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Analysis of knee mechanics during the squat exercise

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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ANALYSIS OF KNEE MECHANICS DURING THE SQUAT EXERCISE: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES By FRANCIS ARLINGTON FORDE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr John Chow, Dr. Mark Tillman and Dr. James Cauraugh for their support and help with my research. I would also like to thank my family for their support. I must also extend special th anks to Dr. John Chow and Dr. Tillman for without their guidance during th is endeavor success would not have been attainable and for that I am deeply grateful. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of Purpose ..................................................................................................7 Research Hypotheses ..................................................................................................8 Definition of Terms ....................................................................................................8 Assumptions ...............................................................................................................9 Limitations .................................................................................................................9 Significance ................................................................................................................9 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.....................................................................................11 Tibiofemoral Joint Anatomy ....................................................................................11 Quadriceps Angle .....................................................................................................13 Resultant Knee Joint Torque and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability ................................15 Muscle Co-contraction .............................................................................................16 Squat Biomechanics .................................................................................................18 3 METHODS AND MATERIALS...............................................................................20 Subjects ....................................................................................................................20 Instrumentation .........................................................................................................22 Trapezoid and Straight Bars ...........................................................................22 Force platform ................................................................................................23 Videography ...................................................................................................23 Muscle Activity ..............................................................................................23 Peak Motus System .........................................................................................25 Procedures ................................................................................................................25 Video Calibration ............................................................................................25 Warm-up and Practice ....................................................................................26 Session Protocol ..............................................................................................30 Data Reduction .........................................................................................................30 Electromyography and Ground Reaction Force .............................................30 Kinematics ......................................................................................................31 Joint Reaction Forces and Joint Moment ........................................................31 Statistical Analysis ...................................................................................................32 iii

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4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................34 Average EMG Activity ............................................................................................35 Peak Resultant Joint Forces and Moments ...............................................................43 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................56 Muscle Activity ........................................................................................................57 Forces and Moments ................................................................................................58 Gender Comparisons ................................................................................................60 Bar Type Comparisons .............................................................................................61 Summary and Conclusion ........................................................................................62 Implications ..............................................................................................................64 APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL........................................................................................................65 B INFORMED CONSENT FORM................................................................................67 C SAMPLE RAW DATA..............................................................................................69 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................................................................81 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3-1. Anthropometric measurement guidelines ...................................................................21 3-2. Morphology measurement guidelines. .......................................................................22 3-3. Electrode placement ...................................................................................................27 3-4. MVIC collection guidelines. .......................................................................................28 4-1. Normalized EMG (mean average SD) of different muscle. ...................................35 4-2. 2 x 2 x 2 MANOVA comparing the vect ors of muscle activity between genders, bar types and phases. ...............................................................................................35 4-3. Univariate statistics fo r different EMG dependent m easures (between subjects) ......36 4-4. Normalized peak joint forces (mean SD): ...............................................................44 4-5. Normalized peak joint moments (mean SD): ..........................................................45 4-6. ANOVA statistics for different de pendent measures (between subjects ....................46 4-7. Width and angle measurements (mean SD): ..........................................................51 4-8. T-Test analysis fo r Q-angle and hip width. ...............................................................52 4-9. T-Test analysis for in stant of maximum knee angle:................................................53 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Squat using a straight bar. ..........................................................................................5 1-2. Squat using a trapezoid bar. .......................................................................................5 2-1. View of ACL and PCL. ............................................................................................11 2-2. View of MCL and PCL. ...........................................................................................12 2-3. Illustration of Q-angle. .............................................................................................14 3-1. Trapezoid bar. ...........................................................................................................22 3-2. Straight bar. ..............................................................................................................23 3-3. Overhead view of experimental set-up. ....................................................................24 3-4. Schematic of the 16-point calibration frame. ...........................................................26 3-5. Marker placement. ....................................................................................................29 4-1. Mean quadriceps EMG level. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions. ..........................................................................................................38 4-2. Mean gluteal EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a significant difference found between phases. ...........................................................39 4-3. Mean hamstring EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a significant difference found between phases. ...........................................................40 4-4. There was a significant interaction be tween gender and phase in the gluteal muscle group. The difference in gl uteal muscle activity between the descending and ascending phases was greater in males than females. ....................41 4-5. There was a significant interaction betw een gender and phase for the hamstring muscle group. The difference in hams trings activity between the descending and ascending phases was greate r in males than females. .......................................42 vi

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4-6. There was a significant interaction between bar type and phase for the quadriceps muscle group. The differen ce in quadriceps act ivity between the descending and ascending phases was greate r when using the trap bar than the straight bar. ...............................................................................................................43 4-7. Mean net knee maximum compressive force. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions. ................................................................48 4-8. Mean net knee maximum anterior force. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions. .................................................................................49 4-9. Mean net knee maximum extension mo ment. The was a significant difference found between bar conditions. .................................................................................50 4-10. There was a significant difference found between males and females for Qangle. ........................................................................................................................54 4-11. There was a significant difference found between males and females for normalized hip breadth. ............................................................................................55 C-1. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the straight bar squat ................................................69 C-2. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the trapezoid bar squat .............................................70 C-3. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the straight bar squat ..........................................70 C-4. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the trapezoid bar squat ........................................71 C-5. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the straight bar squat ...........................................71 C-6. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the trapezoid bar squat ........................................72 C-7. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the straight bar squat .....................................72 C-8. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the trapezoid bar squat ..................................73 C-9. Raw compressive force data for the trapezoid bar squat ..........................................73 C-10. Raw compressive force data for the straight bar squat .............................................74 C-11. Raw shear force data for the trapezoid bar squat.....................................................74 C-12. Raw shear force data for the straight bar squat ........................................................75 C-13. Raw extension moment data for the trapezoid bar squat ..........................................75 C-14. Raw extension moment data for the straight bar squat ............................................76 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of th e University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Science. ANALYSIS OF KNEE MECHANICS DURING THE SQUAT EXERCISE: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES By Francis Arlington Forde May 2005 Chairman: John Chow Major Department: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in tibiofemoral joint mechanics between males and females during squatting using the Trapezoid bar (TB) and Straight bar (SB). Twenty-two subjects were recruited from the University of Florida. Each subject performed two randomly assigned squat tests, one using a straight bar and the other using a trapezoid bar. Each test consisted of two tria ls with each trial consisting of three repetitions. Video, force platform and EMG were used to collect kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data. MANOVA results for the EMG data found significant differences for Quadriceps activity between the TB and SB squat condi tions with the TB resulting in higher quadriceps muscle activation. Significant differences were also found between the ascending and descending phases of the squat fo r gluteal and hamstring muscle activity. The ascending phase resulted in higher muscle activation than the descending phase. The MANOVA also revealed significant interactions between phase and gender for gluteal viii

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and hamstring muscle activity as well as signi ficant interactions between phase and bar type for quadriceps muscle activity. An ANOVA revealed significant differences between bar types for compressive force, ante riorly directed shear force and extension moment at the tibiofemoral joint with the TB squat resulting in the higher values for compressive force, shear force and extens ion torque. T-tests were performed to determine differences in normalized hip wi dth, Q-angle, and maximum knee angle during each SB and TB squat trial. There were significant differences detected for all of these measures. Women had a larger Q-angle and normalized hip width as compared to the males of this study. There were no differe nces between maximum knee angle during the TB and SB squats. This study identified differences between phases and bar types for knee joint mechanics and muscle activity. Despite si gnificant differences between genders for normalized hip width and Q-angle there was no observable difference between males and females of this study for joint kinetics, joint kinematics or muscle activation. This suggests that Q-angle and hip wi dth do not have an effect on tib iofemoral joint kinetics or lower extremity muscle activity during squatting which may be as a result of the nonballistic nature or the squat. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The number of females participating in sports has surged in recent years. With this surge has come an increased incidence of lo wer extremity injuries which include various non-contact and contact sprains to the joints of the legs, one of the more devastating type of injury being an anterior cruc iate ligament (ACL) sprain. A contact injury occurs when there is physical contact between players (Huston & Wojtys, 1996). It can be more specifically defi ned as an injury resulting from a collision between multiple players and injuries that occur in the absence of a player-to-player collision are considered non-contact injuries Non-contact injury mechanisms also include overuse injuries such as patellar tendonitis, stress fr actures and any injury which occurs without direct physical contact between players. The prevention of contact injuries in athle tics is an insurmountable task due to the infinite number of intrinsic a nd extrinsic factors that can cause these injuries, however contact injuries are not the primary cause of ACL sprains among competitors. Noncontact ACL injuries account for approxima tely 78% of all ACL sprains with many occurring during landing (Noyes, Mooar, Ma tthews & Butler, 1983). It has been suggested that these injuries may result from over training or a lack of training (Hahn & Foldspang, 1997). Female athletes are eight times more lik ely to suffer an ACL sprain (Huston, Greenfield, & Wojtys, 2000) suggesting that th ere may exist a gender predisposition to injury (Toth & Cordasco, 2001). The speculation of Toth and Cord asco (2001) requires further investigation before being accepted as truth. Fema le athletes may suffer more 1

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2 severe and frequent ACL sprain s owing largely to inadequate training rather than causes solely due to intrin sic gender differences. Regardless of gender an ACL rupture can be career ending and is considered a catastrophic knee ligament injury. The AC L provides stability to the knee joint by limiting the tibia from sliding anteriorly on the femur hence, an injured ACL can reduce tibiofemoral joint stability and limit an athletes ability to perform. Rehabilitation techniques used to increase tibiofemoral join t stability post ACL rupture have been used to aid joint sprain prevention and in effect build injury resistance. Still, as females continue to experience a higher rate of injury than males it is of special interest to investigate the reasons for this phenomenon. The evidence to support the suggestion that there is a gender predisposition to injury co mes from a disproportionately higher rate of injuries among female competitors as compared to male competitors participating in the same sports, where females often suffer injuri es that are more fre quent and severe in nature (Arendt, Agel, & Dick, 1999; Ireland, 1999). Despite higher injury rates among female competitors, there are common factors which can cause non-contact injuries in bot h males and females. These non-contact injury mechanisms include cutting maneuve rs, changing directi on, landing mechanics and sudden acceleration. Females, howeve r have additional intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing non-contact lower extremity injuries such as joint laxity, joint flexibility, various structural mal-alignmen ts and hormonal influence (Shambaugh, Klein, & Herbert, 1991; Hutchinson & Ireland, 1995; Liu et al., 1997; Hewett et al., 1999), as well as muscle strength and landing characte ristics (Dufek & Bates, 1991; Hewett et al., 1999).

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3 Men have dominated athletics for some time and the training methods employed for athletic preparation seem to be sport spec ific rather than gender specific. Non-contact injuries appear to occur as a result of poor movement mechan ics resulting from either a previous injury or other intrin sic factors that may be partly due to poor preparation for the explosive movements inherent in most sports. The external forces and stresses plac ed on the body during competition cannot be altered, though the bodys abil ity to withstand these lo ads can be improved through proper physical preparation. Treating the symptoms of injuries rather than preparing an individual for the stresses present during the activity may lead to repetitive injuries. Identifying the factors responsib le for injury is essential in preparing an athlete for participation and improving his or her injury resistance. Once the causes of injury are identified conditioning programs can be modeled to help to prevent the onset of injury. An increased time in rehabilitation results in loss of playing time and in some cases loss of revenues to a competitor. For this reas on it is most desirable to have a competitor on the field as much as possible and therefor e taking a preventative approach to training is possibly the most effective path. Reducing and treating injuries falls square ly on the shoulders of those responsible for an athletes well being. The first link in the chain of prevention is the strength and conditioning specialist (SCS). Prior to competition the SCS has to design the conditioning program to improve the physical hea lth of the athlete over the course of the season at any level of competition. Strengthening and conditioning, however has been split into two distinct approaches. Some SCSs consid er absolute increases in stre ngth regardless of exercise

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4 modality to be the best route, where singl e joint open kinetic chain muscle building activities are often used as the primary sour ce of conditioning. Other SCSs believe that increases in strength through functional multi-jo int closed kinetic chain exercises such as the dynamic squat provide grea ter physical benefits. The focus of the research on the dynamic s quat thus far has been on its benefits ranging from rehabilitation to strengtheni ng and conditioning, and athletics (Chandler, Wilson, & Stone, 1989; Isear, Erickson, & Worrell, 1997; Zheng, Fleisig, Escamilla, & Barrentine, 1998; Toutoungi, Lu, Leardi ni, Catani, & OConnor, 2000). Gender considerations have been overlooked. There ha ve been studies invest igating the risks of injury among women in athletics (Haycock & Gillette, 1976) but little research has been conducted on the benefits that squatting may have in helping to prevent injuries in women. Certain intrinsic factors that may lead to injury such as skeletal mal-alignments cannot be altered without surgical inte rvention. However, improving movement mechanics may lead to a reduction in injury. Research sometimes follows the practice. It is easier for a SCS to speculate and implement new ideas before there is sound research to validate any claims made about the benefits or risks of a new training technique or apparatus. Thus manipulated variables of the dynamic squat such as stance width, foot position, bar loading position, cadence, and surface of execution (i.e., surfaces of different rigidity on which the exercise can be performed safely, for instance the use of a Dyna-disc or Airex mat) are thought to have positive effects on stre ngth and coordination in the athlete.

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5 The dynamic squat is commonly performed using a standard straight bar (also known as the Olympic bar) placed across the ba ck of the shoulders when performing a back squat (Figure 1-1) or across the front of the shoulders when performing a front squat. Figure 1-1. Squat using a straight bar. Figure 1-2. Squat using a trapezoid bar.

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6 Different types of bars have been devel oped to increase the number of exercises that can be performed and reduce the risks of injury associated with the straight bar placement during the squat. The trapezoid bar (TB) is one type of bar that can be used as a conditioning tool for athletes to increase lower body strength (Figure 1-2). Previous studies have investigated differences in kn ee mechanics resulting from changes in the type of squat, for instance, front squat a nd back squat (Russell & Phillips, 1989), the effect of varying foot position (Ninos, Irrgang, Burdett, & Weiss, 1997), and the effect of stance width (Escamilla, Fleisig, Lowry, Barrentine, & Andrews, 2001). While a number of these studies had a sample consisting of males and females, differences between genders were seldom reported. The straight bar is placed across the rear of the shoulders while performing the dynamic squat and cannot move independently of the trunk while TB is placed at the hands using handle grips with the arms extende d. The TB is free to move independently of the trunk in all directions and may pres ent added balance requirements. Movements occur through sequential coordina ted muscle contractions, a cl osed kinetic chain exercise that has increased balance and coordination requirements should be an essential training tool for SCS is worthy of further investigati on. The TB squat is one such training tool because it can move independently of the trunk. The tibiofemoral joint is the middle joint of the lower limb kinetic chain which consists of three major joints: the hip, knee a nd ankle. When the f oot is internally or externally rotated, the rotation at the tibia could have an effect on tibiofemoral joint mechanics.

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7 The most effective and efficient system of moving an object is to apply a force in the direction the object is to be moved. For in stance to move an objec t vertically, the best means is a vertically applied force. For this reason it is thought that the most biomechanically sound squat position is with the feet placed hip width apart. Although biomechanically sound, a hip width stance is no t sport specific as the legs are seldom directly under the hips during many sports, this is best seen during the push off in hockey. Increased participation of females in high school, collegiate, and professional sports has been followed by increased incide nce of severe non-contact knee injuries. Prior to the womens sports explosion st rength and conditioning was focused on the needs of male athletes. This is reflected in the literature. Additional research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of preventa tive training and other accepted strengthening and conditioning techniques for the female athlete. Statement of Purpose Despite many training modalities utilized in SC the squat remains the most widely used and accepted functional multi-joint strength builder for the lower extremity. There have been publications investigating the effects of the dynamic squat but these investigations have focused on the training effects of the dynamic squat on the quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups without empha sis on gender differences. Comprehensive research studies that investigate synergistic muscle activity and gender differences such as, bony morphology and their relations to loco motion are now needed to compliment the existing literature. Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and functional knee stability may be affected by muscles acting solely on the femur and or tibia without direct attachment to the

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8 tibiofemoral joint. This idea is further understood through the theory of the lower extremity closed kinetic ch ain (Stuart et al., 1996). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationshi ps among gender and type of squat bar on tibiofemoral joint kine tics and kinematics duri ng the performance of the dynamic squat. Specifically, this invest igation attempted to id entify the differences between joint kinetics, and muscle activity at the tibiofemoral joint between males and females during TB squat and straight bar back squat. Research Hypotheses This thesis investigated the following hypotheses. 1. Mean gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hams tring level would be greater during the trap bar squat. 2. Mean gluteal, quadriceps, hamstrings a nd gastrocnemius muscle activation level would be greater during the ascent phases. 3. Maximum compressive knee joint forces would be greater in female subjects. 4. Maximum anterior shear knee joint forces would be greater duri ng the trapezoid bar squat. 5. Maximum extension moment would be grea ter in the trapezoid bar condition as compared to the straight bar condition. 6. There would be a significant difference be tween genders for normalized hip width. 7. There would be a significant difference between genders for Quadriceps angle. Definition of Terms 1. Stability: The joint steadiness needed to carry out a functional activity. 2. Closed Kinetic Chain: Exercises for the lower extremity executed when the foot is fixed and the knee motion is accompanied by motion at the hip and ankle. 3. Open Kinetic Chain: Exercises for the lower extremity performed when the foot is mobile and the knee is free to move independently of the hip and ankle. 4. Surface Electromyography (EMG): The measure of electrical activity generated by a muscle in response to a nervous stimulation.

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9 5. Range of Motion: The angular distance through wh ich a joint moves from the anatomical position to the end point of a segment motion in a particular direction during an activity. 6. Kinematics: The study of movement described in terms of position, velocity and acceleration of the body or its individual segm ents without regard for the causes of those motions. 7. Kinetics: The study of motion with regard to the forces that cause movement. 8. Joint Resultants: The combined mechanical effects due to muscle, ligament and contact forces. Assumptions 1. All subjects provided accurate informati on regarding eligibility requirements. 2. All subjects were volunteers. 3. All instrumentation were functioni ng correctly and properly calibrated. 4. Reflective marker placement was accurate and precise. Limitations 1. Trapezoid bar dimensions may have limite d the lower extremity motion of taller subjects. 2. Loading limitations for subjects with low gr ip strength may have affected TB squat performance. 3. All subjects were recruited from the s port and fitness classes offered at the University of Florida. Significance This study was undertaken to evaluate the us es of various squatt ing styles in the training of athletes with an appreciation for the anatomical differences between genders. It was the intent of the investigator to fu rther the understanding of the varying needs and differences between genders and assess th e effectiveness of the current training techniques employed in strength and c onditioning and related exercise science disciplines. There are several variations of conventi onal exercise traini ng techniques and protocols that are extensively employed throughout SC to facilitate positive

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10 physiological, strength and flexibility changes in the athlete. Unde rstanding the purpose for these modifications and their implications will aid practitioners in developing more effective exercise protocols a nd training sequences for athlet es based on gender and type of sport.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Tibiofemoral Joint Anatomy The tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) (Figure 2-1) is the articulation of the femoral condyles on the tibial plateau w ith a cartilage cushion between the femur and tibia called the meniscus. The menisci are cartilage connected anteriorly by the transverse ligament and anteriorly and posteriorly attached to the anterior and posterio r intercondylar area, respectively, of the tibia. Figure 2-1. View of ACL and PCL. The ligaments of the knee include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (Figure 2-1), latera l collateral ligament (LCL), and medial collateral ligament (MCL) (Figure 2-2). The (ACL restrains anteriorly directed forces 11

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12 and the PCL restrains posteriorly directed forces acting on the tibia. The cruciate ligaments also provide stability during inte rnal and external ro tation of the TFJ and provide minimal restraint to medio-lateral force which is the primary role of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Figure 2-2. View of MCL and PCL. The MCL restrains knee a bduction and the LCL restra ins the adduction of the knee. Therefore the collateral ligaments are the primary ligaments responsible for mediolateral stability of the knee. The surrounding muscles of the TFJ provide added stability depending on their insertions and action at the knee joint. The anterior and posterior muscles acting at the TFJ are the main stabilizers. The anterior muscles acting at the knee joint include the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris, sartorius, and

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13 gracilis. The posterior muscles acting at th e knee joint include the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. Quadriceps Angle Quadriceps angle (Figure 2-3) is the a ngle measured between a line connecting the anterior superior iliac spin e (ASIS) and the midpoint of patella and tibial tubercle (Guerra, Arnold, & Gajdosik, 1994). Incre ased quadriceps angle (QA) can lead to various musculotendinous malconditions and stress the medial compartment of the knee due to excessive valgus force (Hutchins on & Ireland, 1995). Excessive QA presents a structural problem which may hinder moveme nt mechanics at any level. With the aggressive nature of contact s ports the risk of injury incr eases disproportionately with those suffering from a high QA. Evidence presented in the literature suggests a relationship between QA and injury among female athletes (Bergstrom, Brandseth, Fretheim, Tvilde, & Ekeland, 2001). Thus it is not surprising that female athletes are eight times more likely then male athletes to suffer an ACL sprain (Huston, Greenfield, & Wojtys, 2000). Resultant Knee Joint Force and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability The literature suggests that increased compressive for ces at the tibiofemoral joint will decrease the forces acting against the ACL and PCL (Chandler & Stone, 1991). During a dynamic squat (DS), the compressive forces present at the TFJ vary according to the external load and subjects body mass thus, TFJ compressive forces can reach high values with peak readings reported as hi gh as 7928 N (Escamilla, 2001). The magnitude at which compressive forces become deleterious to other knee joint st ructures such as the meniscus and articular cartilage has not yet been reported (Escamilla, 2001). However, it

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14 is assumed that compressive forces up to th is magnitude are beneficial for knee joint stability and serve as a rest raint against anterior and posterior shear forces. Q-angle Tibial tuberosity ASIS Figure 2-3. Illustra tion of Q-angle. The ACL and PCL resist anterior and pos terior shear forces. Butler et al. (1980) reported that the ACL provides 86% of the rest raining force during an anterior draw test and the PCL provides 95% of the restraining force during a posterior draw test. The difference in percentage reported for each li gament is reasonable because this was a cadaver study hence, there was no muscle i nvolvement during the pos terior or anterior draw tests and the cross secti onal area of the PCL is approx imately 20-50% greater than the cross sectional area of the ACL ( Harner et al., 1995). Myers (1971) reported no si gnificant difference in medio-lateral force at the tibiofemoral joint during the s quat exercise. It is important to note that in this study gender was not considered and stance width was not reported. This is important to

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15 consider as stance width variations can ch ange TFJ kinetics (Escamilla et al., 2001). Meyers (1971) however, did fi nd that there was a significan t interaction between deep squat exercise and medial collateral ligament stretch. Other studies investigating mediolateral forces at the knee during the squat published forces of magnitudes ranging from 2.5-10% of the subjects body weight ( Hattin, Pierrynowsk i, & Ball, 1989). Resultant Knee Joint Torque and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability The ligaments which restrain abduction and adduction torque at the TFJ are the MCL and LCL. The excessive valgus force present in people with an abnormal QA compromises medio-lateral TFJ stability and th e function of the collateral ligaments. Abduction and adduction moments te nd to induce an internal or external moment at the knee (Hewett et al., 1996). Hewett et al (1996) found that post a jump and landing technique training program the adduction and abduction moment present at the knee at landing was significantly reduced in female volleyball players. The findings of Hewett et al. (1996) suggest that training can reduce the onset of internal and external moments at the knee by controlling the abduction and adduc tion torque present. Thus supporting their idea that tibiofemoral adduction and abduction torque may be one of the factors which induce internal and exte rnal moments at the TFJ. The ACL is injured when there is an ex cessive posterior translation of the femur on the tibia. An excessive internal moment does not have to be present as the ACL is primarily active in the sagittal plane, however, an excessive internal moment coupled with an anteriorly directed force at the tibia can also cause an ACL sprain. The tibia internally rotates during knee fl exion and externally rotates during knee extension in an open kinetic chain environment (Escamilla, 2001) however, in a closed kinetic chain environment the tibia becomes semi fixed because the foot is fixed. Under

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16 these conditions the femur tends to rotate ex ternally about the longitudinal axis of the tibia during knee flexion and internally rota tes during knee extensi on. Unlike cadaver studies, one can expect muscul ar contribution to stabilize the knee and therefore the strength of the muscles surrounding the knee will make a differen ce on the rotation and linear movement allowed in studi es using live human subjects. The hamstrings also provide internal a nd external rotation restraint at the knee joint. The lateral hamstring (biceps femoris) inserts on the lateral side of the knee and when contracting solely can cause knee flexi on and external rotati on of the tibia. The medial hamstring (semimembranosus and se mitendonosus) inserts on th e medial side of the TFJ and thus when contracting singly cause s knee flexion and internal rotation of the tibia. The muscles which provide extension and flexion torques at the tibiofemoral joint and thus resist external flexion and extension torques are the quadriceps muscle group and hamstrings respectively. Muscle Co-contraction Studies have investigated muscle activity during squatting; sit to stand, step-ups and other closed kinetic chain exercises (I sear, Erickson, & Worre ll, 1997; Signorile et al., 1995). These studies have placed little emphasis on gastrocnemius contribution to the squat although 98% of the total cross sec tional area of all knee musculature is made up of the gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hamstrings (Wickiewicz, Roy, Powell, & Edgerton, 1983). According to Wilk et al. (1996) the qua driceps is an ACL antagonist and the hamstrings are an ACL agonist (More, Karras, Neiman, Fritschy, Woo, & Daniel, 1993). The exact action of the hamstrings -eccentric or concentricduring the squat has not yet been fully determined (Escamilla, 2001). From a biomechanics standpoint however,

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17 regardless of the type of c ontraction during a squat the hamstrings will provide a posteriorly directed force which along with the quadriceps act to stabilize the knee as well as facilitate movement. It is this in teraction of the hamstrings and quadriceps contractions that serves as a protective m echanism (Isear et al., 1997). Loaded closed kinetic chain exercises such as the dynamic squat produce compressive forces and muscle co-contractions that protect the cruciate liga ments of the knee (More et al, 1993; Stuart et al., 1996). The hamstrings muscle group and gastrocnemius are the primary and secondary flexors of the knee and assist cruciate ligam ent stabilization. Hamstring co-contraction during a squat is considered an aid in TFJ an terior load reduction (Fleming et al., 2001). Fleming et al. (2001) found th at the gastrocnemius and qua driceps co-contraction with hamstring activity absent is an ACL antagonist This investigation determined that the ACL strain increased as knee flexion angl e decreased during isolated gastrocnemius contraction. The decreased PCL loading experienced when performing a squat in a plantar flexed position (Toutoungi, Lu, Leardini, Catani, & OConnor, 2000) implicitly corroborates this finding. The gastrocnemius is a secondary knee fle xor and plantar flexes he foot during walking. Posterior cruciate ligament lo ading was reduced by 17% during squatting by having the subjects raise thei r heels off the ground thus eliciting a gastrocnemius contraction to perform plantar flexion (Toutoungi, Lu, Leardini Catani & O'Connor, 2000). Like the hamstrings, the gastro cnemius flexes the shank, though it pulls downwards on the femur, whereas the hams trings pull upward on the tibia. The downward pull of the gastrocnem ius creates a force similar to the force created by the

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18 quadriceps. This suggests that a gastrocn emius hamstring co-contraction could increase compressive force at the knee joint, which may work as an ACL protective mechanism similar to a quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction. During the DS the gastrocnemius provides a plantar flexion torque, which prevents tipping forward and stead ies the tibia on the foot. It is anticipated that muscle activity of the gastrocnemius during the trapezoid bar squat will be similar to values seen during walking or running. Squat Biomechanics Studies have shown that deep kn ee bending (knee angle less than 90 ) may produce excessive and injurious knee joint forces (Nagura, Dyrby, Alexander, & Andriacchi, 2002). Chandler, Wilson and Stone (1989) however found no significant difference in anterior or posterior knee stability after an 8week training protocol using deep and half squat techniques. Evidence to support the findings of Nagura et al. (2002) may require a longitudinal study lasting longer than the 8-week protocol used by Chandler et al. (1989). Varying stance width during the squat changes the angle of push during the exercise. The vertical force required to lift a ny given load is then increased or decreased depending on the change in stance width. Zhang and Wang (2001) investigated dynamic and static control of th e knee joint. This study performed testing in an open kinetic chain environment and concluded that knee contro l can be maintained through co-contraction of medial and lateral musculature crossing th e knee joint. Stance width and foot position will affect knee movement in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes; however closed kinetic chain movements were not investigated in this study. It is not clearly understood

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19 how medial and lateral musculature co-contraction at the knee will be affected in a closed kinetic chain environment. Exercises such as squatting have been done as a functional moda lity to stabilize and strengthen surround ing musculature of the knee. Ninos, Irrang, Burdett and Weiss (1997) investigated the effect s of foot position on electromyography measures during the squat and found that muscle activity pattern s were unaffected by lower extremity axial rotation. Furthermore, additional studi es investigating foot posit ion on electromyographic activity of the lower li mb muscles have not reported st ance width (Boyden, Kingman, & Dyson 2000). The absence of certain variable s in this analysis may have skewed the results of this study.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND MATERIALS This chapter describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data for all subjects of this study. All tests and subs equent analyses were conducted under strict guidelines to insure validity of data and a void extraneous factors that may have skewed the data collected. Subjects Twenty-two students (11 males and 11 fema les) were recruited from the Sport and Fitness classes offered by the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences of the University of Florida. The sample size was determined using Gpower statistical software for sample size calculations. The a-priori level was set at 0.05. Using these values, the calculated statistical power and sample size were 0.6 and 22, respectively. According to Escamilla (2001) trained subjects have more consistent kinematics during testing, hence all subjec ts of this study were physica lly active; par ticipating in resistance training programs approximately 3-5 times per week and frequently incorporated squatting into their exercise regimen. Those who qualified for this investigation were lower limb injury free and reported no prior history of injury to the lower extremities. Additionally a brief question and answer session on the exercise techniques required for this study was held pr ior to testing at which time subjects were given verbal instruction on how to perform each exercise and the same investigator gave instructions to all subjects. 20

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21 Prior to participating, subjects were requi red to read and sign an informed consent form detailing the risks, benefits and pro cedures of this experiment approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida. Morphology measurements including: hip width, quadr iceps angle, height, mass, selected anthropometric measurements (Tables 3-1 and 3-2) and struct ural alignment measures (Table 3-2) were also recorded at this time. Table 3-1. Anthropometric measurement guidelines: Parameter Description Body mass Measurement of the mass of participant with shoes removed. ASIS breadth Using a sliding caliper, the horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spines was measured. Thigh length Using a sliding caliper, the vertical distance between the superior margin of the lateral tibia and superior point of the greater trochanter was measured. Mid-Thigh circumference The circumference of the thigh was measured using a tape placed perpendicular to the long ax is of the leg and at a level midway between trochanter ic and tibial landmarks. Calf length With a sliding caliper, the maximum vertical distance between the superior margin of the lateral tibia and lateral malleolus was measured. Calf circumference Using a tape the maximum circumference of the calf perpendicular to the long axis of the shank was measured. Knee diameter Using a sliding caliper, the maximum breadth of the knee across the femoral epic ondyles was measured. Foot length Using a sliding caliper, the di stance from the posterior margin of the heel and the tip of the longest toe was measured. Malleolus height Using a sliding caliper the vertical distance between the standing surface and lateral malleolus was measured. Malleolus width Using a sliding caliper the distance between the lateral and medial malleolus was measured. Foot breadth Usi ng a sliding caliper, the breadth across the distal ends of metatarsal I and V were measured.

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22 Table 3-2. Morphology measurement guidelines: Structural Alignment Measure Procedure Quadriceps Angle Using a single axis goniometer the angle measured at the femur between the line intersecting the center of the patella and tibial tubercle and longitudinal axis of the femur was measured. Hip Width The distance between the left and right anterior superior iliac crests using a sliding callipers was measured. Instrumentation Trapezoid and Straight bars The Trapezoid bar (TB) (Figure 3-1) is a trapezoid shaped bar. The TB is designed to allow a person to stand within its frame and perform exercises. There are handles located on the side of the bar situated perpendicular to the loading poles. The bar mass of the TB is 20.45 kilograms (45 lb) and the weight-plates are loaded on each end. 1.42m 0.61m 0.7m Figure 3-1. Trapezoid bar. The straight bar (SB) (Fi gure 3-2) is a straight bar with a mass of 20.45 kg and bilateral loading poles designed to fit standard weight-plates. The bar is designed with grips to ensure good handling during exercises.

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23 2.18m Figure 3-2. Straight bar. Force Platform A Bertec force platform (Type 4060-10, Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH) sampling at 900 Hz was used to collect ground reaction force (GRF) da ta. The size of the top surface of the force platform is 0.6 m x 0.4 m. Before each testing session the force platform amplifier was balanced and on for approximately 30 minutes prior to testing. Videography Three JVC video cameras (Model # TK C 1380) with a sampling rate of 60 Hz were used to collect all analog video data. Each camera was strategically positioned along the walls of the Biomechanics laborator y to allow for full vi ew of all passive reflective markers. This eliminated any e rror due to estimation of reflective marker location during the execution of a trial. A three dimensional analysis was used to increase the accuracy of the data collected and all views were taken fr om the left side of the subject. Camera 1 was placed directly in front of the subject, and camera 2 and camera 3 were placed at di agonal views (Figure 3-3). Muscle Activity A MESPEC 4000 (Mega Electroni cs, Ltd., Finland) tele metric electromyography unit sampling at 900 Hz was used to record muscle activity for all trials. The MESPEC 4000 uses a transmitter which was attached to th e subject to broadcast the muscle activity data of the subject during each trial to the Peak Motus system.

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24 X Y Z Subject Facing 3. 4 7 m 4 22 m 2. 5 5 m 3.8 6 m 4 22 m 0. 4 m 0. 6 m Camera 1 Camera 2 Camera 3 Force Platform Figure 3-3. Overhead view of experimental set-up.

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25 Peak Motus System The Peak Motus 2000 (Peak perfor mance Technologies, Englewood, CO) software system was used to collect, sync hronize and digitize a ll video data. This allowed the complete matching of all analog and video data. Procedures Subjects performed all testing protocols while supervised by the investigator in the Biomechanics Laboratory at the College of Health and Human Performance of the University of Florida. Each subj ect attended one testing session. Video Calibration A 16-point calibration fram e (1.25 m x 1.1 m x 0.9 m) calibration frame (PEAK Performance Technologies, Inc., USA) (Figure 3-4) was video taped while placed over a force platform prior to each testing session. Camera orientations were adjusted to ensure clear view of all calibration points. Each calibration point from all camera views was manually digitized. A calibration frame recording with an obj ect space calibration error of greater than 0.5 % was rejected a nd the calibration frame was re-recorded and redigitized. Force platform calibration was done manually prior to ea ch testing session. Furthermore, testing was done only after the force platform has been turned on for a minimum of 30 minutes.

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26 Figure 3-4. Schematic of th e 16-point calibration frame. Warm-up and Practice Immediately following the pre-participati on screening and before testing, each subject was instructed on the technique of each lift. Subjects were allowed to perform a self selected warm-up. When the warm-up was completed, all subjects were required to complete a practice set of three repetiti ons of the squat using an unl oaded OB and TB bar. An unloaded bar was used during each practice tr ial to avoid the onset of muscle fatigue during testing and to confirm that th e subjects are using proper technique.

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27 Testing and Subject Preparation Upon the completion of the practice set, su bjects began the test ing protocol with a randomly assigned trial sequenc e. In previous literature a percentage of body weight was used to determine the load lifted by the study subjects (Caterisano et al., 2002). For this study 75% of the subjects body weight wa s used as the extern al resistance for all conditions. Caterisano et al (2002) used 100 125% of body weight to determine the load in their experiment, howev er this investigation required the subjects to hold the load with their hands and across th e shoulders, so, to avoid complications due to poor grip strength 75% of each subjects body weight was chosen as the appropriate load. Subjects were prepared for each te sting session by placing two surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes over each of the following muscles or muscle groups: the gastrocnemius, quadriceps, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings (Table 3-3). Table 3-3. Electrode placement: Muscle Electrode Location Gastrocnemius Each placed on the belly of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius. Gluteus maximus Spaced approx. 3 cmapart the di stance between the trochanter and sacral vertebrae in the middle of the muscle on an oblique angle and in line with the muscle fibers at the level of the trochanter. Quadriceps Center of the anterior su rface of the thigh and approximately (approx) the distance between the knee and the iliac spine. Electrodes placed approximately 2 cm apart and parallel to the muscle fibers. Hamstrings Spaced 2 cm apart parallel to the muscle fibers on the lateral aspect of the posterior thi gh 67% the distance between the trochanter and the back of the knee.

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28 Prior to the electrode applica tion the skin was shaved and cl eaned with alcohol to reduce skin impedance allowing for a clearer si gnal (Brask, Lueke, & Soderberg 1984; Ninos, Irrang, Burdett, & Weiss 1997; Isear, Eric kson, & Worrell 1997; Hung & Gross 1999). Following EMG electrode placement subjec ts performed a Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) lasting approximately five seconds for each muscle that was monitored (Table 3-4). The EMG values were recorded for all MVIC trials and Table 3-4. MVIC collection guidelines: Muscle Action Body Position Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion Lying with the ankle extended approx. 45 Gluteus maximus Hip extension Standing with the hi p flexed approx. 45 subjects forcefully extends hip Quadricep Knee extension Seated knee flexed at approx. 90 posteiorly directed force a pplied at ankle. Hamstring Knee flexion Seated knee flexed at approx. 90 anteriorly directed force a pplied at ankle. reflective markers were placed on vari ous landmarks of each subject. These landmarks were the second metatarsal head, latera l malleolus, heel, femoral epicondyle, and greater trochanter of the left leg. There were two additional markers placed at mid-shank and mid-thigh loca tions of each subject (Figure 3-5). Following the marker and electrode pl acement each subject was given further demonstration on the performance of each exer cise of the testing session. After the participant felt comfortable w ith the performance of each ex ercise the testing session began.

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29 Figure 3-5. Marker placement. The SB squat was performe d with the standard SB superior to the middle trapezius muscle and in horizontal alignm ent but not in contact with any cervical vertebra. The TB squat was performed with the bar suspended from the hands of each participant. Stance width was manipulated for each TB and SB squat. In previous literature a percentage of shoulder width or hi p width was used to determine stance width (McCaw & Melrose, 1998; Escamilla et al., 2000). For this investigat ion a percentage of femur length was used to determine stance length. The femur and tibia make up the length of the leg. When trying to control fo r stance width, using a percentage of femur length allowed a more consistent measure am ong the subjects of this investigation.

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30 Femur length is proportional to lower extremity length and therefore a more appropriate measure of stance width can be made using a percentage of femur length rather than hip or shoulder width. The approximate locati on of the femur was defined as the distance between the greater trochanter and the latera l condyle of the tibia and measured with a calliper while the subject was standing still. Stance width was defined as 75% of the length of the femur and measured from heel to heel. Subjects used a self selected foot position during each trial. Proper execution of each trial is important to ensure reduced risk of acute injury and to eliminate other extraneous variable s that may skew the collected data. Each participant was instructed to maintain an erect posture and avoid the knee projecting in front of the toes. Subjects were required to execute a parallel squat for each trial taken while standing with their left foot on a force platform. A parallel squat was defined as the approximate location of the femur (midway between the top and bottom of the thigh) being parallel to the floor. Trials were discar ded if a participants feet do not remain flat on the force platform or if they fail to reach parallel. Each repe tition for each trial was executed at a self-selected pace. Session Protocol All subjects performed two trials per bar condition. There were three repetitions per trial followed by a self-sel ected rest period. The values of the middle repetitions of the two trials for each condition were averaged and taken for subsequent analysis. Data Reduction Electromyography and Ground Reaction Force All EMG data recorded were filtered usi ng a band pass filter with a high pass cutoff frequency of 10 Hz and a Low pass cut-off frequency of 450 Hz. The low pass cut

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31 off frequency was based on the Nyquist theorem. The signals were then rectified, and normalized to a MVIC value collected pre-exercise. The MVIC value used for normalization was the average value over th e middle 2 seconds of the trial. A Butterworth low pass filter was used to condi tion the GRF data using a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz. Also, a 12-bit analog to digital (A /D) converter was used to convert all data from analog to digital form. Kinematics Each reflective marker of the middle tria l was digitized using a the Peak Motus 2000 Motion Measurement System. Two critical in stants were identified for each trial: (1) the beginning of the downward phase of the squat and (2) the beginning of the upward phase of the squat. The Peak Motus 2000 was used to calculate joint kinematics and digitize (two frames before the start of and two frames after the completion) of the middle repetition of each set. The beginning and end of each digi tized trial were identified as the initial eccentric movement from maximum vertical hip marker value and the final concentric movement from maximum vertical hi p marker value respectively. Knee joint angles were calculated using es timated joint centers of the ankle, knee, and hip. Ankle, and hip angl es were not calculated. Inve rse dynamics was utilized to calculate joint kinetics (Figure 3-7). Joint Reaction Forces and Joint Moment The knee joint resultants force (F K ) and moment (T K ) were determined using the equations listed below. F K + W FS + F G = 0 [1]

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32 r FS W FS + r G F G + T K = 0 [2] where r FS and r G are moment arm vectors of W FS (weight of foot and shank) and F G (force due to gravity) about T K (torque at the knee) respectively, and denotes a vector (cross) product. Statistical Analysis The three factors examined in this investigation were gender (male and female), type of bar (straight bar or trapezoid bar), and phase (ascending and descending). To assess the relations among gender, bar types and phases the following dependent variables were measured: Mean EMG values during the descent and ascent phases Maximum extension moment at the knee during the descent and ascent phases Maximum anteroposterior force at the knee during the descent and ascent phases Maximum compressive force at the knee during the descent and ascent phases Quadriceps Angle Hip width Maximum knee flexion angle during each squat. Due to subject attrition, loss of data and the exploratory nature of this investigation three tests for significance were used. The a-priori le vel of significance for all statistical tests performed was = 0.05. To analyze the EMG data a 2x2x2 repeated measures MANOVA (Gender*Bar type*Phase) wa s used. A test of significance for the kinetic data was done using three 2x2x2 (Ge nder*Bar type*Phase) repeated measures ANOVAs with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons which resulted in an adjusted level of significance of p = 0167 (.05/3 = .0167). To analyze maximum knee flexion angle during the stra ight bar and trapezoid bar squats, Quadriceps angle and normalized hip width data, four t-tests were used with a Bonfe rroni adjustment for

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33 multiple comparisons of four which resulted in an adjusted level of significance of p = .0125 (.05/4 = .0125). In accordance with Schutz and Gessar oli (1987) a 2x2x2 MANOVA was used to analyse and compare electromyography data collected. The MANOVA was the more robust statistical test for th e electromyography data however the kinetic and kinematic data required different statistical tests.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This study revealed significant differences in Q-angle between males and females with no significant differences between ge nders for the average EMG, maximum net anterior and compressive force, maximu m net knee extension moment, maximum knee flexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle for each squat type. However, significant main effects were found between bar types for the average EMG of the quadriceps, gluteals and hamstring muscle groups. Si gnificant main effects were found between bar types for the maximum compressive force at the knee, maximum anteriorly directed shear force and maximum knee extension moment. Th e ratio or compressive to anterior shear force was also measured but there was no signi ficant differences found with this measure. There were also significant interactions for the following: phase*group for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity, and bar*phase for quadriceps muscle activity. There were significant differences between the trapezoid bar and straight bar types and between phases. However, gender main effects were not significant. Hence muscle activity was collapsed among gender groups and a comparison was made between straight and trapezoid bar type s or phases where applicable Quadriceps muscle activity was significantly different between bar type s with the trapezoid bar yielding higher EMG activity than the straight ba r. Activity of the gluteal and hamstring muscle groups showed significant differences between pha ses with ascending phase resulting in the higher percentage of MVIC in both the gl uteals and hamstrings. There were no 34

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35 significant differences found with gastrocnemiu s activity and thus ga strocnemius activity or implications thereof were not addressed. Average EMG Activity The MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for bar type on muscle activity (F = 3.398, p< .05) (Figures 4-1, 4-2, & 43, Tables 4-2 & 4-3). Further analysis of muscle activity revealed significant differe nces between the descending and ascending phases in gluteals, and hamstring muscle activity (Figures 4-2 & 4-3, Tables 4-1, 4-2, & 4-3). Significant interactions were also found between muscle activity and phases (Figures 4-4, 4-5, & 4-6). Table 4-1. Normalized EMG (mean average SD) of different muscle. Male Female Muscle Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Gluteals 3.92 (1.98) 13.12 (7.78) 5.40 (5.11) 13.12 (7.45) 5.25 (3.19) 8.67 (5.87) 4.30 (5.97) 5.07 (4.22) Hamstring 5.03 (1.87) 11.03 (5.35) 5.48 (3.51) 10.05 (7.66) 5.99 (2.91) 8.06 (4.06) 5.03 (4.16) 4.96 (2.73) 28.46 Quadriceps -16.53 50.82 (24.26) 32.80 (22.58) 32.61 (18.34) 24.61 (10.41) 33.38 (21.99) 22.14 (15.75) 15.91 (10.85) Gastroc 4.82 (2.73) 3.41 (1.96) 8.18 (9.25) 9.60 (13.49) 5.94 (6.37) 9.6 (10.40) 5.81 (6.36) 9.33 (9.93) Table 4-2. 2 x 2 x 2 MANOVA comparing the vectors of musc le activity between genders, bar types and phases. Partial Eta Wilks' Lambda F Hypothesis df Error df Sig. Squared Observed Power Group 0.761 1.181 4 15 0.359 0.239 0.282 Bar 0.525 3.398 4 15 0.036 0.475 0.715 Phase 0.367 6.458 4 15 0.003 0.633 0.952 Bar Group 0.812 0.867 4 15 0.506 0.188 0.213

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36 Table 4-2. Continued Wilks' Lambda F Hypothesis df Error df Sig. Partial Eta Observed Power Phase Group 0.505 3.677 4 15 0.028 0.495 0.753 Bar Phase 0.531 3.307 4 15 0.039 0.469 0.701 Bar Phase Group 0.893 0.448 4 15 0.772 0.107 0.127 Table 4-3. Univariate statistics for different EMG dependent measures (between subjects) Partial Eta Muscle Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Squared Observed Power Gluteals Phase (P) 557.04 1 557.04 26.386 0 0.594 0.998 Bar (B) 11.781 1 11.781 0.555 0.466 0.03 0.109 P Group (G) 202.566 1 202.566 9.595 0.006 0.348 0.834 B G 45.451 1 45.451 2.141 0.161 0.106 0.283 B P 21.321 1 21.321 0.975 0.337 0.051 0.155 B P G 1.711 1 1.711 0.078 0.783 0.004 0.058 Error(P) 380.001 18 21.111 Error(B) 382.055 18 21.225 Error(B*P) 393.675 18 21.871 Hamstrings Phase (P) 197.506 1 197.506 17.33 0.001 0.491 0.976 Bar (B) 26.335 1 26.335 1.936 0.181 0.097 0.261 P Group (G) 91.806 1 91.806 8.056 0.011 0.309 0.766 B G 15.576 1 15.576 1.145 2.99 0.06 0.173 B P 15.931 1 15.931 2.174 0.158 0.108 0.287 B P G 0.63 1 0.63 0.086 0.773 0.005 0.059 Error(P) 205.14 18 11.397

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37 Table 4-3. Continued Muscle Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Observed Power Error(B) 244.851 18 13.603 Error(B*P) 131.921 18 7.329 Quadriceps Phase (P) 763.23 1 763.23 2.603 0.124 0.126 0.333 Bar (B) 1428.9 1 1428.9 5.634 0.029 0.238 0.613 P Group (G) 481.671 1 481.671 1.643 0.216 0.084 0.229 B G 46.056 1 46.056 0.182 0.675 0.01 0.069 B P 1762.5 1 1762.5 6.77 0.018 0.273 0.692 B P G 71.253 1 71.253 0.274 0.607 0.015 0.079 Error(P) 5277.61 18 293.201 Error(B) 4565.34 18 253.63 Error(B*P) 4686.2 18 260.344 Gastroc Phase (P) 64.62 1 64.62 2.005 0.174 0.1 0.268 Bar (B) 104.653 1 104.653 1.648 0.215 0.084 0.229 P Group (G) 202.566 1 202.566 9.595 0.006 0.348 0.834 B G 123.753 1 123.753 1.949 0.18 0.098 0.262 B P 9.045 1 9.045 0.569 0.46 0.031 0.11 B P G 11.026 1 11.026 0.694 0.416 0.037 0.124 Error(P) 580.611 18 293.201 Error(B) 1142.93 18 63.496 Error(B*P) 286.001 18 15.889

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38 Trap BarStraight Bar0 10 20 30 40 50 60EMG (% of MVIC) Figure 4-1. Mean quadriceps EMG level. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions.

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39 DescendingAscending 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20EMG (% of MVIC Figure 4-2. Mean gluteal EM G level during each phase of the squat. There was a significant difference found between phases.

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40 DescendingAscending 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18EMG (% of MVI C Figure 4-3. Mean hamstring EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a significant difference found between phases.

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41 Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Gluteals0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 female maleEMG (% of MVIC) descending ascending Figure 4-4. There was a significant interacti on between gender and phase in the gluteal muscle group. The difference in gluteal muscle activity between the descending and ascending phases was gr eater in males than females.

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42 Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Hamstrings0 2 4 6 8 10 12 female maleEMG (% of MVIC) descending ascending Figure 4-5. There was a significant intera ction between gender and phase for the hamstring muscle group. The differen ce in hamstrings ac tivity between the descending and ascending phases was gr eater in males than females.

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43 Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Quadriceps20 25 30 35 40 45 trap bar straight barEMG (% of MVIC) descending ascending Figure 4-6. There was a significant interac tion between bar type and phase for the quadriceps muscle group. The differe nce in quadriceps act ivity between the descending and ascending phases was greate r when using the trap bar than the straight bar. Peak Resultant Joint Forces and Moments The 2x2x2 repeated measures ANOVA reveal ed significant differences between the two bar types in the maxi mum knee compressive and anterior shear forces, and the maximum knee extension moment (Figures 4-7, 4-8, & 4-9, Tables 4-4, 4-5, & 4-6). However, there were no significant differen ces between bar types observed in the knee angle at the instant of maxi mum knee compressive force.

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44 Table 4-4. Normalized peak joint forces (mean SD): Male Fem ale Force (N/kg) Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Compressive -14.21 (7.66) -14.02 (6.34) -8.54 (1.34) -8.59 (0.95) -12.04 (6.04) -13.89 (10.25) -7.84 (1.54) -7.84 (1.40) Anterior Shear 7.57 (4.40) 9.87 (7.31) 3.91 (1.23) 3.98 (1.16) 7.14 (3.36) 5.82 (2.61) 4.99 (1.87) 4.25 (1.23)

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45 Table 4-5. Normalized peak joint moments (mean SD): Male Female Moment (Nm/kg) Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Extension -9.50 (7.89) -9.3 (6.53) -2.76 (1.10) -2.78 (0.87) -6.46 (4.63) -5.92 (5.54) -2.73 (0.76) -2.82 (0.70)

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46 Table 4-6. ANOVA statistics for different dependent measures (between subjects: Partial Eta Measure Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Squared Observed Power Max. knee comp. force Phase (P) 3.728 1 3.728 0.595 0.452 0.038 0.112 Bar (B) 535.58 1 535.58 8.308 0.011 0.356 0.769 P Group (G) 4.946 1 4.946 0.79 0.388 0.05 0.132 B G 0.08334 1 0.08334 0.001 0.972 0 0.05 B P 3.35 1 3.35 0.528 0.479 0.034 0.105 B P G 5.425 1 5.425 0.856 0.37 0.054 0.14 Error(P) 93.904 15 6.26 Error(B) 967.038 15 64.469 Error(B*P) 95.123 15 6.342 Max. knee anterior shear Phase (P) 0.01755 1 0.01755 0.002 0.964 0 0.05 force Bar (B) 160.294 1 160.294 9.573 0.007 0.39 0.824 P Group (G) 22.49 1 22.49 2.709 0.121 0.153 0.338 B G 48.794 1 48.794 2.914 0.108 0.163 0.359 B P 2.265 1 2.265 0.343 0.567 0.022 0.085 B P G 9.56 1 9.56 1.448 0.247 0.088 0.204 Error(P) 124.525 15 8.302 Error(B) 251.167 15 16.744 Error(B*P) 99.009 15 6.601 46

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47 Table 4-6. Continued: Measure Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Observed Power Max. knee Ext. moment Phase (P) 0.474 1 0.474 0.262 0.616 0.017 0.077 Bar (B) 431.912 1 431.912 8.766 0.01 0.369 0.79 P Group (G) 0.111 1 0.111 0.062 0.807 0.004 0.056 B G 42.4 1 42.4 0.861 0.368 0.054 0.14 B P 0.853 1 0.853 0.567 0.463 0.036 0.109 B P G 0.207 1 0.207 0.138 0.716 0.009 0.064 Error(P) 27.133 15 1.809 Error(B) 739.071 15 49.271 Error(B*P) 22.543 15 1.503 Forces ratio Phase (P) 0.48 1 0.48 1.168 0.297 0.072 0.173 Bar (B) 0.0018 1 0.0018 0.002 0.966 0 0.05 P Group (G) 1.65 1 1.65 4.014 0.064 2.11 0.466 B G 3.859 1 3.859 4.074 0.062 2.14 0.472 B P 0.092 1 0.092 0.21 0.654 0.014 0.071 B P G 0.663 1 0.663 0.138 0.716 0.009 0.209 Error(P) 6.164 15 0.411 Error(B) 14.206 15 0.947 Error(B*P) 6.651 15 0.443

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48 Trap BarStraight Bar -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0Normailzed Force (N/kg) Figure 4-7. Mean net knee maximum comp ressive force. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions.

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49 Trap BarStraight Bar 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14Normalized Force (N/kg) Figure 4-8. Mean net knee maximum anterior force. There was a significant difference found between bar conditions.

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50 Trap BarStraight Bar -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0Normalized Moment (Nm/kg) Figure 4-9. Mean net knee maximum exte nsion moment. Ther e was a significant difference found between bar conditions. The t-tests revealed significant differe nces between genders in Q-angle and normalized hip breadth (Figures 4-10 & 4-11, Tables 4-7, 4-8, & 4-9).

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51 Table 4-7. Width and angle measurements (mean SD): Measurement Male Female Max. knee flexion angle trapezoid bar () 124 39 126 31 Max. knee flexion angle straight bar () 107 14 86.83 18 Q-Angle () 8 1 12 3 Normalized hip-width (m/m) 0.140 0.09 0.151 0.011

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Table 4-8. T-Test analysis for Q-angle and hip width: Sig. Mean 95% confidence interval of the diff F Sig. t df (2-tailed) diff Std. Error diff. Lower Upper Q-angle a* 6.918 0.017 3.208 18 0.005 3.35 1.0442 1.1563 5.5437 b* 3.208 11.938 0.008 3.35 1.0442 1.0736 5.6264 Normalized hip width a* 6.918 0.017 3.208 18 0.005 3.35 1.0442 1.1563 5.5437 b* 3.208 11.938 0.008 3.35 1.0442 1.0736 5.6264 52 a* equal variances assumed b* equal variances not assumed

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53 Table 4-9. T-Test an alysis for instant of maximum knee angle: Sig. Mean 95% confidence interval of the diff F Sig. t df (2-tailed) diff Std. Error diff. Lower Upper TK () a* 1.982 0.178 0.089 16 0.931 1.465 16.5515 -33.623 36.5527 b* 0.086 12.937 0.933 1.465 17.0623 -35.414 38.3442 SK () a* 0.376 0.549 -2.622 15 0.019 -20.464 7.8047 -37.1 -3.8288 b* -2.664 14.751 0.018 -20.464 7.6822 -36.863 -4.0657 a* equal variances assumed b* equal variances not assumed TKmaximum knee angle during the trap bar squat SK-maximum knee angle duri ng the straight bar squat

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54 Female Male 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16Angle (degrees) Figure 4-10. There was a signi ficant difference found betwee n males and females for Qangle.

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55 Female Male 0.125 0.130 0.135 0.140 0.145 0.150 0.155 0.160 0.165Normalized hip breadt h (% of standing height) Figure 4-11. There was a si gnificant difference found betw een males and females for normalized hip breadth.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Physical preparation for sports is essential for success and injury reduction. Closed kinetic chain exercises, such as squats are often recommended and touted as a good muscle builder for the legs with some referring to it as the pillar of strength exercise for the lower extrem ity (Lombardi, Dubuque, & Brown, 1989). This is in part due to the belief that the benefits of squa tting outweigh the risks associated with the exercise. The biomechanics of squatting has been studied using vari ous squat techniques with the straight bar. For example, Stuart et al. (1996) studied tibio femoral joint kinetics and muscle activity during the dynamic squat w ith the straight bar. Their study focused on variations of squatting using the straight bar but had a limited subject pool. That is to say the subject pool consisted of only six hea lthy male participants. Studies that have such a small homogeneous sample size can be useful for further research, although the findings of these studies cannot be explicitly applied to people who are outside of that subject pool parameters. Hence, the focus of this investigatio n was to study the differences in groups that were not fully represented in the literature. This study investigated the effects of the straight and trapezoid squat bars, genders, and the ascending and descending phases of the squat on muscle activity of the hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius and gluteal muscles and tibiofemoral joint mechanics during a dynamic squat. It was the intent of this investigation to make available practical recommendations for the use of the two studied squat techniques as a functional training 56

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57 or rehabilitative modality. Previous research studies on related topics were used to aid in formulating the hypotheses of this experiment and evaluating the findings of this study. Muscle Activity Muscle activity was affected significantly by phase rather th an bar type. The hypothesis that mean gastrocnemius, quadricep s, and hamstring muscle activity would be greater during the trap bar squat was partia lly supported as the quadriceps muscle group was the only muscle group that resulted in a higher value that was significantly different between bar types. McCaw and Melrose ( 1999) found greater muscle activity during the ascent phase as compared to the descent phase for gluteus maximus and gastrocnemius activity with as much as 2.5 times greater muscle gluteus maximus activity and 50% greater hamstrings activity during the ascent phase of the squat as compared to the descent phase. The findings of this study follow those of McCaw and Melrose. The results showed approximately 50% and 20% higher muscle activity levels during the ascent phase as compared to the descent phase for the gluteals and hamstrings, respectively. It is reasonable to assume that the ha mstrings and gluteals muscles activation increased during the ascent phase is in part due to the dema nd on hip extension. In an upright position or at the start of the descen t phase the hamstrings and gluteals muscles are relatively low because of the small hip extension moment needed for that posture however, at the beginning of the ascent phase these muscle groups are more active because of the large hip extension moment needed to maintain a squat position. Furthermore the higher percentages found in McCaw and Melrose may be attributed to differences in subject pools, MVIC collection position, and the load value the subjects were required to lift.

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58 There are a number of fact ors such as electrode placement that can affect EMG levels and thus the percentages were not e xplicitly compared. Instead the activation pattern during the movement was compared and found to be similar between the two studies. Higher muscle activity was expected during the ascent phase due to the motion against gravity. Signorile et al. (1995) found that the hi ghest muscle activity level reached occurred at 90 of knee flexion for the quadriceps and these results support the assumption that the greatest muscle activity will occur where the resistance arm of the upper body weight and barbell about the knee is longest. There were significant interactions obs erved for muscle activity and phase. Specifically there was a significant interacti on between the gluteal, and hamstring muscle groups and phases for the male subjects. A lthough this does not explicitly support the hypothesis that mean gluteal, quadriceps, hams trings, and gastrocnem ius activity will be greater during the ascent phase, it does imply that there is a difference between muscle activity of the lower extremities during the ascent and decent phases of the squat. Forces and Moments The parameters used to assess tibiofem oral joint kinetics were maximum net compressive force, maximum net anterior ly directed force and maximum net knee extension moment. These factors were chos en in accordance with previous literature (Stuart et al., 1996) and on the possible pr otective effects they may have on the tibiofemoral joint and its surroundi ng connective tissue, specific ally the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The hypothesis that the ma ximum compressive knee joint force would be greater in the female subjects was not s upported by the results of this investigation. When loaded the ACL provides a posteriorly directed shear force at the tibiofemoral joint and the hams trings act as an ACL prot agonist (More et al., 1993).

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59 However, the hamstrings provide a posteriorl y directed shear force at the tibiofemoral joint only at certain knee angles. The resu lts of this study showed an increase in hamstrings muscle activity during the ascent phase of the squat in the trap and straight bar squatting techniques. There were signifi cant differences found between bar types for the net compressive force at the tibiofemoral joint. Compressive force is accepted as a protective mechanism to the knee joint when pe rforming closed chain activities such as the dynamic squat (Escamilla et al., 1998). Sp ecifically it is thought that compressive force at the knee can reduce the shear forces opposed by the ACL and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) at the knee thus, protecting thes e ligaments. The trapezoid bar resulted in a higher normalized net compressive force than the straight bar squat. This suggests that, the trap bar squat is a possi ble training exercise post ACL or PCL reconstruction. The trap bar also showed a higher value for net anterior shear at the knee which supported the hypothesis that ma ximum anterior shear force would be greater during the trap bar squat. An anteriorly directed tibiofemoral shear force at the knee signifies PCL loading as explained through static analysis of the posterior draw test. The PCL and ACL provide opposite shear forces at the knee. Du ring the anterior draw test the resultant force is a posteriorly directed force signifyi ng ACL loading. Anteriorly directed shear force then signifies PCL loading. The highe r net compressive force at the knee observed during the trap bar squat a lthough considered a protective mechanism to the cruciate ligaments of the knee may be negated due to the increased anteriorly directed shear present. Establishing a standard for the ra tio of compressive force to shear force is possibly a more adequate measure for determin ing the mechanical effects of the squat on the tibiofemoral joint. This is mainly becau se excessive compressive shear forces can be

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60 injurious to the cruciate ligaments whereas excessive compressive force can be damaging to the menisci and articular cartilage (Es camilla, 2001). Hence, one measure alone is inadequate when evaluating th e effect of the squat becaus e higher values do not explain the possible effects of forces present. Gender Comparisons Hip breadth and quadriceps angle were th e two structural factors measured and compared in this study. For comparison normali zed hip widths were used. As did in other investigations, significan t differences in hip width and quadriceps angle were found between genders. This supports the hypotheses that there would be significant differences between hip width, and Q-angle between males a nd females of this study. These finding however, do not prove that hip br eadth or quadriceps a ngle had a definitive effect on muscle activity or knee joint kinetics partly because the differences observed in muscle activity and knee joint kinetics were not between the two genders. As a matter of comparison the effect of differences in hip width and Q-angle between males and females are easier to observe during higher impact exercises than in the squat. Studies have related injuries to the lower extremities, specifically the knee joint in women to landing and cutting maneuvers in sports such as volleyball and basketball. While the squat is a closed kineti c chain exercise it does not have a takeoff or landing instants nor does it require the same ch ange of direction as sports such as soccer or basketball require. Thus, the knee is not subject to the same laterally directed forces during the squat as it would du ring a cutting maneuver during sports.

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61 The menstrual cycle may have an effect on muscle activation and tendon elasticity in women. The female subjects of this investigation were not surveyed regarding their menstrual cycle thus, menstruation is a po ssible limitation that may offer a partial explanation to the muscle activ ation observed in the female subjects. Other limitations to gender comparisons may include muscle st rength. Assuming muscle strength has a significant effect on lifting ability, the actual percentage of the one repetition maximum squat per subject lifted may di ffer between subjects. Simply put, each subject may be better equipped to handle a highe r percentage of their body mass. Bar Type Comparisons The rhomboidal shape of the trap bar allo ws a lifter to stand within its frame to perform squats and the load lifted is limited by gr ip strength of the lifte r as the bar is held at the hands and not loaded acr oss the shoulders as with the straight bar. The loading position of the trap bar presents a safety feature absent with the straight bar as grip strength should significantly reduce the am ount of weight lifted. The disadvantage perhaps is in the dimension of the bar. By standing within the frame of the trap bar a lifter is restricted by the frame as he or she lifts thus, the phy sical stature of a lifter can be a disadvantage when using the trap bar. Despite the size of the lifter presenti ng a possible disadvantage when using the trap bar there is an added advantage to th e rhomboidal design and loading position with the trap bar. The lifter is restricted by grip st rength. That is to say the lifter can only load the bar with as much weight was he or she c ould hold. It is reas onable to assume that someones grip strength will not exceed the amount of weight that person could support

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62 across the shoulders while in an upright position. This is significant because in a special population the amount of weight lifted can be restricted. The fa ilure point for the subjects grip due to fatigue should occur at a lower weight than the back or leg muscles. Foot position was not manipulated for this study because it was unlikely to result in a statistically significant difference fo r muscle activity (Boyden, Kingman & Dyson, 2000). Therefore, each subject was allowed to position their feet according to their own comforts. It was assumed that foot positi on would have no effect on muscle activity or joint kinetics. Findings of B oyden et al. (2000) were the ba sis for this decision however, their study consisted of a sample size of six experienced male subjects With the trap bar squat, changes in leg and foot position to accommodate the bar may (e.g., feet point forward) have had an effect on muscle ac tivity, knee joint kinetics and kinematics. Stance width was controlled for this study primarily because changes in stance width can have an effect on joint kine tics and kinematics (Escamilla, 2001). Although not manipulated in this study se lf adjustments foot position during the trap bar squat may have lead to adjustments in the way the lif ter performed the squat and possibly change the kinetics and kinematics of the study. These adjustments were not explicitly observed in this study however, it is possible that such adjustments did occur and played a role in the statistical differences between bar types for the joint kinetic and kinematics measures and the significant interaction observed for bar type and quadriceps muscle activity. Summary and Conclusion This study investigated th e effects of two squat tec hniques on tibiofemoral joint mechanics and muscle activity. Nineteen healthy subjects with no history of injury were

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63 recruited from the University of Florida. Each subject participated in one testing session which consisted of trapezoid ba r and straight bar squat trials. Significant interactions and main effects were found within subjects for the mean EMG levels of the quadriceps, gluteals and hamstrings muscle groups. Significant differences were found between trapezoid and straight ba r conditions for the maximu m compressive and maximum anteriorly directed forces at the knee, and the maximum knee extension moment. The straight bar and trapezoid bar squats are closed kinetic chain exercises that produce compressive and shear forces at the ti biofemoral joint. The results of this study revealed significant differences between these exercises that may lead to improved use of each of these squat techniques in any setti ng be it rehabilitation or strengthening and conditioning oriented. The overall effect of eac h bar type will be favorable when used in the correct setting. Despite no significant in teraction or main effect on the gastrocnemius which is a secondary knee flexor the techniques tested showed significant effects on the other major muscle groups of the legs. While it is not possible to definitively state which squatting technique is better it is possible to state that these two techniques may have more positive effects when used together rather that singly. Individuals who show a defici ency in one area of muscle activity will benefit from use of each technique singly or in concert which also suggests that one technique will be superior over the other de pending on the condition of the muscle group being trained. For instance the trap bar resulted in higher muscle activity for the quadriceps muscle, thus with a subject that presents with quadriceps weakness the

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64 quadriceps dominant nature of the trap bar s quat would make it an ad equate exercise to increase quadriceps muscle strength Implications Comparison of the straight bar and tr apezoid bar squat techniques revealed significant difference in muscle activity and knee joint kinetics between these two techniques. These differences may contribute to further stud ies investigating the effects of each technique in a rehabi litation setting and/or strengt h and conditioning setting. From an application standpoint th is research can be used to ai d in prescribing exercise for specific injuries of th e legs. Each technique can be used singly, in cooperation or combined with other exercise and rehabi litation techniques to achieve the greatest benefits of any rehabilitative or strengthening and conditioning regimen.

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APPENDIX A IRB APPROVAL

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66 IRB APPROVAL UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD 1. TITLE OF PROJECT: Analysis of Knee Mechanics: Differences between female and male athletes during the squat exercise. 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s): (Name, degree, title, dept., address, phone #, e-mail & fax) Francis Forde, B.S., Graduate Teaching Assistant, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205, 392-0584 ext. 1374, fforde@ufl.edu 3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT): (Name, campus address, phone #, e-mail & fax) Mark Tillman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exer cise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584 ext. 1237] 4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: From ____12/02______ To ____12/03______ 5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT : N/A (As indicated to the Office of Research, Technology and Graduate Education) 6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of weightlifting techniques on lower extremity kinematics and kinetic s. Specifically we will investigate lower extremity joint angles, jo int forces and muscular activity during the performance of the squat using an Olympic bar and a Trapezoid (trap) bar. 7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE: The UFIRB needs to know what will be done with or to the research participant(s). Each participant will be required to perform two lifting technique s, one using the Olympic bar and the other using the trap bar When performing the squat with the Olympic bar, the load is suppor ted behind the neck on the upper portion of the trapezius muscle (shoulder muscles). During the trap bar squat, the load is held using handles located on both sides of the bar with the arms e xtended at the sides. Participants will perform a maximum of 5 repetiti ons of each lift using 75% of their body weight as resistance. Each session will consist of a total of 8 sets with varying foot pos ition and stance widths. Each participant will only have to att end one session. Each participant will be fitted with reflective markers placed over bony landmarks and will be filmed while performing each of the exercises. Surface electrodes will be placed over the muscles of the front and back of the legs, and back. 8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK: (If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) Inherent risks associated with resistance exercise include muscle and joint soreness as well as joint and muscle pain. Untraine d individuals have a greater likelihood to experience these effects. Therefore in this study we will specifically recruit partic ipants who currently participate in some form of a strength and conditioni ng regimen. The benefit of this research may result in the recommendation of a safe alternative exercise to the standard Squat and Dead Lift exercises. 9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANT(S) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS, AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any): Thirty volunteers will be recruited from the sport and fitness cl asses in the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences 10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT (if applicable). See attached Consent Form Please use attachments ONLY when space on the form is insufficient. _______________________________________ _________________________________________ Principal Investigator's Signature Supervisor's Signature _________________________________________ Department Chair's Signature

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APPENDIX B INFORMED CONSENT FORM

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68 Informed Consent Agreement Project Title: Analysis of Knee Mechanics: Differences between female and male athletes during the squat exercise Please read this consent agreement carefully befo re you decide to partic ipate in this study. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of weightlifting techniques on lower extremity muscle activity, kinematics and kinetics. Specifically we will investigate lower ex tremity joint angles, joint forces and muscular activity duri ng the performance of the squat performed using a Trapezoid bar and an Olympic straight bar. What you will do in the study: You will be required to perform two lifting techniques one usin g the Olympic bar and the one using the trap bar. When performing the squat with the Olympic bar, the load is supported behind the neck on the upper portion of the trapezius muscle (shoulder muscles). During the trap bar squat, the load is held using handle grips located at both ends of the bar with the arms extended at the sides. You will perform a maximum of 5 repetiti ons of each lift using 75% of your body weight as resistance. The total number of sets per session will be 8 with varying foot positions and stance widths. You will only have to attend one session. You will be fitted with reflective marker s placed over bony landmarks and will be filmed while performing each of the exercises. Surface electrodes will be placed over the mu scles of the front and back of the legs, and back. Time required: All experimental conditions will be conducted in one te sting visit that will last approximately two hours. Risks: Inherent risks associated with resistance exercise include muscle and joint so reness as well as joint and muscle pain and injur y. These are temporary effects, usually lasting 1 days. Benefits/Compensation: There is no monetary compensation or direct benefit to you for participation in this project. This research may result in the recommendation of a safe alternative exer cise to the standard squat exercises. Confidentiality: Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connectin g your name to this number will be kept in a locked file. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list and all video files will be destroyed. Your identity wil l be kept confidential to the extent provided by law Voluntary Participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. For your safety, you wil l not be allowed to participate in this study if you have a history of past illnesses or injuries that may reoccur as a result of you r participation and cause harm to you. Right to withdraw from the study: You may withdraw your consent at anytime from this study without penalty. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Francis Forde, B.S., Graduate Teaching As sistant, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584 ext. 1374] Mark Tillman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584 ext. 1237] Whom to contact about your rights in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250 Agreement: I have read the procedure described above, I voluntarily agree to partic ipate in the procedure and I have received a copy of th is description. Participant: ________________________________________ Date: ________________________

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69 APPENDIX C SAMPLE RAW DATA Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 012 Time (s)Volts gluteals Figure C-1. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the straight bar squat

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70 Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat-1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 012 Time (s)Volts gluteals Figure C-2. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the trapezoid bar squat Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat-0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 012 Time (s)Volts hamstrings Figure C-3. Raw EMG for the hamstri ngs for the straight bar squat

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71 Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 012 Time (s)Volts hamstrings Figure C-4. Raw EMG for the hamstr ings for the trapezoid bar squat Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 012 Time (s)Volts quadriceps Figure C-5. Raw EMG for the quadri ceps for the straight bar squat

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72 Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 012 Time (s)Volts quadriceps Figure C-6. Raw EMG for the quadri ceps for the trapezoid bar squat Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 012 Time (s)Volts gastrocnemius Figure C-7. Raw EMG for the gastrocn emius for the straight bar squat

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73 Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat-0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 012 Time (s)Volts gastrocnemius Figure C-8. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the trapezoid bar squat Raw Force data during Trapezoid Bar Squat-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 02 Time (s)Force (N/kg) compressive Figure C-9. Raw compressi ve force data for the trapezoid bar squat

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74 Raw Force data during Straight Bar Squat-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 02 Time (s)Force (N/kg) compressive Figure C-10. Raw compressive force data for the straight bar squat Raw Force data during Trapezoid Bar Squat0 1 2 3 4 5 6 02 Time (s)Force (N/kg) shear Figure C-11. Raw shear force data for the trapezoid bar squat

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75 Raw Force data during Straight Bar Squat0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 02 Time (s)Force (N/kg) shear Figure C-12. Raw shear force data for the straight bar squat Raw Moment data during Trapezoid Bar Squat-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 02 Time (s)Force (Nm/kg) extension Figure C-13. Raw extension moment data for the trapezoid bar squat

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76 Raw Moment data during Straight Bar Squat-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 02 Time (s)Force (Nm/kg) extension Figure C-14. Raw extension moment data for the straight bar squat

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78 Hahn, T., & Foldspang, A. (1997). The q angle and sport. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports, 7(1), 43-48. Harner, C. D., Xerogeanes, J. W., Livesay, G. A., Carlin, G. J., Smith, B. A., Kusayama, T., et al. (1995). The human posterior cruciate ligament complex: An interdisciplinary study. Ligament morphology and bi omechanical evaluation. Am. J. Sports Med, 23(6), 736-745. Hattin, H. C., Pierrynowski, M. R., & Ball, K. A. (1989). Effect of load, cadence, and fatigue on tibio-femoral joint force during a half squat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 21(5), 613-618. Haycock, C. E., & Gillette, J. V. (1976). Susceptibility of women athletes to injury. Myths vs reality. Jama, 236(2), 163-165. Hewett, T. E., Lindenfeld, T. N., Riccobene, J. V., & Noyes, F. R. (1999). The effect of neuromuscular training on th e incidence of knee injury in female athletes. A prospective study. Am. J. Sports Med, 27(6), 699-706. Hewett, T. E., Stroupe, A. L., Nance, T. A., & Noyes, F. R. (1996). Plyometric training in female athletes. Decreased impact for ces and increased hamstring torques. Am. J. Sports Med, 24(6), 765-773. Hung, Y. J., & Gross, M. T. (1999). Effect of foot position on elec tromyographic activity of the vastus medialis obli que and vastus lateralis dur ing lower-extremity weightbearing activities. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther, 29(2), 93-102; discussion 103105. Huston, L. J., Greenfield, M. L., & Wojtys, E. M. (2000). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. Potential risk factors. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res(372), 50-63. Huston, L. J., & Wojtys, E. M. (1996). Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes. Am. J. Sports Med, 24(4), 427-436. Hutchinson, M. R., & Ireland, M. L. ( 1995). Knee injuries in female athletes. Sports Med, 19(4), 288-302. Ireland, M. L. (1999). Anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: Epidemiology. Journal of Athletic Training, 34(2), 150-154. Isear, J. A., Jr., Erickson, J. C., & Worre ll, T. W. (1997). Emg analysis of lower extremity muscle recruitment pa tterns during an unloaded squat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 29(4), 532-539.

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79 Liu, S. H., Al-Shaikh, R. A., Panossian, V., Finerman, G. A., & Lane, J. M. (1997). Estrogen affects the cellular metabolism of the anterior cruciate ligament. A potential explanation for female athletic injury. Am. J. Sports Med, 25(5), 704709. McCaw, S. T., & Melrose, D. R. (1999). Stan ce width and bar load effects on leg muscle activity during the parallel squat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 31(3), 428-436. Meyers, E. J. (1971). Effect of selected exercise variables on ligament stability and flexibility of the knee. Res. Q, 42(4), 411-422. More, R. C., Karras, B. T., Neiman, R., Fritschy, D., Woo, S. L., & Daniel, D. M. (1993). Hamstrings--an anterior cruciate lig ament protagonist. An in vitro study. Am. J. Sports Med, 21(2), 231-237. Nagura, T., Dyrby, C. O., Alexander, E. J., & Andriacchi, T. P. (2002). Mechanical loads at the knee joint during deep flexion. J. Orthop. Res, 20(4), 881-886. Ninos, J. C., Irrgang, J. J., Burdett, R., & We iss, J. R. (1997). Electromyographic analysis of the squat performed in self-selected lower extrem ity neutral rotation and 30 degrees of lower extremity turn-out from the self-selected neutral position. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther, 25(5), 307-315. Noyes, F. R., Mooar, P. A., Matthews, D. S., & Butler, D. L. (1983). The symptomatic anterior cruciate-deficient knee. Part i: The long-term functional disability in athletically active individuals. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am, 65(2), 154-162. Russell, P. J., & Phillips, S. J. (1989). A preliminary comparison of front and back squat exercises. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 60(3), 201-208. Schutz, R. W., Gessaroli, M. E, 132-149. ( 1987). The analysis of repeated measures designs involving multiple dependent variables. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2. Shambaugh, J. P., Klein, A., & Herbert, J. H. (1991). Structural measur es as predictors of injury basketball players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 23(5), 522-527. Signorile, J. F., Kacsik, D., Pe rry, A., Robertson, B., Williams R., Lowensteyn, I., et al. (1995). The effect of knee and foot pos ition on the electromyographical activity of the superficial quadriceps. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther, 22(1), 2-9. Stuart, M. J., Meglan, D. A., Lutz, G. E., Growney, E. S., & An, K. N. (1996). Comparison of intersegmental tibiofemoral joint forces and muscle activity during various closed kineti c chain exercises. Am J Sports Med, 24(6), 792-799. Toth, A. P., & Cordasco, F. A. (2001). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. J. Gend. Specif. Med, 4(4), 25-34.

PAGE 89

80 Toutoungi, D. E., Lu, T. W., Leardini, A., Catani, F., & O'Connor, J. J. (2000). Cruciate ligament forces in the human knee during rehabilitation exercises. Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon), 15(3), 176-187. Wickiewicz, T. L., Roy, R. R., Powell, P. L., & Edgerton, V. R. (1983). Muscle architecture of the human lower limb. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.(179), 275-283. Wilk, K. E., Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Barrentine, S. W., Andrews, J. R., & Boyd, M. L. (1996). A comparison of tibiofemoral joint forces and electromyographic activity during open and closed kinetic chain exercises. Am. J. Sports Med, 24(4), 518-527. Zhang, L. Q., & Wang, G. (2001). Dynamic and static control of th e human knee joint in abduction-adduction. J. Biomech, 34(9), 1107-1115. Zheng, N., Fleisig, G. S., Escamilla, R. F., & Barrentine, S. W. (1998). An analytical model of the knee for estimation of internal forces during exercise. J. Biomech, 31(10), 963-967.

PAGE 90

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Francis Forde received a BS in exercise physiology from the University of Massachusetts at Boston. He then pursued a Master of Science degree in biomechanics at the University of Florida. Upon completion of his Master of Science degree, Francis plans to continue his studies and expand his knowledge of biomechanics. 81


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010563/00001

Material Information

Title: Analysis of knee mechanics during the squat exercise
Abbreviated Title: : differences between females and males
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Forde, Francis Arlington ( Dissertant )
Chow, John W. ( Thesis advisor )
Tillman, Mark D. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology thesis, M.S
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Applied Physiology and Kinesiology
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in tibiofemoral joint mechanics between males and females during squatting using the Trapezoid bar (TB) and Straight bar (SB). Twenty-two subjects were recruited from the University of Florida. Each subject performed two randomly assigned squat tests, one using a straight bar and the other using a trapezoid bar. Each test consisted of two trials with each trial consisting of three repetitions. Video, force platform and EMG were used to collect kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data. MANOVA results for the EMG data found significant differences for Quadriceps activity between the TB and SB squat conditions with the TB resulting in higher quadriceps muscle activation. Significant differences were also found between the ascending and descending phases of the squat for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity. The ascending phase resulted in higher muscle activation than the descending phase. The MANOVA also revealed significant interactions between phase and gender for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity as well as significant interactions between phase and bar type for quadriceps muscle activity. An ANOVA revealed significant differences between bar types for compressive force, anteriorly directed shear force and extension moment at the tibiofemoral joint with the TB squat resulting in the higher values for compressive force, shear force and extension torque. T-tests were performed to determine differences in normalized hip width, Q-angle, and maximum knee angle during each SB and TB squat trial. There were significant differences detected for all of these measures. Women had a larger Q-angle and normalized hip width as compared to the males of this study. There were no differences between maximum knee angle during the TB and SB squats. This study identified differences between phases and bar types for knee joint mechanics and muscle activity. Despite significant differences between genders for normalized hip width and Q-angle there was no observable difference between males and females of this study for joint kinetics, joint kinematics or muscle activation. This suggests that Q-angle and hip width do not have an effect on tibiofemoral joint kinetics or lower extremity muscle activity during squatting which may be as a result of the non-ballistic nature or the squat.
Subject: analysis, difference, exercise, female, Forde, knee, male, mechanics, squat
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 90 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003322483
System ID: UFE0010563:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010563/00001

Material Information

Title: Analysis of knee mechanics during the squat exercise
Abbreviated Title: : differences between females and males
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Forde, Francis Arlington ( Dissertant )
Chow, John W. ( Thesis advisor )
Tillman, Mark D. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology thesis, M.S
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Applied Physiology and Kinesiology
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in tibiofemoral joint mechanics between males and females during squatting using the Trapezoid bar (TB) and Straight bar (SB). Twenty-two subjects were recruited from the University of Florida. Each subject performed two randomly assigned squat tests, one using a straight bar and the other using a trapezoid bar. Each test consisted of two trials with each trial consisting of three repetitions. Video, force platform and EMG were used to collect kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data. MANOVA results for the EMG data found significant differences for Quadriceps activity between the TB and SB squat conditions with the TB resulting in higher quadriceps muscle activation. Significant differences were also found between the ascending and descending phases of the squat for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity. The ascending phase resulted in higher muscle activation than the descending phase. The MANOVA also revealed significant interactions between phase and gender for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity as well as significant interactions between phase and bar type for quadriceps muscle activity. An ANOVA revealed significant differences between bar types for compressive force, anteriorly directed shear force and extension moment at the tibiofemoral joint with the TB squat resulting in the higher values for compressive force, shear force and extension torque. T-tests were performed to determine differences in normalized hip width, Q-angle, and maximum knee angle during each SB and TB squat trial. There were significant differences detected for all of these measures. Women had a larger Q-angle and normalized hip width as compared to the males of this study. There were no differences between maximum knee angle during the TB and SB squats. This study identified differences between phases and bar types for knee joint mechanics and muscle activity. Despite significant differences between genders for normalized hip width and Q-angle there was no observable difference between males and females of this study for joint kinetics, joint kinematics or muscle activation. This suggests that Q-angle and hip width do not have an effect on tibiofemoral joint kinetics or lower extremity muscle activity during squatting which may be as a result of the non-ballistic nature or the squat.
Subject: analysis, difference, exercise, female, Forde, knee, male, mechanics, squat
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 90 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003322483
System ID: UFE0010563:00001


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ANALYSIS OF KNEE MECHANICS DURING THE SQUAT EXERCISE:
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES














By

FRANCIS ARLINGTON FORDE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. John Chow, Dr. Mark Tillman and Dr. James Cauraugh

for their support and help with my research. I would also like to thank my family for

their support. I must also extend special thanks to Dr. John Chow and Dr. Tillman for

without their guidance during this endeavor success would not have been attainable and

for that I am deeply grateful.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ................................................................................................ ii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ........ .. ......................................... ..........................................1.

Statem ent of Purpose ... .. ................................. ............................. ......... .. 7
R research H ypotheses... ....................................................................... ...............8...
Definition of Terms ........................ ........... .........................................8
A ssu m p tio n s ........................................................................................................ .. 9
L im itatio n s ........................................................................................................ .. 9
Significance ................................................................................. . .. ...............9

2 REV IEW O F LITER A TU RE ................................................................................ 11

T ibiofem oral Joint A natom y ...................................... ........................................ 11
Q uadriceps A ngle .................................................. ................... .. .. ....... .. .......... .... 13
Resultant Knee Joint Torque and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability.............................. 15
M u scle C o-contraction .................................................................... ............... 16
Squat B iom echanics .............. ................... .. ...................... ....................... 18

3 M ETH OD S AN D M A TERIAL S ...............................................................................20

S u b j e c ts ....................................................................................................................2 0
In stru m e n tatio n .........................................................................................................2 2
T rapezoid and Straight B ars ...................................................... ................ 22
F orce platform ........................................................................................ 23
V ideography .......................................................................................... 23
M uscle A activity ................ .............. ............................................. 23
P eak M otus System ....................................... .. ...................... ... ............ 25
P ro c e d u re s ................................................................................................................ 2 5
V ideo C alibration ........................................... .. ....................... .... ......... 25
W arm -up and P practice ...................................... ...................... ................ 26
Session P rotocol...................................................................................... 30
D ata R edu action ........................................................ .. ......... ............... 30
Electromyography and Ground Reaction Force ........................................30
Kinematics ..... .............. . .. ........................... 31
Joint Reaction Forces and Joint M om ent................................... ................ 31
Statistical Analysis ........................... .......... ........................ 32









4 R E S U L T S ................................................................................................................... 3 4

A average E M G A activity ................. ...................................................... ................ 35
Peak Resultant Joint Forces and M om ents.......................................... ................ 43

5 D ISC U SSIO N ............................................................................... ...................... 56

M u scle A ctiv ity .................................................. .............................................. 57
Forces and M om ents ............. .. ............... ............................................... 58
G ender C om prisons ............. .. ............... ............................................... 60
B ar Type C om prisons .................................................................. ................ 61
Sum m ary and Conclusion ................. ............................................................ 62
Im plications ..............................................................................................................64

APPENDIX

A IRB APPROVAL ........................ ........... ...............................65

B INFORM ED CON SEN T FORM ........................................................... ................ 67

C SA M PL E R A W D A TA ......................................................................... ............... 69

REFERENCES ................................................... 77

B IO G R APH ICAL SK ETCH .................................................................... .................. 81




























iv















LIST OF TABLES
Table Page

3-1. A nthropom etric m easurem ent guidelines.............................................. ................ 21

3-2. M orphology m easurem ent guidelines ................................................... ................ 22

3-3. Electrode placement .......................... .......... ........................ 27

3-4. M V IC collection guidelines......................................... ....................... ................ 28

4-1. Normalized EMG (mean average SD) of different muscle...............................35

4-2. 2 x 2 x 2 MANOVA comparing the vectors of muscle activity between genders,
bar types and phases...................................................................... 35

4-3. Univariate statistics for different EMG dependent measures (between subjects) ......36

4-4. Normalized peak joint forces (mean SD): ................ .................................... 44

4-5. Normalized peak joint moments (mean SD): ....................................................45

4-6. ANOVA statistics for different dependent measures (between subjects.................46

4-7. Width and angle measurements (mean SD): ....................................................51

4-8. T-Test analysis for Q -angle and hip w idth .......................................... ................ 52

4-9. T-Test analysis for instant of maximum knee angle: ....................................... 53















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1. Squat u sing a straight bar ........................................................................ ...............5...

1-2. Squat using a trapezoid bar. ................ ...........................................................5......

2-1. V iew of A C L and P C L ........................................................................... ............... 11

2-2. V iew of M C L and PCL ................................................................. ............... 12

2-3. Illustration of Q -angle. ............. ................ ............................................. 14

3 1 T ra p e z o id b a r............................................................................................................2 2

3 -2 S tra ig h t b a r ..............................................................................................................2 3

3-3. Overhead view of experim ental set-up................................................ ................ 24

3-4. Schem atic of the 16-point calibration fram e ...................................... ................ 26

3-5. Marker placement ................... .. ........... .....................................29

4-1. Mean quadriceps EMG level. There was a significant difference found between
b ar c o n d itio n s. .......................................................................................................... 3 8

4-2. Mean gluteal EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a
significant difference found between phases....................................... ................ 39

4-3. Mean hamstring EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a
significant difference found between phases....................................... ................ 40

4-4. There was a significant interaction between gender and phase in the gluteal
muscle group. The difference in gluteal muscle activity between the
descending and ascending phases was greater in males than females ..................41

4-5. There was a significant interaction between gender and phase for the hamstring
muscle group. The difference in hamstrings activity between the descending
and ascending phases was greater in males than females. ..................................42









4-6. There was a significant interaction between bar type and phase for the
quadriceps muscle group. The difference in quadriceps activity between the
descending and ascending phases was greater when using the trap bar than the
stra ig h t b a r............................................................................................................... 4 3

4-7. Mean net knee maximum compressive force. There was a significant
difference found between bar conditions. .................................................. 48

4-8. Mean net knee maximum anterior force. There was a significant difference
found betw een bar conditions ..................................... ..................... ................ 49

4-9. Mean net knee maximum extension moment. The was a significant difference
found betw een bar conditions ..................................... ..................... ................ 50

4-10. There was a significant difference found between males and females for Q-
a n g le ................................................................................................................... . 5 4

4-11. There was a significant difference found between males and females for
norm alized hip breadth .. ................................................................ ............... 55

C-1. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the straight bar squat...........................................69

C-2. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the trapezoid bar squat........................................70

C-3. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the straight bar squat .....................................70

C-4. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the trapezoid bar squat....................................71

C-5. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the straight bar squat.......................................71

C-6. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the trapezoid bar squat....................................72

C-7. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the straight bar squat.................................72

C-8. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the trapezoid bar squat.............................. 73

C-9. Raw compressive force data for the trapezoid bar squat......................................73

C-10. Raw compressive force data for the straight bar squat.....................74

C-11. Raw shear force data for the trapezoid bar squat ................................ ................ 74

C-12. Raw shear force data for the straight bar squat.............. .................................... 75

C-13. Raw extension moment data for the trapezoid bar squat.....................................75

C-14. Raw extension moment data for the straight bar squat ......................................76















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Science.

ANALYSIS OF KNEE MECHANICS DURING THE SQUAT EXERCISE:
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES

By

Francis Arlington Forde

May 2005

Chairman: John Chow
Major Department: Applied Physiology and Kinesiology

The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in tibiofemoral joint

mechanics between males and females during squatting using the Trapezoid bar (TB) and

Straight bar (SB). Twenty-two subjects were recruited from the University of Florida.

Each subject performed two randomly assigned squat tests, one using a straight bar and

the other using a trapezoid bar. Each test consisted of two trials with each trial consisting

of three repetitions. Video, force platform and EMG were used to collect kinetic,

kinematic and muscle activity data.

MANOVA results for the EMG data found significant differences for Quadriceps

activity between the TB and SB squat conditions with the TB resulting in higher

quadriceps muscle activation. Significant differences were also found between the

ascending and descending phases of the squat for gluteal and hamstring muscle activity.

The ascending phase resulted in higher muscle activation than the descending phase. The

MANOVA also revealed significant interactions between phase and gender for gluteal









and hamstring muscle activity as well as significant interactions between phase and bar

type for quadriceps muscle activity. An ANOVA revealed significant differences

between bar types for compressive force, anteriorly directed shear force and extension

moment at the tibiofemoral joint with the TB squat resulting in the higher values for

compressive force, shear force and extension torque. T-tests were performed to

determine differences in normalized hip width, Q-angle, and maximum knee angle during

each SB and TB squat trial. There were significant differences detected for all of these

measures. Women had a larger Q-angle and normalized hip width as compared to the

males of this study. There were no differences between maximum knee angle during the

TB and SB squats.

This study identified differences between phases and bar types for knee joint

mechanics and muscle activity. Despite significant differences between genders for

normalized hip width and Q-angle there was no observable difference between males and

females of this study for joint kinetics, joint kinematics or muscle activation. This

suggests that Q-angle and hip width do not have an effect on tibiofemoral joint kinetics or

lower extremity muscle activity during squatting which may be as a result of the non-

ballistic nature or the squat.












CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The number of females participating in sports has surged in recent years. With this

surge has come an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries which include various

non-contact and contact sprains to the joints of the legs, one of the more devastating type

of injury being an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprain.

A contact injury occurs when there is physical contact between players (Huston &

Wojtys, 1996). It can be more specifically defined as an injury resulting from a collision

between multiple players and injuries that occur in the absence of a player-to-player

collision are considered non-contact injuries. Non-contact injury mechanisms also

include overuse injuries such as patellar tendonitis, stress fractures and any injury which

occurs without direct physical contact between players.

The prevention of contact injuries in athletics is an insurmountable task due to the

infinite number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that can cause these injuries, however

contact injuries are not the primary cause of ACL sprains among competitors. Non-

contact ACL injuries account for approximately 78% of all ACL sprains with many

occurring during landing (Noyes, Mooar, Matthews & Butler, 1983). It has been

suggested that these injuries may result from over training or a lack of training (Hahn &

Foldspang, 1997).

Female athletes are eight times more likely to suffer an ACL sprain (Huston,

Greenfield, & Wojtys, 2000) suggesting that there may exist a gender predisposition to

injury (Toth & Cordasco, 2001). The speculation of Toth and Cordasco (2001) requires

further investigation before being accepted as truth. Female athletes may suffer more









severe and frequent ACL sprains owing largely to inadequate training rather than causes

solely due to intrinsic gender differences.

Regardless of gender an ACL rupture can be career ending and is considered a

catastrophic knee ligament injury. The ACL provides stability to the knee joint by

limiting the tibia from sliding anteriorly on the femur hence, an injured ACL can reduce

tibiofemoral joint stability and limit an athlete's ability to perform. Rehabilitation

techniques used to increase tibiofemoral joint stability post ACL rupture have been used

to aid joint sprain prevention and in effect build injury resistance. Still, as females

continue to experience a higher rate of injury than males it is of special interest to

investigate the reasons for this phenomenon. The evidence to support the suggestion that

there is a gender predisposition to injury comes from a disproportionately higher rate of

injuries among female competitors as compared to male competitors participating in the

same sports, where females often suffer injuries that are more frequent and severe in

nature (Arendt, Agel, & Dick, 1999; Ireland, 1999).

Despite higher injury rates among female competitors, there are common factors

which can cause non-contact injuries in both males and females. These non-contact

injury mechanisms include cutting maneuvers, changing direction, landing mechanics

and sudden acceleration. Females, however have additional intrinsic and extrinsic

factors influencing non-contact lower extremity injuries such as joint laxity, joint

flexibility, various structural mal-alignments and hormonal influence (Shambaugh, Klein,

& Herbert, 1991; Hutchinson & Ireland, 1995; Liu et al., 1997; Hewett et al., 1999), as

well as muscle strength and landing characteristics (Dufek & Bates, 1991; Hewett et al.,

1999).









Men have dominated athletics for some time and the training methods employed

for athletic preparation seem to be sport specific rather than gender specific. Non-contact

injuries appear to occur as a result of poor movement mechanics resulting from either a

previous injury or other intrinsic factors that may be partly due to poor preparation for the

explosive movements inherent in most sports.

The external forces and stresses placed on the body during competition cannot be

altered, though the body's ability to withstand these loads can be improved through

proper physical preparation. Treating the symptoms of injuries rather than preparing an

individual for the stresses present during the activity may lead to repetitive injuries.

Identifying the factors responsible for injury is essential in preparing an athlete for

participation and improving his or her injury resistance. Once the causes of injury are

identified conditioning programs can be modeled to help to prevent the onset of injury.

An increased time in rehabilitation results in loss of playing time and in some cases

loss of revenues to a competitor. For this reason it is most desirable to have a competitor

on the field as much as possible and therefore taking a preventative approach to training

is possibly the most effective path.

Reducing and treating injuries falls squarely on the shoulders of those responsible

for an athlete's well being. The first link in the chain of prevention is the strength and

conditioning specialist (SCS). Prior to competition the SCS has to design the

conditioning program to improve the physical health of the athlete over the course of the

season at any level of competition.

Strengthening and conditioning, however has been split into two distinct

approaches. Some SCSs consider absolute increases in strength regardless of exercise









modality to be the best route, where single joint open kinetic chain muscle building

activities are often used as the primary source of conditioning. Other SCSs believe that

increases in strength through functional multi-joint closed kinetic chain exercises such as

the dynamic squat provide greater physical benefits.

The focus of the research on the dynamic squat thus far has been on its benefits

ranging from rehabilitation to strengthening and conditioning, and athletics (Chandler,

Wilson, & Stone, 1989; Isear, Erickson, & Worrell, 1997; Zheng, Fleisig, Escamilla, &

Barrentine, 1998; Toutoungi, Lu, Leardini, Catani, & O'Connor, 2000). Gender

considerations have been overlooked. There have been studies investigating the risks of

injury among women in athletics (Haycock & Gillette, 1976) but little research has been

conducted on the benefits that squatting may have in helping to prevent injuries in

women.

Certain intrinsic factors that may lead to injury such as skeletal mal-alignments

cannot be altered without surgical intervention. However, improving movement

mechanics may lead to a reduction in injury. Research sometimes follows the practice. It

is easier for a SCS to speculate and implement new ideas before there is sound research

to validate any claims made about the benefits or risks of a new training technique or

apparatus. Thus manipulated variables of the dynamic squat such as stance width, foot

position, bar loading position, cadence, and surface of execution (i.e., surfaces of

different rigidity on which the exercise can be performed safely, for instance the use of a

Dyna-disc or Airex mat) are thought to have positive effects on strength and coordination

in the athlete.









The dynamic squat is commonly performed using a standard straight bar (also

known as the Olympic bar) placed across the back of the shoulders when performing a

back squat (Figure 1-1) or across the front of the shoulders when performing a front

squat.


Figure 1-1. Squat using a straight bar.


Figure 1-2. Squat using a trapezoid bar.









Different types of bars have been developed to increase the number of exercises

that can be performed and reduce the risks of injury associated with the straight bar

placement during the squat. The trapezoid bar (TB) is one type of bar that can be used as

a conditioning tool for athletes to increase lower body strength (Figure 1-2). Previous

studies have investigated differences in knee mechanics resulting from changes in the

type of squat, for instance, front squat and back squat (Russell & Phillips, 1989), the

effect of varying foot position (Ninos, Irrgang, Burdett, & Weiss, 1997), and the effect of

stance width (Escamilla, Fleisig, Lowry, Barrentine, & Andrews, 2001). While a number

of these studies had a sample consisting of males and females, differences between

genders were seldom reported.

The straight bar is placed across the rear of the shoulders while performing the

dynamic squat and cannot move independently of the trunk while TB is placed at the

hands using handle grips with the arms extended. The TB is free to move independently

of the trunk in all directions and may present added balance requirements. Movements

occur through sequential coordinated muscle contractions, a closed kinetic chain exercise

that has increased balance and coordination requirements should be an essential training

tool for SCS is worthy of further investigation. The TB squat is one such training tool

because it can move independently of the trunk.

The tibiofemoral joint is the middle joint of the lower limb kinetic chain which

consists of three major joints: the hip, knee and ankle. When the foot is internally or

externally rotated, the rotation at the tibia could have an effect on tibiofemoral joint

mechanics.









The most effective and efficient system of moving an object is to apply a force in

the direction the object is to be moved. For instance to move an object vertically, the best

means is a vertically applied force. For this reason it is thought that the most

biomechanically sound squat position is with the feet placed hip width apart. Although

biomechanically sound, a hip width stance is not sport specific as the legs are seldom

directly under the hips during many sports, this is best seen during the push off in hockey.

Increased participation of females in high school, collegiate, and professional

sports has been followed by increased incidence of severe non-contact knee injuries.

Prior to the women's sports explosion strength and conditioning was focused on the

needs of male athletes. This is reflected in the literature. Additional research is needed

to investigate the effectiveness of preventative training and other accepted strengthening

and conditioning techniques for the female athlete.

Statement of Purpose

Despite many training modalities utilized in SC the squat remains the most widely

used and accepted functional multi-joint strength builder for the lower extremity. There

have been publications investigating the effects of the dynamic squat but these

investigations have focused on the training effects of the dynamic squat on the quadriceps

and hamstring muscle groups without emphasis on gender differences. Comprehensive

research studies that investigate synergistic muscle activity and gender differences such

as, bony morphology and their relations to locomotion are now needed to compliment the

existing literature.

Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and functional knee stability may be affected by

muscles acting solely on the femur and or tibia without direct attachment to the









tibiofemoral joint. This idea is further understood through the theory of the lower

extremity closed kinetic chain (Stuart et al., 1996).

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender and

type of squat bar on tibiofemoral joint kinetics and kinematics during the performance of

the dynamic squat. Specifically, this investigation attempted to identify the differences

between joint kinetics, and muscle activity at the tibiofemoral joint between males and

females during TB squat and straight bar back squat.

Research Hypotheses

This thesis investigated the following hypotheses.

1. Mean gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hamstring level would be greater during the
trap bar squat.

2. Mean gluteal, quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle activation level
would be greater during the ascent phases.

3. Maximum compressive knee joint forces would be greater in female subjects.

4. Maximum anterior shear knee joint forces would be greater during the trapezoid bar
squat.

5. Maximum extension moment would be greater in the trapezoid bar condition as
compared to the straight bar condition.

6. There would be a significant difference between genders for normalized hip width.

7. There would be a significant difference between genders for Quadriceps angle.

Definition of Terms

1. Stability: The joint steadiness needed to carry out a functional activity.

2. Closed Kinetic Chain: Exercises for the lower extremity executed when the foot is
fixed and the knee motion is accompanied by motion at the hip and ankle.

3. Open Kinetic Chain: Exercises for the lower extremity performed when the foot is
mobile and the knee is free to move independently of the hip and ankle.

4. Surface Electromyography (EMG): The measure of electrical activity generated by
a muscle in response to a nervous stimulation.









5. Range of Motion: The angular distance through which a joint moves from the
anatomical position to the end point of a segment motion in a particular direction
during an activity.

6. Kinematics: The study of movement described in terms of position, velocity and
acceleration of the body or its individual segments without regard for the causes of
those motions.

7. Kinetics: The study of motion with regard to the forces that cause movement.

8. Joint Resultants: The combined mechanical effects due to muscle, ligament and
contact forces.

Assumptions

1. All subjects provided accurate information regarding eligibility requirements.
2. All subjects were volunteers.
3. All instrumentation were functioning correctly and properly calibrated.
4. Reflective marker placement was accurate and precise.

Limitations

1. Trapezoid bar dimensions may have limited the lower extremity motion of taller
subj ects.

2. Loading limitations for subjects with low grip strength may have affected TB squat
performance.

3. All subjects were recruited from the sport and fitness classes offered at the
University of Florida.

Significance

This study was undertaken to evaluate the uses of various squatting styles in the

training of athletes with an appreciation for the anatomical differences between genders.

It was the intent of the investigator to further the understanding of the varying needs and

differences between genders and assess the effectiveness of the current training

techniques employed in strength and conditioning and related exercise science

disciplines.

There are several variations of conventional exercise training techniques and

protocols that are extensively employed throughout SC to facilitate positive






10


physiological, strength and flexibility changes in the athlete. Understanding the purpose

for these modifications and their implications will aid practitioners in developing more

effective exercise protocols and training sequences for athletes based on gender and type

of sport.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Tibiofemoral Joint Anatomy

The tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) (Figure 2-1) is the articulation of the femoral

condyles on the tibial plateau with a cartilage cushion between the femur and tibia called

the meniscus. The menisci are cartilage connected anteriorly by the transverse ligament

and anteriorly and posteriorly attached to the anterior and posterior intercondylar area,

respectively, of the tibia.


Figure 2-1. View of ACL and PCL.

The ligaments of the knee include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior

cruciate ligament (PCL) (Figure 2-1), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and medial

collateral ligament (MCL) (Figure 2-2). The (ACL restrains anteriorly directed forces









and the PCL restrains posteriorly directed forces acting on the tibia. The cruciate

ligaments also provide stability during internal and external rotation of the TFJ and

provide minimal restraint to medio-lateral force which is the primary role of the medial

and lateral collateral ligaments.























Figure 2-2. View of MCL and PCL.

The MCL restrains knee abduction and the LCL restrains the adduction of the

knee. Therefore the collateral ligaments are the primary ligaments responsible for medio-

lateral stability of the knee.

The surrounding muscles of the TFJ provide added stability depending on their

insertions and action at the knee joint. The anterior and posterior muscles acting at the

TFJ are the main stabilizers. The anterior muscles acting at the knee joint include the

vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris, sartorius, and









gracilis. The posterior muscles acting at the knee joint include the semitendinosus,

semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius.

Quadriceps Angle

Quadriceps angle (Figure 2-3) is the angle measured between a line connecting the

anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the midpoint of patella and tibial tubercle

(Guerra, Arnold, & Gajdosik, 1994). Increased quadriceps angle (QA) can lead to

various musculotendinous malconditions and stress the medial compartment of the knee

due to excessive valgus force (Hutchinson & Ireland, 1995). Excessive QA presents a

structural problem which may hinder movement mechanics at any level. With the

aggressive nature of contact sports the risk of injury increases disproportionately with

those suffering from a high QA. Evidence presented in the literature suggests a

relationship between QA and injury among female athletes (Bergstrom, Brandseth,

Fretheim, Tvilde, & Ekeland, 2001). Thus it is not surprising that female athletes are

eight times more likely then male athletes to suffer an ACL sprain (Huston, Greenfield, &

Wojtys, 2000).

Resultant Knee Joint Force and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability

The literature suggests that increased compressive forces at the tibiofemoral joint

will decrease the forces acting against the ACL and PCL (Chandler & Stone, 1991).

During a dynamic squat (DS), the compressive forces present at the TFJ vary according

to the external load and subject's body mass thus, TFJ compressive forces can reach high

values with peak readings reported as high as 7928 N (Escamilla, 2001). The magnitude

at which compressive forces become deleterious to other knee joint structures such as the

meniscus and articular cartilage has not yet been reported (Escamilla, 2001). However, it









is assumed that compressive forces up to this magnitude are beneficial for knee joint

stability and serve as a restraint against anterior and posterior shear forces.





ASIS .




Q-angle









___ Tibial tuberosity

Figure 2-3. Illustration of Q-angle.

The ACL and PCL resist anterior and posterior shear forces. Butler et al. (1980)

reported that the ACL provides 86% of the restraining force during an anterior draw test

and the PCL provides 95% of the restraining force during a posterior draw test. The

difference in percentage reported for each ligament is reasonable because this was a

cadaver study hence, there was no muscle involvement during the posterior or anterior

draw tests and the cross sectional area of the PCL is approximately 20-50% greater than

the cross sectional area of the ACL (Harner et al., 1995).

Myers (1971) reported no significant difference in medio-lateral force at the

tibiofemoral joint during the squat exercise. It is important to note that in this study

gender was not considered and stance width was not reported. This is important to









consider as stance width variations can change TFJ kinetics (Escamilla et al., 2001).

Meyers (1971) however, did find that there was a significant interaction between deep

squat exercise and medial collateral ligament stretch. Other studies investigating medio-

lateral forces at the knee during the squat published forces of magnitudes ranging from

2.5-10% of the subject's body weight (Hattin, Pierrynowski, & Ball, 1989).

Resultant Knee Joint Torque and Tibiofemoral Joint Stability

The ligaments which restrain abduction and adduction torque at the TFJ are the

MCL and LCL. The excessive valgus force present in people with an abnormal QA

compromises medio-lateral TFJ stability and the function of the collateral ligaments.

Abduction and adduction moments tend to induce an internal or external moment at the

knee (Hewett et al., 1996). Hewett et al. (1996) found that post a jump and landing

technique training program the adduction and abduction moment present at the knee at

landing was significantly reduced in female volleyball players. The findings of Hewett et

al. (1996) suggest that training can reduce the onset of internal and external moments at

the knee by controlling the abduction and adduction torque present. Thus supporting

their idea that tibiofemoral adduction and abduction torque may be one of the factors

which induce internal and external moments at the TFJ.

The ACL is injured when there is an excessive posterior translation of the femur

on the tibia. An excessive internal moment does not have to be present as the ACL is

primarily active in the sagittal plane, however, an excessive internal moment coupled

with an anteriorly directed force at the tibia can also cause an ACL sprain.

The tibia internally rotates during knee flexion and externally rotates during knee

extension in an open kinetic chain environment (Escamilla, 2001) however, in a closed

kinetic chain environment the tibia becomes semi fixed because the foot is fixed. Under









these conditions the femur tends to rotate externally about the longitudinal axis of the

tibia during knee flexion and internally rotates during knee extension. Unlike cadaver

studies, one can expect muscular contribution to stabilize the knee and therefore the

strength of the muscles surrounding the knee will make a difference on the rotation and

linear movement allowed in studies using live human subjects.

The hamstrings also provide internal and external rotation restraint at the knee

joint. The lateral hamstring (biceps femoris) inserts on the lateral side of the knee and

when contracting solely can cause knee flexion and external rotation of the tibia. The

medial hamstring (semimembranosus and semitendonosus) inserts on the medial side of

the TFJ and thus when contracting singly causes knee flexion and internal rotation of the

tibia. The muscles which provide extension and flexion torques at the tibiofemoral joint

and thus resist external flexion and extension torques are the quadriceps muscle group

and hamstrings respectively.

Muscle Co-contraction

Studies have investigated muscle activity during squatting; sit to stand, step-ups

and other closed kinetic chain exercises (Isear, Erickson, & Worrell, 1997; Signorile et

al., 1995). These studies have placed little emphasis on gastrocnemius contribution to

the squat although 98% of the total cross sectional area of all knee musculature is made

up of the gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hamstrings (Wickiewicz, Roy, Powell, &

Edgerton, 1983).

According to Wilk et al. (1996) the quadriceps is an ACL antagonist and the

hamstrings are an ACL agonist (More, Karras, Neiman, Fritschy, Woo, & Daniel, 1993).

The exact action of the hamstrings -eccentric or concentric- during the squat has not yet

been fully determined (Escamilla, 2001). From a biomechanics standpoint however,









regardless of the type of contraction during a squat the hamstrings will provide a

posteriorly directed force which along with the quadriceps act to stabilize the knee as

well as facilitate movement. It is this interaction of the hamstrings and quadriceps

contractions that serves as a protective mechanism (Isear et al., 1997). Loaded closed

kinetic chain exercises such as the dynamic squat produce compressive forces and muscle

co-contractions that protect the cruciate ligaments of the knee (More et al, 1993; Stuart et

al., 1996).

The hamstrings muscle group and gastrocnemius are the primary and secondary

flexors of the knee and assist cruciate ligament stabilization. Hamstring co-contraction

during a squat is considered an aid in TFJ anterior load reduction (Fleming et al., 2001).

Fleming et al. (2001) found that the gastrocnemius and quadriceps co-contraction with

hamstring activity absent is an ACL antagonist. This investigation determined that the

ACL strain increased as knee flexion angle decreased during isolated gastrocnemius

contraction. The decreased PCL loading experienced when performing a squat in a

plantar flexed position (Toutoungi, Lu, Leardini, Catani, & O'Connor, 2000) implicitly

corroborates this finding.

The gastrocnemius is a secondary knee flexor and plantar flexes he foot during

walking. Posterior cruciate ligament loading was reduced by 17% during squatting by

having the subjects raise their heels off the ground thus eliciting a gastrocnemius

contraction to perform plantar flexion (Toutoungi, Lu, Leardini, Catani & O'Connor,

2000). Like the hamstrings, the gastrocnemius flexes the shank, though it pulls

downwards on the femur, whereas the hamstrings pull upward on the tibia. The

downward pull of the gastrocnemius creates a force similar to the force created by the









quadriceps. This suggests that a gastrocnemius hamstring co-contraction could increase

compressive force at the knee joint, which may work as an ACL protective mechanism

similar to a quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction.

During the DS the gastrocnemius provides a plantar flexion torque, which

prevents tipping forward and steadies the tibia on the foot. It is anticipated that muscle

activity of the gastrocnemius during the trapezoid bar squat will be similar to values seen

during walking or running.

Squat Biomechanics

Studies have shown that deep knee bending (knee angle less than 90) may

produce excessive and injurious knee joint forces (Nagura, Dyrby, Alexander, &

Andriacchi, 2002). Chandler, Wilson and Stone (1989) however found no significant

difference in anterior or posterior knee stability after an 8-week training protocol using

deep and half squat techniques. Evidence to support the findings of Nagura et al. (2002)

may require a longitudinal study lasting longer than the 8-week protocol used by

Chandler et al. (1989).

Varying stance width during the squat changes the angle of push during the

exercise. The vertical force required to lift any given load is then increased or decreased

depending on the change in stance width. Zhang and Wang (2001) investigated dynamic

and static control of the knee joint. This study performed testing in an open kinetic chain

environment and concluded that knee control can be maintained through co-contraction

of medial and lateral musculature crossing the knee joint. Stance width and foot position

will affect knee movement in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes; however closed

kinetic chain movements were not investigated in this study. It is not clearly understood









how medial and lateral musculature co-contraction at the knee will be affected in a closed

kinetic chain environment.

Exercises such as squatting have been done as a functional modality to stabilize

and strengthen surrounding musculature of the knee. Ninos, Irrang, Burdett and Weiss

(1997) investigated the effects of foot position on electromyography measures during the

squat and found that muscle activity patterns were unaffected by lower extremity axial

rotation.

Furthermore, additional studies investigating foot position on electromyographic

activity of the lower limb muscles have not reported stance width (Boyden, Kingman, &

Dyson 2000). The absence of certain variables in this analysis may have skewed the

results of this study.















CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND MATERIALS

This chapter describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data for all

subjects of this study. All tests and subsequent analyses were conducted under strict

guidelines to insure validity of data and avoid extraneous factors that may have skewed

the data collected.

Subjects

Twenty-two students (11 males and 11 females) were recruited from the Sport and

Fitness classes offered by the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences of the

University of Florida. The sample size was determined using Gpower statistical software

for sample size calculations. The a-priori a level was set at 0.05. Using these values, the

calculated statistical power and sample size were 0.6 and 22, respectively.

According to Escamilla (2001) trained subjects have more consistent kinematics

during testing, hence all subjects of this study were physically active; participating in

resistance training programs approximately 3-5 times per week and frequently

incorporated squatting into their exercise regimen. Those who qualified for this

investigation were lower limb injury free and reported no prior history of injury to the

lower extremities. Additionally a brief question and answer session on the exercise

techniques required for this study was held prior to testing at which time subjects were

given verbal instruction on how to perform each exercise and the same investigator gave

instructions to all subjects.









Prior to participating, subjects were required to read and sign an informed consent

form detailing the risks, benefits and procedures of this experiment approved by the

Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida. Morphology measurements

including: hip width, quadriceps angle, height, mass, selected anthropometric

measurements (Tables 3-1 and 3-2) and structural alignment measures (Table 3-2) were

also recorded at this time.

Table 3-1. Anthropometric measurement guidelines:


Parameter


Description


Body mass
ASIS breadth

Thigh length



Mid-Thigh
circumference


Calf length



Calf circumference

Knee diameter

Foot length

Malleolus height

Malleolus width

Foot breadth


Measurement of the mass of participant with shoes removed.
Using a sliding caliper, the horizontal distance between the
anterior superior iliac spines was measured.
Using a sliding caliper, the vertical distance between the
superior margin of the lateral tibia and superior point of the
greater trochanter was measured.
The circumference of the thigh was measured using a tape
placed perpendicular to the long axis of the leg and at a level
midway between trochanteric and tibial landmarks.
With a sliding caliper, the maximum vertical distance between
the superior margin of the lateral tibia and lateral malleolus
was measured.
Using a tape the maximum circumference of the calf
perpendicular to the long axis of the shank was measured.
Using a sliding caliper, the maximum breadth of the knee
across the femoral epicondyles was measured.
Using a sliding caliper, the distance from the posterior margin
of the heel and the tip of the longest toe was measured.
Using a sliding caliper the vertical distance between the
standing surface and lateral malleolus was measured.
Using a sliding caliper, the distance between the lateral and
medial malleolus was measured.
Using a sliding caliper, the breadth across the distal ends of
metatarsal I and V were measured.









Table 3-2. Morphology measurement guidelines:
Structural Alignment
Measure Procedure

Quadriceps Angle Using a single axis goniometer the angle measured at the
femur between the line intersecting the center of the patella
and tibial tubercle and longitudinal axis of the femur was
measured.
Hip Width The distance between the left and right anterior superior iliac
crests using a sliding callipers was measured.

Instrumentation

Trapezoid and Straight bars

The Trapezoid bar (TB) (Figure 3-1) is a trapezoid shaped bar. The TB is

designed to allow a person to stand within its frame and perform exercises. There are

handles located on the side of the bar situated perpendicular to the loading poles. The bar

mass of the TB is 20.45 kilograms (45 lb) and the weight-plates are loaded on each end.






0.7m
0.61m





----- 1.42m --

Figure 3-1. Trapezoid bar.

The straight bar (SB) (Figure 3-2) is a straight bar with a mass of 20.45 kg and

bilateral loading poles designed to fit standard weight-plates. The bar is designed with

grips to ensure good handling during exercises.









4 2.18m -


I I
Figure 3-2. Straight bar.



Force Platform

A Bertec force platform (Type 4060-10, Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH)

sampling at 900 Hz was used to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data. The size of the

top surface of the force platform is 0.6 m x 0.4 m. Before each testing session the force

platform amplifier was balanced and on for approximately 30 minutes prior to testing.

Videography

Three JVC video cameras (Model # TK C1380) with a sampling rate of 60 Hz

were used to collect all analog video data. Each camera was strategically positioned

along the walls of the Biomechanics laboratory to allow for full view of all passive

reflective markers. This eliminated any error due to estimation of reflective marker

location during the execution of a trial. A three dimensional analysis was used to

increase the accuracy of the data collected and all views were taken from the left side of

the subject. Camera 1 was placed directly in front of the subject, and camera 2 and

camera 3 were placed at diagonal views (Figure 3-3).

Muscle Activity

A MESPEC 4000 (Mega Electronics, Ltd., Finland) telemetric electromyography

unit sampling at 900 Hz was used to record muscle activity for all trials. The MESPEC

4000 uses a transmitter which was attached to the subject to broadcast the muscle activity

data of the subject during each trial to the Peak Motus system.















-- 3.86 m


Camera 1 I


2.55 m


4.22 m


Camera 2


0.6 m


4.22 m


- 0.4m -


Force Platform


Camera 3


3.47 m --


X


Figure 3-3. Overhead view of experimental set-up.









Peak Motus System

The Peak Motus 2000 (Peak performance Technologies, Englewood, CO)

software system was used to collect, synchronize and digitize all video data. This

allowed the complete matching of all analog and video data.

Procedures

Subjects performed all testing protocols while supervised by the investigator in

the Biomechanics Laboratory at the College of Health and Human Performance of the

University of Florida. Each subject attended one testing session.

Video Calibration

A 16-point calibration frame (1.25 m x 1.1 m x 0.9 m) calibration frame (PEAK

Performance Technologies, Inc., USA) (Figure 3-4) was video taped while placed over

a force platform prior to each testing session. Camera orientations were adjusted to

ensure clear view of all calibration points. Each calibration point from all camera views

was manually digitized. A calibration frame recording with an object space calibration

error of greater than 0.5 % was rejected and the calibration frame was re-recorded and re-

digitized. Force platform calibration was done manually prior to each testing session.

Furthermore, testing was done only after the force platform has been turned on for a

minimum of 30 minutes.



































Figure 3-4. Schematic of the 16-point calibration frame.


Warm-up and Practice

Immediately following the pre-participation screening and before testing, each

subject was instructed on the technique of each lift. Subjects were allowed to perform a

self selected warm-up.

When the warm-up was completed, all subjects were required to complete a

practice set of three repetitions of the squat using an unloaded OB and TB bar. An

unloaded bar was used during each practice trial to avoid the onset of muscle fatigue

during testing and to confirm that the subjects are using proper technique.









Testing and Subject Preparation

Upon the completion of the practice set, subjects began the testing protocol with

a randomly assigned trial sequence. In previous literature a percentage of body weight

was used to determine the load lifted by the study subjects (Caterisano et al., 2002). For

this study 75% of the subject's body weight was used as the external resistance for all

conditions. Caterisano et al. (2002) used 100 125% of body weight to determine the

load in their experiment, however this investigation required the subjects to hold the load

with their hands and across the shoulders, so, to avoid complications due to poor grip

strength 75% of each subject's body weight was chosen as the appropriate load.

Subjects were prepared for each testing session by placing two surface

electromyography (EMG) electrodes over each of the following muscles or muscle

groups: the gastrocnemius, quadriceps, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings (Table 3-3).

Table 3-3. Electrode placement:
Muscle Electrode Location
Gastrocnemius Each placed on the belly of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius.

Gluteus Spaced approx. 3 cm apart 1/ the distance between the trochanter
maximus and sacral vertebrae in the middle of the muscle on an oblique
angle and in line with the muscle fibers at the level of the
trochanter.
Quadriceps Center of the anterior surface of the thigh and approximately
(approx) 1' the distance between the knee and the iliac spine.
Electrodes placed approximately 2 cm apart and parallel to the
muscle fibers.


Hamstrings Spaced 2 cm apart parallel to the muscle fibers on the lateral
aspect of the posterior thigh 67% the distance between the
trochanter and the back of the knee.









Prior to the electrode application the skin was shaved and cleaned with alcohol to reduce

skin impedance allowing for a clearer signal (Brask, Lueke, & Soderberg 1984; Ninos,

Irrang, Burdett, & Weiss 1997; Isear, Erickson, & Worrell 1997; Hung & Gross 1999).


Following EMG electrode placement subjects performed a Maximum Voluntary

Isometric Contraction (MVIC) lasting approximately five seconds for each muscle that

was monitored (Table 3-4). The EMG values were recorded for all MVIC trials and


Table 3-4. MVIC collection guidelines:
Muscle Action Body Position
Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion Lying with the ankle extended approx. 450
Gluteus Hip extension Standing with the hip flexed approx. 450 subjects
maximus forcefully extends hip
Quadricep Knee Seated knee flexed at approx. 900 posteiorly
extension directed force applied at ankle.
Hamstring Knee flexion Seated knee flexed at approx. 900 anteriorly
directed force applied at ankle.


reflective markers were placed on various landmarks of each subject.

These landmarks were the second metatarsal head, lateral malleolus, heel, femoral

epicondyle, and greater trochanter of the left leg. There were two additional markers

placed at mid-shank and mid-thigh locations of each subject (Figure 3-5).

Following the marker and electrode placement each subject was given further

demonstration on the performance of each exercise of the testing session. After the

participant felt comfortable with the performance of each exercise the testing session

began.














Greater Tr ochanter



I Femoral Wand

Femoral Epicondyle


Tibial Wand


Figure 3-5. Marker placement.

The SB squat was performed with the standard SB superior to the middle

trapezius muscle and in horizontal alignment but not in contact with any cervical

vertebra. The TB squat was performed with the bar suspended from the hands of each

participant. Stance width was manipulated for each TB and SB squat. In previous

literature a percentage of shoulder width or hip width was used to determine stance width

(McCaw & Melrose, 1998; Escamilla et al., 2000). For this investigation a percentage of

femur length was used to determine stance length. The femur and tibia make up the

length of the leg. When trying to control for stance width, using a percentage of femur

length allowed a more consistent measure among the subjects of this investigation.









Femur length is proportional to lower extremity length and therefore a more appropriate

measure of stance width can be made using a percentage of femur length rather than hip

or shoulder width. The approximate location of the femur was defined as the distance

between the greater trochanter and the lateral condyle of the tibia and measured with a

calliper while the subject was standing still. Stance width was defined as 75% of the

length of the femur and measured from heel to heel. Subjects used a self selected foot

position during each trial.

Proper execution of each trial is important to ensure reduced risk of acute injury

and to eliminate other extraneous variables that may skew the collected data. Each

participant was instructed to maintain an erect posture and avoid the knee projecting in

front of the toes. Subjects were required to execute a parallel squat for each trial taken

while standing with their left foot on a force platform. A parallel squat was defined as

the approximate location of the femur (midway between the top and bottom of the thigh)

being parallel to the floor. Trials were discarded if a participant's feet do not remain flat

on the force platform or if they fail to reach parallel. Each repetition for each trial was

executed at a self-selected pace.

Session Protocol

All subjects performed two trials per bar condition. There were three repetitions

per trial followed by a self-selected rest period. The values of the middle repetitions of

the two trials for each condition were averaged and taken for subsequent analysis.

Data Reduction

Electromyography and Ground Reaction Force

All EMG data recorded were filtered using a band pass filter with a high pass cut-

off frequency of 10 Hz and a Low pass cut-off frequency of 450 Hz. The low pass cut-









off frequency was based on the Nyquist theorem. The signals were then rectified, and

normalized to a MVIC value collected pre-exercise. The MVIC value used for

normalization was the average value over the middle 2 seconds of the trial. A

Butterworth low pass filter was used to condition the GRF data using a cut-off frequency

of 6 Hz. Also, a 12-bit analog to digital (A/D) converter was used to convert all data

from analog to digital form.

Kinematics

Each reflective marker of the middle trial was digitized using a the Peak Motus

2000 Motion Measurement System. Two critical instants were identified for each trial:

(1) the beginning of the downward phase of the squat and (2) the beginning of the upward

phase of the squat.

The Peak Motus 2000 was used to calculate joint kinematics and digitize (two

frames before the start of and two frames after the completion) of the middle repetition of

each set. The beginning and end of each digitized trial were identified as the initial

eccentric movement from maximum vertical hip marker value and the final concentric

movement from maximum vertical hip marker value respectively.

Knee joint angles were calculated using estimated joint centers of the ankle, knee,

and hip. Ankle, and hip angles were not calculated. Inverse dynamics was utilized to

calculate joint kinetics (Figure 3-7).

Joint Reaction Forces and Joint Moment

The knee joint resultants force (FK) and moment (TK) were determined using the

equations listed below.


FK + WFS + FG = 0










rFs x WFS + rG x FG + TK = 0 [2]

where rFs and rG are moment arm vectors of WFS (weight of foot and shank) and FG (force

due to gravity) about TK (torque at the knee) respectively, and x denotes a vector (cross)

product.

Statistical Analysis

The three factors examined in this investigation were gender (male and female), type

of bar (straight bar or trapezoid bar), and phase (ascending and descending).

To assess the relations among gender, bar types and phases the following

dependent variables were measured:

* Mean EMG values during the descent and ascent phases
* Maximum extension moment at the knee during the descent and ascent phases
* Maximum anteroposterior force at the knee during the descent and ascent phases
* Maximum compressive force at the knee during the descent and ascent phases
* Quadriceps Angle
* Hip width
* Maximum knee flexion angle during each squat.

Due to subject attrition, loss of data and the exploratory nature of this

investigation three tests for significance were used. The a-priori level of significance for

all statistical tests performed was a = 0.05. To analyze the EMG data a 2x2x2 repeated

measures MANOVA (Gender*Bar type*Phase) was used. A test of significance for the

kinetic data was done using three 2x2x2 (Gender*Bar type*Phase) repeated measures

ANOVAs with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons which resulted in an

adjusted level of significance of p = .0167 (.05/3 = .0167). To analyze maximum knee

flexion angle during the straight bar and trapezoid bar squats, Quadriceps angle and

normalized hip width data, four t-tests were used with a Bonferroni adjustment for









multiple comparisons of four which resulted in an adjusted level of significance of p=

.0125 (.05/4 =.0125).

In accordance with Schutz and Gessaroli (1987) a 2x2x2 MANOVA was used to

analyse and compare electromyography data collected. The MANOVA was the more

robust statistical test for the electromyography data however the kinetic and kinematic

data required different statistical tests.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

This study revealed significant differences in Q-angle between males and females

with no significant differences between genders for the average EMG, maximum net

anterior and compressive force, maximum net knee extension moment, maximum knee

flexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle for each squat type. However, significant

main effects were found between bar types for the average EMG of the quadriceps,

gluteals and hamstring muscle groups. Significant main effects were found between bar

types for the maximum compressive force at the knee, maximum anteriorly directed shear

force and maximum knee extension moment. The ratio or compressive to anterior shear

force was also measured but there was no significant differences found with this measure.

There were also significant interactions for the following: phase*group for gluteal and

hamstring muscle activity, and bar*phase for quadriceps muscle activity.

There were significant differences between the trapezoid bar and straight bar

types and between phases. However, gender main effects were not significant. Hence

muscle activity was collapsed among gender groups and a comparison was made between

straight and trapezoid bar types or phases where applicable. Quadriceps muscle activity

was significantly different between bar types with the trapezoid bar yielding higher EMG

activity than the straight bar. Activity of the gluteal and hamstring muscle groups

showed significant differences between phases with ascending phase resulting in the

higher percentage of MVIC in both the gluteals and hamstrings. There were no









significant differences found with gastrocnemius activity and thus gastrocnemius activity

or implications thereof were not addressed.

Average EMG Activity

The MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for bar type on muscle activity

(F = 3.398, p< .05) (Figures 4-1, 4-2, & 4-3, Tables 4-2 & 4-3). Further analysis of

muscle activity revealed significant differences between the descending and ascending

phases in gluteals, and hamstring muscle activity (Figures 4-2 & 4-3, Tables 4-1, 4-2, &

4-3). Significant interactions were also found between muscle activity and phases

(Figures 4-4, 4-5, & 4-6).

Table 4-1. Normalized EMG (mean average + SD) of different muscle.
Male Female
Muscle Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar
Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc
3.92 13.12 5.40 13.12 5.25 8.67 4.30 5.07
Gluteals (1.98) (7.78) (5.11) (7.45) (3.19) (5.87) (5.97) (4.22)
5.03 11.03 5.48 10.05 5.99 8.06 5.03 4.96
Hamstring (1.87) (5.35) (3.51) (7.66) (2.91) (4.06) (4.16) (2.73)
28.46 50.82 32.80 32.61 24.61 33.38 22.14 15.91
Quadriceps -16.53 (24.26) (22.58) (18.34) (10.41) (21.99) (15.75) (10.85)
4.82 3.41 8.18 9.60 5.94 9.6 5.81 9.33
Gastroc (2.73) (1.96) (9.25) (13.49) (6.37) (10.40) (6.36) (9.93)

Table 4-2. 2 x 2 x 2 MANOVA comparing the vectors of muscle activity between
genders, bar types and phases.
Partial
Wilks' Hypothesis Eta Observed
Lambda F df Error df Sig. Squared Power
Group 0.761 1.181 4 15 0.359 0.239 0.282
Bar 0.525 3.398 4 15 0.036 0.475 0.715
Phase 0.367 6.458 4 15 0.003 0.633 0.952
Bar 0.812 0.867 4 15 0.506 0.188 0.213
Group









Table 4-2. Continued

Wilks' Hypothesis Partial Observed
Lambda F df Error df Sig. Eta Power
Phase 0.505 3.677 4 15 0.028 0.495 0.753
Group
Bar 0.531 3.307 4 15 0.039 0.469 0.701
Phase
Bar *
Phase 0.893 0.448 4 15 0.772 0.107 0.127
Group

Table 4-3. Univariate statistics for different EMG dependent measures (between subjects)

Partial
Sum of Mean Eta Observed
Muscle Source Squares df Square F Sig. Squared Power


Gluteals Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P*G
Error(P)
Error(B)


557.04
11.781


202.566
45.451
21.321

1.711
380.001
382.055


Error(B*P) 393.675


Hamstrings Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P*G
Error(P)


197.506
26.335


91.806
15.576
15.931

0.63
205.14


557.04
11.781



202.566
45.451
21.321

1.711
21.111
21.225


26.386
0.555



9.595
2.141
0.975


0
0.466



0.006
0.161
0.337


0.594
0.03



0.348
0.106
0.051


0.998
0.109



0.834
0.283
0.155


0.078 0.783 0.004 0.058


18 21.871


197.506
26.335



91.806
15.576
15.931

0.63
11.397


17.33
1.936



8.056
1.145
2.174


0.001
0.181



0.011
2.99
0.158


0.491
0.097



0.309
0.06
0.108


0.976
0.261



0.766
0.173
0.287


0.086 0.773 0.005 0.059









Table 4-3. Continued

Sum of Mean Partial Observed
Muscle Source Squares df Square F Sig. Eta Power


Error(B)


Error(B*P)

Quadriceps Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)

Error(B*P)


Gastroc Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)


244.851


131.921

763.23
1428.9


481.671
46.056
1762.5

71.253
5277.61
4565.34

4686.2

64.62
104.653


202.566
123.753
9.045

11.026
580.611
1142.93


18 13.603

18 7.329


763.23
1428.9



481.671
46.056
1762.5

71.253
293.201
253.63


2.603
5.634



1.643
0.182
6.77


0.274 0.607 0.015 0.079


18 260.344


64.62
104.653



202.566
123.753
9.045

11.026
293.201
63.496


2.005
1.648



9.595
1.949
0.569


0.694 0.416 0.037 0.124


286.001 18 15.889


0.124
0.029



0.216
0.675
0.018


0.126
0.238



0.084
0.01
0.273


0.333
0.613



0.229
0.069
0.692


0.174
0.215



0.006
0.18
0.46


0.1
0.084



0.348
0.098
0.031


0.268
0.229



0.834
0.262
0.11


Error(B*P)












60 -







50 -







40 -







30-







20 -







10 -








Trap Bar Straight Bar

Figure 4-1. Mean quadriceps EMG level. There was a significant difference found
between bar conditions.












20 -

18 -

16 -

14 -

> 12 -

0
10



6

4

2


Descending Ascending



Figure 4-2. Mean gluteal EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a
significant difference found between phases.







40



18 -

16 -

14 -


12 -

10 -










2


Descending Ascending



Figure 4-3. Mean hamstring EMG level during each phase of the squat. There was a
significant difference found between phases.















Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Gluteals


- descending
--ascending


female


male


Figure 4-4. There was a significant interaction between gender and phase in the gluteal
muscle group. The difference in gluteal muscle activity between the
descending and ascending phases was greater in males than females.


14
12
S10
S8
6
U






42




Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Hamstrings


---- descending
--- ascending


female


male


Figure 4-5. There was a significant interaction between gender and phase for the
hamstring muscle group. The difference in hamstrings activity between the
descending and ascending phases was greater in males than females.






43





Graph of Phase and Bar Type Interaction for the Quadriceps


45 -

,-40 -4

S35 .
3 -\ --descending
S30 -- -- ascending

S25 -

20
trap bar straight bar




Figure 4-6. There was a significant interaction between bar type and phase for the
quadriceps muscle group. The difference in quadriceps activity between the
descending and ascending phases was greater when using the trap bar than the
straight bar.

Peak Resultant Joint Forces and Moments

The 2x2x2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between

the two bar types in the maximum knee compressive and anterior shear forces, and the

maximum knee extension moment (Figures 4-7, 4-8, & 4-9, Tables 4-4, 4-5, & 4-6).

However, there were no significant differences between bar types observed in the knee

angle at the instant of maximum knee compressive force.






44


Table 4-4. Normalized peak joint forces (mean + SD):
Male Female

Force (N/kg) Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar
Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc
-14.21 -14.02 -8.54 -8.59 -12.04 -13.89 -7.84 -7.84
Compressive (7.66) (6.34) (1.34) (0.95) (6.04) (10.25) (1.54) (1.40)
Anterior 7.57 9.87 3.91 3.98 7.14 5.82 4.99 4.25
Shear (4.40) (7.31) (1.23) (1.16) (3.36) (2.61) (1.87) (1.23)













Table 4-5. Normalized peak joint moments (mean + SD):
Male Female
Moment (Nm/kg) Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar Trapezoid Bar Straight Bar
Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc Desc Asc
-2.76 -2.78 -6.46 -5.92 -2.73 -2.82
Extension -9.50 (7.89) -9.3 (6.53) (1.10) (0.87) (4.63) (5.54) (0.76) (0.70)












Table 4-6. ANOVA statistics for different dependent measures (between subjects:

Partial
Sum of Mean Eta Observed
Measure Source Squares df Square F Sig. Squared Power


1 3.728 0.595 0.452 0.038 0.112


1 535.58


4.946
0.08334
3.35

5.425
6.26
64.469


8.308 0.011 0.356 0.769


0.79
0.001
0.528

0.856


0.388
0.972
0.479


0.05
0
0.034


0.37 0.054


0.132
0.05
0.105


0.14


15 6.342


Max.
knee
comp.
force


Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)

Error(B*P)






Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)

Error(B*P)


0.002
9.573


2.709
2.914
0.343


0.964
0.007


0.121
0.108
0.567


0
0.39


0.153
0.163
0.022


0.05
0.824


0.338
0.359
0.085


1.448 0.247 0.088 0.204


15 6.601


22.49
48.794
2.265

9.56
8.302
16.744


Max.
knee


anterior
shear
force


0.01755
160.294


3.728
535.58


4.946
0.08334
3.35

5.425
93.904
967.038

95.123


0.01755
160.294


22.49
48.794
2.265

9.56
124.525
251.167

99.009









Table 4-6. Continued:

Sum of Mean Partial Observed
Measure Source Squares df Square F Sig. Eta Power
Max.
knee


Ext.
moment


Phase (P)


0.474


1 0.474 0.262 0.616 0.017 0.077


Bar (B) 431.912


1 431.912


8.766 0.01 0.369 0.79


0.111
42.4
0.853

0.207
1.809
49.271


0.062
0.861
0.567


0.807
0.368
0.463


0.004
0.054
0.036


0.056
0.14
0.109


0.138 0.716 0.009 0.064


15 1.503


0.48
0.0018


1.168
0.002


0.297
0.966


0.072
0


0.173
0.05


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)


Error(B*P)


Phase (P)
Bar (B)


P Group
(G)
B *G
B *P

B *P* G
Error(P)
Error(B)


Error(B*P)


3.859
0.092

0.663
0.411
0.947


4.074
0.21


0.062
0.654


2.14
0.014


0.472
0.071


0.138 0.716 0.009 0.209


6.651 15 0.443


Forces
ratio


1 1.65 4.014 0.064 2.11 0.466


0.111
42.4
0.853


0.207
27.133
739.071


22.543


0.48
0.0018


1.65
3.859
0.092

0.663
6.164
14.206











0






-5






8 -10




0
Z -15


Straight Bar


-25







Figure 4-7. Mean net knee maximum compressive force. There was a significant
difference found between bar conditions.


Trap Bar






49



14


12-


10-


8-


|i -



4-


2-


0
Trap Bar Straight Bar
Figure 4-8. Mean net knee maximum anterior force. There was a significant difference
found between bar conditions.











0 Trap Bar Straight Bar




-2-




-4-




-6 -




-8-




-10




-12-




-14-

Figure 4-9. Mean net knee maximum extension moment. There was a significant
difference found between bar conditions.

The t-tests revealed significant differences between genders in Q-angle and

normalized hip breadth (Figures 4-10 & 4-11, Tables 4-7, 4-8, & 4-9).









Table 4-7. Width and angle measurements (mean SD):
Measurement Male Female


Max. knee flexion angle
trapezoid bar ()



Max. knee flexion angle
straight bar ()

Q-Angle ()


124 39 126 31




107 14 86.83 18


8+ 1


12+3


Normalized hip-width
(m/m)
0.140 +0.09 0.151 0.011













Table 4-8. T-Test analysis for Q-angle and hip width:

Std. 95% confidence
Sig. Mean Error interval of the diff
F Sig. t df (2-tailed) diff diff.
Lower Upper
Q-angle
a* 6.918 0.017 3.208 18 0.005 3.35 1.0442 1.1563 5.5437

b* 3.208 11.938 0.008 3.35 1.0442 1.0736 5.6264
Normalized
hip width
a* 6.918 0.017 3.208 18 0.005 3.35 1.0442 1.1563 5.5437

b* 3.208 11.938 0.008 3.35 1.0442 1.0736 5.6264
a* equal variances assumed
b* equal variances not assumed













Table 4-9. T-Test analysis for instant of maximum knee angle:
95% confidence
Sig. Mean interval of the diff
F Sig. t df (2-tailed) diff Std. Error diff
Lower Upper
TK
(0) a* 1.982 0.178 0.089 16 0.931 1.465 16.5515 -33.623 36.5527

b* 0.086 12.937 0.933 1.465 17.0623 -35.414 38.3442
SK
(0) a* 0.376 0.549 -2.622 15 0.019 -20.464 7.8047 -37.1 -3.8288

b* -2.664 14.751 0.018 -20.464 7.6822 -36.863 -4.0657
a* equal variances assumed
b* equal variances not assumed
TK- maximum knee angle during the trap bar squat
SK-maximum knee angle during the straight bar squat












16 -





12 -


S10 -





T6


4


2


0
Female Male

Figure 4-10. There was a significant difference found between males and females for Q-
angle.











0.165 -


0.160 -


0.155 -


1 0.150 -


4 0.145

U 0.140 -


0.135 -


0.130 -


0.125
Female Male

Figure 4-11. There was a significant difference found between males and females for
normalized hip breadth.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Physical preparation for sports is essential for success and injury reduction.

Closed kinetic chain exercises, such as squats are often recommended and touted as a

good muscle builder for the legs with some referring to it as the "pillar of strength"

exercise for the lower extremity (Lombardi, Dubuque, & Brown, 1989). This is in part

due to the belief that the benefits of squatting outweigh the risks associated with the

exercise.

The biomechanics of squatting has been studied using various squat techniques

with the straight bar. For example, Stuart et al. (1996) studied tibiofemoral joint kinetics

and muscle activity during the dynamic squat with the straight bar. Their study focused

on variations of squatting using the straight bar but had a limited subject pool. That is to

say the subject pool consisted of only six healthy male participants. Studies that have

such a small homogeneous sample size can be useful for further research, although the

findings of these studies cannot be explicitly applied to people who are outside of that

subject pool parameters. Hence, the focus of this investigation was to study the

differences in groups that were not fully represented in the literature. This study

investigated the effects of the straight and trapezoid squat bars, genders, and the

ascending and descending phases of the squat on muscle activity of the hamstrings,

quadriceps, gastrocnemius and gluteal muscles and tibiofemoral joint mechanics during a

dynamic squat. It was the intent of this investigation to make available practical

recommendations for the use of the two studied squat techniques as a functional training









or rehabilitative modality. Previous research studies on related topics were used to aid in

formulating the hypotheses of this experiment and evaluating the findings of this study.

Muscle Activity

Muscle activity was affected significantly by phase rather than bar type. The

hypothesis that mean gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle activity would be

greater during the trap bar squat was partially supported as the quadriceps muscle group

was the only muscle group that resulted in a higher value that was significantly different

between bar types. McCaw and Melrose (1999) found greater muscle activity during the

ascent phase as compared to the descent phase for gluteus maximus and gastrocnemius

activity with as much as 2.5 times greater muscle gluteus maximus activity and 50%

greater hamstrings activity during the ascent phase of the squat as compared to the

descent phase. The findings of this study follow those of McCaw and Melrose. The

results showed approximately 50% and 20% higher muscle activity levels during the

ascent phase as compared to the descent phase for the gluteals and hamstrings,

respectively.

It is reasonable to assume that the hamstrings and gluteals muscles activation

increased during the ascent phase is in part due to the demand on hip extension. In an

upright position or at the start of the descent phase the hamstrings and gluteals muscles

are relatively low because of the small hip extension moment needed for that posture

however, at the beginning of the ascent phase these muscle groups are more active

because of the large hip extension moment needed to maintain a squat position.

Furthermore the higher percentages found in McCaw and Melrose may be attributed to

differences in subject pools, MVIC collection position, and the load value the subjects

were required to lift.









There are a number of factors such as electrode placement that can affect EMG

levels and thus the percentages were not explicitly compared. Instead the activation

pattern during the movement was compared and found to be similar between the two

studies. Higher muscle activity was expected during the ascent phase due to the motion

against gravity. Signorile et al. (1995) found that the highest muscle activity level

reached occurred at 900 of knee flexion for the quadriceps and these results support the

assumption that the greatest muscle activity will occur where the resistance arm of the

upper body weight and barbell about the knee is longest.

There were significant interactions observed for muscle activity and phase.

Specifically there was a significant interaction between the gluteal, and hamstring muscle

groups and phases for the male subjects. Although this does not explicitly support the

hypothesis that mean gluteal, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius activity will be

greater during the ascent phase, it does imply that there is a difference between muscle

activity of the lower extremities during the ascent and decent phases of the squat.

Forces and Moments

The parameters used to assess tibiofemoral joint kinetics were maximum net

compressive force, maximum net anteriorly directed force and maximum net knee

extension moment. These factors were chosen in accordance with previous literature

(Stuart et al., 1996) and on the possible protective effects they may have on the

tibiofemoral joint and its surrounding connective tissue, specifically the anterior cruciate

ligament (ACL). The hypothesis that the maximum compressive knee joint force would

be greater in the female subjects was not supported by the results of this investigation.

When loaded the ACL provides a posteriorly directed shear force at the

tibiofemoral joint and the hamstrings act as an ACL protagonist (More et al., 1993).









However, the hamstrings provide a posteriorly directed shear force at the tibiofemoral

joint only at certain knee angles. The results of this study showed an increase in

hamstrings muscle activity during the ascent phase of the squat in the trap and straight

bar squatting techniques. There were significant differences found between bar types for

the net compressive force at the tibiofemoral joint. Compressive force is accepted as a

protective mechanism to the knee joint when performing closed chain activities such as

the dynamic squat (Escamilla et al., 1998). Specifically it is thought that compressive

force at the knee can reduce the shear forces opposed by the ACL and posterior cruciate

ligament (PCL) at the knee thus, protecting these ligaments. The trapezoid bar resulted in

a higher normalized net compressive force than the straight bar squat. This suggests that,

the trap bar squat is a possible training exercise post ACL or PCL reconstruction.

The trap bar also showed a higher value for net anterior shear at the knee which

supported the hypothesis that maximum anterior shear force would be greater during the

trap bar squat. An anteriorly directed tibiofemoral shear force at the knee signifies PCL

loading as explained through static analysis of the posterior draw test. The PCL and ACL

provide opposite shear forces at the knee. During the anterior draw test the resultant

force is a posteriorly directed force signifying ACL loading. Anteriorly directed shear

force then signifies PCL loading. The higher net compressive force at the knee observed

during the trap bar squat although considered a protective mechanism to the cruciate

ligaments of the knee may be negated due to the increased anteriorly directed shear

present. Establishing a standard for the ratio of compressive force to shear force is

possibly a more adequate measure for determining the mechanical effects of the squat on

the tibiofemoral joint. This is mainly because excessive compressive shear forces can be









injurious to the cruciate ligaments whereas excessive compressive force can be damaging

to the menisci and articular cartilage (Escamilla, 2001). Hence, one measure alone is

inadequate when evaluating the effect of the squat because higher values do not explain

the possible effects of forces present.

Gender Comparisons

Hip breadth and quadriceps angle were the two structural factors measured and

compared in this study. For comparison normalized hip widths were used. As did in

other investigations, significant differences in hip width and quadriceps angle were found

between genders. This supports the hypotheses that there would be significant

differences between hip width, and Q-angle between males and females of this study.

These finding however, do not prove that hip breadth or quadriceps angle had a definitive

effect on muscle activity or knee joint kinetics partly because the differences observed in

muscle activity and knee joint kinetics were not between the two genders.


As a matter of comparison the effect of differences in hip width and Q-angle

between males and females are easier to observe during higher impact exercises than in

the squat. Studies have related injuries to the lower extremities, specifically the knee

joint in women to landing and cutting maneuvers in sports such as volleyball and

basketball. While the squat is a closed kinetic chain exercise it does not have a takeoff or

landing instants nor does it require the same "change of direction" as sports such as

soccer or basketball require. Thus, the knee is not subject to the same laterally directed

forces during the squat as it would during a cutting maneuver during sports.









The menstrual cycle may have an effect on muscle activation and tendon elasticity

in women. The female subjects of this investigation were not surveyed regarding their

menstrual cycle thus, menstruation is a possible limitation that may offer a partial

explanation to the muscle activation observed in the female subjects. Other limitations to

gender comparisons may include muscle strength. Assuming muscle strength has a

significant effect on lifting ability, the actual percentage of the one repetition maximum

squat per subject lifted may differ between subjects. Simply put, each subject may be

better equipped to handle a higher percentage of their body mass.


Bar Type Comparisons

The rhomboidal shape of the trap bar allows a lifter to stand within its frame to

perform squats and the load lifted is limited by grip strength of the lifter as the bar is held

at the hands and not loaded across the shoulders as with the straight bar. The loading

position of the trap bar presents a safety feature absent with the straight bar as grip

strength should significantly reduce the amount of weight lifted. The disadvantage

perhaps is in the dimension of the bar. By standing within the frame of the trap bar a

lifter is restricted by the frame as he or she lifts thus, the physical stature of a lifter can be

a disadvantage when using the trap bar.


Despite the size of the lifter presenting a possible disadvantage when using the

trap bar there is an added advantage to the rhomboidal design and loading position with

the trap bar. The lifter is restricted by grip strength. That is to say the lifter can only load

the bar with as much weight was he or she could hold. It is reasonable to assume that

someone's grip strength will not exceed the amount of weight that person could support









across the shoulders while in an upright position. This is significant because in a special

population the amount of weight lifted can be restricted. The failure point for the

subject's grip due to fatigue should occur at a lower weight than the back or leg muscles.


Foot position was not manipulated for this study because it was unlikely to result

in a statistically significant difference for muscle activity (Boyden, Kingman & Dyson,

2000). Therefore, each subject was allowed to position their feet according to their own

comforts. It was assumed that foot position would have no effect on muscle activity or

joint kinetics. Findings of Boyden et al. (2000) were the basis for this decision however,

their study consisted of a sample size of six experienced male subjects. With the trap bar

squat, changes in leg and foot position to accommodate the bar may (e.g., feet point

forward) have had an effect on muscle activity, knee joint kinetics and kinematics.


Stance width was controlled for this study primarily because changes in stance

width can have an effect on joint kinetics and kinematics (Escamilla, 2001). Although

not manipulated in this study self adjustments foot position during the trap bar squat may

have lead to adjustments in the way the lifter performed the squat and possibly change

the kinetics and kinematics of the study. These adjustments were not explicitly observed

in this study however, it is possible that such adjustments did occur and played a role in

the statistical differences between bar types for the joint kinetic and kinematics measures

and the significant interaction observed for bar type and quadriceps muscle activity.


Summary and Conclusion

This study investigated the effects of two squat techniques on tibiofemoral joint

mechanics and muscle activity. Nineteen healthy subjects with no history of injury were









recruited from the University of Florida. Each subject participated in one testing session

which consisted of trapezoid bar and straight bar squat trials. Significant interactions and

main effects were found within subjects for the mean EMG levels of the quadriceps,

gluteals and hamstrings muscle groups. Significant differences were found between

trapezoid and straight bar conditions for the maximum compressive and maximum

anteriorly directed forces at the knee, and the maximum knee extension moment.


The straight bar and trapezoid bar squats are closed kinetic chain exercises that

produce compressive and shear forces at the tibiofemoral joint. The results of this study

revealed significant differences between these exercises that may lead to improved use of

each of these squat techniques in any setting be it rehabilitation or strengthening and

conditioning oriented. The overall effect of each bar type will be favorable when used in

the correct setting. Despite no significant interaction or main effect on the gastrocnemius

which is a secondary knee flexor the techniques tested showed significant effects on the

other major muscle groups of the legs.


While it is not possible to definitively state which squatting technique is better it

is possible to state that these two techniques may have more positive effects when used

together rather that singly. Individuals who show a deficiency in one area of muscle

activity will benefit from use of each technique singly or in concert which also suggests

that one technique will be superior over the other depending on the condition of the

muscle group being trained. For instance the trap bar resulted in higher muscle activity

for the quadriceps muscle, thus with a subject that presents with quadriceps weakness the









quadriceps dominant nature of the trap bar squat would make it an adequate exercise to

increase quadriceps muscle strength


Implications

Comparison of the straight bar and trapezoid bar squat techniques revealed

significant difference in muscle activity and knee joint kinetics between these two

techniques. These differences may contribute to further studies investigating the effects

of each technique in a rehabilitation setting and/or strength and conditioning setting.

From an application standpoint this research can be used to aid in prescribing exercise for

specific injuries of the legs. Each technique can be used singly, in cooperation or

combined with other exercise and rehabilitation techniques to achieve the greatest

benefits of any rehabilitative or strengthening and conditioning regimen.















APPENDIX A
IRB APPROVAL










IRB APPROVAL


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

1. TITLE OF PROJECT: Analysis of Knee Mechanics: Differences between female and male athletes during the squat exercise.

2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR(s): (Name, degree, title, dept., address, phone #, e-mail &fax)
Francis Forde, B.S., Graduate Teaching Assistant, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205, 392-0584 ext. 1374,
fforde@ufl.edu

3. SUPERVISOR (IF PI IS STUDENT): (Name, campus address, phone #, e-mail & fax)
Mark Tillman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584 ext. 1237]

4. DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: From 12/02 To 12/03

5. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR THE PROJECT: N/A
(As indicated to the Office of Research, Technology and Graduate Education)

6. SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of v C. iyl 1!il techniques on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics.
Specifically we will investigate lower extremity joint angles, joint forces and muscular activity during the performance of the squat
using an Olympic bar and a Trapezoid (trap) bar.

7. DESCRIBE THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN NON-TECHNICAL LANGUAGE:
The UFIRB needs to know what will be done with or to the research participantss.

Each participant will be required to perform two lifting techniques, one using the Olympic bar and the other using the trap bar. When
performing the squat with the Olympic bar, the load is supported behind the neck on the upper portion of the trapezius muscle
(shoulder muscles). During the trap bar squat, the load is held using handles located on both sides of the bar with the arms extended
at the sides. Participants will perform a maximum of 5 repetitions of each lift using 75% of their body weight as resistance. Each
session will consist of a total of 8 sets with varying foot position and stance widths. Each participant will only have to attend one
session.

Each participant will be fitted with reflective markers placed over bony landmarks and will be filmed while performing each of the
exercises. Surface electrodes will be placed over the muscles of the front and back of the legs, and back.

8. POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND ANTICIPATED RISK:
(If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.)

Inherent risks associated with resistance exercise include muscle and joint soreness as well as joint and muscle pain. Untrained
individuals have a greater likelihood to experience these effects. Therefore in this study we will specifically recruit participants who
currently participate in some form of a strength and conditioning regimen. The benefit of this research may result in the
recommendation of a safe alternative exercise to the standard Squat and Dead Lift exercises.

9. DESCRIBE HOW PARTICIPANTS) WILL BE RECRUITED, THE NUMBER AND AGE OF THE PARTICIPANTS,
AND PROPOSED COMPENSATION (if any):
Thirty volunteers will be recruited from the sport and fitness classes in the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences

10. DESCRIBE THE INFORMED CONSENT PROCESS. INCLUDE A COPY OF THE INFORMED CONSENT
DOCUMENT (if applicable).
See attached Consent Form.

Please use attachments ONLY when space on the form is in//uit i/ent


Principal Investigator's Signature Supervisor's Signature



Department Chair's Signature

66













APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT FORM











Informed Consent Agreement


Project Title: Analysis of Knee Mechanics: Differences between female and male athletes during the squat exercise
Please read this consent agreement carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

Purpose of the study:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of weightlifting techniques on lower extremity muscle activity,
kinematics and kinetics. Specifically we will investigate lower extremity joint angles, joint forces and muscular activity during
the performance of the squat performed using a Trapezoid bar and an Olympic straight bar.

What you will do in the study:
You will be required to perform two lifting techniques one using the Olympic bar and the one using the trap bar. When
performing the squat with the Olympic bar, the load is supported behind the neck on the upper portion of the trapezius muscle
(shoulder muscles). During the trap bar squat, the load is held using handle grips located at both ends of the bar with the arms
extended at the sides. You will perform a maximum of 5 repetitions of each lift using 75% of your body weight as resistance.
The total number of sets per session will be 8 with varying foot positions and stance widths. You will only have to attend one
session.

You will be fitted with reflective markers placed over bony landmarks and will be filmed while performing each of the
exercises. Surface electrodes will be placed over the muscles of the front and back of the legs, and back.

Time required:
All experimental conditions will be conducted in one testing visit that will last approximately two hours.

Risks:
Inherent risks associated with resistance exercise include muscle and joint soreness as well as joint and muscle pain and injury.
These are temporary effects, usually lasting 1-3 days.

Benefits/Compensation:
There is no monetary compensation or direct benefit to you for participation in this project. This research may result in the
recommendation of a safe alternative exercise to the standard squat exercises.

Confidentiality:
Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file.
When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list and all video files will be destroyed. Your identity will
be kept confidential to the extent provided by law

Voluntary Participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. For your safety, you will not
be allowed to participate in this study if you have a history of past illnesses or injuries that may reoccur as a result of your
participation and cause harm to you.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You may withdraw your consent at anytime from this study without penalty.

Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Francis Forde, B.S., Graduate Teaching Assistant, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584
ext. 1374]
Mark Tillman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 118205 [(352) 392-0584 ext. 1237]
Whom to contact about your rights in the study:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250

Agreement:
I have read the procedure described above, I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this
description.

Participant: Date:















APPENDIX C
SAMPLE RAW DATA


Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat


1 -
0.8
0.6
0.4

0 _-- gluteals
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
0 1 2
Time (s)


Figure C-1. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the straight bar squat











Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat


1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 1 2
Figure C-2. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the trapezoid bar squatgluteals

















1 -
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8 -
-1
-1.2
0 1 22
Time (s)



Figure C-2. Raw EMG for the gluteals for the trapezoid bar squat


Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat



0.8
0.6

-3 0.2 --hamstrings
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
0 1 2
Time (s)


Figure C-3. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the straight bar squat











Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat


2 -
1.5

0.5 -

0 1 2





Figure C-4. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the trapezoid bar squathamstrigs
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
-3.5
0 1 2
Time (s)


Figure C-4. Raw EMG for the hamstrings for the trapezoid bar squat


Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat


4
3 -
2 -

-1 [ quadriceps

-2
-3
-4
-5
0 1 2
Time (s)


Figure C-5. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the straight bar squat










Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat


3 -
2



-1 ---i quadriceps
>-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2
Time (s)

Figure C-6. Raw EMG for the quadriceps for the trapezoid bar squat


Raw EMG Activity during Straight Bar Squat


0.4 -
0.3
0.2
0.1 -
0 7r, -gastrocnemius
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
0 1 2
Time (s)

Figure C-7. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the straight bar squat











Raw EMG Activity during Trapezoid Bar Squat


0.8 -
0.6
0.4
0.2







0 1 2



Figure C-8. Raw EMG for the gastrocnemius for the trapezoid bar squat
-0.4 -'- I7-----
-0.6 -
-0.8 -









Time (compresss)ive
Raw Force data during Trapezoid Bar Squat



0 -
-1
-2


-5 --compressive
-6
-7
-8
-9
Time (s)

Figure C-9. Raw compressive force data for the trapezoid bar squat




























Time (s)

Figure C-10. Raw compressive force data for the straight bar squat


Raw Force data during Trapezoid Bar Squat


6-

5



3 -_ shear

o2


0
0 2
Time (s)

Figure C-1 1. Raw shear force data for the trapezoid bar squat


Raw Force data during Straight Bar Squat


2


--compressive


-2

-3

-4

-5 -











Raw Force data during Straight Bar Squat


0 2
8 -
7



44 -- shear

3 --------------------
2

1
0
Time (s)

Figure C-12. Raw shear force data for the straight bar squat


Raw Moment data during Trapezoid Bar Squat


0 2


Time (s)

Figure C-13. Raw extension moment data for the trapezoid bar squat


0

-1

" -2

S-3

-4

-5


--extension









Raw Moment data during Straight Bar Squat

2


I extension


Time (s)


Figure C-14. Raw extension moment data for the straight bar squat


-1
-2
" -2
^-
8 -3
-


J^ I


o^A / r -//















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Francis Forde received a BS in exercise physiology from the University of

Massachusetts at Boston. He then pursued a Master of Science degree in biomechanics at

the University of Florida. Upon completion of his Master of Science degree, Francis

plans to continue his studies and expand his knowledge of biomechanics.