
promotion (McCarthy, 1994). Placements give marketers an alternative means for
gaining product exposure through a medium to which the audiences may be particularly
receptive (Morton & Friedman, 2002). Morton and Friedman (2002) further state, when
measured in marketing terms, such as audience receptivity, can mean the difference
between reaching sales and profitability objectives, or falling short of them entirely. The
goal for marketers is to ensure product placement outcomes reflect the former and not the
latter. The present study will focus on brand placements in movies.
History of Brand Placement
The practice of brand placement has been around for decades, dating as far back
as the 1950s when Gordon's Gin paid to have Katherine Hepburn's character in The
African Queen toss loads of the product overboard. Movie legend Joan Crawford drank
Jack Daniels whiskey in the 1948 drama Mildred Pierce, and in the 1950 movie
Destination Moon, four space travelers rocketed to the moon drinking Coke and wearing
Lee jeans (DeLorme & Reid, 1999). But, then product placement essentially remained a
casual business, an afterthought to most marketers and a low priority for studios
Yet, it wasn't until 1982 after Reese's Pieces candy had been placed in the movie
E.T. that brand placement began to grow rapidly. The brands' appearance resulted in a
70% sales increase for Reese's Pieces (Belch & Belch, 2001), causing marketers to take
notice. A slightly more recent and successful instance is the placement of Red Stripe, a
Jamaican-brewed beer, in the film The Firm. According to Business Week Online, Red
Stripe sales increased more than 50% in the US market in the first month of the movies'
release. Manufacturers' increased interest in brand placement has led to the
establishment of agencies that specialize in brand placements. These agencies examine
film scripts, search for appropriate settings in movies where their clients' products can be
placed, and then make suggestions to the filmmakers (Gupta & Lord, 1998).
There are approximately 1,000 brand-name products that utilize brand placement
in the marketing mix (Marshall & Ayers, 1998). Smith (1985) says that brands are
typically shown in three ways: the brand itself is shown, a logo is displayed, or an ad is
placed as a background prop. Visual exposure is the least expensive, verbal mentions are
moderately priced and character usage is the most costly (DeLorme & Reid, 1999).
According to Vollmers and Mizerski (1994), there are two types of brand
placements in movies: creative placement and on-set placement. Creative placement
involves developing ingenious ways to embed the brand in the film like outdoor
billboards. It occurs when a brand appears in the background of a shot (Brennan et al.,
1999). On-set placements mean products are being positioned on the film set in its
natural environment and are displayed more prominently (Brennan et al., 1999). The
movie placement is mostly about brand recognition, because it is the recognized brands
that audience members are more likely to recall. According to Strandberg (2001), the
impact is greater because of audience is involved in the plot of the movie.
Brand placements can be paid or unpaid. According to Vollmers and Mizerski
(1994), 80% of products featured in movies are unpaid. In most cases, companies do not
pay for the use of their products; it is more of a swap-product placement for equal
exposure kind of deal (Strandberg, 2001). However, when advertisers do pay a fee it
usually ranges from $5,000 to $100,000; the more prominent the placement the higher the
price (Economist, 1991). Studios will usually waive the fees in return for a "back-end"
promotion, as they are called, because they support the film's release or "back-end"
(Turcotte, 1995). Many times fees are simply a barter in which marketers get exposure in
exchange for free use of their products (McCarthy, 1994).
However, there are some companies that are willing to pay a substantial amount
of money to be featured in films. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Budweiser, and Miller are the most
aggressive companies trying to get into films (Berkowitz, 1994), usually willing to spend
big bucks to appear in the film. Entertainment Resources and Marketing Association
estimates that advertisers pay Hollywood studios $360 million a year to feature their
products (Russell, 2002).
There are four ways that a brand can be entered into a movie script. First,
companies can solicit studios to place their brands in return for a fee. Second, the studios
may approach marketers to use their products within a movie. Third, studios may use
brands without contacting marketers. Finally, placement deals may be finalized through
independent brand placement firms who represent marketers (Gupta et al., 2000).
Why Brand Placement is Important
According to d'Astous and Chartier (2000), there are three reasons why marketers
consider brand placement in movies. First, watching a movie in a theater is a high
attention and involving activity. Exposing attentive audience members to a movie
containing brand placements may result in enhancing brand awareness. "The goal is to
connect with the viewer" (East Valley Tribune online). Second, successful movies attract
large audiences. For example, the blockbuster movie Terminator II, has been seen by
millions of people, and this does not include video purchases, rentals and eventual
television broadcasts. Therefore, from a strict cost per viewer point of view, a product
placement in a movie is a real bargain (d'Astous & Chartier, 2000). Finally, brand
placement represents a natural, non-aggressive, non-persuasive way of promoting a brand
or a firm. For this reason, it may lead to less counter-arguing and "internal zapping"
from consumers (d'Astous & Chartier, 2000). "Marketers see placements as a unique
way of popularizing and immortalizing their brands because movies provide excellent
message reach and a long message life" (Gupta & et al., 2000). Danzig (1991) states,
"Brand products (in feature films) become narrative aids that help place people in
context. They convey meaning .... artificial brand names raised barriers, kept audiences
from relating to the stories" (Nebenzahl & Secunda, 1993). Therefore, having a real
product in a film allows audiences to relate more to the movie.
Karrh (1998) states that there are a number of reasons why brand placement has
grown as a paid promotional device. First, there is a desire on part of the advertisers to
take advantage of the special characteristics of movies, popular television shows, and
other media. These programs have a long "shelf-life" of decades. Second, many of these
programs carry strong persuasive influence. For example, a movie has the power to
influence audience's social judgments or at least those judgments after exposure.
Michael Jacobson, cofounder of the Center for the Study of Commercialism, believes
brand placement is growing because "companies are discovering people are getting tired
of traditional advertising" (Elliott, 1992). "Unlike traditional advertising messages,
brand placement also provides a venue where products can be portrayed, and possibly
demonstrated, realistically in the context of a movie scene" (Curtis, 1999).
There several advantages that make brand placement so appealing to marketers
and advertisers. Some of the advantages are that placements have the potential to offset
movie product costs, reach captive audiences, provide relatively greater reach than
traditional advertising, demonstrate brand usage in naturalistic settings, create more
realistic movie settings, provide relatively cost efficient communication and offer an
alternative advertising media option for alcohol and tobacco products, which are
restricted from television (DeLorme & Reid, 1999). Overall, brand placement is best
suited for increasing brand awareness, enhancing brand image, identifying product with
specific brand demographics and lifestyles, demonstrating product uses, and many more,
because, product placement is a tool of the promotional discipline and is not usually
credited with direct selling (Marshall & Ayers, 1998).
Some of the disadvantages of brand placement include the inability to guarantee
the release date or the "success" of a particular film (which can have devastating effects
for promotional tie-ins at the retail level), the possibility of the brand being edited from
the movie, the risk of a negative or unclear brand portrayal in the movie setting, the
difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of placement exposure on consumer response,
and the lack of audience selectivity in the movie medium (DeLorme & Reid, 1999).
Controversy over Placement
There has been some controversy over whether or not brand placement is
considered to be a deceptive or a subliminal form of advertising. Critics perceive product
placement to have an inherent element of deception in that placements are not clearly
labeled as advertisements and therefore, may be viewed as "hidden but paid" subliminal
messages (Balasubramanian, 1991). Subliminal advertising is defined as commercial
messages directed to the unconscious mind and within this definition, brand placement
has been considered by some to be a form of subliminal communication (Nebenzahl &
In response to the controversy, the product placement industry formed the
Entertainment Resources and Marketing Association (ERMA) as a way to self-regulate
the product placement industry and preempt the anticipated government regulations
(Moser et al., online). Despite, the ERMA being formed, this controversy is an ongoing
debate for some critics. Ensuring that the consumers are aware that products are placed
within the movie, either by informing them prior to the movie or including the product
names in the credits, would be one way to alleviate this controversy.
Along with some spectacular early successes attributed to brand placement, an
apparent decline in marketers' confidence in conventional advertising has sparked
increase interest in the practice of brand placement in recent years (Gupta & Lord, 1998).
However, despite the increased interest of brand placement, research in this area has just
begun to keep pace with the proliferation of brand placement activity. Previous studies
of brand placement have indicated that this practice can have an effect on consumers and
influence brand recall, recognition, awareness and attitudes.
Recall has been used to test the level of memory among audience members.
Vollmers and Mizerski (1994) exposed respondents to one product placement in one of
two videos, each containing two film clips lasting a total of six minutes. After the
respondents viewed the movie clips, they were given a survey, which asked them
questions such as, had they ever seen the treatment movies before and if they had noticed
any branded products in the clips. If so, they were asked to identify them. The last
question used unaided recall, "a respondent's recall of a brand name, commercial, etc.
without any cues or prompts" (Marketing Research Association). Recall of the brands
placed within the clip shown was very high. Approximately 96% were aware of the
product placement in the film and 93% correctly identified the brand, which appeared in
the scene (Vollmers & Mizerski, 1994).
One of the most commonly sited studies in regards to awareness is the study of
Babin and Carder. Babin and Carder (1995) assessed the effectiveness of brand
placement in influencing awareness of all brands placed in an entire film. They exposed
a treatment group to a film and measured recall of brands afterwards by giving
respondents product category cues (i.e. aided recall). Babin and Carder then compared
the results to that of a control group who did not see a film. Awareness was significantly
greater among the audience who saw the film with 25.6% of the brands being recalled
(Babin & Carder, 1996). The researchers concluded that while brand placement
significantly increases brand recognition, it is marginally efficient from the point of view
of brand recall (d'Astous & Chartier, 2000).
Steortz (1987) ran a study to test brand awareness. Steortz (1987) previewed six
films and selected five brands placed each, which were coded by type of placement and
length of exposure. She then used telephone interviews to assess the "day-after" recall of
feature films and found that approximately 38% of the respondents recalled brands shown
in the film correctly. Results from this study suggest that brand awareness is increased
among viewers of a film (Babin & Carder, 1996).
According to Gupta and Lord (1998), other published studies have examined
public opinion of brand placement (i.e. Nebenzahl and Secunda 1998; Gupta and Gould
1997), finding generally favorable attitudes toward the practice. Research has shown that
viewers like brand placements because they enhance realism, aid in character
development, create historical subtext and provide a sense of familiarity (Nelson, 2002).
However, ethically charged products, such as cigarettes and alcohol, were perceived as
This once casual business has grown into a multimillion-dollar business. Despite
its growth, it is only within the last decade that has research on the practice of placing
products in movies has begun. As Morton and Friedman (2002) state, "what began as a
practice for authenticating scenes in the movies has emerged as a viable alternative for
People will occasionally evaluate things as either positive or negative, depending
on what type of mood they are in, good or bad. The term "mood" has a variety of
meanings and usages. According to Gardner (1985), one might use the term to describe a
phenomenological property of an individual's subjectively perceived affective state and
one might also use mood to describe a property of an inanimate object.
Gardner (1985) defines mood as a "a feeling state that are subjectively perceived
by individuals." Forgas (1995) states that moods are "low-intensity, diffuse and
relatively enduring affective states without a salient antecedent cause and therefore little
cognitive content (e.g. feeling good or feeling bad)." According to Hill and Ward (1989),
mood is defined the most as "a unidimensional, bipolar phenomenon that ranges from
positive to negative." No matter how mood is defined it is important to remember that
mood is individual (it is relative, but can be shared), and is time and situation dependent
Moods can be perceived as goals. Not only does every activity of a person affect
his/her mood, but also a person typically carries on many activities specifically for the
moods they induce. A person in a good mood typically wants to maintain this state;
therefore, one might consider it a goal to engage in activities that allow them to maintain
this feeling. Research dating back at least to 1917, shows that a person's mood at any
given time has a strong influence on which aspects of the environment seem most salient,
on what is remembered about the past and on what is encoded about the present episode
(Lewis & Critchley). It should be noted that the effect of any given mood is not long
lasting (Gardner, 1985).
Studying moods and their effects, is an important variable to marketers. Mood
states are a particularly important set of affective factors, because, they form a part of
marketing situations and may influence consumer behavior in many contexts, i.e.,
advertisement exposure and brand selection (Gardner, 1985). While mood may influence
one's ability to recall or even recognize brand information, one's evaluation of brands or
products may be more complex and involve consumers' objectives and goals when
processing information about marketing stimuli (Knowles et al., 1993). Knowledge of
consumers' mood states in marketing situations may provide them with more of a
comprehensive understanding of consumers and their reactions to marketing strategies
In the past, when researchers have attempted to study mood effects, they used a
mood manipulation to induce a "positive" or "negative" affective state in experimental
subjects (Hill & Ward, 1989). Typically moods are classified as positive or negative,
good or bad. The two categories of positive and negative moods can easily be identified.
However, to categorize moods as either positive or negative may be oversimplification,
because current research has not provided much help into the effects of specific moods
(Gardner, 1985). Understanding the influence that mood has on an outcome is a focal
point for researchers.
Mood has been evaluated in three major areas in a psychological context. These
three areas are behavioral effects, effects on affective reactions and judgments, and
effects on recall.
Mood and Behavioral Effects
An individual's mood has an effect on one's behavior in a given situation.
According to Gardner (1985), positive moods appeared to enhance the likelihood that a
host of behaviors may be performed. In addition, positive moods make an individual
kinder to both themselves and to others. Some positive moods appeared to increase the
likelihood in the performance of behaviors with expected positive associations and to
decrease the likelihood in the performance of behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.
Several studies have looked at the effects of mood on behavior. Hill and Ward
(1989) tested the effects of positive performance feedback attributed to either personal
skills or luck on dependent measures of mood, perceived self-efficacy, and decision-
making behavior. They wanted to demonstrate that there is a chance that mood
manipulations may influence more than simple positive and negative affect. Mood
manipulations were delivered by telling subjects they had performed well at a
promotional game and the subjects were encouraged to attribute the cause of their success
to either skill or luck.
In the positive mood-skill condition, subjects were told they had performed very
well because of their ability and in the positive mood-luck condition the subjects were
told they had performed very well because of good luck. After performing in either the
skill or luck version of the game, participants received positive feedback, then they
played the game again and received more positive feedback (i.e. "Incredible few people
perform that well at this game"). The control group played the game twice, but did not
receive any feedback. Following the game, the participants were asked to answer
questions to measure their reactions to the game and purchasing habits. Hill and Ward
(1989) used an experimental design and found that mood manipulations that produce
roughly similar moods may also affect other psychological variables that have the ability
to affect decision-making effort. For example, consumers may feel more positive about
the brand, in addition to feeling more decisive and confident about the product they
Isen and Simmonds (1978) investigated the role of type of helping task in the
good mood-helping relationship. They predicted that a good mood would be induced by
the technique of finding a dime in the coin return slot of a public telephone which would,
in turn, lead to increased helping where the helping task is compatible with good mood,
and decreased helping where the helping task is not compatible with good mood. Isen
and Simmonds' (1978) conducted a field study over a period of 11 months. In order to
induce good mood, a dime was "planted" in the coin return of a telephone. Control
subjects simply received no dime. Subjects were observed from a far by the
experimenter and confederate. Once the subject left the phone booth, the experimenter
approached the individual and asked them to fill out a mood questionnaire. The results of
this field study showed that subjects who found a dime in the phone booth were more
willing to read statements that were designed to elevate good mood and less willing to
read statements designed to produce bad moods. These results suggested that helping
follows from a good mood only when the helping is compatible with the existing positive
cognitive state and that feeling good is more likely the effective mediating variable. The
findings verify that the observed tendency for a person in a good mood to see things more
positively is not unbounded; that is, a positive mood does not persuade the person to
ignore negative information.
Mood and Affective Reactions and Judgments
Mood may also play an important role in judgmental and evaluative processes
(Gardner & Vandersteel, 1984). In general, mood states seem to bias evaluations and
judgments in mood-congruent directions (Gardner, 1985). Isen and Shalker (1982) ran an
experiment that investigated the effect of procedures designed to induce mood on
subsequent evaluations of positive, negative, and neutral slides. They attempted to
demonstrate that techniques designed to induce mild affective states could influence
perception of stimuli presented to subjects for the first time. They predicted that the
effects of a feeling state would be most pronounced with neutral or ambiguous stimuli,
rather than with clearly pleasant or unpleasant stimuli. The results of this study showed
that mild mood-inducing experience of the kind was found to influence social behavior
might influence a person's subsequent interpretation of stimuli, especially ambiguous
Veitch and Griffitt (1976) designed a study to examine the effects of at least one
aspect of the radio the news broadcast on one form of interpersonal behavior. They
attempted to empirically determine the relationship between news broadcasts that convey
"good" or "bad" news and listeners' affective states and interpersonal evaluations of
others. The study was conducted over a two-month period. The experiment began when
upon hearing the subjects knock on the door, the experimenter turned on an AM-FM
radio-cassette player and the music introduction of either a tape containing a "good
news" broadcast or a "bad news" broadcast began to play. The subjects entered and were
asked to sit at a desk facing away from the "radio". Once they were seated the
experimenter apologized and informed them that she had to make an important phone call
and left the subjects in the room for five minutes. While the experimenter was gone, one
of the two broadcasts began and was played through. Once the experimenter returned
and apologized once more, a feeling scale in semantic differential format and
Interpersonal Judgment Scale (IJS) to measured participants' affective states was
administered. The researchers found that the nature of the news heard by listeners'
influenced their affective state and their evaluative responses to others. They also found
that the degree of affect reported by listeners was positively related to evaluations made
Mood and Effects on Recall
Recall of a message stimulus may be influenced by consumer's mood at the time
of exposure or retrieval, or by a match between exposure and retrieval moods (Gardner,
1985). Prior studies have indicated that mood enhances the ability to recall information
consistent with one's mood (i.e. mood-congruity). That is, people in positive moods are
more likely to recall positive information about a stimulus, whereas those in negative
moods are more likely to recall negative information (Knowles et al., 1993).
Clark and Waddell (1983) tested the hypothesis that mood states would influence
the production of mood congruent thoughts in response to situations in which helping,
attraction toward another, or acquisition of information might take place. Clark and
Waddell (1983) predicted that being in a positive mood would cause subjects'
associations to the situations to be more positive and those in negative moods could cause
associations to the situations to be perceived as more negative than they would be if they
were in no particular mood. Each of the participants was randomly assigned to one of
three groups: positive, negative, or neutral. Upon their arrival, the subjects were
reminded that they would be participating in two brief (unrelated) studies. They were
told that the person running the "first study" was not in the room and while they were
waiting the experimenter might as well explain her study ("second study"). The first
experimenter explained that she would be asking them to imagine being in several
situations and three examples were given (Clark & Waddell, 1983).
Afterwards, the participants were sent to do the "first" study, where administered
three tests that pertained to spatial and analytical abilities. In both mood conditions, the
subjects were scored on their performance. Those in the positive group received high
scores (far above average) and given encouraging feedback. Those in the negative group
were told they had scored very low (far below average) and given not so encouraging
feedback. Once this study was over, the experimenter directed the subjects back to first
experimenter's room. In this study, the subjects were told to close their eyes, relax and to
respond to each situation that was being described with whatever thoughts came to mind
first. Once the third situation was completed, the participants were asked "how would
you describe your mood right now?" (Clark & Waddell, 1983).
The results of Clark and Waddell's (1983) study supported the hypotheses that
positive moods increase peoples' positive associations to situations in which help is
needed and to people whom they imagine they are just meeting. In addition, the study
provided a clearer support of the idea that people in positive moods may help and like
other more because positively toned thoughts about potential helping situations or other
people are more likely to come to mind (Clark & Waddell, 1983).
Lee and Sternthal (1999) examined the influences of mood on the retrieval of
brand names by investigating whether a positive mood enhanced recall and stimulated
brand rehearsal. They predicted in relation to a neutral mood, a positive mood would
induce greater relational elaboration, which would be apparent by more clustering of
brands by category, more categories recalled, and better brand name recall. In addition,
they predicted that a positive mood would also promote greater brand rehearsal. Lee and
Sternthal (1999) conducted four experiments to test their predictions. The results
indicated that positive mood enhanced the learning of brand names relative to neutral
mood. Respondents' clustering of the brand names recalled suggested that a positive
mood also encouraged relational elaboration by prompting the classification of brands by
category membership. This classification, in turn, served as an effective cue for brand
name retrieval. In addition, the findings imply that the rehearsal of particular brand
names can be affected by mood.
The theory that people in positive moods are more likely to recall positive
information about a stimulus, whereas those in negative moods are more likely to recall
negative information, is known as mood-congruity.
Mood-Congruity is a phenomenon in which individuals recall experiences or
information that are consistent with their current mood state. For example, remembering
all the negative events of our past lives when depressed (Lewis & Critchley). People in
happy moods remember more positive memories from the childhood, recall more happy
episodes from previous weeks, and remember better words they have learned in the
matching mood state (Bower, 1981). According to Forgas (1999), when in positive
moods, individuals are significantly more likely to access and recall positive information
and information that was first encountered in a previous happy state. In contrast,
negative mood selectively facilitates the recall of negative information.
Not only does every activity of a person affect his/her mood, but also a person
carries on many activities specifically for the moods they induce. According to Forgas
(1999), people tend to seek out information or activities that is consistent with their
current mood state. For example, an individual who is in a good or positive mood and
would like to see a movie which is consistent with this mood and will allow them to
maintain it; might choose to see a comedy over an action film, because the mood induced
by the comedy film might be perceived more positively than an action film.
There have been prior studies that have indicated that mood enhances the ability
to recall information consistent with one's mood. Bower (1981) and Bower, Gilligan,
and Monteiro (1981) found that when people were placed in a positive mood and then
read information containing both positive and negative elements they recalled more
positive information and less negative information than those who read the message when
they were in a negative mood. Similarly, those who were placed in negative moods
recalled more negative and less positive information than those placed in a positive mood
(Lord et al., 2001). Mackie and Worth (1991) found that positive mood causes more
positive information to come to mind than does negative mood (Lord et al., 2001).
This study will examine whether the recall results of the products placed within
the film chosen, Happy Gilmore, will support the mood-congruity hypotheses. In order,
for this theory to be supported, participant's mood state must match the overall feel of the
movie scene in which the product appears in order for it to have a greater chance of being
Brand Placement and Mood
Research has shown that trying to put an individual into a good mood may result
in additional effects that may or may not hurt the selling of the brand. In addition, just
because an individual may appear to be in a good mood, does not imply that they will
only see the positive things. Based on this information, there seems to be little guarantee
that including a brand or product in a movie scene to generate a positive attributions in
the consumer's mind will have the results that marketers are looking for, regardless of the
consumer's previous thoughts about the brand.
Other research has shown that mood tends to bias evaluations and judgments. For
example, the nature of the news heard by the listeners' influenced their subsequent
affective states and their evaluation of external attitude objects in Veitch and Griffitt's
study. One might presume from this, that if a consumer hears something negative about a
brand the consumer might be placed in a negative mood and judge the brand negatively
as a result. Such adverse evaluations may then spill over into the individual's exposure to
a brand placement in movies should the individual recall his/her previous evaluation of
Finally, research has shown that individuals in positive moods better recall
information congruent with their mood states. Thus, individuals' positive information
and those in negative moods are more likely to recall negative information. Furthermore,
individuals are more drawn to people who are in similar mood states relative to
themselves. Thus, an individual in a good mood is predicted to recall a brand is placed in
a wedding scene better than the brand placed in a death scene. In addition, the individual
will recall scene characters in the same mood state as the individual watching it. From
this, one might conclude that marketers should place their brand in both positive and
negative movie scenes, in order to capture both mood states of the audience.
While there is a vast amount of research on brand placement and mood,
respectively, there is no known research that has studied the effects of mood on brand
placement. Yet, an understanding of this relationship can help marketers gain a better
understanding of the potential impact that brand placements have on consumers and their
perceptions of a brand.
The mood-congruity theory states that individuals recall more experiences or
information that is consistent with their current mood state. The movie selected for this
study, Happy Gilmore, is a comical movie. Comedies are meant to make an audience
laugh and as a result can be light-hearted and funny.
* H1: After viewing the movie scene from Happy Gilmore, a positive mood will be
induced as a result of the exposure among the participants.
* H2: Participants in the mood-congruity group will have higher recall of the products
placed in the movie than the participants in the control group.
* H2a: Subjects in the mood-congruity group will recall more products than those in
the control group when asked to freely recall products.
* H2b: Subjects in the mood-congruity group will recall more products than those in
the control group in the cued recall section when a list of products is provided to
The objective of this study was to determine if mood had an influence on
audience's recall of brand placement in a movie after exposure. To test the influence of
mood on the recall of brand placements within a movie, an experimental design was used.
The independent variable was mood and was manipulated at two levels: positive and
neutral. The dependent variable was recall of product placements.
The experiment was conducted in groups of 20 or more and within each group
participants were randomly assigned to either the control group or the mood-congruity
group. The questionnaire packet the subjects received randomly assigned them to one of
the groups. The groups that the participants were selected to be in was unknown to the
experimenter. All participants first viewed a five-minute movie scene and then were
asked to turn to the next page, which was a distracter page. The subjects in the control
group read an article that was used to dissipate their moods slightly and the participants
in the mood-congruity group read a paragraph that informed them that following the
study they would be receiving a gift for their participation. Following the distracter, the
participants were given a mood questionnaire, asking them to indicate their current mood.
After the questionnaire, they were given another questionnaire that asked them to write
down the brand names they recalled seeing (free recall). Next, they were provided with a
list of categories of types of product groups and a list of specific brand names and asked
to select those they recalled (cued-recall). The experiment concluded with some
demographic questions and the subjects were thanked for their participation.
A pretest with a small group of subjects was conducted prior to the main
experiment to ensure that the movie selected would induce a positive mood.
The participants were randomly assigned to either the Control group or the mood-
congruity group. A movie clip was shown to all the participants, the mood stimuli, and
the dependent variable was assessed. Subjects in both the control and mood-congruity
group received the positive mood manipulation.
The experiment was conducted in groups of 20 or more and within each group
participants were randomly assigned to either the control group or the mood-congruity
group. Upon entering the room where the experiment was being conducted, the subjects
were instructed to sit every other seat. After they were seated, the experimenter handed
out the packets that contained the questionnaire that would be used for the study.
Unknown to the experimenter and the participants, the packets that the participants
received determined if they were in the control or mood-congruity group depending upon
which distracter page they received. After receiving the packets, the participants were
asked to read and sign a consent form (Appendix A). Following their consent, the
subjects were shown a movie scene that contained brand placements. The movie scene
was approximately five minutes in length.
After viewing the movie scene, which induced the subjects into a positive mood,
the subjects were asked to turn to the next page of their packet. The next page served as a
distracter. For the participants that received the control group packet, they were given an
article about UF testing, which served as filler information (Appendix B). The
participants in the mood-congruity group read a paragraph informing them that at the
conclusion of the study, they would be receiving a gift for their participation. The gift
was a bag of candy as a small token of appreciation. The gift was used as an incentive in
order to maintain the current positive mood state (Appendix C). After either reading
either the article or reading about the incentive, subjects were given a mood checklist
questionnaire, to test their current mood state. The mood checklist was evaluated by
using Nowlis' (1965) Mood Adjective Check List. The list consisted of 16 adjectives,
which were narrowed down from the original 49, where the respondent is asked to
indicate to what extent each of the adjectives described his/her current mood (Appendix
In order to test for the dependent variable recall, following the mood
questionnaire, participants were given a free recall test and asked to write down all of the
brands they remembered seeing in the clip. They were given a free recall test first, to see
whether they actually recalled seeing any brands within the scene, without jogging their
memory, as a cued-recall test might do (Appendix D).
Then, the participants were given a cued-recall test and asked to indicate which
brands they recalled seeing in the movie scene. The list of brands on the cued-recall test
consisted of the brands that appeared in the movie scene, as well as, random decoy
brands. The cued-recall test was used to compare it to the free recall test and to
determine how many of the brands participants were able to recall in their current mood
state. At the bottom of the cued recall portion, was a mood manipulation check that
asked the participants: "Did you notice that you would be receiving a small gift at the end
of this study?" (Appendix D). At the end of the cued-recall test, participants were asked
a set of demographic questions, such as their age and gender (Appendix D). All of the
questions that the participants were asked to answer were introduced as measures of their
mood state and their ability to recall the brands that were placed in the movie scene.
At the conclusion of the study, subjects were debriefed and asked not to discuss
the experiment with anyone else and thanked for their participation.
After viewing the movie clip and reading the distracter page, subjects were asked
to describe their mood or feelings using Nowlis' (1965) Mood Adjective Check List.
Using a 4-point scale, participants circled the number that represented how well the
particular adjective described their current mood. A varimax-rotated factor analysis of
the subjects' answers revealed two major factors, explaining 38% of the total variance.
The factors could easily be interpreted as Negative affect and Positive affect (Heide &
Gronhaug, 1991). This list is conceivably the most widely used mood measure (Peterson
and Sauber 1983) and has been used in an abundant amount of studies over the last
couple of decades (e.g. Hedges et al., 1985; Batra & Stayman, 1990; Stone & Neal,
1984). The purpose of using this instrument was to determine the current mood state of
the participants was after viewing the movie clip.
Free Recall Item
Participants were given several lines on which to record their open-ended answer
to the following statement: "Please list any branded products) you recall seeing in the
movie clip in the space below." The purpose of giving the subjects an free recall test was
to determine if they actually recalled seeing any brands placed in the clip, rather than
giving them a sheet with a list of brand names and asking them to indicate the ones they
saw. This required them to actually think about what they saw and narrowed the chance
that the participants fabricated their answers, as they might have done if they were given
the cued-recall test first.
Following the free recall question, participants were asked to look at a list of
brands and to indicate if they recalled seeing any of the brands in the movie scene. The
brands that appeared on this sheet consisted of the brands that appeared within the movie
scene and some additional decoy brand names that were in the same brand category as
those that were viewed in the clip. The purpose of performing the cued-recall test, served
as a follow-up on the free recall test. The answers that the participants gave in the free
recall section were compared to this section of the questionnaire to determine if they were
able to recall the brands placed without the brand name being in front of them. This
served as a recall check.
A movie clip was used as a visual stimulus during the experiment. The movie was
selected from the Top 140 grossing movies of 1996, which can be found at the Box
Office Report website. The researcher analyzed a total of five movies to determine if
there were significant brand placements. If the brand was either physically or verbally
shown within the scene for a minimum of two seconds, then it was considered to be
significant enough of a brand placement. According to Troup (1991), 2 seconds is the
industry average for the length of time a brand appears on the screen.
One movie was selected from the five for the study, Happy Gilmore, and a five-
minute clip was selected based on the number of the brands placed within the movie.
This movie contained both physical and verbal mentions with in the scene viewed by the
participants. The movie scene selected was approximately five to ten minutes in length.
Overview. Happy Gilmore features more than 18 major brands, including Pepsi,
Subway, AT&T, Visa, ESPN, Wilson and Buick. Happy Gilmore (Adam Sandler) is a
bad hockey player who desperately wants to be on a hockey team. When his grandmother
(Frances Dey) is about to lose her house to the taxman, Gilmore must find a way to make
$270,000 in 90 days or the house is gone. Having recently discovered that he can hit a
golf ball farther than anyone else, he joins the pro tour to try and earn the money. But he
must contend with "Shooter" (Christopher McDonald), the arrogant pro who tries to
undermine Gilmore's attempts at winning, as well as the attractive tournament PR rep,
Virginia (Julie Bowen).
This clip starts off with Happy Gilmore's (Sandler) first tournament as a pro
player. The scene opens and we see and hear two announcers welcoming the television
audience to the AT&T Invitation. Behind the announcers is a banner that reads AT&T
and it quickly cuts to Happy arriving in his car and the front of the building has an AT&T
banner. AT&T is prominently shown and/or mentioned in almost every shot in this clip,
from the leader board to the banners. As the scene continues, the audience sees Happy's
rival Shooter (McDonald) giving an interview and Happy registers and enters the golf
course. He meets a fellow golfer, who he is playing with that day, and receives some
As Happy sets up to tee off, the camera zooms out and a Top Flite booth is seen in
the background. Happy misses the ball and the next shot is of his tyrant on a TV screen
(what one would see if they were watching the tournament at home) that says Panasonic.
As Happy continues to yell and curse, a fellow golfer is shown shaking his head in
disbelief and he is wearing a Top Flite hat and a Buick logo shirt. Happy finally gets
himself under control and makes an amazing 400-yard shot and once again the audience
see the Panasonic television.
As the scene continues, the audience sees Happy playing very well and then it
cuts to Shooter who is making a putt. His caddy is holding a Wilson golf bag and
wearing a Buick hat. As the scene carries on, Gilmore has his up and down moments and
his popularity is growing. As Happy lines up to make a putt, he receives some more
advice and ends up missing the putt. This once again ignites a tantrum from Happy and
in the midst of his tyrant, grabs the flagpole and throws it. The flagpole knocks down a
cameraman, who is almost hit. As the cameraman falls, a Subway and an ESPN banner
are prominently shown.
The clip concludes with the PR rep (Bowen) trying to convince the head of the
tour to allow Happy to remain on the tour because he is bringing so much publicity to the
sport. The clip finally ends as Shooter wins the tournament and is seen holding an AT&T
All subjects for the pretest and the experiment were undergraduate and graduate
students from the University of Florida. A total of 64 students participated in this
experiment for extra course credit.
Participants selection was on a voluntarily basis. The researcher visited several
classes at the University of Florida, with the professor's prior knowledge and approval,
and asked for participation. In return for their participation, they would receive extra
credit from their professor. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two groups:
control and mood-congruity.
A pretest was conducted with a small group of subjects prior to the main
experiment to ensure that the movie scene selected would induce a positive mood. A
total of 11 subjects participated. There were a total of two groups; one consisted of five
individuals and another of six that viewed the movie clip. The participants were told that
the purpose of the study was to gather information on their thoughts and feelings on the
movie clip. Participants moods were measured prior to viewing the movie clip and
measured again immediately following exposure to the clip. There were a total of 16
adjectives that were used to measure the participant's moods and each was categorized
into four factors. The first factor was 'Surgency' that was compiled of carefree, playful,
witty, lively and talkative. Second was 'Elation' that was accumulated of elated,
overjoyed and pleased. The third factor was 'Concentration' that had concentration,
attentive, contemplative, engaged in thought, intent and introspective. Finally, the last
factor was 'Vigor' that contained active and energetic.
The participants circled a number (one to four) that corresponded with how they
felt at that moment for each adjective. A one indicated that they 'definitely feel this way
at this moment', a two meant that they 'feel slightly this way at this moment', a three
meant they 'cannot decide whether they feel this way or not at this moment', and a four
indicated they 'definitely do not feel this way'. When each adjective was added together
within each of the factors, a lower the score specified a more positive mood and a higher
score specified a more negative mood.
4-1. Paired sample statistics and test
Mean N Std. Dev. t d.f.
Pair 1 Before surgency 14.82 11 2.60 2.37* 10
After surgency 12.18 11 2.52
Pair 2 Before elation 9.55 11 1.04 7.12* 10
After elation 6.18 11 1.25
Pair 3 Before concentration 15.36 11 2.34 4.46* 10
After concentration 12.45 11 2.51
Pair 4 Before vigor 6.45 11 1.70 2.05* 10
After vigor 5.09 11 1.38
Coding of Questionnaire
The mood adjective checklist was coded the same way as it was previously done
in the pretest. The participants circled a number (one to four) that corresponded with
how they felt at that moment for each adjective. A one indicated that they 'definitely feel
this way at this moment', a two meant that they 'feel slightly this way at this moment', a
three meant they 'cannot decide whether they feel this way or not at this moment', and a
four indicated they 'definitely do not feel this way'. The cued recall section was coded
using a dummy variable (0 = did not recall, 1 = recalled) in the corresponding column. In
the free recall section, the participant's answers were coded as correct only if they
remember the brand name and not the product categories. For example, Buick and
Cadillac were both shown in the film and if participants were to respond with "There
were cars, but I do not remember the name," were not coded as correct. In addition,
different brand names in the same category were not coded as correct. For example,
Sony was not an acceptable answer for the product Panasonic. For the variable 'Pepsi',
the answer 'diet Pepsi' was accepted. There were a total of nine brands to be identified
and each was given a column in the coding. The experimenter completed all coding and
then an outside coder was used to check the reliability.
Mood Manipulation Check
Descriptive statistics were run to find the means for the mood manipulation
between the control and mood-congruity group to determine if the manipulation was a
success. The question asked was "Did you notice that you would be receiving a small
gift at the end of this study?" Respondents selected either 'absolutely' (coded as a one)
or 'absolutely not' (coded as a two) for the question. The results showed that 25 out of
the 29 participants in the mood-congruity group noticed the mood manipulation and 34
out of the 35 participants in the control group did not notice the mood manipulation
(Table 4-2). It was determined that the bag of sweets as a "token of appreciation" did
indeed was noticed by the mood-congruity group, which led to the maintaining of the
positive mood that was evoked due to viewing the movie scene. These results indicated
that the mood manipulation was successful.
4-2. Means score for mood manipulation check
Absolutely 0.0385 1.9231
Absolutely Not 0.8947 0.2105
A total of 64 undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Florida
participated in the product placement study. The sample included 22 males and 42
Of the 64 participants, most students were ages 18 to 21 (79.7%), followed by ages
22 to 24 (17.2%). Approximately 51.6% of the respondents were college juniors and
29.7% were sophomores, followed by seniors with 15.6% and graduate students with
Roughly 96.9% of the students were single (not divorced or separated) and 3.1%
were married. Reportedly, 64.1% were Caucasian/White; 17.2% Hispanic/Latino and
14.1% were African-American/Black.
4-3. Demographic statistics
30 or older
Single (not divorced
Islander 2 3.1
Native American 0 0.0
Other 1 1.6
A total of 64 participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, control
and mood-congruity. Of the 64 participants, approximately 35 respondents were in the
control group and 29 were in the mood-congruity group. Frequency and descriptive
statistics were used to calculate how many of the nine brands participants in the mood-
congruity group were able to recall compared to the control group in both the free recall
and cued recall portions of the questionnaire. The following tables (Table 4-4 and 4-5)
were created for both the free recall and cued recall variables for each of the two groups.
4-4. Frequencies of free recall
Control Group Mood-Congruity Group Total
Products N % N % N %
Cadillac 2 5.71 3 10.34 5 7.81
AT&T 21 60.00 13 44.83 34 53.13
Top Flite 3 8.57 4 13.79 7 10.94
Subway 11 31.43 14 48.28 25 39.06
Pepsi 2 5.71 0 0.00 2 3.13
Buick 0 0.00 1 3.45 1 1.56
Wilson 1 2.86 0 0.00 1 1.56
ESPN 8 22.86 8 27.59 16 25.00
Panasonic 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 48 52.75 43 47.25 91 100.00
4-5. Frequencies of cued recall
Control Group Mood-Congruity Group Total
Products N % N % N %
Cadillac 4 11.43 4 13.79 8 12.50
AT&T 29 82.86 15 51.72 44 68.75
Top Flite 9 25.71 4 13.79 13 20.31
Subway 11 31.43 15 51.72 26 40.63
Pepsi 1 2.86 0 0.00 1 1.56
Buick 1 2.86 2 6.90 3 4.69
Wilson 2 5.71 1 3.45 3 4.69
ESPN 15 42.86 12 41.38 27 42.19
Panasonic 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Total 72 57.60 53 42.40 125 100.00
A Chi Square Test of Independence was also run to examine the significance of
the nine products (both free and cued recall) relative to the two groups (mood-congruity
and control). An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical tests. Table 4-6 shows the
Chi-Square Test results for both free recall and cued recall of the eight of the nine
products and the groups.
Tests were conducted to examine whether the group and free recall of the nine
products were independent. There were two participants in the control group compared
to the three in the mood-congruity group that freely recalled Cadillac. More participants
freely recalled seeing AT&T in the clip in the control group with 21 than those in mood-
congruity group with 13. Four participants in the mood-congruity group freely recalled
Top Flite versus the three in the control group. There were 14 participants in the mood-
congruity group next to the 11 participants in the control group that freely recalled
Subway in the movie. Free recall of the product Pepsi came out in favor of the control
group who had two participants recall Pepsi versus zero in the mood-congruity group.
Buick and Wilson were not highly recalled brands in the free recall section, because only
one participants from the mood-congruity group recalled Buick and one participant from
the control group recalled Wilson. ESPN came out even between the two groups, with
each group having eight respondents say they recalled the brand. Finally, even though
Panasonic was shown in the movie, none of the participants freely recalled seeing it.
Out of the nine brands that were shown in the movie scene, the chi-square test
showed that there was no significant difference for any of the variables. The variables
are not associated.
Similar to free recall, tests were conducted to examine whether the group and
cued recall of the nine products were independent. The number of the participants in the
control and mood-congruity group that recalled seeing Cadillac was equal, with each
group having four participants. There were 29 participants in the control group compared
to the 15 in the mood-congruity group that recalled AT&T. More participants recalled
seeing Top Flite in the clip in the control group with 9 than those in mood-congruity
group with 4. There were 15 participants in the mood-congruity group next to the 11
participants in the control group that recalled Subway in the movie. Pepsi was not highly
recalled by the participants in cued recall, because only one participant from the control
group recalled seeing Pepsi in the clip. Cued recall of the product Buick came out
slightly higher for the mood-congruity group with two participants recalling the brand
compared to only one in the control group. The results were flipped between the groups
when recalling Wilson, because one participant in the mood-congruity group recalled
Wilson compared to the two in the control group. There were 15 participants in the
control group versus the 12 in the mood-congruity group that recalled ESPN. Like the
results in the free recall portion, even though Panasonic was shown in the movie, none of
the participants recalled seeing it, even in cued recall.
Out of the nine brands that were shown in the movie scene, the chi-square test
showed that only one brand was significantly different for any of the variables. The
variables are not associated. AT&T was the only brand that was found to have a
significant difference. The two variables cuedd recall and AT&T) are associated.
4-6. Chi square tests for free and cued recall
Value d.f. (2-sided)
Free recall Cadillac 0.472 1 0.49
AT&T 1.466 1 0.23
Top Flite 0.444 1 0.51
Subway 1.891 1 0.17
Pepsi 1.710 1 0.19
Buick 1.226 1 0.27
Wilson 0.842 1 0.36
ESPN 0.189 1 0.66
Cued recall Cadillac 0.081 1 0.78
AT&T 7.155 1 0.01
Top Flite 1.392 1 0.24
Subway 2.708 1 0.10
Pepsi 0.842 1 0.36
Buick 0.579 1 0.45
Wilson 0.182 1 0.67
ESPN 0.014 1 0.91
Differences in Recall
There were some major differences among the brands tested in the recall sections
of the study. Two brands, Subway and AT&T, both had a higher recall than any of the
other brands, because these two brands had more time in the movie clip than any of the
other seven brands. AT&T was shown and mentioned throughout the entire clip and
Subway was shown a couple of times and each time remained on the screen for several
seconds. In addition, ESPN was highly recalled in both recall portions of the study,
because the placement was in the last scene and shown in big letters as a banner. It was
shown prominently enough that it would be impossible to miss. These are the reasons
why there was such as difference in recall among the different brands.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
In today's competitive market, reaching audiences in a unique and innovative way
while gaining product exposure and recognition is important to a brand's success.
Product placement is a key alternative for marketers and advertisers because of the
possibility to launch even the lesser known of brands into success. So, is brand
placement effective in increasing sales? The effect on sales is very difficult for
companies to calculate because there are no specific measurements that all marketers use
in order to determine the success of a brand placement. Though manufacturers are
reluctant to say product appearances boost sales dramatically, retailers mention an
increase of interest, if not sales, among customers. And whether or not it translates into
increase sales, product placement increases exposure, which certainly increases brand
awareness (Strandberg, 2001).
It is important for marketers to remember when using brand placement, that the
placement should not feel "stuffed in there" and should fit naturally into the scene,
otherwise, the viewers get turned off. Previous focus groups have consistently indicated
that people do not care if products are used in films as long as it is not rubbed in their
faces. Consumers also find it less distracting than using generic products (Turcotte,
There are several outside factors that may affect the outcome of the exposure and
the audience's ability to recall the product, such as prior feelings about brands and
attitudes. One factor is mood and the effects of mood. Mood is important to understand
because its ability to influence consumer's behavior and reactions. Despite the increased
amount of research on brand placement and mood, the effects of mood on placement
have never been studied. The current study looked to determine a potential role that
mood can have on audience recall of brand placements in movies.
Summary of Results
It was first hypothesized that by exposing participants to a comical movie scene
that a positive mood would be induced. Results supported this hypothesis for each of the
four factors; this is shown in Table 4-1. The respondents' moods increased after viewing
the film clip Happy Gilmore.
It was hypothesized that the subjects in the mood-congruity group would have
higher recall of the products placed in the movie scene than the subjects in the control
group. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that participants in the mood-congruity group
would recall more products than those in the control group in both the free recall and
cued recall sections. Results did not support two of the three hypotheses. Overall, the
mood-congruity group did not have a higher recall score than the control group, nor did
they recall more brands in the cued recall part. However, the results showed that the
subjects in the mood-congruity group did have a higher recall score in the free recall
portion than in the cued recall section.
The Chi-Square test indicated that there was not a significant difference for any of
the variables in the free recall portion. Therefore, what group the participants were in,
was not contingent on whether or not they freely recalled the nine brands in the clip. In
the cued recall section, the Chi-Square test found that eight out of the nine products were
not significantly different for any of the variables. Similar to free recall, what group the
participants were in was not contingent on whether or not they were provided with a list
of brands to recall. The only variable that was found to have a significant difference was
AT&T. The difference was that notably more participants in the control group recalled
AT&T more in the cued recall portion than in the free recall compared to the slight
increase in the mood-congruity group.
Despite the Chi-Square test finding AT&T to be significant, the hypotheses were
still not supported. Even though previous research showed that individuals in a positive
mood better recall information congruent with their mood states, that theory was not
In addition, the mood-congruity hypothesis was tested as well. The mood-
congruity hypothesis predicted greater recall of product placement when the tone of the
movie and the manipulation was consistent with the mood of the audience. The recall
results provided little support for the mood-congruity position. This is shown in Table 4-
4 and 4-5, which showed that subjects in the control group recalled just as many products
as those in the mood-congruity group. These findings are consistent with the statement,
"Though mood-congruity has been shown to affect judgment and information processing
in basic psychological research, the empirical investigation of its influence on response to
marketing communications has led to inconsistent results" (Lord et al., 2001).
Despite earlier studies have some success with the mood-congruity theory, the
current study found no evidence to support the theory. There is a possible reason why
this may have occurred. In a previous study, Meloy (2000) used the same tactic of giving
a small token of appreciation. However, unlike the present study, Meloy gave out the
small tokens to the participants (not in the control group) prior to the experiment, instead
of having them read a small paragraph informing them that they would be receiving a
small gift and then having to wait until the conclusion to receive it. Even though the
subjects in this study read the statement, it did not mean it had an impact. Simply reading
a statement versus physically receiving a gift can have two different outcomes. This is
one reason why the current study was might have been unsuccessful with finding
conclusive results in regards for the mood-congruity theory.
This study had several limitations. First, the venue was not in a natural setting.
In other words, Happy Gilmore was not shown in a movie theatre. Another limitation
was that prior exposure to the film and prior thoughts about the brands shown were not
measured and these results may have shed some reflection on the results. Prior exposure
and feelings about the brands may have had an impact on whether the subjects paid more
attention to a particular scene and/or product. If a participant had had a really bad or
good previous experience with a brand in the clip, there was a chance that they noticed it
right away and reflected on the previous experience. This may caused them to miss the
other brands because they were concentrating on that one. In addition, participants who
had seen the movie previously, may have picked up on more things than they did when
they first saw it.
A big limitation was outside distractions. For example, individuals walking by
the experiment room, talking, hearing doors shutting, etc., may have pulled the
respondents attention from the movie or from the questionnaire for a split second, causing
them to be disrupted. Steps were taken in order to prevent any type of distractions prior
to conducting the study, but some went undetected by the experimenter and may have
had an impact on the study.
Another limitation that might have had an effect on the results was the amount of
time that elapsed from the manipulation and the recall portion of the questionnaire. It
was observed by the experimenter that not enough time was given between the article
being read by the participants and then the continuation onto the recall portion.
Participants should have had more time before allowing them to continue on, in effort for
the manipulation to take its full effect.
Finally, the participation was restricted to college students only. Although the
sample was suitable for this study of brand placement, the results may have differed
among other segments of the population.
Regardless of the lack of success of this study, research on the effects that moods
have on brand placement should still continue, because it is still an important area for
marketers and advertisers to understand. Knowledge of consumers' mood states in
marketing situations may provide them with more of a comprehensive understanding of
consumers and their reactions. There are so many aspects of moods and the effects that
mood has on consumers behavior and reaction that can not all be tested in one study, that
is why further research into this area is important for marketers and advertisers to
continue to gauge the impact that mood has on advertising and marketing.
The current study and previous studies have shown that by simply receiving a
mood-elevating gift a good mood was the result. The effects of mood-elevating gifts on
consumers should be researched further, because it could have great outcomes for
companies. For example, marketers and advertisers might consider offering audience
members coupons after they have just viewed a movie that contained their product in it.
It would be a pleasant surprise to most of the audience members to receive these gifts and
could create positive thoughts about the product.
In the current study, participants were observed laughing throughout the movie
scene, which verified the results from the preliminary test, that a positive mood was
induced by exposure to this clip. This observation revealed that future studies should
examine the different genre of movies and how they impact the consumer moods. How
the genre of a movie can impact moods and consumer reactions, may have great
implications and results for marketers and advertisers and could give them insight as to
what type of movies they should place their products in.
It would be beneficial for future research to examine mood effects more deeply.
This would include issues such as it was previously mentioned above, the various types
of positive and negative moods activated by the various type of movie genres and the
chances and the effects of change in mood from one type of a movie to another.
INFORMED CONSENT DISCLOSURE FOR MOTION PICTURE STUDY
Purpose of the study:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate audience perceptions on motion pictures.
What you will be asked to do in this study:
If you choose to participate in this study, you will first view a movie clip. Afterwards, you will be asked to take a 16-
item questionnaire and then answer questions related to your perceptions about what you saw. There are no right or
wrong answers. This study will take approximately 20 minutes.
There are no personal discomfort, stress, or personal risks associated with participating in this study.
By participating in this study, you will earn extra credit from your instructor. The number of extra credit points
awarded will be at the discretion of the instructor. There are no direct benefits to you for participating in this study.
The results of your participation will be anonymous. You will be assigned a number and this will be your identification
code. As such, the researcher will have no way of associating your responses directly with you.
Your participation is completely voluntary and you may withdraw your consent at any time during the experiment
without penalty. In the event that you do withdraw consent, the results of your participation, to the extent that they can
be identified as yours, will be returned to you, removed from the research records, or destroyed.
Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
If you would like to learn more about the study, you may contact Robyn Lozano by telephone at (352) 332-8393 or by
email at RobynLoz@aol.com or Dr. Michael Weigold in the Department of Advertising (2018 Weimer Hall) by
telephone at (352) 392-8199 or by email at n, .i ci ..I ,- I. .11 l c..ii.i
Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; phone 392-0433.
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and have
received a copy of this description.
Participants Signature Date
Principal Investigator Signature Date
ARTICLE FOR CONTROL GROUP
UF may adopt testing
THE STATE BOARD OF GOVERNORS WANTS ACCOUNTABILITY STANDARDS.
By STEPHANIE GARRY Alligator Writer
UF students who sighed in relief when they left the FCAT behind in high school may have a surprise
Florida's highest authority on education, the Board of Governors, has required universities to come up with
standards of achievement and a way to assess them, such as the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test.
Called Academic Learning Compacts, the measures would ensure certain skills to students who complete
their baccalaureate degree programs. At the latest, UF would implement them by Fall 2005, according to a
Though UF administrators still are working out the details with the board, the result could mean some kind
of testing tied to graduation, said Associate Provost Joe Glover, who has been handling the issue for the
Moreover, some students may end up footing the bill. "It will certainly cost the university some money,"
Glover said. "It would not surprise me if it will cost students money, as well."
Colleges must decide what standards they expect students with a certain major to graduate with and how to
determine whether students have met those standards, which they are working on now.
If departments choose to use standardized tests, students most likely will have to pay for them.
"We would try to pass those costs on to the students because the university couldn't bear it," Glover said,
adding that no one was happy about doing so.
Originally Glover suggested a system that assessed students' performance only to reflect back on their
departments as constructive criticism, Glover told the university's top governing body, the Board of
Trustees, during the summer break.
But after meeting with other state university representatives, Glover said he thinks the Board of Governors
wants a stronger system perhaps requiring testing to receive a degree.
Pierre Ramond, the chairman of the Faculty Senate and member of the Board of Trustees, said in an earlier
interview that students take enough tests to graduate, and faculty members hold the right to decide who
earns a degree.
Now Glover's work hinges on the Board of Governors to clarify what they want out of the graduation
mandate, which will probably be done at their next meeting.
ARTICLE FOR MOOD-CONGRUITY GROUP
Congratulations you have been selected to receive a small gift at the
conclusion of this study in appreciation for your participation.
The small gift that you will receive is in addition to the extra credit you will
be receiving from your professor for your participation. This is a small
token of gratitude for your time.
At the conclusion of the study, please see the experimenter and you will
receive your gift.
Thank You for your participation and Congratulations.
MOTION PICTURE STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE
Instructions: The list of words below describes a type of feeling. Using the following
the list, circle the number, from 1 to 4, that best corresponds to your feelings at the
moment you read each word.
1 = you definitely feel this way at this moment
2 = you feel slightly this way at this moment
3 = cannot decide whether you feel this way or not at this moment
4 = you definitely do not feel this way
Work rapidly. Your first reaction is best.
provide one answer for each item.
Please mark all the words clearly and only
5. Playful: 1 2 3
6. Overjoyed: 1 2 3
7. Engaged in thought: 1 2 3
8. Energetic: 1 2 3
9. Witty: 1 2 3
PLEASE CONTINUE ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
10. Pleased: 1 2 3 4
11. Intent: 1 2 3 4
12. Lively: 1 2 3 4
13. Attentive: 1 2 3 4
14. Introspective: 1 2 3 4
15. Contemplative: 1 2 3 4
16. Talkative: 1 2 3 4
1. Please list any branded products) you recall seeing in the movie clip in the space
PLEASE CONTINUE ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
*Please do not go back to any of the previous pages.
1. Check all the product types that you recall seeing in the scene you just viewed.
2. The following section is a list of brand names. Please indicate by placing a check next
to the brand name, if you recalled seeing the brand in the movie scene you just viewed.
Please only place a check by the brand if you did see it in the clip. There are no right or
3. Did you notice that you would be receiving a small gift at the end of this study?
Absolutely Absolutely Not
PLEASE CONTINUE ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
The following questions will be used for statistical purposes only. Your answers will
be held in strictest confidence.
1. What is your gender? (Check one)
2. What is your academic classification? (Check one)
3. What is your age? (Check one)
30 or older
4. What is your martial status? (Check one)
Single (not divorced or separated)
Divorced or legally separated
5. What is your race? (Check one)
Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander
Other (Please specify)
6. What is your military status? (Check one)
Military -completed terms of enlistment or retired
None of the above
ONCE YOU HAVE FINISHED, PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND FOR THE
RESEARCHER TO COLLECT YOUR QUESTIONNAIRE. FINAL INSTRUCTIONS
WILL BE PROVIDED ONCE ALL PARTICIPANTS ARE FINISHED.
Ads find new home on TV in product placement plots. (19, March 2005). East Valley
Tribune online. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from
Axelrod, J.N. (1963). Induced moods and attitudes toward product. Journal of
Advertising Research, 3, 19-24.
Babin, Laurie A. and Sheri Thompson Carder (1996). Viewers recognition of brands
placed within a film. International Journal ofAdvertising, 15 (2), 140-151.
Balasubramanian, Siva K. (1991). Beyond advertising and publicity: The domain of
hybrid messages. Report No. 91-131, Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science
Batra, Rajeev and Douglas Stayman (1990, September). The role of mood in advertising
effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (2), 203-214.
Belch, George E. and Michael A. Belch (2001). Advertising and Promotion: An
Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective. 5th ed. McGraw Hill-Irwin; pg.
Berkowitz, Harry (1994, August 14). Products Compete for Movie Roles. The
Columbian, F10 [On-line] Available: LEXIS-NEXIS, search using title.
Bower, Gordon H. (1981, February). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36,
Bower, Gordon H., Stephen G. Gilligan, and Kenneth P. Monteiro (1981, December).
Selectivity of learning caused by affective states. Journal of Experimental
Psychology: General, 110, 457-473
Brennan, Ian, Khalid Dubes and Laurie A. Babin (1999). The influence of product
placement type and exposure time on product placement recognition. International
Journal ofAdvertising, 18, 323-337.
Clark, Margaret S. and Alice M. Isen (1982). Toward understanding the relationship
between feeling states and social behavior. Cognitive SocialPsychology. Al
Hastorf and Alice Isen (Eds.), New York: Elsevier, 73-108.
Clark, Margaret S. and Barbara A. Waddell (1983). Effects of moods on thoughts about
helping, attraction, and information acquisition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46
Curtis, James (1999, November 28). Making the best of a TV appearance: Product
placement on television can be worth thousands in brand exposure. Marketing, 29
d'Astous, Alain and Francis Chartier (2000, Fall). A study of factors affecting consumer
evaluations and memory of product placements in movies. Journal of Current
Issues and Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 31-40.
DeLorme, Denise E. and Leonard N. Reid (1999, Summer). Moviegoers' experience and
interpretations of brands in films revisited. Journal ofAdvertising, 28, 71-95.
The Economist (1991, April 20). Brands on the screen: Rocky the salesman. 319 (7703),
Elliot, Stuart (1992, September 2). Product placement is under new attack. The New
York Times, D4.
Farhi, Paul (1998, December 17). AOL gets its message out in 'mail' [E-text type].
Retrieved January 31, 2003, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
Forgas, J.P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM).
Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66.
Gardner, Meryl P. (1985, December). Mood states and consumer behavior: A critical
review. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 281-300.
Gardner, Meryl P. and Marion Vandersteel (1984). The consumer's mood: An important
situational variable, in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 11 ed. Thomas
Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 525-529.
Gupta, Pola B., Siva K. Balasubramanian and Michael L. Klassen (2000, Fall). Viewers'
evaluation of product placement in movies: Public policy issues and managerial
implications. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 41-52.
Gupta, Pola B. and Stephen J. Gould (1997, Spring). Consumers' perceptions of the
ethics and acceptability of product placements in movies: product category and
individual differences. Journal of Current Issues andResearch in Advertising, 19
Gupta, Pola B. and Kenneth R. Lord (1998, Spring). Product placement in movies: The
effect of prominence and mode on audience recall. Journal of Current Issues and
Research in Advertising, 20, 47-59.
Heide, Morten and Kjell Gronhaug (1991). Respondents' moods as a biasing factor in
surveys: An experimental study. Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 566-575.
Hill, Ronald Paul and James C. Ward (1989, February). Mood manipulation in
marketing research: An examination of potential confounding effects. Journal of
Marketing Research, 26, 97-104.
Isen, Alice and Thomas E. Shalker (1982). The effect of feeling state on evaluation of
positive, neutral, and negative stimuli: When you "accentuate the positive," do you
"eliminate the negative"? Social Psychology Quarterly, 45 (1), 58-63.
Isen, Alice and Stanley Simmonds (1978). The effect of feeling good on a helping task
that is incompatible with good mood. Social Psychology, 41 (4), 346-349.
Karrh, James A. (1998, Fall). "Brand Placement: A Review." Journal of Current Issues
and Research in Advertising, 20, 31-50
Knowles, Patricia, Stephen J. Grove, and W. Jeffrey Burroughs (1993, Spring). An
experimental examination of mood effects on retrieval and evaluation of
advertisement and brand information. Journal of the Academy ofMarketing
Science, 21 (2), 135-142.
Lee, Angela Y. and Brian Sternthal (1999, September). The effects of positive mood on
memory. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, 115-127.
Let us put you in the movies. (1996, September 16). Brandweek, 37 (36), S3.
Lewis, Penelope A. and Hugo D. Critchley. Mood-dependent memory. TRENDS in
Lord, Kenneth R., Robert E. Burnkrant, and H. Rao Unnava (2001, Spring). The effects
of program-induced mood states on memory for commercial information. Journal
of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 23 (1), 1-15.
Mackie, Diane M. and Leila T. Worth (1991). Feeling good, but not thinking straight:
The impact of positive mood on persuasion. Emotion and Social Judgments.
Marshall, Norm and Dean Ayers (1998, February 9). Product placement worth more than
its weight. Brandweek.
McCarthy, Michael (1994, March 28). Studios place, show and win: Product placement
grows up. Brandweek, 35 (13), 30 and 32.
Meloy, Margaret G. (2000, December). Mood-driven distortion of product information.
Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 345-359.
Morton, Cynthia and Meredith Friedman (2002, Fall). "I saw it in the Movies":
Exploring the link between product placement beliefs and reported usage behavior.
Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 24 (2), 33.
Moser, H. Ronald, Layne Bryant, and Katie Sylvester. Product placement as a marketing
tool in film and television. Middle Tennessee State University, 1-11 [WWW page].
Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http://www.nssa.us/nssajrnl/22-1/htm/12.htm
Nebenzahl, Israel D. and Eugene Secunda (1993). Consumers' attitudes toward product
placement in movies. International Journal ofAdvertising, 20 (1), 1-11.
Nelson, Michelle R. (2002, March/April). Recall of brand placement in computer/video
games. Journal ofAdvertising Research, 42 (2), 80-92.
Nowlis, Vincent (1965). Research with the mood adjective checklist, in Affect,
Cognition, andPersonality, S. S. Tomkins and C.E. Izard, eds. New York:
Peterson, Robert and Matthew Sauber (1983). A mood scale for survey research. 1983
AMA Educators'Proceedings, eds. Patrick Murphy et al., Chicago, IL: American
Marketing Association, 409-414.
Russell, Cristel A. (2002, December). Investigating the effectiveness of product
placements in television shows: The role of modality and plot connection
congruence on brand memory and attitude. Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3),
Smith, Bob (1985, March). Casting product for special effect. Beverage World, 104, 83-
Steortz, Eva (1987). The cost efficiency and communication effects associated with
brand name exposure within motion pictures. Unpublished Master's Thesis, West
Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.
Strandberg, Keith W. (2003, March 1). Watch placements in high-profile movies can
fuel retail sales. National Jeweler, 97 (5), 22.
Turcotte, Samuel (1995). Gimme a Bud! The feature film product placement industry.
Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.
Tuten, Henk (2003, November.). Mood definition/ Definition modality/ Definition state
of mind [WWW page]. Retrieved February 12, 2004, from
Veitch, Russell and William Griffitt (1976). Good news bad news: Affective and
interpersonal effects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6 (1), 69-75.
Vollmers, Stacy and Richard Mizerski (1994). A review and investigation into the
effectiveness of product placements in films, in Proceedings of the 1994
Conference of the American Academy ofAdvertising, Karen Whitehill King, ed.,
Athens, GA: American Academy of Advertising, pp. 97-102.
Robyn Lozano was born on May 20, 1980, and raised in Gainesville, Florida. She
earned a Bachelor of Science degree in advertising (with a minor in education) from the
University of Florida in May 2002. After receiving her Master of Advertising degree, she
plans to pursue a career in the advertising industry, specializing in account services and