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The Effects of Creeping Commercialism on Children's Public Television Programming on the Strength of Relationship betwee...


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TH E E FF EC TS OF CR EE PI NG CO MME RC IA LI SM ON CH IL DR EN S PU BL IC TE LE VI SI ON PR OG RA MMI NG ON TH E S TR EN GT H O F R EL AT IO NS HI P BETW EEN PBS A ND PAR ENTS OF C HILD VIEW ERS By CHRISTINA R EGAN A THESIS PR ESENTED TO THE G RADUA TE SCHO OL OF THE U NIVERSITY O F FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FU LFILLMENT OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEG REE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICAT ION UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA 2005

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ii ACKNO W LEDGMENT S I thank my parents for supporti ng me both em otionall y and financiall y throughout m y c oll eg e ca ree r. W ith ou t th eir lov e an d e nc ou rag em en t I w ou ld n ot b e w he re I am today. I als o thank my advisor and comm ittee members for their guidance a nd res po ns ive ass ist an ce, no m att er h ow sh ort no tic e th e re qu est .

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iii TABLE O F CONTE NTS page A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................ ii L I S T O F T A B L E S ....................................................... v L I S T O F F I G U R E S ..................................................... vi A B S T R A C T .......................................................... vii CHAPTE R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N ................................................... 1 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W .............................................. 3 C r i t i q u e o f C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n ......................................... 7 D e f e n s e o f C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n ........................................ 13 T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k .............................................. 16 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s ............................................. 23 H y p o t h e s i s .................................................... 23 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y .................................................. 24 S a m p l e ........................................................... 25 M e a s u r e m e n t ...................................................... 25 A n a l y s i s .......................................................... 27 L i m i t a t i o n s ........................................................ 27 4 R E S U L T S ......................................................... 28 D e s c r i p t i o n o f S a m p l e ............................................... 28 R e s u l t s T h a t T e s t t h e H y p o t h e s i s ...................................... 29 A d d i t i o n a l A n a l y s i s ................................................. 35 5 D I S C U S S I O N ...................................................... 43 6 C O N C L U S I O N ..................................................... 48

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iv AP PE ND IX A S U R V E Y ......................................................... 51 B ORIGINAL SC ALE OF R ELATIONSH IP STRENGT H INDICATO RS . . . . 55 R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................ 57 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H .............................................. 60

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v LIST OF TAB LES Table page 1 Factor anal ysis of the inst rument used to measure relati onship stre ngth . . . 30 2 Factor anal ysis of the inst rument used to measure level comm ercial percepti on 32 3 Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism an d in tim acy . . . . 33 4 Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism an d p art ne r qu ali ty . . 34 5 Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism and comm itment . . . 35 6 Descending mean scores of the 16 rel ationship s trength sur vey questions . . . 36 7 C h i l d v i e w i n g f r e q u e n c y ............................................ 37 8 P a r e n t v i e w i n g f r e q u e n c y ............................................ 37 9 Frequency data of overa ll att itude toward PBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1 0 F r e q u e n c y t a b l e f o r q u e s t i o n 2 2 ....................................... 38 1 1 F r e q u e n c y t a b l e f o r q u e s t i o n 2 3 ....................................... 38 1 2 F r e q u e n c y t a b l e f o r q u e s t i o n 2 4 ....................................... 38 1 3 F r e q u e n c y t a b l e f o r q u e s t i o n 2 5 ....................................... 39 14 Analysis of varianc e of the three r elations hip strengt h factors and quest ion 22 . 40 15 Analysis of varianc e of the three r elations hip strengt h factors and quest ion 23 . 40 16 Analysis of varianc e of the three r elations hip strengt h factors and quest ion 24 . 41 17 Analysis of varianc e of the three r elations hip strengt h factors and quest ion 25 . 41

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vi LIST OF FIGUR ES Figures page 1 Co nc ep tua l Mo de l of Re lat ion sh ip S tre ng th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2 E t h n i c F r e q u e n c y .................................................. 28 3 G e n d e r F r e q u e n c y ................................................. 28 4 I n c o m e F r e q u e n c y ................................................. 29 5 A g e F r e q u e n c y .................................................... 29

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vii Abstract of Thesis Pr esented to t he Graduate School of the University of Flori da in Parti al Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Comm unication TH E E FF EC TS OF CR EE PI NG CO MME RC IA LI SM ON CH IL DR EN S PU BL IC TE LE VI SI ON PR OG RA MMI NG ON TH E S TR EN GT H O F R EL AT IO NS HI P BETW EEN PBS A ND PAR ENTS OF C HILD VIEW ERS By Ch ris tin a R eg an May 2005 Ch air : C hu rch ill Ro be rts Major Depart ment: Mass Com munication Ov er t he ye ars co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pu bli c televis ion programm ing on PBS have begun to look incr easingly more comm ercial ized. In t his m ult i-c ha nn el m ed ia e nv iro nm en t, a co m pe tit ive ed ge is n ece ssa ry f or s urv iva l. I n ord er t o c om pe te w ith cab le a nd oth er c om m erc ial ne tw ork s, PB S h as a do pte d a m ore market-driven busine ss model. Critics argue this deci sion weakens PBS positi on in the m ark et a nd ess en tia lly go es a ga ins t it s m iss ion of no nc om m erc ial pu bli c se rvi ce broadcasti ng. Th e p urp os e o f t his stu dy wa s to fi rst de ter m ine if pa ren ts p erc eiv e th is i nc rea sed comm ercial ization a nd second to see i f that percept ion had any effect on their strength of relati onship with PBS. The data coll ected from the survey resea rch demonstrated no sig nif ica nt c orr ela tio n b etw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism an d P BS /pa ren t re lat ion sh ip strength.

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vii i This result supports consumer brand re lationshi p theory which sugges ts that br and im ag es a re a ble to w ith sta nd act s o f t ran sg res sio n (i nc rea sed co m m erc ial ism ) as lon g a s the y p os ses s p os iti ve bra nd qu ali tit es. In t he cas e o f P BS th eir hig h q ua lit y e du cat ion al ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing ou tw eig hs an y d etr im en tal ef fe cts inc rea sed co m m erc ial ism m ay have on their relati onship with pare nts of child viewer s.

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1 CHAPTE R 1 INTRODU CTION On e d ay an Ar ab an d h is c am el w ere cro ssi ng the de ser t. A t ni gh t th e A rab pit ch ed his tent a nd the camel asked the Arab i f he could put his nose i n for warmth. The Ar ab ag ree d. So the cam el' s n os e b eca m e w arm an d a ft er a wh ile the tem pe rat ure dro pp ed T his tim e th e ca m el a sk ed the Ar ab if he co uld pu t hi s f ore leg s in because they wer e very cold. The Arab r eluctant ly agreed. After sometime, the cam el t old the Ar ab tha t if he did no t w arm his hin d le gs he wo uld be un ab le t o walk the next morning. Again the Arab a greed. But once the camels hind legs were in ther e was no room for the Arab and he was kicked out. (Si ngh, 2000) T he Ca m el a nd the Ar ab , a f ab le f rom An cie nt I nd ia, ser ve s as a ca uti on ary tal e sh ed din g li gh t on the iss ue of cr eep ing co m m erc ial ism cu rre ntl y f aci ng pu bli c televis ion in the Unit ed States. The once absolute l aws written i nto the Comm unications Act of 1934, banning all forms of advertising on publi c stati ons, have been tweaked a nd str etc he d to the po int wh ere eu ph em ism s li ke en ha nc ed un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts are now comm onplace. They are used to disgui se the dist inctly commercial presence of ad ve rti ser m ess ag es t ha t ha s re cen tly inv ad ed the pu bli c ai rw av es. Ho we ve r, eu ph em ism s ca nn ot h ide the ir t rue na tur e f ore ve r an d p eo ple are fi na lly sta rti ng to wonder whether or not the legendar y camels nose has officially s lipped under t he tent (R ed m on t, 2 00 0). This past December, the Univers ity of Chicago held a confere nce titl ed Th e F utu re of Public Tele vision The purpose of the conference was t o stimulate a discus sion on ways to secure publ ic tele visions futur e. Industry pr ofessionals such a s John Lawson, president and CEO of the Association of Public Televi sion Stati ons (APTS), and academics such as Dale Kunkel, pr ofessor of comm unication a t the Univers ity of

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2 Arizona, assembled to disc uss this per tinent t opic. During the open mike section of the seminar devoted to chil drens publi c televi sion programming, the one same question see m ed to b e co m m on am on gs t th e au die nc e; w he re w ill PB S d raw the lin e in reg ard s to th e c o m m e rc ia li z a ti o n o f it s c o v e te d c h il d re n s p ro g ra m m in g ? At the thr esh old of thi s n ew dig ita l er a, PB S, an d th e lo cal sta tio ns tha t su pp ort it, have come to a crossroads; should public t elevisi on be allowed to cont inue down comm ercial lane and hope for the be st, or should funding st rategie s be revise d to allow fo r a t rul y n on co m m erc ial pu bli c n etw ork to p av e th e w ay int o th e 2 1 cen tur y o f d igi tal st co m m un ica tio n? T his lin e o f q ue sti on ing see m s to be co nti nu all y d ire cte d a t ch ild ren s programm ing due to chil drens massive media consumption and susceptibi lity to t he pitfalls of incr eased comm ercial ism. The im age of child as consumer is one t hat many have problems with, especia lly when in refere nce to supposedl y noncomm ercial PBS programm ing.

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3 CHAPTE R 2 LITERATUR E REVIEW PB S K ID S i s th e b ran ch of PB S t ha t is sp eci fi cal ly d ev ote d to ch ild ren It pro m ise s to b roa de n c hil dre ns ho riz on s th rou gh lea rni ng d isc ov ery an d p lay T he PB S w eb sit e assures vi ewers and parent s that PBS programs are designe d to help chil dren develop cognitive, s ocial, emotional and physi cal skil ls. PBS KIDS is dedicated t o producing hig h q ua lit y e du cat ion al p rog ram m ing an d th ere fo re, m ak es s ure tha t ex pe rie nc ed ed uc ati on al t ele vis ion pro du cer s in vo lve ch ild ren e du cat ion al r ese arc he rs, pa ren ts, teachers day care provi ders and subje ct-matter exper ts during deve lopment and pro du cti on of all pro gra m s. PB S p rod uc ers are als o re qu ire d to pro vid e ed uc ati on al su pp ort m ate ria ls f or c hil dre n a nd the ir p are nts T his su pp lem en tal m ate ria l en co ura ge s children t o venture away from the televis ion toward a more independent r outine of lea rni ng an d d isc ov eri ng (P BS KI DS , 20 04 ). P ub lic tel ev isi on pro gra m m ing ins pir es ch ild ren to t ry n ew thi ng s ev ery da y. As the y s ing in o ne of PB S po pu lar ch ild ren s pro gra m s ZOOM If yo u li ke wh at y ou see tu rn o ff the TV a nd do it! PB S K ID S ne w a dv ert isi ng cam pa ign de m on str ate s th e n etw ork s c om m itm en t to helping kids l ive up to thei r potenti al with the s logan Be More. PBS is well aware of the gro wi ng co m pe tit ion fr om co m m erc ial sta tio ns an d th ey kn ow the on e ad va nta ge the y ha ve ov er t he se c om pe tin g n etw ork s is bra nd ide nti ty. Le sli Ro ten bu rg, PB S S en ior Vi ce Pr esi de nt o f B ran d M an ag em en t an d S tra teg ic P os iti on ing s aid tha t T he tru st t ha t pa ren ts p lac e in ou r br an d is tre m en do us ly i m po rta nt t o u s at PB S a nd it s so m eth ing tha t we want to continue t o build (PBS KIDS Childrens M edia Brand, 2002, par a.2). One

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4 of the ad ve rti sem en ts i n th e p rin t ca m pa ign d ire cte d b y th e ad ag en cy On e an d A ll, ill us tra tes the PB S o bje cti ve of he lpi ng kid s i m ag ina tio ns tak e f lig ht. A y ou ng bo y is pic tur ed be ing he ld i n th e ai r w ith arm s o uts tre tch ed lik e an air pla ne T he he ad lin e re ad s, Y ou can tel l hi m he can t f ly, bu t he ll ne ve r he ar y ou ov er t he roa r of the en gin es. Th e re st o f t he co py co nti nu es, A t P BS KI DS s ho ws lik e Dr ag on Ta les spark your childs i magination, encouraging hi m to believe in all ki nds of things, especi ally himself. An d o nc e k ids be lie ve in t he m sel ve s th ey can ris e ab ov e ju st a bo ut a ny thi ng . Th e ta g lin e co nc lud es, P BS KI DS : B e Mo re E m po we red ( PB S K ID S C hil dre ns Med ia Brand, 2002, para. 6). This Be More ca mpaign is an excellent branding tool that soli difies PBS position i n the market. However, in the cur rent multichannel media envir onment, it is not enough to simply have a solid pos ition. A network must possess a uni que angle. Unlike an y o the r ne tw ork P BS KI DS pro vid es q ua lit y p rog ram m ing fr ee o f c om m erc ial intrusi on. However, due to loosened gui delines and i nsufficient funding, this novel brand image is teeteri ng on an unstable e dge. A t yp e o f f un din g re so urc e, kn ow n a s u nd erw rit ing ack no wl ed gm en ts, ha s b een eating away at the noncomm ercial foundation of public tel evision for year s. Recently, un de rw rit ing sp ots on pu bli c te lev isi on ha ve be gu n to loo k m ore an d m ore lik e re al comm ercial s. When the Com munications Act of 1934 was first passed i t forbade no nc om m erc ial sta tio ns fr om acc ep tin g m on eta ry c om pe ns ati on fo r ai rin g s po ts t ha t aim ed to pro m ote an y s erv ice f aci lit y o r pr od uc t of fe red by an y p ers on wh o is en ga ge d in s uc h o ff eri ng fo r pr of it. (R ed m on t, 2 00 0, pa ra. 3) T his res tri cti on wa s m ad e in an attempt to prevent a ny form of com mercials, beyond the obli gatory announcement of a su pp ort ing co m pa ny s n am e, fr om ap pe ari ng on no nc om m erc ial sta tio ns H ow ev er,

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5 du rin g P res ide nt R on ald Re ag an s e ra o f d ere gu lat ion thi s te ne t of the Ac t w as e sse nti all y ignored. In 1 98 4, the Fe de ral Co m m un ica tio ns Co m m iss ion (F CC ) re wo rke d th e p oli cy and allowed publi c broadcast ers to ai r enhanced under writer ac knowledgments. The enhancement m eant the i nclusion of value ne utral pr oduct line or service de scripti ons an d c orp ora te s log an s an d lo go s th at s erv ed to i de nti fy ra the r th an pro m ote In the pa st, PBS set up strict guidelines that li mited enhanced underwrite r spots to 15 s econds. As recentl y as 1999 a study by the PBS board found that it was uncomm on for local sta tions to air spot s over 15 seconds ( Redm ont, 2000). However, the publ ic broadcas ting landscape i s rapidly c hanging. Richard Lehner general manager of WU FT-TV (PBS GAINESVILLE ), says that Now m ost local public sta tions air 30 second spots and rarely r estric t themselves to the gui delines se t up by PBS (personal c omm unication, Se pt embe r 1 7, 20 04 ). He de sc ri be s t he hi st or y o f un de rw ri te r a ck no wl ed gmen ts in te rms of a spectrum. On one end of the spectrum there are st rict gui delines monitoring cont ent and time constraint s and on the other end there l ies a more relaxed envi ronment run by local st ations int erested i n keeping up revenue streams amidst a growing competitive market. Lehner says that Years ago we were way over t o the left, nowhere nea r what we were permitted to do by la w. Now we have shifted all the way to t he other si de placing us right on t he edge of what the law all ows us to do (pers onal comm unication, September 17, 2004). The local st ations ar e not the only one s pushing the enve lope. The 30-second sp ots ha ve inf ilt rat ed PB S na tio na l li ne up as w ell N ow ex ecu tiv es a re l oo kin g to low er the pri ce o f t he se l en gth en ed cre dit s in the ho pe s o f a pp eal ing to e ve n m ore co rpo rat e un de rw rit ers J ere m y E gn er ( 20 04 ), j ou rna lis t f or Current a ne ws pa pe r ab ou t pu bli c

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6 televis ion and radio i n the United Stat es, calls attenti on to the ir ony of this newfound tol era nc e. He say s th at: As the economy and com petiti on make it harder to sel l underwrit ing, public TV sta tio ns inc rea sin gly acc ep t th e le ng the ne d c red its P BS its elf no lon ge r op po ses the m a s it did in 1 99 5 w he n it cau sed a n ear -re be lli on by try ing to e xte nd na tio na l 15 -se co nd lim its to l oc al c red its air ing ad jac en t to PB S p rog ram s. (pa ra. 4) In o the r w ord s, PB S m ay be lag gin g b eh ind the loc al p ub lic sta tio ns wh en it c om es t o acc ep tan ce o f i nc rea sed co m m erc ial ism b ut t he fa ct r em ain s th at t he y a re w arm ing up to an idea they onc e vehemently opposed. In her chapt er Adverti sing on Public Tel evision: A Look at PBS from the book Pu bli c B ro ad ca sti ng an d th e P ub lic Int ere st Judi Cook (2003) examines the re ality of comm ercial influences on PBS. Through a content analysis of WGBH -2 (PBS BO ST ON ), C oo k a na lyz es t he ex ten t to wh ich co rpo rat e sp on so rsh ips ha ve be co m e a sta ple of PB S p rog ram m ing C oo k d raw s in ter est ing co nc lus ion s f rom he r re su lts tha t po int to c hil dre n a s b ein g a fa vo rit e ta rge t of co rpo rat e sp on so rs ( p. 85 ). Th e re su lts of he r st ud y s ho we d th e la rge st a m ou nt o f u nd erw rit ing ap pe are d in the 8:0 0-1 0:0 0 A M sl ot w ith the ne xt l arg est slo t be ing 6:0 0-8 :00 AM T he fa ct t ha t children s programm ing appears dur ing these se gments suggests that chi ldren are the most targeted consumers. Cook also looked at the genre of each under writing spot and finds that they fall into thre e main categories; arts/c ulture, chi ldren and his tory. Of the thr ee p os sib le g en res 8 2. 5% o f u nd erw rit ing sp ots ap pe are d b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns programm ing, again sugges ting that children a re the ta rgeted consumers of PBS underwriti ng (p.89). Cook also coded underwri ting spots i nto 11 business c ategorie s; food and be ve rag e, toy s, tec hn olo gy te lec om m un ica tio ns h eal thc are an d p ha rm ace uti cal s, ret ail general, financi al and insur ance, enter tainment, apparel and j ewelry, automobiles, and

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7 education. The t wo largest pr oduct categor ies were food and bever age at 35.1% a nd to ys at 11 .5 %. T his ag ain su pp ort s th e id ea t ha t ch ild ren are be ing tar ge ted as consumers on public tele vision. Corporat ions such as Jui cy Juice, Kell oggs, Chuck E. Ch ees e an d K B t oy s v iew PB S a s a v iab le r eso urc e f or a ttr act ing the ir m os t so ug ht a ft er au die nc e kid s. Co ok als o m en tio ne d th at t he inc lus ion of co rpo rat e lo go s an d s ym bo ls present i n 93.8% of the sample spots was significa nt in that it gave chi ldren, many of wh om are too yo un g to rea d, so m eth ing to u nd ers tan d a nd ret ain (p. 91 -92 ). Cook concludes that advertis ing on public t elevisi on is ali ve and well, and dis tur bin gly po int ed at c hil dre n. R ed uc ing ch ild ren to c om m od iti es a nd ser vin g th em up to u nd erw rit ers is n ot e xa ctl y s om eth ing on e n orm all y a sso cia tes wi th p ub lic televis ion. And yet, this a ppears to be t he way of the future (p.93). Ultimately, it becomes a matter of whether the ends justify the means. PBS KIDS is an essent ial component of the televi sion industr y. It embodies the pure goal of not only teachi ng children t he facts about math, science a nd history, but also of encouraging the m to l ov e le arn ing an d b eli ev e in the m sel ve s. Do es p ub lic tel ev isi on s c on tri bu tio n to ch ild de ve lop m en t ju sti fy the us e o f c om m erc ial s as a f un din g re so urc e? O r, d oe s p ub lic televis ions dist orted cla ims of being noncom mercial while displ aying blata nt forms of comm ercial ism justify a change in the s ystem? The above discus sion clear ly present s the im po rta nc e o f t his iss ue H ow ev er, be fo re a ny de cis ion -m ak ing or p oli cy pro po sal s ca n be introduce d, both sides of the i ssue must be explained. Critique of Comme rcialization Critics of cr eeping comm ercial ism believe PBS learned the wrong lessons from its co m pe tit ors C ab le n etw ork s su ch as T he Di sn ey Ch an ne l an d N ick elo de on are backed by giant c orporati ons with a great deal of time and m oney to spend on cre ating qu ali ty c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing T his pro gra m m ing is i n d ire ct c om pe tit ion wi th w ha t

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8 PBS has to offer. Instead of retai ning its uni queness and incr easing the e ntertai nment value of its shows, PBS focused on lett ing adverti sers incr ease the pr oduction value of the ir c om m erc ial s. Th is m ist ak e el im ina ted the on e th ing tha t di sti ng uis he d P BS fr om its competitorsno advert ising (Guter man, 2003, para.1). Co rpo rat e u nd erw rit ers are giv en lib ert ies in the fo rm of m ess ag e en ha nc em en t, that excee d simple identificati on and flirt heavi ly with outri ght promotion. In his book Made Possible ByThe Death of Public Broadc asting in t he United State s, Jam es Le db ett er ( 19 97 ) re fe rs t o u nd erw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts i n th e ea rly 19 80 s a s d ull tom bs ton e-l ike on -sc ree n p rom oti on s. In the lat e 1 98 0s P BS all ow ed un de rw rit ers to ad d th eir log os s tor e lo cat ion s an d e ve n d esc rip tio ns of the ir p rod uc ts i nto the ir m ess ag es. To da y c orp ora tio ns pro du ce f ull -m oti on vid eo pro du cti on s f or t he ir un de rw rit ing sp ots co m ple te w ith m us ic, act ors an d g rap hic s. Th ese en ha nc ed sp ots are no t si m ply a f un cti on of im pro vin g te ch no log ies T he y a re a tes tam en t to un de rw rit ers wi lli ng ne ss t o in ve st i n a hig h q ua lit y p rod uc tio n th ey be lie ve wi ll a ttr act a d esi red au die nc e. Th e d ay s o f p hil an thr op ic d on ati on s ar e o ve r; n ow pro gra m fu nd ing co m es directl y from the advert ising depar tments of contributing cor porations ( Cook, 2003, p. 90 ). Cr iti cs a rgu e th at t he se e xte nd ed lib ert ies an d f un din g f law s g am ble wi th a pa ren ts abilit y to trust PBS KIDS. They expose children to a form of advertising tha t by the histori cal definiti on of noncom mercial public te levision s hould not exist Se sa me Str eet a sh ow de vo ted to t he ed uc ati on of ch ild ren an d n on co m m erc ial ism u sed to e nd eac h episode with t he fam iliar tagline, this show has been br ought to you by the l etter Z and the number 2. Now at the end of Se sa me Str eet c hil dre n a nd pa ren ts a re f orc ed to l ist en to a ne w c om m erc ial tun e. P fi zer bri ng s p are nts the let ter Z f or Z ith rom ax . Th is a ud io is t he n a cco m pa nie d b y a n e nh an ced un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en t f eat uri ng ch ild ren in

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9 front of a chalkboard le arning the ABCs of antibioti cs (Cook, 2003, p.86). The spot promises that more information on Zithromax is just a cli ck away and gives t he audience the pharmaceutical companys web address. I n its Mar ch 2000 lette r to PBS en tit led T he Co m m erc ial ism of Ch ild ren s P ub lic Te lev isi on , the act ivi st g rou p F AI R argued that The Zithromax ads exotic animals and outsized t oys, meant to evoke the products l ogo, also serve to make a prescripti on-only drug appea ling to pre school vie we rs (F AI R, 20 00 p ara .6 ). L ed be tte r (1 99 7) a nd oth er c rit ics lik e h im be lie ve thi s type of marketing on a system conceived as an a dvertisi ng-free beacon of en lig hte nm en t i s u na cce pta ble on pu bli c te lev isi on (p. 17 ). An oth er e xa m ple of ho w u nd erw rit ers ha ve pu sh ed the co m m erc ial en ve lop e ca n be fo un d in pro du cts tha t ar e m uc h m ore fa m ili ar t o c hil dre n th an Zi thr om ax O ne ad an no un ces Ch uc k E C he ese pro ud ly s up po rts PB S K ID S tel ev isi on w he re a kid can be a k id. T his vo ice -ov er, co m bin ed wi th t he Ch uc k E C he ese jin gle an d m asc ot, cre ate s a c ert ain am big uit y s urr ou nd ing wh eth er P BS or C hu ck E. Ch ees e is the pla ce wh ere a k id c an be a k id. McD on ald s i s an oth er s po ns or t ha t bl urs thi s li ne be tw een slo ga n id en tif ica tio n a nd pro m oti on In the ir a nn ou nc em en t an an im ate d R on ald McD on ald op en s a b oo k re lea sin g a red h ap py m eal bo x. Th e tr ad em ark go lde n a rch es tak e f lig ht a nd tra ns fo rm the du ll r oo m int o a m ag ica l w on de rla nd T he vo ice ov er s ay s, Mc Do na ld s is ha pp y to su pp ort ch ild ren s t ele vis ion . Th e u nn ece ssa ry v isu al a sp ect s of thi s ad bla tan tly co nn ect McD on ald s H ap py Mea ls w ith ha vin g f un (F AI R, 20 00 ). Other underwrit ers go even further and link thei r products t o helping kids l earn and en joy rea din g. Fo r ex am ple th e Arthur sp on so r, P os t A lph a B its cer eal te lls its vie we rs ab ou t, Po st A lph a-B its cer eal : 26 lit tle let ter s th at m ak e u p a m ill ion wo rds th at t ell billions of storiesa nd it all starts with ABC. FAIR suggested this type of message

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10 fa lse ly l ink ed a ce rea l w ith ge tti ng kid s ex cit ed ab ou t re ad ing an d u rge d P BS to u se strict er guideli nes for underwrite r messages (FAIR, 2000). Th e ab ov e ex am ple s il lus tra te h ow PB S s tat ion s se em to b e ac cel era tin g to wa rd comm ercial ism. This accelerat ion not only negat ively impacts how parents children a nd so cie ty a s a w ho le m ay vie w P BS b ut i t al so im pa cts Co ng res s. In a n a rti cle pu bli sh ed in Current en tit led W e ta ke an oth er s tep in a sed uc tiv e d an ce w ith co m m erc e, W ill ard Ro wl an d (2 00 3) s ay s th at Ou r w eak en ing po sit ion on no nc om m erc ial ism m ak es i t dif fi cu lt t o te ll C on gre ss t ha t w e re m ain tru e to ba sic no nc om m erc ial e du cat ion al tenets ( para.10). In ot her words, PBS is sending out a subtle message that it is cont ent to replac e federal funding with growing c omm ercial support. Th is n oti on of co m m erc ial ism do es n ot p res ide so lel y in the un de rw rit ing cre dit s be fo re a nd af ter PB S p rog ram s. Co m m erc ial ism ha s ev en bro ad er i m pli cat ion s w he n it is ad dre sse d in the fo rm of m erc ha nd isi ng P op ula r sh ow s su ch as Ba rn ey & Fr ien ds and Te let ub bie s have raked in millions of dollars from m erchandisi ng. This accomplishment ha s cr eat ed an oth er s ou rce of co ntr ov ers y f or t he pu bli c st ati on s. In a Journal of Bu sin ess Et hic s articl e entitl ed Ethics and t he Business of Children s Public Televi sion Pr og ram m ing , W ill iam Br ow n (2 00 2) a sk s; Do es t he m ass m ark eti ng of ch ara cte rrel ate d m erc ha nd ise s uc h a s th e t ick le m e E lm o d oll du rin g th e h oli da y s eas on c ros s a moral line (p. 74)? Brown goes on to argue tha t this t ype of m erchandisi ng taints t he sanctit y of the noncomm ercial ideal and sa crifices t he moral trust of the publi c. The merchandising market is where the i dea of licensing ge ts to the he art of the busine ss of children s televi sion programming. Book licensing i s an important endeavor i n the publishi ng industry. The publ ishing industry ana lyzes the c hildren s market and activel y pursues li censed books from PBS pro gra m s. Sc ho las tic En ter tai nm en t ta rge ts p res ch oo ler s w ith its Te let ub bie s books and

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11 ear ly r ead ers wi th i ts Arthur title s. The fact that l icensers plan their licensi ng and promotional strat egies a year and a half before a TV show premieres raise s questions about whether t he educati onal conte nt of the programm ing drives t he book marketing or if m erchandisi ng possibili ties dri ve the progra m content (p.77). Money coll ected from lic en sin g a gre em en ts i s an oth er s ou rce of rev en ue tha t su pp ort s P BS If lic en ser s ar e tem pte d to ba ck the sh ow s th at h av e th e m os t m erc ha nd isi ng po ten tia l it wo uld be saf e to assume that this form of com mercialis m is driving program content. This ide a of merchandising potenti al could al so be the rea son behind the r ecent shift i n PBS KIDS program form at from live action to ani mation. A 2002 Markle Foundati on study inter viewed childr ens media professionals a nd fou nd th at th ey be li ev e P BS i s d ri ft in g a wa y fr om i ts ed uc at io na l mi ss io n. Th ey bl ame thi s tr an sg res sio n p art ly o n th e n etw ork s o ve r re lia nc e o n a nim ate d p rog ram s. Ye ars ag o, the do m ina nt f orm of pro gra m m ing on PB S w as l ive act ion sh ow s su ch as Sesame Str eet Mr. Rogers Neighbor hood and Reading Rainbow Experts say t hese types of shows benefit childr en. Dorothy Singer, CODirec tor of the Televi sion and Consultat ion Center at Yale University a nd consultant on Barney & Friends c ite s re sea rch tha t su gg est s k ids lea rn m ore fr om sh ow s co nta ini ng at l eas t on e re allif e ch ara cte r. D an iel An de rso n, a p sy ch olo gy pro fe sso r at the Un ive rsi ty o f M ass ach us ett s an d n ati on al advisory boar d mem ber for PBS Ready to Learn progr am, agrees with Singer and str ess es t he im po rta nc e o f c hil dre n d ete cti ng rea l pe op le t ha t ac t as a b rid ge be tw een realit y and imagination (McGuinn, 2002, par a.30). Nowadays, when tuned to PBS KIDS, one is more likely to see a c artoon than a live act ion show. Cartoons became such a popular genre that now 15 out of the 25 shows on PBS KIDS are animated. Many critics are not bothe red by the educa tional i ntegrit y of

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12 animation, but they beli eve it is more an issue of quantity. The abundance of cartoons lim its the pre sen ce o f a div ers e p rog ram sch ed ule th us lim iti ng ed uc ati on al p os sib ili tie s. Th ere are dis tin ct e co no m ic b en ef its tha t go alo ng wi th a do m ina ntl y a nim ate d schedule. It is easy to r eplace the English-spea king cartoons with foreign language vo ice -ov ers w hic h m ak es f or a sea m les s tr an sit ion int o th e o ve rse as m ark et. An im ate d ch ara cte rs, su ch as A rth ur, wo rk w ell in t he m erc ha nd isi ng m ark et o f t oy s, too th b rus he s, pa jam as e tc. PB S d oe s re cei ve a ce rta in a m ou nt o f t he pro fi ts f rom m erc ha nd isi ng de als bu t m os t of the m on ey go es r igh t ba ck to t he au tho rs o r pr od uc tio n c om pa nie s th at conceptuali ze many of the shows. Know ing they can bank on merchandisi ng profits and int ern ati on al r igh ts, pro du cer s ar e w ill ing to s ell an an im ate d p rog ram to P BS fo r m uc h less than a live act ion show (McGuinn, 2002). All these factors boil down to one thi ng; an im ati on is c he ap F or b oth ch ild ren an d p are nts m on ey ra the r th an pu bli c se rvi ce, ha s become the bottom line for the public broa dcasting sys tem. It i s ev ide nt t ha t va rio us fo rm s o f c om m erc ial ism ha ve su cce ssf ull y c rep t th eir wa y int o th e p ub lic tel ev isi on sp he re. Th is c rit iqu e h as c lea rly rev eal ed tw o w ay s in wh ich pro gra m m ing ha s f elt the ef fe cts O ne u nd erw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts a ft er c hil dre ns programm ing have become so enhanced that they serve t o promote products to chil dren, rather t han simply identify them. And, two, educational conte nt is at t he mercy of whatever progr ams production companies think will be most profitabl e. The titl e of Rowlands (2003) ar ticle e quates PBS growing comm ercial relati onship with a seduc tive da nc e. En ha nc ed un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts a nd lic en sin g c on tro l ar e ju st t wo m ore ste ps PB S h as t ak en in t his da nc e. Th e re m ain ing qu est ion is w he the r th e m us ic w ill ever stop or will this dance continue until publi c televi sion is a sha dow of its form er self?

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13 Defense of Commer cialization Ho we ve r, n ot e ve ryo ne is a ga ins t th is s hif t to wa rd a m ore co m m erc ial pu bli c bro ad cas tin g s ys tem In PB S de fe ns e, the rea so n f or t he inc rea sin g c om m erc ial iza tio n is pe rf ect ly u nd ers tan da ble In 19 67 the Ca rne gie Co m m iss ion wa s es tab lis he d to ad dre ss the iss ue of ad ve rti ser s ab ili ty t o in fl ue nc e th e ra ng e an d q ua lit y o f p rog ram s av ail ab le t o viewers on comm ercial televis ion. The Carnegie Comm ission foresaw publi c televi sion as a n a lte rna tiv e to co m m erc ial tel ev isi on It c lea rly po sit ion ed pu bli c te lev isi on as a noncomm ercial alterna tive to t he market-driven cont ent of comm ercial televis ion. And ye t th e p ub lic bro ad cas tin g s ys tem wa s n ev er f ull y e qu ipp ed to o pe rat e w ith ou t th e h elp of co rpo rat e sp on so rsh ip (C oo k, 20 03 ). F rom its inc ep tio n p ub lic tel ev isi on wa s handicapped when att empts to fund it with a 2% tax on t elevisi on receiver s was denied. As the m ark et b eco m es m ore an d m ore co m pe tit ive an d g ov ern m en t su pp ort co nti nu es t o dwindle, PBS and its loca l affiliates ha ve become increasingly vul nerable t o the lure of corporate sponsorships. With its ba ck against t he wall, priva te sponsors s eem like the easiest way out of public tele visions financ ial tr oubles (Rowland, 2003). Defenders of com mercial support as a viable funding res ource for PBS believe ad ve rti sin g w ill ne ith er d est roy pu bli c te lev isi on s i nte gri ty n or i nf lue nc e it s programm ing content. The PBS web site boasts that funding sources for public televis ion are m ore div ers e th an an y o the r m ed ia o utl et i n th e co un try C on tra ry t o th e cr iti cs b eli ef that the money receive d from corporate sponsors will govern all c ontent, defenders a rgue tha t th e ab ov e m en tio ne d f un din g d ive rsi ty i s a k ey ele m en t in the pre ser va tio n o f a fr ee an d in de pe nd en t pu bli c te lev isi on sy ste m T he ref ore P BS we lco m es n ati on al p rog ram underwriter s from a variety of com panies. De fe nd ers als o b eli ev e th at i nc rea sed un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts w ill ha ve lit tle effect on the public s trust i n the PBS brand image. Mike Hardgrove, pre sident of

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14 KE TC -T V i n S t. L ou is, co nd uc ted a f oc us gro up stu dy an d c on clu de d th at v iew ers already t hink underwrit ing is advertis ing and are not bothered by it -as long as i t remains tas tef ul ( Be hre ns 1 99 5). Al so a 20 04 Ro pe r P oll co m m iss ion ed by the Pu bli c Broadcasting Ser vice suggest s increas ed comm ercial ization ha s had litt le impact on the pu bli c tr us t. A cco rdi ng to t he po ll, PB S i s th e m os t tr us ted org an iza tio n in Am eri ca, beating out t hree branche s of government and the rest of the media (Eggerton, 2004) The largest block of PBS programm ing last s eason consist ed of 801 hours of children s programm ing (38%). PBS progra ms are watched each week by an avera ge of 87 m ill ion vie we rs. Th ese sta tis tic s sh ow tha t P BS KI DS is w ell -eq uip pe d to co m pe te with cable net works, such as Discover y Kids, whose audience i s less tha n half of that of PB S ( Au let ta, 20 04 ). A lso a s lo ng as a ck no wl ed gm en ts a re a ire d d uri ng sta tio n b rea ks rather t han in the middle of programs, PBS will retain the essentia l uniqueness s eparati ng it from the rest of the comm ercial networks. PBS uses a second uni que angle, lac k of clutter in order t o sell ai r-time to corpora tions. This gi ves PBS an incentive t o limit the am ou nt a nd len gth of its co m m erc ial s. Th is i de a d ire ctl y c on tra dic ts c rit ics be lie fs tha t comm ercial ism will become m ore and more prevalent unt il all lines of separa tion have be en era sed T he ref ore c ree pin g c om m erc ial ism ha s n ot s ho wn an y s ign if ica nt i m pa ct on PBS ability t o capture t he public tr ust or maintain it s competitive edge and uniqueness. In t erm s o f a nim ati on P BS be lie ve s th is f orm at b oth att rac ts k ids an d o ff ers an ed uc ati on al a nd pro -so cia l cu rri cu lum S an dra Ca lve rt, a G eo rge tow n U niv ers ity professor who has writt en widely on chil drens te levision, pr aises the benefits of car too ns S he be lie ve s th at Un lik e Se sa me Str eet w hic h ju m ps fr om sce ne to un co nn ect ed sce ne (a m ag azi ne fo rm at ), t he car too ns un fo ld a s n arr ati ve s w hic h c an help childr en develop thei r mem ories and under stand lit erary conce pts like

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15 fo res ha do wi ng (M cG uin n, 20 02 p ara .3 1). PB S d id n ot p urp os ef ull y s et o ut t o c rea te a cartoon-dominated li ne-up. When the network was trying t o strengthe n its progr amm ing it w en t af ter sh ow s th at e ng ag ed bo th c hil dre n a nd the ir p are nts A ttr act ive eco no m ics co m bin ed wi th t he fa ct t ha t so m an y o f t he PB S a nim ate d s ho ws ga ine d a po pu lar fo llo wi ng le ad to a car too n-d om ina ted lin e-u p th at m os t pe op le i n th e in du str y s up po rt. Ti m es a re c ha ng ing an d d ef en de rs a rgu e th at c rit ics of co m m erc ial ism liv e in an ide al w orl d if the y th ink PB S c an su rvi ve wi tho ut c ha ng ing too S om e p ub lic broadcasti ng executives argue that their st ations shoul d be given the opt ion of converting fr om n on co m m erc ial to n on pro fi t b roa dc ast ers w hic h w ou ld m ain tai n h igh qu ali ty sta nd ard s, bu t se ll c om m erc ial s ( Sh ou ld p ub cas ter s g o m ore co m m erc ial ?, 2 00 2). Ha l Bouton, president of W TVI-TV in North Carolina unde rstands t hat some rural stat ions m ay ne ed fe de ral fu nd ing an d s tat e ed uc ati on gra nts to c on tin ue op era tio n. Ho we ve r, co m m un ity sta tio ns in m ed ium to l arg e m ark ets m ay no t ha ve the se o pti on s d ue to decreased feder al funding and must turn to advert ising as a vi able alt ernative Bouton (1995) urges publ ic stat ions to: Change with the ti mes or be responsible for the loss of our important role in the modern telecomm unications environment. Let's take control of our future, not have it d ict ate d b y C on gre ss. Th ey ha ve giv en us the op po rtu nit y to ste er a ne w c ou rse Le t' s m ak e th e m os t of thi s o pp ort un ity to b uil d a n e ve n s tro ng er p ub lic bro ad cas tin g s ys tem fo r ou r na tio n. (pa ra. 9) A n on pro fi t br oa dc ast ing lic en se w ou ld s til l w ork to s erv e th e p ub lic int ere st. Th e o nly difference would be the undis puted accept ance of a more flexible and lucrat ive revenue so urc e. Both sides of this deba te have merit. Criti cs think tha t loosening unde rwriting reg ula tio ns is a vio lat ion of the PB S m iss ion sta tem en t. A s p ub lic tel ev isi on go es m ore an d m ore co m m erc ial n ot o nly wi th e nh an ced un de rw rit ing ack no wl ed gm en ts, bu t w ith m erc ha nd isi ng as w ell it jeo pa rdi zes the pu bli c tr us t an d a llo ws co m m erc ial ism to

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16 intrude on cove ted educati onal content Defenders, on the other hand, believe goi ng co m m erc ial is a log ica l an d n ece ssa ry s tep to c om pe tin g a ga ins t es tab lis he d c om m erc ial networks. As Daniel Anders on, board mem ber for PBS Ready to Learn progr am said, It s s im ply a m att er o f s urv iva l ( pe rso na l co m m un ica tio n, No ve m be r 15 2 00 4). W hile schol ars and media professionals may not agree on the effects of comm ercial ism on PBS KIDS, it is clea r that one c an study these effects by examining the rel ati on sh ip b etw een the PB S a nd its vie we rs. So fa r, r ese arc h c on cer nin g th is t op ic has been biase d and over-gener alized. For e xample, PBS w as praise d as being the number one m ost trust ed organizat ion in the count ry in a 2004 study c omm issioned by PBS. It is difficult to e stablis h survey credi bility when t he organizat ion at the t op of the lis t is the ve ry o rga niz ati on tha t co m m iss ion ed the stu dy It is a lso ha rd t o a ssu m e th at public opini on polls concer ning PBS as a whole can be used t o describe publ ic opinion specificall y concerning chi ldrens pr ogramm ing. A poll comm issioned by t he Corporation for Publi c Broadcasti ng (PBSs funding counterpar t) suggest ed that the pu bli c is lar ge ly a cce pti ng of the am ou nt o f c om m erc ial act ivi ty e ng ag ed in b y p ub lic televis ion (Marke t Facts, CP B R ep or t 1 99 7). Ho we ve r, t his sen tim en t m ay be ve ry different when the lens i s focused on PBS KIDS, as children, lacki ng in cogniti ve de ve lop m en t, a re m ore vu lne rab le t o c om m erc ial m ess ag es ( Pa rad ise 2 00 4). Th eo ret ica l F ra mew or k This lite rature r eview has revea led that t he relat ionship between t he public and PBS is the key to disc overing the t angible conse quences to cr eeping comm ercial ism. By stu dy ing the rel ati on sh ip b etw een PB S a nd its co ns um ers it m ay be po ssi ble to p red ict whether incr eased comm ercial ism will have detrimental effects on PBS image and su bs eq ue ntl y it s so urc es o f r ev en ue (i. e. m em be r do na tio ns ). I t is im po rta nt t o lo ok at thi s is su e th rou gh the fr am ew ork of rel ati on sh ip t he ory T his the ory pro vid es a ple tho ra

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17 of inform ation concer ning the purpose of relationshi ps and what needs to be present for them to remain stable. Susan Fournier s (1998) art icle Consumers and Their Brands : Developing Re lat ion sh ip T he ory in C on su m er R ese arc h, p rov ide s a f ram ew ork fo r be tte r un de rst an din g th e re lat ion sh ips co ns um ers fo rm wi th t he bra nd s th ey us e. In t his cas e, consumers are viewers and t he brand they know and use i s PBS. By studying the relati onship between vie wers and PBS, it can be det ermined whether the act ions of PBS co nc ern ing co m m erc ial ism are acc ep ted by the pu bli c o r ar e in ter pre ted as a transgre ssion that fosters inst abilit y and relat ional dete riorat ion. Relationshi p theory incor porates four cor e assumptions. First, r elations hips involve an equal exchange between ac tive and int errela ted partne rs. Second, relati onships are pur poseful, involving meaning to the pe rsons who engage them. Third, relati onships range a cross sever al dimensions and take many form s, providing a multitude of possible benefits for each parti cipant. Fourt h, relati onships evolve a nd change over a se ries of inter actions and i n response to a lterat ions in the e nvironment (Fournier, 1998) These four assumptions, abbreviat ed as reci procity, meaning, multiplicity and t emporality, are dis cussed below. Fournier note s that in or der for a rela tionship t o truly exi st, inter dependence and a m utu al e ff ort (re cip roc ity ) be tw een pa rtn ers m us t be pre sen t. Th e p art ne rs m us t co lle cti ve ly a ff ect d ef ine an d re de fi ne the rel ati on sh ip (F ou rni er, p. 34 4). Sh e th en go es on to conceptual ize the br and as an acti ve partic ipant in t he relat ionship, rat her than a pa ssi ve ob jec t of m ark eti ng str ate gie s. Pe rso nif ica tio n o f t he bra nd hig hli gh ts a wa y in wh ich the bra nd can be inv olv ed in a pa rtn ers hip wi th t he co ns um er. T he hu m an act ivi ty o f a nth rop om orp hiz ing ina nim ate ob jec ts h as b een ide nti fi ed as u niv ers al i n vir tua lly all so cie tie s ( Br ow n, 19 91 ). T he ori es o f a nim ism su gg est tha t th ere is a ne ed

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18 to a ttr ibu te h um an qu ali tie s to ina nim ate ob jec ts i n o rde r to int era ct w ith the no nm ate ria l world. Consumers are extremely willing t o think about br ands as if they were human, ass ign ing the m pe rso na l qu ali tie s th e sa m e w ay the y w ou ld a fr ien d (A ak er, 19 97 ). T his wi lli ng ne ss s ug ge sts an acc ep tan ce o f b ran ds as a rec ipr oc al m em be r of the co ns um erbrand rela tionship. Relationshi ps are devel oped for specific rea sons and foster a gr eat deal of meaning. S inc e th e re lat ion sh ip i s, in e sse nc e w ha t th e re lat ion sh ip m ean s, un de rst an din g a giv en relati onship requir es a mastery of the meanings the relat ionship provi des to the per son who engages it ( Fournier, 1998, p.346). Four nier disc usses the psyc hological a s a major source of meaning. Psychological ly, relat ionships may help resolve life themes involving profound ch an ge s o r sm all da ily oc cu rre nc es ( Cs iks zen tm iha lyi an d B eat tie 1 97 9). Th ese profound themes are rooted in per sonal hist ory and thus, cent ral to one s concept of self. Th ey are rol e-c ha ng ing ev en ts, su ch as g rad ua tio n o r re tir em en t. R ela tio ns hip s ar e al so roo ted in t he pre sen t co nc ern s o f c om ple tin g d ail y ta sk s (K lin ge r, 1 98 7). Th ese relati onships have li ttle effect on one s self-concept To put this expl anation of ps yc ho log ica l m ean ing int o c on tex t, a rel ati on sh ip b etw een a p are nt a nd PB S K ID S m ay be m ean ing fu l in ter m s o f c urr en t co nc ern s. In o the r w ord s, pa ren ts u se t he ne tw ork as a sort of baby-sit ter to kee p the childr en entert ained while t hey complete important work. Fournier (1998) notes that relati onships may add significant meaning to the l ives of pe op le th at en ga ge in th em. The last two cor e assumptions of relations hip theory ar e multiplicity a nd tem po ral ity R ela tio ns hip s ar e so int ric ate an d m ult if ace ted tha t it is i m po rta nt t o distingui sh them using certain c riter ia. For example, relat ionships can be categori zed by the nature of the benefits they bes tow upon each parti cipant. These be nefits may be

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19 psychological (reassur ance of self worth, announcement of image, social integra tion) or they may be rewards of security, gui dance, comfort, etc. (Fournier 1998). Relations hips are also c ategoriz ed by the types of bonds formed between the part icipants These bonds may be obligatory ones lac king in signi ficant emotional involvement. Or, they may be em oti on all y b ase d, ran gin g in int en sit y f rom cas ua l f rie nd sh ips to p ass ion ate lov e af fa irs (F eh r & R us sel l, 1 99 1). Te m po ral ity is a ne ces sar y a ssu m pti on m ad e to dif fe ren tia te a rel ati on sh ip f rom an isolate d encounter. Rela tionships a re a seri es of exchanges occurr ing within an evol ving environment. The process of rela tionship deve lopment is compartm entaliz ed into five phases; ini tiati on, growth, maintenance, deter iorati on and dissolut ion (Levinger 1983). Each stage det ermines a change in natur e (progres sion from f riends to l overs) or l evel of intensit y (increa se or decre ase in the a mount of emotional involvement) of the relati onship. These sta ges get at t he heart of what rel ationship t heory is al l about and how it can be used t o study the effects of a proble m, such as creeping comm ercial ism. The above review of rela tionship t heory ill ustrate s how the projec ts, concerns and themes that people use t o define themselves can be playe d out in the cul tivati on of brand rel ati on sh ips an d h ow tho se r ela tio ns hip s, in t urn c an af fe ct t he cu lti va tio n o f o ne s s elf co nc ep t ( Fo urn ier 1 99 8). It i s eq ua lly im po rta nt t o u nd ers tan d n ot o nly ho w p eo ple are af fe cte d b y th e re lat ion sh ips the y f orm b ut w ha t qu ali tie s an d s itu ati on s m ak e th os e relati onships str ong in the first place. Ac co rdi ng to t he art icl e W he n G oo d B ran ds Do Ba d by Jen nif er A ak er, Su san Fournier and Adam Brasel (2004), t wo factors influence the directi on and stabil ity of rel ati on al b on ds T he fi rst fa cto r is cal led pe rso na lit y e ff ect s o n re lat ion sh ips R ese arc h has shown that re lationshi ps are influence d by the personal ities of the pa rtners i nvolved. Di ff ere nt c ha rac ter ist ics su ch as s tat us v ita lit y, op en ne ss, etc ., are all ob ser ve d a nd no ted

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20 during rel ational i nteract ions. Each person t akes these pe rsonalit y trait s into account and construct s a mental image of the partners r ole in the r elations hip (Aaker et al., 2004). The above mentioned articl e identifies two templates of brand personal ities; sincere a nd exciting. Si nc ere pe rso na lit ies are ve ry p op ula r w ith cla ssi c b ran d p rod uc ts s uc h a s H all m ark an d C oc a C ola T his str ate gy is e ith er u sed by sm all co m pa nie s to ga in t he wa rm er m ore caring competitive advantage or by l arge companies to appear more accessible and downtoear th. Re sea rch sh ow s th at s inc ere bra nd s p rom ote a n urt uri ng w arm f am ily -or ien ted an d tr ad iti on al i m ag e. Al l of the se q ua lit ies are po sit ive ly a sso cia ted wi th r ela tio ns hip str en gth S inc eri ty a lso cap tur es a pa rtn er s tr us tw ort hin ess an d d ep en da bil ity w hic h a re two important qualiti es for relat ionship growth. A s eco nd pe rso na lit y ty pe is r ef err ed to a s th e ex cit ing bra nd im ag e. Th is i m ag e is built ar ound qualiti es of energy, youthfulness and i nnovation. Crit ics argue t hat although this tac tic is a ttenti on getting, i t can sometimes appear too gimm icky in the e yes of the consumer. Therefore the excit ing brand image may harbor disadvantages in maintaining leg iti m ate lon g-t erm rel ati on sh ips (A ak er e t al ., 20 04 ). In a dd iti on to p ers on ali ty e ff ect s, an act of tra ns gre ssi on is t he sec on d f act or t ha t influences rel ationship s tabili ty. Transgre ssion refers t o a violati on of the implicit or ex pli cit rul es g uid ing rel ati on sh ip p erf orm an ce a nd ev alu ati on (M ett s, 19 94 ). I t is argued that the way problems are resol ved within a re lationshi p reveals t he strengt h of that bond more than all t he positive attri butes put toge ther. In ot her words, the t rue stat us of a relations hip is made evident under a dverse condit ions. Transgr essions provi de op po rtu nit ies fo r le arn ing ab ou t th e q ua lit ies of the rel ati on sh ip p art ne r, w hic h g uid es su bs eq ue nt d ev elo pm en t pa ths A cco rdi ng ly, alt ho ug h tr an sg res sio ns wi ll v ary in t he ir sev eri ty a nd cau se a nd dif fe r in the ir u lti m ate ne go tia tio ns a ll a re s ign if ica nt i n th eir

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21 ab ili ty t o a ff ect rel ati on sh ip p rog res s ( Aa ke r et al. 2 00 4). Re sea rch ha s sh ow n th at on ce t ran sg res sio ns sta rt a ff ect ing co ns um er p erc ep tio n o f b ran d im ag e, it i s ex tre m ely dif fi cu lt t o s low the rel ati on sh ip d ecl ine D esp ite rec ov ery ef fo rts tha t m ay ap pe ar su cc es sfu l i n t he sh or t r un t hi s d et er io ra ti on wi ll co nt in ue to oc cu r ( Ma xh am & Netemeyer, 2002). More optimistic r esearcher s believe ne gative tr ansgressi ons can be rect ified. Of pa rti cu lar no te i s th e re lat ion sh ip c on tex t in wh ich tra ns gre ssi on is c om m itt ed s uc h th at relati onship-ser ving biases di lute the ne gative effects of trans gressions i n strong unions and past posit ives cancel them in the long-standi ng relati ons (Aaker et al., 2004, p.3). Pa rtn ers po sse ssi ng po sit ive pe rso na lit y tr ait s m ay als o s uc ces sf ull y c ou nte rac t th e ef fe cts of transgressi ons. At this point clear i ndicators are needed t o determine overall relati onship qualit y, de pth an d s tre ng th. A c on cep tua l m od el o f r ela tio ns hip qu ali ty d ev elo pe d f rom res ear ch in the int erpersonal field can serve as an excell ent star ting point for es tablishi ng a coherent framework. The following flowchart taken from Fourniers ( 1998) resear ch on relati onship theory i llustr ates the a bove-mentioned framework.

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22 Br an d P art ne r Q ua lit y Sa tis fa cti on Se lf -C on ne cti on Co m m itm en t Int im acy Pa rtn er Q ua lit y Re lat ion sh ip S tre ng th/ St ab ili ty Fi gu re 1 C on cep tua l Mo de l of Re lat ion sh ip S tre ng th Conceptual Definiti ons: (Fournie r, 1998 and Aaker et a l., 2004) Satisfact ion H ap pin ess in t he rel ati on sh ip; do es t he bra nd pe rf orm as w ell as expected? Self-Connect ion T he de gre e to wh ich the bra nd de liv ers on im po rta nt i de nti ty concerns, ta sks or themes, expressi ng a significant aspect of self. Commitment A n e nd uri ng de sir e to co nti nu e th e re lat ion sh ip c om bin ed wi th a to make eff orts toward t hat end. Int im ac y The presence of an elaborate knowle dge struct ure around the brand im ag e. Pa rtn er Q ua lit y The percei ved status of the r ole of the partne r coming from the consumers judgment of the brands overal l dependabil ity, rel iabili ty and pre dic tab ili ty i n e xe cu tin g it s ro le i n th e p art ne rsh ip a nd the bra nd s ad he ren ce t o the rules governing the r elations hip. Fi gu re 1 an d th e f oll ow ing co nc ep tua l de fi nit ion s p rov ide a f ou nd ati on fo r f utu re researc h to be built upon. Different aspects of the r elations hip between PBS and the pu bli c h av e b een all ud ed to i n th e an aly sis of rel ati on sh ip t he ory U po n in iti al inv est iga tio n, it s eem s P BS is m ore tha n ju st a no the r ne tw ork In co m pa ris on to co m m erc ial ne tw ork s, PB S c an bo ast a ce rta in a m ou nt o f s inc eri ty a nd int eg rit y. It i s trusted by t he comm unity and ther efore attai ns high level s of brand partner quality. Earlier this year Angela Paradise a doctoral student at the Universi ty of Mas sac hu set ts, co nd uc ted a f oc us gro up stu dy am on g p are nts of PB S v iew ers F rom he r

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23 intervi ews, Paradise det ected four highly i nterrel ated themes pertai ning to the comm ercial ization of PBS KIDS: (1) the pr esence of corporat e underwriti ng; (2) the bra nd ing li cen sin g, an d m erc ha nd isi ng of PB S K ID S; (3) the blu rri ng of PB S K ID S w ith ne tw ork an d c ab le t ele vis ion ; an d (4 ) th e p os iti on ing of the yo un g c hil d a s a c on su m er (P ara dis e, 20 04 ). S inc e th ese iss ue s h av e al rea dy be en ass ess ed in a qu ali tat ive m an ne r, it is onl y natural t hat future res earch would invol ve a quantit ative st udy to determine wh eth er t he re i s a r ela tio ns hip be tw een pa ren ts pe rce ive d a wa ren ess of co m m erc ial ism and the str ength of their r elations hip with PBS. Therefore, in order to better understand this iss ue, a relat ionship study us ing the above mentioned concept ual model m ust be conducted. Research Questi ons RQ1: Are parents aware of the increase d comm ercial ism on PBS KIDS? RQ 2: H ow do es p erc eiv ed co m m erc ial ism af fe ct t he str en gth of the rel ati on sh ip between parent s and PBS? Hyp oth esi s H: If parents per ceive comm ercial ism before and after children s programm ing on PB S t o h av e in cre ase d, the n th eir rel ati on sh ip w ith PB S a cro ss t he fi ve fa cto rs (co m m itm en t, s ati sf act ion in tim acy p art ne r qu ali ty a nd sel fco nn ect ion ) w ill weaken. O H : The relat ionship between pa rents and PBS will be ne ither posi tively nor ne ga ti ve ly aff ec te d b y p er ce pt io n o f co mmerc ia li sm.

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24 CHAPTE R 3 METHODO LOGY In order t o answer the re search quest ions proposed i n the lit erature review a quantitat ive study examining the r elations hip between two vari ables was conduct ed. One cri ter ion ne ed ed to d ete rm ine the ex ist en ce o f a rel ati on sh ip i s a c orr ela tio n b etw een th os e t wo v ar ia bl es I n t hi s c as e, th e i nd ep en de nt va ri ab le is pe rc ei ve d c ommer ci al is m, wh ile the de pe nd en t va ria ble is s tre ng th o f t he rel ati on sh ip b etw een pa ren ts o f c hil d viewers and PBS. Perceive d comm ercial ism refers to a parent s awareness of the comm ercial atmosphere surrounding PBS KIDS (i.e. lengt h, number and production va lue of un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts a nd pre sen ce o f P BS ch ara cte rs l ink ed to p rod uc ts in t he co rpo rat e w orl d). St ren gth of the vie we r-b ran d re lat ion sh ip r ef ers to h ow m uc h pa ren ts a dh ere to t he co nc ep tua l de fi nit ion s o f t he rel ati on sh ip s tre ng th i nd ica tor s d ef ine d in the above se ction. The proposed method for this study is survey rese arch. A questionna ire using t wo dif fe ren t sc ale s to m eas ure the ind ep en de nt a nd the de pe nd en t va ria ble wa s d ev elo pe d an d d ist rib ute d to all m em be rs o f t he sam ple T he qu est ion na ire wa s d esi gn ed an d p retes ted us ing pro pe r st ruc tur e an d w ord ing in o rde r to co ntr ol f or r esp on se e rro r. A ft er modif ications from the pre-t est were appl ied, a cover l etter e xplaining t he nature of the stu dy wa s at tac he d to the su rve y a nd dis tri bu ted to t he sam ple .

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25 Sa mp le The target popul ation for this study is par ents of childre n between the ages of 2 and 8 w ho wa tch ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S. Th e b est wa y to tar ge t pe op le w ho ad he re to t he se s pe cif ic r eq uir em en ts i s to us e b oth nu rse ry a nd ele m en tar y s ch oo ls a s a s am ple so urc e. Af ter co nta cti ng sch oo ls i n th e G ain esv ill e ar ea, dir ect ors fr om Ea rly Ye ars Learning Center My School Child Care Cente r and O2B KIDS! agreed to dist ribute t he su rve ys to t he tea ch ers of the ir 2 -5 y ear old cla sse s. Th e su rve ys we re s en t ho m e w ith the childr en and then ret urned to the di rectors by the parent s. Due to funding and transport ation const raints t hese schools wer e chosen using a c onvenience method of sampling and therefore res ults can not be generali zed to the gr eater popul ation. Su rve ys we re a lso dis tri bu ted us ing a m ail ing lis t. A ft er a pp lyi ng fo r re sea rch approval, Mel Lucas, Director of Research and Testing a t the Alachua County School Board, releas ed a mailing list of 100 randomly sampled parents with c hildren bet ween the ag es o f 5 -8 a tte nd ing a v ari ety of sch oo ls i n A lac hu a C ou nty O ve ral l, s urv ey s w ere given to the pa rents of approximately 500 chi ldren. After a thr ee week distr ibution and co lle cti on pe rio d, 54 pa ren ts r esp on de d to the su rve y g ivi ng thi s st ud y a 10 .8 % re sp on se rat e. Measurement Two separate sca les were used i n this study t o measure the independent a nd dependent vari ables. Throughout t he initi al resea rch process a useful scale for measuring the independent variable (percei ved comm ercial ism) could not be found. Therefore, a new scale to measure thi s variabl e was developed. Respondent s were asked four qu est ion s d eal ing wi th w he the r or no t th ey thi nk co m m erc ial ism su rro un din g P BS ha s inc rea sed s tay ed the sam e o r de cre ased T he se t hre e o pti on s w ere sp rea d o ve r a f ive point scal e. The four questions cove red number, length and product ion value of

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26 co rpo rat e sp on so red m ess ag es a nd co nn ect ion be tw een PB S c ha rac ter s an d p rod uc ts i n the co m m erc ial wo rld (i. e. gro cer y a nd toy sto res ). After the scale was construct ed, it was pretested i n a pilot st udy using a convenience sa mple of 15 parents recruit ed from the Baby Gator Child Care Center on the UF cam pu s. Re sea rch pa rti cip an ts m ad e a f ew su gg est ion s o n h ow to r ew ord qu est ion s f or c lar ity O ve ral l, p retes t re su lts pro ve d th e su rve y q ue sti on s w ere int ern all y co ns ist en t. Th e se co nd ins tru m en t, d ev elo pe d b y A ak er, Fo urn ier an d B ras el ( 20 04 ), i s an est ab lis he d m eas ure m en t an d h as p rov en its rel iab ili ty i n p rev iou s re sea rch T he act ua l sca le u sed in t his res ear ch wa s ad ap ted in o rde r to be tte r m eas ure the de pe nd en t va ria ble (see Appendix A). Similar to t he scale of Aaker et al., the sca le used in t his study incorporat es the five rel ationship s trength i ndicators comm itment, self-connecti on, brand pa rtn er q ua lit y, sat isf act ion an d in tim acy H ow ev er, in t his cas e, rel ati on sh ip s tre ng th was measured using only 16 items of the original ly 25-ite m scale. Certain questi ons from the ori gin al s cal e h ad to b e d ele ted be cau se t he y d id n ot m ak e se ns e w he n a sk ed in reference to c hildren s public te levision pr ogramm ing. This inst rument used a 7-point sca le w ith a 9 op tio n a s u na ble to r ate In p rev iou s re sea rch th e re lia bil ity of thi s sc ale wa s es tab lis he d u sin g te stret est method and the Cronbach alpha of all five i ndicators was calculat ed as higher t han .85. Th e in ter na l re lia bil ity of thi s sc ale can be eas ily ass ess ed by loo kin g a t th e re sp on ses acr os s th e 7 -po int sca le a nd m ak ing su re t he y a re c on sis ten t. O ne lim ita tio n o f t his m eth od is t ha t th e sc ale ha s b een ad ap ted an d th ere fo re, pre vio us ly r ese arc he d s tat ist ics are les s li ke ly t o a pp ly t o th e n ew sca le t he sam e w ay the y d id t o th e o rig ina l.

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27 An aly sis Su rve y q ue sti on s 6 thr ou gh 21 we re a sk ed in o rde r to de ter m ine the res po nd en ts strength of rel ationship wit h PBS. According to Aaker, Fournier and Brasels (2004) pre vio us res ear ch th e q ue sti on s ar e b rok en do wn int o f ive fa cto rs o f r ela tio ns hip str en gth : co m m itm en t, s elf -co nn ect ion s ati sf act ion in tim acy a nd pa rtn er q ua lit y. In ord er t o d ete rm ine the va lid ity of the se r ela tio ns hip str en gth ind ica tor s a f act or a na lys is wa s p erf orm ed to s ee w hic h it em s at tra cte d h igh an d d ist inc t lo ad ing s o n w hic h re lat ion al fa cto rs. Th ese fa cto rs w ere the n g rou pe d in to i nd ice s an d th eir raw sco res we re calculat ed. A b iva ria te c orr ela tio n a na lys is w as p erf orm ed to d ete rm ine the rel ati on sh ip between the factor s and each quest ion of the instr ument that measured the independent va ria ble (pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism ). T he Pe ars on co rre lat ion co ef fi cie nt d ete rm ine d wh eth er o r no t th e tw o v ari ab les we re r ela ted D esc rip tiv e st ati sti cs o n th e d em og rap hic da ta w ere pe rf orm ed to g et a be tte r un de rst an din g o f t he sam ple A na lys is o f v ari an ce (A NO VA ) w as a lso run to s ee i f t he re w as a ny co nn ect ion be tw een pe rce ive d co m m erc ial ism an d th e re lat ion sh ip s tre ng th f act ors Li mit ati on s Li m ita tio ns of thi s st ud y a re a pp are nt i n th e sa m ple of pa rti cip an ts. No t on ly i s the sam ple sm all 5 4 re sp on de nts b ut i t is ve ry h om og en ou s an d a lm os t en tir ely composed of w hite, middle to upper cl ass women. The sm all sample size i s due in lar ge part to t he fact that sur veys inherent ly produce a l ow response rat e. Also, since t he su rve y q ue sti on s ta rge ted ch ild car eta ke rs, the ov er s am pli ng of fe m ale res po nd en ts w as no t su rpr isi ng A no the r li m ita tio n m ay ha ve be en the de sig n o f t he tw o in str um en ts u sed to measure the independent and dependent var iables. Mor e sensiti ve scales may have pro du ced sig nif ica nt d ata .

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28 CHAPTE R 4 RESULTS De scr ip tio n o f S amp le The demographic data at the end of the survey are summ arized i n the following four bar graphs (Fi gures 2-5). Thes e graphs il lustrat e the samples predominance of wh ite fe m ale s b etw een the ag es o f 3 5 a nd 44 T he sam ple s m os t di ve rse de m og rap hic wa s in co m e w hic h h ad a f air ly e ve n d ist rib uti on of res po nd en ts a cro ss t he m on eta ry ran ge s. Fi gu re 2 E thn ic F req ue nc y Fi gu re 3 G en de r F req ue nc y

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29 Fi gu re 4 In co m e F req ue nc y Fi gu re 5 A ge Fr eq ue nc y Re su lts Th at T est th e Hy po th esi s In order t o test for int ernal re liabil ity of both instr uments used in this study, a factor an aly sis wa s p erf orm ed E ve n th ou gh the rel iab ili ty o f t he rel ati on sh ip s cal e w as est ab lis he d in pre vio us res ear ch it is s til l ne ces sar y to run a f act or a na lys is b eca us e th is st ud y u se d a n a da pt at io n o f t he or ig in al in st ru ment By ru nn in g t hi s a na ly si s i t b ec ame cle ar w hic h re lat ion sh ip s tre ng th q ue sti on s co uld be gro up ed tog eth er t o f orm m ore reliabl e dependent var iables. Ta ble 1 s ho ws su rve y q ue sti on s m eas uri ng rel ati on sh ip s tre ng th c an be sep ara ted int o th ree fa cto rs. Lo ad ing s w ere de ter m ine d to be hig h a nd dis tin ct i f t he y w ere gre ate r than .8 and at l east twice as big as any ot her loading for t he correspondi ng question. For ex am ple q ue sti on 10 ha d a hig h lo ad ing on fa cto r on e an d it wa s al so dis tin ct b eca us e .8 54 is t wi ce a s b ig a s b oth .3 52 an d 12 7. Af ter an aly zin g a ll t he se n um be rs i t w as c lea r tha t f act or o ne is c om po sed of qu est ion s 1 0, 12 1 3, 16 an d 1 8. Fa cto r tw o is co m po sed of questions 15 and 17. The thi rd and final factor ha d only one high and dis tinct l oading on qu est ion 9. No rm all y th is w ou ld n ot b e su ff ici en t en ou gh to w arr an t an en tir e f act or,

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30 however, due to the exploratory nature of this research all possibilities were considered and analyzed. Originally the survey questions were grouped into five categories, self-connection, partner quality, intimacy, satisfaction and commitment. After looking at the factor analysis results these five categories were collapsed into three. The majority of the questions in factor one measured intimacy. Intimacy as defined by Susan Fournier (1998) involves the presence of an elaborate knowledge structure surrounding the brand image. The questions in factor two measured partner quality. This relationship strength indicator involves the consumers judgment of the brands overall dependability, reliability and predictability in executing its role and adhering to the rules of the relationship. The one question in factor three measured commitment or the enduring desire to continue ones relationship with a brand. Table 1. Factor analysis of the instrument used to measure relationship strength Component 123 Q6: I am very loyal to childrens programming on PBS .715.370.389 Q7: I would continue to allow my child to watch childrens programming on PBS even if it let me down once or twice: .457.601-.344 Q8: Childrens programming on PBS is helping my child better than I expected .175.711.303

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31 Ta ble 1. Co nti nu ed Com ponent 123 Q9: I am so happy with children s programm ing on PB S I no lon ge r lo ok to o the r ne tw ork s as alterna tives for my childs tel evision vie wing .135 .126 .861 Q1 0: I am lik ely to h av e m y c hil d w atc h c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS one year from now .854 .352 .127 Q1 1: O ve ral l, I am sat isf ied wi th c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS .698 .560 .293 Q12: PBS programm ing fits well wit h my current stage of life .826 .324 .289 Q1 3: I am fa m ili ar w ith the ran ge of ch ild ren s pro gra m s an d s erv ice s P BS ha s to of fe r .904 .155 -.089 Q14: PBS programm ing makes a statement about whats important to me in life .293 .641 .369 Q15: I can always count on PBS to do whats best .218 .910 .080 Q1 6: I d f eel co m fo rta ble de scr ibi ng ch ild ren s programm ing on PBS to someone who w as not fa m ili ar w ith it .814 .417 .165 Q17: PBS programm ing lets me be a part of a co m m un ity of lik e-m ind ed vie we rs .262 .821 .137 Q18: I have become very knowledgeable a bout children s programm ing on PBS .815 .166 .184 Q1 9: P BS rea lly un de rst an ds m y n eed s in reg ard s to children s programm ing .471 .597 .475 Q2 0: I kn ow I ca n h old PB S a cco un tab le f or i ts actions .306 .686 .048 Q21: Given my im pression of PBS, letti ng me dow n wou ld su rp ri se me .286 .508 .477 Ne w V ari ab les = Int im acy Pa rtn er Qu ali ty Co m m itment Table 2 is a factor analysis of the i ndependent vari able (per ceived comm ercial ism). These four questions a re highly r elated; therefore, it is no surpri se that t hey only load on

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32 to o ne fa cto r. I t is ap pa ren t f rom the tab le t ha t th ese loa din gs are hig h, ho we ve r, t he y c an no t be co ns ide red dis tin ct b eca us e o nly on e co m po ne nt e xis ts. Table 2. Factor a nalysis of the i nstrument used to measure level c omm ercial percepti on Com ponent 1 Q2 2: D o y ou thi nk the nu m be r of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d before and after chil drens progr amm ing on PBS has decreased, slightl y decreased, s tayed the sa me, slightly increa sed or incr eased? .816 Q23: Do you think the connect ion between char acters on PBS pro gra m s (i .e C lif fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od e tc) ha s d ecr eas ed s lig htl y d ecr eas ed s tay ed the sam e, slightl y increase d or increa sed? .748 Q2 4: D o y ou thi nk the len gth of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing on PB S h as d ecr eas ed s lig htl y decreased, s tayed the sa me, slightly increa sed or incr eased? .868 Q2 5: D o y ou thi nk the pro du cti on va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS has decreased, s lightly de creased, st ayed the same, slightly incr eased or inc reased? .914 Since this i s a correl ational s tudy, the main finding that will lend support t o the hy po the sis is a co rre lat ion be tw een the thr ee r ela tio ns hip str en gth ind ica tor s (d ete rm ine d by the fa cto r an aly sis in T ab le 1 ) an d th e f ou r qu est ion s m eas uri ng the lev el o f p erc eiv ed comm ercial ism am ong parents. Tabl es 3-5 corr elate i ntimacy, partner qual ity and comm itment with each of the perce ived comm ercial ism questions. The pearson correla tion coefficients and their s ignificance ar e shown in boldface. None of the 12 cases shows any si gnificant rel ationship be tween the two vari ables; t herefore the dat a do not support t he hypothesis. The pe arson corr elation c oefficient in ever y case is t oo low an d th e si gn if ica nc e v alu e is too hig h f or t he ir t o b e an y c orr ela tio n b etw een pa ren ts percepti on of com mercialism on PBS and their relati onship with the ne twork.

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33 Ta ble 3. Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism an d in tim acy In tim ac y Q22 : Do you think the number of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d...stayed the s ame...or d e c re a s e d ? Pearson Corr. -.057 Sig. (2-tai led) .695 N5 0 In tim ac y Q23 : Do you think the conne ction between charac ters on PBS pro gra m s (i .e C lif fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od e tc) ha s in cre ase d .s tay ed the sam e .d ecr eas ed Pe ars on Co rr. -.081 Sig. (2-tai led) .570 N 51 In tim ac y Q24 : Do you think the l ength of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore and after chil drens progr amm ing on PBS has increased.st ayed the same.or decreased? Pearson Corr. -.272 Sig. (2-tai led) .053 N5 1 In tim ac y Q25 : Do you think the pr oduction va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Pearson Corr. -.127 Sig. (2-tai led) .375 N5 1

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34 Ta ble 4. Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism an d p art ne r qu ali ty Pa rtn er Q ua lit y Q22 : Do you think the number of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Pe ars on Co rr. -.051 Sig. (2-tai led) .723 N 50 Pa rtn er Q ua lit y Q23 : Do you think the conne ction between charac ters on PBS pro gra m s (i .e C lif fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od e tc) ha s in cre ase d .s tay ed the same.or decreased? Pearson Corr. .032 Sig (2-tai led) .822 N5 1 Pa rtn er Q ua lit y Q24 : Do you think the l ength of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore and after chil drens progr amm ing on PBS has increased.st ayed the same.or decreased? Pearson Corr. -.146 Sig. (2-tai led) .305 N5 1 Pa rtn er Q ua lit y Q25 : Do you think the pr oduction va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Pearson Corr. .110 Sig. (2-tai led) .440 N5 1

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35 Ta ble 5. Co rre lat ion an aly sis be tw een pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism and comm itment Commitme nt Q22 : Do you think the number of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Pearson Corr. .114 Sig. (2-tai led) .442 N 48 Commitme nt Q23 : Do you think the conne ction between charac ters on PBS pro gra m s (i .e C lif fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od e tc) ha s in cre ase d .s tay ed the same.or decreased? Pearson Corr. .084 Sig. (2-tai led) .571 N4 8 Commitme nt Q24 : Do you think the l ength of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore and after chil drens progr amm ing on PBS has increased.st ayed the same.or decreased? Pearson Corr. -.047 Sig. (2-tai led) .753 N4 8 Commitme nt Q25 : Do you think the pr oduction va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es be fo re a nd af ter ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or de cre ase d Pearson Corr. -.053 Sig. (2-tai led) .723 N4 8 Ad di tio na l A na lys is Ex plo rat ory res ear ch req uir es a co m ple te u nd ers tan din g o f t he da ta; the ref ore ad dit ion al t est s w ere pe rf orm ed to s ee i f a ny int ere sti ng tre nd s su rf ace d. Mea n s co res we re c alc ula ted fo r al l 16 su rve y q ue sti on s m eas uri ng rel ati on sh ip s tre ng th. Ta ble 6 shows these mean values along wit h their st andard deviat ions in desce nding order. The high average s cores acr oss the 16 rel ationship que stions sugges ts a rel atively pos itive att itu de tow ard PB S a m on g p are nts .

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36 Table 6. Descending mean scores of the 16 r elations hip strengt h survey questi ons Mean Standard Deviat ion Q1 0: I am lik ely to h av e m y c hil d w atc h c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS one year from now 5.52 2.005 Q1 1: O ve ral l, I am sat isf ied wi th c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS 5.34 1.911 Q7 : I w ou ld c on tin ue to a llo w m y c hil d to wa tch ch il dr en s pr og ra mming on PBS ev en if it le t me do wn on ce o r tw ice 5.29 1.684 Q1 3: I am fa m ili ar w ith the ran ge of ch ild ren s pro gra m s an d s erv ice s P BS ha s to of fe r 5.15 1.954 Q1 6: I d f eel co m fo rta ble de scr ibi ng ch ild ren s programm ing on PBS to someone who was not fa m ili ar w ith it 5.13 1.794 Q6: I am very loyal to chil drens progr amm ing on PBS 5.12 2.047 Q12: PBS programm ing fits well wit h my current stage of life 4.98 1.892 Q21: Given my im pression of PBS, letti ng me dow n wou ld su rp ri se me 4.92 1.748 Q18: I have become very knowledgeable a bout children s programm ing on PBS 4.56 1.500 Q1 9: P BS rea lly un de rst an ds m y n eed s in reg ard s to children s programm ing 4.48 1.820 Q15: I can always count on PBS to do whats best 4.45 1.659 Q14: PBS programm ing makes a statement about whats important to me in life 4.31 1.770 Q8: Chi ld re n s p ro gr ammin g o n P BS i s h el pi ng my ch ild be tte r th an I ex pe cte d 4.25 1.345 Q17: PBS programm ing lets me be a part of a co m m un ity of lik e-m ind ed vie we rs 4.21 1.756 Q2 0: I kn ow I ca n h old PB S a cco un tab le f or i ts actions 4.09 1.716 Q9: I am so happy with children s programm ing on PB S I no lon ge r lo ok to o the r ne tw ork s as alterna tives for my childs tel evision vie wing 3.45 1.932 Respondents were aske d several que stions conce rning thei r viewing habit s and whether or not t heir overa ll att itude toward PBS has become more positive or negat ive over the year s. Table 7 shows that a majority of respondents ans wered oftento the qu est ion h ow of ten do es y ou r ch ild wa tch ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S? Ta ble 8

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37 shows a majority of parents answer ed sometimes to the question how often do you an d y ou r ch ild wa tch ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S t og eth er? Ta ble 9 s ho ws tha t m os t pe op le s aid the ir a tti tud e to wa rd P BS ha d sta ye d th e sa m e o ve r th e y ear s. It i s im po rta nt t o n ote tha t th e re su lts of thi s st ud y s ho we d n o s ign if ica nt r ela tio ns hip be tw een these thr ee factors and r elations hip strengt h or percei ved comm ercial ism. Ta ble 7. Ch ild vie wi ng fr eq ue nc y Frequency Percent Never 1 1.9 Rarely 6 11.1 Som etimes 20 37.0 Often 27 50.0 Ta ble 8. Pa ren t vi ew ing fr eq ue nc y Frequency Percent Never 2 3.7 Rarely 10 18.5 Som etimes 26 48.1 Often 16 29.6 Table 9. Frequency dat a of overall at titude t oward PBS Frequency Percent More Negative 2 3.7 Slightly Mor e Negative 2 3.7 Stayed the Same 20 37.0 Slightly Mor e Positive 9 16.7 More Positi ve 19 35.2

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38 Fr eq ue nc y d ata we re a lso co lle cte d f or t he fo ur q ue sti on s m eas uri ng pe rce ive d comm ercial ism. Tables 10-13 show that for each ques tion pert aining to per ception of comm ercial ism the m ajorit y of respondents ans wered incre ased. Ta ble 10 F req ue nc y ta ble fo r qu est ion 22 : D o y ou thi nk the nu m be r of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Frequency Percent Stayed the Same 15 27.8 Slightly I ncreased 10 18.5 Increase d 28 51.9 Ta ble 11 F req ue nc y ta ble fo r qu est ion 23 : D o y ou thi nk the co nn ect ion be tw een ch ara cte rs o n P BS pro gra m s (i .e C lif fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial products (i .e. toys, food, etc) has increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Frequency Percent Stayed the Same 12 22.2 Slightly I ncreased 5 9.3 Increase d 37 68.5 Ta ble 12 F req ue nc y ta ble fo r qu est ion 24 : D o y ou thi nk the len gth of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing on PB S h as increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Frequency Percent Stayed the Same 18 33.3 Slightly I ncreased 11 20.4 Increase d 25 46.3

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39 Ta ble 13 F req ue nc y ta ble fo r qu est ion 25 : D o y ou thi nk the pro du cti on va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS has increase d.stayed the s ame.or decreased? Frequency Percent Stayed the Same 10 18.5 Slightly I ncreased 14 25.9 Increase d 30 55.6 An aly sis of va ria nc e (A NO VA ) is a u sef ul s tat ist ica l to ol w he n d oin g e xp lor ato ry researc h because it allows the r esearcher to separat e respondents into groups and co m pa re t he av era ge sco res of dif fe ren t va ria ble s ag ain st c ho sen inp ut f act ors In thi s typ e o f a na lys is a lar ge F va lue an d a sig nif ica nc e v alu e ap pro ach ing zer o in dic ate s a strong possi bility t hat the var iance in t he mean scores of the two groups is due t o the factor they ar e being compared to rathe r than random error. In this st udy ANOVA was used to compare the means of the four questions of perceived c omm ercial ism against the thr ee factors of rela tionship st rength; i ntimacy, pa rtn er q ua lit y a nd co m m itm en t. T he res po nd en ts w ere sep ara ted int o tw o g rou ps th os e who perceived a gr eat deal of comm ercial ism and those that did not Respondents in the first group answer ed increa sed to the perceived c omm ercial ism questions. Re sp on de nts in t he sec on d g rou p a ns we red sl igh tly inc rea sed o r s tay ed the sam e t o the fo ur q ue sti on s. Ta ble s 1 4-1 7 s ho w t he res ult s o f t his an aly sis .

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40 Table 14. Analysis of vari ance of the three relati onship stre ngth factors and ques tion 22 : D o y ou thi nk the nu m be r of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d b ef ore an d a ft er ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S h as i nc rea sed sta ye d th e sa m e .d ecr eas ed N Mean F Sig. Intimacy Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 29 23.24 1.372 .247 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 24 26.17 Partner Quali ty Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 27 7.85 .555 .460 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 23 8.57 Com mitm ent Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 27 3.48 .014 .906 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 24 3.42 Table 15. Analysis of vari ance of the three relati onship stre ngth factors and ques tion 23 : D o y ou thi nk the co nn ect ion be tw een ch ara cte rs o n P BS pro gra m s (i .e Cl if fo rd, Ar thu r, e tc) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od e tc) ha s inc rea sed sta ye d th e sa m e .d ecr eas ed N Mean F Sig. Intimacy Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 37 23.35 1.075 .305 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 17 26.18 Partner Quali ty Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 35 7.89 .735 .395 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 16 8.75 Com mitm ent Perceive a gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 34 3.50 .064 .801 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 17 3.35

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41 Table 16. Analysis of vari ance of the three relati onship stre ngth factors and ques tion 24 : D o y ou thi nk the len gth of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er children s programm ing on PBS has increase d.stayed the sam e .d ecr eas ed N Mean F Sig. Intimacy Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 25 21.40 4.633 .036 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 29 26.69 Partner Quali ty Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 24 7.50 1.791 .187 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 27 8.74 Com mitm ent Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 22 3.09 1.353 .250 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 29 3.72 Table 17. Analysis of vari ance of the three relati onship stre ngth factors and ques tion 25: Do you think the pr oduction value (i.e. mascots, logos, ani mation) of co rpo rat e m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing on PB S h as inc rea sed sta ye d th e sa m e .d ecr eas ed N Mean F Sig. Intimacy Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 30 22.10 3.756 .058 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 24 26.92 Partner Quali ty Perceive gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 28 8.07 .040 .842 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 23 8.26 Com mitm ent Perceive a gr eat deal of co m m erc ial ism 27 3.15 1.422 .239 Do not perceive a great deal of co m m erc ial ism 24 3.79 Th e ab ov e f ou r ta ble s sh ow tha t in tw o o ut o f t he 12 cas es F is large and the significance va lue is appr oaching zero. Thi s suggests t hat respondent s who thought len gth an d p rod uc tio n v alu e o f c orp ora te s po ns or m ess ag es o n P BS ha d in cre ase d s co red low er o n th e in tim acy qu est ion s th an tho se r esp on de nts wh o d id n ot p erc eiv e as gre at a n

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42 increase It is ver y likely t hat these t wo findings are just a coincidenc e consideri ng none of the oth er d ata su pp ort the hy po the sis H ow ev er, thi s an aly sis of va ria nc e d oe s re ve al a po ssi ble tre nd in t he da ta. In 1 0 o ut o f t he 12 cas es t he m ean va lue of the rel ati on sh ip str en gth fa cto rs w as l ow er f or g rou p o ne (pe rce ive d a gre at d eal of co m m erc ial ism ) th an it was for group two (di d not percei ve a great de al of comm ercial ism).

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43 CHAPTE R 5 DISCUSSION Th e p urp os e o f t his stu dy wa s to see if the re w as a rel ati on sh ip b etw een percepti on of com mercialism and strength of relat ionship between pa rents and PBS. Th ere fo re, the m os t im po rta nt d ata to c orr ela te w as t he thr ee r ela tio ns hip str en gth fa cto rs (in tim acy p art ne r qu ali ty a nd co m m itm en t) w ith the fo ur q ue sti on s o f p erc eiv ed comm ercial ism. Af ter performing the corr elation i t was clear that ther e was no significant r elations hip between pare nts loyal ty to PBS and their pe rception of comm ercial ism. Tables 3-5 correl ated each of the t hree factors wit h each of the four perceived c omm ercial ism questions. In all 12 cases the r ange of r (pearson c orrelat ion coefficient) was bet ween -.272 and .114. The close pr oximity of r to zero suggeste d no correla tion between t he dependent and i ndependent vari ables. Si nc e th e re su lts of the an aly sis did no t si gn if ica ntl y s up po rt t he hy po the sis pro po sed in t he m eth od olo gy th en it c an be co nc lud ed tha t th e n ull hy po the sis is su pp ort ed T he nu ll h yp oth esi s st ate s th at t he rel ati on sh ip b etw een pa ren ts a nd PB S w ill be ne ith er p os iti ve ly n or n eg ati ve ly a ff ect ed by pe rce pti on of co m m erc ial ism S up po rt fo r th is n ull hy po the sis wa s f ou nd bo th i n th e d ata an d in rel ati on sh ip t he ory as d isc us sed in the li teratur e review. Th e th eo ret ica l f ram ew ork sec tio n o f t he lit era tur e re vie w i ntr od uc ed rel ati on sh ip the ory an d h ow it u ses the co nc ep t of int erp ers on al e xc ha ng es t o g ain a b ett er un de rst an din g o f t he rel ati on sh ips co ns um ers fo rm wi th t he bra nd s th ey us e. Qu ali tie s su ch as c om m itm en t an d in tim acy w hich are im po rta nt b etw een fr ien ds a re a lso

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44 important between consumers and their brands. According t o relati onship theory, t wo fa cto rs i nf lue nc e th e d ire cti on an d s tab ili ty o f r ela tio na l bo nd s. Th e f irs t f act or d eal s wi th b ran d p ers on ali ty a nd the sec on d f act or d eal s w ith tra ns gre ssi on al a cts W ith its safe, educational fam ily-ori ented and tr aditional brand image, children s programm ing on PBS definitely falls under the since re brand ca tegory. In t he artic le When Good Brands Do Bad by Aaker et al. ( 2004), the author s refer to si ncerity a s the brand personali ty that ca ptures a par tners t rustworthi ness and dependabi lity, two important qualiti es for relat ionship growth. Th e ar tic le g oe s o n to dis cu ss t he sec on d f act or o f r ela tio na l st ab ili ty w hic h is tra ns gre ssi on al a cts R ela tio ns hip the ory su gg est s th at s inc ere bra nd s h av e a d ist inc t ad va nta ge ov er o the r br an d im ag es t o c ou nte rac t ac ts o f t ran sg res sio n. O f p art icu lar no te i s th e re lat ion sh ip c on tex t in wh ich tra ns gre ssi on is c om m itt ed s uc h th at relati onship-ser ving biases di lute the ne gative effects of trans gressions i n strong unions an d p ast po sit ive s ca nc el t he m in t he lon g-s tan din g re lat ion s ( Aa ke r et al. 2 00 4, p. 3). In the cas e o f c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing on PB S, rel ati on sh ipser vin g b ias es w ou ld b e it s aw ard -w inn ing h igh qu ali ty, ed uc ati on al p rog ram m ing T he ref ore if pe rce ive d co m m erc ial ism we re c on sid ere d a n a ct o f t ran sg res sio n, the n re lat ion sh ip t he ory su gg est s the se b ias es, co m bin ed wi th t he bra nd s si nc ere im ag e, wo uld dil ute an y n eg ati ve ef fe cts brought about by t his trans gressional act. Th is e xp lai ns wh y th e av era ge rel ati on sh ip s tre ng th s co res fo r re sp on de nts wi th ex tre m ely hig h p erc ep tio ns of co m m erc ial ism we re n ot s ign if ica ntl y s m all er t ha n th os e respondents wit h less perc eption of comm ercial ism. Even though the data support ed the nu ll h yp oth esi s an d re lat ion sh ip t he ory len t re aso nin g to wh y s tro ng bra nd im ag es c an withstand see mingly negative acts of tr ansgressi on, it was sti ll beneficia l to examine the da ta f rom m ult ipl e an gle s.

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45 Th e d esc rip tiv e st ati sti cs r un on the de m og rap hic da ta a nd the qu est ion s n ot r ela ted to t he tw o in str um en ts t ha t m eas ure d th e in de pe nd en t an d d ep en de nt v ari ab les he lpe d paint a bet ter pict ure of the sampled respondents. The s ample was com posed of predominantly white, middle to upper cl ass women between the ages of 35 and 44 (Figures 25). Looking at frequency t ables 7-9 i t was clear that the majorit y of respondents ha d children who often wat ched childr ens progra mm ing on PBS. Also, a m ajo rit y o f r esp on de nts so m eti m es wa tch ed the PB S p rog ram m ing wi th t he ir c hil dre n and believed t heir overa ll att itude toward PBS had st ayed the same over the yea rs. Th e m os t in ter est ing pa rt o f t he A dd iti on al A na lys is sec tio n in the res ult s ch ap ter wa s th e A NO VA res ult s. Ev en tho ug h re su lts we re n ot s ign if ica nt, so m e tr en ds em erg ed that moved in the expecte d directi on of the hypothesis. Tabl es 14-17 compare the means of the three re lationshi p strength fact ors against the scale that measured for level of perceived c omm ercial ism. The data revealed t hat the aver age intimacy factor scor e for respondents who answer ed increa sed on the four perc eived comm ercial ism questions was almost always greater than for respondent s who answered sli ghtly incr eased or st ay ed the sam e. On on e p art icu lar su rve y a pa ren t m ad e an int ere sti ng co m m en t th at m igh t sh ed light on why perce ption of comm ercial ism m ay affect relati onship stre ngth with PBS. A s a c on ser va tiv e I h av en t b een as i nte res ted in s up po rti ng PB S a nd I ce rta inl y d on t lik e th e co m m erc ial iza tio n o f a ll i ts p rog ram m ing O ur c hil dre n h av e b een tra ine d to tur n of f c om m erc ial s (I ts a f am ily rul e!) b ut s po ns ors hip s m ay no t tr igg er t he rul e b eca us e they dont fit a s a typical comm ercial . This respondent marked increased for al l four questions r elated t o perceived c omm ercial ism and her average scor e for the 16 relati onship stre ngth questions was a 2.6 out of a possible 7. Thi s is a very l ow score and su gg est s a n eg ati ve rel ati on sh ip w ith PB S. Lo ok ing at t his su rve y a lon e it wo uld see m

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46 that the i ssue of comm ercial ism is rather si mple. If you are dissatisfied wit h the way PBS ha s lo os en ed the rul es s urr ou nd ing co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es, the n y ou r re lat ion sh ip wi th P BS su ff ers H ow ev er, the lac k o f a ny sig nif ica nt c orr ela tio n b etw een pe rce ive d comm ercial ism and the strength of the PBS/pare nt relat ionship suggest s otherwise. A s eco nd res po nd en t w rot e th is c om m en t at the en d o f h is s urv ey ; I thi nk PB S h as gotten FAR more com mercial than it us ed to be. I am not at all happy about this but PB S i s st ill lig ht y ear s b ett er t ha n a ny oth er s tat ion e sp eci all y f or c hil dre n an d a du lts . Si m ila r to the pre vio us ly m en tio ne d re sp on de nt, thi s m an m ark ed all fo ur p erc eiv ed comm ercial ism questions as incr eased. However; hi s average sc ore for the 16 relati onship stre ngth questions was a 5.9 out of a possible 7. Ev en tho ug h th ese tw o re sp on ses dif fe r gr eat ly, rel ati on sh ip t he ory is s til l supported in bot h. For the first r espondent it seemed that PBS brand qualit ies were not en ou gh to n eg ate the de tri m en tal ef fe cts of inc rea sed co m m erc ial ism on no nc om m erc ial public broadc asting. Resear ch in rela tionship t heory has shown that once transgr essions start a ffecting consumer perception of brand image, it is extremely difficult to sl ow the rel ati on sh ip d ecl ine (A ak er e t al ., (20 04 ). H ow ev er, fo r th e se co nd res po nd en t it see m ed his rel ati on sh ip w ith PB S w as s tro ng en ou gh to o ve rlo ok the inc rea sed nu m be r, l en gth an d p rod uc tio n v alu e o f u nd erw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts. He kn ew ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S w as b ett er t ha n w ha t he co uld fi nd an yw he re e lse an d th ere fo re l et the on e d ow nf all of inc rea sed co m m erc ial ism sli de as a res ult of his pe rce pti on of oth er positive br and qualiti tes. The lack of any significant findings throughout t he data anal ysis was due in l arge part to t he limitations of the st udy. The combined random and convenience s ampling methods used to collect the data di smiss this study from being generaliz ed to any population. I nsufficient sample size and la ck of diversity a mong participants may have

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47 co ntr ibu ted to t he lim ite d ra ng e o f r esp on ses T he fr eq ue nc y re su lts of the de m og rap hic data demonstrate a hi gh concentrat ion of white, middle to upper clas s wom en as the sam ple ba se. Th e p red om ina nc e o f w om en is d ue in l arg e p art to t he fa ct t ha t w om en are us ua lly the ch ild car eta ke rs o f t he fa m ily S inc e th e m ajo rit y o f t he su rve ys we re h an de d ou t to the pe rso n re sp on sib le f or p ick ing up the ch ild ren fr om da y c are or n urs ery sch oo l, it w as n ot s urp ris ing tha t m os t re sp on de nts we re f em ale It is al so possible t hat the two ins truments used to measure the dependent and independent var iables were not sensit ive enough to col lect the desired i nform ation. For example, in one respondent s comm ents at t he end of the survey he wrot e, I dont know if yo u w ill ge t th is f rom yo ur s urv ey b ut I thi nk PB S h as g ott en FA R m ore comm ercial This type of comm ent suggests that the s urvey may not have asked the rig ht q ue sti on s in reg ard s to ho w p are nts fe lt a bo ut P BS in l igh t of inc rea sed co m m erc ial iza tio n. Ho we ve r, i t co uld als o m ean tha t th e d ata co lle cte d f rom the su rve y su pp ort s th e n ull hy po the sis an d n o m att er h ow m uc h th e p eo ple be lie ve co m m erc ial ism on PBS has increased, t hey still have a strong pos itive vi ew of the network because of the qu ali ty o f c hil dre ns pro gra m m ing an d it s co nti nu ed dis tin cti ve ne ss f rom all oth er comm ercial networks.

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48 CHAPTE R 6 CONCL USION If an yth ing is t o b e ta ke n a wa y f rom thi s re sea rch it is t ha t pa ren ts a re w ell aw are of the transformation PBS has undergone with re spect to i ts incre ased amounts of comm ercial ization. They ha ve noticed t he changes in t he number, length and producti on va lue of co rpo rat e u nd erw rit er m ess ag es. Th ey ha ve see n c orp ora te t ieins at t he gro cer y sto re s uc h a s Clifford t he Big Red Dog and Lipton Soup and at t he toy store with the limitless sel ection of TickleMe-Elmo dolls, Barney pajamas and Arthur l unch boxes. However, despite t his awareness parents have been relat ively unaffected by it Th ere fo re, the res ult s o f t his stu dy su pp ort bo th t he nu ll h yp oth esi s an d th e b asi c assumptions of relationshi p theory. Only four out of the 52 respondents who answered the quest ion of whether or not their over all att itude toward PBS had become more positive, sl ightly more positive , st ay ed the sam e, s lig htl y m ore ne ga tiv e o r m ore n eg ati ve , pla ced a m ark low er tha n sta ye d th e sa m e. T his m ean s th e re st o f t he res po nd en ts an sw ers ran ge d b etw een stayed the same and m ore posit ive. This re sult is not at all s urprisi ng. Historica lly, ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S h as b een hig hly pra ise d f or i ts i nv olv em en t in ch ild development and education. Clifford t he Big Red Dog Dr ag on Ta les and Arthur are the top three pr ograms am ong kids two to five. Ba rn ey and Caillou also rank i n the top 10 wh ich giv es P BS KI DS fi ve of the top 10 pro gra m s am on g p res ch oo ler s. PB S c hil dre ns pro gra m s h av e al so wo n m ore pre sti gio us aw ard s th an an y o the r ne tw ork (P BS KI DS , 2004, para 3-4). As l ong as parents see qualit y children s programm ing and a dist inction

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49 between public t elevisi on and its comm ercial alterna tives, the ir rel ationship wit h the ne tw ork wi ll s tay in t act No ne of the res ult s in thi s st ud y m ay ha ve be en sig nif ica nt, bu t th e tr en ds all ud ed to in the anal ysis of variance pose inter esting quest ions and possibi litie s for future resear ch. Re sp on de nts be lon gin g to the p erc eiv ed a g rea t de al o f c om m erc ial ism g rou p s co red co ns ist en tly low er a cro ss t he thr ee r ela tio ns hip str en gth fa cto rs t ha n th os e re sp on de nts belonging to t he did not per ceive a gre at deal of comm ercial ism group. Conducting future resear ch over a long per iod of time (10 years) using a trend anal ysis techni que wo uld be ve ry u sef ul i n d ete rm ini ng wh eth er o r no t pe rce ive d c om m erc ial ism wi ll act ua lly ha ve an ef fe ct o n th e st ren gth of rel ati on sh ip b etw een PB S a nd pa ren ts o f c hil d viewers in t he long term. A p oin t in tim e s na p s ho t a na lys is s uc h a s th is s tud y la ck s th e ab ili ty t o e va lua te ch an ge in at ti tu de ov er ti me. I t i s p os si bl e t ha t p ar en ts may b e a cc ep ti ng of c er ta in for ms of co m m erc ial ism on PB S n ow b ut a fe w y ear s d ow n th e ro ad thi ng s co uld be ve ry dif fe ren t. E ve n th ou gh the dig ita l tr an sit ion is s til l in its ini tia l st ag es, the FC C h as already appr oved a plan to al low public tel evision st ations to r un comm ercial s on some of the ne w c ha nn els the y w ill ob tai n p os t di git al c on ve rsi on (S piv ack 2 00 1). To da y, pa ren ts see un de rw rit er a ck no wl ed gm en ts w ho se s im ila rit ies wi th r eal co m m erc ial s ar e increasi ng. Tom orrow, they may be tuned in to one of PBS supplementary channel s on its dig ita l sp ect rum an d s ee f ull blo wn ad ve rti sem en ts t arg eti ng the ir c hil dre n. Ho w w ill thi s n ew de ve lop m en t af fe ct t he PB S/ pa ren t re lat ion sh ip? A n in -de pth tre nd an aly sis would be able to as sess this type of evolution. Futur e resear ch could esta blish how pa ren ts a ctu all y f eel tow ard co m m erc ial ism on PB S, no t ju st i f c om m erc ial ism ha s increase d or not. Relati onship theory c ould reall y be put to the t est by tra cking a str ong

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50 bra nd im ag e (P BS ) an d a n a ct o f t ran sg res sio n (c om m erc ial ism on a n on co m m erc ial network) over t ime. In the book Pu bli c B ro ad ca sti ng an d th e P ub lic Int ere st W illia m H oynes (2003) believes PBS is t reading on thi n ice with it s comm ercial ized brandi ng effort. As PB S b eco m es m ore int eg rat ed int o th e co m m erc ial m ed ia s ys tem an d d ev elo ps a bu sin ess m od el t ha t se es p ub lic tel ev isi on as a n in cre asi ng ly c om m erc ial en ter pri se, the foundations of the publi c service model are deterior ating. Indee d, the branding strate gy is an att empt to turn the cult ural value of the old PBS into financial va lue for the new PBS. This exchange is a means of transforming public servi ce, and the trust t hat accompanies such publi c service into a marketable commodity. In the midst of this transformation, PBS runs the very re al risk t hat its a ggressive br anding strate gy will undermine the tr ust and loyal ty that makes its br and so valuable (p.50) Th e re su lts of thi s st ud y m ay no t co nf irm an ero sio n o f g oo dw ill tow ard PB S d ue to increase d comm ercial ism, but that does not mean the future of public t elevisi on is stabl e. If PBS fails to reevaluat e its aggr essive bra nding strat egy, then it may begin to al ienate t he very public i t is meant to serve. M edia enter prises ar e standing upon t he threshol d of a ne w d igi tal era tha t pr om ise s in fi nit e o pp ort un iti es. Ho w w ell wi ll P BS be ab le t o co m pe te i n th is m ult i-m ed ia e nv iro nm en t if the y s qu an de r aw ay the on e th ing tha t distingui shes them from the crowd? Future rese arch, incl uding content a nalysis, focus gr ou ps an d s ur ve ys may be ab le to an sw er th is qu es ti on T he on ly pr ob le m is by th e t ime the qu est ion is a ns we red it m ay be too lat e to sal va ge pu bli c te lev isi on s o rig ina l pu bli c service mission from the clutches of it s newly adopted market-dri ven business model.

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51 APPEND IX A SURVEY Pl ea se a ns we r th e fo llo wi ng qu est ion s: 1. How m any childre n do you have? ____ 2. Please li st the age( s) of your childr en: ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 3 H o w o f te n d o y o u r c h il d re n w a tc h c h il d re n s p ro g ra m m in g o n P B S ? Of ten So m eti m es R are ly N ev er (4) (3) ( 2) (1) 4 H o w o f te n d o y o u w a tc h c h il d re n s p ro g ra m m in g o n P B S w it h y o u r c h il d re n ? Of ten So m eti m es R are ly N ev er (4) (3) ( 2) (1) 5. Gi ve n y ou r ex pe rie nc e w ith ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S a s a c hil d a nd a p are nt, has your att itude toward t he network become m ore... ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Po sit ive St ay ed the Sa m e N eg ati ve (5) (4) ( 3) (2) (1) Ba sed on yo ur ex pe rie nc es g ro wi ng up wi th ch ild ren s p ro gr amm in g o n P BS an d th en watching PBS programs with your childr en, please rate the following: (Circle one number for each questi on, where 1=strongly disagr ee, 7=strongly agr ee and 9= un ab le t o r ate ) 6. I am very loyal to chil drens progr amm ing on PBS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 7. I would continue t o allow my child to watch ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S e ve n if it l et m e down once or twice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 8. Childrens pr ogramm ing on PBS is helping my child bett er than I e xpected. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9

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52 9. I am so happy with children s programm ing on PB S I no lon ge r lo ok to o the r ne tw ork s as alterna tives for my childs tel evision vie wing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 I a m lik ely to h av e m y c hil d w atc h c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS one year from now. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 O ve ral l, I am sat isf ied wi th c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 12. PBS programm ing fits well wit h my current stage of life. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 13 I a m fa m ili ar w ith the ran ge of ch ild ren s p rog ram s and service s PBS has to offer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 14 P BS pro gra m m ing m ak es a sta tem en t ab ou t w ha ts important to me in life. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 15. I can always count on PBS to do whats best. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 I d f eel co m fo rta ble de scr ibi ng ch ild ren s pro gra m m ing on PB S t o s om eo ne wh o w as n ot fam iliar with it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 17. PBS programm ing lets me be a part of a comm unity of like-minded viewers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 18 I h av e b eco m e v ery kn ow led ge ab le a bo ut c hil dre ns programm ing on PBS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 19. PBS really underst ands my needs in regards to children s programm ing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 20. I know I can hold PBS accountabl e for its act ions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 21. Given my im pression of PBS, letti ng me dow n would surprise me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9

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53 Pl ac e a n X ab ov e th e li ne th at b est co rre sp on ds to y ou r a ns we r. Gi ve n y ou r ex pe rie nc e w ith ch ild ren s p rog ram m ing on PB S a s a c hil d a nd no w y ear s lat er a s a p are nt, 22 D o y ou thi nk the nu m be r of co rpo rat e sp on so rs m en tio ne d b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m s h as: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Inc rea sed St ay ed the Sa m e D ecr eas ed (5) (4) ( 3) (2) (1) 23. Do you think the connect ion between char acters on PBS progra ms (i.e. Clifford, Ar thu r et c. ) an d c om m erc ial pro du cts (i. e. toy s, fo od etc .) h as: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Inc rea sed St ay ed the Sa m e D ecr eas ed (5) (4) ( 3) (2) (1) 24 D o y ou thi nk the len gth of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m s h as: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Inc rea sed St ay ed the Sa m e D ecr eas ed (5) (4) ( 3) (2) (1) 25 D o y ou thi nk the pro du cti on va lue (i. e. m asc ots lo go s, an im ati on ) of co rpo rat e sp on so r m ess ag es b ef ore an d a ft er c hil dre ns pro gra m s h as: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Inc rea sed St ay ed the Sa m e D ecr eas ed (5) (4) ( 3) (2) (1) Please fil l out the fol lowing demographic i nformation: 26 W ha t is yo ur g en de r? 1. Mal e 2. Fe m ale 27. Please mark your ethnic ba ckground: 1. Am eri can Ind ian E sk im o, or A leu t 4. Hi sp an ic, of an y ra ce 2. As ian or P aci fi c Is lan de r 5. W hit e, no t H isp an ic 3. Black, not Hispanic 6. Other ___________

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54 28 P lea se m ark yo ur a ge ran ge : 1. 18-24 4. 45-54 2. 25-34 5. 55-64 3. 35-44 6. 65+ 29 P lea se m ark the ran ge tha t be st m atc he s y ou r f am ily s c urr en t in co m e: 1. $0-24,999 5. $100,000-124,999 2. $25,000-49,999 6. $125,000-149,999 3. $50,000-74,999 7. $150,000-174,999 4. $75,000-99,999 8. $175,000+ Thank you for fill ing out this survey!

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55 APPEND IX B ORIGINAL SC ALE OF R ELATIONSH IP STRENGT H INDICATO RS Re lat ion sh ip St ren gth In di ca tor s Ite ms Com mitm ent I am ve ry l oy al t o C ap tur a I am wi lli ng to m ak e sm all sac rif ice s in ord er t o k eep us ing Ca ptu ra I w ou ld b e w ill ing to p os tpo ne m y p urc ha se i f t he Ca ptu ra s ite wa s tem po rar ily un av ail ab le I w ou ld s tic k w ith Ca ptu ra e ve n if it l et m e d ow n o nc e o r tw ice I am so ha pp y w ith Ca ptu ra t ha t I n o lo ng er f eel the ne ed to w atc h ou t f or o the r ph oto gra ph y a lte rna tiv es I am likely to be using Capt ura one year from now Int im acy I w ou ld f eel co m fo rta ble sh ari ng de tai led pe rso na l in fo ab ou t m ys elf wi th C ap tur a Ca ptu ra r eal ly u nd ers tan ds m y n eed s in the ph oto gra ph ic s erv ice s Id fell comfortable descr ibing Captura t o someone who w as not fa m ili ar w ith it I am fa m ili ar w ith t he ran ge of pro du cts an d s erv ice s C ap tur a o ff ers I ha ve be co m e v ery kn ow led ge ab le a bo ut C ap tur a Sa tis fa cti on I am co m ple tel y s ati sf ied wi th C ap tur a I am co m ple tel y p lea sed wi th C ap tur a Ca ptu ra i s tu rni ng ou t be tte r th an I ex pe cte d Se lf -C on ne ct io n Th e C ap tu ra br an d c on ne ct s w it h t he pa rt of me th at re al ly make s me tic k The Captura brand fits well with my current sta ge of life

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56 Re lat ion sh ip St ren gth In di ca tor s Ite ms Self-Connection The Captura brand sa ys a lot about the kind of person I would l ike to be Us ing Ca ptu ra l ets m e b e a p art of a sh are d c om m un ity of lik em ind ed co ns um ers Th e C ap tu ra br an d mak es a s ta te ment ab ou t w ha t s i mpor ta nt to me in life Pa rtn er Q ua lit y I ca n a lw ay s co un t on Ca ptu ra t o d o w ha ts be st If Ca ptu ra m ak es a m ist ak e, it w ill try its be st t o m ak e u p f or i t I know I can hold Captur a accountabl e for its act ions Ca ptu ra i s re lia ble Gi ve n my i mage of C ap tu ra l et ti ng me do wn w ou ld su rp ri se me A brand failure would be i nconsistent with my expectations S o u rc e : A a k e r, J., F o u rn ie r, S ., B ra se l, A (2 0 0 4 ). W h e n G o o d B ra n d s D o B a d Jour nal of C onsum er Resear ch 31( 1) 116.

PAGE 65

57 REFEREN CES Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personali ty. Jo ur na l of Mar ket ing Re sea rch 34(August) 347-357. Aaker, J., Fournier S., Brasel, A. (2004). When Good Brands Do Bad. Journal of Co ns um er R ese ar ch 31(1) 1-16. Auletta, K. (2004). Big Bir d Flies Right [Elect ronic Versi on]. Th e N ew Yo rke r p.42, 6/7/04. Behrens, S. (1995). Hill chairmen cast themselves as pr oblem solvers. Current R etr iev ed Nov embe r 1 5, 20 04, from www.current.org/mo517.html. Bouton, H. (1995). Comm ercial s: Divided vie ws on fundam ental quest ion. Current Re tr ie ve d No ve mber 15 2 00 4, from www.current.org/cm/cm508b.html. Brown, D. (1991). Hu ma n U niv ers als N ew Yo rk: McG raw -H ill Brown, W (2002) Ethics and the Business of Childr ens Public Tel evision Progr amm ing. Jo ur na l of Bu sin ess Et hic s 6(1) 73-81. Carnegie Comm ission on Educat ional Televi sion. 1967. Public Televi sion: A Program for Action Ne w Yo rk : B an ta m. Cook, J. (2003). Advertis ing on Public Tele vision: A Look at PBS. In M. McCaul ey, E. Peterson, B. Artz & D. Halleck (eds.) Pu bli c B ro ad ca sti ng an d th e P ub lic Int ere st. (p. 85 -94 ). N ew Yo rk: M. E. Sh arp e. Cs iks zen tm iha lyi M & B eat tie O (1 97 9). Li fe Th em es: Th eo ret ica l an d E m pir ica l Exploration of Their Origins and Effects. Journal of Psychol ogy 19(Winter) 45-63. Eggerton, J. (2004) In PBS we trust, accor ding to PBS survey. Br oa dc as tin g a nd Ca ble Retrieved Octobe r 5, 2004, from www.broadcastingcable .com/article/CA380454.html?dis play=Search+ Results&t ext =pbs. Egner, J. (2004). PBS execs se ek to lower bar for 30-second spots. Current R etr iev ed Oc to be r 5 2 00 4, from www.current.org/cm/cm0418thirty.shtml. FAIR. (2000). Com mercializati on of Childrens Public Television. Ret rieved Se pt embe r 2 0, 20 04 from www.fair.org/activism/pbs-kids.html.

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58 Fehr, B. & Russell, J. ( 1991). The Concept of Love Viewed from a Prototype Perspective Journal of Personal ity and Social Psychology 60(March) 425-438. Fo urn ier S (1 99 8). Co ns um ers an d T he ir B ran ds : D ev elo pin g R ela tio ns hip Th eo ry i n Consum er Research. Jo ur na l of Co ns um er R ese ar ch 24(March) 343-373. Go rdo n, D. et a l. ( n. d. ) Co ntr ov ers ies in M ed ia E thi cs N ew Yo rk: Lo ng m an In c. Gu ter m an J (2 00 3). Ki lli ng a b ran d, the PB S w ay pu bli c b roa dc ast ing los t it s m on op oly on the childr ens market. Med ia N ote s Retrieved Octobe r 5, 2004, from www .b us in es s2 .c om/ b2 /w eb /a rt ic le s/ 0, 17 86 3, 51 53 44 ,0 0. ht ml. Ho yn es, W (2 00 3). Th e P BS Br an d a nd the Mer ch an dis ing of Pu bli c S erv ice In M. McCauley, E. Peters on, B. Artz & D. Halleck (e ds.), Public Broadcasti ng and the Public Inte rest. (p. 41 -51 ). N ew Yo rk: M. E. Sh arp e. Klinger, E. (1987). Curr ent Concerns and Dise ngagement from Incentive s. In F. Halish & J. Kuhl (eds.), Motivat ion, Inventi on and Volition (p.337-347). New York: Sp rin ge r. Ledbetter, J (1997). Mad e P os sib le B yT he De ath of P ub lic Br oa dc as tin g in the Un ite d Sta tes London: Verso. Levinger, G. (1983). Devel opment and Change. Close Relations hips Mahwah, NJ: Er lb au m. Max ha m J & N ete m ey er, R. (20 02 ). A Lo ng itu din al S tud y o f C om pla ini ng Cu sto m ers Evaluations of multiple Servi ce Failure s and Recovery Efforts. Journal of Marketi ng 66(October), 57-72. McConnell, B. (2004). A $5 bil lion proposal Br oa dc as tin g a nd Ca ble Retrieved October 15, 2004, from www.broadcastingcable .com/article/CA425964.html?dis play=Search+ Results&t ext =pbs. McGuinn, D. (2002). Coping with Arthur -itis : The predominance of cartoons in PBS p ro g ra m m in g f o r k id s m a y b e e c o n o m ic a l a n d e n te rt a in in g b u t i s it e d u c a ti o n a l? Boston Globe Magazine 10/6/02. Metts, S. (1994) Relational Transgressi ons. In Cupach, W. & Spitzberg, B. (eds.), The Dark Side of Int erpersonal Communications ( p. 21 723 9) Ne w J er se y: Er lb au m. Paradise, A. (2004) No longer a word from your sponsor: The incre asing prese nce and power of corporate spons orship on PBS KIDS televisi on. Ka lei do sco pe : A Gr ad ua te Jo ur na l of Qu ali tat ive Co mm un ica tio n R ese ar ch Vol. 3 3 0-5 0. Re tri ev ed De ce mber 3, 20 04, from www.siu.edu/~sco/vol_3_no_1.pdf. PBS KIDS B ackgrounder & Facts. (2005). Ret rieved April 10, 2005, from www .p bs .o rg /a bo ut pb s/ ab ou tp bs _c or p_ pb sk id s. ht ml.

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59 PBS KIDS #1 C hildren s Media Brand. ( 2002). Retrieve d Novem ber 4, 2004, from www .p bs .o rg /a bo ut pb s/ ne ws /2 00 21 02 2_ ki ds br an dc ampa ig n. ht ml. Redm ont, B. (2000). Public Tel evision and t he Camels Nose. Te lev isi on Qu ar ter ly 31(1) 27-32. Ro wl an d, W (2 00 3). W e ta ke an oth er s tep in a sed uc tiv e d an ce w ith co m m erc e. Current Re tri ev ed Novem ber 11, 2004, from www.current.org/cm/cm0303rowland.html. Should public broa dcasting go more comm ercial ? (2002) Current R etr iev ed No ve m be r 11 2 00 4, from www.current.org/cm/cm1.html. Singh, S. (2000). The Camel and the Arab. Retrie ved November 15, 2004, from ww w. bo loj i.c om /na tkh at/ 02 5. htm. Spivack, A. (2001). FCC clarifies rules for noncomm ercial televis ion stati ons use of digital televis ion channel ca pacity. FC C N ew s R ele as e Retrieved Octobe r 28, 2004, fr om ww w. fc c. go v/B ure au s/M ass _M ed ia/ Ne ws _R ele ase s/2 00 1/n rm m 01 11 .h tm l Wel co me. ( n. d. ). Re tr ie ve d No ve mber 4, 20 04 from www.pbs.org/aboutpbs/.

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60 BIOGRAP HICAL SKE TCH Ch ris tin a R eg an gra du ate d f rom Bo sto n C oll eg e in 20 03 an d re cei ve d h er b ach elo rs degree in mass comm unications At Boston she was captai n of the W omens Track & Field team and was pleased t o be accepted ont o the trac k team at the Universit y of Florida up on he r ar riv al i n A ug us t 20 03 A ft er c om ple tio n o f h er d eg ree of m ast er o f a rts in m ass co m m un ica tio n a t F lor ida C hri sti na pla ns on m ov ing ba ck ho m e to Bo sto n w he re s he wi ll pursue a car eer in chi ldrens publ ic tele vision product ion.


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Title: The Effects of Creeping Commercialism on Children's Public Television Programming on the Strength of Relationship between PBS and Parents of Child Viewers
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Material Information

Title: The Effects of Creeping Commercialism on Children's Public Television Programming on the Strength of Relationship between PBS and Parents of Child Viewers
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Holding Location: University of Florida
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THE EFFECTS OF CREEPING COMMERCIALISM ON CHILDREN'S PUBLIC
TELEVISION PROGRAMMING ON THE STRENGTH OF RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN PBS AND PARENTS OF CHILD VIEWERS
















By

CHRISTINA REGAN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my parents for supporting me both emotionally and financially throughout

my college career. Without their love and encouragement I would not be where I am

today. I also thank my advisor and committee members for their guidance and

responsive assistance, no matter how short notice the request.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGMENTS ............................................... ii

LIST OF TABLES ................................................. v

LIST OF FIGURES ............ .................................... vi

ABSTRACT ............. ....................................... vii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................ 3

Critique of Comm ercialization ................................. ..... 7
Defense of Commercialization ................................. 13
Theoretical Fram ew ork . .......... ............................... 16
Research Questions ..................... .................... 23
Hypothesis ............ ................................... 23

3 METHODOLOGY ............................................ 24

Sample ............. ............................. ........... 25
Measurement ............ .......................... ........... 25
Analysis ............. ....................................... 27
Limitations ............. ..................................... 27

4 RESULTS ................................................... 28

Description of Sample ............................................. 28
Results That Test the Hypothesis ............................... 29
A additional Analysis .............. ................................... 35

5 DISCUSSION ................................................ 43

6 CONCLUSION ............................................... 48









APPENDIX

A SURVEY ................................................... 51

B ORIGINAL SCALE OF RELATIONSHIP STRENGTH INDICATORS ........ 55

REFERENCES .................................................. 57

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................ 60

















LIST OF TABLES


I


Factor analysis of the instrument used to measure relationship strength ......

Factor analysis of the instrument used to measure level commercial perception

Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and intimacy ........

Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and partner quality ...

Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and commitment .....

Descending mean scores of the 16 relationship strength survey questions . .


)age

. 30

. 32

.33

. 34

.35

.36


7 Child viewing frequency


. . . . . . . . . . . 3 7


Parent viewing frequency ............................

Frequency data of overall attitude toward PBS ...........

Frequency table for question 22 .......................

Frequency table for question 23 .......................

Frequency table for question 24 .......................

Frequency table for question 25 .......................

Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors

Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors

Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors

Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors


and question 22

and question 23

and question 24

and question 25
and question 25


Table

1

2

3

4

5

6


. .37

. .37

. .38

. 38

. .38

. 39

.. 40

.. 40

. 41

. 41















LIST OF FIGURES

Figures page

1 Conceptual Model of Relationship Strength ...................... 22

2 Ethnic Frequency ................................................ 28

3 Gender Frequency ............................................... 28

4 Income Frequency ............................................... 29

5 Age Frequency .............................................. 29














Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

THE EFFECTS OF CREEPING COMMERCIALISM ON CHILDREN'S PUBLIC
TELEVISION PROGRAMMING ON THE STRENGTH OF RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN PBS AND PARENTS OF CHILD VIEWERS

By

Christina Regan

May 2005

Chair: Churchill Roberts
Major Department: Mass Communication

Over the years corporate sponsor messages before and after children's public

television programming on PBS have begun to look increasingly more commercialized.

In this multi-channel media environment, a competitive edge is necessary for survival. In

order to compete with cable and other commercial networks, PBS has adopted a more

market-driven business model. Critics argue this decision weakens PBS' position in the

market and essentially goes against its mission of noncommercial public service

broadcasting.

The purpose of this study was to first determine if parents perceive this increased

commercialization and second to see if that perception had any effect on their strength of

relationship with PBS. The data collected from the survey research demonstrated no

significant correlation between perceived commercialism and PBS/parent relationship

strength.









This result supports consumer brand relationship theory which suggests that brand

images are able to withstand acts of transgression (increased commercialism) as long as

they possess positive brand qualities. In the case of PBS, their high quality educational

children's programming outweighs any detrimental effects increased commercialism may

have on their relationship with parents of child viewers.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

One day an Arab and his camel were crossing the desert. At night the Arab pitched
his tent and the camel asked the Arab if he could put his nose in for warmth. The
Arab agreed. So the camel's nose became warm and after a while the temperature
dropped. This time the camel asked the Arab if he could put his fore legs in
because they were very cold. The Arab reluctantly agreed. After sometime, the
camel told the Arab that if he did not warm his hind legs he would be unable to
walk the next morning. Again the Arab agreed. But once the camel's hind legs
were in there was no room for the Arab and he was kicked out. (Singh, 2000)


"The Camel and the Arab", a fable from Ancient India, serves as a cautionary tale

shedding light on the issue of "creeping commercialism" currently facing public

television in the United States. The once absolute laws written into the Communications

Act of 1934, banning all forms of advertising on public stations, have been tweaked and

stretched to the point where euphemisms like "enhanced underwriter acknowledgments"

are now commonplace. They are used to disguise the distinctly commercial presence of

advertiser messages that has recently invaded the public airwaves. However,

euphemisms cannot hide their true nature forever and people are finally starting to

wonder whether or not the legendary camel's nose has officially slipped under the tent

(Redmont, 2000).

This past December, the University of Chicago held a conference titled The Future

of Public Television. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate a discussion on

ways to secure public television's future. Industry professionals such as John Lawson,

president and CEO of the Association of Public Television Stations (APTS), and

academics such as Dale Kunkel, professor of communication at the University of






2

Arizona, assembled to discuss this pertinent topic. During the "open mike" section of the

seminar devoted to children's public television programming, the one same question

seemed to be common amongst the audience; where will PBS draw the line in regards to

the commercialization of its coveted children's programming?

At the threshold of this new digital era, PBS, and the local stations that support it,

have come to a crossroads; should public television be allowed to continue down

commercial lane and hope for the best, or should funding strategies be revised to allow

for a truly noncommercial public network to pave the way into the 21st century of digital

communication? This line of questioning seems to be continually directed at children's

programming due to children's massive media consumption and susceptibility to the

pitfalls of increased commercialism. The image of child as consumer is one that many

have problems with, especially when in reference to supposedly noncommercial PBS

programming.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

PBS KIDS is the branch of PBS that is specifically devoted to children. It promises

to broaden children's horizons through learning, discovery and play. The PBS web site

assures viewers and parents that PBS programs are designed to help children develop

cognitive, social, emotional and physical skills. PBS KIDS is dedicated to producing

high quality educational programming and therefore, makes sure that experienced

educational television producers involve children, educational researchers, parents,

teachers, day care providers and subject-matter experts during development and

production of all programs. PBS producers are also required to provide educational

support materials for children and their parents. This supplemental material encourages

children to venture away from the television toward a more independent routine of

learning and discovering ("PBS KIDS," 2004). Public television programming inspires

children to try new things every day. As they sing in one of PBS' popular children's

programs ZOOM, "If you like what you see, turn off the TV, and do it!"

PBS KIDS' new advertising campaign demonstrates the network's commitment to

helping kids live up to their potential with the slogan "Be More." PBS is well aware of

the growing competition from commercial stations and they know the one advantage they

have over these competing networks is brand identity. Lesli Rotenburg, PBS Senior Vice

President of Brand Management and Strategic Positioning, said that "The trust that

parents place in our brand is tremendously important to us at PBS and it's something that

we want to continue to build" (PBS KIDS Children's Media Brand," 2002, para.2). One






4

of the advertisements in the print campaign, directed by the ad agency One and All,

illustrates the PBS objective of helping kids' imaginations take flight. A young boy is

pictured being held in the air with arms outstretched like an airplane. The headline reads,

"You can tell him he can't fly, but he'll never hear you over the roar of the engines."

The rest of the copy continues, "At PBS KIDS, shows like Dragon Tales, spark your

child's imagination, encouraging him to believe in all kinds of things, especially himself.

And once kids believe in themselves they can rise above just about anything." The tag

line concludes, "PBS KIDS: Be More Empowered" ("PBS KIDS Children's Media

Brand," 2002, para. 6).

This "Be More" campaign is an excellent branding tool that solidifies PBS'

position in the market. However, in the current multichannel media environment, it is not

enough to simply have a solid position. A network must possess a unique angle. Unlike

any other network, PBS KIDS provides quality programming free of commercial

intrusion. However, due to loosened guidelines and insufficient funding, this novel brand

image is teetering on an unstable edge.

A type of funding resource, known as underwriting acknowledgments, has been

eating away at the noncommercial foundation of public television for years. Recently,

underwriting spots on public television have begun to look more and more like real

commercials. When the Communications Act of 1934 was first passed it forbade

noncommercial stations from accepting monetary compensation for airing spots that

aimed to "promote any service, facility or product offered by any person who is engaged

in such offering for profit." (Redmont, 2000, para.3) This restriction was made in an

attempt to prevent any form of commercials, beyond the obligatory announcement of a

supporting company's name, from appearing on noncommercial stations. However,






5

during President Ronald Reagan's era of deregulation this tenet of the Act was essentially

ignored.

In 1984, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reworked the policy

and allowed public broadcasters to air enhanced underwriter acknowledgments. The

enhancement meant the inclusion of "value neutral" product line or service descriptions

and corporate slogans and logos that served to identify, rather than promote. In the past,

PBS set up strict guidelines that limited enhanced underwriter spots to 15 seconds. As

recently as 1999 a study by the PBS board found that it was uncommon for local stations

to air spots over 15 seconds (Redmont, 2000). However, the public broadcasting

landscape is rapidly changing. Richard Lehner, general manager of WUFT-TV (PBS

GAINESVILLE), says that "Now most local public stations air 30 second spots and

rarely restrict themselves to the guidelines set up by PBS" (personal communication,

September 17, 2004). He describes the history of underwriter acknowledgments in terms

of a spectrum. On one end of the spectrum there are strict guidelines monitoring content

and time constraints and on the other end there lies a more relaxed environment run by

local stations interested in keeping up revenue streams amidst a growing competitive

market. Lehner says that "Years ago we were way over to the left, nowhere near what we

were permitted to do by law. Now we have shifted all the way to the other side placing

us right on the edge of what the law allows us to do" (personal communication,

September 17, 2004).

The local stations are not the only ones pushing the envelope. The 30-second

spots have infiltrated PBS' national lineup as well. Now executives are looking to lower

the price of these lengthened credits in the hopes of appealing to even more corporate

underwriters. Jeremy Egner (2004), journalist for Current, a newspaper about public






6

television and radio in the United States, calls attention to the irony of this newfound

tolerance. He says that:

As the economy and competition make it harder to sell underwriting, public TV
stations increasingly accept the lengthened credits. PBS itself no longer opposes
them, as it did in 1995 when it caused a near-rebellion by trying to extend national
15-second limits to local credits airing adjacent to PBS programs. (para. 4)

In other words, PBS may be lagging behind the local public stations when it comes to

acceptance of increased commercialism, but the fact remains that they are warming up to

an idea they once vehemently opposed.

In her chapter "Advertising on Public Television: A Look at PBS" from the book

Public Broadcasting and the Public Interest, Judi Cook (2003) examines the reality of

commercial influences on PBS. Through a content analysis of WGBH-2 (PBS

BOSTON), Cook analyzes the extent to which corporate sponsorships have become a

staple of PBS programming. Cook draws interesting conclusions from her results that

point to children as being a favorite target of corporate sponsors (p. 85).

The results of her study showed the largest amount of underwriting appeared in

the 8:00-10:00 AM slot with the next largest slot being 6:00-8:00 AM. The fact that

children's programming appears during these segments suggests that children are the

most targeted consumers. Cook also looked at the genre of each underwriting spot and

finds that they fall into three main categories; arts/culture, children and history. Of the

three possible genres, 82.5% of underwriting spots appeared before and after children's

programming, again suggesting that children are the targeted consumers of PBS

underwriting (p.89).

Cook also coded underwriting spots into 11 business categories; food and

beverage, toys, technology, telecommunications, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, retail-

general, financial and insurance, entertainment, apparel and jewelry, automobiles, and






7

education. The two largest product categories were "food and beverage" at 35.1% and

"toys" at 11.5%. This again supports the idea that children are being targeted as

consumers on public television. Corporations such as Juicy Juice, Kellogg's, Chuck E.

Cheese and KB toys view PBS as a viable resource for attracting their most sought after

audience-kids. Cook also mentioned that the inclusion of corporate logos and symbols

present in 93.8% of the sample spots was significant in that it gave children, many of

whom are too young to read, something to understand and retain (p.91-92).

Cook concludes that advertising on public television is "alive and well," and

disturbingly pointed at children. "Reducing children to commodities and serving them

up to underwriters is not exactly something one normally associates with public

television. And yet, this appears to be the way of the future" (p.93).

Ultimately, it becomes a matter of whether the ends justify the means. PBS KIDS

is an essential component of the television industry. It embodies the pure goal of not

only teaching children the facts about math, science and history, but also of encouraging

them to love learning and believe in themselves. Does public television's contribution to

child development justify the use of commercials as a funding resource? Or, does public

television's distorted claims of being noncommercial while displaying blatant forms of

commercialism justify a change in the system? The above discussion clearly presents the

importance of this issue. However, before any decision-making or policy proposals can

be introduced, both sides of the issue must be explained.

Critique of Commercialization

Critics of "creeping commercialism" believe PBS learned the wrong lessons from

its competitors. Cable networks such as The Disney Channel and Nickelodeon are

backed by giant corporations with a great deal of time and money to spend on creating

quality children's programming. This programming is in direct competition with what






8

PBS has to offer. Instead of retaining its uniqueness and increasing the entertainment

value of its shows, PBS focused on letting advertisers increase the production value of

their commercials. This mistake eliminated the one thing that distinguished PBS from its

competitors-no advertising (Guterman, 2003, para. 1).

Corporate underwriters are given liberties, in the form of message enhancement,

that exceed simple identification and flirt heavily with outright promotion. In his book

Made Possible By... The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States, James

Ledbetter (1997) refers to underwriter acknowledgments in the early 1980's as "dull,

tombstone-like on-screen promotions." In the late 1980s, PBS allowed underwriters to

add their logos, store locations and even descriptions of their products into their

messages. Today corporations produce full-motion video productions for their

underwriting spots complete with music, actors and graphics. These enhanced spots are

not simply a function of improving technologies. They are a testament to underwriters'

willingness to invest in a high quality production they believe will attract a desired

audience. The days of philanthropic donations are over; now program funding comes

directly from the advertising departments of contributing corporations (Cook, 2003,

p.90).

Critics argue that these extended liberties and funding flaws gamble with a parent's

ability to trust PBS KIDS. They expose children to a form of advertising that by the

historical definition of noncommercial public television should not exist. Sesame Street,

a show devoted to the education of children and noncommercialism, used to end each

episode with the familiar tagline, "this show has been brought to you by the letter Z and

the number 2." Now at the end of Sesame Street, children and parents are forced to listen

to a new commercial tune. "Pfizer brings parents the letter Z for Zithromax." This audio

is then accompanied by an enhanced underwriter acknowledgment featuring children in






9

front of a chalkboard learning the "ABC's of antibiotics" (Cook, 2003, p.86). The spot

promises that more information on Zithromax is "just a click away" and gives the

audience the pharmaceutical company's web address. In its March 2000 letter to PBS

entitled "The Commercialism of Children's Public Television," the activist group FAIR

argued that "The Zithromax ad's exotic animals and outsized toys, meant to evoke the

product's logo, also serve to make a prescription-only drug appealing to preschool

viewers" (FAIR, 2000, para.6). Ledbetter (1997) and other critics like him believe this

type of marketing on a "system conceived as an advertising-free beacon of

enlightenment" is unacceptable on public television (p. 17).

Another example of how underwriters have pushed the commercial envelope can

be found in products that are much more familiar to children than Zithromax. One ad

announces, "Chuck E. Cheese proudly supports PBS KIDS' television, where a kid can

be a kid." This voice-over, combined with the Chuck E. Cheese jingle and mascot,

creates a certain ambiguity surrounding whether PBS or Chuck E. Cheese is the place

where a kid can be a kid. McDonald's is another sponsor that blurs this line between

slogan identification and promotion. In their announcement an animated Ronald

McDonald opens a book releasing a red happy meal box. The trademark golden arches

take flight and transform the dull room into a magical wonderland. The voice over says,

"McDonald's is happy to support children's television." The unnecessary visual aspects

of this ad blatantly connect McDonald's Happy Meals with having fun (FAIR, 2000).

Other underwriters go even further and link their products to helping kids learn and

enjoy reading. For example, the Arthur sponsor, Post Alpha Bits cereal, tells its viewers

about, "Post Alpha-Bits cereal: 26 little letters that make up a million words, that tell

billions of stories- and it all starts with ABC." FAIR suggested this type of message






10

falsely linked a cereal with getting kids excited about reading and urged PBS to use

stricter guidelines for underwriter messages (FAIR, 2000).

The above examples illustrate how PBS stations seem to be accelerating toward

commercialism. This acceleration not only negatively impacts how parents, children and

society as a whole may view PBS, but it also impacts Congress. In an article published

in Current entitled "We take another step in a seductive dance with commerce," Willard

Rowland (2003) says that "Our weakening position on noncommercialism makes it

difficult to tell Congress that we remain true to basic 'noncommercial, educational'

tenets" (para. 10). In other words, PBS is sending out a subtle message that it is content

to replace federal funding with growing commercial support.

This notion of commercialism does not preside solely in the underwriting credits

before and after PBS programs. Commercialism has even broader implications when it is

addressed in the form of merchandising. Popular shows such as Barney & Friends and

Teletubbies have raked in millions of dollars from merchandising. This accomplishment

has created another source of controversy for the public stations. In a Journal of

Business EtJii, article entitled "Ethics and the Business of Children's Public Television

Programming," William Brown (2002) asks; "Does the mass marketing of character-

related merchandise, such as the 'tickle me Elmo' doll during the holiday season, cross a

moral line" (p. 74)? Brown goes on to argue that this type of merchandising taints the

sanctity of the noncommercial ideal and sacrifices the moral trust of the public. The

merchandising market is where the idea of licensing gets to the heart of the business of

children's television programming.

Book licensing is an important endeavor in the publishing industry. The publishing

industry analyzes the children's market and actively pursues licensed books from PBS

programs. Scholastic Entertainment targets preschoolers with its Teletubbies books and






11

early readers with its Arthur titles. "The fact that licensers plan their licensing and

promotional strategies a year and a half before a TV show premieres raises questions

about whether the 'educational' content of the programming drives the book marketing or

if merchandising possibilities drive the program content" (p.77). Money collected from

licensing agreements is another source of revenue that supports PBS. If licensers are

tempted to back the shows that have the most merchandising potential it would be safe to

assume that this form of commercialism is driving program content. This idea of

merchandising potential could also be the reason behind the recent shift in PBS KIDS'

program format from live action to animation.

A 2002 Markle Foundation study interviewed children's media professionals and

found that they believe PBS is drifting away from its educational mission. They blame

this transgression partly on the network's over reliance on animated programs. Years

ago, the dominant form of programming on PBS was live action shows such as Sesame

Street, Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and Reading Rainbow. Experts say these types of

shows benefit children. Dorothy Singer, CO- Director of the Television and Consultation

Center at Yale University and consultant on Barney & Friends, cites research that

suggests kids learn more from shows containing at least one real-life character. Daniel

Anderson, a psychology professor at the University of Massachusetts and national

advisory board member for PBS' Ready to Learn program, agrees with Singer and

stresses the importance of children detecting real people that act as a bridge between

reality and imagination (McGuinn, 2002, para.30).

Nowadays, when tuned to PBS KIDS, one is more likely to see a cartoon than a

live action show. Cartoons became such a popular genre that now 15 out of the 25 shows

on PBS KIDS are animated. Many critics are not bothered by the educational integrity of






12

animation, but they believe it is more an issue of quantity. The abundance of cartoons

limits the presence of a diverse program schedule, thus limiting educational possibilities.

There are distinct economic benefits that go along with a dominantly animated

schedule. It is easy to replace the English-speaking cartoons with foreign language

voice-overs, which makes for a seamless transition into the overseas market. Animated

characters, such as Arthur, work well in the merchandising market of toys, tooth brushes,

pajamas etc. PBS does receive a certain amount of the profits from merchandising deals,

but most of the money goes right back to the authors or production companies that

conceptualize many of the shows. Knowing they can bank on merchandising profits and

international rights, producers are willing to sell an animated program to PBS for much

less than a live action show (McGuinn, 2002). All these factors boil down to one thing;

animation is cheap. For both children and parents money, rather than public service, has

become the bottom line for the public broadcasting system.

It is evident that various forms of commercialism have successfully crept their way

into the public television sphere. This critique has clearly revealed two ways in which

programming has felt the effects. One, underwriter acknowledgments after children's

programming have become so enhanced that they serve to promote products to children,

rather than simply identify them. And, two, educational content is at the mercy of

whatever programs production companies think will be most profitable. The title of

Rowland's (2003) article equates PBS' growing commercial relationship with a seductive

dance. Enhanced underwriter acknowledgments and licensing control are just two more

steps PBS has taken in this dance. The remaining question is whether the music will

ever stop or will this dance continue until public television is a shadow of its former self?






13

Defense of Commercialization

However, not everyone is against this shift toward a more commercial public

broadcasting system. In PBS' defense, the reason for the increasing commercialization is

perfectly understandable. In 1967 the Carnegie Commission was established to address

the issue of advertisers ability to influence the range and quality of programs available to

viewers on commercial television. The Carnegie Commission foresaw public television

as an alternative to commercial television. "It clearly positioned public television as a

noncommercial alternative to the market-driven content of commercial television. And

yet the public broadcasting system was never fully equipped to operate without the help

of corporate sponsorship" (Cook, 2003). From its inception public television was

handicapped when attempts to fund it with a 2% tax on television receivers was denied.

As the market becomes more and more competitive and government support continues to

dwindle, PBS and its local affiliates have become increasingly vulnerable to the lure of

corporate sponsorships. With its back against the wall, private sponsors seem like the

easiest way out of public television's financial troubles (Rowland, 2003).

Defenders of commercial support as a viable funding resource for PBS believe

advertising will neither destroy public television's integrity nor influence its

programming content. The PBS web site boasts that funding sources for public television

are more diverse than any other media outlet in the country. Contrary to the critics belief

that the money received from corporate sponsors will govern all content, defenders argue

that the above mentioned funding diversity is a key element in the preservation of a free

and independent public television system. Therefore, PBS welcomes national program

underwriters from a variety of companies.

Defenders also believe that increased underwriter acknowledgments will have little

effect on the public's trust in the PBS brand image. Mike Hardgrove, president of






14

KETC-TV in St. Louis, conducted a focus group study and concluded that viewers

already think underwriting is advertising and are not bothered by it-as long as it remains

tasteful (Behrens, 1995). Also, a 2004 Roper Poll commissioned by the Public

Broadcasting Service suggests increased commercialization has had little impact on the

public trust. According to the poll, PBS is the most trusted organization in America,

beating out three branches of government and the rest of the media (Eggerton, 2004).

The largest block of PBS programming last season consisted of 801 hours of

children's programming (38%). PBS programs are watched each week by an average of

87 million viewers. These statistics show that PBS KIDS is well-equipped to compete

with cable networks, such as Discovery Kids, whose audience is less than half of that of

PBS (Auletta, 2004). Also, as long as acknowledgments are aired during station breaks,

rather than in the middle of programs, PBS will retain the essential uniqueness separating

it from the rest of the commercial networks. PBS uses a second unique angle, lack of

clutter, in order to sell air-time to corporations. This gives PBS an incentive to limit the

amount and length of its commercials. This idea directly contradicts critics beliefs that

commercialism will become more and more prevalent until all lines of separation have

been erased. Therefore, creeping commercialism has not shown any significant impact

on PBS' ability to capture the public trust or maintain its competitive edge and

uniqueness.

In terms of animation, PBS believes this format both attracts kids and offers an

educational and pro-social curriculum. Sandra Calvert, a Georgetown University

professor who has written widely on children's television, praises the benefits of

cartoons. She believes that "Unlike Sesame Street, which jumps from scene to

unconnected scene (a 'magazine format'), the cartoons unfold as narratives which can

help children develop their memories and understand literary concepts like






15

foreshadowing" (McGuinn, 2002, para.31). PBS did not purposefully set out to create a

cartoon-dominated line-up. When the network was trying to strengthen its programming

it went after shows that engaged both children and their parents. Attractive economics

combined with the fact that so many of the PBS animated shows gained a popular

following, lead to a cartoon-dominated line-up that most people in the industry support.

Times are changing and defenders argue that critics of commercialism live in an

ideal world if they think PBS can survive without changing too. Some public

broadcasting executives argue that their stations should be given the option of converting

from "noncommercial" to "nonprofit" broadcasters, which would maintain high quality

standards, but sell commercials ("Should pubcasters go more commercial?," 2002). Hal

Bouton, president of WTVI-TV in North Carolina understands that some rural stations

may need federal funding and state education grants to continue operation. However,

community stations in medium to large markets may not have these options due to

decreased federal funding and must turn to advertising as a viable alternative. Bouton

(1995) urges public stations to:

Change with the times or be responsible for the loss of our important role in the
modern telecommunications environment. Let's take control of our future, not have
it dictated by Congress. They have given us the opportunity to steer a new course.
Let's make the most of this opportunity to build an even stronger public
broadcasting system for our nation. (para.9)

A nonprofit broadcasting license would still work to serve the public interest. The only

difference would be the undisputed acceptance of a more flexible and lucrative revenue

source.

Both sides of this debate have merit. Critics think that loosening underwriting

regulations is a violation of the PBS mission statement. As public television goes more

and more commercial, not only with enhanced underwriting acknowledgments, but with

merchandising as well, it jeopardizes the public trust and allows commercialism to






16

intrude on coveted educational content. Defenders, on the other hand, believe going

commercial is a logical and necessary step to competing against established commercial

networks. As Daniel Anderson, board member for PBS' Ready to Learn program said,

"It's simply a matter of survival" (personal communication, November 15, 2004).

While scholars and media professionals may not agree on the effects of

commercialism on PBS KIDS, it is clear that one can study these effects by examining

the relationship between the PBS and its viewers. So far, research concerning this topic

has been biased and over-generalized. For example, PBS was praised as being the

number one most trusted organization in the country in a 2004 study commissioned by

PBS. It is difficult to establish survey credibility when the organization at the top of the

list is the very organization that commissioned the study. It is also hard to assume that

public opinion polls concerning PBS as a whole can be used to describe public opinion

specifically concerning children's programming. A poll commissioned by the

Corporation for Public Broadcasting (PBS's funding counterpart) suggested that the

public is largely accepting of the amount of commercial activity engaged in by public

television (Market Facts, CPB Report, 1997). However, this sentiment may be very

different when the lens is focused on PBS KIDS, as children, lacking in cognitive

development, are more vulnerable to commercial messages (Paradise, 2004).

Theoretical Framework

This literature review has revealed that the relationship between the public and

PBS is the key to discovering the tangible consequences to creeping commercialism. By

studying the relationship between PBS and its consumers it may be possible to predict

whether increased commercialism will have detrimental effects on PBS' image and

subsequently its sources of revenue (i.e. member donations). It is important to look at

this issue through the framework of relationship theory. This theory provides a plethora






17

of information concerning the purpose of relationships and what needs to be present for

them to remain stable.

Susan Fournier's (1998) article "Consumers and Their Brands: Developing

Relationship Theory in Consumer Research," provides a framework for better

understanding the relationships consumers form with the brands they use. In this case,

consumers are viewers and the brand they know and use is PBS. By studying the

relationship between viewers and PBS, it can be determined whether the actions of PBS

concerning commercialism are accepted by the public or are interpreted as a

transgression that fosters instability and relational deterioration.

Relationship theory incorporates four core assumptions. First, relationships

involve an equal exchange between active and interrelated partners. Second,

relationships are purposeful, involving meaning to the persons who engage them. Third,

relationships range across several dimensions and take many forms, providing a

multitude of possible benefits for each participant. Fourth, relationships evolve and

change over a series of interactions and in response to alterations in the environment

(Fournier, 1998). These four assumptions, abbreviated as reciprocity, meaning,

multiplicity and temporality, are discussed below.

Fournier notes that in order for a relationship to truly exist, interdependence and a

mutual effort (reciprocity) between partners must be present. "The partners must

collectively affect, define and redefine the relationship" (Fournier, p.344). She then goes

on to conceptualize the brand as an active participant in the relationship, rather than a

passive object of marketing strategies. Personification of the brand highlights a way in

which the brand can be involved in a partnership with the consumer. "The human

activity of anthropomorphizing inanimate objects has been identified as universal in

virtually all societies" (Brown, 1991). Theories of animism suggest that there is a need






18

to attribute human qualities to inanimate objects in order to interact with the nonmaterial

world. Consumers are extremely willing to think about brands as if they were human,

assigning them personal qualities the same way they would a friend (Aaker, 1997). This

willingness suggests an acceptance of brands as a reciprocal member of the consumer-

brand relationship.

Relationships are developed for specific reasons and foster a great deal of meaning.

"Since the relationship is, in essence what the relationship means, understanding a given

relationship requires a mastery of the meanings the relationship provides to the person

who engages it" (Fournier, 1998, p.346). Fournier discusses the psychological as a major

source of meaning.

Psychologically, relationships may help resolve life themes involving profound

changes or small daily occurrences (Csikszentmihalyi and Beattie, 1979). These

profound themes are rooted in personal history and thus, central to one's concept of self.

They are role-changing events, such as graduation or retirement. Relationships are also

rooted in the present concerns of completing daily tasks (Klinger, 1987). These

relationships have little effect on one's self-concept. To put this explanation of

psychological meaning into context, a relationship between a parent and PBS KIDS may

be meaningful in terms of current concerns. In other words, parents use the network as a

sort of baby-sitter to keep the children entertained while they complete important work.

Fournier (1998) notes that relationships may add significant meaning to the lives of

people that engage in them.

The last two core assumptions of relationship theory are multiplicity and

temporality. Relationships are so intricate and multifaceted that it is important to

distinguish them using certain criteria. For example, relationships can be categorized by

the nature of the benefits they bestow upon each participant. These benefits may be






19

psychological (reassurance of self worth, announcement of image, social integration) or

they may be rewards of security, guidance, comfort, etc. (Fournier, 1998). Relationships

are also categorized by the types of bonds formed between the participants. These bonds

may be obligatory ones lacking in significant emotional involvement. Or, they may be

emotionally based, ranging in intensity from casual friendships to passionate love affairs

(Fehr & Russell, 1991).

Temporality is a necessary assumption made to differentiate a relationship from an

isolated encounter. Relationships are a series of exchanges occurring within an evolving

environment. The process of relationship development is compartmentalized into five

phases; initiation, growth, maintenance, deterioration and dissolution (Levinger, 1983).

Each stage determines a change in nature (progression from friends to lovers) or level of

intensity (increase or decrease in the amount of emotional involvement) of the

relationship. These stages get at the heart of what relationship theory is all about and

how it can be used to study the effects of a problem, such as creeping commercialism.

The above review of relationship theory illustrates how "the projects, concerns and

themes that people use to define themselves can be played out in the cultivation of brand

relationships and how those relationships, in turn, can affect the cultivation of one's self

concept" (Fournier, 1998). It is equally important to understand not only how people are

affected by the relationships they form, but what qualities and situations make those

relationships strong in the first place.

According to the article "When Good Brands Do Bad" by Jennifer Aaker, Susan

Fournier and Adam Brasel (2004), two factors influence the direction and stability of

relational bonds. The first factor is called personality effects on relationships. Research

has shown that relationships are influenced by the personalities of the partners involved.

Different characteristics such as status, vitality, openness, etc., are all observed and noted






20

during relational interactions. Each person takes these personality traits into account and

constructs a mental image of the partner's role in the relationship (Aaker et al., 2004).

The above mentioned article identifies two templates of brand personalities; sincere and

exciting.

Sincere personalities are very popular with classic brand products such as Hallmark

and Coca Cola. This strategy is either used by small companies to gain the warmer more

caring competitive advantage or by large companies to appear more accessible and down-

to-earth. Research shows that sincere brands promote a nurturing, warm, family-oriented

and traditional image. All of these qualities are positively associated with relationship

strength. Sincerity also captures a partner's trustworthiness and dependability, which are

two important qualities for relationship growth.

A second personality type is referred to as the exciting brand image. This image is

built around qualities of energy, youthfulness and innovation. Critics argue that although

this tactic is attention getting, it can sometimes appear too gimmicky in the eyes of the

consumer. Therefore the exciting brand image may harbor disadvantages in maintaining

legitimate long-term relationships (Aaker et al., 2004).

In addition to personality effects, an act of transgression is the second factor that

influences relationship stability. "Transgression refers to a violation of the implicit or

explicit rules guiding relationship performance and evaluation" (Metts, 1994). It is

argued that the way problems are resolved within a relationship reveals the strength of

that bond more than all the positive attributes put together. In other words, the true status

of a relationship is made evident under adverse conditions. "Transgressions provide

opportunities for learning about the qualities of the relationship partner, which guides

subsequent development paths. Accordingly, although transgressions will vary in their

severity and cause and differ in their ultimate negotiations, all are significant in their






21

ability to affect relationship progress" (Aaker et al., 2004). Research has shown that

once transgressions start affecting consumer perception of brand image, it is extremely

difficult to slow the relationship decline. Despite recovery efforts that may appear

successful in the short run, this deterioration will continue to occur (Maxham &

Netemeyer, 2002).

More optimistic researchers believe negative transgressions can be rectified. "Of

particular note is the relationship context in which transgression is committed, such that

relationship-serving biases dilute the negative effects of transgressions in strong unions

and past positives cancel them in the long-standing relations" (Aaker et al., 2004, p.3).

Partners possessing positive personality traits may also successfully counteract the effects

of transgressions.

At this point, clear indicators are needed to determine overall relationship quality,

depth and strength. A conceptual model of relationship quality developed from research

in the interpersonal field can serve as an excellent starting point for establishing a

coherent framework. The following flowchart taken from Fournier's (1998) research on

relationship theory illustrates the above-mentioned framework.









Brand Partner Quality




Satisfaction Self-Connection Commitment Intimacy Partner Quality




Relationship Strength/Stability
Figure 1. Conceptual Model of Relationship Strength

Conceptual Definitions: (Fournier, 1998 and Aaker et al., 2004)

Satisfaction- Happiness in the relationship; does the brand perform as well as
expected?

Self-Connection- The degree to which the brand delivers on important identity
concerns, tasks or themes, expressing a significant aspect of self.

Commitment- An enduring desire to continue the relationship combined with a to
make efforts toward that end.

Intimacy- The presence of an elaborate knowledge structure around the brand
image.

Partner Quality- The perceived status of the role of the partner coming from the
consumer's judgment of the brand's overall dependability, reliability and
predictability in executing its role in the partnership and the brands adherence to
the rules governing the relationship.

Figure 1 and the following conceptual definitions provide a foundation for future

research to be built upon. Different aspects of the relationship between PBS and the

public have been alluded to in the analysis of relationship theory. Upon initial

investigation, it seems PBS is more than just another network. In comparison to

commercial networks, PBS can boast a certain amount of sincerity and integrity. It is

trusted by the community and therefore attains high levels of brand partner quality.

Earlier this year, Angela Paradise, a doctoral student at the University of

Massachusetts, conducted a focus group study among parents of PBS viewers. From her






23

interviews, Paradise detected four highly interrelated themes pertaining to the

commercialization of PBS KIDS: (1) the presence of corporate underwriting; (2) the

branding, licensing, and merchandising of PBS KIDS; (3) the blurring of PBS KIDS with

network and cable television; and (4) the positioning of the young child as a consumer

(Paradise, 2004). Since these issues have already been assessed in a qualitative manner,

it is only natural that future research would involve a quantitative study to determine

whether there is a relationship between parent's perceived awareness of commercialism

and the strength of their relationship with PBS. Therefore, in order to better understand

this issue, a relationship study using the above mentioned conceptual model must be

conducted.

Research Questions

RQ 1: Are parents aware of the increased commercialism on PBS KIDS?

RQ2: How does perceived commercialism affect the strength of the relationship
between parents and PBS?

Hypothesis

H: If parents perceive commercialism before and after children's programming on
PBS to have increased, then their relationship with PBS across the five factors
(commitment, satisfaction, intimacy, partner quality and self-connection) will
weaken.

Ho: The relationship between parents and PBS will be neither positively nor
negatively affected by perception of commercialism.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

In order to answer the research questions proposed in the literature review a

quantitative study examining the relationship between two variables was conducted. One

criterion needed to determine the existence of a relationship is a correlation between

those two variables. In this case, the independent variable is perceived commercialism,

while the dependent variable is strength of the relationship between parents of child

viewers and PBS. Perceived commercialism refers to a parent's awareness of the

commercial atmosphere surrounding PBS KIDS (i.e. length, number and production

value of underwriter acknowledgments and presence of PBS characters linked to products

in the corporate world). Strength of the viewer-brand relationship refers to how much

parents adhere to the conceptual definitions of the relationship strength indicators defined

in the above section.

The proposed method for this study is survey research. A questionnaire using two

different scales to measure the independent and the dependent variable was developed

and distributed to all members of the sample. The questionnaire was designed and pre-

tested using proper structure and wording in order to control for response error. After

modifications from the pre-test were applied, a cover letter explaining the nature of the

study was attached to the survey and distributed to the sample.






25

Sample

The target population for this study is parents of children between the ages of 2 and

8 who watch children's programming on PBS. The best way to target people who adhere

to these specific requirements is to use both nursery and elementary schools as a sample

source. After contacting schools in the Gainesville area, directors from Early Years

Learning Center, My School Child Care Center and 02B KIDS! agreed to distribute the

surveys to the teachers of their 2-5 year old classes. The surveys were sent home with

the children and then returned to the directors by the parents. Due to funding and

transportation constraints these schools were chosen using a convenience method of

sampling and therefore results can not be generalized to the greater population.

Surveys were also distributed using a mailing list. After applying for research

approval, Mel Lucas, Director of Research and Testing at the Alachua County School

Board, released a mailing list of 100 randomly sampled parents with children between the

ages of 5-8 attending a variety of schools in Alachua County. Overall, surveys were

given to the parents of approximately 500 children. After a three week distribution and

collection period, 54 parents responded to the survey giving this study a 10.8% response

rate.

Measurement

Two separate scales were used in this study to measure the independent and

dependent variables. Throughout the initial research process a useful scale for measuring

the independent variable (perceived commercialism) could not be found. Therefore, a

new scale to measure this variable was developed. Respondents were asked four

questions dealing with whether or not they think commercialism surrounding PBS has

increased, stayed the same or decreased. These three options were spread over a five-

point scale. The four questions covered number, length and production value of






26

corporate sponsored messages and connection between PBS characters and products in

the commercial world (i.e. grocery and toy stores).

After the scale was constructed, it was pre-tested in a pilot study using a

convenience sample of 15 parents recruited from the Baby Gator Child Care Center on

the UF campus. Research participants made a few suggestions on how to reword

questions for clarity. Overall, pre-test results proved the survey questions were internally

consistent.

The second instrument, developed by Aaker, Fournier and Brasel (2004), is an

established measurement and has proven its reliability in previous research. The actual

scale used in this research was adapted in order to better measure the dependent variable

(see Appendix A). Similar to the scale of Aaker et al., the scale used in this study

incorporates the five relationship strength indicators, commitment, self-connection, brand

partner quality, satisfaction and intimacy. However, in this case, relationship strength

was measured using only 16 items of the originally 25-item scale. Certain questions from

the original scale had to be deleted because they did not make sense when asked in

reference to children's public television programming. This instrument used a 7-point

scale with a 9 option as unable to rate.

In previous research, the reliability of this scale was established using test-retest

method and the Cronbach alpha of all five indicators was calculated as higher than .85.

The internal reliability of this scale can be easily assessed by looking at the responses

across the 7-point scale and making sure they are consistent. One limitation of this

method is that the scale has been adapted and therefore, previously researched statistics

are less likely to apply to the new scale the same way they did to the original.






27

Analysis

Survey questions 6 through 21 were asked in order to determine the respondent's

strength of relationship with PBS. According to Aaker, Fournier and Brasel's (2004)

previous research, the questions are broken down into five factors of relationship

strength: commitment, self-connection, satisfaction, intimacy, and partner quality. In

order to determine the validity of these relationship strength indicators a factor analysis

was performed to see which items attracted high and distinct loadings on which relational

factors. These factors were then grouped into indices and their raw scores were

calculated.

A bivariate correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship

between the factors and each question of the instrument that measured the independent

variable (perceived commercialism). The Pearson correlation coefficient determined

whether or not the two variables were related. Descriptive statistics on the demographic

data were performed to get a better understanding of the sample. Analysis of variance

(ANOVA) was also run to see if there was any connection between perceived

commercialism and the relationship strength factors.

Limitations

Limitations of this study are apparent in the sample of participants. Not only is

the sample small, 54 respondents, but it is very homogenous and almost entirely

composed of white, middle to upper class women. The small sample size is due in large

part to the fact that surveys inherently produce a low response rate. Also, since the

survey questions targeted child caretakers, the over sampling of female respondents was

not surprising. Another limitation may have been the design of the two instruments used

to measure the independent and dependent variables. More sensitive scales may have

produced significant data.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Description of Sample

The demographic data at the end of the survey are summarized in the following

four bar graphs (Figures 2-5). These graphs illustrate the sample's predominance of

white females between the ages of 35 and 44. The sample's most diverse demographic

was income which had a fairly even distribution of respondents across the monetary

ranges.


Bhic Frary ^ GRFw4y^
















aff


Figure 2. Ethnic Frequency Figure 3. Gender Frequency

























Figure 4. Income Frequency Figure 5. Age Frequency

Results That Test the Hypothesis
In order to test for internal reliability of both instruments used in this study, a factor

analysis was performed. Even though the reliability of the relationship scale was
established in previous research, it is still necessary to run a factor analysis because this

study used an adaptation of the original instrument. By running this analysis it became

clear which relationship strength questions could be grouped together to form more

reliable dependent variables.

Table 1 shows survey questions measuring relationship strength can be separated

into three factors. Loadings were determined to be high and distinct if they were greater

than .8 and at least twice as big as any other loading for the corresponding question. For

example, question 10 had a high loading on factor one and it was also distinct because

.854 is twice as big as both .352 and .127. After analyzing all these numbers it was clear

that factor one is composed of questions 10, 12, 13, 16 and 18. Factor two is composed

of questions 15 and 17. The third and final factor had only one high and distinct loading

on question 9. Normally this would not be sufficient enough to warrant an entire factor,
on question 9. Normally this would not be sufficient enough to warrant an entire factor,






30

however, due to the exploratory nature of this research all possibilities were considered

and analyzed.

Originally the survey questions were grouped into five categories, self-connection,

partner quality, intimacy, satisfaction and commitment. After looking at the factor

analysis results these five categories were collapsed into three. The majority of the

questions in factor one measured intimacy. Intimacy as defined by Susan Fournier

(1998) involves the presence of an elaborate knowledge structure surrounding the brand

image. The questions in factor two measured partner quality. This relationship strength

indicator involves the consumer's judgment of the brand's overall dependability,

reliability and predictability in executing its role and adhering to the rules of the

relationship. The one question in factor three measured commitment or the enduring

desire to continue one's relationship with a brand.

Table 1. Factor analysis of the instrument used to measure relationship strength

Component

1 2 3

Q6: I am very loyal to children's programming on .715 .370 .389
PBS

Q7: I would continue to allow my child to watch .457 .601 -.344
children's programming on PBS even if it let me
down once or twice:

Q8: Children's programming on PBS is helping my .175 .711 .303
child better than I expected









Table 1. Continued

Component

1 2 3

Q9: I am so happy with children's programming on .135 .126 .861
PBS I no longer look to other networks as
alternatives for my child's television viewing

Q10: I am likely to have my child watch children's .854 .352 .127
programming on PBS one year from now

Q11: Overall, I am satisfied with children's .698 .560 .293
programming on PBS

Q12: PBS programming fits well with my current .826 .324 .289
stage of life

Q13: I am familiar with the range of children's .904 .155 -.089
programs and services PBS has to offer

Q14: PBS programming makes a statement about .293 .641 .369
what's important to me in life

Q15: I can always count on PBS to do what's best .218 .910 .080

Q16: I'd feel comfortable describing children's .814 .417 .165
programming on PBS to someone who was not
familiar with it

Q 17: PBS programming lets me be a part of a .262 .821 .137
community of like-minded viewers

Q18: I have become very knowledgeable about .815 .166 .184
children's programming on PBS

Q19: PBS really understands my needs in regards to .471 .597 .475
children's programming

Q20: I know I can hold PBS accountable for its .306 .686 .048
actions

Q21: Given my impression of PBS, letting me down .286 .508 .477
would surprise me

New Variables = Intimacy Partner Commit-
Quality ment

Table 2 is a factor analysis of the independent variable (perceived commercialism).

These four questions are highly related; therefore, it is no surprise that they only load on






32

to one factor. It is apparent from the table that these loadings are high, however, they can

not be considered distinct because only one component exists.


Table 2. Factor analysis of the instrument used to measure level commercial perception


Component

1

Q22: Do you think the number of corporate sponsors mentioned .816
before and after children's programming on PBS has decreased,
slightly decreased, stayed the same, slightly increased or increased?


Q23: Do you think the connection between characters on PBS .748
programs (i.e. Clifford, Arthur, etc) and commercial products (i.e.
toys, food, etc) has decreased, slightly decreased, stayed the same,
slightly increased or increased?

Q24: Do you think the length of corporate sponsor messages before .868
and after children's programming on PBS has decreased, slightly
decreased, stayed the same, slightly increased or increased?

Q25: Do you think the production value (i.e. mascots, logos, .914
animation) of corporate messages before and after children's
programming on PBS has decreased, slightly decreased, stayed the
same, slightly increased or increased?

Since this is a correlational study, the main finding that will lend support to the

hypothesis is a correlation between the three relationship strength indicators (determined

by the factor analysis in Table 1) and the four questions measuring the level of perceived

commercialism among parents. Tables 3-5 correlate intimacy, partner quality and

commitment with each of the perceived commercialism questions. The pearson

correlation coefficients and their significance are shown in boldface. None of the 12

cases shows any significant relationship between the two variables; therefore the data do

not support the hypothesis. The pearson correlation coefficient in every case is too low

and the significance value is too high for their to be any correlation between parents'

perception of commercialism on PBS and their relationship with the network.










Table 3. Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and intimacy
Intimacy
Q22: Do you think the number of Pearson Corr. -.057
corporate sponsors mentioned
before and after children's Sig. (2-tailed) .695
programming on PBS has
increased...stayed the same...or N 50
decreased?
Intimacy
Q23: Do you think the connection Pearson Corr. -.081
between characters on PBS
programs (i.e. Clifford, Arthur, etc) Sig. (2-tailed) .570
and commercial products (i.e. toys,
food, etc) has increased... .stayed N 51
the same... .decreased
Intimacy

Q24: Do you think the length of Pearson Corr. -.272
corporate sponsor messages before
and after children's programming Sig. (2-tailed) .053
on PBS has increased... .stayed the N 51
same... .or decreased?
Intimacy
Q25: Do you think the production Pearson Corr. -.127
value (i.e. mascots, logos,
animation) of corporate messages Sig. (2-tailed) .375
before and after children's
programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or N 51
decreased?










Table 4. Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and partner quality
Partner Quality
Q22: Do you think the number of Pearson Corr. -.051
corporate sponsors mentioned
before and after children's Sig. (2-tailed) .723
programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or
decreased? N 50

Partner Quality
Q23: Do you think the connection Pearson Corr. .032
between characters on PBS
programs (i.e. Clifford, Arthur, etc) Sig (2-tailed) .822
and commercial products (i.e. toys,
food, etc) has increased... .stayed
the same... .or decreased? N 51

Partner Quality
Q24: Do you think the length of Pearson Corr. -.146
corporate sponsor messages before
and after children's programming Sig. (2-tailed) .305
on PBS has increased... .stayed the
same.... or decreased? N 51

Partner Quality
Q25: Do you think the production Pearson Corr. .110
value (i.e. mascots, logos,
animation) of corporate messages
before and after children's
programming on PBS has Sig. (2-tailed) .440
increased... .stayed the same... .or
decreased?
N 51






35

Table 5. Correlation analysis between perceived commercialism and commitment
Commitment
Q22: Do you think the number of Pearson Corr. .114
corporate sponsors mentioned
before and after children's Sig. (2-tailed) .442
programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or N 48
decreased?
Commitment
Q23: Do you think the connection Pearson Corr. .084
between characters on PBS
programs (i.e. Clifford, Arthur, etc) Sig. (2-tailed) .571
and commercial products (i.e. toys,
food, etc) has increased... .stayed N 48
the same... .or decreased?
Commitment
Q24: Do you think the length of Pearson Corr. -.047
corporate sponsor messages before
and after children's programming Sig. (2-tailed) .753
on PBS has increased... .stayed the
same.... or decreased? N 48
Commitment
Q25: Do you think the production Pearson Corr. -.053
value (i.e. mascots, logos,
animation) of corporate messages Sig. (2-tailed) .723
before and after children's Sig. (2-tailed) .723
programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or N 48
decreased


Additional Analysis

Exploratory research requires a complete understanding of the data; therefore

additional tests were performed to see if any interesting trends surfaced. Mean scores

were calculated for all 16 survey questions measuring relationship strength. Table 6

shows these mean values along with their standard deviations in descending order. The

high average scores across the 16 relationship questions suggests a relatively positive

attitude toward PBS among parents.











Table 6. Descending mean scores of the 16 relationship strength survey questions
Mean Standard Deviation
Q10: I am likely to have my child watch children's 5.52 2.005
programming on PBS one year from now
Q11: Overall, I am satisfied with children's 5.34 1.911
programming on PBS
Q7: I would continue to allow my child to watch 5.29 1.684
children's programming on PBS even if it let me
down once or twice
Q13: I am familiar with the range of children's 5.15 1.954
programs and services PBS has to offer
Q16: I'd feel comfortable describing children's 5.13 1.794
programming on PBS to someone who was not
familiar with it
Q6: I am very loyal to children's programming on 5.12 2.047
PBS
Q12: PBS programming fits well with my current 4.98 1.892
stage of life
Q21: Given my impression of PBS, letting me down 4.92 1.748
would surprise me
Q18: I have become very knowledgeable about 4.56 1.500
children's programming on PBS
Q19: PBS really understands my needs in regards to 4.48 1.820
children's programming
Q15: I can always count on PBS to do what's best 4.45 1.659
Q14: PBS programming makes a statement about 4.31 1.770
what's important to me in life
Q8: Children's programming on PBS is helping my 4.25 1.345
child better than I expected
Q17: PBS programming lets me be a part of a 4.21 1.756
community of like-minded viewers
Q20: I know I can hold PBS accountable for its 4.09 1.716
actions
Q9: I am so happy with children's programming on 3.45 1.932
PBS I no longer look to other networks as
alternatives for my child's television viewing

Respondents were asked several questions concerning their viewing habits and

whether or not their overall attitude toward PBS has become more positive or negative

over the years. Table 7 shows that a majority of respondents answered "often"to the

question "how often does your child watch children's programming on PBS?" Table 8






37

shows a majority of parents answered "sometimes" to the question "how often do you

and your child watch children's programming on PBS together?" Table 9 shows that

most people said their attitude toward PBS had "stayed the same" over the years. It is

important to note that the results of this study showed no significant relationship between

these three factors and relationship strength or perceived commercialism.


Table 7. Child viewing frequency

Frequency Percent

Never 1 1.9

Rarely 6 11.1

Sometimes 20 37.0

Often 27 50.0


Table 8. Parent viewing frequency

Frequency Percent

Never 2 3.7

Rarely 10 18.5

Sometimes 26 48.1

Often 16 29.6


Table 9. Frequency data of overall attitude toward PBS

Frequency Percent

More Negative 2 3.7

Slightly More Negative 2 3.7

Stayed the Same 20 37.0

Slightly More Positive 9 16.7

More Positive 19 35.2








Frequency data were also collected for the four questions measuring perceived

commercialism. Tables 10-13 show that for each question pertaining to perception of

commercialism the majority of respondent's answered "increased."

Table 10. Frequency table for question 22: Do you think the number of corporate
sponsors mentioned before and after children's programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or decreased?


Frequency Percent

Stayed the Same 15 27.8

Slightly Increased 10 18.5

Increased 28 51.9


Table 11. Frequency table for question 23: Do you think the connection between
characters on PBS programs (i.e. Clifford, Arthur, etc) and commercial
products (i.e. toys, food, etc) has increased....stayed the same....or decreased?


Frequency Percent

Stayed the Same 12 22.2

Slightly Increased 5 9.3

Increased 37 68.5


Table 12. Frequency table for question 24: Do you think the length of corporate
sponsor messages before and after children's programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .or decreased?


Frequency Percent

Stayed the Same 18 33.3

Slightly Increased 11 20.4

Increased 25 46.3









Table 13. Frequency table for question 25: Do you think the production value (i.e.
mascots, logos, animation) of corporate messages before and after children's
programming on PBS has increased... .stayed the same... .or decreased?


Frequency Percent

Stayed the Same 10 18.5

Slightly Increased 14 25.9

Increased 30 55.6

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a useful statistical tool when doing exploratory

research because it allows the researcher to separate respondents into groups and

compare the average scores of different variables against chosen input factors. In this

type of analysis a large F value and a significance value approaching zero indicates a

strong possibility that the variance in the mean scores of the two groups is due to the

factor they are being compared to rather than random error.

In this study ANOVA was used to compare the means of the four questions of

perceived commercialism against the three factors of relationship strength; intimacy,

partner quality and commitment. The respondents were separated into two groups, those

who perceived a great deal of commercialism and those that did not. Respondents in the

first group answered "increased" to the perceived commercialism questions.

Respondents in the second group answered "slightly increased" or "stayed the same" to

the four questions. Tables 14-17 show the results of this analysis.










Table 14. Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors and question
22: Do you think the number of corporate sponsors mentioned before and after
children's programming on PBS has increased... .stayed the same... .decreased

N Mean F Sig.
Intimacy Perceive great deal of 29 23.24 1.372 .247
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 24 26.17
commercialism
Partner Quality Perceive great deal of 27 7.85 .555 .460
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 23 8.57
commercialism
Commitment Perceive great deal of 27 3.48 .014 .906
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 24 3.42
commercialism


Table 15. Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors and question
23: Do you think the connection between characters on PBS programs (i.e.
Clifford, Arthur, etc) and commercial products (i.e. toys, food, etc) has
increased... .stayed the same... .decreased

N Mean F Sig.
Intimacy Perceive great deal of 37 23.35 1.075 .305
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 17 26.18
commercialism
Partner Quality Perceive great deal of 35 7.89 .735 .395
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 16 8.75
commercialism
Commitment Perceive a great deal of 34 3.50 .064 .801
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 17 3.35
commercialism








Table 16. Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors and question
24: Do you think the length of corporate sponsor messages before and after
children's programming on PBS has increased... .stayed the
same.... decreased

N Mean F Sig.
Intimacy Perceive great deal of 25 21.40 4.633 .036
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 29 26.69
commercialism
Partner Quality Perceive great deal of 24 7.50 1.791 .187
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 27 8.74
commercialism
Commitment Perceive great deal of 22 3.09 1.353 .250
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 29 3.72
commercialism


Table 17. Analysis of variance of the three relationship strength factors and question
25: Do you think the production value (i.e. mascots, logos, animation) of
corporate messages before and after children's programming on PBS has
increased... .stayed the same... .decreased

N Mean F Sig.
Intimacy Perceive great deal of 30 22.10 3.756 .058
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 24 26.92
commercialism
Partner Quality Perceive great deal of 28 8.07 .040 .842
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 23 8.26
commercialism
Commitment Perceive a great deal of 27 3.15 1.422 .239
commercialism
Do not perceive a great deal of 24 3.79
commercialism

The above four tables show that in two out of the 12 cases F is large and the

significance value is approaching zero. This suggests that respondents who thought

length and production value of corporate sponsor messages on PBS had increased scored

lower on the intimacy questions than those respondents who did not perceive as great an






42

increase. It is very likely that these two findings are just a coincidence considering none

of the other data support the hypothesis. However, this analysis of variance does reveal a

possible trend in the data. In 10 out of the 12 cases the mean value of the relationship

strength factors was lower for group one (perceived a great deal of commercialism) than

it was for group two (did not perceive a great deal of commercialism).














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to see if there was a relationship between

perception of commercialism and strength of relationship between parents and PBS.

Therefore, the most important data to correlate was the three relationship strength factors

(intimacy, partner quality and commitment) with the four questions of perceived

commercialism. After performing the correlation it was clear that there was no

significant relationship between parents' loyalty to PBS and their perception of

commercialism. Tables 3-5 correlated each of the three factors with each of the four

perceived commercialism questions. In all 12 cases the range of r (pearson correlation

coefficient) was between -.272 and .114. The close proximity of r to zero suggested no

correlation between the dependent and independent variables.

Since the results of the analysis did not significantly support the hypothesis

proposed in the methodology, then it can be concluded that the null hypothesis is

supported. The null hypothesis states that the relationship between parents and PBS will

be neither positively nor negatively affected by perception of commercialism. Support

for this null hypothesis was found both in the data and in relationship theory as discussed

in the literature review.

The theoretical framework section of the literature review introduced relationship

theory and how it uses the concept of interpersonal exchanges to gain a better

understanding of the relationships consumers form with the brands they use. Qualities

such as commitment and intimacy, which are important between friends, are also






44

important between consumers and their brands. According to relationship theory, two

factors influence the direction and stability of relational bonds. The first factor deals

with brand personality and the second factor deals with transgressional acts. With its

safe, educational, family-oriented and traditional brand image, children's programming

on PBS definitely falls under the "sincere" brand category. In the article "When Good

Brands Do Bad" by Aaker et al. (2004), the authors refer to sincerity as the brand

personality that captures a partner's trustworthiness and dependability, two important

qualities for relationship growth.

The article goes on to discuss the second factor of relational stability which is

transgressional acts. Relationship theory suggests that sincere brands have a distinct

advantage over other brand images to counteract acts of transgression. "Of particular

note is the relationship context in which transgression is committed, such that

relationship-serving biases dilute the negative effects of transgressions in strong unions

and past positives cancel them in the long-standing relations" (Aaker et al., 2004, p.3). In

the case of children's programming on PBS, relationship-serving biases would be its

award-winning, high quality, educational programming. Therefore, if perceived

commercialism were considered an act of transgression, then relationship theory suggests

these biases, combined with the brands sincere image, would dilute any negative effects

brought about by this transgressional act.

This explains why the average relationship strength scores for respondents with

extremely high perceptions of commercialism were not significantly smaller than those

respondents with less perception of commercialism. Even though the data supported the

null hypothesis and relationship theory lent reasoning to why strong brand images can

withstand seemingly negative acts of transgression, it was still beneficial to examine the

data from multiple angles.






45

The descriptive statistics run on the demographic data and the questions not related

to the two instruments that measured the independent and dependent variables helped

paint a better picture of the sampled respondents. The sample was composed of

predominantly white, middle to upper class women between the ages of 35 and 44

(Figures 2-5). Looking at frequency tables 7-9 it was clear that the majority of

respondents had children who "often" watched children's programming on PBS. Also, a

majority of respondents "sometimes" watched the PBS programming with their children

and believed their overall attitude toward PBS had "stayed the same" over the years.

The most interesting part of the "Additional Analysis" section in the results chapter

was the ANOVA results. Even though results were not significant, some trends emerged

that moved in the expected direction of the hypothesis. Tables 14-17 compare the means

of the three relationship strength factors against the scale that measured for level of

perceived commercialism. The data revealed that the average intimacy factor score for

respondents who answered "increased" on the four perceived commercialism questions

was almost always greater than for respondents who answered "slightly increased" or

"stayed the same."

On one particular survey a parent made an interesting comment that might shed

light on why perception of commercialism may affect relationship strength with PBS.

"As a conservative I haven't been as interested in supporting PBS and I certainly don't

like the commercialization of all its programming. Our children have been trained to turn

off commercials (It's a family rule!), but sponsorships may not trigger the rule because

they don't fit as a typical commercial." This respondent marked "increased" for all four

questions related to perceived commercialism and her average score for the 16

relationship strength questions was a 2.6 out of a possible 7. This is a very low score and

suggests a negative relationship with PBS. Looking at this survey alone it would seem






46

that the issue of commercialism is rather simple. If you are dissatisfied with the way PBS

has loosened the rules surrounding corporate sponsor messages, then your relationship

with PBS suffers. However, the lack of any significant correlation between perceived

commercialism and the strength of the PBS/parent relationship suggests otherwise.

A second respondent wrote this comment at the end of his survey; "I think PBS has

gotten FAR more commercial than it used to be. I am not at all happy about this, but

PBS is still light years better than any other station, especially for children...and adults."

Similar to the previously mentioned respondent, this man marked all four perceived

commercialism questions as "increased." However; his average score for the 16

relationship strength questions was a 5.9 out of a possible 7.

Even though these two responses differ greatly, relationship theory is still

supported in both. For the first respondent it seemed that PBS' brand qualities were not

enough to negate the detrimental effects of increased commercialism on noncommercial

public broadcasting. Research in relationship theory has shown that once transgressions

start affecting consumer perception of brand image, it is extremely difficult to slow the

relationship decline (Aaker et al., (2004). However, for the second respondent it seemed

his relationship with PBS was strong enough to overlook the increased number, length

and production value of underwriter acknowledgments. He knew children's

programming on PBS was better than what he could find anywhere else and therefore let

the one downfall of increased commercialism slide as a result of his perception of other

positive brand qualities.

The lack of any significant findings throughout the data analysis was due in large

part to the limitations of the study. The combined random and convenience sampling

methods used to collect the data dismiss this study from being generalized to any

population. Insufficient sample size and lack of diversity among participants may have






47

contributed to the limited range of responses. The frequency results of the demographic

data demonstrate a high concentration of white, middle to upper class women as the

sample base. The predominance of women is due in large part to the fact that women are

usually the child caretakers of the family. Since the majority of the surveys were handed

out to the person responsible for picking up the children from day care or nursery school,

it was not surprising that most respondents were female.

It is also possible that the two instruments used to measure the dependent and

independent variables were not sensitive enough to collect the desired information. For

example, in one respondent's comments at the end of the survey he wrote, "I don't know

if you will get this from your survey, but I think PBS has gotten FAR more

commercial..." This type of comment suggests that the survey may not have asked the

right questions in regards to how parents felt about PBS in light of increased

commercialization. However, it could also mean that the data collected from the survey

supports the null hypothesis and no matter how much the people believe commercialism

on PBS has increased, they still have a strong positive view of the network because of the

quality of children's programming and its continued distinctiveness from all other

commercial networks.














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

If anything is to be taken away from this research, it is that parents are well aware

of the transformation PBS has undergone with respect to its increased amounts of

commercialization. They have noticed the changes in the number, length and production

value of corporate underwriter messages. They have seen corporate tie-ins at the grocery

store such as C/-jjyvr J the Big Red Dog and Lipton Soup and at the toy store with the

limitless selection of Tickle-Me-Elmo dolls, Barney pajamas and Arthur lunch boxes.

However, despite this awareness, parents have been relatively unaffected by it.

Therefore, the results of this study support both the null hypothesis and the basic

assumptions of relationship theory.

Only four out of the 52 respondents who answered the question of whether or not

their overall attitude toward PBS had become more "positive," "slightly more positive,"

"stayed the same," "slightly more negative" or more "negative," placed a mark lower

than "stayed the same." This means the rest of the respondents' answers ranged between

"stayed the same" and more "positive." This result is not at all surprising. Historically,

children's programming on PBS has been highly praised for its involvement in child

development and education. ClyjrJ the Big Red Dog, Dragon Tales and Arthur are the

top three programs among kids two to five. Barney and Caillou also rank in the top 10

which gives PBS KIDS five of the top 10 programs among preschoolers. PBS children's

programs have also won more prestigious awards than any other network ("PBS KIDS",

2004, para 3-4). As long as parents see quality children's programming and a distinction






49

between public television and its commercial alternatives, their relationship with the

network will stay in tact.

None of the results in this study may have been significant, but the trends alluded to

in the analysis of variance pose interesting questions and possibilities for future research.

Respondents belonging to the "perceived a great deal of commercialism" group scored

consistently lower across the three relationship strength factors than those respondents

belonging to the "did not perceive a great deal of commercialism" group. Conducting

future research over a long period of time (10 years) using a trend analysis technique

would be very useful in determining whether or not perceived commercialism will

actually have an effect on the strength of relationship between PBS and parents of child

viewers in the long term.

A point in time "snap shot" analysis such as this study lacks the ability to evaluate

change in attitude over time. It is possible that parents may be accepting of certain forms

of commercialism on PBS now, but a few years down the road things could be very

different. Even though the digital transition is still in its initial stages, the FCC has

already approved a plan to allow public television stations to run commercials on some of

the new channels they will obtain post digital conversion (Spivack, 2001). Today, parents

see underwriter acknowledgments whose similarities with real commercials are

increasing. Tomorrow, they may be tuned in to one of PBS' supplementary channels on

its digital spectrum and see full blown advertisements targeting their children. How will

this new development affect the PBS/parent relationship? An in-depth trend analysis

would be able to assess this type of evolution. Future research could establish how

parents actually feel toward commercialism on PBS, not just if commercialism has

increased or not. Relationship theory could really be put to the test by tracking a strong






50

brand image (PBS) and an act of transgression (commercialism on a noncommercial

network) over time.

In the book Public Broadcasting and the Public Interest, William Hoynes (2003)

believes PBS is treading on thin ice with its commercialized branding effort.

As PBS becomes more integrated into the commercial media system and develops a
business model that sees public television as an increasingly commercial enterprise,
the foundations of the public service model are deteriorating. Indeed, the branding
strategy is an attempt to turn the cultural value of the old PBS into financial value
for the new PBS. This exchange is a means of transforming public service, and the
trust that accompanies such public service, into a marketable commodity. In the
midst of this transformation, PBS runs the very real risk that its aggressive branding
strategy will undermine the trust and loyalty that makes its brand so valuable. (p.50)

The results of this study may not confirm an erosion of goodwill toward PBS due to

increased commercialism, but that does not mean the future of public television is stable.

If PBS fails to reevaluate its aggressive branding strategy, then it may begin to alienate the

very public it is meant to serve. Media enterprises are standing upon the threshold of a

new digital era that promises infinite opportunities. How well will PBS be able to

compete in this multi-media environment if they squander away the one thing that

distinguishes them from the crowd? Future research, including content analysis, focus

groups and surveys, may be able to answer this question. The only problem is by the time

the question is answered, it may be too late to salvage public television's original public

service mission from the clutches of its newly adopted market-driven business model.













APPENDIX A
SURVEY

Please answer the following questions:

1. How many children do you have?

2. Please list the age(s) of your children:

3. How often do your children watch children's programming on PBS?
Often Sometimes Rarely Never
(4) (3) (2) (1)
4. How often do you watch children's programming on PBS with your children?
Often Sometimes Rarely Never
(4) (3) (2) (1)

5. Given your experience with children's programming on PBS as a child and a parent,
has your attitude toward the network become more...

Positive Stayed the Same Negative
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)

Based on your experiences growing up with children's programming on PBS and then
watching PBS programs with your children, please rate the following:
(Circle one number for each question, where 1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree and
9=unable to rate)

6. I am very loyal to children's programming on PBS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9

7. I would continue to allow my child to watch
children's programming on PBS even if it let me
down once or twice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9

8. Children's programming on PBS is helping my
child better than I expected. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9






52

9. I am so happy with children's programming on
PBS I no longer look to other networks as
alternatives for my child's television viewing. 1 2 3

10. I am likely to have my child watch children's
programming on PBS one year from now. 1 2 3

11. Overall, I am satisfied with children's
programming on PBS. 1 2 3

12. PBS programming fits well with my current stage of
life. 1 2 3

13. I am familiar with the range of children's programs
and services PBS has to offer. 1 2 3

14. PBS programming makes a statement about what's
important to me in life. 1 2 3

15. I can always count on PBS to do what's best. 1 2 3

16. I'd feel comfortable describing children's
programming on PBS to someone who was not
familiar with it. 1 2 3

17. PBS programming lets me be a part of a
community of like-minded viewers. 1 2 3

18. I have become very knowledgeable about children's
programming on PBS. 1 2 3

19. PBS really understands my needs in regards to
children's programming. 1 2 3

20. I know I can hold PBS accountable for its actions. 1 2 3

21. Given my impression of PBS, letting me down
would surprise me. 1 2 3


4 5 6 7



4 5 6 7



4 5 6 7



4 5 6 7



4 5 6 7


4 5 6 7


4 5 6 7


4 5 6 7


4 5 6 7 9









Place an X above the line that best corresponds to your answer.

Given your experience with children's programming on PBS as a child and now years
later as a parent,

22. Do you think the number of corporate sponsors mentioned before and after children's
programs has:

Increased Stayed the Same Decreased
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)
23. Do you think the connection between characters on PBS programs (i.e. Clifford,
Arthur etc.) and commercial products (i.e. toys, food etc.) has:

Increased Stayed the Same Decreased
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)
24. Do you think the length of corporate sponsor messages before and after children's
programs has:

Increased Stayed the Same Decreased
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)

25. Do you think the production value (i.e. mascots, logos, animation) of corporate
sponsor messages before and after children's programs has:

Increased Stayed the Same Decreased
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)


Please fill out the following demographic information:

26. What is your gender?
1. Male
2. Female

27. Please mark your ethnic background:
1. American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut 4. Hispanic, of any race
2. Asian or Pacific Islander 5. White, not Hispanic
3. Black, not Hispanic 6. Other






54

28. Please mark your age range:
1. 18-24 4. 45-54
2. 25-34 5. 55-64
3. 35-44 6. 65+

29. Please mark the range that best matches your family's current income:
1. $0-24,999 5. $100,000-124,999
2. $25,000-49,999 6. $125,000-149,999
3. $50,000-74,999 7. $150,000-174,999
4. $75,000-99,999 8. $175,000+

Thank you for filling out this survey!














APPENDIX B
ORIGINAL SCALE OF RELATIONSHIP STRENGTH INDICATORS


Relationship
Strength
Indicators

Commitment


Items


I am very loyal to Captura


I am willing to make small sacrifices in order to keep using Captura

I would be willing to postpone my purchase if the Captura site was
temporarily unavailable

I would stick with Captura even if it let me down once or twice

I am so happy with Captura that I no longer feel the need to watch
out for other photography alternatives

I am likely to be using Captura one year from now

Intimacy I would feel comfortable sharing detailed personal info about myself
with Captura

Captura really understands my needs in the photographic services

I'd fell comfortable describing Captura to someone who was not
familiar with it

I am familiar with the range of products and services Captura offers

I have become very knowledgeable about Captura

Satisfaction I am completely satisfied with Captura

I am completely pleased with Captura

Captura is turning out better than I expected

Self-Connection The Captura brand connects with the part of me that really makes me
tick

The Captura brand fits well with my current stage of life









Relationship Items
Strength
Indicators

Self-Connection The Captura brand says a lot about the kind of person I would like
to be

Using Captura lets me be a part of a shared community of like-
minded consumers

The Captura brand makes a statement about what's important to me
in life

Partner Quality I can always count on Captura to do what's best

If Captura makes a mistake, it will try its best to make up for it

I know I can hold Captura accountable for its actions

Captura is reliable

Given my image of Captura, letting me down would surprise me

A brand failure would be inconsistent with my expectations
Source: Aaker, J., Fournier, S., Brasel, A. (2004). When Good Brands Do Bad. Journal of Consumer
Research, 31(1), 1-16.














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Christina Regan graduated from Boston College in 2003 and received her bachelor's

degree in mass communications. At Boston she was captain of the Women's Track &

Field team and was pleased to be accepted onto the track team at the University of Florida

upon her arrival in August 2003. After completion of her degree of master of arts in mass

communication at Florida, Christina plans on moving back home to Boston where she will

pursue a career in children's public television production.